Science.gov

Sample records for k-210-130-3 steam turbine

  1. Steam Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Turbonetics Energy, Inc.'s steam turbines are used as power generating systems in the oil and gas, chemical, pharmaceuticals, metals and mining, and pulp and paper industries. The Turbonetics line benefited from use of NASA research data on radial inflow steam turbines and from company contact with personnel of Lewis Research Center, also use of Lewis-developed computer programs to determine performance characteristics of turbines.

  2. Regenerative superheated steam turbine cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, L. C.; Stovall, T. K.

    1980-01-01

    PRESTO computer program was developed to analyze performance of wide range of steam turbine cycles with special attention given to regenerative superheated steam turbine cycles. It can be used to model standard turbine cycles, including such features as process steam extraction, induction and feedwater heating by external sources, peaking, and high back pressure. Expansion line efficiencies, exhaust loss, leakages, mechanical losses, and generator losses are used to calculate cycle heat rate and generator output. Program provides power engineer with flexible aid for design and analysis of steam turbine systems.

  3. 8. TURBINE DECK (UPPER FLOOR) INSIDE STEAM PLANT, SHOWING STEAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. TURBINE DECK (UPPER FLOOR) INSIDE STEAM PLANT, SHOWING STEAM TURBINES AND GENERATORS, LOOKING NORTH. November 13, 1990 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  4. Steam Oxidation of Advanced Steam Turbine Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2008-01-01

    Power generation from coal using ultra supercritical steam results in improved fuel efficiency and decreased greenhouse gas emissions. Results of ongoing research into the oxidation of candidate nickel-base alloys for ultra supercritical steam turbines are presented. Exposure conditions range from moist air at atmospheric pressure (650°C to 800°C) to steam at 34.5 MPa (650°C to 760°C). Parabolic scale growth coupled with internal oxidation and reactive evaporation of chromia are the primary corrosion mechanisms.

  5. Cogeneration steam turbines from Siemens: New solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasilov, V. F.; Kholodkov, S. V.

    2017-03-01

    The Enhanced Platform system intended for the design and manufacture of Siemens AG turbines is presented. It combines organizational and production measures allowing the production of various types of steam-turbine units with a power of up to 250 MWel from standard components. The Enhanced Platform designs feature higher efficiency, improved reliability, better flexibility, longer overhaul intervals, and lower production costs. The design features of SST-700 and SST-900 steam turbines are outlined. The SST-700 turbine is used in backpressure steam-turbine units (STU) or as a high-pressure cylinder in a two-cylinder condensing turbine with steam reheat. The design of an SST-700 single-cylinder turbine with a casing without horizontal split featuring better flexibility of the turbine unit is presented. An SST-900 turbine can be used as a combined IP and LP cylinder (IPLPC) in steam-turbine or combined-cycle power units with steam reheat. The arrangements of a turbine unit based on a combination of SST-700 and SST-900 turbines or SST-500 and SST-800 turbines are presented. Examples of this combination include, respectively, PGU-410 combinedcycle units (CCU) with a condensing turbine and PGU-420 CCUs with a cogeneration turbine. The main equipment items of a PGU-410 CCU comprise an SGT5-4000F gas-turbine unit (GTU) and STU consisting of SST-700 and SST-900RH steam turbines. The steam-turbine section of a PGU-420 cogeneration power unit has a single-shaft turbine unit with two SST-800 turbines and one SST-500 turbine giving a power output of N el. STU = 150 MW under condensing conditions.

  6. Steam-injected gas turbine analysis: steam rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, I. G.

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of steam rates in steam-injected gas turbines (simple and reheat). In considering a gas turbine of this type, the steam-injection flow is separated from the main gas stream for analysis. Dalton's and Avogadro's laws of partial pressure and gas mixtures are applied. Results obtained provide for the accurate determination of heat input, gas expansion based on partial pressures, and heat-rejection steam-enthalpy points.

  7. Steam-injected gas turbine analysis: Steam rates

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, I.G.

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of steam rates in steam-injected gas turbines (simple and reheat). In considering a gas turbine of this type, the steam-injection flow is separated from the main gas stream for analysis. Dalton`s and Avogadro`s laws of partial pressure and gas mixtures are applied. Results obtained provide for the accurate determination of heat input, gas expansion based on partial pressures, and heat-rejection steam-enthalpy points.

  8. Steam turbine materials and corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, G.R.; Alman, D.E.; Dogan, O.N.; Rawers, J.C.; Schrems, K.K.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

    2007-12-01

    Ultra-supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This project examines the steamside oxidation of candidate alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on applications in high- and intermediate-pressure turbines. As part of this research a concern has arisen about the possibility of high chromia evaporation rates of protective scales in the turbine. A model to calculate chromia evaporation rates is presented.

  9. Brush Seals for Improved Steam Turbine Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnquist, Norman; Chupp, Ray; Baily, Fred; Burnett, Mark; Rivas, Flor; Bowsher, Aaron; Crudgington, Peter

    2006-01-01

    GE Energy has retrofitted brush seals into more than 19 operating steam turbines. Brush seals offer superior leakage control compared to labyrinth seals, owing to their compliant nature and ability to maintain very tight clearances to the rotating shaft. Seal designs have been established for steam turbines ranging in size from 12 MW to over 1200 MW, including fossil, nuclear, combined-cycle and industrial applications. Steam turbines present unique design challenges that must be addressed to ensure that the potential performance benefits of brush seals are realized. Brush seals can have important effects on the overall turbine system that must be taken into account to assure reliable operation. Subscale rig tests are instrumental to understanding seal behavior under simulated steam-turbine operating conditions, prior to installing brush seals in the field. This presentation discusses the technical challenges of designing brush seals for steam turbines; subscale testing; performance benefits of brush seals; overall system effects; and field applications.

  10. Steam Turbine Materials and Corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, G.H.; Hsu, D.H.

    2008-07-01

    Ultra-supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760 °C. In prior years this project examined the steamside oxidation of alloys for use in high- and intermediate-pressure USC turbines. This steamside oxidation research is continuing and progress is presented, with emphasis on chromia evaporation.

  11. Steam turbine materials and corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, G.R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

    2007-01-01

    Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on applications in high- and intermediate-pressure turbines. The list of alloys being examined is discussed, including the addition of new alloys to the study. These include alloy 625, selected because of its use as one of the two alloys used for turbine rotors, valves, casings, blading and bolts in the European AD700 full-scale demonstration plant (Scholven Unit F). The other alloy, alloy 617, is already one of the alloys currently being examined by this project. Other new alloys to the study are the three round robin alloys in the UK-US collaboration: alloys 740, TP347HFG, and T92. Progress on the project is presented on cyclic oxidation in 50% air – 50% water vapor, furnace exposures in moist air, and thermogravimetric analysis in argon with oxygen saturated steam. An update on the progress towards obtaining an apparatus for high pressure exposures is given.

  12. Wet-steam erosion of steam turbine disks and shafts

    SciTech Connect

    Averkina, N. V.; Zheleznyak, I. V.; Kachuriner, Yu. Ya.; Nosovitskii, I. A.; Orlik, V. G.; Shishkin, V. I.

    2011-01-15

    A study of wet-steam erosion of the disks and the rotor bosses or housings of turbines in thermal and nuclear power plants shows that the rate of wear does not depend on the diagrammed degree of moisture, but is determined by moisture condensing on the surfaces of the diaphragms and steam inlet components. Renovating the diaphragm seals as an assembly with condensate removal provides a manifold reduction in the erosion.

  13. Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system

    DOEpatents

    Tomlinson, Leroy Omar; Smith, Raub Warfield

    2002-01-01

    In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

  14. Steam cooling system for a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Ian David; Barb, Kevin Joseph; Li, Ming Cheng; Hyde, Susan Marie; Mashey, Thomas Charles; Wesorick, Ronald Richard; Glynn, Christopher Charles; Hemsworth, Martin C.

    2002-01-01

    The steam cooling circuit for a gas turbine includes a bore tube assembly supplying steam to circumferentially spaced radial tubes coupled to supply elbows for transitioning the radial steam flow in an axial direction along steam supply tubes adjacent the rim of the rotor. The supply tubes supply steam to circumferentially spaced manifold segments located on the aft side of the 1-2 spacer for supplying steam to the buckets of the first and second stages. Spent return steam from these buckets flows to a plurality of circumferentially spaced return manifold segments disposed on the forward face of the 1-2 spacer. Crossover tubes couple the steam supply from the steam supply manifold segments through the 1-2 spacer to the buckets of the first stage. Crossover tubes through the 1-2 spacer also return steam from the buckets of the second stage to the return manifold segments. Axially extending return tubes convey spent cooling steam from the return manifold segments to radial tubes via return elbows.

  15. Steam turbine upgrading: low-hanging fruit

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, R.

    2006-04-15

    The thermodynamic performance of the steam turbine, more than any other plant component, determines overall plant efficiency. Upgrading steam path components and using computerized design tools and manufacturing techniques to minimise internal leaks are two ways to give tired steam turbines a new lease on life. The article presents three case studies that illustrate how to do that. These are at Unit 1 of Dairyland's J.P. Madgett Station in Alma, WI, a coal-fired subcritical steam plant; the four units at AmerenUE's 600 MW coal-fired Labadie plant west of St. Louis; and Unit 3 of KeyPlan Corp's Northport Power Station on Long Island. 8 figs.

  16. Oxidation of advanced steam turbine alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

    2006-03-01

    Advanced or ultra supercritical (USC) steam power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections.

  17. 23. STEAM PLANT TURBINE DECK FROM NORTH END OF BUILDING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. STEAM PLANT TURBINE DECK FROM NORTH END OF BUILDING, SHOWING FOURTH STEAM UNIT IN PLACE AT FAR SOUTH END. April 6, 1950 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. Rotor thermal stress monitoring in steam turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonín, Bouberle; Jan, Jakl; Jindřich, Liška

    2015-11-01

    One of the issues of steam turbines diagnostics is monitoring of rotor thermal stress that arises from nonuniform temperature field. The effort of steam turbine operator is to operate steam turbine in such conditions, that rotor thermal stress doesn't exceed the specified limits. If rotor thermal stress limits are exceeded for a long time during machine operation, the rotor fatigue life is shortened and this may lead to unexpected machine failure. Thermal stress plays important role during turbine cold startup, when occur the most significant differences of temperatures through rotor cross section. The temperature field can't be measured directly in the entire rotor cross section and standardly the temperature is measured by thermocouple mounted in stator part. From this reason method for numerical solution of partial differential equation of heat propagation through rotor cross section must be combined with method for calculation of temperature on rotor surface. In the first part of this article, the application of finite volume method for calculation of rotor thermal stress is described. The second part of article deals with optimal trend generation of thermal flux, that could be used for optimal machine loading.

  19. Materials for advanced ultrasupercritical steam turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Purgert, Robert; Shingledecker, John; Saha, Deepak; Thangirala, Mani; Booras, George; Powers, John; Riley, Colin; Hendrix, Howard

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have sponsored a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired power plants capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than the current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) steam conditions. A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction for boilers and for steam turbines. The overall project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760°C (1400°F)/35MPa (5000 psi). This final technical report covers the research completed by the General Electric Company (GE) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), with support from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) – Albany Research Center, to develop the A-USC steam turbine materials technology to meet the overall project goals. Specifically, this report summarizes the industrial scale-up and materials property database development for non-welded rotors (disc forgings), buckets (blades), bolting, castings (needed for casing and valve bodies), casting weld repair, and casting to pipe welding. Additionally, the report provides an engineering and economic assessment of an A-USC power plant without and with partial carbon capture and storage. This research project successfully demonstrated the materials technology at a sufficient scale and with corresponding materials property data to enable the design of an A-USC steam turbine. The key accomplishments included the development of a triple-melt and forged Haynes 282 disc for bolted rotor construction, long-term property development for Nimonic 105 for blading and bolting, successful scale-up of Haynes 282 and Nimonic 263 castings using

  20. Oxidation of alloys for advanced steam turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Alman, David E.

    2005-01-01

    Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections.

  1. Ultra supercritical turbines--steam oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Alman, David E.

    2004-01-01

    Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions, which are goals of the U.S. Department of Energy?s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives. Most current coal power plants in the U.S. operate at a maximum steam temperature of 538?C. However, new supercritical plants worldwide are being brought into service with steam temperatures of up to 620?C. Current Advanced Power Systems goals include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760?C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections. Initial results of this research are presented.

  2. Thermoelastic steam turbine rotor control based on neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rzadkowski, Romuald; Dominiczak, Krzysztof; Radulski, Wojciech; Szczepanik, R.

    2015-12-01

    Considered here are Nonlinear Auto-Regressive neural networks with eXogenous inputs (NARX) as a mathematical model of a steam turbine rotor for controlling steam turbine stress on-line. In order to obtain neural networks that locate critical stress and temperature points in the steam turbine during transient states, an FE rotor model was built. This model was used to train the neural networks on the basis of steam turbine transient operating data. The training included nonlinearity related to steam turbine expansion, heat exchange and rotor material properties during transients. Simultaneous neural networks are algorithms which can be implemented on PLC controllers. This allows for the application neural networks to control steam turbine stress in industrial power plants.

  3. 20. BASE OF STEAM TURBINE NO. 1 UNDER CONSTRUCTION, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. BASE OF STEAM TURBINE NO. 1 UNDER CONSTRUCTION, SHOWING WORTHINGTON CONDENSER IN PLACE. April 14, 1941 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  4. 11. Power room, view of Westinghouse steam turbine: turbine RPM6,000, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Power room, view of Westinghouse steam turbine: turbine RPM-6,000, governor RPM-1017, turbine number 8695, manufactured by Westinghouse Electric Manufacturing company, East Pittsburg, Pennsylvania - Norfolk Manufacturing Company Cotton Mill, 90 Milton Street, Dedham, Norfolk County, MA

  5. Acoustic-emission monitoring of steam turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, L. J.; Randall, R. L.; Hong, C.

    1982-04-01

    A method for the on-line detection of crack growth in steam turbine rotors based on acoustic emission (AE) monitoring is discussed. A systematic study involving a number of tasks was performed to evaluate the potential for the detection and correct identification of crack growth AE signals during various turbine operating conditions. These included acoustic wave propagation and attenuation measurements, background noise characterization, laboratory rotor material tests, monitoring equipment optimization, dynamic stress analysis of the rotor under transient operation and on-line source location and signal characterization. No crack growth was detected during the monitoring periods but there was sufficient information from the combined tasks to estimate the flaw growth detectability during different operating conditions if it occurs. The experience also suggests that AE monitoring can be useful for diagnosis of other turbine problems such as blade rubbing, out-of-balance condition, bearing deterioration, lubricating oil contamination and perhaps boiler exfoliation and blade erosion.

  6. Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system

    DOEpatents

    Viscovich, P.W.; Bannister, R.L.

    1995-07-11

    A gas turbine system is described in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas. 4 figs.

  7. Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system

    DOEpatents

    Viscovich, Paul W.; Bannister, Ronald L.

    1995-01-01

    A gas turbine system in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas.

  8. Flow studies in a wet steam turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. H.; Pouchot, W. D.

    1974-01-01

    The design and test results of a four stage wet vapor turbine operating with slightly superheated inlet steam and expanding to 10% exit moisture are presented. High speed movies at 3000 frames per second of liquid movement on the pressure side and along the trailing edge of the last stator blade are discussed along with back lighted photographs of moisture drops as they were torn from the stator blade trailing edge. Movies at lower framing rates were also taken of the exit of the last rotating blade and the casing moisture removal slot located in line with the rotor blade shroud. Also moisture removal data are presented of casing slot removal at the exit of the third and fourth rotor blades and for slots located in the trailing edge of the last stator blade. Finally, the degradation of turbine thermodynamic performance due to condensation formation and movement is discussed.

  9. 22. STEAM PLANT TURBINE DECK FROM SOUTH END OF BUILDING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. STEAM PLANT TURBINE DECK FROM SOUTH END OF BUILDING, SHOWING TOPS OF DIESEL ENGINES AT FAR NORTH END, PRIOR TO INSTALLATION OF STEAM UNIT NO. 4. Ca. 1948 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  10. K-65-12.8 condensing steam turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valamin, A. E.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Gol'dberg, A. A.; Sakhnin, Yu. A.; Bilan, V. N.; Stepanov, M. Yu.; Polyaeva, E. N.; Shekhter, M. V.; Shibaev, T. L.

    2016-11-01

    A new condensing steam turbine K-65-12.8 is considered, which is the continuation of the development of the steam turbine family of 50-70 MW and the fresh steam pressure of 12.8 MPa, such as twocylinder T-50-12.8 and T-60/65-12.8 turbines. The turbine was developed using the modular design. The design and the main distinctive features of the turbine are described, such as a single two-housing cylinder with the steam flow loop; the extraction from the blading section for the regeneration, the inner needs, and heating; and the unification of some assemblies of serial turbines with shorter time of manufacture. The turbine uses the throttling steam distribution; steam from a boiler is supplied to a turbine through a separate valve block consisting of a central shut-off valve and two side control valves. The blading section of a turbine consists of 23 stages: the left flow contains ten stages installed in the inner housing and the right flow contains 13 stages with diaphragm placed in holders installed in the outer housing. The disks of the first 16 stages are forged together with a rotor, and the disks of the rest stages are mounted. Before the two last stages, the uncontrolled steam extraction is performed for the heating of a plant with the heat output of 38-75 GJ/h. Also, a turbine has five regenerative extraction points for feed water heating and the additional steam extraction to a collector for the inner needs with the consumption of up to 10 t/h. The feasibility parameters of a turbine plant are given. The main solutions for the heat flow diagram and the layout of a turbine plant are presented. The main principles and features of the microprocessor electro hydraulic control and protection system are formulated.

  11. Features of steam turbine cooling by the example of an SKR-100 turbine for supercritical steam parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkadyev, B. A.

    2015-10-01

    Basic principles of cooling of high-temperature steam turbines and constructive solutions used for development of the world's first cooled steam turbine SKR-100 (R-100-300) are described. Principal differences between the thermodynamic properties of cooling medium in the steam and gas turbines and the preference of making flow passes of cooled cylinders of steam turbines as reactive are shown. Some of its operation results and their conclusions are given. This turbine with a power of 100 MW, initial steam parameters approximately 30 MPa and 650°C, and back pressure 3 MPa was made by a Kharkov turbine plant in 1961 and ran successfully at a Kashira GRES (state district power plant) up to 1979, when it was taken out of use in a still fully operating condition. For comparison, some data on construction features and operation results of the super-high pressure cylinder of steam turbines of American Philo 6 (made by General Electric Co.) and Eddystone 1 (made by Westinghouse Co.) power generating units, which are close to the SKR-100 turbine by design initial steam parameters and the implementation time, are given. The high operational reliability and effectiveness of the cooling system that was used in the super-high pressure cylinder of the SKR-100 turbine of the power-generating unit, which were demonstrated in operation, confirms rightfulness and expediency of principles and constructive solutions laid at its development. As process steam temperatures are increased, the realization of the proposed approach to cooling of multistage turbines makes it possible to limit for large turbine parts the application of new, more expensive high-temperature materials, which are required for making steam boilers, and, in some cases, to do completely away with their utilization.

  12. Steam turbine development for advanced combined cycle power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Oeynhausen, H.; Bergmann, D.; Balling, L.; Termuehlen, H.

    1996-12-31

    For advanced combined cycle power plants, the proper selection of steam turbine models is required to achieve optimal performance. The advancements in gas turbine technology must be followed by advances in the combined cycle steam turbine design. On the other hand, building low-cost gas turbines and steam turbines is desired which, however, can only be justified if no compromise is made in regard to their performance. The standard design concept of two-casing single-flow turbines seems to be the right choice for most of the present and future applications worldwide. Only for very specific applications it might be justified to select another design concept as a more suitable option.

  13. Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Steam Tip Fact Sheet No.21

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-01-01

    Steam turbines are well suited as prime movers for driving boiler feedwater pumps, forced or induced-draft fans, blowers, air compressors, and other rotating equipment. This service generally calls for a backpressure non-condensing steam turbine. The low-pressure steam turbine exhaust is available for feedwater heating, preheating of deaerator makeup water, and/or process requirements.

  14. Looking south at boiler feedwater pumps (steam turbine pump on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking south at boiler feedwater pumps (steam turbine pump on left, electric motor pump on right). - Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation, Allenport Works, Boiler House, Route 88 on West bank of Monongahela River, Allenport, Washington County, PA

  15. Steam turbine stress control using NARX neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominiczak, Krzysztof; Rzadkowski, Romuald; Radulski, Wojciech

    2015-11-01

    Considered here is concept of steam turbine stress control, which is based on Nonlinear AutoRegressive neural networks with eXogenous inputs. Using NARX neural networks,whichwere trained based on experimentally validated FE model allows to control stresses in protected thickwalled steam turbine element with FE model quality. Additionally NARX neural network, which were trained base on FE model, includes: nonlinearity of steam expansion in turbine steam path during transients, nonlinearity of heat exchange inside the turbine during transients and nonlinearity of material properties during transients. In this article NARX neural networks stress controls is shown as an example of HP rotor of 18K390 turbine. HP part thermodynamic model as well as heat exchange model in vicinity of HP rotor,whichwere used in FE model of the HP rotor and the HP rotor FE model itself were validated based on experimental data for real turbine transient events. In such a way it is ensured that NARX neural network behave as real HP rotor during steam turbine transient events.

  16. Closed circuit steam cooled turbine shroud and method for steam cooling turbine shroud

    DOEpatents

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian; Sexton, Brendan Francis; Kellock, Iain Robertson

    2002-01-01

    A turbine shroud cooling cavity is partitioned to define a plurality of cooling chambers for sequentially receiving cooling steam and impingement cooling of the radially inner wall of the shoud. An impingement baffle is provided in each cooling chamber for receiving the cooling media from a cooling media inlet in the case of the first chamber or from the immediately upstream chamber in the case of the second through fourth chambers and includes a plurality of impingement holes for effecting the impingement cooling of the shroud inner wall.

  17. Experimental investigation of the steam wetness in a 1000 MW steam turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolovratník, Michal; Bartoš, Ondřej

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the experimental data of the wetness distribution obtained in the year 2015 in front of and behind the last stage of the 1000MW steam turbine in the power plant Temelín. Two different optical probes developed at Czech Technical University were used. For the first time in the Czech Republic pneumatic and optical measurement of the wet steam flow field in front of the last stage of a nuclear power-station steam turbine was provided. This unique measurement opportunity provided lots of new information for the manufacturer and operator of the steam turbine and valuable experimental data for the phase transition modelling in the wet steam flow. The experimental measurement was done in cooperation with Doosan Škoda Power s.r.o.

  18. Compatibility of gas turbine materials with steam cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, V.; Tamboli, D.; Patel, Y.

    1995-12-31

    Objective is to investigate performance of gas turbine materials in steam environment and evaluate remedial measures for alleviating the severity of the problem. Three superalloys commonly used in gas turbines were exposed to 3 steam environments containing different impurity levels for 2 to 6 months. Results: Cr2O3-forming alloys containing 1-4% Al such as IN 738 are susceptible to heavy internal oxidation of Al. High Al (>5%) alloys in which continuous Al2O3 scale can be formed, may not be susceptible to such attack. Deposition of salts from steam will accentuate hot corrosion problems. Alloys with higher Cr content such as X-45 are generally less prone to hot corrosion. The greater damage observed in IN 617 make this alloy less attractive for gas turbines with steam cooling. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is a good nondestructive method to evaluate microstructural damage.

  19. Infrared applications for steam turbine condenser systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanius, Mark A.

    2000-03-01

    Infrared inspection of the main steam condensers at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station has been utilized successfully in detecting condenser air in-leakage problems. Air in-leakage lowers the condenser's vacuum, thus decreasing the condenser's efficiency. This creates backpressure on the turbine which lowers its efficiency, resulting in fewer megawatts generated. Air in-leakage also creates an increase in off-gas flow which is a radiological concern for both the plant and the public. Inspections are normally performed on the condenser's manway covers and rupture disks prior to an outage during coast down and post outage. The optimum conditions are 100% power and temperature, however, a high radiation field prevents the inspection until reactor power is down to 65% or less. Anomalies are typically indicated by cooling in the effected areas of the air in-leakage. The anomalies are not limited to air in-leakage. Intermittent water out-leakage, due to a heater dump valve cycling, has been detected when visual inspections field nothing.

  20. Modern geothermal power: GeoPP with geothermal steam turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    The first part of the review presents information on the scale and specific features of geothermal energy development in various countries. The classification of geothermal power plant (GeoPP) process flow diagrams by a phase state of the primary heat source (a geothermal fluid), thermodynamic cycle, and applicable turbines is proposed. Features of geothermal plants using methods of flashing and steam separation in the process loop and a flowsheet and thermodynamic process of a geothermal fluid heat-to-power conversion in a GeoPP of the most widespread type using a double-flash separation are considered. It is shown that, for combined cycle power units, the specific power-to-consumption geothermal fluid ratio is 20-25% higher than that for traditional single-loop GeoPP. Information about basic chemical components and their concentration range for geothermal fluids of various formations around the world is presented. Three historic stages of improving geothermal energy technologies are determined, such as development of high-temperature geothermal resources (dry, superheated steam) and application of a two-phase wet-steam geothermal fluid in GeoPP power units with one or two expansion pressures and development of binary cycle GeoPPs. A current trend of more active use of binary power plants in GeoPP technological processes is noted. Design features of GeoPP's steam turbines and steam separating devices, determined by the use of low-potential geothermal saturated steam as a working medium, which is characterized by corrosion aggressiveness and a tendency to form deposits, are considered. Most promising Russian geothermal energy projects are determined. A list of today's most advanced geothermal turbine performance technologies is presented. By an example of a 25 MW steam turbine design, made by JSC Kaluga Turbine Works, advantages of the internal moisture separation with a special turbine-separator stage are shown.

  1. Development of gas turbine steam injection water recovery (SIWR) system

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, H.B.; Otter, A. den )

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses a closed-loop'' steam injection water recovery (SIWR) cycle that was developed for steam-injected gas turbine applications. This process is needed to support gas turbine steam injection especially in areas where water cannot be wasted and complex water treatment is discouraged. The development of the SIWR was initiated by NOVA in an effort to reduce the environmental impact of operating gas turbines and to find suitable solution for its expanding gas transmission system to meet further air emission restrictions. While turbine steam injection provides many benefits, it has not been considered for remote, less supported environments such as gas transmission applications due to its high water consumption. The SIWR process can alleviate this problem regardless of the amount of injection required. The paper also covers conceptual designs of a prototype SIWR system on a small gas turbine unit. However, because of relatively high costs, it is generally believed that the system is more attractive to larger size turbines and especially when it is used in conjunction with cogeneration or combined cycle applications.

  2. Rotating diffuser for pressure recovery in a steam cooling circuit of a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Eldrid, Sacheverel Q.; Salamah, Samir A.; DeStefano, Thomas Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The buckets of a gas turbine are steam-cooled via a bore tube assembly having concentric supply and spent cooling steam return passages rotating with the rotor. A diffuser is provided in the return passage to reduce the pressure drop. In a combined cycle system, the spent return cooling steam with reduced pressure drop is combined with reheat steam from a heat recovery steam generator for flow to the intermediate pressure turbine. The exhaust steam from the high pressure turbine of the combined cycle unit supplies cooling steam to the supply conduit of the gas turbine.

  3. Alloys for advanced steam turbines--Oxidation behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, G.R.

    2007-10-01

    Advanced or ultra supercritical (USC) steam power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. Current research on the oxidation of candidate materials for advanced steam turbines is presented with a focus on a methodology for estimating chromium evaporation rates from protective chromia scales. The high velocities and pressures of advanced steam turbines lead to evaporation predictions as high as 5 × 10-8 kg m-2s-1 of CrO2(OH)2(g) at 760°C and 34.5 MPa. This is equivalent to 0.077 mm per year of solid Cr loss.

  4. A model for liquid film in steam turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Amelie; Marcelet, Meryem; Herard, Jean-Marc; Dorey, Jean-Marc; Lance, Michel

    2015-11-01

    Wetness in steam turbines induces losses and erosion. Drops are created due to the fast expansion of the steam (homogeneous nucleation) and the impurities in the steam (heterogeneous nucleation). The droplets grow and some among them settle on the blade leading to a thin liquid film. This film may then be atomized into coarse water drops which crash on the following blades. The liquid film configuration is a thin film on a curved surface, created by the drop deposit and under high steam friction. In steam turbines, the liquid film is subject to high rotational effect (rotor) and/or to negative gravity. Moreover, due to interfacial instabilities, some drops are torn off from the film. The retained approach is an integral formulation of the Navier-Stokes equation (or shallow water equation) with specific terms. The derivation of these equations requires some closure laws for the convection contributions, the Coriolis terms and for terms related to the additional mass coming from the drops deposit. Once chosen, mathematical and mechanical analyses are performed (hyperbolicity, entropy, galilean and rotational invariance). A two-dimensional code has been developed based on finite volume method to simulate numerically this liquid film model for steam turbines.

  5. Steam as turbine blade coolant: Experimental data generation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmsen, B.; Engeda, A.; Lloyd, J.R.

    1995-10-01

    Steam as a coolant is a possible option to cool blades in high temperature gas turbines. However, to quantify steam as a coolant, there exists practically no experimental data. This work deals with an attempt to generate such data and with the design of an experimental setup used for the purpose. Initially, in order to guide the direction of experiments, a preliminary theoretical and empirical prediction of the expected experimental data is performed and is presented here. This initial analysis also compares the coolant properties of steam and air.

  6. Power Plants, Steam and Gas Turbines WebQuest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulloa, Carlos; Rey, Guillermo D.; Sánchez, Ángel; Cancela, Ángeles

    2012-01-01

    A WebQuest is an Internet-based and inquiry-oriented learning activity. The aim of this work is to outline the creation of a WebQuest entitled "Power Generation Plants: Steam and Gas Turbines." This is one of the topics covered in the course "Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer," which is offered in the second year of Mechanical…

  7. 13. VIEW OF WESTINGHOUSE STEAM TURBINE. 1500 kilowatt (max kw ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF WESTINGHOUSE STEAM TURBINE. 1500 kilowatt (max kw 1875). AC Westinghouse generator (1875 KVA, 2400 volts, 450 amps, 3 phase, 60 cycles). - Juniata Shops, Power Plant & Boiler House, East of Fourth Avenue at Second Street, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  8. Recent Life Assessment Technology for Existing Steam Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Kiyoshi; Sakuma, Akira; Fukuda, Masataka

    A large and growing portion of electricity is produced by aging thermal power plants. Although excellent, high quality materials such as CrMoV steel and 12% Cr steel, etc. are used for the steam turbines, various forms of metallurgical degradation, due to creep and fatigue, etc. affect the parts and components during long-term operation at high temperature. Extending the life of steam turbines and ensuring high reliability requires life assessment technology, scheduled repairing, conversion, modification and upgrading of components in order to provide a stable power supply. As the high temperature parts and components of aged steam turbines are mainly metallurgically damaged by creep, fatigue and the interaction of both, life assessment combined with analytical and nondestructive methods is essential for realizing strategic plant life extension. We have developed a life assessment technology that takes material degradation into consideration, and have applied the procedure to more than 650 units and 2500 components since 1983. A rotor bore replication device was developed in 1989 for the purpose of nondestructive observation of creep voids and supporting the validity of life prediction results. This paper describes the technical features and applied experience of recent life assessment technology for existing high temperature steam turbines.

  9. Design with constructal theory: Steam generators, turbines and heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong Sung

    This dissertation shows that the architecture of steam generators, steam turbines and heat exchangers for power plants can be predicted on the basis of the constructal law. According to constructal theory, the flow architecture emerges such that it provides progressively greater access to its currents. Each chapter shows how constructal theory guides the generation of designs in pursuit of higher performance. Chapter two shows the tube diameters, the number of riser tubes, the water circulation rate and the rate of steam production are determined by maximizing the heat transfer rate from hot gases to riser tubes and minimizing the global flow resistance under the fixed volume constraint. Chapter three shows how the optimal spacing between adjacent tubes, the number of tubes for the downcomer and the riser and the location of the flow reversal for the continuous steam generator are determined by the intersection of asymptotes method, and by minimizing the flow resistance under the fixed volume constraints. Chapter four shows that the mass inventory for steam turbines can be distributed between high pressure and low pressure turbines such that the global performance of the power plant is maximal under the total mass constraint. Chapter five presents the more general configuration of a two-stream heat exchanger with forced convection of the hot side and natural circulation on the cold side. Chapter six demonstrates that segmenting a tube with condensation on the outer surface leads to a smaller thermal resistance, and generates design criteria for the performance of multi-tube designs.

  10. Development of a Highly Loaded Rotor Blade for Steam Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segawa, Kiyoshi; Shikano, Yoshio; Tsubouchi, Kuniyoshi; Shibashita, Naoaki

    Turbine manufacturers have been concerned about efficient utilization of limited energy resources and prevention of environmental pollution. For steam turbine power plants, a higher efficiency gain is necessary to reduce the fuel consumption rate. Blade configurations have been studied for reductions of profile loss and endwall loss that lead to decreased steam turbine internal efficiency, by applying recent aerodynamic technologies based on advanced numerical analysis methods. This paper discusses increase of pitch-chord ratio by 14% (reduction of rotor blade numbers by 14%) and increased blade aerodynamic loading without deterioration of performance. A new rotor cascade is found which improves blade performance, especially at the root section where the reduction in the energy loss coefficient is about 40%. This rotor blade also provides lower manufacturing cost.

  11. Analysis of experimental characteristics of multistage steam-jet electors of steam turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronson, K. E.; Ryabchikov, A. Yu.; Brodov, Yu. M.; Brezgin, D. V.; Zhelonkin, N. V.; Murmanskii, I. B.

    2017-02-01

    A series of questions for specification of physical gas dynamics model in flow range of steam-jet unit and ejector computation methodology, as well as functioning peculiarities of intercoolers, was formulated based on analysis of experimental characteristics of multistage team-jet steam turbines. It was established that coefficient defining position of critical cross-section of injected flow depends on characteristics of the "sound tube" zone. Speed of injected flow within this tube may exceed that of sound, and pressure jumps in work-steam decrease at the same time. Characteristics of the "sound tube" define optimal axial sizes of the ejector. According to measurement results, the part of steam condensing in the first-stage coolant constitutes 70-80% of steam amount supplied into coolant and is almost independent of air content in steam. Coolant efficiency depends on steam pressure defined by operation of steam-jet unit of ejector of the next stage after coolant of steam-jet stage, temperature, and condensing water flow. As a rule, steam entering content of steam-air mixture supplied to coolant is overheated with respect to saturation temperature of steam in the mixture. This should be taken into account during coolant computation. Long-term operation causes changes in roughness of walls of the ejector's mixing chamber. The influence of change of wall roughness on ejector characteristic is similar to the influence of reverse pressure of the steam-jet stage. Until some roughness value, injection coefficient of the ejector stage operating in superlimiting regime hardly changed. After reaching critical roughness, the ejector switches to prelimiting operating regime.

  12. Cast Alloys for Advanced Ultra Supercritical Steam Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    G. R. Holcomb, P. Wang, P. D. Jablonski, and J. A. Hawk,

    2010-05-01

    The proposed steam inlet temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A-USC) steam turbine is high enough (760 °C) that traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferritic/martensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Cast versions of several traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantial: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 cm thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equivalent microstructures. A multi-step homogenization heat treatment was developed to better deploy the alloy constituents. The most successful of these cast alloys in terms of creep strength (Haynes 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (at 760 and 800 °C).

  13. Gas turbine row #1 steam cooled vane

    DOEpatents

    Cunha, Frank J.

    2000-01-01

    A design for a vane segment having a closed-loop steam cooling system is provided. The vane segment comprises an outer shroud, an inner shroud and an airfoil, each component having a target surface on the inside surface of its walls. A plurality of rectangular waffle structures are provided on the target surface to enhance heat transfer between each component and cooling steam. Channel systems are provided in the shrouds to improve the flow of steam through the shrouds. Insert legs located in cavities in the airfoil are also provided. Each insert leg comprises outer channels located on a perimeter of the leg, each outer channel having an outer wall and impingement holes on the outer wall for producing impingement jets of cooling steam to contact the airfoil's target surface. Each insert leg further comprises a plurality of substantially rectangular-shaped ribs located on the outer wall and a plurality of openings located between outer channels of the leg to minimize cross flow degradation.

  14. Thermodynamic wetness loss calculation in a steam turbine rotor tip section: nucleating steam flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Joby; Sathyanarayanan, S.; K, Vigney; Prasad, B. V. S. SS; Biswas, D.; Jimbo, T.

    2016-09-01

    Rapid expansion of steam in the last stages of a steam turbine causes condensation. The formation of liquid droplets due to condensation results in wetness losses, which include aerodynamic losses (due to friction between liquid droplets and the vapour), thermodynamic losses (due to irreversible heat addition), and braking losses (due to the impact of liquid droplets on the blade). The thermodynamic loss contributes up to 80% to the wetness losses when the diameter of the droplets formed is less than 1 μm. In this study, the thermodynamic loss in a two-dimensional steam turbine rotor tip section is numerically investigated for various operating and off-design conditions. A pressure based, Eulerian-Eulerian approach is used to model the non-equilibrium condensation process. The entropy change due to condensation is used to compute the thermodynamic losses.

  15. Bore tube assembly for steam cooling a turbine rotor

    DOEpatents

    DeStefano, Thomas Daniel; Wilson, Ian David

    2002-01-01

    An axial bore tube assembly for a turbine is provided to supply cooling steam to hot gas components of the turbine wheels and return the spent cooling steam. A pair of inner and outer tubes define a steam supply passage concentric about an inner return passage. The forward ends of the tubes communicate with an end cap assembly having sets of peripheral holes communicating with first and second sets of radial tubes whereby cooling steam from the concentric passage is supplied through the end cap holes to radial tubes for cooling the buckets and return steam from the buckets is provided through the second set of radial tubes through a second set of openings of the end cap into the coaxial return passage. A radial-to-axial flow transitioning device, including anti-swirling vanes is provided in the end cap. A strut ring adjacent the aft end of the bore tube assembly permits axial and radial thermal expansion of the inner tube relative to the outer tube.

  16. Open-Cycle Gas Turbine/Steam Turbine Combined Cycles with synthetic fuels from coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, R. P.; Corman, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    The Open-Cycle Gas Turbine/Steam Turbine Combined Cycle can be an effective energy conversion system for converting coal to electricity. The intermediate step in this energy conversion process is to convert the coal into a fuel acceptable to a gas turbine. This can be accomplished by producing a synthetic gas or liquid, and by removing, in the fuel conversion step, the elements in the fuel that would be harmful to the environment if combusted. In this paper, two open-cycle gas turbine combined systems are evaluated: one employing an integrated low-Btu gasifier, and one utilizing a semi-clean liquid fuel. A consistent technical/economic information base is developed for these two systems, and is compared with a reference steam plant burning coal directly in a conventional furnace.

  17. Cogeneration turbine unit with a new T-295/335-23.5 steam turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valamin, A. E.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Shibaev, T. L.; Gol'dberg, A. A.; Sakhnin, Yu. A.; Stepanov, M. Yu.; Shekhter, M. V.; Bilan, V. N.; Polyaeva, E. N.

    2016-11-01

    The design, schematics, and arrangement of a T-295/335-23.5 turbine and the basic features of a steam-turbine unit (STU) intended for replacement of STUs with a T-250/300-23.5 turbine with the expired service life and installed in large cities, such as Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kiev, Minsk, and Kharkov, for heat and power generation are considered. The basic solutions for an automatic electrohydraulic control and protection system using high-pressure (HP) technology are described. As the turbine operates in a power unit together with a supercritical boiler and the design turbine service life of 250000 hours must be attained, turbine component construction materials complying with these requirements are listed.

  18. Fever of undetermined etiology after cleaning of steam turbine condensers.

    PubMed

    Deubner, D C; Gilliam, D K

    1977-01-01

    Two outbreaks of a febrile syndrome marked by chills, headaches, myalgia, nausea, and malaise occurred in workers who had cleaned the steam condensers of electric power turbines. Mean incubation period was 38 hours. Twenty-two of twenty-three exposed men became ill. Clinical and environmental investigation failed to reveal the etiology of the outbreaks. The circumstances and clinical syndrome have points of similarity to fever following inhalation of metal fumes and low-grade, stained cotton dust, and to Pontiac fever.

  19. Compatibility of gas turbine materials with steam cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, V.; Tamboli, D.; Patel, Y.

    1995-10-01

    Gas turbines had been traditionally used for peak load plants and remote locations as they offer advantage of low installation costs and quick start up time. Their use as a base load generator had not been feasible owing to their poor efficiency. However, with the advent of gas turbines based combined cycle plants (CCPs), continued advances in efficiency are being made. Coupled with ultra low NO{sub x} emissions, coal compatibility and higher unit output, gas turbines are now competing with conventional power plants for base load power generation. Currently, the turbines are designed with TIT of 2300{degrees}F and metal temperatures are maintained around 1700{degrees}F by using air cooling. New higher efficiency ATS turbines will have TIT as high as 2700{degrees}F. To withstand this high temperature improved materials, coatings, and advances in cooling system and design are warranted. Development of advanced materials with better capabilities specifically for land base applications are time consuming and may not be available by ATS time frame or may prove costly for the first generation ATS gas turbines. Therefore improvement in the cooling system of hot components, which can take place in a relatively shorter time frame, is important. One way to improve cooling efficiency is to use better cooling agent. Steam as an alternate cooling agent offers attractive advantages because of its higher specific heat (almost twice that of air) and lower viscosity.

  20. Heat flow diagrams with and without a deaerator for steam turbine plants with T-250/300-23.5 turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valamin, A. E.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Shibaev, T. L.; Gol'dberg, A. A.; Stepanov, M. Yu.

    2016-11-01

    A T-250/300-240 turbine (currently known as T-250/300-23.5), which is operated at 31 steam turbine plants, is the largest in the world extraction turbine (by the heating extraction load) and one of the largest by the nominal capacity. All steam turbine plants equipped with T-250/300-23.5 turbines of different modifications are operated in large cities of Russia and the neighboring countries covering a significant part of the needs of cities for the electric power and almost fully supplying them with heat power. The design life of a significant part of the operated steam turbine plants of this family is either expired or almost expired. It refers to both the turbine unit (including a turbine and a generator) and the turbine plant equipment. For steam turbine plants equipped with T-250/300-23.5 turbines, which were initially designed and mounted for work with deaerators at electric power stations, the heat flow diagrams with and without a deaerator were compared. The main advantages and disadvantages of each scheme were shown. It was concluded that, for the newly constructed power units with supercritical steam parameters, it is preferable to use the heat flow diagram without a deaerator; for the upgraded blocks, if there are no objective reasons for the removal of a deaerator, it is recommended to keep the existing heat flow diagram of a turbine plant.

  1. Steam turbines produced by the Ural Turbine Works for combined-cycle plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valamin, A. E.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Shibaev, T. L.; Gol'dberg, A. A.; Bilan, V. N.; Paneque Aguilera, H. C.; Sakhnin, Yu. A.; Shekhter, M. V.; Stepanov, M. Yu.; Polyaeva, E. N.

    2013-08-01

    The most interesting and innovative solutions adopted in the projects of steam turbines for combined-cycle plants with capacities from 115 to 900 MW are pointed out. The development of some ideas and components from the first projects to subsequent ones is shown.

  2. Steam sterilization of air turbine dental handpieces.

    PubMed

    Edwardsson, S; Svensäter, G; Birkhed, D

    1983-12-01

    The efficacy of autoclaving high-speed dental handpieces was tested in two types of downward displacement steam sterilizers (instrument autoclaves), commonly used in the dentist's office. Eight series of experiments were performed with various sterilization schedules. Lubrication oils with or without antimicrobial agent were used in four of the series. Each handpiece was inoculated with 1 ml of a suspension containing equal amounts of saliva and spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus (approx. 10(6) spores/ml). Neither sterilization at 120-124 degrees C for 20 min nor at 134-136 degrees C for 10 min resulted in complete inactivation of the spores in series in which the instruments were tested without oil or with oil containing no antimicrobial agent. However, when the handpieces were lubricated with oil containing isopropanol and formaldehyde and the schedule 134-136 degrees C/10 min was used, no growth was observed. The results indicate that instrument autoclaves with built-in programs of 120-124 degrees C/20 min and 134-136 degrees C/10 min could have insufficient capacity to sterilize lubricated or unlubricated dental handpieces. The use of oils containing an antimicrobial agent can overcome this problem.

  3. New ferritic steels increase the thermal efficiency of steam turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, K.H.; Bakker, W.T.

    1996-12-31

    The further development of ferritic high-temperature-resistant 9--11%Cr steels has paved the way for fossil-fired power stations to be operated at turbine steam inlet temperatures of up to around 600 C and high supercritical steam pressures with a distinct improvement in thermal efficiency, a significant contribution towards reducing the environmental impact of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} emissions and to a more economical utilization of fossil fuels. Advances in the development of these steels are primarily attributable to joint research projects undertaken by the manufacturers and operators of power stations in Japan (EPDC), in the USA (EPRI) and in Europe (COST 501). The report gives details on the results achieved under EPRI Research Project RP 140 3-15/23 on the creep behavior of modified 9%CrMo cast steel used in the manufacture of steam turbines for coal-fired power plants. The modified 9%CrMo cast steel also offers great benefits as regards improving the useful life and thermal efficiency of existing power plants.

  4. Numerical investigation of vibration in a steam turbine control valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Luke Michael

    A numerical analysis is performed at North Dakota State University to investigate and resolve steam inlet control valve vibration in a Minnkota Power Cooperative turbine. Pressure fluctuations resulting from an unstable flow pattern are found to cause vibration. Multiple valve disc and seat design modifications to stabilize the flow are made and tested. The full scale geometry is used with steam as the working material. Both steady-state and transient analyses are completed. Analytical calculations are used for verification. Investigation of all modifications is discussed. Results from the original valve configuration show vortex shedding off of the disc. A currently installed cutoff disc has not removed flow-induced vibration. Flow expansion generates unstable flow, creating an unsteady separation bubble on the valve seat at the throat exit. Changing the throat from a converging-diverging to a purely converging nozzle stabilizes the flow, removing the flow-induced pressure forces causing disc vibration.

  5. The cogeneration steam turbine of the Tp-35/40-8.8 type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valamin, A. Ye.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Goldberg, A. A.; Sakhnin, Yu. A.; Shekhter, M. V.; Paneque Aguilera, H. C.; Stepanov, M. Yu.; Shibaev, T. L.

    2012-12-01

    The main performance characteristics of the turbine, descriptions of the electrohydraulic control and protection system (EHCPS), the heat flow diagram, arrangement decisions, and motivation for selecting them, are given. The steam turbine presented by the Ural Turbine Works (UTW) is intended for replacing the VPT-25 turbine the service life of which has already expired at the Novokuybyshevsk CHP plant. The mixed-pressure turbine will operate in combination of the double-circuit heat recovery boiler (HRB) in a parallel scheme. High-pressure (HP) steam will be supplied from the main steam header to which high-pressure steam from the power boilers and the HRB will be fed, while low-pressure (LP) steam will be supplied directly from the HRB. For the turbine, nozzle steam distribution and the two-row control stage are adopted. The turbine has a process steam extraction line with its stop and control valve and heating steam extraction line leading to the main steam collector.

