Science.gov

Sample records for kaera kuivaine ja

  1. Effects of MeJA on Arabidopsis metabolome under endogenous JA deficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jingjing; Li, Mengya; Chen, Jian; Liu, Pei; Li, Zhen

    2016-11-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) play important roles in plant growth, development and defense. Comprehensive metabolomics profiling of plants under JA treatment provides insights into the interaction and regulation network of plant hormones. Here we applied high resolution mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach on Arabidopsis wild type and JA synthesis deficiency mutant opr3. The effects of exogenous MeJA treatment on the metabolites of opr3 were investigated. More than 10000 ion signals were detected and more than 2000 signals showed significant variation in different genotypes and treatment groups. Multivariate statistic analyses (PCA and PLS-DA) were performed and a differential compound library containing 174 metabolites with high resolution precursor ion-product ions pairs was obtained. Classification and pathway analysis of 109 identified compounds in this library showed that glucosinolates and tryptophan metabolism, amino acids and small peptides metabolism, lipid metabolism, especially fatty acyls metabolism, were impacted by endogenous JA deficiency and exogenous MeJA treatment. These results were further verified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis of 21 related genes involved in the metabolism of glucosinolates, tryptophan and α-linolenic acid pathways. The results would greatly enhance our understanding of the biological functions of JA.

  2. Endogenous Bioactive Jasmonate Is Composed of a Set of (+)-7-iso-JA-Amino Acid Conjugates1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Suhua; Li, Yuwen; Chen, Juan; Yang, Mai; Tong, Jianhua; Xiao, Langtao; Nan, Fajun; Xie, Daoxin

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) regulate a wide range of plant defense and development processes. The bioactive JA is perceived by its receptor COI1 to trigger the degradation of JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins and subsequently derepress the JAZ-repressed transcription factors for activation of expression of JA-responsive genes. So far, (+)-7-iso-JA-l-Ile has been the only identified endogenous bioactive JA molecule. Here, we designed coronafacic acid (CFA) conjugates with all the amino acids (CFA-AA) to mimic the JA amino acid conjugates, and revealed that (+)-7-iso-JA-Leu, (+)-7-iso-JA-Val, (+)-7-iso-JA-Met, and (+)-7-iso-JA-Ala are new endogenous bioactive JA molecules. Furthermore, our studies uncover the general characteristics for all the bioactive JA molecules, and provide a new strategy to synthetically generate novel active JA molecules. PMID:27756820

  3. Coordinate expression of AOS genes and JA accumulation: JA is not required for initiation of closing layer in wound healing tubers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wounding induces a series of coordinated physiological responses essential for protection and healing of the damaged tissue. Wound-induced formation of jasmonic acid (JA) is important in defense responses in leaves, but comparatively little is known about the induction of JA biosynthesis and its ro...

  4. Effect of MeJA treatment on polyamine, energy status and anthracnose rot of loquat fruit.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shifeng; Cai, Yuting; Yang, Zhenfeng; Joyce, Daryl C; Zheng, Yonghua

    2014-02-15

    The effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on changes in polyamines content and energy status and their relation to disease resistance was investigated. Freshly harvested loquat fruit were treated with 10 μmol l(-1) MeJA and wound inoculated with Colletotrichum acutatum spore suspension (1.0 × 10(5) spores ml(-1)) after 24h, and then stored at 20 °C for 6 days. MeJA treatment significantly reduced decay incidence. MeJA treated fruit manifested higher contents of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) compared with the control fruit, during storage. MeJA treatment also maintained higher levels of adenosine triphosphate, and suppressed an increase in adenosine monophosphate content in loquat fruit. These results suggest that MeJA treatment may inhibit anthracnose rot by increasing polyamine content and maintaining the energy status. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Synthesis, structural characterization and biological activity of two diastereomeric JA-Ile macrolactones.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Aleman, Guillermo H; Machado, Ricardo A R; Görls, Helmar; Baldwin, Ian T; Boland, Wilhelm

    2015-06-07

    Jasmonates are phytohormones involved in a wide range of plant processes, including growth, development, senescence, and defense. Jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile, 2), an amino acid conjugate of jasmonic acid (JA, 1), has been identified as a bioactive endogenous jasmonate. However, JA-Ile (2) analogues trigger different responses in the plant. ω-Hydroxylation of the pentenyl side chain leads to the inactive 12-OH-JA-Ile (3) acting as a “stop” signal. On the other hand, a lactone derivative of 12-OH-JA (5) (jasmine ketolactone, JKL) occurs in nature, although with no known biological function. Inspired by the chemical structure of JKL (6) and in order to further explore the potential biological activities of 12-modified JA-Ile derivatives, we synthesized two macrolactones (JA-Ile-lactones (4a) and (4b)) derived from 12-OH-JA-Ile (3). The biological activity of (4a) and (4b) was tested for their ability to elicit nicotine production, a well-known jasmonate dependent secondary metabolite. Both macrolactones showed strong biological activity, inducing nicotine accumulation to a similar extent as methyl jasmonate does in Nicotiana attenuata leaves. Surprisingly, the highest nicotine contents were found in plants treated with the JA-Ile-lactone (4b), which has (3S,7S) configuration at the cyclopentanone not known from natural jasmonates. Macrolactone (4a) is a valuable standard to explore for its occurrence in nature.

  6. High-Rate Mechanical Properties of JA2 Propellant at Temperatures from -50 to 80 deg C

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    panorama of postcompression JA2 grain sample (uniaxially compressed at a rate of ~100 s–1, 80 °C, and strain greater than 40%), 50× magnification...19 Fig. 36 SEM panorama of postcompression JA2 grain sample...19 Fig. 37 SEM panorama of postcompression JA2 grain sample (uniaxially compressed at a rate of ~100 s–1, 60 °C, and strain

  7. JaSTA-2: Second version of the Java Superposition T-matrix Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halder, Prithish; Das, Himadri Sekhar

    2017-12-01

    In this article, we announce the development of a new version of the Java Superposition T-matrix App (JaSTA-2), to study the light scattering properties of porous aggregate particles. It has been developed using Netbeans 7.1.2, which is a java integrated development environment (IDE). The JaSTA uses double precision superposition T-matrix codes for multi-sphere clusters in random orientation, developed by Mackowski and Mischenko (1996). The new version consists of two options as part of the input parameters: (i) single wavelength and (ii) multiple wavelengths. The first option (which retains the applicability of older version of JaSTA) calculates the light scattering properties of aggregates of spheres for a single wavelength at a given instant of time whereas the second option can execute the code for a multiple numbers of wavelengths in a single run. JaSTA-2 provides convenient and quicker data analysis which can be used in diverse fields like Planetary Science, Atmospheric Physics, Nanoscience, etc. This version of the software is developed for Linux platform only, and it can be operated over all the cores of a processor using the multi-threading option.

  8. Integrated metabolomic and proteomic analysis reveals systemic responses of Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 to aniline stress.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Md; Prasuna, M Lakshmi; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch Venkata

    2015-02-06

    Aromatic amines are widely distributed in the environment and are major environmental pollutants. Although degradation of aromatic amines is well studied in bacteria, physiological adaptations and stress response to these toxic compounds is not yet fully understood. In the present study, systemic responses of Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 to aniline stress were deciphered using metabolite and iTRAQ-labeled protein profiling. Strain JA2 tolerated high concentrations of aniline (30 mM) with trace amounts of aniline being transformed to acetanilide. GC-MS metabolite profiling revealed aniline stress phenotype wherein amino acid, carbohydrate, fatty acid, nitrogen metabolisms, and TCA (tricarboxylic acid cycle) were modulated. Strain JA2 responded to aniline by remodeling the proteome, and cellular functions, such as signaling, transcription, translation, stress tolerance, transport and carbohydrate metabolism, were highly modulated. Key adaptive responses, such as transcription/translational changes, molecular chaperones to control protein folding, and efflux pumps implicated in solvent extrusion, were induced in response to aniline stress. Proteo-metabolomics indicated extensive rewiring of metabolism to aniline. TCA cycle and amino acid catabolism were down-regulated while gluconeogenesis and pentose phosphate pathways were up-regulated, leading to the synthesis of extracellular polymeric substances. Furthermore, increased saturated fatty acid ratios in membranes due to aniline stress suggest membrane adaptation. The present study thus indicates that strain JA2 employs multilayered responses: stress response, toxic compound tolerance, energy conservation, and metabolic rearrangements to aniline.

