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Sample records for juvenile salmonids experimentally

  1. Changes in Gas Bubble Disease Signs and Survival of Migrating Juvenile Salmonids Experimentally Exposed to Supersaturated Gasses, 1995-1996 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Absolon, Randall F.

    1997-11-01

    Research conducted in 1996 to evaluate (1) changes in GBD signs in juvenile salmonids resulting from passage through turbine intakes and bypass systems, and (2) relative survival during migration through the lower Snake River for juvenile salmonids experimentally exposed to supersaturation of dissolved gas.

  2. Relationship of otolith strontium-to-calcium ratios and salinity: Experimental validation for juvenile salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, C.E.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of otolith strontium (Sr) or strontium-to-calcium (Sr:Ca) ratios provides a powerful tool to reconstruct the chronology of migration among salinity environments for diadromous salmonids. Although use of this method has been validated by examination of known individuals and translocation experiments, it has never been validated under controlled experimental conditions. In this study, incorporation of otolith Sr was tested across a range of salinities and resulting levels of ambient Sr and Ca concentrations in juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus rnykiss), and Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). Experimental water was mixed, using stream water and seawater as end members, to create experimental salinities of 0.1, 6.3, 12.7, 18.6, 25.5, and 33.0 psu. Otolith Sr and Sr:Ca ratios were significantly related to salinity for all species (r2 range: 0.80-0.91) but provide only enough predictive resolution to discriminate among fresh water, brackish water, and saltwater residency. These results validate the use of otolith Sr:Ca ratios to broadly discriminate salinity histories encountered by salmonids but highlight the need for further research concerning the influence of osmoregulation and physiological changes associated with smoking on otolith microchemistry.

  3. Changes in Gas Bubble Disease Signs for Migrating Juvenile Salmonids Experimentally Exposed to Supersaturated Gasses, 1996-1997 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Absolon, Randall F.

    1999-03-01

    This study was designed to answer the question of whether gas bubble disease (GBD) signs change as a result of the hydrostatic conditions juvenile salmonids encounter when they enter the turbine intake of hydroelectric projects during their downstream migration.

  4. Transporting juvenile salmonids around dams impairs adult migration.

    PubMed

    Keefer, Matthew L; Caudill, Christopher C; Peery, Christopher A; Lee, Steven R

    2008-12-01

    Mitigation and ecosystem-restoration efforts may have unintended consequences on both target and nontarget populations. Important effects can be displaced in space and time, making them difficult to detect without monitoring at appropriate scales. Here, we examined the effects of a mitigation program for juvenile salmonids on subsequent adult migration behaviors and survival. Juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) were collected and uniquely tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags at Lower Granite Dam (Washington State, USA) on the Snake River and were then either transported downstream in barges in an effort to reduce out-migration mortality or returned to the river as a control group. Returning adults were collected and radio-tagged at Bonneville Dam (Washington-Oregon, USA) on the Columbia River 1-3 years later and then monitored during approximately 460 km of their homing migrations. The proportion of adults successfully homing was significantly lower, and unaccounted loss and permanent straying into non-natal rivers was higher, for barged fish of both species. On average, barged fish homed to Lower Granite Dam at rates about 10% lower than for in-river migrants. Barged fish were also 1.7-3.4 times more likely than in-river fish to fall back downstream past dams as adults, a behavior strongly associated with lower survival. These results suggest that juvenile transport impaired adult orientation or homing abilities, perhaps by disrupting sequential imprinting processes during juvenile out-migration. While juvenile transportation has clear short-term juvenile-survival benefits, the delayed effects that manifest in adult stages illustrate the need to assess mitigation success throughout the life cycle of target organisms, i.e., the use of fitness-based measures. In the case of Snake River salmonids listed under the Endangered Species Act, the increased straying and potential associated genetic and demographic

  5. Accurate aging of juvenile salmonids using fork lengths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sethi, Suresh; Gerken, Jonathon; Ashline, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Juvenile salmon life history strategies, survival, and habitat interactions may vary by age cohort. However, aging individual juvenile fish using scale reading is time consuming and can be error prone. Fork length data are routinely measured while sampling juvenile salmonids. We explore the performance of aging juvenile fish based solely on fork length data, using finite Gaussian mixture models to describe multimodal size distributions and estimate optimal age-discriminating length thresholds. Fork length-based ages are compared against a validation set of juvenile coho salmon, Oncorynchus kisutch, aged by scales. Results for juvenile coho salmon indicate greater than 95% accuracy can be achieved by aging fish using length thresholds estimated from mixture models. Highest accuracy is achieved when aged fish are compared to length thresholds generated from samples from the same drainage, time of year, and habitat type (lentic versus lotic), although relatively high aging accuracy can still be achieved when thresholds are extrapolated to fish from populations in different years or drainages. Fork length-based aging thresholds are applicable for taxa for which multiple age cohorts coexist sympatrically. Where applicable, the method of aging individual fish is relatively quick to implement and can avoid ager interpretation bias common in scale-based aging.

  6. Gas Bubble Disease Monitoring and Research of Juvenile Salmonids : Annual Report 1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Maule, Alec G.; Beeman, John W.; Hans, Karen M.; Mesa, M.G.; Haner, P.; Warren, J.J.

    1997-10-01

    This document describes the project activities 1996--1997 contract year. This report is composed of three chapters which contain data and analyses of the three main elements of the project: field research to determine the vertical distribution of migrating juvenile salmonids, monitoring of juvenile migrants at dams on the Snake and Columbia rivers, and laboratory experiments to describe the progression of gas bubble disease signs leading to mortality. The major findings described in this report are: A miniature pressure-sensitive radio transmitter was found to be accurate and precise and, after compensation for water temperature, can be used to determine the depth of tagged-fish to within 0.32 m of the true depth (Chapter 1). Preliminary data from very few fish suggest that depth protects migrating juvenile steelhead from total dissolved gas supersaturation (Chapter 1). As in 1995, few fish had any signs of gas bubble disease, but it appeared that prevalence and severity increased as fish migrated downstream and in response to changing gas supersaturation (Chapter 2). It appeared to gas bubble disease was not a threat to migrating juvenile salmonids when total dissolved gas supersaturation was < 120% (Chapter 2). Laboratory studies suggest that external examinations are appropriate for determining the severity of gas bubble disease in juvenile salmonids (Chapter 3). The authors developed a new method for examining gill arches for intravascular bubbles by clamping the ventral aorta to reduce bleeding when arches were removed (Chapter 3). Despite an outbreak of bacterial kidney disease in the experimental fish, the data indicate that gas bubble disease is a progressive trauma that can be monitored (Chapter 3).

  7. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin; 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Suzanne M.; Cameron, William A.; Shapleigh, Stacey L.

    1995-12-01

    This is the first year report of a multi-year project that monitors the outmigration and survival of hatchery and naturally produced juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River. This project supplements and complements ongoing or completed fisheries projects in the Umatilla river basin. Knowledge gained on outmigration and survival will assist researchers and managers in adapting hatchery practices, flow enhancement strategies, canal operations, and supplementation and enhancement efforts for natural fish populations. This project also completed tasks related to evaluating juvenile salmonid passage at Three Mile Falls Dam and West Extension Canal.

  8. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin; 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Suzanne M.; Kern, J. Chris; Carmichael, Richard W.

    1997-01-01

    This is the second year report of a multi-year project that monitors the outmigration and survival of hatchery and naturally-produced juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River. This project supplements and complements ongoing or completed fisheries projects in the Umatilla River basin. Knowledge gained on outmigration and survival will assist researchers and managers in adapting hatchery practices, flow enhancement strategies, canal operations, and supplementation and enhancement efforts for natural and restored fish populations. The authors also report on tasks related to evaluating juvenile salmonid passage at Three Mile Falls Dam and West Extension Canal.

  9. Modeling Food Delivery Dynamics For Juvenile Salmonids Under Variable Flow Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, L.; Utz, R.; Anderson, K.; Nisbet, R.

    2010-12-01

    Traditional approaches for assessing instream flow needs for salmonids have typically focused on the importance of physical habitat in determining fish habitat selection. This somewhat simplistic approach does not account for differences in food delivery rates to salmonids that arise due to spatial variability in river morphology, hydraulics and temporal variations in the flow regime. Explicitly linking how changes in the flow regime influences food delivery dynamics is an important step in advancing process-based bioenergetic models that seek to predict growth rates of salmonids across various life-stages. Here we investigate how food delivery rates for juvenile salmonids vary both spatially and with flow magnitude in a meandering reach of the Merced River, CA. We utilize a two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic model and discrete particle tracking algorithm to simulate invertebrate drift transport rates at baseflow and a near-bankfull discharge. Modeling results indicate that at baseflow, the maximum drift density occurs in the channel thalweg, while drift densities decrease towards the channel margins due to the process of organisms settling out of the drift. During high-flow events, typical of spring dam-releases, the invertebrate drift transport pathway follows a similar trajectory along the high velocity core and the drift concentrations are greatest in the channel centerline, though the zone of invertebrate transport occupies a greater fraction of the channel width. Based on invertebrate supply rates alone, feeding juvenile salmonids would be expected to be distributed down the channel centerline where the maximum predicted food delivery rates are located in this reach. However, flow velocities in these channel sections are beyond maximum sustainable swimming speeds for most juvenile salmonids. Our preliminary findings suggest that a lack of low velocity refuge may prevent juvenile salmonids from deriving energy from the areas with maximum drift density in this

  10. Feeding of predaceous fishes on out-migrating juvenile-salmonids in John Day Reservoir, Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poe, Thomas P.; Hansel, Hal C.; Vigg, S.; Palmer, D.E.; Prendergast, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    Diets of northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, walleye Stizostedion vitreum, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus from John Day Reservoir were examined to determine the extent of predation on juvenile salmonids during seaward migrations of the salmonids during April–August 1983–1986. Juvenile Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss were the most important food group (by weight) of northern squawfish – about 67% – but made up smaller proportions of the food of the other predators: channel catfish, 33%; walleyes, 14%; smallmouth bass, 4%. Seasonal changes in diets indicated that northern squawfish preferred juvenile salmonids in May and August (generally the peak period of salmonid out-migration), and switched to prickly sculpin Cottus asper when numbers of juvenile salmonids declined; walleyes and smallmouth bass showed a preference only for prickly sculpin among the prey fishes analyzed. As judged by dietary composition and prey selectivity, the northern squawfish was the major fish predator on juvenile salmonids in the reservoir; channel catfish also were important predators in the upper reservoir in spring. Walleyes and smallmouth bass were much less important predators on salmonids, and appeared to select subyearling chinook salmon only in August when the distribution of this prey overlapped with that of the predators. Size-selective predation by northern squawfish may also play an important role in reducing survival of the smaller individuals within each run of out-migrating juvenile salmonids.

  11. Avian Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River: 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Collis, Ken; Adamany, Stephanie; Roby, Daniel D.; Craig, David P.; Lyons, Donald E.

    2000-04-01

    The authors initiated a field study in 1997 to assess the impacts of fish-eating colonial waterbirds (i.e., terns, cormorants, and gulls) on the survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River. Here the authors present results from the 1998 breeding season, the second field season of work on this project. The research objectives in 1998 were to: (1) determine the location, size, nesting chronology, nesting success, and population trajectories of breeding colonies of fish-eating birds in the lower Columbia River; (2) determine diet composition of fish-eating birds, including taxonomic composition and energy content of various prey types; (3) estimate forage fish consumption rates, with special emphasis on juvenile salmonids, by breeding adults and their young; (4) determine the relative vulnerability of different groups of juvenile salmonids to bird predation; (5) identify foraging range, foraging strategies, and habitat utilization by piscivorous waterbirds; and (6) test the feasibility of various alternative methods for managing avian predation on juvenile salmonids and develop recommendations to reduce avian predation, if warranted by the results.

  12. Juvenile Salmonid and Baitfish Distribution, Abundance and Prey Resources in Selected Areas of Grays Harbor, Washington

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    itself. Despite the economic importance of anadromous salmonids in Grays Harbor, little comprehensive information exists on the distribution and...6. The pattern of apparent grouth of juvenile chinook salmon during the period of their migration through and residence in Grays Harbor suggested that

  13. Avian Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River: 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Roby, Daniel D.; Craig, David P.; Collis, Ken; Adamany, Stephanie L.

    1998-09-01

    The authors initiated a field study in 1997 to assess the impacts of fish-eating colonial waterbirds (i.e., terns, cormorants, and gulls) on the survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River. Here the authors present results from the 1998 breeding season, the second field season of work on this project. The research objectives in 1998 were to: (1) determine the location, size, nesting chronology, nesting success, and population trajectories of breeding colonies of fish-eating birds in the lower Columbia River; (2) determine diet composition of fish-eating birds, including taxonomic composition and energy content of various prey types; (3) estimate forage fish consumption rates, with special emphasis on juvenile salmonids, by breeding adults and their young; (4) determine the relative vulnerabilit2048 different groups of juvenile salmonids to bird predation; (5) identify foraging range, foraging strategies, and habitat utilization by piscivorous waterbirds; and (6) test the feasibility of various alternative methods for managing avian predation on juvenile salmonids and develop recommendations to reduce avian predation, if warranted by the results.

  14. Seasonal Juvenile Salmonid Presence and Migratory Behavior in the Lower Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Jessica A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Welch, Ian D.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.

    2009-04-30

    To facilitate preparing Biological Assessments of proposed channel maintenance projects, the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contracted the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to consolidate and synthesize available information about the use of the lower Columbia River and estuary by juvenile anadromous salmonids. The information to be synthesized included existing published documents as well as data from five years (2004-2008) of acoustic telemetry studies conducted in the Columbia River estuary using the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System. For this synthesis, the Columbia River estuary includes the section of the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam at river kilometer (Rkm) 235 downstream to the mouth where it enters the Pacific Ocean. In this report, we summarize the seasonal salmonid presence and migration patterns in the Columbia River estuary based on information from published studies as well as relevant data from acoustic telemetry studies conducted by NOAA Fisheries and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) between 2004 and 2008. Recent acoustic telemetry studies, conducted using the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS; developed by the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers), provided information on the migratory behavior of juvenile steelhead (O. mykiss) and Chinook salmon in the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam to the Pacific Ocean. In this report, Section 2 provides a summary of information from published literature on the seasonal presence and migratory behavior of juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River estuary and plume. Section 3 presents a detailed synthesis of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead migratory behavior based on use of the JSATS between 2004 and 2008. Section 4 provides a discussion of the information summarized in the report as well as information drawn from literature reviews on potential effects of channel maintenance activities to juvenile salmonids rearing in

  15. Acoustic Telemetry Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Survival at John Day Dam with Emphasis on the Prototype Surface Flow Outlet, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, Mark A.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hughes, James S.; Deng, Zhiqun; Fu, Tao; Monter, Tyrell J.; Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Faber, Derrek M.; Durham, Robin E.; Townsend, Richard L.; Skalski, John R.; Kim, Jina; Fischer, Eric S.; Meyer, Matthew M.

    2009-12-01

    The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the performance of Top Spill Weirs installed at two spillbays at John Day Dam and evaluate the effectiveness of these surface flow outlets at attracting juvenile salmon away from the powerhouse and reducing turbine passage. The Juvenile Salmonid Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was used to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids passing the dam and also for calculating performance metrics used to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of the dam at passing juvenile salmonids.

  16. Interspecific habitat associations of juvenile salmonids in Lake Ontario tributaries: implications for Atlantic salmon restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    Diel variation in habitat use of subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), subyearling coho salmon (O. kisutch), yearling steelhead (O. mykiss), and yearling Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was examined during the spring in two tributaries of Lake Ontario. A total of 1318 habitat observations were made on juvenile salmonids including 367 on steelhead, 351 on Chinook salmon, 333 on Atlantic salmon, and 261 on coho salmon. Steelhead exhibited the most diel variation in habitat use and Chinook the least. Juvenile salmonids were generally associated with more cover and larger substrate during the day in both streams. Interspecific differences in habitat use in both streams occurred with Atlantic salmon (fast velocities) and coho salmon (pools) using the least similar habitat. Chinook salmon and Atlantic salmon used similar habitat in both streams. These findings should help guide future management actions specific to habitat protection and restoration of Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario tributaries.

  17. Synthesis of juvenile salmonid passage studies at The Dalles Dam volume II: 2001 - 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, G.E.; Beeman, J.W.; Duran , I.N.; Puls, A.L.

    2007-01-01

    The overall goal of juvenile salmonid research at The Dalles Dam is to provide data to inform decisions on strategies to improve smolt survival rates at the project. Survival improvement strategies address the three primary passage routes at The Dalles Dam -- spillway, sluiceway, and turbines – with the general intent to increase spill and sluice passage and decrease turbine passage. From 2001, when Ploskey et al. (2001a) completed their review of 1982-2000 research, through 2005, the USACE has funded over $20M of research in at least 40 studies. The purpose of this current review is to synthesize juvenile salmonid passage data at The Dalles Dam (TDA) collected from 2001 through 2005.

  18. Gas Bubble Trauma Monitoring and Research of Juvenile Salmonids, 1994-1995 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hans, Karen M.

    1997-07-01

    This report describes laboratory and field monitoring studies of gas bubble trauma (GBT) in migrating juvenile salmonids in the Snake and Columbia rivers. The first chapter describes laboratory studies of the progression of GBT signs leading to mortality and the use of the signs for GBT assessment. The progression and severity of GBT signs in juvenile salmonids exposed to different levels of total dissolved gas (TDG) and temperatures was assessed and quantified. Next, the prevalence, severity, and individual variation of GBT signs was evaluated to attempt to relate them to mortality. Finally, methods for gill examination in fish exposed to high TDG were developed and evaluated. Primary findings were: (1) no single sign of GBT was clearly correlated with mortality, but many GBT signs progressively worsened; (2) both prevalence and severity of GBT signs in several tissues is necessary; (3) bubbles in the lateral line were the earliest sign of GBT, showed progressive worsening, and had low individual variation but may develop poorly during chronic exposures; (4) fin bubbles had high prevalence, progressively worsened, and may be a persistent sign of GBT; and (5) gill bubbles appear to be the proximate cause of death but may only be relevant at high TDG levels and are difficult to examine. Chapter Two describes monitoring results of juvenile salmonids for signs of GBT. Emigrating fish were collected and examined for bubbles in fins and lateral lines. Preliminary findings were: (1) few fish had signs of GBT, but prevalence and severity appeared to increase as fish migrated downstream; (2) there was no apparent correlation between GBT signs in the fins, lateral line, or gills; (3) prevalence and severity of GBT was suggestive of long-term, non-lethal exposure to relatively low level gas supersaturated water; and (4) it appeared that GBT was not a threat to migrating juvenile salmonids. 24 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Juvenile anadromous salmonid production in upper Columbia River side channels with different levels of hydrological connection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martens, Kyle D.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the contribution of three types of side channels based on their hydrologic connectivity (seasonally disconnected, partially connected, and connected) to production of juvenile anadromous salmonids. Juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss and Chinook Salmon O. tshawytscha were found in all three of these side channel types and in each year of the study. Upon connection with the main stem at high flows, the seasonally disconnected side channels experienced an emptying out of the previous year's fish while filling with young-of-year fish during the 2- to 4-month period of hydrologic connection. There were no differences between the densities of juvenile steelhead and Chinook Salmon and the rate of smolts produced among the three types of side channels. Recently reintroduced Coho Salmon O. kisutch had sporadic presence and abundance in partially and connected side channels, but the smolt production rate was over two times that of steelhead and Chinook Salmon in seasonally disconnected side channels. Within seasonally disconnected side channels, young-of-year salmonids in deep pools (≥100 cm) had greater survival than those in shallow pools (<100 cm). Densities of juvenile steelhead in all side channel types were similar to those in tributaries and were higher than in main-stem lateral margins. Juvenile Chinook Salmon densities were higher in side channels than in both tributary and main-stem lateral margins. Our results suggest that improving quality of pool habitat within seasonally disconnected side channels can result in improved survival for juvenile anadromous salmonids during the period of disconnection. Habitat improvement in these seasonally disconnected side channels should be recognized as a worthy restoration strategy, especially when full connectivity of side channels may not be a feasible target (e.g., through lack of water availability) or when full connectivity may present too high a risk (e.g., flooding, stream capture, bank

  20. Sluiceway Operations to Pass Juvenile Salmonids at The Dalles Dam, Columbia River, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Skalski, J. R.; Klatte, Bernard A.

    2013-11-20

    Existing ice and trash sluiceways are commonly used to pass juvenile salmonids downstream at hydropower dams through a benign, non-turbine route. At The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River, managers undertook optimizing operations of sluiceway weirs to maximize survival of juvenile salmonids at the powerhouse. We applied fixed-location hydroacoustic methods to compare fish passage rates and sluiceway efficiencies for two weir configurations during 2004 and 2005: three weirs versus six weirs, located at the mid- versus east powerhouse, respectively. We also analyzed horizontal distributions of passage at the sluiceway and turbines and the effects of operating turbines beneath open sluiceway gates to provide supporting data relevant to operations optimization. Based on the findings, we recommend the following for long-term operations for the sluiceway at The Dalles Dam: open six rather than three sluiceway weirs to take advantage of the maximum hydraulic capacity of the sluiceway; open the three weirs above the western-most operating main turbine unit (MU) and the three weirs at MU 8 where turbine passage rates are relatively high; operate the turbine units below open sluiceway weirs as a standard procedure; operate the sluiceway 24 h/d year-round to maximize its benefits to juvenile salmonids; and use the same operations for spring and summer emigrants. These operational concepts are transferable to dams where sluiceway surface flow outlets are used protect downstream migrating fishes.

  1. Progression and severity of gas bubble trauma in juvenile salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, M.G.; Weiland, L.K.; Maule, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments to assess the progression and to quantify the severity of signs of gas bubble trauma (GBT) in juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss exposed to different levels of total dissolved gas (TDG), and we attempted to relate these signs to the likelihood of mortality. When fish were exposed to 110% TDG for up to 22 d, no fish died, and there were few signs of GBT in the lateral line or gills. Bubbles in the fins, however, were relatively common, and they progressively worsened over the experimental period. When fish were exposed to 120% TDG for up to 140 h, chinook salmon had an LT20 (time necessary to kill 20% of the fish) ranging from 40 to 120 h, whereas steelhead had LT20s ranging from 20 to 35 h. In steelhead, bubbles in the lateral line, fins, and gills displayed poor trends of worsening over time, showed substantial interindividual variability, and were poorly related to mortality. In chinook salmon, only bubbles in the lateral line showed a distinct worsening over time, and the severity of bubbles in the lateral line was highly correlated with mortality. When fish were exposed to 130% TDG for up to 11 h, LT20s for chinook salmon ranged from 3 to 6 h, whereas those for steelhead ranged from 5 to 7 h. In chinook salmon, bubbles in the lateral line and fins, but not those in the gills, showed distinct trends of worsening over time. In steelhead, bubbles in the lateral line displayed the most significant trend of progressive severity. In both species at 130% TDG, the severity of all GBT signs was highly correlated with mortality. The progressive nature of GBT and the methods we developed to examine fish for GBT may be useful for monitoring programs that aim to assess the severity of dissolved gas supersaturation exposures experienced by fish in the wild. However, the efficacy of such programs seems substantially hindered by problems associated with (1) the variable persistence of GBT signs

  2. Assessing Juvenile Salmonid Passage Through Culverts: Field Research in Support of Protocol Development

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Greg D.; Evans, Nathan R.; Pearson, Walter H.; Southard, John A.

    2001-10-30

    The primary goal of our research this spring/ summer was to refine techniques and examine scenarios under which a standardized protocol could be applied to assess juvenile coho salmon (O. kisutch) passage through road culverts. Field evaluations focused on capture-mark- recapture methods that allowed analysis of fish movement patterns, estimates of culvert passability, and potential identification of cues inducing these movements. At this stage, 0+ age coho salmon fry 30 mm to 65 mm long (fork length) were the species and age class of interest. Ultimately, the protocol will provide rapid, statistically rigorous methods for trained personnel to perform standardized biological assessments of culvert passability to a number of juvenile salmon species. Questions to be addressed by the research include the following: ? Do hydraulic structures such as culverts restrict habitat for juvenile salmonids? ? How do existing culverts and retrofits perform relative to juvenile salmonid passage? ? Do some culvert characteristics and hydraulic conditions provide better passage than others? ? Does the culvert represent a barrier to certain size classes of fish? Recommendations addressed issues of study site selection, initial capture, marking, recapture/observations, and estimating movement.

  3. Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary in 2009

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Carter, Jessica A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Titzler, P. Scott; Hughes, Michael S.

    2010-08-01

    The study reported herein was funded as part of the Anadromous Fish Evaluation Program, which is managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The Anadromous Fish Evaluation Program study code is EST P 02 01: A Study of Salmonid Survival and Behavior through the Columbia River Estuary Using Acoustic Tags. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Fisheries for the USACE Portland District. Estimated survival of acoustic-tagged juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead through the lower Columbia River and estuary in 2009 was lowest in the final 50 km of the estuary. Probability of survival was relatively high (>0.90) for yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon from the Bonneville Dam forebay (rkm 236) to Three-tree Point (rkm 49.6). Survival of juvenile Chinook salmon declined sharply through the lower 50 km of the estuary. Acoustic-tagged steelhead smolts did not survive as well as juvenile Chinook salmon between Bonneville Dam and the mouth of the Columbia River. Steelhead survival began to decline farther upstream (at rkm 86) relative to that of the Chinook salmon stocks. Subyearling Chinook salmon survival decreased markedly as the season progressed. It remains to be determined whether later migrating subyearling Chinook salmon are suffering increasing mortality as the season progresses or whether some portion of the apparent loss is due to fish extending their freshwater residence. This study provided the first glimpse into what promises to be a very informative way to learn more about how juvenile salmonid passage experiences through the FCRPS may influence their subsequent survival after passing Bonneville Dam. New information regarding the influence of migration pathway through the lower 50 km of the Columbia River estuary on probability of survival of juvenile salmonids, combined with increased understanding regarding the foraging distances and time periods of

  4. Effect of Multiple Turbine Passage on Juvenile Snake River Salmonid Survival

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, Kenneth D.; Anderson, James J.; Vucelick, Jessica A.

    2005-10-14

    This report describes a study conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to identify populations of migrating juvenile salmonids with a potential to be impacted by repeated exposure to turbine passage conditions. This study is part of a research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Wind/Hydropower Program. The program's goal is to increase hydropower generation and capacity while enhancing environmental performance. Our study objective is to determine whether the incremental effects of turbine passage during downstream migration impact populations of salmonids. When such a potential is found to exist, a secondary objective is to determine what level of effect of passing multiple turbines is required to decrease the number of successful migrants by 10%. This information will help identify whether future laboratory or field studies are feasible and design those studies to address conditions that present the greatest potential to improve dam survival and thus benefit fish and power generation.

  5. Physiological Assessment of Wild and Hatchery Juvenile Salmonids : Final Report, 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Donald A.; Beckman, Brian R.; Dickhoff, Walton W.

    2003-08-01

    It is generally held that hatchery-reared salmonids are of inferior quality and have lower smolt-to-adult survival compared to naturally-reared salmon. The overall objectives of the work performed under this contract were the following: (1) Characterize the physiology and development of naturally rearing juvenile salmonids to: (2) Allow for the design of effective rearing programs for producing wild-like smolts in supplementation and production hatchery programs. (3) Examine the relationship between growth rate and size on the physiology and migratory performance of fish reared in hatchery programs. (4) Examine the interaction of rearing temperature and feed rate on the growth and smoltification of salmon for use in producing a more wild-like smolt in hatchery programs.

  6. Smallmouth bass and largemouth bass predation on juvenile Chinook salmon and other salmonids in the Lake Washington basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tabor, R.A.; Footen, B.A.; Fresh, K.L.; Celedonia, M.T.; Mejia, F.; Low, D.L.; Park, L.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed the impact of predation by smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu and largemouth bass M. salmoides on juveniles of federally listed Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and other anadromous salmonid populations in the Lake Washington system. Bass were collected with boat electrofishing equipment in the south end of Lake Washington (February-June) and the Lake Washington Ship Canal (LWSC; April-July), a narrow waterway that smolts must migrate through to reach the marine environment. Genetic analysis was used to identify ingested salmonids to obtain a more precise species-specific consumption estimate. Overall, we examined the stomachs of 783 smallmouth bass and 310 largemouth bass greater than 100 mm fork length (FL). Rates of predation on salmonids in the south end of Lake Washington were generally low for both black bass species. In the LWSC, juvenile salmonids made up a substantial part of bass diets; consumption of salmonids was lower for largemouth bass than for smallmouth bass. Smallmouth bass predation on juvenile salmonids was greatest in June, when salmonids made up approximately 50% of their diet. In the LWSC, overall black bass consumption of salmonids was approximately 36,000 (bioenergetics model) to 46,000 (meal turnover consumption model) juveniles, of which about one-third was juvenile Chinook salmon, one-third was coho salmon O. kisutch, and one-third was sockeye salmon O. nerka. We estimated that about 2,460,000 juvenile Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild sources combined) were produced in the Lake Washington basin in 1999; thus, the mortality estimates in the LWSC range from 0.5% (bioenergetics) to 0.6% (meal turnover). Black bass prey mostly on subyearlings of each salmonid species. The vulnerability of subyearlings to predation can be attributed to their relatively small size; their tendency to migrate when water temperatures exceed 15??C, coinciding with greater black bass activity; and their use of nearshore areas, where overlap

  7. Synthesis of Juvenile Salmonid Passage Studies at The Dalles Dam, Volume II, 2001-05

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Beeman, John W.; Duran, Ian; Puls, Andrew

    2007-08-15

    The overall goal of juvenile salmonid research at The Dalles Dam is to provide data to inform decisions on strategies to improve smolt survival rates at the project. Survival improvement strategies address the three primary passage routes at The Dalles Dam -- spillway, sluiceway, and turbines – with the general intent to increase spill and sluice passage and decrease turbine passage. Since the review by Ploskey et al. (2001a) of research during 1982-2000 at The Dalles Dam, the Corps funded over $20M of research in at least 39 studies during 2001-2006. The purpose of the current review is to synthesize juvenile salmonid passage data at The Dalles Dam (TDA) collected from 2001 through 2006. The data we synthesize comes from numerous research techniques employed to address particular study objectives at The Dalles Dam. The suite of techniques includes acoustic and radio telemetry, acoustic cameras, acoustic Doppler current profilers, balloon tags, computational fluid dynamics models, drogues, fixed and mobile hydroacoustics, fyke nets, physical scale models, PIT-tags, sensor fish, sonar trackers, and underwater video. Hydraulic data involves flow patterns and water velocities. Biological data involve forebay approach paths and residence times, horizontal and diel distributions, passage efficiencies and effectiveness, fish behaviors, tailrace egress and predation rates, and route-specific and total project survival rates. Data for 2001-2006 are synthesized in this report to provide, in conjunction with Ploskey et al. (2001a), resources for engineers, biologists, and dam operators to use when making decisions about fish protection measures for juvenile salmonids at The Dalles Dam. This review covers the major fish passage research efforts during 2001-2006 and includes sections on the Environmental Setting, Forebay and Project Passage Studies, Spill Studies, Sluiceway Studies, Turbine Studies, Smolt Survival Studies, and a Discussion.

  8. Analysis of Historic Data for Juvenile and Adult Salmonid Production. Phase 1, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hilborn, Ray; Pascual, Miguel; Donnelly, Robert; Coronado-Hernadez, Claribel

    1993-11-01

    Survival of hatchery reared Columbia River chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) salmon from release to return is highly variable and thought to be related to river flow during juvenile outmigration in the spring. The purpose of this project is to examine the relationship between survival of coded-wire-tagged (CWT) Columbia River salmonids and in-river flow and other freshwater factors. This report covers Phase 1, in which two methods to estimate survival were developed and evaluated, and criteria for data selection were established.

  9. Feeding response by northern squawfish to a hatchery release of juvenile salmonids in the Clearwater River, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shively, R.S.; Poe, T.P.; Sauter, S.T.

    1996-01-01

    We collected gut contents from northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis captured in the Clearwater River, Idaho, 0–6 km from its confluence with the Snake River, following the release of 1.1 million yearling chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Dworshak National Fish Hatchery. Before the hatchery release, northern squawfish gut contents (by weight) in the study area were 38% crayfish Pacifastacus spp., 26% insects, 19% nonsalmonid fish, and 16% wheat kernels Triticum spp. Juvenile salmonids constituted 54% of gut contents about 24 h after the hatchery release, 78% after 5 d, and 86% after 7 d. The mean number of salmonids per gut (1.2) after release was higher than typically seen in guts from northern squawfish collected in mid-reservoir areas away from hydroelectric dams on the Snake and Columbia rivers. Length-frequency distributions of juvenile salmonids eaten and those captured in a scoop trap 4 km upstream of the study area indicated that northern squawfish were selectively feeding on the smaller individuals. We attribute the high rates of predation in the study area to the artificially high density of juvenile salmonids resulting from the hatchery release and to the physical characteristics of the study area in which the river changed from free flowing to impounded. Our results suggest that northern squawfish can quickly exploit hatchery releases of juvenile salmonids away from release sites in the Columbia River basin.

  10. Habitat use by juvenile salmonids in Lake Ontario tributaries-species, age, diel and seasonal effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; McKenna, James E.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the habitat needs of fish and how these requirements may change seasonally over a 24-h period is important, especially for highly managed sport species. Consequently, we examined the diel and seasonal habitat use of four juvenile salmonid species in streams in the Lake Ontario watershed. For juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salarand juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, differences in day versus night habitat use were more profound than seasonal differences. Observed differences in day versus night habitat for all species and age classes were mainly due to the use of less object oriented cover at night and to a lesser extent to the use of slower velocities and smaller substrate at night. Seasonal differences in habitat use were also observed, likely due to increased fish size, and included movement to deeper and faster water and the use of larger substrate and more cover from summer to winter. Different habitat variables were important to individual species. Juvenile Atlantic salmon were associated with higher water velocities, juvenile rainbow trout with larger substrate and more cover, and subyearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and subyearling coho salmon O. kisutch with small substrate and less cover. Our observations demonstrate that habitat partitioning occurs and likely reduces intraspecific and interspecific competition which may increase the potential production of all four species in sympatry. Consequently, these findings provide important information for resource managers charged with managing, protecting, and enhancing Great Lakes tributaries where all or some of these species occur.

  11. Survival and migration behavior of juvenile salmonids at Lower Granite Dam, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Fielding, Scott D.; Braatz, Amy C.; Wilkerson, Tamara S.; Pope, Adam C.; Walker, Christopher E.; Hardiman, Jill M.; Perry, Russell W.; Counihan, Timothy D.

    2008-01-01

    We described behavior and estimated passage and survival parameters of juvenile salmonids during spring and summer migration periods at Lower Granite Dam in 2006. During the spring, the study was designed to examine the effects of the Behavioral Guidance Structure (BGS) by using a randomized-block BGS Stored / BGS Deployed treatment design. The summer study was designed to compare passage and survival through Lower Granite Dam using a randomized-block design during two spill treatments while the BGS was in the stored position. We used the Route Specific Survival Model to estimate survival and passage probabilities of hatchery yearling Chinook salmon, hatchery juvenile steelhead, and hatchery and wild subyearling Chinook salmon. We also estimated fish guidance efficiency (FGE), fish passage efficiency (FPE), Removable Spillway Weir passage effectiveness (RPE), spill passage effectiveness (SPY), and combined spill and RSW passage effectiveness.

  12. Rate of disappearance of gas bubble trauma signs in juvenile salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hans, K.M.; Mesa, M.G.; Maule, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    To assess the rate of disappearance of gas bubble trauma (GBT) signs in juvenile salmonids, we exposed spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss to water containing high levels of dissolved gas supersaturation (DGS) for a time period sufficient to induce signs of GBT, reduced the DGS to minimal levels, and then sampled fish through time to document changes in severity of GBT. Because of the tendency of GBT signs to dissipate at different rates, we conducted trials focusing on emboli (bubbles) in the gill filaments and lateral line and separate trials that focused on bubbles in the external surfaces (fins, eyes, and opercula). Bubbles in gill filaments dissipated almost completely within 2 h after transfer of fish to water of nearly normal DGS (104%), whereas bubbles in the lateral line dissipated to negligible levels within 5 h. Bubbles on external surfaces were more persistent through time than they were in gill filaments and the lateral line. Although typically dissipating to low levels within 48 h, external bubbles sometimes remained for 4 d. Assuming a direct relation exists between easily observable signs and direct mortality, our results suggest that fish can recover quickly from the potentially lethal effects of DGS once they move from water with high DGS to water of almost normal gas saturation. These results should be of fundamental importance to fishery managers interpreting the results of monitoring for the severity and prevalence of GBT in juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River system and perhaps elsewhere.

  13. Holding of juvenile salmonids for surgical implantation of electronic tags: a review and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Eric W.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Brown, Richard S.; Eppard, M. B.

    2011-01-01

    Many telemetry based studies require that fish be sampled from the wild and then held for some amount of time both prior to and after the implantation of a transmitter. However, the effects of such holding (or the lack thereof) are often overlooked. Pre-surgical holding often occurs to facilitate logistical needs of research projects and as an attempt to minimize negative physiological effects due to capture and handling stress. Further, post-surgical holding time and conditions greatly influence the physiological state of fish prior to being returned to the wild. This paper reviews pertinent studies pertaining to the effects of surgical holding on the behavior, physiology, and survival of fishes, with particular emphasis on juvenile salmonids. The effects of individual aspects of surgical holding such as stressors, time, holding conditions and water quality are also examined. Recommendations regarding certain aspects of surgical holding (e.g., holding duration) are offered with a goal of reducing bias related to the surgical process. Pre- and post-surgical holding times of 18–36 h are suggested as a general guideline for juvenile salmonids.

  14. Tradeoffs for Efficiently Passing Juvenile Salmonids through Bonneville Dam on the Lower Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Kim, Jina

    2008-12-01

    We analyzed five years of route-specific fish-passage data acquired by fixed-aspect hydroacoustic sampling of juvenile salmonids passing downstream through Bonneville Dam. High passage effectiveness of surface-flow outlets relative to the spillway and turbines suggests that juvenile salmonids are preferentially selecting surface outlets over adjacent turbines. Seasonal estimates showed that median combined effectiveness of surface-flow outlets (7.8) was 7.1 times higher than that of the spillway (1.1) and 9.8 times higher than that of turbines (0.8). Islands prevent the spillway from attracting fish from either powerhouse, something that may occur at other projects. Regressions indicated that percent flow passing a specific route explained from 50 to 97% of fish-passage variation, and relations were useful for evaluating fish-passage alternatives. Fitted curves for surface-passage routes, including the sluiceway at Powerhouse 1 (B1) and Powerhouse 2 (B2) were much steeper at low percent low (2-15%) than were curves for the spillway or turbines. Regressions indicate that increasing surface-flow percentages of B1 flow from 1% to 10% could increase B1 sluiceway-passage efficiency from 40% to 83%. Increasing B2 flow to the B2 sluiceway from 4% to 15% could increase fish passage from 31% to 62%. Without spill, about 50% of fish passed by non-turbine routes.

  15. System-Wide Significance of Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs : Annual Report of Research 1990.

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, C.J.

    1991-03-01

    The consumption rates of northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) preying upon juvenile salmonids were indexed in four reservoirs (Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day and McNary) of the lower Columbia River. During the spring and summer of 1990, over 2000 northern squawfish were collected from dam forebays, dam tailraces and mid-reservoir locations. Gut content data, predator weight and water temperature were used to compute a consumption index (CI) for northern squawfish. Juvenile salmonids were found in 435 of 1598 northern squawfish guts analyzed. Besides salmonids and other preyfish, crustaceans formed a significant portion of the diet. The CI of northern squawfish varied by season and location. At most locations, summer CI's of northern squawfish were higher than in the spring. Efforts to match sample collection with times of highest juvenile salmonid passage were successful except during July at The Dalles and Bonneville Reservoirs. Consumption indices were moderate to high at several locations even when passage was relatively low, suggesting salmonid predation rate by northern squawfish was not always a function of prey density. 19 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  16. Juvenile salmonid monitoring in the White Salmon River, Washington, post-Condit Dam removal, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jezorek, Ian G.; Hardiman, Jill M.

    2017-06-23

    Condit Dam, at river kilometer 5.3 on the White Salmon River, Washington, was breached in 2011 and removed completely in 2012, allowing anadromous salmonids access to habitat that had been blocked for nearly 100 years. A multi-agency workgroup concluded that the preferred salmonid restoration alternative was natural recolonization with monitoring to assess efficacy, followed by a management evaluation 5 years after dam removal. Limited monitoring of salmon and steelhead spawning has occurred since 2011, but no monitoring of juveniles occurred until 2016. During 2016, we operated a rotary screw trap at river kilometer 2.3 (3 kilometers downstream of the former dam site) from late March through May and used backpack electrofishing during summer to assess juvenile salmonid distribution and abundance. The screw trap captured primarily steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss; smolts, parr, and fry) and coho salmon (O. kisutch; smolts and fry). We estimated the number of steelhead smolts at 3,851 (standard error = 1,454) and coho smolts at 1,093 (standard error = 412). In this document, we refer to O. mykiss caught at the screw trap as steelhead because they were actively migrating, but because we did not know migratory status of O. mykiss caught in electrofishing surveys, we simply refer to them as O. mykiss or steelhead/rainbow trout. Steelhead and coho smolts tagged with passive integrated transponder tags were subsequently detected downstream at Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River. Few Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) fry were captured, possibly as a result of trap location or effects of a December 2015 flood. Sampling in Mill, Buck, and Rattlesnake Creeks (all upstream of the former dam site) showed that juvenile coho were present in Mill and Buck Creeks, suggesting spawning had occurred there. We compared O. mykiss abundance data in sites on Buck and Rattlesnake Creeks to pre-dam removal data. During 2016, age-0 O. mykiss were more abundant in Buck Creek than in 2009 or

  17. Influence of riparian canopy on macroinvertebrate composition and food habits of juvenile salmonids in several Oregon streams.

    Treesearch

    William R. Meehan

    1996-01-01

    The community composition of macroinvertebrates and the feeding habits of juvenile salmonids were studied in eight Oregon streams. Benthic, drift, sticky trap, and water trap samples were taken over a 3-year period, along with stomach samples of the fish. Samples were taken in stream reaches with and without riparian canopy. Both main effects—fish diet versus...

  18. Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River, Estuary, and Plume in 2010

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Skalski, John R.; Deters, Katherine A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Townsend, Richard L.; Titzler, P. Scott; Hughes, Michael S.; Kim, Jin A.; Trott, Donna M.

    2011-09-01

    Uncertainty regarding the migratory behavior and survival of juvenile salmonids passing through the lower Columbia River and estuary after negotiating dams on the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) prompted the development and application of the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS). The JSATS has been used to investigate the survival of juvenile salmonid smolts between Bonneville Dam (river kilometer (rkm) 236) and the mouth of the Columbia River annually since 2004. In 2010, a total of 12,214 juvenile salmonids were implanted with both a passive integrated transponder (PIT) and a JSATS acoustic transmitter. Using detection information from JSATS receiver arrays deployed on dams and in the river, estuary, and plume, the survival probability of yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts tagged at John Day Dam was estimated form multiple reaches between rkm 153 and 8.3 during the spring. During summer, the survival probability of subyearling Chinook salmon was estimated for the same reaches. In addition, the influence of routes of passage (e.g., surface spill, deep spill, turbine, juvenile bypass system) through the lower three dams on the Columbia River (John Day, The Dalles, and Bonneville) on juvenile salmonid smolt survival probability from the dams to rkm 153 and then between rkm 153 and 8.3 was examined to increase understanding of the immediate and latent effects of dam passage on juvenile salmon survival. Similar to previous findings, survival probability was relatively high (>0.95) for most groups of juvenile salmonids from the Bonneville Dam tailrace to about rkm 50. Downstream of rkm 50 the survival probability of all species and run types we examined decreased markedly. Steelhead smolts suffered the highest mortality in this lower portion of the Columbia River estuary, with only an estimated 60% of the tagged fish surviving to the mouth of the river. In contrast, yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon smolts survived to the mouth

  19. Criteria for reducing predation by northern squawfish near juvenile salmonid bypass outfalls at Columbia River Dams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shively, Rip S.; Poe, Thomas P.; Sheer, Mindi B.; Peters, Rock

    1996-01-01

    Predation by northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) has been documented to be significant on emigrating juvenile salmonids near juvenile bypass outfalls at hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River. Criteria for siting juvenile fish bypass outfalls to reduce predation were developed using locational data from radio-tagged northern squawfish in The Dalles Dam trailrace, Columbia River. Radio transmitters were surgically implanted in 164 northern squawfish in 1993 and 1994, and their movements and distribution were monitored. Position estimates of northern squawfish were compared with data from a physical hydraulic model of the dam to estimate water velocities where northern squawfish were located. Eighty-two percent of northern squawfish position estimates were in water velocities ≤110 cm/s in 1993 and ≤90 cm/s in 1994. Fish locations were usually associated with water depths ≤10 m (84% in 1993 and 82% in 1994); 90% were within 110 m of the shore or dam structure in 1993, and 86% were within 80 m in 1994. In a related study at John Day Dam, Columbia River, where the juvenile bypass outfall is located 40 m from shore, water depth is 10 m and water velocities typically exceed 75 cm/s, only 13 of 1443 (0.9%) contacts on radio-tagged northern squawfish were located within 200 m of the bypass outfall. We recommend that new or modified juvenile bypass outfalls on the Columbia River be located in water velocities of ≥100 cm/s, ≥75 m from the shore or dam structure, and in water ≥10 m deep.

  20. Comparative Performance of Acoustic-tagged and PIT-tagged Juvenile Salmonids

    SciTech Connect

    Hockersmith, Eric E.; Brown, Richard S.; Liedtke, Theresa L.

    2008-02-01

    Numerous research tools and technologies are currently being used to evaluate fish passage and survival to determine the impacts of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) on endangered and threatened juvenile salmonids, including PIT tags, balloon tags, hydroacoustic evaluations, radio telemetry, and acoustic telemetry. Each has advantages and disadvantages, but options are restricted in some situations because of limited capabilities of a specific technology, lack of detection capability downstream, or availability of adequate numbers of fish. However, there remains concern about the comparative effects of the tag or the tagging procedure on fish performance. The recently developed Juvenile Salmonid Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic transmitter is the smallest active acoustic tag currently available. The goal of this study was to determine whether fish tagged with the JSATS acoustic-telemetry tag can provide unbiased estimates of passage behavior and survival within the performance life of the tag. We conducted both field and laboratory studies to assess tag effects. For the field evaluation we released a total of 996 acoustic-tagged fish in conjunction with 21,026 PIT-tagged fish into the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam on 6 and 13 May. Travel times between release and downstream dams were not significantly different for the majority of the reaches between acoustic-tagged and PIT-tagged fish. In addition to the field evaluation, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted to determine if growth and survival of juvenile Chinook salmon surgically implanted with acoustic transmitters is different than untagged or PIT tagged juvenile Chinook salmon. Only yearling fish with integrated and non-integrated transmitters experienced mortalities, and these were low (<4.5%). Mortality among sub-yearling control and PIT-tag treatments ranged up to 7.7% while integrated and non-integrated treatments had slightly higher rates (up to 8.3% and 7

  1. Turbulence Investigation and Reproduction for Assisting Downstream Migrating Juvenile Salmonids, Part I of II, 2001-2002 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hotchkiss, Rollin H.

    2002-12-01

    Turbulence in gravel bed rivers plays a critical role in most stream processes including contaminant and nutrient transport, aquatic habitat selection, and natural channel design. While most hydraulic designs and fluid models are based on bulk velocity, migrating juvenile salmon experience and react to the temporally varied turbulent fluctuations. Without properly understanding and accounting for the continuous turbulent motions proper fishway design and guidance are impossible. Matching temporally varied flow to fish reactions is the key to guiding juvenile salmonids to safe passageways. While the ideal solution to fish guidance design would be to use specific fluid action-fish reaction mechanisms, such concrete cause and effect relations have not been established. One way to approach the problem of guidance is to hypothesize that in an environment lacking obvious bulk flow cues (like the reservoir environment), turbulent flow conditions similar to those experienced by juvenile salmonids in natural migration corridors will be attractive to juvenile salmonids. Proof of this hypothesis requires three steps: (1) gathering data on turbulence characteristics in natural migration corridors, (2) reproduction of the turbulence parameters in a controlled environment, and (3) testing the reproduced turbulence on actively migrating juvenile salmonids for increased passage efficiencies. The results from the third step have not been finalized, therefore this report will focus on understanding turbulent processes in gravel bed rivers and reproduction of turbulence in controlled environments for use in fish passage technologies. The purposes of this report are to (1) present data collected in natural gravel bed rivers, (2) present a simple method for reproduction of appropriate turbulence levels in a controlled environment, (3) compare these results to those from one prototype surface collector (PSC), and (4) discuss the implications on fish passage design.

  2. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Lookout Point Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Trott, Donna M.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2011-07-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Lookout Point Dam (LOP) on the Middle Fork Willamette River. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). The goal of the study was to provide fish passage and distribution data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at LOP and others dams in USACE’s Willamette Valley Project in response to the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. During the year-long study period - February 1, 2010 to January 31, 2011the objectives of the hydroacoustic evaluation of fish passage and distribution at LOP were to: 1. Estimate passage rates, run timing, horizontal distribution, and diel distribution at turbine penstock intakes for smolt-size fish. 2. Estimate passage rates, run timing and diel distribution at turbine penstock intakes for small-size fish. 3. Estimate passage rates and run timing at the regulating outlets for smolt-size fish. 4. Estimate vertical distribution of smolt-size fish in the forebay near the upstream face of the dam. The fixed-location hydroacoustic technique was used to accomplish the objectives of this study. Transducers (420 kHz) were deployed in each penstock intake, above each RO entrance, and on the dam face; a total of nine transducers (2 single-beam and 7 split-beam) were used. We summarize the findings from the hydroacoustic evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at LOP during February 2010 through January 2011 as follows. • Fish passage rates for smolt-size fish (> ~90 mm) were highest during December-January and lowest in mid-summer through early fall. • During the entire study period, an estimated total of 142,463 fish ± 4,444 (95% confidence interval) smolt

  3. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage at The Dalles Dam Sluiceway, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Hedgepeth, J; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.; Skalski, John R.

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District engaged the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate fish passage at The Dalles Dam powerhouse in 2005. The goal of the study was to provide information on smolt passage that will inform decisions on long-term measures and operations to enhance sluiceway passage and reduce turbine passage to improve smolt survival at the dam. The study addressed one of the main programs dedicated to improving juvenile salmonid survival at The Dalles Dam: Surface Flow Bypass. The study objectives (see below) were met using a combination of hydroacoustic and hydraulic data. The study incorporated fixed-location hydroacoustic methods across the entire powerhouse, with especially intense sampling using multiple split-beam transducers at all sluiceway portals. We did not sample fish passage at the spillway in 2005. In the sluiceway nearfield, we used an acoustic camera to track fish movements. The fish data were interpreted with hydraulic data from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Fish passage data were collected in the framework of an “experiment” using a randomized block design (3-day treatments; two treatments) to compare two sluiceway operational configurations: Sluice 2+5 and Sluice 2+19 (six gates open for each configuration). Total project outflow was 76% of the 10-year average for spring and 71% of the 10-year average for summer. Based on these findings, we make the following recommendations: 1) The sluice should be operated 24 h/d from April until November. 2) Open six rather than three sluice gates to take advantage of the maximum hydraulic capacity of the sluiceway. 3) Open the three gates above the western-most operating main turbine unit and the three gates at MU 8 where turbine passage rates are relatively high. 4) Operate the turbine units below open sluice gates as a standard fish operations procedure. 5) Develop hydraulic and entrance enhancements to the sluiceway to tap the potential of The

  4. Evaluation of juvenile salmonid behavior near a prototype weir box at Cowlitz Falls Dam, Washington, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kock, Tobias J.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Ekstrom, Brian K.; Tomka, Ryan G.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2014-01-01

    Collection of juvenile salmonids at Cowlitz Falls Dam is a critical part of the effort to restore salmon in the upper Cowlitz River because the majority of fish that are not collected at the dam pass downstream and enter a large reservoir where they become landlocked and lost to the anadromous fish population. However, the juvenile fish collection system at Cowlitz Falls Dam has failed to achieve annual collection goals since it first began operating in 1996. Since that time, numerous modifications to the fish collection system have been made and several prototype collection structures have been developed and tested, but these efforts have not substantially increased juvenile fish collection. Studies have shown that juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), and Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) tend to locate the collection entrances effectively, but many of these fish are not collected and eventually pass the dam through turbines or spillways. Tacoma Power developed a prototype weir box in 2009 to increase capture rates of juvenile salmonids at the collection entrances, and this device proved to be successful at retaining those fish that entered the weir. However, because of safety concerns at the dam, the weir box could not be deployed near a spillway gate where the prototype was tested, so the device was altered and re-deployed at a different location, where it was evaluated during 2013. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an evaluation using radiotelemetry to monitor fish behavior near the weir box and collection flumes. The evaluation was conducted during April–June 2013. Juvenile steelhead and coho salmon (45 per species) were tagged with a radio transmitter and passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag, and released upstream of the dam. All tagged fish moved downstream and entered the forebay of Cowlitz Falls Dam. Median travel times from the release site to the forebay were 0.8 d for steelhead and 1.2 d for coho

  5. Predation by northern pikeminnow on juvenile salmonids in The Dalles Dam tailrace: field, laboratory, and habitat modeling studies (FY2000)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, James H.; Barfoot, Craig A.; Sheer, Mindi B.

    2001-01-01

    Predation by resident fish is known to be a substantial cause of juvenile salmonid mortality, especially in dam tailraces and outfall locations. Conditions in The Dalles Dam tailrace are unique compared to other projects on the Columbia or Snake rivers, having a complex basin with a series of downriver islands where predators are known to reside. In May-June of 1999, northern pikeminnow and smallmouth bass were sampled in the tailrace of The Dalles Dam during periods immediately following the release of PIT-tagged juvenile salmonids for survival studies. Over twice as many smallmouth bass (N = 101) were collected as northern pikeminnow (N = 40), but none of the predators had PIT tags within their gut. A laboratory study was conducted to estimate the time required for PIT tags in juvenile salmonids to be evacuated from the gut of northern pikeminnow after consuming a tagged preyfish. Evacuation rate was sensitive to temperature, with median evacuation time being 21 h at 18 oC and 30 h at 14 oC. These results suggest that field studies to estimate predator population sizes, feeding rates, or predation on specific release groups would require considerably more effort than we allocated during 1999.

  6. A standard operating procedure for the surgical implantation of transmitters in juvenile salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liedtke, T.L.; Beeman, J.W.; Gee, L.P.

    2012-01-01

    Biotelemetry is a useful tool to monitor the movements of animals and is widely applied in fisheries research. Radio or acoustic technology can be used, depending on the study design and the environmental conditions in the study area. A broad definition of telemetry also includes the use of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags, either separately or with a radio or acoustic transmitter. To use telemetry, fish must be equipped with a transmitter. Although there are several attachment procedures available, surgical implantation of transmitters in the abdominal cavity is recognized as the best technique for long-term telemetry studies in general (Stasko and Pincock, 1977; Winter, 1996; Jepsen, 2003), and specifically for juvenile salmonids, Oncorhynchus spp. (Adams and others, 1998a, 1998b; Martinelli and others, 1998; Hall and others, 2009). Studies that use telemetry assume that the processes by which the animals are captured, handled, and tagged, as well as the act of carrying the transmitter, will have minimal effect on their behavior and performance. This assumption, commonly stated as a lack of transmitter effects, must be valid if telemetry studies are to describe accurately the movements and behavior of an entire population of interest, rather than the subset of that population that carries transmitters. This document describes a standard operating procedure (SOP) for surgical implantation of radio or acoustic transmitters in juvenile salmonids. The procedures were developed from a broad base of published information, laboratory experiments, and practical experience in tagging thousands of fish for numerous studies of juvenile salmon movements near Columbia River and Snake River hydroelectric dams. Staff from the Western Fisheries Research Center's Columbia River Research Laboratory (CRRL) frequently have used telemetry studies to evaluate new structures or operations at hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River Basin, and these evaluations typically

  7. Surface Flow Outlets to Protect Juvenile Salmonids Passing through Hydropower Dams

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Dauble, Dennis D.

    2006-10-27

    We reviewed results of research conducted by engineers and biologists over the past 50 years related to development of surface flow outlets (SFOs) for juvenile salmonids that migrate downstream past hydropower dams. An SFO is a non-turbine, water-efficient passage route with an overflow structure through which flow and fish pass over a dam. Our review covered 69 SFOs in Europe and North America. We identified five main types of SFOs ? low-flow bypass/sluices, high-flow sluices, forebay collectors, powerhouse retrofits, and surface spills. Most low-flow bypass/sluices are sited in Europe and on the east coast of North America, where mean annual project discharge and hydropower production for the dams we reviewed were 95 m3/s and 15 MW, respectively. The other four SFO types are found at dams on the west coast of North America with 2184 m3/s mean annual discharge and 788 MW mean output. A conceptual framework based on fish behavior and hydraulics for different regions of a hydropower project was developed to evaluate SFO performance. For all SFO types, fish collection efficiency averaged 54%, with an average effectiveness ratio of 17:1 (fish to inflow). Surface flow outlet technology can meet the goal of concurrent anadromous fish protection and hydropower generation.

  8. Survival and migration behavior of juvenile salmonids at McNary Dam, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2008-01-01

    During 2006, we used acoustic telemetry and a route-specific survival model (RSSM, Skalski et al. 2002) to estimate behavior, passage, and survival of juvenile salmonids during two different spill operations and diel periods at McNary Dam. An evaluation of 12-h versus 24-h spill was proposed for the spring migration period at McNary Dam. However, high river discharge did not allow for the 12-h spill treatment, and thus, resource managers decided on testing two 24-h spill treatments having two distinct spill patterns. The first treatment, the “Fish Passage Plan” (FPP) treatment emphasized spill on the north end (bays 1-3) of the spillway and generally higher discharge through the north powerhouse. The second treatment, the “Test Spill” (TS) treatment emphasized spill on the south end (bays 18-20) of the spillway and relatively less discharge through the north powerhouse. During the summer, two dam operations were evaluated: 1) 24-h spill at 60% of total river discharge, and 2) 24-h spill at 40% of total river discharge. Both the Fish Passage Plan treatment in spring and the 40% spill treatment in summer had the more distinct pattern in powerhouse operations over the 24-h diel cycle, with generally higher powerhouse discharge and lower spill discharge during daytime hours (about 0600 to 1800 hours) compared to the alternative spill treatment.

  9. Significance of Selective Predation and Development of Prey Protection Measures for Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs: Annual Progress Report, February 1993-February 1994.

    SciTech Connect

    Poe, Thomas P.

    1994-08-01

    This report addresses the problem of predator-prey interactions of juvenile salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River. Six papers are included on selective predation and prey protection. Attention is focused on monitoring the movements, the distribution, and the behavior of juvenile chinook salmon and northern squawfish.

  10. Differential predation by northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis on live and dead juvenile salmonids in the Bonneville Dam tailrace (Columbia River)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, James H.; Gadomski, Dena M.; Poe, Thomas P.

    1994-01-01

    Juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) that have been killed or injured during dam passage may be highly vulnerable or preferred prey of predators that aggregate below dams. Salmonid loss due to predation will be overestimated using gut content analysis if some prey were dead or moribund when consumed. To examine this issue, field experiments were conducted in the Bonneville Dam tailrace (Columbia River) to compare rates of capture of live and dead juvenile salmonids by northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis). Known numbers of coded-wire-tagged live and dead chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) were released into the tailrace on six nights. Northern squawfish were collected after each release and their gut contents were examined for tags. When 50% of salmon released were dead, northern squawfish consumed 62% dead salmon. When 10% of salmon released were dead, comparable with dam passage mortality, 22% of the tags found in northern squawfish digestive tracts were from dead salmon. These results indicate that predator feeding behavior and prey condition are important considerations when estimating the impact of predation on a prey population.

  11. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Lookout Point Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Trott, Donna M.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2012-05-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Lookout Point Dam (LOP) on the Middle Fork Willamette River for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE), to provide data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at LOP and others dams in USACE's Willamette Valley Project. This study was conducted in response to the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. We conducted a hydroacoustic evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at LOP during February 2010 through January 2011. Findings from this 1 year of study should be applied carefully because annual variation can be expected due to variability in adult salmon escapement, egg-to-fry and fry-to-smolt survival rates, reservoir rearing and predation, dam operations, and weather. Fish passage rates for smolt-size fish (> {approx}90 mm and < 300 mm) were highest during December-January and lowest in mid-summer through early fall. Passage peaks were also evident in early spring, early summer, and late fall. During the entire study period, an estimated total of 142,463 fish {+-} 4,444 (95% confidence interval) smolt-size fish passed through turbine penstock intakes. Of this total, 84% passed during December-January. Run timing for small-size fish ({approx}65-90 mm) peaked (702 fish) on December 18. Diel periodicity of smolt-size fish showing crepuscular peaks was evident in fish passage into turbine penstock intakes. Relatively few fish passed into the Regulating Outlets (ROs) when they were open in summer (2 fish/d) and winter (8 fish/d). Overall, when the ROs were open, RO efficiency (RO passage divided by total project passage) was 0.004. In linear regression analyses, daily fish passage (turbines and ROs combined) for smolt-size fish was significantly related to project

  12. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage at The Dalles Dam in 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Hanks, Michael E.; Khan, Fenton; Cook, Chris B.; Hedgepeth, J; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Sargeant, Susan L.; Serkowski, John A.; Skalski, John R.

    2005-06-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District engaged the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate juvenile salmon passage at The Dalles Dam in 2004 to inform decisions about long-term measures and operations to enhance sluiceway and spill passage and reduce turbine passage to improve smolt survival at the dam. PNNL used fixed-location hydroacoustic sampling across the entire project, especially at the sluiceway and spillway, using multiple split-beam transducers at selected locations. At the sluiceway nearfield, we used an acoustic camera to track fish. The fish data were interpreted and integrated with hydraulic data from a CFD model and in-field ADCP measurements. Two sluiceway operations were compared: West only (SL 1) vs. West+East (SL 1 + SL 18). Based on our findings, we concluded that The Dalles Dam sluiceway has the potential to be highly efficient and effective at passing juvenile salmonids. This potential could be tapped with hydraulic and entrance enhancements to the sluiceway. We recommended the following: (1) six rather than three sluice gates should be opened to take advantage of the maximum hydraulic capacity of the sluiceway. (2) The turbine units below open sluice gates should be operated as a standard fish operations procedure. (3) In 2005, the Corps and fisheries agencies should consider operating sluice gates in one or more of the following combinations of six gates: (a) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 18-1, 18-2, 18-3 (repeat 2004 operation), (b) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 11-1, 11-2, 11-3, or (c) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 2-1, 2-2, 2-3. The following elements for surface flow bypasses which should be considered during design of any sluiceway enhancements at The Dalles Dam: (1) form an extensive surface flow bypass flow net (surface bypass discharge greater than {approx}7% of total project discharge), (2) create a gradual increase in water velocity approaching the surface flow bypass (ideally, acceleration < 1 m/s/m), (3) make water

  13. System-Wide Significance of Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs : Annual Report 1992.

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, James H.; Poe, Thomas P.

    1993-12-01

    Northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) predation on juvenile salmonids was characterized during 1992 at ten locations in the Columbia River below Bonneville Dam and at three locations in John Day Reservoir. During the spring and summer, 1,487 northern squawfish were collected in the lower Columbia River and 202 squawfish were sampled in John Day Reservoir. Gut content data, predator weight, and water temperature were used to compute a consumption index (CI) for northern squawfish, and overall diet was also described. In the Columbia River below Bonneville Dam, northern squawfish diet was primarily fish (spring 69%; summer 53%), most of which were salmonids. Salmonids were also the primary diet component in the Bonneville Dam tailrace, John Day Dam forebay, and the McNary Dam tailrace. Crustaceans were the dominant diet item at the John Day mid-reservoir location, although sample sizes were small. About half of the non-salmonid preyfish were sculpins. The consumption index (CI) of northern squawfish was generally higher during summer than during spring. The highest CI`s were observed during summer in the tailrace boat restricted zones of Bonneville Dam (CI = 7.8) and McNary Dam (CI = 4.6). At locations below Bonneville Dam, CI`s were relatively low near Covert`s Landing and Rooster Rock, higher at four locations between Blue Lake and St. Helens, and low again at three downriver sites (Kalama, Ranier, and Jones Beach). Northern squawfish catches and CI`s were noticeably higher throughout the lower Columbia compared to mid-reservoir sites further upriver sampled during 1990--92. Predation may be especially intense in the free-flowing section of the Columbia River below Bonneville Dam. Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui; N = 198) ate mostly fish -- 25% salmonids, 29% sculpins, and 46% other fish. Highest catches of smallmouth bass were in the John Day Dam forebay.

  14. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Detroit Dam, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fenton; Royer, Ida M.; Johnson, Gary E.; Ham, Kenneth D.

    2012-11-15

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Detroit Dam (DET) on the North Santiam River, Oregon for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to provide data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at DET and others dams in USACE’s Willamette Valley Project. This study was conducted in response to regulatory requirements necessitated by the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. The goal of the study was to provide information of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at DET from February 2011 through February 2012. The results of the hydroacoustic study provide new and, in some cases, first-ever data on passage estimates, run timing, distributions, and relationships between fish passage and environmental variables at the dam. This information will inform management decisions on the design and development of surface passage and collection devices to help restore Chinook salmon populations in the North Santiam River watershed above DET. During the entire study period, an estimated total of 182,526 smolt-size fish (±4,660 fish, 95% CI) passed through turbine penstock intakes. Run timing peaked in winter and early spring months. Passage rates were highest during late fall, winter and early spring months and low during summer. Horizontal distribution for hours when both turbine units were operated simultaneously indicated Unit 2 passed almost twice as much fish as Unit 1. Diel distribution for smolt-size fish during the study period was fairly uniform, indicating fish were passing the turbines at all times of the day. A total of 5,083 smolt-size fish (± 312 fish, 95% CI) were estimated passed via the spillway when it was open between June 23 and September 27, 2011. Daily passage was low at the spillway during the June-August period, and

  15. Effect of multiple turbine passage on juvenile Snake River salmonid survival

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, K. D.; Anderson, J. J.; Vucellck, J. A.