  6. Arabelle: The most powerful steam turbine in the world

    SciTech Connect

    Lamarque, F.; Deloroix, V.

    1998-07-01

    On the 30th of August 1996 at the CHOOZ power station in the Ardennes, the first 1,500 MW turbine was started up under nuclear steam and connected to the grid. It will reach full power in the spring of 1997, followed shortly afterwards by a second identical machine. This turbine, known as ARABELLE, is currently the most powerful in the world, with a single line rotating at 1,500 rpm. It has been entirely designed, manufactured and installed by the teams of GEC ALSTHOM, within the framework of the Electricite de France N4 PWR program. It represents a new type of nuclear turbine, the fruit of much research and development work which started in the 1980s. It benefits from GEC ALSTHOM's considerable experience in the field of nuclear turbines: 143 machines with a total power output of 100,000 MW and more than ten million hours of operation. It should be remembered that the first 1,000 MW unit for a PWR plant was connected at Fessenheim in 1977, and since then the different EDF plants have been equipped with 58 GEC ALSTHOM turbines, ranging from 1,000 MW to 1,350 MW, this providing the company with a vast amount of information. The process which led to a new design for ARABELLE was based on: Feedback of service experience from previous machines; this provides precious learning material with a view to improving the performance of operating equipment. Research and development work resulting in significant technical advances which could then be integrated into the design of a new generation of turbines. Taking account of the major concerns of the customer-user: Electricite de France (EDF): Improved reliability and operating availability, increased efficiency, reduced investment and maintenance costs.

  7. Thermosyphon Method for Cooling the Rotor Blades of High-Temperature Steam Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomolov, Alexander R.; Temnikova, Elena Yu.

    2016-02-01

    The design scheme of closed two-phase thermosyphon were suggested that can provide standard thermal operation of blades of high-temperature steam turbine. The method for thermosyphon calculation is developed. The example of thermal calculation was implemented, it showed that to cool the steam turbine blades at their heating by high-temperature steam, the heat can be removed in the rear part of the blades by air with the temperature of about 440°C.

  8. Next Generation Engineered Materials for Ultra Supercritical Steam Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Arrell

    2006-05-31

    To reduce the effect of global warming on our climate, the levels of CO{sub 2} emissions should be reduced. One way to do this is to increase the efficiency of electricity production from fossil fuels. This will in turn reduce the amount of CO{sub 2} emissions for a given power output. Using US practice for efficiency calculations, then a move from a typical US plant running at 37% efficiency to a 760 C /38.5 MPa (1400 F/5580 psi) plant running at 48% efficiency would reduce CO2 emissions by 170kg/MW.hr or 25%. This report presents a literature review and roadmap for the materials development required to produce a 760 C (1400 F) / 38.5MPa (5580 psi) steam turbine without use of cooling steam to reduce the material temperature. The report reviews the materials solutions available for operation in components exposed to temperatures in the range of 600 to 760 C, i.e. above the current range of operating conditions for today's turbines. A roadmap of the timescale and approximate cost for carrying out the required development is also included. The nano-structured austenitic alloy CF8C+ was investigated during the program, and the mechanical behavior of this alloy is presented and discussed as an illustration of the potential benefits available from nano-control of the material structure.

  9. Steam Turbine Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, R.; Hawk, J.; Schwant, R.; Saha, D.; Totemeier, T.; Goodstine, S.; McNally, M.; Allen, D. B.; Purgert, Robert

    2009-06-30

    The Ultrasupercritical (USC) Steam Turbine Materials Development Program is sponsored and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Ohio Coal Development Office, through grants to Energy Industries of Ohio (EIO), a non-profit organization contracted to manage and direct the project. The program is co-funded by the General Electric Company, Alstom Power, Siemens Power Generation (formerly Siemens Westinghouse), and the Electric Power Research Institute, each organization having subcontracted with EIO and contributing teams of personnel to perform the requisite research. The program is focused on identifying, evaluating, and qualifying advanced alloys for utilization in coal-fired power plants that need to withstand steam turbine operating conditions up to 760°C (1400°F) and 35 MPa (5000 psi). For these conditions, components exposed to the highest temperatures and stresses will need to be constructed from nickel-based alloys with higher elevated temperature strength than the highchromium ferritic steels currently used in today's high-temperature steam turbines. In addition to the strength requirements, these alloys must also be weldable and resistant to environmental effects such as steam oxidation and solid particle erosion. In the present project, candidate materials with the required creep strength at desired temperatures have been identified. Coatings that can resist oxidation and solid particle erosion have also been identified. The ability to perform dissimilar welds between nickel base alloys and ferritic steels have been demonstrated, and the properties of the welds have been evaluated. Results of this three-year study that was completed in 2009 are described in this final report. Additional work is being planned and will commence in 2009. The specific objectives of the future studies will include conducting more detailed evaluations of the weld-ability, mechanical properties and repair-ability of the selected candidate alloys for rotors, casings

  10. Steam Oxidation and Chromia Evaporation in Ultra-Supercritical Steam Boilers and Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon H. Holcomb

    2009-01-01

    U.S. Department of Energy’s goals include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 °C and 340 atm, so-called ultra-supercritical (USC) conditions. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is expected to be a primary corrosion mechanism. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales was developed and combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles and to predict the time until breakaway oxidation. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was predicted to be quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. Alloy additions such as Ti may allow for a reduction in evaporation rate with time, mitigating the deleterious effects of chromia evaporation.

  11. Microfabricated rankine cycle steam turbine for power generation and methods of making the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frechette, Luc (Inventor); Muller, Norbert (Inventor); Lee, Changgu (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention, an integrated micro steam turbine power plant on-a-chip has been provided. The integrated micro steam turbine power plant on-a-chip of the present invention comprises a miniature electric power generation system fabricated using silicon microfabrication technology and lithographic patterning. The present invention converts heat to electricity by implementing a thermodynamic power cycle on a chip. The steam turbine power plant on-a-chip generally comprises a turbine, a pump, an electric generator, an evaporator, and a condenser. The turbine is formed by a rotatable, disk-shaped rotor having a plurality of rotor blades disposed thereon and a plurality of stator blades. The plurality of stator blades are interdigitated with the plurality of rotor blades to form the turbine. The generator is driven by the turbine and converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.

  12. Effect of Gas/Steam Turbine Inlet Temperatures on Combined Cycle Having Air Transpiration Cooled Gas Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Singh, O.

    2012-10-01

    Worldwide efforts are being made for further improving the gas/steam combined cycle performance by having better blade cooling technology in topping cycle and enhanced heat recovery in bottoming cycle. The scope of improvement is possible through turbines having higher turbine inlet temperatures (TITs) of both gas turbine and steam turbine. Literature review shows that a combined cycle with transpiration cooled gas turbine has not been analyzed with varying gas/steam TITs. In view of above the present study has been undertaken for thermodynamic study of gas/steam combined cycle with respect to variation in TIT in both topping and bottoming cycles, for air transpiration cooled gas turbine. The performance of combined cycle with dual pressure heat recovery steam generator has been evaluated for different cycle pressure ratios (CPRs) varying from 11 to 23 and the selection diagrams presented for TIT varying from 1,600 to 1,900 K. Both the cycle efficiency and specific work increase with TIT for each pressure ratio. For each TIT there exists an optimum pressure ratio for cycle efficiency and specific work. For the CPR of 23 the best cycle performance is seen at a TIT of 1,900 K for maximum steam temperature of 570 °C, which gives the cycle efficiency of 60.9 % with net specific work of 909 kJ/kg.

  13. An outbreak of acute fever among steam turbine condenser cleaners.

    PubMed

    Lauderdale, J F; Johnson, C C

    1983-03-01

    Ten of twelve men who participated in the cleaning of an electric power steam turbine condenser clogged with freshwater sponge experienced an acute febrile illness. Two similar outbreaks have been previously described, one of which has been attributed to the Legionnaires' Disease bacterium. Epidemiologic studies of this case showed a syndrome very similar to the two previously reported episodes. However, the exact etiology for this outbreak has not been identified. Environmental sampling was not initiated until after the cleaning was completed. Subsequent testing did not reveal any likely cause for the outbreak. The delayed onset of symptoms and the nature of the illness pointed to an infectious agent. In the absence of any suitable criteria for employee exposure evaluation, it is suggested that crews cleaning condensers under unusually dirty conditions, especially if eye or respiratory symptoms are reported, should be provided with respiratory protection.

  14. An outbreak of acute fever among steam turbine condenser cleaners

    SciTech Connect

    Lauderdale, J.F.; Johnson, C.C.

    1983-01-01

    Ten of twelve men who participated in the cleaning of an electric power steam turbine condenser clogged with freshwater sponge experienced an acute febrile illness. Two similar outbreaks have been previously described, one of which has been attributed to the Legionnaires Disease bacterium. Epidemiologic studies of this case showed a syndrome very similar to the two previously reported episodes. However, the exact etiology for this outbreak has not been identified. Environmental sampling was not initiated until after the cleaning was completed. Subsequent testing did not reveal any likely cause for the outbreak. The delayed onset of symptoms and the nature of the illness pointed to an infectious agent. In the absence of any suitable criteria for employee exposure evaluation, it is suggested that crews cleaning condensers under unusually dirty conditions, especially if eye or respiratory symptoms are reported, should be provided with respiratory protection.

  15. A new steel for single cylinder steam turbine rotors

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, M.; Tsuda, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Ikeda, Y.

    1996-12-31

    A new steel, 2.25%Cr1.7%NiMoVNbW steel has been developed for the high pressure (HP)-low pressure (LP) single cylinder steam turbine rotor in combined power plants and medium/small rating thermal power plants. This steel has good creep rupture strength equivalent to that of 1%CrMoV steel which has been used as HP rotor fogings and excellent toughness and proof stress considerably superior to the conventional HP-LP single cylinder rotor steels. This paper includes the following contents: The optimization of chemical composition and heat treatment condition; the production and evaluation of a 70 tons trial rotor forging by the application of VCD (Vacuum Carbon Deoxidation) process; the production and evaluation of a 43 tons trial ingot by the application of ESR (Electroslag Remelting) ingot process; and the production and evaluation of rotor forgings for the commercial power plant.

  16. Effect of thermal barrier coatings on the performance of steam and water-cooled gas turbine/steam turbine combined cycle system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nainiger, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical study was made of the performance of air, steam, and water-cooled gas-turbine/steam turbine combined-cycle systems with and without thermal-barrier coatings. For steam cooling, thermal barrier coatings permit an increase in the turbine inlet temperature from 1205 C (2200 F), resulting in an efficiency improvement of 1.9 percentage points. The maximum specific power improvement with thermal barriers is 32.4 percent, when the turbine inlet temperature is increased from 1425 C (2600 F) to 1675 C (3050 F) and the airfoil temperature is kept the same. For water cooling, the maximum efficiency improvement is 2.2 percentage points at a turbine inlet temperature of 1683 C (3062 F) and the maximum specific power improvement is 36.6 percent by increasing the turbine inlet temperature from 1425 C (2600 F) to 1730 C (3150 F) and keeping the airfoil temperatures the same. These improvements are greater than that obtained with combined cycles using air cooling at a turbine inlet temperature of 1205 C (2200 F). The large temperature differences across the thermal barriers at these high temperatures, however, indicate that thermal stresses may present obstacles to the use of coatings at high turbine inlet temperatures.

  17. The effort of the steam turbine caused by a flood wave load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badur, Janusz; Ziolkowski, Pawel; Kornet, Sebastian; Stajnke, Michal; Bryk, Mateusz; Banas, Kamil; Ziolkowski, Piotr

    2017-03-01

    Development of the Thermal-FSI (Fluid Solid Interaction) let to accurate the process of cooling the steam turbine set. It provide to shorter times of maintenance and repairs of the turbine sets. The cooling of the steam turbine which temperature exceeds 500°C can take time of one week. Insulation and housing is taken off when temperature reaches 100°C. In analysis was applied thermal-FSI which takes into account temperature changes between solid material and fluid. In the paper authors propose this way to estimate effort of the turbine structure caused by an intrusion of water into the flow channels.

  18. Assessment of steam-injected gas turbine systems and their potential application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stochl, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Results were arrived at by utilizing and expanding on information presented in the literature. The results were analyzed and compared with those for simple gas turbine and combined cycles for both utility power generation and industrial cogeneration applications. The efficiency and specific power of simple gas turbine cycles can be increased as much as 30 and 50 percent, respectively, by the injection of steam into the combustor. Steam-injected gas turbines appear to be economically competitive with both simple gas turbine and combined cycles for small, clean-fuel-fired utility power generation and industrial cogeneration applications. For large powerplants with integrated coal gasifiers, the economic advantages appear to be marginal.

  19. Experience gained with development of steam turbine projects with the use of standardized modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valamin, A. E.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Sakhnin, Yu. A.; Stepanov, M. Yu.

    2014-12-01

    The possibilities of decreasing the amount of work required for preparing manufacture of the equipment of gas-turbine, boiler, and steam-turbine units in the design and technological respects through the use of standardized components are pointed out. In parallel with this, a fewer number of design and technological errors is achieved, due to which better quality of the products is obtained. The need to develop a series of standard equipment sizes used in the composition of a combined-cycle power plant is considered. Examples of designing a steam turbine using well-elaborated and proven components together with new ones required according to the turbine operating conditions are given.

  20. Effect of steam addition on cycle performance of simple and recuperated gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented for the cycle efficiency and specific power of simple and recuperated gas turbine cycles in which steam is generated and used to increase turbine flow. Calculations showed significant improvements in cycle efficiency and specific power by adding steam. The calculations were made using component efficiencies and loss assumptions typical of stationary powerplants. These results are presented for a range of operating temperatures and pressures. Relative heat exchanger size and the water use rate are also examined.

  1. Experimental investigation on flow in diffuser of 1090 MW steam turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoznedl, Michal; Sedlák, Kamil; Mrózek, Lukáš; Bednář, Lukáš; Kalista, Robert

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with flow of wet water steam in diffuser of turbine engine 1090 MW on saturated water steam. Experimental measurements were done while the turbine was in operation for a wide range of outputs. Defining the outlet velocity from the last stage and with knowledge of static pressures on the diffuser outlet, it is possible to define the contribution of the diffuser to the whole low pressure part efficiency.

  2. Study of advanced radial outflow turbine for solar steam Rankine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, C.; Kolenc, T.

    1979-01-01

    The performance characteristics of various steam Rankine engine configurations for solar electric power generation were investigated. A radial outflow steam turbine was investigated to determine: (1) a method for predicting performance from experimental data; (2) the flexibility of a single design with regard to power output and pressure ratio; and (3) the effect of varying the number of turbine stages. All turbine designs were restricted to be compatible with commercially available gearboxes and generators. A study of several operating methods and control schemes for the steam Rankine engine shows that from an efficiency and control simplicity standpoint, the best approach is to hold turbine inlet temperature constant, vary turbine inlet pressure to match load, and allow condenser temperature to float maintaining constant heat rejection load.

  3. Evaluation of Rotordynamic Stability of a Steam Turbine Due to Labyrinth Seal Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Toshio; Sasaki, Takashi; Sakakida, Hitoshi; Uchida, Tatsuro; Tsutsui, Masaji; Ikeda, Kazunori

    This paper describes the evaluation of unstable vibration caused by the seal force, which is known as "Steam Whirl" in a steam turbine. Stability of a steam turbine is evaluated by complex eigenvalue analysis of rotordynamics model considering the dynamics of seals, rotor, bearings and pedestals. A commercial CFD program is employed to estimate the dynamic coefficients of labyrinth seal. The labyrinth seal of a large scales steam turbine is taken as an object of analysis and a 3D model with eccentric rotor is solved to obtain the rotordynamic force components. The rotordynamic force is derived by integrating the pressure on the rotor surface. Evaluation formula is formed from the results of numerical calculation, which is used to predict the dynamic coefficient of each seal in a steam turbine. Then rotordynamics model of total system including seal is constructed and stability is evaluated by complex eigenvalue analysis. This procedure is applied to the design of steam turbines and enables the optimization of the turbine structure considering the efficiency and stability.

  4. Methods for disassembling, replacing and assembling parts of a steam cooling system for a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Ian D.; Wesorick, Ronald R.

    2002-01-01

    The steam cooling circuit for a gas turbine includes a bore tube assembly supplying steam to circumferentially spaced radial tubes coupled to supply elbows for transitioning the radial steam flow in an axial direction along steam supply tubes adjacent the rim of the rotor. The supply tubes supply steam to circumferentially spaced manifold segments located on the aft side of the 1-2 spacer for supplying steam to the buckets of the first and second stages. Spent return steam from these buckets flows to a plurality of circumferentially spaced return manifold segments disposed on the forward face of the 1-2 spacer. Crossover tubes couple the steam supply from the steam supply manifold segments through the 1-2 spacer to the buckets of the first stage. Crossover tubes through the 1-2 spacer also return steam from the buckets of the second stage to the return manifold segments. Axially extending return tubes convey spent cooling steam from the return manifold segments to radial tubes via return elbows. The bore tube assembly, radial tubes, elbows, manifold segments and crossover tubes are removable from the turbine rotor and replaceable.

  5. A Computer Program for Simulating Transient Behavior in Steam Turbine Stage Pressure of AHWR

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Anu; Thangamani, I.; Chakraborty, G.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2006-07-01

    It is proposed to couple the Advanced Heavy water reactor (AHWR), which is being developed by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India, with a desalination plant. The objective of this coupling is to produce system make-up and domestic water. The proposed desalination plant needs about 1.9 kg/sec of steam and the minimum pressure requirement is 3 bars. The desalination plant can be fed with bled steam extracted from a suitable stage in low pressure turbine. As the turbine stage pressure changes with the load, it is essential to know the availability of bled steam at aforesaid pressure for various load condition. The objective of the present study is to identify a suitable extraction point so as to ensure availability of steam at desired condition for desalination plant, even at part load conditions. In order to fulfill the above objective a steam and feed system analysis code was developed which incorporates the mathematical formulation of different components of the steam and feed system such as, high pressure (HP) and low pressure (LP) turbines, re-heater, feed heaters etc. The dynamic equations are solved simultaneously to obtain the stage pressure at various load conditions. Based on the results obtained, the suitable extraction stage in LP turbine was selected. This enables to determine the lowest possible part load operation up to which availability of desalination plant could be ensured. (authors)

  6. The T-125/150-12.8 cogeneration steam turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valamin, A. E.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Gol'dberg, A. A.; Sakhnin, Yu. A.; Bilan, V. N.; Stepanov, M. Yu.; Polyaeva, E. N.; Shekhter, M. V.; Shibaev, T. L.

    2014-12-01

    The article presents the design, the economic indicators, and the main solutions on the thermal process circuit and layout of the T-125/150-12.8 turbine, a new design version of the T-100-12.8 turbine, which is one of the best known, unique and widely used cogeneration turbines in Russia and abroad. The project of the new turbine is supposed to be used both for renovating and upgrading already installed turbines of the T-100 family and for supplying it as a full set for replacing obsolete equipment or constructing new one.

  7. Analysis of unsteady flow forces acting on the thermowell in a steam turbine control stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badur, J.; Kornet, S.; Sławiński, D.; Ziółkowski, P.

    2016-10-01

    In the present paper the phenomenon of unsteady flow forces acting on the thermowell for measuring steam temperature in a steam turbine control stage has been presented. The non-stationarity of fluid acting on the thermowell such as: Strouhal frequency, pressure amplitude, pressure peaks, pressure field, velocity field etc. have been studied analytically and numerically. There have been examined two cases of flow with changing mass flow rate, pressure and temperature in the control stage chamber of a turbine high-pressure cylinder. The problem of entry into resonance by thermowell has been described in the ASME standard PTC19.3 TW-2010 with providing detailed guidelines for thermowell designs.

  8. The series of siemens SST-200 to SST-900 steam turbines in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasilov, V. F.

    2015-04-01

    The chronology of cooperation between the transnational German concern Siemens and Russia is given. The designs of the SST-200-SST-900 series of industrial steam turbines for electrical capacities ranging from 10 to 180 MW that were installed at thermal power plants and industrial facilities of Russia in the period 2004-2014 are reviewed. The design features of the SST-600 steam turbine used as part of the PGU-200 combined-cycle plant installed at the Southwest cogeneration station are considered.

  9. Environmental degradation and life time prediction of low alloy steam turbine rotor steels

    SciTech Connect

    Magdowski, R.; Speidel, M.O.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of stress intensity, yield strength and temperature on the growth rates of stress corrosion cracks in 3.5NiCrMoV and other steam turbine rotor steels has been reassessed. It is shown that from 60 C to 170 C the upper limit of laboratory test results in deaerated water coincides with the upper limit of stress corrosion service experience with steam turbine rotors in the field. This permits a conservative estimate of the residual lifetime of cracked components on the basis of laboratory test results.

  10. R and D for improved efficiency small steam turbines. Phase II. Second quarterly technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The detailed design of a radial inflow steam turbine (RIT) comprised of two radial inflow turbine stages driving a common bull gear/output shaft designed for rated speeds of 70,000 rpm and 52,500 rpm, respectively, is described. Details are presented on: aerodynamic design; high speed rotors; high speed rotor bearings; high speed rotor sealing; gearing; output shaft; static structure; and predicted performance. (MCW)

  11. Thermodynamic evaluation of the possibility to increase cogeneration turbine efficiency by using a heat pump operating with steam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batenin, V. M.; Datsenko, V. V.; Zeigarnik, Yu. A.; Kosoi, A. S.; Sinkevich, M. V.

    2016-01-01

    Cogeneration turbines operate in different operation modes that considerably differ as to the working process conditions. In summer time, when heat demand is minimal, almost all steam flow passes through all turbine stages and enters into the condenser (condensing mode of operation). When heat supply is needed, the steam bleed-offs are used. The several last stages of the turbine (low-pressure part—LPP) have a control diaphragm at the inlet. When the heat supply is large, the diaphragm is maximally closed, and the entire steam flow, with an exception for a minimal ventilation flow is delivered to the steam bleed-offs (cogeneration mode). LPP flow path is designed for the optimal operation in the condensing mode. While running in cogeneration mode, the LPP operating conditions are far from optimal. Depending on the ventilation steam flow rate and outlet pressure, the LPP power can drop to zero or even become negative (ventilation mode). It is proposed to control an outlet steam pressure by using the heat pump that operates with steam. The heat pump energy consumption can be compensated and even exceeded by optimizing the steam expansion process in LPP. In this respect, operating conditions of cogeneration turbine LPPs during the cold season are analyzed. A brief description of a heat pump operating with steam is made. The possibility of increasing cogeneration turbine efficiency by using a steam heat pump is shown.

  12. A computationally efficient and accurate numerical representation of thermodynamic properties of steam and water for computations of non-equilibrium condensing steam flow in steam turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrubý, Jan

    2012-04-01

    Mathematical modeling of the non-equilibrium condensing transonic steam flow in the complex 3D geometry of a steam turbine is a demanding problem both concerning the physical concepts and the required computational power. Available accurate formulations of steam properties IAPWS-95 and IAPWS-IF97 require much computation time. For this reason, the modelers often accept the unrealistic ideal-gas behavior. Here we present a computation scheme based on a piecewise, thermodynamically consistent representation of the IAPWS-95 formulation. Density and internal energy are chosen as independent variables to avoid variable transformations and iterations. On the contrary to the previous Tabular Taylor Series Expansion Method, the pressure and temperature are continuous functions of the independent variables, which is a desirable property for the solution of the differential equations of the mass, energy, and momentum conservation for both phases.

  13. The Steam Turbine: Technical Terminology Bulletin. Terminotech, Vol. 2, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Electric Co. of Canada, Ltd., Montreal, Quebec.

    This issue of a bulletin of technological terminology is devoted to the steam turbine. A brief narrative on the subject is presented in both French and English. An English-French dictionary of terms comprises the bulk of the document. Explanatory illustrations are appended. (JB)

  14. Structural and Phase State of Fractured Rotor of High-Pressure Steam Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A. N.; Ababkov, N. V.; Kozlov, E. V.; Koneva, N. A.; Popova, N. A.

    2016-03-01

    The structural and phase state of the metal of a fractured rotor of a steam turbine is studied with the use of modern methods of physical research. The metal is shown to contain gradient structures. The cause of the failure of the rotor is established. The gradient structures are determined by the developed method of acoustic scanning.

  15. Increasing reliability of system water heaters for steam-turbine installations at the design stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brezgin, V. I.; Brodov, Yu. M.; Brezgin, D. V.

    2015-12-01

    A system for designing water heaters of steam-turbine installations based on uniting standards, reference information, and some numerical procedures with design procedures via wide use of parameterization is considered. The developed design system is based on extensive application of modern information technologies.

  16. Nonpneumonic, short-incubation-period Legionellosis (Pontiac fever) in men who cleaned a steam turbine condenser.

    PubMed

    Fraser, D W; Deubner, D C; Hill, D L; Gilliam, D K

    1979-08-17

    Pontiac fever affected ten men who had cleaned a steam turbine condenser with compressed air. Previous epidemics of Pontiac fever and Legionnaires' disease--both caused by Legionella Pneumophila (proposed sp. nov.)--involved "airborne spread" from air-conditioning cooling towers or evaporative condensers. Aerosols of contaminated water in heat-rejection systems appear to be important sources of epidemic legionellosis.

  17. Test results of a steam injected gas turbine to increase power and thermal efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Messerlie, R.L.; Tischler, A.O.

    1983-08-01

    The desire to increase both power and thermal efficiency of the gas turbine (Brayton cycle) engine has been pursued for a number of years and has involved many approaches. The use of steam in the cycle to improve performance has been proposed by various investigators. This was most recently proposed by International Power Technology, Inc. (IPT) and has been tested by Detroit Diesel Allison (DDA), Division of General Motors. This approach, identified as the Cheng dual-fluid cycle (Cheng/DFC), includes the generation of steam using heat from the exhaust, and injecting this steam into the engine combustion chamber. Test results on an Allison 501-KB engine have demonstrated that use of this concept will increase the thermal efficiency of the engine by 30% and the output power by 60% with no increase in turbine inlet temperature. These results will be discussed, as will the impact of steam rate, location of steam injection, turbine temperature, and engine operational characteristics on the performance of the Cheng/DFC.

  18. Experimental research of flow parameters on the last stage of the steam turbine 1090 MW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlák, Kamil; Hoznedl, Michal; Bednář, Lukáš; Mrózek, Lukáš; Kalista, Robert

    2016-06-01

    This article deals with a brief description of measurement and evaluation of flow parameters at the output from the last stage of the low pressure steam turbine casing for the saturated steam with the nominal power 1090 MW. Measurement was carried out using a seven-hole pneumatic probe traversing along the length of the blade in several peripheral positions under nominal and selected partial modes. The result is knowledge of distribution of the static, dynamic and total pressure along the length of the blade and velocity distribution including their components. This information is the input data for determination of efficiency of the last stage, the loss coefficient of the diffuser and other significant parameters describing efficiency of selected parts of the steam turbine.

  19. Environmentally assisted cracking of low pressure steam turbine disk-rim material

    SciTech Connect

    Inagaki, H.; Sugita, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Bodai, M.; Takel, M.

    1996-12-31

    At the last stage disk-rim blade attachments of low pressure steam turbines for fossil power units which are subjected to increasing number of start-stop operations, the frequent start-stop operations can be a potential problem in the integrity of the rotor. Environmentally assisted cracking of 3.5 NiCrMoV low alloy steel under cyclic straining was investigated in both the water environment at 60 C in the laboratory and the actual steam environment of a low pressure steam turbine. Effects of strain rate, strain holding time, superposed vibratory stress, impurities and dissolved oxygen in the water environment, on crack initiation life and crack propagation rate were investigated using trapezoidal strain wave form.

  20. Summary of the development of open-cycle gas turbine-steam cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Lackey, M.E.; Thompson, A.S.

    1980-09-01

    Combined-cycle plants employing gas turbine cycles superimposed on conventional steam plants are well developed. Nearly 200 units are operating in the US on clean fuels (natural gas or distillate fuel oils) and giving overall thermal efficiencies as high as 42%. Future plants will have to use coal or coal-derived fuels, and this presents problems because gas turbines are very sensitive to particulates and contaminants in the fuel such as sulfur, potassium, lead, etc. If clean liquid or high-Btu gaseous fuels are made from coal, it appears that the conversion efficiency will be no more than 67%. Thus, the overall efficiency of utilization of coal would be less than if it were burned in a conventional steam plant unless the permissible gas turbine inlet temperature can be increased to approx. 1500/sup 0/C (2732/sup 0/F). Coupling a combined-cycle power plant directly to a low-Btu coal gasifier increases the fuel conversion efficiency and permits salvaging waste heat from the gasifier for feedwater heating in the steam cycle. By using a gas turbine inlet temperature of 1315/sup 0/C (2400/sup 0/F), well above the current maximum of approx. 1040/sup 0/C (1904/sup 0/F), an overall efficiency of approx. 40% has been estimated for the integrated plant. However, as discussed in companion reports, it is doubtful that operation with gas turbine inlet temperatures above 1100/sup 0/C (2012/sup 0/F) will prove practicable in base-load plants.

  1. Parametric performance analysis of steam-injected gas turbine with a thermionic-energy-converter-lined combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choo, Y. K.; Burns, R. K.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of steam-injected gas turbines having combustors lined with thermionic energy converters (STIG/TEC systems) was analyzed and compared with that of two baseline systems; a steam-injected gas turbine (without a TEC-lined combustor) and a conventional combined gas turbine/steam turbine cycle. Common gas turbine parameters were assumed for all of the systems. Two configurations of the STIG/TEC system were investigated. In both cases, steam produced in an exhaust-heat-recovery boiler cools the TEC collectors. It is then injected into the gas combustion stream and expanded through the gas turbine. The STIG/TEC system combines the advantage of gas turbine steam injection with the conversion of high-temperature combustion heat by TEC's. The addition of TEC's to the baseline steam-injected gas turbine improves both its efficiency and specific power. Depending on system configuration and design parameters, the STIG/TEC system can also achieve higher efficiency and specific power than the baseline combined cycle.

  2. Parametric performance analysis of steam-injected gas turbine with a thermionic-energy-converter-lined combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choo, Y. K.; Burns, R. K.

    1982-02-01

    The performance of steam-injected gas turbines having combustors lined with thermionic energy converters (STIG/TEC systems) was analyzed and compared with that of two baseline systems; a steam-injected gas turbine (without a TEC-lined combustor) and a conventional combined gas turbine/steam turbine cycle. Common gas turbine parameters were assumed for all of the systems. Two configurations of the STIG/TEC system were investigated. In both cases, steam produced in an exhaust-heat-recovery boiler cools the TEC collectors. It is then injected into the gas combustion stream and expanded through the gas turbine. The STIG/TEC system combines the advantage of gas turbine steam injection with the conversion of high-temperature combustion heat by TEC's. The addition of TEC's to the baseline steam-injected gas turbine improves both its efficiency and specific power. Depending on system configuration and design parameters, the STIG/TEC system can also achieve higher efficiency and specific power than the baseline combined cycle.

  3. Diagnostic methods of a bladed disc mode shape evaluation used for shrouded blades in steam turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strnad, Jaromir; Liska, Jindrich

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with advanced methods for the evaluation of a bladed disc behavior in terms of the wheel vibration and blade service time consumption. These methods are developed as parts of the noncontact vibration monitoring system of the steam turbine shrouded blades. The proposed methods utilize the time-frequency processing (cross spectra) and the method using least squares to analyse the data from the optical and magnetoresistive sensors, which are mounted in the stator radially above the rotor blades. Fundamentally, the blade vibrations are detected during the blade passages under the sensors and the following signal processing, which covers also the proposed methods, leads to the estimation of the blade residual service life. The prototype system implementing above mentioned techniques was installed into the last stage of the new steam turbine (LP part). The methods for bladed disc mode shape evaluation were successfully verified on the signals, which were obtained during the commission operation of the turbine.

  4. The Life Assessment of Steam Turbine Rotors for Fossil Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Sungho; Song, Geewook; Kim, Bumshin; Hyun, Jungseb; Ha, Jeongsoo

    The operational mode of thermal power plants has been changed from base load to duty cycle. From the changeover, fossil power plants cannot avoid frequent thermal transient states, for example, start up and stop, which results in thermal fatigue damage at the heavy section components. The rotor is the highest capital cost component in a steam turbine and requires long outage for replacing with a new one. For an optimized power plant operational life, inspection management of the rotor is necessary. It is known in general that the start-up and shutdown operations greatly affect the steam turbine life. The start-up operational condition is especially severe because of the rapid temperature and rotational speed increase, which causes damage and reduction of life of the main components life of the steam turbine. The start-up stress of a rotor which is directly related to life is composed of thermal and rotational stresses. The thermal stress is due to the variation of steam flow temperature and rotational stress is due to the rotational speed of the turbine. In this paper, the analysis method for the start-up stress of a rotor is proposed, which considers simultaneously temperature and rotational speed transition, and includes a case study regarding a 500MW fossil power plant steam turbine rotor. Also, the method of quantitative damage estimation for fatigue-creep damage to operational conditions, is described. The method can be applied to find weak points for fatigue-creep damage. Using the method, total life consumption can be obtained, and can be also be used for determining future operational modes and life extension of old fossil power units.

  5. Functioning efficiency of intermediate coolers of multistage steam-jet ejectors of steam turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronson, K. E.; Ryabchikov, A. Yu.; Brodov, Yu. M.; Zhelonkin, N. V.; Murmanskii, I. B.

    2017-03-01

    Designs of various types of intermediate coolers of multistage ejectors are analyzed and thermal effectiveness and gas-dynamic resistance of coolers are estimated. Data on quantity of steam condensed from steam-air mixture in stage I of an ejector cooler was obtained on the basis of experimental results. It is established that the amount of steam condensed in the cooler constitutes 0.6-0.7 and is almost independent of operating steam pressure (and, consequently, of steam flow) and air amount in steam-air mixture. It is suggested to estimate the amount of condensed steam in a cooler of stage I based on comparison of computed and experimental characteristics of stage II. Computation taking this hypothesis for main types of mass produced multistage ejectors into account shows that 0.60-0.85 of steam amount should be condensed in stage I of the cooler. For ejectors with "pipe-in-pipe" type coolers (EPO-3-200) and helical coolers (EO-30), amount of condensed steam may reach 0.93-0.98. Estimation of gas-dynamic resistance of coolers shows that resistance from steam side in coolers with built-in and remote pipe bundle constitutes 100-300 Pa. Gas-dynamic resistance of "pipein- pipe" and helical type coolers is significantly higher (3-6 times) compared with pipe bundle. However, performance by "dry" (atmospheric) air is higher for ejectors with relatively high gas-dynamic resistance of coolers than those with low resistance at approximately equal operating flow values of ejectors.

  6. Incorporating supercritical steam turbines into molten-salt power tower plants :

    SciTech Connect

    Pacheco, James Edward; Wolf, Thorsten; Muley, Nishant

    2013-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Siemens Energy, Inc., examined 14 different subcritical and supercritical steam cycles to determine if it is feasible to configure a molten-salt supercritical steam plant that has a capacity in the range of 150 to 200 MWe. The effects of main steam pressure and temperature, final feedwater temperature, and hot salt and cold salt return temperatures were determined on gross and half-net efficiencies. The main steam pressures ranged from 120 bar-a (subcritical) to 260 bar-a (supercritical). Hot salt temperatures of 566 and 600ÀC were evaluated, which resulted in main steam temperatures of 553 and 580ÀC, respectively. Also, the effects of final feedwater temperature (between 260 and 320ÀC) were evaluated, which impacted the cold salt return temperature. The annual energy production and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) were calculated using the System Advisory Model on 165 MWe subcritical plants (baseline and advanced) and the most promising supercritical plants. It was concluded that the supercritical steam plants produced more annual energy than the baseline subcritical steam plant for the same-size heliostat field, receiver, and thermal storage system. Two supercritical steam plants had the highest annual performance and had nearly the same LCOE. Both operated at 230 bar-a main steam pressure. One was designed for a hot salt temperature of 600ÀC and the other 565ÀC. The LCOEs for these plants were about 10% lower than the baseline subcritical plant operating at 120 bar-a main steam pressure and a hot salt temperature of 565ÀC. Based on the results of this study, it appears economically and technically feasible to incorporate supercritical steam turbines in molten-salt power tower plants.

  7. CTU Optical probes for liquid phase detection in the 1000 MW steam turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolovratník, Michal; Bartoš, Ondřej

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the measurement capacity of a new generation of CTU's optical probes to determine the liquid phase distribution in steam turbines and other energy systems. At the same time the paper presents the first part of the results concerning output wetness achieved through the use of experimental research performed with the probes in a new low pressure (LP) part of the steam turbine 1000MW in the Temelin nuclear power plant (ETE). Two different probes were used. A small size extinction probe with a diameter of 25mm which was developed for measuring in a wider range of turbines in comparison with the previous generation with a diameter of 50mm. The second probe used was a photogrammetric probe developed to observe the coarse droplets. This probe is still under development and this measurement was focused on verifying the capabilities of the probe. The data processing technique is presented together with yielded examples of the wetness distribution along the last blade of the 1000MW steam turbine. The experimental measurement was done in cooperation with Doosan Škoda Power s.r.o. (DSP).

  8. Thermoeconomic modeling and parametric study of hybrid SOFC-gas turbine-steam turbine power plants ranging from 1.5 to 10 MWe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsalis, Alexandros

    Detailed thermodynamic, kinetic, geometric, and cost models are developed, implemented, and validated for the synthesis/design and operational analysis of hybrid SOFC-gas turbine-steam turbine systems ranging in size from 1.5 to 10 MWe. The fuel cell model used in this research work is based on a tubular Siemens-Westinghouse-type SOFC, which is integrated with a gas turbine and a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) integrated in turn with a steam turbine cycle. The current work considers the possible benefits of using the exhaust gases in a HRSG in order to produce steam which drives a steam turbine for additional power output. Four different steam turbine cycles are considered in this research work: a single-pressure, a dual-pressure, a triple pressure, and a triple pressure with reheat. The models have been developed to function both at design (full load) and off-design (partial load) conditions. In addition, different solid oxide fuel cell sizes are examined to assure a proper selection of SOFC size based on efficiency or cost. The thermoeconomic analysis includes cost functions developed specifically for the different system and component sizes (capacities) analyzed. A parametric study is used to determine the most viable system/component syntheses/designs based on maximizing total system efficiency or minimizing total system life cycle cost.

  9. Control valves and cascades for the first stages of turbines with ultrasupercritical steam parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaryankin, A. E.; Rogalev, N. D.; Rogalev, A. N.; Garanin, I. V.; Osipov, S. K.; Grigoriev, E. Yu.

    2016-06-01

    This paper considers the problems that will unavoidably be encountered in the creation of new-generation turbines operated at ultrasupercritical initial steam parameters, namely, the development of new control and shutoff valves, the reduction of end energy losses in blade cascades and steam leaks in high-pressure cylinders (HPCs), the elimination of effect produced by regenerative steam bleedoffs on the afterextraction stage, the cooling of a blade cascade, etc. Some possible solutions are given for the two first of the listed problems. The conclusion about the need for the transition to new-generation control valves in the development of new advanced steam turbines with ultrasupercritical initial steam parameters has been made. From the viewpoint of their design, the considered new-generation valves differ from the known contemporary constructions by a shaped axially symmetric confusor channel and perforated zones on the streamlined spool surface and the inlet diffuser saddle part. The analysis of the vibration behavior of new-generation valves has demonstrated a decrease in the dynamic loads acting on their stems. To reduce the end energy losses in nozzle or blade cascades with small aspect ratios, it is proposed to use finned shrouds in the interblade channels. The cross section of fins has a triangular profile, and their height must be comparable with the thickness of the boundary layer in the outlet cross section of a cascade and, provisionally, be smaller than 8% of the cascade chord.

  10. A 400-kWe high-efficiency steam turbine for industrial cogeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibowitz, H. M.

    1982-01-01

    An advanced state-of-the-art steam turbine-generator developed to serve as the power conversion subsystem for the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratories' Solar Total-Energy Project (STEP) is described. The turbine-generator, which is designed to provide 400-kW of net electrical power, represents the largest turbine-generator built specifically for commercial solar-powered cogeneration. The controls for the turbine-generator incorporate a multiple, partial-arc entry to provide efficient off-design performance, as well as an extraction control scheme to permit extraction flow regulation while maintaining 110-spsig pressure. Normal turbine operation is achieved while synchronized to a local utility and in a stand-alone mode. In both cases, the turbine-generator features automatic load control as well as remote start-up and shutdown capability. Tests totaling 200 hours were conducted to confirm the integrity of the turbine's mechanical structure and control function. Performance tests resulted in a measured inlet throttle flow of 8,450 pounds per hour, which was near design conditions.

  11. Operational diagnostics of thermal state and efficiency of steam turbines of TPP and NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozhko, V. V.; Kovalenko, A. N.; Lyapunov, V. M.; Khomenok, L. A.

    2016-05-01

    Various ways for solving complex problems of the strength and operating life of steam turbines of TPP and NPP are studied. Diagnostic characters and technical possibilities for their control during the steam turbine operation are determined. It is shown that the effect of various factors on the reliability, maneuverability, and service life of power installations of TPP and NPP is generally determined by the thermal state of steam-electric generating sets. Leading foreign and domestic manufacturers give major attention to the organization of the control of the thermal state of facilities and the development of systems for accounting ("counter") the service life depletion. Zones of high-temperature sites of shafts and disks with maximum parameters of operating environment are determined. A model for on-line computation of thermal stresses with the diagnostic evaluation of the service life depletion (fatigue accumulation) and forecasting of optimum heating conditions for thermostressed turbine units is briefly stated. An example of a program for diagnostics of the quality of the facility operation is given. The program provides the operative control of thermal stresses and the service life depletion in main units of the turbine under various operation conditions, operates in the real-time mode, calculates and represents currents values of thermal stresses in turbine units, and forms and transmits into the industrial control signals on the occurrence of restrictions with respect to thermal stresses and prohibition of an increase or decrease in the vapor temperature and the load in the case of approaching pressures to maximum permissible ones. In the case of stationary operation conditions, the program computed the current efficiency in high (HPC) and mean (MPC) pressure cylinders.

  12. A high-temperature gas-and-steam turbine plant operating on combined fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, A. V.; Milman, O. O.; Shifrin, B. A.

    2015-11-01

    A high-temperature gas-steam turbine plant (GSTP) for ultrasupercritical steam conditions is proposed based on an analysis of prospects for the development of power engineering around the world and in Russia up to 2040. The performance indicators of a GSTP using steam from a coal-fired boiler with a temperature of 560-620°C with its superheating to 1000-1500°C by firing natural gas with oxygen in a mixingtype steam superheater are analyzed. The thermal process circuit and design of a GSTP for a capacity of 25 MW with the high- and intermediate-pressure high-temperature parts with the total efficiency equal to 51.7% and the natural gas utilization efficiency equal to 64-68% are developed. The principles of designing and the design arrangement of a 300 MW GSTP are developed. The effect of economic parameters (the level and ratio of prices for solid fuel and gas, and capital investments) on the net cost of electric energy is determined. The net cost of electric energy produced by the GSTP is lower than that produced by modern combined-cycle power plants in a wide variation range of these parameters. The components of a high-temperature GSTP the development of which determines the main features of such installations are pointed out: a chamber for combusting natural gas and oxygen in a mixture with steam, a vacuum device for condensing steam with a high content of nondensables, and a control system. The possibility of using domestically available gas turbine technologies for developing the GSTP's intermediate-pressure high-temperature part is pointed out. In regard of its environmental characteristics, the GSTP is more advantageous as compared with modern condensing power plants: it allows a flow of concentrated carbon dioxide to be obtained at its outlet, which can be reclaimed; in addition, this plant requires half as much consumption of fresh water.

  13. Refining the calculation procedure for estimating the influence of flashing steam in steam turbine heaters on the increase of rotor rotation frequency during rejection of electric load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselov, V. B.; Shekhter, M. V.

    2012-12-01

    A refined procedure for estimating the effect the flashing of condensate in a steam turbine's regenerative and delivery-water heaters on the increase of rotor rotation frequency during rejection of electric load is presented. The results of calculations carried out according to the proposed procedure as applied to the delivery-water and regenerative heaters of a T-110/120-12.8 turbine are given.

  14. Using the CAE technologies of engineering analysis for designing steam turbines at ZAO Ural Turbine Works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goloshumova, V. N.; Kortenko, V. V.; Pokhoriler, V. L.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Ivanovskii, A. A.

    2008-08-01

    We describe the experience ZAO Ural Turbine Works specialists gained from mastering the series of CAD/CAE/CAM/PDM technologies, which are modern software tools of computer-aided engineering. We also present the results obtained from mathematical simulation of the process through which high-and intermediate-pressure rotors are heated for revealing the most thermally stressed zones, as well as the results from mathematical simulation of a new design of turbine cylinder shells for improving the maneuverability of these turbines.

  15. Processing of Advanced Cast Alloys for A-USC Steam Turbine Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, Paul D.; Hawk, Jeffery A.; Cowen, Christopher J.; Maziasz, Philip J.

    2012-02-01

    The high-temperature components within conventional supercritical coal-fired power plants are manufactured from ferritic/martensitic steels. To reduce greenhouse-gas emissions, the efficiency of pulverized coal steam power plants must be increased to as high a temperature and pressure as feasible. The proposed steam temperature in the DOE/NETL Advanced Ultra Supercritical power plant is high enough (760°C) that ferritic/martensitic steels will not work for the majority of high-temperature components in the turbine or for pipes and tubes in the boiler due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Thus, Ni-based superalloys are being considered for many of these components. Off-the-shelf forged nickel alloys have shown good promise at these temperatures, but further improvements can be made through experimentation within the nominal chemistry range as well as through thermomechanical processing and subsequent heat treatment. However, cast nickel-based superalloys, which possess high strength, creep resistance, and weldability, are typically not available, particularly those with good ductility and toughness that are weldable in thick sections. To address those issues related to thick casting for turbine casings, for example, cast analogs of selected wrought nickel-based superalloys such as alloy 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105 have been produced. Alloy design criteria, melt processing experiences, and heat treatment are discussed with respect to the as-processed and heat-treated microstructures and selected mechanical properties. The discussion concludes with the prospects for full-scale development of a thick section casting for a steam turbine valve chest or rotor casing.

  16. Application of Energy Processor Model for Diagnostic Symptom Limit Value Determination in Steam Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galka, Tomasz

    1999-09-01

    With growing importance of quantitative technical condition assessment in critical machinery, the need for adequate determination of diagnostic symptom limit values is becoming vital. Such determination may be based on the energy processor model of a machine [1]. The general model should, for each specific case, be developed in order to account for unique features of machine design and operation. The paper describes such an approach for large steam turbines, operated by utility power stations. The energy processor model, adopted for these machines, is described and its mathematical description is presented, based on resonable simplifying assumptions. Possibilities of the determination of model parameters from data obtained during normal operation are outlined and discussed.

  17. User's manual for PRESTO: A computer code for the performance of regenerative steam turbine cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, L. C.; Stovall, T. K.