  9. Parasitism by Cuscuta pentagona sequentially induces JA and SA defence pathways in tomato.

    PubMed

    Runyon, Justin B; Mescher, Mark C; Felton, Gary W; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2010-02-01

    While plant responses to herbivores and pathogens are well characterized, responses to attack by other plants remain largely unexplored. We measured phytohormones and C(18) fatty acids in tomato attacked by the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona, and used transgenic and mutant plants to explore the roles of the defence-related phytohormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA). Parasite attachment to 10-day-old tomato plants elicited few biochemical changes, but a second attachment 10 d later elicited a 60-fold increase in JA, a 30-fold increase in SA and a hypersensitive-like response (HLR). Host age also influenced the response: neither Cuscuta seedlings nor established vines elicited a HLR in 10-day-old hosts, but both did in 20-day-old hosts. Parasites grew larger on hosts deficient in SA (NahG) or insensitive to JA [jasmonic acid-insensitive1 (jai1)], suggesting that both phytohormones mediate effective defences. Moreover, amounts of JA peaked 12 h before SA, indicating that defences may be coordinated via sequential induction of these hormones. Parasitism also induced increases in free linolenic and linoleic acids and abscisic acid. These findings provide the first documentation of plant hormonal signalling induced by a parasitic plant and show that tomato responses to C. pentagona display characteristics similar to both herbivore- and pathogen-induced responses.

  10. Transcriptome Analysis in Haematococcus pluvialis: Astaxanthin Induction by Salicylic Acid (SA) and Jasmonic Acid (JA).

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhengquan; Li, Yan; Wu, Guanxun; Li, Guoqiang; Sun, Haifeng; Deng, Suzhen; Shen, Yicheng; Chen, Guoqiang; Zhang, Ruihao; Meng, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xiaowen

    2015-01-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is an astaxanthin-rich microalga that can increase its astaxanthin production by salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA) induction. The genetic transcriptome details of astaxanthin biosynthesis were analyzed by exposing the algal cells to 25 mg/L of SA and JA for 1, 6 and 24 hours, plus to the control (no stress). Based on the RNA-seq analysis, 56,077 unigenes (51.7%) were identified with functions in response to the hormone stress. The top five identified subcategories were cell, cellular process, intracellular, catalytic activity and cytoplasm, which possessed 5600 (~9.99%), 5302 (~9.45%), 5242 (~9.35%), 4407 (~7.86%) and 4195 (~7.48%) unigenes, respectively. Furthermore, 59 unigenes were identified and assigned to 26 putative transcription factors (TFs), including 12 plant-specific TFs. They were likely associated with astaxanthin biosynthesis in Haematococcus upon SA and JA stress. In comparison, the up-regulation of differential expressed genes occurred much earlier, with higher transcript levels in the JA treatment (about 6 h later) than in the SA treatment (beyond 24 h). These results provide valuable information for directing metabolic engineering efforts to improve astaxanthin biosynthesis in H. pluvialis.

  11. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T.; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen. PMID:27471515

  12. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction.

    PubMed

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de Los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen.

  13. Physiological Characteristics and Production of Folic Acid of Lactobacillus plantarum JA71 Isolated from Jeotgal, a Traditional Korean Fermented Seafood

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sang-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Folic acid, one of the B group of vitamins, is an essential substance for maintaining the functions of the nervous system, and is also known to decrease the level of homocysteine in plasma. Homocysteine influences the lowering of the cognitive function in humans, and especially in elderly people. In order to determine the strains with a strong capacity to produce folic acid, 190 bacteria were isolated from various kinds of jeotgal and chungkuk-jang. In our test experiment, JA71 was found to contain 9.03μg/mL of folic acid after 24 h of incubation in an MRS broth. This showed that JA71 has the highest folic acid production ability compared to the other lactic acid bacteria that were isolated. JA71 was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum by the result of API carbohydrate fermentation pattern and 16s rDNA sequence. JA71 was investigated for its physiological characteristics. The optimum growth temperature of JA71 was 37℃, and the cultures took 12 h to reach pH 4.4. JA71 proved more sensitive to bacitracin when compared with fifteen different antibiotics, and showed most resistance to neomycin and vancomycin. Moreover, it was comparatively tolerant of bile juice and acid, and displayed resistance to Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus with restraint rates of 60.4%, 96.7%, and 76.2%, respectively. These results demonstrate that JA71 could be an excellent strain for application to functional products. PMID:26760752

  14. New enhanced artificial bee colony (JA-ABC5) algorithm with application for reactive power optimization.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Noorazliza; Mohamad-Saleh, Junita; Abro, Abdul Ghani

    2015-01-01

    The standard artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm involves exploration and exploitation processes which need to be balanced for enhanced performance. This paper proposes a new modified ABC algorithm named JA-ABC5 to enhance convergence speed and improve the ability to reach the global optimum by balancing exploration and exploitation processes. New stages have been proposed at the earlier stages of the algorithm to increase the exploitation process. Besides that, modified mutation equations have also been introduced in the employed and onlooker-bees phases to balance the two processes. The performance of JA-ABC5 has been analyzed on 27 commonly used benchmark functions and tested to optimize the reactive power optimization problem. The performance results have clearly shown that the newly proposed algorithm has outperformed other compared algorithms in terms of convergence speed and global optimum achievement.

  15. New Enhanced Artificial Bee Colony (JA-ABC5) Algorithm with Application for Reactive Power Optimization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The standard artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm involves exploration and exploitation processes which need to be balanced for enhanced performance. This paper proposes a new modified ABC algorithm named JA-ABC5 to enhance convergence speed and improve the ability to reach the global optimum by balancing exploration and exploitation processes. New stages have been proposed at the earlier stages of the algorithm to increase the exploitation process. Besides that, modified mutation equations have also been introduced in the employed and onlooker-bees phases to balance the two processes. The performance of JA-ABC5 has been analyzed on 27 commonly used benchmark functions and tested to optimize the reactive power optimization problem. The performance results have clearly shown that the newly proposed algorithm has outperformed other compared algorithms in terms of convergence speed and global optimum achievement. PMID:25879054

  16. Aniline Is an Inducer, and Not a Precursor, for Indole Derivatives in Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Mujahid; Ch, Sasikala; Ch, Ramana V.

    2014-01-01

    Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 and other anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria produce indole derivatives when exposed to aniline, a xenobiotic compound. Though this phenomenon has been reported previously, the role of aniline in the production of indoles is still a biochemical riddle. The present study aims at understanding the specific role of aniline (as precursor or stimulator) in the production of indoles and elucidating the biochemical pathway of indoles in aniline-exposed cells by using stable isotope approaches. Metabolic profiling revealed tryptophan accumulation only in aniline exposed cells along with indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole 3-aldehyde (IAld), the two major catabolites of tryptophan. Deuterium labelled aniline feeding studies revealed that aniline is not a precursor of indoles in strain JA2. Further, production of indoles only in aniline-exposed cells suggests that aniline is an indoles stimulator. In addition, production of indoles depended on the presence of a carbon source, and production enhanced when carbon sources were added to the culture. Isotope labelled fumarate feeding identified, fumarate as the precursor of indole, indicating de novo synthesis of indoles. Glyphosate (shikimate pathway inhibitor) inhibited the indoles production, accumulation of tryptophan, IAA and IAld indicating that indoles synthesis in strain JA2 occurs via the de novo shikimate pathway. The up-regulation of anthranilate synthase gene and induction of anthranilate synthase activity correlated well with tryptophan production in strain JA2. Induction of tryptophan aminotransferase and tryptophan 2-monooxygenase activities corroborated well with IAA levels, suggesting that tryptophan catabolism occurs simultaneously in aniline exposed cells. Our study demonstrates that aniline (stress) stimulates tryptophan/indoles synthesis via the shikimate pathway by possibly modulating the metabolic pathway. PMID:24533057

  17. Aniline is an inducer, and not a precursor, for indole derivatives in Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Mohammed; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2014-01-01

    Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 and other anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria produce indole derivatives when exposed to aniline, a xenobiotic compound. Though this phenomenon has been reported previously, the role of aniline in the production of indoles is still a biochemical riddle. The present study aims at understanding the specific role of aniline (as precursor or stimulator) in the production of indoles and elucidating the biochemical pathway of indoles in aniline-exposed cells by using stable isotope approaches. Metabolic profiling revealed tryptophan accumulation only in aniline exposed cells along with indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole 3-aldehyde (IAld), the two major catabolites of tryptophan. Deuterium labelled aniline feeding studies revealed that aniline is not a precursor of indoles in strain JA2. Further, production of indoles only in aniline-exposed cells suggests that aniline is an indoles stimulator. In addition, production of indoles depended on the presence of a carbon source, and production enhanced when carbon sources were added to the culture. Isotope labelled fumarate feeding identified, fumarate as the precursor of indole, indicating de novo synthesis of indoles. Glyphosate (shikimate pathway inhibitor) inhibited the indoles production, accumulation of tryptophan, IAA and IAld indicating that indoles synthesis in strain JA2 occurs via the de novo shikimate pathway. The up-regulation of anthranilate synthase gene and induction of anthranilate synthase activity correlated well with tryptophan production in strain JA2. Induction of tryptophan aminotransferase and tryptophan 2-monooxygenase activities corroborated well with IAA levels, suggesting that tryptophan catabolism occurs simultaneously in aniline exposed cells. Our study demonstrates that aniline (stress) stimulates tryptophan/indoles synthesis via the shikimate pathway by possibly modulating the metabolic pathway.

  18. JaK/STAT Inhibition to Prevent Post-Traumatic Epileptogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-31

    months 22-28) 2i. Assess mossy fiber sprouting, cell loss and glial proliferation 10 weeks post injury using Timm and Nissl staining (40 mice...1e. Assess protein levels and regional/cellular expression of JaK1 and 2, pSTAT1-5 using fluorescent immunohistochemistry with co- staining for cell...treated with CCI, 10 of which were treated with WP1066. Early post-injury experiments are underway; Timm staining has not revealed mossy fiber

  19. Biosynthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles using Pichia fermentans JA2 and their antimicrobial property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Ritika; Reddy, Arpita; Abraham, Jayanthi

    2015-01-01

    The development of eco-friendly alternative to chemical synthesis of metal nanoparticles is of great challenge among researchers. The present study aimed to investigate the biological synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial study and synergistic effect of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles against clinical pathogens using Pichia fermentans JA2. The extracellular biosynthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles was investigated using Pichia fermentans JA2 isolated from spoiled fruit pulp bought in Vellore local market. The crystalline and stable metallic nanoparticles were characterized evolving several analytical techniques including UV-visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction pattern analysis and FE-scanning electron microscope with EDX-analysis. The biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles were tested for their antimicrobial property against medically important Gram positive, Gram negative and fungal pathogenic microorganisms. Furthermore, the biosynthesized nanoparticles were also evaluated for their increased antimicrobial activities with various commercially available antibiotics against clinical pathogens. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles inhibited most of the Gram negative clinical pathogens, whereas zinc oxide nanoparticles were able to inhibit only Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The combined effect of standard antibiotic disc and biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles enhanced the inhibitory effect against clinical pathogens. The biological synthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles is a novel and cost-effective approach over harmful chemical synthesis techniques. The metallic nanoparticles synthesized using Pichia fermentans JA2 possess potent inhibitory effect that offers valuable contribution to pharmaceutical associations.

  20. Transcriptome Analysis of ABA/JA-Dual Responsive Genes in Rice Shoot and Root.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Ae; Bhatnagar, Nikita; Kwon, Soon Jae; Min, Myung Ki; Moon, Seok-Jun; Yoon, In Sun; Kwon, Taek-Ryoun; Kim, Sun Tae; Kim, Beom-Gi

    2018-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) enables plants to adapt to adverse environmental conditions through the modulation of metabolic pathways and of growth and developmental programs. We used comparative microarray analysis to identify genes exhibiting ABA-dependent expression and other hormone-dependent expression among them in Oryza sativa shoot and root. We identified 854 genes as significantly up- or down-regulated in root or shoot under ABA treatment condition. Most of these genes had similar expression profiles in root and shoot under ABA treatment condition, whereas 86 genes displayed opposite expression responses in root and shoot. To examine the crosstalk between ABA and other hormones, we compared the expression profiles of the ABA-dependently regulated genes under several different hormone treatment conditions. Interestingly, around half of the ABA-dependently expressed genes were also regulated by jasmonic acid based on microarray data analysis. We searched the promoter regions of these genes for cis-elements that could be responsible for their responsiveness to both hormones, and found that ABRE and MYC2 elements, among others, were common to the promoters of genes that were regulated by both ABA and JA. These results show that ABA and JA might have common gene expression regulation system and might explain why the JA could function for both abiotic and biotic stress tolerance.

  1. MAPK-dependent JA and SA signalling in Nicotiana attenuata affects plant growth and fitness during competition with conspecifics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Induced defense responses to herbivores are generally believed to have evolved as cost-saving strategies that defer the fitness costs of defense metabolism until these defenses are needed. The fitness costs of jasmonate (JA)-mediated defenses have been well documented. Those of the early signaling units mediating induced resistance to herbivores have yet to be examined. Early signaling components that mediate herbivore-induced defense responses in Nicotiana attenuata, have been well characterized and here we examine their growth and fitness costs during competition with conspecifics. Two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), salicylic acid (SA)-induced protein kinase (SIPK) and wound-induced protein kinase (WIPK) are rapidly activated after perception of herbivory and both kinases regulate herbivory-induced JA levels and JA-mediated defense metabolite accumulations. Since JA-induced defenses result in resource-based trade-offs that compromise plant productivity, we evaluated if silencing SIPK (irSIPK) and WIPK (irWIPK) benefits the growth and fitness of plants competiting with wild type (WT) plants, as has been shown for plants silenced in JA-signaling by the reduction of Lipoxygenase 3 (LOX3) levels. Results As expected, irWIPK and LOX3-silenced plants out-performed their competing WT plants. Surprisingly, irSIPK plants, which have the largest reductions in JA signaling, did not. Phytohormone profiling of leaves revealed that irSIPK plants accumulated higher levels of SA compared to WT. To test the hypothesis that these high levels of SA, and their presumed associated fitness costs of pathogen associated defenses in irSIPK plants had nullified the JA-deficiency-mediated growth benefits in these plants, we genetically reduced SA levels in irSIPK plants. Reducing SA levels partially recovered the biomass and fitness deficits of irSIPK plants. We also evaluated whether the increased fitness of plants with reduced SA or JA levels resulted from

  2. The tomato res mutant which accumulates JA in roots in non-stressed conditions restores cell structure alterations under salinity.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Abellan, José O; Fernandez-Garcia, Nieves; Lopez-Berenguer, Carmen; Egea, Isabel; Flores, Francisco B; Angosto, Trinidad; Capel, Juan; Lozano, Rafael; Pineda, Benito; Moreno, Vicente; Olmos, Enrique; Bolarin, Maria C

    2015-11-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) regulates a wide spectrum of plant biological processes, from plant development to stress defense responses. The role of JA in plant response to salt stress is scarcely known, and even less known is the specific response in root, the main plant organ responsible for ionic uptake and transport to the shoot. Here we report the characterization of the first tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant, named res (restored cell structure by salinity), that accumulates JA in roots prior to exposure to stress. The res tomato mutant presented remarkable growth inhibition and displayed important morphological alterations and cellular disorganization in roots and leaves under control conditions, while these alterations disappeared when the res mutant plants were grown under salt stress. Reciprocal grafting between res and wild type (WT) (tomato cv. Moneymaker) indicated that the main organ responsible for the development of alterations was the root. The JA-signaling pathway is activated in res roots prior to stress, with transcripts levels being even higher in control condition than in salinity. Future studies on this mutant will provide significant advances in the knowledge of JA role in root in salt-stress tolerance response, as well as in the energy trade-off between plant growth and response to stress. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  3. Early dust formation and a massive progenitor for SN 2011ja?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, J. E.; Krafton, Kelsie M.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Montiel, E.; Wesson, R.; Sugerman, Ben E. K.; Barlow, M. J.; Matsuura, M.; Drass, H.