    2005-09-01

    Juvenile salmonids originating in the Snake River upstream of Lower Granite Dam must pass up to eight hydroelectric projects during their downstream migration to the Pacific Ocean. Fish may pass a project through a turbine or a spillbay or be screened into a bypass system that either collects fish into a barge or releases them downstream of the project. Previous reviews of studies of downstream passage for salmon at hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River basin found higher mean mortality at turbines than for spillways or bypass systems. The potential mechanisms of mortality during turbine passage may include pressure changes, cavitation, shear, turbulence, strike, or grinding. Observing those mechanisms is challenging in the field, but laboratory studies have demonstrated that a single exposure to shear or pressure changes similar to turbine passage conditions can result in injury for some individuals. Because fish pass several dams along their migration, individuals experience a series of passage events. If estimates of surviving the passage of a single project are applied to each passage event, then the underlying assumption is that the mortality at each project is independent of previous exposure. If individuals approaching a project were already sub-lethally stressed, higher than expected mortality rates might occur upon subsequent passage events. Report presents the hypothesis that fish passing more than one turbine will experience a greater than expected rate of mortality. Because measuring an incremental increase in mortality would be challenging in the field, scientists developed an approach to first assess whether such an increment has any potential to influence a fish population. This approach identified populations at risk and will help design laboratory or field experiments to address those risks.

  16. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage at The Dalles Dam Spillway, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Skalski, John R.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.

    2007-05-24

    The objective of this study was to determine detailed vertical, horizontal, intensive, and diel distributions of juvenile salmonid passage at the spillway at The Dalles Dam from April 12 to July16, 2006. These data are being applied in the Spillway Improvements Program to position release pipes for direct injury and mortality studies and to provide baseline data for assessment of the vortex suppression devices scheduled for deployment in 2007. We estimated fish distributions from hydroacoustic data collected with split-beam transducers arrayed across Bays 1 through 9 and 14. Spill at ~20 kcfs per bay was bulked at Bays 1-6, although the other bays were opened at times during the study to maintain a 40% spill percentage out of total project discharge. The vertical distribution of fish was skewed toward the surface during spring, but during summer, passage peaked at 2-3 m above the spillway ogee. Fish passage rates (number per hour) and fish densities (number per kcfs) were highest at Bay 6, followed by passage at Bay 5. This result comports with spillway horizontal distribution data from radio telemetry and hydroacoustic studies in 2004. The vertical and horizontal distribution of fish passage at bays 5 and 6 was much more variable during spring than summer and more variable at bay 5 than bay 6. Diel distribution data revealed that fish passage was highest during 0600-0700 h in spring; otherwise passage was reasonably uniform on a diel basis. This study substantiates the purpose of the spillway vortex suppression device to re-distribute downstream migrants away from Bay 6 toward Bays 1-5.

  17. Determine the Influence of Time Held in “Knockdown” Anesthesia on Survival and Stress of Surgically Implanted Juvenile Salmonids

    SciTech Connect

    Woodley, Christa M.; Wagner, Katie A.; Knox, Kasey M.

    2012-01-31

    The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was developed for the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers Portland District (USACE) to address questions related to survival and performance measures of juvenile salmonids as they pass through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). Researchers using JSATS acoustic transmitters (ATs) were tasked with standardizing the surgical implantation procedure to ensure that the stressors of handling and surgery on salmonids were consistent and less likely to cause effects of tagging in survival studies. Researchers questioned whether the exposure time in 'knockdown' anesthesia (or induction) to prepare fish for surgery could influence the survival of study fish (CBSPSC 2011). Currently, fish are held in knockdown anesthesia after they reach Stage 4 anesthesia until the completion of the surgical implantation of a transmitter, varies from 5 to 15 minutes for studies conducted in the Columbia Basin. The Columbia Basin Surgical Protocol Steering Committee (CBSPSC ) expressed concern that its currently recommended 10-minute maximum time limit during which fish are held in anesthetic - tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222, 80 mg L-1 water) - could increase behavioral and physiological costs, and/or decrease survival of outmigrating juvenile salmonids. In addition, the variability in the time fish are held at Stage 4 could affect the data intended for direct comparison of fish within or among survival studies. Under the current recommended protocol, if fish exceed the 10-minute time limit, they are to be released without surgical implantation, thereby increasing the number of fish handled and endangered species 'take' at the bypass systems for FCRPS survival studies.

  18. Comparative evaluation of molecular diagnostic tests for Nucleospora salmonis and prevalence in migrating juvenile salmonids from the Snake River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Badil, Samantha; Elliott, Diane G.; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Hedrick, Ronald P.; Clemens, Kathy; Blair, Marilyn; Purcell, Maureen K.

    2011-01-01

    Nucleospora salmonis is an intranuclear microsporidian that primarily infects lymphoblast cells and contributes to chronic lymphoblastosis and a leukemia-like condition in a range of salmonid species. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of N. salmonis in out-migrating juvenile hatchery and wild Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss from the Snake River in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. To achieve this goal, we first addressed the following concerns about current molecular diagnostic tests for N. salmonis: (1) nonspecific amplification patterns by the published nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) test, (2) incomplete validation of the published quantitative PCR (qPCR) test, and (3) whether N. salmonis can be detected reliably from nonlethal samples. Here, we present an optimized nPCR protocol that eliminates nonspecific amplification. During validation of the published qPCR test, our laboratory developed a second qPCR test that targeted a different gene sequence and used different probe chemistry for comparison purposes. We simultaneously evaluated the two different qPCR tests for N. salmonis and found that both assays were highly specific, sensitive, and repeatable. The nPCR and qPCR tests had good overall concordance when DNA samples derived from both apparently healthy and clinically diseased hatchery rainbow trout were tested. Finally, we demonstrated that gill snips were a suitable tissue for nonlethal detection of N. salmonis DNA in juvenile salmonids. Monitoring of juvenile salmonid fish in the Snake River over a 3-year period revealed low prevalence of N. salmonis in hatchery and wild Chinook salmon and wild steelhead but significantly higher prevalence in hatchery-derived steelhead. Routine monitoring of N. salmonis is not performed for all hatchery steelhead populations. At present, the possible contribution of this pathogen to delayed mortality of steelhead has not been determined.

  19. Significance of Selective Predation and Development of Prey Protection Measures for Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs: Annual Progress Report, February 1991-February 1992.

    SciTech Connect

    Poe, Thomas P.

    1992-12-31

    This document is the 1991 annual report of progress for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) research Project conducted by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). Our approach was to present the progress achieved during 1991 in a series of separate reports for each major project task. Each report is prepared in the format of a scientific paper and is able to stand alone, whatever the state of progress or completion. This project has two major goals. One is to understand the significance of selective predation and prey vulnerability by determining if substandard juvenile salmonids (dead, injured, stressed, diseased, or naive) are more vulnerable to predation by northern squawfish, than standard or normal juvenile salmonids. The second goal is to develop and test prey protection measures to control predation on juvenile salmonids by reducing predator-smolt encounters or predator capture efficiency.

  20. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, Annual Report 1999-2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Suzanne M.; Carmichael, Richard W.; Ehlers, Danette L.

    2002-04-01

    This is the sixth annual report of a multi-year project that monitors the outmigration and survival of hatchery and natural juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River. This project supplements and complements ongoing or completed fisheries projects in the Umatilla River basin. Knowledge gained on outmigration and survival assists researchers and managers in adapting hatchery practices, flow enhancement strategies, canal and fish ladder operations, and supplementation and enhancement efforts for natural and restored fish populations. Findings from this study also measure the success of upriver habitat improvement projects and provide an overall evaluation of the Umatilla River fisheries restoration program.

  1. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake River Dams and Reservoirs, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, William D.

    1995-02-01

    In 1994, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the second year of a multi-year study to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through the dams and reservoirs of the Snake River. Actively migrating smolts were collected at selected locations above, at, and below Lower Granite Dam, tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, and released to continue their downstream migration. Survival estimates were calculated using the Single-Release, Modified Single-Release, and Paired-Release Models.

  2. Factors influencing the survival of outmigrating juvenile salmonids through multiple dam passages: an individual-based approach.

    PubMed

    Elder, Timothy; Woodley, Christa M; Weiland, Mark A; Strecker, Angela L

    2016-08-01

    Substantial declines of Pacific salmon populations have occurred over the past several decades related to large-scale anthropogenic and climatic changes in freshwater and marine environments. In the Columbia River Basin, migrating juvenile salmonids may pass as many as eight large-scale hydropower projects before reaching the ocean; however, the cumulative effects of multiple dam passages are largely unknown. Using acoustic transmitters and an extensive system of hydrophone arrays in the Lower Columbia River, we calculated the survival of yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) passing one, two, or three dams. We applied a unique index of biological characteristics and environmental exposures, experienced by each fish individually as it migrated downstream, in order to examine which factors most influence salmonid survival. High outflow volumes led to involuntary spill in 2011 and created an environment of supersaturated dissolved gas concentrations. In this environment, migrating smolt survival was strongly influenced by barometric pressure, fish velocity, and water temperature. The effect of these variables on survival was compounded by multiple dam passages compared to fish passing a single dam. Despite spatial isolation between dams in the Lower Columbia River hydrosystem, migrating smolt appear to experience cumulative effects akin to a press disturbance. In general, Chinook salmon and steelhead respond similarly in terms of survival rates and responses to altered environmental conditions. Management actions that limit dissolved gas concentrations in years of high flow will benefit migrating salmonids at this life stage.

  3. Turbulence Investigation and Reproduction for Assisting Downstream Migrating Juvenile Salmonids, Part II of II; Effects of Induced Turbulence on Behavior of Juvenile Salmon, 2001-2005 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Russell W.; Farley, M. Jared; Hansen, Gabriel S.

    2005-07-01

    Passage through dams is a major source of mortality of anadromous juvenile salmonids because some populations must negotiate up to eight dams in Columbia and Snake rivers. Dams cause direct mortality when fish pass through turbines, but dams may also cause indirect mortality by altering migration conditions in rivers. Forebays immediately upstream of dams have decreased the water velocity of rivers and may contribute substantially to the total migration delay of juvenile salmonids. Recently, Coutant (2001a) suggested that in addition to low water velocities, lack of natural turbulence may contribute to migration delay by causing fish to lose directional cues. Coutant (2001a) further hypothesized that restoring turbulence in dam forebays may reduce migration delay by providing directional cues that allow fish to find passage routes more quickly (Coutant 2001a). Although field experiments have yielded proof of the concept of using induced turbulence to guide fish to safe passage routes, little is known about mechanisms actually causing behavioral changes. To test hypotheses about how turbulence influences movement and behavior of migrating juvenile salmonids, we conducted two types of controlled experiments at Cowlitz Falls Dam, Washington. A common measure of migration delay is the elapsed time between arrival at, and passage through, a dam. Therefore, for the first set of experiments, we tested the effect of induced turbulence on the elapsed time needed for fish to traverse through a raceway and pass over a weir at its downstream end (time trial experiment). If turbulence helps guide fish to passage routes, then fish should pass through the raceway quicker in the presence of appropriately scaled and directed turbulent cues. Second, little is known about how the physical properties of water movement provide directional cues to migrating juvenile salmonids. To examine the feasibility of guiding fish with turbulence, we tested whether directed turbulence could guide

  4. Turbulence investigation and reproduction for assisting downstream migrating juvenile salmonids, Part II of II: Effects of induced turbulence on behavior of juvenile salmon, 2001-2005 final report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, R.; Farley , M.; Hansen, G.; Morse , J.; Rondorf, D.

    2005-01-01

    Passage through dams is a major source of mortality of anadromous juvenile salmonids because some populations must negotiate up to eight dams in Columbia and Snake rivers. Dams cause direct mortality when fish pass through turbines, but dams may also cause indirect mortality by altering migration conditions in rivers. Forebays immediately upstream of dams have decreased the water velocity of rivers and may contribute substantially to the total migration delay of juvenile salmonids. Recently, Coutant (2001a) suggested that in addition to low water velocities, lack of natural turbulence may contribute to migration delay by causing fish to lose directional cues. Coutant (2001a) further hypothesized that restoring turbulence in dam forebays may reduce migration delay by providing directional cues that allow fish to find passage routes more quickly (Coutant 2001a). Although field experiments have yielded proof of the concept of using induced turbulence to guide fish to safe passage routes, little is known about mechanisms actually causing behavioral changes. To test hypotheses about how turbulence influences movement and behavior of migrating juvenile salmonids, we conducted two types of controlled experiments at Cowlitz Falls Dam, Washington. A common measure of migration delay is the elapsed time between arrival at, and passage through, a dam. Therefore, for the first set of experiments, we tested the effect of induced turbulence on the elapsed time needed for fish to traverse through a raceway and pass over a weir at its downstream end (time trial experiment). If turbulence helps guide fish to passage routes, then fish should pass through the raceway quicker in the presence of appropriately scaled and directed turbulent cues. Second, little is known about how the physical properties of water movement provide directional cues to migrating juvenile salmonids. To examine the feasibility of guiding fish with turbulence, we tested whether directed turbulence could guide

  5. Pathways of Barotrauma in Juvenile Salmonids Exposed to Simulated Hydroturbine Passage: Boyle’s Law vs. Henry’s Law

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Pflugrath, Brett D.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Brauner, Colin J.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Deng, Zhiqun; Seaburg, Adam

    2012-06-01

    On their seaward migration, juvenile salmonids commonly pass hydroelectric dams. Fish passing by the turbine blade may experience rapid decompression, the severity of which can be highly variable and may result in a number of barotraumas. The mechanisms of these injuries can be due to expansion of existing bubbles or gases coming out of solution; governed by Boyle’s Law and Henry’s Law, respectively. This paper combines re-analysis of published data with new experiments to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms of injury and mortality for fish experiencing rapid decompression associated with hydroturbine passage. From these data it appears that the majority of decompression related injuries are due to the expansion of existing bubbles in the fish, particularly the expansion and rupture of the swim bladder. This information is particularly useful for fisheries managers and turbine manufacturers, demonstrating that reducing the rate of swim bladder ruptures by reducing the frequency of occurrence and severity of rapid decompression during hydroturbine passage could reduce the rates of injury and mortality for hydroturbine passed juvenile salmonids.

  6. Juvenile Salmonid survival, passage, and egress at McNary Dam during tests of temporary spillway weirs, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, N.S.; Liedtke, T.L.

    2010-01-01

    The TSWs proved to be a relatively effective way to pass juvenile salmonids at McNary Dam (Summary Tables 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3), as was the case in 2007 and 2008. The TSWs passed about 14% of yearling Chinook salmon and 34% of juvenile steelhead with only 5-10% of total project discharge flowing through the TSWs. The TSWs and adjacent spill bays 16-18 passed 27% of subyearling Chinook salmon in the summer with 6-16% of total project discharge flowing through the TSWs. Based on the number of fish passing per the proportion of water flowing through the spillway (i.e., passage effectiveness), the TSWs were the most effective passage route. Passage effectiveness for fish passing through both TSW structures was 2.0 for yearling Chinook salmon, 5.2 for juvenile steelhead, and 2.7 subyearling Chinook salmon for TSW 20 alone. Higher passage of juvenile steelhead through the TSWs could have resulted from juvenile steelhead being more surface-oriented during migration (Plumb et al. 2004; Beeman et al. 2007; Beeman and Maule 2006). Based on passage performance and effectiveness metrics, TSW 4, located on the north end of the spillway, did not perform as well as TSW 20, located on the south end of the spillway. Passage proportions for TSW 4 were at least half that of the levels observed for TSW 20 for both yearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead. This difference may be attributed to TSW location or other variables such as dam operations. Regardless of which TSW was used by fish passing the dam, survival through both TSWs was high (> 0.98 for paired-release dam survival) for yearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead.

  7. Understanding the influence of predation by introduced fishes on juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River Basin: Closing some knowledge gaps. Interim Report of Research 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, Brien P.; Hansen, Gabriel S.; Mesa, Matthew G.

    2011-01-01

    In response to these recent concerns about the potential predatory impact of non-native piscivores on salmon survival, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority (CBFWA) co-hosted a workshop to address predation on juvenile salmonids in the CRB by non-native fish (Halton 2008). The purpose of the workshop was to review, evaluate, and develop strategies to reduce predation by non-native fishes on juvenile salmonids. In the end, discussion at the workshop and at subsequent meetings considered two potential ideas to reduce predation by non-native fish on juvenile salmonids; (1) understanding the role of juvenile American shad Alosa sapidissima in the diet of non-native predators in the fall; and (2) the effects of localized, intense reductions of smallmouth bass in areas of particularly high salmonid predation. In this report, we describe initial efforts to understand the influence of juvenile American shad as a prey item for introduced predators in the middle Columbia River. Our first objective, addressed in Chapter 1, was to evaluate the efficacy of nonlethal methods to describe the physiological condition of smallmouth bass, walleye, and channel catfish from late summer through late fall. Such information will be used to understand the contribution of juvenile American shad to the energy reserves of predaceous fish prior to winter. In Chapter 2, we describe the results of some limited sampling to document the food habits of smallmouth bass, walleye, and channel catfish in three reservoirs of the middle Columbia River during late fall. Collectively, we hope to increase our understanding of the contribution of juvenile American shad to the diets of introduced predators and the contribution of this diet to their energy reserves, growth, and perhaps over-winter survival. Managers should be able to use this information for deciding whether to control the population of American shad in the CRB or for managing introduced

  8. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, Annual Report 2000-2001.

    SciTech Connect

    White, Tara C.; Jewett, Shannon M.; Hanson, Josh T.

    2003-04-11

    This is the seventh year of a multi-year project, monitoring the outmigration and survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River. This project both supplements and complements ongoing and completed work within the Umatilla River basin. Knowledge gained on juvenile outmigration and survival assists researchers and managers in adapting hatchery practices, flow enhancement strategies, canal and fish ladder operations, and supplementation and enhancement efforts of natural and restored fish populations. Findings from this study also measure the success of upriver habitat improvement projects and provide an overall evaluation of the Umatilla River fisheries restoration program. The general objectives for 2001 were to: (1) Estimate migrant abundance and survival and determine migration parameters of PIT-tagged hatchery and natural juvenile salmonids; (2) Monitor natural production and estimate overall abundance of pacific lamprey, chinook and coho salmon and summer steelhead; (3) Assess the condition and health of migrants and determine length-frequency distributions through time; (4) Investigate the effects of canal and fishway operations and environmental conditions on fish migration and survival; (5) Investigate and implement improved tag monitoring capabilities; and (6) Participate in planning and coordination activities within the basin and disseminate results. More specifically, 2001 objectives included the ongoing evaluation of migrant abundance and survival of tagged hatchery fish groups from various species-specific hatchery, rearing, acclimation and release strategies; fourth year reach survival results; continuation of transport evaluation studies; outmigrant monitoring and estimation of natural abundance, and further investigation of the effects of canal operations, environmental factors, fish condition and health on migration, abundance and survival. Some of the key findings for 2001 are: (1) A significant decline in outmigrant abundance of

  9. Development and corroboration of a bioenergetics model for northern pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) feeding on juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, J.H.; Ward, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    A bioenergetics model was developed and corroborated for northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis, an important predator on juvenile salmonids in the Pacific Northwest. Predictions of modeled predation rate on salmonids were compared with field data from three areas of John Day Reservoir (Columbia River). To make bioenergetics model estimates of predation rate, three methods were used to approximate the change in mass of average predators during 30-d growth periods: observed change in mass between the first and the second month, predicted change in mass calculated with seasonal growth rates, and predicted change in mass based on an annual growth model. For all reservoir areas combined, bioenergetics model predictions of predation on salmon were 19% lower than field estimates based on observed masses, 45% lower than estimates based on seasonal growth rates, and 15% lower than estimates based on the annual growth model. For each growth approach, the largest differences in field-versus-model predation occurred at the midreservoir area (-84% to -67% difference). Model predictions of the rate of predation on salmonids were examined for sensitivity to parameter variation, swimming speed, sampling bias caused by gear selectivity, and asymmetric size distributions of predators. The specific daily growth rate of northern pikeminnow predicted by the model was highest in July and October and decreased during August. The bioenergetics model for northern pikeminnow performed well compared with models for other fish species that have been tested with field data. This model should be a useful tool for evaluating management actions such as predator removal, examining the influence of temperature on predation rates, and exploring interactions between predators in the Columbia River basin.

  10. Survival and migration behavior of juvenile salmonids at McNary Dam, 2005: Final report of research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Russell W.; Braatz, Amy C.; Novick, Marc S.; Lucchesi, Joel N.; Rutz, Gary L.; Koch, Ryan C.; Schei, Jacquelyn L.; Adams, Noah S.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2007-01-01

    During 2005, we used radio-telemetry at McNary Dam to estimate passage and survival parameters of juvenile salmonids. During the spring migration period, two treatments were implemented: 1) 12-h spill operations with spill occurring between 1800 hours and 0600 hours, and 2) 24-h spill with spill occurring 24 hours per day. Treatments were not implemented during the summer migration period. However, a court-order was issued by Judge James Redden, U.S. 9th District Court, mandating a maximum powerhouse discharge of 50 kcfs with the remaining discharge to be spilled over the 24-h diel cycle between 1 July and 31 August 2005. Consequently, our study was conducted during two distinct periods: 1) a short period of involuntary spill for 24-h per day that occurred between 22 June and 30 June 2005, and 2) the period of court-ordered spill that was implemented after 1 July 2005.

  11. Assessment of smolt condition: Biological and environmental interactions -- The impact of prey and predators on juvenile salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauter, Sally T.; Schrock, Robin M.; Petersen, James H.; Maule, Alec G.

    2004-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has funded the Assessment of Smolt Condition project since 1987. During that time the project changed frequently to meet the information needs of fish managers by conducting studies throughout the Columbia River basin. Past research has examined the influence of smolt physiological development and health on migration rate; differences in development and migration rates of smolts of hatchery or wild origins; and the impacts of hatchery practices on smolt development. The Smolt Assessment Project will not continue beyond 2004, and here we report on the final study of the project in which we used bioenergetics modeling to investigate predation on juvenile salmonids by northern pikeminnow, smallmouth bass, and walleye in the lower Columbia River reservoirs.

  12. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake River Dams and Reservoirs, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hockersmith, Eric E.

    1999-03-01

    This report consists of two parts describing research activities completed during 1997 under Bonneville Power Administration Project Number 93-29. Part 1 provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 1997 for PIT-tagged hatchery steelhead and yearling chinook salmon in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. The results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures with a minimum of text. More detailed information on methodology and the statistical models used in the analysis are provided in previous annual reports cited in the text. Analysis of the relationships among travel time, survival, and environmental factors for 1997 and previous years of the study will be reported elsewhere. Part 2 of this report describes research to determine areas of loss and delay for juvenile hatchery salmonids above Lower Granite Reservoir.

  13. Assessing survival of Mid-Columbia River released juvenile salmonids at McNary Dam, Washington, 2008-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, Scott D.; Walker, Christopher E.; Brewer, Scott J.; Adams, Noah S.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated survival of juvenile salmon over long river reaches in the Columbia River and information regarding the survival of sockeye salmon at lower Columbia River dams is lacking. To address these information gaps, the U.S. Geological Survey was contracted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to evaluate the possibility of using tagged fish released in the Mid-Columbia River to assess passage and survival at and downstream of McNary Dam. Using the acoustic telemetry systems already in place for a passage and survival study at McNary Dam, fish released from the tailraces of Wells, Rocky Reach, Rock Island, Wanapum, and Priest Rapids Dams were detected at McNary Dam and at the subsequent downstream arrays. These data were used to generate route-specific survival probabilities using single-release models from fish released in the Mid-Columbia River. We document trends in passage and survival probabilities at McNary Dam for yearling Chinook and sockeye salmon and juvenile steelhead released during studies in the Mid-Columbia River. Trends in the survival and passage of these juvenile salmonid species are presented and discussed. However, comparisons made across years and between study groups are not possible because of differences in the source of the test fish, the type of acoustic tags used, the absence of the use of passive integrated transponder tags in some of the release groups, differences in tagging and release protocols, annual differences in dam operations and configurations, differences in how the survival models were constructed (that is, number of routes that could be estimated given the number of fish detected), and the number and length of reaches included in the analysis (downstream reach length and arrays). Despite these differences, the data we present offer a unique opportunity to examine the migration behavior and survival of a group of fish that otherwise would not be studied. This is particularly true for sockeye salmon because

  14. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, Annual Report 2003-2006.

    SciTech Connect

    White, Tara

    2007-02-01

    This report summarizes activities conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's Juvenile Outmigration and Survival M&E project in the Umatilla River subbasin between 2004-2006. Information is used to make informed decisions on hatchery effectiveness, natural production success, passage improvement and flow enhancement strategies. Data collected includes annual estimates of smolt abundance, migration timing, and survival, life history characteristics and productivity status and trends for spring and fall Chinook salmon, coho salmon and summer steelhead. Productivity data provided is the key subbasin scale measure of the effectiveness of salmon and steelhead restoration actions in the Umatilla River. Information is also used for regional planning and recovery efforts of Mid-Columbia River (MCR) ESA-listed summer steelhead. Monitoring is conducted via smolt trapping and PIT-tag interrogation at Three Mile Falls Dam. The Umatilla Juvenile Outmigration and Survival Project was established in 1994 to evaluate the success of management actions and fisheries restoration efforts in the Umatilla River Basin. Project objectives for the 2004-2006 period were to: (1) operate the PIT tag detection system at Three Mile Falls Dam (TMFD), (2) enhance provisional PIT-tag interrogation equipment at the east bank adult fish ladder, (3) monitor the migration timing, abundance and survival of naturally-produced juvenile salmonids and trends in natural production, (4) determine migration parameters and survival of hatchery-produced fish representing various rearing, acclimation and release strategies, (5) evaluate the relative survival between transported and non-transported fish, (6) monitor juvenile life history characteristics and evaluate trends over time, (7) investigate the effects of river, canal, fishway operations and environmental conditions on smolt migration and survival, (8) document the temporal distribution and diversity of resident fish species, and (9

  15. Pair-Trawl Detection of PIT-Tagged Juvenile Salmonids Migrating in the Columbia River Estuary, 2008 Report of Research.

    SciTech Connect

    Magie, Robert J.; Morris, Matthew S.; Ledgerwood, Richard D.

    2009-06-03

    In 2008, we sampled migrating juvenile Pacific salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags using a surface pair trawl in the upper Columbia River estuary (rkm 61-83). The cod-end of the trawl was replaced with a cylindrical PIT-tag detection antenna with an 86-cm-diameter fish-passage opening and two detection coils connected in series. The pair trawl was 105 m long with a 91.5-m opening between the wings and a sample depth of 4.9 m. Also during 2008, we finalized the development of a prototype 'matrix' antenna, which was larger than previous antennas by a considerable magnitude. The matrix antenna consisted of 6 coils: a 3-coil front component and a 3-coil rear component, which were separated by 1.5-m of net mesh. The fish-passage opening was 2.5 m wide by 3.0 m tall and was attached to a standard-size pair trawl net. Intermittent sampling with a single crew began on 7 March and targeted yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss. Daily sampling using two crews began on 30 April and continued through 14 June; during this period we detected 2.7% of all juvenile salmonids previously detected at Bonneville Dam--a measure of sample efficiency. Sampling with a single crew continued through 20 August and targeted subyearling Chinook salmon. We detected 7,397 yearling Chinook salmon, 2,735 subyearling Chinook salmon, 291 coho salmon O. kisutch, 5,950 steelhead, and 122 sockeye salmon O. nerka in the upper estuary. We deployed the matrix antenna system and the older, cylindrical antenna system (86-cm-diameter fish-passage opening) simultaneously in mid-May 2008 to test matrix detection efficiency. The cylindrical antenna system had been used successfully in 2007 and early 2008. Because distribution of migrating salmonids in the estuary changes rapidly, we felt that a tandem sampling effort between the two systems was the only way to truly evaluate comparative detection efficiency. We deployed both systems within 1

  16. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake River Dams and Reservoirs, 1996 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven G.

    1998-02-01

    In 1996, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the fourth year of a multi-year study to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake River. Actively migrating smolts were collected near the head of Lower Granite Reservoir and at Lower Granite Dam, tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, and released to continue their downstream migration. Individual smolts were subsequently detected at PIT-tag detection facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day and Bonneville Dams. Survival estimates were calculated using the Single-Release (SR) and Paired-Release (PR) Models. Timing of releases of tagged hatchery steelhead (O. mykiss) from the head of Lower Granite Reservoir and yearling chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) from Lower Granite Dam in 1996 spanned the major portion of their juvenile migrations. Specific research objectives in 1996 were to (1) estimate reach and project survival in the Snake River using the Single-Release and Paired-Release Models throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations, (2) evaluate the performance of the survival-estimation models under prevailing operational and environmental conditions in the Snake River, and (3) synthesize results from the 4 years of the study to investigate relationships between survival probabilities, travel times, and environmental factors such as flow levels and water temperature.

  17. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    White, Tara C.; Hanson, Josh T.; Jewett, Shannon M.

    2004-01-01

    The year of 2002 represented the eighth year of a multi-year project, monitoring the outmigration and survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River. This project both supplements and complements various ongoing and completed work within the Umatilla River basin. Knowledge gained on juvenile outmigration and survival assists researchers and managers in adapting hatchery practices, flow enhancement strategies, canal and fish ladder operations, and supplementation and enhancement efforts of natural and restored fish populations. Findings from this study also assist in assessment of the success of upriver habitat improvement projects and provide an overall evaluation of the Umatilla River fisheries restoration program. General project objectives include: Evaluation of the outmigration and survival of natural and hatchery juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River, in an effort to enhance the understanding of migration characteristics, survival bottlenecks, species interactions and effects of management strategies. Specific objectives for 2002 included: (1) Operation of the remote interrogation system at Three Mile Falls Dam, West Extension Canal; (2) Design of improved PIT tag detection capabilities at Three Mile Falls Dam east bank adult fish ladder; (3) Estimates of migrant abundance, migration timing and in-basin survival of tagged juvenile salmonids representing various hatchery, rearing, acclimation and release strategies; (4) Monitoring of abundance and trends in natural production of salmon, steelhead and pacific lamprey; (5) Continuation of transport evaluation studies to evaluate the relative survival between transported and nontransported fish; (6) Assessment of the condition, health, size, growth and smolt status of hatchery and natural migrants; (7) Investigation of the effects of canal and fishway operations and environmental conditions on fish migration and survival; (8) Documentation of temporal distribution and diversity of resident

  18. Effects of salinity on olfactory toxicity and behavioral responses of juvenile salmonids from copper.

    PubMed

    Sommers, Frank; Mudrock, Emma; Labenia, Jana; Baldwin, David

    2016-06-01

    Dissolved copper is one of the more pervasive and toxic constituents of stormwater runoff and is commonly found in stream, estuary, and coastal marine habitats of juvenile salmon. While stormwater runoff does not usually carry copper concentrations high enough to result in acute lethality, they are of concern because sublethal concentrations of copper exposure have been shown to both impair olfactory function and alter behavior in various species in freshwater. To compare these results to other environments that salmon are likely to encounter, experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of salinity on the impairment of olfactory function and avoidance of copper. Copper concentrations well within the range of those found in urban watersheds, have been shown to diminish or eliminate the olfactory response to the amino acid, l-serine in freshwater using electro-olfactogram (EOG) techniques. The olfactory responses of both freshwater-phase and seawater-phase coho and seawater-phase Chinook salmon, were tested in freshwater or seawater, depending on phase, and freshwater-phase coho at an intermediate salinity of 10‰. Both 10‰ salinity and full strength seawater protected against the effects of 50μg copper/L. In addition to impairing olfactory response, copper has also been shown to alter salmon behavior by causing an avoidance response. To determine whether copper will cause avoidance behavior at different salinities, experiments were conducted using a multi-chambered experimental tank. The circular tank was divided into six segments by water currents so that copper could be contained within one segment yet fish could move freely between them. The presence of individual fish in each of the segments was counted before and after introduction of dissolved copper (<20μg/L) to one of the segments in both freshwater and seawater. To address whether use of preferred habitat is altered by the presence of copper, experiments were also conducted with a submerged

  19. System-Wide Significance of Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs : Annual Report of Research 1991.

    SciTech Connect

    Shively, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    We indexed consumption rates of northern squawfish (Ptychoch oregonensis) preying upon juvenile salmonids in four lower Snake River reservoirs. Stomach contents were also collected from smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui), channel catfish (Ictaluris gunctatus), and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum). Northern squawfish digestive tracts were analyzed and the overall diet (% weight) was dominated by fish and crustaceans. Examination of stomach contents smallmouth bass showed that crustaceans (primarily crayfish) dominated their diets. Overall, the consumption rate of juvenile salmonids by smallmouth bass was low. The northern squawfish consumption index (CI) at Snake River locations ranged from zero at all mid-reservoir locations to 1.2 at Lower Granite forebay. In John Day Reservoir, CI values ranged from 0.5 to 1.9 in May and from 0.9 to 3.0 in July. Consumption index values were highest in forebay and tailrace areas, and were slightly higher in BRZs than in non-restricted zones.

  20. Enumeration of Juvenile Salmonids in the Okanogan Basin Using Rotary Screw Traps, Performance Period: March 15, 2006 - July 15, 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Peter N.; Rayton, Michael D.

    2007-05-01

    The Colville Tribes identified the need for collecting baseline census data on the timing and abundance of juvenile salmonids in the Okanogan River basin for the purpose of documenting local fish populations, augmenting existing fishery data and assessing natural production trends of salmonids. This report documents and assesses the pilot year of rotary trap capture of salmonid smolts on the Okanogan River. The project is a component of the Colville Tribes Okanogan Basin Monitoring and Evaluation Program (OBMEP) which began in 2004. Trapping for outmigrating fish began on 14 March 2006 and continued through 11 July 2006. Anadromous forms of Oncorhynchus, including summer steelhead (O. mykiss), Chinook (O. tshawytscha), and sockeye (O. nerka), were targeted for this study; all have verified, natural production in the Okanogan basin. Both 8-ft and 5-ft rotary screw traps were deployed on the Okanogan River from the Highway 20 Bridge and typically fished during evening hours or 24 hours per day, depending upon trap position and discharge conditions. Juvenile Chinook salmon were the most abundant species trapped in 2006 (10,682 fry and 2,024 smolts), followed by sockeye (205 parr and 3,291 smolts) and steelhead (1 fry and 333 smolts). Of the trapped Chinook, all fry were wild origin and all but five of the smolts were hatchery-reared. All trapped sockeye were wild origin and 88% of the steelhead smolts were hatchery-reared. Mark-recapture experiments were conducted using Chinook fry and hatchery-reared steelhead smolts (sockeye were not used in 2006 because the peak of the juvenile migration occurred prior to the onset of the mark-recapture experiments). A total of 930 chinook fry were marked and released across eight separate release dates (numbers of marked Chinook fry released per day ranged from 34 to 290 fish). A total of 11 chinook fry were recaptured for an overall trap efficiency of 1.18%. A total of 710 hatchery-reared steelhead were marked and released across

  1. Magnitude and Dynamics of Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs, Annual Report of Research, 1989-1990.

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, J.H.

    1990-07-01

    Three aspects of predation upon juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River are addressed in this report: (1) Indexing predator consumption. During 1989--1990, two indices of northern squawfish consumption upon juvenile salmonids were developed for use throughout the Columbia River Basin. The direct Consumption Index (CI) is based upon the concept of meal turnover time and takes into account number of salmonids, temperature, total gut content weight and predator weight. A Bioenergetics Index (BI) for consumption indexing was also developed to complement the direct CI. In the BI, growth, consumption, excretion/evacuation and respiration processes are modeled to predict the consumption required to produce an observed growth increment. (2) Studies on predator-smolt dynamics. Northern squawfish consumption data were collected in the McNary Dam tailrace during nine days in July 1988 to improve our understanding of the predator-smolt functional response. (3) Selective predation by northern squawfish. Laboratory and field protocols were developed to evaluate northern squawfish selection and prey vulnerability. Results from laboratory studies suggest that northern squawfish prefer dead over live prey and that descaled prey may be more vulnerable to predation than non-descaled prey. Stressed and unstressed prey were consumed in equal proportions when predation occurred for 6 or 24 h. Physiological and behavioral effects of stress on juvenile salmon are presented. 100 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs.

  2. Movements and Distribution of Northern Squawfish Downstream of Lower Snake River Dams Relative to the Migration of Juvenile Salmonids, 1992-1993 Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Isaak, D.J.; Bjornn, T.C.

    1996-03-01

    Northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis movements were monitored downstream of two lower Snake River dams during the juvenile salmonid migrations of 1992 and 1993. During a high flow year in 1993, the abundance of squawfish in the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam peaked in July, after the majority of juveniles had moved past Lower Granite Dam, and peak abundance was inversely related to river discharge. Few squawfish moved into the tailrace of Ice Harbor Dam in 1993 because of the extended period of spill. Distributions of squawfish in the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam varied between and within years and shifted in response to changing prey densities, flow patterns, water temperature, and diel cycles, but fish consistently used low velocity habitats. Data from Ice Harbor Dam is less extensive, but squawfish distributions there appeared to be affected by changing flow patterns and fish used low velocity habitats. The changes in distribution and abundance of squawfish in tailrace areas are evidence that predation on seaward migrating salmonids depends on the timing of migration and size and timing of runoff. Juvenile salmonids migrating in the spring and early summer will probably be less affected by squawfish predation in tailrace areas than salmon that migrate later in the summer.

  3. Significance of Selective Predation and Development of Prey Protection Measures for Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs: Annual Report, February 1992-February 1993.

    SciTech Connect

    Poe, Thomas P.; Gadomski, Dena M.

    1994-09-01

    This document is the 1992 annual report of progress for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) research Project No. 82-003 conducted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), the Oregon Cooperative Fishery Research Unit (OCFRU), and the Idaho Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (ICFWRU). The approach was to present the progress achieved during 1992 in a series of separate reports for each major project task. Each report is prepared in the format of a scientific paper and is able to stand alone, whatever the state of progress or completion. Reports 1, 2, and 4 consist of the Abstract only (journal papers were submitted in lieu of reports). This project has two major goals. One is to understand the significance of selective predation and prey vulnerability by determining if substandard juvenile salmonids (dead, injured, stressed, diseased, or naive) are more vulnerable to predation by northern squawfish, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, than standard or normal juvenile salmonids. The second goal is to develop and test prey protection measures to control predation on juvenile salmonids by reducing predator-smolt encounters or predator capture efficiency. Separate abstracts have been submitted to the database for the seven articles in this report.

  4. Juvenile Salmonid Pit-Tag Studies at Prosser Dam and the Chandler Canal Fish Collection Facility, Yakima River, 1991 and 1992 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ruehle, Thomas E.; Sandford, Benjamin P.

    1996-01-01

    In 1991 and 1992, the National Marine Fisheries Service completed the second and third years of a 3-year study to estimate juvenile salmonid (Oncorhynchus spp.) timing and survival characteristics related to passage through the Prosser Dam complex, including the Chandler Canal and the Chandler fish collection facility, on the Yakima River. Yearling chinook (O. tshawyacha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) were collected at the Chandler facility, PIT tagged, and released at various locations in the Yakima River, Chandler Canal, and the Chandler facility. Individual fish were subsequently detected at PIT-tag detection monitors at the Chandler facility and/or McNary Dam on the Columbia River. Survival through various reaches, PIT-tag detection efficiency, and Chandler Canal fish entrainment proportion parameters were estimated using maximum likelihood techniques. The research objectives in 1991 and 1992 were to: (1) assess the effects of passage through the Chandler Canal and the Chandler facility on the survival of juvenile salmonids, (2) determine the entrainment rate of juvenile salmonids into the Chandler Canal as a function of river flow, and (3) determine the efficiency and reliability of the PIT-tag monitoring system at the Chandler facility. The initial 1990 research plan was expanded in 1991 and 1992 to include several more release locations and many more release days.

  5. Estimated loss of juvenile salmonids to predation by northern squawfish, walleyes, and smallmouth bass in John Day Reservoir, Columbia River. [Oncorhynchus spp. ; Ptychocheilus oregonensis; Stizostedion vitreum; Micropterus dolomieu; O. tshawytscha

    SciTech Connect

    Rieman, B.E.; Beamesderfer, R.C. ); Vigg, S.; Poe, T.P. )

    1991-07-01

    The authors estimated the loss of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. to predation by northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis, walleyes Stizostedion vitreum, and smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in John Day Reservoir during 1983-1986. Their estimates were based on measures of daily prey consumption, predator numbers, and numbers of juvenile salmonids entering the reservoir during the April-August period of migration. They estimated the mean annual loss was 2.7 million juvenile salmonids. Northern squawfish were responsible for 78% of the total loss; walleyes accounted for 13% and smallmouth bass for 9%. Twenty-one percent of the loss occurred in a small area immediately below McNary Dam at the head of John Day Reservoir. The authors estimated that the three predator species consumed 14% of all juvenile salmonids that entered the reservoir. Mortality changed by month and increased late in the migration season. Monthly mortality estimates ranged from 7% in June and 61% in August. Mortality from predation was highest for chinook salmon O. tshawytscha, which migrated in July and August. Despite uncertainties in the estimates, it is clear that predation by resident fish predators can easily account for previously explained mortality of out-migrating juvenile salmonids. Alteration of the Columbia River by dams and a decline in the number of salmonids could have increased the fraction of mortality caused by predation over what is was in the past.

  6. Juvenile salmonid migratory behavior at the mouth of the Columbia River and within the plume

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; O'Toole, Amanda C.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Trott, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    A total of 8,159 acoustic-tagged salmonid smolts were detected at the mouth of the Columbia River. Of the fish detected at the mouth, 14% of yearling Chinook salmon, 9% of steelhead, and 22% of subyearling Chinook salmon were detected on a sparse array deployed in the Columbia River plume. Chinook salmon smolts decreased travel rate as they left the river and entered the plume, while steelhead increased travel rate. Chinook salmon also spent more time in the transitional area between the river mouth and plume as compared to steelhead. In early spring, yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead predominately migrated past the plume array towards the edge of the shelf and to the south. Later in the season, yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts tended to migrate out of the river mouth in a northerly direction. Subyearling Chinook salmon migrated predominately past the portion of the plume array to the north of the river mouth.

  7. Acoustic Telemetry Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Survival at John Day Dam, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, Mark A.; Woodley, Christa M.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hughes, James S.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Kim, Jin A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Fu, Tao; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Wagner, Katie A.; Fischer, Eric S.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Batten, G.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Elder, T.; Etherington, D. J.; Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Miracle, Ann L.; Mitchell, T. D.; Prather, K.; Rayamajhi, Bishes; Royer, Ida; Seaburg, Adam; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2013-06-21

    This report presents survival, behavioral, and fish passage results for tagged yearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead as part of a survival study conducted at John Day Dam during spring 2011. This study was designed to evaluate the passage and survival of yearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead to assist managers in identifying dam operations for compliance testing as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion and the 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords. Survival estimates were based on a paired-release survival model.

  8. Acoustic Telemetry Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Survival at John Day Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, Mark A.; Woodley, Christa M.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hughes, James S.; Kim, Jin A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Fu, Tao; Fischer, Eric S.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Wagner, Katie A.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Miller, Benjamin L.; Miracle, Ann L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Royer, Ida M.; Khan, Fenton; Cushing, Aaron W.; Etherington, D. J.; Mitchell, T. D.; Elder, T.; Batton, George; Johnson, Gary E.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2013-05-01

    This report presents survival, behavioral, and fish passage results for yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon smolts and juvenile steelhead tagged with JSATS acoustic micro-transmitters as part of a survival study conducted at John Day Dam during 2010. This study was designed to evaluate the passage and survival of yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead to assist managers in identifying dam operations for compliance testing as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion and the 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords. Survival estimates were based on a single-release survival estimate model.

  9. The carrying capacity for juvenile salmonids in some northern California streams

    Treesearch

    James W. Burns

    1971-01-01

    Standing crops of juvenile coho (silver) salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), steelhead rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), and coast cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki) were examined in seven coastal streams to define the natural carrying capacity of these streams, and to develop methods of population comparison and prediction which could be used to determine the effects of road...

  10. Development of an Index to Bird Predation of Juvenile Salmonids within the Yakima River, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Gassley, James M.; Grue, Christian E.

    2001-10-01

    Avian predation of fish is suspected to contribute to the loss of juvenile spring chinook salmon in the Yakima Basin, potentially constraining natural production. In 1997 and 1998, the Yakama/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW)--whose goal is to increase natural production historically present within the Yakima River--initiated investigations to assess the feasibility of developing an index to avian predation of juvenile salmon within the river. This research--conducted by Dr. Steve Mathews and David Phinney of the University of Washington--confirmed that Ring-billed Gulls and Common Mergansers were the primary avian predators of juvenile salmon, and that under certain conditions could significantly impact migrating smolt populations. Beginning in 1999, the Washington Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit was asked by the YKFP and the WDFW to continue development of avian consumption indices. Monitoring methods developed by Mathews and Phinney were adopted (with modifications) and monitoring of impacts to juvenile salmon along river reaches and at areas of high predator/prey concentrations (colloquially referred to as ''hotspots'') continued. New efforts initiated in 1999 included piscivorous bird surveys at smolt acclimation sites operated by the Yakama Nation, monitoring of the North Fork Teanaway River for changes in avian piscivore abundance associated with the installation of the Jack Creek acclimation facility, and aerial surveys seeking to identify avian piscivores along the length of the Yakima River. In 1999, piscivorous birds were counted from river banks at hotspots and from a raft or drift boat along river reaches. Consumption by gulls was based on direct observations of foraging success and modeled abundance; consumption by Common Mergansers (which forage underwater) was estimated using published dietary requirements and modeled abundance. A second-order polynomial equation was used to

  11. Survival estimates of migrant juvenile salmonids through Bonneville Dam using radio telemetry, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Counihan, Timothy D.; Hardiman, Jill M.; Walker, Chris; Puls, Amy; Holmberg , Glen

    2006-01-01

    During 2005, we evaluated the survival of radio-tagged yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and steelhead trout through the Bonneville Dam spillway, powerhouses 1 and 2, the corner collector and juvenile bypass system (JBS) at powerhouse 2, and through all routes collectively using the route-specific survival model. Radio-tagged fish were released at The Dalles Dam and in the tailrace of Bonneville Dam and were interrogated at Bonneville Dam and three radio-telemetry arrays below Bonneville Dam. We also evaluated the survival of radio-tagged yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and steelhead trout using paired releases through the ice and trash sluiceway at Bonneville Dam’s powerhouse 1. Site-specific releases were made directly into the ice and trash sluiceway and in the tailrace of Bonneville Dam below the outfall of powerhouse 2 juvenile bypass system.

  12. Effect of commercially available egg cures on the survival of juvenile salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clements, S.; Chitwood, R.; Schreck, C.B.

    2011-01-01

    There is some concern that incidental consumption of eggs cured with commercially available cures for the purpose of sport fishing causes mortality in juvenile salmon. We evaluated this by feeding juvenile spring Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) with eggs cured with one of five commercially available cures. We observed significant levels of mortality in both pre-smolts and smolts. Depending on the experiment, 2, 3, or 4 of the cures were associated with mortality. Mortality tended to be higher in the smolts than in the parr, but there was no clear species effect. The majority of mortality occurred within the first 10 d of feeding. Removal of sodium sulfite from the cure significantly reduced the level of mortality. Soaking the eggs prior to feeding did not reduce mortality. We observed a clear relationship between the amount of cured egg consumed each day and the survival time. We conclude that consumption of eggs cured with sodium sulfite has the potential to cause mortality in juvenile steelhead and Chinook salmon in the wild.

  13. Effect of Commercially Available Egg Cures on the Survival of Juvenile Salmonids

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Shaun; Chitwood, Rob; Schreck, Carl B.

    2011-01-01

    There is some concern that incidental consumption of eggs cured with commercially available cures for the purpose of sport fishing causes mortality in juvenile salmon. We evaluated this by feeding juvenile spring Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) with eggs cured with one of five commercially available cures. We observed significant levels of mortality in both pre-smolts and smolts. Depending on the experiment, 2, 3, or 4 of the cures were associated with mortality. Mortality tended to be higher in the smolts than in the parr, but there was no clear species effect. The majority of mortality occurred within the first 10 d of feeding. Removal of sodium sulfite from the cure significantly reduced the level of mortality. Soaking the eggs prior to feeding did not reduce mortality. We observed a clear relationship between the amount of cured egg consumed each day and the survival time. We conclude that consumption of eggs cured with sodium sulfite has the potential to cause mortality in juvenile steelhead and Chinook salmon in the wild. PMID:21738653

  14. Evaluation of Behavioral Guidance Structure on Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Survival at Bonneville Dam in 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Faber, Derrek M.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Hughes, James S.; Kim, Jin A.; Fu, Tao; Fischer, Eric S.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Skalski, J. R.

    2011-03-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an acoustic-telemetry study at Bonneville Dam in 2009 to evaluate the effects of a behavioral guidance structure (BGS) in the Bonneville Dam second powerhouse forebay on fish passage and survival through the second powerhouse (B2), the dam as a whole, and through the first powerhouse and spillway combined. The BGS was deployed to increase the survival of fish passing through B2 by increasing the percentage of outmigrating smolts entering the B2 Corner Collector (B2CC)—a surface flow outlet known to be a relatively benign route for downstream passage at this dam. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon. Study results indicated that having turbine 11 in service is important for providing flow conditions that are comparable to those observed in pre-BGS years (2004 and 2005) and in 2008. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  15. Effect of commercially available egg cures on the survival of juvenile salmonids.

    PubMed

    Clements, Shaun; Chitwood, Rob; Schreck, Carl B

    2011-01-01

    There is some concern that incidental consumption of eggs cured with commercially available cures for the purpose of sport fishing causes mortality in juvenile salmon. We evaluated this by feeding juvenile spring Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) with eggs cured with one of five commercially available cures. We observed significant levels of mortality in both pre-smolts and smolts. Depending on the experiment, 2, 3, or 4 of the cures were associated with mortality. Mortality tended to be higher in the smolts than in the parr, but there was no clear species effect. The majority of mortality occurred within the first 10 d of feeding. Removal of sodium sulfite from the cure significantly reduced the level of mortality. Soaking the eggs prior to feeding did not reduce mortality. We observed a clear relationship between the amount of cured egg consumed each day and the survival time. We conclude that consumption of eggs cured with sodium sulfite has the potential to cause mortality in juvenile steelhead and Chinook salmon in the wild.

  16. Approach, passage, and survival of juvenile salmonids at Little Goose Dam, Washington: Post-construction evaluation of a temporary spillway weir, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Braatz, Amy C.; Hansel, Hal C.; Fielding, Scott D.; Haner, Philip V.; Hansen, Gabriel S.; Shurtleff, Dana J.; Sprando, Jamie M.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes a study of dam passage and survival of radio-tagged juvenile salmonids after installation of a temporary spillway weir (TSW) at Little Goose Dam, Washington, in 2009. The purpose of the study was to document fish passage and survival when the dam was operated with the TSW in place. Spillway weirs are one of several methods used to improve downstream passage of juvenile salmonids. Each spillway weir design is based on the concept of providing an overflow weir with a depth more similar to the natural migration depth of juvenile salmonids than conventional spill bays. Little Goose Dam was the last of the four lower Snake River dams to have a spillway weir installed. This was the first year that some form of surface passage device was operating at all Snake River and Columbia River dams between Lewiston, Idaho, and the Columbia River estuary. The study design stipulated that a total of 30 percent of the river discharge would continuously be passed over the TSW and the conventional spill bays, and this percentage was achieved. The TSW also was to be operated at the ?low crest? elevation during the spring and the ?high crest? elevation during the summer, but the TSW was only operated at the low crest elevation during this study. Behavior, passage, and survival of spring and summer juvenile salmonid migrants passing through Little Goose Dam were examined using radio telemetry. Survival was estimated using the Route Specific Survival Model (RSSM) by releasing tagged fish near Central Ferry State Park 21 kilometers upstream of the dam and in the tailrace approximately 0.5 kilometer downstream of the dam. From April 18 to May 21, 2009, 1,520 yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and 1,517 juvenile steelhead (O. mykiss) were radio tagged and released. From June 6 to July 5, 2009, 4,251 subyearling Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) were radio tagged and released. Release dates of subyearling Chinook salmon were selected to avoid ?reservoir

  17. Experimental Designs for Testing Differences in Survival Among Salmonid Populations.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Annette; Busack, Craig; Knudsen, Craig

    1994-11-01

    The Yakima Fisheries Project (YFP) is a supplementation plan for enhancing salmon runs in the Yakima River basin. It is presumed that inadequate spawning and rearing habitat are limiting factors to population abundance of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawyacha). Therefore, the supplementation effort for spring chinook salmon is focused on introducing hatchery-raised smolts into the basin to compensate for the lack of spawning habitat. However, based on empirical evidence in the Yakima basin, hatchery-reared salmon have survived poorly compared to wild salmon. Therefore, the YFP has proposed to alter the optimal conventional treatment (OCT), which is the state-of-the-art hatchery rearing method, to a new innovative treatment (NIT). The NIT is intended to produce hatchery fish that mimic wild fish and thereby to enhance their survival over that of OCT fish. A limited application of the NIT (LNIT) has also been proposed to reduce the cost of applying the new treatment, yet retain the benefits of increased survival. This research was conducted to test whether the uncertainty using the experimental design was within the limits specified by the Planning Status Report (PSR).

  18. Migration depth and residence time of juvenile salmonids in the forebays of hydropower dams prior to passage through turbines or juvenile bypass systems: implications for turbine-passage survival.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinya; Deng, Zhiqun D; Brown, Richard S; Fu, Tao; Martinez, Jayson J; McMichael, Geoffrey A; Skalski, John R; Townsend, Richard L; Trumbo, Bradly A; Ahmann, Martin L; Renholds, Jon F

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the three-dimensional depth distributions in rivers of individually marked fish that are in close proximity to hydropower facilities. Knowledge of the depth distributions of fish approaching dams can be used to understand how vulnerable fish are to injuries such as barotrauma as they pass through dams. To predict the possibility of barotrauma injury caused by pressure changes during turbine passage, it is necessary to understand fish behaviour relative to acclimation depth in dam forebays as they approach turbines. A guiding study was conducted using high-resolution three-dimensional tracking results of salmonids implanted with Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System transmitters to investigate the depth distributions of subyearling and yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) passing two dams on the Snake River in Washington State. Multiple approaches were evaluated to describe the depth at which fish were acclimated, and statistical analyses were performed on large data sets extracted from ∼28 000 individually tagged fish during 2012 and 2013. Our study identified patterns of depth distributions of juvenile salmonids in forebays prior to passage through turbines or juvenile bypass systems. This research indicates that the median depth at which juvenile salmonids approached turbines ranged from 2.8 to 12.2 m, with the depths varying by species/life history, year, location (which dam) and diel period (between day and night). One of the most enlightening findings was the difference in dam passage associated with the diel period. The amount of time that turbine-passed fish spent in the immediate forebay prior to entering the powerhouse was much lower during the night than during the day. This research will allow scientists to understand turbine-passage survival better and enable them to assess more accurately the effects of dam passage on juvenile salmon survival.

  19. Migration depth and residence time of juvenile salmonids in the forebays of hydropower dams prior to passage through turbines or juvenile bypass systems: implications for turbine-passage survival

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinya; Deng, Zhiqun D.; Brown, Richard S.; Fu, Tao; Martinez, Jayson J.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Trumbo, Bradly A.; Ahmann, Martin L.; Renholds, Jon F.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the three-dimensional depth distributions in rivers of individually marked fish that are in close proximity to hydropower facilities. Knowledge of the depth distributions of fish approaching dams can be used to understand how vulnerable fish are to injuries such as barotrauma as they pass through dams. To predict the possibility of barotrauma injury caused by pressure changes during turbine passage, it is necessary to understand fish behaviour relative to acclimation depth in dam forebays as they approach turbines. A guiding study was conducted using high-resolution three-dimensional tracking results of salmonids implanted with Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System transmitters to investigate the depth distributions of subyearling and yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) passing two dams on the Snake River in Washington State. Multiple approaches were evaluated to describe the depth at which fish were acclimated, and statistical analyses were performed on large data sets extracted from ∼28 000 individually tagged fish during 2012 and 2013. Our study identified patterns of depth distributions of juvenile salmonids in forebays prior to passage through turbines or juvenile bypass systems. This research indicates that the median depth at which juvenile salmonids approached turbines ranged from 2.8 to 12.2 m, with the depths varying by species/life history, year, location (which dam) and diel period (between day and night). One of the most enlightening findings was the difference in dam passage associated with the diel period. The amount of time that turbine-passed fish spent in the immediate forebay prior to entering the powerhouse was much lower during the night than during the day. This research will allow scientists to understand turbine-passage survival better and enable them to assess more accurately the effects of dam passage on juvenile salmon survival. PMID:27293685

  20. Factors affecting stranding of juvenile salmonids by wakes from ship passage in the Lower Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Walter H.; Skalski, John R.

    2011-09-01

    The effects of deep-draft vessel traffic in confined riverine channels on shorelines and fish are of widespread concern. In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, wakes and subsequent beach run-up from ships transiting the Lower Columbia River have been observed to strand juvenile salmon and other fish. As part of a before-and-after study to assess stranding effects that may be associated with channel deepening, we measured 19 co-variables from observations of 126 vessel passages at three low-slope beaches and used multiple logistic regression to discern the significant factors influencing the frequency of stranding. Subyearling Chinook salmon were 82% of the fish stranded over all sites and seasons. Given a low-slope beach, stranding frequencies for juvenile salmon were significantly related to river location, salmon density in the shallows, a proxy for ship kinetic energy, tidal height, and two interactions. The beach types selected for our study do not include all the beach types along the Lower Columbia River so that the stranding probabilities described here cannot be extrapolated river-wide. A more sophisticated modeling effort, informed by additional field data, is needed to assess salmon losses by stranding for the entire lower river. Such modeling needs to include river-scale factors such as beach type, berms, proximity to navigation channel, and perhaps, proximity to tributaries that act as sources of out-migrating juvenile salmon. At both river and beach scales, no one factor produces stranding; rather interactions among several conditions produce a stranding event and give stranding its episodic nature.

  1. Survival Rates of Juvenile Salmonids Passing Through the Bonneville Dam and Spillway in 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Faber, Derrek M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Johnson, Gary E.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Durham, Robin E.; Townsend, R. L.; Skalski, J. R.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Kim, Jina; Fischer, Eric S.; Meyer, Matthew M.; McComas, Roy L.; Everett, Jason

    2009-12-28

    This report describes a 2008 acoustic telemetry survival study conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The study estimated the survival of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead passing Bonneville Dam (BON) and its spillway. Of particular interest was the relative survival of smolts detected passing through end spill bays 1-3 and 16-18, which had deep flow deflectors immediately downstream of spill gates, versus survival of smolts passing middle spill bays 4-15, which had shallow flow deflectors.

  2. Development of an Index to Bird Predation of Juvenile Salmonids within the Yakima River, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Major, III, Walter; Grue, Christian E.; Ryding, Kristen E.

    2002-08-01

    Avian predation of fish is suspected to contribute to the loss of out-migrating juvenile salmonids in the Yakima Basin, potentially constraining natural and artificial production. In 1997 and 1998, the Yakima/ Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP)--whose goal is increasing natural production within the Yakima River--initiated investigations to assess the feasibility of developing an index to avian predation of juvenile salmon within the river. This research confirmed that Ring-billed Gulls and Common Mergansers were the primary avian predators of juvenile salmon (Phinney et al. 1998), and that under certain conditions could significantly impact migrating smolt populations. Beginning in 1999, the Washington Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (WACFWRU) was asked by the YKFP to continue development of avian consumption indices. Monitoring methods developed by Phinney et al. (1998) were adopted (with modifications) and monitoring of impacts to juvenile salmon along river reaches and at areas of high predator/prey concentrations (colloquially referred to as ''hotspots'') has continued each year through 2001. In 2001, piscivorous birds were counted from river banks at hotspots and from a raft or drift boat along river reaches. Consumption by gulls at hotspots was based on direct observations of foraging success and modeled abundance; consumption by all other piscivorous birds was estimated using published dietary requirements and modeled abundance. Seasonal patterns of avian piscivore abundance were identified, diurnal patterns of gull abundance at hotspots were identified, and predation indices were calculated for hotspots and river reaches (for both spring and summer). Changes in survey methods in 2001 included the addition of surveys in the ''Canyon'' reach during spring and altering the method of directly measuring gull feeding rates at hotspots. Primary avian predators in 2001 were ''gulls'' (California and Ring-billed) at hotspots and Common Mergansers within

  3. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin : Evaluating Wetland Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary using Hydroacoustic Telemetry Arrays to Estimate Movement, Survival, and Residence Times of Juvenile Salmonids, Volume XXII (22).

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Russell W.; Skalski, John R.

    2008-08-01

    Wetlands in the Columbia River estuary are actively being restored by reconnecting these habitats to the estuary, making more wetland habitats available to rearing and migrating juvenile salmon. Concurrently, thousands of acoustically tagged juvenile salmonids are released into the Columbia River to estimate their survival as they migrate through the estuary. Here, we develop a release-recapture model that makes use of these tagged fish to measure the success of wetland restoration projects in terms of their contribution to populations of juvenile salmon. Specifically, our model estimates the fraction of the population that enter the wetland, survival within the wetland, and the mean residence time of fish within the wetland. Furthermore, survival in mainstem Columbia River downstream of the wetland can be compared between fish that remained the mainstem and entered the wetland. These conditional survival estimates provide a means of testing whether the wetland improves the subsequent survival of juvenile salmon by fostering growth or improving their condition. Implementing such a study requires little additional cost because it takes advantage of fish already released to estimate survival through the estuary. Thus, such a study extracts the maximum information at minimum cost from research projects that typically cost millions of dollars annually.

  4. Summary of juvenile salmonid passage and survival at McNary Dam-Acoustic survival studies, 2006-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Noah S.; Evans, Scott D.

    2011-01-01

    Passage and survival data were collected at McNary Dam between 2006 and 2009. These data have provided critical information for resource managers to implement structural and operational changes designed to improve the survival of juvenile salmonids as they migrate past the dam. Given the importance of these annual studies, the primary objectives of this report were to summarize the findings of these annual studies to ensure that passage and survival metrics are consistently calculated and reported across all years and to consolidate this information in a single document, thereby making it easier to reference. It is worth noting that this report does not contain all the information from all the annual reports. The intent of this report was to summarize the key findings from multiple years of research. The reader is encouraged to reference the annual reports if more detailed information is needed. Chapter 1 summarizes existing behavior, passage, and survival results for fish released 10 rkm upstream of McNary Dam and from the McNary Dam tailrace during 2006-09. Chapter 2 summarizes existing behavior, passage, and survival results for fish released in the mid-Columbia River and detected at McNary Dam during 2006-09. Results from 2006 indicated that higher spill discharge generally resulted in higher fish passage through spill, and in turn, higher fish survival through the entire dam. Within the spillway, passage effectiveness was highest for the south spill bays, adjacent to the powerhouse. Increased passage in this area, combined with detailed 3-dimensional approach paths, aided in the design and location of the temporary spillway weirs (TSWs) at McNary Dam prior to the 2007 migration of juvenile salmonids. During the 2007 study, the TSWs were tested under two spill treatments during the spring and summer: a "2006 Modified spill," and a "2007 test spill." In the spring, slightly higher discharge through spill bays 14-17 was the primary difference between the spill

  5. Predation by Northern Pikeminnow and tiger muskellunge on juvenile salmonids in a high–head reservoir: Implications for anadromous fish reintroductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorel, Mark H.; Hansen, Adam G.; Connelly, Kristin A.; Wilson, Andrew C.; Lowery, Erin D.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    salmonids. This study highlights the importance of evaluating trophic interactions within reservoirs slated for reintroduction with anadromous salmonids, as they can be functional migration corridors and may offer profitable juvenile-rearing habitats despite hosting abundant predator populations.

  6. Skin reflectance as a non-lethal measure of smoltification for juvenile salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haner, Philip V.; Faler, Joyce C.; Schrock, Robin M.; Rondorf, Dennis W.; Maule, Alec G.

    1995-01-01

    Our efforts to find nonlethal methods of assessing the parr-smoll transformation of juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss and spring and fall chinook salmon O. tshawytscha led to the development of a video system for quantitatively measuring skin silvering using skin reflectance. Gill Na'.K'-ATPase activity, skin guanine concentration, and skin reflectance were recorded from groups of fish marked with freeze brands at hatcheries and downstream sample sites in the Columbia River basin. Skin reflectance of migrants was significantly higher than that of fish before release; nonmigrants (released fish that did not migrate) had significantly lower skin reflectance than migrants from the same groups. Skin reflectance was significantly correlated with gill ATPasc activity and skin guanine concentration. Skin reflectance increased during the parrsmolt transformation and could be used as a nonlethal indicator of smoltification.

  7. Optimal Suturing Technique and Number of Sutures for Surgical Implantation of Acoustic Transmitters in Juvenile Salmonids

    SciTech Connect

    Deters, Katherine A.; Brown, Richard S.; Boyd, James W.; Eppard, M. B.; Seaburg, Adam

    2012-01-02

    The size reduction of acoustic transmitters has led to a reduction in the length of incision needed to implant a transmitter. Smaller suture knot profiles and fewer sutures may be adequate for closing an incision used to surgically implant an acoustic microtransmitter. As a result, faster surgery times and reduced tissue trauma could lead to increased survival and decreased infection for implanted fish. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of five suturing techniques on mortality, tag and suture retention, incision openness, ulceration, and redness in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha implanted with acoustic microtransmitters. Suturing was performed by three surgeons, and study fish were held at two water temperatures (12°C and 17°C). Mortality was low and tag retention was high for all treatments on all examination days (7, 14, 21, and 28 days post-surgery). Because there was surgeon variation in suture retention among treatments, further analyses included only the one surgeon who received feedback training in all suturing techniques. Incision openness and tissue redness did not differ among treatments. The only difference observed among treatments was in tissue ulceration. Incisions closed with a horizontal mattress pattern had more ulceration than other treatments among fish held for 28 days at 17°C. Results from this study suggest that one simple interrupted 1 × 1 × 1 × 1 suture is adequate for closing incisions on fish under most circumstances. However, in dynamic environments, two simple interrupted 1 × 1 × 1 × 1 sutures should provide adequate incision closure. Reducing bias in survival and behavior tagging studies is important when making comparisons to the migrating salmon population. Therefore, by minimizing the effects of tagging on juvenile salmon (reduced tissue trauma and reduced surgery time), researchers can more accurately estimate survival and behavior.

  8. Predation by Resident Fish on Juvenile Salmonids in John Day Reservoir: Final Report, 1983-1986: Volume 1, Final Report of Research.

    SciTech Connect

    Poe, Thomas P.; Rieman, Bruce E.