    1979-01-01

    Standard turbine cycles for baseload power plants and cycles with such additional features as process steam extraction and induction and feedwater heating by external heat sources may be modeled. Peaking and high back pressure cycles are also included. The code's methodology is to use the expansion line efficiencies, exhaust loss, leakages, mechanical losses, and generator losses to calculate the heat rate and generator output. A general description of the code is given as well as the instructions for input data preparation. Appended are two complete example cases.

  18. A high-speed photographic system for flow visualization in a steam turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barna, G. J.

    1973-01-01

    A photographic system was designed to visualize the moisture flow in a steam turbine. Good performance of the system was verified using dry turbine mockups in which an aerosol spray simulated, in a rough way, the moisture flow in the turbine. Borescopes and fiber-optic light tubes were selected as the general instrumentation approach. High speed motion-picture photographs of the liquid flow over the stator blade surfaces were taken using stroboscopic lighting. Good visualization of the liquid flow was obtained. Still photographs of drops in flight were made using short duration flash sources. Drops with diameters as small as 30 micrometers (0.0012 in.) could be resolved. In addition, motion pictures of a spray of water simulating the spray off the rotor blades and shrouds were taken at normal framing rates. Specially constructed light tubes containing small tungsten-halogen lamps were used. Sixteen millimeter photography was used in all cases. Two potential problems resulting from the two-phase turbine flow (attenuation and scattering of light by the fog present and liquid accumulation on the borescope mirrors) were taken into account in the photographic system design but not evaluated experimentally.

  19. Cooling circuit for steam and air-cooled turbine nozzle stage

    DOEpatents

    Itzel, Gary Michael; Yu, Yufeng

    2002-01-01

    The turbine vane segment includes inner and outer walls with a vane extending therebetween. The vane includes leading and trailing edge cavities and intermediate cavities. An impingement plate is spaced from the outer wall to impingement-cool the outer wall. Post-impingement cooling air flows through holes in the outer wall to form a thin air-cooling film along the outer wall. Cooling air is supplied an insert sleeve with openings in the leading edge cavity for impingement-cooling the leading edge. Holes through the leading edge afford thin-film cooling about the leading edge. Cooling air is provided the trailing edge cavity and passes through holes in the side walls of the vane for thin-film cooling of the trailing edge. Steam flows through a pair of intermediate cavities for impingement-cooling of the side walls. Post-impingement steam flows to the inner wall for impingement-cooling of the inner wall and returns the post-impingement cooling steam through inserts in other intermediate cavities for impingement-cooling the side walls of the vane.

  20. The 15 kW sub e (nominal) solar thermal electric power conversion concept definition study: Steam Rankine turbine system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, T. J.

    1979-01-01

    A study to define the performance and cost characteristics of a solar powered, steam Rankine turbine system located at the focal point of a solar concentrator is presented. A two stage re-entry turbine with reheat between stages, which has an efficiency of 27% at a turbine inlet temperature of 732 C was used. System efficiency was defined as 60 Hertz electrical output divided by absorbed thermal input in the working fluid. Mass production costs were found to be approximately 364 dollars/KW.

  1. Thermo-economic comparative analysis of gas turbine GT10 integrated with air and steam bottoming cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czaja, Daniel; Chmielnak, Tadeusz; Lepszy, Sebastian

    2014-12-01

    A thermodynamic and economic analysis of a GT10 gas turbine integrated with the air bottoming cycle is presented. The results are compared to commercially available combined cycle power plants based on the same gas turbine. The systems under analysis have a better chance of competing with steam bottoming cycle configurations in a small range of the power output capacity. The aim of the calculations is to determine the final cost of electricity generated by the gas turbine air bottoming cycle based on a 25 MW GT10 gas turbine with the exhaust gas mass flow rate of about 80 kg/s. The article shows the results of thermodynamic optimization of the selection of the technological structure of gas turbine air bottoming cycle and of a comparative economic analysis. Quantities are determined that have a decisive impact on the considered units profitability and competitiveness compared to the popular technology based on the steam bottoming cycle. The ultimate quantity that can be compared in the calculations is the cost of 1 MWh of electricity. It should be noted that the systems analyzed herein are power plants where electricity is the only generated product. The performed calculations do not take account of any other (potential) revenues from the sale of energy origin certificates. Keywords: Gas turbine air bottoming cycle, Air bottoming cycle, Gas turbine, GT10

  2. Modeling Creep-Fatigue-Environment Interactions in Steam Turbine Rotor Materials for Advanced Ultra-supercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Chen

    2014-04-01

    The goal of this project is to model creep-fatigue-environment interactions in steam turbine rotor materials for advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) coal power Alloy 282 plants, to develop and demonstrate computational algorithms for alloy property predictions, and to determine and model key mechanisms that contribute to the damages caused by creep-fatigue-environment interactions.

  3. Materials for Advanced Ultrasupercritical Steam Turbines Task 4: Cast Superalloy Development

    SciTech Connect

    Thangirala, Mani

    2015-09-30

    The Steam Turbine critical stationary structural components are high integrity Large Shell and Valve Casing heavy section Castings, containing high temperature steam under high pressures. Hence to support the development of advanced materials technology for use in an AUSC steam turbine capable of operating with steam conditions of 760°C (1400°F) and 35 Mpa (5000 psia), Casting alloy selection and evaluation of mechanical, metallurgical properties and castability with robust manufacturing methods are mandated. Alloy down select from Phase 1 based on producability criteria and creep rupture properties tested by NETL-Albany and ORNL directed the consortium to investigate cast properties of Haynes 282 and Haynes 263. The goals of Task 4 in Phase 2 are to understand a broader range of mechanical properties, the impact of manufacturing variables on those properties. Scale up the size of heats to production levels to facilitate the understanding of the impact of heat and component weight, on metallurgical and mechanical behavior. GE Power & Water Materials and Processes Engineering for the Phase 2, Task 4.0 Castings work, systematically designed and executed casting material property evaluation, multiple test programs. Starting from 15 lbs. cylinder castings to world’s first 17,000 lbs. poured weight, heavy section large steam turbine partial valve Haynes 282 super alloy casting. This has demonstrated scalability of the material for steam Turbine applications. Activities under Task 4.0, Investigated and characterized various mechanical properties of Cast Haynes 282 and Cast Nimonic 263. The development stages involved were: 1) Small Cast Evaluation: 4 inch diam. Haynes 282 and Nimonic 263 Cylinders. This provided effects of liquidus super heat range and first baseline mechanical data on cast versions of conventional vacuum re-melted and forged Ni based super alloys. 2) Step block castings of 300 lbs. and 600 lbs. Haynes 282 from 2 foundry heats were evaluated which

  4. A CFD Analysis of Steam Flow in the Two-Stage Experimental Impulse Turbine with the Drum Rotor Arrangement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Kukchol; Tajč, L.; Kolovratník, M.

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the paper is to present the CFD analysis of the steam flow in the two-stage turbine with a drum rotor and balancing slots. The balancing slot is a part of every rotor blade and it can be used in the same way as balancing holes on the classical rotor disc. The main attention is focused on the explanation of the experimental knowledge about the impact of the slot covering and uncovering on the efficiency of the individual stages and the entire turbine. The pressure and temperature fields and the mass steam flows through the shaft seals, slots and blade cascades are calculated. The impact of the balancing slots covering or uncovering on the reaction and velocity conditions in the stages is evaluated according to the pressure and temperature fields. We have also concentrated on the analysis of the seal steam flow through the balancing slots. The optimized design of the balancing slots has been suggested.

  5. The influence of selected design and operating parameters on the dynamics of the steam micro-turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żywica, Grzegorz; Kiciński, Jan

    2015-10-01

    The topic of the article is the analysis of the influence of selected design parameters and operating conditions on the radial steam micro-turbine, which was adapted to operate with low-boiling agent in the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). In the following parts of this article the results of the thermal load analysis, the residual unbalance and the stiffness of bearing supports are discussed. Advanced computational methods and numerical models have been used. Computational analysis showed that the steam micro-turbine is characterized by very good dynamic properties and is resistant to extreme operating conditions. The prototype of micro-turbine has passed a series of test calculations. It has been found that it can be subjected to experimental research in the micro combined heat and power system.

  6. Thermo-economic study on the implementation of steam turbine concepts for flexible operation on a direct steam generation solar tower power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topel, Monika; Ellakany, Farid; Guédez, Rafael; Genrup, Magnus; Laumert, Björn

    2016-05-01

    Among concentrating solar power technologies, direct steam generation solar tower power plants represent a promising option. These systems eliminate the usage of heat transfer fluids allowing for the power block to be run at greater operating temperatures and therefore further increasing the thermal efficiency of the power cycle. On the other hand, the current state of the art of these systems does not comprise thermal energy storage as there are no currently available and techno-economically feasible storage integration options. This situation makes direct steam generation configurations even more susceptible to the already existing variability of operating conditions due to the fluctuation of the solar supply. In the interest of improving the annual performance and competitiveness of direct steam generation solar tower systems, the present study examines the influence of implementing two flexibility enhancing concepts which control the steam flow to the turbine as a function of the incoming solar irradiation. The proposed concepts were implemented in a reference plant model previously developed by the authors. Then, a multi-objective optimization was carried out in order to understand which configurations of the steam turbine concepts yield reductions of the levelized cost of electricity at a lower investment costs when compared to the reference model. Results show that the implementation of the proposed strategies can enhance the thermo-economic performance of direct steam generation systems by yielding a reduction of up to 9.2% on the levelized cost of electricity, mainly due to allowing 20% increase in the capacity factor, while increasing the investment costs by 7.8%.

  7. Comparison of Integrated Gasifier-Combined Cycle and AFB-steam turbine systems for industrial cogeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nainiger, J. J.; Abbott, J. M.; Burns, R. K.

    1981-01-01

    In the cogeneration technology alternatives study (CTAS) a number of advanced coal fired systems were examined and systems using a integrated coal gasifier IGCC or a fluid bed combustor AFB were found to yield attractive cogeneration results in industrial cogeneration applications. A range of site requirements and cogeneration sizing strategies using ground rules based on CTAS were used in comparing an IGCC and an AFB. The effect of time variations in site requirements and the sensitivity to fuel and electricity price assumptions are examined. The economic alternatives of industrial or utility ownership are also considered. The results indicate that the IGCC system has potentially higher fuel and emission savings and could be an attractive option for utility ownership. The AFB steam turbine system has a potentially higher return on investment and could be attractive assuming industrial ownership.

  8. Comparison of Integrated Gasifier-Combined Cycle and AFB-steam turbine systems for industrial cogeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nainiger, J. J.; Abbott, J. M.; Burns, R. K.

    In the cogeneration technology alternatives study (CTAS) a number of advanced coal fired systems were examined and systems using a integrated coal gasifier IGCC or a fluid bed combustor AFB were found to yield attractive cogeneration results in industrial cogeneration applications. A range of site requirements and cogeneration sizing strategies using ground rules based on CTAS were used in comparing an IGCC and an AFB. The effect of time variations in site requirements and the sensitivity to fuel and electricity price assumptions are examined. The economic alternatives of industrial or utility ownership are also considered. The results indicate that the IGCC system has potentially higher fuel and emission savings and could be an attractive option for utility ownership. The AFB steam turbine system has a potentially higher return on investment and could be attractive assuming industrial ownership.

  9. Analysis of Fretting Fatigue Strength of Integral Shroud Blade for Steam Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Yasutomo; Tomii, Masayuki; Ohyama, Hiroharu; Kurimura, Takayuki

    To improve the reliability and the thermal efficiency of LP (Low Pressure) end blades of steam turbine, new standard series of LP end blades have been developed. The new LP end blades are characterized by the ISB (Integral Shroud Blade) structure. In the ISB structure, blades are continuously coupled by blade untwist due to centrifugal force when the blades rotate at high speed. One of the probable failure modes of the ISB structure seems to be fretting fatigue, because the ISB utilizes friction damping between adjacent shrouds and stubs. Therefore, in order to design a blade with high reliability, the design procedure for evaluating the fretting fatigue strength was established by the model test and the nonlinear contact analysis. This paper presents the practical design method for predicting the fretting fatigue strength of the ISB structure, and the some applications are explained.

  10. The deterministic prediction of failure of low pressure steam turbine disks

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chun; Macdonald, D.D.

    1993-05-01

    Localized corrosion phenomena, including pitting corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and corrosion fatigue, are the principal causes of corrosion-induced damage in electric power generating facilities and typically result in more than 50% of the unscheduled outages. Prediction of damage, so that repairs and inspections can be made during scheduled outages, could have an enormous impact on the economics of electric power generation. To date, prediction of corrosion damage has been made on the basis of empirical/statistical methods that have proven to be insufficiently robust and accurate to form the basis for the desired inspection/repair protocol. In this paper, we describe a deterministic method for predicting localized corrosion damage. We have used the method to illustrate how pitting corrosion initiates stress corrosion cracking (SCC) for low pressure steam turbine disks downstream of the Wilson line, where a thin condensed liquid layer exists on the steel disk surfaces. Our calculations show that the SCC initiation and propagation are sensitive to the oxygen content of the steam, the environment in the thin liquid condensed layer, and the stresses that the disk experiences in service.

  11. Data Reconciliation in the Steam-Turbine Cycle of a Boiling Water Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sunde, Svein; Berg, Oivind; Dahlberg, Lennart; Fridqvist, Nils-Olof

    2003-08-15

    A mathematical model for a boiling water reactor steam-turbine cycle was assembled by means of a configurable, steady-state modeling tool TEMPO. The model was connected to live plant data and intermittently fitted to these by minimization of a weighted least-squares object function. The improvement in precision achieved by this reconciliation was assessed from quantities calculated from the model equations linearized around the minimum and from Monte Carlo simulations. It was found that the inclusion of the flow-passing characteristics of the turbines in the model equations significantly improved the precision as compared to simple mass and energy balances, whereas heat transfer calculations in feedwater heaters did not. Under the assumption of linear model equations, the quality of the fit can also be expressed as a goodness-of-fit Q. Typical values for Q were in the order of 0.9. For a validated model Q may be used as a fault detection indicator, and Q dropped to very low values in known cases of disagreement between the model and the plant state. The sensitivity of Q toward measurement faults is discussed in relation to redundancy. The results of the linearized theory and Monte Carlo simulations differed somewhat, and if a more accurate analysis is required, this is better based on the latter. In practical application of the presently employed techniques, however, assessment of uncertainties in raw data is an important prerequisite.

  12. In situ repair welding of steam turbine shroud for replacing a cracked blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, S. K.; Das, C. R.; Ramasubbu, V.; Bhaduri, A. K.; Ray, S. K.; Raj, Baldev

    2002-06-01

    A root-cracked blade in a high-pressure steam turbine of a nuclear power plant had to be replaced with a new blade by cutting the shroud to remove the cracked blade. This necessitated in situ welding of a new shroud piece with the existing shroud after the blade replacement. The in situ welding of the shroud, a 12% Cr martensitic stainless steel with tempered martensite microstructure, was carried out using gastungsten arc welding and 316L austenitic stainless steel filler metal followed by localized postweld heat treatment at 873 K for 1 h using a specially designed electrical resistance-heating furnace. Mock-up trials were carried out to ensure that sound welds could be made under the constraints present during the in situ repair welding operation. In situ metallography of the repair weld after postweld heat treatment confirmed the adequate tempering of the martensitic structure in the heat-affected zone. Metallurgical investigations carried out in the laboratory on a shroud test-piece that had been welded using the same procedure as employed in the field confirmed the success of the in situ repair operation. The alternate option available was replacing the cracked blade and the shroud piece to which it is riveted with a new one, reducing the height of all the blades attached to the shroud by machining, riveting the blades with reduced height to the new shroud, and, finally, dynamic balancing of the entire turbine after completion of the repair. This option is both time-consuming and expensive. Hence, the successful completion of this repair welding resulted in enormous savings both in terms of reducing the downtime of the plant and the cost of the repair. The turbine has been put back into service and has been operating satisfactorily since December 2000.

  13. Effects of surface roughness and nonparallelism on the measurement of the acoustic nonlinearity parameter in steam turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Jeong K.; Yost, William T.; Cantrell, John H.; Kessel, Gregory L.

    2000-05-01

    The effects of surface roughness and nonparallelism of steam turbine blades have been measured by constructing different specimens made of 410Cb stainless steel, a popular material used in turbine blade construction. The sample specimens contain angles typically encountered in turbine blade measurement. Surface roughness often found in turbines during service life is incorporated in the samples. At each level of surface roughness and at each angle, the nonlinearity parameter β of the specimens has been measured. The experimental results show that β decreases as the level of roughness increases, while it increases as the degree of nonparallelism increases. Calibration factors for both specimen angle and surface roughness are determined, and comparison with some model calculations is made.

  14. Optimum Tilt Angle of Flow Guide in Steam Turbine Exhaust Hood Considering the Effect of Last Stage Flow Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CAO, Lihua; LIN, Aqiang; LI, Yong; XIAO, Bin

    2017-03-01

    Heat transfer and vacuum in condenser are influenced by the aerodynamic performance of steam turbine exhaust hood. The current research on exhaust hood is mainly focused on analyzing flow loss and optimal design of its structure without consideration of the wet steam condensing flow and the exhaust hood coupled with the front and rear parts. To better understand the aerodynamic performance influenced by the tilt angle of flow guide inside a diffuser, taking a 600 MW steam turbine as an example, a numerical simulator CFX is adopted to solve compressible three-dimensional (3D) Reynolds time-averaged N-S equations and standard k-ɛ turbulence model. And the exhaust hood flow field influenced by different tilt angles of flow guide is investigated with consideration of the wet steam condensing flow and the exhaust hood coupled with the last stage blades and the condenser throat. The result shows that the total pressure loss coefficient and the static pressure recovery coefficient of exhaust hood change regularly and monotonously with the gradual increase of tilt angle of flow guide. When the tilt angle of flow guide is within the range of 30° to 40°, the static pressure recovery coefficient is in the range of 15.27% to 17.03% and the total pressure loss coefficient drops to approximately 51%, the aerodynamic performance of exhaust hood is significantly improved. And the effective enthalpy drop in steam turbine increases by 0.228% to 0.274%. It is feasible to obtain a reasonable title angle of flow guide by the method of coupling the last stage and the condenser throat to exhaust hood in combination of the wet steam model, which provides a practical guidance to flow guide transformation and optimal design in exhaust hood.

  15. The Influence of Inlet Asymmetry on Steam Turbine Exhaust Hood Flows.

    PubMed

    Burton, Zoe; Hogg, Simon; Ingram, Grant L

    2014-04-01

    It has been widely recognized for some decades that it is essential to accurately represent the strong coupling between the last stage blades (LSB) and the diffuser inlet, in order to correctly capture the flow through the exhaust hoods of steam turbine low pressure cylinders. This applies to any form of simulation of the flow, i.e., numerical or experimental. The exhaust hood flow structure is highly three-dimensional and appropriate coupling will enable the important influence of this asymmetry to be transferred to the rotor. This, however, presents challenges as the calculation size grows rapidly when the full annulus is calculated. The size of the simulation means researchers are constantly searching for methods to reduce the computational effort without compromising solution accuracy. However, this can result in excessive computational demands in numerical simulations. Unsteady full-annulus CFD calculation will remain infeasible for routine design calculations for the foreseeable future. More computationally efficient methods for coupling the unsteady rotor flow to the hood flow are required that bring computational expense within realizable limits while still maintaining sufficient accuracy for meaningful design calculations. Research activity in this area is focused on developing new methods and techniques to improve accuracy and reduce computational expense. A novel approach for coupling the turbine last stage to the exhaust hood employing the nonlinear harmonic (NLH) method is presented in this paper. The generic, IP free, exhaust hood and last stage blade geometries from Burton et al. (2012. "A Generic Low Pressure Exhaust Diffuser for Steam Turbine Research,"Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo, Copenhagen, Denmark, Paper No. GT2012-68485) that are representative of modern designs, are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. This is achieved by comparing results obtained with the NLH to those obtained with a more conventional mixing

  16. Estimation of the residual life of steam-turbine condensers based on statistical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murmansky, B. E.; Aronson, K. E.; Brodov, Yu. M.

    2015-11-01

    The article presents the results of a study aimed at estimation of the state and prediction of the residual life of steam-turbine condensers on the basis of statistical analysis. The possibility of such evaluation during the operation of steam-turbine plants with accuracy sufficient for practical purposes is demonstrated. It is shown that identification of the operating period, viz., the initial period, the normal operation period, or the period of the lifetime exhaustion, as well as determination of the condenser's operating time at the moment when the failure of an individual tube occurs, is very important for statistical evaluation of the condenser state. Two statistical models are proposed and comparative analysis of the results calculated by these models for the residual life of the condensers at the Reftinskaya SDPP has been performed. The first model can be used when comprehensive information about the condenser's operating time before the tubes have failed is available as well as a priori information—or information based on analysis of the condenser tube metal—that the condenser is in its normal operation period. In this case, the fact of exhaustion of the condenser's lifetime is established by reaching the limit of the failed condenser tubes, which is determined by technical and economic analysis of losses caused by operating the turbine with a reduced heat-exchange surface of the condenser. The distribution function for the operating time of the failed tubes is approximated by a normal distribution. In the cases when no precise information on the condenser tubes' operating time is available at the thermoelectric power plant (TEPP), the second statistical model based on censored samples is proposed for estimation of the condenser state. An expression to assess the confidence interval that determines the significant difference between the distribution functions for complete and censored operating time values has been derived. It is shown that this model

  17. Design of a Test Loop for Performance Testing of Steam Turbines Under a Variety of Operating Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrette, Jonathan

    The steam turbine is one of the most widely used energy conversion devices in the world, providing shaft power for electricity production, chemical processing, and HVAC systems. There are new opportunities in growing renewable and combined cycle applications. End-users are asking for energy efficiency improvements that require manufacturers to renew their experimentally verified design methods. A structured design approach was carried out along three integrated research thrusts. The first two thrusts, Turbine Performance Prediction and Measurement Planning, were carried out with the aim of supporting the theoretical modeling required for the third thrust, System Modeling. The primary use of the steam turbine test loop will be to improve performance prediction techniques. Thus the primary focus of the first thrust was to describe empirical loss correlations found in the literature. For the second thrust, a preliminary review of measurement codes and standards was carried out to determine their impact on overall test loop design. For the third thrust, quasi-steady theoretical models were derived from first principles for the turbine, condenser, pump, boiler, and pipe components using control volume analyses. The theoretical models were implemented in a new open source simulation environment that carries out the calculation process over a range of up-to three turbine model inputs. A parametric study was undertaken with the goal of defining preliminary design specifications for the test loop components. The test loop was simulated across a wide range of steady states for three different turbine blade configurations, each at three different values of the blade row enthalpy-loss coefficient. The parametric study demonstrates full coverage of possible turbine operating conditions. The results of the simulations were analyzed to narrow the required operating range of the test loop to a series of turbine test paths. The final operational envelope yielded a set of test loop

  18. Research and development of improved efficiency small steam turbines (IESST). Technical progress report, Phase I, 16 April-31 December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Choate, D.M.; Tuttle, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    Product Statistical Bulletins of the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) and Turbodyne's shipment records over a 10-y period were researched to determine quantities installed and to define general parameters of design. Engineering studies were conducted to determine the optimum turbine design to meet the defined design parameters. Two conceptual designs plus an added variation of one design were completed together with designs of gearing required to provide speeds compatible with driven equipment speeds. The calculated performance of the recommended design and currently available small steam turbines were compared and a life cycle cost analysis was conducted to determine the economic competitiveness of the new design.

  19. Modern technologies for rendering information support to cogeneration steam turbine units in their design and operation stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brezgin, V. I.; Brodov, Yu. M.; Chubarov, A. A.; Brezgin, D. V.

    2013-08-01

    Application of modern information technologies in different stages of the lifecycle of cogeneration turbines is considered as one of possible ways for improving their competitiveness. Specific features relating to rendering information support for steam turbine units during the periods of their design and operation, which are the main stages of their life cycle, are presented. Three-dimension modeling, adaptive, and parametric design technologies are applied in the equipment design stages. Information support technologies developed by the authors are applied during the operation stage. Information is integrated by using a product lifecycle management (PLM) system.

  20. Upgrading the SPP-500-1 moisture separators-steam reheaters used in the Leningrad NPP turbine units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legkostupova, V. V.; Sudakov, A. V.

    2015-03-01

    The specific features of existing designs of moisture separators-steam reheaters (MSRs) and experience gained with using them at nuclear power plants are considered. Main factors causing damage to and failures of MSRs are described: nonuniform distribution of wet steam flow among the separation modules, breakthrough of moisture through the separator (and sometimes also through the steam reheater), which may lead to the occurrence of additional thermal stresses and, hence, to thermal-fatigue damage to or stress corrosion cracking of metal. MSR failure results in a less efficient operation of the turbine unit as a whole and have an adverse effect on the reliability of the low-pressure cylinder's last-stage blades. By the time the design service life of the SPP-500-1 MSRs had been exhausted in power units equipped with RBMK-1000 reactors, the number of damages inflicted to both the separation part and to the pipework and heating surface tubes was so large, that a considerable drop of MSR effectiveness and turbine unit efficiency as a whole occurred. The design of the upgraded separation part used in the SPP-500-1 MSR at the Leningrad NPP is described and its effectiveness is shown, which was confirmed by tests. First, efforts taken to achieve more uniform distribution of moisture content over the perimeter and height of steam space downstream of the separation modules and to bring it to values close to the design ones were met with success. Second, no noticeable effect of the individual specific features of separation modules on the moisture content was revealed. Recommendations on elaborating advanced designs of moisture separators-steam reheaters are given: an MSR arrangement in which the separator is placed under or on the side from the steam reheater; axial admission of wet steam for ensuring its uniform distribution among the separation modules; inlet chambers with an extended preliminary separation system and devices for uniformly distributing steam flows in the

  1. Economic analysis of condensers for water recovery in steam injected gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    De Paepe, M.; Huvenne, P.; Dick, E.

    1998-07-01

    Steam injection cycles are interesting for small power ranges because of the high efficiency and the relatively low investment costs. A big disadvantage is the consumption of water by the cycle. Water recovery is seldom realized in industrial practice. In this paper an analysis of the technical and economical possibilities of water recovery by condensation of water out of the exhaust gases is made. Three gas turbines are considered : the Kawasaki M1A-13CC (2.3 MWe), the Allison 501KH (6.8 MWe) and the General Electric LM1600 (17 MWe). For every gas turbine two types of condensers are designed. In the water cooled condenser finned tubes are used to cool the exhaust gases, flowing at the outside of the tubes. The water itself flows at the inside of the tubes and is cooled by a water to air cooler. In the air cooled condenser the exhaust gases flow at the inside of the tubes and the cooling air at the outside. The investment costs of the condensers is compared to the costs of the total installation. The investment costs are relatively smaller if the produced power goes up. The water cooled condenser with water to air cooler is cheaper than the air cooled condenser. Using a condenser results in higher exploitation costs due to the fans and pumps. It is shown that the air cooled condenser has lower exploitation costs than the water cooled one. Pay back time of the total installation does not significantly vary compared to the installation without recovery. Water prices are determined for which water recovery is profitable. For the water cooled condenser the turning point lies at 2.2 Euro/m; for the air cooled condenser this is 0.6 Euro/m.

  2. Determination of the toughness of in-service steam turbine disks using small punch testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foulds, J.; Viswanathan, R.

    2001-10-01

    Knowledge of the material toughness is crucial in assessing the integrity of heavy section steel components. Conventional tests to determine the toughness involve extraction of large blocks of materials and therefore are not practical on in-service components. On the other hand, conservative assumptions regarding toughness without regard to actual data can lead to expensive and premature replacement of the components. Previous EPRI studies have demonstrated the use of a relatively nondestructive technique termed the "small punch test" to estimate the fracture appearance transition temperature (FATT) and fracture toughness ( K Ic ) of high-temperature turbine rotor steels and nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels. This paper summarizes the results of research into the feasibility of extending the small punch test to characterize the toughness of the 3 to 3.5% NiCrMoV (3-3.5NiCrMoV) low alloy steel used for fossil and nuclear power plant low-pressure (LP) steam turbine disks. Results of the present study show that the small punch transition temperature, T sp , is linearly correlated with FATT, so that measurement of T sp permits estimation of the standard Charpy FATT through empirical use of the correlation. The statistical confidence prediction uncertainty bands for the correlation were found to be narrow enough to make the small punch- based FATT estimation practical for this alloy. Additionally, independent K Ic measurements made by PowerGen, UK, on some of the same test materials were in excellent agreement with measurements made here, indicating that the small punch K Ic measurement can be reproducible across laboratories. Limited testing for fracture initiation toughness showed, as has been demonstrated for other materials, that the small punch test-based initiation fracture toughness ( K Ic ) determination was within ±25% of the ASTM standard measurement of K Ic , suggesting that the test method can be used for direct determination of fracture initiation

  3. Estimation of lifespan and economy parameters of steam-turbine power units in thermal power plants using varying regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Shkret, A. F.; Garievskii, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    The use of potent power units in thermal and nuclear power plants in order to regulate the loads results in intense wear of power generating equipment and reduction in cost efficiency of their operation. We review the methodology of a quantitative assessment of the lifespan and wear of steam-turbine power units and estimate the effect of various operation regimes upon their efficiency. To assess the power units' equipment wear, we suggest using the concept of a turbine's equivalent lifespan. We give calculation formulae and an example of calculation of the lifespan of a steam-turbine power unit for supercritical parameters of steam for different options of its loading. The equivalent lifespan exceeds the turbine's assigned lifespan only provided daily shutdown of the power unit during the night off-peak time. We obtained the engineering and economical indices of the power unit operation for different loading regulation options in daily and weekly diagrams. We proved the change in the prime cost of electric power depending on the operation regimes and annual daily number of unloading (non-use) of the power unit's installed capacity. According to the calculation results, the prime cost of electric power for the assumed initial data varies from 11.3 cents/(kW h) in the basic regime of power unit operation (with an equivalent operation time of 166700 hours) to 15.5 cents/(kW h) in the regime with night and holiday shutdowns. The reduction of using the installed capacity of power unit at varying regimes from 3.5 to 11.9 hours per day can increase the prime cost of energy from 4.2 to 37.4%. Furthermore, repair and maintenance costs grow by 4.5% and by 3 times, respectively, in comparison with the basic regime. These results indicate the need to create special maneuverable equipment for working in the varying section of the electric load diagram.

  4. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 5: Combined gas-steam turbine cycles. [energy conversion efficiency in electric power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amos, D. J.; Foster-Pegg, R. W.; Lee, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    The energy conversion efficiency of gas-steam turbine cycles was investigated for selected combined cycle power plants. Results indicate that it is possible for combined cycle gas-steam turbine power plants to have efficiencies several point higher than conventional steam plants. Induction of low pressure steam into the steam turbine is shown to improve the plant efficiency. Post firing of the boiler of a high temperature combined cycle plant is found to increase net power but to worsen efficiency. A gas turbine pressure ratio of 12 to 1 was found to be close to optimum at all gas turbine inlet temperatures that were studied. The coal using combined cycle plant with an integrated low-Btu gasifier was calculated to have a plant efficiency of 43.6%, a capitalization of $497/kW, and a cost of electricity of 6.75 mills/MJ (24.3 mills/kwh). This combined cycle plant should be considered for base load power generation.

  5. Development and realization of the concept of an integrated system for the improvement of steam turbine plant reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murmanskii, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    Main works performed when implementing the concept of an integrated approach to the improvement of the steam turbine plant (STP) reliability were stated. The technique of an integrated approach to the collection and processing of data on the STP equipment reliability was presented. This technique is based on the information on damages resulting in equipment failures, damages revealed during the routine equipment maintenance, and on data concerning equipment faults occurred when operating the STP. There is an implementation example for the technique of defining main elements specifying the reliability of a specific unit based on the statistical analysis of STP operating data.

  6. Use of GTE-65 gas turbine power units in the thermal configuration of steam-gas systems for the refitting of operating thermal electric power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, A. S.; Kovalevskii, V. P.; Getmanov, E. A.; Ermaikina, N. A.

    2008-07-15

    Thermal configurations for condensation, district heating, and discharge steam-gas systems (PGU) based on the GTE-65 gas turbine power unit are described. A comparative multivariant analysis of their thermodynamic efficiency is made. Based on some representative examples, it is shown that steam-gas systems with the GTE-65 and boiler-utilizer units can be effectively used and installed in existing main buildings during technical refitting of operating thermal electric power plants.

  7. Experience gained from using water and steam for bringing the operation of aircraft- and marine-derivative gas-turbine engines in compliance with environmental standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datsenko, V. V.; Zeigarnik, Yu. A.; Kosoi, A. S.

    2014-04-01

    Practical experience gained from using water and steam admission into the combustion chambers of aircraft- and marine-derivative gas turbines for bringing their operation in compliance with the requirements of environmental standards is described. The design and schematic modifications of combustion chambers and fuel system through which this goal is achieved are considered. The results obtained from industrial and rig tests of combustion chambers fitted with water or steam admission systems are presented.

  8. Off-design analysis of a gas turbine powerplant augmented by steam injection using various fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stochl, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Results are compared using coal derived low and intermediate heating valve fuel gases and a conventional distillate. The results indicate that steam injection provides substantial increases in both power and efficiency within the available compressor surge margin. The results also indicate that these performance gains are relatively insensitive as to the type of fuel. Also, in a cogeneration application, steam injection could provide some degree of flexibility by varying the split between power and process steam.

  9. Strategies for steam

    SciTech Connect

    Hennagir, T.

    1996-03-01

    This article is a review of worldwide developments in the steam turbine and heat recovery steam generator markets. The Far East is driving the market in HRSGs, while China is driving the market in orders placed for steam turbine prime movers. The efforts of several major suppliers are discussed, with brief technical details being provided for several projects.

  10. Energy analysis of a combined solid oxide fuel cell with a steam turbine power plant for marine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welaya, Yousri M. A.; Mosleh, M.; Ammar, Nader R.

    2013-12-01

    Strong restrictions on emissions from marine power plants (particularly SO x , NO x ) will probably be adopted in the near future. In this paper, a combined solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and steam turbine fuelled by natural gas is proposed as an attractive option to limit the environmental impact of the marine sector. The analyzed variant of the combined cycle includes a SOFC operated with natural gas fuel and a steam turbine with a single-pressure waste heat boiler. The calculations were performed for two types of tubular and planar SOFCs, each with an output power of 18 MW. This paper includes a detailed energy analysis of the combined system. Mass and energy balances are performed not only for the whole plant but also for each component in order to evaluate the thermal efficiency of the combined cycle. In addition, the effects of using natural gas as a fuel on the fuel cell voltage and performance are investigated. It has been found that a high overall efficiency approaching 60% may be achieved with an optimum configuration using the SOFC system. The hybrid system would also reduce emissions, fuel consumption, and improve the total system efficiency.

  11. Materials for Advanced Ultra-supercritical (A-USC) Steam Turbines – A-USC Component Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Purgert, Robert; Phillips, Jeffrey; Hendrix, Howard; Shingledecker, John; Tanzosh, James

    2016-10-01

    The work by the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE)/Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) Steam Boiler and Turbine Materials Consortia from 2001 through September 2015 was primarily focused on lab scale and pilot scale materials testing. This testing included air- or steam-cooled “loops” that were inserted into existing utility boilers to gain exposure of these materials to realistic conditions of high temperature and corrosion due to the constituents in the coal. Successful research and development resulted in metallic alloy materials and fabrication processes suited for power generation applications with metal temperatures up to approximately 1472°F (800°C). These materials or alloys have shown, in extensive laboratory tests and shop fabrication studies, to have excellent applicability for high-efficiency low CO2 transformational power generation technologies previously mentioned. However, as valuable as these material loops have been for obtaining information, their scale is significantly below that required to minimize the risk associated with a power company building a multi-billion dollar A-USC power plant. To decrease the identified risk barriers to full-scale implementation of these advanced materials, the U.S. DOE/OCDO A-USC Steam Boiler and Turbine Materials Consortia identified the key areas of the technology that need to be tested at a larger scale. Based upon the recommendations and outcome of a Consortia-sponsored workshop with the U.S.’s leading utilities, a Component Test (ComTest) Program for A-USC was proposed. The A-USC ComTest program would define materials performance requirements, plan for overall advanced system integration, design critical component tests, fabricate components for testing from advanced materials, and carry out the tests. The AUSC Component Test was premised on the program occurring at multiple facilities, with the operating temperatures, pressure and/or size of

  12. Exit chimney joint and method of forming the joint for closed circuit steam cooled gas turbine nozzles

    DOEpatents

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian; Burns, James Lee

    2002-01-01

    A nozzle segment for a gas turbine includes inner and outer band portions and a vane extending between the band portions. The inner and outer band portions are each divided into first and second plenums separated by an impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to the first cavity for flow through the apertures to cool the outer nozzle wall. The steam flows through a leading edge cavity in the vane into the first cavity of the inner band portion for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the inner nozzle wall. Spent cooling steam flows through a plurality of cavities in the vane, exiting through an exit chimney in the outer band. The exit chimney is secured at its inner end directly to the nozzle vane wall surrounding the exit cavities, to the margin of the impingement plate at a location intermediate the ends of the exit chimney and to margins of an opening through the cover whereby each joint is externally accessible for joint formation and for subsequent inspection.

  13. Prospects for constructing cogeneration stations equipped with back-pressure steam turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanovskii, A. A.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Stepanov, M. Yu.

    2014-12-01

    The possibilities of using back-pressure cogeneration turbines developed on the basis of serially produced ones are considered together with the thermal process circuits in which such turbines are applied. Design versions and advantages of cogeneration stations in which the proposed process circuits are implemented are described.

  14. R and D for improved efficiency small steam turbines, Phase II. Report No. 1380-3. First quarterly technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, Dr., W.; Maillar, K. M.; Bender, D. A.; Brassert, W. L.; Capone, P. A.; Carter, A. F.; Heitmann, A. M.; Holland, J. E.; Lord, R. E.; Thirumalaisamy, S. N.

    1980-09-01

    Progress made in the second phase of a two-phase research, design and prototype development program is presented. Phase II consists of the detailed design of the prototype radial inflow steam turbine configuration selected during the first phase and subsequent fabrication and testing. At this time, the detailed aerodynamic design of the stage flowpath has been completed except for the crossover piping from the first stage exhaust to the second stage inlet. In addition, mechanical design effort has resulted in a definition of a rotor system. The aerodynamic design included the optimization of the overall flowpath geometry of the stages specified in the initial phase of the program. The detailed aerodynamic designs of the rotor blades, nozzle vanes, scroll and diffuser were based on the optimized geometry. The final blading selected for the stage is a radial design with 26 blades, 13 of which are splitters. Sixteen nozzle vanes have been specified. The mechanical design of the rotor system to date has included the specification of the rotor wheels and shafts with their polygon connection, and the design of the thrust and journal bearings and the gearing. In addition, various shaft sealing arrangements have been evaluated, subject to the constraints indicated by initial rotordynamic analyses. Indications are that a reasonably effective labyrinth seal is not precluded by shaft length limitations. As this type of seal has been long accepted by steam turbine users, its use in the prototype is most likely. Proven components have been specified wherever possible, i.e., redesign/development could not be justified. The rotor system has been designed for at least 100,000 hours life with the most severe operating conditions and loads. The system cannot be considered complete, however, until dynamic response of the rotors for all possible operating conditions is shown to be within acceptable limits.

  15. Technique of optimization of minimum temperature driving forces in the heaters of regeneration system of a steam turbine unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamarokov, A. S.; Zorin, V. M.; Dai, Fam Kuang

    2016-03-01

    At the current stage of development of nuclear power engineering, high demands on nuclear power plants (NPP), including on their economy, are made. In these conditions, improving the quality of NPP means, in particular, the need to reasonably choose the values of numerous managed parameters of technological (heat) scheme. Furthermore, the chosen values should correspond to the economic conditions of NPP operation, which are postponed usually a considerable time interval from the point of time of parameters' choice. The article presents the technique of optimization of controlled parameters of the heat circuit of a steam turbine plant for the future. Its particularity is to obtain the results depending on a complex parameter combining the external economic and operating parameters that are relatively stable under the changing economic environment. The article presents the results of optimization according to this technique of the minimum temperature driving forces in the surface heaters of the heat regeneration system of the steam turbine plant of a K-1200-6.8/50 type. For optimization, the collector-screen heaters of high and low pressure developed at the OAO All-Russia Research and Design Institute of Nuclear Power Machine Building, which, in the authors' opinion, have the certain advantages over other types of heaters, were chosen. The optimality criterion in the task was the change in annual reduced costs for NPP compared to the version accepted as the baseline one. The influence on the decision of the task of independent variables that are not included in the complex parameter was analyzed. An optimization task was decided using the alternating-variable descent method. The obtained values of minimum temperature driving forces can guide the design of new nuclear plants with a heat circuit, similar to that accepted in the considered task.

  16. High performance steam development

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, T.; Schneider, P.

    1995-12-31

    DOE has launched a program to make a step change in power plant to 1500 F steam, since the highest possible performance gains can be achieved in a 1500 F steam system when using a topping turbine in a back pressure steam turbine for cogeneration. A 500-hour proof-of-concept steam generator test module was designed, fabricated, and successfully tested. It has four once-through steam generator circuits. The complete HPSS (high performance steam system) was tested above 1500 F and 1500 psig for over 102 hours at full power.

  17. Non-destructive measurement and role of surface residual stress monitoring in residual life assessment of a steam turbine blading material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu-Gaunkar, Gajanana; Rawat, M. S.; Prasad, C. R.

    2014-02-01

    Steam turbine blades in power generation equipment are made from martensitic stainless steels having high strength, good toughness and corrosion resistance. However, these steels are susceptible to pitting which can promote early failures of blades in the turbines, particularly in the low pressure dry/wet areas by stress corrosion and corrosion fatigue. Presence of tensile residual stresses is known to accelerate failures whereas compressive stresses can help in delaying failures. Shot peening has been employed as an effective tool to induce compressive residual stresses which offset a part of local surface tensile stresses in the surface layers of components. Maintaining local stresses at stress raisers, such as pits formed during service, below a threshold level can help in preventing the initiation microcracks and failures. The thickness of the layer in compression will, however, depend of the shot peening parameters and should extend below the bottom of corrosion pits. The magnitude of surface compressive drops progressively during service exposure and over time the effectiveness of shot peening is lost making the material susceptible to micro-crack initiation once again. Measurement and monitoring of surface residual stress therefore becomes important for assessing residual life of components in service. This paper shows the applicability of surface stress monitoring to life assessment of steam turbine blade material based on data generated in laboratory on residual surface stress measurements in relation to fatigue exposure. An empirical model is proposed to calculate the remaining life of shot peened steam turbine blades in service.

  18. RELAP5/MOD3 Analysis of Transient Steam-Generator Behavior During Turbine Trip Test of a Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor MONJU

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshihisa Shindo; Hiroshi Endo; Tomoko Ishizu; Kazuo Haga

    2006-07-01

    In order to develop a thermal-hydraulic model of the steam-generator (SG) to simulate transient phenomena in the sodium cooled fast breeder reactor (FBR) MONJU, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) verified the SG model using the RELAP5/MOD3 code against the results of the turbine trip test at a 40% power load of MONJU. The modeling by using RELAP5 was considered to explain the significant observed behaviors of the pressure and the temperature of the EV steam outlet, and the temperature of water supply distributing piping till 600 seconds after the turbine trip. The analysis results of these behaviors showed good agreement with the test results based on results of parameter study as the blow efficiency (release coef.) and heat transferred from the helical coil region to the down-comer (temperature heating down-comer tubes). It was found that the RELAP5/MOD3 code with a two-fluids model can predict well the physical situation: the gas-phase of steam generated by the decompression boiling moves upward in the down-comer tubes accompanied by the enthalpy increase of the water supply chambers; and that the pressure change of a 'shoulder' like shape is induced by the mass balance between the steam mass generated in the down-comer tubes and the steam mass blown from the SG. The applicability of RELAP5/MOD3 to SG modeling was confirmed by simulating the actual FBR system. (authors)

  19. Steam turbine start up method based on predictive monitoring and control of thermal stresses

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumura, J.; Matsumoto, H.; Niyawara, S.; Urushidani, H.

    1985-04-01

    A turbine start up program decision and control method based on rotor thermal stresses has been developed. This method featured scheduling punctuality for the start up program, in addition to the start up optimization, and was especially suited to daily start up and shut down (DSS) units. The method was applied to a 375MW DSS unit which verified its effectiveness.

  20. Shaft seals with an easily removable cylinder holder for low-pressure steam turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, A. E.; Rodionov, D. A.; Pimenov, E. V.; Sobolev, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problems that occur at the operation of LPC shaft seals (SS) of turbines, particularly, their bearings. The problems arising from the deterioration of oil-protecting rings of SS and bearings and also the consequences in which they can result are considered. The existing SS housing construction types are considered. Their operational features are specified. A new SS construction type with an easily removable holder is presented. The construction of its main elements is described. The sequence of operations of the repair personnel at the restoration of the new SS type spacings is proposed. The comparative analysis of the new and the existing SS construction types is carried out. The assessment results of the efficiency, the operational convenience, and the economic effect after the installation of the new type seals are given. The conclusions about the offered construction prospects are made by results of the comparative analysis and the carried-out assessment. The main advantage of this design is the possibility of spacings restoration both in SS and in oil-protecting rings during a short-term stop of a turbine, even without its cooling. This construction was successfully tested on the working K-300-23.5 LMP turbine. However, its adaptation for other turbines is quite possible.

  1. Castability of Traditionally Wrought Ni-Based Superalloys for USC Steam Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonski, P D; Cowen, C J; Hawk, J A; Evens, N; Maziasz, P

    2011-02-27

    The high temperature components within conventional coal fired power plants are manufactured from ferritic/martensitic steels. In order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions the efficiency of pulverized coal steam power plants must be increased. The proposed steam temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A-USC) power plant is high enough (760°C) that ferritic/martensitic steels will not work due to temperature limitations of this class of materials; thus Ni-based superalloys are being considered. The full size castings are quite substantial: ~4in thick, several feet in diameter and weigh 5-10,000lb each half. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled in order to produce relevant microstructures. A multi-step homogenization heat treatment was developed in order to better deploy the alloy constituents. The castability of two traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys to which minor alloy adjustments have been made in order to improve foundry performance is further explored.

  2. Pouring on the steam

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1996-02-01

    Engineers at Solar Turbines Inc. in San Diego have achieved a breakthrough in steam power by using modern gas-turbine technology, high-temperature-resistant superalloys, advanced manufacturing technologies, and a new class of steam generators to build a high-performance steam system (HPSS). The system is a full-scale, 4-megawatt industrial prototype steam power plant that produces steam heated to 1,500 F and pressurized to 1,500 psig. In a cogeneration steam cycle, these temperatures and pressures can double the power generated using the same amount of steam, according to the US Department of Energy (DOE), which sponsored the project as part of the Advanced Turbine System Program.