    2016-04-01

    SN 2011ja was a bright (I = -18.3) Type II supernova occurring in the nearby edge on spiral galaxy NGC 4945. Flat-topped and multipeaked H α and H β spectral emission lines appear between 64 and 84 d post-explosion, indicating interaction with a disc-like circumstellar medium inclined ˜45° from edge-on. After day 84, an increase in the H- and K-band flux along with heavy attenuation of the red wing of the emission lines are strong indications of early dust formation, likely located in the cool dense shell created between the forward shock of the SN ejecta and the reverse shock created as the ejecta plows into the existing circumstellar material. Radiative transfer modelling reveals both ≈1 × 10-5 M⊙ of pre-existing dust located ˜1016.7 cm away and up to ≈6 × 10-4 M⊙ of newly formed dust. Spectral observations after 1.5 yr reveal the possibility that the fading SN is located within a young (3-6 Myr) massive stellar cluster, which when combined with tentative 56Ni mass estimates of 0.2 M⊙ may indicate a massive (≥25 M⊙) progenitor for SN 2011ja.

  4. Transcriptome sequencing and de novo analysis of cytoplasmic male sterility and maintenance in JA-CMS cotton.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Han, Jinfeng; Huang, Jinling

    2014-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is the failure to produce functional pollen, which is inherited maternally. And it is known that anther development is modulated through complicated interactions between nuclear and mitochondrial genes in sporophytic and gametophytic tissues. However, an unbiased transcriptome sequencing analysis of CMS in cotton is currently lacking in the literature. This study compared differentially expressed (DE) genes of floral buds at the sporogenous cells stage (SS) and microsporocyte stage (MS) (the two most important stages for pollen abortion in JA-CMS) between JA-CMS and its fertile maintainer line JB cotton plants, using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. A total of 709 (1.8%) DE genes including 293 up-regulated and 416 down-regulated genes were identified in JA-CMS line comparing with its maintainer line at the SS stage, and 644 (1.6%) DE genes with 263 up-regulated and 381 down-regulated genes were detected at the MS stage. By comparing the two stages in the same material, there were 8 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated DE genes in JA-CMS line and 29 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated DE genes in JB maintainer line at the MS stage. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to validate 7 randomly selected DE genes. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that genes involved in reduction-oxidation reactions and alpha-linolenic acid metabolism were down-regulated, while genes pertaining to photosynthesis and flavonoid biosynthesis were up-regulated in JA-CMS floral buds compared with their JB counterparts at the SS and/or MS stages. All these four biological processes play important roles in reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis, which may be an important factor contributing to the sterile trait of JA-CMS. Further experiments are warranted to elucidate molecular mechanisms of these genes that lead to CMS.

  5. Transcriptome Sequencing and De Novo Analysis of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility and Maintenance in JA-CMS Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Peng; Han, Jinfeng; Huang, Jinling

    2014-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is the failure to produce functional pollen, which is inherited maternally. And it is known that anther development is modulated through complicated interactions between nuclear and mitochondrial genes in sporophytic and gametophytic tissues. However, an unbiased transcriptome sequencing analysis of CMS in cotton is currently lacking in the literature. This study compared differentially expressed (DE) genes of floral buds at the sporogenous cells stage (SS) and microsporocyte stage (MS) (the two most important stages for pollen abortion in JA-CMS) between JA-CMS and its fertile maintainer line JB cotton plants, using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. A total of 709 (1.8%) DE genes including 293 up-regulated and 416 down-regulated genes were identified in JA-CMS line comparing with its maintainer line at the SS stage, and 644 (1.6%) DE genes with 263 up-regulated and 381 down-regulated genes were detected at the MS stage. By comparing the two stages in the same material, there were 8 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated DE genes in JA-CMS line and 29 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated DE genes in JB maintainer line at the MS stage. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to validate 7 randomly selected DE genes. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that genes involved in reduction-oxidation reactions and alpha-linolenic acid metabolism were down-regulated, while genes pertaining to photosynthesis and flavonoid biosynthesis were up-regulated in JA-CMS floral buds compared with their JB counterparts at the SS and/or MS stages. All these four biological processes play important roles in reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis, which may be an important factor contributing to the sterile trait of JA-CMS. Further experiments are warranted to elucidate molecular mechanisms of these genes that lead to CMS. PMID:25372034

  6. Application of a JA-Ile Biosynthesis Inhibitor to Methyl Jasmonate-Treated Strawberry Fruit Induces Upregulation of Specific MBW Complex-Related Genes and Accumulation of Proanthocyanidins.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Laura D; Zúñiga, Paz E; Figueroa, Nicolás E; Pastene, Edgar; Escobar-Sepúlveda, Hugo F; Figueroa, Pablo M; Garrido-Bigotes, Adrián; Figueroa, Carlos R

    2018-06-13

    Fleshy fruits are an important source of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs), which protect plants against stress, and their consumption provides beneficial effects for human health. In strawberry fruit, the application of exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) upregulates anthocyanin accumulation, although the relationship between the jasmonate pathway and anthocyanin and PA biosynthesis in fruits remains to be understood. Anthocyanin and PA accumulation is mainly regulated at the transcriptional level through R2R3-MYB and bHLH transcription factors in different plant species and organs. Here, the effect of jarin-1, a specific inhibitor of bioactive JA (jasmonoyl-isoleucine, JA-Ile) biosynthesis, on anthocyanin and PA accumulation was evaluated during strawberry ( Fragaria × ananassa ) fruit development using an in vitro ripening system for 48 h. Also, we observed the effects of MeJA and the application of jarin-1 to MeJA-treated fruits (MeJA + jarin-1 treatment). We assessed changes of expression levels for the JA-Ile and MeJA biosynthetic ( FaJAR1.2 and FaJMT ), JA signaling-related ( FaMYC2 and FaJAZ1 ), MYB-bHLH-WD40 (MBW) complex-related ( FabHLH3/33 , FaMYB9/10/11 , and repressor FaMYB1 ), and anthocyanin and PA biosynthetic (FaANS , FaUFGT , FaANR , and FaLAR ) genes. In addition, the promoter region of MBW complex-related MYB genes was isolated and sequenced. We found a higher redness of strawberry fruit skin and anthocyanin content in MeJA-treated fruits with respect to jarin-1-treated ones concomitant with an upregulation of FaANS and FaUFGT genes. Inversely, the PA content was higher in jarin-1- and MeJA + jarin-1-treated than in MeJA-treated fruits. MeJA + jarin-1 treatment resulted in an upregulation of FaANR and associated transcription factors such as FabHLH33 and FaMYB9/11 along with FaJMT and FaJAR1.2 . Finally, we found JA-responsive elements in the promoter regions of FaMYB1/9/10/11 genes. It is proposed that PA biosynthesis-related genes

  7. Deep Sequencing Reveals the Effect of MeJA on Scutellarin Biosynthesis in Erigeron breviscapus

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ying; Zhang, Feng; Chen, Jun-feng; Ji, Qian; Tan, He-Xin; Huang, Xin; Feng, Hao; Huang, Bao-Kang; Chen, Wan-Sheng; Zhang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Background Erigeron breviscapus, a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal herb, is broadly used in the treatment of cerebrovascular disease. Scutellarin, a kind of flavonoids, is considered as the material base of the pharmaceutical activities in E. breviscapus. The stable and high content of scutellarin is critical for the quality and efficiency of E. breviscapus in the clinical use. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanism of scutellarin biosynthesis is crucial for metabolic engineering to increase the content of the active compound. However, there is virtually no study available yet concerning the genetic research of scutellarin biosynthesis in E. breviscapus. Results Using Illumina sequencing technology, we obtained over three billion bases of high-quality sequence data and conducted de novo assembly and annotation without prior genome information. A total of 182,527 unigenes (mean length = 738 bp) were found. 63,059 unigenes were functionally annotated with a cut-off E-value of 10−5. Next, a total of 238 (200 up-regulated and 38 down-regulated genes) and 513 (375 up-regulated and 138 down-regulated genes) differentially expressed genes were identified at different time points after methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment, which fell into categories of ‘metabolic process’ and ‘cellular process’ using GO database, suggesting that MeJA-induced activities of signal pathway in plant mainly led to re-programming of metabolism and cell activity. In addition, 13 predicted genes that might participate in the metabolism of flavonoids were found by two co-expression analyses in E. breviscapus. Conclusions Our study is the first to provide a transcriptome sequence resource for E. breviscapus plants after MeJA treatment and it reveals transcriptome re-programming upon elicitation. As the result, several putative unknown genes involved in the metabolism of flavonoids were predicted. These data provide a valuable resource for the genetic and genomic studies of