    1988-07-01

    In 1982 the NPPC included in its Fish and Wildlife Program a measure that called for studies ''... to investigate juvenile salmon and steelhead losses to predators while these fish are migrating through Columbia and Snake River reservoirs.'' In the same year the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded ODFW and FWS to conduct collaborative studies to estimate the number of juvenile salmonids lost to predators in John Day Reservoir. Also included as study objectives were: (1) a description of the importance of predation losses relative to mortality at the dam and total reservoir mortality; (2) a description of how predation losses might vary (spatially and temporally); and (3) recommendations of measures to control predation on smolts. We studied four species of predator: northern squawfish, walleye, smallmouth bass, and channel catfish. We selected John Day Reservoir as the study site because the following factors led us to believe if predation was a problem in any reservoir, it would be most obvious there because: (1) the reservoir is an important subyearling chinook rearing area; (2) passage and residualism of juvenile salmonids were considered a problem there; and (3) substantial populations of predators were known to reside in the reservoir. Individual reports were processed separately for the data base.

  9. Rates of consumption of juvenile salmonids and alternative pray fish by northern squawfish, walleyes, smallmouth bass, and channel catfish in John Day Reservoir, Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vigg, Steven; Poe, Thomas P.; Prendergast , Linda A.; Hansel, Hal C.

    1991-01-01

    Adult northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis, walleyes Stizostedion vitreum, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus were sampled from four regions of John Day Reservoir from April to August 1983–1986 to quantify their consumption of 13 species of prey fish, particularly seaward-migrating juvenile Pacific salmon and steelhead (Oncorhynchus spp.). Consumption rates were estimated from field data on stomach contents and digestion rate relations determined in previous investigations. For each predator, consumption rates varied by reservoir area, month, time of day, and predator size or age. The greatest daily consumption of salmonids by northern squawfish and channel catfish (0.7 and 0.5 prey/predator) occurred in the upper end of the reservoir below McNary Dam. Greatest daily predation by walleyes (0.2 prey/predator) and smallmouth bass (0.04) occurred in the middle and lower reservoir. Consumption rates of all predators were highest in July, concurrent with maximum temperature and abundance of juvenile salmonids. Feeding by the predators tended to peak after dawn (0600–1200 hours) and near midnight (2000–2400). Northern squawfish below McNary Dam exhibited this pattern, but fed mainly in the morning hours down-reservoir. The daily ration of total prey fish was highest for northern squawfish over 451 mm fork length (> 13.2 mg/g predator), for walleyes 201–250 mm (42.5 mg/g), for smallmouth bass 176–200 mm (30.4 mg/g), and for channel catfish 401–450 mm (17.1 mg/g). Averaged over all predator sizes and sampling months (April–August), the total daily ration (fish plus other prey) of smallmouth bass (28.7 mg/ g) was about twice that of channel catfish (12.6), northern squawfish (14.1), and walleyes (14.2). However, northern squawfish was clearly the major predator on juvenile salmonids.

  10. System-Wide Significance of Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs and Evaluation of Predation Control Measures : Annual Report 1993.

    SciTech Connect

    Gadomski, Dena M.; Petersen, James H.; Poe, Thomas P.

    1993-12-01

    This project had three major goals. The first was to assist the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife with predation indexing as part of an effort to estimate the relative magnitude of juvenile salmonid losses to northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis in reservoirs throughout the Columbia River Basin. The second goal was to evaluate the northern squawfish control program and test critical assumptions about mid-reservoir predation processes. The final goal was to determine mechanisms underlying northern squawfish recruitment and factors affecting year-class strength.

  11. Survival estimates of migrant juvenile Salmonids through Bonneville Dam using radio telemetry, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Counihan, Timothy D.; Hardiman, Jill; Walker, Chris; Puls, Amy; Holmberg , Glen

    2006-01-01

    During 2004, the USGS evaluated the survival of radio-tagged yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and steelhead trout through the ice and trash sluiceway and the minimum gap runner (MGR) turbine unit at Bonneville Dam’s powerhouse 1. Survival was estimated using paired release-recapture models with paired releases made directly into these passage routes and in the tailrace of Bonneville Dam. For the evaluations of survival through the MGR two separate control release locations were used; one location was directly downstream of the front roll below the turbine unit and the other release location was further downstream of the powerhouse 2 juvenile bypass outfall. During spring and summer releases of radio-tagged fish into the MGR and the ice and trash sluiceway, powerhouse 1 was not continuously operated due to a policy that prioritized the passage of water through powerhouse 2. Because of this policy, powerhouse 1 was only operated sporadically for short time intervals before and after the releases of radiotagged fish associated with this study.

  12. Vulnerability to predation and physiological stress responses of experimentally descaled juvenile Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gadomski, Dena M.; Mesa, Matthew G.; Olson, Todd M.

    1994-01-01

    Juvenile salmonids,Oncorhynchus spp., commonly encounter conditions (e.g., during hatchery release and dam passage) that result in damage to the skin, scale, and slime complex. We conducted laboratory experiments to determine if descaling of juvenile chinook salmon,O. tshawytscha, increased their vulnerability to predation, and to assess the physiological stress responses elicited by descaling. Salmon were experimentally descaled on either 10% or 20% of their total body area. When offered equal numbers of control and descaled juvenile chinook salmon, northern squawfish,Ptychocheilus oregonensis, did not consume significantly more of either prey type (48–60% of consumed prey were descaled). Juvenile chinook salmon descaled on 10% of their body area did show significant physiological stress responses, however. Mean concentrations of plasma cortisol peaked 1 h after descaling, and returned to control levels by 12 h. Plasma glucose peaked 3 h post-treatment and remained elevated for 24 h. Plasma lactate increased immediately following treatment and returned to undisturbed control levels by 3 h. The osmoregulatory response of plasma potassium was highly variable, but plasma sodium decreased immediately and remained low for 24 h. The observed physiological responses suggest that descaling of juvenile chinook salmon could result in decreased resistance to disease and other stressors encountered in the field, possibly leading to reduced performance capacity and lowered survival.

  13. Preliminary Estimates of Loss of Juvenile Anadromous Salmonids to Predators in John Day Reservoir and Development of a Predation Model : Interim Report, 1986.

    SciTech Connect

    Rieman, Bruce E.

    1986-03-01

    We made preliminary estimates of the loss of juvenile salmonids to predation by walleye, Stizostedion v. vitreum, and northern squawfish, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, in John Day Reservoir in 1984 and 1985 using estimates of predator abundance and daily prey consumption rates. Preliminary estimates may be biased and may be adjusted as much as 30%, but indications are that predation could account for the majority of unexplained loss of juvenile salmonids in John Day Reservoir. Total loss was estimated at 4.1 million in 1984 and 3.3 million in 1985. Northern squawfish consumed 76% and 92% of these totals, respectively. The majority of loss occurred in mid reservoir areas, but loss in a small area, the boat-restricted zone immediately below McNary Dam, was disproportionately large. Peaks in loss in May and July corresponded with peaks in availability of salmonids. Estimated mortality from predation for April through June in 1984 and 1985 was 9% and 7% respectively, for chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and 10% and 15% for steelhead, Salmogairdneri. Mortality was variable with time but tended to increase over the period of migration. Mortality of chinook was estimated at 26% to 55% during July and August. A model of predation in John Day Reservoir is outlined. The model includes a predation submodel that can calculate loss from predator number and consumption rate; a population submodel that can relate predator abundance and population structure to recruitment, exploitation, natural mortality and growth; and a distribution submodel that can apportion predators among areas of the reservoir over time. Applications of the model are discussed for projecting expected changes in predation over time and identifying management alternatives that might limit the impact of predation.

  14. Characterization of Gatewell Orifice Lighting at the Bonneville Dam Second Powerhouse and Compendium of Research on Light Guidance with Juvenile Salmonids

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Robert P.; Simmons, Mary Ann

    2007-12-29

    The goal of the study described in this report is to provide U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) biologists and engineers with general design guidelines for using artificial lighting to enhance the passage of juvenile salmonids into the collection channel at the Bonneville Dam second powerhouse (B2). During fall 2007, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers measured light levels in the field at one powerhouse orifice through which fish must pass to reach the collection channel. Two light types were evaluated—light-emitting diode (LED) lights and halogen spot lights. Additional measurements with mercury lamps were made at the PNNL Aquatic Research Laboratory to determine baseline intensity of the current lighting. A separate chapter synthesizes the relevant literature related to light and fish guidance for both field and laboratory studies. PNNL will also review the Corps plans for existing lighting protocol at all of the Portland District projects and help develop a uniform lighting scheme which could be implemented. The specific objectives for this study are to 1. Create a synthesis report of existing lighting data for juvenile salmonid attraction and deterrence and how the data are used at fish bypass facilities. 2. Evaluate current B2 orifice lighting conditions with both LED and halogen sources. 3. Make recommendations as to what lighting intensity, source, and configuration would improve passage at the B2 orifices. 4. Review USACE plans for retrofit of existing systems (to be assessed at a later date).

  15. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Faulkner, James R.; Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.

    2009-06-23

    In 2008, the National Marine Fisheries Service completed the sixteenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. We PIT tagged and released a total of 18,565 hatchery steelhead O. mykiss, 15,991 wild steelhead, and 9,714 wild yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha at Lower Granite Dam in the Snake River. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and at sites within the hydropower system in both the Snake and Columbia Rivers. These included 122,061 yearling Chinook salmon tagged at Lower Granite Dam for evaluation of latent mortality related to passage through Snake River dams. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, Ice Harbor, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the single-release model). Primary research objectives in 2008 were to: (1) estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead, (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions, and (3) evaluate the survival estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2008 for PIT-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Additional details on the methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here. Survival

  16. Acoustic Camera Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Approach and Fate at Surface Flow Outlets of Two Hydropower Dams

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Johnson, Gary E.; Weiland, Mark A.; Khan, Fenton; Mueller, Robert P.; Serkowski, John A.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Hedgepeth, J.; Skalski, John R.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Klatte, Bernard A.

    2006-08-04

    The objective of this study was to estimate and compare fate probabilities for juvenile salmon approaching two surface flow outlets (SFOs) to identify effective design characteristics. The SFOs differed principally in forebay location, depth, discharge, and water velocity over a sharp-crested weir. Both outlets were about 20 ft wide. The 22-ft deep Bonneville Powerhouse 2 Corner Collector (B2CC) was located in the southwest corner of the forebay and passed 5,000 ft3/s of water at normal-pool elevation. In contrast, The Dalles Dam ice and trash sluiceway outlet above Main Unit 1-3 (TDITC) was not located in a forebay corner, was only 7-ft deep, and discharged about 933 ft3/s at normal-pool elevation. The linear velocity of water over the weir was about 15 ft/s at the B2CC and 5 ft/s at the TDITC. We used a Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar (DIDSON) to record movements of fish within about 65 ft of the B2CC and within 35 ft of the TDITC. We actively tracked fish by manually adjusting pan and tilt rotator angles to keep targets in view. Contrary to expectations, active tracking did not provide a predominance of long tracks that clearly indicated fish fate because most tracks were incomplete. Active tracking did increase error in fish-position estimation, which complicated data processing, so we plan to sample multiple fixed zones in the future. The probability of fish entering each SFO was estimated by a Markov chain analysis, which did not require complete fish tracks. At the B2CC, we tracked 7,943 juvenile salmonids and most of them entered the B2CC. Fish moving south 40 to 60 ft upstream of the dam face were more likely to enter the eddy at the south end of the powerhouse than to enter the B2CC. At the TDITC, we tracked 2,821 smolts. Fish movement was complex with active swimming toward and away from the entrance. The high entrance probability zone (EPZ), where over 90% of tracked fish entered the SFO, extended 32 ft out at the B2CC and only 8 ft out at the TDITC

  17. Gene expression studies of host response to Salmonid alphavirus subtype 3 experimental infections in Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng; Guo, Tz-Chun; Mutoloki, Stephen; Haugland, Oyvind; Evensen, Oystein

    2012-11-01

    Salmonid alphavirus subtype-3 (SAV-3) infection in Atlantic salmon is exclusively found in Norway. The salmonid alphaviruses have been well characterized at the genome level but there is limited information about the host-pathogen interaction phenomena. This study was undertaken to characterize the replication and spread of SAV-3 in internal organs of experimentally infected Atlantic salmon and the subsequent innate and adaptive immune responses. In addition, suitability of a cohabitation challenge model for this virus was also examined. Groups of fish were infected by intramuscular injection (IM), cohabited (CO) or kept uninfected in a separate tank. Samples of pancreas, kidney, spleen, heart and skeletal muscles were collected at 2, 4 and 8 weeks post infection (wpi). Pathological changes were assessed by histology concurrently with viral loads and mRNA expression of immune genes by real time RT-PCR. Pathological changes were only observed in the pancreas and heart (target organs) of both IM and CO groups, with changes appearing first in the pancreas (2 wpi) in the former. Lesions with increasing severity over time coincided with high viral loads despite significant induction of IFN-α, Mx and ISG15. IFN-γ and MHC-I were expressed in all tissues examined and their induction appeared in parallel with that of IL-10. Inflammatory genes TNF-α, IL-12 and IL-8 were only induced in the heart during pathology while T cell-related genes CD3ε, CD4, CD8, TCR-α and MHC-II were expressed in target organs at 8 wpi. These findings suggest that the onset of innate responses came too late to limit virus replication. Furthermore, SAV-3 infections in Atlantic salmon induce Th1/cytotoxic responses in common with other alphaviruses infecting higher vertebrates. Our findings demonstrate that SAV-3 can be transmitted via the water making it suitable for a cohabitation challenge model.

  18. Acoustic Imaging Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Behavior in the Immediate Forebay of the Water Temperature Control Tower at Cougar Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Phillips, Nathan RJ; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2011-10-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile Chinook salmonid (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) behavior in the immediate forebay of the Water Temperature Control (WTC) tower at Cougar Dam in 2010. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The overall goal of the study was to characterize juvenile salmonid behavior and movement patterns in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower for fisheries resource managers to use to make decisions on bioengineering designs for long-term structures and/or operations to facilitate safe downstream passage for juvenile salmonids. We collected acoustic imaging (Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar; DIDSON) data from February 1, 2010 through January 31, 2011 to evaluate juvenile salmonid behavior year-round in the immediate forebay surface layer of the WTC tower (within 20 m, depth 0-5 m). From October 28, 2010 through January 31, 2011 a BlueView acoustic camera was also deployed in an attempt to determine its usefulness for future studies as well as augment the DIDSON data. For the DIDSON data, we processed a total of 35 separate 24-h periods systematically covering every other week in the 12-month study. Two different 24-hour periods were processed for the BlueView data for the feasibility study. Juvenile salmonids were present in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower throughout 2010. The juvenile salmonid abundance index was low in the spring (<200 fish per sample-day), began increasing in late April and peaked in mid-May. Fish abundance index began decreasing in early June and remained low in the summer months. Fish abundance increased again in the fall, starting in October, and peaked on November 8-9. A second peak occurred on December 22. Afterwards, abundance was low for the rest of the study (through January 2011). Average fish length for juvenile salmonids during early spring 2010 was 214 {+-} 86 mm (standard deviation). From May through early November

  19. Predation by Resident Fish on Juvenile Salmonids in John Day Reservoir: Final Report, 1983-1986: Volume 2: Supplemental Papers and Data Documentation.

    SciTech Connect

    Poe, Thomas P.; Rieman, Bruce E.

    1988-07-01

    In 1982 the NPPC included in its Fish and Wildlife Program measure that called for studies ''... to investigate juvenile salmon and steelhead losses to predators while these fish are migrating through Columbia and Snake River reservoirs.'' In the same year the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded ODFW and FWS to conduct collaborative studies to estimate the number of juvenile salmoids lost to predators in John Day Reservoir. Also included as study objectives were: (1) a description of the importance of predation losses relative to mortality at the dam and total reservoir mortality; (2) a description of how predation losses might vary (spatially and temporally); and (3) recommendations of measures to control predation on smolts. We studied four species of predator; northern squawfish, walleye, smallmouth bass, and channel catfish. We selected John Day Reservoir as the study site because the following factors led us to believe if predation was a problem in any reservoir, it would be most obvious there because: (1) the reservoir is an important subyearling chinook rearing area; (2) passage and residualism of juvenile salmonids were considered a problem there; and (3) substantial populations of predators were known to reside in the reservoir. Individual reports were processed separately for the data base.

  20. Functional response and capture timing in an individual-based model: predation by northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) on juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, James H.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    1992-01-01

    The behavior of individual northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) preying on juvenile salmonids was modeled to address questions about capture rate and the timing of prey captures (random versus contagious). Prey density, predator weight, prey weight, temperature, and diel feeding pattern were first incorporated into predation equations analogous to Holling Type 2 and Type 3 functional response models. Type 2 and Type 3 equations fit field data from the Columbia River equally well, and both models predicted predation rates on five of seven independent dates. Selecting a functional response type may be complicated by variable predation rates, analytical methods, and assumptions of the model equations. Using the Type 2 functional response, random versus contagious timing of prey capture was tested using two related models. ln the simpler model, salmon captures were assumed to be controlled by a Poisson renewal process; in the second model, several salmon captures were assumed to occur during brief "feeding bouts", modeled with a compound Poisson process. Salmon captures by individual northern squawfish were clustered through time, rather than random, based on comparison of model simulations and field data. The contagious-feeding result suggests that salmonids may be encountered as patches or schools in the river.

  1. Ecology of Juvenile Salmonids in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta, Lower Columbia River, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Storch, Adam; Jones, Tucker A.; Mallette, Christine; Dawley, Earl M.; Skalski, John R.; Teel, David; Moran, Paul

    2008-03-18

    This document is the first annual report for the study titled “Ecology of Juvenile Salmonids in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta in the Lower Columbia River.” Hereafter, we refer to this research as the Tidal Freshwater Monitoring (TFM) Study. The study is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation effort developed by the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The project is performed under the auspices of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council’s Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program.

  2. Adaptive trade-offs in juvenile salmonid metabolism associated with habitat partitioning between coho salmon and steelhead trout in coastal streams.

    PubMed

    Van Leeuwen, Travis E; Rosenfeld, Jordan S; Richards, Jeffrey G

    2011-09-01

    1. Adaptive trade-offs are fundamental to the evolution of diversity and the coexistence of similar taxa and occur when complimentary combinations of traits maximize efficiency of resource exploitation or survival at different points on environmental gradients. 2. Standard metabolic rate (SMR) is a key physiological trait that reflects adaptations to baseline metabolic performance, whereas active metabolism reflects adaptations to variable metabolic output associated with performance related to foraging, predator avoidance, aggressive interactions or migratory movements. Benefits of high SMR and active metabolism may change along a resource (productivity) gradient, indicating that a trade-off exists among active metabolism, resting metabolism and energy intake. 3. We measured and compared SMR, maximal metabolic rate (MMR), aerobic scope (AS), swim performance (UCrit) and growth of juvenile hatchery and wild steelhead and coho salmon held on high- and low-food rations in order to better understand the potential significance of variation in SMR to growth, differentiation between species, and patterns of habitat use along a productivity gradient. 4. We found that differences in SMR, MMR, AS, swim performance and growth rate between steelhead trout and coho salmon were reduced in hatchery-reared fish compared with wild fish. Wild steelhead had a higher MMR, AS, swim performance and growth rate than wild coho, but adaptations between species do not appear to involve differences in SMR or to trade-off increased growth rate against lower swim performance, as commonly observed for high-growth strains. Instead, we hypothesize that wild steelhead may be trading off higher growth rate for lower food consumption efficiency, similar to strategies adopted by anadromous vs. resident brook trout and Atlantic salmon vs. brook trout. This highlights potential differences in food consumption and digestion strategies as cryptic adaptations ecologically differentiating salmonid species

  3. Introduced northern pike consumption of salmonids in Southcentral Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Adam J.; Rutz, David S.; Dupuis, Aaron W; Shields, Patrick A; Dunker, Kristine J.

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of introduced northern pike (Esox lucius) on salmonid populations have attracted much attention because salmonids are popular subsistence, sport and commercial fish. Concern over the predatory effects of introduced pike on salmonids is especially high in Southcentral Alaska, where pike were illegally introduced to the Susitna River basin in the 1950s. We used pike abundance, growth, and diet estimates and bioenergetics models to characterise the realised and potential consumptive impacts that introduced pike (age 2 and older) have on salmonids in Alexander Creek, a tributary to the Susitna River. We found that juvenile salmonids were the dominant prey item in pike diets and that pike could consume up to 1.10 metric tons (realised consumption) and 1.66 metric tons (potential consumption) of juvenile salmonids in a summer. Age 3–4 pike had the highest per capita consumption of juvenile salmonids, and age 2 and age 3–4 pike had the highest overall consumption of juvenile salmonid biomass. Using historical data on Chinook salmon and pike potential consumption of juvenile salmonids, we found that pike consumption of juvenile salmonids may lead to collapsed salmon stocks in Alexander Creek. Taken together, our results indicate that pike consume a substantial biomass of juvenile salmonids in Alexander Creek and that coexistence of pike and salmon is unlikely without management actions to reduce or eliminate introduced pike.

  4. Migrational Characteristics, Biological Observations, and Relative Survival of Juvenile Salmonids Entering the Columbia River Estuary, 1966-1983, 1985 Final Report of Research.

    SciTech Connect

    Dawley, Earl M.

    1986-04-01

    Natural runs of salmonids in the Columbia River basin have decreased as a result of hydroelectric-dam development, poor land- and forest-management, and over-fishing. This has necessitated increased salmon culture to assure adequate numbers of returning adults. Hatchery procedures and facilities are continually being modified to improve both the efficiency of production and the quality of juveniles produced. Initial efforts to evaluate changes in hatchery procedures were dependent upon adult contributions to the fishery and returns to the hatchery. Procedures were developed for sampling juvenile salmon and steelhead entering the Columbia River estuary and ocean plume. The sampling of hatchery fish at the terminus of their freshwater migration assisted in evaluating hatchery production techniques and identifying migrational or behavioral characteristics that influence survival to and through the estuary. The sampling program attempted to estimate survival of different stocks and define various aspects of migratory behavior in a large river, with flows during the spring freshet from 4 to 17 thousand cubic meters per second (m/sup 3//second).

  5. Assessing barotrauma in neutrally and negatively bouyant juvenile salmonids exposed to simulated hydro-turbine passage using a mobile aquatic barotrauma laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, John R.; Gingerich, Andrew J.; Brown, Richard S.; Pflugrath, Brett D.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Langeslay, Mike; Ahmann, Martin L.; Johnson, Robert L.; Seaburg, Adam

    2010-10-01

    Barotrauma, injuries sustained following rapid decompression, occurs in many different fisheries applications. Previous attempts to quantify barotrauma in fish have been limited by hyper/hypobaric system function. Further, field studies are often confounded by covariates. The Mobile Aquatic Barotrauma Laboratory (MABL) was designed to address these limitations. Specifically, this testing facility allows the user to evaluate similar complex pressure scenarios that migrating juvenile salmonids are exposed to following turbine or spillway passage. In addition, factors including total dissolved gas, temperature, and acclimation pressure are controlled automatically with this mobile lab. In this paper we also present a case study where negative and neutrally buoyant juvenile Chinook salmon were exposed to simulated hydro-turbine passage (STP). Gill emboli, swim bladder rupture, mortality, and internal haemorrhaging were used as end points. The severity of the decompression profile and the fish’s ability to gain neutral buoyancy were used as predictor variables. We determined that fish that achieved neutral buoyancy during a 16 hour acclimation period had a greater risk of injury following STP than negatively buoyant conspecifics. This research solidifies the need to allow fish to become neutrally buoyant when assessing barotrauma and mortality in field and laboratory applications. Finally, MABL can be configured to examine a variety of different species and pressure profiles, and physical parameters in a controlled environment.

  6. Ecology of Juvenile Salmonids in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta, Lower Columbia River, 2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Sobocinski, Kathryn; Johnson, Gary; Sather, Nichole

    2008-03-17

    This document is the first annual report for the study titled 'Ecology of Juvenile Salmonids in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta in the Lower Columbia River'. Hereafter, we refer to this research as the Tidal Freshwater Monitoring (TFM) Study. The study is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation effort developed by the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The project is performed under the auspices of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The goal of the 2007-2009 Tidal Freshwater Monitoring Study is to answer the following questions: In what types of habitats within the tidal freshwater area of the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE; Figure 1) are yearling and subyearling salmonids found, when are they present, and under what environmental conditions?1 And, what is the ecological importance2 of shallow (0-5 m) tidal freshwater habitats to the recovery of Upper Columbia River spring Chinook salmon and steelhead and Snake River fall Chinook salmon? Research in 2007 focused mainly on the first question, with fish stock identification data providing some indication of Chinook salmon presence at the variety of habitat types sampled. The objectives and sub-objectives for the 2007 study were as follows: (1) Habitat and Fish Community Characteristics-Provide basic data on habitat and fish community characteristics for yearling and subyearling salmonids at selected sites in the tidal freshwater reach in the vicinity of the Sandy River delta. (1a) Characterize vegetation assemblage percent cover, conventional water quality, substrate composition, and beach slope at each of six sampling sites in various tidal freshwater habitat types. (1b) Determine fish

  7. Using bioenergetics modeling to estimate consumption of native juvenile salmonids by nonnative northern pike in the Upper Flathead River System, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhlfeld, C.C.; Bennett, D.H.; Kirk, Steinhorst R.; Marotz, B.; Boyer, M.

    2008-01-01

    Introductions of nonnative northern pike Esox lucius have created recreational fisheries in many waters in the United States and Canada, yet many studies have shown that introduced northern pike may alter the composition and structure of fish communities through predation. We estimated the abundance of nonnative northern pike (2002-2003) and applied food habits data (1999-2003) to estimate their annual consumption of native bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi juveniles in the upper Flathead River system, Montana. Population estimates were generally consistent among years and ranged from 1,200 to 1,300 individuals. Westslope cutthroat trout were present in the diet of younger (???600 mm) and older (>600 mm) northern pike during all seasons and bull trout were found only in larger northern pike during all seasons but summer. Bioenergetics modeling estimated that the northern pike population annually consumed a total of 8.0 metric tons (mt) of fish flesh; the highest biomass was composed of cyprinids (4.95 mt) followed by whitefishes Prosopium spp. (1.02 mt), bull trout (0.80 mt), westslope cutthroat trout (0.68 mt), yellow perch Perca flavescens (0.41 mt),1 and other fishes (centrarchids and cottids; 0.14 mt). Numerically, the northern pike population consumed more than 342,000 fish; cyprinids and catostomids comprised approximately 82% of prey fish (278,925), whereas over 13,000 westslope cutthroat trout and nearly 3,500 bull trout were eaten, comprising about 5% of the prey consumed. Our results suggest that predation by introduced northern pike is contributing to the lower abundance of native salmonids in the system and that a possible benefit might accrue to native salmonids by reducing these predatory interactions. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  8. Outfall Site and Type Selection for a New Surface Flow Outlet to Pass Juvenile Salmonids at Bonneville Dam’s Second Powerhouse, Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Giorgi, Albert E.; Kuhn, Karen; Lee, Randall T.; Plump, John H.; Stensby, David A.; Sweeney, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    A site near the downstream tip of Cascades Island with a mid-level chute outfall type was selected for the high flow (> 28.3 m3/s) outfall of the new surface flow outlet for juvenile salmonids at Bonneville Dam’s Second Powerhouse (B2). The new passage route and outfall are a result of modifications to the original ice and trash sluice chute to increase discharge capacity and improve passage conditions, including a new outfall type and site. Technical guidelines on high flow outfall location and design were established concurrently with the outfall development process. Critical design parameters for the new B2 outfall included discharge of 150 m3/s, jet entry velocities approaching 15.2 m/s, and a tailwater elevation range of 6.1 m. For outfall siting, the selection process began with identification of nine initial alternatives. Screening, evaluation, and selection stages narrowed the list to two outfall sites – “Range D” 122 m directly downstream from the existing sluice chute outfall and “Range F” 760 m downstream near the end of Cascades Island. For outfall type, the selection process was initiated with conceptualization of 13 alternatives. Following successive screening, evaluation, consolidation, and selection stages, two outfall types became finalists – “Adjustable Cantilever” and “Mid-Level Cantilever.” The four combinations of outfall site/type were evaluated in 1:30 and 1:100 scale physical hydraulic models and a Mid-Level Cantilever at the tip of Cascades Island in Range F was selected. During further engineering after our study, the cantilever was replaced with a monolith structure to reduce construction costs, resulting in a mid-level chute outfall that was installed in 2004. Post-construction evaluations indicated survival rates around 100% through the B2CC were the highest of all passage routes at Bonneville Dam. The B2CC surface flow outlet with its high flow outfall provided a major improvement to juvenile salmonid passage at

  9. Behavior and passage of juvenile salmonids during evaluation of a new fish screen at Cowlitz Falls Dam, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kock, T.J.; Kritter , M.A; Liedtke, T.L.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    In spring of 2006, Tacoma Power installed a new fish screen at the Cowlitz Falls Project (CFP) with the purpose of improving the collection of anadromous juvenile fish for downstream transport. The new fish screen was placed between the upstream baffle panels and the fish gates and flume system that lead to the Cowlitz Falls Fish Facility. We initiated a radio telemetry evaluation of the screen using juvenile coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch), steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). These evaluations were intended to provide guidance to direct efforts to further improve juvenile fish collection. Based on study findings in 2006, and 2007 the screen will be modified and evaluated again in 2008.

  10. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.; Zabel, Richard W.

    2004-01-01

    For juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, sockeye salmon O. nerka, and steelhead O. mykiss that migrate through reservoirs, hydroelectric projects, and free-flowing sections of the Snake and Columbia Rivers, survival estimates are essential to develop effective strategies for recovering depressed stocks. Many management strategies were based on estimates of system survival (Raymond 1979; Sims and Ossiander 1981) derived in a river system considerably different from today's (Williams and Matthews 1995; Williams et al. 2001). Knowledge of the magnitude, locations, and causes of smolt mortality under present passage conditions, and under conditions projected for the future, are necessary to develop strategies that will optimize smolt survival during migration. From 1993 through 2002, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) and the University of Washington (UW) demonstrated the feasibility of using three statistical models to estimate survival of PIT-tagged (Prentice et al. 1990a) juvenile salmonids passing through Snake River dams and reservoirs (Iwamoto et al. 1994; Muir et al. 1995, 1996, 2001a, 2003; Smith et al. 1998, 2000a,b; Hockersmith et al. 1999; Zabel et al. 2001, 2002). Evaluation of assumptions for these models indicated that all were generally satisfied, and accurate and precise survival estimates were obtained. In 2003, NMFS and UW completed the eleventh year of the study. Flow levels during the early portion of the 2003 spring migration were similar to 2002, and only slightly higher than in the drought conditions during 2001. However, flow levels were much greater during the later part of the migration in 2003. Spill levels were similar to 2002, much higher than in 2001. Research objectives were to: (1) estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate

  11. Recovery of coded wire tags at a caspian tern colony in san francisco bay: A technique to evaluate impacts of avian predation on juvenile salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, A.F.; Roby, D.D.; Collis, K.; Cramer, B.M.; Sheggeby, J.A.; Adrean, L.J.; Battaglia, D.S.; Lyons, Donald E.

    2011-01-01

    We recovered coded wire tags (CWTs) from a colony of Caspian terns Hydroprogne caspia on Brooks Island in San Francisco Bay, California, to evaluate predation on juvenile salmonids originating from the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. Subsamples of colony substrate representing 11.7% of the nesting habitat used by the terns yielded 2,079 salmonid CWTs from fish released and subsequently consumed by terns in 2008. The estimated number of CWTs deposited on the entire tern colony was 40,143 (ranging from 26,763 to 80,288), once adjustments were made to account for tag loss and the total amount of nesting habitat used by terns. Tags ingested by terns and then egested on the colony were undamaged, and the tags' complete numeric codes were still identifiable. The CWTs found on the tern colony indicated that hatchery Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha trucked to and released in San Pablo Bay were significantly more likely to be consumed by Caspian terns than Chinook salmon that migrated in-river to the bay; 99.7% of all tags recovered were from bay-released Chinook salmon. Of the CWTs recovered on the tern colony, 98.0% were from fall-run Chinook salmon, indicating a higher susceptibility to tern predation than for the spring run type. None of the approximately 518,000 wild Chinook salmon that were coded-wire-tagged and released in the basin were recovered on the tern colony, suggesting that the impacts on wild, U.S. Endangered Species Act-listed Chinook salmon populations were minimal in 2008. Overall, we estimate that 0.3% of the approximately 12.3 million coded-wire-tagged Chinook salmon released in the basin in 2008 were subsequently consumed by Caspian terns from the Brooks Island colony. These results indicate that CWTs implanted in juvenile salmon can be recovered from a piscivorous waterbird colony and used to evaluate smolt losses for runs that are tagged. Abstract We recovered coded wire tags (CWTs) from a colony of Caspian terns Hydroprogne caspia on

  12. Fish Individual-based Numerical Simulator (FINS): A particle-based model of juvenile salmonid movement and dissolved gas exposure history in the Columbia River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Scheibe, Timothy D.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2002-01-30

    This paper describes a numerical model of juvenile salmonid migration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers. The model, called the Fish Individual-based Numerical Simulator or FINS, employs a discrete, particle-based approach to simulate the migration and history of exposure to dissolved gases of individual fish. FINS is linked to a two-dimensional (vertically-averaged) hydrodynamic simulator that quantifies local water velocity, temperature, and dissolved gas levels as a function of river flow rates and dam operations. Simulated gas exposure histories can be input to biological mortality models to predict the effects of various river configurations on fish injury and mortality due to dissolved gas supersaturation. Therefore, FINS serves as a critical linkage between hydrodynamic models of the river system and models of biological impacts. FINS was parameterized and validated based on observations of individual fish movements collected using radiotelemetry methods during 1997 and 1998. A quasi-inverse approach was used to decouple fish swimming movements from advection with the local water velocity, allowing inference of time series of non-advective displacements of individual fish from the radiotelemetry data. Statistical analyses of these displacements are presented, and confirm that strong temporal correlation of fish swimming behavior persists in some cases over several hours. A correlated random-walk model was employed to simulate the observed migration behavior, and parameters of the model were estimated that lead to close correspondence between predictions and observations.

  13. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zabel, Richard; Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.

    2001-02-01

    In 2000, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the eight year of a study to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. A total of 20,313 hatchery steelhead were tagged with passive integrated transpoder (PIT) tags and released at Lower Granite Dam for reach survival estimation. They did not PIT tag any yearlying chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) for reach survival estimates in 2000 because sufficient numbers for these estimates were available from other studies. Primary research objectives in 2000 were (1) to estimate reach and project survival in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations, and (2) to evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. In addition, they estimated survival from point of release to Lower Granite Dam and below for chinook salmon, steelhead, and sockeye salmon (O.nerka) PIT tagged and released at Snake River basin hatcheries and chinook salmon and steelhead PIT tagged and released at Snake River basin hatcheries and chinook salmon and steelhead PIT tagged and released at Snake River basin smolt traps. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2000 for PIT-tagged yearling chinook salmon and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures. Further details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited in the text.

  14. Analyses of potential factors affecting survival of juvenile salmonids volitionally passing through turbines at McNary and John Day Dams, Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John; Hansel, Hal; Perry, Russell; Hockersmith, Eric; Sandford, Ben

    2011-01-01

    This report describes analyses of data from radio- or acoustic-tagged juvenile salmonids passing through hydro-dam turbines to determine factors affecting fish survival. The data were collected during a series of studies designed to estimate passage and survival probabilities at McNary (2002-09) and John Day (2002-03) Dams on the Columbia River during controlled experiments of structures or operations at spillways. Relatively few tagged fish passed turbines in any single study, but sample sizes generally were adequate for our analyses when data were combined from studies using common methods over a series of years. We used information-theoretic methods to evaluate biological, operational, and group covariates by creating models fitting linear (all covariates) or curvilinear (operational covariates only) functions to the data. Biological covariates included tag burden, weight, and water temperature; operational covariates included spill percentage, total discharge, hydraulic head, and turbine unit discharge; and group covariates included year, treatment, and photoperiod. Several interactions between the variables also were considered. Support of covariates by the data was assessed by comparing the Akaike Information Criterion of competing models. The analyses were conducted because there was a lack of information about factors affecting survival of fish passing turbines volitionally and the data were available from past studies. The depth of acclimation, tag size relative to fish size (tag burden), turbine unit discharge, and area of entry into the turbine intake have been shown to affect turbine passage survival of juvenile salmonids in other studies. This study indicates that turbine passage survival of the study fish was primarily affected by biological covariates rather than operational covariates. A negative effect of tag burden was strongly supported in data from yearling Chinook salmon at John Day and McNary dams, but not for subyearling Chinook salmon or

  15. A multi-year analysis of spillway survival for juvenile salmonids as a function of spill bay operations at McNary Dam, Washington and Oregon, 2004-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Noah S.; Hansel, Hal C.; Perry, Russell W.; Evans, Scott D.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed 6 years (2004-09) of passage and survival data collected at McNary Dam to examine how spill bay operations affect survival of juvenile salmonids passing through the spillway at McNary Dam. We also examined the relations between spill bay operations and survival through the juvenile fish bypass in an attempt to determine if survival through the bypass is influenced by spill bay operations. We used a Cormack-Jolly-Seber release-recapture model (CJS model) to determine how the survival of juvenile salmonids passing through McNary Dam relates to spill bay operations. Results of these analyses, while not designed to yield predictive models, can be used to help develop dam-operation strategies that optimize juvenile salmonid survival. For example, increasing total discharge typically had a positive effect on both spillway and bypass survival for all species except sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Likewise, an increase in spill bay discharge improved spillway survival for yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and an increase in spillway discharge positively affected spillway survival for juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The strong linear relation between increased spill and increased survival indicates that increasing the amount of water through the spillway is one strategy that could be used to improve spillway survival for yearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead. However, increased spill did not improve spillway survival for subyearling Chinook salmon and sockeye salmon. Our results indicate that a uniform spill pattern would provide the highest spillway survival and bypass survival for subyearling Chinook salmon. Conversely, a predominantly south spill pattern provided the highest spillway survival for yearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead. Although spill pattern was not a factor for spillway survival of sockeye salmon, spill bay operations that optimize passage through the north and south spill bays maximized

  16. Feasibility Study for Evaluating Cumulative Exposure of Downstream Migrant Juvenile Salmonids to Total Dissolved Gas. Final Report 1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Abernethy, C.Scott; Dauble, Dennis D.; Johnson, Robert L.

    1997-11-01

    A feasibility study was initiated to determine if downstream migrant salmonids could be monitored to determine potential relationships between total dissolved gas (TDG) exposure and signs of gas bubble trauma (GBT). The primary objectives were to: (1) establish logistical requirements for in-river monitoring of TDG exposure, including net pen design, deployment, and navigation constraints; (2) resolve uncertainties associated with effects of the net pen on fish behavior; (3) test the accuracy and precision of in-river monitoring equipment used to measure fish distribution and water quality; and (4) determine the application of hydrologic/flow models to predictions of TDG exposure. In-river measurements included water velocity, boat position, and selected water quality parameters (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, depth, conductivity). Fish distribution within the net pen was monitored using scanning sonar, and a split-beam echo sounder was used to evaluate vertical distribution of fish m in the river adjacent to the net pen. Three test drifts were conducted from late July through late August. The studies demonstrated that it was feasible to assemble and deploy a large net pen for mobile monitoring of TDG exposure. Accurate monitoring of vertical and lateral distribution of smolts was performed, and diel differences in behavior were documented. Further, the fish sounded in response to researcher activity on the perimeter platform. Thus, in-transit monitoring for GBT or mortality would affect fish depth distribution and exposure to TDG. Principal recommendations for future studies are directed at improving maneuverability of the net pen in adverse weather conditions and applying new acoustics technology to simultaneously collect fish distribution data from within and outside of the pen. 6 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Interferon-mediated host response in experimentally induced salmonid alphavirus 1 infection in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Herath, Tharangani K; Thompson, Kim D; Adams, Alexandra; Richards, Randolph H

    2013-09-01

    Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) infection in cultured salmonids causes severe economic losses across Europe. Immune protection and antiviral mechanisms of the host against SAV are poorly characterised in vivo. Analysis of immune gene expression in head kidney of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) experimentally infected with SAV 1, using a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), revealed rapid induction of interferon I (INF-I), interferon II (INF-II) and INF-I associated Mx genes in SAV 1 infected fish compared to control fish injected with tissue culture supernatant. Mx protein was found to be highly expressed in the heart and mucosal membranes of infected fish by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Interestingly, the pathological changes that were observed in the target tissues of the virus became visible some time after peak expression of genes associated with the INF-I-pathway in head kidney tissue. These findings suggest that a non-specific antiviral immune response is rapidly induced during the early stages of SAV infection in salmon. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven G.

    2000-03-01

    This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for PIT-tagged hatchery and wild juvenile steelhead and yearling chinook salmon in the Snake and Columbia Rivers during 1998. Estimates of post-detection bypass survival for yearling chinook salmon at McNary Dam are also reported. Results are reported primarily in the form of data tables and figures with minimal description of methods and analysis. Detailed information on the methodology and statistical models used for this report is provided in five previous annual reports on this study, which are cited here.

  19. Acoustic Imaging Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Behavior in the Immediate Forebay of the Water Temperature Control Tower at Cougar Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Phillips, Nathan RJ; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2012-04-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) behavior at Cougar Dam on the south fork of the McKenzie River in Oregon in 2010. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The overall goal of the study was to characterize juvenile salmonid behavior and movement patterns in the immediate forebay of the Water Temperature Control (WTC) tower of the dam for USACE and fisheries resource managers use in making decisions about bioengineering designs for long-term structures and/or operations to facilitate safe downstream passage for juvenile salmonids. We collected acoustic imaging (Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar; DIDSON) data from March 1, 2010, through January 31, 2011. Juvenile salmonids (hereafter, called 'fish') were present in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower throughout the study. Fish abundance index was low in early spring (<200 fish per sample-day), increased in late April, and peaked on May 19 (6,039 fish). A second peak was observed on June 6 (2904 fish). Fish abundance index decreased in early June and remained low in the summer months (<100 fish per sample-day). During the fall and winter, fish numbers varied with a peak on November 10 (1881 fish) and a minimum on December 7 (12 fish). A second, smaller, peak occurred on December 22 (607 fish). A univariate statistical analysis indicated fish abundance index (log10-transformed) was significantly (P<0.05) positively correlated with forebay elevation, velocity over the WTC tower intake gate weirs, and river flows into the reservoir. A subsequent multiple regression analysis resulted in a model (R2=0.70) predicting fish abundance (log-transformed index values) using two independent variables of mean forebay elevation and the log10 of the forebay elevation range. From the approximate fish length measurements made using the DIDSON imaging software, the average fish length

  20. A Markov chain analysis of the movements of juvenile salmonids in the forebay of McNary Dam, Washington and Oregon, 2006-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Noah S.; Hatton, Tyson W.

    2012-01-01

    Passage and survival data for yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead were collected at McNary Dam between 2006 and 2009. These data have provided critical information for resource managers to implement structural and operational changes designed to improve the survival of juvenile salmonids as they migrate past the dam. Much of the information collected at McNary Dam was in the form of three-dimensional tracks of fish movements in the forebay. These data depicted the behavior of multiple species (in three dimensions) during different diel periods, spill conditions, powerhouse operations, and test configurations of the surface bypass structures (temporary spillway weirs; TSWs). One of the challenges in reporting three-dimensional results is presenting the information in a manner that allows interested parties to summarize the behavior of many fish over many different conditions across multiple years. To accomplish this, we investigated the feasibility of using a Markov chain analysis to characterize fish movement patterns in the forebay of McNary Dam. The Markov chain analysis is one way that can be used to summarize numerically the behavior of fish in the forebay. Numerically summarizing the behavior of juvenile salmonids in the forebay of McNary Dam using the Markov chain analysis allowed us to confirm what had been previously summarized using visualization software. For example, proportions of yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon passing the three powerhouse areas was often greater in the southern and middle areas, compared to the northern area. The opposite generally was observed for steelhead. Results of this analysis also allowed us to confirm and quantify the extent of milling behavior that had been observed for steelhead. For fish that were first detected in the powerhouse region, less than 0.10 of the steelhead, on average, passed within each of the powerhouse areas. Instead, steelhead transitioned to adjoining areas in the

  1. A Markov chain analysis of the movements of juvenile salmonids, including sockeye salmon, in the forebay of McNary Dam, Washington and Oregon, 2006-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Noah S.; Hatton, Tyson W.

    2012-01-01

    Passage and survival data were collected at McNary Dam between 2006 and 2009. These data have provided critical information for resource managers to implement structural and operational changes designed to improve the survival of juvenile salmonids as they migrate past the dam. Much of the valuable information collected at McNary Dam was in the form of three-dimensional (hereafter referred to as 3-D) tracks of fish movements in the forebay. These data depicted the behavior of multiple species (in three dimensions) during different diel periods, spill conditions, powerhouse operations, and testing of the surface bypass structures (temporary spillway weirs; TSWs). One of the challenges in reporting 3-D results is presenting the information in a manner that allows interested parties to summarize the behavior of many fish over many different conditions across multiple years. To accomplish this, we used a Markov chain analysis to characterize fish movement patterns in the forebay of McNary Dam. The Markov chain analysis allowed us to numerically summarize the behavior of fish in the forebay. This report is the second report published in 2012 that uses this analytical method. The first report included only fish released as part of the annual studies conducted at McNary Dam. This second report includes sockeye salmon that were released as part of studies conducted by the Chelan and Grant County Public Utility Districts at mid-Columbia River dams. The studies conducted in the mid-Columbia used the same transmitters as were used for McNary Dam studies, but transmitter pulse width was different between studies. Additionally, no passive integrated transponder tags were implanted in sockeye salmon. Differences in transmitter pulse width resulted in lower detection probabilities for sockeye salmon at McNary Dam. The absence of passive integrated transponder tags prevented us from determining if fish passed the powerhouse through the juvenile bypass system (JBS) or turbines. To

  2. Pathogenesis of experimental salmonid alphavirus infection in vivo: an ultrastructural insight.

    PubMed

    Herath, Tharangani K; Ferguson, Hugh W; Weidmann, Manfred W; Bron, James E; Thompson, Kimberly D; Adams, Alexandra; Muir, Katherine F; Richards, Randolph H

    2016-01-08

    Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) is an enveloped, single-stranded, positive sense RNA virus belonging to the family Togaviridae. It causes economically devastating disease in cultured salmonids. The characteristic features of SAV infection include severe histopathological changes in the heart, pancreas and skeletal muscles of diseased fish. Although the presence of virus has been reported in a wider range of tissues, the mechanisms responsible for viral tissue tropism and for lesion development during the disease are not clearly described or understood. Previously, we have described membrane-dependent morphogenesis of SAV and associated apoptosis-mediated cell death in vitro. The aims of the present study were to explore ultrastructural changes associated with SAV infection in vivo. Cytolytic changes were observed in heart, but not in gill and head-kidney of virus-infected fish, although they still exhibited signs of SAV morphogenesis. Ultrastructural changes associated with virus replication were also noted in leukocytes in the head kidney of virus-infected fish. These results further describe the presence of degenerative lesions in the heart as expected, but not in the gills and in the kidney.

  3. Development of an Index to Bird Predation of Juvenile Salmonids within the Yakima River, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Grassley, James M.; Grue, Christian E.; Major, III, Walter

    2002-01-01

    Avian predation of fish is suspected to contribute to the loss of juvenile spring chinook salmon in the Yakima Basin, potentially constraining natural production. In 1997 and 1998, the Yakama/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW)--whose goal is to increase natural production historically present within the Yakima River--initiated investigations to assess the feasibility of developing an index to avian predation of juvenile salmon within the river. This research--conducted by Dr. Steve Mathews and David Phinney of the University of Washington--confirmed that Ring-billed Gulls and Common Mergansers were the primary avian predators of juvenile salmon, and that under certain conditions could impact migrating smolt populations. Beginning in 1999, the Washington Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (WACFWRU) was asked by the YKFP and the WDFW to continue development of avian consumption indices. Monitoring methods developed by Phinney et al. (1998) were adopted (with modifications) and monitoring of impacts to juvenile salmon along river reaches and at areas of high predator/prey concentrations (colloquially referred to as ''hotspots'') continued through 2000. In 2000, piscivorous birds were counted from river banks at hotspots and from a raft or drift boat along river reaches. Consumption by gulls at Hotspots was based on direct observations of foraging success and modeled abundance; consumption by all other piscivorous birds was estimated using published dietary requirements and modeled abundance. Further development of the avian consumption index model provided an estimation of smolt consumption for the 2000 survey season. Seasonal patterns of avian piscivore abundance were identified, diurnal patterns of gull abundance at hotspots were identified, predation indices were calculated for hotspots and spring and summer river reaches, and the efficacy of aerial surveys for estimating bird abundance within river

  4. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, William D.; Smith, Steven G.; Zabel, Richard W.

    2003-07-01

    In 2002, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the tenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged and released a total of 19,891 hatchery steelhead at Lower Granite Dam. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and sites within the hydropower system. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the ''Single-Release Model''). Primary research objectives in 2002 were to (1) estimate reach and project survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2002 for PIT-tagged yearling chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures; details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here. Results for summer-migrating chinook salmon will be reported separately.

  5. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zabel, Richard; Williams, John G.; Smith, Steven G.

    2002-06-01

    In 2001, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the ninth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from passive integrated transponder (PIT)-tagged fish. We PIT tagged and released at Lower Granite Dam a total of 17,028 hatchery and 3,550 wild steelhead. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream of the hydropower system and sites within the hydropower system. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using the Single-Release Model. Primary research objectives in 2001 were to: (1) estimate reach and project survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2001 for PIT-tagged yearling chinook salmon and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures with a minimum of text. More details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited in the text. Results for summer-migrating chinook salmon will be reported separately.

  6. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.; Marsh, Douglas M.

    2006-05-01

    In 2005, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the thirteenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged and released a total of 18,439 hatchery steelhead, 5,315 wild steelhead, and 6,964 wild yearling Chinook salmon at Lower Granite Dam in the Snake River. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and at sites within the hydropower system in both the Snake and Columbia Rivers. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, Ice Harbor, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the ''single-release model''). Primary research objectives in 2005 were: (1) Estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss. (2) Evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions. (3) Evaluate the survival estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2005 for PIT-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Additional details on the methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here.

  7. Rates of consumption of juvenile salmonids and alternative prey fish by northern squawfish, walleyes, smallmouth bass, and channel catfish in John Day Reservoir, Columbia River. [Ptychocheilus oregonensis; Stizostedion vitreum; Micropterus dolomieu; Ictalurus punctatus; Oncorhynchus spp

    SciTech Connect

    Vigg, S.; Poe, T.P.; Prendergast, L.A.; Hansel, H.C. )

    1991-07-01

    Adult northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonesis, walleyes Stizostedion vitreum, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus were sampled from four regions of John Day Reservoir from April to August 1983-1986 to quantify their consumption of 13 species of prey fish, particularly seaward-migrating juvenile Pacific salmon and steelhead (Oncorhynchus spp.). Consumption rates were estimated from field data on stomach contents and digestion rate relations determined in previous investigations. For each predator, consumption rates varied by reservoir area, month, time of day, and predator size or age. The greatest daily consumption of salmonids by northern squawfish and channel catfish occurred in the upper end of the reservoir below McNary Dam. Greatest daily predation by walleyes and smallmouth bass occurred in the middle and lower reservoir. Consumption rates of all predators were highest in July, concurrent with maximum temperature and abundance of juvenile salmonids. Feeding by the predators tended to peak after dawn and near midnight. Northern squawfish below McNary Dam exhibited this pattern, but fed mainly in the morning hours down-reservoir. The daily ration of total prey fish was highest for northern squawfish over 451 mm fork length, for walleyes 201-250 mm, for smallmouth bass 176-200 mm, and for channel catfish 401-450 mm. Averaged over all predator sizes and sampling months (April-August), the total daily ration (fish plus other prey) of smallmouth bass was about twice that of channel catfish, northern squawfish, and walleyes. However, northern squawfish was clearly the major predator on juvenile salmonids.

  8. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program Population Estimates for Juvenile Salmonids in Nason Creek, WA ; 2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Matthew; Murdoch, Keely

    2009-07-20

    This report summarizes juvenile coho, spring Chinook, and steelhead salmon migration data collected at a 1.5m diameter cone rotary fish trap on Nason Creek during 2008; providing abundance and freshwater productivity estimates. We used species enumeration at the trap and efficiency trials to describe emigration timing and to estimate the number of emigrants. Trapping began on March 2, 2008 and was suspended on December 11, 2008 when snow and ice accumulation prevented operation. During 2008, 0 brood year (BY) 2006 coho, 1 BY2007 coho, 906 BY2006 spring Chinook, 323 BY2007 fry Chinook, 2,077 BY2007 subyearling Chinook, 169 steelhead smolts, 414 steelhead fry and 2,390 steelhead parr were trapped. Mark-recapture trap efficiency trials were performed over a range of stream discharge stages. A total of 2,639 spring Chinook, 2,154 steelhead and 12 bull trout were implanted with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags. Most PIT tagged fish were used for trap efficiency trials. We were unable to identify a statistically significant relationship between stream discharge and trap efficiency, thus, pooled efficiency estimates specific to species and trap size/position were used to estimate the number of fish emigrating past the trap. We estimate that 5,259 ({+-} 359; 95% CI) BY2006 Chinook, 16,816 ({+-} 731; 95% CI) BY2007 Chinook, and 47,868 ({+-} 3,780; 95% CI) steelhead parr and smolts emigrated from Nason Creek in 2008.

  9. Patterns of variation and covariation in the shapes of mandibular bones of juvenile salmonids in the genus Oncorhynchus

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Sawyer; Couture, Ryan B.; McKibben, Natasha S.; Nichols, James T.; Richardson, Shannon E.; Noakes, David L. G.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY What is the nature of evolutionary divergence of the jaw skeleton within the genus Oncorhynchus? How can two associated bones evolve new shapes and still maintain functional integration? Here, we introduce and test a ‘concordance’ hypothesis, in which an extraordinary matching of the evolutionary shape changes of the dentary and angular articular serves to preserve their fitting together. To test this hypothesis, we examined morphologies of the dentary and angular articular at parr (juvenile) stage, and at three levels of biological organization – between salmon and trout, between sister species within both salmon and trout, and among three types differing in life histories within one species, O. mykiss. The comparisons show bone shape divergences among the groups at each level; morphological divergence between salmon and trout is marked even at this relatively early life history stage. We observed substantial matching between the two mandibular bones in both pattern and amount of shape variation, and in shape covariation across species. These findings strongly support the concordance hypothesis, and reflect functional and/or developmental constraint on morphological evolution. We present evidence for developmental modularity within both bones. The locations of module boundaries were predicted from the patterns of evolutionary divergences, and for the dentary, at least, would appear to facilitate its functional association with the angular articular. The modularity results suggest that development has biased the course of evolution. PMID:26372063

  10. Performance of a prototype surface collector for juvenile salmonids at Bonneville dam's first powerhouse on the Columbia River, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, S.D.; Adams, N.S.; Rondorf, D.W.; Plumb, J.M.; Ebberts, B.D.

    2008-01-01

    During April-July 2000, we radio-tagged and released juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to evaluate a prototype surface flow bypass at Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River. The mock bypass, called a prototype surface collector (PSC), had six vertical slot entrances that were each 6 m wide and 12 m deep. The PSC was retrofitted to the upstream face of Bonneville Dam's First Powerhouse. Our objectives were to: (1) assess species-specific differences in movement patterns and behaviour of fish within 6 m of the face of the PSC, (2) estimate the efficiency and effectiveness of the PSC and (3) evaluate factors affecting the performance of the PSC. We found that 60-72% of the fish, depending on species, detected within 6 m of the PSC entered it. Of the fish that passed the First Powerhouse at turbines 1-6, 79-83% entered the PSC. Diel period was a significant contributor to PSC performance for all species, and day of year was a significant contributor to PSC performance for subyearling Chinook salmon. The PSC was twice as effective (%fish/%flow) as the spillway, passing 2.5:1 steelhead and subyearling Chinook salmon and 2.4:1 yearling Chinook salmon per unit of water. If fully implemented, the PSC would increase the percentage of fish that pass the First Powerhouse through non-turbine routes from 65-77% (without the PSC) to 76-85% (with the PSC), depending on species. Published in 2008 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Hydrologic change in a coast redwood forest, Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds: implications for salmonid survival

    Treesearch

    Elizabeth Keppeler

    2016-01-01

    The 52-year record of streamflow from the Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds shows a trend toward decreasing rainfall and streamflow during the fall season when coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) migrate upstream to spawn. Rainfall records show a slight declining trend in fall totals and a slight increasing trend in spring totals since 1962, but only November shows a...

  12. Introduced northern pike predation on salmonids in southcentral Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Adam J.; Rutz, David S.; Ivey, Sam S.; Dunker, Kristine J.; Gross, Jackson A.

    2013-01-01

    Northern pike (Esox lucius) are opportunistic predators that can switch to alternative prey species after preferred prey have declined. This trophic adaptability allows invasive pike to have negative effects on aquatic food webs. In Southcentral Alaska, invasive pike are a substantial concern because they have spread to important spawning and rearing habitat for salmonids and are hypothesised to be responsible for recent salmonid declines. We described the relative importance of salmonids and other prey species to pike diets in the Deshka River and Alexander Creek in Southcentral Alaska. Salmonids were once abundant in both rivers, but they are now rare in Alexander Creek. In the Deshka River, we found that juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) dominated pike diets and that small pike consumed more of these salmonids than large pike. In Alexander Creek, pike diets reflected the distribution of spawning salmonids, which decrease with distance upstream. Although salmonids dominated pike diets in the lowest reach of the stream, Arctic lamprey (Lampetra camtschatica) and slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) dominated pike diets in the middle and upper reaches. In both rivers, pike density did not influence diet and pike consumed smaller prey items than predicted by their gape-width. Our data suggest that (1) juvenile salmonids are a dominant prey item for pike, (2) small pike are the primary consumers of juvenile salmonids and (3) pike consume other native fish species when juvenile salmonids are less abundant. Implications of this trophic adaptability are that invasive pike can continue to increase while driving multiple species to low abundance.

  13. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.; Marsh, Douglas M.

    2005-10-01

    In 2004, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the twelfth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged and released a total of 19,621 hatchery steelhead, 8,128 wild steelhead, and 9,227 wild yearling Chinook salmon at Lower Granite Dam. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and sites within the hydropower system. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the single-release model). Primary research objectives in 2004 were to (1) estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2004 for PIT-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures; details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here. Survival and detection probabilities were estimated precisely for most of the 2004 yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead migrations. Hatchery and

  14. Mortality and weight loss of Atlantic salmon, Salmon salar L., experimentally infected with salmonid alphavirus subtype 2 and subtype 3 isolates from Norway.

    PubMed

    Taksdal, T; Jensen, B Bang; Böckerman, I; McLoughlin, M F; Hjortaas, M J; Ramstad, A; Sindre, H

    2015-12-01

    Pancreas disease (PD) caused by salmonid alphavirus (SAV) has a significant negative economic impact in the salmonid fish farming industry in northern Europe. Until recently, only SAV subtype 3 was present in Norwegian fish farms. However, in 2011, a marine SAV 2 subtype was detected in a fish farm outside the PD-endemic zone. This subtype has spread rapidly among fish farms in mid-Norway. The PD mortality in several farms has been lower than expected, although high mortality has also been reported. In this situation, the industry and the authorities needed scientific-based information about the virulence of the marine SAV 2 strain in Norway to decide how to handle this new situation. Atlantic salmon post-smolts were experimentally infected with SAV 2 and SAV 3 strains from six different PD cases in Norway. SAV 3-infected fish showed higher mortality than SAV 2-infected fish. Among the SAV 3 isolates, two isolates gave higher mortality than the third one. At the end of the experiment, fish in all SAV-infected groups had significantly lower weight than the uninfected control fish. This is the first published paper on PD to document that waterborne infection produced significantly higher mortality than intraperitoneal injection.

  15. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Bypass Facilities and Passage at Water Diversions on the Lower Umatilla River; 1991-1995 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, William A.; Knapp, Suzanne M.; Carmichael, Richard W.

    1997-07-01

    Outdated juvenile and adult fish passage facilities were recently reconstructed at the five major irrigation dams on the lower Umatilla River, Oregon to meet National marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) design standards. Changes in design at juvenile fish bypass facilities included reduced mesh size on the rotating drum screens, larger screening area, a more oblique orientation of the drum screens to canal flow, improved screen seals, replacement of bypass portals with vertical slot bypass channels, and increased bypass pipe diameters. Weir-and-pool adult fish ladders and jump pools were replaced with vertical-slot ladders. From 1991--1995, they investigated injury and travel rate of juvenile fish moving through the facilities, and efficiency of screens in preventing fish entry into the canals. Water velocities in front of canal screens, at bypass channel entrances, and at ladder diffusers were measured to assess adherence to NMFS criteria and identify hydraulic patterns. Biological evaluations were conducted by releasing and recapturing marked yearling summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), yearling spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), and subyearling fall chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) in varying locations within the fish passage facilities.

  16. A comparative study of marine salmonid alphavirus subtypes 1-6 using an experimental cohabitation challenge model.

    PubMed

    Graham, D A; Frost, P; McLaughlin, K; Rowley, H M; Gabestad, I; Gordon, A; McLoughlin, M F

    2011-04-01

    A comparative challenge study of six marine isolates representing subtypes 1-6 of salmonid alphavirus (salmon pancreas disease virus, Genus Alphavirus, Family Togaviridae) was conducted in Atlantic salmon in a fresh water cohabitation trial. Histopathological lesions typical of pancreas disease were observed with all subtypes, and virus was re-isolated from serum of cohabitant fish in each case. Using a virus neutralization (VN) test neutralizing salmonid alphavirus (SAV) subtype 1 strain F93-125, VN antibodies were detected in all challenge groups, consistent with serological cross-reactivity between these subtypes. Using real-time RT-PCR, SAV RNA was detected in heart tissue from 2 to 3 weeks post-challenge (wpc) in all cohabitant groups excluding controls. The results obtained suggested differences in the dynamics of infection between strains of SAV and potentially between subtypes. Results for SAV subtypes 1 and 3 suggested essentially synchronous infection of cohabitant fish. These two study groups also had the highest virus load in heart tissue as measured by quantitative RT-PCR and also had the most extensive histopathological changes. In contrast, results for SAV subtypes 2 and 6 strains were consistent with asynchronous infection in the cohabitant fish and were characterized by slow spread, low virus loads and mild histopathological changes. The SAV subtype 4 and 5 strains occupied an intermediate position in this regard. Despite the use of concentration procedures, it was not possible to detect SAV RNA in water samples from selected study tanks. However, testing of faeces from the SAV subtypes 1, 3 and 6 challenge groups found positive signals in each beginning at 1-3 wpc and remaining detectable for a further 2-3 weeks. Parallel testing of mucus samples found these became positive at 2-3 wpc and remained positive for a further 1-3 weeks. These results demonstrate for the first time that shedding and transmission of virus may occur by both these routes

  17. Physiological Assessment and Behavioral Interaction of Wild and Hatchery Juvenile Salmonids : The Relationship of Fish Size and Growth to Smoltification in Spring Chinook Salmon.

    SciTech Connect

    Beckman, Brian R.; Larsen, Donald A.; Lee-Pawlak, Beeda; Dickhoff, Walton W.

    1996-10-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the relative influence of size and growth rate on downstream migratory disposition and physiology in yearling spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawtscha) smolts. A group of juvenile chinook salmon was size graded into small and large categories with half the fish in each group reared at an elevated temperature, resulting in four distinct treatment groups: Large Warm (LW), Large Cool (LC), Small Warm (SW), and Small Cool (SC). Fish from warm-water treatment groups displayed significantly higher growth rates than cool-water groups. Fish were tagged and released into a natural creek where downstream movement was monitored. For each of the two releases, fish that migrated past a weir within the first 5 days postrelease had significantly higher spring growth rates than fish that did not migrate within that period. Significant differences in length for the same fish were only found in the second release. Also for the second release, fish from the warm water treatment groups were recovered in higher proportions than fish from cool water groups. The results indicate that increased growth rate in the spring has a positive relation to downstream migratory disposition. Furthermore, there is a relation between smolt size and migration; however, this relation is weaker than that found between growth rate and migration.

  18. Cross-neutralization studies with salmonid alphavirus subtype 1-6 strains: results with sera from experimental studies and natural infections.

    PubMed

    Graham, D A; Rowley, H R; Frost, P

    2014-08-01

    The serological reactivity between strains of each of the six currently genetically defined subtypes of salmonid alphavirus (SAV) was examined by comparison of homologous and heterologous virus neutralization titres on sera from experimentally infected fish. With the exception of the level of SAV subtype 6 neutralization by heterologous sera, good cross-neutralization was detected between all subtypes, albeit with variation in geometric mean titres when each subtype-specific serum set was tested against the panel of virus subtypes. A similar pattern was evident with field sera, except that heterologous neutralization of the SAV6 strain was more evident. In only 23% of available pairwise comparisons was the homologous titre recorded with an experimentally derived serum fourfold or greater than the heterologous titre, and in only two instances was this difference demonstrated in both directions. No virus strains consistently met the old serology-based criteria (Sub-committee on Inter-relationships Among Catalogued Alphaviruses) to be considered separate subtypes within an alphavirus species. Only when testing with an SAV subtype-2-specific monoclonal antibody was a major difference between homologous and heterologous neutralization capacity evident. These results provide new direct or indirect information in terms of SAV classification, vaccine efficacy and the selection and validation of reagents for serological and immunological diagnostic purposes.

  19. Developments in the control of bacterial kidney disease of salmonid fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, D.G.; Pascho, R.J.; Bullock, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    Bacterial kidney disease of salmonid fishes, caused by Renibactenum salrnoninarum, was first reported more than 50 yr ago; nevertheless, large gaps persist in our knowledge of the infection - particularly in methods for its control. In the 1950's, principal control measures consisted of prophylactic or therapeutic feeding of sulfonamides, which were later supplanted by the antibiotic erythromycin. Chemotherapy has effected some reduction of mortality, but benefits are typically transient and mortality usually resumes after the drug is withdrawn. Some studies have indicated that diet composition affects the prevalence and severity of the disease. Although tests of chemotherapeutants and diet modification have continued, research emphasis has shifted partly toward prevention of the disease by breaking the infection cycle. It is now generally accepted that R. salrnoninarum can be transmitted both vertically and horizontally. Experimental evidence indicates that immersion of newly fertilized eggs in iodophor or erythromycin does not prevent vertical transmission. However, the injection of female salmon with erythromycin before they spawn shows promise as a practical means of interrupting vertical transmission. The results of attempts to prevent infection of juvenile salmonids by vaccination against bacterial kidney disease have been disappointing, thus underscoring a basic need for a better understanding of protective mechanisms in salmonids. The recent development of more sensitive and quantitative detection methods should aid in evaluating the efficacy of current and future control strategies.