  3. Recovery of exhaust waste heat for a hybrid car using steam turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ababatin, Yasser

    A number of car engines operate with an efficiency rate of approximately 22% to 25% [1]. The remainder of the energy these engines generate is wasted through heat escape out of the exhaust pipe. There is now an increasing desire to reuse this heat energy, which would improve the overall efficiency of car engines by reducing their consumption of fuel. Another benefit is that such reuse would minimize harmful greenhouse gases that are emitted into the environment. Therefore, the purpose of this project is to examine how the wasted heat energy can be reused and/or recovered by use of a heat recovery system that would store this energy in a hybrid car battery. Green turbines will be analyzed as a possible solution to recycle the lost energy in a way that will also improve the overall automotive energy efficiency.

  4. Axial seal system for a gas turbine steam-cooled rotor

    DOEpatents

    Mashey, Thomas Charles

    2002-01-01

    An axial seal assembly is provided at the interface between adjacent wheels and spacers of a gas turbine rotor and disposed about tubes passing through openings in the rotor adjacent the rotor rim and carrying a thermal medium. Each seal assembly includes a support bushing for supporting a land of the thermal medium carrying tube, an axially registering seat bushing disposed in the opposed opening and a frustoconical seal between the seal bushing and seat. The seal bushing includes a radial flange having an annular recess for retaining the outer diameter edge of the seal, while the seat bushing has an axially facing annular surface forming a seat for engagement by the inner diameter edge of the seal.

  5. Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Coplin, J.F.; Hadaway, E.S.

    1984-01-31

    A turbine suitable for a gas turbine engine is provided with a bearing support member which is interconnected with the turbine casing by means of an annular array of aerofoil guide vanes. The whole assembly of support member and aerofoil guide vanes is maintained in a state of tension. The degree of tension in the assembly is controlled so as to be substantially constant throughout the normal operating cycle of the turbine.

  6. Status on the Component Models Developed in the Modelica Framework: High-Temperature Steam Electrolysis Plant & Gas Turbine Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Suk Kim, Jong; McKellar, Michael; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Boardman, Richard D.

    2016-10-01

    This report has been prepared as part of an effort to design and build a modeling and simulation (M&S) framework to assess the economic viability of a nuclear-renewable hybrid energy system (N-R HES). In order to facilitate dynamic M&S of such an integrated system, research groups in multiple national laboratories have been developing various subsystems as dynamic physics-based components using the Modelica programming language. In fiscal year (FY) 2015, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed a dynamic analysis of two region-specific N-R HES configurations, including the gas-to-liquid (natural gas to Fischer-Tropsch synthetic fuel) and brackish water reverse osmosis desalination plants as industrial processes. In FY 2016, INL has developed two additional subsystems in the Modelica framework: a high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE) plant and a gas turbine power plant (GTPP). HTSE has been proposed as a high priority industrial process to be integrated with a light water reactor (LWR) in an N-R HES. This integrated energy system would be capable of dynamically apportioning thermal and electrical energy (1) to provide responsive generation to the power grid and (2) to produce alternative industrial products (i.e., hydrogen and oxygen) without generating any greenhouse gases. A dynamic performance analysis of the LWR/HTSE integration case was carried out to evaluate the technical feasibility (load-following capability) and safety of such a system operating under highly variable conditions requiring flexible output. To support the dynamic analysis, the detailed dynamic model and control design of the HTSE process, which employs solid oxide electrolysis cells, have been developed to predict the process behavior over a large range of operating conditions. As first-generation N-R HES technology will be based on LWRs, which provide thermal energy at a relatively low temperature, complementary temperature-boosting technology was suggested for integration with the

  7. ON THE PROBLEM OF CORRECTING TWISTED TURBINE BLADES,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    TURBINE BLADES , DESIGN), GAS TURBINES , STEAM TURBINES , BLADE AIRFOILS , ASPECT RATIO, FLUID DYNAMICS, SECONDARY FLOW, ANGLE OF ATTACK, INLET GUIDE VANES , CORRECTIONS, PERFORMANCE( ENGINEERING ), OPTIMIZATION, USSR

  8. Start-up circuit upgrading to reduce the erosion of the rotor blades of the last stages of steam turbines and prevent the mass strips of stellite plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozhko, V. V.; Gorin, A. V.; Zaitsev, I. V.; Kovalev, I. A.; Nosovitskii, I. A.; Orlik, V. G.; Lomagin, S. N.; Chernov, V. P.

    2017-03-01

    At turbine starts with low steam flow rates in idle mode, the low-pressure rotor blades consume energy, causing the ventilation heating of the stages and creating higher depression in them than in the condenser. This leads to the return steam flows in the exhaust of the low-pressure cylinder (LPC), reducing the heat due to the moisture of starting steam damps and cooling injections. It is shown that, as a result of upgrading with the transition to fully milled shroud platforms of rotor blades, the depression in the stages decreases and their cooling efficiency is reduced due to the removal of an elastic turn of the rotor blades under the action of centrifugal forces and seal of them by periphery. Heating the rotor blades of the last stages exceeds the temperature threshold of soldering resistance of stellite plates (150°C), and their mass strips begin. The start-up circuit providing both the temperature retention of the last stages lower the soldering resistance threshold due to overwetting the steam damps up to saturation condition and the high degree of removal from the dump steam of excessive erosive-dangerous condensed moisture was proposed, applied, and tested at the operating power unit. The investment in the development and application of the new start-up circuit are compensated in the course of a year owing to guaranteed prevention of the strips of stellite plates that lengthens the service life of the rotor blades of the last stages as well as increase of the rotor blade efficiency due to the sharp decrease of erosive wear of the profiles and reduction of their surface roughness. This reduces the annual consumption of equivalent fuel by approximately 1000 t for every 100 MW of installed capacity.

  9. Enhanced Droplet Erosion Resistance of Laser Treated Nano Structured TWAS and Plasma Ion Nitro-Carburized Coatings for High Rating Steam Turbine Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, B. K.; Arya, Vivek; Mann, B. S.

    2010-09-01

    This article deals with surface modification of twin wire arc sprayed (TWAS) and plasma ion nitro-carburized X10CrNiMoV1222 steel using high power diode laser (HPDL) to overcome water droplet erosion occurring in low pressure steam turbine (LPST) bypass valves and LPST moving blades used in high rating conventional, critical, and super critical thermal power plants. The materials commonly used for high rating steam turbines blading are X10CrNiMoV1222 steel and Ti6Al4V titanium alloy. The HPDL surface treatment on TWAS coated X10CrNiMoV1222 steel as well as on plasma ion nitro-carburized steel has improved water droplet resistance manifolds. This may be due to combination of increased hardness and toughness as well as the formation of fine grained structure due to rapid heating and cooling rates associated with the laser surface treatment. The water droplet erosion test results along with their damage mechanism are reported in this article.

  10. Component testing of a ground based gas turbine steam cooled rich-burn primary zone combustor for emissions control of nitrogeneous fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, D. F.

    1986-01-01

    This effort summarizes the work performed on a steam cooled, rich-burn primary zone, variable geometry combustor designed for combustion of nitrogeneous fuels such as heavy oils or synthetic crude oils. The steam cooling was employed to determine its feasibility and assess its usefulness as part of a ground based gas turbine bottoming cycle. Variable combustor geometry was employed to demonstrate its ability to control primary and secondary zone equivalence ratios and overall pressure drop. Both concepts proved to be highly successful in achieving their desired objectives. The steam cooling reduced peak liner temperatures to less than 800 K. This low temperature offers the potential of both long life and reduced use of strategic materials for liner fabrication. These degrees of variable geometry were successfully employed to control air flow distribution within the combustor. A variable blade angle axial flow air swirler was used to control primary zone air flow, while the secondary and tertiary zone air flows were controlled by rotating bands which regulated air flow to the secondary zone quench holes and the dilutions holes respectively.

  11. Component testing of a ground based gas turbine steam cooled rich-burn primary zone combustor for emissions control of nitrogeneous fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, D. F.

    This effort summarizes the work performed on a steam cooled, rich-burn primary zone, variable geometry combustor designed for combustion of nitrogeneous fuels such as heavy oils or synthetic crude oils. The steam cooling was employed to determine its feasibility and assess its usefulness as part of a ground based gas turbine bottoming cycle. Variable combustor geometry was employed to demonstrate its ability to control primary and secondary zone equivalence ratios and overall pressure drop. Both concepts proved to be highly successful in achieving their desired objectives. The steam cooling reduced peak liner temperatures to less than 800 K. This low temperature offers the potential of both long life and reduced use of strategic materials for liner fabrication. These degrees of variable geometry were successfully employed to control air flow distribution within the combustor. A variable blade angle axial flow air swirler was used to control primary zone air flow, while the secondary and tertiary zone air flows were controlled by rotating bands which regulated air flow to the secondary zone quench holes and the dilutions holes respectively.

  12. Steam turbine: Alternative emergency drive for the secure removal of residual heat from the core of light water reactors in ultimate emergency situation

    SciTech Connect

    Souza Dos Santos, R.

    2012-07-01

    In 2011 the nuclear power generation has suffered an extreme probation. That could be the meaning of what happened in Fukushima Nuclear Power Plants. In those plants, an earthquake of 8.9 on the Richter scale was recorded. The quake intensity was above the trip point of shutting down the plants. Since heat still continued to be generated, the procedure to cooling the reactor was started. One hour after the earthquake, a tsunami rocked the Fukushima shore, degrading all cooling system of plants. Since the earthquake time, the plant had lost external electricity, impacting the pumping working, drive by electric engine. When operable, the BWR plants responded the management of steam. However, the lack of electricity had degraded the plant maneuvers. In this paper we have presented a scheme to use the steam as an alternative drive to maintain operable the cooling system of nuclear power plant. This scheme adds more reliability and robustness to the cooling systems. Additionally, we purposed a solution to the cooling in case of lacking water for the condenser system. In our approach, steam driven turbines substitute electric engines in the ultimate emergency cooling system. (authors)

  13. Development of a system for monitoring technical state of the equipment of a cogeneration steam turbine unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronson, K. E.; Brodov, Yu. M.; Novoselov, V. B.

    2012-12-01

    Generalized results from the work on developing elements of a comprehensive system for monitoring technical state of the equipment of cogeneration turbines are presented. The parameters of the electrohydraulic turbine control system are considered together with a number of problems concerned with assessing the state of condensers and delivery water heaters.

  14. Turbine Manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The machinery pictured is a set of Turbodyne steam turbines which power a sugar mill at Bell Glade, Florida. A NASA-developed computer program called NASTRAN aided development of these and other turbines manufactured by Turbodyne Corporation's Steam Turbine Division, Wellsville, New York. An acronym for NASA Structural Analysis Program, NASTRAN is a predictive tool which advises development teams how a structural design will perform under service use conditions. Turbodyne uses NASTRAN to analyze the dynamic behavior of steam turbine components, achieving substantial savings in development costs. One of the most widely used spinoffs, NASTRAN is made available to private industry through NASA's Computer Software Management Information Center (COSMIC) at the University of Georgia.

  15. New features and applications of PRESTO, a computer code for the performance of regenerative, superheated steam turbine cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choo, Y. K.; Staiger, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    The code was designed to analyze performance at valves-wide-open design flow. The code can model conventional steam cycles as well as cycles that include such special features as process steam extraction and induction and feedwater heating by external heat sources. Convenience features and extensions to the special features were incorporated into the PRESTO code. The features are described, and detailed examples illustrating the use of both the original and the special features are given.

  16. Some perspective decisions for the regeneration system equipment of the thermal and nuclear power plants decreasing the probability of water ingress into the turbine and rotor acceleration by return steam flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonov, N. N.; Svyatkin, F. A.; Sintsova, T. G.; Ukhanova, M. G.; Yesin, S. B.; Nikolayenkova, E. K.; Yurchenko, A. Yu.; Grigorieva, E. B.

    2016-03-01

    The regeneration system heaters are one of the sources of possible ingress of the water into the turbine. The water penetrates into the turbine either at the heaters overflow or with the return flow of steam generated when the water being in the heater boils up in the dynamic operation modes or at deenergization of the power-generating unit. The return flow of steam and water is dangerous to the turbine blades and can result in the rotor acceleration. The known protective devices used to prevent the overflow of the low-pressure and high-pressure heaters (LPH and HPH), of the horizontal and vertical heaters of heating-system water (HWH and VWH), as well as of the deaerators and low-pressure mixing heaters (LPMH) were considered. The main protective methods of the steam and water return flows supplied by the heaters in dynamic operation modes or at deenergization of the power-generating unit are described. Previous operating experience shows that the available protections do not fully prevent water ingress into the turbine and the rotor acceleration and, therefore, the development of measures to decrease the possibility of ingress of the water into the turbine is an actual problem. The measures allowing eliminating or reducing the water mass in the heaters are expounded; some of them were designed by the specialists of OAO Polzunov Scientific and Development Association on Research and Design of Power Equipment (NPO CKTI) and are efficiently introduced at heat power plants and nuclear power plants. The suggested technical solutions allow reducing the possibility of the water ingress into the turbine and rotor acceleration by return steam flow in the dynamic operation modes or in the case of power generating unit deenergization. Some of these solutions have been tested in experimental-industrial exploitation and can be used in industry.

  17. Heat transfer performance comparison of steam and air in gas turbine cooling channels with different rib angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaojun; Gao, Jianmin; Xu, Liang; Li, Fajin

    2013-11-01

    Using steam as working fluid to replace compressed air is a promising cooling technology for internal cooling passages of blades and vanes. The local heat transfer characteristics and the thermal performance of steam flow in wide aspect ratio channels ( W/ H = 2) with different angled ribs on two opposite walls have been experimentally investigated in this paper. The averaged Nusselt number ratios and the friction factor ratios of steam and air in four ribbed channels were also measured under the same test conditions for comparison. The Reynolds number range is 6,000-70,000. The rib angles are 90°, 60°, 45°, and 30°, respectively. The rib height to hydraulic diameter ratio is 0.047. The pitch-to-rib height ratio is 10. The results show that the Nusselt number ratios of steam are 1.19-1.32 times greater than those of air over the range of Reynolds numbers studied. For wide aspect ratio channels using steam as the coolant, the 60° angled ribs has the best heat transfer performance and is recommended for cooling design.

  18. A Comparison of Creep-Rupture Tested Cast Alloys HR282, IN740 and 263 for Possible Application in Advanced Ultrasupercritical Steam Turbine and Boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonski, P D; Evens, N; Yamamoto, Y; Maziasz, P

    2011-02-27

    Cast forms of traditionally wrought Ni-base precipitation-strengthened superalloys are being considered for service in the ultra-supercritical conditions (760°C, 35MPa) of next-generation steam boilers and turbines. After casting and homogenization, these alloys were given heat-treatments typical for each in the wrought condition to develop the gamma-prime phase. Specimens machined from castings were creep-rupture tested in air at 800°C. In their wrought forms, alloy 282 is expected to precipitate M23C6 within grain boundaries, alloy 740 is expected to precipitate several grain boundary phases including M23C6, G Phase, and η phase, and alloy 263 has M23C6 and MC within its grain boundaries. This presentation will correlate the observed creep-life of these cast alloys with the microstructures developed during creep-rupture tests, with an emphasis on the phase identification and chemistry of precipitated grain boundary phases. The suitability of these cast forms of traditionally wrought alloys for turbine and boiler components will also be discussed.

  19. Thermo-fluid dynamic design study of single and double-inflow radial and single-stage axial steam turbines for open-cycle thermal energy conversion net power-producing experiment facility in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Schlbeiri, T. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1990-03-01

    The results of the study of the optimum thermo-fluid dynamic design concept are presented for turbine units operating within the open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) systems. The concept is applied to the first OC-OTEC net power producing experiment (NPPE) facility to be installed at Hawaii's natural energy laboratory. Detailed efficiency and performance calculations were performed for the radial turbine design concept with single and double-inflow arrangements. To complete the study, the calculation results for a single-stage axial steam turbine design are also presented. In contrast to the axial flow design with a relatively low unit efficiency, higher efficiency was achieved for single-inflow turbines. Highest efficiency was calculated for a double-inflow radial design, which opens new perspectives for energy generation from OC-OTEC systems.

  20. The influence of incidence angle on the aerodynamics of condensing flow around a rotor tip section of steam turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beheshti Amiri, H.; Salmaniyeh, F.; Izadi, A.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, the influence of incidence angle on the aerodynamics of the steam flow field around a rotor tip section is investigated. An Eulerian-Eulerian method, based on a non-equilibrium thermodynamics model for simulating the wet flow is employed. In this study, the effects of incidence angle on different design parameters such as: outflow Mach number, outflow gas phase mass fraction, loss coefficient and deviation angle are studied.

  1. Apparatus and methods for supplying auxiliary steam in a combined cycle system

    DOEpatents

    Gorman, William G.; Carberg, William George; Jones, Charles Michael

    2002-01-01

    To provide auxiliary steam, a low pressure valve is opened in a combined cycle system to divert low pressure steam from the heat recovery steam generator to a header for supplying steam to a second combined cycle's steam turbine seals, sparging devices and cooling steam for the steam turbine if the steam turbine and gas turbine lie on a common shaft with the generator. Cooling steam is supplied the gas turbine in the combined cycle system from the high pressure steam turbine. Spent gas turbine cooling steam may augment the low pressure steam supplied to the header by opening a high pressure valve whereby high and low pressure steam flows are combined. An attemperator is used to reduce the temperature of the combined steam in response to auxiliary steam flows above a predetermined flow and a steam header temperature above a predetermined temperature. The auxiliary steam may be used to start additional combined cycle units or to provide a host unit with steam turbine cooling and sealing steam during full-speed no-load operation after a load rejection.

  2. Fatigue test results of the rotating steel blades of steam turbine K-25-0.6 GEO with ion-plasma coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachalin, G. V.; Mednikov, A. F.; Tkhabisimov, A. B.; Arkad'ev, D. A.; Temkin, S. G.; Senina, N. A.

    2016-12-01

    Fatigue test results of the rotating steel blades of the fourth stage of the K-25-0.6 low pressure cylinder Geo steam turbine manufactured in the Kaluga Turbine Plant (hereinafter, KTP) with the ion-plasma coating were presented. Coating formation was carried out at the National Research University (MPEI) on the Gefest vacuum pilot plant by the magnetron sputtering method. Characteristics of the obtained coating were analyzed with the use of the scientific-research equipment of the National Research University (MPEI). Fatigue tests of the rotating blades and determination of the fatigue strength of the material with the ion-plasma coating were carried out on the electrodynamic vibration machines VEDS-400A in the KTP structural laboratory. The following characteristics were obtained after tests: Ti-TiN composition, 10-11 μm thickness, 1200 HV 0.05 microhardness. Fatigue tests showed that destruction, regardless of availability or nonavailability of the coating, took place by cross-section in the root zone both on the leading and trailing edges of the blade, i.e., in the most stressed zones. It was found out that the maximum stresses during tests were revealed in the root section along the trailing edge on the blade pressure side, and the less stresses were on the leading edge. Fatigue strength of the working blades after coating formation increased by 12% minimum. Results of the fatigue tests prove the previously obtained data concerning 10-12% increase of the fatigue strength of the blade steel with the ion-plasma coating and allow claiming that the process of their formation exerts the positive influence on the fatigue characteristics of the blade materials.

  3. Gas turbine combustor transition

    DOEpatents

    Coslow, Billy Joe; Whidden, Graydon Lane

    1999-01-01

    A method of converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit.

  4. Gas turbine combustor transition

    DOEpatents

    Coslow, B.J.; Whidden, G.L.

    1999-05-25

    A method is described for converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit. 7 figs.

  5. Flow Distribution Control Characteristics in Marine Gas Turbine Waste- Heat Recovery Systems. Phase 2. Flow Distribution Control in Waste-Heat Steam Generators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    waste-heat steam generators. The applicable steam generator design concepts and general design consideration were reviewed and critical problems...a once-through forced-circulation steam generator design should be selected because of stability, reliability, compact- ness and lightweight...consists of three sections and one appendix. In Section I, the applicable steam generator design conccpts and general design * considerations are reviewed

  6. Stationary Engineers Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 15.1-15.5 Turbines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This learning module, one in a series of 20 related training modules for apprentice stationary engineers, deals with turbines. addressed in the individual instructional packages included in the module are the following topics: types and components of steam turbines, steam turbine auxiliaries, operation and maintenance of steam turbines, and gas…

  7. Change in working characteristics of the steam turbine metal with operating time of more than 330000 hours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladshteyn, V. I.; Troitskiy, A. I.

    2017-01-01

    Research of a metal of the stop valve case (SVC) of the K-300-23.5 LMZ turbine (steel grade 15Kh1M1FL), destroyed after operation for 331000 hours, is performed. It's chemical composition and properties are determined as follows: a short-term mechanical tensile stress at 20°C and at elevated temperature, critical temperature, fragility, critical crack opening at elevated temperature, and long-term strength. Furthermore, nature of the microstructure, packing density of carbide particles and their size, and chemical composition of carbide sediment are estimated. A manifestation of metal properties for the main case components by comparison with a forecast of the respective characteristics made for the operating time of 331000 hours is tested. Property-time relationships are built for the forecast using statistical treatment of the test results for the samples cut out from more than 300 parts. Representativeness of the research results is proved: the statistical treatment of their differences are within the range of ±5%. It has been found that, after 150000 hours of operation, only the tensile strength insignificantly depends on the operating time at 20°C, whereas indicators of strength at elevated temperature significantly reduce, depending on the operating time. A brittle-to-ductile transition temperature (BDTT) raises, a critical notch opening changes in a complicated way, a long-term strength reduces. It has been found empirically that the limit of a long-term strength of the SVC metal at 540°C and the operating time of 105 hours is almost 1.6 times less than the required value in the as-delivered state. It is possible to evaluate a service life of the operating valves with the operating time of more than 330000 hours with respect to the long-term strength of the metal taking into account the actual temperature and stress. Guidelines for the control of similar parts are provided.

  8. 60. 1901 STEAM ENGINE HOUSE LOOKING WEST. VISIBLE THROUGH HIGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. 1901 STEAM ENGINE HOUSE LOOKING WEST. VISIBLE THROUGH HIGH ARCHED PASSAGEWAYS AT LEFT (FORMER WINDOWS) IS 1902 STEAM TURBINE. - Boston Manufacturing Company, 144-190 Moody Street, Waltham, Middlesex County, MA

  9. Geothermal steam condensate reinjection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chasteen, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Geothermal electric generating plants which use condensing turbines and generate and excess of condensed steam which must be disposed of are discussed. At the Geysers, California, the largest geothermal development in the world, this steam condensate has been reinjected into the steam reservoir since 1968. A total of 3,150,000,000 gallons of steam condensate has been reinjected since that time with no noticeable effect on the adjacent producing wells. Currently, 3,700,000 gallons/day from 412 MW of installed capacity are being injected into 5 wells. Reinjection has also proven to be a satisfactory method of disposing of geothermal condensate a Imperial Valley, California, and at the Valles Caldera, New Mexico.

  10. Solar-Power System Produces High-Pressure Steam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1985-01-01

    Combination of three multistaged solar collectors produces highpressure steam for large-scale continuously operating turbines for generating mechanical or electrical energy. Superheated water vapor drives turbines, attaining an overall system efficiency about 22 percent.

  11. Ukraine Steam Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Gurvinder Singh

    2000-02-15

    The Ukraine Steam Partnership program is designed to implement energy efficiency improvements in industrial steam systems. These improvements are to be made by the private plants and local government departments responsible for generation and delivery of energy to end-users. One of the activities planned under this program was to provide a two-day training workshop on industrial steam systems focusing on energy efficiency issues related to the generation, distribution, and consumption of steam. The workshop was geared towards plant managers, who are not only technically oriented, but are also key decision makers in their respective companies. The Agency for Rational Energy Use and Ecology (ARENA-ECO), a non-governmental, not-for-profit organization founded to promote energy efficiency and environmental protection in Ukraine, in conjunction with the Alliance staff in Kiev sent out invitations to potential participants in all the regions of Ukraine. The purpose of this report is the describe the proceedings from the workshop and provide recommendations from the workshop's roundtable discussion. The workshop was broken down into two main areas: (1) Energy efficient boiler house steam generation; and Energy efficient steam distribution and consumption. The workshop also covered the following topics: (1) Ukrainian boilers; (2) Water treatment systems; (3) A profile of UKRESCO (Ukrainian Energy Services Company); (4) Turbine expanders and electricity generation; (5) Enterprise energy audit basics; and (6) Experience of steam use in Donetsk oblast.

  12. 46 CFR 11.518 - Service requirements for national endorsement as chief engineer (limited) of steam, motor, and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... engineer (limited) of steam, motor, and/or gas turbine-propelled vessels. 11.518 Section 11.518 Shipping... requirements for national endorsement as chief engineer (limited) of steam, motor, and/or gas turbine-propelled... (limited) of steam, motor, and/or gas turbine-propelled vessels is 5 years of total service in...

  13. 46 CFR 11.516 - Service requirements for national endorsement as third assistant engineer of steam, motor, and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 3 months of service in the engine department of steam, motor, or gas turbine-propelled vessels; (5... ABET, together with 6 months of service in the engine department of steam, motor, or gas turbine... assistant engineer of steam, motor, and/or gas turbine-propelled vessels. 11.516 Section 11.516...

  14. 46 CFR 11.514 - Service requirements for national endorsement as second assistant engineer of steam, motor, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... assistant engineer of steam, motor, and/or gas turbine-propelled vessels. 11.514 Section 11.514 Shipping... requirements for national endorsement as second assistant engineer of steam, motor, and/or gas turbine... assistant engineer of steam, motor, and/or gas turbine-propelled vessels is— (1) One year of service as...

  15. 46 CFR 11.522 - Service requirements for national endorsement as assistant engineer (limited) of steam, motor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... assistant engineer (limited) of steam, motor, and/or gas turbine-propelled vessels. 11.522 Section 11.522... requirements for national endorsement as assistant engineer (limited) of steam, motor, and/or gas turbine... engineer (limited) of steam, motor, and/or gas turbine-propelled vessels is 3 years of service in...

  16. 46 CFR 11.512 - Service requirements for national endorsement as first assistant engineer of steam, motor, and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... assistant engineer of steam, motor, and/or gas turbine-propelled vessels. 11.512 Section 11.512 Shipping... requirements for national endorsement as first assistant engineer of steam, motor, and/or gas turbine-propelled... engineer of steam, motor, and/or gas turbine-propelled vessels is— (1) One year of service as an...

  17. District steam and the St. Louis steam loop

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, T.M.; Sauer, H.J. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    Owned and operated by large public electric utilities, district steam systems flourished in most northern US cities in the first half of this century. Following World War II, however, district steam systems became minor and, in some cases, unprofitable portions of the utilities' operations. Consequently, public utilities ceased promoting district steam to existing and potential customers, leading to the decline of their use. In recent years, district steam systems have been revitalized by independent enterprises that have the commitment and expertise to make these systems once again reliable and cost-effective energy sources. This paper reports on one such system, The St. Louis Steam Loop. The St. Louis steam loop consists of 22 miles of insulated underground steam piping encompassing a 400-square block area in the city's downtown business district. The loop is supplied with steam by the Ashley Plant, which was built in 1904 for the St. Louis World's Fair. Due to the rising cost of oil, which has been used to fuel the Ashley Plant since 1972, and the subsequent loss of customers, many people considered the steam system a dinosaur in the jet age. In 1982, Trigen-St. Louis Energy Corporation purchased the steam system and embarked on an aggressive campaign to upgrade all aspects of the system, including valves, piping, and meters. In 1999, Trigen-St. Louis will install an ISMW state-of-the-art combustion turbine cogenerator to provide 95% of the steam to the steam loop. A primary reason for the St. Louis Steam Loop's longevity is that it has reliably supplied steam to many downtown buildings for the better part of the 20th century.

  18. Theoretical prediction of physical and chemical characteristics of the first drop'' of condensate from superheated geothermal steam: Implications for corrosion and scaling in turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Andreussi, P. . Dipartimento Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche); Corsi, R. ); Guidi, M.; Marini, L. )

    1994-06-01

    This paper describes a method for computing: (1) the chemical composition of the first drop of condensate which forms at dew-point temperature through expansion of superheated steam, and (2) the saturation index of the drop with respect to relevant solid phases, such as halite, amorphous silica, boric acid, borax and sal ammoniac. Boiling-point elevation is taken into account in these calculations. Preliminary application to some wells in the Larderello geothermal field indicate that: (1) the high concentration of HCl in the steam causes both the low pH and very high TDS of the first drop; (2) the lower the dew-point temperature, the higher the TDS of the first drop; (3) for a given chemical composition, the lower the steam pressure, the higher the risk of corrosion and scaling in the steam path.

  19. GCFR steam generator conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, R.A.; Elliott, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    The gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) steam generators are large once-through heat exchangers with helically coiled tube bundles. In the GCFR demonstration plant, hot helium from the reactor core is passed through these units to produce superheated steam, which is used by the turbine generators to produce electrical power. The paper describes the conceptual design of the steam generator. The major components and functions of the design are addressed. The topics discussed are the configuration, operating conditions, design criteria, and the design verification and support programs.

  20. Steam Pressure Reduction, Opportunities, and Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Jan; Griffin, Mr. Bob; Wright, Anthony L

    2006-01-01

    Steam pressure reduction has the potential to reduce fuel consumption for a minimum capital investment. When the pressure at the boiler is reduced, fuel and steam are saved as a result of changes in the high-pressure side of the steam system from the boiler through the condensate return system. In the boiler plant, losses from combustion, boiler blowdown, radiation, and steam venting from condensate receivers would be reduced by reducing steam pressure. Similarly, in the steam distribution system, losses from radiation, flash steam vented from condensate receivers, and component and steam trap leakage would also be reduced. There are potential problems associated with steam pressure reduction, however. These may include increased boiler carryover, boiler water circulation problems in watertube boilers, increased steam velocity in piping, loss of power in steam turbines, and issues with pressure reducing valves. This paper is based a Steam Technical Brief sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Enbridge Gas Distribution, Inc. (5). An example illustrates the use of DOE BestPractices Steam System Assessment Tool to model changes in steam, fuel, electricity generation, and makeup water and to estimate resulting economic benefits.

  1. Millwright Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 8.1-8.5 Turbines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This packet, part of the instructional materials for the Oregon apprenticeship program for millwright training, contains five modules covering turbines. The modules provide information on the following topics: types, components, and auxiliaries of steam turbines; operation and maintenance of steam turbines; and gas turbines. Each module consists…

  2. Dynamics and stability of wind turbine generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinrichsen, E. N.; Nolan, P. J.

    1981-01-01

    Synchronous and induction generators are considered. A comparison is made between wind turbines, steam, and hydro units. The unusual phenomena associated with wind turbines are emphasized. The general control requirements are discussed, as well as various schemes for torsional damping such as speed sensitive stabilizer and blade pitch control. Integration between adjacent wind turbines in a wind farm is also considered.

  3. New steam properties are coming

    SciTech Connect

    Bellows, J.C.; Sewell, J.B.; Friend, D.G.; Harvey, A.H.; Sengers, J.M.H.L.; Parry, W.T.; Sengers, J.V.; White, H.J. Jr.

    1999-11-01

    The IFC-67 Formulation for Industrial Use for the thermodynamic properties of water and steam (familiar to many from its implementation in the ASME Steam Tables) has served as the international steam property standard for contractual and design calculations in the power industry for 30 years, but is showing its age. The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) has developed and adopted the IAPWS Industrial Formulation 1997 (IAPWS-IF97) as the successor to IFC-67. While the new property formulation will be a significant improvement, the changeover to IAPWS-IF97 will present major challenges for some users. In particular, there could be large economic impacts on manufacturers and buyers of boilers and turbines if they do not properly account for the new property calculations. This article, in addition to describing the structure and advantages of the new formulation, provides guidance for how to make this changeover as painless as possible.

  4. 46 CFR 11.510 - Service requirements for national endorsement as chief engineer of steam, motor, and/or gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... engineer of steam, motor, and/or gas turbine-propelled vessels. 11.510 Section 11.510 Shipping COAST GUARD... endorsement as chief engineer of steam, motor, and/or gas turbine-propelled vessels. (a) The minimum service required to qualify an applicant for endorsement as chief engineer of steam, motor, and/or gas...

  5. Materials Performance in USC Steam

    SciTech Connect

    G. R. Holcomb, P. Wang, P. D. Jablonski, and J. A. Hawk

    2010-05-01

    The proposed steam inlet temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A-USC) steam turbine is high enough (760 °C) that traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferritic/martensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Cast versions of several traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantial: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 cm thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equivalent microstructures. A multi-step homogenization heat treatment was developed to better deploy the alloy constituents. The most successful of these cast alloys in terms of creep strength (Haynes 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (at 760 and 800 °C).

  6. Steaming Clean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoverson, Rick

    2006-01-01

    Schools can provide a cleaner, more healthful school environment by simply combining heat and water. Steam vapor systems use only tap water with no chemicals added. Low-pressure (12 psi to 65 psi) steam vapor sanitizes and deodorizes. This process can then be used safely in many situations, but is especially suited for restrooms and food-service…

  7. Thermal chemical recuperation method and system for use with gas turbine systems

    DOEpatents

    Yang, W.C.; Newby, R.A.; Bannister, R.L.

    1999-04-27

    A system and method are disclosed for efficiently generating power using a gas turbine, a steam generating system and a reformer. The gas turbine receives a reformed fuel stream and an air stream and produces shaft power and exhaust. Some of the thermal energy from the turbine exhaust is received by the reformer. The turbine exhaust is then directed to the steam generator system that recovers thermal energy from it and also produces a steam flow from a water stream. The steam flow and a fuel stream are directed to the reformer that reforms the fuel stream and produces the reformed fuel stream used in the gas turbine. 2 figs.

  8. Thermal chemical recuperation method and system for use with gas turbine systems

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Wen-Ching; Newby, Richard A.; Bannister, Ronald L.

    1999-01-01

    A system and method for efficiently generating power using a gas turbine, a steam generating system (20, 22, 78) and a reformer. The gas turbine receives a reformed fuel stream (74) and an air stream and produces shaft power and exhaust. Some of the thermal energy from the turbine exhaust is received by the reformer (18). The turbine exhaust is then directed to the steam generator system that recovers thermal energy from it and also produces a steam flow from a water stream. The steam flow and a fuel stream are directed to the reformer that reforms the fuel stream and produces the reformed fuel stream used in the gas turbine.

  9. Performance testing of feedwater pump turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Finck, E.J.

    1980-01-01

    Utilities acknowledge that steam turbine drives for feedwater pumps outperform motor drives in improving station heat rate. Rising fuel prices frequently make steam costs the determining factor in evaluating feedwater pump drive turbines. Decisions made on efficiency differences as small as 0.2 percent often necessitate accurate performance testing to verify quoted efficiencies, making it imperative that accurate tests of turbine throttle flow, shaft speed and torque, and other parameters be run to ensure meaningful results. A highly specialized feed pump turbine manufacturers test facility is the most accurate testing method as well as the most convenient and potentially the most economical. 4 figures.

  10. Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion steam control and bypass system

    DOEpatents

    Wittig, J. Michael; Jennings, Stephen J.

    1980-01-01

    Two sets of hinged control doors for regulating motive steam flow from an evaporator to a condenser alternatively through a set of turbine blades in a steam bypass around the turbine blades. The evaporator has a toroidal shaped casing situated about the turbine's vertical axis of rotation and an outlet opening therein for discharging motive steam into an annular steam flow path defined between the turbine's radially inner and outer casing structures. The turbine blades extend across the steam flow path intermediate the evaporator and condenser. The first set of control doors is arranged to prevent steam access to the upstream side of the turbine blades and the second set of control doors acts as a bypass around the blades so as to maintain equilibrium between the evaporator and condenser during non-rotation of the turbine. The first set of control doors preferably extend, when closed, between the evaporator casing and the turbine's outer casing and, when open, extend away from the axis of rotation. The second set of control doors preferably constitute a portion of the turbine's outer casing downstream from the blades when closed and extend, when open, toward the axis of rotation. The first and second sets of control doors are normally held in the open and closed positions respectively by locking pins which may be retracted upon detecting an abnormal operating condition respectively to permit their closing and opening and provide steam flow from the evaporator to the condenser.

  11. 7. ONE OF THREE CIRCULATING WATER PUMPS FOR STEAM PLANT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ONE OF THREE CIRCULATING WATER PUMPS FOR STEAM PLANT, LOCATED ON FIRST FLOOR UNDER TURBINE DECK. VIEW OF PUMP LOCATED FARTHEST NORTH. November 13, 1990 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. 62. 1901 STEAM ENGINE HOUSE LOOKING SOUTH THROUH TO 1902 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. 1901 STEAM ENGINE HOUSE LOOKING SOUTH THROUH TO 1902 STEAM TURBINE ROOM COLUMNS SUPPORT TRUE EXTERIOR WEST WALL OF THE BUILDING. PORTION TO RIGHT OF COLUMNS IS A LOWER CONNECTOR BETWEEN THE ENGINE HOUSE AND THE 1873 WING. - Boston Manufacturing Company, 144-190 Moody Street, Waltham, Middlesex County, MA

  13. Development of Advanced Seals for Industrial Turbine Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chupp, Raymond E.; Aksit, Mahmut F.; Ghasripoor, Farshad; Turnquist, Norman A.; Dinc, Saim; Mortzheim, Jason; Demiroglu, Mehmet

    2002-10-01

    A critical area being addressed to improve industrial turbine performance is reducing the parasitic leakage flows through the various static and dynamic seals. Implementation of advanced seals into General Electric (GE) industrial turbines has progressed well over the last few years with significant operating performance gains achieved. Advanced static seals have been placed in gas turbine hot gas-path junctions and steam turbine packing ring segment end gaps. Brush seals have significantly decreased labyrinth seal leakages in gas turbine compressors and turbine interstages, steam turbine interstage and end packings, industrial compressor shaft seals, and generator seals. Abradable seals are being developed for blade-tip locations in various turbine locations. This presentation summarizes the status of advanced seal development for industrial turbines at GE.

  14. Reviews Exhibitions: Collider: Step inside the World's Greatest Experiment Equipment: Hero Steam Turbine Classroom Video: Most of Our Universe is Missing Book: Serving the Reich Book: Breakthrough to CLIL for Physics Book: The Good Research Guide Apps: Popplet Web Watch Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-03-01

    WE RECOMMEND Collider: step inside the world's greatest experiment A great exhibition at the Science Museum in London Hero Steam Turbine Superb engine model gets up to 2500 rpm Most of Our Universe is Missing BBC video explores the dark truth Serving the Reich Science and morality in Nazi Germany The Good Research Guide A non-specialist book for teachers starting out in education research WORTH A LOOK Breakthrough to CLIL for Physics A book based on a physics curriculum for non-English students WEB WATCH Electric cycles online: patterns of use APPS The virtual laboratory advances personal skills

  15. Basic investigation of turbine erosion phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pouchot, W. D.; Kothmann, R. E.; Fentress, W. K.; Heymann, F. J.; Varljen, T. C.; Chi, J. W. H.; Milton, J. D.; Glassmire, C. M.; Kyslinger, J. A.; Desai, K. A.

    1971-01-01

    An analytical-empirical model is presented of turbine erosion that fits and explains experience in both steam and metal vapor turbines. Because of the complexities involved in analyzing turbine problems, in a pure scientific sense, it is obvious that this goal can be only partially realized. Therefore, emphasis is placed on providing a useful model for preliminary erosion estimates for given configurations, fluids, and flow conditions.

  16. Thermodynamics of supersaturated steam: Molecular simulation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moučka, Filip; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2016-12-01

    Supersaturated steam modeled by the Gaussian charge polarizable model [P. Paricaud, M. Předota, and A. A. Chialvo, J. Chem. Phys. 122, 244511 (2005)] and BK3 model [P. Kiss and A. Baranyai, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 204507 (2013)] has been simulated at conditions occurring in steam turbines using the multiple-particle-move Monte Carlo for both the homogeneous phase and also implemented for the Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo molecular simulation methods. Because of these thermodynamic conditions, a specific simulation algorithm has been developed to bypass common simulation problems resulting from very low densities of steam and cluster formation therein. In addition to pressure-temperature-density and orthobaric data, the distribution of clusters has also been evaluated. The obtained extensive data of high precision should serve as a basis for development of reliable molecular-based equations for properties of metastable steam.

  17. H gas turbine combined cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Corman, J.

    1995-10-01

    A major step has been taken in the development of the Next Power Generation System - {open_quotes}H{close_quotes} Technology Combined Cycle. This new gas turbine combined-cycle system increases thermal performance to the 60% level by increasing gas turbine operating temperature to 1430 C (2600 F) at a pressure ratio of 23 to 1. Although this represents a significant increase in operating temperature for the gas turbine, the potential for single digit NOx levels (based upon 15% O{sub 2}, in the exhaust) has been retained. The combined effect of performance increase and environmental control is achieved by an innovative closed loop steam cooling system which tightly integrates the gas turbine and steam turbine cycles. The {open_quotes}H{close_quotes} Gas Turbine Combined Cycle System meets the goals and objectives of the DOE Advanced Turbine System Program. The development and demonstration of this new system is being carried out as part of the Industrial/Government cooperative agreement under the ATS Program. This program will achieve first commercial operation of this new system before the end of the century.

  18. Closed loop steam cooled airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Widrig, Scott M.; Rudolph, Ronald J.; Wagner, Gregg P.

    2006-04-18

    An airfoil, a method of manufacturing an airfoil, and a system for cooling an airfoil is provided. The cooling system can be used with an airfoil located in the first stages of a combustion turbine within a combined cycle power generation plant and involves flowing closed loop steam through a pin array set within an airfoil. The airfoil can comprise a cavity having a cooling chamber bounded by an interior wall and an exterior wall so that steam can enter the cavity, pass through the pin array, and then return to the cavity to thereby cool the airfoil. The method of manufacturing an airfoil can include a type of lost wax investment casting process in which a pin array is cast into an airfoil to form a cooling chamber.

  19. Chemical filtration for steam purity

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalcik, F.

    1985-03-01

    Few industrial process systems are as vulnerable to corrosion as the steam generating loop of an electric power plant. Impurities inevitably migrate into the steam cycle, and must be removed to prevent turbine blade corrosion. It is critical to understand the behavior of the condensate polishing resins used to remove the impurities. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) participated in investigations involving ion chromatography which identified chloride as a problem in studies of regeneration and polishing procedures. A modified regeneration procedure consists of ammonium sulfate treatment of the resin before and after ammonia recirculation, followed by a dilute ammonia rinse. A joint study with Southern California Edison also simulated condenser leaks to find the effect of cooling water intrusion.

  20. Experimental research of heterogeneous nuclei in superheated steam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoš, Ondřej; Kolovratník, Michal; Šmíd, Bohuslav; Hrubý, Jan

    2016-03-01

    A mobile steam expansion chamber has been developed to investigate experimentally homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation processes in steam, both in the laboratory and at power plants using the steam withdrawn from the steam turbine. The purpose of the device is to provide new insight into the physics of nonequilibrium wet steam formation, which is one of the factors limiting the efficiency and reliability of steam turbines. The expanded steam or a mixture of steam with a non-condensable gas rapidly expands in the expansion chamber. Due to adiabatic cooling, the temperature drops below the dew point of the steam at a given pressure. When reaching a sufficiently high supersaturation, droplets are nucleated. By tuning the supersaturation in the so-called nucleation pulse, particles of various size ranges can be activated. This fact is used in the present study to measure the aerosol particles present in the air. Homogeneous nucleation was negligible in this case. The experiment demonstrates the functionality of the device, data acquisition system and data evaluation methods.

  1. Steam Digest: Volume IV

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  2. Steam Digest Volume IV

    SciTech Connect

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  3. 46 CFR 11.524 - Service requirements for national endorsement as designated duty engineer (DDE) of steam, motor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... qualified member of the engine department or equivalent position; (2) For designated duty engineer of steam... engine department or equivalent position; and (3) For designated duty engineer of steam, motor, and/or... designated duty engineer (DDE) of steam, motor, and/or gas turbine-propelled vessels. 11.524 Section...

  4. Turbinate surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Turbinectomy; Turbinoplasty; Turbinate reduction; Nasal airway surgery ... There are several types of turbinate surgery: Turbinectomy: All or part of the lower turbinate is taken out. This can be done in several different ways, but sometimes a ...

  5. Application of the balancing holes on the turbine stage discs with higher root reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrózek, Lukáš; Tajč, Ladislav; Hoznedl, Michal; Miczán, Martin

    2016-03-01

    The influence of the flow area of balancing holes in the discs of a steam turbine on its thermodynamic efficiency is examined for turbine stages operating in the increased root reaction regime. The interstage seal flooding with steam is modelled. The impact is given on stage reaction changes, on mass flow adjustments, and on overpressure operating in the rotor disc.

  6. 40 CFR 60.4305 - Does this subpart apply to my stationary combustion turbine?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... turbine. Any additional heat input to associated heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) or duct burners... subpart are exempt from the requirements of subpart GG of this part. Heat recovery steam generators and... turbine with a heat input at peak load equal to or greater than 10.7 gigajoules (10 MMBtu) per hour,...

  7. 40 CFR 60.4305 - Does this subpart apply to my stationary combustion turbine?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... turbine. Any additional heat input to associated heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) or duct burners... subpart are exempt from the requirements of subpart GG of this part. Heat recovery steam generators and... turbine with a heat input at peak load equal to or greater than 10.7 gigajoules (10 MMBtu) per hour,...

  8. 40 CFR 60.4305 - Does this subpart apply to my stationary combustion turbine?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... turbine. Any additional heat input to associated heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) or duct burners... subpart are exempt from the requirements of subpart GG of this part. Heat recovery steam generators and... turbine with a heat input at peak load equal to or greater than 10.7 gigajoules (10 MMBtu) per hour,...

  9. Numerical Research of Steam and Gas Plant Efficiency of Triple Cycle for Extreme North Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galashov, Nikolay; Tsibulskii, Svjatoslav; Matveev, Aleksandr; Masjuk, Vladimir

    2016-02-01

    The present work shows that temperature decrease of heat rejection in a cycle is necessary for energy efficiency of steam turbine plants. Minimum temperature of heat rejection at steam turbine plant work on water steam is 15°C. Steam turbine plant of triple cycle where lower cycle of steam turbine plant is organic Rankine cycle on low-boiling substance with heat rejection in air condenser, which safely allows rejecting heat at condensation temperatures below 0°C, has been offered. Mathematical model of steam and gas plant of triple cycle, which allows conducting complex researches with change of working body appearance and parameters defining thermodynamic efficiency of cycles, has been developed. On the basis of the model a program of parameters and index cycles design of steam and gas plants has been developed in a package of electron tables Excel. Numerical studies of models showed that energy efficiency of steam turbine plants of triple cycle strongly depend on low-boiling substance type in a lower cycle. Energy efficiency of steam and gas plants net 60% higher can be received for steam and gas plants on the basis of gas turbine plant NK-36ST on pentane and its condensation temperature below 0°C. It was stated that energy efficiency of steam and gas plants net linearly depends on condensation temperature of low-boiling substance type and temperature of gases leaving reco very boiler. Energy efficiency increases by 1% at 10% decrease of condensation temperature of pentane, and it increases by 0.88% at 15°C temperature decrease of gases leaving recovery boiler.

  10. Properties of Nickel-Based Hydrogen-Turbine Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deluca, D. P.; Warren, J. P.; Cowles, B. A.; Shoemaker, D.; Teel, J. R. J.; Pearson, D. L.; Annis, C. G. J.; Wilson, D. A.; Schwartz, B. J.