  8. Two bHLH-type transcription factors, JA-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE2 and JAM3, are transcriptional repressors and affect male fertility

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Masaru; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    The jasmonate (JA) plant hormones regulate responses to biotic and abiotic stress and aspects of plant development, including male fertility in Arabidopsis thaliana. The bHLH-type transcription factor JA-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1) negatively regulates JA signaling and gain-of-function JAM1 transgenic plants have impaired JA-mediated male fertility. Here we report that JAM2 and JAM3, 2 bHLHs closely related to JAM1, also act as transcriptional repressors. Moreover, overexpression of JAM2 and JAM3 also results in reduced male fertility. These results suggest that JAM1, JAM2, and JAM3 act redundantly as negative regulators of JA-mediated male fertility. PMID:24056034

  9. OsMPK3 positively regulates the JA signaling pathway and plant resistance to a chewing herbivore in rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Li, Jiancai; Hu, Lingfei; Zhang, Tongfang; Zhang, Guren; Lou, Yonggen

    2013-07-01

    KEY MESSAGE : Silencing OsMPK3 decreased elicited JA levels, which subsequently reduced levels of herbivore-induced trypsin protease inhibitors (TrypPIs) and improved the performance of SSB larvae, but did not influence BPH. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MPKs) are known to play an important role in plant defense by transferring biotic and abiotic signals into programmed cellular responses. However, their functions in the herbivore-induced defense response in rice remain largely unknown. Here, we identified a MPK3 gene from rice, OsMPK3, and found that its expression levels were up-regulated in response to infestation by the larvae of the striped stem borer (SSB) (Chilo suppressalis), to mechanical wounding and to treatment with jasmonic acid (JA), but not to infestation by the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens or to treatment with salicylic acid. Moreover, mechanical wounding and SSB infestation induced the expression of OsMPK3 strongly and quickly, whereas JA treatment induced the gene more weakly and slowly. Silencing OsMPK3 (ir-mpk3) reduced the expression of the gene by 50-70 %, decreased elicited levels of JA and diminished the expression of a lipoxygenase gene OsHI-LOX and an allene oxide synthase gene OsAOS1. The reduced JA signaling in ir-mpk3 plants decreased the levels of herbivore-induced trypsin protease inhibitors (TrypPIs) and improved the performance of SSB larvae, but did not influence BPH. Our findings suggest that the gene OsMPK3 responds early in herbivore-induced defense and can be regulated by rice plants to activate a specific and appropriate defense response to different herbivores.

  10. Arabidopsis GOLDEN2-LIKE (GLK) transcription factors activate jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent disease susceptibility to the biotrophic pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, as well as JA-independent plant immunity against the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Murmu, Jhadeswar; Wilton, Michael; Allard, Ghislaine; Pandeya, Radhey; Desveaux, Darrell; Singh, Jas; Subramaniam, Rajagopal

    2014-02-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana GOLDEN2-LIKE (GLK1 and 2) transcription factors regulate chloroplast development in a redundant manner. Overexpression of AtGLK1 (35S:AtGLK1) in Arabidopsis also confers resistance to the cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. To further elucidate the role of GLK transcription factors in plant defence, the Arabidopsis glk1 glk2 double-mutant and 35S:AtGLK1 plants were challenged with the virulent oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) Noco2. Compared with Col-0, glk1 glk2 plants were highly resistant to Hpa Noco2, whereas 35S:AtGLK1 plants showed enhanced susceptibility to this pathogen. Genetic studies suggested that AtGLK-mediated plant defence to Hpa Noco2 was partially dependent on salicylic acid (SA) accumulation, but independent of the SA signalling protein NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED 1 (NPR1). Pretreatment with jasmonic acid (JA) dramatically reversed Hpa Noco2 resistance in the glk1 glk2 double mutant, but only marginally affected the 35S:AtGLK1 plants. In addition, overexpression of AtGLK1 in the JA signalling mutant coi1-16 did not increase susceptibility to Hpa Noco2. Together, our GLK gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments suggest that GLK acts upstream of JA signalling in disease susceptibility to Hpa Noco2. In contrast, glk1 glk2 plants were more susceptible to the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, whereas 35S:AtGLK1 plants exhibited heightened resistance which could be maintained in the absence of JA signalling. Together, the data reveal that AtGLK1 is involved in JA-dependent susceptibility to the biotrophic pathogen Hpa Noco2 and in JA-independent resistance to the necrotrophic pathogen B. cinerea. © 2013 HER MAJESTY THE QUEEN IN RIGHT OF CANADA. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2013 BSPP. REPRODUCED WITH THE PERMISSION OF THE MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE AND AGRI-FOOD CANADA.

  11. JA, a new type of polyunsaturated fatty acid isolated from Juglans mandshurica Maxim, limits the survival and induces apoptosis of heptocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiu-Li; Lin, Hua; Zhao, Wei; Hou, Ya-Qin; Bao, Yong-Li; Song, Zhen-Bo; Sun, Lu-Guo; Tian, Shang-Yi; Liu, Biao; Li, Yu-Xin

    2016-03-01

    Juglans mandshurica Maxim (Juglandaceae) is a famous folk medicine for cancer treatment and some natural compounds isolated from it have been studied extensively. Previously we isolated a type of ω-9 polyunsaturated fatty acid (JA) from the bark of J. mandshurica, however little is known about its activity and the underlying mechanisms. In this study, we studied anti-tumor activity of JA on several human cancer cell lines. Results showed that JA is cytotoxic to HepG2, MDA-MB-231, SGC-7901, A549 and Huh7 cells at a concentration exerting minimal toxic effects on L02 cells. The selective toxicity of JA was better than other classical anti-cancer drugs. Further investigation indicated that JA could induce cell apoptosis, characterized by chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and activation of the apoptosis-associated proteins such as Caspase-3 and PARP-1. Moreover, we investigated the cellular apoptosis pathway involved in the apoptosis process in HepG2 cells. We found that proteins involved in mitochondrion (cleaved-Caspase-9, Apaf-1, HtrA2/Omi, Bax, and Mitochondrial Bax) and endocytoplasmic reticulum (XBP-1s, GRP78, cleaved-Caspase-7 and cleaved-Caspase-12) apoptotic pathways were up-regulated when cells were treated by JA. In addition, a morphological change in the mitochondrion was detected. Furthermore, we found that JA could inhibit DNA synthesis and induce G2/M cell cycle arrest. The expression of G2-to-M transition related proteins, such as CyclinB1 and phosphorylated-CDK1, were reduced. In contrast, the G2-to-M inhibitor p21 was increased in JA-treated cells. Overall, our results suggest that JA can induce mitochondrion- and endocytoplasmic reticulum-mediated apoptosis, and G2/M phase arrest in HepG2 cells, making it a promising therapeutic agent against hepatoma.

  12. Seed germination ecology of feather lovegrass [Eragrostis tenella (L.) Beauv. Ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes].

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Bhagirath S

    2013-01-01

    Feather lovegrass [Eragrostis tenella (L.) Beauv. Ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes] is a C4 grass weed that has the ability to grow in both lowland and upland conditions. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and screenhouse to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on germination, emergence, and growth of this weed species. Germination in the light/dark regime was higher at alternating day/night temperatures of 30/20 °C (98%) than at 35/25 °C (83%) or 25/15 °C (62%). Germination was completely inhibited by darkness. The osmotic potential and sodium chloride concentrations required for 50% inhibition of maximum germination were -0.7 MPa and 76 mM, respectively. The highest seedling emergence (69%) was observed from the seeds sown on the soil surface and no seedlings emerged from seeds buried at depths of 0.5 cm or more. The use of residue as mulches significantly reduced the emergence and biomass of feather lovegrass seedlings. A residue amount of 0.5 t ha(-1) was needed to suppress 50% of the maximum seedlings. Because germination was strongly stimulated by light and seedling emergence was the highest for the seeds sown on the soil surface, feather lovegrass is likely to become a problematic weed in zero-till systems. The knowledge gained from this study could help in developing effective and sustainable weed management strategies.