  20. Experimental Inoculation of Juvenile Rhesus Macaques with Primate Enteric Caliciviruses

    PubMed Central

    Sestak, Karol; Feely, Stephanie; Fey, Brittney; Dufour, Jason; Hargitt, Edwin; Alvarez, Xavier; Pahar, Bapi; Gregoricus, Nicole; Vinjé, Jan; Farkas, Tibor

    2012-01-01

    Background Tissue culture-adapted Tulane virus (TV), a GI.1 rhesus enteric calicivirus (ReCV), and a mixture of GII.2 and GII.4 human norovirus (NoV)-containing stool sample were used to intrastomacheally inoculate juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in order to evaluate infection caused by these viruses. Methodology & Findings Two of the three TV-inoculated macaques developed diarrhea, fever, virus-shedding in stools, inflammation of duodenum and 16-fold increase of TV-neutralizing (VN) serum antibodies but no vomiting or viremia. No VN-antibody responses could be detected against a GI.2 ReCV strain FT285, suggesting that TV and FT285 represent different ReCV serotypes. Both NoV-inoculated macaques remained asymptomatic but with demonstrable virus shedding in one animal. Examination of duodenum biopsies of the TV-inoculated macaques showed lymphocytic infiltration of the lamina propria and villous blunting. TV antigen-positive (TV+) cells were detected in the lamina propria. In most of the TV+ cells TV co-localized perinuclearly with calnexin – an endoplasmic reticulum protein. A few CD20+TV+ double-positive B cells were also identified in duodenum. To corroborate the authenticity of CD20+TV+ B cells, in vitro cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy macaques were inoculated with TV. Multicolor flow cytometry confirmed the presence of TV antigen-containing B cells of predominantly CD20+HLA-DR+ phenotype. A 2-log increase of viral RNA by 6 days post inoculation (p<0.05) suggested active TV replication in cultured lymphocytes. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, our results show that ReCVs represent an alternative cell culture and animal model to study enteric calicivirus replication, pathogenesis and immunity. PMID:22666426

  1. Life in varying environments: experimental evidence for delayed effects of juvenile environment on adult life history.

    PubMed

    Helle, Heikki; Koskela, Esa; Mappes, Tapio

    2012-05-01

    1. The effects of environment experienced during early development on phenotype as an adult has started to gain vast amounts of interest in various taxa. Some evidence on long-term effects of juvenile environment is available, but replicated experimental studies in wild animals are still lacking. 2. Here we report the first replicated experiment in wild mammals which examines the long-term effects of juvenile and adult environments on individual fitness (reproduction, survival and health). The early development of bank vole (Myodes glareolus) individuals took place in either food-supplemented or un-supplemented outdoor enclosures. After the summer, adult individuals were reciprocally changed to either a similar or opposite resource environment to overwinter. 3. Adult environment had an overriding effect on reproductive success of females so that females overwintering in food-supplemented enclosures had a higher probability of breeding and advanced the initiation of breeding. However, the characteristics of their litters were determined by juvenile environment: females initially grown in food-supplemented conditions subsequently produced larger litters with bigger pups and a male-biased sex ratio. 4. In males, individuals growing in un-supplemented conditions had the highest survival irrespective of adult environment during winter, whereas in females, neither the juvenile nor adult environments affected their survival significantly. The physiological condition of voles in spring, as determined by haematological parameters, was also differentially affected by juvenile (plasma proteins and male testosterone) and adult (haematocrit) environments. 5. Our results suggest that (i) life-history trajectories of voles are not strictly specialized to a certain environment and (ii) the plastic life-history responses to present conditions can actually be caused by delayed effects of the juvenile environment. More generally, the results are important for understanding

  2. Tetraploid production in salmonids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tetraploid induction is of interest to aquaculture and fisheries as part of a more efficient means of producing triploid fish by mating a tetraploid parent with a diploid parent (tetraploid-derived triploids). Tetraploid induction has previously been reported in salmonids including rainbow trout a...

  3. Growth of juvenile Arctica islandica under experimental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witbaard, R.; Franken, R.; Visser, B.

    1998-02-01

    In two laboratory experiments, the effects of temperature and food availability on the growth of 10- to 23-mm high specimens of the bivalve Arctica islandica were estimated. Each experimental set-up consisted of 5 treatments in which either the food supply or the temperature differed. It was demonstrated that Arctica is able to grow at temperatures as low as 1°C. A tenfold increase of shell growth was observed at temperatures between 1° and 12°C. The greatest change in growth rate took place between 1° and 6°C. Average instantaneous shell growth varies between 0.0003 at 1°C to 0.0032/day at 12°C. The results suggest that temperature hardly affects the time spent in filtration, whereas particle density strongly influences that response. Starved animals at 9°C have their siphons open during only 12% of the time, whereas the siphons of optimally fed animals were open on average during 76% of the observations. Increased siphon activity corresponded to high shell and tissue growth. At 9°C, average shell growth at the optimum cell density of 20×106 cell/l was 3.1 mm corresponding to an instantaneous rate of 0.0026/day. An algal cell density ( Isochrysis galbana, Dunaliella marina) ranging between 5 and 7×106 cell/l is just enough to keep shells alive at 9°C. Carbon conversion efficiency at 9°C is estimated to vary between 11 and 14%.

  4. BLACK SPOT INFESTATION IN JUVENILE COHO SALMON AND THE INFLUENCE OF OREGON COASTAL STREAM SUMMER TEMPERATURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Freshwater survival and growth of juvenile salmon are affected by many factors, including high summer temperatures and other stressors such as parasitism. Delayed or suppressed growth related to stress can influence subsequent survival of juvenile salmonids in freshwater and mar...

  5. Salmonid whirling disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markiw, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides the latest scientific and technical advances in the management of salmonid whirling disease caused by the myxosporean Myxobolus cerebralis (Syn. Myxosoma cerebralis). The complete life cycle of the parasite and the biology of the infective agent to fish, the actinosporean Triactinomyxon stage, are reviewed, and suggested procedures for detection, identification, and control of the disease are discussed. The paper offers sources of information and related reference materials of interest to fish culturists, fishery biologists, and students.

  6. Vocal experimentation in the juvenile songbird requires a basal ganglia circuit.

    PubMed

    Olveczky, Bence P; Andalman, Aaron S; Fee, Michale S

    2005-05-01

    Songbirds learn their songs by trial-and-error experimentation, producing highly variable vocal output as juveniles. By comparing their own sounds to the song of a tutor, young songbirds gradually converge to a stable song that can be a remarkably good copy of the tutor song. Here we show that vocal variability in the learning songbird is induced by a basal-ganglia-related circuit, the output of which projects to the motor pathway via the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the nidopallium (LMAN). We found that pharmacological inactivation of LMAN dramatically reduced acoustic and sequence variability in the songs of juvenile zebra finches, doing so in a rapid and reversible manner. In addition, recordings from LMAN neurons projecting to the motor pathway revealed highly variable spiking activity across song renditions, showing that LMAN may act as a source of variability. Lastly, pharmacological blockade of synaptic inputs from LMAN to its target premotor area also reduced song variability. Our results establish that, in the juvenile songbird, the exploratory motor behavior required to learn a complex motor sequence is dependent on a dedicated neural circuit homologous to cortico-basal ganglia circuits in mammals.

  7. Hypoxia, Blackwater and Fish Kills: Experimental Lethal Oxygen Thresholds in Juvenile Predatory Lowland River Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Small, Kade; Kopf, R. Keller; Watts, Robyn J.; Howitt, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia represents a growing threat to biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems. Here, aquatic surface respiration (ASR) and oxygen thresholds required for survival in freshwater and simulated blackwater are evaluated for four lowland river fishes native to the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), Australia. Juvenile stages of predatory species including golden perch Macquaria ambigua, silver perch Bidyanus bidyanus, Murray cod Maccullochella peelii, and eel-tailed catfish Tandanus tandanus were exposed to experimental conditions of nitrogen-induced hypoxia in freshwater and hypoxic blackwater simulations using dried river red gum Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf litter. Australia's largest freshwater fish, M. peelii, was the most sensitive to hypoxia but given that we evaluated tolerances of juveniles (0.99±0.04 g; mean mass ±SE), the low tolerance of this species could not be attributed to its large maximum attainable body mass (>100,000 g). Concentrations of dissolved oxygen causing 50% mortality (LC50) in freshwater ranged from 0.25±0.06 mg l−1 in T. tandanus to 1.58±0.01 mg l−1 in M. peelii over 48 h at 25–26°C. Logistic models predicted that first mortalities may start at oxygen concentrations ranging from 2.4 mg l−1 to 3.1 mg l−1 in T. tandanus and M. peelii respectively within blackwater simulations. Aquatic surface respiration preceded mortality and this behaviour is documented here for the first time in juveniles of all four species. Despite the natural occurrence of hypoxia and blackwater events in lowland rivers of the MDB, juvenile stages of these large-bodied predators are vulnerable to mortality induced by low oxygen concentration and water chemistry changes associated with the decomposition of organic material. Given the extent of natural flow regime alteration and climate change predictions of rising temperatures and more severe drought and flooding, acute episodes of hypoxia may represent an underappreciated risk to riverine fish communities. PMID

  8. Immunological and Therapeutic Strategies against Salmonid Cryptobiosis

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Patrick T. K.

    2010-01-01

    Salmonid cryptobiosis is caused by the haemoflagellate, Cryptobia salmositica. Clinical signs of the disease in salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) include exophthalmia, general oedema, abdominal distension with ascites, anaemia, and anorexia. The disease-causing factor is a metalloprotease and the monoclonal antibody (mAb-001) against it is therapeutic. MAb-001 does not fix complement but agglutinates the parasite. Some brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis cannot be infected (Cryptobia-resistant); this resistance is controlled by a dominant Mendelian locus and is inherited. In Cryptobia-resistant charr the pathogen is lysed via the Alternative Pathway of Complement Activation. However, some charr can be infected and they have high parasitaemias with no disease (Cryptobia-tolerant). In infected Cryptobia-tolerant charr the metalloprotease is neutralized by a natural antiprotease, α2 macroglobulin. Two vaccines have been developed. A single dose of the attenuated vaccine protects 100% of salmonids (juveniles and adults) for at least 24 months. Complement fixing antibody production and cell-mediated response in vaccinated fish rise significantly after challenge. Fish injected with the DNA vaccine initially have slight anaemias but they recover and have agglutinating antibodies. On challenge, DNA-vaccinated fish have lower parasitaemias, delayed peak parasitaemias and faster recoveries. Isometamidium chloride is therapeutic against the pathogen and its effectiveness is increased after conjugation to antibodies. PMID:20052385

  9. Comparing visual prey detection among species of piscivorous salmonids: effects of light and low turbidities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazur, Michael M.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2003-01-01

    Differences in reaction distance to prey fish by piscivorous salmonids can alter predator–prey interactions under different visual conditions. We compared reaction distances of three piscivorous salmonids commonly found in western lakes: cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarki utah, rainbow trout, O. mykiss, and the nonnative lake char, Salvelinus namaycush. Reaction distances to salmonid prey were measured as functions of light and turbidity in a controlled laboratory setting. In addition, predation rates and swimming speeds of lake char preying on juvenile cutthroat trout were measured experimentally under a range of light levels. Reaction distances for cutthroat trout and rainbow trout increased rapidly as light levels increased, reaching relatively constant reaction distances at higher light levels. Reaction distances for lake char were similar to cutthroat trout and rainbow trout at the lower light levels; however, lake char reaction distances continued to increase with increasing light intensity to asymptote at distances 65% higher than those for both cutthroat and rainbow trout. Predation rates by lake char were low for the darkest light levels, increased rapidly under low light levels (0.50–0.75 lx), and then declined to an intermediate rate at all higher light levels. Swimming speeds by lake char also increased rapidly from extremely low light conditions to a peak and declined to an intermediate level at light levels above 1.00 lx. These results suggest that, above the saturation intensity threshold, piscivorous lake char react to fish prey at greater distances than do cutthroat trout and rainbow trout. These differences may help explain the decline of native trout following the introductions of nonnative lake char in lakes and reservoirs of western North America.

  10. Effects of experimental food supplementation on movements of juvenile northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis atricapillus).

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Patricia L; Ward, Johanna M

    2003-01-01

    Food availability is thought to strongly influence the leaving phase of natal dispersal in animals with condition-dependent dispersal. We conducted a food supplementation experiment to determine the influence of extra food on the onset of dispersal and early dispersal movement patterns of 42 radio-tagged northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis atricapillus) from 28 broods in north-central New Mexico during 1992 and 1993. We randomly assigned half of the broods each year as treatments and the other half as controls. Treatment broods were given supplemental food from hatching (late April) until mid-October. Control broods received the same visitation rate but no food. Birds were located approximately every 2 days from fledging until mid-October in 1992 and 1993. Timing of fledging and independence were not affected by the treatment. However, extra food significantly influenced post-fledging movements of juvenile goshawks. During the late fledgling-dependency period (>65 days of age until independence) control birds were located in the natal area (<2 km from nest tree) more frequently than supplemented birds. This pattern reversed after independence (approximately 82 days of age) when supplemented birds were located more frequently in the natal area than controls. After independence the control birds were never located in the natal area and by the end of September in both years the controls had all left the study area (study area boundaries were approximately 25 km from nest tree). Supplemented birds were never located outside of the study area for the duration of the experiment. We conclude that the control birds dispersed out of the study area and the supplemented birds remained. Since the experimentally fed juveniles remained near a known food source and the controls did not, our study demonstrates that food availability influences at least the first 4 months of post-fledging movement patterns in this population. These results also suggest individuals base dispersal

  11. Experimental infection of adult and juvenile coyotes with domestic dog and wild coyote isolates of Hepatozoon americanum (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina).

    PubMed

    Garrett, Jennifer Jane; Kocan, A Alan; Reichard, Mason V; Panciera, Roger J; Bahr, Robert J; Ewing, Sidney A

    2005-07-01

    Each of five adult and four juvenile coyotes (Canis latrans) was exposed to an oral dose of 50 Hepatozoon americanum oocysts recovered from Amblyomma maculatum ticks that previously fed on either naturally infected domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) or naturally infected wild coyotes. All coyotes exposed to H. americanum became infected, regardless of isolate source, and all exhibited mild to moderate clinical disease that simulated American canine hepatozoonosis in naturally infected dogs. At 100 days postexposure, parasitemia was greater in juvenile than adult coyotes (0.9% and 0.3%, respectively); radiographic imaging of femurs revealed moderate exostosis in all juveniles and mild to moderate new bone growth in four of five (80%) adult coyotes. Gross postmortem analysis of bone lesions demonstrated variation between age groups of coyotes but not between isolates of H. americanum. Microscopic evaluation of skeletal muscle revealed that parasite-induced lesions were significantly more numerous (t = 5.0, df = 7, P = 0.001) in juvenile than adult coyotes. Results of this study indicate that juvenile and adult coyotes are equally susceptible to experimental infection with H. americanum isolated from domestic dog and wild coyote sources. The age of coyotes at the time of exposure, and possibly the number of H. americanum oocysts ingested, might influence morbidity and mortality, but it appears that both adult and juvenile coyotes could be reservoirs of H. americanum.

  12. Experimental hexamitiasis in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdner)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1965-01-01

    An exogenous strain of cultured Hexamita salmonis (Moore) was employed to induce trophic hexamitiasis in otherwise disease-free juveniles of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). Mortality and growth were the parameters used to detect the effects of hexamitiasis on the two species. Two levels of each of the three experimental factors under study, Hexamita infection, species of fish, and density of fish, were arranged in a three-way factorial design. Replicate lots involved a total of 1,440 fish held under controlled laboratory conditions.Comparisons of growth and mortality indicate that infection with H. salmonis over a period of 8 weeks is innocuous to coho salmon. Steelhead trout suffered a low, but statistically significant mortality which subsided after the sixth week; growth rate was not affected.

  13. Bioenergetic relations in submerged aquatic vegetation: An experimental test of prey use by juvenile bluegills

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, W.B.; Zigler, S.J.; Dewey, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    We experimentally tested the hypotheses that bluegills in vegetated habitats grow more rapidly than in nonvegetated habitats because (1) vegetated habitats contain a greater caloric density and (2) are less susceptible to energetic depletion. The 10-week experiment was conducted in enclosures containing factorial combinations of the presence or absence of Vallisneria americana and juvenile bluegills Lepomis macrochirus. After 6 weeks, Vallisneria-only treatments contained a mean of 1048 cal/m2 in the benthos, whereas treatments with both Vallisneria and bluegills contained 610 cal/m2. Hyalella azteca, a preferred prey of bluegill, were nearly depleted in nonvegetated enclosures, whereas Hyalella densities in enclosures with Vallisneria were much less effected by fish. Bluegill growth was significantly greater with Vallisneria than without but declining water temperatures after week 6 resulted in slower growth despite abundant prey. Ultimately, growth of bluegill resulted from an interaction between availability and ingestion of prey, and water temperature. ?? Munksgaard, 1998.

  14. A meta-analysis of experimental studies of diversion programs for juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Schwalbe, Craig S; Gearing, Robin E; MacKenzie, Michael J; Brewer, Kathryne B; Ibrahim, Rawan

    2012-02-01

    Research to establish an evidence-base for the treatment of conduct problems and delinquency in adolescence is well established; however, an evidence-base for interventions with offenders who are diverted from the juvenile justice system has yet to be synthesized. The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of experimental studies testing juvenile diversion programs and to examine the moderating effect of program type and implementation quality. A literature search using PsycINFO, Web of Science, and the National Criminal Justice Reference Service data-bases and research institute websites yielded 28 eligible studies involving 57 experimental comparisons and 19,301 youths. Recidivism was the most common outcome reported across all studies. Overall, the effect of diversion programs on recidivism was non-significant (k=45, OR=0.83, 95%CI=0.43-1.58). Of the five program types identified, including case management (k=18, OR=0.78), individual treatment (k=11, OR=0.83), family treatment (k=4, OR=0.57), youth court (k=6, OR=0.93), and restorative justice (k=6, OR=0.87), only family treatment led to a statistically significant reduction in recidivism. Restorative justice studies that were implemented with active involvement of researchers led to statistically significant reductions in recidivism (k=3, OR=0.69). Other outcomes, including frequency of offending, truancy, and psycho-social problems were reported infrequently and were not subjected to meta-analysis. High levels of heterogeneity characterize diversion research. Results of this study recommend against implementation of programs limited to case management and highlight the promise of family interventions and restorative justice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Nanophyetus salmincola and Bacterial Co-Infection on Mortality of Juvenile Chinook Salmon.

    PubMed

    Roon, Sean R; Alexander, Julie D; Jacobson, Kym C; Bartholomew, Jerri L

    2015-12-01

    The freshwater trematode Nanophyetus salmincola has been demonstrated to impair salmonid immune function and resistance to the marine pathogen Vibrio anguillarum, potentially resulting in ocean mortality. We examined whether infection by the parasite N. salmincola similarly increases mortality of juvenile Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha when they are exposed to the freshwater pathogens Flavobacterium columnare or Aeromonas salmonicida, two bacteria that juvenile salmonids might encounter during their migration to the marine environment. We used a two-part experimental design where juvenile Chinook Salmon were first infected with N. salmincola through cohabitation with infected freshwater snails, Juga spp., and then challenged with either F. columnare or A. salmonicida. Cumulative percent mortality from F. columnare infection was higher in N. salmincola-parasitized fish than in nonparasitized fish. In contrast, cumulative percent mortality from A. salmonicida infection did not differ between N. salmincola-parasitized and nonparasitized groups. No mortalities were observed in the N. salmincola-parasitized-only and control groups from either challenge. Our study demonstrates that a relatively high mean intensity (>200 metacercariae per posterior kidney) of encysted N. salmincola metacercariae can alter the outcomes of bacterial infection in juvenile Chinook Salmon, which might have implications for disease in wild fish populations.

  16. Manipulating Public Opinion about Trying Juveniles as Adults: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Laurence; Piquero, Alex R.

    2010-01-01

    Public attitudes about juvenile crime play a significant role in fashioning juvenile justice policy; variations in the wording of public opinion surveys can produce very different responses and can result in inaccurate and unreliable assessments of public sentiment. Surveys that ask about policy alternatives in vague terms are especially…

  17. Review of the negative influences of non-native salmonids on native fish species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turek, Kelly C.; Pegg, Mark A.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2013-01-01

    Non-native salmonids are often introduced into areas containing species of concern, yet a comprehensive overview of the short- and long-term consequences of these introductions is lacking in the Great Plains. Several authors have suggested that non-native salmonids negatively inflfluence species of concern. The objective of this paper is to review known interactions between non-native salmonids and native fifishes, with a focus on native species of concern. After an extensive search of the literature, it appears that in many cases non-native salmonids do negatively inflfl uence species of concern (e.g., reduce abundance and alter behavior) via different mechanisms (e.g., predation and competition). However, there are some instances in which introduced salmonids have had no perceived negative inflfl uence on native fifi shes. Unfortunately, the majority of the literature is circumstantial, and there is a need to experimentally manipulate these interactions.

  18. Naturally- and experimentally-designed restorations of the Parkin gene deficit in autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism

    SciTech Connect

    Asai, Hirohide; Hirano, Makito; Kiriyama, Takao; Ikeda, Masanori; Ueno, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    Intranuclear events due to mutations in the Parkin gene remain elusive in autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (ARJP). We identified a mutant PARKIN protein in fibroblast cultures from a pair of siblings with ARJP who were homozygous for the exon 4-deleted Parkin gene. Disease was mild in one patient and debilitating in the other. The detected mutant, encoded by a transcript lacking exon 3 as well as exon 4, is an in-frame deletion that removes 121 aa, resulting in a 344-aa protein (PaDel3,4). Cell culture and transfection studies revealed negative correlations between expression levels of PaDel3,4 and those of cell cycle proteins, including cyclin E, CDK2, ppRb, and E2F-1, and demonstrated that GFP-PaDel3,4 entered nucleus and ubiquitinated cyclin E as a part of SCF{sup hSel-10} ligase complex in the patient cells. In addition, nuclear localization signal-tagged PaDel3,4 expressed in the transfected patient cells most effectively ubiquitinated cyclin E and reduced DNA damage, protecting cells from oxidative stress. Antisense-oligonucleotide treatment promoted skipping of exon 3 and thus generated PaDel3,4, increasing cell survival. Collectively, we propose that naturally- and experimentally-induced exon skipping at least partly restores the mutant Parkin gene deficit, providing a molecular basis for the development of therapeutic exon skipping.

  19. Effects of malaria (Plasmodium relicturm) on activity budgets of experimentally-infected juvenile Apapane (Himatione sanquinea)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yorinks, N.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2000-01-01

    We used behavioral, physiological, and parasitological measures to document effects of acute malarial infections on activity budgets of experimentally infected juvenile Apapane (Himatione sanguinea). Five of eight birds died within 20 to 32 days after exposure to a single infective mosquito bite. Infected Apapane devoted less time to locomotory activities involving flight, walking or hopping, and stationary activities such as singing, preening, feeding, and probing. The amount of time spent sitting was positively correlated with parasitemia and increased dramatically after infection and between treatment and control groups. Birds that succumbed to infection experienced a significant loss of body mass and subcutaneous fat, whereas surviving Apapane were better able to maintain body condition and fat levels. When rechallenged with the parasite five months after initial infection, surviving birds experienced no increase in parasitemia, indicating that they had become immune to reinfection. Regardless of the outcome, infected birds experienced acute illness that would have left them unable to forage or to escape from predators in the wild.

  20. Effects of malaria (Plasmodium relicturm) on activity budgets of experimentally-infected juvenile Apapane (Himatione sanquinea)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yorinks, N.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2000-01-01

    We used behavioral, physiological, and parasitological measures to document effects of acute malarial infections on activity budgets of experimentally infected juvenile Apapane (Himatione sanguinea). Five of eight birds died within 20 to 32 days after exposure to a single infective mosquito bite. Infected Apapane devoted less time to locomotory activities involving flight, walking or hopping, and stationary activities such as singing, preening, feeding, and probing. The amount of time spent sitting was positively correlated with parasitemia and increased dramatically after infection and between treatment and control groups. Birds that succumbed to infection experienced a significant loss of body mass and subcutaneous fat, whereas surviving Apapane were better able to maintain body condition and fat levels. When rechallenged with the parasite five months after initial infection, surviving birds experienced no increase in parasitemia, indicating that they had become immune to reinfection. Regardless of the outcome, infected birds experienced acute illness that would have left them unable to forage or to escape from predators in the wild.

  1. Naturally- and experimentally-designed restorations of the Parkin gene deficit in autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Asai, Hirohide; Hirano, Makito; Kiriyama, Takao; Ikeda, Masanori; Ueno, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    Intranuclear events due to mutations in the Parkin gene remain elusive in autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (ARJP). We identified a mutant PARKIN protein in fibroblast cultures from a pair of siblings with ARJP who were homozygous for the exon 4-deleted Parkin gene. Disease was mild in one patient and debilitating in the other. The detected mutant, encoded by a transcript lacking exon 3 as well as exon 4, is an in-frame deletion that removes 121 aa, resulting in a 344-aa protein (PaDel3,4). Cell culture and transfection studies revealed negative correlations between expression levels of PaDel3,4 and those of cell cycle proteins, including cyclin E, CDK2, ppRb, and E2F-1, and demonstrated that GFP-PaDel3,4 entered nucleus and ubiquitinated cyclin E as a part of SCF(hSel-10) ligase complex in the patient cells. In addition, nuclear localization signal-tagged PaDel3,4 expressed in the transfected patient cells most effectively ubiquitinated cyclin E and reduced DNA damage, protecting cells from oxidative stress. Antisense-oligonucleotide treatment promoted skipping of exon 3 and thus generated PaDel3,4, increasing cell survival. Collectively, we propose that naturally- and experimentally-induced exon skipping at least partly restores the mutant Parkin gene deficit, providing a molecular basis for the development of therapeutic exon skipping.

  2. The effect of dietary n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio on salmonid alphavirus subtype 1 (SAV-1) replication in tissues of experimentally infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Lopez-Jimena, Benjamin; Lyons, Philip; Herath, Tharangani; Richards, Randolph H; Leaver, Michael; Bell, J Gordon; Adams, Alexandra; Thompson, Kim D

    2015-07-09

    Salmon pancreas disease (SPD) is one of the most commercially significant viral diseases of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Europe. In this study, the potential for dietary mitigation of the disease using different polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) profiles was assessed in rainbow trout. We experimentally infected fish with salmonid alphavirus subtype 1 (SAV-1), the causative agent of SPD. These fish were fed two diets with different n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio (high omega 3, 3.08, and high omega 6, 0.87). We assessed the influence of the diets on the fatty acid composition of the heart at 0 days post infection (d.p.i.) (after 4 weeks of feeding the experimental diets prior to SAV-1 infection), and sampled infected and control fish at 5, 15 and 30d.p.i. Viral E1 and E2 glycoprotein genes were quantified by two absolute real-time PCRs in all the organs sampled, and significantly lower levels of the virus were evident in the organs of fish fed with high omega 6. Characteristic pathological lesions were identified in infected fish as early as 5d.p.i., with no significant differences in the pathology lesion scores between the two dietary regimes. This study shows that decreasing the n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in experimental diets of rainbow trout changes the fatty acid content of the fish, and is associated with reduced SAV-1 replication in rainbow trout. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of Juvenile Fish Bypass and Adult Fish Passage Facilities at Water Diversions in the Umatilla River; 1990-1991 Progress Reports

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Suzanne M.

    1992-06-01

    We report on our effort from October 1990 through March 1991 to prepare for the evaluation of the juvenile fish bypass facility in the West Extension Irrigation District Canal at Three Mile Falls Dam on the Umatilla River. We also report on our preliminary activities to prepare for future evaluations at Maxwell and Westland diversion dams. A detailed sampling plan was written to guide our efforts in the evaluation process and associated preparatory activities were conducted. In the sampling plan, we developed experimental designs for evaluating the passage of juvenile salmonids through the bypass system including the evaluation at design flow of injury and mortality rates, and passage of juvenile salmonids through and over the screens. We designed and fabricated fish nets for screen leakage tests, and holding facilities for test fish. Modifications to improve evaluation activities were incorporated into the collection facility, and our sampling gear. We designed and fabricated collection systems for the juvenile fish bypass facilities at Maxwell and Westland diversion dams. Preliminary monitoring of system operation was performed at Westland Diversion Dam. We offer recommendations for improving preparations and designs of future evaluations, and also recommend that a detailed evaluation of the Maxwell and Westland juvenile facilities, including evaluation of fish condition and fish passage through or over the screens, be conducted.

  4. JUVENILE COHO SALMON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL ACROSS STREAM NETWORK SEASONAL HABITATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding watershed-scale variation in juvenile salmonid survival and growth can provide insights into factors influencing demographics and can help target restoration and mitigation efforts for imperiled fish populations. We assessed growth, movement, and apparent overwinte...

  5. JUVENILE COHO SALMON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL ACROSS STREAM NETWORK SEASONAL HABITATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding watershed-scale variation in juvenile salmonid survival and growth can provide insights into factors influencing demographics and can help target restoration and mitigation efforts for imperiled fish populations. We assessed growth, movement, and apparent overwinte...

  6. Prevalence of Renibacterium salmoninarum among downstream-migrating salmonids in the Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanders, J.E.; Long, J.J; Arakawa, C.K.; Bartholomew, J.L.; Rohovec, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) is an important contributor to mortality of salmonids in hatcheries in the Columbia River basin. However, the impact of BKD on the survival of downstream migrants is difficult to determine because there is little information on the disease-related mortality among these fish. In this study, the impact of BKD on juvenile salmonids was examined by determining the percentage of downriver migrants infected with Renibacterium salmoninarum (the causative agent of BKD) and evaluating the effects of salt water on the progress of the disease. During the 2 years of this study, approximately 20% of the three species of migrating hatchery and wild salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) collected were infected with R. salmoninarum. Mortality caused by BKD increased when fish were held in salt water.

  7. Experimental manipulation reveals few subclinical impacts of a parasite community in juvenile kangaroos

    PubMed Central

    Cripps, Jemma; Beveridge, Ian; Ploeg, Richard; Coulson, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Large mammalian herbivores are commonly infected with gastrointestinal helminths. In many host species, these helminths cause clinical disease and may trigger conspicuous mortality events. However, they may also have subclinical impacts, reducing fitness as well as causing complex changes to host growth patterns and body condition. Theoretically, juveniles should experience significantly greater costs from parasites, being immunologically naive and undergoing a significant growth phase. The aims of our study were to quantify the subclinical effects of helminths in juvenile eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), which commonly harbour large burdens of gastrointestinal nematodes and are susceptible to associated mass mortality during cold, wet conditions. We conducted a field experiment on a population of free-ranging kangaroos, removing nematodes from one group of juveniles using an anthelmintic treatment. We then compared growth parameters (body condition and growth rates) and haematological parameters of this group with an age-matched, parasitised (untreated) control group. Treated juvenile kangaroos had significantly higher levels of plasma protein (albumin) but, contrary to our predictions, showed negligible changes in all the other parameters measured. Our results suggest that juvenile kangaroos are largely unaffected by their gastrointestinal helminth burdens, and may be able to compensate for the costs of parasites. PMID:25161906

  8. Evolutionary and experimental change in egg volume, heterochrony of larval body and juvenile rudiment, and evolutionary reversibility in pluteus form.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Douglas F; Phillips, Nicole E; Strathmann, Richard R

    2009-01-01

    Heterochronic developmental plasticity of the juvenile rudiment and larval body of sea urchin larvae occurs in response to supply of food. Evolutionary increase in egg size can also be associated with earlier development of the juvenile rudiment. We examined effects of egg volume of feeding larvae on this heterochrony and other changes in larval form. (1) Evolutionary and experimental enlargements of egg volume did not accelerate formation of the rudiment relative to the larval body. Development of the larval body and juvenile rudiment was compared for the echinoids Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (with an egg of 78-82 microm) and Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (with an egg of 150-160 microm diameter). Development of both larval body and rudiment were accelerated in S. droebachiensis relative to S. purpuratus but with greater acceleration of the larval body, so that the rudiment of S. droebachiensis was initiated at a later larval stage even though at an earlier age. Also, experimentally doubling the egg volume of S. purpuratus did not accelerate development of the juvenile rudiment relative to the larval body. (2) Both species exhibited similar plasticity in timing of rudiment development in response to food supplies. (3) Doubling egg volume of S. purpuratus produced a larval form more similar to that of S. droebachiensis. This result mirrors previous experiments in which larvae from half embryos of S. droebachiensis were more similar to larvae of S. purpuratus. Many of the effects of egg volume on larval form are similar against either species' genetic background and are thus evolutionarily reversible effects on larval form.

  9. Influence of forest and rangeland management on anadromous fish habitat in Western North America: habitat requirements of anadromous salmonids.

    Treesearch

    D.W. Reiser; T.C. Bjornn

    1979-01-01

    Habitat requirements of anadromous and some resident salmonid fishes have been described for various life stages, including upstream migration of adults, spawning, incubation, and juvenile rearing. Factors important in the migration of adults are water temperature, minimum water depth, maximum water velocity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, and...

  10. Evaluation of Juvenile Fish Bypass and Adult Fish Passage Facilities at Water Diversions on the Umatilla River; 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Suzanne M.

    1995-01-01

    We report on our progress from October 1993 through September 1994 in evaluating juvenile salmonid bypass facilities and juvenile salmonid passage through ladder facilities, and investigating passage conditions for juvenile fish at diversion dam facilities on the lower Umatilla River in northeastern Oregon. We also report on our progress in evaluating adult salmonid passage at and between dams on the lower Umatilla River and upriver migration using radio telemetry. Two principal studies are also included. Report A (ODFW): To evaluate the juvenile salmonid bypass facilities a Feed and Furnish canals, juvenile salmonid passage through fish ladders at Stanfield, Feed Canal, Westland, and Three Mile Falls dams, and the juvenile salmonid trap and haul procedures at Westland Canal. To investigate passage conditions at all passage facilities. Report B (CTUIR): To examine the passage of adult salmonids past diversions in the lower Umatilla River and their movement in the upper river after transport, using radio telemetry, and to assess factors for successful homing. These studies are part of a program to rehabilitate anadromous fish stocks in the Umatilla River Basin, including restoration of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), as well as enhancement of summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

  11. Juvenile Delinquents, the Martial Arts, and Behavior Modification: An Experimental Study for Social Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demoulin, Donald F.

    Adolescents are particularly open to the influences of interventions that restructure their attitudes and self-concept. This study assesses the influence of martial arts training that incorporates a philosophy of life along with strict discipline. The hypothesis was that such training could positively influence juvenile delinquents and contribute…

  12. An Experimental Juvenile Probation Program: Effects on Parent and Peer Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brank, Eve; Lane, Jodi; Turner, Susan; Fain, Terry; Sehgal, Amber

    2008-01-01

    In an effort to provide a wider range of services to youth and their families than is traditionally available in routine probation, the South Oxnard Challenge Project (SOCP) employed a team approach to service delivery of an intensive probation program. The researchers interviewed juveniles who were randomly assigned to either the SOCP…

  13. Juvenile Delinquents, the Martial Arts, and Behavior Modification: An Experimental Study for Social Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demoulin, Donald F.

    Adolescents are particularly open to the influences of interventions that restructure their attitudes and self-concept. This study assesses the influence of martial arts training that incorporates a philosophy of life along with strict discipline. The hypothesis was that such training could positively influence juvenile delinquents and contribute…

  14. Juvenile angiofibroma

    MedlinePlus

    Nasal tumor; Angiofibroma - juvenile; Benign nasal tumor; Juvenile nasal angiofibroma; JNA ... Juvenile angiofibroma is not very common. It is most often found in adolescent boys. The tumor contains ...

  15. A mathematical model of salmonid spawning habitat

    Treesearch

    Robert N. Havis; Carlos V. Alonzo; Keith E Woeste; Russell F. Thurow

    1993-01-01

    A simulation model [Salmonid Spawning Analysis Model (SSAM)I was developed as a management tool to evaluate the relative impacts of stream sediment load and water temperature on salmonid egg survival. The model is usefi.il for estimating acceptable sediment loads to spawning habitat that may result from upland development, such as logging and agriculture. Software in...

  16. Residence Times of Juvenile Salmon and Steelhead in Off-Channel Tidal Freshwater Habitats, Columbia River, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Sather, Nichole K.; Teel, D. J.

    2015-05-01

    We estimated seasonal residence times of acoustic-tagged juvenile salmonids in off-channel, tidal freshwater habitats of the Columbia River near the Sandy River delta (rkm 198; 2007, 2008, 2010, and 2011) and Cottonwood Island (rkm 112; 2012).

  17. Low summer water temperatures influence occurrence of naturalized salmonids across a mountain watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullner, S.A.; Hubert, W.A.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated relationships between the absence of salmonids and low summer water temperatures across a 150-km2 Rocky Mountain watershed. A model predicting maximum July water temperature (MJT) from measurements of perennial stream length, wetted width, and midrange basin elevation was developed from temperature data obtained at 20 sites across the watershed. The model was used to predict MJT in 75 reaches across the watershed where salmonids were sampled. The lowest predicted MJT in reaches where age-0 and juvenile-adult brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis were observed was 9??C. The lowest predicted MJT in reaches where age-0 progeny of the genus Oncorhynchus spp. (i.e., rainbow trout O. mykiss or cutthroat trout O. clarkii) were observed was 13??C and where Oncorhynchus spp. adults where observed was 12??C. The probability of occurrence of both age-0 and adult brook trout and Oncorhynchus spp. increased as MJT increased above these thresholds. Our results indicate that low MJT in some portions of a mountain watershed can be related to the absence of salmonids. Consequently, data on MJT may provide managers with a means of assessing where summer water temperatures are not suitable for establishment of naturalized salmonid populations. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  18. Vaccination against salmonid bacterial kidney disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) of salmonid fishes, caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, has presented challenges for development of effective vaccines, despite several decades of research. The only vaccine against BKD that is commercially licensed is an injectable preparation containing live cells ...

  19. Basin-Scale Variation in the Spatial Pattern of Fall Movement of Juvenile Coho Salmon in the West Fork Smith River, Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    For several species of salmonids (Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus spp.) inhabiting Pacific coastal temperate streams, juvenile fish have been recorded moving between mainstem and tributary habitats during the transition from the summer dry season to the winter wet season. Movement co...

  20. Basin-Scale Variation in the Spatial Pattern of Fall Movement of Juvenile Coho Salmon in the West Fork Smith River, Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    For several species of salmonids (Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus spp.) inhabiting Pacific coastal temperate streams, juvenile fish have been recorded moving between mainstem and tributary habitats during the transition from the summer dry season to the winter wet season. Movement co...

  1. Juvenile Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Juvenile Arthritis Juvenile Arthritis Fast Facts Arthritis in children is treatable. It ... as fevers or rash. What is juvenile idiopathic arthritis? Several types of arthritis, all involving chronic (long- ...

  2. Gravel pit ponds as habitat enhancement for juvenile coho salmon.

    Treesearch

    M.D. Bryant

    1988-01-01

    Gravel pits built during road construction in the early 1970's near Yakutat, Alaska, filled with water and were connected to nearby rivers to allow juvenile salmonids to enter. Seasonal changes in population size, length and weight, and length frequencies of the coho salmon population were evaluated over a 2-year period. Numbers of coho salmon fluctuated, but two...

  3. The malleable gut microbiome of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Diet-dependent shifts of bacterial community structures.

    PubMed

    Michl, Stéphanie Céline; Ratten, Jenni-Marie; Beyer, Matt; Hasler, Mario; LaRoche, Julie; Schulz, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Plant-derived protein sources are the most relevant substitutes for fishmeal in aquafeeds. Nevertheless, the effects of plant based diets on the intestinal microbiome especially of juvenile Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are yet to be fully investigated. The present study demonstrates, based on 16S rDNA bacterial community profiling, that the intestinal microbiome of juvenile Rainbow trout is strongly affected by dietary plant protein inclusion levels. After first feeding of juveniles with either 0%, 50% or 97% of total dietary protein content derived from plants, statistically significant differences of the bacterial gut community for the three diet-types were detected, both at phylum and order level. The microbiome of juvenile fish consisted mainly of the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria and Actinobacteria, and thus fits the salmonid core microbiome suggested in previous studies. Dietary plant proteins significantly enhanced the relative abundance of the orders Lactobacillales, Bacillales and Pseudomonadales. Animal proteins in contrast significantly promoted Bacteroidales, Clostridiales, Vibrionales, Fusobacteriales and Alteromonadales. The overall alpha diversity significantly decreased with increasing plant protein inclusion levels and with age of experimental animals. In order to investigate permanent effects of the first feeding diet-type on the early development of the microbiome, a diet change was included in the study after 54 days, but no such effects could be detected. Instead, the microbiome of juvenile trout fry was highly dependent on the actual diet fed at the time of sampling.

  4. Ecosystem-based management of predator-prey relationships: piscivorous birds and salmonids.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Francis K; Parrish, Julia K; Thompson, Christopher W; Maranto, Christina

    2008-04-01

    Predator-prey relationships are often altered as a result of human activities. Where prey are legally protected, conservation action may include lethal predator control. In the Columbia River basin (Pacific Northwest, USA and Canada), piscivorous predators have been implicated in contributing to a lack of recovery of several endangered anadromous salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.), and lethal and nonlethal control programs have been instituted against both piscine and avian species. To determine the consequences of avian predation, we used a bioenergetics approach to estimate the consumption of salmonid smolts by waterbirds (Common Merganser, California and Ring-billed Gull, Caspian Tern, Double-crested Cormorant) found in the mid-Columbia River from April through August, 2002-2004. We used our model to explore several predator-prey scenarios, including the impact of historical bird abundance, and the effect of preserving vs. removing birds, on smolt abundance. Each year, <1% of the estimated available salmonid smolts (interannual range: 44,830-109,209; 95% CI = 38,000-137,000) were consumed, 85-98% away from dams. Current diet data combined with historical gull abundance at dams suggests that past smolt consumption may have been 1.5-3 times current numbers, depending on the assumed distribution of gulls along the reaches. After the majority (80%) of salmonid smolts have left the study area, birds switch their diet to predominantly juvenile northern pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus oregonensis), which as adults are significant native salmonid predators in the Columbia River. Our models suggest that one consequence of removing birds from the system may be increased pikeminnow abundance, which--even assuming 80% compensatory mortality in juvenile pikeminnow survival--would theoretically result in an annual average savings of just over 180,000 smolts, calculated over a decade. Practically, this suggests that smolt survival could be maximized by deterring birds from the river when

  5. Vulnerability to predation and physiological stress responses in juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) experimentally infected with Renibacterium salmoninarum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, M.G.; Poe, T.P.; Maule, A.G.; Schreck, C.B.

    1998-01-01

    We experimentally infected juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) with Renibacterium salmoninarum (Rs), the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease (BKD), to examine the vulnerability to predation of fish with differing levels of Rs infection and assess physiological change during progression of the disease. Immersion challenges conducted during 1992 and 1994 produced fish with either a low to moderate (1992) or high (1994) infection level of Rs during the 14-week postchallenge rearing period. When equal numbers of treatment and unchallenged control fish were subjected to predation by either northern squaw fish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) or smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui), Rs-challenged fish were eaten in significantly greater numbers than controls by nearly two to one. In 1994, we also sampled fish every 2 weeks after the challenge to determine some stressful effects of Rs infection. During disease progression in fish, plasma cortisol and lactate increased significantly whereas glucose decreased significantly. Our results indicate the role that BKD may play in predator-prey interactions, thus ascribing some ecological significance to this disease beyond that of direct pathogen-related mortality. In addition, the physiological changes observed in our fish during the chronic progression of BKD indicate that this disease is stressful, particularly during the later stages.

  6. Watershed processes, fish habitat, and salmonid distribution in the Tonsina River (Copper River watershed), Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, D. B.; Ligon, F. K.; Sloat, M. R.; Amerson, B.; Ralph, S. C.

    2007-12-01

    The Copper River watershed is a critical resource for northeastern Pacific salmon, with annual escapements in the millions. The Tonsina River basin, a diverse 2100-km2 tributary to the Copper River that supports important salmonid populations, offers an opportunity to integrate watershed-scale channel network data with field reconnaissance of physical processes and observed distribution of salmonid species. Our long-term goals are to characterize habitats critical to different salmonid life stages, describe the geologic context and current geologic processes that support those habitats in key channel reaches, and predict their watershed-wide distribution. The overarching motivation for these goals is resource conservation, particularly in the face of increased human activity and long-term climate change. Channel geomorphology within the Tonsina River basin reflects inherited glacial topography. Combinations of drainage areas, slopes, channel confinement, and sediment-delivery processes are unique to this environment, giving rise to channel "types" that are recognizable but that do not occur in the same positions in the channel network as in nonglaciated landscapes. We also recognize certain channel forms providing fish habitat without analog in a nonglacial landscape, notably relict floodplain potholes from once-stranded and long-melted ice blocks. Salmonid species dominated different channel types within the watershed network. Sockeye salmon juveniles were abundant in the low-gradient, turbid mainstem; Chinook juveniles were also captured in the lower mainstem, with abundant evidence of spawning farther downstream. Coho juveniles were abundant in upper, relatively large tributaries, even those channels with cobble-boulder substrates and minimal woody debris that provide habitats more commonly utilized by Chinook in low-latitude systems. More detailed field sampling also revealed that patterns of species composition and abundance appeared related to small

  7. Freshwater aspects of anadromous salmonid enhancement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gould, Rowan W.

    1982-01-01

    Freshwater enhancement of anadromous salmonid populations has been practiced in the United States and Canada since the late 1800's. Reduction of natural spawning habitat and increasing fishing pressure make artificial enhancement a possible alternative to declining populations. Enhancement of anadromous salmonids involved improvement of the natural environment and reducing natural mortality. Methods of enhancement include fishways, spawning and rearing channels, stream rehabilitation, lake fertilization, environmental management, and artificial propagation techniques. Five Pacific salmon species and steelhead trout are commonly enhanced, primarily in watershed entering the Pacific Ocean and Great Lakes. Enhancement efforts contribute heavily to a commercial and sport industry realizing over $1.5 billion.

  8. Comparative larvivorous performances of mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, and juvenile Sacramento blackfish, Orthodon microlepidotus, in experimental paddies.

    PubMed

    Cech, J J; Linden, A L

    1987-03-01

    Mosquitofish, Sacramento blackfish, or combinations of both species were stocked in experimental paddies. Cultured Culex tarsalis larvae, stocked weekly into each paddy, and wild Anopheles freeborni larvae were counted by dipping. At the end of the 12 week experiment, paddies were drained and the remaining fish and visible invertebrates counted. Data show the highest number of mosquito larvae in the blackfish-stocked paddies. This low larvivorous ability of blackfish may result from their rapid growth to ca. 70 mm standard length and a consequent shift to a filtering mode of feeding. Although blackfish populations decreased from one-third to one-half of their stocked levels and mosquitofish populations increased to very high levels, mosquito control seemed to be a function of species rather than just the number of predatory fish. The lower number of larvae in the control paddies compared with the blackfish paddies might be attributable to predatory invertebrate communities.

  9. Acidification of experimental wetlands: Effects on wetland productivity and survival of juvenile black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; Chu, D.S.; Bunck, C.M.; Mingo, T.M.; Schaffner, W.W.R.

    1997-01-01

    Six man-made wetlands (0.02 ha each) and pen-reared broods of American black ducks (Anas rubripes) were used to assess the effects of reduced pH on the quality of fish- free, palustrine habitat for brood rearing. Acid treatment was assigned randomly among newly constructed wetlands during April through June 1984-85, to simulate depressed pH from snowmelt and spring rain. Sampling of chlorophyll epiphytic growth, zooplankton and macroinvertebrates confirmed reduced productivity of acidified (pH 5.0) versus control (pH 6.8) wetlands. Primary productivity was particularly reduced in acidified wetlands in early spring as indicated by high water transparency and low chlorophyll a concentrations. Chlrophyll a concentrations showed treatment (p = 0.01) and date (p = 0.05) effects, but no interaction, and dry weight of epiphytic growth was lower (p = 0.03) in acidified versus control wetlands. Numbers of zooplankton were similar in experimental wetlands, although controls generally exceeded acidified wetlands in abundance; only a single treatment effect for cladocerans (p = 0.1) was detected. Sweep net samples yielded greater numbers (p = 0.03), taxa (p = 0.01) and biomass (p = 0.07) of macroinvertebrates in control wetlands with gastropods, pelecypods and leeches notably reduced by acidification. Placement of 18 broods (female with four 10-day-old ducklings) for 10-day trials on experimental wetlands revealed limited growth, altered behaviour and marked reduction in survival of ducklings on acidified wetlands. An inadequate number of invertebrates is indicated as the cause for poor duckling productivity on acidified wetlands

  10. Winter growth and survival of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in experimental raceways

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrish, D.L.; Hawes, E.J.; Whalen, K.G.

    2004-01-01

    We used experimental raceways to determine overwinter mortality of wild-reared immature and mature post-young-of-the-year Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Secondarily, we investigated the effects of differing treatments (velocity and shelter) on winter growth and survival. Overall survival from November to April was 94%, and survival of immature (98%) and mature (90%) parr, although statistically different, was very similar. Immature parr grew more in length than mature parr, and both immature and mature parr in higher velocity (12 cm??s-1) raceways grew more than those in lower velocity (0.6 cm??s-1) raceways. Stomach contents were twofold greater in parr occupying higher velocity raceways than those in lower velocity raceways. Caloric content of immature and mature parr did not differ in any of five monthly samples. Lowest caloric content occurred in early February and increased between February and March when water temperatures were well below those considered optimal for growth. Although ice cover was present, isolating parr from conditions that occur in natural settings may have helped parr achieve nearly 2.5 times greater survival than parr in the wild. Further, whereas previous studies showed parr select habitats to minimize energetic loss, our results show a distinct advantage for parr to expend energy to feed during winter. ?? 2004 NRC Canada.

  11. Diffusion tensor imaging with direct cytopathological validation: characterisation of decorin treatment in experimental juvenile communicating hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Aojula, Anuriti; Botfield, Hannah; McAllister, James Patterson; Gonzalez, Ana Maria; Abdullah, Osama; Logan, Ann; Sinclair, Alexandra

    2016-05-31

    In an effort to develop novel treatments for communicating hydrocephalus, we have shown previously that the transforming growth factor-β antagonist, decorin, inhibits subarachnoid fibrosis mediated ventriculomegaly; however decorin's ability to prevent cerebral cytopathology in communicating hydrocephalus has not been fully examined. Furthermore, the capacity for diffusion tensor imaging to act as a proxy measure of cerebral pathology in multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury has recently been demonstrated. However, the use of diffusion tensor imaging to investigate cytopathological changes in communicating hydrocephalus is yet to occur. Hence, this study aimed to determine whether decorin treatment influences alterations in diffusion tensor imaging parameters and cytopathology in experimental communicating hydrocephalus. Moreover, the study also explored whether diffusion tensor imaging parameters correlate with cellular pathology in communicating hydrocephalus. Accordingly, communicating hydrocephalus was induced by injecting kaolin into the basal cisterns in 3-week old rats followed immediately by 14 days of continuous intraventricular delivery of either human recombinant decorin (n = 5) or vehicle (n = 6). Four rats remained as intact controls and a further four rats served as kaolin only controls. At 14-days post-kaolin, just prior to sacrifice, routine magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging was conducted and the mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, radial and axial diffusivity of seven cerebral regions were assessed by voxel-based analysis in the corpus callosum, periventricular white matter, caudal internal capsule, CA1 hippocampus, and outer and inner parietal cortex. Myelin integrity, gliosis and aquaporin-4 levels were evaluated by post-mortem immunohistochemistry in the CA3 hippocampus and in the caudal brain of the same cerebral structures analysed by diffusion tensor imaging. Decorin significantly

  12. Some myxosporidia found in Pacific Northwest salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yasutake, W.T.; Wood, E.M.

    1957-01-01

    During the histological examination of a group of wild and hatchery salmonids undescribed sporazoans were frequently observed. This was not unexpected, since Myxosporidia are typical fish parasites (Kudo, 1920). Myxidium were observed in kidney tubules, Cholromyxum in glomeruli, and Myxobous in the spinal cord and on epidermal scales. The present paper will deal with the description and indentification of these unclassified Myxosporodia.

  13. The Integration of Family and Group Therapy as an Alternative to Juvenile Incarceration: A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation Using Parenting with Love and Limits.

    PubMed

    Karam, Eli A; Sterrett, Emma M; Kiaer, Lynn

    2015-10-28

    The current study employed a quasi-experimental design using both intent-to-treat and protocol adherence analysis of 155 moderate- to high-risk juvenile offenders to evaluate the effectiveness of Parenting with Love and Limits® (PLL), an integrative group and family therapy approach. Youth completing PLL had significantly lower rates of recidivism than the comparison group. Parents also reported statistically significant improvements in youth behavior. Lengths of service were also significantly shorter for the treatment sample than the matched comparison group by an average of 4 months. This study contributes to the literature by suggesting that intensive community-based combined family and group treatment is effective in curbing recidivism among high-risk juveniles.

  14. Application of neural networks to prediction of fish diversity and salmonid production in the Lake Ontario basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenna, James E.

    2005-01-01

    Diversity and fish productivity are important measures of the health and status of aquatic systems. Being able to predict the values of these indices as a function of environmental variables would be valuable to management. Diversity and productivity have been related to environmental conditions by multiple linear regression and discriminant analysis, but such methods have several shortcomings. In an effort to predict fish species diversity and estimate salmonid production for streams in the eastern basin of Lake Ontario, I constructed neural networks and trained them on a data set containing abiotic information and either fish diversity or juvenile salmonid abundance. Twenty percent of the original data were retained as a test data set and used in the training. The ability to extend these neural networks to conditions throughout the streams was tested with data not involved in the network training. The resulting neural networks were able to predict the number of salmonids with more than 84% accuracy and diversity with more than 73% accuracy, which was far superior to the performance of multiple regression. The networks also identified the environmental variables with the greatest predictive power, namely, those describing water movement, stream size, and water chemistry. Thirteen input variables were used to predict diversity and 17 to predict salmonid abundance.

  15. Experimental increase of testosterone levels in free-ranging juvenile male African striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio) induces physiological, morphological, and behavioral changes.

    PubMed

    Raynaud, Julien; Müller, Karin; Schradin, Carsten

    2012-08-01

    Testosterone influences sexual differentiation in early development, and activates sexual maturation and sex-related behavior in males during puberty. Testosterone can also influence the expression of male alternative reproductive tactics, by either organizational effects (fixed tactics) or by activational effects (plastic tactics). However, the roles of testosterone in sexual maturation and at the same time the expression of alternative reproductive tactics have been little investigated experimentally, and studies of free-ranging mammals are lacking. We conducted a field experiment in free-ranging juvenile African striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio), a species with alternative reproductive tactics. Juvenile male striped mice reaching puberty can remain in their family as philopatric group-living males with low testosterone levels, or they can disperse and become solitary living roamers with much higher testosterone levels. We tested whether experimentally increased testosterone levels in non-scrotal juvenile males induces puberty and leads to the expression of the roaming tactic. Testosterone-treated males received the hormone for 15days by silastic implants which were empty in control-treated males. When compared to control-treated males, testosterone-treated males had higher testosterone levels, lower corticosterone levels, and became scrotal with descended testes. Testosterone-treated males also had larger testes, larger epididymides, and showed indication of spermatogenesis. Testosterone-treated males did not become solitary-living roamers, but had larger home ranges than control males. We conclude that testosterone can induce sexual maturation and causes juvenile males to increase their home ranges, maybe to search for dispersal opportunities.

  16. Rearing in a distorted magnetic field disrupts the ‘map sense’ of juvenile steelhead trout

    PubMed Central

    Putman, Nathan F.; Meinke, Amanda M.; Noakes, David L. G.

    2014-01-01

    We used simulated magnetic displacements to test orientation preferences of juvenile steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to magnetic fields existing at the northernmost and southernmost boundaries of their oceanic range. Fish reared in natural magnetic conditions distinguished between these two fields by orienting in opposite directions, with headings that would lead fish towards marine foraging grounds. However, fish reared in a spatially distorted magnetic field failed to distinguish between the experimental fields and were randomly oriented. The non-uniform field in which fish were reared is probably typical of fields that many hatchery fish encounter due to magnetic distortions associated with the infrastructure of aquaculture. Given that the reduced navigational abilities we observed could negatively influence marine survival, homing ability and hatchery efficiency, we recommend further study on the implications of rearing salmonids in unnatural magnetic fields. PMID:24899681

  17. Rearing in a distorted magnetic field disrupts the 'map sense' of juvenile steelhead trout.

    PubMed

    Putman, Nathan F; Meinke, Amanda M; Noakes, David L G

    2014-06-01

    We used simulated magnetic displacements to test orientation preferences of juvenile steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to magnetic fields existing at the northernmost and southernmost boundaries of their oceanic range. Fish reared in natural magnetic conditions distinguished between these two fields by orienting in opposite directions, with headings that would lead fish towards marine foraging grounds. However, fish reared in a spatially distorted magnetic field failed to distinguish between the experimental fields and were randomly oriented. The non-uniform field in which fish were reared is probably typical of fields that many hatchery fish encounter due to magnetic distortions associated with the infrastructure of aquaculture. Given that the reduced navigational abilities we observed could negatively influence marine survival, homing ability and hatchery efficiency, we recommend further study on the implications of rearing salmonids in unnatural magnetic fields. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevention and control of viral diseases of salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amend, Donald F.

    1976-01-01

    Three viral diseases of salmonids are of worldwide concern: infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS), and infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN). Six principal approaches are being used to prevent or control these diseases: 1) preventing contact o the pathogen with the host, 2) environmental manipulation, 3) immunization, 4) chemotherapy, 5 selective breeding for disease resistance, and 6) reducing stress conditions which augment disease conditions. Preventing the introduction of a pathogen into a new stock of fish has been accomplished mainly by implementing stringent laws to prevent transport of infected fish into uninfected areas. Stocks of fish already infected are sometimes destroyed, and the hatchery is disinfected and restocked with fish free of specific pathogens. Environmental manipulation (elevated water temperature) has been successfully used to control IHN. Chemotherapeutics such as povidone-iodine for IPN and benzipyrene for IHN show promise of controlling mortalities; however, the practicality of using these drugs to eliminate the carrier fish has not been evaluated. Salmonids are capable of developing immune responses to viruses; however, development of effective vaccines, selective breeding for disease resistance, and identification of stress conditions which augment disease are still in the experimental phase.

  19. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Pacific Northwest salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breyta, Rachel; Black, Allison; Kaufman, John; Kurath, Gael

    2016-01-01

    The aquatic rhaboviral pathogen infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) causes acute disease in juvenile fish of a number of populations of Pacific salmonid species. Heavily managed in both marine and freshwater environments, these fish species are cultured during the juvenile stage in freshwater conservation hatcheries, where IHNV is one of the top three infectious diseases that cause serious morbidity and mortality. Therefore, a comprehensive study of viral genetic surveillance data representing 2590 field isolates collected between 1958 and 2014 was conducted to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of IHNV in the Pacific Northwest of the contiguous United States. Prevalence of infection varied over time, fluctuating over a rough 5–7 year cycle. The genetic analysis revealed numerous subgroups of IHNV, each of which exhibited spatial heterogeneity. Within all subgroups, dominant genetic types were apparent, though the temporal patterns of emergence of these types varied among subgroups. Finally, the affinity or fidelity of subgroups to specific host species also varied, where UC subgroup viruses exhibited a more generalist profile and all other subgroups exhibited a specialist profile. These complex patterns are likely synergistically driven by numerous ecological, pathobiological, and anthropogenic factors. Since only a few anthropogenic factors are candidates for managed intervention aimed at improving the health of threatened or endangered salmonid fish populations, determining the relative impact of these factors is a high priority for future studies.

  20. Conservation genomics: coming to a salmonid near you.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, J J

    2016-12-01

    Using the examples on hereditary and environmental factors affecting salmonid populations, this paper demonstrates that ecologists have long appreciated the importance of local adaptation and intraspecific diversity for salmonid conservation. Conservationists, however, need to embrace the genomics revolution and use new insights to improve salmonid management. At the same time, researchers must be forthcoming with the uses and limitations of genomics, and conservation must move forward in the face of scientific uncertainty. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  1. Genetic characterization of salmonid alphavirus in Norway.

    PubMed

    Hjortaas, M J; Jensen, B Bang; Taksdal, T; Olsen, A B; Lillehaug, A; Trettenes, E; Sindre, H

    2016-02-01

    Pancreas disease (PD), caused by salmonid alphavirus subtype 3 (SAV3), emerged in Norwegian aquaculture in the 1980s and is now endemic along the south-western coast. In 2011, the first cases of PD caused by marine salmonid alphavirus subtype 2 (SAV2) were reported. This subtype has spread rapidly among the fish farms outside the PD-endemic zone and is responsible for disease outbreaks at an increasing numbers of sites. To describe the geographical distribution of salmonid alphavirus (SAV), and to assess the time and site of introduction of marine SAV2 to Norway, an extensive genetic characterization including more than 200 SAV-positive samples from 157 Norwegian marine production sites collected from May 2007 to December 2012 was executed. The first samples positive for marine SAV2 originated from Romsdal, in June 2010. Sequence analysis of the E2 gene revealed that all marine SAV2 included in this study were nearly identical, suggesting a single introduction into Norwegian aquaculture. Further, this study provides evidence of a separate geographical distribution of two subtypes in Norway. SAV3 is present in south-western Norway, and marine SAV2 circulates in north-western and Mid-Norway, a geographical area which since 2010 constitutes the endemic zone for marine SAV2.

  2. Demonstration of the salmonid humoral response to Renibacterium salmoninarum using a monoclonal antibody against salmonid immunoglobulin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholomew, J.L.; Arkoosh , M.R.; Rohovec, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    The specificity of the antibody response of salmonids to Renibacterium salmoninarum antigens was demonstrated by western blotting techniques that utilized a monoclonal antibody against salmonid immunoglobulin. In this study, the specificity of the response in immunized chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytschawas compared with the response in naturally infected chinook salmon and coho salmon O. kisutch, and immunized rabbits. The antibody response in immunized salmon and rabbits and the naturally infected fish was primarily against the 57–58kilodalton protein complex. In addition to recognizing these proteins in the extracellular fraction and whole-cell preparations, antibody from the immunized salmon and rabbits detected four proteins with lower molecular masses. Western blotting techniques allow identification of the specific antigens recognized and are a useful tool for comparing the immunogenicity of different R. salmoninarumpreparations. Immunofluorescent techniques with whole bacteria were less sensitive than western blotting in detecting salmonid anti-R. salmoninarumantibody.

  3. Diplostomum spathaceum metacercarial infection and colour change in salmonid fish.

    PubMed

    Rintamäki-Kinnunen, P; Karvonen, A; Anttila, P; Valtonen, E T

    2004-05-01

    Colour changes in two salmonid fish, the salmon (Salmo salar) and sea trout (S. trutta), were examined in relation to infection with the trematode Diplostomum spathaceum. This parasite had no effect on the rate of colour change in these fish, although species specific differences in colour adjustment times were observed. Increasing asymmetry in parasite numbers between the right and left eye, which could lead to the retention of vision in one eye, nevertheless tended to reduce the colour change time in salmon with moderate infection (P=0.08). This first experimental attempt to examine colour changes in fish in relation to eye fluke infections provides grounds for future investigations. The darker appearance of the heavily infected fish described in the literature suggests that a high parasite burden actually causes colour changes. We emphasise that detailed quantitative studies using fish with higher parasite loads, especially from the tail of the aggregated parasite distribution, are needed to describe these relationships in detail.

  4. VARIATION IN JUVENILE COHO SALMON SUMMER ABUNDANCE: HIERARCHICAL ANALYSIS OF HABITAT EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Varying habitat conditions found across a stream network during the summer months may limit the abundance of salmonids such as coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch). We examined the abundance of juvenile coho salmon across a stream network in an Oregon coast range basin from 2002 through ...

  5. VARIATION IN JUVENILE COHO SALMON SUMMER ABUNDANCE: HIERARCHICAL ANALYSIS OF HABITAT EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Varying habitat conditions found across a stream network during the summer months may limit the abundance of salmonids such as coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch). We examined the abundance of juvenile coho salmon across a stream network in an Oregon coast range basin from 2002 through ...

  6. Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Yakima River Tributaries, 2001-2002 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Johnson, Christopher L.

    2003-04-01

    The benefits that marine derived nutrients from adult salmon carcasses provide to juvenile salmonids are increasingly being recognized. Current estimates suggest that only 6-7% of marine-derived nitrogen and phosphorus that were historically available to salmonids in the Pacific Northwest are currently available. Food limitation may be a major constraint limiting the restoration of salmonids. A variety of methods have been proposed to offset this nutrient deficit including: allowing greater salmon spawning escapement, stocking hatchery salmon carcasses, and stocking inorganic nutrients. Unfortunately, each of these methods has some ecological or socio-economic shortcoming. We intend to overcome many of these shortcomings by making and evaluating a pathogen free product that simulates a salmon carcass (analog). Abundant sources of marine derived nutrients are available such as fish offal from commercial fishing and salmon carcasses from hatcheries. However, a method for recycling these nutrients into a pathogen free analog that degrades at a similar rate as a natural salmon carcass has never been developed. We endeavored to (1) develop a salmon carcass analog that will increase the food available to salmonids, (2) determine the pathways that salmonids use to acquire food from analogs, and (3) determine the benefits to salmonids and the potential for application to salmonid restoration. We used a before-after-control-impact-paired design in six tributaries of the upper Yakima basin to determine the utility of stocking carcass analogs. Our preliminary results suggest that the introduction of carcass analogs into food-limited streams can be used to restore food pathways previously provided by anadromous salmon. The analogs probably reproduced both of the major food pathways that salmon carcasses produce: direct consumption and food chain enhancement. Trout and salmon fed directly on the carcass analogs during the late summer and presumably benefited from the increased

  7. Effectiveness of a redesigned water diversion using rock vortex weirs to enhance longitudinal connectivity for small Salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martens, Kyle D.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    For nearly 100 years, water diversions have affected fish passage in Beaver Creek, a tributary of the lower Methow River in north-central Washington State. From 2000 to 2004, four dam-style water diversions were replaced with a series of rock vortex weirs (RVWs). The weirs were designed to allow fish passage while maintaining the ability to divert water into irrigation canals. We observed the new appearance of three species (juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, juvenile coho salmon O. kisutch, and mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni) upstream of the RVWs, indicating successful restoration of longitudinal connectivity. We used passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and instream PIT tag interrogation systems during 2004–2007 to evaluate upstream passage of small salmonids (<240 mm fork length) through one series of RVWs. We documented 109 upstream passage events by small salmonids through the series of RVWs; most of the events (81%) involved passage of rainbow trout O. mykiss or juvenile steelhead (anadromous rainbow trout). Small rainbow trout or steelhead ranging from 86 to 238 mm (adjusted fork length) were able to pass upstream through the RVWs, although a delay in fish passage at discharges below 0.32 m3/s was detected in comparison with nearby control sections.