    1983-01-01

    120 page report presents data on mechanical properties of cast nickelbased alloys for turbine blades operating in hydrogen and steam at high temperatures. Tests on alloys for hydrogen-burning engines of future are described.

  11. 25. GENERAL VIEW OF LUBE OIL PUMPS FOR TURBINES #1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. GENERAL VIEW OF LUBE OIL PUMPS FOR TURBINES #1 AND #2. THE TANK IN BACKGROUND HOLDS OIL FOR STEP BEARINGS - Georgetown Steam Plant, South Warsaw Street, King County Airport, Seattle, King County, WA

  12. Debris trap in a turbine cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Ian David

    2002-01-01

    In a turbine having a rotor and a plurality of stages, each stage comprising a row of buckets mounted on the rotor for rotation therewith; and wherein the buckets of at least one of the stages are cooled by steam, the improvement comprising at least one axially extending cooling steam supply conduit communicating with an at least partially annular steam supply manifold; one or more axially extending cooling steam feed tubes connected to the manifold at a location radially outwardly of the cooling steam supply conduit, the feed tubes arranged to supply cooling steam to the buckets of at least one of the plurality of stages; the manifold extending radially beyond the feed tubes to thereby create a debris trap region for collecting debris under centrifugal loading caused by rotation of the rotor.

  13. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Gaul

    2004-04-21

    Natural gas combustion turbines are rapidly becoming the primary technology of choice for generating electricity. At least half of the new generating capacity added in the US over the next twenty years will be combustion turbine systems. The Department of Energy has cosponsored with Siemens Westinghouse, a program to maintain the technology lead in gas turbine systems. The very ambitious eight year program was designed to demonstrate a highly efficient and commercially acceptable power plant, with the ability to fire a wide range of fuels. The main goal of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program was to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior and cost effective competitive gas turbine systems for base load application in utility, independent power producer and industrial markets. Performance targets were focused on natural gas as a fuel and included: System efficiency that exceeds 60% (lower heating value basis); Less than 10 ppmv NO{sub x} emissions without the use of post combustion controls; Busbar electricity that are less than 10% of state of the art systems; Reliability-Availability-Maintainability (RAM) equivalent to current systems; Water consumption minimized to levels consistent with cost and efficiency goals; and Commercial systems by the year 2000. In a parallel effort, the program was to focus on adapting the ATS engine to coal-derived or biomass fuels. In Phase 1 of the ATS Program, preliminary investigators on different gas turbine cycles demonstrated that net plant LHV based efficiency greater than 60% was achievable. In Phase 2 the more promising cycles were evaluated in greater detail and the closed-loop steam-cooled combined cycle was selected for development because it offered the best solution with least risk for achieving the ATS Program goals for plant efficiency, emissions, cost of electricity and RAM. Phase 2 also involved conceptual ATS engine and plant design and technology developments in aerodynamics, sealing

  14. AFB/open cycle gas turbine conceptual design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, T. W.; Tashjian, R.

    1983-01-01

    Applications of coal fired atmospheric fluidized bed gas turbine systems in industrial cogeneration are identified. Based on site-specific conceptual designs, the potential benefits of the AFB/gas turbine system were compared with an atmospheric fluidized design steam boiler/steam turbine system. The application of these cogeneration systems at four industrial plant sites is reviewed. A performance and benefit analysis was made along with a study of the representativeness of the sites both in regard to their own industry and compared to industry as a whole. A site was selected for the conceptual design, which included detailed site definition, AFB/gas turbine and AFB/steam turbine cogeneration system designs, detailed cost estimates, and comparative performance and benefit analysis. Market and benefit analyses identified the potential market penetration for the cogeneration technologies and quantified the potential benefits.

  15. Modernization and life time extension on steam power plants in Eastern Europe and Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupetz, M.; Jenikejew, E.; Hiss, F.

    2014-06-01

    The Eastern European electricity markets with focus on Russia and Ukraine are suffering severe aging of the existing LMZ, UTZ and Turboatom steam turbine fleets after more than 25 years of operation. Energy efficient modernizations along with life time extension beyond the designed life time of existing old power plants is an economical option to address the increasing power demand. Steam Turbine modernizations are using latest state of the art materials and technology-enhanced turbine components such as blades, sealing, guide blade carriers, inner casings and rotors as well as components for auxiliary systems e.g. lube and lifting oil thus providing increased efficiency and optimized maintainability. This paper outlines unique design features and pre-engineered modules of the Siemens steam turbine modernization applications for thermal power stations, emphasizing the solutions for Turboatom 300 MW and LMZ 200 MW turbine-generators. The paper concludes with references and operational experience.

  16. Integrated vacuum absorption steam cycle gas separation

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Shiaguo [Champaign, IL; Lu, Yonggi [Urbana, IL; Rostam-Abadi, Massoud [Champaign, IL

    2011-11-22

    Methods and systems for separating a targeted gas from a gas stream emitted from a power plant. The gas stream is brought into contact with an absorption solution to preferentially absorb the targeted gas to be separated from the gas stream so that an absorbed gas is present within the absorption solution. This provides a gas-rich solution, which is introduced into a stripper. Low pressure exhaust steam from a low pressure steam turbine of the power plant is injected into the stripper with the gas-rich solution. The absorbed gas from the gas-rich solution is stripped in the stripper using the injected low pressure steam to provide a gas stream containing the targeted gas. The stripper is at or near vacuum. Water vapor in a gas stream from the stripper is condensed in a condenser operating at a pressure lower than the stripper to concentrate the targeted gas. Condensed water is separated from the concentrated targeted gas.

  17. Characterization of steam cycle chemistry at Southern California Edison steam plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Auerswald, D.C.; Cutler, F.M.

    1985-05-01

    Corrosion problems in the low pressure (LP) turbines and reheat sections of fossil-fueled supercritical units triggered power industry concern over the levels and transport of trace impurities in steam cycle systems. Surveys of a number of Southern California Edison (SCE) generating units were conducted to provide a data base for determining the differences between the steam produced in drum-type and once-through units. Ion chromatography, flame emission spectroscopy and flameless atomic absorption were used to detect and identify the corrodents present in the various operating units. The most severe corrosion attack on LP turbine blades was observed on once-through units that operated condensate polishers past ammonium breakthrough. The LP turbines of drum-type units were found to be in better shape than any of the once-through unit turbines. It was determined that operation of condensate polishers beyond ammonium breakthrough was responsible for the high levels of chloride found in the steam of once-through units. Modifications of the regeneration procedure for condensate polishers at SCE resulted in more than a ten-fold reduction in chloride leakage. Further modifications of the regeneration procedure provided for polisher operation beyond ammonium breakthrough with less than 1 ppB leakage of chloride, sulfate or sodium. Based upon the correlation observed between steam chemistry and turbine blade condition, stringent chemical limits are recommended. An extensive evaluation of the Dionex ion chromatograph system for trace analysis of sodium, calcium, magnesium, fluoride, chloride and sulfate is presented. Procedures developed for sub-ppB analysis of fluoride, chloride and sulfate and various tests to determine resin condition and degree of regeneration are outlined. 11 refs., 41 figs., 71 tabs.

  18. A fast response miniature probe for wet steam flow field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosdas, Ilias; Mansour, Michel; Kalfas, Anestis I.; Abhari, Reza S.

    2016-12-01

    Modern steam turbines require operational flexibility due to renewable energies’ increasing share of the electrical grid. Additionally, the continuous increase in energy demand necessitates efficient design of the steam turbines as well as power output augmentation. The long turbine rotor blades at the machines’ last stages are prone to mechanical vibrations and as a consequence time-resolved experimental data under wet steam conditions are essential for the development of large-scale low-pressure steam turbines. This paper presents a novel fast response miniature heated probe for unsteady wet steam flow field measurements. The probe has a tip diameter of 2.5 mm, and a miniature heater cartridge ensures uncontaminated pressure taps from condensed water. The probe is capable of providing the unsteady flow angles, total and static pressure as well as the flow Mach number. The operating principle and calibration procedure are described in the current work and a detailed uncertainty analysis demonstrates the capability of the new probe to perform accurate flow field measurements under wet steam conditions. In order to exclude any data possibly corrupted by droplets’ impact or evaporation from the heating process, a filtering algorithm was developed and implemented in the post-processing phase of the measured data. In the last part of this paper the probe is used in an experimental steam turbine test facility and measurements are conducted at the inlet and exit of the last stage with an average wetness mass fraction of 8.0%.

  19. Advanced technology cogeneration system conceptual design study: Closed cycle gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mock, E. A. T.; Daudet, H. C.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a three task study performed for the Department of Energy under the direction of the NASA Lewis Research Center are documented. The thermal and electrical energy requirements of three specific industrial plants were surveyed and cost records for the energies consumed were compiled. Preliminary coal fired atmospheric fluidized bed heated closed cycle gas turbine and steam turbine cogeneration system designs were developed for each industrial plant. Preliminary cost and return-on-equity values were calculated and the results compared. The best of the three sites was selected for more detailed design and evaluation of both closed cycle gas turbine and steam turbine cogeneration systems during Task II. Task III involved characterizing the industrial sector electrical and thermal loads for the 48 contiguous states, applying a family of closed cycle gas turbine and steam turbine cogeneration systems to these loads, and conducting a market penetration analysis of the closed cycle gas turbine cogeneration system.

  20. 4. STEAM PLANT MARINE BOILERS WEST OF STEAM PLANT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. STEAM PLANT MARINE BOILERS WEST OF STEAM PLANT AND SOUTH OF ORIGINAL STEAM PLANT BOILERS, FROM SOUTH. November 13, 1990 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  1. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Frederick E.; Smolensky, Leo A.; Doyle, Edward F.; DiBella, Francis A.

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculated through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard.

  2. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOEpatents

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

    1994-03-08

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

  3. Biomass externally fired gas turbine cogeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Eidensten, L.; Yan, J.; Svedberg, G.

    1996-07-01

    This paper is a presentation of a systematic study on externally fired gas turbine cogeneration fueled by biomass. The gas turbine is coupled in series with a biomass combustion furnace in which the gas turbine exhaust is used to support combustion. Three cogeneration systems have been simulated. They are systems without a gas turbine, with a non-top-fired gas turbine, and a top-fired gas turbine. For all systems, three types of combustion equipment have been selected: circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler, grate fired steam boiler, and grate fired hot water boiler. The sizes of biomass furnaces have been chosen as 20 MW and 100 MW fuel inputs. The total efficiencies based on electricity plus process heat, electrical efficiencies, and the power-to-heat ratios for various alternatives have been calculated. For each of the cogeneration systems, part-load performance with varying biomass fuel input is presented. Systems with CFB boilers have a higher total efficiency and electrical efficiency than other systems when a top-fired gas turbine is added. However, the systems with grate fired steam boilers allow higher combustion temperature in the furnace than CFB boilers do. Therefore, a top combustor may not be needed when high temperature is already available. Only one low-grade fuel system is then needed and the gas turbine can operate with a very clean working medium.

  4. APPARATUS FOR CONTROL OF A BOILING REACTOR RESPONSIVE TO STEAM DEMAND

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1963-07-23

    A method of controlling a fuel-rod-in-tube-type boilingwater reactor having nozzles at the point of water entry into the tube is described. Water is pumped into the nozzles by an auxiliary pump operated by steam from an interstage position of the associated turbine, so that the pumping speed is responsive to turbine demand. (AEC)

  5. Downhole steam quality measurement

    DOEpatents

    Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Muir, J.F.; Wayland, J.R. Jr.

    1985-06-19

    The present invention relates to an empirical electrical method for remote sensing of steam quality utilizing flow-through grids which allow measurement of the electrical properties of a flowing two-phase mixture. The measurement of steam quality in the oil field is important to the efficient application of steam assisted recovery of oil. Because of the increased energy content in higher quality steam it is important to maintain the highest possible steam quality at the injection sandface. The effectiveness of a steaming operation without a measure of steam quality downhole close to the point of injection would be difficult to determine. Therefore, a need exists for the remote sensing of steam quality.

  6. Downhole steam quality measurement

    DOEpatents

    Lee, David O.; Montoya, Paul C.; Muir, James F.; Wayland, Jr., J. Robert

    1987-01-01

    An empirical method for the remote sensing of steam quality that can be easily adapted to downhole steam quality measurements by measuring the electrical properties of two-phase flow across electrode grids at low frequencies.

  7. Steam Digest 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  8. Theory and Tests of Two-Phase Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, D. G.

    1986-01-01

    New turbines open possibility of new types of power cycles. Report describes theoretical analysis and experimental testing of two-phase impulse turbines. Such turbines open possibility of new types of power cycles operating with extremely wet mixtures of steam and water, organic fluids, or immiscible liquids and gases. Possible applications are geothermal power, waste-heat recovery, refrigerant expansion, solar conversion, transportation, and engine-bottoming cycles.

  9. The Invisibility of Steam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Almost everyone "knows" that steam is visible. After all, one can see the cloud of white issuing from the spout of a boiling tea kettle. In reality, steam is the gaseous phase of water and is invisible. What you see is light scattered from the tiny droplets of water that are the result of the condensation of the steam as its temperature…

  10. Turbine design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Per

    Turbines for most space propulsion applications, such as the hydrogen and oxygen pump turbines for the Vulcain engine, are characterized by a high pressure ratio, a highly energetic working fluid, and a small size. Data on Vulcain turbines are given. The following topics are reviewed: turbine concept design and design tools; blade design; losses occurring in a blade which are due to friction, secondary flow, tip clearance and shock formation; and turbine testing. The purpose of any turbine is to provide power for other parts of an engineering system (compressors, electrical generators, pumps) or to drive mechanical components such as wheels or propellers to give propulsion to a vehicle. It should therefore always be the performance and cost effectiveness of this larger system and not of the isolated turbine that are the main objectives for the turbine design engineer.

  11. Method and apparatus for improving the performance of a steam driven power system by steam mixing

    DOEpatents

    Tsiklauri, Georgi V.; Durst, Bruce M.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Reid, Bruce D.; Burritt, James

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the efficiency and performance of a steam driven power plant wherein addition of steam handling equipment to an existing plant results in a surprising increase in plant performance. For Example, a gas turbine electrical generation system with heat recovery boiler may be installed along with a micro-jet high pressure and a low pressure mixer superheater. Depending upon plant characteristics, the existing moisture separator reheater (MSR) can be either augmented or done away with. The instant invention enables a reduction in T.sub.hot without a derating of the reactor unit, and improves efficiency of the plant's electrical conversion cycle. Coupled with this advantage is a possible extension of the plant's fuel cycle length due to an increased electrical conversion efficiency. The reduction in T.sub.hot further allows for a surprising extension of steam generator life. An additional advantage is the reduction in erosion/corrosion of secondary system components including turbine blades and diaphragms. The gas turbine generator used in the instant invention can also replace or augment existing peak or emergency power needs. Another benefit of the instant invention is the extension of plant life and the reduction of downtime due to refueling.

  12. Steam trap monitor

    DOEpatents

    Ryan, M.J.

    1987-05-04

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (a hot finger) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellow in providing an indication of total energy (steam + condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the hot and cold fingers subtracts the former from the latter to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning. 2 figs.

  13. Research and development of ceramic gas turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Kazuo

    1993-12-31

    The CO{sub 2} caused by the consumption of hydrocarbon fuel is one of the main gases which affect the global climate. In order to reduce the formation of CO{sub 2}, it is necessary to conserve energy as effectively as possible. Therefore the heat energy provided by the fuel should be utilized in multi-cascades. The energy at the high temperature should be used for the generation of electric power and the energy at low temperature could be used for making the steam and the hot water. The gas turbine is preferable for this purpose. The heat energy of exhaust gas can be reused more easily. The two systems are proposed by using the gas turbine as the high temperature stage. One is the cogeneration system and the other is the combined cycle. The former generates electric power by the gas turbine and make steam or hot water in the exhaust gas. The latter employs the gas turbine as the high temperature cycle and the steam turbine as the low temperature cycle.

  14. Steam generator support system

    DOEpatents

    Moldenhauer, J.E.

    1987-08-25

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source is disclosed. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances. 4 figs.

  15. Steam generator support system

    DOEpatents

    Moldenhauer, James E.

    1987-01-01

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances.

  16. 67. VIEW, LOOKING WEST, OF A STEAM LAUNDRY LOCATED IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. VIEW, LOOKING WEST, OF A STEAM LAUNDRY LOCATED IN THE CONDENSER GALLERY UNDER THE TURBINE HALL. THE FACILITY WAS USED TO WASH WORKERS CLOTHES. THE WASH TUB IS LOCATED AT THE LEFT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THE TUB WAS LOADED WITH LAUNDRY, SOAP AND WATER. STEAM WAS BLOWN IN THROUGH THE PIPE AT THE EXTREME LEFT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THE ROUNDED RIGHT END OF THE TUB PROMOTED TUMBLING AND SCRUBBING ACTION. ON THE RIGHT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH IS A STEAM POWERED CENTRIFUGE FOR SPIN DRYING LAUNDRY. THE WIRE FRAMES AT THE CENTER BACKGROUND ARE PANTS STRETCHERS. THEY WERE INSERTED INTO OVERALL OR TROUSER LEGS TO MINIMIZE WRINKLING AND ENCOURAGE DRYING. LAUNDRY WAS DRIED ON NEARBY STEAM PIPES. (WITH SCALE) - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  17. The Invisibility of Steam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2014-11-01

    Almost everyone "knows" that steam is visible. After all, one can see the cloud of white issuing from the spout of a boiling tea kettle. In reality, steam is the gaseous phase of water and is invisible. What you see is light scattered from the tiny droplets of water that are the result of the condensation of the steam as its temperature falls below 100 °C (under standard conditions).

  18. Evaluating steam trap performance

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, N.Y.

    1985-08-08

    This paper presents a method for evaluating the performance level of steam traps by preparing an economic analysis of several types to determine the equivalent uniform annual cost. A series of tests on steam traps supplied by six manufacturers provided data for determining the relative efficiencies of each unit. The comparison was made using a program developed for the Texas Instruments T1-59 programmable calculator to evaluate overall steam trap economics.

  19. 14. MARINE STEAM BOILERS AT WEST SIDE OF CROSSCUT STEAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. MARINE STEAM BOILERS AT WEST SIDE OF CROSSCUT STEAM PLANT BUILDING, FROM SOUTH. August 4, 1947 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  20. 5. STEAM PLANT COOLING TOWER LOCATED WEST OF STEAM PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. STEAM PLANT COOLING TOWER LOCATED WEST OF STEAM PLANT BUILDING, FROM SOUTH. SHOWS CURRENT LEVEL OF DISREPAIR. December 4, 1990 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  1. High performance steam development. Final report, Phase No. 3: 1500{degree}F steam plant for industrial cogeneration prototype development tests

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, T.; Schneider, P.

    1996-01-01

    As a key part of DOE`s and industry`s R&D efforts to improve the efficiency, cost, and emissions of power generation, a prototype High Performance Steam System (HPSS) has been designed, built, and demonstrated. The world`s highest temperature ASME Section I coded power plant successfully completed over 100 hours of development tests at 1500{degrees}F and 1500 psig on a 56,000 pound per hour steam generator, control valve and topping turbine at an output power of 5500 hp. This development advances the HPSS to 400{degrees}F higher steam temperature than the current best technology being installed around the world. Higher cycle temperatures produce higher conversion efficiencies and since steam is used to produce the large majority of the world`s power, the authors expect HPSS developments will have a major impact on electric power production and cogeneration in the twenty-first century. Coal fueled steam plants now produce the majority of the United States electric power. Cogeneration and reduced costs and availability of natural gas have now made gas turbines using Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG`s) and combined cycles for cogeneration and power generation the lowest cost producer of electric power in the United States. These gas fueled combined cycles also have major benefits in reducing emissions while reducing the cost of electricity. Development of HPSS technology can significantly improve the efficiency of cogeneration, steam plants, and combined cycles. Figure 2 is a TS diagram that shows the HPSS has twice the energy available from each pound of steam when expanding from 1500{degrees}F and 1500 psia to 165 psia (150 psig, a common cogeneration process steam pressure). This report describes the prototype component and system design, and results of the 100-hour laboratory tests. The next phase of the program consists of building up the steam turbine into a generator set, and installing the power plant at an industrial site for extended operation.

  2. Downhole steam injector

    DOEpatents

    Donaldson, A. Burl; Hoke, Donald E.

    1983-01-01

    An improved downhole steam injector has an angled water orifice to swirl the water through the device for improved heat transfer before it is converted to steam. The injector also has a sloped diameter reduction in the steam chamber to throw water that collects along the side of the chamber during slant drilling into the flame for conversion to steam. In addition, the output of the flame chamber is beveled to reduce hot spots and increase efficiency, and the fuel-oxidant inputs are arranged to minimize coking.

  3. Task 1—Steam Oxidation (NETL-US)

    SciTech Connect

    G. R. Holcomb

    2010-05-01

    The proposed steam in let temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A·USC) steam turbine is high enough (760°C) Ihat traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferr;tic/manensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature lim itations of this class of materials. Cast versions of three traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys (Haynes 263. Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantia l: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 nun thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equi valem microslruclUre •. A multi_step homogenization heat treatment was d~ve loped to better disperse the al loy constituents. These castings were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (al 760 and 800 "C).

  4. STEAM GENERATOR FOR NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Kinyon, B.W.; Whitman, G.D.

    1963-07-16

    The steam generator described for use in reactor powergenerating systems employs a series of concentric tubes providing annular passage of steam and water and includes a unique arrangement for separating the steam from the water. (AEC)

  5. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  6. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs. Cormos, C. C. Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-23

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO{sub 2} emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  7. Running Out of Steam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Promod

    2000-01-01

    Explains why schools should evaluate whether their older steam-heating systems are still cost-effective, or need to be repaired or replaced. The symptoms of deterioration are listed along with discussions on repair or replacement decision making on three areas of steam heating systems: boilers; distribution system; and terminal equipment. (GR)

  8. Steampunk: Full Steam Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Heather M.

    2010-01-01

    Steam-powered machines, anachronistic technology, clockwork automatons, gas-filled airships, tentacled monsters, fob watches, and top hats--these are all elements of steampunk. Steampunk is both speculative fiction that imagines technology evolved from steam-powered cogs and gears--instead of from electricity and computers--and a movement that…

  9. Safety Picks up "STEAM"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    This column shares safety information for the classroom. STEAM subjects--science, technology, engineering, art, and mathematics--are essential for fostering students' 21st-century skills. STEAM promotes critical-thinking skills, including analysis, assessment, categorization, classification, interpretation, justification, and prediction, and are…

  10. STEAM by Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, Linda; Keane, Mark

    2016-01-01

    We live in a designed world. STEAM by Design presents a transdisciplinary approach to learning that challenges young minds with the task of making a better world. Learning today, like life, is dynamic, connected and engaging. STEAM (Science, Technology, Environment, Engineering, Art, and Math) teaching and learning integrates information in…

  11. Turbine system

    DOEpatents

    McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson

    2016-05-03

    A turbine system is disclosed. The turbine system includes a transition duct having an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The turbine system further includes a turbine section connected to the transition duct. The turbine section includes a plurality of shroud blocks at least partially defining a hot gas path, a plurality of buckets at least partially disposed in the hot gas path, and a plurality of nozzles at least partially disposed in the hot gas path. At least one of a shroud block, a bucket, or a nozzle includes means for withstanding high temperatures.

  12. Cooling system for a bearing of a turbine rotor

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Mark Christopher

    2002-01-01

    In a gas turbine, a bore tube assembly radially inwardly of an aft bearing conveys cooling steam to the buckets of the turbine and returns the cooling steam to a return. To cool the bearing and thermally insulate the bearing from the cooling steam paths, a radiation shield is spaced from the bore tube assembly by a dead air gap. Additionally, an air passageway is provided between the radiation shield and the inner surface of an aft shaft forming part of the rotor. Air is supplied from an inlet for flow along the passage and radially outwardly through bores in the aft shaft disk to cool the bearing and insulate it from transfer of heat from the cooling steam.

  13. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wenglarz, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

  14. Steam trap monitor

    DOEpatents

    Ryan, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (the combination of a hot finger and thermocouple well) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellows in providing an indication of total energy (steam+condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the thermocouple well hot and cold fingers subtracts the condensate energy as measured by the hot finger and thermocouple well from the total energy as measured by the cold finger to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning.

  15. Steam generator tube failures

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

  16. Materials Performance in USC Steam

    SciTech Connect

    G. R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; G. H. Meier; N. M. Yanar

    2011-09-07

    Materials Performance in USC Steam: (1) pressure effects on steam oxidation - unique capability coming on-line; (2) hydrogen evolution - hydrogen permeability apparatus to determine where hydrogen goes during steam oxidation; and (3) NETL materials development - steam oxidation resource for NETL developed materials.

  17. Progress on the biphase turbine at Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Cerini, D.; Hays, L.; Studhalter, W.

    1997-12-31

    The status of a Biphase turbine power plant being installed at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field is presented. The major modules for the power plant are completed except for a back pressure steam turbine. The power plant will be started in April 1997 with the Biphase turbine alone followed by the addition of the steam turbine module two months later. The current power plant performance level is 2780 kWe due to a decline in the well. An increase in power output to 4060 kWe by adding the flow from another well is planned. The addition of five Biphase power plants with a total power output of 21.2 megawatts is described.

  18. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 2: Advanced energy conversion systems. Part 1: Open-cycle gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D. H.; Corman, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    Ten energy conversion systems are defined and analyzed in terms of efficiency. These include: open-cycle gas turbine recuperative; open-cycle gas turbine; closed-cycle gas turbine; supercritical CO2 cycle; advanced steam cycle; liquid metal topping cycle; open-cycle MHD; closed-cycle inert gas MHD; closed-cycle liquid metal MHD; and fuel cells. Results are presented.

  19. Modernization of experimental air turbine VT-400

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimko, Marek; Okresa, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    This article briefly describes a modernization of the experimental device - air turbine (VT-400), which is a part of the research activities at the Department of Power System Engineering, University of West Bohemia (KKE-UWB). This device serves for the research of steam turbine blades within the framework of a long-term cooperation between the Department and Doosan Skoda Power (DSPW). Due to the age of the device, some necessary changes had to be performed and some obsolete components had to be replaced or new ones added. A part of this article is also a comparison with the previous state and an evaluation of the contribution after the reconstruction.

  20. Cost Reduction Strategies - Steam

    SciTech Connect

    2001-03-01

    Boilers play a particularly important role in integrated mills because they not only provide the steam needed for key processes but also consume by-product fuels generated in the coke ovens, blast furnace, and BOF.

  1. Overview of Westinghouse`s Advanced Turbine Systems Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bannister, R.L.; Bevc, F.P.; Diakunchak, I.S.; Huber, D.J.

    1995-10-01

    Westinghouse`s experience with land based gas turbines started in 1945 with the development of a 2000 hp gas turbine-generator set that consisted of a single reduction gear, compressor, 12 combustors and turbine. A thermal efficiency of 18% was obtained. By 1954, Westinghouse had developed a 15 MW unit (with a regenerator and intercooler) that was designed for a full-load simple cycle efficiency of 29%. As the initial step in the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program, Westinghouse has already developed a 230 MW gas turbine that has a simple cycle efficiency of 38.5% without the use of regeneration and intercooler concepts. In 1967, Westinghouse developed its first gas turbine combined cycle, a synergistic combination of the Brayton and the Rankine cycles. In a combined cycle the heat rejected by the higher temperature topping cycle is recovered in the lower temperature bottoming cycle to produce additional power from the energy initially released by the fuel. In this first Westinghouse combined cycle, a 1450{degrees}F burner outlet temperature gas turbine, rated at 25 MW, supplied exhaust heat which was used in a boiler to furnish steam to drive an 85 MW steam turbine. This plant achieved an annual average efficiency of 39.6%.

  2. Steam Properties Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 10 NIST/ASME Steam Properties Database (PC database for purchase)   Based upon the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) 1995 formulation for the thermodynamic properties of water and the most recent IAPWS formulations for transport and other properties, this updated version provides water properties over a wide range of conditions according to the accepted international standards.

  3. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems reference system definition update

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The objective of the the Direct Coal-Fueled 80 MW Combustion Turbine Program is to establish the technology required for private sector use of an advanced coal-fueled combustion turbine power system. Under this program the technology for a direct coal-fueled 80 MW combustion turbine is to be developed. This unit would be an element in a 207 MW direct coal-fueled combustion turbine combined cycle which includes two combustion turbines, two heat recovery steam generators and a steam turbine. Key to meeting the program objectives is the development of a successful high pressure slagging combustor that burns coal, while removing sulfur, particulates, and corrosive alkali matter from the combustion products. Westinghouse and Textron (formerly AVCO Research Laboratory/Textron) have designed and fabricated a subscale slagging combustor. This slagging combustor, under test since September 1988, has been yielding important experimental data, while having undergone several design iterations.

  4. Some considerations on the optimum size for geothermal turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Cadenas, C.

    1996-12-31

    The main focus of this work is to show the maximum capacity that is possible from a geothermal turbine. The theorical analysis is made using the concept of the maximum length of the last wheel blades. The theoretical results are compared with the main manufacturers existing information on steam turbines for geothermal application. This work also shows some operational concepts and observations from the central plants installed in the Mexican geothermal fields. In Mexico, from approximately 1970 to present, 28 turbines for geothermal application have been acquired. These turbines have capacities ranging from 1.5 MW to 110 MW, with a total installed capacity of 753 MW. To expand the installed capacity, we would be required to improve the way turbines are selected for all new geothermal projects. Because of the diverse panorama of steam geothermal turbines that are offered at the present time, it is very important to know the maximum capacity that one could get for the established thermodynamic conditions of the steam in the Mexican fields, in order to exploit the resource in the most efficient, economical and functional manner.

  5. Substantiation of the cogeneration turbine unit selection for reconstruction of power units with a T-250/300-23.5 turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valamin, A. E.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Shibaev, T. L.; Gol'dberg, A. A.; Sakhnin, Yu. A.; Stepanov, M. Yu.; Bilan, V. N.; Kadkina, I. V.

    2016-11-01

    The selection of a cogeneration steam turbine unit (STU) for the reconstruction of power units with a T-250/300-23.5 turbine is substantiated by the example of power unit no. 9 at the cogeneration power station no. 22 (TETs-22) of Mosenergo Company. Series T-250 steam turbines have been developed for combined heat and power generation. A total of 31 turbines were manufactured. By the end of 2015, the total operation time of prototype power units with the T-250/300-23.5 turbine exceeded 290000 hours. Considering the expiry of the service life, the decision was made that the reconstruction of the power unit at st. no. 9 of TETs-22 should be the first priority. The main issues that arose in developing this project—the customer's requirements and the request for the reconstruction, the view on certain problems of Ural Turbine Works (UTZ) as the manufacturer of the main power unit equipment, and the opinions of other project parties—are examined. The decisions were made with account taken of the experience in operation of all Series T-250 turbines and the results of long-term discussions of pressing problems at scientific and technical councils, meetings, and negotiations. For the new power unit, the following parameters have been set: a live steam pressure of 23.5 MPa and live steam/reheat temperature of 565/565°C. Considering that the boiler equipment will be upgraded, the live steam flow is increased up to 1030 t/h. The reconstruction activities involving the replacement of the existing turbine with a new one will yield a service life of 250000 hours for turbine parts exposed to a temperature of 450°C or higher and 200000 hours for pipeline components. Hence, the decision has been made to reuse the arrangement of the existing turbine: a four-cylinder turbine unit comprising a high-pressure cylinder (HPC), two intermediate pressure cylinders (IPC-1 & 2), and a low-pressure cylinder (LPC). The flow path in the new turbine will have active blading in LPC and IPC-1

  6. Turbine design review text

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Three-volume publication covers theoretical, design, and performance aspects of turbines. Volumes cover thermodynamic and fluid-dynamic concepts, velocity diagram design, turbine blade aerodynamic design, turbine energy losses, supersonic turbines, radial-inflow turbines, turbine cooling, and aerodynamic performance testing.

  7. Steam driven centrifugal pump for low cost boiler feed service

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    This article describes a steam driven centrifugal pump for boiler feed-water and other high pressure water applications, which was awarded Top Honors in the special pumps category of the 1982 Chemical processing Vaaler competition, because the simple design with turbine, pump and controls combined in an integral unit provides high operating efficiency and reliable performance with minimal maintenance. Single source responsibility for all components when the pump may have to be serviced is another advantage. These features meet the requirements for boiler feed pumps that are critical to maintaining a consistent steam supply in a process plant where downtime can be extremely expensive. The annual cost to operate the pump for 8000 hours is about $100,000, if electricity costs 5 cents/kwh. These pumps can be run for about $30,000 on steam, if natural gas costs $4.00/mcf. Cost savings are $70,000 annually.

  8. Real gas properties and Space Shuttle Main Engine fuel turbine performance prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harloff, G. J.

    1987-01-01

    The H2/H2O mixture thermodynamic and transport properties variations for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) fuel turbine over a range of temperatures and pressures are examined. The variation of molecular viscosity, specific heat at constant pressure, and Prandtl number for the hydrogen/steam mixture are fitted using polynominal relationships for future turbine performance use. The mixture property variations are calculated using GASP and WASP computer programs. The air equivalent performance of the SSME fuel turbine is computed.

  9. Materials Performance in USC Steam Portland

    SciTech Connect

    G.R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; R. Hu

    2011-04-26

    Goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 C and 340 atm, co-called advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) steam conditions. A limitation to achieving the goal is a lack of cost-effective metallic materials that can perform at these temperatures and pressures. Some of the more important performance limitations are high-temperature creep strength, fire-side corrosion resistance, and steam-side oxidation resistance. Nickel-base superalloys are expected to be the materials best suited for steam boiler and turbine applications above about 675 C. Specific alloys of interest include Haynes 230 and 282, Inconel 617, 625 and 740, and Nimonic 263. Further validation of a previously developed chromia evaporation model is shown by examining the reactive evaporation effects resulting from exposure of Haynes 230 and Haynes 282 to moist air environments as a function of flow rate and water content. These two alloys differ in Ti and Mn contents, which may form outer layers of TiO{sub 2} or Cr-Mn spinels. This would in theory decrease the evaporation of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} from the scale by decreasing the activity of chromia at the scale surface, and be somewhat self-correcting as chromia evaporation concentrates the Ti and Mn phases. The apparent approximate chromia activity was found for each condition and alloy that showed chromia evaporation kinetics. As expected, it was found that increasing the gas flow rate led to increased chromia evaporation and decreased chromia activity. However, increasing the water content in moist air increased the evaporation, but results were mixed with its effect on chromia activity.

  10. High-temperature turbine technology program. Turbine subsystem design report: Low-Btu gas

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, M.W.

    1980-12-01

    The objective of the US Department of Energy High-Temperature Turbine Technology (DOE-HTTT) program is to bring to technology readiness a high-temperature (2600/sup 0/F to 3000/sup 0/F firing temperature) turbine within a 6- to 10-year duration, Phase II has addressed the performance of component design and technology testing in critical areas to confirm the design concepts identified in the earlier Phase I program. Based on the testing and support studies completed under Phase II, this report describes the updated turbine subsystem design for a coal-derived gas fuel (low-Btu gas) operation at 2600/sup 0/F turbine firing temperature. A commercial IGCC plant configuration would contain four gas turbines. These gas turbines utilize an existing axial flow compressor from the GE product line MS6001 machine. A complete description of the Primary Reference Design-Overall Plant Design Description has been developed and has been documented. Trends in overall plant performance improvement at higher pressure ratio and higher firing temperature are shown. It should be noted that the effect of pressure ratio on efficiency is significally enhanced at higher firing temperatures. It is shown that any improvement in overall plant thermal efficiency reflects about the same level of gain in Cost of Electricity (COE). The IGCC concepts are shown to be competitive in both performance and cost at current and near-term gas turbine firing temperatures of 1985/sup 0/F to 2100/sup 0/F. The savings that can be accumulated over a thirty-year plant life for a water-cooled gas turbine in an IGCC plant as compared to a state-of-the-art coal-fired steam plant are estimated. A total of $500 million over the life of a 1000 MW plant is projected. Also, this IGCC power plant has significant environmental advantages over equivalent coal-fired steam power plants.

  11. 14. STEAM CABINETS & SITZ BATH IN STEAM ROOM. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. STEAM CABINETS & SITZ BATH IN STEAM ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  12. 32. 48' MILL STEAM ENGINE ADMISSION BOX (?), STEAM VALVE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. 48' MILL STEAM ENGINE ADMISSION BOX (?), STEAM VALVE, AND REVERSING MECHANISM LIFTING CYLINDER. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 48" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  13. Wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Cheney, Jr., Marvin C.

    1982-01-01

    A wind turbine of the type having an airfoil blade (15) mounted on a flexible beam (20) and a pitch governor (55) which selectively, torsionally twists the flexible beam in response to wind turbine speed thereby setting blade pitch, is provided with a limiter (85) which restricts unwanted pitch change at operating speeds due to torsional creep of the flexible beam. The limiter allows twisting of the beam by the governor under excessive wind velocity conditions to orient the blades in stall pitch positions, thereby preventing overspeed operation of the turbine. In the preferred embodiment, the pitch governor comprises a pendulum (65,70) which responds to changing rotor speed by pivotal movement, the limiter comprising a resilient member (90) which engages an end of the pendulum to restrict further movement thereof, and in turn restrict beam creep and unwanted blade pitch misadjustment.

  14. Energy recuperation in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and gas turbine (GT) combined system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchonthara, Prapan; Bhattacharya, Sankar; Tsutsumi, Atsushi

    A combined power generation system consisting of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and a gas turbine (GT) with steam and heat recuperation (HR) was evaluated using a commercial process simulation tool, ASPEN Plus. The effect of steam recuperation (SR) on the overall efficiency of the combined system was investigated by comparing the SOFC-GT during heat and steam recuperation (HSR) against the system during only heat recuperation. At low turbine inlet temperatures (TITs), the overall efficiency of the SOFC-GT combined system with heat and steam recuperation improved by showing an increase in TIT and a reduction in pressure ratio (PR). On the other hand, at high TITs, the opposite trend was observed. The integration of steam recuperation was found to improve the overall efficiency and specific power of SOFC-GT combined systems with a relatively compact SOFC component.

  15. Correlation of operating parameters on turbine shaft vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Harsh Kumar; Rajora, Rajeev

    2016-05-01

    The new generation of condition monitoring and diagnostics system plays an important role in efficient functioning of power plants. In most of the rotating machine, defects can be detected by such a system much before dangerous situation occurs. It allows the efficient use of stationary on-line continuous monitoring system for condition monitoring and diagnostics as well. Condition monitoring of turbine shaft can not only reduce expenses of maintenance of turbo generator of power plants but also prevents likely shutdown of plant, thereby increases plant load factor. Turbo visionary parameters are essential part of health diagnosis system of turbo generator. Particularly steam pressure, steam temperature and lube oil temperature are important parameters to monitor because they are having much influence on turbine shaft vibration and also governing systems are available for change values of those parameters. This paper includes influence of turbo visionary parameters i.e., steam temperature, steam pressure, lube oil temperature, turbine speed and load on turbine shaft vibration at turbo generator at 195 MW unit-6,Kota Super Thermal Power Station by measuring vibration amplitude and analyze them in MATLAB.

  16. High performance steam development

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, T.; Schneider, P.

    1995-10-01

    Over 30 years ago U.S. industry introduced the world`s highest temperature (1200{degrees}F at 5000 psig) and most efficient power plant, the Eddystone coal-burning steam plant. The highest alloy material used in the plant was 316 stainless steel. Problems during the first few years of operation caused a reduction in operating temperature to 1100{degrees}F which has generally become the highest temperature used in plants around the world. Leadership in high temperature steam has moved to Japan and Europe over the last 30 years.

  17. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, L.C.; Simpson, M.L.

    1995-01-17

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically. 4 figures.

  18. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, Lonnie C.; Simpson, Marc L.

    1995-01-01

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically.

  19. STEAM GENERATOR GROUP PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R. A.; Lewis, M

    1985-09-01

    This report is a summary of progress in the Surry Steam Generator Group Project for 1984. Information is presented on the analysis of two baseline eddy current inspections of the generator. Round robin series of tests using standard in-service inspection techniques are described along with some preliminary results. Observations are reported of degradation found on tubing specimens removed from the generator, and on support plates characterized in-situ. Residual stresses measured on a tubing specimen are reported. Two steam generator repair demonstrations are described; one for antivibration bar replacement, and one on tube repair methods. Chemical analyses are shown for sludge samples removed from above the tube sheet.

  20. Center for Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research

    SciTech Connect

    Golan, L.P.

    1992-12-31

    An unregulated conventional power station based on the Rankine Cycle typically bums pulverized coal in a boiler that exports steam for expansion through a steam turbine which ultimately drives an electric generator. The flue gases are normally cleaned of particulates by an electrostatic precipitator or bag house. A basic cycle such as this will have an efficiency of approximately 35% with 10% of the energy released through the stack and 55% to cooling water. Advanced gas turbine based combustion systems have the potential to be environmentally and commercially superior to existing conventional technology. however, to date, industry, academic, and government groups have not coordinated their effort to commercialize these technologies. The Center for Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research will provide the medium to support effective commercialization of this technology. Several cycles or concepts for advanced gas turbine systems that could be fired on natural gas or could be adapted into coal based systems have been proposed (for examples, see Figures 4, 5, 6, and 7) (2) all with vary degrees of complexity, research needs, and system potential. Natural gas fired power systems are now available with 52% efficiency ratings; however, with a focused base technology program, it is expected that the efficiency levels can be increased to the 60% level and beyond. This increase in efficiency will significantly reduce the environmental burden and reduce the cost of power generation.

  1. Center for Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research

    SciTech Connect

    Golan, L.P.

    1992-01-01

    An unregulated conventional power station based on the Rankine Cycle typically bums pulverized coal in a boiler that exports steam for expansion through a steam turbine which ultimately drives an electric generator. The flue gases are normally cleaned of particulates by an electrostatic precipitator or bag house. A basic cycle such as this will have an efficiency of approximately 35% with 10% of the energy released through the stack and 55% to cooling water. Advanced gas turbine based combustion systems have the potential to be environmentally and commercially superior to existing conventional technology. however, to date, industry, academic, and government groups have not coordinated their effort to commercialize these technologies. The Center for Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research will provide the medium to support effective commercialization of this technology. Several cycles or concepts for advanced gas turbine systems that could be fired on natural gas or could be adapted into coal based systems have been proposed (for examples, see Figures 4, 5, 6, and 7) (2) all with vary degrees of complexity, research needs, and system potential. Natural gas fired power systems are now available with 52% efficiency ratings; however, with a focused base technology program, it is expected that the efficiency levels can be increased to the 60% level and beyond. This increase in efficiency will significantly reduce the environmental burden and reduce the cost of power generation.

  2. In Situ Steam Fracture Experiments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-31

    reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP In Situ Steam Generation Steam Diffusion Downhole 14 1 2 1 J il Properties...in the high- permeability paintbrush-type tuff found in P-Tunnel. All tests were -. performed using downhole steam generation systems capable of...Command, Albuquerque. S-CUBED developed, designed, fabricated, and fielded the downhole , steam - . . generation system. In addition, S-CUBED was

  3. Industrial Advanced Turbine Systems Program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Esbeck, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    DOE`s ATS Program will lead to the development of an optimized, energy efficient, and environmentally friendly gas turbine power systems in the 3 to 20 MW class. Market studies were conducted for application of ATS to the dispersed/distributed electric power generation market. The technology studies have led to the design of a gas-fired, recuperated, industrial size gas turbine. The Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine program continues. In the High Performance Steam Systems program, a 100 hour development test to prove the advanced 1500 F, 1500 psig system has been successfully completed. A market transformation will take place: the customer will be offered a choice of energy conversion technologies to meet heat and power generation needs into the next century.

  4. Steam exit flow design for aft cavities of an airfoil

    SciTech Connect

    Storey, James Michael; Tesh, Stephen William

    2002-01-01

    Turbine stator vane segments have inner and outer walls with vanes extending therebetween. The inner and outer walls have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. A skirt or flange structure is provided for shielding the steam cooling impingement holes adjacent the inner wall aerofoil fillet region of the nozzle from the steam flow exiting the aft nozzle cavities. Moreover, the gap between the flash rib boss and the cavity insert is controlled to minimize the flow of post impingement cooling media therebetween. This substantially confines outflow to that exiting via the return channels, thus furthermore minimizing flow in the vicinity of the aerofoil fillet region that may adversely affect impingement cooling thereof.

  5. Power recovery turbine pump

    SciTech Connect

    Oklejas, R.A.; Oklejas, E. Jr.

    1991-09-17

    This patent describes an energy recovery pump turbine for use in industrial processes where a fluid is pumped at a high pressure into the process and at least a portion of the fluid is discharged from the process at a high pressure. It comprises a central body portion that defines a turbine impeller cavity and a pump impeller cavity; a turbine inlet nozzle extending from the turbine impeller cavity through the central body portion; the turbine inlet nozzle being located adjacent the outer periphery of the turbine impeller cavity, a turbine exhaust passageway passing into the turbine impeller cavity, the turbine exhaust passageway being located adjacent the center of the turbine impeller; a turbine positioned in the turbine impeller cavity to receive the high pressure fluid discharged from the process, the turbine having an impeller positioned on a shaft, the fluid engaging the impeller and causing the impeller and shaft to rotate.

  6. Indirect-fired gas turbine bottomed with fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Micheli, P.L.; Williams, M.C.; Parsons, E.L.

    1995-09-12

    An indirect-heated gas turbine cycle is bottomed with a fuel cell cycle with the heated air discharged from the gas turbine being directly utilized at the cathode of the fuel cell for the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction occurring within the fuel cell. The hot cathode recycle gases provide a substantial portion of the heat required for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. A separate combustor provides the balance of the heat needed for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. Hot gases from the fuel cell are used in the combustor to reduce both the fuel requirements of the combustor and the NOx emissions therefrom. Residual heat remaining in the air-heating gases after completing the heating thereof is used in a steam turbine cycle or in an absorption refrigeration cycle. Some of the hot gases from the cathode can be diverted from the air-heating function and used in the absorption refrigeration cycle or in the steam cycle for steam generating purposes. 1 fig.

  7. Indirect-fired gas turbine bottomed with fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Micheli, Paul L.; Williams, Mark C.; Parsons, Edward L.

    1995-01-01

    An indirect-heated gas turbine cycle is bottomed with a fuel cell cycle with the heated air discharged from the gas turbine being directly utilized at the cathode of the fuel cell for the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction occurring within the fuel cell. The hot cathode recycle gases provide a substantial portion of the heat required for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. A separate combustor provides the balance of the heat needed for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. Hot gases from the fuel cell are used in the combustor to reduce both the fuel requirements of the combustor and the NOx emissions therefrom. Residual heat remaining in the air-heating gases after completing the heating thereof is used in a steam turbine cycle or in an absorption refrigeration cycle. Some of the hot gases from the cathode can be diverted from the air-heating function and used in the absorption refrigeration cycle or in the steam cycle for steam generating purposes.