  13. Changes in ABA, IAA and JA levels during calyx, fruit and leaves development in cape gooseberry plants (Physalis peruviana L.).

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Flórez, F; López-Cristoffanini, C; Jáuregui, O; Melgarejo, L M; López-Carbonell, M

    2017-06-01

    Changes in abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and jasmonic acid (JA) content in developing calyx, fruits and leaves of Physalis peruviana L. plants were analysed. Plant hormones have been widely studied for their roles in the regulation of various aspects related to plant development and, in particular, into their action during development and ripening of fleshly fruits. The obtained evidences suggest that the functions of these hormones are no restricted to a particular development stage, and more than one hormone is involved in controlling various aspects of plant development. Our results will contribute to understand the role of these hormones during growth and development of calyx, fruits and leaves in cape gooseberry plants. This work offers a good, quickly and efficiently protocol to extract and quantify simultaneously ABA, IAA and JA in different tissues of cape gooseberry plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Cyclic lipopeptide iturin A structure-dependently induces defense response in Arabidopsis plants by activating SA and JA signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Kawagoe, Yumi; Shiraishi, Soma; Kondo, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Shoko; Aoki, Yoshinao; Suzuki, Shunji

    2015-05-15

    Iturin A is the most well studied antifungal cyclic lipopeptide produced by Bacillus species that are frequently utilized as biological control agents. Iturin A not only shows strong antifungal activity against phytopathogens but also induces defense response in plants, thereby reducing plant disease severity. Here we report the defense signaling pathways triggered by iturin A in Arabidopsis salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA)-insensitive mutants. Iturin A activated the transcription of defense genes PR1 and PDF1.2 through the SA and JA signaling pathways, respectively. The role of iturin A as an elicitor was dependent on the cyclization of the seven amino acids and/or the β-hydroxy fatty acid chain. The iturin A derivative peptide, NH2-(L-Asn)-(D-Tyr)-(D-Asn)-(L-Gln)-(L-Pro)-(D-Asn)-(L-Ser)-COOH, completely suppressed PR1 and PDF1.2 gene expression in wild Arabidopsis plants. The identification of target molecules binding to iturin A and its derivative peptide is expected to shed new light on defense response in plants through the SA and JA signaling pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Stable Isotope-Assisted Metabolic Profiling Reveals Growth Mode Dependent Differential Metabolism and Multiple Catabolic Pathways of l-Phenylalanine in Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2.

    PubMed

    Mekala, Lakshmi Prasuna; Mohammed, Mujahid; Chintalapati, Sasikala; Chintalapati, Venkata Ramana

    2018-01-05

    Anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are metabolically versatile and survive under different growth modes using diverse organic compounds, yet their metabolic diversity is largely unexplored. In the present study, we employed stable-isotope-assisted metabolic profiling to unravel the l-phenylalanine catabolism in Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 under varying growth modes. Strain JA2 grows under anaerobic and aerobic conditions by utilizing l-phenylalanine as a nitrogen source. Furthermore, ring-labeled 13 C 6 -phenylalanine feeding followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry exometabolite profiling revealed 60 labeled metabolic features (M + 6, M + 12, and M + 18) derived solely from l-phenylalanine, of which 11 were identified, 7 putatively identified, and 42 unidentified under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. However, labeled metabolites were significantly higher in aerobic compared to anaerobic conditions. Furthermore, detected metabolites and enzyme activities indicated multiple l-phenylalanine catabolic routes mainly Ehrlich, homogentisate-dependent melanin, benzenoid, and unidentified pathways operating under anaerobic and aerobic conditions in strain JA2. Interestingly, the study indicated l-phenylalanine-dependent and independent benzenoid biosynthesis in strain JA2 and a differential flux of l-phenylalanine to Ehrlich and benzenoid pathways under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Additionally, unidentified labeled metabolites strongly suggest the presence of unknown phenylalanine catabolic routes in strain JA2. Overall, the study uncovered the l-phenylalanine catabolic diversity in strain JA2 and demonstrated the potential of stable isotope-assisted metabolomics in unraveling the hidden metabolic repertoire.

  16. ["The madhouse" by W. Kaulbach and the meaning of the picture interpreted by J.A. Schilling, 1863].

    PubMed

    Rothkopf, A

    1980-01-01

    This article deals with the picture "Das Narrenhaus" (the Madhouse) by W. Kaulbach and its interpretation by the psychiatrist J.A. Schilling, which he gave in his book "Psychiatrische Briefe" (psychiatric letters) in 1863. This picture is often used as a contemporary document for the situation in the treatment of the mentally ill at the beginning of the last century. The article points out doubts in this procedure. The interpretation by Schilling cannot be considered a document for psychiatric records; on the contrary, it is influenced by contemporary romantic medicine and utilises the picture to exemplify the theoretical concept of culpable human offence as the cause for mental illness.

  17. NtWRKY-R1, a Novel Transcription Factor, Integrates IAA and JA Signal Pathway under Topping Damage Stress in Nicotiana tabacum

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Weihuan; Zhou, Qi; Wei, Yuanfang; Yang, Jinmiao; Hao, Fengsheng; Cheng, Zhipeng; Guo, Hongxiang; Liu, Weiqun

    2018-01-01

    Topping damage can induce the nicotine synthesis in tobacco roots, which involves the activation of JA and auxin signal transduction. It remains unclear how these hormone signals are integrated to regulate nicotine synthesis. Here we isolated a transcription factor NtWRKY-R1 from the group IIe of WRKY family and it had strong negative correlation with the expression of putrescine N-methyltransferase, the key enzyme of nicotine synthesis pathway. NtWRKY-R1 was specifically and highly expressed in tobacco roots, and it contains two transcriptional activity domains in the N- and C-terminal. The promoter region of NtWRKY-R1 contains two cis-elements which are responding to JA and auxin signals, respectively. Deletion of NtWRKY-R1 promoter showed that JA and auxin signals were subdued by NtWRKY-R1, and the expression of NtWRKY-R1 was more sensitive to auxin than JA. Furthermore, Yeast two-hybrid experiment demonstrated that NtWRKY-R1 can interact with the actin-binding protein. Our data showed that the intensity of JA and auxin signals can be translated into the expression of NtWRKY-R1, which regulates the balance of actin polymerization and depolymerization through binding actin-binding protein, and then regulates the expression of genes related to nicotine synthesis. The results will help us better understand the function of the WRKY-IIe family in the signaling crosstalk of JA and auxin under damage stress. PMID:29379516

  18. Integrated Performance of Next Generation High Data Rate Receiver and AR4JA LDPC Codec for Space Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Michael K.; Lyubarev, Mark; Nakashima, Michael A.; Andrews, Kenneth S.; Lee, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes are the state-of-the-art in forward error correction (FEC) technology that exhibits capacity approaching performance. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has designed a family of LDPC codes that are similar in structure and therefore, leads to a single decoder implementation. The Accumulate-Repeat-by-4-Jagged- Accumulate (AR4JA) code design offers a family of codes with rates 1/2, 2/3, 4/5 and lengths 1024, 4096, 16384 information bits. Performance is less than one dB from capacity for all combinations.Integrating a stand-alone LDPC decoder with a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) receiver faces additional challenges than building a single receiver-decoder unit from scratch. In this work, we outline the issues and show that these additional challenges can be over-come by simple solutions. To demonstrate that an LDPC decoder can be made to work seamlessly with a COTS receiver, we interface an AR4JA LDPC decoder developed on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) with a modern high data rate receiver and mea- sure the combined receiver-decoder performance. Through optimizations that include an improved frame synchronizer and different soft-symbol scaling algorithms, we show that a combined implementation loss of less than one dB is possible and therefore, most of the coding gain evidence in theory can also be obtained in practice. Our techniques can benefit any modem that utilizes an advanced FEC code.