  8. Developing a Predation Index and Evaluating Ways to Reduce Salmonid Losses to Predation in the Columbia River Basin, Final Report August 1988-September 1990.

    SciTech Connect

    Nigro, Anthony A.

    1990-12-01

    We report our results of studies to develop a predation index and evaluate ways to reduce juvenile salmonid losses to predation in the Columbia River Basin. Study objectives of each were: develop an index to estimate predation losses of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp) in reservoirs throughout the Columbia River Basin, describe the relationships among predator-caused mortality of juvenile salmonids and physical and biological variables, examine the feasibility of developing bounty, commercial or recreational fisheries on northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) and develop a plan to evaluate the efficacy of predator control fisheries; determine the economic feasibility of developing bounty and commercial fisheries for northern squawfish, assist ODFW with evaluating the economic feasibility of recreational fisheries for northern squawfish and assess the economic feasibility of utilizing northern squawfish, carp (Cyprinus carpio) and suckers (Castostomus spp) in multispecies fisheries; evaluate commercial technology of various fishing methods for harvesting northern squawfish in Columbia River reservoirs and field test the effectiveness of selected harvesting systems, holding facilities and transportation systems; and modify the existing Columbia River Ecosystem Model (CREM) to include processes necessary to evaluate effects of removing northern squawfish on their population size structure and abundance, document the ecological processes, mathematical equations and computer (FORTRAN) programming of the revised version of CREM and conduct systematic analyses of various predator removal scenarios, using revised CREM to generate the simulations. Individual reports are indexed separately.

  9. Juvenile Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    Juvenile arthritis (JA) is arthritis that happens in children. It causes joint swelling, pain, stiffness, and loss of motion. It can affect any joint, but ... of JA that children get is juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There are several other forms of arthritis affecting ...

  10. Population viability assessment of salmonids by using probabilistic networks

    Treesearch

    Danny C. Lee; Bruce E. Rieman

    1997-01-01

    Public agencies are being asked to quantitatively assess the impact of land management activities on sensitive populations of salmonids. To aid in these assessments, we developed a Bayesian viability assessment procedure (BayVAM) to help characterize land use risks to salmonids in the Pacific Northwest. This procedure incorporates a hybrid approach to viability...

  11. Veterinary aspects of salmonid fish farming: husbandry diseases.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, C J; Poupard, C W

    1975-07-19

    Most disease problems affecting farmed salmonid fish are either caused or exacerbated by bad husbandry and poor environmental conditions. The aspects of water quality and nutrition which are significant in causing husbandry problems are considered. The clinical aspects of these diseases are decribed in terms of the life cycle of salmonids, and methods of prevention are discussed.

  12. The footprint of salmonids on river morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, M. A.; Tonina, D.

    2012-12-01

    Female salmonids dig a pit in the streambed where they lay their eggs, which then cover with sediment from a second pit forming an egg nest call redd. This formation results in a shape resembling a dune with an amplitude, which is the vertical difference between bottom of the pit and crest of the hump, varying from few centimetres (for small fish, chum or sockeye salmon) to tenths of a meter (for large fish, Chinook salmon). During redd construction, salmonids alter streambed topography, winnow away fine sediment and mix streambed material within a layer as thick as 50 cm, for the large chinook salmon. The spawning activities may result in additional roughness at the local scale due to redds. However, redd construction may smooth large-scale topography reducing roughness due the macro-bedform. These topographical changes vary streambed roughness, which in turn may affect shear stress distribution. Redds have been suggested to increase the overall flow resistance due to form drag resulting in lower grain shear stress and less particle mobility. However, the mixing of the sediment could prevent armouring of the streambed surface allowing higher than with armouring sediment transport. Here, we use detailed pre- and post-spawning bathymetries coupled with accurate 2-dimensional hydraulic numerical modelling to test which of these two effects has potentially more impact on sediment transport. Our results show that topographical roughness added by sockeye salmons, which build small redds with 15cm amplitude and 1 meter wavelength (longitudinal length of a redd), has negligible effect on shear stress at the reach-scale and limited at the local scale. Conversely, sediment mixing has an important effect on reducing armouring, increasing sediment mobility, which results in potentially more sediment transport in reaches with than without redds. Consequently, salmonid bioturbation due to mass-spawning fish can be a dominant element for sediment transport in mountain drainage

  13. Yersinia ruckeri infections in salmonid fish.

    PubMed

    Tobback, E; Decostere, A; Hermans, K; Haesebrouck, F; Chiers, K

    2007-05-01

    Yersinia ruckeri is the causative agent of yersiniosis or enteric redmouth disease leading to significant economic losses in salmonid aquaculture worldwide. Infection may result in a septicaemic condition with haemorrhages on the body surface and in the internal organs. Despite the significance of the disease, very little information is available on the pathogenesis, hampering the development of preventive measures to efficiently combat this bacterial agent. This review discusses the agent and the disease it causes. The possibility of the presence of similar virulence markers and/or pathogenic mechanisms between the Yersinia species which elicit disease in humans and Y. ruckeri is also examined.

  14. Functional Analysis of All Salmonid Genomes (FAASG): an international initiative supporting future salmonid research, conservation and aquaculture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We describe an emerging initiative - the 'Functional Analysis of All Salmonid Genomes' (FAASG), which will leverage the extensive trait diversity that has evolved since a whole genome duplication event in the salmonid ancestor, to develop an integrative understanding of the functional genomic basis ...

  15. The effect of salinity on growth and weight loss of juvenile plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa, L): An experimental test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augley, Julian; Huxham, Mark; Fernandes, Teresa F.; Lyndon, Alastair R.

    2008-11-01

    Previous population estimates of the 0+ plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa L.) in the Firth of Forth, east central Scotland, did not take account of the Forth estuary west of the Forth bridges. Previous work found plaice in the estuary grew as fast as, or faster than, the outer firth plaice. It was hypothesised that salinity may affect growth rates of early 0+ plaice. This hypothesis was tested in a laboratory experiment, by exposing juvenile plaice to three different, but naturally — experienced by the juveniles, salinities; 25, 30 and 35. Plaice fed a minimum ration did not grow in length. Mean weight decreased at all three salinities, however, the lowest weight loss was found at the lowest salinity (25) and the highest weight loss was found at the highest salinity (35). The minimum feeding ration was halted and plaice were then fed ad libitum. Consumption rates were not significantly different during the ad libitum feeding, while significant differences in mean weight change were found between the highest and lowest salinities.

  16. Seasonal habitat use of brook trout and juvenile steelhead in a Lake Ontario tributary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Abbett, Ross; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Verdoliva, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) are generally restricted to headwaters in New York tributaries of Lake Ontario. In only a few streams are brook trout abundant in lower stream reaches that are accessible to adult Pacific salmonids migrating from the lake. Consequently, because of the rarity of native brook trout populations in these lower stream reaches it is important to understand how they use stream habitat in sympatry with juvenile Pacific salmonids which are now naturalized in several Lake Ontario tributaries. In this study, we examined the seasonal (spring, summer, and fall) habitat use of brook trout and juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Hart Brook, a tributary of eastern Lake Ontario. We found interspecific, intraspecific, and seasonal variation in habitat use. Subyearling steelhead were associated with faster water velocities than subyearling brook trout and, overall, had the least habitat similarity to the other salmonid groups examined. Overyearling brook trout and yearling steelhead exhibited the greatest degree of habitat selection and habitat selection by all four salmonid groups was greatest in summer. The availability of pool habitat for overyearling salmonids may pose the largest impediment to these species in Hart Brook.

  17. Juvenile Firesetting.

    PubMed

    Peters, Brittany; Freeman, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile firesetting is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Male gender, substance use, history of maltreatment, interest in fire, and psychiatric illness are commonly reported risk factors. Interventions that have been shown to be effective in juveniles who set fires include cognitive behavior therapy and educational interventions, whereas satiation has not been shown to be an effective intervention. Forensic assessments can assist the legal community in adjudicating youth with effective interventions. Future studies should focus on consistent assessment and outcome measures to create more evidence for directing evaluation and treatment of juvenile firesetters.

  18. Efficacy, fate, and potential effects on salmonids of mosquito larvicides in catch basins in Seattle, Washington.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Morgan; Grue, Christian; Conquest, Loveday; Grassley, James; King, Kerensa

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the efficacy, fate, and potential for direct effects on salmonids of 4 common mosquito larvicides (Mosquito Dunks and Bits (AI: Bacillis thuringiensis var. israelensis, [Bti]), VectoLex WSP (AI: Bacillus sphaericus [Bs], VectoLex CG [AI: Bs], and Altosid Briquets [AI: s-methoprene]) in Seattle, WA, during 3 summers. During efficacy trials in 2006, all treatments resulted in a rapid reduction in number of mosquito pupae (Mosquito Dunks and Bits and VectoLex WSP) or emergence success (Altosid Briquets). VectoLex CG was chosen for city-wide application in 2007 and 2008. The average counts of pupae within round-top basins remained significantly below the control average for 11 wk in 2007, whereas efficacy in grated-top basins was short-lived. In 2008 the average counts of pupae within grated-top basins remained significantly below the control average for 10 wk. Altosid XR was also effective in reducing adult emergence within grated basins in 2008. In 2007 and 2008, frequent precipitation events made the evaluation of efficacy difficult due to reductions in pupae across control and treated basins. Four separate analyses of VectoLex products revealed that the product was a combination of Bs and Bti. Both Bs and Bti were detected in 3 urban creeks connected to treated basins in 2007 and 2008. Laboratory toxicity test results suggest that concentrations of Bs and Bti detected in each of the watersheds pose little direct hazard to juvenile salmonids.

  19. Dermatomyositis (Juvenile)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of children with JDM may have a more chronic course that is less responsive to therapy. Juvenile ... disease and arthritis. Since the myopathies can be chronic diseases, it is important for patients to have ...

  20. Juvenile Prostitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  1. Juvenile rainbow trout production in New York tributaries of Lake Ontario: implications for Atlantic salmon restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenna, James E.; Johnson, James H.

    2005-01-01

    Three Pacific salmonid species Onchorynchus spp. have replaced the extirpated Atlantic salmon Salmo salar as the main migratory salmonid in the Lake Ontario drainage. One of those species, the nonnative rainbow trout O. mykiss, has become widely distributed within the historical Atlantic salmon habitat, occupying an ecological niche similar to that of juvenile Atlantic salmon. Consequently, both a tributary's carrying capacity for Atlantic salmon and competition from established nonnative species are important when considering the feasibility of Atlantic salmon restoration. Estimation of juvenile rainbow trout production will help evaluate the capacity of tributaries to produce salmonids that occupy similar niches. Geostatistical methods were applied to standardized and efficiency-corrected electrofishing data from three of New York's best salmonid-producing streams to precisely estimate juvenile rainbow trout populations. Results indicated that each study stream could produce 20,000–40,000 age-0 and 4,000–10,000 age-1 and older rainbow trout per year. Statistical interpolation indicated areas of significantly different production potential and points of significant changes in productivity. Closer examination of the niche similarity and competitive potential of these two species is needed to properly interpret these estimates with regard to Atlantic salmon restoration.

  2. Epidemiology and Control of Infectious Diseases of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1986 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, John L.

    1986-12-01

    The Department of Microbiology at Oregon State University with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration conducted a study relating to the epidemiology and control of three fish diseases of salmonids in the Columbia River Basin. These three diseases were ceratomyxosis caused by the myxosporidan parasite Ceratomyxa Shasta, bacterial kidney disease, the causative agent Renibacterium salmoninarum, and infectious hematopoietic necrosis, caused by a rhabdovirus. Each of these diseases is highly destructive and difficult or impossible to treat with antimicrobial agents. The geographic range of the infectious stage of C. Shasta has been extended to include the Snake River to the Oxbow and Hells Canyon Dams. These are the farthest upriver sites tested. Infections of ceratomyxosis were also initiated in the east fork of the Lewis River and in the Washougal River in Washington. Laboratory studies with this parasite failed to indicate that tubeficids are required in its life cycle. Bacterial kidney disease has been demonstrated in all life stages of salmonids: in the eggs, fry, smolts, juveniles and adults in the ocean, and in fish returning to fresh water. Monoclonal antibodies produced against R. salmoninarum demonstrated antigenic differences among isolates of the bacterium. Monoclonal antibodies also showed antigens of R. salmoninarum which are similar to those of a wide variety of gram positive and gram negative bacteria. A demonstration project at Round Butte Hatchery showed U V treatment to be an effective method for reducing the microbial population of the water supply and could reduce risks of IHNV. Tangential flow filtration was used successfully to concentrate IHNV from environmental water. At Round Butte Hatchery the carrier rate of IHNV in adults was very low and there was no subsequent mortality resulting from IHN in juveniles.

  3. Temporal and spatial variation in relative abundance and length structure of salmonids in reservoirs: Implications for monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhea, D.T.; Hubert, W.A.; Gangl, R.S.; Whaley, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    Spatial and temporal variations in salmonid catch per unit effort (C/f) may affect monitoring efforts in lakes and reservoirs. This study evaluated the spatial and temporal variation in gill-net C/f and length structure of captured salmonids in nearshore (???7.6-m bottom depth) and offshore (>7.6-m bottom depth) areas of two Wyoming reservoirs. Floating experimental gill nets were set as nearshore and offshore pairs at 24 locations in both reservoirs during each of four sampling periods (spring, early summer, late summer, and fall). Salmonid C/f was significantly higher in nearshore areas than in offshore areas during all periods in one reservoir and during all periods except spring in the other reservoir. Mean C/f of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss was not significantly different between nearshore and offshore areas when water temperatures were 10-13??C in both reservoirs. Length structure of salmonids differed significantly between nearshore and offshore locations and among periods in both reservoirs. These patterns should be considered in both the design and analysis phases of monitoring efforts that use floating experimental gill nets and other sampling gears. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  4. Relationship between growth and standard metabolic rate: measurement artefacts and implications for habitat use and life-history adaptation in salmonids.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Jordan; Van Leeuwen, Travis; Richards, Jeffrey; Allen, David

    2015-01-01

    Mass-specific standard metabolic rate (SMR, or maintenance metabolism) varies greatly among individuals. Metabolism is particularly sensitive to variation in food consumption and growth creating the potential for significant bias in measured SMR for animals that are growing (e.g. juveniles) or of uncertain nutritional status. Consequently, interpreting individual variation in metabolism requires a sound understanding of the potentially confounding role of growth and the relative importance of fixed (genetic) vs. environmental drivers of SMR variation. We review the role of growth in measured SMR variation in juvenile salmonids, with the goals of (i) understanding the contribution of growth (and food consumption) to SMR variation through ontogeny, (ii) understanding the relative contributions of tissue maintenance and biosynthesis (overhead costs of growth) to apparent SMR variation, and (iii) using intrinsic growth effects on SMR to model how alternate life-history strategies may influence growth and measured SMR in juvenile salmonids. SMR measures on juveniles, even when post-absorptive, may be inflated by delayed growth-associated overhead costs, unless juveniles are on a maintenance ration (i.e. not growing). Empirical measurements of apparent SMR in food restricted vs. satiated 2-5 g juvenile salmon demonstrate that estimates may be inflated by as much as 67% due to delayed overhead costs of growth, even when SMR measurements are taken 35 h post-feeding. These results indicate that a substantial component of variation in apparent SMR among juvenile salmonids may be associated with (i) environmentally driven variation in ration (where elevated SMR measurements are an artefact of delayed growth overhead costs), (ii) intrinsic (genetic) or plastic organ-system trade-offs related to increasing investment in metabolically expensive digestive tissue responsible for processing food and (iii) intrinsic (genetic) variation in maximum body size and growth among

  5. Expert initial review of Columbia River Basin salmonid management models: Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.

    1993-10-01

    Over the past years, several fish passage models have been developed to examine the downstream survival of salmon during their annual migration through the Columbia River reservoir system to below Bonneville Dam. More recently, models have been created to simulate the survival of salmon throughout the entire life cycle. The models are used by various regional agencies and native American tribes to assess impacts of dam operation, harvesting, and predation on salmonid abundance. These models are now also being used to assess extinction probabilities and evaluate restoration alternatives for threatened and endangered salmonid stocks. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) coordinated an initial evaluation of the principal models by a panel of outside, expert reviewers. None of the models were unequivocally endorsed by any reviewer. Significant strengths and weaknesses were noted for each with respect to reasonability of assumptions and equations, adequacy of documentation, adequacy of supporting data, and calibration procedures. Although the models reviewed differ in some important respects, all reflect a common conceptual basis in classical population dynamic theory and a common empirical basis consisting of the available time series of salmonid stock data, hydrographic records, experimental studies of dam passage parameters, and measurements of reservoir mortality. The results of this initial review are not to be construed as a comprehensive scientific peer review of existing Columbia River Basin (CRB) salmon population models and data. The peer review process can be enhanced further by a dynamic exchange regional modelers and scientific panel experts involving interaction and feedback.

  6. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis the same as Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis? Yes, Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is a new ... of chronic inflammatory diseases that affect children. Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA) is the older term that was used ...

  7. Asymmetric competition drives lake use of coexisting salmonids.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, B; Jonsson, N; Hindar, Kjetil; Northcote, T G; Engen, S

    2008-10-01

    To what degree are population differences in resource use caused by competition and the occupation of adjacent positions along environmental gradients evidence of competition? Habitat use may be the result of a competitive lottery, or restricted by competition. We tested to what extent population differences in habitat use of two salmonids, cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) and Dolly Varden charr (Salvelinus malma) were influenced by interspecific competition. We hypothesized that the depth distribution of Dolly Varden charr would be affected by competition from the more littoral and surface-oriented cutthroat trout, and that the depth distribution of cutthroat trout would be little affected by competition from Dolly Varden charr. Sympatric populations of cutthroat trout and Dolly Varden charr were created by reciprocal transfers of previously allopatric populations in two experimental lakes. We found evidence of asymmetric competition, as Dolly Varden charr were displaced from littoral habitats when sympatric with cutthroat trout, whereas cutthroat trout remained unaffected by the presence of Dolly Varden charr. Evolved differences between the species, and differences between experimental lakes, also contributed to population differences in habitat use, but asymmetric competition remained as the main driver of different depth distributions in sympatry.

  8. 77 FR 42487 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement To Reduce Avian Predation on Juvenile...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... initiatives that aim to improve juvenile salmonid survival, is anticipated to increase population growth rates... reducing bird numbers with the preliminary action alternatives indicate increases in population growth... shall carry out methods to reduce nesting populations of avian predators on dredge spoil islands in the...

  9. Hydroacoustic Assessment of Downstream Migrating Salmonids at the Dalles Dam in Spring and Summer, 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Steig, Tracy W.; Johnson, Ward R.

    1986-02-15

    A hydroacoustic study of downstream migrating salmon and steelhead was conducted at The Dalles Dam. The primary objective was to estimate the effectiveness of the spillway and sluiceway in passing downstream migrants. The secondary goals were to provide information on the horizontal, vertical, and temporal distributions of downstream migrants. June 1, and the summer season was from July 1 to August 15, 1985. Nineteen transducers were deployed to monitor turbine, spillway, and sluiceway locations. The 10 h instantaneous spill effectiveness results showed that spill passed fish more efficiently during the summer study than during the spring study. During the period May 1-31 when the turbines, spillway, and sluiceway were all operating consistently, the sluiceway was found to be the most efficient method of passing fish on a percent flow basis. During the summer study, after the termination of spill, the sluiceway and turbines passed almost equal percentages of fish. The run timing during the spring showed steadily increasing numbers of fish until the peak of the run on May 16. Another, smaller peak occurred on May 20. Thereafter, passage gradually decreased through the end of the spring study. The spring run consisted of yearling chinook, steelhead and sockeye juvenile salmonids. During the summer study, fish passage gradually decreased, except for minor peaks near the beginning of the study. The summer migration consisted primarily of subyearling chinook juvenile salmonids.

  10. Pseudosuccinea columella: experimental co-infections of juvenile and pre-adult snails with the digeneans Calicophoron daubneyi and Fasciola hepatica.

    PubMed

    Dreyfuss, G; Vignoles, P; Rondelaud, D

    2016-11-01

    Experimental co-infections of juvenile and pre-adult Pseudosuccinea columella with Calicophoron daubneyi and Fasciola hepatica (five miracidia of each digenean per snail) were carried out to determine the aptitude of this lymnaeid to ensure complete larval development of the former parasite, the latter or both. Snails infected with F. hepatica were found in the two groups of juveniles, i.e. 1 and 2 mm at exposure, and the four groups of pre-adults, i.e. 3-6 mm. The highest frequency of F. hepatica, i.e. 37.3%, was noted in the 4 mm group. Low frequencies were noted for C. daubneyi and co-infections of both digeneans in the 3, 4 and 5 mm groups. Two other groups of P. columella, measuring 3 and 4 mm at exposure, were also constituted to study the characteristics of these co-infections. Compared to controls infected only with F. hepatica, the frequency of this digenean infection and the mean number of metacercariae were significantly lower in co-infected snails, while the patent period was significantly shorter. In snails harbouring C. daubneyi only or both digeneans, lower values were noted for prevalence, the patent period and the number of metacercariae. Pre-adult P. columella (3-5 mm in shell height at exposure) were able to sustain larval development of C. daubneyi if they were co-infected with the sequence C. daubneyi +F. hepatica. Low values noted for the prevalence of C. daubneyi infection and the number of metacercariae would be in favour of a still incomplete adaptation between the snail population and the miracidial isolate.

  11. Epidemiology and Control of Infectious Diseases of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1983 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, John L.

    1984-11-01

    The Department of Microbiology at Oregon State University with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration conducted a study relating to the epidemiology and control of three fish diseases of salmonids in the Columbia River Basin. These three diseases were ceratomyxosis which is caused by the myxosporidan parasite Ceratomyxa shasta, bacterial kidney disease, the etiological agent of which is Renibacterium salmoninarum, and infectious hematopoietic necrosis, which is caused by a rhabdovirus. Each of these diseases is highly destructive and difficult or impossible to treat with antimicrobial agents. The presence of ceratomyxosis in rainbow trout exposed at McNary and Little Goose Dams extends the range of this disease about 200 miles further up the Columbia River and into the Snake River drainage. Wallowa steelhead trout were less resistant to this disease than other upriver stocks tested. Juvenile salmonids entering the Columbia River estuary were collected periodically between May to September, 1983. Nine percent of the beach seined chinook salmon and 5, 11 and 12%, respectively, of the purse seined coho and chinook salmon and steelhead trout were infected with Ceratomyxa shasta. Experiments indicated ceratomyxosis progresses in salt water at the same rate as in fresh water once the fish have become infected. These data indicate a longer exposure to infective stages of C. shasta than previously identified and that approximately 10% of the migrating salmonids are infected and will probably die from this organism after entering salt water. Since sampling began in 1981 the bacterial kidney disease organism, Renibacterium salmoninarum, has been detected by the fluorescent antibody test in seven salmonid species caught in the open ocean off the coasts of Washington and Oregon. The bacterium has been found primarily in chinook salmon (11%) with lesions in 2.5% of these fish. This disease was also detected at levels ranging from 17% in coho salmon to 25% in chinook

  12. Biotic interactions modify multiple-stressor effects on juvenile brown trout in an experimental stream food web.

    PubMed

    Bruder, Andreas; Salis, Romana K; Jones, Peter E; Matthaei, Christoph D

    2017-03-21

    Agricultural land use results in multiple stressors affecting stream ecosystems. Flow reduction due to water abstraction, elevated levels of nutrients and chemical contaminants are common agricultural stressors worldwide. Concurrently, stream ecosystems are also increasingly affected by climate change. Interactions among multiple co-occurring stressors result in biological responses that cannot be predicted from single-stressor effects (i.e. synergisms and antagonisms). At the ecosystem level, multiple-stressor effects can be further modified by biotic interactions (e.g. trophic interactions). We conducted a field experiment using 128 flow-through stream mesocosms to examine the individual and combined effects of water abstraction, nutrient enrichment and elevated levels of the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) on survival, condition and gut content of juvenile brown trout, and on benthic abundance of their invertebrate prey. Flow velocity reduction decreased fish survival (-12% compared to controls) and condition (-8% compared to initial condition), whereas effects of nutrient and DCD additions and interactions among these stressors were not significant. Negative effects of flow velocity reduction on fish survival and condition were consistent with effects on fish gut content (-25% compared to controls) and abundance of dominant invertebrate prey (-30%), suggesting a negative metabolic balance driving fish mortality and condition decline, which was confirmed by structural equation modelling. Fish mortality under reduced flow velocity increased as maximal daily water temperatures approached the upper limit of their tolerance range, reflecting synergistic interactions between these stressors. Our study highlights the importance of indirect stressor effects such as those transferred through trophic interactions, which need to be considered when assessing and managing fish populations and stream food webs in multiple-stressor situations. However, in real

  13. Caffeine and Cannabis Effects on Vital Neurotransmitters and Enzymes in the Brain Tissue of Juvenile Experimental Rats

    PubMed Central

    Owolabi, J.O.; Olatunji, S.Y.; Olanrewaju, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Caffeine and cannabis are globally consumed and abused psychoactive substances. While caffeine is legally used in various forms, including in tea and coffee as beverages, it is also consumed in soda and energy drinks as additives. Cannabis, on the other hand, is considered illegal in most countries; albeit, it is being consumed globally particularly by adolescents. Purpose The adolescent stage marks a critical stage of brain development and maturation. Influences of agents on the brain at this stage may affect neuronal structural and functional attributes. To this end, the current experiment considered the effects of cannabis and caffeine on selected key neurotransmitters and enzymes in the brain tissues after regimented caffeine and cannabis treatment for 21 days. Methods A total of 72 juvenile Wistar rats that were approximately 40 days old were divided into 6 groups A-F. The group A served as the control. Other groups were administered various dosages of caffeine or cannabis in distilled water, using oral gavages as follows: group B animals received 100 mg/kg body weight of caffeine, group C animals received 50 mg/kg body weight of caffeine, group D animals received 500 mg/kg body weight of cannabis, group E animals received 200 mg/kg body weight of cannabis, and group F received a low dose of cannabis (200 mg/kg body weight) plus a low dose of caffeine (50 mg/kg body weight). The animals were killed by cervical dislocation 24 h after the last administration. The brain tissues were excised and homogenized. The enzymes cytochrome C oxidase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were assayed to observe tissue energy metabolism while the neurotransmitters gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), glutamate, and dopamine were assayed to observe the effects of the psychoactive substances on their activities relative to mental activities. Results GABA, glutamate, and dopamine were generally higher in the treated groups of animals. The levels of G-6-PDH were higher in

  14. Caffeine and Cannabis Effects on Vital Neurotransmitters and Enzymes in the Brain Tissue of Juvenile Experimental Rats.

    PubMed

    Owolabi, J O; Olatunji, S Y; Olanrewaju, A J

    2017-05-01

    Caffeine and cannabis are globally consumed and abused psychoactive substances. While caffeine is legally used in various forms, including in tea and coffee as beverages, it is also consumed in soda and energy drinks as additives. Cannabis, on the other hand, is considered illegal in most countries; albeit, it is being consumed globally particularly by adolescents. The adolescent stage marks a critical stage of brain development and maturation. Influences of agents on the brain at this stage may affect neuronal structural and functional attributes. To this end, the current experiment considered the effects of cannabis and caffeine on selected key neurotransmitters and enzymes in the brain tissues after regimented caffeine and cannabis treatment for 21 days. A total of 72 juvenile Wistar rats that were approximately 40 days old were divided into 6 groups A-F. The group A served as the control. Other groups were administered various dosages of caffeine or cannabis in distilled water, using oral gavages as follows: group B animals received 100 mg/kg body weight of caffeine, group C animals received 50 mg/kg body weight of caffeine, group D animals received 500 mg/kg body weight of cannabis, group E animals received 200 mg/kg body weight of cannabis, and group F received a low dose of cannabis (200 mg/kg body weight) plus a low dose of caffeine (50 mg/kg body weight). The animals were killed by cervical dislocation 24 h after the last administration. The brain tissues were excised and homogenized. The enzymes cytochrome C oxidase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were assayed to observe tissue energy metabolism while the neurotransmitters gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), glutamate, and dopamine were assayed to observe the effects of the psychoactive substances on their activities relative to mental activities. GABA, glutamate, and dopamine were generally higher in the treated groups of animals. The levels of G-6-PDH were higher in all treated animals' brains

  15. Surface and internal tegumental changes in juvenile Fasciola hepatica following treatment in vivo with the experimental fasciolicide, compound alpha.

    PubMed

    McConville, M; Brennan, G P; Flanagan, A; Edgar, H W J; McCoy, M; Castillo, R; Hernández-Campos, A; Fairweather, I

    2008-05-06

    Eight indoor-reared, crossbred sheep with no pre-exposure to Fasciola hepatica were infected, by oral gavage, with 200 metacercarial cysts of the triclabendazole-susceptible, Cullompton isolate of F. hepatica. Anthelmintic dosing occurred at 4 weeks post-infection using 15mg/kg compound alpha. Two treated sheep per time period were euthanized at 24h, 48h and 72h post-treatment with compound alpha. The two sheep from the control group were euthanized alongside the 24h alpha-treated sheep. Juvenile flukes were recovered from each of the sheeps' liver and processed for examination by electron microscopy. The surface morphology of the flukes' tegument was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ultrastructure of the tegumental syncytium and underlying tegumental cells and connections and somatic musculature were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Both the SEM and TEM results revealed a level of disruption that increased with time, culminating at 72h with extensive tegumental loss and substantial degeneration of the cell bodies. The effects of compound alpha on the surface morphology were not particularly apparent until 48h post-treatment, when disruption included swelling and blebbing of the tegument. At 72h post-treatment, SEM revealed loss of the entire syncytial layer over large areas of the flukes. In the areas where the syncytium was lost and the basal lamina exposed, lesions of varying sizes had developed, revealing underlying tissues. Though minor forms of disruption to the ultrastructure of the syncytium were observed using TEM 24h post-treatment, it was at 48h post-treatment that substantial stress responses occurred. They included the presence of autophagic vacuoles and 'open' bodies at the apex of the syncytium and swelling of the basal infolds. The mitochondria within the syncytium and tegumental cells became progressively more disrupted over the three time periods and, by 72h post-treatment, they were frequently

  16. Juvenile Spondyloarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Gmuca, Sabrina; Weiss, Pamela F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide a comprehensive update of the pathogenesis, diagnostic imaging, treatments, and disease activity measurements of juvenile spondyloarthritis (JSpA). Recent findings Genetic and microbiome studies have provided new information regarding possible pathogenesis of JSpA. Recent work suggests that children with JSpA have decreased thresholds for pain in comparison to healthy children. Additionally, pain on physical examination and abnormalities on ultrasound of the entheses are not well correlated. Treatment guidelines for juvenile arthritis, including JSpA, were published by the American College of Rheumatology and are based on active joint count and presence of sacroiliitis. Recent studies have established the efficacy of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors in the symptomatic treatment of axial disease, though their efficacy for halting progression of structural damage is less clear. Newly developed disease activity measures for JSpA include the Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score and the JSpA Disease Activity index. In comparison to other categories of juvenile arthritis, children with JSpA are less likely to attain and sustain inactive disease. Summary Further microbiome and genetic research may help elucidate JSpA pathogenesis. More randomized therapeutic trials are needed and the advent of new composite disease activity measurement tools will hopefully allow for the design of these greatly needed trials. PMID:26002028

  17. Single or dual experimental infections with Vibrio aestuarianus and OsHV-1 in diploid and triploid Crassostrea gigas at the spat, juvenile and adult stages.

    PubMed

    Azéma, Patrick; Travers, Marie-Agnès; Benabdelmouna, Abdellah; Dégremont, Lionel

    2016-09-01

    French production of the Pacific cupped oyster, Crassostrea gigas, is currently threatened by two pathogens, OsHV-1 and V. aestuarianus. While oysters selected for their higher resistance to OsHV-1 are now available for the industry, the impact of V. aestuarianus on such oysters is unknown, especially for triploids. In addition, experimental infection has used the virus or the bacteria alone, but there have been no investigations of dual exposure to these pathogens. This study is the first report of single or dual exposure in spat (Spat1 and Spat2), juvenile and adult naïve oysters. For each of the two stocks evaluated, unselected oysters and oysters selected for their higher resistance to OsHV-1 infection were tested, as well as their triploid siblings of the selected oysters produced using cytochalasin B. We confirmed that resistance to OsHV-1 infection and susceptibility to V. aestuarianus increased with age and size, although selected oysters were not significantly impacted by OsHV-1 whatever their ploidy, size or age. We found different mortality patterns depending on the pathogen tested. The mortality pattern was similar for oysters exposed to OsHV-1 or to both pathogens in the Spat1 trial (4months old and 1.9g). The mortality pattern was similar for oysters exposed to V. aestuarianus or to both pathogens in the Adult trial (25months old and 63.1g). Surprisingly, mortality was much higher (ranging from 75.9% to 100%), in particular for the selected oysters, for the Spat2 (8months old/3.9g) and Juvenile trials (16months old/18.4g) given a dual exposure, regardless of the level of selection for OsHV-1 and the ploidy state. Our findings highlight an important threat for oyster farmers: oysters exposed to both pathogens could experience dramatic mortality rates, even in oysters selected for their higher resistance to OsHV-1. Finally, our study demonstrated for the first time that triploid oysters were more susceptible to experimental challenges with V

  18. Effects of multiple acute stressors on the predator avoidance ability and physiology of juvenile Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, Matthew G.

    1994-01-01

    Northern squaw fish Ptychocheilus oregonensis are the predominant predators of juvenile Pacific salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. in the Columbia River, and their predation rates are greatest just below dams. Because juvenile salmonids are commonly subjected to multiple stressors at dams in the course of their seaward migration, high predation rates below dams may be due in part to an increase in the vulnerability of stressed fish. I conducted laboratory experiments to examine the predator avoidance ability and physiological stress responses of juvenile chinook salmon O. tshawytscha subjected to treatments (stressors) designed to simulate routine hatchery practices (multiple handlings) or dam passage (multiple agitations). Both stressors resulted in lethargic behavior in the fish, and agitation also caused disorieniation and occasional injury. When equal numbers of stressed and unstressed fish were exposed to northern squawfish for up to 1 h, significantly more stressed fish were eaten, but this effect was not evident during longer exposures. The lack of differential predation in trials lasting up to 24 h can be explained by the rapid development of schooling behavior in the prey, but other possibilities exist, such as changing ratios of stressed and unstressed prey over time. Concentrations of plasma cortisol, glucose, and lactate in fish subjected to multiple stressors were similar and sometimes cumulative, returned to prestress levels within 6-24 h, and correlated poorly with predator avoidance ability. My results suggest that juvenile salmonids are capable of avoiding predators within 1 h after being subjected to multiple acute stressors even though physiological homeostasis may be altered for up to 24 h. Therefore, because juvenile salmonids typically reside in lailrace areas for only a short time after dam passage, measures aimed at reducing physical stress or protecting them as they migrate through dam tailraces may help alleviate the relatively intense predation

  19. Virulence of Renibacterium salmoninarum to salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starliper, C.E.; Smith, D.R.; Shatzer, T.

    1997-01-01

    Virulence of Renibacterium salmoninarum isolates representing five origins was evaluated in eight salmonid hosts; four origins were of Lake Michigan and the fifth was of the Pacific Northwest. The species type strain, ATCC (American Type Culture Collection) 33209, was also included. Each isolate was grown in a kidney disease medium (KDM2) supplemented with 1 % ATCC 33209 culture metabolite; serial 10-fold dilutions were prepared, and groups of fish were challenged by intraperitoneal injection with 0.1 mL of each dilution. A 70-d observation period followed, and bacterial kidney disease (BKD) was diagnosed by the fluorescent antibody technique. Virulence of isolates was quantified as a dose lethal to 50% of fish (LD50) for each host–isolate challenge. In the first set of experiments, 23 isolates were used to challenge groups of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis. The mean LD50 was 1.087 x 106 colony-forming units per milliliter (cfu/mL; SD = 2.022 x 106), and the LD50 values ranged from 8.457 x 106 to 2.227 x 104 cfu/mL. Analysis of variance to evaluate the effect of isolate origin on virulence in brook trout revealed no significant difference (F = 1.502; P = 0.243). Susceptibilities of the other salmonid hosts were evaluated by challenge with six isolates of R. salmoninarum representing each origin and the species type strain. For many of the host–isolate challenge combinations, time to death was highly dependent on the dilution (number of bacteria) injected. In general, the isolates MCO4M, B26, and A34 (all of Lake Michigan origin) tended to be more virulent. Also, LD50 values were dispersed throughout a wider range among the more susceptible hosts. Lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, and brook trout were relatively resistant to challenge with the strains, whereas coho salmon O. kisutch, domestic Atlantic salmon Saltno salar, and chinook salmon O. tshawytscha were relatively susceptible. Another challenge evaluated the effect of

  20. Trophic feasibility of reintroducing anadromous salmonids in three reservoirs on the north fork Lewis River, Washington: Prey supply and consumption demand of resident fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorel, Mark H.; Hansen, Adam G.; Connelly, Kristin A.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The reintroduction of anadromous salmonids in reservoirs is being proposed with increasing frequency, requiring baseline studies to evaluate feasibility and estimate the capacity of reservoir food webs to support reintroduced populations. Using three reservoirs on the north fork Lewis River as a case study, we demonstrate a method to determine juvenile salmonid smolt rearing capacities for lakes and reservoirs. To determine if the Lewis River reservoirs can support reintroduced populations of juvenile stream-type Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, we evaluated the monthly production of daphniaDaphnia spp. (the primary zooplankton consumed by resident salmonids in the system) and used bioenergetics to model the consumption demand of resident fishes in each reservoir. To estimate the surplus of Daphnia prey available for reintroduced salmonids, we assumed a maximum sustainable exploitation rate and accounted for the consumption demand of resident fishes. The number of smolts that could have been supported was estimated by dividing any surplus Daphnia production by the simulated consumption demand of an individual Chinook Salmon fry rearing in the reservoir to successful smolt size. In all three reservoirs, densities of Daphnia were highest in the epilimnion, but warm epilimnetic temperatures and the vertical distribution of planktivores suggested that access to abundant epilimnetic prey was limited. By comparing accessible prey supply and demand on a monthly basis, we were able to identify potential prey supply bottlenecks that could limit smolt production and growth. These results demonstrate that a bioenergetics approach can be a valuable method of examining constraints on lake and reservoir rearing capacity, such as thermal structure and temporal food supply. This method enables numerical estimation of rearing capacity, which is a useful metric for managers evaluating the feasibility of reintroducing Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. in lentic systems.

  1. Sensitivity of salmonid freshwater life history in western US streams to future climate conditions.

    PubMed

    Beer, W Nicholas; Anderson, James J

    2013-08-01

    We projected effects of mid-21st century climate on the early life growth of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) in western United States streams. Air temperature and snowpack trends projected from observed 20th century trends were used to predict future seasonal stream temperatures. Fish growth from winter to summer was projected with temperature-dependent models of egg development and juvenile growth. Based on temperature data from 115 sites, by mid-21st century, the effects of climate change are projected to be mixed. Fish in warm-region streams that are currently cooled by snow melt will grow less, and fish in suboptimally cool streams will grow more. Relative to 20th century conditions, by mid-21st century juvenile salmonids' weights are expected to be lower in the Columbia Basin and California Central Valley, but unchanged or greater in coastal and mountain streams. Because fish weight affects fish survival, the predicted changes in weight could impact population fitness depending on other factors such as density effects, food quality and quantity changes, habitat alterations, etc. The level of year-to-year variability in stream temperatures is high and our analysis suggests that identifying effects of climate change over the natural variability will be difficult except in a few streams.

  2. Salmonid redd dewatering: What do we know

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, C D; Neitzel, D A

    1983-11-01

    Dewatering of salmonid spawning areas causes abrupt changes in the intergravel environment that may lead to extensive losses of development phases while intergravel in redds. Information on tolerance to dewatering and the extent of physicochemical changes in the gravel during dewatering can be used to assess potential impacts and to design and implement effective mitigation methods. Studies with fall chinook salmon are summarized, and the comparisons are made with results from available literature. Potentially useful methods of mitigation are mentioned. We found that prehatch phases (cleavage eggs and embryos) can be dewatered for several successive days and survive, but posthatch phases (eleutheroembryos and alevins) usually die within 24 hours. Survival of prehatch phases during extended dewatering requires maintenance of favorable intergravel temperature and moisture levels. Elevated temperatures (up to 22/sup 0/C) can be tolerated for up to 8 hours without direct adverse effects, but freezing temperatures (/sup -/1.0/sup 0/C or below) are lethal. Dewatered gravels must remain sufficient moisture to provide near 100% humidity for egg and embryo survival. In field situations, physicochemical conditions that limit survival in dewatered gravels include residual flow, temperature, gravel size and composition, and dissolved oxygen. Biological variables such as alevin behavior and certain species characteristics also influence survival. 29 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Ultrastructural morphogenesis of salmonid alphavirus 1.

    PubMed

    Herath, T K; Ferguson, H W; Thompson, K D; Adams, A; Richards, R H

    2012-11-01

    Studies on the ultrastructural morphogenesis of viruses give an insight into how the host cell mechanisms are utilized for new virion synthesis. A time course examining salmonid alphavirus 1 (SAV 1) assembly was performed by culturing the virus on Chinook salmon embryo cells (CHSE-214). Different stages of viral replication were observed under electron microscopy. Virus-like particles were observed inside membrane-bound vesicles as early as 1 h following contact of the virus with the cells. Membrane-dependent replication complexes were observed in the cytoplasm of the cells, with spherules found at the periphery of late endosome-like vacuoles. The use of intracellular membranes for RNA replication is similar to other positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses. The number of Golgi apparatus and associated vacuoles characterized by 'fuzzy'-coated membranes was greater in virus-infected cells. The mature enveloped virions started to bud out from the cells at approximately 24 h post-infection. These observations suggest that the pathway used by SAV 1 for the generation of new virus particles in vitro is comparable to viral replication observed with mammalian alphaviruses but with some interesting differences.

  4. Understanding the influence of predation on introduced fishes on juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River Basin: Closing some knowledge gaps. Late summer and fall diet and condition of smallmouth bass, walleye, and channel catfish in the middle Columbia River, USA. Interim Report of Research 2011.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, Brien P.; Hansen, Gabriel S.; Weaver,; Ayers,; Van Dyke, Erick S.; Mesa, Matthew G.

    2012-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima in the middle Columbia River (MCR)—a high energy food available in the summer and fall—may be contributing to the increased growth and enhanced condition of nonnative piscivores. To test this hypothesis we quantified the late summer and autumn diets of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, walleye Sander vitreus, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus in the three lowermost reservoirs on the Columbia River (Bonneville [BON], The Dalles [TDA], and John Day [JDA]). The diet of smallmouth bass (SMB) was fairly similar among reservoirs, with crustaceans (52–82%) and fish (13–38%) being the dominant prey groups by percent mass. Cottidae were usually the dominant fish prey in the diet of SMB at all areas and the contribution of juvenile shad ranged from 0–8.2%. Fish (mostly Cyprinidae and Cottidae) were always the dominant prey item for walleye (WAL) at all areas and at all times, ranging from 70–100% of their diet by mass. Juvenile American shad composed from 10–27% (by mass) of the diet of walleye, depending on area and month. For channel catfish (CHC), the most common prey items consumed were crustaceans (20%–80% by mass) and unidentified items (30%–80%). Fish represented a relatively small component (< 4%) of their diet. We also evaluated the condition of SMB and WAL by determining relative weights (Wr) and hepatosomatic indices (HSI). Mean Wr for SMB greater than 300 mm ranged from 0.89 to 0.94 depending on area and month and showed a significant increase from August to September for fish in BON only. Overall, mean Wr of WAL was similar at all areas, ranging from 0.89–0.91, and increased significantly from September to mid-October and November for fish in TDA only. Overall, mean HSI of SMB ranged from 1.18 to 1.48, did not differ between fish in different reservoirs, and increased significantly from September to mid-October and November for fish from the lower JDA only. Mean HSI of WAL was significantly higher in

  5. The Control of Salmonid Populations by Hydrological Connectivity: an Analysis at the Local, Reach and Watershed scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, S. N.; Burt, T. P.; Dugdale, L. J.; Dixon, J.; Heathwaite, A. L.; Maltby, A.; Reaney, S. M.

    2007-12-01

    Amid concern over the decline of salmonid and other fish populations, the traditional basis of much stream restoration has been identification of degraded river sections and localised attempts to restore them. Research has demonstrated that fine sediment, solutes and organic matter also influence instream aquatic ecosystems and these may be influenced by upstream watershed land use. However, results from modelling the role played by land use impacts are contradictory. This is not surprising for three reasons. First, measurements of river ecology taken at any one point will be influenced by processes operating at scales ranging from the local (e.g. presence of suitable spawning habitat) through the reach-scale to the tributary and watershed scales. Second, upstream land use is only important if it can transmit or deliver its signal (e.g. a fine sediment source) to the river network, as moderated by the extent (frequency, duration) to which it connects with the river network. Third, once a signal is transmitted to a river, its importance can only be judged with respect to other signals, as a result of dilution and/or accumulation effects. These latter two issues are often overlooked by studies of land use impacts upon aquatic ecology. In this paper we bring together two critical research developments: system-scale semi-quantitative electrofishing of salmonids; and risk based modeling of hydrological connectivity; for a 2300 km2 catchment. We support these developments with quantification of both local- and reach-scale influences on salmonid habitat. We use multivariate inference to show that an index of delivery based upon hydrological connection is a first order control upon the presence/absence and the abundance of juvenile salmonid fry: the topographic control of watershed hydrological response exerts a fundamental filtering effect upon the spatial structure of salmonid fry when evaluated at the catchment-scale. We also show that the nature of this relationship is

  6. Salmonid-egg floating boxes as bioindication for riverine water quality and stocking success.

    PubMed

    Pander, J; Geist, J

    2010-06-01

    The salmonid-egg floating box provides an easy bioindication tool for an assessment of water quality, as demonstrated here for the reintroduction of Europe's largest salmonid species, the huchen Hucho hucho.

  7. Juvenile Radio-Tag Study: Lower Granite Dam, 1985 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Stuehrenberg, Lowell C.

    1986-06-01

    The concept of using mass releases of juvenile radio tags represents a new and potentially powerful research tool that could be effectively applied to juvenile salmonid passage problems at dams on the Columbia and Snake Rivers. A system of detector antennas, strategically located, would automatically detect and record individually tagged juvenile salmonids as they pass through the spillway, powerhouse, bypass system, or tailrace areas below the dam. Accurate measurements of spill effectiveness, fish guiding efficiency (FGE), collection efficiency (CE), spillway survival, powerhouse survival, and bypass survival would be possible without handling large numbers of unmarked fish. A prototype juvenile radio-tag system was developed and tested by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) at John Day Dam and at Lower Granite Dam. This report summarizes research to: (1) evaluate the effectiveness of the prototype juvenile radio-tag system in a field situation and (2) to test the basic assumptions inherent in using the juvenile radio tag as a research tool.

  8. Juvenile Justice in Milwaukee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gary L.; Greer, Lanetta

    2010-01-01

    Historically, there have been several attempts made to address issues surrounding juvenile delinquency. The Wisconsin Legislature outlines the objectives of the juvenile justice system in the Juvenile Justice Code in s. 939.01, ?to promote a juvenile justice system capable of dealing with the problem of juvenile delinquency, a system which will…

  9. Evolutionary consequences of habitat loss for Pacific anadromous salmonids

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Michelle M; Carlson, Stephanie M; Beechie, Timothy J; Pess, George R; Jorgensen, Jeffrey C; Sogard, Susan M; Sultan, Sonia E; Holzer, Damon M; Travis, Joseph; Sanderson, Beth L; Power, Mary E; Carmichael, Richard W

    2008-01-01

    Large portions of anadromous salmonid habitat in the western United States has been lost because of dams and other blockages. This loss has the potential to affect salmonid evolution through natural selection if the loss is biased, affecting certain types of habitat differentially, and if phenotypic traits correlated with those habitat types are heritable. Habitat loss can also affect salmonid evolution indirectly, by reducing genetic variation and changing its distribution within and among populations. In this paper, we compare the characteristics of lost habitats with currently accessible habitats and review the heritability of traits which show correlations with habitat/environmental gradients. We find that although there is some regional variation, inaccessible habitats tend to be higher in elevation, wetter and both warmer in the summer and colder in the winter than habitats currently available to anadromous salmonids. We present several case studies that demonstrate either a change in phenotypic or life history expression or an apparent reduction in genetic variation associated with habitat blockages. These results suggest that loss of habitat will alter evolutionary trajectories in salmonid populations and Evolutionarily Significant Units. Changes in both selective regime and standing genetic diversity might affect the ability of these taxa to respond to subsequent environmental perturbations. Both natural and anthropogenic and should be considered seriously in developing management and conservation strategies. PMID:25567633

  10. Diel resource partitioning among juvenile Atlantic Salmon, Brown Trout, and Rainbow Trout during summer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; McKenna, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Interspecific partitioning of food and habitat resources has been widely studied in stream salmonids. Most studies have examined resource partitioning between two native species or between a native species and one that has been introduced. In this study we examine the diel feeding ecology and habitat use of three species of juvenile salmonids (i.e., Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar, Brown Trout Salmo trutta, and Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss) in a tributary of Skaneateles Lake, New York. Subyearling Brown Trout and Rainbow Trout fed more heavily from the drift than the benthos, whereas subyearling Atlantic Salmon fed more from the benthos than either species of trout. Feeding activity of Atlantic Salmon and Rainbow Trout was similar, with both species increasing feeding at dusk, whereas Brown Trout had no discernable feeding peak or trough. Habitat availability was important in determining site-specific habitat use by juvenile salmonids. Habitat selection was greater during the day than at night. The intrastream, diel, intraspecific, and interspecific variation we observed in salmonid habitat use in Grout Brook illustrates the difficulty of acquiring habitat use information for widespread management applications.

  11. Diel resource partitioning among juvenile Atlantic Salmon, Brown Trout, and Rainbow Trout during summer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; McKenna, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Interspecific partitioning of food and habitat resources has been widely studied in stream salmonids. Most studies have examined resource partitioning between two native species or between a native species and one that has been introduced. In this study we examine the diel feeding ecology and habitat use of three species of juvenile salmonids (i.e., Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar, Brown Trout Salmo trutta, and Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss) in a tributary of Skaneateles Lake, New York. Subyearling Brown Trout and Rainbow Trout fed more heavily from the drift than the benthos, whereas subyearling Atlantic Salmon fed more from the benthos than either species of trout. Feeding activity of Atlantic Salmon and Rainbow Trout was similar, with both species increasing feeding at dusk, whereas Brown Trout had no discernable feeding peak or trough. Habitat availability was important in determining site-specific habitat use by juvenile salmonids. Habitat selection was greater during the day than at night. The intrastream, diel, intraspecific, and interspecific variation we observed in salmonid habitat use in Grout Brook illustrates the difficulty of acquiring habitat use information for widespread management applications.

  12. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation of Avian Predation on Salmonid Smolts in the Lower and Mid-Columbia River, 2006 Final Season Summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Roby, Daniel D.; Collis, Ken; Lyons, Donald E.

    2009-06-18

    This study investigates predation by piscivorous waterbirds on juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) from throughout the Columbia River Basin. During 2006, study objectives in the Columbia River estuary, work funded by the Bonneville Power Administration, were to (1) monitor and evaluate previous management initiatives to reduce Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia) predation on juvenile salmonids (smolts); (2) measure the impact of double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) predation on smolt survival, and assess potential management options to reduce cormorant predation; and (3) monitor large colonies of other piscivorous waterbirds in the estuary (i.e., glaucous-winged/western gulls [Larus glaucescens/occidentalis]) to determine the potential impacts on smolt survival. Study objectives on the mid-Columbia River, work funded by the Walla Walla District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, were to (1) measure the impact of predation by Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants on smolt survival; and (2) monitor large nesting colonies of other piscivorous waterbirds (i.e., California gulls [L. californicus], ring-billed gulls [L. delawarensis], American white pelicans [Pelecanus erythrorhynchos]) on the mid-Columbia River to determine the potential for significant impacts on smolt survival. Our efforts to evaluate system-wide losses of juvenile salmonids to avian predation indicated that Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants were responsible for the vast majority of smolt losses to avian predators in the Columbia Basin, with most losses occurring in the Columbia River estuary. In 2006, East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary supported the largest known breeding colonies of Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants in the world. The Caspian tern colony on East Sand Island consisted of about 9,200 breeding pairs in 2006, up slightly (but not significantly so) from the estimate of colony size in 2005 (8,820 pairs). There has not been a

  13. The Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin : Volume II: Experiment Salmonid Survival with Combined PIT-CWT Tagging.

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, Ken

    1997-06-01

    Experiment designs to estimate the effect of transportation on survival and return rates of Columbia River system salmonids are discussed along with statistical modeling techniques. Besides transportation, river flow and dam spill are necessary components in the design and analysis otherwise questions as to the effects of reservoir drawdowns and increased dam spill may never be satisfactorily answered. Four criteria for comparing different experiment designs are: (1) feasibility, (2) clarity of results, (3) scope of inference, and (4) time to learn. In this report, alternative designs for conducting experimental manipulations of smolt tagging studies to study effects of river operations such as flow levels, spill fractions, and transporting outmigrating salmonids around dams in the Columbia River system are presented. The principles of study design discussed in this report have broad implications for the many studies proposed to investigate both smolt and adult survival relationships. The concepts are illustrated for the case of the design and analysis of smolt transportation experiments. The merits of proposed transportation studies should be measured relative to these principles of proper statistical design and analysis.

  14. Juvenile xanthogranuloma.

    PubMed

    Singh, R; Ghazali, W

    1992-05-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a benign cutaneous growth presenting as papules or nodules. It is characterized by an intradermal collection of lipid-laden macrophages and varying degrees of fibroblastic proliferation. We have recently observed two patients with xanthogranulomas: one was found to have a papular type and the second patient had multiple nodular growths. We present these cases, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of skin nodules.

  15. Preliminary study of gill NA+,K+-ATPase activity in juvenile spring chinook salmon following electroshock or handling stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanderKooi, S.P.; Gale, William L.; Maule, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    We compared gill Na+,K+-ATPase in subyearling and yearling spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha 3 h, 24 h, and 7 d after exposure to either a short pulsed DC electroshock (300 V, 50 Hz, 8-ms pulse duration) or an acute handling stress. Mean gill Na+,K+-ATPase values ranged from 7.5 to 11.8 ??mol inorganic phosphate (Pi) ?? (mg protein)-1 ?? h-1. No significant differences were detected, with the exception of electroshocked subyearlings 7 d after treatment. Increased activity was attributed to the presence of two influential values. No significant differences were detected after removal of these observations, so the increase was not considered biologically significant. Inclusion of the outliers did not alter our interpretation of the results given that the observed increase was slight compared with the magnitude of changes reported under experimental conditions and in migrating juvenile salmonids. The treatment groups underwent a typical stress response and had significantly elevated cortisol and glucose levels 3 h after treatment. Recovery to control levels occurred within 24 h for cortisol and from 24 h to 7 d for glucose. Our results lead to the conclusion that neither acute electroshock nor acute handling stress alters Na+,K+-ATPase activity in juvenile spring chinook salmon.

  16. Efficacy, fate, and potential effects on salmonids of mosquito larvicides in catch basins in Seattle, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sternberg, Morgan; Grue, Christian; Conquest, Loveday; Grassley, James; King, Kerensa

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy, fate, and potential for direct effects on salmonids of 4 common mosquito larvicides (Mosquito Dunks® and Bits® (AI: Bacillis thuringiensis var. israelensis, [Bti]), VectoLex® WSP (AI: Bacillus sphaericus [Bs], VectoLex CG [AI: Bs], and Altosid® Briquets [AI: s-methoprene]) in Seattle, WA, during 3 summers. During efficacy trials in 2006, all treatments resulted in a rapid reduction in number of mosquito pupae (Mosquito Dunks and Bits and VectoLex WSP) or emergence success (Altosid Briquets). VectoLex CG was chosen for city-wide application in 2007 and 2008. The average counts of pupae within round-top basins remained significantly below the control average for 11 wk in 2007, whereas efficacy in grated-top basins was short-lived. In 2008 the average counts of pupae within grated-top basins remained significantly below the control average for 10 wk. Altosid XR was also effective in reducing adult emergence within grated basins in 2008. In 2007 and 2008, frequent precipitation events made the evaluation of efficacy difficult due to reductions in pupae across control and treated basins. Four separate analyses of VectoLex products revealed that the product was a combination of Bs and Bti. Both Bs and Bti were detected in 3 urban creeks connected to treated basins in 2007 and 2008. Laboratory toxicity test results suggest that concentrations of Bs and Bti detected in each of the watersheds pose little direct hazard to juvenile salmonids.

  17. Special Issue: Evolutionary perspectives on salmonid conservation and management

    PubMed Central

    Waples, Robin S; Hendry, Andrew P

    2008-01-01

    This special issue of Evolutionary Applications comprises 15 papers that illustrate how evolutionary principles can inform the conservation and management of salmonid fishes. Several papers address the past evolutionary history of salmonids to gain insights into their likely plastic and genetic responses to future environmental change. The remaining papers consider potential evolutionary responses to climate warming, biological invasions, artificial propagation, habitat alteration, and harvesting. All of these papers consider how such influences might alter selective regimes, which should then favour plastic or genetic responses. Some of the papers then go on to document such responses, at least some of which are genetically based and adaptive. Despite the different approaches and target species, all of the papers argue for the importance of evolutionary considerations in the conservation and management of salmonids. PMID:25567625

  18. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... for You Healthy School Lunch Planner Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) KidsHealth > For Teens > Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) ... people under age 17. What Is Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis? Arthritis doesn't affect young people as much ...

  19. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... joints. This form of JIA may turn into rheumatoid arthritis. It may involve five or more large and ... no known prevention for JIA. Alternative Names Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA); Juvenile chronic polyarthritis; Still disease; Juvenile spondyloarthritis ...

  20. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) KidsHealth > For Teens > Juvenile Idiopathic ... can affect people under age 17. What Is Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis? Arthritis doesn't affect young people ...

  1. Sustaining salmonid populations: A caring understanding of naturalness of taxa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Regier, Henry A.; Knudsen, E. Eric

    2004-01-01

    Species of the family of Salmonidae occur naturally in Northern Hemisphere waters that remain clear and cool to cold in summer. For purposes of reproduction, salmonids generally behaviorally respond to the currents of streams and lakes in recently glaciated areas. For feeding and maturation, many larger species migrate into existing systems of large lakes, seas, and oceans. The subfamilies include Salmoninae, Coregoninae, and Thymallinae. In many locales and regions of the hemisphere, numerous species of these subfamilies evolved and self-organized into species flocks or taxocenes of bewildering complexity. For example, any individual species may play different or unique ecological roles in different taxocenes. The northern Pacific and Atlantic Ocean ecosystems, with their seas and tributaries, each contained a metacomplex of such taxocenes that, in their natural state some centuries ago, resembled each other but differed in many ways. Humans have valued all species of this family for subsistence, ceremonial, naturalist, gustatory, angling, and commercial reasons for centuries. Modern progressive humans (MPHs), whose industrial and commercial enterprises have gradually spread over this hemisphere in recent time, now affect aquatic ecosystems at all scales from local to global. These human effects mingle in complex ways that together induce uniquely natural salmonid taxocenes to disintegrate with the loss of species, including those groups least tolerant to human manipulations, but extending more recently to those taxa more adapted to anthropogenic change. As we leave the modern era, dominated by MPHs, will we find ways to live sustainably with salmonid taxocenes that still exhibit self-organizational integrity, or will only individual, isolated populations of salmonid species, derived from those most tolerant of MPHs, survive? To achieve future sustainability of salmonids, we suggest implementation of a search for intuitive knowledge based on faith in the wisdom of

  2. Characteristics of current international trade of live salmonid eggs.

    PubMed

    Jansen, M; McLeary, R

    1996-06-01

    World trade in live salmonid embryos (eyed eggs) has grown in response to increased global salmon production, particularly in South America, and parallels international trade in farmed salmonid products. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) are the most commercially important species. In 1992, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimated world production of rainbow trout at 300,000 tonnes, while the production of Atlantic salmon was estimated at 250,000 tonnes and coho salmon at 50,000 tonnes. One can estimate that roughly 3 billion, 150 million and 30 million eggs, respectively, were required to produce this yield. Broodstock are cultivated world-wide, using a wide variety of water sources, including the marine environment, riverine water containing anadromous fish, and ground water free of migrating fish. As many as 70% of all coho eggs are derived from feral fish. Approximately 50% of all commercial salmonid eyed eggs are produced in Europe, and approximately 15% are produced in the state of Washington, United States of America. Conditions which are ideal for commercial salmonid grow-out are not necessarily ideal for the cultivation of salmonid broodstock; this is one reason why international egg trade is necessary. The trend of current salmonid health regulations is towards facilitating egg commerce on a regional level, in an attempt to control disease transmission. Regulations controlling egg importation often include pathogens which are not vertically transmitted. This serves only to increase egg prices, in compensation for the cost of laboratory tests. Genetic improvements have been the cornerstone of increasing commercial production of all agricultural commodities. Fish health regulations are sometimes instituted in an effort to protect the local industry, but in fact they act more often to restrict the flow of genetic material and may actually serve to reduce industry

  3. Habitat selection influences sex distribution, morphology, tissue biochemistry, and parasite load of juvenile coho salmon in the West Fork Smith River, Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Given the strong influence of water temperature on salmonid physiology and behavior, in the summers of 2004 and 2005 we studied juvenile male and female coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in two reaches of Oregon’s West Fork Smith River with different thermal profiles. Our goals we...

  4. Habitat selection influences sex distribution, morphology, tissue biochemistry, and parasite load of juvenile coho salmon in the West Fork Smith River, Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Given the strong influence of water temperature on salmonid physiology and behavior, in the summers of 2004 and 2005 we studied juvenile male and female coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in two reaches of Oregon’s West Fork Smith River with different thermal profiles. Our goals we...

  5. Basin-scale variation in the spatial pattern of fall movement of juvenile Coho Salmon in the West Fork Smith River, Oregon

    Treesearch

    Dalton J. Hance; Lisa M. Ganio; Kelly M. Burnett; Joseph L. Ebersole

    2016-01-01

    For several species of salmonids, Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus spp., inhabiting Pacific coastal temperate streams, juvenile fish have been recorded moving between main-stem and tributary habitats during the transition from the summer dry season to the winter wet season. Movement connecting summer and winter habitats may be particularly important for...

  6. Seasonal use of small tributary and main-stem habitats by juvenile steelhead, coho salmon, and Dolly Varden in a southeastern Alaska drainage basin.

    Treesearch

    R.G. Bramblett; M.D. Bryant; B.E. Wright; R.G. White

    2002-01-01

    The movement of juvenile salmonids between small tributaries and main-stem habitats in southeast Alaska watersheds is poorly understood. We observed movements of steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss, coho salmon O. kisutch, and Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma between mainstem and tributary habitats at weirs located...

  7. A salmonid EST genomic study: genes, duplications, phylogeny and microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Koop, Ben F; von Schalburg, Kristian R; Leong, Jong; Walker, Neil; Lieph, Ryan; Cooper, Glenn A; Robb, Adrienne; Beetz-Sargent, Marianne; Holt, Robert A; Moore, Richard; Brahmbhatt, Sonal; Rosner, Jamie; Rexroad, Caird E; McGowan, Colin R; Davidson, William S

    2008-01-01

    Background Salmonids are of interest because of their relatively recent genome duplication, and their extensive use in wild fisheries and aquaculture. A comprehensive gene list and a comparison of genes in some of the different species provide valuable genomic information for one of the most widely studied groups of fish. Results 298,304 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from Atlantic salmon (69% of the total), 11,664 chinook, 10,813 sockeye, 10,051 brook trout, 10,975 grayling, 8,630 lake whitefish, and 3,624 northern pike ESTs were obtained in this study and have been deposited into the public databases. Contigs were built and putative full-length Atlantic salmon clones have been identified. A database containing ESTs, assemblies, consensus sequences, open reading frames, gene predictions and putative annotation is available. The overall similarity between Atlantic salmon ESTs and those of rainbow trout, chinook, sockeye, brook trout, grayling, lake whitefish, northern pike and rainbow smelt is 93.4, 94.2, 94.6, 94.4, 92.5, 91.7, 89.6, and 86.2% respectively. An analysis of 78 transcript sets show Salmo as a sister group to Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus within Salmoninae, and Thymallinae as a sister group to Salmoninae and Coregoninae within Salmonidae. Extensive gene duplication is consistent with a genome duplication in the common ancestor of salmonids. Using all of the available EST data, a new expanded salmonid cDNA microarray of 32,000 features was created. Cross-species hybridizations to this cDNA microarray indicate that this resource will be useful for studies of all 68 salmonid species. Conclusion An extensive collection and analysis of salmonid RNA putative transcripts indicate that Pacific salmon, Atlantic salmon and charr are 94–96% similar while the more distant whitefish, grayling, pike and smelt are 93, 92, 89 and 86% similar to salmon. The salmonid transcriptome reveals a complex history of gene duplication that is consistent with an ancestral

  8. Functional Annotation of All Salmonid Genomes (FAASG): an international initiative supporting future salmonid research, conservation and aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Macqueen, Daniel J; Primmer, Craig R; Houston, Ross D; Nowak, Barbara F; Bernatchez, Louis; Bergseth, Steinar; Davidson, William S; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Goldammer, Tom; Guiguen, Yann; Iturra, Patricia; Kijas, James W; Koop, Ben F; Lien, Sigbjørn; Maass, Alejandro; Martin, Samuel A M; McGinnity, Philip; Montecino, Martin; Naish, Kerry A; Nichols, Krista M; Ólafsson, Kristinn; Omholt, Stig W; Palti, Yniv; Plastow, Graham S; Rexroad, Caird E; Rise, Matthew L; Ritchie, Rachael J; Sandve, Simen R; Schulte, Patricia M; Tello, Alfredo; Vidal, Rodrigo; Vik, Jon Olav; Wargelius, Anna; Yáñez, José Manuel

    2017-06-27

    We describe an emerging initiative - the 'Functional Annotation of All Salmonid Genomes' (FAASG), which will leverage the extensive trait diversity that has evolved since a whole genome duplication event in the salmonid ancestor, to develop an integrative understanding of the functional genomic basis of phenotypic variation. The outcomes of FAASG will have diverse applications, ranging from improved understanding of genome evolution, to improving the efficiency and sustainability of aquaculture production, supporting the future of fundamental and applied research in an iconic fish lineage of major societal importance.