  8. An Industrial Steam Distillation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Frederick S.; Schuerch, Conrad

    1975-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate chemistry experiment which demonstrates the use of codistillation for the separation of substances of low volatility from nonvolatiles. Pine gum is separated into turpentine and rosin by means of codistillation with steam at temperatures above 100 degrees centigrade. (MLH)

  9. NEXT GENERATION TURBINE PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    William H. Day

    2002-05-03

    The Next Generation Turbine (NGT) Program's technological development focused on a study of the feasibility of turbine systems greater than 30 MW that offer improvement over the 1999 state-of-the-art systems. This program targeted goals of 50 percent turndown ratios, 15 percent reduction in generation cost/kW hour, improved service life, reduced emissions, 400 starts/year with 10 minutes to full load, and multiple fuel usage. Improvement in reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM), while reducing operations, maintenance, and capital costs by 15 percent, was pursued. This program builds on the extensive low emissions stationary gas turbine work being carried out by Pratt & Whitney (P&W) for P&W Power Systems (PWPS), which is a company under the auspices of the United Technologies Corporation (UTC). This study was part of the overall Department of Energy (DOE) NGT Program that extends out to the year 2008. A follow-on plan for further full-scale component hardware testing is conceptualized for years 2002 through 2008 to insure a smooth and efficient transition to the marketplace for advanced turbine design and cycle technology. This program teamed the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), P&W, United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), kraftWork Systems Inc., a subcontractor on-site at UTRC, and Multiphase Power and Processing Technologies (MPPT), an off-site subcontractor. Under the auspices of the NGT Program, a series of analyses were performed to identify the NGT engine system's ability to serve multiple uses. The majority were in conjunction with a coal-fired plant, or used coal as the system fuel. Identified also was the ability of the NGT system to serve as the basis of an advanced performance cycle: the humid air turbine (HAT) cycle. The HAT cycle is also used with coal gasification in an integrated cycle HAT (IGHAT). The NGT systems identified were: (1) Feedwater heating retrofit to an existing coal-fired steam plant, which could supply

  10. Combinations of solid oxide fuel cell and several enhanced gas turbine cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchonthara, Prapan; Bhattacharya, Sankar; Tsutsumi, Atsushi

    Combined power generation systems with combinations of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and various enhanced gas turbine (GT) cycles were evaluated. In the GT part, steam injected gas turbine (STIG) cycle, GT/steam turbine (ST) combined cycle, and humid air turbine (HAT) cycle were considered. Moreover, additional recuperation was considered by means of air preheating (APH) in the STIG cycle. Effects of operating turbine inlet temperature (TIT) and pressure ratio (PR) on overall system performance were assessed. Although the SOFC-HAT system shows the lowest specific work output compared to other systems, its highest thermal efficiency presents a significant advantage. Furthermore, at high TITs and PRs the SOFC-HAT system gives the best performance in terms of both thermal efficiency and specific work. Results indicate that energy recuperative features in the HAT promote the positive effect of increasing TIT by means of enhancing GT efficiency, leading to the improvement in thermal efficiency of the overall system.

  11. Improved turbine cylinder bolting system

    SciTech Connect

    Gosling, M.C.

    1997-10-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a new cylinder bolting system to replace the main joint hardware for both combustion (and steam) turbine applications. The new bolts are designed to be hydraulically tensioned to the specified preload and utilize ultrasonic verification of elongation. The new bolting system uses a reduced number of components in each assembly and the individual components themselves are of a simplified design. The new hardware can be applied to new equipment without modification and retrofitted to customer-owned equipment as a direct replacement for existing joint hardware. The prototype, production, and field testing of this hardware, the installation tooling; and ultrasonic elongation measuring equipment are described. This testing has shown significant savings in assembly and disassembly cycle times even after prolonged exposure to turbine operating temperatures in a corrosive environment. The new design of bolting is now standard equipment for the CE251B11/B12 combustion turbine manufactured by Westinghouse P.G.B.U.

  12. Anthracite firing -- Largest steam generators

    SciTech Connect

    Brower, P.; Winkin, J.; Changqin, G.

    1998-07-01

    The size and scope of the Hanfeng Power Plant is a large undertaking by any definition. It is progressing very well with good coordination and cooperation of all those involved. Start-up is scheduled for the first unit in the year 2000 with the second unit following by eight months. The boiler island scope covers all equipment and structural steel from the bunkers to the stack. This includes the world's two largest anthracite fired boilers burning a blend of very low volatile Chinese anthracite and lean coal (bituminous). The coal blending is designed to maximize the use of the local anthracite coal. This is done by controlled blending at the entrance to the large FW D12D ball mills. Scaling up from earlier extensive experience with arch fired boilers is reviewed as well as key features of the Hanfeng boilers each of which are capable of generating 563 kg/s of steam at 540.8 C and 175 bar (equivalent to 717 MW of turbine/generator output). The design of the boiler and related equipment for the Hanfeng project has been the subject of in-depth reviews by independent engineers representing the banks to assure reliability of the boiler to support the economic model. It has been shown that FW's extensive experience burning anthracite coals has justified the scaling up of the various components to meet the requirements of the specification. This experience is based on operating similar type anthracite arch fired boilers with fuel blends that are comparable to the coals to be supplied for the Hanfeng project. The materials and equipment for the Hanfeng boiler island are being supplied on a multi-national basis in support of the various requirements of the financing institutions involved. The overall design has been finalized and the detail design is well underway. Most of the large critical components are already in manufacturing.

  13. Calculation of flow distribution in large radius ratio stages of axial flow turbines and comparison of theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzog, J.

    1974-01-01

    A method of calculating stage parameters and flow distribution of axial turbines is described. The governing equations apply to space between the blade rows and are based on the assumption of rotationally symmetrical, compressible, adiabatic flow conditions. Results are presented for stage design and flow analysis calculations. Theoretical results from the calculation system are compared with experimental data from low pressure steam turbine tests.

  14. Steamer of steam circulation system

    SciTech Connect

    Onodera, M.

    1986-09-23

    A conveyor steamer is described which consists of: a room enclosed with heat-insulated walls, floor, and ceiling, the room having an entrance and an exit for goods to be steamed, a conveyor means for carrying the goods to be steamed, the conveyor means traversing into the entrance of the room, through the room, and out of the exit of the room; a source of heated primary steam; first pipe means, arranged beneath the conveyor means, for jetting the heated primary steam upwardly from across the floor of the room; second pipe means disposed across the entire ceiling of the room arranged above the conveyor means, for scavenging spent steam from across the entire ceiling of the room; and an ejector-condenser means, interconnected between the first pipe means, the source of primary heated steam and the second pipe means, for mixing the spent steam from the second pipe means with the heated primary steam in the first pipe means; whereby the spent steam mixed with the heated primary steam is caused to recirculate in the first pipe means through the room, thus saving energy and consuming less heated primary steam so that cost reductions will result.

  15. Thermal efficient steam producing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Enhanced Energy Systems Inc. manufactures compact, high-pressure combustion direct-contact steam generation systems for thermal stimulation of oil-bearing formations. The products were designed to leverage off the field experience and test information obtained under the U.S. Department of Energy Project Deep Steam. The thermal- efficient line of steam stimulation systems is the result of extensive design and testing activities aimed at modifying the technology demonstrated in the Deep Steam Project for reliable and cost effective commercial recovery operations. Specific products are produced for steam and inert gas stimulation in a wide range of reservoir conditions using either wellhead or downhole positioning of the steam generator. The steam systems utilize full electronic monitoring on all products and electronic control for downhole systems.

  16. Crude oil steam distillation in steam flooding. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.H.; Elder, R.B.

    1980-08-01

    Steam distillation yields of sixteen crude oils from various parts of the United States have been determined at a saturated steam pressure of 200 psig. Study made to investigate the effect of steam pressure (200 to 500 psig) on steam distillation yields indicates that the maximum yields of a crude oil may be obtained at 200 psig. At a steam distillation correlation factor (V/sub w//V/sub oi/) of 15, the determined steam distillation yields range from 12 to 56% of initial oil volume for the sixteen crude oils with gravity ranging from 12 to 40/sup 0/API. Regression analysis of experimental steam distillation yields shows that the boiling temperature (simulated distillation temperature) at 20% simulated distillation yield can predict the steam distillation yields reasonably well: the standard error ranges from 2.8 to 3.5% (in yield) for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ < 5 and from 3.5 to 4.5% for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ > 5. The oil viscosity (cs) at 100/sup 0/F can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 3.1 to 4.3%. The API gravity can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 4.4 to 5.7%. Characterization factor is an unsatisfactory correlation independent variable for correlation purpose.

  17. Selective removal of H/sub 2/S from steam also containing CO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Paalman, H.H.; Drapeau, D.

    1985-02-19

    Essentially all of the H/sub 2/S in steam which also contains up to 30 ppmw of CO/sub 2/ per ppmw of H/sub 2/S can be scrubbed from the steam with aqueous NaOH or Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ without consuming more than about 4 mols of NaOH or 2 mols of Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ per mol of H/sub 2/S and without consuming more than about 0.18 pounds of water per pound of steam scrubbed, if the steam is scrubbed countercurrently in a tower containing a contacting means equivalent to at least 6 theoretical stages, the sulfide species in the tower effluent are completely oxidized to sulfo species and the oxidized effluent-less a bleed stream and plus water and base makeup-is recycled to the tower. If the steam is scrubbed in this manner before being introduced to the turbines in a power plant, the exhaust from the turbines can be vented to the atmosphere without further treatment. The method of the invention is particularly suited for use at the Geysers geothermal ''steam'' field in California.

  18. The STEAM Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Schéele, F.; Steam Team

    The proposed satellite project "Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange And climate Monitor" (STEAM) is dedicated to the investigation of chemical, dynamical, and radiative processes in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) altitude range and their links with the Earth climate and stratosphere evolution. The main objectives are to provide vertically and horizontally resolved information on the global distributions of UT/LS key species such as H2O, O3, and CO, and global fields of O3, H2O and halogen compounds responsible for the O3 destruction like ClO in the stratosphere. The UT/LS region plays an important role in the Earth's climate system. Despite its importance there is still a lack of accurate, height-resolved data from the UT/LS. Confronting 3-D climate and chemical-transport models with STEAM observations will improve our knowledge of this atmospheric region. Furthermore, it will be important to continue monitoring the evolution of the stratosphere regarding the expected decline of halogen compounds and recovery of the ozone layer. STEAM consists of a microwave limb-sounding instrument, operating in the 320-360 GHz range to sound the UT/LS and in the 485-505 GHz range to sound the stratosphere, and an optical instrument. By sounding the Earth atmosphere's limb from 5 to 28 km employing a new technique with 8 simultaneous measurements, STEAM will produce a global dataset of UT/LS key species with high vertical (1.5-2.5 km) and horizontal (30-50 km) resolution. The sub-mm band will cover 15 to 40 km. An optical instrument, co-aligned with the mm-wave band, will support micro-wave measurements with cloud indications and in addition provide stratospheric ozone, and aerosol and cloud property measurements. STEAM, planned for a launch in 2008, will be a collaboration between laboratories, industry and agencies in several countries. The Odin heritage of the project (e.g. microwave and optical instruments) provides technical maturity and will help to keep

  19. Coal air turbine {open_quotes}CAT{close_quotes} program invention 604. Fourth quarter project report, July 1995--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Foster-Pegg, R.W.

    1995-10-31

    A coal air turbine `CAT` generates electric power and heat from coal combustion. The purpose of this project is the conceptual design of a `CAT` plant, and to make a comparison of the capital cost and and cost of power and steam from the `CAT` plant with power produced by alternate plants at the same site. Three configurations investigated include: condensing plant utilizing coal fuel and a condenser tower, or river, for cooling; a cogeneration plant utilizing coal and a steam turbine; and a cogeneration plant utilizing steam export and injection with waste coal fuel.

  20. Project DEEP STEAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aeschliman, D. P.; Clay, R. G.; Donaldson, A. B.; Eisenhawer, S. W.; Fox, R. L.; Johnson, D. R.; Mulac, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of Project DEEP STEAM is to develop the technology to economically produce heavy oils from deep reservoirs. The tasks included in this project are the development of thermally efficient delivery systems and downhole steam generation systems. During the period January 1-March 31, 1981, effort has continued on a low pressure combustion downhole generator (Rocketdyne), and on two high pressure designs (Foster-Miller Associates, Sandia National Laboratories). The Sandia design was prepared for deployment in the Wilmington Field at Long Beach, California. Progress continued on the Min-Stress II packer concept at L'Garde, Inc., and on the extruded metal packer at Foster-Miller. Initial bare string field data are reported on the insulated tubular test at Lloydminster, Saskatchewan, Canada.

  1. Water cooled steam jet

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, E.P. Jr.

    1999-01-12

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed there between. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock. 2 figs.

  2. Water cooled steam jet

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Jr., Edward P.

    1999-01-01

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

  3. Steam separator latch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, R.C.; Kobsa, I.R.

    1994-02-01

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof. 12 figures.

  4. Steam separator latch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, Roy C.; Kobsa, Irvin R.

    1994-01-01

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof.

  5. Advanced turbine systems: Studies and conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    van der Linden, S.; Gnaedig, G.; Kreitmeier, F.

    1993-11-01

    The ABB selection for the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) includes advanced developments especially in the hot gas path of the combustion turbine and new state-of-the-art units such as the steam turbine and the HRSG. The increase in efficiency by more than 10% multiplicative compared to current designs will be based on: (1) Turbine Inlet Temperature Increase; (2) New Cooling Techniques for Stationary and Rotating Parts; and New Materials. Present, projected component improvements that will be introduced with the above mentioned issues will yield improved CCSC turbine performance, which will drive the ATS selected gas-fired reference CC power plant to 6 % LHV or better. The decrease in emission levels requires a careful optimization of the cycle design, where cooling air consumption has to be minimized. All interfaces of the individual systems in the complete CC Plant need careful checks, especially to avoid unnecessary margins in the individual designs. This study is an important step pointing out the feasibility of the ATS program with realistic goals set by DOE, which, however, will present challenges for Phase II time schedule of 18 months. With the approach outlined in this study and close cooperation with DOE, ATS program success can be achieved to deliver low emissions and low cost of electricity by the year 2002. The ABB conceptual design and step approach will lead to early component demonstration which will help accelerate the overall program objectives.

  6. Plan Turbines 3 & 4, Side View Turbines ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plan - Turbines 3 & 4, Side View - Turbines 3 & 4, Section A-A - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  7. Steam drive recovery method utilizing a downhole steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Snavely, E. S.; Hopkins, D. N.

    1984-09-18

    Viscous oil is recovered from a subterranean, viscous oil-containing formation by a steam flooding technique wherein steam is generated in a downhole steam generator located in an injection well by spontaneous combustion of a pressurized mixture of a water-soluble fuel such as sugars and alcohols dissolved in water and substantially pure oxygen. The generated mixture of steam and combustion gases pass through the formation, displacing oil and reducing the oil's viscosity and the mobilized oil is produced from the formation via a spaced-apart production well.

  8. Steam drive oil recovery method utilizing a downhole steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Nopkins, D. N.; Snavely, E. S.

    1984-10-23

    Viscous oil is recovered from a subterranean, viscous oil-containing formation by a steam flooding technique wherein steam is generated in a downhole steam generator located in an injection well by spontaneous combustion of a pressurized mixture of a water-soluble fuel such as sugars and alcohols dissolved in water or a stable hydrocarbon fuel-in-water emulsion and substantially pure oxygen. The generated mixture of steam and combustion gases pass through the formation, displacing oil and reducing the oil's viscosity and the mobilized oil is produced from the formation via a spaced-apart production well.

  9. Advanced Catalysis Technologies: Lanthanum Cerium Manganese Hexaaluminate Combustion Catalysts for Flat Plate Reactor for Compact Steam Reformers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    DEVELOPMENT OF THIN FILM CATALYSIS AND THE COMBUSTION CATALYST 1 Summary The steam reforming reaction is fast and endothermic; therefore, the rate...lean natural gas turbines in order to reduce NOx emissions to reforming catalyst to convert diesel and kerosene to hydrogen rich gases. Unlike... gas turbines, in order to reduce NOx emissions, to reforming catalyst to convert distillate fuels, such as diesel and kerosene, to hydrogen rich

  10. GE power generation technology challenges for advanced gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, C.S.; Nourse, J.G.

    1993-11-01

    The GE Utility ATS is a large gas turbine, derived from proven GEPG designs and integrated GEAE technology, that utilizes a new turbine cooling system and incorporates advanced materials. This system has the potential to achieve ATS objectives for a utility sized machine. Combined with use of advanced Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC`s), the new cooling system will allow higher firing temperatures and improved cycle efficiency that represents a significant improvement over currently available machines. Developing advances in gas turbine efficiency and emissions is an ongoing process at GEPG. The third generation, ``F`` class, of utility gas turbines offers net combined cycle efficiencies in the 55% range, with NO{sub x} programs in place to reduce emissions to less than 10 ppM. The gas turbines have firing temperatures of 2350{degree}F, and pressure ratios of 15 to 1. The turbine components are cooled by air extracted from the cycle at various stages of the compressor. The heat recovery cycle is a three pressure steam system, with reheat. Throttle conditions are nominally 1400 psi and 1000{degree}F reheat. As part of GEPG`s ongoing advanced power generation system development program, it is expected that a gas fired advanced turbine system providing 300 MW power output greater than 58% net efficiency and < 10 ppM NO{sub x} will be defined. The new turbine cooling system developed with technology support from the ATS program will achieve system net efficiency levels in excess of 60%.

  11. Process for purifying geothermal steam

    DOEpatents

    Li, Charles T.

    1980-01-01

    Steam containing hydrogen sulfide is purified and sulfur recovered by passing the steam through a reactor packed with activated carbon in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of oxygen which oxidizes the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur which is adsorbed on the bed. The carbon can be recycled after the sulfur has been recovered by vacuum distillation, inert gas entrainment or solvent extraction. The process is suitable for the purification of steam from geothermal sources which may also contain other noncondensable gases.

  12. Process for purifying geothermal steam

    DOEpatents

    Li, C.T.

    Steam containing hydrogen sulfide is purified and sulfur recovered by passing the steam through a reactor packed with activated carbon in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of oxygen which oxidizes the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur which is adsorbed on the bed. The carbon can be recycled after the sulfur has been recovered by vacuum distillation, inert gas entrainment or solvent extraction. The process is suitable for the purification of steam from geothermal sources which may also contain other noncondensable gases.

  13. Downhole steam generator having a downhole oxidant compressor

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.L.

    1983-04-19

    Apparatus and method for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein a downhole oxidant compressor is used to compress relatively low pressure (Atmospheric) oxidant, such as air, to a relatively high pressure prior to mixing with fuel for combustion. The multi-stage compressor receives motive power through a shaft driven by a gas turbine powered by the hot expanding combustion gases. The main flow of compressed oxidant passes through a velocity increasing nozzle formed by a reduced central section of the compressor housing. An oxidant bypass feedpipe leading to peripheral oxidant injection nozzles of the combustion chamber are also provided. The downhole compressor allows effective steam generation in deep wells without need for high pressure surface compressors. Feedback preheater means are provided for preheating fuel in a preheat chamber. Preheating of the water occurs in both a water feed line running from aboveground and in a countercurrent water flow channel surrounding the combustor assembly. The countercurrent water flow channels advantageously serve to cool the combustion chamber wall. The water is injected through slotted inlets along the combustion chamber wall to provide an unstable boundary layer and stripping of the water from the wall for efficient steam generation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at the steam outlet for closing and sealing the combustion chamber from entry of reservoir fluids in the event of a flameout.

  14. Downhole steam generator having a downhole oxidant compressor

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Ronald L.

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus and method for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein a downhole oxidant compressor is used to compress relatively low pressure (atmospheric) oxidant, such as air, to a relatively high pressure prior to mixing with fuel for combustion. The multi-stage compressor receives motive power through a shaft driven by a gas turbine powered by the hot expanding combustion gases. The main flow of compressed oxidant passes through a velocity increasing nozzle formed by a reduced central section of the compressor housing. An oxidant bypass feedpipe leading to peripheral oxidant injection nozzles of the combustion chamber are also provided. The downhole compressor allows effective steam generation in deep wells without need for high pressure surface compressors. Feedback preheater means are provided for preheating fuel in a preheat chamber. Preheating of the water occurs in both a water feed line running from aboveground and in a countercurrent water flow channel surrounding the combustor assembly. The countercurrent water flow channels advantageously serve to cool the combustion chamber wall. The water is injected through slotted inlets along the combustion chamber wall to provide an unstable boundary layer and stripping of the water from the wall for efficient steam generation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at the steam outlet for closing and sealing the combustion chamber from entry of reservoir fluids in the event of a flameout.

  15. Wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Traudt, R.F.

    1986-12-30

    This patent describes a wind turbine device having a main rotatable driven shaft, elongated blades operatively mounted on the main shaft for unitary rotation with the main shaft. The blade extends substantially radially away from the main shaft and is adapted to fold downwind under naturally occurring forces and simultaneously feather in direct response to the folding movement. A means associated with the blades is included for increasing the rate of fold relative to the rate of feather as the speed of rotation increases.

  16. Downhole steam injector. [Patent application

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, A.B.; Hoke, E.

    1981-06-03

    An improved downhole steam injector has an angled water orifice to swirl the water through the device for improved heat transfer before it is converted to steam. The injector also has a sloped diameter reduction in the steam chamber to throw water that collects along the side of the chamber during slant drilling into the flame for conversion to steam. In addition, the output of the flame chamber is beveled to reduce hot spots and increase efficiency, and the fuel-oxidant inputs are arranged to minimize coking.

  17. Turbine Aerothermal Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    AFRL-RZ-WP-TM-2012-0192 TURBINE AEROTHERMAL RESEARCH Rolf Sondergaard, Shichuan Ou, and Richard Rivir Turbomachinery Branch Turbine...SONDERGAARD CHARLES W. STEVENS Project Engineer Branch Chief Turbomachinery Branch Turbomachinery Branch Turbine Engine Division Turbine Engine...WORK UNIT NUMBER Q0EE 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Turbomachinery Branch (AFRL/RQTT

  18. Rotor bore and turbine rotor wheel/spacer heat exchange flow circuit

    DOEpatents

    Caruso, Philip M.; Eldrid, Sacheverel Quentin; Ladhani, Azad A.; DeMania, Alan Richard; Palmer, Gene David; Wilson, Ian David; Rathbun, Lisa Shirley; Akin, Robert Craig

    2002-01-01

    In a turbine having closed-circuit steam-cooling passages about the rim of the rotor during steady-state operation, compressor discharge air is supplied to the rotor bore for passage radially outwardly into the wheel space cavities between the wheels and spacers. Communicating slots and channels in the spacers and wheels at circumferentially spaced positions enable egress of the compressor discharge air into the hot gas flow path. At turbine startup, cooling air flows through the closed-circuit steam passages to cool the outer rim of the rotor while compressor discharge air pre-warms the wheels and spacers. At steady-state, cooling steam is supplied in the closed-circuit steam-cooling passages and compressor discharge air is supplied through the bore and into the wheel space cavities to cool the rotor.

  19. Mechanization and automation of production processes in turbine building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slobodyanyuk, V. P.

    1984-02-01

    Specialists at the All-Union Institute of Planning and Technology of Energy Machine Building are working on the problem of mechanization and automation of production processes. One of the major technological processes being worked on is the production of welded units. At the present time the Institute has designed a centralized cutting and manufacturing shop in use at several metallurgical plants, clamping devices for materials hoists based on permanent magnets, a program controlled installation for driving shaped apertures in welded diaphragm rims and an automated system for planning technological processes involved in manufacturing operations. Even in the manufacture of such individualized devices as turbines, mechanization and automation of production processes are economically justified. During the 11th Five Year Plan, the Institute will continue to develop progressive technological processes and equipment for precise shaping of turbine blade blanks, mechanical working of parts of steam, gas and hydraulic turbines, as well as nuclear powerplant turbines.

  20. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN STEAM ENHANCED REMEDIATION STEAM TECH ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Steam Enhanced Remediation is a process in which steam is injected into the subsurface to recover volatile and semivolatile organic contaminants. It has been applied successfully to recover contaminants from soil and aquifers and at a fractured granite site. This SITE demonstra...

  1. Rotating housing turbine

    DOEpatents

    Allouche, Erez; Jaganathan, Arun P.

    2016-10-11

    The invention is a new turbine structure having a housing that rotates. The housing has a sidewall, and turbine blades are attached to a sidewall portion. The turbine may be completely open in the center, allowing space for solids and debris to be directed out of the turbine without jamming the spinning blades/sidewall. The turbine may be placed in a generator for generation of electrical current.

  2. Steam refining as an alternative to steam explosion.

    PubMed

    Schütt, Fokko; Westereng, Bjørge; Horn, Svein J; Puls, Jürgen; Saake, Bodo

    2012-05-01

    In steam pretreatment the defibration is usually achieved by an explosion at the end of the treatment, but can also be carried out in a subsequent refiner step. A steam explosion and a steam refining unit were compared by using the same raw material and pretreatment conditions, i.e. temperature and time. Smaller particle size was needed for the steam explosion unit to obtain homogenous slurries without considerable amounts of solid chips. A higher amount of volatiles could be condensed from the vapour phase after steam refining. The results from enzymatic hydrolysis showed no significant differences. It could be shown that, beside the chemical changes in the cell wall, the decrease of the particle size is the decisive factor to enhance the enzymatic accessibility while the explosion effect is not required.

  3. Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development. Quarterly report, August--October 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the tasks completed for the advanced turbine systems program. The topics of the report include last row turbine blade development, single crystal blade casting development, ceramic materials development, combustion cylinder flow mapping, shroud film cooling, directional solidified valve development, shrouded blade cooling, closed-loop steam cooling, active tip clearance control, flow visualization tests, combustion noise investigation, TBC field testing, catalytic combustion development, optical diagnostics probe development, serpentine channel cooling tests, brush seal development, high efficiency compressor design, advanced air sealing development, advanced coating development, single crystal blade development, Ni-based disc forging development, and steam cooling effects on materials.

  4. Compressor discharge bleed air circuit in gas turbine plants and related method

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Berrahou, Philip Fadhel; Jandrisevits, Michael

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine system that includes a compressor, a turbine component and a load, wherein fuel and compressor discharge bleed air are supplied to a combustor and gaseous products of combustion are introduced into the turbine component and subsequently exhausted to atmosphere. A compressor discharge bleed air circuit removes bleed air from the compressor and supplies one portion of the bleed air to the combustor and another portion of the compressor discharge bleed air to an exhaust stack of the turbine component in a single cycle system, or to a heat recovery steam generator in a combined cycle system. In both systems, the bleed air diverted from the combustor may be expanded in an air expander to reduce pressure upstream of the exhaust stack or heat recovery steam generator.

  5. Compressor discharge bleed air circuit in gas turbine plants and related method

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Berrahou, Philip Fadhel; Jandrisevits, Michael

    2003-04-08

    A gas turbine system that includes a compressor, a turbine component and a load, wherein fuel and compressor discharge bleed air are supplied to a combustor and gaseous products of combustion are introduced into the turbine component and subsequently exhausted to atmosphere. A compressor discharge bleed air circuit removes bleed air from the compressor and supplies one portion of the bleed air to the combustor and another portion of the compressor discharge bleed air to an exhaust stack of the turbine component in a single cycle system, or to a heat recovery steam generator in a combined cycle system. In both systems, the bleed air diverted from the combustor may be expanded in an air expander to reduce pressure upstream of the exhaust stack or heat recovery steam generator.

  6. Steam Digest 2001: Office of Industrial Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles Best Practices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  7. Steam drying -- Modeling and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wimmerstedt, R.; Hager, J.

    1996-08-01

    The concept of steam drying originates from the mid of the last century. However, a broad industrial acceptance of the technique has so far not taken place. The paper deals with modelling the steam drying process and applications of steam drying within certain industrial sectors where the technique has been deemed to have special opportunities. In the modelling section the mass and heat transfer processes are described along with equilibrium, capillarity and sorption phenomena occurring in porous materials during the steam drying process. In addition existing models in the literature are presented. The applications discussed involve drying of fuels with high moisture contents, cattle feed exemplified by sugar beet pulp, lumber, paper pulp, paper and sludges. Steam drying is compared to flue gas drying of biofuels prior to combustion in a boiler. With reference to a current installation in Sweden, the exergy losses, as manifested by loss of co-generation capacity, are discussed. The energy saving potential when using steam drying of sugar beet pulp as compared to other possible plant configurations is demonstrated. Mechanical vapor recompression applied to steam drying is analyzed with reference to reported data from industrial plants. Finally, environmental advantages when using steam drying are presented.

  8. Steam generator tube integrity program

    SciTech Connect

    Dierks, D.R.; Shack, W.J.; Muscara, J.

    1996-03-01

    A new research program on steam generator tubing degradation is being sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at Argonne National Laboratory. This program is intended to support a performance-based steam generator tube integrity rule. Critical areas addressed by the program include evaluation of the processes used for the in-service inspection of steam generator tubes and recommendations for improving the reliability and accuracy of inspections; validation and improvement of correlations for evaluating integrity and leakage of degraded steam generator tubes, and validation and improvement of correlations and models for predicting degradation in steam generator tubes as aging occurs. The studies will focus on mill-annealed Alloy 600 tubing, however, tests will also be performed on replacement materials such as thermally-treated Alloy 600 or 690. An overview of the technical work planned for the program is given.

  9. Advanced steam power plant concepts with optimized life-cycle costs: A new approach for maximum customer benefit

    SciTech Connect

    Seiter, C.

    1998-07-01

    The use of coal power generation applications is currently enjoying a renaissance. New highly efficient and cost-effective plant concepts together with environmental protection technologies are the main factors in this development. In addition, coal is available on the world market at attractive prices and in many places it is more readily available than gas. At the economical leading edge, standard power plant concepts have been developed to meet the requirements of emerging power markets. These concepts incorporate the high technological state-of-the-art and are designed to achieve lowest life-cycle costs. Low capital cost, fuel costs and operating costs in combination with shortest lead times are the main assets that make these plants attractive especially for IPPs and Developers. Other aspects of these comprehensive concepts include turnkey construction and the willingness to participate in BOO/BOT projects. One of the various examples of such a concept, the 2 x 610-MW Paiton Private Power Project Phase II in Indonesia, is described in this paper. At the technological leading edge, Siemens has always made a major contribution and was pacemaker for new developments in steam power plant technology. Modern coal-fired steam power plants use computer-optimized process and plant design as well as advanced materials, and achieve efficiencies exceeding 45%. One excellent example of this high technology is the world's largest lignite-fired steam power plant Schwarze Pumpe in Germany, which is equipped with two 800 MW Siemens steam turbine generators with supercritical steam parameters. The world's largest 50-Hz single-shaft turbine generator with supercritical steam parameters rated at 1025 MW for the Niederaussem lignite-fired steam power plant in Germany is a further example of the sophisticated Siemens steam turbine technology and sets a new benchmark in this field.

  10. Coal fired air turbine cogeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster-Pegg, R. W.

    Fuel options and generator configurations for installation of cogenerator equipment are reviewed, noting that the use of oil or gas may be precluded by cost or legislation within the lifetime of any cogeneration equipment yet to be installed. A coal fueled air turbine cogenerator plant is described, which uses external combustion in a limestone bed at atmospheric pressure and in which air tubes are sunk to gain heat for a gas turbine. The limestone in the 26 MW unit absorbs sulfur from the coal, and can be replaced by other sorbents depending on types of coal available and stringency of local environmental regulations. Low temperature combustion reduces NOx formation and release of alkali salts and corrosion. The air heat is exhausted through a heat recovery boiler to produce process steam, then can be refed into the combustion chamber to satisfy preheat requirements. All parts of the cogenerator are designed to withstand full combustion temperature (1500 F) in the event of air flow stoppage. Costs are compared with those of a coal fired boiler and purchased power, and it is shown that the increased capital requirements for cogenerator apparatus will yield a 2.8 year payback. Detailed flow charts, diagrams and costs schedules are included.

  11. Experimental Simulation of Turbine-Exhaust Oxygen Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Jim A.; Branch, Ryan W.

    2004-01-01

    In some liquid-propellant rocket engines, the liquid-oxygen boost pump is driven by a turbine that is powered by high-pressure gaseous oxygen. Once it exits the turbine, this gaseous oxygen can be salvaged by injecting it into the subcooled liquid oxygen exiting the boost pump. If the main LOX pump is to function correctly under these circumstances, complete condensation of the gaseous oxygen must quickly follow its injection into the boost-pump discharge. The current investigation uses steam and water in a simple rig that allows the condensation process to be visualized and quantified. This paper offers dimensionless-parameter correlations of the data and trends observed.

  12. Technical review of Westinghouse`s Advanced Turbine Systems Program

    SciTech Connect

    Diakunchak, I.S.; Bannister, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    US DOE`s ATS program has the goals of increased efficiency of natural gas-fired power generation plants, decreased cost of electricity, and a decrease in harmful emissions. The Westinghouse ATS plant is based on an advanced gas turbine design combined with an advanced steam turbine and a high efficiency generator. Objectives of the ATS Program Phase 2 are to select the ATS cycle and to develop technologies required to achieve ATS Program goals: combustion, cooling, aerodynamics, leakage control, coatings, materials. This paper describes progress on each.

  13. Experimental investigation on combustion of hydrogen-oxygen and methane-oxygen mixtures in the medium of low-superheated steam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pribaturin, N. A.; Fedorov, V. A.; Alekseev, M. V.; Bogomolov, A. R.; Sorokin, A. L.; Azikhanov, S. S.; Shevyrev, S. A.

    2016-05-01

    Experimental data are represented on the investigation of combustion of hydrogen-oxygen and methane-oxygen mixtures in the medium of low-superheated (initial temperature of approximately 150°C) steam at atmospheric pressure. The influence of the ratio of mass flows of the combustible mixture and steam on the qualitative composition of combustion products and the temperature of produced steam is revealed. Main laws for combustion of the hydrogen-oxygen mixture within the steam flow, which affect the completeness of mixture combustion, are determined. Experimental data on the influence of concentrations of the hydrogen-oxygen mixture within the flow of the steam and the combustible mixture upon the completeness of combustion are given. It is found that, when burning the hydrogen-oxygen mixture within the steam flow with a temperature of 1000-1200°C, it is possible using a variation of the combustible mixture flow. At the same time, the volume fraction of noncondensable gases in the produced steam is no more than 2%. It is revealed that there are several combustion modes of the hydrogen-oxygen mixture within the steam flow, in which, in one case, the steam always suppresses combustion and, in another one, detonation of the combustible mixture combustible mixture occurs. It is found that with the excess air factor close to unit, the combustion of the methane-oxygen mixture within steam and the vapor conversion of methane, which result in the appearance of free hydrogen in the produced high-temperature steam, are possible. The description and the principle of the operation of the experimental bench for investigation of combustion of methane-oxygen and hydrogen-oxygen mixtures in the medium of steam are given. Results of experimental investigations of burning fuel and oxygen in the medium of steam are used in the development of a steam superheater for a hightemperature steam turbine.

  14. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Sy Ali

    2002-03-01

    The market for power generation equipment is undergoing a tremendous transformation. The traditional electric utility industry is restructuring, promising new opportunities and challenges for all facilities to meet their demands for electric and thermal energy. Now more than ever, facilities have a host of options to choose from, including new distributed generation (DG) technologies that are entering the market as well as existing DG options that are improving in cost and performance. The market is beginning to recognize that some of these users have needs beyond traditional grid-based power. Together, these changes are motivating commercial and industrial facilities to re-evaluate their current mix of energy services. One of the emerging generating options is a new breed of advanced fuel cells. While there are a variety of fuel cell technologies being developed, the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) are especially promising, with their electric efficiency expected around 50-60 percent and their ability to generate either hot water or high quality steam. In addition, they both have the attractive characteristics of all fuel cells--relatively small siting footprint, rapid response to changing loads, very low emissions, quiet operation, and an inherently modular design lending itself to capacity expansion at predictable unit cost with reasonably short lead times. The objectives of this project are to:(1) Estimate the market potential for high efficiency fuel cell hybrids in the U.S.;(2) Segment market size by commercial, industrial, and other key markets;(3) Identify and evaluate potential early adopters; and(4) Develop results that will help prioritize and target future R&D investments. The study focuses on high efficiency MCFC- and SOFC-based hybrids and competing systems such as gas turbines, reciprocating engines, fuel cells and traditional grid service. Specific regions in the country have been identified where these

  15. The effects of solarization on the performance of a gas turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homann, Christiaan; van der Spuy, Johan; von Backström, Theodor

    2016-05-01

    Various hybrid solar gas turbine configurations exist. The Stellenbosch University Solar Power Thermodynamic (SUNSPOT) cycle consists of a heliostat field, solar receiver, primary Brayton gas turbine cycle, thermal storage and secondary Rankine steam cycle. This study investigates the effect of the solarization of a gas turbine on its performance and details the integration of a gas turbine into a solar power plant. A Rover 1S60 gas turbine was modelled in Flownex, a thermal-fluid system simulation and design code, and validated against a one-dimensional thermodynamic model at design input conditions. The performance map of a newly designed centrifugal compressor was created and implemented in Flownex. The effect of the improved compressor on the performance of the gas turbine was evident. The gas turbine cycle was expanded to incorporate different components of a CSP plant, such as a solar receiver and heliostat field. The solarized gas turbine model simulates the gas turbine performance when subjected to a typical variation in solar resource. Site conditions at the Helio100 solar field were investigated and the possibility of integrating a gas turbine within this system evaluated. Heat addition due to solar irradiation resulted in a decreased fuel consumption rate. The influence of the additional pressure drop over the solar receiver was evident as it leads to decreased net power output. The new compressor increased the overall performance of the gas turbine and compensated for pressure losses incurred by the addition of solar components. The simulated integration of the solarized gas turbine at Helio100 showed potential, although the solar irradiation is too little to run the gas turbine on solar heat alone. The simulation evaluates the feasibility of solarizing a gas turbine and predicts plant performance for such a turbine cycle.

  16. Evaluation of fire-retardant fluids for turbine bearing lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Booser, E.R.; Cohen, M.; Lukas, H.

    1989-09-01

    This report summarizes the review of world-wide experience with the use of fire-resistant fluids in steam and gas turbines. The emphasis is on operating history and technical problems that have been encountered. The report discusses solutions to known operating problems and suggests technical programs for future research and development to assure long-term trouble-free operation. In summary, it is felt that, based on current operating history, fire-resistant fluids can safely be used in small to medium steam turbine-generators with minimal risk. Extended application in larger machines will require more experience in smaller machines, some large scale testing, and a broader experience base with the large machines themselves. 19 refs., 12 figs., 19 tabs.

  17. Catalytic combustion with steam injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. N.; Tacina, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of steam injection on (1) catalytic combustion performance, and (2) the tendency of residual fuel to burn in the premixing duct upstream of the catalytic reactor were determined. A petroleum residual, no. 2 diesel, and a blend of middle and heavy distillate coal derived fuels were tested. Fuel and steam were injected together into the preheated airflow entering a 12 cm diameter catalytic combustion test section. The inlet air velocity and pressure were constant at 10 m/s and 600 kPa, respectively. Steam flow rates were varied from 24 percent to 52 percent of the air flow rate. The resulting steam air mixture temperatures varied from 630 to 740 K. Combustion temperatures were in the range of 1200 to 1400 K. The steam had little effect on combustion efficiency or emissions. It was concluded that the steam acts as a diluent which has no adverse effect on catalytic combustion performance for no. 2 diesel and coal derived liquid fuels. Tests with the residual fuel showed that upstream burning could be eliminated with steam injection rates greater than 30 percent of the air flow rate, but inlet mixture temperatures were too low to permit stable catalytic combustion of this fuel.

  18. Downhole steam generation: material studies

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchamp, E.K.; Weirick, L.J.; Muir, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    One enhanced oil recovery technique for extracting heavy crude from deep reservoirs by steam at the bottom of an injection well. Development of a downhole steam generator that will produce steam and inject it into formations at depths greater than 2500 feet is one objective of a Department of Energy/Sandia National Laboratories development effort - Project DEEP STEAM. Extensive material studies have been performed in support of Project DEEP STEAM; current efforts are devoted primarily to the selection and evaluation of materials for use in downhole steam generators. This paper presents observations of the performance of candidate metals and refractory ceramics (combustor liners) during tests of two prototypic, high pressure, diesel/air combustion, direct contact, downhole steam generators. The first downhole test of such a generator provides data on the performance of various metals (304L, 310 and 316S stainless steels and plain carbon steel) exposed for several weeks to a warm, aerated saltwater environment. A number of corrosion mechanisms acted to cause severely degraded perforance of some of the metals. Several refractory liner designs were evaluated during ground level tests of a generator having a ceramic-lined combustion chamber. Of the two refractories employed, alumina and silicon carbide, the alumina liners exhibited more serious surface degradation and corrosion.

  19. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  20. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    DOEpatents

    Voecks, Gerald E.

    1990-03-20

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  1. General purpose steam table library :

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, John H.; Belcourt, Kenneth Noel; Nourgaliev, Robert

    2013-08-01

    Completion of the CASL L3 milestone THM.CFD.P7.04 provides a general purpose tabular interpolation library for material properties to support, in particular, standardized models for steam properties. The software consists of three parts, implementations of analytic steam models, a code to generate tables from those models, and an interpolation package to interface the tables to CFD codes such as Hydra-TH. Verification of the standard model is maintained through the entire train of routines. The performance of interpolation package exceeds that of freely available analytic implementation of the steam properties by over an order of magnitude.

  2. 21 CFR 880.6880 - Steam sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Steam sterilizer. 880.6880 Section 880.6880 Food... § 880.6880 Steam sterilizer. (a) Identification. A steam sterilizer (autoclave) is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of pressurized steam....

  3. 21 CFR 880.6880 - Steam sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Steam sterilizer. 880.6880 Section 880.6880 Food... § 880.6880 Steam sterilizer. (a) Identification. A steam sterilizer (autoclave) is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of pressurized steam....

  4. 21 CFR 880.6880 - Steam sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Steam sterilizer. 880.6880 Section 880.6880 Food... § 880.6880 Steam sterilizer. (a) Identification. A steam sterilizer (autoclave) is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of pressurized steam....

  5. 21 CFR 880.6880 - Steam sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Steam sterilizer. 880.6880 Section 880.6880 Food... § 880.6880 Steam sterilizer. (a) Identification. A steam sterilizer (autoclave) is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of pressurized steam....

  6. 21 CFR 880.6880 - Steam sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Steam sterilizer. 880.6880 Section 880.6880 Food... § 880.6880 Steam sterilizer. (a) Identification. A steam sterilizer (autoclave) is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of pressurized steam....

  7. Cooling systems for ultra-high temperature turbines.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, T

    2001-05-01

    This paper describes an introduction of research and development activities on steam cooling in gas turbines at elevated temperature of 1500 C and 1700 C level, partially including those on water cooling. Descriptions of a new cooling system that employs heat pipes are also made. From the view point of heat transfer, its promising applicability is shown with experimental data and engine performance numerical evaluation.

  8. Wind Turbines Benefit Crops

    SciTech Connect

    Takle, Gene

    2010-01-01

    Ames Laboratory associate scientist Gene Takle talks about research into the effect of wind turbines on nearby crops. Preliminary results show the turbines may have a positive effect by cooling and drying the crops and assisting with carbon dioxide uptake.

  9. Turbine blade testing methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Testing procedures which could be used to model test turbine blades are developed. The methods studied were methods which used and extended current modal testing procedures. An acoustical impacting testing method was perfected for testing small turbine blades.

  10. Wind Turbines Benefit Crops

    ScienceCinema

    Takle, Gene

    2016-07-12

    Ames Laboratory associate scientist Gene Takle talks about research into the effect of wind turbines on nearby crops. Preliminary results show the turbines may have a positive effect by cooling and drying the crops and assisting with carbon dioxide uptake.

  11. Increasing the efficiency of geothermal power plants using optimum pressures for turbocompressors and steam jet ejectors in gas extraction systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harns, Karsten Franz

    Geothermal power plants generate electricity by extracting energy from the earth's interior. The radioactive decay of the earth's core causes heat to conduct towards the surface. When water flows into the fissures of this hot rock a naturally occurring geothermal well is formed. Geothermal power plants use the steam in these wells to drive a turbine and thus generate electricity. The steam in the earth however, is always accompanied by a small fraction of non-condensable gases that build up in the power plant's condenser unless actively removed by some gas extraction system. Because these gases contribute significantly to the total backpressure on the turbine, it is in the interest of power generation to remove them from the condenser. The industry standard for removing these non-condensable gases has been steam jet ejectors or a hybrid system of steam jet ejectors and liquid ring vacuum pumps. This thesis focuses on finding the optimum operating pressures for a hybrid steam jet ejector system and a hybrid turbocompressor system. It was found that plants with steam jet ejectors and liquid ring vacuum pumps provide maximum power output when the liquid ring vacuum pump is operated at its maximum pressure ratio. However, plants with a turbocompressor and liquid ring vacuum pump were found to provide maximum power output when the turbocompressor was operated at its maximum pressure ratio.

  12. Wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon II, E. H.

    1985-10-15

    A wind turbine, having at least one pair of sail means, each said sail means having upper and lower portions hingedly connected together to permit said portions to move away from and towards each other to thus open and close, respectively, said sail means being in the shape of an airfoil; a vertical shaft; a support; means mounting said vertical shaft in said support for rotation about the vertical axis of said shaft; and means mounting said sail means to said shaft, said sail means being disposed to move under the action of the wind in a plane about said vertical axis; said mounting means for said sail means including means for opening and closing one sail means of each pair of sail means while the other sail means of said pair is closed and opened, respectively, as said sail means moves about said vertical axis in said plane, said mounting means for said sail means being operable to dispose said plane at a predetermined angle to the horizontal and being adjustable to change said angle as desired.

  13. Steam distillation effect and oil quality change during steam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, K.T.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Brigham, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    Steam distillation is an important mechanism which reduces residual oil saturation during steam injection. It may be the main recovery mechanism in steamflooding of light oil reservoirs. As light components are distilled the residual (initial) oil, the residuum becomes heavier. Mixing the distilled components with the initial oil results in a lighter produced oil. A general method has been developed to compute steam distillation yield and to quantify oil quality changes during steam injection. The quantitative results are specific because the California crude data bank was used. But general principles were followed and calculations were based on information extracted from the DOE crude oil assay data bank. It was found that steam distillation data from the literature can be correlated with the steam distillation yield obtained from the DOE crude oil assays. The common basis for comparison was the equivalent normal boiling point. Blending of distilled components with the initial oil results in API gravity changes similar to those observed in several laboratory and field operations.

  14. High efficiency carbonate fuel cell/turbine hybrid power cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Steinfeld, G.