  19. Assessment of iodine nutritional status in the general population in the province of Jaén.

    PubMed

    Olmedo Carrillo, Pablo; García Fuentes, Eduardo; Gutiérrez Alcántara, Carmen; Serrano Quero, Manuel; Moreno Martínez, Macarena; Ureña Fernández, Tomás; Santiago Fernández, Piedad

    2015-10-01

    Iodine deficiency affecting both pregnant women and schoolchildren has been reported in Jaén. Iodine deficiency is one of the leading causes of thyroid dysfunction and goiter, and adequate iodine prophylaxis with iodized salt, milk, and dairy products, or iodine supplementation have been shown to significantly improve iodine status in pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to assess iodine nutritional status in the general population of a iodine-deficient area with no previous institutional campaigns of iodine prophylaxis. A descriptive, cross-sectional study. Urinary iodine levels were measured in subjects from the Jaén healthcare district. The data were stratified by sex and age groups, and a survey was conducted on iodized salt consumption. Median and mean urinary iodine levels were 110.59 mcg/L and 130.11 mcg/L respectively. Urinary iodine levels were significantly higher in schoolchildren as compared to other age groups (161.52μg/L vs 109.33μg/L in subjects older than 65 years). Forty-three percent of the population had urinary iodine levels less than 100μg/L, and 68% of women of childbearing age had levels less than 150μg/L. Iodine nutritional status appears to be adequate, but the proportion of the population with urinary iodine levels less than 100μg/L is still very high, and iodized salt consumption is much less common than recommended by the WHO. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Genome Analysis of the Biotechnologically Relevant Acidophilic Iron Oxidising Strain JA12 Indicates Phylogenetic and Metabolic Diversity within the Novel Genus “Ferrovum”

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich, Sophie R.; Poehlein, Anja; Tischler, Judith S.; González, Carolina; Ossandon, Francisco J.; Daniel, Rolf; Holmes, David S.; Schlömann, Michael; Mühling, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Members of the genus “Ferrovum” are ubiquitously distributed in acid mine drainage (AMD) waters which are characterised by their high metal and sulfate loads. So far isolation and microbiological characterisation have only been successful for the designated type strain “Ferrovum myxofaciens” P3G. Thus, knowledge about physiological characteristics and the phylogeny of the genus “Ferrovum” is extremely scarce. Objective In order to access the wider genetic pool of the genus “Ferrovum” we sequenced the genome of a “Ferrovum”-containing mixed culture and successfully assembled the almost complete genome sequence of the novel “Ferrovum” strain JA12. Phylogeny and Lifestyle The genome-based phylogenetic analysis indicates that strain JA12 and the type strain represent two distinct “Ferrovum” species. “Ferrovum” strain JA12 is characterised by an unusually small genome in comparison to the type strain and other iron oxidising bacteria. The prediction of nutrient assimilation pathways suggests that “Ferrovum” strain JA12 maintains a chemolithoautotrophic lifestyle utilising carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, ammonium and urea, sulfate, phosphate and ferrous iron as carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorous and energy sources, respectively. Unique Metabolic Features The potential utilisation of urea by “Ferrovum” strain JA12 is moreover remarkable since it may furthermore represent a strategy among extreme acidophiles to cope with the acidic environment. Unlike other acidophilic chemolithoautotrophs “Ferrovum” strain JA12 exhibits a complete tricarboxylic acid cycle, a metabolic feature shared with the closer related neutrophilic iron oxidisers among the Betaproteobacteria including Sideroxydans lithotrophicus and Thiobacillus denitrificans. Furthermore, the absence of characteristic redox proteins involved in iron oxidation in the well-studied acidophiles Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (rusticyanin) and Acidithiobacillus

  1. Risk of malnutrition (over and under-nutrition): validation of the JaNuS screening tool.

    PubMed

    Donini, Lorenzo M; Ricciardi, Laura Maria; Neri, Barbara; Lenzi, Andrea; Marchesini, Giulio

    2014-12-01

    Malnutrition (over and under-nutrition) is highly prevalent in patients admitted to hospital and it is a well-known risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality. Nutritional problems are often misdiagnosed, and especially the coexistence of over and undernutrition is not usually recognized. We aimed to develop and validate a screening tool for the easy detection and reporting of both undernutrition and overnutrition, specifically identifying the clinical conditions where the two types of malnutrition coexist. The study consisted of three phases: 1) selection of an appropriate study population (estimation sample) and of the hospital admission parameters to identify overnutrition and undernutrition; 2) combination of selected variables to create a screening tool to assess the nutritional risk in case of undernutrition, overnutrition, or the copresence of both the conditions, to be used by non-specialist health care professionals; 3) validation of the screening tool in a different patient sample (validation sample). Two groups of variables (12 for undernutrition, 7 for overnutrition) were identified in separate logistic models for their correlation with the outcome variables. Both models showed high efficacy, sensitivity and specificity (overnutrition, 97.7%, 99.6%, 66.6%, respectively; undernutrition, 84.4%, 83.6%, 84.8%). The logistic models were used to construct a two-faced test (named JaNuS - Just A Nutritional Screening) fitting into a two-dimension Cartesian coordinate graphic system. In the validation sample the JaNuS test confirmed its predictive value. Internal consistency and test-retest analysis provide evidence for the reliability of the test. The study provides a screening tool for the assessment of the nutritional risk, based on parameters easy-to-use by health care personnel lacking nutritional competence and characterized by excellent predictive validity. The test might be confidently applied in the clinical setting to determine the importance of

  2. Extending MAM5 Meta-Model and JaCalIV E Framework to Integrate Smart Devices from Real Environments.

    PubMed

    Rincon, J A; Poza-Lujan, Jose-Luis; Julian, V; Posadas-Yagüe, Juan-Luis; Carrascosa, C

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the extension of a meta-model (MAM5) and a framework based on the model (JaCalIVE) for developing intelligent virtual environments. The goal of this extension is to develop augmented mirror worlds that represent a real and virtual world coupled, so that the virtual world not only reflects the real one, but also complements it. A new component called a smart resource artifact, that enables modelling and developing devices to access the real physical world, and a human in the loop agent to place a human in the system have been included in the meta-model and framework. The proposed extension of MAM5 has been tested by simulating a light control system where agents can access both virtual and real sensor/actuators through the smart resources developed. The results show that the use of real environment interactive elements (smart resource artifacts) in agent-based simulations allows to minimize the error between simulated and real system.

  3. The JaCVAM international validation study on the in vivo comet assay: Selection of test chemicals.

    PubMed

    Morita, Takeshi; Uno, Yoshifumi; Honma, Masamitsu; Kojima, Hajime; Hayashi, Makoto; Tice, Raymond R; Corvi, Raffaella; Schechtman, Leonard

    2015-07-01

    The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) sponsored an international prevalidation and validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline pH comet assay. The main objective of the study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the assay for correctly identifying genotoxic carcinogens, as compared with the traditional rat liver unscheduled DNA synthesis assay. Based on existing carcinogenicity and genotoxicity data and chemical class information, 90 chemicals were identified as primary candidates for use in the validation study. From these 90 chemicals, 46 secondary candidates and then 40 final chemicals were selected based on a sufficiency of carcinogenic and genotoxic data, differences in chemical class or genotoxic or carcinogenic mode of action (MOA), availability, price, and ease of handling. These 40 chemicals included 19 genotoxic carcinogens, 6 genotoxic non-carcinogens, 7 non-genotoxic carcinogens and 8 non-genotoxic non-carcinogens. "Genotoxicity" was defined as positive in the Ames mutagenicity test or in one of the standard in vivo genotoxicity tests (primarily the erythrocyte micronucleus assay). These chemicals covered various chemicals classes, MOAs, and genotoxicity profiles and were considered to be suitable for the purpose of the validation study. General principles of chemical selection for validation studies are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Extending MAM5 Meta-Model and JaCalIV E Framework to Integrate Smart Devices from Real Environments

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the extension of a meta-model (MAM5) and a framework based on the model (JaCalIVE) for developing intelligent virtual environments. The goal of this extension is to develop augmented mirror worlds that represent a real and virtual world coupled, so that the virtual world not only reflects the real one, but also complements it. A new component called a smart resource artifact, that enables modelling and developing devices to access the real physical world, and a human in the loop agent to place a human in the system have been included in the meta-model and framework. The proposed extension of MAM5 has been tested by simulating a light control system where agents can access both virtual and real sensor/actuators through the smart resources developed. The results show that the use of real environment interactive elements (smart resource artifacts) in agent-based simulations allows to minimize the error between simulated and real system. PMID:26926691