  9. Comparative bacteriology of juvenile periodontitis.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, W E; Holdeman, L V; Cato, E P; Smibert, R M; Burmeister, J A; Palcanis, K G; Ranney, R R

    1985-01-01

    Statistical comparisons of the floras associated with juvenile periodontitis, severe periodontitis, and moderate periodontitis indicated that differences in the bacterial compositions of affected sites in these populations were not statistically significant. The subgingival flora of affected juvenile periodontitis sites was statistically significantly different from the adjacent supragingival flora and from the subgingival floras of people with healthy gingiva and of children with developing (experimental) gingivitis. However, the subgingival flora of affected juvenile periodontitis sites was not significantly different from the flora of sites with gingival index scores of 1 or 2 in adults with developing (experimental) gingivitis. Of 357 bacterial taxa among over 18,000 isolates, 54 non-treponemal species, 2 treponemal species, and mycoplasma were most associated with diseased periodontal sulci. These species comprised an increasing proportion of the flora during developing gingivitis and constituted over half of the cultivable flora of diseased sites. PMID:3988344

  10. Removal of small dams and its influence on physical habitat for salmonids in a Norwegian river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fjeldstad, Hans-Petter; Barlaup, Bjørn; Stickler, Morten; Alfredsen, Knut; Gabrielsen, Sven-Erik

    2010-05-01

    While research and implementation of upstream migration solutions is extensive, and indeed often successful, full scale restoration projects and investigations of their influence on fish biology are rare in Norway. Acid deposition in Norwegian catchments peaked in the 1980's and resulted in both chronically and episodically acidified rivers and Salmonids in River Nidelva, one of the largest cathments in southern Norway, where extinct for decades. During this period hydropower development in the river paid limited attention to aquatic ecology. Weirs were constructed for esthetic purposes in the late 1970's and turned a 3 km stretch into a lake habitat, well suited for lake dwelling fish species, but unsuited for migration, spawning and juvenile habitat for salmonids. Since 2005, continuous liming to mitigate acidification has improved the water quality and a program for reintroduction of Atlantic salmon has been implemented. We used hydraulic modeling to plan the removal of two weirs on a bypass reach of the river. The 50 meters wide concrete weirs were blasted and removed in 2007, and ecological monitoring has been carried out in the river to assess the effect of weir removal. Topographic mapping, hydraulic measurements and modeling, in combination with biological surveys before and after the removal of the weirs, has proved to represent a powerful method for design of physical habitat adjustments and assessing their influence on fish biology. The model results also supported a rapid progress of planning and executing of the works. While telemetry studies before weir removal suggested that adult migration past the weirs was delayed with several weeks the fish can now pass the reach with minor obstacles. Spawning sites were discovered in the old bed substrate and were occupied already the first season after water velocities increased to suitable levels for spawning. Accordingly, the densities of Atlantic salmon juveniles have shown a marked increased after the

  11. Fighting Juvenile Gun Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, David; Grant, Heath; Rowe, Wendy; Jacobs, Nancy

    This bulletin describes the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's efforts to fight juvenile gun violence. The Office awarded four community demonstration grants to implement "Partnerships To Reduce Juvenile Gun Violence." Partnership goals include increasing the effectiveness of existing strategies by enhancing and…

  12. Detection and quantification of Renibacterium salmoninarum DNA in salmonid tissues by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chase, D.M.; Elliott, D.G.; Pascho, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Renibacterium salmoninarum is an important salmonid pathogen that is difficult to culture. We developed and assessed a real-time, quantitative, polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for the detection and enumeration of R. salmoninarum. The qPCR is based on TaqMan technology and amplifies a 69-base pair (bp) region of the gene encoding the major soluble antigen (MSA) of R. salmoninarum. The qPCR assay consistently detected as few as 5 R. salmoninarum cells per reaction in kidney tissue. The specificity of the qPCR was confirmed by testing the DNA extracts from a panel of microorganisms that were either common fish pathogens or reported to cause false-positive reactions in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Kidney samples from 38 juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in a naturally infected population were examined by real-time qPCR, a nested PCR, and ELISA, and prevalences of R. salmoninarum detected were 71, 66, and 71%, respectively. The qPCR should be a valuable tool for evaluating the R. salmoninarum infection status of salmonids.

  13. Predation on Pacific salmonid eggs and carcass's by subyearling Atlantic salmon in a tributary of Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Abbett, Ross; Verdoliva, Francis

    2016-01-01

    A binational effort to reintroduce Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that were extirpated in the Lake Ontario ecosystem for over a century is currently being undertaken by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation and the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. Reintroduction actions include the release of several life stages including fry, fall fingerlings, and yearling smolts. In this study we describe the diet of recently released fall fingerling Atlantic salmon in a tributary of the Salmon River, New York. A specific objective of the study was to determine if juvenile Atlantic salmon would utilize the high caloric food source provided by introduced Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) that includes eggs and carcass flesh. Salmon eggs and carcass flesh comprised 20.5% of the October to January diet in 2013–14 and 23.9% in 2014–15. The consumption of steelhead (O. mykiss) eggs was a major part of the diet in April in both 2014 (54.1%) and 2015 (33.2%). This study documented that recently released Atlantic salmon will consume the high caloric food material provided by Pacific salmonids and that the consumption of this material extends for several months.

  14. Predation on juvenile pacific salmon oncorhynchus spp. in downstream migrant traps in prairie creek, california

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffy, W.G.; Bjorkstedt, E.P.; Ellings, C.S.

    2011-01-01

    Downstream migrant traps are a widely applied fishery management tool for sampling anadromous Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss smolts along theWest Coast of North America and elsewhere, yet predation on juvenile salmonids in traps has not been studied quantitatively.We assessed the frequency of occurrence and abundance of juvenile salmonids in the stomachs of coastal cutthroat trout O. clarkii clarkii, coho salmon O. kisutch, steelhead, and prickly sculpin Cottus asper (>70 mm fork length) captured in traps and in nearby stream habitats. All four predator species took juvenile salmonids with much greater frequency in traps than in stream habitats. Among free-swimming predators, only coastal cutthroat trout were observed with salmonid fry in their stomachs, but they took fewer salmonid prey and appeared to rely more heavily on insect prey than did coastal cutthroat trout captured in traps. Predators consumed up to 25% of the available prey over a broad range of prey abundances. Over the course of the study, predators consumed 2.5% of all salmonid fry captured in traps, but this fraction ranged from less than 1% to more than 10% in any given year. The number of prey taken in traps increased with predator length and with prey abundance in traps, and predation in traps peaked during the period of most intense downstream migration by salmon fry. In contrast, live-box design and trap location had little or no effect on the total number of prey taken by individual predators.We estimated that the predation mortality of juvenile salmon increased by 0.5-1.0% due to in-trap predation (i.e., a 9-10% relative increase over natural predation rates). We found no evidence that predators selected for prey on the basis of species. These results should motivate additional research on methods that reduce or eliminate predation in trap live-boxes and protocols for efficiently measuring predation associated with the trapping of downstream migrants. ?? American

  15. Underwater methods for study of salmonids in the Intermountain West

    Treesearch

    Russell F. Thurow

    1994-01-01

    This guide describes underwater methods using snorkeling gear to study fish populations in flowing waters of the Intermountain West. It outlines procedures for estimating salmonid abundance and habitat use and provides criteria for identifying and estimating the size of fish underwater.

  16. A salmonid EST genomic study: genes, duplications, phylogeny and microarrays

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Salmonids are of interest because of their relatively recent genome duplication, and their extensive use in wild fisheries and aquaculture. A comprehensive gene list and a comparison of genes in some of the different species provide valuable genomic information for one of the most wide...

  17. Variation in salmonid life histories: patterns and perspectives.

    Treesearch

    Mary F. Willson

    1997-01-01

    Salmonid fishes differ in degree of anadromy, age of maturation, frequency of reproduction, body size and fecundity, sexual dimorphism, breeding season, morphology, and, to a lesser degree, parental care. Patterns of variation and their possible significance for ecology and evolution and for resource management are the focus of this review.

  18. Physiological levels of testosterone kill salmonid leukocytes in vitro

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slater, C.H.; Schreck, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    Adult spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) elaborate high plasma concentrations of testosterone during sexual maturation, and these levels of testosterone have been shown to reduce the salmonid immune response in vitro. Our search for the mechanism of testosterone's immunosuppressive action has led to the characterization of an androgen receptor in salmonid leukocytes. In the present study we examined the specific effects that testosterone had on salmonid leukocytes. Direct counts of viable leukocytes after incubation with and without physiological levels of testosterone demonstrate a significant loss of leukocytes in cultures exposed to testosterone. At least 5 days of contact with testosterone was required to produce significant immunosuppression and addition of a 'conditioned media' (supernatant from proliferating lymphocytes not exposed to testosterone) did not reverse the immunosuppressive effects of testosterone. These data lead us to conclude that testosterone may exert its immunosuppressive effects by direct action on salmonid leukocytes, through the androgen receptor described, and that this action leads to the death of a significant number of these leukocytes.

  19. Modeling potential river management conflicts between frogs and salmonids

    Treesearch

    Steven F. Railsback; Bret C. Harvey; Sarah J. Kupferberg; Margaret M. Lang; Scott McBain; Hart H. Welsh

    2016-01-01

    Management of regulated rivers for yellow-legged frogs (Rana boylii) and salmonids exemplifies potential conflicts among species adapted to different parts of the natural flow and temperature regimes. Yellow-legged frogs oviposit in rivers in spring and depend on declining flows and warming temperatures for egg and tadpole survival and growth,...

  20. Can UV radiation affect benthic deposit-feeders through biochemical alteration of food resources? An experimental study with juveniles of the benthic polychaete Eupolymnia nebulosa.

    PubMed

    Nahon, Sarah; Pruski, Audrey M; Duchêne, Jean-Claude; Méjanelle, Laurence; Vétion, Gilles; Desmalades, Martin; Charles, François

    2011-05-01

    The growth, tentacle development and feeding activity of the benthic polychaete Eupolymnia nebulosa were examined to determine whether UV might affect marine deposit-feeders indirectly through the modification of the nutritional quality of their resources. Since marine invertebrates have higher nutritional requirements during the period following settlement, we tested the effect of UV-altered phytodetritus on freshly settled juveniles of E. nebulosa. Phytodetritus was prepared from cultures of the diatom Skeletonema costatum either grown under or sheltered from UVB radiation. Sterol content of phytodetritus was unmodified by UV radiation. Conversely, phytodetritus was noticeably depleted in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Growth and tentacle development of juveniles fed on altered phytodetritus were reduced by 35% and 15% respectively, suggesting potential deficiencies in essential nutrients. In response to the lower quality of the phytodetritus, juveniles explored a wider area as they search for food, a strategy that could compensate for low food quality.

  1. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation of Avian Predation on Salmonid Smolts in the Lower and Mid-Columbia River, 2008 Draft Season Summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Roby, Daniel D.; Collis, Ken; Lyons, Donald E.

    2009-07-08

    This report describes investigations into predation by piscivorous colonial waterbirds on juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) from throughout the Columbia River basin during 2008. East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary again supported the largest known breeding colony of Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia) in the world (approximately 10,700 breeding pairs) and the largest breeding colony of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) in western North America (approximately 10,950 breeding pairs). The Caspian tern colony increased from 2007, but not significantly so, while the double-crested cormorant colony experienced a significant decline (20%) from 2007. Average cormorant nesting success in 2008, however, was down only slightly from 2007, suggesting that food supply during the 2008 nesting season was not the principal cause of the decline in cormorant colony size. Total consumption of juvenile salmonids by East Sand Island Caspian terns in 2008 was approximately 6.7 million smolts (95% c.i. = 5.8-7.5 million). Caspian terns nesting on East Sand Island continued to rely primarily on marine forage fishes as a food supply. Based on smolt PIT tag recoveries on the East Sand Island Caspian tern colony, predation rates were highest on steelhead in 2008; minimum predation rates on steelhead smolts detected passing Bonneville Dam averaged 8.3% for wild smolts and 10.7% for hatchery-raised smolts. In 2007, total smolt consumption by East Sand Island double-crested cormorants was about 9.2 million juvenile salmonids (95% c.i. = 4.4-14.0 million), similar to or greater than that of East Sand Island Caspian terns during that year (5.5 million juvenile salmonids; 95% c.i. = 4.8-6.2 million). The numbers of smolt PIT tags recovered on the cormorant colony in 2008 were roughly proportional to the relative availability of PIT-tagged salmonids released in the Basin, suggesting that cormorant predation on salmonid smolts in the estuary was less selective than tern

  2. Survival and Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Passing through Bonneville Dam, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Batten, G.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Kim, Jin A.; Johnson, Gary E.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Weiland, Mark A.; Woodley, Christa M.; Hughes, James S.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Etherington, D. J.; Fischer, Eric S.; Fu, Tao; Greiner, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Martinez, Jayson J.; Mitchell, T. D.; Rayamajhi, Bishes; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2013-02-15

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and subcontractors conducted an acoustic-telemetry study of juvenile salmonid fish passage and survival at Bonneville Dam in 2011. The study was conducted to assess the readiness of the monitoring system for official compliance studies under the 2008 Biological Opinion and Fish Accords and to assess performance measures including route-specific fish passage proportions, travel times, and survival based upon a virtual/paired-release model. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon using a virtual release, paired reference release survival model. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  3. Survival and Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Passing through Bonneville Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Kim, Jin A.; Royer, Ida M.; Batten, George W.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Etherington, D. J.; Faber, Derrek M.; Fischer, Eric S.; Fu, Tao; Hennen, Matthew J.; Mitchell, Tyler; Monter, Tyrell J.; Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2011-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and subcontractors conducted an acoustic-telemetry study of juvenile salmonid fish passage and survival at Bonneville Dam in 2010. The study was conducted to assess the readiness of the monitoring system for official compliance studies under the 2008 Biological Opinion and Fish Accords and to assess performance measures including route-specific fish passage proportions, travel times, and survival based upon a single-release model. This also was the last year of evaluation of effects of a behavioral guidance device installed in the Powerhouse 2 forebay. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  4. Survival and Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Passing Through Bonneville Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Kim, Jin A.; Royer, Ida M.; Batten, George W.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Etherington, D. J.; Faber, Derrek M.; Fischer, Eric S.; Fu, Tao; Hennen, Matthew J.; Mitchell, T. D.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2012-09-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and subcontractors conducted an acoustic-telemetry study of juvenile salmonid fish passage and survival at Bonneville Dam in 2010. The study was conducted to assess the readiness of the monitoring system for official compliance studies under the 2008 Biological Opinion and Fish Accords and to assess performance measures including route-specific fish passage proportions, travel times, and survival based upon a single-release model. This also was the last year of evaluation of effects of a behavioral guidance device installed in the Powerhouse 2 forebay. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  5. Juvenile Justice & Youth Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, James C.

    Youth violence and the juvenile justice system in the United States are explored. Part 1 takes stock of the situation. The first chapter discusses the origins and evaluation of the juvenile justice system, and the second considers the contributions of the Federal Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act to the existing juvenile justice…

  6. Juvenile Justice & Youth Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, James C.

    Youth violence and the juvenile justice system in the United States are explored. Part 1 takes stock of the situation. The first chapter discusses the origins and evaluation of the juvenile justice system, and the second considers the contributions of the Federal Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act to the existing juvenile justice…

  7. Treating Juvenile Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelber, Seymour

    1983-01-01

    Although juvenile crime rates have not changed significantly in the last five years, the juvenile courts' ability to handle crime has deteriorated. To treat the problem of juvenile crime effectively requires intervention at the earliest sign of delinquency and an assessment of the juvenile courts and school system. (AM)

  8. Influence of light and feeding conditions on swimming activity rhythms of larval and juvenile turbot. Scophthalmus maximus L.: An experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champalbert, Gisèle; Le Direach-Boursier, Laurence

    1998-12-01

    Turbot larvae are transported towards coastal nursery areas and live in very shallow waters. Food availability is assumed to be an important factor that retains them in such areas. To study the effects of a biotic factor (food) and an abiotic factor (light) that strongly influence behavioural mechanisms, experiments were carried out on laboratory-reared animals: larvae (1 cm), post-larvae (1.2 to 2.5 cm) and early juveniles (6 to 7 cm). Three kinds of apparatus and methods were used to record variations in swimming activity: (1) a phototaxis device to study orientation reactions in horizontal tanks; (2) actographs with infrared photoelectric barriers fitted around vertical cylindrical tanks; and (3) video cameras and cylindrical tanks. Observations were performed in total darkness and under dark-light regimes. Different types and quantities of food were provided to the fish. Larvae and juveniles of turbot exhibited a positive phototaxis from 1 to 1000 μW cm -2. At intensities lower than or equal to 0.1 μW cm -2, they did not exhibit clear reactions toward or away from the light. Turbot larvae and juveniles kept in total darkness did not show a clear rhythm of activity. Under natural illumination as well as in artificial LD conditions of similar periodicity, larvae swam by day and night. Live food ( Artemia nauplii or juvenile mysids) induced an immediate increase in activity or the maintenance of a high level of activity, which decreased over the following days. Recently metamorphosed turbot kept under LD conditions exhibited a clear rhythm with a nocturnal maximum. Food given at night did not induce swimming changes as long as food density remained low. At higher prey concentrations, increased activity during feeding was followed by reduced activity for more than 24 hours. A similar response pattern was noted when active food was given in large quantities during the day: juveniles displayed an immediate increase in activity, which subsequently decreased. Regular

  9. A simple model that identifies potential effects of sea-level rise on estuarine and estuary-ecotone habitat locations for salmonids in Oregon, USA.

    PubMed

    Flitcroft, Rebecca; Burnett, Kelly; Christiansen, Kelly

    2013-07-01

    Diadromous aquatic species that cross a diverse range of habitats (including marine, estuarine, and freshwater) face different effects of climate change in each environment. One such group of species is the anadromous Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). Studies of the potential effects of climate change on salmonids have focused on both marine and freshwater environments. Access to a variety of estuarine habitat has been shown to enhance juvenile life-history diversity, thereby contributing to the resilience of many salmonid species. Our study is focused on the effect of sea-level rise on the availability, complexity, and distribution of estuarine, and low-freshwater habitat for Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), steelhead (anadromous O. mykiss), and coho salmon (O. kisutch) along the Oregon Coast under future climate change scenarios. Using LiDAR, we modeled the geomorphologies of five Oregon estuaries and estimated a contour associated with the current mean high tide. Contour intervals at 1- and 2-m increments above the current mean high tide were generated, and changes in the estuary morphology were assessed. Because our analysis relied on digital data, we compared three types of digital data in one estuary to assess the utility of different data sets in predicting the changes in estuary shape. For each salmonid species, changes in the amount and complexity of estuarine edge habitats varied by estuary. The simple modeling approach we applied can also be used to identify areas that may be most amenable to pre-emptive restoration actions to mitigate or enhance salmonid habitat under future climatic conditions.

  10. A Simple Model that Identifies Potential Effects of Sea-Level Rise on Estuarine and Estuary-Ecotone Habitat Locations for Salmonids in Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flitcroft, Rebecca; Burnett, Kelly; Christiansen, Kelly

    2013-07-01

    Diadromous aquatic species that cross a diverse range of habitats (including marine, estuarine, and freshwater) face different effects of climate change in each environment. One such group of species is the anadromous Pacific salmon ( Oncorhynchus spp.). Studies of the potential effects of climate change on salmonids have focused on both marine and freshwater environments. Access to a variety of estuarine habitat has been shown to enhance juvenile life-history diversity, thereby contributing to the resilience of many salmonid species. Our study is focused on the effect of sea-level rise on the availability, complexity, and distribution of estuarine, and low-freshwater habitat for Chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), steelhead (anadromous O. mykiss), and coho salmon ( O. kisutch) along the Oregon Coast under future climate change scenarios. Using LiDAR, we modeled the geomorphologies of five Oregon estuaries and estimated a contour associated with the current mean high tide. Contour intervals at 1- and 2-m increments above the current mean high tide were generated, and changes in the estuary morphology were assessed. Because our analysis relied on digital data, we compared three types of digital data in one estuary to assess the utility of different data sets in predicting the changes in estuary shape. For each salmonid species, changes in the amount and complexity of estuarine edge habitats varied by estuary. The simple modeling approach we applied can also be used to identify areas that may be most amenable to pre-emptive restoration actions to mitigate or enhance salmonid habitat under future climatic conditions.

  11. Historical Changes in River Discharge in the Lower Columbia River: Impacts on River Stage, Tidal Range and Salmonid Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukulka, T.; Jay, D. A.

    2001-12-01

    Juvenile salmonid access to favorable shallow water habitat in a tidal river and estuary is a function of river stage, tidal range, and the system's distribution of bed elevation. In this study, we investigate how historical changes in Columbia River discharge, due to climatic variability and flow regulation, affect river stage, tidal range, and salmonid access to shallow-water habitat in the lower Columbia River. Tidal height data collected (1980-2001) at gauging stations below Bonneville Dam (230 km from the ocean) are filtered to retrieve time-series of fluctuations in river stage, diurnal and semi-diurnal amplitude, overtides and tidal range. It is necessary to design a new filter bank, optimized with respect to time-frequency resolution, in order to capture the relevant physics of the non-stationary riverine-tidal processes. Tidal range and tidal amplitudes of the major tidal constituents are shown to have an approximately negative-exponential dependence on upriver distance and the square root of river flow. The river stage varies linearly with river flow to the first order. These results are consistent with solutions of the linearized St. Venant equations. Further, the results imply the division of the Lower Columbia River with respect to tidal damping and stage-flow dependency into fluvial and estuarine regimes. Stage and tidal range are more strongly related to river discharge in the fluvial than in the estuarine regime. The interface between the two regimes lies in the energy minimum region, roughly 50 km from the ocean, where dissipation is weak and about equally divided between tides and river flow. With these results and hypsometeric data, scenarios of historical flow variability and their impacts on shallow-water habitat access are reconstructed. We compare: a) tides during years with low-flow to those during years having strong freshets, and b) tides under highly regulated flows with those that would have prevailed without regulation. Because tides

  12. How sea lice from salmon farms may cause wild salmonid declines in Europe and North America and be a threat to fishes elsewhere

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Fishes farmed in sea pens may become infested by parasites from wild fishes and in turn become point sources for parasites. Sea lice, copepods of the family Caligidae, are the best-studied example of this risk. Sea lice are the most significant parasitic pathogen in salmon farming in Europe and the Americas, are estimated to cost the world industry €300 million a year and may also be pathogenic to wild fishes under natural conditions. Epizootics, characteristically dominated by juvenile (copepodite and chalimus) stages, have repeatedly occurred on juvenile wild salmonids in areas where farms have sea lice infestations, but have not been recorded elsewhere. This paper synthesizes the literature, including modelling studies, to provide an understanding of how one species, the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, can infest wild salmonids from farm sources. Three-dimensional hydrographic models predicted the distribution of the planktonic salmon lice larvae best when they accounted for wind-driven surface currents and larval behaviour. Caligus species can also cause problems on farms and transfer from farms to wild fishes, and this genus is cosmopolitan. Sea lice thus threaten finfish farming worldwide, but with the possible exception of L. salmonis, their host relationships and transmission adaptations are unknown. The increasing evidence that lice from farms can be a significant cause of mortality on nearby wild fish populations provides an additional challenge to controlling lice on the farms and also raises conservation, economic and political issues about how to balance aquaculture and fisheries resource management. PMID:19586950

  13. How sea lice from salmon farms may cause wild salmonid declines in Europe and North America and be a threat to fishes elsewhere.

    PubMed

    Costello, Mark J

    2009-10-07

    Fishes farmed in sea pens may become infested by parasites from wild fishes and in turn become point sources for parasites. Sea lice, copepods of the family Caligidae, are the best-studied example of this risk. Sea lice are the most significant parasitic pathogen in salmon farming in Europe and the Americas, are estimated to cost the world industry euro300 million a year and may also be pathogenic to wild fishes under natural conditions. Epizootics, characteristically dominated by juvenile (copepodite and chalimus) stages, have repeatedly occurred on juvenile wild salmonids in areas where farms have sea lice infestations, but have not been recorded elsewhere. This paper synthesizes the literature, including modelling studies, to provide an understanding of how one species, the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, can infest wild salmonids from farm sources. Three-dimensional hydrographic models predicted the distribution of the planktonic salmon lice larvae best when they accounted for wind-driven surface currents and larval behaviour. Caligus species can also cause problems on farms and transfer from farms to wild fishes, and this genus is cosmopolitan. Sea lice thus threaten finfish farming worldwide, but with the possible exception of L. salmonis, their host relationships and transmission adaptations are unknown. The increasing evidence that lice from farms can be a significant cause of mortality on nearby wild fish populations provides an additional challenge to controlling lice on the farms and also raises conservation, economic and political issues about how to balance aquaculture and fisheries resource management.

  14. Juvenile salmon usage of the Skeena River estuary.

    PubMed

    Carr-Harris, Charmaine; Gottesfeld, Allen S; Moore, Jonathan W

    2015-01-01

    Migratory salmon transit estuary habitats on their way out to the ocean but this phase of their life cycle is more poorly understood than other phases. The estuaries of large river systems in particular may support many populations and several species of salmon that originate from throughout the upstream river. The Skeena River of British Columbia, Canada, is a large river system with high salmon population- and species-level diversity. The estuary of the Skeena River is under pressure from industrial development, with two gas liquefaction terminals and a potash loading facility in various stages of environmental review processes, providing motivation for understanding the usage of the estuary by juvenile salmon. We conducted a juvenile salmonid sampling program throughout the Skeena River estuary in 2007 and 2013 to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of different species and populations of salmon. We captured six species of juvenile anadromous salmonids throughout the estuary in both years, and found that areas proposed for development support some of the highest abundances of some species of salmon. Specifically, the highest abundances of sockeye (both years), Chinook in 2007, and coho salmon in 2013 were captured in areas proposed for development. For example, juvenile sockeye salmon were 2-8 times more abundant in the proposed development areas. Genetic stock assignment demonstrated that the Chinook salmon and most of the sockeye salmon that were captured originated from throughout the Skeena watershed, while some sockeye salmon came from the Nass, Stikine, Southeast Alaska, and coastal systems on the northern and central coasts of British Columbia. These fish support extensive commercial, recreational, and First Nations fisheries throughout the Skeena River and beyond. Our results demonstrate that estuary habitats integrate species and population diversity of salmon, and that if proposed development negatively affects the salmon populations that

  15. Juvenile Salmon Usage of the Skeena River Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Carr-Harris, Charmaine; Gottesfeld, Allen S.; Moore, Jonathan W.

    2015-01-01

    Migratory salmon transit estuary habitats on their way out to the ocean but this phase of their life cycle is more poorly understood than other phases. The estuaries of large river systems in particular may support many populations and several species of salmon that originate from throughout the upstream river. The Skeena River of British Columbia, Canada, is a large river system with high salmon population- and species-level diversity. The estuary of the Skeena River is under pressure from industrial development, with two gas liquefaction terminals and a potash loading facility in various stages of environmental review processes, providing motivation for understanding the usage of the estuary by juvenile salmon. We conducted a juvenile salmonid sampling program throughout the Skeena River estuary in 2007 and 2013 to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of different species and populations of salmon. We captured six species of juvenile anadromous salmonids throughout the estuary in both years, and found that areas proposed for development support some of the highest abundances of some species of salmon. Specifically, the highest abundances of sockeye (both years), Chinook in 2007, and coho salmon in 2013 were captured in areas proposed for development. For example, juvenile sockeye salmon were 2–8 times more abundant in the proposed development areas. Genetic stock assignment demonstrated that the Chinook salmon and most of the sockeye salmon that were captured originated from throughout the Skeena watershed, while some sockeye salmon came from the Nass, Stikine, Southeast Alaska, and coastal systems on the northern and central coasts of British Columbia. These fish support extensive commercial, recreational, and First Nations fisheries throughout the Skeena River and beyond. Our results demonstrate that estuary habitats integrate species and population diversity of salmon, and that if proposed development negatively affects the salmon populations

  16. New details of the neural architecture of the salmonid adipose fin.

    PubMed

    Buckland-Nicks, J A

    2016-10-01

    The adipose fin of salmonids, once widely regarded as vestigial and lacking in function, was shown to be important to swimming efficiency in juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta. Examination with confocal microscopy of adipose fins of S. trutta stained with various antibodies targeting the nervous system revealed several large nerves entering the fin and anastomosing throughout its length. The branching nerves form a plexus with specific patterns of fine terminal branches in the leading and trailing edges. A network of astrocyte-like cells (ALCs) that is linked through cell processes to nerves and structural collagen reacted positively with antibodies to glial cells. No other fish fins, including other adipose fins, have been shown to exhibit this type of neural architecture. Many vertebrate mechanoreceptors rely on collagen deformation to stimulate responses in afferent nerves; similarly, the adipose fin also may function as a mechanosensor, where passive mechanical deflection by water currents stimulates afferent nerves. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  17. Evaluation of Infrasound and Strobe Lights to Elicit Avoidance Behavior in Juvenile Salmon and Char.

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Robert, P.; Neitzel, Duane A.; Amidan, Brett G.

    1999-02-01

    Experimental tests were conducted using hatchery reared and wild juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, eastern brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, and rainbow trout O. mykiss to determine specific behavior responses to infrasound (<20 Hz) and flashing strobe lights. Caged fish were acclimated in a static test tank and their behavior was recorded using low light cameras. Species specific behavior was characterized by measuring movements of the fish within the cage as well as observing startle and habituation responses. Wild chinook salmon (40-45 mm) and hatchery reared chinook salmon (45-50mm) exhibited avoidance responses when initially exposed to a 10 Hz volume displacement source. Rainbow and eastern brook trout (25-100 mm) did not respond with avoidance or other behaviors to infrasound. Habituation to the infrasound source was evident for chinook salmon during repeated exposures. Wild and hatchery chinook displayed a higher proportion of movement during the initial exposures to infrasound when the acclimation period in the test tank was 2-3 h as compared to a 12-15 h acclimation period. A flashing strobe light produced higher and more consistent movement rates in wild chinook (60% of the tests); hatchery reared chinook salmon (50%) and rainbow trout (80%). No measurable movement or other responses was observed for eastern brook trout. Little if any habituation was observed during repeated exposures to strobe lights. Results from this study indicate that consistent repeatable responses can be elicited from some fish using high intensity strobe lights under a controlled laboratory testing. The specific behaviors observed in these experiments might be used to predict how fish might react to low frequency sound and strobe lights in a screening facility. Because sub-yearling salmonids and resident species are susceptible from becoming entrained at water diversion structures we conducted tests in conjunction with our evaluation of juvenile fish screening

  18. Polyphasic characterization of Aeromonas salmonicida isolates recovered from salmonid and non-salmonid fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diamanka, A.; Loch, T.P.; Cipriano, R.C.; Faisal, M.

    2013-01-01

    Michigan's fisheries rely primarily upon the hatchery propagation of salmonid fish for release in public waters. One limitation on the success of these efforts is the presence of bacterial pathogens, including Aeromonas salmonicida, the causative agent of furunculosis. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of A. salmonicida in Michigan fish, as well as to determine whether biochemical or gene sequence variability exists among Michigan isolates. A total of 2202 wild, feral and hatchery-propagated fish from Michigan were examined for the presence of A. salmonicida. The examined fish included Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), coho salmon, O. kisutcha (Walbaum), steelhead trout, O. mykiss (Walbaum), Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill), and yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill). Among these, 234 fish yielded a brown pigment-producing bacterium that was presumptively identified as A. salmonicida. Further phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses identified representative isolates as Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and revealed some genetic and biochemical variability. Logistic regression analyses showed that infection prevalence varied according to fish species/strain, year and gender, whereby Chinook salmon and females had the highest infection prevalence. Moreover, this pathogen was found in six fish species from eight sites, demonstrating its widespread nature within Michigan.

  19. Report on the Predation Index, Predator Control Fisheries, and Program Evaluation for the Columbia River Basin Experimental Northern Pikeminnow Management Program, 2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Russell .

    2009-09-10

    This report presents results for year seventeen in the basin-wide Experimental Northern Pikeminnow Management Program to harvest northern pikeminnow1 (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) in the Columbia and Snake Rivers. This program was started in an effort to reduce predation by northern pikeminnow on juvenile salmonids during their emigration from natal streams to the ocean. Earlier work in the Columbia River Basin suggested predation by northern pikeminnow on juvenile salmonids might account for most of the 10-20% mortality juvenile salmonids experience in each of eight Columbia River and Snake River reservoirs. Modeling simulations based on work in John Day Reservoir from 1982 through 1988 indicated that, if predator-size northern pikeminnow were exploited at a 10-20% rate, the resulting restructuring of their population could reduce their predation on juvenile salmonids by 50%. To test this hypothesis, we implemented a sport-reward angling fishery and a commercial longline fishery in the John Day Pool in 1990. We also conducted an angling fishery in areas inaccessible to the public at four dams on the mainstem Columbia River and at Ice Harbor Dam on the Snake River. Based on the success of these limited efforts, we implemented three test fisheries on a system-wide scale in 1991 - a tribal longline fishery above Bonneville Dam, a sport-reward fishery, and a dam-angling fishery. Low catch of target fish and high cost of implementation resulted in discontinuation of the tribal longline fishery. However, the sport-reward and dam-angling fisheries were continued in 1992 and 1993. In 1992, we investigated the feasibility of implementing a commercial longline fishery in the Columbia River below Bonneville Dam and found that implementation of this fishery was also infeasible. Estimates of combined annual exploitation rates resulting from the sport-reward and dam-angling fisheries remained at the low end of our target range of 10-20%. This suggested the need for additional

  20. Distribution and Food Habits of Juvenile Salmonids in the Duwamish Estuary, Washington, 1980

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    tidal marsh habitats in the Duwamish estuary and Ell~ct t Bay, is characterized by a steep slope at the upper intertidal l evel v1ith il tnure gt·adua...Moist Pellet) remains were noted but not quantified. Predator and prey information was recorded on keypunch forms using the Marine Ecosystems Analysis...E.O. Salo, K. Garrison, and L. Matheson. 1979. Fish ecology studies in the Nisqually Reach area of southern Puget Sound, Washington. Univ. of Wash

  1. Evaluation of a small diameter baffled culvert for passing juvenile salmonids.

    Treesearch

    Mason D. Bryant

    1981-01-01

    A 90-cm-diameter culvert with off-set baffles was set at a 10-percent gradient in an artificial stream channel on Admiralty Island, Alaska. Coho salmon, Dolly Varden char, and cutthroat trout, all less than 120-mm fork length, were able to move up the 9-m culvert. Additional work is needed to determine an upper discharge limit and to evaluate field installations.

  2. Evaluation of Fish Passage Conditions for Juvenile Salmonids Using Sensor Fish at Detroit Dam, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, Joanne P.

    2010-01-29

    Fish passage conditions through two spillways at Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River in Oregon were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District, using Sensor Fish devices. The objective of the study was to describe and compare passage exposure conditions through Spillbay 3 and Spillbay 6 at 1.5- and 3.5-ft gate openings, identifying potential fish injury regions of the routes. The study was performed in July 2009, concurrent with HI-Z balloon-tag studies by Normandeau Associates, Inc. Sensor Fish and live fish were deployed at elevations approximately 3 ft above structure at depths determined using a computational fluid dynamics model. Data collected were analyzed to estimate 1) exposure conditions, particularly exposure to severe collision and shear events by passage route sub-regions; 2) differences in passage conditions between passage routes; and 3) relationships to live-fish injury and mortality data estimates.

  3. Acoustic Telemetry Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Survival Proportions at John Day Dam, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, Mark A.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hughes, James S.; Deng, Zhiqun; Fu, Tao; Kim, Jin A.; Johnson, Gary E.; Fischer, Eric S.; Khan, Fenton; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Faber, Derrek M.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Boyd, James W.; Townsend, Richard L.; Skalski, J. R.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Meyer, Matthew M.

    2011-09-28

    The overall purpose of the acoustic telemetry study at JDA during 2009 was to determine the best configuration and operation for JDA prior to conducting BiOp performance standard tests. The primary objective was to determine the best operation between 30% and 40% spill treatments. Route-specific and JDA to TDA forebay survival estimates, passage distribution, and timing/behavior metrics were used for comparison of 30% to a 40% spill treatments. A secondary objective was to evaluate the performance of TSWs installed in spill bays 15 and 16 and to estimate fish survival rates and passage efficiencies under 30% and 40% spill-discharge treatments each season.

  4. Salmonid influences on rivers: A geomorphic fish tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVries, Paul

    2012-07-01

    Studies of the effects of salmonids on the environment have focused primarily on the biological linkages between salmon runs and stream ecology. Less effort has focused on geomorphic effects. A review of the literature indicates potential (i) direct effects in response to mass spawning of salmonids, including changes in streambed and bank morphology and annual volumes of bedload transported; and (ii) indirect effects including supply of nutrients to the riparian zone, which may influence the in-channel dynamics of large woody debris and bank stability, and effects on population density of net-spinning caddisfly larvae which may influence streambed stability in finer gravel substrates. More research is needed over long time frames, however, to ascertain whether such effects are geomorphically significant at larger spatial and longer temporal scales, and to estimate the sizes of populations required to cause geomorphically significant responses. Some possible studies are suggested.

  5. Endohelminth parasites from salmonids in intensive culture from southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Torres, P; Quintanilla, J C; Rozas, M; Miranda, P; Ibarra, R; San Martín, M F; Raddatz, B; Wolter, M; Villegas, A; Canobra, C; Hausdorf, M; Silva, R

    2010-06-01

    A total of 228 salmonids (90 Oncorhynchus mykiss, 48 Oncorhynchus kisutch, and 90 Salmo salar) from 8 intensive aquaculture centers in the south of Chile were examined for endohelminths parasites between December 2008 and May 2009. The body cavities of 2 O. mykiss were infected by Diphyllobothrium sp. plerocercoids (prevalence: 6.7%, mean intensity: 1.0, mean abundance: 0.07) from the Lake Tarahuin hatchery on the south of Chiloé Island. Also, tetraphyllidean plerocercoids (prevalence: 3.3%, mean intensity: 1, mean abundance: 0.03) and fourth-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium aduncum (prevalence: 6.7%, mean intensity: 1, mean abundance 0.07) were observed in O. kisutch from a marine hatchery in Chiloé. The occurrences of Diphyllobothrium sp. in a lake and a tetraphyllidean plerocercoid from marine cultured salmonid in Chiloé are reported for first time. No muscular infection by helminths was recorded in the fish examined.

  6. Juvenile summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, mortalities in the western Atlantic Ocean caused by the hemoflagellate Trypanoplasma bullocki: evidence from field and experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burreson, E. M.; Zwerner, D. E.

    1984-03-01

    Juvenile summer flounder (140 200 mm) inoculated with T. bullocki by leech vector or syringe in November 1980, and held in flowing seawater tanks all died within 11 weeks. Water temperature during the period of highest mortality ranged from 0.5 to 1.5 °C and may have been a contributing factor in mortality. No uninoculated control fish died even though held in the same tank. Symptoms of disease were anemia, splenomegaly and obvious ascites. Mortality of feral juvenile summer flunder in the lower York River during January 1981 was also attributable to T. bullocki because of identical symptoms to moribund fish in the experiment. Results suggest that the presence of ascites can be used as an estimate of mortality in fishes north of Cape Hatteras.

  7. Modeling effects of climate change on Yakima River salmonid habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatten, James R.; Batt, Thomas R.; Connolly, Patrick J.; Maule, Alec G.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the potential effects of two climate change scenarios on salmonid habitats in the Yakima River by linking the outputs from a watershed model, a river operations model, a two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic model, and a geographic information system (GIS). The watershed model produced a discharge time series (hydrograph) in two study reaches under three climate scenarios: a baseline (1981–2005), a 1-°C increase in mean air temperature (plus one scenario), and a 2-°C increase (plus two scenario). A river operations model modified the discharge time series with Yakima River operational rules, a 2D model provided spatially explicit depth and velocity grids for two floodplain reaches, while an expert panel provided habitat criteria for four life stages of coho and fall Chinook salmon. We generated discharge-habitat functions for each salmonid life stage (e.g., spawning, rearing) in main stem and side channels, and habitat time series for baseline, plus one (P1) and plus two (P2) scenarios. The spatial and temporal patterns in salmonid habitats differed by reach, life stage, and climate scenario. Seventy-five percent of the 28 discharge-habitat responses exhibited a decrease in habitat quantity, with the P2 scenario producing the largest changes, followed by P1. Fry and spring/summer rearing habitats were the most sensitive to warming and flow modification for both species. Side channels generally produced more habitat than main stem and were more responsive to flow changes, demonstrating the importance of lateral connectivity in the floodplain. A discharge-habitat sensitivity analysis revealed that proactive management of regulated surface waters (i.e., increasing or decreasing flows) might lessen the impacts of climate change on salmonid habitats.

  8. Juvenile dispersal in Calomys venustus (Muridae: Sigmodontinae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priotto, José; Steinmann, Andrea; Provensal, Cecilia; Polop, Jaime

    2004-05-01

    Both spacing behaviour and dispersal movement are viewed as hierarchical processes in which the effects may be expressed at spatial scale. This research was carried out to examine the hypothesis that the presence of parents promotes the dispersal of juveniles from their natal nest and their father or mother home-range, in Calomys venustus.The study was carried out in four 0.25 ha fences (two controls and two experimentals), in a natural pasture. This study had two periods: Father Removal (FR) (August and December 1997; year one) and Mother Removal (MR) (August 1998 and January 1999; year two). For the FR treatment fathers were removed after juveniles were born, but in the MR treatment mothers were removed after the juveniles were weaned. The effect of parents on the dispersal distance of juveniles was analysed with respect to their natal nest and their mother and father home-range. Dispersal distance from the nest of C. venustus was independent of either male or female parent. Juveniles were more dispersing in relation to the centre of activity of their mothers than to that of their fathers, and females were more dispersing than males. Female juveniles overlap their home-range with their parents less than male juveniles do. The differences observed between female and male juveniles would be related to their different sexual maturation times, as well as to the female territoriality.

  9. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix C: Anadromous Fish and Juvenile Fish Transportation.

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River System Operation Review

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix C of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on andromous fish and juvenile fish transportation. The principal andromous fish in the Columbia basin include salmonid species (Chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead) and nonsalmoinid andromous species (sturgeon, lamprey, and shad). Major sections in this document include the following: background, scope and process; affected environment for salmon and steelhead, shaded, lamprey, sturgeon; study methods; description of alternatives: qualitative and quantitative findings.

  10. Is hyporheic flow an indicator for salmonid spawning site selection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjankar, R. M.; Tonina, D.; Marzadri, A.; McKean, J. A.; Isaak, D.

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have investigated the role of hydraulic variables in the selection of spawning sites by salmonids. Some recent studies suggest that the intensity of the ambient hyporheic flow, that present without a salmon egg pocket, is a cue for spawning site selection, but others have argued against it. We tested this hypothesis by using a unique dataset of field surveyed spawning site locations and an unprecedented meter-scale resolution bathymetry of a 13.5 km long reach of Bear Valley Creek (Idaho, USA), an important Chinook salmon spawning stream. We used a two-dimensional surface water model to quantify stream hydraulics and a three-dimensional hyporheic model to quantify the hyporheic flows. Our results show that the intensity of ambient hyporheic flows is not a statistically significant variable for spawning site selection. Conversely, the intensity of the water surface curvature and the habitat quality, quantified as a function of stream hydraulics and morphology, are the most important variables for salmonid spawning site selection. KEY WORDS: Salmonid spawning habitat, pool-riffle system, habitat quality, surface water curvature, hyporheic flow

  11. Antigenic characterization of the salmonid pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis.

    PubMed Central

    Kuzyk, M A; Thorton, J C; Kay, W W

    1996-01-01

    Piscirickettsia salmonis, the etiological agent of salmonid rickettsial septicemia, was purified from infected immortal chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) embryo cells by a combination of differential and Percoll density gradient centrifugation. Immune sera from rabbits immunized with purified whole cells of P. salmonis reacted with four protein antigens and two carbohydrate antigens with relative molecular sizes of 65, 60, 54, 51, 16, and approximately 11 kDa, respectively. The carbohydrate antigens appear to be mainly core region lipo-oligosaccharide with lesser amounts of lipopolysaccharide. Serum from convalescent rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) reacted with several minor immunoreactive protein antigens between 10 and 70 kDa in size and a carbohydrate antigen with a relative molecular size of approximately 11 kDa. The salmonid immune system did not appear to elicit a strong humoral response against this intracellular pathogen. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, immunogold transmission electron microscopy, and biotin labeling of intact P. salmonis cells suggest that the immunoreactive antigens identified with rabbit antisera are surface exposed and differ significantly from those identified with salmonid antisera. PMID:8945567

  12. Linkage Relationships Reflecting Ancestral Tetraploidy in Salmonid Fish

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, K. R.; Wright, J. E.; May, B.

    1987-01-01

    Fifteen classical linkage groups were identified in two salmonid species (Salmo trutta and Salmo gairdneri) and three fertile, interspecific hybrids (S. gairdneri x Salmo clarki, Salvelinus fontinalis x Salvelinus namaycush and S. fontinalis x Salvelinus alpinus) by backcrossing multiply heterozygous individuals. These linkage relationships of electrophoretically detected, protein coding loci were highly conserved among species. The loci encoding the enzymes appeared to be randomly distributed among the salmonid chromosomes. Recombination frequencies were generally greater in females than in males. In males, certain linkage groups were pseudolinked with other linkage groups, presumably because of facultative multivalent pairing and directed disjunction of chromosomes. Five such pseudolinkage groups were identified and they also appeared to be common among species and hybrids. Duplicate loci were never classically linked with each other, although some exhibited pseudolinkage and some showed evidence of exchanging alleles. Gene-centromere recombination frequencies estimated from genotypic distributions of gynogenetic offspring were consistent with map locations inferred from female intergenic recombination frequencies. These linkage relationships support the contention that all extant salmonids arose from a common tetraploid progenitor and that this progenitor may have been a segmental allotetraploid. PMID:3623080

  13. Predation by northern squawfish on live and dead juvenile chinook salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Gadomski, D.M.; Hall-Griswold, J.A. )

    1992-09-01

    Northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis is a major predator of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. migrating downstream through the Columbia River. High predation rates occur just below dams. If northern squawfish selectively consume salmonids killed or injured during dam passage, previous estimates of predation mortality may be too high. We conducted laboratory experiments that indicate northern squawfish prefer dead juvenile chinook salmon O. tshawytscha over live individuals. When equal numbers of dead and live chinook salmon were offered to northern squawfish maintained on a natural photoperiod (15 h light: 9 h darkness), significantly more (P < 0.05) dead than live fish were consumed, both in 1,400-L circular tanks and in an 11,300-L raceway (62% and 79% of prey consumed were dead, respectively). When dead and live juvenile chinook salmon were provided in proportions more similar to those below dams (20% dead, 80% live), northern squawfish still selected for dead prey (36% of fish consumed were dead). In additional experiments, northern squawfish were offered a proportion of 20% dead juvenile chinook salmon during 4-h periods of either light or darkness. The predators were much more selective for dead chinook salmon during bright light (88% of fish consumed were dead) than during darkness (31% were dead).

  14. Predation by northern squawfish on live and dead juvenile Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gadomski, Dena M.; Hall-Griswold, Judy A.

    1992-01-01

    Northern squafish Ptychocheilus oregonensis is a major predator of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. migrating downstream through the Columbia River. High predation rates occur just below dams. If northern squafish selectively consume salmonids killed or injured during dam passage, previous estimates of predation mortality may be too high. We conducted laboratory experiments that indicate northern squafish prefer dead juvenile chinook salmon O. tshawytscha over live individuals. When equal numbers of dead and live chinook salmon were offered to northern squafish maintained on a natural photoperiod (15 h light: 9 h darkness), significantly more (P < 0.05) dead than live fish were consumed, both in 1,400-L circular tanks and in an 11,300-L raceway (62% and 79% of prey consumed were dead, respectively). When dead and live juvenile chinook salmon were provided in proportions more similar to those below dams (20% dead, 80% live), northern squafish still selected for dead prey (36% of fish consumed were dead). In additional experiments, northern squafish were offered a proportion of 20% dead juvenile chinook salmon during 4-h periods of either light or darkness. The predators were much more selective for dead chinook salmon during bright light (88% of fish consumed were dead) than during darkness (31% were dead).

  15. The relationship between productivities of salmonids and forest stands in northern California watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frazey, S.L.; Wilzbach, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Productivities of resident salmonids and upland and riporian forests in 22 small watersheds of coastal northern California were estimated and compared to determine whether: 1) upland site productivity predicted riparian site productivity; 2) either upland or riparian site productivity predicted salmonid productivity; and 3) other parameters explained more of the variance in salmonid productivity. Upland and riparian site productivities were estimated using Site Index values for redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and red alder (Alnus rubra), respectively. Salmonid productivity was indexed by back-calculated length at age 1 of the largest individuals sampled and by total biomass. Upland and riparian site indices were correlated, but neither factor contributed to the best approximating models of salmonid productivity. Total salmonid biomass was best described by a positive relationship with drainage area. Length of dominant fish was best described by a positive relationship with percentage of hardwoods within riparian areas, which may result from nutrient and/or litter subsidies provided by red older. The inability of forest productivity to predict salmon productivity may reflect insufficient variation in independent variables, limitations of the indices, and the operation of other factors affecting salmonid production. The lack of an apparent relationship between upland conifer and salmonid productivity suggests that management of land for timber productivity and component streams for salmonid production in these sites will require separate, albeit integrated, management strategies.

  16. Juvenile Delinquency: An Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carolyn A.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile Delinquency is a term which is often inaccurately used. This article clarifies definitions, looks at prevalence, and explores the relationship between juvenile delinquency and mental health. Throughout, differences between males and females are explored. (Contains 1 table.)

  17. Juvenile Delinquency: An Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carolyn A.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile Delinquency is a term which is often inaccurately used. This article clarifies definitions, looks at prevalence, and explores the relationship between juvenile delinquency and mental health. Throughout, differences between males and females are explored. (Contains 1 table.)

  18. Assessment of Salmonids and Their Habitat Conditions in the Walla Walla River Basin within Washington, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, Glen; Trump, Jeremy; Gembala, Mike

    2003-09-01

    This study began in 1998 to assess salmonid distribution, relative abundance, genetics, and the condition of salmonid habitats in the Walla Walla River basin. Stream flows in the Walla Walla Basin continue to show a general trend that begins with a sharp decline in discharge in late June, followed by low summer flows and then an increase in discharge in fall and winter. Manual stream flow measurements at Pepper bridge showed an increase in 2002 of 110-185% from July-September, over flows from 2001. This increase is apparently associated with a 2000 settlement agreement between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the irrigation districts to leave minimum flows in the river. Stream temperatures in the Walla Walla basin were similar to those in 2001. Upper montane tributaries maintained maximum summer temperatures below 65 F, while sites in mid and lower Touchet and Walla Walla rivers frequently had daily maximum temperatures well above 68 F (high enough to inhibit migration in adult and juvenile salmonids, and to sharply reduce survival of their embryos and fry). These high temperatures are possibly the most critical physiological barrier to salmonids in the Walla Walla basin, but other factors (available water, turbidity or sediment deposition, cover, lack of pools, etc.) also play a part in salmonid survival, migration, and breeding success. The increased flows in the Walla Walla, due to the 2000 settlement agreement, have not shown consistent improvements to stream temperatures. Rainbow/steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) trout represent the most common salmonid in the basin. Densities of Rainbow/steelhead in the Walla Walla River from the Washington/Oregon stateline to Mojonnier Rd. dropped slightly from 2001, but are still considerably higher than before the 2000 settlement agreement. Other salmonids including; bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), and brown trout (Salmo

  19. Assessing Success of Instream Structures for Salmonid Stream Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteway, S.; Biron, P.

    2009-05-01

    Stream restoration is a billion dollar industry in North America; despite this expenditure there remain questions regarding the effectiveness of current techniques such as the installation of instream structures. Assessing the effect that such structures have on physical habitat and on salmonid density are key ways of determining project success. The objectives of this research were to assess the impact of instream structures on physical habitat in the Nicolet River (Quebec) and to analyze physical habitat and fish density data from many stream restoration projects in North America. Results of intensive surveys of the Nicolet River show that the installation of weirs and deflectors results in a greater frequency of pools. These pools have significantly greater depths, lower velocities, larger sediment size and higher percent cover than those without structures. Meta analysis of data from 187 stream restoration projects in North America also show significant increases in percent pool area, average depth, and percent cover as well as decreases in channel width following the installation of structures. The physical changes observed in the Nicolet River resulted in improved trout habitat, as measured by applying habitat preference curves, but uneven stocking practices and fishing pressure confounded attempts to verify differences in trout density based on presence or absence of structures. The meta analysis, however, shows significant increases in salmonid density, measured as fish/m2, following the installation of structures. On average, density increased by 161%. Different structure types result in significantly different changes in physical habitat, with weir structures providing the largest density increase. Multiple linear regression analysis reveals that the combination of change in relative pool area and in width is the best predictor of change in salmonid density (r2=0.511). Instream structures are significantly more successful at increasing brook trout density

  20. Ichthyophonus-induced cardiac damage: a mechanism for reduced swimming stamina in salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.; LaPatra, S.; Gregg, J.; Winton, J.; Hershberger, P.

    2006-01-01

    Swimming stamina, measured as time-to-fatigue, was reduced by approximately two-thirds in rainbow trout experimentally infected with Ichthyophonus. Intensity of Ichthyophonus infection was most severe in cardiac muscle but multiple organs were infected to a lesser extent. The mean heart weight of infected fish was 40% greater than that of uninfected fish, the result of parasite biomass, infiltration of immune cells and fibrotic (granuloma) tissue surrounding the parasite. Diminished swimming stamina is hypothesized to be due to cardiac failure resulting from the combination of parasite-damaged heart muscle and low myocardial oxygen supply during sustained aerobic exercise. Loss of stamina in Ichthyophonus-infected salmonids could explain the poor performance previously reported for wild Chinook and sockeye salmon stocks during their spawning migration. ?? 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Juvenile Arrests, 2000. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Howard N.

    This bulletin examines the national and state juvenile arrest rate in 2000 using data reported annually by local law enforcement agencies nationwide to the FBI's Uniform Crime Reporting program. Results indicate that the murder rate in 2000 was the lowest since 1965; juvenile arrests for violence in 2000 were the lowest since 1988; few juveniles…

  2. Juvenile Arrests, 2007. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puzzanchera, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This Bulletin summarizes 2007 juvenile crime and arrest data reported by local law enforcement agencies across the country and cited in the FBI report, "Crime in the United States 2007." The Bulletin describes the extent and nature of juvenile crime that comes to the attention of the justice system. It serves as a baseline for comparison for…

  3. Juvenile Arrests, 1998. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Howard N.

    This report provides a summary and analysis of national and state juvenile arrest data in the United States. In 1998, law enforcement agencies made an estimated 2.6 million arrests of persons under age 18. Federal Bureau of Investigations statistics indicate that juveniles account for 18% of all arrests, and 17% of all violent crime arrests in…

  4. Juvenile Arrests, 1999. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Howard N.

    This bulletin presents a summary and analysis of national and state juvenile arrest data for 1999. Data come from the FBI's annual "Crime in the United States" report, which offers the estimated number of crimes reported to law enforcement agencies. The 1999 murder rate was the lowest since 1966. Of the nearly 1,800 juveniles murdered in…

  5. Juvenile Arrests 1996. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Howard N.

    In 1996, law enforcement agencies in the United States made an estimated 2.9 million arrests of persons under the age of 18. According to Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) figures, juveniles accounted for 19% of all arrests and 19% of all violent crime in 1996. The substantial growth in juvenile crime that began in the late 1980s peaked in…

  6. Juvenile Justice Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Provides a list of terms pertaining to the juvenile justice system, such as appeal and due process, that are used throughout this edition of "Update on Law-Related Education," in particular, with the teaching strategies "The Case of Gerry Gault" (SO 532 196) "Today's Juvenile Court" (SO 532 197), and "Using the Juvenile Justice Poster" (SO 532…

  7. Concepts Shaping Juvenile Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Rob White's paper explores ways in which community building can be integrated into the practices of juvenile justice work. He provides a model of what can be called "restorative social justice", one that builds upon the juvenile conferencing model by attempting to fuse social justice concerns with progressive juvenile justice practices.

  8. Evaluation of Juvenile Fish Bypass and Adult Fish Passage Facilities at Water Diversions in the Umatilla River; 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Suzanne M.

    1994-03-01

    This report presents progress from October 1992 through September 1993 in evaluating juvenile fish bypass facilities at Three Mile Falls, Maxwell, Westland, and Feed Canal dams on the Umatilla River, and in evaluating adult fish passage in the lower Umatilla River. Also reported is an effort to evaluate delayed mortality and stress responses of juvenile salmonids resulting from trapping and transport at high temperatures. These studies are part of a program to rehabilitate anadromous fish stocks in the matilla River Basin, including restoration of coho salmon and chinook salmon, as well as enhancement of summer steelhead.

  9. Occurrence and significance of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida in non-salmonid and salmonid fish species: a review.

    PubMed

    Wiklund, T; Dalsgaard, I

    1998-02-26

    Bacterial strains of Aeromonas salmonicida included in the recognized subsp. acromogenes, subsp. masoucida, and subsp. smithia in addition to the large number of strains not included in any of the described subspecies are referred to as atypical A. salmonicida. The atypical strains form a very heterogeneous group with respect to biochemical characteristics, growth conditions, and production of extracellular proteasess. Consequently, the present taxonomy of the species A. salmonicida is rather ambiguous. Atypical A. salmonicida has been isolated from a wide range of cultivated and wild fish species, non-salmonids as well as salmonids, inhabiting fresh water, brackish water and marine environments in northern and central Europe, South Africa, North America, Japan and Australia. In non-salmonid fish species, infections with atypical strains often manifest themselves as superficial skin ulcerations. The best known diseases associated with atypical A. salmonicida are carp Cyprinus carpio erythrodermatitis, goldfish Carassius auratus ulcer disease, and ulcer disease of flounder Platichthys flesus, but atypical strains are apparently involved in more disease outbreaks than previously suspected. Macroscopical and microscopical studies of ulcerated fish indicate internal organs are infrequently invaded by atypical A. salmonicida. This view is supported by the fact that atypical strains are irregularly isolated from visceral organs of ulcerated fish. High mortality caused by atypical A. salmonicida has been observed in populations of wild non-salmonids and farmed salmonids, although the association between the mortality in the wild fish stocks and atypical A. salmonicida has not always been properly assessed. In injection experiments the pathogenicity of the atypical strains examined showed large variation. An extacellular A-layer has been detected in different atypical strains, but virulence mechanisms different from those described for (typical) A. salmonicida subsp

  10. Epidemiology and Control of Infectious Diseases of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1987 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, John L.

    1989-01-01

    The Department of Microbiology at Oregon State University with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration has been conducting a study concerning the epidemiology and control of three fish pathogens which cause major disease problems in salmonids of the Columbia River basin. The pathogens studied include Cera to myxa Shasta, the myxosporean parasite which causes ceratomyxosis; Renibacterium salmoninarum, the bacterium which is the etiological agent of bacterial kidney disease; and the rhabdovirus which causes infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN). During this project, the host and geographic range of C. Shasta have been more precisely determined and the known geographic range has been significantly expanded. The effects of the parasite on fish migrating through the Columbia River and on their introduction into salt water have been examined. Similar studies have been conducted with R. salmoninarum and it has been shown that bacterial kidney disease occurs at all life stages of salmonids and is responsible for mortality in both fresh and salt water. It has also been demonstrated that different isolates of R. salmoninarum have different antigenic composition. Results of demonstration projects designed to control IHN by using UV treated water for early rearing of salmonid fry were equivocal. The scope of the project was considerably narrowed and focused during the past two years The project has concentrated on a study concerning the biology of C. Shasta and the identification of potential chemotherapeutants for control of bacterial kidney disease. The emphasis of work on C. Shasta has been its pathogenesis. This aspect of the parasite has been investigated using histopathologic and immunologic methodology. Mode of transmission, the nature of the infectious stage, and potential intermediate hosts of the parasite have also been areas of active research. Classes of chemotherapeutants with the highest potential for efficacy against R. salmoninarum have been

  11. Evaluation of a Prototype Surface Flow Bypass for Juvenile Salmon and Steelhead at the Powerhouse of Lower Granite Dam, Snake River, Washington, 1996-2000

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Anglea, Steven M.; Adams, Noah S.; Wik, Timothy O.

    2005-02-28

    A surface flow bypass provides a route in the upper water column for naturally, surface-oriented juvenile salmonids to safely migrate through a hydroelectric dam. Surface flow bypasses were recommended in several regional salmon recovery plans as a means to increase passage survival of juvenile salmonids at Columbia and Snake River dams. A prototype surface flow bypass, called the SBC, was retrofit on Lower Granite Dam and evaluated from 1996 to 2000 using biotelemetry and hydroacoustic techniques. In terms of passage efficiency, the best SBC configurations were a surface skimmer (99 m3/s [3,500 cfs], three entrances 5 m wide, 5 m deep and one entrance 5 m wide, 15 m deep) and a single chute (99 m3/s, one entrance 5 m wide, 8.5 m deep). They each passed 62 ? 3% (95% confidence interval) of the total juvenile fish population that entered the section of the dam with the SBC entrances (Turbine Units 4-5). Smooth entrance shape and concentrated surface flow characteristics of these configurations are worth pursuing in designs for future surface flow bypasses. In addition, a guidance wall in the Lower Granite Dam forebay diverted the following percentages of juvenile salmonids away from Turbine Units 1-3 toward other passage routes, including the SBC: run-at-large 79 ? 18%; hatchery steelhead 86%; wild steelhead 65%; and yearling chinook salmon 66%. When used in combination with spill or turbine intake screens, a surface flow bypass with a guidance wall can produce a high level (> 90% of total project passage) of non-turbine passage and provide operational flexibility to fisheries managers and dam operators responsible for enhancing juvenile salmonid survival.

  12. Quasi-Experimental Study of Functional Family Therapy Effectiveness for Juvenile Justice Aftercare in a Racially and Ethnically Diverse Community Sample.

    PubMed

    Darnell, Adam J; Schuler, Megan S

    2015-03-01

    Functional Family Therapy (FFT) is an intensive community-based treatment program designed to reduce youth behavior problems such as violence, drug use, and other delinquency. Although there is evidence of FFT efficacy and effectiveness with predominantly White samples, there is very little evidence with racial/ethnic minority samples. In light of the over-representation of African American and Latino youth in the juvenile justice system, this study examined the effectiveness of FFT and an adaptation of FFT to probation supervision, called Functional Family Probation (FFP), among a predominantly Latino and African American sample of youth returning home from court-ordered out-of-home placements (OHP). Propensity score weighting was used to compare the likelihood of subsequent OHPs among youth receiving standard probation (Comparison group), and youth receiving FFT (with standard probation), youth receiving FFP (instead of standard probation), and youth receiving FFT in combination with FFP. Results indicated that youth receiving FFT (both with standard probation and FFP), relative to Comparison youth receiving standard probation only, had significantly lower likelihood of OHP during the first two months following release, but this advantage disappeared in later months. Youth receiving only FFP also had lower likelihood of OHP than Comparison youth in the first two months, though not significantly. These findings provide encouraging evidence of positive effects of FFT, in combination with FFP or standard probation, among a diverse sample of juvenile justice system-involved youth.

  13. Juvenile polyposis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brosens, Lodewijk Aa; Langeveld, Danielle; van Hattem, W Arnout; Giardiello, Francis M; Offerhaus, G Johan A

    2011-11-28

    Juvenile polyposis syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by multiple distinct juvenile polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and an increased risk of colorectal cancer. The cumulative life-time risk of colorectal cancer is 39% and the relative risk is 34. Juvenile polyps have a distinctive histology characterized by an abundance of edematous lamina propria with inflammatory cells and cystically dilated glands lined by cuboidal to columnar epithelium with reactive changes. Clinically, juvenile polyposis syndrome is defined by the presence of 5 or more juvenile polyps in the colorectum, juvenile polyps throughout the gastrointestinal tract or any number of juvenile polyps and a positive family history of juvenile polyposis. In about 50%-60% of patients diagnosed with juvenile polyposis syndrome a germline mutation in the SMAD4 or BMPR1A gene is found. Both genes play a role in the BMP/TGF-beta signalling pathway. It has been suggested that cancer in juvenile polyposis may develop through the so-called "landscaper mechanism" where an abnormal stromal environment leads to neoplastic transformation of the adjacent epithelium and in the end invasive carcinoma. Recognition of this rare disorder is important for patients and their families with regard to treatment, follow-up and screening of at risk individuals. Each clinician confronted with the diagnosis of a juvenile polyp should therefore consider the possibility of juvenile polyposis syndrome. In addition, juvenile polyposis syndrome provides a unique model to study colorectal cancer pathogenesis in general and gives insight in the molecular genetic basis of cancer. This review discusses clinical manifestations, genetics, pathogenesis and management of juvenile polyposis syndrome.