    1995-10-19

    Carbonate fuel cells developed by Energy Research Corporation, in commercial 2.85 MW size, have an efficiency of 57.9 percent. Studies of higher efficiency hybrid power cycles were conducted in cooperation with METC to identify an economically competitive system with an efficiency in excess of 65 percent. A hybrid power cycle was identified that includes a direct carbonate fuel cell, a gas turbine and a steam cycle, which generates power at a LHV efficiency in excess of 70 percent. This new system is called a Tandem Technology Cycle (TTC). In a TTC operating on natural gas fuel, 95 percent of the fuel is mixed with recycled fuel cell anode exhaust, providing water for the reforming of the fuel, and flows to a direct carbonate fuel cell system which generates 72 percent of the power. The portion of the fuel cell anode exhaust which is not recycled, is burned and heat is transferred to the compressed air from a gas turbine, raising its temperature to 1800{degrees}F. The stream is then heated to 2000{degrees}F in the gas turbine burner and expands through the turbine generating 13 percent of the power. Half the exhaust from the gas turbine flows to the anode exhaust burner, and the remainder flows to the fuel cell cathodes providing the O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} needed in the electrochemical reaction. Exhaust from the fuel cells flows to a steam system which includes a heat recovery steam generator and stages steam turbine which generates 15 percent of the TTC system power. Studies of the TTC for 200-MW and 20-MW size plants quantified performance, emissions and cost-of-electricity, and compared the characteristics of the TTC to gas turbine combined cycles. A 200-MW TTC plant has an efficiency of 72.6 percent, and is relatively insensitive to ambient temperature, but requires a heat exchanger capable of 2000{degrees}F. The estimated cost of electricity is 45.8 mills/kWhr which is not competitive with a combined cycle in installations where fuel cost is under $5.8/MMBtu.

  15. Sliding vane geometry turbines

    DOEpatents

    Sun, Harold Huimin; Zhang, Jizhong; Hu, Liangjun; Hanna, Dave R

    2014-12-30

    Various systems and methods are described for a variable geometry turbine. In one example, a turbine nozzle comprises a central axis and a nozzle vane. The nozzle vane includes a stationary vane and a sliding vane. The sliding vane is positioned to slide in a direction substantially tangent to an inner circumference of the turbine nozzle and in contact with the stationary vane.

  16. Large wind turbine generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. L.; Donovon, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    The development associated with large wind turbine systems is briefly described. The scope of this activity includes the development of several large wind turbines ranging in size from 100 kW to several megawatt levels. A description of the wind turbine systems, their programmatic status and a summary of their potential costs is included.

  17. Alleviating pulsations in turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Wedmark, A.B.

    1994-10-01

    Pressure pulsations resulting from vortices in the draft tube are a persistent problem with Francis turbines. Air injection through the turbine shaft often can solve the problem, but this approach may not be possible after the turbine unit has been manufactured. In such cases, new and innovative solutions may be required.

  18. Second law analysis of a conventional steam power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Geng; Turner, Robert H.; Cengel, Yunus A.

    1993-11-01

    A numerical investigation of exergy destroyed by operation of a conventional steam power plant is computed via an exergy cascade. An order of magnitude analysis shows that exergy destruction is dominated by combustion and heat transfer across temperature differences inside the boiler, and conversion of energy entering the turbine/generator sets from thermal to electrical. Combustion and heat transfer inside the boiler accounts for 53.83 percent of the total exergy destruction. Converting thermal energy into electrical energy is responsible for 41.34 percent of the total exergy destruction. Heat transfer across the condenser accounts for 2.89 percent of the total exergy destruction. Fluid flow with friction is responsible for 0.50 percent of the total exergy destruction. The boiler feed pump turbine accounts for 0.25 percent of the total exergy destruction. Fluid flow mixing is responsible for 0.23 percent of the total exergy destruction. Other equipment including gland steam condenser, drain cooler, deaerator and heat exchangers are, in the aggregate, responsible for less than one percent of the total exergy destruction. An energy analysis is also given for comparison of exergy cascade to energy cascade. Efficiencies based on both the first law and second law of thermodynamics are calculated for a number of components and for the plant. The results show that high first law efficiency does not mean high second law efficiency. Therefore, the second law analysis has been proven to be a more powerful tool in pinpointing real losses. The procedure used to determine total exergy destruction and second law efficiency can be used in a conceptual design and parametric study to evaluate the performance of other steam power plants and other thermal systems.

  19. Second law analysis of a conventional steam power plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Geng; Turner, Robert H.; Cengel, Yunus A.

    1993-01-01

    A numerical investigation of exergy destroyed by operation of a conventional steam power plant is computed via an exergy cascade. An order of magnitude analysis shows that exergy destruction is dominated by combustion and heat transfer across temperature differences inside the boiler, and conversion of energy entering the turbine/generator sets from thermal to electrical. Combustion and heat transfer inside the boiler accounts for 53.83 percent of the total exergy destruction. Converting thermal energy into electrical energy is responsible for 41.34 percent of the total exergy destruction. Heat transfer across the condenser accounts for 2.89 percent of the total exergy destruction. Fluid flow with friction is responsible for 0.50 percent of the total exergy destruction. The boiler feed pump turbine accounts for 0.25 percent of the total exergy destruction. Fluid flow mixing is responsible for 0.23 percent of the total exergy destruction. Other equipment including gland steam condenser, drain cooler, deaerator and heat exchangers are, in the aggregate, responsible for less than one percent of the total exergy destruction. An energy analysis is also given for comparison of exergy cascade to energy cascade. Efficiencies based on both the first law and second law of thermodynamics are calculated for a number of components and for the plant. The results show that high first law efficiency does not mean high second law efficiency. Therefore, the second law analysis has been proven to be a more powerful tool in pinpointing real losses. The procedure used to determine total exergy destruction and second law efficiency can be used in a conceptual design and parametric study to evaluate the performance of other steam power plants and other thermal systems.

  20. Wastes are dominant energy source for new steam generators

    SciTech Connect

    Schwieger, B.

    1987-11-01

    The tabulation given in this article which provides a significant sample of boilers ordered last year, shows just how important wastes are becoming to the production of steam and electricity in smokestack America. Refinery gas, landfill gas, municipal refuse, biomass, and anthracite culm will fire 32 boilers in 21 of the 32 fuel-burning projects listed (one project has two heat-recovery boilers operating on gas-turbine exhaust). Refinery gas will be burned in the largest steam generator listed, an 800,000-lb/hr unit purchased by Gulf States Utilities Co; landfill gas will be fired in four others. Municipal refuse powers eight projects (15 boilers), with mass-burn combustion (six projects, 10 boilers) preferred over refuse-derived fuel by a two-to-one margin in units. Biomass, primarily woodwaste, is burned in 10 boilers serving nine projects. Circulating fluidized-bed boilers, ranging in size from 170,000 to 355,000 lb/hr captured the majority of orders for coal-fired steam generators.

  1. Steam reforming catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Kramarz, Kurt W.; Bloom, Ira D.; Kumar, Romesh; Ahmed, Shabbir; Wilkenhoener, Rolf; Krumpelt, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel. A vapor of the hydrocarbon fuel and steam is brought in contact with a two-part catalyst having a dehydrogenation powder portion and an oxide-ion conducting powder portion at a temperature not less than about 770.degree.C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich. The H.sub.2 content of the hydrogen gas is greater than about 70 percent by volume. The dehydrogenation portion of the catalyst includes a group VIII metal, and the oxide-ion conducting portion is selected from a ceramic oxide from the group crystallizing in the fluorite or perovskite structure and mixtures thereof. The oxide-ion conducting portion of the catalyst is a ceramic powder of one or more of ZrO.sub.2, CeO.sub.2, Bi.sub.2 O.sub.3, (BiVO).sub.4, and LaGaO.sub.3.

  2. Enhanced tubes for steam condensers. Volume 1, Summary of condensation and fouling; Volume 2, Detailed study of steam condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, R.L.; Chamra, L.; Jaber, H.

    1992-02-01

    Electric utility steam condensers typically use plain tubes made of titanium, stainless steel, or copper alloys. Approximately two-thirds of the total thermal resistance is on the water side of the plain tube. This program seeks to conceive and develop a tube geometry that has special enhancement geometries on the tube (water) side and the steam (shell) side. This ``enhanced`` tube geometry, will provide increased heat transfer coefficients. The enhanced tubes will allow the steam to condense at a lower temperature. The reduced condensing temperature will reduce the turbine heat rate, and increase the plant peak load capability. Water side fouling and fouling control is a very important consideration affecting the choice of the tube side enhancement. Hence, we have consciously considered fouling potential in our selection of the tube side surface geometry. Using appropriate correlations and theoretical models, we have designed condensation and water side surface geometries that will provide high performance and be cleanable using sponge ball cleaning. Commercial tube manufacturers have made the required tube geometries for test purposes. The heat transfer test program includes measurement of the condensation and water side heat transfer coefficients. Fouling tests are being run to measure the waterside fouling resistance, and to the test the ability of the sponge ball cleaning system to clean the tubes.

  3. Turbine Imaging Technology Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Moursund, Russell A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2004-12-31

    The goal of this project was to identify and evaluate imaging alternatives for observing the behavior of juvenile fish within an operating Kaplan turbine unit with a focus on methods to quantify fish injury mechanisms inside an operating turbine unit. Imaging methods are particularly needed to observe the approach and interaction of fish with turbine structural elements. This evaluation documents both the opportunities and constraints for observing juvenile fish at specific locations during turbine passage. The information may be used to acquire the scientific knowledge to make structural improvements and create opportunities for industry to modify turbines and improve fish passage conditions.

  4. Integration of the Brayton and Rankine cycle to maximize gas turbine performance--A cogeneration option

    SciTech Connect

    Meserlie, R.L.; Strother, J.R.

    1984-06-01

    The Brayton and Rankine cycles are well known and widely used in their own way to generate power. A combining of the fluids of the two cycles has been proposed by International Power Technology and tested by Allison Gas Turbine Operations. Steam generated by the exhaust heat is mixed with the fuel and air in the gas turbine combustion chamber prior to expansion through the turbine. The thermal efficiency of an existing engine can be increased by 40% and power output by 60% at constant turbine temperature. This concept is identified as the Dual Fluid Cycle (DFC). In addition to the basic improvement in cycle performance, the DFC provides an added degree of flexibility to the power plant engineer in his effort to satisfy plant needs for power, heat, and steam. Allison test results of this concept on a Model 501-KB engine have been correlated with a computer model of the engine and show good agreement. This paper shows how the DFC can be used to maximize thermal efficiency while meeting the requirement for power and steam in selected cases. Comparisons are made to other options for power and steam generation.

  5. Characteristics pertinent to propagation of pulsating pressure in the channels of turbine machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong; Chen, Zuoyi

    2007-01-01

    A new model describing the propagation of the pressure pulsations in the intricately shaped channels of turbine machines is presented. The proposed model was successfully used to analyze two emergency events: a failure of a steam turbine’s cast diaphragm and a failure of a rocket engine’s oxygen pump booster stage.

  6. Gas turbine and combined-cycle capacity enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This report presents interim results of a study of capacity enhancement of gas turbines and combined cycles. A portion of the study is based on a tailored collaboration study for Missouri Public Service. The techniques studied include water injection, steam injection, increased firing temperature, supercharging, and inlet cooling for the gas turbines. The inlet cooling approaches cover evaporative cooling with and without media, water cooling, thermal energy storage (TES) systems using ice or water and continuous refrigeration. Results are given for UTC FT4/GG4, GE MS5001, MS7001, W501 and W251 gas turbines. Duct firing of a three-pressure HRSG for peaking capacity is investigated. The GE PG7221(FA) is used as the reference gas turbine for this combined cycle. The results to-date indicate that the utilities have a number of viable options for capacity enhancement that are dependent on the mission of the gas turbine, local climate, and the design of the gas turbine.

  7. Evaluation of a superheater enhanced geothermal steam power plant in the Geysers area. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Janes, J.

    1984-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the attainable generation increase and to evaluate the economic merits of superheating the steam that could be used in future geothermal steam power plants in the Geyser-Calistoga Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA). It was determined that using a direct gas-fired superheater offers no economic advantages over the existing geothermal power plants. If the geothermal steam is heated to 900/sup 0/F by using the exhaust energy from a gas turbine of currently available performance, the net reference plant output would increase from 65 MW to 159 MW (net). Such hybrid plants are cost effective under certain conditions identified in this document. The power output from the residual Geyser area steam resource, now equivalent to 1437 MW, would be more than doubled by employing in the future gas turbine enhancement. The fossil fuel consumed in these plants would be used more efficiently than in any other fossil-fueled power plant in California. Due to an increase in evaporative losses in the cooling towers, the viability of the superheating concept is contingent on development of some of the water resources in the Geysers-Calistoga area to provide the necessary makeup water.

  8. Comparative analysis of steam delivery cost for surface and downhole steam drive technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, C.M.

    1981-10-01

    A basis is established for evaluating the economic performances of the technologies for enhanced recovery of heavy crude being investigated through the Department of Energy's Project DEEP STEAM. Conventional surface steam drive is compared with: (1) thermally efficient delivery (through insulated strings) of surface generated steam; (2) low pressure combustion downhole steam generation; (3) high pressure combustion downhole steam generation; (4) high pressure combustion downhole steam generation using air as the oxygen source; and (5) high pressure combustion downhole steam generation substituting pure oxygen for air. A parametric analysis is performed for varying depths, injection rates, and steam qualities.

  9. Steam injection impact on the performances of nozzle grid in wet-vapor stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, G. A.; Gribin, V. G.; Tishchenko, A. A.; Gavrilov, I. Yu.; Tishchenko, V. A.; Khomiakov, S. V.; Popov, V. V.; Sorokin, I. Yu.

    2016-04-01

    Results of experimental study of the efficiency of intra-channel steam injection on the surface of nozzle grids of steam turbines operating in the wet steam flow are presented. The main objective of this study was to determine the basic mechanisms of the steam injection impact on the kinematic characteristics of the liquid phase outside an isolated nozzle grid. The kinetic energy loss distributions of the liquid phase and sliding coefficients of droplets along the grid spacing depending on the injected steam pressure at different theoretical values of the Mach number and the initial wetness are presented. The efficiency index was determined taking into account the kinetic energy loss distribution for the liquid phase along the grid spacing, depending on the pressure reduction on the slot. The investigation was conducted using the total pressure probe placed behind the object under study. The average diameters of large droplets of erosion-hazardous liquid phase at a certain distance from the grid were determined. In measuring the characteristics of the liquid phase particles, a laser diagnostics system of streams was used, based on the "POLIS" complex. The main advantage of this complex is the fact that it is contactless, which allows one to measure characteristics of the liquid phase particles without any distortion of the results and aerodynamic influence on the main stream. It is established that an intra-channel steam injection promotes the destruction of liquid film that formed as a result of the condensation of liquid droplets on the surfaces of nozzle blades, as well as the alignment of the velocity field and the average size reduction of droplets behind the grid. The experimental results have shown that the efficiency of injection (relative to the reduction of the amount of erosion-hazardous droplets) of hot steam substantially depends on the flowing regime of wet steam.

  10. Lubricating system for thermal medium delivery parts in a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Mashey, Thomas Charles

    2002-01-01

    Cooling steam delivery tubes extend axially along the outer rim of a gas turbine rotor for supplying cooling steam to and returning spent cooling steam from the turbine buckets. Because of the high friction forces at the interface of the tubes and supporting elements due to rotor rotation, a low coefficient of friction coating is provided at the interface of the tubes and support elements. On each surface, a first coating of a cobalt-based alloy is sprayed onto the surface at high temperature. A portion of the first coating is machined off to provide a smooth, hard surface. A second ceramic-based solid film lubricant is sprayed onto the first coating. By reducing the resistance to axial displacement of the tubes relative to the supporting elements due to thermal expansion, the service life of the tubes is substantially extended.

  11. Steam quality and effective sterilization.

    PubMed

    Sedlacek, R S; Rose, E F

    1985-01-01

    Faced with using steam from a commercial utility having boilers greater than 5 miles distant and being the last user on the system resulted in ineffective sterilization. A three phase testing program was established utilizing: Direct physical measurements - an Ellison model 915A portable steam calorimeter. Direct microbiology - Autoclaved feed pellets were aseptically placed in fluid thioglycolate medium and incubated at 37 degrees C. Indirect microbiology - Feces from "defined flora" mice fed the autoclaved pelleted feed were tested. Colorimetric measurements verified that the steam sometimes contained greater than 5% entrained water. During periods of wet steam it was impossible to maintain consistent sterility of the mouse pellets even using a cycle of 126 degrees C for 60 minutes. One spore-forming Gram positive rod, Clostridium perfringens type D was the predominant bacterium isolated. Lactating mice, or mice stressed experimentally came down with diarrhea within days of eating pellets treated with wet steam (calorimetric measurements) and a subsequent positive culture. These mice voided stools predominantly showing Clostridium perfringens type D.

  12. Coalescing Wind Turbine Wakes

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, S.; Churchfield, M.; Sirnivas, S.; ...

    2015-06-18

    A team of researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Statoil used large-eddy simulations to numerically investigate the merging wakes from upstream offshore wind turbines. Merging wakes are typical phenomena in wind farm flows in which neighboring turbine wakes consolidate to form complex flow patterns that are as yet not well understood. In the present study, three 6-MW turbines in a row were subjected to a neutrally stable atmospheric boundary layer flow. As a result, the wake from the farthest upstream turbine conjoined the downstream wake, which significantly altered the subsequent velocity deficit structures, turbulence intensity, and the globalmore » meandering behavior. The complexity increased even more when the combined wakes from the two upstream turbines mixed with the wake generated by the last turbine, thereby forming a "triplet" structure. Although the influence of the wake generated by the first turbine decayed with downstream distance, the mutated wakes from the second turbine continued to influence the downstream wake. Two mirror-image angles of wind directions that yielded partial wakes impinging on the downstream turbines yielded asymmetric wake profiles that could be attributed to the changing flow directions in the rotor plane induced by the Coriolis force. In conclusion, the turbine wakes persisted for extended distances in the present study, which is a result of low aerodynamic surface roughness typically found in offshore conditions« less

  13. Coalescing Wind Turbine Wakes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.; Churchfield, M.; Sirnivas, S.; Moriarty, P.; Nielsen, F. G.; Skaare, B.; Byklum, E.

    2015-06-18

    A team of researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Statoil used large-eddy simulations to numerically investigate the merging wakes from upstream offshore wind turbines. Merging wakes are typical phenomena in wind farm flows in which neighboring turbine wakes consolidate to form complex flow patterns that are as yet not well understood. In the present study, three 6-MW turbines in a row were subjected to a neutrally stable atmospheric boundary layer flow. As a result, the wake from the farthest upstream turbine conjoined the downstream wake, which significantly altered the subsequent velocity deficit structures, turbulence intensity, and the global meandering behavior. The complexity increased even more when the combined wakes from the two upstream turbines mixed with the wake generated by the last turbine, thereby forming a "triplet" structure. Although the influence of the wake generated by the first turbine decayed with downstream distance, the mutated wakes from the second turbine continued to influence the downstream wake. Two mirror-image angles of wind directions that yielded partial wakes impinging on the downstream turbines yielded asymmetric wake profiles that could be attributed to the changing flow directions in the rotor plane induced by the Coriolis force. In conclusion, the turbine wakes persisted for extended distances in the present study, which is a result of low aerodynamic surface roughness typically found in offshore conditions

  14. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The combustion system discussed here incorporates a modular three- stage slagging combustor concept. Fuel-rich conditions inhibit NO{sub x} formation from fuel nitrogen in the first stage; also in the first stage, sulfur is captured with sorbent; coal ash and sulfated sorbent are removed from the combustion gases by inertial means in the second stage by the use of an impact separator and slagging cyclone separator in series. Final oxidation of the fuel-rich gases, and dilution to achieve the desired turbine inlet conditions are accomplished in the third stage, which is maintained sufficiently lean so that here, too, NO{sub x} formation is inhibited. The objective of this contract is to establish the technology required for subsequent commercial development and application by the private sector of utility-size direct coal-fueled gas turbines. Emissions from these units are to meet or be lower than the Environment Protection Agency's (EPA's) New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for a pulverized coal-=fired steam turbine generator plant.

  15. NUCLEAR FLASH TYPE STEAM GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Johns, F.L.; Gronemeyer, E.C.; Dusbabek, M.R.

    1962-09-01

    A nuclear steam generating apparatus is designed so that steam may be generated from water heated directly by the nuclear heat source. The apparatus comprises a pair of pressure vessels mounted one within the other, the inner vessel containing a nuclear reactor heat source in the lower portion thereof to which water is pumped. A series of small ports are disposed in the upper portion of the inner vessel for jetting heated water under pressure outwardly into the atmosphere within the interior of the outer vessel, at which time part of the jetted water flashes into steam. The invention eliminates the necessity of any intermediate heat transfer medium and components ordinarily required for handling that medium. (AEC)

  16. Fast fluidized bed steam generator

    DOEpatents

    Bryers, Richard W.; Taylor, Thomas E.

    1980-01-01

    A steam generator in which a high-velocity, combustion-supporting gas is passed through a bed of particulate material to provide a fluidized bed having a dense-phase portion and an entrained-phase portion for the combustion of fuel material. A first set of heat transfer elements connected to a steam drum is vertically disposed above the dense-phase fluidized bed to form a first flow circuit for heat transfer fluid which is heated primarily by the entrained-phase fluidized bed. A second set of heat transfer elements connected to the steam drum and forming the wall structure of the furnace provides a second flow circuit for the heat transfer fluid, the lower portion of which is heated by the dense-phase fluidized bed and the upper portion by the entrained-phase fluidized bed.

  17. Steam pretreatment for coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Graff, R.A.; Balogh-Nair, V.

    1991-01-01

    Steam pretreatment is the reaction of coal with steam at temperatures well below those usually used for solubilization. The objective of the proposed work is to test the application of steam pretreatment to coal liquefaction. This quarter, a 300 ml stirred autoclave for liquefaction tests was received and installation initiated. Four coal samples were obtained from the Penn State Sample Bank. Continuous flow pretreatment procedures were reestablished. Extraction yields after pretreatment of the new sample of Illinois No. 6 coal are in agreement with previous results even though the particle size is considerably larger. Purification of the model compound {beta}-naphthylmethyl phenyl ether has been completed. However, {alpha}-naphthylmethyl phenyl ether has been found to undergo acid catalyzed rearrangement during purification on silica. An alternative method for purification is being examined. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Continuous steam hydrolysis of tulip poplar

    SciTech Connect

    Fieber, C.A.; Roberts, R.S.; Faass, G.S.; Muzzy, J.D.; Colcord, A.R.; Bery, M.K.

    1982-01-01

    The continuous hydrolysis of poplar chips by steam at 300-350 psi resulted in the separation of hemicellulose (I) cellulose and lignin components. The I fraction was readily depolymerised by steam to acetic acid, furfural, methanol, and xylose.

  19. Salisbury hospital's steam trap success.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2011-03-01

    With the Carbon Reduction Commitment now fully in force, and the NHS tasked with achieving tough carbon emission reduction targets in line with both UK and EU mandates, healthcare estates teams across the country are seeking cost-effective ways to reduce energy consumption. Against this backdrop, Salisbury District Hospital has implemented a concerted energy-saving programme, key elements of which include replacing existing bucket steam traps with higher performing, lower maintenance, and more effective GEM venturi steam traps from Thermal Energy International (TEI), installing a new gas CHP engine, and looking into fitting a TEI condensate economiser system.

  20. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Stowell, Jesse; Costin, Daniel

    2006-07-11

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  1. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Jesse, Stowell; Costin, Daniel

    2007-02-27

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  2. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Bywaters, Garrett Lee; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Stowell, Jesse; Costin, Daniel

    2006-09-19

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  3. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Jesse, Stowell; Costin, Daniel

    2006-10-10

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  4. Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Homicz, Greg

    2002-04-01

    Blade fatigue life is an important element in determining the economic viability of the Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT). VAWT-SAL Vertical Axis Wind Turbine- Stochastic Aerodynamic Loads Ver 3.2 numerically simulates the stochastic (random0 aerodynamic loads of the Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) created by the atomspheric turbulence. The program takes into account the rotor geometry, operating conditions, and assumed turbulence properties.

  5. Vapor generator steam drum spray head

    DOEpatents

    Fasnacht, Jr., Floyd A.

    1978-07-18

    A typical embodiment of the invention provides a combination feedwater and "cooldown" water spray head that is centrally disposed in the lower portion of a nuclear power plant steam drum. This structure not only discharges the feedwater in the hottest part of the steam drum, but also increases the time required for the feedwater to reach the steam drum shell, thereby further increasing the feedwater temperature before it contacts the shell surface, thus reducing thermal shock to the steam drum structure.

  6. Coordinated optimization of the parameters of the cooled gas-turbine flow path and the parameters of gas-turbine cycles and combined-cycle power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kler, A. M.; Zakharov, Yu. B.; Potanina, Yu. M.

    2014-06-01

    In the present paper, we evaluate the effectiveness of the coordinated solution to the optimization problem for the parameters of cycles in gas turbine and combined cycle power plants and to the optimization problem for the gas-turbine flow path parameters within an integral complex problem. We report comparative data for optimizations of the combined cycle power plant at coordinated and separate optimizations, when, first, the gas turbine and, then, the steam part of a combined cycle plant is optimized. The comparative data are presented in terms of economic indicators, energy-effectiveness characteristics, and specific costs. Models that were used in the present study for calculating the flow path enable taking into account, as a factor influencing the economic and energy effectiveness of the power plant, the heat stability of alloys from which the nozzle and rotor blades of gas-turbine stages are made.

  7. Hermetic turbine generator

    DOEpatents

    Meacher, John S.; Ruscitto, David E.

    1982-01-01

    A Rankine cycle turbine drives an electric generator and a feed pump, all on a single shaft, and all enclosed within a hermetically sealed case. The shaft is vertically oriented with the turbine exhaust directed downward and the shaft is supported on hydrodynamic fluid film bearings using the process fluid as lubricant and coolant. The selection of process fluid, type of turbine, operating speed, system power rating, and cycle state points are uniquely coordinated to achieve high turbine efficiency at the temperature levels imposed by the recovery of waste heat from the more prevalent industrial processes.

  8. Wind Turbine Structural Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. R. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    A workshop on wind turbine structural dynamics was held to review and document current United States work on the dynamic behavior of large wind turbines, primarily of the horizontal-axis type, and to identify and discuss other wind turbine configurations that may have lower cost and weight. Information was exchanged on the following topics: (1) Methods for calculating dynamic loads; (2) Aeroelasticity stability (3) Wind loads, both steady and transient; (4) Critical design conditions; (5) Drive train dynamics; and (6) Behavior of operating wind turbines.

  9. Experimental turbine VT-400

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitek, Pavel; Milčák, Petr; Noga, Tomáš

    2016-03-01

    The experimental air turbine VT400 is located in hall laboratories of the Department of Power System Engineering. It is a single-stage air turbine located in the suction of the compressor. It is able to solve various problems concerning the construction solution of turbine stages. The content of the article will deal mainly with the description of measurements on this turbine. The up-to-now research on this test rig will be briefly mentioned, too, as well as the description of the ongoing reconstruction.

  10. Wind turbine means

    SciTech Connect

    Kennon, W.A.

    1980-12-02

    A turbine wheel is described which includes a housing for enclosing the electrical generating apparatus, and track structure which engages and rotatably drives the generator or the like, i.e., through suitable coupling structure. Shroud structure is disposed in an operable exterior proximity with the turbine wheel for varying the effectiveness of the wind as it is acting upon the turbine wheel, i.e., in infinite variable stages commensurate with changing velocity of the wind. The speed of the turbine wheel is automatically controlled so as to remain substantially constant throughout a wide variance of normal wind velocity and irrespective of the direction of the wind.

  11. Rampressor Turbine Design

    SciTech Connect

    Ramgen Power Systems

    2003-09-30

    The design of a unique gas turbine engine is presented. The first Rampressor Turbine engine rig will be a configuration where the Rampressor rotor is integrated into an existing industrial gas turbine engine. The Rampressor rotor compresses air which is burned in a traditional stationary combustion system in order to increase the enthalpy of the compressed air. The combustion products are then expanded through a conventional gas turbine which provides both compressor and electrical power. This in turn produces shaft torque, which drives a generator to provide electricity. The design and the associated design process of such an engine are discussed in this report.

  12. International water and steam quality standards on thermal power plants at all-volatile treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, T. I.; Orlov, K. A.; Dooley, R. B.

    2016-12-01

    One of the methods for the improvement of reliability and efficiency of the equipment at heat power plants is the decrease in the rate of corrosion of structural materials and sedimentation in water/steam circuit. These processes can be reduced to minimum by using the water with low impurity content and coolant treatment. For many years, water and steam quality standards were developed in various countries (United States, Germany, Japan, etc.) for specific types of equipment. The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS), which brings together specialists from 21 countries, developed the water and steam quality standards for various types of power equipment based on theoretical studies and long-term operating experience of power equipment. Recently, various water-chemistry conditions are applied on heatpower equipment including conventional boilers and HRSGs with combined cycle power plants (Combined Cycle Power Plants (CCPP)). In paper, the maintenance conditions of water chemistry with ammonia or volatile amine dosing are described: reducing AVT(R), oxidizing AVT(O), and oxygen OT. Each of them is provided by the water and steam quality standards and recommendations are given on their maintenance under various operation conditions. It is noted that the quality control of heat carrier must be carried out with a particular care on the HPPs with combined cycle gas turbine units, where frequent starts and halts are performed.

  13. BWR Steam Dryer Alternating Stress Assessment Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Morante, R. J.; Hambric, S. A.; Ziada, S.

    2016-12-01

    This report presents an overview of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) steam dryer design; the fatigue cracking failures that occurred at the Quad Cities (QC) plants and their root causes; a history of BWR Extended Power Uprates (EPUs) in the USA; and a discussion of steam dryer modifications/replacements, alternating stress mechanisms on steam dryers, and structural integrity evaluations (static and alternating stress).

  14. System study of an MHD/gas turbine combined-cycle baseload power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annen, K. D.

    1981-08-01

    The magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) gas turbine systems were modeled with sufficient detail, using realistic component specifications and costs, so that that the thermal and economic performance of the systems could be accurately determined. Three cases of MHD gas turbine systems were studied, with Case I being similar to a MHD steam system so that a direct comparison of the performances could be made, with Case II being representative of a second generation MHD system, and with Case III considering oxygen enrichment for early commercial applications. The results show that the MHD gas turbine system has very good thermal and economic performances while requiring either little or no cooling water. Compared to the MHD steam system which has a cooling tower heat load of 720 MN, the Base Case I MHD/gas turbine system has a heat rate which is 13% higher and a cost of electricity which is only 7% higher while requiring no cooling water. Case II results show that an improved performance can be expected from second generation MHD gas turbine systems. Case III results show that an oxygen enriched MHD gas turbine system may be attractive for early commercial applications in dry regions of the country.

  15. Innovative turbine concepts for open-cycle OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-12-01

    The results are summarized of preliminary studies conducted to identify and evaluate three innovative concepts for an open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) steam turbine that could significantly reduce the cost of OTEC electrical power plants. The three concepts are: (1) a crossflow turbine, (2) a vertical axis, axial flow turbine, and (3) a double flow, radial inflow turbine with mixed flow blading. In all cases, the innovation involves the use of lightweight, composite plastic blading and a physical geometry that facilitates efficient fluid flow to and from the other major system components and reduces the structural requirements for both the turbine or the system vacuum enclosure, or both. The performance, mechanical design, and cost of each of the concepts are developed to varying degrees but in sufficient detail to show that the potential exists for cost reductions to the goals established in the U.S. Department of Energy's planning documents. Specifically, results showed that an axial turbine operating with 33 percent higher steam throughput and 7 percent lower efficiency than the most efficient configuration provides the most cost effective open-cycle OTEC system. The vacuum enclosure can be significantly modified to reduce costs by establishing better interfaces with the system.

  16. Innovative turbine concepts for open-cycle OTEC (ocean thermal energy conversion)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of preliminary studies conducted to identify and evaluate three innovative concepts for an open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) steam turbine that could significantly reduce the cost of OTEC electrical power plants. The three concepts are (1) a crossflow turbine, (2) a vertical-axis, axial-flow turbine, and (3) a double-flow, radial-inflow turbine with mixed-flow blading. In all cases, the innovation involves the use of lightweight, composite plastic blading and a physical geometry that facilitates efficient fluid flow to and from the other major system components and reduces the structural requirements for both the turbine or the system vacuum enclosure, or both. The performance, mechanical design, and cost of each of the concepts are developed to varying degrees but in sufficient detail to show that the potential exists for cost reductions to the goals established in the US Department of Energy's planning documents. Specifically, results showed that an axial turbine operating with 33% higher steam throughput and 7% lower efficiency than the most efficient configuration provides the most cost-effective open-cycle OTEC system. The vacuum enclosure can be significantly modified to reduce costs by establishing better interfaces with the system. 33 refs., 26 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. The STEAM behind the Scenes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carmen Petrick; King, Barbara; González, Diana

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing need for STEAM-based (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, and Mathematics) knowledge and skills across a wide range of professions (Brazell 2013). Yet students often fail to see the usefulness of mathematics beyond the classroom (Kloosterman, Raymond, and Emenaker 1996), and they do not regularly make connections between…

  18. Steam Hydrocarbon Cracking and Reforming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The interactive methods of steam hydrocarbon reforming and cracking of the oil and chemical industries are scrutinized, with special focus on their resemblance and variations. The two methods are illustrations of equilibrium-controlled and kinetically-controlled processes, the analysis of which involves theories, which overlap and balance each…

  19. Steam-water relative permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Ambusso, W.; Satik, C.; Home, R.N.

    1997-12-31

    A set of relative permeability relations for simultaneous flow of steam and water in porous media have been measured in steady state experiments conducted under the conditions that eliminate most errors associated with saturation and pressure measurements. These relations show that the relative permeabilities for steam-water flow in porous media vary approximately linearly with saturation. This departure from the nitrogen/water behavior indicates that there are fundamental differences between steam/water and nitrogen/water flows. The saturations in these experiments were measured by using a high resolution X-ray computer tomography (CT) scanner. In addition the pressure gradients were obtained from the measurements of liquid phase pressure over the portions with flat saturation profiles. These two aspects constitute a major improvement in the experimental method compared to those used in the past. Comparison of the saturation profiles measured by the X-ray CT scanner during the experiments shows a good agreement with those predicted by numerical simulations. To obtain results that are applicable to general flow of steam and water in porous media similar experiments will be conducted at higher temperature and with porous rocks of different wetting characteristics and porosity distribution.

  20. Steam Power Plants in Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, E E

    1926-01-01

    The employment of steam power plants in aircraft has been frequently proposed. Arguments pro and con have appeared in many journals. It is the purpose of this paper to make a brief analysis of the proposal from the broad general viewpoint of aircraft power plants. Any such analysis may be general or detailed.

  1. Preliminary Axial Flow Turbine Design and Off-Design Performance Analysis Methods for Rotary Wing Aircraft Engines. Part 2; Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Shu-cheng, S.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, preliminary studies on two turbine engine applications relevant to the tilt-rotor rotary wing aircraft are performed. The first case-study is the application of variable pitch turbine for the turbine performance improvement when operating at a substantially lower shaft speed. The calculations are made on the 75 percent speed and the 50 percent speed of operations. Our results indicate that with the use of the variable pitch turbines, a nominal (3 percent (probable) to 5 percent (hypothetical)) efficiency improvement at the 75 percent speed, and a notable (6 percent (probable) to 12 percent (hypothetical)) efficiency improvement at the 50 percent speed, without sacrificing the turbine power productions, are achievable if the technical difficulty of turning the turbine vanes and blades can be circumvented. The second casestudy is the contingency turbine power generation for the tilt-rotor aircraft in the One Engine Inoperative (OEI) scenario. For this study, calculations are performed on two promising methods: throttle push and steam injection. By isolating the power turbine and limiting its air mass flow rate to be no more than the air flow intake of the take-off operation, while increasing the turbine inlet total temperature (simulating the throttle push) or increasing the air-steam mixture flow rate (simulating the steam injection condition), our results show that an amount of 30 to 45 percent extra power, to the nominal take-off power, can be generated by either of the two methods. The methods of approach, the results, and discussions of these studies are presented in this paper.

  2. Performance analysis and optimization of power plants with gas turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besharati-Givi, Maryam

    The gas turbine is one of the most important applications for power generation. The purpose of this research is performance analysis and optimization of power plants by using different design systems at different operation conditions. In this research, accurate efficiency calculation and finding optimum values of efficiency for design of chiller inlet cooling and blade cooled gas turbine are investigated. This research shows how it is possible to find the optimum design for different operation conditions, like ambient temperature, relative humidity, turbine inlet temperature, and compressor pressure ratio. The simulated designs include the chiller, with varied COP and fogging cooling for a compressor. In addition, the overall thermal efficiency is improved by adding some design systems like reheat and regenerative heating. The other goal of this research focuses on the blade-cooled gas turbine for higher turbine inlet temperature, and consequently, higher efficiency. New film cooling equations, along with changing film cooling effectiveness for optimum cooling air requirement at the first-stage blades, and an internal and trailing edge cooling for the second stage, are innovated for optimal efficiency calculation. This research sets the groundwork for using the optimum value of efficiency calculation, while using inlet cooling and blade cooling designs. In the final step, the designed systems in the gas cycles are combined with a steam cycle for performance improvement.

  3. Single rotor turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Platts, David A.

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented a turbine engine with a single rotor which cools the engine, functions as a radial compressor, pushes air through the engine to the ignition point, and acts as an axial turbine for powering the compressor. The invention engine is designed to use a simple scheme of conventional passage shapes to provide both a radial and axial flow pattern through the single rotor, thereby allowing the radial intake air flow to cool the turbine blades and turbine exhaust gases in an axial flow to be used for energy transfer. In an alternative embodiment, an electric generator is incorporated in the engine to specifically adapt the invention for power generation. Magnets are embedded in the exhaust face of the single rotor proximate to a ring of stationary magnetic cores with windings to provide for the generation of electricity. In this alternative embodiment, the turbine is a radial inflow turbine rather than an axial turbine as used in the first embodiment. Radial inflow passages of conventional design are interleaved with radial compressor passages to allow the intake air to cool the turbine blades.

  4. Turbine disc sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Diakunchak, Ihor S.

    2013-03-05

    A disc seal assembly for use in a turbine engine. The disc seal assembly includes a plurality of outwardly extending sealing flange members that define a plurality of fluid pockets. The sealing flange members define a labyrinth flow path therebetween to limit leakage between a hot gas path and a disc cavity in the turbine engine.

  5. Ceramic turbine nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, James E.; Norton, Paul F.

    1996-01-01

    A turbine nozzle and shroud assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The metallic components having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine nozzle vane assembly. The turbine nozzle vane assembly includes a plurality of segmented vane defining a first vane segment and a second vane segment. Each of the first and second vane segments having a vertical portion. Each of the first vane segments and the second vane segments being positioned in functional relationship one to another within a recess formed within an outer shroud and an inner shroud. The turbine nozzle and shroud assembly provides an economical, reliable and effective ceramic component having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being less than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the other component.

  6. Ceramic turbine nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, J.E.; Norton, P.F.

    1996-12-17

    A turbine nozzle and shroud assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The metallic components have a preestablished rate of thermal expansion greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine nozzle vane assembly. The turbine nozzle vane assembly includes a plurality of segmented vane defining a first vane segment and a second vane segment, each of the first and second vane segments having a vertical portion, and each of the first vane segments and the second vane segments being positioned in functional relationship one to another within a recess formed within an outer shroud and an inner shroud. The turbine nozzle and shroud assembly provides an economical, reliable and effective ceramic component having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being less than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the other component. 4 figs.

  7. Amplified wind turbine apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hein, L. A.; Myers, W. N. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An invention related to the utilization of wind energy and increasing the effects thereof for power generation is described. Amplified wind turbine apparatus is disclosed wherein ambient inlet air is prerotated in a first air rotation chamber having a high pressure profile increasing the turbulence and Reynolds number thereof. A second rotation chamber adjacent and downstream of the turbine has a low pressure core profile whereby flow across the turbine is accelerated and thereafter exits the turbine apparatus through a draft anti-interference device. Interference with ambient winds at the outlet of the turbine apparatus is thus eliminated. Pivotable vanes controlled in response to prevailing wind direction admit air to the chambers and aid in imparting rotation. A central core may be utilized for creating the desired pressure profile in the chamber.

  8. RLV Turbine Performance Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Lisa W.; Dorney, Daniel J.

    2001-01-01

    A task was developed at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to improve turbine aerodynamic performance through the application of advanced design and analysis tools. There are four major objectives of this task: 1) to develop, enhance, and integrate advanced turbine aerodynamic design and analysis tools; 2) to develop the methodology for application of the analytical techniques; 3) to demonstrate the benefits of the advanced turbine design procedure through its application to a relevant turbine design point; and 4) to verify the optimized design and analysis with testing. Final results of the preliminary design and the results of the two-dimensional (2D) detailed design of the first-stage vane of a supersonic turbine suitable for a reusable launch vehicle (R-LV) are presented. Analytical techniques for obtaining the results are also discussed.

  9. Graphene in turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, D. K.; Swain, P. K.; Sahoo, S.

    2016-07-01

    Graphene, the two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterial, draws interest of several researchers due to its many superior properties. It has extensive applications in numerous fields. A turbine is a hydraulic machine which extracts energy from a fluid and converts it into useful work. Recently, Gudukeya and Madanhire have tried to increase the efficiency of Pelton turbine. Beucher et al. have also tried the same by reducing friction between fluid and turbine blades. In this paper, we study the advantages of using graphene as a coating on Pelton turbine blades. It is found that the efficiency of turbines increases, running and maintenance cost is reduced with more power output. By the application of graphene in pipes, cavitation will be reduced, durability of pipes will increase, operation and maintenance cost of water power plants will be less.

  10. Ceramic Cerami Turbine Nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, Gary L.

    1997-04-01

    A turbine nozzle vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The metallic components having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine nozzle vane assembly. The turbine nozzle vane assembly includes an outer shroud and an inner shroud having a plurality of horizontally segmented vanes therebetween being positioned by a connecting member positioning segmented vanes in functional relationship one to another. The turbine nozzle vane assembly provides an economical, reliable and effective ceramic component having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the other component.

  11. Cooled snubber structure for turbine blades

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Clinton A; Campbell, Christian X; Whalley, Andrew; Marra, John J

    2014-04-01

    A turbine blade assembly in a turbine engine. The turbine blade assembly includes a turbine blade and a first snubber structure. The turbine blade includes an internal cooling passage containing cooling air. The first snubber structure extends outwardly from a sidewall of the turbine blade and includes a hollow interior portion that receives cooling air from the internal cooling passage of the turbine blade.

  12. Cost analysis of NOx control alternatives for stationary gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Major

    1999-11-05

    The use of stationary gas turbines for power generation has been growing rapidly with continuing trends predicted well into the future. Factors that are contributing to this growth include advances in turbine technology, operating and siting flexibility and low capital cost. Restructuring of the electric utility industry will provide new opportunities for on-site generation. In a competitive market, it maybe more cost effective to install small distributed generation units (like gas turbines) within the grid rather than constructing large power plants in remote locations with extensive transmission and distribution systems. For the customer, on-site generation will provide added reliability and leverage over the cost of purchased power One of the key issues that is addressed in virtually every gas turbine application is emissions, particularly NO{sub x} emissions. Decades of research and development have significantly reduced the NO{sub x} levels emitted from gas turbines from uncontrolled levels. Emission control technologies are continuing to evolve with older technologies being gradually phased-out while new technologies are being developed and commercialized. The objective of this study is to determine and compare the cost of NO{sub x} control technologies for three size ranges of stationary gas turbines: 5 MW, 25 MW and 150 MW. The purpose of the comparison is to evaluate the cost effectiveness and impact of each control technology as a function of turbine size. The NO{sub x} control technologies evaluated in this study include: Lean premix combustion, also known as dry low NO{sub x} (DLN) combustion; Catalytic combustion; Water/steam injection; Selective catalytic reduction (SCR)--low temperature, conventional, high temperature; and SCONO{sub x}{trademark}.

  13. Steam atmosphere drying concepts using steam exhaust recompression

    SciTech Connect

    DiBella, F.A.

    1992-08-01

    In the US industrial drying accounts for approximately 1.5 quads of energy use per year. Annual industrial dryer expenditures are estimated to be in the $500 million range. Industrial drying is a significant energy and monetary expense. For the thermal drying processes in which water is removed via evaporation from the feedstock, attempts have been made to reduce the consumption of energy using exhaust waste heat recovery techniques, improved dryer designs, or even the deployment of advanced mechanical dewatering techniques. Despite these efforts, it is obvious that a large amount of thermal energy is often still lost if the latent heat of evaporation from the evaporated water cannot be recovered and/or in some way be utilized as direct heat input into the dryer. Tecogen Inc. is conducting research and development on an industrial drying concept. That utilizes a directly or indirectly superheated steam cycle atmosphere with exhaust steam recompression to recover the latent heat in the exhaust that would otherwise be lost. This approach has the potential to save 55 percent of the energy required by a conventional air dryer. Other advantages to the industrial dryer user include: A 35-percent reduction in the yearly cost per kg{sub evap} to dry wet feedstock, Reduced airborne emissions, Reduced dry dust fire/explosion risks, Hot product not exposed to oxygen thus, the product quality is enhanced, Constant rate drying in steam atmosphere, Reduced dryer size and cost, Reduced dryer heat losses due to lower dryer inlet temperatures. Tecogen has projected that the steam atmosphere drying system is most suitable as a replacement technology for state-of-the-art spray, flash, and fluidized bed drying systems. Such systems are utilized in the food and kindred products; rubber products; chemical and allied products; stone, clay, and glass; textiles; and pulp and paper industrial sectors.

  14. Steam atmosphere drying concepts using steam exhaust recompression

    SciTech Connect

    DiBella, F.A. )

    1992-08-01

    In the US industrial drying accounts for approximately 1.5 quads of energy use per year. Annual industrial dryer expenditures are estimated to be in the $500 million range. Industrial drying is a significant energy and monetary expense. For the thermal drying processes in which water is removed via evaporation from the feedstock, attempts have been made to reduce the consumption of energy using exhaust waste heat recovery techniques, improved dryer designs, or even the deployment of advanced mechanical dewatering techniques. Despite these efforts, it is obvious that a large amount of thermal energy is often still lost if the latent heat of evaporation from the evaporated water cannot be recovered and/or in some way be utilized as direct heat input into the dryer. Tecogen Inc. is conducting research and development on an industrial drying concept. That utilizes a directly or indirectly superheated steam cycle atmosphere with exhaust steam recompression to recover the latent heat in the exhaust that would otherwise be lost. This approach has the potential to save 55 percent of the energy required by a conventional air dryer. Other advantages to the industrial dryer user include: A 35-percent reduction in the yearly cost per kg[sub evap] to dry wet feedstock, Reduced airborne emissions, Reduced dry dust fire/explosion risks, Hot product not exposed to oxygen thus, the product quality is enhanced, Constant rate drying in steam atmosphere, Reduced dryer size and cost, Reduced dryer heat losses due to lower dryer inlet temperatures. Tecogen has projected that the steam atmosphere drying system is most suitable as a replacement technology for state-of-the-art spray, flash, and fluidized bed drying systems. Such systems are utilized in the food and kindred products; rubber products; chemical and allied products; stone, clay, and glass; textiles; and pulp and paper industrial sectors.

  15. Improving turbine blade fatigue life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buddenbohm, H. W.

    1988-01-01

    Turbine airfoil design, materials, and cooling system management are variables which, when optimized, can contribute to longer turbine component lives. These advancements have been identified as redesign techniques to improve the turbine fatigue life of the SSME High Pressure Fuel Turbopump. This paper discusses the general program approach toward improving turbine fatigue life.