  14. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Brosens, Lodewijk AA; Langeveld, Danielle; van Hattem, W Arnout; Giardiello, Francis M; Offerhaus, G Johan A

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile polyposis syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by multiple distinct juvenile polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and an increased risk of colorectal cancer. The cumulative life-time risk of colorectal cancer is 39% and the relative risk is 34. Juvenile polyps have a distinctive histology characterized by an abundance of edematous lamina propria with inflammatory cells and cystically dilated glands lined by cuboidal to columnar epithelium with reactive changes. Clinically, juvenile polyposis syndrome is defined by the presence of 5 or more juvenile polyps in the colorectum, juvenile polyps throughout the gastrointestinal tract or any number of juvenile polyps and a positive family history of juvenile polyposis. In about 50%-60% of patients diagnosed with juvenile polyposis syndrome a germline mutation in the SMAD4 or BMPR1A gene is found. Both genes play a role in the BMP/TGF-beta signalling pathway. It has been suggested that cancer in juvenile polyposis may develop through the so-called “landscaper mechanism” where an abnormal stromal environment leads to neoplastic transformation of the adjacent epithelium and in the end invasive carcinoma. Recognition of this rare disorder is important for patients and their families with regard to treatment, follow-up and screening of at risk individuals. Each clinician confronted with the diagnosis of a juvenile polyp should therefore consider the possibility of juvenile polyposis syndrome. In addition, juvenile polyposis syndrome provides a unique model to study colorectal cancer pathogenesis in general and gives insight in the molecular genetic basis of cancer. This review discusses clinical manifestations, genetics, pathogenesis and management of juvenile polyposis syndrome. PMID:22171123

  15. Feeding modes in stream salmonid population models: Is drift feeding the whole story?

    Treesearch

    Bret Harvey; Steve Railsback

    2014-01-01

    Drift-feeding models are essential components of broader models that link stream habitat to salmonid populations and community dynamics. But is an additional feeding mode needed for understanding and predicting salmonid population responses to streamflow and other environmental factors? We addressed this question by applying two versions of the individual-based model...

  16. Use of benthic prey by salmonids under turbid conditions in a laboratory stream

    Treesearch

    Bret C. Harvey; Jason L. White

    2008-01-01

    The negative effect of turbidity on the reactive distance of salmonids has been well established. However, determining the consequences of this relationship for overall feeding success remains problematic, as successful foraging by salmonids across a broad range in turbidity has been observed under a variety of conditions. Previous laboratory and field observations...

  17. A new method to identify the fluvial regimes used by spawning salmonids

    Treesearch

    Hamish J. Moir; Christopher N. Gibbins; John M. Buffington; John H. Webb; Chris Soulsby; Mark J. Brewer

    2009-01-01

    Basin physiography and fluvial processes structure the availability of salmonid spawning habitat in river networks. However, methods that allow us to explicitly link hydrologic and geomorphic processes to spatial patterns of spawning at scales relevant to management are limited. Here we present a method that can be used to link the abundance of spawning salmonids to...

  18. Assessment of Native Salmonids Above Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho; 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Kevin A.

    1999-03-01

    Native resident salmonids in the western United States are in decline throughout much of their range. The purpose of the multi-phased project is to restore native salmonids in the upper Snake River basin to self-sustaining, harvestable levels.

  19. A Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for the Detection and Quantification of Epizootic Epitheliotropic Disease Virus (EEDV; Salmonid Herpesvirus 3).

    PubMed

    Glenney, Gavin W; Barbash, Patricia A; Coll, John A

    2016-03-01

    Epizootic epitheliotropic disease virus (EEDV; salmonid herpesvirus [SalHV3]; family Alloherpesviridae) causes a systemic disease of juvenile and yearling Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush. No cell lines are currently available for the culture and propagation of EEDV, so primary diagnosis is limited to PCR and electron microscopy. To better understand the pervasiveness of EEDV (carrier or latent state of infection) in domesticated and wild Lake Trout populations, we developed a sensitive TaqMan quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to detect the presence of the EEDV terminase gene in Lake Trout tissues. This assay was able to detect a linear standard curve over nine logs of plasmid dilution and was sensitive enough to detect single-digit copies of EEDV. The efficiency of the PCR assay was 99.4 ± 0.06% (mean ± SD), with a 95% confidence limit of 0.0296 (R(2) = 0.994). Methods were successfully applied to collect preliminary data from a number of species and water bodies in the states of Pennsylvania, New York, and Vermont, indicating that EEDV is more common in wild fish than previously known. In addition, through the development of this qPCR assay, we detected EEDV in a new salmonid species, the Cisco Coregonus artedi. The qPCR assay was unexpectedly able to detect two additional herpesviruses, the Atlantic Salmon papillomatosis virus (ASPV; SalHV4) and the Namaycush herpesvirus (NamHV; SalHV5), which both share high sequence identity with the EEDV terminase gene. With these unexpected findings, we subsequently designed three primer sets to confirm initial TaqMan qPCR assay positives and to differentiate among EEDV, ASPV, and NamHV by detecting the glycoprotein genes via SYBR Green qPCR. Received April 20, 2015; accepted November 10, 2015.

  20. Searching for an Integrated Watershed Salmonid Population Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligon, F. K.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2005-05-01

    In proposing to restore a stream or watershed, we imply that we know what we are restoring and why. However, in many cases, restoration proceeds without having the tools to adequately assess the efficacy of a project-both in terms of its likely local success and what effects it may have at a larger watershed or regional scale. In salmonid ecology and restoration, our approach has been to "step back" and investigate the degree to which geology, tectonics, and climate determine the relative abundance and temporal variability of the species present in a watershed or reach. In other words, does the habitat provided by a landscape prior to European disturbance (the so-called historical reference condition) allow us to predict, using salmon life history theory, the historical population dynamics of all salmonid species for a watershed or region? Likewise, as changes in physical processes have occurred due to human disturbance, can we predict the differential effects on the abundance of different salmonid species historically present in the watershed? To explore these questions, we have developed the "reference model". The reference model is based on a set of desktop watershed analyses tools that estimate a number of landscape attributes including channel slope, drainage area, stream temperature, and shallow landslide sensitivity. The model uses these tools to predict the spatial distribution of habitat and its quality and quantity. Then, by relating the habitat to life stage specific survival, the model predicts population dynamics under reference and current conditions, and under proposed restoration scenarios. In applying the reference model, we explicitly link salmon restoration targets and plans to an understanding of the role of physical processes on the historical and current population dynamics. As is true with most models, the reference model's predictions have the greatest value when they can be treated as testable hypotheses. Ongoing restoration projects that

  1. An epidemiological model for proliferative kidney disease in salmonid populations.

    PubMed

    Carraro, Luca; Mari, Lorenzo; Hartikainen, Hanna; Strepparava, Nicole; Wahli, Thomas; Jokela, Jukka; Gatto, Marino; Rinaldo, Andrea; Bertuzzo, Enrico

    2016-09-05

    Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) affects salmonid populations in European and North-American rivers. It is caused by the endoparasitic myxozoan Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, which exploits freshwater bryozoans and salmonids as hosts. Incidence and severity of PKD in brown trout populations have recently increased rapidly, causing a decline in fish catches and local extinctions in many river systems. PKD incidence and fish mortality are known to be enhanced by warmer water temperatures. Therefore, environmental change is feared to increase the severity of PKD outbreaks and extend the disease range to higher latitude and altitude regions. We present the first mathematical model regarding the epidemiology of PKD, including the complex life-cycle of its causative agent across multiple hosts. A dynamical model of PKD epidemiology in riverine host populations is developed. The model accounts for local demographic and epidemiological dynamics of bryozoans and fish, explicitly incorporates the role of temperature, and couples intra-seasonal and inter-seasonal dynamics. The former are described in a continuous-time domain, the latter in a discrete-time domain. Stability and sensitivity analyses are performed to investigate the key processes controlling parasite invasion and persistence. Stability analysis shows that, for realistic parameter ranges, a disease-free system is highly invasible, which implies that the introduction of the parasite in a susceptible community is very likely to trigger a disease outbreak. Sensitivity analysis shows that, when the disease is endemic, the impact of PKD outbreaks is mostly controlled by the rates of disease development in the fish population. The developed mathematical model helps further our understanding of the modes of transmission of PKD in wild salmonid populations, and provides the basis for the design of interventions or mitigation strategies. It can also be used to project changes in disease severity and prevalence because

  2. Infection experiments with novel Piscine orthoreovirus from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in salmonids

    PubMed Central

    Taksdal, Torunn; Olsen, Anne Berit; Wessel, Øystein; Mikkelsen, Susie Sommer; Alencar, Anna Luiza Farias; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    A new disease in farmed rainbow trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss) was described in Norway in 2013. The disease mainly affected the heart and resembled heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). HSMI is associated with Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV), and a search for a similar virus in the diseased rainbow trout led to detection of a sequence with 85% similarity to PRV. This finding called for a targeted effort to assess the risk the new PRV-variant pose on farmed rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon by studying infection and disease pathogenesis, aiming to provide more diagnostic knowledge. Based on the genetic relationship to PRV, the novel virus is referred to as PRV-Oncorhynchus mykiss (PRV-Om) in contrast to PRV-Salmo salar (PRV-Ss). In experimental trials, intraperitoneally injected PRV-Om was shown to replicate in blood in both salmonid species, but more effectively in rainbow trout. In rainbow trout, the virus levels peaked in blood and heart of cohabitants 6 weeks post challenge, along with increased expression of antiviral genes (Mx and viperin) in the spleen, with 80–100% of the cohabitants infected. Heart inflammation was diagnosed in all cohabitants examined 8 weeks post challenge. In contrast, less than 50% of the Atlantic salmon cohabitants were infected between 8 and 16 weeks post challenge and the antiviral response in these fish was very low. From 12 weeks post challenge and onwards, mild focal myocarditis was demonstrated in a few virus-positive salmon. In conclusion, PRV-Om infects both salmonid species, but faster transmission, more notable antiviral response and more prominent heart pathology were observed in rainbow trout. PMID:28678799

  3. Infection experiments with novel Piscine orthoreovirus from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in salmonids.

    PubMed

    Hauge, Helena; Vendramin, Niccolo; Taksdal, Torunn; Olsen, Anne Berit; Wessel, Øystein; Mikkelsen, Susie Sommer; Alencar, Anna Luiza Farias; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Dahle, Maria Krudtaa

    2017-01-01

    A new disease in farmed rainbow trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss) was described in Norway in 2013. The disease mainly affected the heart and resembled heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). HSMI is associated with Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV), and a search for a similar virus in the diseased rainbow trout led to detection of a sequence with 85% similarity to PRV. This finding called for a targeted effort to assess the risk the new PRV-variant pose on farmed rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon by studying infection and disease pathogenesis, aiming to provide more diagnostic knowledge. Based on the genetic relationship to PRV, the novel virus is referred to as PRV-Oncorhynchus mykiss (PRV-Om) in contrast to PRV-Salmo salar (PRV-Ss). In experimental trials, intraperitoneally injected PRV-Om was shown to replicate in blood in both salmonid species, but more effectively in rainbow trout. In rainbow trout, the virus levels peaked in blood and heart of cohabitants 6 weeks post challenge, along with increased expression of antiviral genes (Mx and viperin) in the spleen, with 80-100% of the cohabitants infected. Heart inflammation was diagnosed in all cohabitants examined 8 weeks post challenge. In contrast, less than 50% of the Atlantic salmon cohabitants were infected between 8 and 16 weeks post challenge and the antiviral response in these fish was very low. From 12 weeks post challenge and onwards, mild focal myocarditis was demonstrated in a few virus-positive salmon. In conclusion, PRV-Om infects both salmonid species, but faster transmission, more notable antiviral response and more prominent heart pathology were observed in rainbow trout.

  4. Sea lice as a density-dependent constraint to salmonid farming.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Peder A; Kristoffersen, Anja B; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Jimenez, Daniel; Aldrin, Magne; Stien, Audun

    2012-06-22

    Fisheries catches worldwide have shown no increase over the last two decades, while aquaculture has been booming. To cover the demand for fish in the growing human population, continued high growth rates in aquaculture are needed. A potential constraint to such growth is infectious diseases, as disease transmission rates are expected to increase with increasing densities of farmed fish. Using an extensive dataset from all farms growing salmonids along the Norwegian coast, we document that densities of farmed salmonids surrounding individual farms have a strong effect on farm levels of parasitic sea lice and efforts to control sea lice infections. Furthermore, increased intervention efforts have been unsuccessful in controlling elevated infection levels in high salmonid density areas in 2009-2010. Our results emphasize host density effects of farmed salmonids on the population dynamics of sea lice and suggest that parasitic sea lice represent a potent negative feedback mechanism that may limit sustainable spatial densities of farmed salmonids.

  5. Incorporating spatial context into the analysis of salmonid habitat relations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torgersen, Christian E.; Baxter, Colden V.; Ebersole, J.L.; Gresswell, Bob; Church, Michael; Biron, Pascale M.; Roy, Andre G.

    2012-01-01

    In this response to the chapter by Lapointe (this volume), we discuss the question of why it is so difficult to predict salmonid-habitat relations in gravel-bed rivers and streams. We acknowledge that this cannot be an exhaustive treatment of the subject and, thus, identify what we believe are several key issues that demonstrate the necessity of incorporating spatial context into the analysis of fish-habitat data. Our emphasis is on spatial context (i.e., scale and location), but it is important to note that the same principles may be applied with some modification to temporal context, which is beyond the scope of this chapter.

  6. Some metabolic effects of bacterial endotoxins in salmonid fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedemeyer, G.A.; Ross, A.J.; Smith, L.

    1968-01-01

    Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were highly resistant to endotoxins from both Escherichia coli and Aeromonas salmonicida (a fish pathogen) at 14 and 18 C.This resistance was investigated with liver tryptophan pyrrolase, liver glycogen depletion in vitro, and the arterial blood pressure as indicators. Liver glycogen depletion was accelerated by both endotoxins, but there was no significant cardiovascular response or effect on liver tryptophan pyrrolase activity. Since the cardiovascular effects of histamine were also limited, it was concluded that the metabolic effects of bacterial endotoxins in salmonids are qualitatively different from those of the higher vertebrates.

  7. Susceptibility of salmonid alphavirus to a range of chemical disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Graham, D A; Cherry, K; Wilson, C J; Rowley, H M

    2007-05-01

    A range of commercially available disinfectants were tested for efficacy against salmonid alphavirus under a range of different conditions including variations in concentration, temperature, contact time, water type and presence or absence of organic matter. Testing was based on the protocol defined in the draft European Standard prEN 14675, for which the effective standard is a 4 log(10) reduction in viral titre. All disinfectants were found to be effective under at least some of the conditions tested. However, the presence of organic matter in particular was shown to be detrimental in some cases, either through rendering some disinfectants ineffective, or by production of a visible inhomogeneity.

  8. Migration depths of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead relative to total dissolved gas supersaturation in a Columbia River reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, J.W.; Maule, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    The in situ depths of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. were studied to determine whether hydrostatic compensation was sufficient to protect them from gas bubble disease (GBD) during exposure to total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation from a regional program of spill at dams meant to improve salmonid passage survival. Yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and juvenile steelhead O. mykiss implanted with pressure-sensing radio transmitters were monitored from boats while they were migrating between the tailrace of Ice Harbor Dam on the Snake River and the forebay of McNary Dam on the Columbia River during 1997-1999. The TDG generally decreased with distance from the tailrace of the dam and was within levels known to cause GBD signs and mortality in laboratory bioassays. Results of repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated that the mean depths of juvenile steelhead were similar throughout the study area, ranging from 2.0 m in the Snake River to 2.3 m near the McNary Dam forebay. The mean depths of yearling Chinook salmon generally increased with distance from Ice Harbor Dam, ranging from 1.5 m in the Snake River to 3.2 m near the forebay. Juvenile steelhead were deeper at night than during the day, and yearling Chinook salmon were deeper during the day than at night. The TDG level was a significant covariate in models of the migration depth and rates of each species, but no effect of fish size was detected. Hydrostatic compensation, along with short exposure times in the area of greatest TDG, reduced the effects of TDG exposure below those generally shown to elicit GBD signs or mortality. Based on these factors, our results indicate that the TDG limits of the regional spill program were safe for these juvenile salmonids.

  9. Interaction of infection with Renibacterium salmoninarum and physical stress in juvenile chinook salmon: Physiological responses, disease progression, and mortality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, M.G.; Maule, A.G.; Schreck, C.B.

    2000-01-01

    We experimentally infected juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha with Renibacterium salmoninarum (Rs), the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease (BKD), in order to compare the physiological responses of Rs-infected and Rs-noninfected fish to a series of multiple, acute stressors and to determine whether exposure to these stressors worsens the infection and leads to increased mortality. After subjecting groups of fish to a waterborne challenge of Rs, we sampled them biweekly to monitor infection levels, mortality, and some stress-related physiological changes. As infections worsened, fish developed decreased hematocrits and blood glucose levels and increased levels of cortisol and lactate, indicating that BKD is stressful, particularly during the later stages. Eight weeks after the challenge, when fish had moderate to high infection levels, we subjected them, along with unchallenged control fish, to three 60-s bouts of hypoxia, struggling, and mild agitation that were separated by 48-72 h. Our results indicate that the imposition of these stressors on Rs-infected fish did not lead to higher infection levels or increased mortality when compared with diseased fish that did not receive the stressors. Furthermore, the kinetics of plasma cortisol, glucose, and lactate over a 24-h period following each application of the stressor were similar between fish with moderate to high Rs infections and those that had low or no detectable infection. Some differences in the stress responses of these two groups did exist, however. Most notably, fish with moderate to high Rs infections had higher titers of cortisol and lactate prior to each application of the stressor and also were unable to consistently elicit a significant hyperglycemia in response to the stressors. Collectively, our results should be important in understanding the impact that BKD has on the survival of juvenile salmonids, but we caution that our results represent the combined effects of one

  10. Epidemiological characterization of VNNV in hatchery-reared and wild marine fish on Hainan Island, China, and experimental infection of golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongling; Wen, Weigeng; Su, Youlu; Feng, Juan; Xu, Liwen; Peng, Chao; Guo, Zhixun

    2015-12-01

    The current epidemiological situation of viral nervous necrosis virus (VNNV) on Hainan Island was investigated. A total of 490 hatchery-reared fish and 652 wild fish were sampled for VNNV detection from March 2013 to May 2014. Positive detection rates of 84.53% (153/181) and 0.97 % (3/309) were obtained in diseased and healthy hatchery-reared samples, respectively, by conventional RT-PCR. However, using more-sensitive nested RT-PCR, the positive detection rates in healthy hatchery-reared fish reached up to 64.08% (198/309), suggesting that asymptomatic VNNV carriers commonly exist among larvae and juveniles breeding on Hainan Island. In wild-fish samples, 2.6% (17/652) and 34.2% (223/652) positive detection rates were observed using RT-PCR and nested RT-PCR, respectively, indicating that wild fish may be a potential reservoir for VNNV. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all 52 VNNV isolates from cultured fish belong to the RGNNV genotype, but 2 out of 48 VNNV isolates from wild fish samples were found to be of the SJNNV genotype. This study is the first to confirm the existence of SJNNV-genotype VNNV in China. Golden pompano, an important fish species for culture, was selected as a fish model to investigate the optimal conditions for RGNNV disease progression in artificial infection experiments. The effects of temperature, salinity, and fish size were evaluated. Results showed that 28 °C and 20 ‰ are the optimal infection temperature and salinity, respectively, and golden pompano juveniles with small body sizes are more susceptible to RGNNV. These findings are highly consistent with those conditions involved in the natural outbreak of RGNNV.

  11. Impacts of Columbia River discharge on salmonid habitat: 1. A nonstationary fluvial tide model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukulka, Tobias; Jay, David A.

    2003-09-01

    This is the first part of a two-part investigation that applies nonstationary time series analysis methods and the St. Venant equations to the problem of understanding juvenile salmonid access to favorable shallow-water habitat in a tidal river. Habitat access is a function of river stage, tidal range, and the distribution of bed elevation. Part 1 models nonstationary tidal properties: species amplitudes and phases and tidal range. Part 2 models low-frequency river stage in the Lower Columbia River and reconstructs historical water levels, using the tidal model from part 1. To incorporate the nonstationary frictional effects of variable river discharge into the tidal model, we decompose the tidal wave into tidal species and calculate daily tidal range. Our one-dimensional tidal model is based on analytic wave solutions to the linearized St. Venant equation and uses six coefficients per tidal species to represent the upstream evolution of the frictionally damped tidal wave. The form of the coefficients is derived from the St. Venant equations, but their values are determined objectively from the data. About 50 station-years of surface elevation data collected (1981-2000) below Bonneville Dam (235 km from the ocean) were processed with a wavelet filter bank to retrieve time series of tidal species properties. A min-max filter was used to estimate daily tidal range. Tidal range, diurnal, and semidiurnal amplitudes were predicted with mean root mean square errors <30 mm, which is significantly more accurate than predictions obtained from harmonic analysis. Thus despite the compact form of our solution, we model nonstationary fluvial tidal properties with a high level of accuracy.

  12. Evaluation of Low and High Frequency Sound for Enhancing Fish Screening Facilities to Protect Outmigrating Salmonids.

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Robert P.; Neitzel, Duane A.; Mavros, William V.

    1998-02-01

    evaluations needed to produce, deploy or install sound equipment at existing or planned fish screening facilities. The focus of this study is to determine if fish, specifically juvenile salmonids, can be guided by sound.

  13. Transmission of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa: Malacosporea), the causative organism of salmonid proliferative kidney disease, to the freshwater bryozoan Fredericella sultana.

    PubMed

    Morris, D J; Adams, A

    2006-12-01

    Proliferative kidney disease (PKD), caused by the malacosporean parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, causes significant losses among salmonids in Western Europe and North America. The role of salmonid fish in the life-cycle of this parasite has been conjectured upon for over a quarter of a century. To examine whether fish can transmit the infection to bryozoans, the known invertebrate host, water containing parasitized brown trout Salmo trutta was pumped into tanks containing colonies of Fredericella sultana collected from the wild. The specific parasite-free status of these colonies being first assessed, by PCR and prolonged laboratory culture. After 6 weeks exposure to the brown trout aquarium effluent, portions of these colonies displayed overt infections with T. bryosalmonae. This was in contrast to control bryozoans, derived from the experimental colonies prior to exposure, which remained T. bryosalmonae negative. In addition, spores obtained from the experimentally infected colonies were exposed to naïve rainbow trout, resulting in clinical PKD, thus completing a cycle of transmission. During the experiments, the infection was noted to inhibit statoblast formation within bryozoans and appeared to be pathogenic, finally killing the bryozoan host. These findings indicate that fish can transmit the parasite to bryozoans and are an integral part of this parasite's life-cycle.

  14. Salmon lice--impact on wild salmonids and salmon aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Torrissen, O; Jones, S; Asche, F; Guttormsen, A; Skilbrei, O T; Nilsen, F; Horsberg, T E; Jackson, D

    2013-03-01

    Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are naturally occurring parasites of salmon in sea water. Intensive salmon farming provides better conditions for parasite growth and transmission compared with natural conditions, creating problems for both the salmon farming industry and, under certain conditions, wild salmonids. Salmon lice originating from farms negatively impact wild stocks of salmonids, although the extent of the impact is a matter of debate. Estimates from Ireland and Norway indicate an odds ratio of 1.1:1-1.2:1 for sea lice treated Atlantic salmon smolt to survive sea migration compared to untreated smolts. This is considered to have a moderate population regulatory effect. The development of resistance against drugs most commonly used to treat salmon lice is a serious concern for both wild and farmed fish. Several large initiatives have been taken to encourage the development of new strategies, such as vaccines and novel drugs, for the treatment or removal of salmon lice from farmed fish. The newly sequenced salmon louse genome will be an important tool in this work. The use of cleaner fish has emerged as a robust method for controlling salmon lice, and aquaculture production of wrasse is important towards this aim. Salmon lice have large economic consequences for the salmon industry, both as direct costs for the prevention and treatment, but also indirectly through negative public opinion. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Tolerance of developing salmonid eggs and fry to nitrate exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kincheloe, John W.; Wedemeyer, Gary A.; Koch, David L.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reports on tests which show significant effects on early salmonid life stages of nitrates at levels commonly found in groundwaters in geographical areas that are influenced by fertilizer application. It has long been known, from fish cultural experience, that in certain site specific locations, chronic problems can be expected with salmonid egg development and early fry mortality. However, fingerlings which survive usually grow normally. A complete explanation is lacking although several environmental factors have been proposed to account for this phenomenon. One, which has so far received little attention, is that nitrate levels in the ground and surface waters of many areas have been increasing significantly over historical background levels. Ammonia, urea, and other potential sources of nitrate can enter natural waters from a variety of sources, such as domestic or industrial sewage, animal feedlots, or seepage and return flows from agricultural lands. The latter may be the largest contributor, since billions of tons of nitrate fertilizers are applied to agricultural crops on a worldwide basis each year. In addition, intensive forest management techniques include the aerial application of nitrate fertilizer to increase the yield of wood products, while range management practices call for use of nitrates to increase forage production. The nitrate that is not taken up by plants ultimately appears in ground or surface waters.

  16. Old wine in new bottles: reaction norms in salmonid fishes

    PubMed Central

    Hutchings, J A

    2011-01-01

    Genetic variability in reaction norms reflects differences in the ability of individuals, populations and ultimately species to respond to environmental change. By increasing our understanding of how genotype × environment interactions influence evolution, studies of genetic variation in phenotypic plasticity serve to refine our capacity to predict how populations will respond to natural and anthropogenic environmental variability, including climate change. Given the extraordinary variability in morphology, behaviour and life history in salmonids, one might anticipate the research milieu on reaction norms in these fishes to be empirically rich and intellectually engaging. Here, I undertake a review of genetic variability in continuous and discontinuous (threshold) norms of reaction in salmonid fishes, as determined primarily (but not exclusively) by common-garden experiments. Although in its infancy from a numerical publication perspective, there is taxonomically broad evidence of genetic differentiation in continuous, threshold and bivariate reaction norms among individuals, families and populations (including inter-population hybrids and backcrosses) for traits as divergent as embryonic development, age and size at maturity, and gene expression. There is compelling inferential evidence that plasticity is heritable and that population differences in reaction norms can reflect adaptive responses, by natural selection, to local environments. As a stimulus for future work, a series of 20 research questions are identified that focus on reaction-norm variability, selection, costs and constraints, demographic and conservation consequences, and genetic markers and correlates of phenotypic plasticity. PMID:21224878

  17. Salmon lice – impact on wild salmonids and salmon aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Torrissen, O; Jones, S; Asche, F; Guttormsen, A; Skilbrei, O T; Nilsen, F; Horsberg, T E; Jackson, D

    2013-01-01

    Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are naturally occurring parasites of salmon in sea water. Intensive salmon farming provides better conditions for parasite growth and transmission compared with natural conditions, creating problems for both the salmon farming industry and, under certain conditions, wild salmonids. Salmon lice originating from farms negatively impact wild stocks of salmonids, although the extent of the impact is a matter of debate. Estimates from Ireland and Norway indicate an odds ratio of 1.1:1-1.2:1 for sea lice treated Atlantic salmon smolt to survive sea migration compared to untreated smolts. This is considered to have a moderate population regulatory effect. The development of resistance against drugs most commonly used to treat salmon lice is a serious concern for both wild and farmed fish. Several large initiatives have been taken to encourage the development of new strategies, such as vaccines and novel drugs, for the treatment or removal of salmon lice from farmed fish. The newly sequenced salmon louse genome will be an important tool in this work. The use of cleaner fish has emerged as a robust method for controlling salmon lice, and aquaculture production of wrasse is important towards this aim. Salmon lice have large economic consequences for the salmon industry, both as direct costs for the prevention and treatment, but also indirectly through negative public opinion. PMID:23311858

  18. Anadromous salmonids in the Delta: New science 2006–2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Russell W.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Brandes, Patricia L.; Burau, Jon R.; Israel, Joshua A

    2016-01-01

    As juvenile salmon enter the Sacramento–SanJoaquin River Delta (“the Delta”) they disperse among its complex channel network where they are subject to channel-specific processes that affect their rate of migration, vulnerability to predation, feeding success, growth rates, and ultimately, survival. In the decades before 2006, tools available to quantify growth, dispersal, and survival of juvenile salmon in this complex channel network were limited.Fortunately, thanks to technological advances such as acoustic telemetry and chemical and structural otolith analysis, much has been learned over the past decade about the role of the Delta in the life cycle of juvenile salmon. Here, we review new science between 2006and 2016 that sheds light on how different life stages and runs of juvenile salmon grow, move, and survive in the complex channel network of the Delta. One of the most important advances during the past decade has been the widespread adoption of acoustic telemetry techniques. Use of telemetry has shed light on how survival varies among alternative migration routes and the proportion of fish that use each migration route. Chemical and structural analysis of otoliths has provided insights about when juveniles left their natal river and provided evidence of extended rearing in the brackish or saltwater regions of the Delta. New advancements in genetics now allow individuals captured by trawls to be assigned to specific runs. Detailed information about movement and survival in the Delta has spurred development of agent-based models of juvenile salmon that are coupled to hydrodynamic models. Although much has been learned, knowledge gaps remain about how very small juvenile salmon (fry and parr) use the Delta. Understanding how all life stages of juvenile salmon grow, rear, and survive in the Delta is critical for devising management strategies that support a diversity of life history strategies.

  19. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, N

    1995-08-01

    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is a relatively common, though under diagnosed, form of epilepsy that commences in adolescence. The distinguishing symptoms, diagnosis and medical management are discussed.

  20. Evaluation of Juvenile Fish Bypass and Adult Fish Facilities at Water Diversions in the Umatilla River; 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Suzanne M.

    1993-03-01

    We report on our progress from October 1991 through September 1992 in evaluating juvenile fish bypass facilities at Three Mile Falls and Westland dams on the Umatilla River. We also report on our progress from October 1991 through June 1992 in evaluating adult fish passage in the lower Umatilla River and adult fish passage facilities at Three Mile Falls Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR). These are the study objectives addressed by ODFW and CTUIR: (1) Report A (ODFW): To evaluate the juvenile fish bypass facility in the West Extension Irrigation District Canal at Three Mile Falls Dam and document juvenile salmonid passage through the juvenile fish bypass facility and east-bank adult fish ladder. To measure velocity and develop trap designs at Westland Dam. (2) Report B (CTUIR): To examine the passage of adult salmonids at Three Mile Falls Dam. The study is part of a program to rehabilitate anadromous fish stocks in the Umatilla River Basin, including restoration of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), as well as enhancement of summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

  1. Experimental exposure of juvenile chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to bleached kraft mill effluent: hepatic CYP1A induction is correlated with DNA adducts but not with organochlorine residues.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J Y; Kruzynski, G M; Addison, R F

    2001-06-01

    Juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were exposed for 28 days to 0-16% treated effluent from an elemental chlorine free (ECF) bleached kraft pulp mill. Fresh effluent was diluted with river water drawn from upstream of the effluent diffuser. Fish were tested for biochemical responses to identify if the effluent would cause significant effects at concentrations spanning those present in the Fraser River, BC, Canada during winter conditions. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was increased significantly at all effluent concentrations and hepatic cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) protein was increased in all but 2% effluent. Hepatic DNA adduct concentrations were increased significantly at 8 and 16% effluent. These data indicate that there is a significant increase in all three responses at concentrations similar to those found in the receiving waters (4%) and that a dose-response relationship exists between BKME concentration and the responses measured. Carcasses contained low (< 0.2 pg g(-1)) concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were at higher concentrations, accounting for 77% of the total contaminant burden, expressed as TEQ, but contaminants do not appear to have bioaccumulated in this study. It is likely that the PCB concentrations were due to contaminated commercial fish feed. Bile did not contain detectable levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as measured by synchronous fluorescence spectrometry.

  2. Renewing Juvenile Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macallair, Daniel; Males, Mike; Enty, Dinky Manek; Vinakor, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    The Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice (CJCJ) was commissioned by Sierra Health Foundation to critically examine California's juvenile justice system and consider the potential role of foundations in promoting systemic reform. The information gathered by CJCJ researchers for this report suggests that foundations can perform a key leadership…

  3. Juvenile Confinement in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendel, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    For more than a century, the predominant strategy for the treatment and punishment of serious and sometimes not-so-serious juvenile offenders in the United States has been placement into large juvenile corrections institutions, alternatively known as training schools, reformatories, or youth corrections centers. America's heavy reliance on…

  4. Juvenile Delinquency Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsey, Mark W.

    1988-01-01

    Three meta-analyses by C. J. Garrett (1984, 1985), P. Kaufman (1985), and W. S. Davidson and others (1984) of juvenile delinquency interventions are summarized. This systematic literature review indicates that interventions to reduce juvenile delinquency may have small, but meaningful, impacts. Promising avenues for future research are suggested.…

  5. Juvenile generalized pustular psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ting; Li, Bo; He, Chun-Di; Chen, Hong-Duo

    2007-08-01

    Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is an erythrodermic, generalized form of pustular psoriasis. GPP is rare in children. The present study describes a case of juvenile GPP and reviews 12 juvenile GPP inpatients treated at our hospital in the period 1978-2005.

  6. Juvenile Rights. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaneman, Paulette S.; And Others

    These classroom materials are part of the Project Benchmark series designed to teach secondary students about our legal concepts and systems. This unit focuses on juvenile rights and responsibilities under the law. The materials outline juvenile rights and responsibilities in the areas of parental control, education, free expression, search and…

  7. Modelling the effect of fine sediment on salmonid spawning habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattison, Ian; Sear, David; Collins, Adrian; Jones, Iwan; Naden, Pam

    2013-04-01

    Diffuse fine sediment delivery to rivers is recognised as a widespread problem in the UK. Furthermore, projections suggest that sediment pressures may increase in the future due to both climate change and land use changes. This fine sediment infiltrates into the bed and clogs up salmonid spawning gravels. Fine sediment has been found to reduce survival rates of salmonid eggs in both field and laboratory experiments, with the main hypotheses used to explain this being (a) fine sediment reduces gravel permeability and intra-gravel flow velocities; (b) intra-gravel O2 concentrations decrease due to reduced supply and increased consumption by organic sediments; and (c) clay particles block the exchange of O2 across the egg membrane. The SIDO (Sediment Intrusion and Dissolved Oxygen)-UK model is a physically based numerical model which stimulates the effect of fine sediment intrusion on the abiotic characteristics of the salmonid redd, along with the consequences for egg development and survival. The first 2 hypotheses above are represented, while the third is not yet included. Field observations from the River Ithon, Wales, have been used to calibrate the model using sediment accumulation data. The model was then used to assess the impact of varying sediment inputs upon the sediment intrusion rates, abiotic redd characteristics and fish egg survival rates. Results indicate that egg survival is highly sensitive to the discharge and the suspended sediment concentrations, particularly to changes in the supply rate of sand particles, rather than silt and clay. This can be explained by the increased likelihood of blocking of intra-gravel pores by larger sand particles, which reduce intra-gravel flow velocities and the supply of oxygen rich water. A doubling of the sand concentration results in a 51% increase in red infilling, which causes a 24% reduction in the average intra-gravel flow velocity. A corresponding 20% decrease of the average O2 concentration is evident which

  8. Distinguishing juvenile homicide from violent juvenile offending.

    PubMed

    DiCataldo, Frank; Everett, Meghan

    2008-04-01

    Juvenile homicide is a social problem that has remained a central focus within juvenile justice research in recent years. The term juvenile murderer describes a legal category, but it is purported to have significant scientific meaning. Research has attempted to conceptualize adolescent murderers as a clinical category that can be reliably distinguished from their nonhomicidal counterparts. This study examined 33 adolescents adjudicated delinquent or awaiting trial for murder and 38 adolescents who committed violent, nonhomicidal offenses to determine whether the two groups differed significantly on family history, early development, delinquency history, mental health, and weapon possession variables. The nonhomicide group proved more problematic on many of these measures. Two key factors did distinguish the homicide group: These adolescents endorsed the greater availability of guns and substance abuse at the time of their commitment offenses. The significance of this finding is discussed, and the implications for risk management and policy are reviewed.

  9. Are brown trout Salmo trutta fario and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss two of a kind? A comparative study of salmonids to temperature-influenced Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae infection.

    PubMed

    Bailey, C; Schmidt-Posthaus, H; Segner, H; Wahli, T; Strepparava, N

    2017-09-15

    Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) of salmonids caused by Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae causes high mortalities of wild brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) and farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at elevated water temperatures. Here the aim was to compare the temperature-dependent modulation of T. bryosalmonae in the two salmonid host species, which display different temperature optima. We used a novel experimental set-up in which we exposed brown trout and rainbow trout to an identical quantified low concentration of T. bryosalmonae for a short time period (1 hr). We followed the development of the parasite in the fish hosts for 70 days. PKD prevalence and parasite kinetics were assessed using qPCR. Exposures were performed at temperatures (12°C and 15°C) that reflect an environmental scenario that may occur in the natural habitat of salmonids. T. bryosalmonae infection was confirmed earliest in brown trout kept at 15°C (day 7 post-exposure) while, in all other groups, T. bryosalmonae was not confirmed until day 15 post-exposure. Moreover, significantly greater infection prevalence and a faster increase of parasite intensity were observed in brown trout kept at 15°C than in all other groups. These results indicate that PKD is differentially modulated by water temperature in related host species. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Virucidal activity of two Iodophors to salmonid viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amend, Donald F.; Pietsch, John P.

    1972-01-01

    Wescodyne® and Betadine®, organic iodine complexes, were compared in vitro for virucidal activity against infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN), infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN), and viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) viruses. Both iodophors were about equally effective on all three viruses. Each iodophor completely destroyed IHN virus within 30 sec at 12 ppm iodine, and was not affected by water hardness. Virucidal activity, however, was reduced at pH levels above 8.0 and in the presence of organic matter. Wescodyne was also compared with seven disinfectants commonly used in fish hatcheries, for virucidal properties against IHN virus. Wescodyne and chlorine were the only disinfectants to completely destroy the virus. Either Wescodyne or Betadine would effectively destroy the salmonid viruses at less than 25 ppm iodine within 5 min in solutions near neutrality.

  11. Vaccines for piscirickettsiosis (salmonid rickettsial septicaemia, SRS): the Chile perspective.

    PubMed

    Maisey, Kevin; Montero, Ruth; Christodoulides, Myron

    2017-03-01

    Piscirickettsia salmonis (P. salmonis) is the aetiological bacterium of the contagious disease piscirickettsiosis or salmonid rickettsial septicaemia (SRS) and causes significant economic losses to aquaculture production in Chile. Current strategies to control infection are i) indiscriminate antibiotic use and ii) vaccination with predominantly P. salmonis bacterin vaccines that do not provide acceptable levels of protection against piscirickettsiosis. Areas covered: This review covers the basic biology of P. salmonis, clinical piscirickettsiosis and disease control, the development of current P. salmonis vaccines, innate and adaptive immunity and a 5-year plan to develop new piscirickettsiosis vaccines. Expert commentary: Fundamental knowledge is lacking on the complexities of P. salmonis-host interactions, relating to bacterial virulence and host innate and adaptive immune responses, which needs to be addressed. The development of new P. salmonis vaccines needs the application of comprehensive 'omics' technologies to identify candidate vaccine antigens capable of stimulating long-lasting protective immune responses.

  12. Salmonid alphavirus infection causes skin dysbiosis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) post-smolts

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Kristin M.; Patel, Sonal; Robinson, Aaron J.; Bu, Lijing; Jarungsriapisit, Jiraporn; Moore, Lindsey J.; Salinas, Irene

    2017-01-01

    Interactions among host, microbiota and viral pathogens are complex and poorly understood. The goal of the present study is to assess the changes in the skin microbial community of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in response to experimental infection with salmonid alphavirus (SAV). The salmon skin microbial community was determined using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing in five different experimental groups: control, 7 days after infection with low-dose SAV, 14 days after infection with low-dose SAV, 7 days after infection with high-dose SAV, and 14 days after infection with high-dose SAV. Both infection treatment and time after infection were strong predictors of the skin microbial community composition. Skin samples from SAV3 infected fish showed an unbalanced microbiota characterized by a decreased abundance of Proteobacteria such as Oleispira sp. and increased abundances of opportunistic taxa including Flavobacteriaceae, Streptococcaceae and Tenacibaculum sp. These results demonstrate that viral infections can result in skin dysbiosis likely rendering the host more susceptible to secondary bacterial infections. PMID:28264056

  13. Salmonid intranuclear microsporidosis: Chapter 3.2.17

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedrick, Ronald P.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Kurobe, Tomofumi

    2012-01-01

    Nucleospora salmonis is an intra-nuclear microsporidian parasite in the family Enterocytozoonidae (Docker et al. 1997). Prespore stages of the parasite were first observed among adult and then juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) by Elston et al. (1987) and Morrison et al. (1990), respectively in Washington, U.S.A. The microsporidian nature of the parasite was subsequently confirmed by the observation of spores in lymphoblasts of juvenile Chinook salmon from California (Hedrick et al. 1991). The principal target cell for N. salmonis are hematopoietic cells which, upon infection, undergo proliferative changes leading to a leukemia-like condition with an accompanying anemia (Wongtavatchai et al. 1995). 

  14. Juvenile Justice in California, 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Justice, Sacramento. Bureau of Criminal Statistics and Special Services.

    This publication provides an overview of the processing of juvenile delinquency cases through the California juvenile justice system; provides information to aid administrators, planners, and researchers in the administration of juvenile justice; and maintains baseline data for further studies of the system. Information on juvenile arrests and…

  15. Some quantitative indicators of postovulatory aging and its effect on larval and juvenile development of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Mommens, Maren; Storset, Arne; Babiak, Igor

    2015-07-01

    Modern out-of-season egg production in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) increases the risk of postovulatory aging (POA) of oocytes. Postovulatory aging is known to influence oocyte quality in salmonids, but reliable tests for POA are lacking in Atlantic salmon egg production. To address this problem, we have collected oocytes from the same 20 Atlantic salmon females sequentially in approximately 1-week intervals, from the start of ovulation until 28 days postovulation (dpo), to determine the effect of natural retention of matured oocytes in body coelomic cavity on further performance of embryos and juveniles produced from those oocytes. Also, we investigated oocyte water hardening and several coelomic fluid parameters as potential quantitative indicators of POA. Oocyte quality decreased significantly from 22 dpo onward, as inferred from decrease in fertilization success and survival of embryos, alevins, and juveniles and increase in alevin and juvenile deformity rates. The occurrence of head deformities was significantly related to postovulatory age of oocytes. Coelomic fluid pH decreased significantly at 28 dpo and correlated positively with fertilization rates (r = 0.45), normal eyed embryo rates (r = 0.67), and alevin relative survival rates (r = 0.63) and negatively correlated with total alevin deformity rates (r = -0.59). Oocyte weight gain at 60 minutes decreased significantly at 28 dpo and correlated negatively with total alevin deformities and the occurrence of cranial nodules (r = -0.99). Generally, quality of ovulated oocytes remained stable for the first 2 weeks after ovulation. Later on, POA negatively influenced Atlantic salmon embryo, alevin, and juvenile performance. For the first time, we show a long-term effect of POA on salmonid juvenile performance. Standardized pH measurements of coelomic fluid could potentially improve embryo and juvenile production by identifying low-quality oocytes at an early stage during the production.

  16. Performance Assessment of Suture Type in Juvenile Chinook Salmon Surgically Implanted with Acoustic Transmitters

    SciTech Connect

    Deters, Katherine A.; Brown, Richard S.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Boyd, James W.

    2009-02-27

    The objective of this study was to determine the best overall suture material to close incisions from the surgical implantation of Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic microtransmitters in subyearling Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. The effects of seven suture materials, four surgeons, and two water temperatures on suture retention, incision openness, tag retention, tissue inflammation, and tissue ulceration were quantified. The laboratory study, conducted by researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, supports a larger effort under way for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, aimed at determining the suitability of acoustic telemetry for estimating short- and longer-term (30-60 days) juvenile-salmonid survival at Columbia and Snake River dams and through the lower Columbia River.

  17. Synthesis of Biological Reports on Juvenile Fish Passage and Survival at Bonneville Dam through 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Johnson, Gary E.; Giorgi, Albert E.; Johnson, Richard L.; Stevenson, John R.; Schilt, Carl R.; Johnson, Peter N.; Patterson, Deborah S.

    2005-06-01

    This report describes a review of available literature on juvenile salmonid passage at Bonneville Dam from 1939 through 2005. Studies of interest included project-wide fish-passage efficiency (FPE) studies by radio telemetry and fixed-aspect hydroacoustics, fish survival studies (direct and indirect), FGE studies, powerhouse and unit (by netting, hydroacoustics, and radio telemetry), predation studies in the forebay and tailrace, behavioral studies on forebay approach and egress, and surface-bypass studies. The FPE effort will include a review of available distribution data (horizontal, diel, and vertical) for juvenile salmon. This study does not repeat the results of previous review and synthesis studies but cites them. Where no previous review exists for a subject area, all reports were reviewed and synthesized. The report includes an annotated bibliography summarizing each of the documents reviewed and a DVD disk containing all of the original papers and reports along with an HTML index to the documents.

  18. Whole body net ion fluxes, plasma electrolyte concentrations and haematology during a Loma salmonae infection in juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Powell, M D; Speare, D J; Becker, J A

    2006-12-01

    Loma salmonae infections of salmonids culminate in the development of branchial xenomas and subsequent focal hyperplasia of the lamellar or filament epithelium following xenoma rupture and spore release. The effects of this acute branchial disruption upon net ionic flux rates and plasma electrolyte concentrations were determined in juvenile rainbow trout given an experimental oral exposure to L. salmonae. Mean numbers of branchial xenomas peaked at week 5 post-exposure (PE), which coincided with a reduction in the specific growth rate, although there were no significant differences in mass, length or condition of Loma-exposed fish compared with unexposed controls. Following exposure, negative net whole body Na(+) and K(+) fluxes decreased, whereas net Cl(-) fluxes remained unchanged compared with non-exposed control fish. At week 3 PE during the initial branchial xenoma formation stage, there was a significant negative whole body net K(+) flux in Loma-exposed trout compared with other points during the exposure and subsequent infection. Additionally, Loma-exposed fish had marginally elevated plasma Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations, whilst K(+) levels remained unchanged, compared with control fish. Although there was a progressive decrease in leucocrit, haematocrit remained unchanged over the course of the Loma exposure and subsequent infection. These results suggest that ionic compensation can occur at the gills during the development of xenomas during exposure to L. salmonae and the resultant infection, therefore allowing defence of plasma electrolyte concentrations, unlike the acute ionic disturbances seen with some other parasitic diseases.

  19. Trapping and Transportation of Adult and Juvenile Salmon in the Lower Umatilla River in Northeast Oregon: Umatilla River Basin Trap and Haul Program, October 1994-September 1995.

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, Brian C.; Duke, Bill B.

    1995-09-01

    Threemile Falls Dam (Threemile Dam), located near the town of Umatilla, is the major collection and counting point for adult salmonids returning to the Umatilla River. Returning salmon and steelhead were collected at Threemile Dam from August 26, 1994 to June 27, 1995. A total of 1,531 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss); 688 adult, 236 jack, and 368 subjack fall chinook (O. tshawvtscha); 984 adult and 62 jack coho (O. kisutch) ; and 388 adult and 108 jack spring chinook (O. tshawvtscha) were collected. All fish were trapped at the east bank facility. Of the fish collected, 971 summer steelhead; 581 adult and 27 jack fall chinook; 500 adult and 22 jack coho; and 363 adult and 61 jack spring chinook were hauled upstream from Threemile Dam. There were also 373 summer steelhead; 12 adult, 186 jack and 317 subjack fall chinook; 379 adult and 32 jack coho; and 15 adult and one jack spring chinook released at Threemile Dam. In addition, 154 summer steelhead were hauled to Bonifer and Minthorn for brood. The Westland Canal facility, located near the town of Echo, is the major collection point for outmigrating juvenile salmonids and steelhead kelts. The facility operated for a total of 179 days between December 2, 1994 and July 19, 1995. During that period, fish were bypassed back to the river 137 days and were trapped 42 days. Three steelhead kelts and an estimated 1,560 pounds of juvenile fish were transported from the Westland Canal trap to the Umatilla River boat ramp at rivermile 0.5. Approximately 98% of the fish transported this year were salmonids. The Threemile Dam west bank juvenile bypass began operating March 25, 1995 and was closed on June 16, 1995. The juvenile trap was operated by Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife research personnel from April 1, 1995 through the summer to monitor juvenile outmigration.

  20. Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Eileen P; Otonichar, Joseph M

    2016-07-01

    Sexual offending by juveniles accounts for a sizable percentage of sexual offenses, especially against young children. In this article, recent research on female juvenile sex offenders (JSOs), risk factors for offending in juveniles, treatment, and the ways in which these youth may differ from general delinquents will be reviewed. Most JSOs do not go on to develop paraphilic disorders or to commit sex offenses during adulthood, and as a group, they are more similar to nonsexual offending juvenile delinquents than to adult sex offenders. Recent research has elucidated some differences between youth who commit sex offenses and general delinquents in the areas of atypical sexual interests, the use of pornography, and early sexual victimization during childhood.

  1. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... rule out other conditions or infections, such as Lyme disease , that may cause similar symptoms or occur along ... ESR) Bones, Muscles, and Joints Evaluate Your Child's Lyme Disease Risk Word! Arthritis Arthritis Lupus Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis ( ...

  2. Effect of TBT on Ruditapes decussatus juveniles.

    PubMed

    Coelho, M R; Langston, W J; Bebianno, M J

    2006-06-01

    The effects of sublethal concentrations of tributyltin (TBT) on growth of juvenile clams Ruditapes decussatus were determined during exposure to TBT concentrations of 50, 100 and 250 ng l(-1) (as Sn) for a period up to two years. Length and weight of clams increased continuously in all treatments throughout the experimental period, and, overall, rates were not significantly influenced by TBT exposure, although final length and weight were inversely related to increasing TBT concentration. Juvenile R. decussatus therefore appear to be less sensitive to TBT than larval stages. Some juveniles exposed to TBT developed abnormal shell growth, laterally, changing the typical flattened shape of clams into a more "rounded" form. This characteristic was more visible in the anterior margins of valves than posteriorly, and mainly observed in clams exposed to TBT at 50 ng l(-1) (as Sn).

  3. Weirs: Counting and sampling adult salmonids in streams and rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Zabkar, Laura M.; Johnson, David H.; Shrier, Brianna M.; O'Neal, Jennifer S.; Knutzen, John A.; Augerot, Xanthippe; O'Neal, Thomas A.; Pearsons, Todd N.

    2007-01-01

    Weirs—which function as porous barriers built across stream—have long been used to capture migrating fish in flowing waters. For example, the Netsilik peoples of northern Canada used V-shaped weirs constructed of river rocks gathered onsite to capture migrating Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus (Balikci 1970). Similarly, fences constructed of stakes and a latticework of willow branches or staves were used by Native Americans to capture migrating salmon in streams along the West Coast of North America (Stewart 1994). In modern times, weirs have also been used in terminal fisheries and to capture brood fish for use in fish culture. Weirs have been used to gather data on age structure, condition, sex ratio, spawning escapement, abundance, and migratory patterns of fish in streams. One of the critical elements of fisheries management and stock assessment of salmonids is a count of adult fish returning to spawn. Weirs are frequently used to capture or count fish to determine status and trends of populations or direct inseason management of fisheries; generally, weirs are the standard against which other techniques are measured. To evaluate fishery management actions, the number of fish escaping to spawn is often compared to river-specific target spawning requirements (O’Connell and Dempson 1995). A critical factor in these analyses is the determination of total run size (O’Connell 2003). O’Connell compared methods of run-size estimation against absolute counts from a rigid weir and concluded that, given the uncertainty of estimators, the absolute counts obtained at the weir wer significantly better than modeled estimates, which deviated as much as 50–60% from actual counts. The use of weirs is generally restricted to streams and small rivers because of construction expense, formation of navigation barriers, and the tendency of weirs to clog with debris, which can cause flooding and collapse of the structure (Hubert 1996). When feasible, however, weirs are

  4. A Cabled Acoustic Telemetry System for Detecting and Tracking Juvenile Salmon: Part 1. Engineering Design and Instrumentation

    PubMed Central

    Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Z. Daniel; Seim, Tom A.; LaMarche, Brian L.; Choi, Eric Y.; Fu, Tao; Carlson, Thomas J.; Thronas, Aaron I.; Eppard, M. Brad

    2011-01-01

    In 2001 the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (OR, USA), started developing the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System, a nonproprietary sensing technology, to meet the needs for monitoring the survival of juvenile salmonids through eight large hydroelectric facilities within the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). Initial development focused on coded acoustic microtransmitters and autonomous receivers that could be deployed in open reaches of the river for detection of the juvenile salmonids implanted with microtransmitters as they passed the autonomous receiver arrays. In 2006, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory began the development of an acoustic receiver system for deployment at hydropower facilities (cabled receiver) for detecting fish tagged with microtransmitters as well as tracking them in two or three dimensions for determining route of passage and behavior as the fish passed at the facility. The additional information on route of passage, combined with survival estimates, is used by the dam operators and managers to make structural and operational changes at the hydropower facilities to improve survival of fish as they pass the facilities through the FCRPS. PMID:22163918

  5. A cabled acoustic telemetry system for detecting and tracking juvenile salmon: Part 1. Engineering design and instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Seim, Thomas A.; Lamarche, Brian L.; Choi, Eric Y.; Fu, Tao; Carlson, Thomas J.; Thronas, Aaron I.; Eppard, Matthew B.

    2011-05-26

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers-Portland District started development of the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS), a nonproprietary technology, in 2001 to meet the needs for monitoring the survival of juvenile salmonids through the 31 federal dams in the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). Initial development focused on coded acoustic microtransmitters, and autonomous receivers that could be deployed in open reaches of the river for detection of the juvenile salmonids implanted with microtransmitters as they passed the autonomous receiver arrays. In 2006 the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked with development of an acoustic receiver system for deployment at hydropower facilities (cabled receiver) for detecting fish tagged with microtransmitters as well as tracking them in 2 or 3-dimensions as the fish passed at the facility for determining route of passage. The additional route of passage information, combined with survival estimates, is used by the dam operators and managers to make structural and operational changes at the hydropower facilities to improve survival of fish as they pass the facilities and through the FCRPS.

  6. Performance Assessment of Suture Type, Water Temperature, and Surgeon Skill in Juvenile Chinook Salmon Surgically Implanted with Acoustic Transmitters

    SciTech Connect

    Deters, Katherine A.; Brown, Richard S.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Boyd, James W.; Eppard, M. B.; Seaburg, Adam

    2010-08-01

    Size reductions of acoustic transmitters implanted in migrating juvenile salmonids have resulted in the use of a shorter incision - one that may warrant only one suture for closure. However, it is not known if a single suture will sufficiently hold the incision closed when fish are decompressed and outward pressure is placed on the surgical site during passage of hydroelectric dams. The objectives of this study were to evaluate five response variables in juvenile Chinook salmon subjected to simulated turbine passage. Fish were implanted with an acoustic transmitter (0.43 g in air) and a passive integrated transponder tag (0.10 g in air); incisions (6 mm) were closed with either one or two sutures. Following exposure, no transmitters were expelled. In addition, suture and incision tearing and mortal injury did not differ between treatment and control fish. Viscera expulsion was higher in treatment (12%) than control (1%) fish. The higher incidence of viscera expulsion through single-suture incisions warrants concern. Consequently, the authors do not recommend using one suture to close 6-mm incisions associated with acoustic transmitter implantation when juvenile salmonids may be exposed to turbine passage.

  7. A cabled acoustic telemetry system for detecting and tracking juvenile salmon: part 1. Engineering design and instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Weiland, Mark A; Deng, Z Daniel; Seim, Tom A; LaMarche, Brian L; Choi, Eric Y; Fu, Tao; Carlson, Thomas J; Thronas, Aaron I; Eppard, M Brad

    2011-01-01

    In 2001 the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (OR, USA), started developing the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System, a nonproprietary sensing technology, to meet the needs for monitoring the survival of juvenile salmonids through eight large hydroelectric facilities within the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). Initial development focused on coded acoustic microtransmitters and autonomous receivers that could be deployed in open reaches of the river for detection of the juvenile salmonids implanted with microtransmitters as they passed the autonomous receiver arrays. In 2006, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory began the development of an acoustic receiver system for deployment at hydropower facilities (cabled receiver) for detecting fish tagged with microtransmitters as well as tracking them in two or three dimensions for determining route of passage and behavior as the fish passed at the facility. The additional information on route of passage, combined with survival estimates, is used by the dam operators and managers to make structural and operational changes at the hydropower facilities to improve survival of fish as they pass the facilities through the FCRPS.

  8. Impact of runoff water from an experimental agricultural field applied with Vertimec® 18EC (abamectin) on the survival, growth and gill morphology of zebrafish juveniles.

    PubMed

    Novelli, Andréa; Vieira, Bruna Horvath; Braun, Andréa Simone; Mendes, Lucas Bueno; Daam, Michiel Adriaan; Espíndola, Evaldo Luiz Gaeta

    2016-02-01

    Edge-of-field waterbodies in tropical agroecosystems have been reported to be especially prone to pesticide contamination through runoff resulting from intensive irrigation practices and tropical rainfall. In the present study, the effects of runoff from an experimental agricultural field applied with Vertimec(®) 18EC (active ingredient: abamectin) on zebrafish were evaluated. To this end, the experimental field was applied with the Vertimec(®) 18EC dose recommended for strawberry crop in Brazil, whereas another field was treated with water only to serve as control. No effects of runoff water from either plot were recorded on survival. Water from the treated field led to increased growth and gill alterations. In general, these alterations were of the first and second degree, including proliferation of cells between the secondary lamellae, dilation at the lamellar apex, detachment of the respiratory epithelium and aneurism. These results confirm the high toxic potential of Vertimec(®) 18EC and provide evidence that environmental risks are likely to occur in areas subject to runoff containing this pesticide.

  9. Vocational Teachers' Role in Serving Juvenile Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meers, Gary D.

    1983-01-01

    Educators need to understand the juvenile justice system to understand what juvenile offenders go through while completing their sentences. This article reviews cases and juvenile charge classifications, and presents a model for alternative sentencing options for juveniles. (JOW)

  10. Modification of fluvial gravel size by spawning salmonids

    SciTech Connect

    Kondolf, G.M. ); Sale, M.J. ); Wolman, M.G. )

    1993-07-01

    Salmonids (salmon and trout) winnow fine sediment from streambed gravels during construction of the nest or [open quotes]redd[close quotes] used for spawning and incubation of fertilized eggs. The gravels and interstitial fine sediments excavated during this process are exposed to currents and differently transported: Gravels move a short distance, while the fine sediments are swept further downstream from the redd. To quantify the resultant modification of particle size distributions in redds, the authors sampled redds and adjacent undisturbed gravels to document changes in size distributions. These data were compiled with previously published observations to analyze the general nature of size modification during spawning. The final percentage finer than 1 mm in the gravels, P1[sub f], is related to the initial percentage finer than 1 mm, P1[sub i], by the equation P1[sub f] = 0.63 P1[sub i]. Hydraulic variables (water surface slope, mean column velocity, depth, shear stress, unit stream power) explained little of the variance and did not appear in the optimal models. Because fisheries biologists are called upon to evaluate gravels as potential spawning sites, these findings should prove useful in such evaluations. 44 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Anadromous salmonids of the Hanford Reach, Columbia River: 1984 status

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, C.D.

    1985-09-01

    The Hanford Reach, a regulated but flowing section of the Columbia River, supports spawning populations of fall chinook salmon and steelhead. It also serves as a migration route for upriver runs of chinook, coho and sockeye salmon, and of steelhead. Environmental studies conducted in association with activities on the Hanford Site provide a basis for assessing present ecological conditions in the Hanford Reach. Spawning populations of fall chinook salmon at Hanford increased dramatically after 1960, when Priest Rapids Dam was completed, and have remained relatively stable since 1969. Generally, upriver runs of spring, summer, and fall chinook salmon have been depressed, but the fall run has been increasing since 1980. Habitat modification represents the greatest threat to sustained production of fall chinook salmon in the Hanford Reach. Operations on and near the Hanford Site releases of small amounts of radioactivity from onsite operations to river and groundwater, and operation of a steam electric plant, can have negligible effects on salmonids and other aquatic resources. Possible activities with potential future impacts include development of a multi-unit power plant complex at Hanford, construction of a low-head hydroelectric dam above Richland, flow fluctuations from peaking power generation at Priest Rapids Dam, irrigation and reductions of instream flows, and dredging and commercial navigation above Hanford. If reproducing populations of fall chinook salmon and steelhead are to survive in the mid-Columbia River, the Hanford Reach must remain flowing, undeveloped for navigation, and with unimpaired water quality. 156 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Juvenile Incarceration and Health.

    PubMed

    Barnert, Elizabeth S; Perry, Raymond; Morris, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    Addressing the health status and needs of incarcerated youth represents an issue at the nexus of juvenile justice reform and health care reform. Incarcerated youth face disproportionately higher morbidity and higher mortality compared to the general adolescent population. Dental health, reproductive health, and mental health needs are particularly high, likely as a result of lower access to care, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and underlying health disparities. Violence exposure and injury also contribute to the health disparities seen in this population. Further, juvenile incarceration itself is an important determinant of health. Juvenile incarceration likely correlates with worse health and social functioning across the life course. Correctional health care facilities allow time for providers to address the unmet physical and mental health needs seen in this population. Yet substantial challenges to care delivery in detention facilities exist and quality of care in detention facilities varies widely. Community-based pediatricians can serve a vital role in ensuring continuity of care in the postdetention period and linking youth to services that can potentially prevent juvenile offending. Pediatricians who succeed in understanding and addressing the underlying social contexts of their patients' lives can have tremendous impact in improving the life trajectories of these vulnerable youth. Opportunities exist in clinical care, research, medical education, policy, and advocacy for pediatricians to lead change and improve the health status of youth involved in the juvenile justice system.

  13. Assessment of harbor seal predation on adult salmonids in a Pacific Northwest estuary.

    PubMed

    Wright, Bryan E; Riemer, Susan D; Brown, Robin F; Ougzin, Aicha M; Bucklin, Katherine A

    2007-03-01

    The populations of many native species have increased or expanded in distribution in recent decades, sometimes with negative consequences to sympatric native species that are rarer or less adaptable to anthropogenic changes to the environment. An example of this phenomenon from the Pacific Northwest is predation by locally abundant pinnipeds (seals and sea lions) on threatened, endangered, or otherwise depleted salmonid (Oncorhynchus spp.) populations. We used survey sampling methodology, acoustic telemetry, and molecular genetics to quantify the amount of harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) predation on a depressed run of coho salmon (O. kisutch) and to determine whether some seals consumed a disproportionately higher number of salmonids than others. Based on a probability sample totaling 759.5 h of observation, we estimated that seals consumed 1161 adult salmonids (95% CI = 503-1818 salmonids) during daylight hours over an 18.9-km estuarine study area in Oregon during an 84-d period in fall 2002. Simultaneous tracking of 56 seals via an acoustic telemetry array indicated that a small proportion of marked seals (12.5%) exhibited behavior that was consistent with specialization on salmonids. These seals spent the majority of their time in the riverine portion of the study area and did so disproportionately more at night than day. Genetic analysis of 116 salmonid structures recovered from 11 seal fecal samples suggested that coho salmon accounted for approximately one-half of total salmonid consumption. Though subject to considerable uncertainty, the combined results lead us to infer that seals consumed 21% (range = 3-63%) of the estimated prespawning population of coho salmon. We speculate that the majority of the predation occurred upriver, at night, and was done by a relatively small proportion of the local seal population. Understanding the extent and nature of pinniped predation can provide important inputs into risk assessments and other modeling efforts designed to

  14. Ecology of Juvenile Salmon in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats of the Lower Columbia River, 2007–2010

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Storch, Adam; Skalski, J. R.; Bryson, Amanda J.; Mallette, Christine; Borde, Amy B.; Van Dyke, E.; Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Sather, Nichole K.; Teel, David; Dawley, Earl M.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Jones, Tucker A.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Kuligowski, D. R.

    2011-03-01

    The TFM study was designed to investigate the ecology and early life history of juvenile salmonids within shallow (<5 m) tidal freshwater habitats of the LCRE. We started collecting field data in June 2007. Since then, monthly sampling has occurred in the vicinity of the Sandy River delta (rkm 192–208) and at other sites and times in lower river reaches of tidal freshwater (rkm 110 to 141). This report provides a comprehensive synthesis of data covering the field period from June 2007 through April 2010.

  15. Antibody-producing cells correlated to body weight in juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) acclimated to optimal and elevated temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrahy, L.N.M.; Schreck, C.B.; Maule, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    The immune response of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ranging in weight from approximately 10 to 55 g was compared when the fish were acclimated to either 13 or 21?? C. A haemolytic plaque assay was conducted to determine differences in the number of antibody-producing cells (APC) among fish of a similar age but different body weights. Regression analyses revealed significant increases in the number of APC with increasing body weight when fish were acclimated to either water temperature. These results emphasise the importance of standardising fish weight in immunological studies of salmonids before exploring the possible effects of acclimation temperatures. ?? 2001 Academic Press.

  16. Antibody-producting cells correlated with body weight in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha acclimated to optimal and elevated temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrahy, L.N.M.; Schreck, Carl B.; Maule, Alec G.

    2001-01-01

    The immune response of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ranging in weight from approximately 10 to 55 g was compared when the fish were acclimated to either 13 or 21° C. A haemolytic plaque assay was conducted to determine differences in the number of antibody-producing cells (APC) among fish of a similar age but different body weights. Regression analyses revealed significant increases in the number of APC with increasing body weight when fish were acclimated to either water temperature. These results emphasise the importance of standardising fish weight in immunological studies of salmonids before exploring the possible effects of acclimation temperatures.

  17. Comparative Analysis of the Shared Sex-Determination Region (SDR) among Salmonid Fishes.

    PubMed

    Faber-Hammond, Joshua J; Phillips, Ruth B; Brown, Kim H

    2015-06-25

    Salmonids present an excellent model for studying evolution of young sex-chromosomes. Within the genus, Oncorhynchus, at least six independent sex-chromosome pairs have evolved, many unique to individual species. This variation results from the movement of the sex-determining gene, sdY, throughout the salmonid genome. While sdY is known to define sexual differentiation in salmonids, the mechanism of its movement throughout the genome has remained elusive due to high frequencies of repetitive elements, rDNA sequences, and transposons surrounding the sex-determining regions (SDR). Despite these difficulties, bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library clones from both rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon containing the sdY region have been reported. Here, we report the sequences for these BACs as well as the extended sequence for the known SDR in Chinook gained through genome walking methods. Comparative analysis allowed us to study the overlapping SDRs from three unique salmonid Y chromosomes to define the specific content, size, and variation present between the species. We found approximately 4.1 kb of orthologous sequence common to all three species, which contains the genetic content necessary for masculinization. The regions contain transposable elements that may be responsible for the translocations of the SDR throughout salmonid genomes and we examine potential mechanistic roles of each one.