  16. Hydrogen turbine power conversion system assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, D. E.; Lucci, A. D.; Campbell, J.; Lee, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    A three part technical study was conducted whereby parametric technical and economic feasibility data were developed on several power conversion systems suitable for the generation of central station electric power through the combustion of hydrogen and the use of the resulting heat energy in turbogenerator equipment. The study assessed potential applications of hydrogen-fueled power conversion systems and identified the three most promising candidates: (1) Ericsson Cycle, (2) gas turbine, and (3) direct steam injection system for fossil fuel as well as nuclear powerplants. A technical and economic evaluation was performed on the three systems from which the direct injection system (fossil fuel only) was selected for a preliminary conceptual design of an integrated hydrogen-fired power conversion system.

  17. Gasification Evaluation of Gas Turbine Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Battelle

    2003-12-30

    This report provides a preliminary assessment of the potential for use in gas turbines and reciprocating gas engines of gases derived from biomass by pyrolysis or partial oxidation with air. Consideration was given to the use of mixtures of these gases with natural gas as a means of improving heating value and ensuring a steady gas supply. Gas from biomass, and mixtures with natural gas, were compared with natural gas reformates from low temperature partial oxidation or steam reforming. The properties of such reformates were based on computations of gas properties using the ChemCAD computational tools and energy inputs derived from known engine parameters. In general, the biomass derived fuels compare well with reformates, so far as can be judged without engine testing. Mild reforming has potential to produce a more uniform quality of fuel gas from very variable qualities of natural gas, and could possibly be applied to gas from biomass to eliminate organic gases and condensibles other than methane.

  18. Thermal tests of the 9FB gas turbine unit produced by general electric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ol'khovskii, G. G.; Radin, Yu. A.; Mel'nikov, V. A.; Tuz, N. E.; Mironenko, A. V.

    2013-09-01

    In July 2011, a PGU-410 combined-cycle power plant was commissioned at the Srendeuralsk district power station owned by Enel OGK-5. The main equipment of this power plant includes an MS9001FB gas turbine unit (produced by GE Energy Power Plant Systems, the United States), a heat recovery boiler (produced by Nooter/Ericsen, the United States), and a >Skoda KT-140-13.3 two-cylinder condensing and cogeneration turbine with steam reheating. In 2011-2012, specialists of the All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute carried out thermal tests of this power plant in a wide range of loads and under different external conditions. The results from thermal tests of the MS9001FB gas turbine unit are presented and analyzed. The actual indicators of the gas turbine unit and its elements are determined and their characteristics are constructed.

  19. High efficiency, quasi-instantaneous steam expansion device utilizing fossil or nuclear fuel as the heat source

    SciTech Connect

    Claudio Filippone, Ph.D.

    1999-06-01

    Thermal-hydraulic analysis of a specially designed steam expansion device (heat cavity) was performed to prove the feasibility of steam expansions at elevated rates for power generation with higher efficiency. The steam expansion process inside the heat cavity greatly depends on the gap within which the steam expands and accelerates. This system can be seen as a miniaturized boiler integrated inside the expander where steam (or the proper fluid) is generated almost instantaneously prior to its expansion in the work-producing unit. Relatively cold water is pulsed inside the heat cavity, where the heat transferred causes the water to flash to steam, thereby increasing its specific volume by a large factor. The gap inside the heat cavity forms a special nozzle-shaped system in which the fluid expands rapidly, accelerating toward the system outlet. The expansion phenomenon is the cause of ever-increasing fluid speed inside the cavity system, eliminating the need for moving parts (pumps, valves, etc.). In fact, the subsequent velocity induced by the sudden fluid expansion causes turbulent conditions, forcing accelerating Reynolds and Nusselt numbers which, in turn, increase the convective heat transfer coefficient. When the combustion of fossil fuels constitutes the heat source, the heat cavity concept can be applied directly inside the stator of conventional turbines, thereby greatly increasing the overall system efficiency.

  20. HIGH EFFICIENCY, QUASI-INSTANTANEOUS STEAM EXPANSION DEVICE UTILIZING FOSSIL OR NUCLEAR FUEL AS THE HEAT SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Claudio Filippone, Ph.D.

    1999-06-01

    Thermal-hydraulic analysis of a specially designed steam expansion device (heat cavity) was performed to prove the feasibility of steam expansions at elevated rates for power generation with higher efficiency. The steam expansion process inside the heat cavity greatly depends on the gap within which the steam expands and accelerates. This system can be seen as a miniaturized boiler integrated inside the expander where steam (or the proper fluid) is generated almost instantaneously prior to its expansion in the work-producing unit. Relatively cold water is pulsed inside the heat cavity, where the heat transferred causes the water to flash to steam, thereby increasing its specific volume by a large factor. The gap inside the heat cavity forms a special nozzle-shaped system in which the fluid expands rapidly, accelerating toward the system outlet. The expansion phenomenon is the cause of ever-increasing fluid speed inside the cavity system, eliminating the need for moving parts (pumps, valves, etc.). In fact, the subsequent velocity induced by the sudden fluid expansion causes turbulent conditions, forcing accelerating Reynolds and Nusselt numbers which, in turn, increase the convective heat transfer coefficient. When the combustion of fossil fuels constitutes the heat source, the heat cavity concept can be applied directly inside the stator of conventional turbines, thereby greatly increasing the overall system efficiency.

  1. The effect of inlet stagnation supercooling degree on the aerodynamics of the steam flow field around a rotor tip section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beheshti Amiri, H.; Kermani, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of inlet stagnation supercooling degree on the aerodynamics of the flow field around the rotor tip section of a steam turbine are investigated. To do so, non-equilibrium thermodynamics model for simulating the condensing flow is employed. The results show that formation of liquid droplets and their further growth can remarkably change the design parameters like deviation angle, pressure loss coefficient, mass flow rate and shock wave pattern.

  2. Method and apparatus for steam mixing a nuclear fueled electricity generation system

    DOEpatents

    Tsiklauri, Georgi V.; Durst, Bruce M.

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the efficiency and performance of a nuclear electrical generation system that comprises the addition of steam handling equipment to an existing plant that results in a surprising increase in plant performance. More particularly, a gas turbine electrical generation system with heat recovery boiler is installed along with a micro-jet high pressure and a low pressure mixer superheater. Depending upon plant characteristics, the existing moisture separator reheater (MSR) can be either augmented or done away with. The instant invention enables a reduction in T.sub.hot without a derating of the reactor unit, and improves efficiency of the plant's electrical conversion cycle. Coupled with this advantage is a possible extension of the plant's fuel cycle length due to an increased electrical conversion efficiency. The reduction in T.sub.hot further allows for a surprising extension of steam generator life. An additional advantage is the reduction in erosion/corrosion of secondary system components including turbine blades and diaphragms. The gas turbine generator used in the instant invention can also replace or augment existing peak or emergency power needs. Another benefit of the instant invention is the extension of plant life and the reduction of downtime due to refueling.

  3. Steam System Energy Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Metzger, Jesse Dean

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple system inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: fixing steam leaks. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  4. Turbine blade vibration dampening

    DOEpatents

    Cornelius, C.C.; Pytanowski, G.P.; Vendituoli, J.S.

    1997-07-08

    The present turbine wheel assembly increases component life and turbine engine longevity. The combination of the strap and the opening combined with the preestablished area of the outer surface of the opening and the preestablished area of the outer circumferential surface of the strap and the friction between the strap and the opening increases the life and longevity of the turbine wheel assembly. Furthermore, the mass ``M`` or combined mass ``CM`` of the strap or straps and the centrifugal force assist in controlling vibrations and damping characteristics. 5 figs.

  5. Turbine blade vibration dampening

    DOEpatents

    Cornelius, Charles C.; Pytanowski, Gregory P.; Vendituoli, Jonathan S.

    1997-07-08

    The present turbine wheel assembly increases component life and turbine engine longevity. The combination of the strap and the opening combined with the preestablished area of the outer surface of the opening and the preestablished area of the outer circumferential surface of the strap and the friction between the strap and the opening increases the life and longevity of the turbine wheel assembly. Furthermore, the mass "M" or combined mass "CM" of the strap or straps and the centrifugal force assist in controlling vibrations and damping characteristics.

  6. Aviation turbine fuels, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, E.M.; Dickson, C.L.

    1983-03-01

    Properties of some aviation turbine fuels marketed in the United States during 1982 are presented in this report. The samples represented are typical 1982 production and were analyzed in the laboratories of 14 manufacturers of aviation turbine (jet) fuels. The data were submitted for study, calculation, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Department of Energy (DOE), Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC), Bartlesville, Oklahoma, and the American Petroleum Institute (API). Results for the properties of 90 samples of aviation turbine fuels are included in the report for military grades JP-4 and HP-5, and commercial type Jet A.

  7. Wind turbine acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, Harvey H.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    1990-01-01

    Available information on the physical characteristics of the noise generated by wind turbines is summarized, with example sound pressure time histories, narrow- and broadband frequency spectra, and noise radiation patterns. Reviewed are noise measurement standards, analysis technology, and a method of characterizing wind turbine noise. Prediction methods are given for both low-frequency rotational harmonics and broadband noise components. Also included are atmospheric propagation data showing the effects of distance and refraction by wind shear. Human perception thresholds, based on laboratory and field tests, are given. Building vibration analysis methods are summarized. The bibliography of this report lists technical publications on all aspects of wind turbine acoustics.

  8. Composite turbine bucket assembly

    DOEpatents

    Liotta, Gary Charles; Garcia-Crespo, Andres

    2014-05-20

    A composite turbine blade assembly includes a ceramic blade including an airfoil portion, a shank portion and an attachment portion; and a transition assembly adapted to attach the ceramic blade to a turbine disk or rotor, the transition assembly including first and second transition components clamped together, trapping said ceramic airfoil therebetween. Interior surfaces of the first and second transition portions are formed to mate with the shank portion and the attachment portion of the ceramic blade, and exterior surfaces of said first and second transition components are formed to include an attachment feature enabling the transition assembly to be attached to the turbine rotor or disk.

  9. The future of gas turbine compliance monitoring: The integration of PEMS and CEMS for regulatory compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Macak, J.J. III

    1999-07-01

    When the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for Stationary Gas Turbines were first promulgated in 1979 (40 CFR 60, Subpart GG), continuous compliance monitoring for gas turbines was simply a parametric monitoring approach where a unit was tested at four load conditions. For those units where water or steam injection was used for NO{sub x} control, testing consisted of establishing a water (or steam injection) versus fuel flow curve to achieve permitted NO{sub x} emission levels across the load range. Since 1979, the growth in gas turbine popularity has encouraged the development of Predictive Emissions Monitoring Systems (PEMS) where gas turbine operating parameters and ambient conditions are fed into a prediction algorithm to predict, rather than monitor, emissions. However, permitting requirements and technological advances now have gas turbines emitting NO{sub x} in the single digits while the overall combined-cycle thermal efficiency has improved dramatically. The combination of supplemental duct-firing in heat recovery steam generators, pollution prevention technology, post-combustion emission controls, and EPA Continuous Emissions Monitoring System (CEMS) regulations for the power industry, resulted in a shift towards CEMS due to the complexity of the overall process. Yet, CEMS are often considered to be a maintenance nightmare with significant amounts of downtime. CEMS and PEMS have their own advantages and disadvantages. Thus evolved the need to find the optimum balance between CEMS and PEMS for gas turbine projects. To justify the cost of both PEMS and CEMS in the same installation, there must be an economic incentive to do so. This paper presents the application of a PEMS/CEMS monitoring system that integrates both PEMS and CEMS in order to meet, and exceed, all emissions monitoring requirements.

  10. Dynamic analysis method for prevention of failure in the first-stage low-pressure turbine blade with two-finger root

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jung-Yong; Jung, Yong-Keun; Park, Jong-Jin; Kang, Yong-Ho

    2002-05-01

    Failures of turbine blades are identified as the leading causes of unplanned outages for steam turbine. Accidents of low-pressure turbine blade occupied more than 70 percent in turbine components. Therefore, the prevention of failures for low pressure turbine blades is certainly needed. The procedure is illustrated by the case study. This procedure is used to guide, and support the plant manager's decisions to avoid a costly, unplanned outage. In this study, we are trying to find factors of failures in LP turbine blade and to make three steps to approach the solution of blade failure. First step is to measure natural frequency in mockup test and to compare it with nozzle passing frequency. Second step is to use FEM and to calculate the natural frequencies of 7 blades and 10 blades per group in BLADE code. Third step is to find natural frequencies of grouped blade off the nozzle passing frequency.

  11. Tests of a 2-Stage, Axial-Flow, 2-Phase Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, D. G.

    1982-01-01

    A two phase flow turbine with two stages of axial flow impulse rotors was tested with three different working fluid mixtures at a shaft power of 30 kW. The turbine efficiency was 0.55 with nitrogen and water of 0.02 quality and 94 m/s velocity, 0.57 with Refrigerant 22 of 0.27 quality and 123 m/s velocity, and 0.30 with steam and water of 0.27 quality and 457 m/s velocity. The efficiencies with nitrogen and water and Refrigerant 22 were 86 percent of theoretical. At that fraction of theoretical, the efficiencies of optimized two phase turbines would be in the low 60 percent range with organic working fluids and in the mid 50 percent range with steam and water. The recommended turbine design is a two stage axial flow impulse turbine followed by a rotary separator for discharge of separate liquid and gas streams and recovery of liquid pressure.

  12. Optical steam quality measurement system and method

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, James R.; Partin, Judy K.

    2006-04-25

    An optical measurement system is presented that offers precision on-line monitoring of the quality of steam. Multiple wavelengths of radiant energy are passed through the steam from an emitter to a detector. By comparing the amount of radiant energy absorbed by the flow of steam for each wavelength, a highly accurate measurement of the steam quality can be determined on a continuous basis in real-time. In an embodiment of the present invention, the emitter, comprises three separate radiant energy sources for transmitting specific wavelengths of radiant energy through the steam. In a further embodiment, the wavelengths of radiant energy are combined into a single beam of radiant energy for transmission through the steam using time or wavelength division multiplexing. In yet a further embodiment, the single beam of radiant energy is transmitted using specialized optical elements.

  13. Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines - Steam Tip Sheet #2

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on insulating steam distribution and condensate return lines provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  14. Steam Technical Brief: How to Calculate the True Cost of Steam

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-25

    This BestPractice Steam Technical Brief helps you calculate the true cost of steam. Knowing the correct cost is important for many reasons and all of them have to do with improving the company's bottom line.

  15. Gas Turbines for the Production of Electrical and Thermal Energy,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-28

    turbine; io-Ie illi i( if s mi , i,.i ,,irir-i in the cities are limiting the * ,,L* ot ",rnc!-an" fuels i:-uo and more (coal, oil) in heating plants...operation a b c d e f USA Horseshoe I Lake 5 + - 1973 Lake .Wawohty 31 + -3e Natural 1965-66 gas Various 12 units 1973-75 140-600 MI tot. cap. 4150...2 + U.7 - 751 1960-61 Rohe Wand Is+ 68- 3 1964-65 Netherlands Amerntrale 13 + n - 40 1972 USSR Nevoinomiska s ,so -no Natural 1973 Gas-steam gas and

  16. Turbine nozzle positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Norton, Paul F.; Shaffer, James E.

    1996-01-30

    A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes an outer shroud having a mounting leg with an opening defined therein, a tip shoe ring having a mounting member with an opening defined therein, a nozzle support ring having a plurality of holes therein and a pin positioned in the corresponding opening in the outer shroud, opening in the tip shoe ring and the hole in the nozzle support ring. A rolling joint is provided between metallic components of the gas turbine engine and the nozzle guide vane assembly. The nozzle guide vane assembly is positioned radially about a central axis of the gas turbine engine and axially aligned with a combustor of the gas turbine engine.

  17. Turbine nozzle positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Norton, P.F.; Shaffer, J.E.

    1996-01-30

    A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes an outer shroud having a mounting leg with an opening defined therein, a tip shoe ring having a mounting member with an opening defined therein, a nozzle support ring having a plurality of holes therein and a pin positioned in the corresponding opening in the outer shroud, opening in the tip shoe ring and the hole in the nozzle support ring. A rolling joint is provided between metallic components of the gas turbine engine and the nozzle guide vane assembly. The nozzle guide vane assembly is positioned radially about a central axis of the gas turbine engine and axially aligned with a combustor of the gas turbine engine. 9 figs.

  18. Turbine instabilities: Case histories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laws, C. W.

    1985-01-01

    Several possible causes of turbine rotor instability are discussed and the related design features of a wide range of turbomachinery types and sizes are considered. The instrumentation options available for detecting rotor instability and assessing its severity are also discussed.

  19. Radial turbine cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelke, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    Radial turbines have been used extensively in many applications including small ground based electrical power generators, automotive engine turbochargers and aircraft auxiliary power units. In all of these applications the turbine inlet temperature is limited to a value commensurate with the material strength limitations and life requirements of uncooled metal rotors. To take advantage of all the benefits that higher temperatures offer, such as increased turbine specific power output or higher cycle thermal efficiency, requires improved high temperature materials and/or blade cooling. Extensive research is on-going to advance the material properties of high temperature superalloys as well as composite materials including ceramics. The use of ceramics with their high temperature potential and low cost is particularly appealing for radial turbines. However until these programs reach fruition the only way to make significant step increases beyond the present material temperature barriers is to cool the radial blading.

  20. Gas turbine engine

    SciTech Connect

    Lawlor, Shawn P.; Roberts, II, William Byron

    2016-03-08

    A gas turbine engine with a compressor rotor having compressor impulse blades that delivers gas at supersonic conditions to a stator. The stator includes a one or more aerodynamic ducts that each have a converging portion and a diverging portion for deceleration of the selected gas to subsonic conditions and to deliver a high pressure oxidant containing gas to flameholders. The flameholders may be provided as trapped vortex combustors, for combustion of a fuel to produce hot pressurized combustion gases. The hot pressurized combustion gases are choked before passing out of an aerodynamic duct to a turbine. Work is recovered in a turbine by expanding the combustion gases through impulse blades. By balancing the axial loading on compressor impulse blades and turbine impulse blades, asymmetrical thrust is minimized or avoided.

  1. Method of steam reforming methanol to hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Beshty, Bahjat S.

    1990-01-01

    The production of hydrogen by the catalyzed steam reforming of methanol is accomplished using a reformer of greatly reduced size and cost wherein a mixture of water and methanol is superheated to the gaseous state at temperatures of about 800.degree. to about 1,100.degree. F. and then fed to a reformer in direct contact with the catalyst bed contained therein, whereby the heat for the endothermic steam reforming reaction is derived directly from the superheated steam/methanol mixture.

  2. An investigation of nucleating flows of stream in a cascade of turbine blading -- Wake traverses

    SciTech Connect

    Bakhtar, F.; Webb, R.A. . School of Manufacturing and Mechanical Engineering); Ebrahimi, M. )

    1994-03-01

    During the course of expansion in turbines, steam first supercools and then nucleates to become a two-phase mixture consisting of a very large number of minute droplets suspended in the parent vapor. To reproduce turbine two-phase flow conditions realistically requires a supply of supercooled vapor, which can be achieved under blow-down conditions. This paper is one of a set describing the equipment which has been constructed and the first family of results obtained on a short duration cascade tunnel working on the blow-down principle. The arrangements for traversing downstream of a cascade of nozzle blades and the results obtained are described in the paper.

  3. Turbine Design and Application, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, A. J. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    Turbine technology concepts for thermodynamic and fluid dynamics are presented along with velocity diagrams, losses, mechanical design, operation and performance. Designs discussed include: supersonic turbines, radial-inflow turbines, and turbine cooling.

  4. Loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture and steam line break thermohydraulic experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Mendler, O J; Takeuchi, K; Young, M Y

    1986-10-01

    The Westinghouse Model Boiler No. 2 (MB-2) steam generator test model at the Engineering Test Facility in Tampa, Florida, was reinstrumented and modified for performing a series of tests simulating steam generator accident transients. The transients simulated were: loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture, and steam line break events. This document presents a description of (1) the model boiler and the associated test facility, (2) the tests performed, and (3) the analyses of the test results.

  5. The Development of a Small High Speed Steam Microturbine Generator System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alford, Adrian; Nichol, Philip; Frisby, Ben

    2015-08-01

    The efficient use of energy is paramount in every kind of business today. Steam is a widely used energy source. In many situations steam is generated at high pressures and then reduced in pressure through control valves before reaching point of use. An opportunity was identified to convert some of the energy at the point of pressure reduction into electricity. This can be accomplished using steam turbines driving alternators on large scale systems. To take advantage of a market identified for small scale systems, a microturbine generator was designed based on a small high speed turbo machine. This gave rise to a number of challenges which are described with the solutions adopted. The challenges included aerodynamic design of high efficiency impellers, sealing of a high speed shaft, thrust control and material selection to avoid steam erosion. The machine was packaged with a sophisticated control system to allow connection to the electricity grid. Some of the challenges in packaging the machine are also described. The Spirax Sarco TurboPower has now concluded performance and initial endurance tests which are described with a summary of the results.

  6. Turbine Aerothermal Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    layer velocity profiles without and with plasma discharge forcing. Figure 6: Global hawk Cascade Blades Figure 7: Dimpled HPT vanes for Turbine...Research Facility Figure 8: Wake traverse of dimples on roughened vanes . 1 SUMMARY The objectives of this task are to increase turbine engine...Hot wire anemometers and pitot -static pressure instrumentation were used to quantify the boundary layer and external flow fluid mechanical properties

  7. The Partitioning of Acetic, Formic, and Phosphoric Acids Between Liquid Water and Steam

    SciTech Connect

    Gruszkiewicz, M.S.; Marshall, S.L.; Palmer, D.A.; Simonson, J.M.

    1999-06-22

    The chemical carryover of impurities and treatment chemicals from the boiler to the steam phase, and ultimately to the low-pressure turbine and condenser, can be quantified based on laboratory experiments preformed over ranges of temperature, pH, and composition. The two major assumptions are that thermodynamic equilibrium is maintained and no deposition, adsorption or decomposition occurs. The most recent results on acetic, formic and phosphoric acids are presented with consideration of the effects of hydrolysis and dimerization reactions. Complications arising from thermal decomposition of the organic acids are discussed. The partitioning constants for these acids and other solutes measured in this program have been incorporated into a simple thermodynamic computer code that calculates the effect of chemical and mechanical carryover on the composition of the condensate formed to varying extents in the water/steam cycle.

  8. Energy evaluation of steam-water cycle operation with mathematical modelling application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusinowski, Henryk; Szapajko, Grzegorz

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, we can observe the development of the thermal diagnosis and operating control systems based on measuring techniques and mathematical modelling of processes improvement. Evaluation of the actual operating state is insufficient to make an optimal operating decisions. Thus, information about the influence of the operating parameters' deviations from the reference state on indicators describing energy consumption of the process (for example specific heat consumption or specific energy consumption) is also necessary. The paper presents methods for generation the information about the influence of the steam-water cycle operating parameters on specific heat consumption in a turbine's cycle. A mathematical model of steam-water cycle for a CHP (Cogeneration - also Combined Heat and Power) unit is being worked out. Methods for calculation of operating deviations with the application of correction curves and a mathematical model are described. Exemplary calculation results are presented.

  9. Steam consumption reduction by eutectic freeze crystallization

    SciTech Connect

    Bichsel, S.E.; Cleary, M.; Barron, T.S.; Heist, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Steam production in American beet sugar factories can be reduced by 600 pounds per ton of beets by using hydrate freeze crystallization in place of pan evaporators for sugar crystallization. This is a relatively constant number, regardless of current factory energy use. Further reduction is limited by the juice heating needs in the purification operations. Steam for juice heating is 20 to 30% on beets, or 400 to 600 pounds of steam per ton. In efficient factories this is about the steam flow to the evaporators when the pan crystallizers are replaced by freeze crystallization. An approach is described here for a rapid evaluation of effects on the steam balance of basic process changes. It provides a visual guide to restructuring the steam balance that simplifies optimization when such changes are made. The graphic approach is useful in illustrating methods of reducing energy use in a sugar factory, in addition to the current analysis of integration of the hydrate freeze process. For example, membrane and vapor recompression evaporators for juice concentration must be accompanied by major factory modifications to produce any net savings of steam. The reason is the needs for specific steam quantity and quality for the pan evaporators and juice heaters, supplied through the current evaporator trains. Reduction of the steam rate below 25 to 35% on beets will require changes to the conventional juice purification process.

  10. Wind Turbine Wakes

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, Christopher Lee; Maniaci, David Charles; Resor, Brian R.

    2015-10-01

    The total energy produced by a wind farm depends on the complex interaction of many wind turbines operating in proximity with the turbulent atmosphere. Sometimes, the unsteady forces associated with wind negatively influence power production, causing damage and increasing the cost of producing energy associated with wind power. Wakes and the motion of air generated by rotating blades need to be better understood. Predicting wakes and other wind forces could lead to more effective wind turbine designs and farm layouts, thereby reducing the cost of energy, allowing the United States to increase the installed capacity of wind energy. The Wind Energy Technologies Department at Sandia has collaborated with the University of Minnesota to simulate the interaction of multiple wind turbines. By combining the validated, large-eddy simulation code with Sandia’s HPC capability, this consortium has improved its ability to predict unsteady forces and the electrical power generated by an array of wind turbines. The array of wind turbines simulated were specifically those at the Sandia Scaled Wind Farm Testbed (SWiFT) site which aided the design of new wind turbine blades being manufactured as part of the National Rotor Testbed project with the Department of Energy.

  11. Evaluation of the Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    Recent advances in gas-turbine and heat exchanger technology have enhanced the potential for a Modular Helium Reactor (MHR) incorporating a direct gas turbine (Brayton) cycle for power conversion. The resulting Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) power plant combines the high temperature capabilities of the MHR with the efficiency and reliability of modern gas turbines. While the passive safety features of the steam cycle MHR (SC-MHR) are retained, generation efficiencies are projected to be in the range of 48% and steam power conversion systems, with their attendant complexities, are eliminated. Power costs are projected to be reduced by about 20%, relative to the SC-MHR or coal. This report documents the second, and final, phase of a two-part evaluation that concluded with a unanimous recommendation that the direct cycle (DC) variant of the GT-MHR be established as the commercial objective of the US Gas-Cooled Reactor Program. This recommendation has been endorsed by industrial and utility participants and accepted by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Phase II effort, documented herein, concluded that the DC GT-MHR offers substantial technical and economic advantages over both the IDC and SC systems. Both the DC and IDC were found to offer safety advantages, relative to the SC, due to elimination of the potential for water ingress during power operations. This is the dominant consequence event for the SC. The IDC was judged to require somewhat less development than the direct cycle, while the SC, which has the greatest technology base, incurs the least development cost and risk. While the technical and licensing requirements for the DC were more demanding, they were judged to be incremental and feasible. Moreover, the DC offers significant performance and cost improvements over the other two concepts. Overall, the latter were found to justify the additional development needs.

  12. Functionally graded mullite coatings for gas turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Tushar

    The next generation of heat exchangers and gas turbines require high performance materials as they need to operate at higher temperatures for higher efficiency. SiC and Si3N4 are promising candidates as they have excellent high temperature properties. However, when used in complex combustion environments found in gas-turbine applications, these materials have two major concerns; namely hot-corrosion and recession. It is well established that environmental barrier coatings (EBC) can be utilized to overcome these limitations. Although chemical vapor deposited (CVD) mullite (3Al2O 3.2SiO2) coatings developed before this study have shown promise in protecting Si-based substrates, there is concern that the silica content within the mullite coating itself might be susceptible to hot-corrosion and recession during long term exposure to corrosive atmospheres containing Na/V salts and water vapor. There is thus strong motivation to substantially reduce or even virtually eliminate the silica component from the surfaces of mullite coatings that are in direct contact with atmospheres containing corrosive oxides and steam. In this study, CVD has been used to deposit mullite coatings with potential promise to protect Si-based ceramics for high temperature applications. The composition of these functionally graded mullite coatings was varied from silica-rich close to the coating/substrate (SiC) interface for coefficient of thermal expansion match to alumina-rich towards the outer surface of the coating. In the process, the highest alumina-rich mullite ever reported has been deposited. The phase transformation and hot-corrosion behavior of the coatings was also investigated in this work. The coatings show immense potential to protect Si-based ceramics. It is expected that these coatings will have very broad impact by enabling gas turbines to operate at higher temperatures leading to improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions.

  13. Evaluation of Models for Solubility and Volatility of Copper Compounds Under Steam Generation Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, D.; Petrov, A.

    1999-09-12

    The loss in efficiency of power plants with mixed metallurgy, due to transport and deposition of copper and its oxides in HP turbines, has been recognized as one of the key problems to be solved in the utility industry worldwide. Within this context, the most important problem to be addressed is the solubility and volatility of copper compounds under steam generation condition. This paper presents an evaluation of different solubility end volatility models for copper compounds, and presents a comparison between the calculated and test data.

  14. RPV steam generator pressure boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Strosnider, J.

    1996-03-01

    As the types of SG tube degradation affecting PWR SGs has changed, and improvements in tube inspection and repair technology have occurred, current SG regulatory requirements and guidance have become increasingly out of date. This regulatory situation has been dealt with on a plant-specific basis, however to resolve this problem in the long term, the NRC has begun development of a performance-based rule. As currently structured, the proposed steam generator rule would require licensees to implement SG programs that monitor the condition of the steam generator tubes against accepted performance criteria to provide reasonable assurance that the steam generator tubes remain capable of performing their intended safety functions. Currently the staff is developing three performance criteria that will ensure the tubes can continue to perform their safety function and therefore satisfy the SG rule requirements. The staff, in developing the criteria, is striving to ensure that the performance criteria have the two key attributes of being (1) measurable (enabling the tube condition to be {open_quotes}measured{close_quotes} against the criteria) and (2) tolerable (ensuring that failures to meet the criteria do not result in unacceptable consequences). A general description of the criteria are: (1) Structural integrity criteria: Ensures that the structural integrity of the SG tubes is maintained for the operating cycle consistent with the margins intended by the ASME Code. (2) Leakage integrity criteria: Ensures that postulated accident leakages and the associated dose releases are limited relative to 10 CFR Part 50 guidelines and 10 CFR Part 50 Appendix A GDC 19. (3) Operational leakage criteria: Ensures that the operating unit will be shut down as a defense-in depth measure when operational SG tube leakage exceeds established leakage limits.

  15. Steam treatment of zebra mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, J.; Rybarik, D.L.; Thiel, J.

    1995-06-01

    Steam injection into intake bays is a nonchemical method to control zebra mussels. This technique was demonstrated at Dairyland Power Cooperative`s J.P. Madgett Station located in Alma, Wisconsin. The project was funded by the EPRI Zebra Mussel Consortium which includes: Dairyland Power Cooperative, Central Illinois Public Service, Duke Power, Illinois Power Company, PSI Energy, Public Service Electric & Gas, and Tennessee Valley Authority. This technique can be used by other power plants with a similar problem. A contract between Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation (Stone & Webster) was initiated in August 1994. The steam treatments were performed at the J.P. Madgett intake in Alma, Wisconsin, on September 14 and 18, 1994. The J.P. Madgett Station has two water intake bays with storage capacities of approximately 295,000 and 265,000 gallons, respectively. Each intake can be isolated, permitting either full or reduced generation depending on river temperature conditions. In addition to the intake bays, the outside fire protection loop and hydrants were also treated with the hot water from one of the bays. This paper presents the process design, piping and steam educator configurations, portable industrial boiler sizing and description, and the thermocouples to monitor the water temperature in the intake bay. The biological mortality and control test protocol and treatment results are also presented. Treatment effectiveness was 100%; however, equipment installation and operation was more problematic than anticipated. A generic computer program is developed and verified using thermal data from the test. The PC program will allow other utilities to size the boiler and estimate the heat losses from an intake bay. The treatment also provided valuable information that simplifies future applications and provides for more realistic design and installation schedules and costs.

  16. 7 CFR 305.23 - Steam sterilization treatment schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...” air until steam vapor escapes). 1 Normal atmospheric pressure. ... Steam sterilization treatment schedules. Treatment schedule Temperature( °F) Pressure Exposure period... packages. Load with adequate spacing. Large commercial steam facilities that operate at pressures up to...

  17. 13. View of disassembled steam engine showing cylinder, piston rod, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View of disassembled steam engine showing cylinder, piston rod, parallel motion links and steam chest. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Steam Engine & Mill, 2.65 Mi. N of PR Rt. 2 Bridge over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  18. 3. ORIGINAL THREE STEAM PLANT BOILERS ALONG WEST SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ORIGINAL THREE STEAM PLANT BOILERS ALONG WEST SIDE OF STEAM PLANT BUILDING, FROM SOUTHWEST. November 13, 1990 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. Design possibilities and peformance of combined cycle operation of converted steam power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Linnemeijer, M.J.J.; Van Buijtenen, J.P. )

    1988-01-01

    An interesting method for boosting thermal efficiency and/or power output of an existing steam power plant is repowering through the addition of gas turbines. The forced draught fan is replaced by a gas turbine and the air heater by low-temperature economisers. This conversion will change the performance of the installation significantly. Therefore the design of the existing installation has to be reviewed based on new unit performance calculations. Since the conversion has to be economical, it is important to find a good compromise between investment and improvement of performance. This paper describes the change in performance of the installation created by the conversion in general and a number of design possibilities based on the experience gained with the realization of a number of conversion projects.

  20. 40. VIEW OF TURBINE HALL LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT WESTINGHOUSEPARSONS TURBINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. VIEW OF TURBINE HALL LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT WESTINGHOUSE-PARSONS TURBINE NUMBER 2. THIS UNIT WAS INSTALLED IN 1925. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  1. Marine Steam Condenser Design Optimization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    Rerf . 61. !kS 2XLI: Those parametars which the opti heztion proqran ms--faitted to change in order to improre’the esign. Pesin variablis appear oely on...subroutine SEC& LC is called. 5. jZ.~ This subroutine determines all the parameters of each of the sectors in the condenser by row. The first...force the pressure losses to converge to a single value. Once steam flow to the sectors has been adjusted, the sector and row analysis in SEC& LC is

  2. Steam condenser thermal design theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, B. J.

    Test data and prediction methods for condensation in steam condenser tube banks are reviewed. Standards for thermal rating; effect of vapor velocity; vapor shear and inundation in tube banks; correction factors to the Nusselt equation; and equations for the combined effect of vapor shear and inundation are discussed. Effects of noncondensible gases; tube side heat transfer; and expressions for combined tube side and shell side heat transfer are considered. Frictional, gravitational, momentum, and pressure drop trends; and the role of access lanes to reduce pressure drop are outlined. Computer models of condensers, including algebraic representations of the field equations, are summarized.

  3. Turbine inner shroud and turbine assembly containing such inner shroud

    DOEpatents

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Corman, Gregory Scot; Dean, Anthony John; DiMascio, Paul Stephen; Mirdamadi, Massoud

    2001-01-01

    A turbine inner shroud and a turbine assembly. The turbine assembly includes a turbine stator having a longitudinal axis and having an outer shroud block with opposing and longitudinally outward facing first and second sides having open slots. A ceramic inner shroud has longitudinally inward facing hook portions which can longitudinally and radially surround a portion of the sides of the outer shroud block. In one attachment, the hook portions are engageable with, and are positioned within, the open slots.

  4. Next Generation Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Cheraghi, S. Hossein; Madden, Frank

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this collaborative effort between Western New England University's College of Engineering and FloDesign Wind Turbine (FDWT) Corporation to wok on a novel areodynamic concept that could potentially lead to the next generation of wind turbines. Analytical studies and early scale model tests of FDWT's Mixer/Ejector Wind Turbine (MEWT) concept, which exploits jet-age advanced fluid dynamics, indicate that the concept has the potential to significantly reduce the cost of electricity over conventional Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines while reducing land usage. This project involved the design, fabrication, and wind tunnel testing of components of MEWT to provide the research and engineering data necessary to validate the design iterations and optimize system performance. Based on these tests, a scale model prototype called Briza was designed, fabricated, installed and tested on a portable tower to investigate and improve the design system in real world conditions. The results of these scale prototype efforts were very promising and have contributed significantly to FDWT's ongoing development of a product scale wind turbine for deployment in multiple locations around the U.S. This research was mutually beneficial to Western New England University, FDWT, and the DOE by utilizing over 30 student interns and a number of faculty in all efforts. It brought real-world wind turbine experience into the classroom to further enhance the Green Engineering Program at WNEU. It also provided on-the-job training to many students, improving their future employment opportunities, while also providing valuable information to further advance FDWT's mixer-ejector wind turbine technology, creating opportunities for future project innovation and job creation.

  5. Mechanical properties of turbine blade alloys in hydrogen at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deluca, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanical properties of single crystal turbine blade alloys in a gaseous hydrogen environment were determined. These alloys are proposed for use in space propulsion systems in pure or partial high pressure hydrogen environments at elevated temperatures. Mechanical property tests included: tensile, creep, low fatigue (LCF), and crack growth. Specimens were in both transverse and longitudinal directions relative to the casting solidification direction. Testing was conducted on solid specimens exposed to externally pressurized environments of gaseous hydrogen and hydrogen-enriched steam.

  6. System study of an MHD/gas turbine combined-cycle baseload power plant. HTGL report No. 134

    SciTech Connect

    Annen, K.D.

    1981-08-01

    The MHD/gas turbine combined-cycle system has been designed specifically for applications where the availability of cooling water is very limited. The base case systems which were studied consisted of an MHD plant with a gas turbine bottoming plant, and required no cooling water. The gas turbine plant uses only air as its working fluid and receives its energy input from the MHD exhaust gases by means of metal tube heat exchangers. In addition to the base case systems, vapor cycle variation systems were considered which included the addition of a vapor cycle bottoming plant to improve the thermal efficiency. These systems required a small amount of cooling water. The MHD/gas turbine systems were modeled with sufficient detail, using realistic component specifications and costs, so that the thermal and economic performance of the system could be accurately determined. Three cases of MHD/gas turbine systems were studied, with Case I being similar to an MHD/steam system so that a direct comparison of the performances could be made, with Case II being representative of a second generation MHD system, and with Case III considering oxygen enrichment for early commercial applications. The systems are nominally 800 MW/sub e/ to 1000 MW/sub e/ in size. The results show that the MHD/gas turbine system has very good thermal and economic performances while requiring either little or no cooling water. Compared to the MHD/steam system which has a cooling tower heat load of 720 MW, the Base Case I MHD/gas turbine system has a heat rate which is 13% higher and a cost of electricity which is only 7% higher while requiring no cooling water. Case II results show that an improved performance can be expected from second generation MHD/gas turbine systems. Case III results show that an oxygen enriched MHD/gas turbine system may be attractive for early commercial applications in dry regions of the country.

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF FRACTURED BEDROCK FOR STEAM INJECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most difficult setting in which to conduct groundwater remediation is that where chlorinated solvents have penetrated fractured bedrock. To demonstrate the potential viability of steam injection as a means of groundwater clean-up in this type of environment, steam will be in...

  8. BWR drywell behavior under steam blowdown

    SciTech Connect

    NguyenLe, Q.A.; Ishii, Mamoru

    1998-12-31

    Historically, the focus of thermal-hydraulics analyses on large-break loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) has been on the transients within the reactor or steam generator. Few have studied the effects of steam blowdown on the containment building. The authors present some numerical and experimental results of the blowdown tests performed at the Purdue University multidimensional integrated test assembly (PUMA).

  9. LMR steam generator blowdown with RETRAN

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, T.Y.C.

    1985-01-01

    One of the transients being considered in the FSAR Chapter 15 analyses of anticipated LMR transients is the fast blowdown of a steam generator upon inadvertent actuation of the liquid metal/water reaction mitigation system. For the blowdown analysis, a stand-alone steam generator model for the IFR plant was constructed using RETRAN.

  10. Steam Reformer With Fibrous Catalytic Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed steam-reforming reactor derives heat from internal combustion on fibrous catalyst. Supplies of fuel and air to combustor controlled to meet demand for heat for steam-reforming reaction. Enables use of less expensive reactor-tube material by limiting temperature to value safe for material yet not so low as to reduce reactor efficiency.

  11. Program assists steam drive design project

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, A.A.

    1984-08-27

    A new program for the HP-41CV programmable calculator will compute all parameters required for a steam drive project design. The Marx and Langenheim model assumptions are used to solve a more advanced version of the Myhill and Stegemeier model. Also, the Mandl and Volek model assuptions are used to compute the size of the steam zone.

  12. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: IN SITU STEAM EXTRACTION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In situ steam extraction removes volatile and semivolatile hazardous contaminants from soil and groundwater without excavation of the hazardous waste. Waste constituents are removed in situ by the technology and are not actually treated. The use of steam enhances the stripping of...

  13. Steam generator tubing NDE performance

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, G.; Welty, C.S. Jr.

    1997-02-01

    Steam generator (SG) non-destructive examination (NDE) is a fundamental element in the broader SG in-service inspection (ISI) process, a cornerstone in the management of PWR steam generators. Based on objective performance measures (tube leak forced outages and SG-related capacity factor loss), ISI performance has shown a continually improving trend over the years. Performance of the NDE element is a function of the fundamental capability of the technique, and the ability of the analysis portion of the process in field implementation of the technique. The technology continues to improve in several areas, e.g. system sensitivity, data collection rates, probe/coil design, and data analysis software. With these improvements comes the attendant requirement for qualification of the technique on the damage form(s) to which it will be applied, and for training and qualification of the data analysis element of the ISI process on the field implementation of the technique. The introduction of data transfer via fiber optic line allows for remote data acquisition and analysis, thus improving the efficiency of analysis for a limited pool of data analysts. This paper provides an overview of the current status of SG NDE, and identifies several important issues to be addressed.

  14. Eutectic Composite Turbine Blade Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    turbine blades for aircraft engines . An MC carbide fiber reinforced eutectic alloy, NiTaC-13...composites in turbine blades for aircraft engines . An MC carbide fiber reinforced eutectic alloy, NiTaC-13 and the low pressure turbine blade of the...identified that appeared to have potential for application to aircraft engine turbine blade hardware. The potential benefits offered by these materials

  15. The Cooling of Turbine Blades,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-11

    aviation gas turbine engine , everyone has ceaselessly come up with ways of raising the temperature of gases in a turbine before combustion. The reason for...temperature of the blade concerned by approximately 200 degrees. Jet -type cooling. When the surface of a turbine blade is at a temperature which is...the blade and multiplying the drop in the temperature of the blade . Figure 3 is a cross-section diagram of a turbine blade cooled by the jet

  16. Airship-floated wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W. K.

    1985-01-01

    A wind turbine, by use of a tethered airship for support, may be designed for the economical recovery of power at heights of 2,000 feet or more above ground, at which height power density in the wind is typically three times the power density available to a conventionally supported wind turbine. Means can be added to such an airship-floated wind turbine which will permit its generators to be used to meet load demand even during periods of little or no wind. Described to this end is a wind turbine system which combines, among other novel features: a novel tether line system which provides access for men and materials to the supporting airship while in active service, a novel system for providing additional buoyant lift at the nose of the turbine-supporting airship to offset the vertical component of tension induced in the tether line by the downwind force exerted by the turbine blades, a novel bearing assembly at the nose of the supporting airship which permits the airship to rotate as a unit with the turbine it supports without causing a similar rotation of the tether line, a novel turbine airship structure which handles concentrated loads from the turbine efficiently and also permits the safe use of hydrogen for buoyancy, a novel ''space frame'' structure which supports the turbine blades and greatly reduces blade weight, a novel system for controlling turbine blade angle of incidence and for varying blade incidene in synchrony with blade angular position abut the turbine axis to provide greater control over airship movement, a novel system for locating propellor-driven generators out at the wind turbine perimeter and for using lightweight, high-RPM generators to produce electrical energy at a power line frequency, which greatly reduces the weight required to convert turbine blade torque into useful power, and a novel system for incorporating compressed air storage and combustion turbine components into the wind turbine's generator drive systems.

  17. Circumferential cracking of steam generator tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Karwoski, K.J.

    1997-04-01

    On April 28, 1995, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued Generic Letter (GL) 95-03, {open_quote}Circumferential Cracking of Steam Generator Tubes.{close_quote} GL 95-03 was issued to obtain information needed to verify licensee compliance with existing regulatory requirements regarding the integrity of steam generator tubes in domestic pressurized-water reactors (PWRs). This report briefly describes the design and function of domestic steam generators and summarizes the staff`s assessment of the responses to GL 95-03. The report concludes with several observations related to steam generator operating experience. This report is intended to be representative of significant operating experience pertaining to circumferential cracking of steam generator tubes from April 1995 through December 1996. Operating experience prior to April 1995 is discussed throughout the report, as necessary, for completeness.

  18. Hockey-stick steam generator for LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Hallinan, G.J.; Svedlund, P.E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents the criteria and evaluation leading to the selection of the Hockey Stick Steam Generator Concept and subsequent development of that concept for LMFBR application. The selection process and development of the Modular Steam Generator (MSG) is discussed, including the extensive test programs that culminated in the manufacture and test of a 35 MW(t) Steam Generator. The design of the CRBRP Steam Generator is described, emphasizing the current status and a review of the critical structural areas. CRBRP steam generator development tests are evaluated, with a discussion of test objectives and rating of the usefulness of test results to the CRBRP prototype design. Manufacturing experience and status of the CRBRP prototype and plant units is covered. The scaleup of the Hockey Stick concept to large commercial plant application is presented, with an evaluation of scaleup limitations, transient effects, and system design implications.

  19. Heat loss through insulated steam lines

    SciTech Connect

    Kloepfer, J.G.; Dykstra, S.

    1982-02-22

    Heat loss through piping is a costly problem in steam-oriented thermal recovery operations. To determine the heat loss from above- and below-ground insulated steam piping, a program has been written for the TI-59 programmable calculator. Given the pipe parameters, steam temperature, and wind velocity, this program calculates the heat loss in w/m. Assuming pressure drop through the line is negligible, steam quality may be calculated at any point along the pipe. The newton-Raphson iterative technique is used to solve 2 simultaneous equations for the skin temperature. Once convergence is complete, skin temperature is used to calculate the heat loss. The program will allow the engineer to determine heat lost from the steam generator to the wellhead.

  20. Ceramic stationary gas turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Roode, M. van

    1995-10-01

    The performance of current industrial gas turbines is limited by the temperature and strength capabilities of the metallic structural materials in the engine hot section. Because of their superior high-temperature strength and durability, ceramics can be used as structural materials for hot section components (blades, nozzles, combustor liners) in innovative designs at increased turbine firing temperatures. The benefits include the ability to increase the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) to about 1200{degrees}C ({approx}2200{degrees}F) or more with uncooled ceramics. It has been projected that fully optimized stationary gas turbines would have a {approx}20 percent gain in thermal efficiency and {approx}40 percent gain in output power in simple cycle compared to all metal-engines with air-cooled components. Annual fuel savings in cogeneration in the U.S. would be on the order of 0.2 Quad by 2010. Emissions reductions to under 10 ppmv NO{sub x} are also forecast. This paper describes the progress on a three-phase, 6-year program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, to achieve significant performance improvements and emissions reductions in stationary gas turbines by replacing metallic hot section components with ceramic parts. Progress is being reported for the period September 1, 1994, through September 30, 1995.