  18. Effects of crossovers between homeologs on inheritance and population genomics in polyploid-derived salmonid fishes.

    PubMed

    Allendorf, Fred W; Bassham, Susan; Cresko, William A; Limborg, Morten T; Seeb, Lisa W; Seeb, James E

    2015-01-01

    A whole genome duplication occurred in the ancestor of all salmonid fishes some 50-100 million years ago. Early inheritance studies with allozymes indicated that loci in the salmonid genome are inherited disomically in females. However, some pairs of duplicated loci showed patterns of inheritance in males indicating pairing and recombination between homeologous chromosomes. Nearly 20% of loci in the salmonid genome are duplicated and share the same alleles (isoloci), apparently due to homeologous recombination. Half-tetrad analysis revealed that isoloci tend to be telomeric. These results suggested that residual tetrasomic inheritance of isoloci results from homeologous recombination near chromosome ends and that continued disomic inheritance resulted from homologous pairing of centromeric regions. Many current genetic maps of salmonids are based on single nucleotide polymorphisms and microsatellites that are no longer duplicated. Therefore, long sections of chromosomes on these maps are poorly represented, especially telomeric regions. In addition, preferential multivalent pairing of homeologs from the same species in F1 hybrids results in an excess of nonparental gametes (so-called pseudolinkage). We consider how not including duplicated loci has affected our understanding of population and evolutionary genetics of salmonids, and we discuss how incorporating these loci will benefit our understanding of population genomics.

  19. Comparative Analysis of the Shared Sex-Determination Region (SDR) among Salmonid Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Faber-Hammond, Joshua J.; Phillips, Ruth B.; Brown, Kim H.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonids present an excellent model for studying evolution of young sex-chromosomes. Within the genus, Oncorhynchus, at least six independent sex-chromosome pairs have evolved, many unique to individual species. This variation results from the movement of the sex-determining gene, sdY, throughout the salmonid genome. While sdY is known to define sexual differentiation in salmonids, the mechanism of its movement throughout the genome has remained elusive due to high frequencies of repetitive elements, rDNA sequences, and transposons surrounding the sex-determining regions (SDR). Despite these difficulties, bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library clones from both rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon containing the sdY region have been reported. Here, we report the sequences for these BACs as well as the extended sequence for the known SDR in Chinook gained through genome walking methods. Comparative analysis allowed us to study the overlapping SDRs from three unique salmonid Y chromosomes to define the specific content, size, and variation present between the species. We found approximately 4.1 kb of orthologous sequence common to all three species, which contains the genetic content necessary for masculinization. The regions contain transposable elements that may be responsible for the translocations of the SDR throughout salmonid genomes and we examine potential mechanistic roles of each one. PMID:26112966

  20. SalmoBase: an integrated molecular data resource for Salmonid species.

    PubMed

    Samy, Jeevan Karloss Antony; Mulugeta, Teshome Dagne; Nome, Torfinn; Sandve, Simen Rød; Grammes, Fabian; Kent, Matthew Peter; Lien, Sigbjørn; Våge, Dag Inge

    2017-06-26

    Salmonids are ray-finned fishes which constitute 11 genera and at least 70 species including Atlantic salmon, whitefishes, graylings, rainbow trout, and char. The common ancestor of all Salmonidae experienced a whole genome duplication (WGD) ~80 million years ago, resulting in an autotetraploid genome. Genomic rediplodization is still going on in salmonid species, providing an unique system for studying evolutionary consequences of whole genome duplication. In recent years, high quality genome sequences of Atlantic salmon and Rainbow trout has been established, due to their scientific and commercial values. In this paper we introduce SalmoBase ( http://www.salmobase.org/ ), a tool for making molecular resources for salmonids public available in a framework of visualizations and analytic tools. SalmoBase has been developed as a part of the ELIXIR.NO project. Currently, SalmoBase contains molecular resources for Atlantic salmon and Rainbow trout. Data can be accessed through BLAST, Genome Browser (GBrowse), Genetic Variation Browser (GVBrowse) and Gene Expression Browser (GEBrowse). To the best of our knowledge, SalmoBase is the first database which integrates salmonids data and allow users to study salmonids in an integrated framework. The database and its tools (e.g., comparative genomics tools, synteny browsers) will be expanded as additional public resources describing other Salmonidae genomes become available.

  1. Trapping and Transportation of Adult and Juvenile Salmon in the Lower Umatilla River in Northeast Oregon, 1996-1997 : Umatilla River Basin Trap and Haul Program : Annual Progress Report, October 1996-September 1997.

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, Brian C.; Duke, Bill B.

    1997-12-01

    Threemile Falls Dam (Threemile Dam), located near the town of Umatilla, is the major collection and counting point for adult salmonids returning to the Umatilla River. Returning salmon and steelhead were collected at Threemile Dam from August 30, 1996 to August 26, 1997. A total of 2,477 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss); 646 adult, 80 jack, and 606 subjack fall chinook (O. tshawytscha); 618 adult and 24 jack coho (O. kisutch); and 2,194 adult and four jack spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) were collected. All fish were trapped at the east bank facility. Of the fish collected, 22 summer steelhead; 18 adult and two jack fall chinook; five adult coho; and 407 adult and three jack spring chinook were hauled upstream from Threemile Dam. There were 2,245 summer steelhead; 70 adult, 51 jack and 520 subjack fall chinook; 593 adult and 24 jack coho; and 1,130 adult spring chinook released at Threemile Dam I In addition, 110 summer steelhead; 551 adult and 25 jack fall chinook; and 600 adult spring chinook were collected for broodstock. The Westland Canal juvenile facility (Westland), located near the town of Echo at rivermile (RM) 27, is the major collection point for outmigrating juvenile salmonids and steelhead kelts, The canal was open for a total of 210 days between December 16, 1996 and July 30, 1997. During that period, fish were bypassed back to the river 175 days and were trapped on 35 days, An estimated 1,675 pounds of juvenile fish were transported from Westland to the Umatilla River boat ramp (RM 0.5), Approximately 80% of the juveniles transported were salmonids, No steelhead kelts were hauled from Westland this year. The Threemile Dam west bank juvenile bypass was operated from October 4 to November 1, 1996 and from March 26 to July 7, 1997. The juvenile trap was not operated this year. 6 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Extending juvenility in grasses

    DOEpatents

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  3. Experimental exposure of juvenile savannah monitors (Varanus exanthematicus) to an environmentally relevant mixture of three contaminants: effects and accumulation in tissues.

    PubMed

    Ciliberti, Alexandre; Martin, Samuel; Ferrandez, Eric; Belluco, Sara; Rannou, Benoit; Dussart, Céline; Berny, Philippe; de Buffrenil, Vivian

    2013-05-01

    Using varanids as indicators of pollution in African continental wetlands was previously proposed. The present study aimed at understanding experimentally how monitors absorb and accumulate pollutants and how they are affected. The relevance of non-destructive sampling was also evaluated. Savannah monitors (Varanus exanthematicus) were orally exposed during 6 months to a mixture of lead, 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (4,4'-DDT) and chlorpyrifos-ethyl (CPF) or to the vehicle only. Proportionally to their mass, exposed monitors received the same dose: 20 then 10 mg lead kg(-1), 2 then 0.5 mg CPF kg(-1) and 4 mg 4,4'-DDT kg(-1). Individuals surviving contamination were euthanized after 4 or 6 months of experiment. Tissues were analysed for lead by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and for DDT and CPF by gas chromatography. Exposed monitors absorbed all three pollutants but only lead (essentially in bone, tail tips and phalanxes) and 4,4'-DDT plus its main metabolites (essentially in fat and liver) accumulated. CPF killed ten individuals. Clear correlations occurred between the total quantity of lead or 4,4'-DDT administered and concentrations in tissues. Tail tips and skin samples are recommended non-destructive indicators for lead and organochlorine pesticides contamination, respectively. This work confirms that monitors can be used as relevant indicators of environmental pollution by lead and organochlorine pesticides. Although varanids withstand heavy lead and DDT contamination, our results suggest that CPF can be lethal at very low doses to the herpetofauna and emphasize the importance of considering all taxa in impact assessment studies, including reptiles.

  4. Quantifying mortal injury of juvenile Chinook salmon exposed to simulated hydro-turbine passage

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Gingerich, Andrew J.; Stephenson, John R.; Pflugrath, Brett D.; Welch, Abigail E.; Langeslay, Mike; Ahmann, Martin L.; Johnson, Robert L.; Skalski, John R.; Seaburg, Adam; Townsend, Richard L.

    2012-02-01

    A proportion of juvenile Chinook salmon and other salmonids travel through one or more turbines during seaward migration in the Columbia and Snake River every year. Despite this understanding, limited information exists on how these fish respond to hydraulic pressures found during turbine passage events. In this study we exposed juvenile Chinook salmon to varied acclimation pressures and subsequent exposure pressures (nadir) to mimic the hydraulic pressures of large Kaplan turbines (ratio of pressure change). Additionally, we varied abiotic (total dissolved gas, rate of pressure change) and biotic (condition factor, fish length, fish weight) factors that may contribute to the incidence of mortal injury associated with fish passing through hydro-turbines. We determined that the main factor associated with mortal injury of juvenile Chinook salmon during simulated turbine passage was the ratio between acclimation and nadir pressures. Condition factor, total dissolved gas, and the rate of pressure change were found to only slightly increase the predictive power of equations relating probability of mortal injury to conditions of exposure or characteristics of test fish during simulated turbine passage. This research will assist engineers and fisheries managers in operating and improving hydroelectric facility efficiency while minimizing mortality and injury of turbine-passed juvenile Chinook salmon. The results are discussed in the context of turbine development and the necessity of understanding how different species of fish will respond to the hydraulic pressures of turbine passage.

  5. Effects of Jet Entry at High Flow Outfalls on Juvenile Pacific Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G. E.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Dauble, Dennis D.; Giorgi, Albert E.; Heisey, Paul G.; Mueller, Robert P.; Neitzel, Duane A.

    2003-05-01

    We conducted field studies and laboratory experiments to document relationships between injury/mortality rates of juvenile salmon and jet entry velocities characteristic of high flow (> 28.3 m3/s) outfalls. During field tests the range of calculated mean entry velocities was 9.3-13.7 m/s for two high flow outfall discharges (28.3 and ~70.2 m3/s) and two tailwater elevations. Mortality of balloon-tagged hatchery spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) juveniles in the field tests was <1% at entry velocities of 9.3 m/s and 13.7 m/s. Injury rates during both field tests were also less than 1%. At a high velocity flume in a laboratory, small (87-100 mm FL) and large (135-150 mm FL) hatchery fall chinook salmon were exposed to velocities ranging from 0.0 to 24.4 m/s in a fast-fish-to-slow-water scenario. Jet entry velocities up to 15.2 m/s provided benign passage conditions for all sizes of juvenile salmonids tested. Based on our results, we concluded that a jet entry velocity up to 15.2 m/s should safely pass juvenile salmon at high flow outfalls, contingent upon site-specific, post-construction verification studies.

  6. Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Eileen P

    2016-01-01

    Public policy has tended to treat juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) as adult sex offenders in waiting, despite research that contradicts this notion. Although as a group, JSOs are more similar to general delinquents than to adult sex offenders, atypical sexual interests and sexual victimization during childhood may be a pathway for sexual offending that differentiates some JSOs from their nonsexually delinquent peers. Developmental considerations must be considered in risk assessment evaluations of these youth. This article reviews theories of sexual offending in youth, risk factors for juvenile offending and reoffending, psychopathology in JSOs, risk assessment, and treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Strategies for conserving native salmonid populations at risk from nonnative fish invasions: tradeoffs in using barriers to upstream movement

    Treesearch

    Kurt D. Fausch; Bruce E. Rieman; Michael Young; Jason B. Dunham

    2006-01-01

    Native salmonid populations in the inland West are often restricted to small isolated habitats at risk from invasion by nonnative salmonids. However, further isolating these populations using barriers to prevent invasions can increase their extinction risk. This monograph reviews the state of knowledge about this tradeoff between invasion and isolation. We present a...

  8. Nonmigratory salmonids and tailwaters - a survey of stocking practices in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swink, William D.

    1983-01-01

    A mail survey of fisheries agencies in the United States showed that 207.7 million nonmigratory salmonids were stocked in 1980 in the waters of 47 states (exclusive of the Great Lakes). Stocking in tailwaters accounted for 6.9 million or 3.3% of the total. In the South, 32.3% of all salmonids were stocked in tailwaters. Percentages stocked in tailwaters were lower in the West (1.8%), Midwest (1.5%), and Northeast (0.5%) because natural trout water is abundant in these regions. The rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) was the salmonid most commonly stocked in tailwaters, composing 95% of the fish 150 mm long or longer and 75% of the fish shorter than 150 mm. Nationally, tailwaters were more likely than other waters to be stocked with fish of the larger size.

  9. Method for determining minimum pool requirements to maintain and enhance salmonid fisheries in small Wyoming reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, Paula M.; Hubert, Wayne A.

    1993-09-01

    Methods for determination of minimum pool levels in reservoirs that consider sport fishery values are being sought by managers. We developed a technique for assessing the effects of incremental changes in minimum pool levels on potential salmonid abundance in small (<100 surface hectares at full pool) reservoirs in Wyoming managed for irrigation and municipal water supplies. The method has two components. One component is used to determine the minimum pool level needed to eliminate the risk of overwinter loss of salmonids due to low dissolved oxygen concentrations. The other component predicts the potential biomass of salmonids in reservoirs as a function of water depth and total dissolved solids concentration of the reservoir water. Application of the method is demonstrated for two reservoirs in Wyoming.

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Salmonid CD4+ T Cells.

    PubMed

    Maisey, Kevin; Montero, Ruth; Corripio-Miyar, Yolanda; Toro-Ascuy, Daniela; Valenzuela, Beatriz; Reyes-Cerpa, Sebastián; Sandino, Ana María; Zou, Jun; Wang, Tiehui; Secombes, Christopher J; Imarai, Mónica

    2016-05-15

    This study reports the isolation and functional characterization of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) CD4-1(+) T cells and the establishment of an IL-15-dependent CD4-1(+) T cell line. By using Abs specific for CD4-1 and CD3ε it was possible to isolate the double-positive T cells in spleen and head kidney. The morphology and the presence of transcripts for T cell markers in the sorted CD4-1(+)CD3ε(+) cells were studied next. Cells were found to express TCRα, TCRβ, CD152 (CTLA-4), CD154 (CD40L), T-bet, GATA-3, and STAT-1. The sorted CD4-1(+) T cells also had a distinctive functional attribute of mammalian T lymphocytes, namely they could undergo Ag-specific proliferation, using OVA as a model Ag. The OVA-stimulated cells showed increased expression of several cytokines, including IFN-γ1, IL-4/13A, IL-15, IL-17D, IL-10, and TGF-β1, perhaps indicating that T cell proliferation led to differentiation into distinct effector phenotypes. Using IL-15 as a growth factor, we have selected a lymphoid cell line derived from rainbow trout head kidney cells. The morphology, cell surface expression of CD4-1, and the presence of transcripts of T cell cytokines and transcription factors indicated that this is a CD4-1(+) T cell line. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the presence of CD4-1(+)CD3ε(+) T cells in salmonids. As in mammals, CD4-1(+) T cells may be the master regulators of immune responses in fish, and therefore these findings and the new model T cell line developed will contribute to a greater understanding of T cell function and immune responses in teleost fish. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  11. Trends in spawning populations of Pacific anadromous salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konkel, G.W.; McIntyre, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Annual escapement records for 1968-1984 for five species of Pacific salmon-chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho (O. kisutch), sockeye (O. nerka), pink (O. gorbuscha), and chum (O. keta)—and steelhead (Salmo gairdneri) were obtained from published and unpublished sources and organized in a computer database. More than 25,500 escapement records were obtained for more than 1,100 locations throughout Alaska, Washington, Idaho, Oregon, and California. Escapement trends for naturally reproducing populations for which data were available for at least 7 years from 1968 to 1984 and at least 4 years from 1975 to 1984 were analyzed by linear regression. Significant trends were observed in about 30% of the 886 populations examined. Trends were summarized by species for three geographic regions in Alaska and four in the Pacific Northwest (including California). For chinook, sockeye, and pink salmon, trends were predominantly increasing in the Alaska regions and either lacking or predominantly decreasing in most of the Pacific Northwest regions; for coho and chum salmon, trends were predominantly decreasing in one or more Alaska regions as well as in most of the Pacific Northwest regions. For steelhead, too few populations were examined to enable us to characterize trends throughout their range. Among the 657 salmonid populations excluded from the trend analysis because the data sets were incomplete, 13 (of which 2 were in Alaska) declined to zero during the period of analysis. For coho, sockeye, pink, and chum salmon and steelhead, major data gaps were revealed by a comparison of the geographic distribution of escapement records with the spawning distribution of the species. For chinook salmon, escapement records were more geographically representative of the spawning distribution.

  12. Marine effect of introduced salmonids: Prey consumption by exotic steelhead and anadromous brown trout in the Patagonian Continental Shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ciancio, J.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Pascual, M.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of stable isotope analysis, we estimated the marine diet of the most abundant anadromous salmonid species in Patagonian Atlantic basins. The results were coupled with bioenergetic and population models to estimate the consumption of food by salmonids and was compared with that by seabirds, the most abundant top predators in the area. Amphipods were the main salmonid prey, followed by sprat, silversides, squid, and euphausiids. The total consumption, even assuming large anadromous salmonid populations, represented <5% of the total consumption by seabirds. We also identified the particular seabird colonies and artisanal fisheries with which salmonid trophic interactions at a more local scale could be significant. ?? 2010, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  13. Abundance of juvenile eastern box turtles in manages forest stands

    Treesearch

    Z. Felix; Y. Wang; H. Czech; C. Schweitzer

    2008-01-01

    Between 2002 and 2005, we used drift fences and artificial pools to sample juvenile eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina) in northeastern Alabama in forest stands experimentally treated to retain various amounts of overstory trees—clear-cuts and those with 25%–50% and 75%–100% of trees retained.We captured juvenile turtles only in clear-cut and 25%–50% retention...

  14. Trapping and Transportation of Adult and Juvenile Salmon in the Lower Umatilla River in Northeast Oregon, 1995-1996 : Umatilla River Basin Trap and Haul Program : Annual Progress Report, October 1995-September 1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, Brian C.; Duke, Bill B.

    1996-09-01

    Threemile Falls Dam (Threemile Dam), located near the town of Umatilla, is the major collection and counting point for adult salmonids returning to the Umatilla River. Returning salmon and steelhead were collected at Threemile Dam from September 5, 1995 to July 1, 1996. A total of 2,081 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss); 603 adult, 288 jack, and 338 subjack fall chinook (O. tshawytscha); 946 adult and 53 jack coho (O. kisutch); and 2,152 adult and 121 jack spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) were collected. All fish were trapped at the east bank facility. The Westland Canal juvenile facility (Westland), located near the town of Echo at rivermile (RM) 27, is the major collection point for outmigrating juvenile salmonids and steelhead kelts. The Threemile Dam west bank juvenile bypass was operated from September 8 to October 13, 1995 and from March 18 to June 30, 1996. The juvenile trap was operated from July 1 to July 11. Daily operations at the facility were conducted by the ODFW Fish Passage Research project to monitor juvenile outmigration.

  15. The relative contribution of drift and selection to transcriptional divergence among Babine Lake tributary populations of juvenile rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Wellband, K W; Heath, D D

    2013-11-01

    Fine-scale population structure has been widely described for salmonid populations using neutral genetic markers, but whether that structure reflects adaptive differences among the populations remains of interest to evolutionary biologists and conservation managers alike. The use of transcriptomics to quantify population differences in genetically controlled functional gene expression traits holds promise for investigating this divergence associated with possible local adaptation. We use custom microarrays to characterize population divergence in transcription at functionally relevant (metabolic and immune function) genes among tributary populations of rainbow trout from Babine Lake, BC and compare it to neutral divergence estimated from microsatellite markers. Transcriptional divergence (PST ) was determined at resting state and in response to metabolic and immune challenges, two major sources of mortality and thus selective forces on juvenile salmonids. Results indicate that the majority of selected genes [56 genes (65%), 64 genes (63%) and 38 genes (78%) under control, temperature and immune challenges respectively] show transcriptional divergence (PST  > FST ) that is consistent with the action of divergent selection. Patterns of pairwise PST among populations are inconsistent with evolution by drift. In general, it appears that the magnitude and pattern of population divergence in transcription reflect the action of natural selection and identify selection on transcription as a mechanism for local adaptation. These results reinforce the need to conserve salmonids on a tributary basis and provide insight into genetic mechanisms that facilitate local adaptation. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. Genetic relatedness of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) from cultured salmonids in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Il; Cha, Seung Joo; Lee, Chu; Baek, Harim; Hwang, Seong Don; Cho, Mi Young; Jee, Bo Young; Park, Myoung-Ae

    2016-08-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV; n = 18) was identified in the Korean national surveillance program between February 2013 and April 2015, suggesting that IHNV is a major viral pathogen in cultured salmonids. By phylogeny analysis, we found that the JRt-Nagano and JRt-Shizuoka groups could each be further subdivided into three distinct subtypes. The Korean strains were genetically similar to Japanese isolates, suggesting introduction from Japan. Interestingly, the amino acid sequences of the middle glycoprotein gene show that distinct Korean subtypes have circulated, indicating that the settled IHNVs might be evolved stably in cultured salmonid farm environments.

  17. Treating the Juvenile Offender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoge, Robert D., Ed.; Guerra, Nancy G., Ed.; Boxer, Paul, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This authoritative, highly readable reference and text is grounded in the latest knowledge on how antisocial and criminal behavior develops in youth and how it can effectively be treated. Contributors describe proven ways to reduce juvenile delinquency by targeting specific risk factors and strengthening young people's personal, family, and…

  18. What Is Juvenile Arthritis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the possible causes of juvenile arthritis. They are studying genetic and environmental factors that they think are involved. They are also trying to improve current treatments and find new medicines that will work better with fewer side effects. Research supported by ...

  19. Juvenile Victimization and Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Huizinga, David

    1991-01-01

    Demographic characteristics of juvenile victims of crime and a potential relationship between victimization and self-reported delinquency are examined for 877 adolescents from a large midwestern city. Lifetime victimization rates (LVRs) are higher for those involved in delinquency, and LVRs rise with age and higher levels of delinquent behavior.…

  20. Treating the Juvenile Offender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoge, Robert D., Ed.; Guerra, Nancy G., Ed.; Boxer, Paul, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This authoritative, highly readable reference and text is grounded in the latest knowledge on how antisocial and criminal behavior develops in youth and how it can effectively be treated. Contributors describe proven ways to reduce juvenile delinquency by targeting specific risk factors and strengthening young people's personal, family, and…

  1. Juvenile Battens Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayton, Romayne

    1987-01-01

    Ten children diagnosed with juvenile Battens disease were tested over a three-year period in general intelligence, memory, listening and speech, motor skills, and general learning. Results showed that the patients followed a predetermined pattern but that the time span for development of memory, communication, and behavior problems varied greatly.…

  2. Quality and Behavior of Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia River Estuary and Nearshore Ocean and Effects of the Ocean Environment on the Survival of Columbia River Juvenile Salmonids, 1989-1994 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, R.C.; Schiewe, Michael H.; Fisher, J.P.

    1989-05-01

    In response to this limited understanding of the factors responsible for the continuing decline of spring chinook salmon in the Columbia River, this research plan was developed. The overall goal of the proposed research is to investigate and identify relationships among smolt quality (measured in the hatchery and after recovery in the estuary and nearshore ocean), environmental conditions in the estuary and nearshore ocean during smolt migration, and long-term survival (as measured by adult returns to the hatchery of origin and contributions to the recreational, commercial, and tribal fisheries). 16 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Local habitat conditions explain the variation in the strength of self-thinning in a stream salmonid

    PubMed Central

    Myrvold, Knut Marius; Kennedy, Brian P

    2015-01-01

    Self-thinning patterns are frequently used to describe density dependence in populations on timescales shorter than the organism's life span and have been used to infer carrying capacity of the environment. Among mobile animals, this concept has been used to document density dependence in stream salmonids, which compete over access to food and space. The carrying capacity, growth conditions, and initial cohort sizes often vary between streams and stream sections, which would influence the onset and strength of the density dependence. Despite much effort in describing habitat relationships in stream fishes, few studies have explicitly tested how the physical environment affects the slope of the thinning curves. Here, we investigate the prevalence and strength of self-thinning in juvenile stages of a steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) population in Idaho, USA. Further, we investigate the roles of local physical habitat and metabolic constraints in explaining the variation in thinning curves among study sites in the watershed. Only yearling steelhead exhibited an overall significant thinning trend, but the slope of the mass–density relationship (−0.53) was shallower than predicted by theory and reported from empirical studies. There was no detectable relationship in subyearling steelhead. Certain abiotic factors explained a relatively large portion of the variation in the strength of the self-thinning among the study reaches. For subyearling steelhead, the slopes were negatively associated with the average water depth and flow velocity in the study sites, whereas slopes in yearlings were steeper in sites that incurred a higher metabolic cost. Our results show that the prevalence and strength of density dependence in natural fish populations can vary across heterogeneous watersheds and can be more pronounced during certain stages of a species' life history, and that environmental factors can mediate the extent to which density dependence is manifested in predictable

  4. Local patchiness of Gyrodactylus colemanensis and G. salmonis parasitizing salmonids in the South River watershed, Nova Scotia, Canada.

    PubMed

    You, Ping; MacMillan, John; Cone, David

    2011-09-09

    Prevalence and intensity of Gyrodactylus colemanensis and G. salmonis (Monogenea) parasitizing juvenile/adult brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, brown trout Salmo trutta, and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar at 3 localities over an 8 km stretch in the South River, Nova Scotia, Canada, were calculated 4 times over a 9 mo period (October 2009, December 2009, March 2010, June 2010). G. colemanensis was on all 4 salmonids (endemic and non-endemic), while G. salmonis parasitized mostly S. fontinalis (endemic) and occasionally S. trutta (non-endemic). At an upstream locality, beyond a waterfall barrier, in a small tributary of the main river, G. colemanensis was more common than G. salmonis. In the main river, 7 km downstream, prevalence of G. colemanensis on S. fontinalis was comparable, or higher, than that of G. salmonis, while intensity of G. salmonis was higher than that of G. colemanensis. Downstream a further 1 km, in a tributary of the main river, both prevalence and intensity of G. salmonis on brook trout were higher than those of G. colemanensis. Stocks at a local trout hatchery had only G. colemanensis. The present study reports on a method by which exit water from such farms can be monitored for gyrodactylid parasites through a simple settling procedure. We estimated that up to 230,000 dislodged, live G. colemanensis exit the hatchery daily in discharge water entering the river. It is suggested that such systems are ideal for studying the impact of such parasite export on the nature of local parasite populations.

  5. [Environmental factors in juvenile delinquency].

    PubMed

    Barbagallo, A; Bellia, A; Benvenuto, G; Contiguglia, M A; Cosentino, F

    1975-09-12

    Experimental data are cited for the proposition that the complicated aspects of juvenile delinquency can only be understood and explained by adopting a simultaneous psychological and sociological approach. It is also shown that the manifestations of delinquency, though not its actual presence, may be influenced by sex and a depressed city or rural background. Environmental factors serving as stimulating features and hereditary (i.e. predisposing) factors undoubtedly contribute to the formation of the Ego. The former, however, are elaborated by their receipient and are not sufficient to explain a certain type of behaviour. The influence of cultural models should not be underestimated. These, where predominant, tend to render normative what may be considered as deviant.

  6. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) muscle satellite cells are targets of salmonid alphavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Biacchesi, Stéphane; Jouvion, Grégory; Mérour, Emilie; Boukadiri, Abdelhak; Desdouits, Marion; Ozden, Simona; Huerre, Michel; Ceccaldi, Pierre-Emmanuel; Brémont, Michel

    2016-01-08

    Sleeping disease in rainbow trout is characterized by an abnormal swimming behaviour of the fish which stay on their side at the bottom of the tanks. This sign is due to extensive necrosis and atrophy of red skeletal muscle induced by the sleeping disease virus (SDV), also called salmonid alphavirus 2. Infections of humans with arthritogenic alphaviruses, such as Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), are global causes of debilitating musculoskeletal diseases. The mechanisms by which the virus causes these pathologies are poorly understood due to the restrictive availability of animal models capable of reproducing the full spectrum of the disease. Nevertheless, it has been shown that CHIKV exhibits a particular tropism for muscle stem cells also known as satellite cells. Thus, SDV and its host constitute a relevant model to study in details the virus-induced muscle atrophy, the pathophysiological consequences of the infection of a particular cell-type in the skeletal muscle, and the regeneration of the muscle tissue in survivors together with the possible virus persistence. To study a putative SDV tropism for that particular cell type, we established an in vivo and ex vivo rainbow trout model of SDV-induced atrophy of the skeletal muscle. This experimental model allows reproducing the full panel of clinical signs observed during a natural infection since the transmission of the virus is arthropod-borne independent. The virus tropism in the muscle tissue was studied by immunohistochemistry together with the kinetics of the muscle atrophy, and the muscle regeneration post-infection was observed. In parallel, an ex vivo model of SDV infection of rainbow trout satellite cells was developed and virus replication and persistence in that particular cell type was followed up to 73 days post-infection. These results constitute the first observation of a specific SDV tropism for the muscle satellite cells.

  7. Superior protection conferred by inactivated whole virus vaccine over subunit and DNA vaccines against salmonid alphavirus infection in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng; Mutoloki, Stephen; Evensen, Øystein

    2012-06-06

    Salmonid alphavirus 3 (SAV-3) is an emerging pathogen in Norwegian salmon farming and causes severe annual losses. We studied the immunogenicity and protective ability of subunit and DNA vaccines based on E1 and E2 spike proteins of salmonid alphavirus subtype 3 (SAV-3), and compared these to an experimental inactivated, whole virus (IWV) vaccine in Atlantic salmon. The antigens were delivered as water-in-oil emulsions for the subunit and inactivated vaccines and non-formulated for the DNA vaccines. The IWV and the E2 subunit prime-boost groups had circulating neutralizing antibodies at challenge, correlating with high protection against lethal challenge and 3-log(10) reduction of virus titer in heart for the IWV group. Prime-boost with E1 subunit vaccine also conferred significant protection against mortality, but did not correlate with neutralizing antibody levels. Protection against pathology in internal organs was only seen for the IWV group. Prime-boost with E1 and E2 DNA vaccines showed marginal protection in terms of reduction of viral replication in target organs and protection against mortality was not different from controls. The IWV group showed significant upregulation of IFNγ and IL2 mRNA expression at 4 weeks post challenge possibly indicating that other mechanisms in addition to antibody responses play a role in mediating protection against infection. This is the first report comparing the immunogenicity and protection against mortality for IWV vaccines and spike protein subunit and DNA vaccines against salmonid alphavirus infection in Atlantic salmon. The IWV vaccine has superior immunogenicity over sub-unit and DNA vaccines.

  8. Use of a fish health condition profile in assessing the health and condition of juvenile Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Novotny, J.F.; Beeman, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    The fish health condition profile, a simplified system for assessing fish health and condition, was originally developed for fish hatcheries and feral trout populations in Utah. We evaluated the method during routine health assessments of juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) reared in net pens in the Columbia River in 1986 and 1987. The procedure yielded a thorough assessment of the condition offish held under various rearing conditions. This assessment was generally consistent with results of regular diagnostic examinations completed by certified fish health pathologists. The simplicity and availability of the system to most field biologists make it useful for monitoring fish in culture facilities as well as fish from wild stocks. This system may provide the framework for developing a more comprehensive smolt condition index that could be used to evaluate the general condition of juvenile anadromous salmonids before release or during out-migration.

  9. MONITORING CULVERT PASSAGE OF JUVENILE SALMONIDS WITH PIT TAGS AND STATIONARY AND PORTABLE PIT-TAG READERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Federal land management agencies in the PNW face increasing pressure to replace culverts that do not pass all life history stages of anadromous salmon and trout. Prioritization of culverts for replacement is often based on the physical parameters of culverts, and not on how fish...

  10. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, Annual Report 1998-1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Ehlers, Danette L.; Knapp, Suzanne M.; Jewett, Shannon M.

    2001-05-01

    Large runs of salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) and steelhead (O. mykiss) once supported productive Tribal and sport fisheries in the Umatilla River. By the 1920s, unscreened irrigation diversions, reduced in-stream flows, poor passage conditions, and habitat degradation had extirpated the salmon run and drastically reduced the summer steelhead run (CTUIR and ODFW 1989). Reintroduction of chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) and enhancement of summer steelhead populations in the Umatilla River was initiated in the early and mid-1980s (CTUIR and ODFW 1989). Measures to rehabilitate the fishery and improve flows in the Umatilla River are addressed in the original Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1987). These include habitat enhancement, hatchery production, holding and acclimation facilities, flow enhancement, passage improvement, and natural production enhancement. Detailed scope and nature of the habitat, flow, passage, and natural production projects are in the Umatilla River basin fisheries restoration plans (CTUIR 1984; Boyce 1986). The Umatilla Hatchery Master Plan (CTUIR and ODFW 1990) provides the framework for hatchery production and evaluation activities. Many agencies cooperate, coordinate, and exchange information in the Umatilla basin to ensure successful implementation of rehabilitation projects, including the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Oregon Water Resources Department (OWRD), the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR), and local irrigation districts (West Extension, Hermiston, and Stanfield-Westland). The Umatilla River Operations Group and the Umatilla Management, Monitoring and Evaluation Oversight Committee coordinate river and fisheries management and research in the Umatilla River basin.

  11. Effect of Migration Pathway on Travel Time and Survival of Acoustic-Tagged Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia River Estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Harnish, Ryan A.; Johnson, Gary E.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Hughes, Michael S.; Ebberts, Blaine D.

    2012-02-01

    Off-channel areas (side channels, tidal flats, sand bars, and shallow-water bays) may serve as important migration corridors through estuarine environments for salmon and steelhead smolts. Relatively large percentages (21-33%) of acoustic-tagged yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts were detected migrating through off-channel areas of the Columbia River estuary in 2008. The probability of survival for off-channel migrants (0.78-0.94) was similar to or greater than the survival probability of main channel migrants (0.67-0.93). Median travel times were similar for all species or run types and migration pathways we examined, ranging from 1-2 d. The route used by smolts to migrate through the estuary may affect their vulnerability to predation. Acoustic-tagged steelhead that migrated nearest to avian predator nesting colonies experienced higher predation rates (24%) than those that migrated farthest from the colonies (10%). The use of multiple migration pathways may be advantageous to out-migrating smolts because it helps to buffer against high rates of mortality, which may occur in localized areas, and helps to minimize inter- and intraspecific competition.

  12. Double-crested Cormorant Management Plan to Reduce Predation of Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia River Estuary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    techniques (setting up decoys and broadcasting audio playback of bird calls to encourage nesting) were tested within and outside the Columbia River...Double-crested Cormorants Satellite-tagged on East Sand Island within the Affected Environment. #of Birds Act ive+ t hat %of Birds #of %of Active...regulations implementing the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. In developing the range of alternatives, this and many other factors were considered in

  13. MONITORING CULVERT PASSAGE OF JUVENILE SALMONIDS WITH PIT TAGS AND STATIONARY AND PORTABLE PIT-TAG READERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Federal land management agencies in the PNW face increasing pressure to replace culverts that do not pass all life history stages of anadromous salmon and trout. Prioritization of culverts for replacement is often based on the physical parameters of culverts, and not on how fish...

  14. Behavior and passage of juvenile salmonids during the evaluation of a behavioral guidance structure at Cowlitz Falls Dam, Washington, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kock, Tobias J.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Ekstrom, Brian K.; Tomka, Ryan G.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2012-01-01

    Turbine passage was the most common passage route for tagged fish at Cowlitz Falls Dam during 2011. We found that 40 percent of the steelhead, 52 percent of the coho salmon, and 33 percent of the Chinook salmon passed through turbines. An additional 22 percent of the steelhead and 32 percent of the coho salmon passed through turbines or spillways when both passage routes were available. Fish collection numbers were relatively low during 2011 compared to long-term averages. In total, 37 percent of the steelhead, 14 percent of the coho salmon, and 23 percent of the Chinook salmon that entered the forebay were collected, primarily through collection flumes. The FSC collected a single radio-tagged fish (a Chinook salmon) in 2011.

  15. Evaluation of rotary drum screens used to protect juvenile salmonids in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, D.A.; Abernethy, C.S. ); Clune, T.J. )

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the design and operation of rotary drum screens. Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss are the potentially affected fish. Cold-branded fish are released upstream of the screen facilities. For descaling tests, the fish are captured as they exit the facility and are examined for injuries, descaling, and post-test mortalities. For screen passage tests, nets are placed in the irrigation ditch, downstream of the screen facilities, to determine if fish can pass through or over the screens. More than 100 tests have been conducted with almost 35,000 fish. Additionally, nearly 2000 native fish have been evaluated. Usually less than 2% of the test fish are injured or dead, and the condition of test fish does not differ from the controls. Less than 2% of the fish pass through or over the screens when the screen seals are properly installed and maintained.

  16. A new Gyrodactylus strain on brown trout (Salmo trutta) in Jänisjärvi, Russian Karelia, and a literature revision of salmonid parasites of the genus Gyrodactylus in North-Western Russia and adjacent areas.

    PubMed

    Ieshko, Eugeny; Lebedeva, Dar'ya; Lumme, Jaakko

    2014-03-01

    A Gyrodactylus parasite infected juveniles of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) in a hatchery in Lake Janisjarvi, Russian Karelia. Molecular identification by ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 of ribosomal DNA indicated that the infection was caused by a non-segregating hybrid clone between unknown Gyrodactylus species and Gyrodactylus teuchis Lautraite, Blanc, Thiery, Daniel & Vigneulle, 1999, described from brown trout collected in France. The mitochondrial CO1 was sequenced from the hybrid, but it is not available from pure G. teuchis from type locality. The mitochondrial DNA was an independent clade among the wageneri group parasites, differing from the nearest relative G. derjavinoides by 19%. Morphometric measurements of the Janisjarvi parasite were compared with separate (host specific) G. salaris strains from farmed rainbow trout and salmon in Lake Onega, and with available data on G. teuchis from Western Europe, Austria and Poland. All isolates were distinguishable by morphometry, and the measurements are a useful primary diagnostic tool for the salmonid parasites in Karelian great lakes and fish farms. Pure G. teuchis is not found on Russian territory, and the other parent of the hybrid has not been discovered yet in any other country. A mini review of Gyrodactylus on salmonids in the Russian Karelia is presented.

  17. Climate change impact on salmonid spawning in low-gradient streams in central Idaho, USA

    Treesearch

    Daniele Tonina; James A. McKean

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is often predicted to cause a significant perturbation to watershed hydrology. It has been generally associated with negative impacts on natural systems, especially in conjunction with conservation and protection of sensitive ecosystems. In the U.S., spawning habitats of threatened and endangered salmonid species are important areas that are potentially...

  18. Comparison of growth and metabolic regulation between wild, domesticated and transgenic salmonids.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To gain a better understanding of the aspects underlying normal and growth hormone enhanced growth in salmonids, quantitative expression analysis was performed for a number of genes related to muscle growth, metabolism, immunology and energy regulation. This analysis was performed in liver and musc...

  19. Evaluation of an ion adsorption method to estimate intragravel flow velocity in salmonid spawning gravels

    Treesearch

    James L. Clayton; John G. King; Russell F. Thurow

    1996-01-01

    Intragravel water exchange provides oxygenated water, removes metabolic waste, and is an essential factor in salmonid embryo survival. Measurements of intragravel flow velocity have been suggested as an index of gravel quality and also as a useful predictor of fry emergence; however, proposed methods for measuring velocity in gravel are problematic. We evaluate an ion...

  20. Inactivation of bacteria using ultraviolet irradiation in a recirculating salmonid culture system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this research was to determine the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation dosages required to inactivate bacteria in a commercial-scale recirculating salmonid culture system. Research was conducted in the commercial-scale recirculating system used for Arctic char growout at the Conservation ...

  1. Osmoregulatory actions of the GH/IGF axis in non-salmonid teleosts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mancera, J.M.; McCormick, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    Salmonid fishes provided the first findings on the influence of the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) axis on osmoregulation in teleost fishes. Recent studies on non-salmonid species, however, indicate that this physiological action of the GH/IGF-I axis is not restricted to salmonids or anadromous fishes. GH-producing cells in the pituitary of fish acclimated to different salinities show different degrees of activation depending on the species studied. Plasma GH levels either increase or do not change after transfer of fish from freshwater to seawater. Treatment with GH or IGF-I increases salinity tolerance and/or increases gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity of killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus), tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus and Oreochromis niloticus) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis). As in salmonids, a positive interaction between GH and cortisol for improving hypoosmoregulatory capacity has been described in tilapia (O. mossambicus). Research on the osmoregulatory role of the GH/IGF-I axis is derived from a small number of teleost species. The study of more species with different osmoregulary patterns will be necessary to fully clarify the osmoregulatory role of GH/IGF-I axis in fish. The available data does suggest, however, that the influence of the GH/IGF-I axis on osmoregulation may be a common feature of euryhalinity in teleosts. Copyright (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Inc.

  2. Genome Sequence of a Lactococcus lactis Strain Isolated from Salmonid Intestinal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Opazo, Rafael; Gajardo, Felipe; Ruiz, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis is a common inhabitant of the intestinal microbiota of salmonids, especially those in aquaculture systems. Here, we present a genome sequence of a Lactococcus lactis strain isolated from the intestinal contents of rainbow trout reared in Chile. PMID:27563049

  3. 78 FR 23953 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for Yolo Bypass Salmonid Habitat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ..., Project Manager, Bureau of Reclamation, Bay-Delta Office, 801 I Street, Suite 140, Sacramento, CA 95814... Salmonid Habitat Restoration and Fish Passage, California AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION... Improvement Program, California Department of Water Resources, 901 P Street, Room 411A, Sacramento, CA 95814...

  4. Morphology and evolution of salmonid habitats in a recently deglaciated river basin, Washington state, USA.

    Treesearch

    L Benda; T.J. Beechie; R.C. Wissmar; A. Johnson

    1992-01-01

    Morphology and distribution of salmonid habitats were related to the geomorphology of a river basin at three spatial scales including reach (l02-103 m2), subbasin (2-26 km2), and the watershed (240 km2). Stream reaches on a young fluvial terrace (1700 yr...

  5. Barriers, invasion, and conservation of native salmonids in coldwater streams [Box 18.2

    Treesearch

    Bruce Rieman; Michael Young; Kurt Fausch; Jason Dunham; Douglas Peterson

    2010-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are threats to persistence of many native fish populations. Invading nonnative species that may restrict or displace native species are also important. These two issues are particularly relevant for native salmonids that are often limited to remnant habitats in cold, headwater streams. On the surface, reversing threats to native fishes...

  6. Minimally Invasive Detection of Piscirickettsia salmonis in Cultivated Salmonids via the PCR

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Sergio; Heath, Sekou; Henríquez, Vitalia; Orrego, Cristián

    1998-01-01

    The attributes of the PCR allowed implementation of an assay for specific detection of Piscirickettsia salmonis from a few microliters of fish serum. This opens the way to less invasive modes of sampling for this microbial pathogen in salmonids. PMID:9687475

  7. A permeability study on salmonid spawning areas in northern Humboldt County, California

    Treesearch

    Claire. Knopf

    2012-01-01

    This research was conducted to determine if local salmonid, specifically coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), and the steelhead trout (O. mykiss), redd location is dependent upon the permeability of the streambed. The study took place at four study sites in two coastal...

  8. Effects of sediment transport on survival of salmonid embryos in a natural stream: A simulation approach

    Treesearch

    Thomas E. Lisle; Jack Lewis

    1992-01-01

    A model is presented that simulates the effects of streamflow and sediment transport on survival of salmonid embryos incubating in spawning gravels in a natural channel. Components of the model include a 6-yr streamflow record, an empirical bed load-transport function, a relation between transport and infiltration of sandy bedload into a gravel bed, effects of fine-...

  9. Development of field-based models of suitable thermal regimes for interior Columbia Basin salmonids

    Treesearch

    Jason B. Dunham; Bruce Rieman; Gwynne Chandler

    2001-01-01

    This report describes results of research sponsored through an interagency agreement between the U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Interagency Agreement #00-IA-11222014-521). The primary objectives of this research included 1) develop models relating occurrence of two threatened inland salmonid fishes to...

  10. Non-native salmonids affect amphibian occupancy at multiple spatial scales

    Treesearch

    David S. Pilliod; Blake R. Hossack; Peter F. Bahls; Evelyn L. Bull; Paul Stephen Corn; Grant Hokit; Bryce A. Maxell; James C. Munger; Aimee Wyrick

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of non-native species into aquatic environments has been linked with local extinctions and altered distributions of native species. We investigated the effect of non-native salmonids on the occupancy of two native amphibians, the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) and Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris), across three spatial scales:...

  11. Osmoregulatory actions of the GH/IGF axis in non-salmonid teleosts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mancera, J.M.; McCormick, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    Salmonid fishes provided the first findings on the influence of the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) axis on osmoregulation in teleost fishes. Recent studies on non-salmonid species, however, indicate that this physiological action of the GH/IGF-I axis is not restricted to salmonids or anadromous fishes. GH-producing cells in the pituitary of fish acclimated to different salinities show different degrees of activation depending on the species studied. Plasma GH levels either increase or do not change after transfer of fish from freshwater to seawater. Treatment with GH or IGF-I increases salinity tolerance and/or increases gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity of killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus), tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus and Oreochromisniloticus) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis). As in salmonids, a positive interaction between GH and cortisol for improving hypoosmoregulatory capacity has been described in tilapia (O. mossambicus). Research on the osmoregulatory role of the GH/IGF-I axis is derived from a small number of teleost species. The study of more species with different osmoregulary patterns will be necessary to fully clarify the osmoregulatory role of GH/IGF-I axis in fish. The available data does suggest, however, that the influence of the GH/IGF-I axis on osmoregulation may be a common feature of euryhalinity in teleosts.

  12. Salmonid Communities in the South Fork of Caspar Creek, 1967 to 1969 and 1993 to 2003

    Treesearch

    Bradley E. Valentine; Richard A. Macedo; Tracie Hughes

    2007-01-01

    Demand for wood products and advances in logging technology post-World War II resulted in timber harvesting that extensively modified streams on the North Coast of California. To assess the resulting impacts to salmonid populations, the Department of Fish and Game conducted studies at widely spaced sites throughout the redwood region during the 1960s. In order to...

  13. The VTAC Committee: developing guidance for an alternative regulatory pathway to the anadromous salmonid protection rules

    Treesearch

    Michael Liquori; Peter Cafferata; Kevin Boston; Richard Gienger; David. Hope

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, riparian protection standards have been guided by generalized prescriptive rules. With the passage of the Anadromous Salmonid Protection rules in 2009, the Board of Forestry and Fire Protection (Board) established a regulatory pathway that provides an alternative approach for riparian protection based on site-specific criteria (14 CCR § 916....

  14. An approach to effectiveness monitoring of floodplain channel aquatic habitat: salmonid relationships.

    Treesearch

    M.D. Bryant; R.T. Edwards; R.D. Woodsmith

    2005-01-01

    Rivers and streams that support anadromous salmonids are an important part of land management planning in southeastern Alaska and the Pacific Northwest of North America. Land managers and planners require a consistent set of protocols that include both the physical and biological aspects of the stream for effectiveness monitoring procedures to evaluate management...

  15. Influence of fire on native and nonnative salmonid populations and habitat in a western Montana basin

    Treesearch

    Clint M Sestrich; Thomas E. McMahon; Michael K. Young

    2011-01-01

    Anticipated increases in the frequency and severity of wildfire may threaten the persistence of native salmonid populations in headwater streams in western North America. This study used extensive pre- and postfire data to assess whether wildfire leads to hypothesized declines in native westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi and bull trout Salvelinus...

  16. Facultative anadromy in salmonids: linking habitat, individual life history decisions, and population-level consequences

    Treesearch

    Steven F. Railsback; Bret C. Harvey; Jason L. White

    2014-01-01

    Modeling and management of facultative anadromous salmonids is complicated by their ability to select anadromous or resident life histories. Conventional theory for this behavior assumes individuals select the strategy offering highest expected reproductive success but does not predict how population-level consequences such as a stream’s smolt production emerge from...

  17. Invasion versus isolation: Trade-offs in managing native salmonids with barriers to upstream movement

    Treesearch

    Kurt D. Fausch; Bruce E. Rieman; Jason B. Dunham; Michael K. Young; Douglas P. Peterson

    2009-01-01

    Conservation biologists often face the trade-off that increasing connectivity in fragmented landscapes to reduce extinction risk of native species can foster invasion by non-native species that enter via the corridors created, which can then increase extinction risk. This dilemma is acute for stream fishes, especially native salmonids, because their populations are...

  18. 78 FR 14117 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for Yolo Bypass Salmonid Habitat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ... Salmonid Habitat Restoration and Fish Passage, California AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION... habitat restoration efforts within the lower Sacramento River basin and fish passage through the Yolo..., FESSRO, Fish Passage Improvement Program, California Department of Water Resources, 901 P Street, Room...

  19. Effects of woody debris on anadromous salmonid habitat, Prince of Wales Island, southeast Alaska

    Treesearch

    Thomas E. Lisle

    1986-01-01

    Abstract - The effects of woody debris on anadromous salmonid habitat in eight streams on Prince of Wales Island, southeast Alaska, were investigated by comparing low-gradient (1-9%) first- or second-order streams flowing through either spruce-hemlock forests or 6-10-year-old clearcuts, and by observing changes after debris was selectively removed from clear-cut...

  20. Efficacy of benzocaine as an anesthetic for salmonid fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilderhus, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    Benzocaine was tested in the laboratory to determine the effective concentrations for anesthetizing juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha an rainbow trout O. mykiss (formerly Salmo gairdneri ). Tests were conducted at three water temperatures, in waters ranging from very soft to very hard, and with groups of rainbow trout from 5 to 47 cm long and chinook salmon 20 cm long. Effective concentrations were defined as those that rendered the fish fully handleable in 3 min or less, allowed recovery of most fish within 10 min, and caused no mortality after 15-min exposures. Concentrations of 25-45 mg/L anesthetized both species over the entire range of conditions tested. Although efficacy was essentially unrelated to species or water quality, it was related to water temperature and size of fish; the concentrations of benzocaine required were highest at the lowest water temperature and for the largest fish.

  1. Influence of bacterial kidney disease on smoltification in salmonids: Is it a case of double jeopardy?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, M.G.; Maule, A.G.; Poe, T.P.; Schreck, C.B.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a chronic, progressive infection with Renibacterium salmoninarum (Rs), the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease (BKD), on selected aspects of smoltification in yearling juvenile spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). After experimentally infecting fish with Rs using an immersion challenge, we sampled them every two weeks to monitor changes in gill Na+, K+-ATPase (ATPase), cortisol, infection level, mortality, growth, and other stress-related physiological factors during the normal time of parr-smolt transformation in fresh water (i.e., from winter to spring). A progressively worsening infection with Rs did not alter the normal changes in gill ATPase and condition factor associated with smoltification in juvenile chinook salmon. The infection did, however, lead to elevated levels of plasma cortisol and lactate and depressed levels of plasma glucose, indicating that the disease is stressful during the later stages. A dramatic proliferation of BKD was associated with maximal responses of indicators of smoltification, suggesting that the process of smoltification itself can trigger outbreaks of disease. Our results suggest mechanisms that probably influence the reported inability of Rs-infected fish to successfully adapt to sea water.

  2. Juvenile offenders assessment.

    PubMed

    Folino, Jorge O; Mayer, Elizabeth L

    2011-09-01

    Evaluation of juveniles is an integral process that includes a broad bio-psycho-social clinical perspective together with the use of auxiliary instruments. The aim of this review is to report relevant issues for this process found in recent publications. Several evidences lead to broadening the assessment process of children and youngsters to include family functioning style. Mental health services allow the evaluation of multiple factors associated with antisocial behavior that may lead to devising preventive actions. In the Juvenile Justice System a wide-ranging evaluation must include the exploration of general personality characteristics and psychopathic traits in particular; attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder; intelligence; substance abuse and conduct disorder must be considered. A number of factors that have an impact on juvenile antisocial behavior have been identified and can be assessed using the appropriate methodology. The exploration of these factors at different developmental stages and in their various manifestations provide guidelines for devising preventive and therapeutic actions as well as for supporting judicial decisions. Though enriching the present state of the art is always a challenge, it is imperative to encourage the governments to utilize this knowledge to improve the care system of children and adolescents.

  3. Invasion versus isolation: trade-offs in managing native salmonids with barriers to upstream movement.

    PubMed

    Fausch, Kurt D; Rieman, Bruce E; Dunham, Jason B; Young, Michael K; Peterson, Douglas P

    2009-08-01

    Conservation biologists often face the trade-off that increasing connectivity in fragmented landscapes to reduce extinction risk of native species can foster invasion by non-native species that enter via the corridors created, which can then increase extinction risk. This dilemma is acute for stream fishes, especially native salmonids, because their populations are frequently relegated to fragments of headwater habitat threatened by invasion from downstream by 3 cosmopolitan non-native salmonids. Managers often block these upstream invasions with movement barriers, but isolation of native salmonids in small headwater streams can increase the threat of local extinction. We propose a conceptual framework to address this worldwide problem that focuses on 4 main questions. First, are populations of conservation value present (considering evolutionary legacies, ecological functions, and socioeconomic benefits as distinct values)? Second, are populations vulnerable to invasion and displacement by non-native salmonids? Third, would these populations be threatened with local extinction if isolated with barriers? And, fourth, how should management be prioritized among multiple populations? We also developed a conceptual model of the joint trade-off of invasion and isolation threats that considers the opportunities for managers to make strategic decisions. We illustrated use of this framework in an analysis of the invasion-isolation trade-off for native cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) in 2 contrasting basins in western North America where invasion and isolation are either present and strong or farther away and apparently weak. These cases demonstrate that decisions to install or remove barriers to conserve native salmonids are often complex and depend on conservation values, environmental context (which influences the threat of invasion and isolation), and additional socioeconomic factors. Explicit analysis with tools such as those we propose can help managers make

  4. Interactions between fine-grained sediment delivery, river bed deposition and salmonid spawning success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattison, I.; Sear, D. A.; Collins, A. L.; Jones, J. I.; Naden, P. S.

    2015-03-01

    Salmonids clean river bed gravels to lay their eggs. However, during the incubation period fine sediment infiltrates the bed. This has been found to limit the success of salmonid spawning, as fine sediment reduces gravel permeability resulting in intra-gravel flow velocities and O2 concentrations decreasing. The success of salmonid spawning is therefore a function of the coincidence of fine sediment delivery and the development of the salmonid eggs. The presence of fine sediment also exerts sub-lethal effects on the rate of egg development with a negative feedback slowing and extending the incubation process meaning the eggs are in the gravels for longer and susceptible to more potential sediment delivery events. The SIDO (Sediment Intrusion and Dissolved Oxygen)-UK model is a physically-based numerical model which simulates the effect of fine sediment deposition on the abiotic characteristics of the salmonid redd, along with the consequences for egg development and survival. This model is used to investigate the interactions and feedbacks between the timing and concentrations of suspended sediment delivery events, and the deposition of fine sediment within the gravel bed, and the consequences of this on the rate of egg development and survival. The model simulations suggest that egg survival is highly sensitive to suspended sediment concentrations, particularly to changes in the supply rate of sand particles. The magnitude, frequency and specific timing of sediment delivery events effects egg survival rates. The modelling framework is also used to investigate the impact of the rate of gravel infilling by sediment. The hypotheses of continual, discrete event and non-linear decline in the rate of infilling are investigated.

  5. Telepsychiatry in juvenile justice settings.

    PubMed

    Kaliebe, Kristopher E; Heneghan, James; Kim, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    Telepsychiatry is emerging as a valuable means of providing mental health care in juvenile justice settings. Youth in the juvenile justice system have high levels of psychiatric morbidity. State and local juvenile justice systems frequently struggle to provide specialized psychiatric care, as these systems have limited resources and often operate in remote locations. Case studies in the use of telepsychiatry to provide improved care in juvenile corrections in 4 states are described, along with a review of advantages and disadvantages of telepsychiatry in these settings.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile idiopathic arthritis juvenile idiopathic arthritis Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Juvenile idiopathic arthritis refers to a group of conditions involving joint ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile primary osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile primary osteoporosis juvenile primary osteoporosis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Juvenile primary osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by thinning of ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile myoclonic epilepsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile myoclonic epilepsy juvenile myoclonic epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is a condition characterized by recurrent seizures (epilepsy). ...

  9. Food habits of Juvenile American Shad and dynamics of zooplankton in the lower Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haskell, C.A.; Tiffan, K.F.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    As many as 2.4 million adult American shad annually pass John Day Dam, Columbia River to spawn upriver, yet food web interactions of juvenile shad rearing in John Day Reservoir are unexplored. We collected zooplankton and conducted mid-water trawls in McNary (June-July) and John Day reservoirs (August-November) from 1994 through 1996 during the outmigration of subyearling American shad and Chinook salmon. Juvenile American shad were abundant and represented over 98% of the trawl catch in late summer. The five major taxa collected in zooplankton tows were Bosmina longirostris, Daphnia, cyclopoid cope-pods, rotifers, and calanoid copepods. We evaluated total crustacean zooplankton abundance and Daphnia biomass in relation to water temperature, flow, depth, diel period, and cross-sectional location using multiple regression. Differences in zooplankton abundance were largely due to differences in water temperature and flow. Spatial variation in total zooplankton abundance was observed in McNary Reservoir, but not in John Day Reservoir. Juvenile American shad generally fed on numerically abundant prey, despite being less preferred than larger bodied zooplankton. A decrease in cladoceran abundance and size in August coupled with large percentages of Daphnia in juvenile American shad stomachs indicated heavy planktivory. Smaller juvenile American shad primarily fed on Daphnia in August, but switched to more evasive copepods as the mean size of fish increased and Daphnia abundance declined. Because Daphnia are particularly important prey items for subyearling Chinook salmon in mainstem reservoirs in mid to late summer, alterations in the cladoceran food base is of concern for the management of outmigrating salmonids and other Columbia River fishes. ?? 2006 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

  10. Transcriptomic Responses of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) to Environmental Enrichment during Juvenile Rearing

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Melissa L.; Hori, Tiago S.; Rise, Matthew L.; Fleming, Ian A.

    2015-01-01

    Captive rearing programs (hatcheries) are often used in conservation and management efforts for at-risk salmonid fish populations. However, hatcheries typically rear juveniles in environments that contrast starkly with natural conditions, which may lead to phenotypic and/or genetic changes that adversely affect the performance of juveniles upon their release to the wild. Environmental enrichment has been proposed as a mechanism to improve the efficacy of population restoration efforts from captive-rearing programs; in this study, we examine the influence of environmental enrichment during embryo and yolk-sac larval rearing on the transcriptome of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Full siblings were reared in either a hatchery environment devoid of structure or an environment enriched with gravel substrate. At the end of endogenous feeding by juveniles, we examined patterns of gene transcript abundance in head tissues using the cGRASP-designed Agilent 4×44K microarray. Significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) indicated that 808 genes were differentially transcribed between the rearing environments and a total of 184 gene ontological (GO) terms were over- or under-represented in this gene list, several associated with mitosis/cell cycle and muscle and heart development. There were also pronounced differences among families in the degree of transcriptional response to rearing environment enrichment, suggesting that gene-by-environment effects, possibly related to parental origin, could influence the efficacy of enrichment interventions. PMID:25742646

  11. Dynamics of prey moving through a predator field: a model of migrating juvenile salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, J.H.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    The migration of a patch of prey through a field of relatively stationary predators is a situation that occurs frequently in nature. Making quantitative predictions concerning such phenomena may be difficult, however, because factors such as the number of the prey in the patch, the spatial length and velocity of the patch, and the feeding rate and satiation of the predators all interact in a complex way. However, such problems are of great practical importance in many management situations; e.g., calculating the mortality of juvenile salmon (smolts) swimming down a river or reservoir containing many predators. Salmon smolts often move downstream in patches short compared with the length of the reservoir. To take into account the spatial dependence of the interaction, we used a spatially-explicit, individual-based modeling approach. We found that the mortality of prey depends strongly on the number of prey in the patch, the downstream velocity of prey in the patch, and the dispersion or spread of the patch in size through time. Some counterintuitive phenomena are predicted, such as predators downstrean capturing more prey per predator than those upstream, even though the number of prey may be greatly depleted by the time the prey patch reaches the downstream predators. Individual-based models may be necessary for complex spatial situations, such as salmonid migration, where processes such as schooling occur at fine scales and affect system predictions. We compare some results to predictions from other salmonid models. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Inc.

  12. Improving Literacy Skills of Juvenile Detainees. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Jane; And Others

    The Office of Juvenile and Delinquency Prevention funded a model designed to improve the literacy level of youth in juvenile detention and correctional facilities. The model specified training language arts teachers and relevant staff and volunteers in direct instruction methods for rapid improvement of students' comprehension, particularly for…

  13. Juvenile Mentoring Program: A Progress Review. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novotney, Laurence C.; Mertinko, Elizabeth; Lange, James; Baker, Tara Kelley

    The greatest support offered by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention for youth mentoring has been through the Juvenile Mentoring Program (JUMP), which provides one-to-one mentoring for youth at risk of delinquency, gang involvement, educational failure, or dropping out of school. Information on JUMP has been collected through…

  14. Juvenile Firesetting: A Research Overview. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Charles T.; Kirkpatrick, John T.

    2005-01-01

    In 2002, the National Association of State Fire Marshals (NASFM) began developing applied research initiatives to help professionals curtail juvenile firesetting. The project included a review of the research literature, a conference of researchers and professionals involved in preventing juvenile firesetting, and a final report, upon which this…

  15. An Ecosystem-Based Approach to Habitat Restoration Projects with Emphasis on Salmonids in the Columbia River Estuary, 2003 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.; Thom, R.; Whiting, A.

    2003-11-01

    species using the CRE. The program's underlying principles are: (1) projects are founded on the best available ecological restoration science, implemented in an ecosystem context, and developed with the intent to restore relevant ecological processes; (2) projects incorporate adaptive management practices with testable hypotheses to track ecological responses to a given restoration effort; and (3) projects are implemented in a coordinated, open process and scientific results from monitoring and evaluation are communicated widely and readily accessible. With this goal and these principles in mind, we developed an approach for CRE habitat restoration. The intent of this document is to provide a scientific basis and implementation guidelines for a habitat restoration program designed to improve ecosystem functions and enhance juvenile salmonid survival in the CRE. The stepwise approach to CRE habitat restoration outlined is somewhat general and broad because the available scientific information is incomplete, e.g., juvenile salmon usage of various CRE wetland habitats. As new data become available, a more specific, detailed plan than was possible here can be produced as an outgrowth of this document. In conclusion, this document provides a scientific basis and implementation guidelines for a habitat restoration program designed to improve ecosystem functions and enhance juvenile salmonid survival in the CRE. As more experience is gained with CRE habitat restoration and scientific uncertainties are resolved, this document should be used as a basis for a detailed habitat restoration plan that specifically addresses (1) which habitat types offer the greatest ecological benefit to salmon, (2) the location of potential sites that if restored would likely provide these habitat types, and (3) how and when the restoration work should be done. This document supports the use of adaptive management so that all elements of salmonid habitat restoration actions in the CRE are under

  16. [Familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy].

    PubMed

    Hummel, Aurélie

    2012-04-01

    Familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy is a rare autosomal dominant disease. It is characterized by abnormal handling of urate responsible for hyperuricaemia often complicated of gouty arthritis. Renal failure is due to tubulointerstitial nephritis. Ultrasonography sometimes finds renal cysts of variable size and number. Renal histology, although not specific, shows interstitial fibrosis, atrophic tubules, sometimes enlarged and with irregular membrane thickening. Renal failure progresses to end stage between 30 and 60 years of age. Allopurinol treatment is recommended at the early stages of the disease, its efficacy on slowing down the progression of the disease is however not proven. There is genetic heterogeneity in familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy. Uromodulin encoding Tamm-Horsfall protein is the only gene to date identified, responsible in less than half of the families. The described mutations most often concern a cystein and are clustering in exon 4. These mutations result in abnormal retention of the protein in endoplasmic reticulum of Henle loop cells and in reduction of its urinary excretion. The pathophysiology of the disease is however still dubious. Indeed, Tamm-Horsfall protein functions are not well known (anti-infectious role, cristallisation inhibition, immunomodulating role). Knock-out mice do not develop renal phenotype but are more prone to E. coli urinary infections. Uromodulin gene mutations have also been described in medullary cystic kidney disease, an autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial nephropathy, considered at first as a distinct disorder. Genetic progress allowed us to consider familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy and medullary cystic kidney disease as the two facets of a same disease, we should call uromodulin associated kidney diseases. At least two other genes have been implicated in similar clinical presentation: TCF2 and the gene encoding renin.

  17. How Will Climate Change Affect Channel Morphology and Salmonid Habitat in Mountain Basins?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffington, J. M.; Goode, J.

    2010-12-01

    Riverine habitat for salmonids is intimately linked to channel morphology and fluvial processes (channel hydraulics, sediment transport and scour regime) which are, in turn, controlled by watershed hydrology and erosional processes that input sediment to the fluvial system. Climate change has the potential to alter the timing, magnitude, and style of sediment and water inputs to mountain rivers. Channel response to these changes may range from small-scale adjustments of channel characteristics (e.g., width, depth, grain size, scour depth) to larger-scale changes in channel type (e.g., metamorphosis from a pool-riffle channel to a plane-bed morphology). Identifying which parts of the river network will remain relatively stable in response to climate change, and which are likely to cross critical morphologic and scour thresholds is important for predicting effects on salmonid populations. Toward this end, a regime framework is presented for predicting the relative degree of morphologic stability and scour potential in different physiographic settings (different water and sediment regimes). Digital elevation models are used to explore the spatial distribution of these conditions and potential consequences for salmonid habitat across the landscape. Results suggest that the potential for scour and morphologic variability are strongly influenced by hydroclimate; snowmelt channels are relatively stable across floods of different magnitude, while rainfall-dominated channels are more variable and less stable. Transitional changes in hydrologic regime (mixed rain and snow) have the greatest potential for altering geomorphic conditions and salmonid habitat. However, the vulnerability of salmonids to climate-driven changes in scour regime depend on the species and its life history (i.e., depth to which eggs are buried and timing of incubation relative to scouring flows). Overall, the regime approach provides a useful first-order assessment of channel condition and response

  18. A RNAi-based therapeutic proof of concept targets salmonid whirling disease in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Menanteau-Ledouble, Simon; Kotob, Mohamed H.; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2017-01-01

    Myxobolus cerebralis is a cnidarian-myxozoan parasite that causes salmonid whirling disease. M. cerebralis alternates between two hosts: (1) a vertebrate salmonid and (2) an invertebrat