  5. Gene-to-metabolite network for biosynthesis of lignans in MeJA-elicited Isatis indigotica hairy root cultures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ruibing; Li, Qing; Tan, Hexin; Chen, Junfeng; Xiao, Ying; Ma, Ruifang; Gao, Shouhong; Zerbe, Philipp; Chen, Wansheng; Zhang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Root and leaf tissue of Isatis indigotica shows notable anti-viral efficacy, and are widely used as “Banlangen” and “Daqingye” in traditional Chinese medicine. The plants' pharmacological activity is attributed to phenylpropanoids, especially a group of lignan metabolites. However, the biosynthesis of lignans in I. indigotica remains opaque. This study describes the discovery and analysis of biosynthetic genes and AP2/ERF-type transcription factors involved in lignan biosynthesis in I. indigotica. MeJA treatment revealed differential expression of three genes involved in phenylpropanoid backbone biosynthesis (IiPAL, IiC4H, Ii4CL), five genes involved in lignan biosynthesis (IiCAD, IiC3H, IiCCR, IiDIR, and IiPLR), and 112 putative AP2/ERF transcription factors. In addition, four intermediates of lariciresinol biosynthesis were found to be induced. Based on these results, a canonical correlation analysis using Pearson's correlation coefficient was performed to construct gene-to-metabolite networks and identify putative key genes and rate-limiting reactions in lignan biosynthesis. Over-expression of IiC3H, identified as a key pathway gene, was used for metabolic engineering of I. indigotica hairy roots, and resulted in an increase in lariciresinol production. These findings illustrate the utility of canonical correlation analysis for the discovery and metabolic engineering of key metabolic genes in plants. PMID:26579184

  6. The Combined Effects of Ethylene and MeJA on Metabolic Profiling of Phenolic Compounds in Catharanthus roseus Revealed by Metabolomics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Zhong-Hua; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Efferth, Thomas; Tang, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds belong to a class of secondary metabolites and are implicated in a wide range of responsive mechanisms in plants triggered by both biotic and abiotic elicitors. In this study, we approached the combinational effects of ethylene and MeJA (methyl jasmonate) on phenolic compounds profiles and gene expressions in the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus. In virtue of a widely non-targeted metabolomics method, we identified a total of 34 kinds of phenolic compounds in the leaves, composed by 7 C6C1-, 11 C6C3-, and 16 C6C3C6 compounds. In addition, 7 kinds of intermediates critical for the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and alkaloids were identified and discussed with phenolic metabolism. The combinational actions of ethylene and MeJA effectively promoted the total phenolic compounds, especially the C6C1 compounds (such as salicylic acid, benzoic acid) and C6C3 ones (such as cinnamic acid, sinapic acid). In contrast, the C6C3C6 compounds displayed a notably inhibitory trend in this case. Subsequently, the gene-to-metabolite networks were drawn up by searching for correlations between the expression profiles of 5 gene tags and the accumulation profiles of 41 metabolite peaks. Generally, we provide an insight into the controlling mode of ethylene-MeJA combination on phenolic metabolism in C. roseus leaves. PMID:27375495

  7. The Combined Effects of Ethylene and MeJA on Metabolic Profiling of Phenolic Compounds in Catharanthus roseus Revealed by Metabolomics Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Zhong-Hua; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Efferth, Thomas; Tang, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds belong to a class of secondary metabolites and are implicated in a wide range of responsive mechanisms in plants triggered by both biotic and abiotic elicitors. In this study, we approached the combinational effects of ethylene and MeJA (methyl jasmonate) on phenolic compounds profiles and gene expressions in the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus. In virtue of a widely non-targeted metabolomics method, we identified a total of 34 kinds of phenolic compounds in the leaves, composed by 7 C6C1-, 11 C6C3-, and 16 C6C3C6 compounds. In addition, 7 kinds of intermediates critical for the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and alkaloids were identified and discussed with phenolic metabolism. The combinational actions of ethylene and MeJA effectively promoted the total phenolic compounds, especially the C6C1 compounds (such as salicylic acid, benzoic acid) and C6C3 ones (such as cinnamic acid, sinapic acid). In contrast, the C6C3C6 compounds displayed a notably inhibitory trend in this case. Subsequently, the gene-to-metabolite networks were drawn up by searching for correlations between the expression profiles of 5 gene tags and the accumulation profiles of 41 metabolite peaks. Generally, we provide an insight into the controlling mode of ethylene-MeJA combination on phenolic metabolism in C. roseus leaves.

  8. Investigation of sodium arsenite, thioacetamide, and diethanolamine in the alkaline comet assay: Part of the JaCVAM comet validation exercise.

    PubMed

    Beevers, Carol; Henderson, Debbie; Lillford, Lucinda

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), we examined sodium arsenite, thioacetamide, and diethanolamine. Using the JaCVAM approved study protocol version 14.2, each chemical was tested in male rats up to maximum tolerated dose levels and DNA damage in the liver and stomach was assessed approximately 3h after the final administration by gavage. Histopathology assessments of liver and stomach sections from the same animals were also examined for evidence of cytotoxicity or necrosis. No evidence of DNA damage was observed in the stomach of animals treated with sodium arsenite at 7.5, 15, or 30 mg/kg/day. However, equivocal findings were found in the liver, where increases in DNA migration were observed in two independent experiments, but not in all treated animals and not at the same dose levels. Thioacetamide caused an increase in DNA migration in the stomach of rats treated at 19, 38, and 75 mg/kg/day, but not in the liver, despite evidence of marked hepatotoxicity following histopathology assessments. No evidence of DNA damage was observed in the stomach or liver of animals treated with diethanolamine at 175, 350, or 700 mg/kg/day. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Pro Memoria. Professor Bolesław Jałowy (1906-1943): Mortui viventes obligant - the livings are obligated to the dead.

    PubMed

    Wincewicz, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Professor Bolesław Jałowy (1906-1943) was a chairman of Department of Histology and Embryology at Faculty of Medicine of King John Casimir University (Polish: Universytet Jana Kazimierza: UJK) in Lvov. He succeeded Professor Władysław Szymonowicz (1869-1939) who held this position for decades. As the most skillful followers of his tutor, Bolesław Jałowy was a great investigator of physiology of human tissue, embryogenesis, histological consequences of female sex hormones on blood clotting action as well as regeneration of nerves in addition to description of silver staining technique for reticulin fibers of skin. He was a hard working person with gentle attitude to such a subtle matter as microscopic structure of human body. However, he happened to live in brutal conditions of nationalistic struggles. His example shows how much a dedicated scientist could do in a very short time as his life was tragically ended with murdering him during World War Two. His story is a great lesson for generations of academic workers how to meet high moral standards with efficient and creative scientific work in evil and destructive, nationalistic climate that occurs usually in wartime.

  10. GA3 and other signal regulators (MeJA and IAA) improve xanthumin biosynthesis in different manners in Xanthium strumarium L.

    PubMed

    Li, Changfu; Chen, Fangfang; Zhang, Yansheng

    2014-08-25

    Xanthanolides from Xanthium strumarium L. exhibit various pharmacological activities and these compounds are mainly produced in the glandular trichomes of aerial plant parts. The regulation of xanthanolide biosynthesis has never been reported in the literature. In this study, the effects of phytohormonal stimulation on xanthumin (a xanthanolide compound) biosynthesis, glandular trichomes and germacrene A synthase (GAS) gene expression in X. strumarium L. young leaves were investigated. The exogenous applications of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and gibberrellin A3 (GA3) at appropriate concentrations were all found to improve xanthumin biosynthesis, but in different ways. It was suggested that a higher gland density stimulated by MeJA (400 µM) or IAA (200 µM) treatment caused at least in part an improvement in xanthumin production, whereas GA3 (10 µM) led to an improvement by up-regulating xanthumin biosynthetic genes within gland cells, not by forming more glandular trichomes. Compared to the plants before the flowering stage, plants that had initiated flowering showed enhanced xanthumin biosynthesis, but no higher gland density, an effect was similar to that caused by exogenous GA3 treatment.

  11. RNA sequencing on Amomum villosum Lour. induced by MeJA identifies the genes of WRKY and terpene synthases involved in terpene biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    He, Xueying; Wang, Huan; Yang, Jinfen; Deng, Ke; Wang, Teng

    2018-02-01

    Amomum villosum Lour. is an important Chinese medicinal plant that has diverse medicinal functions, and mainly contains volatile terpenes. This study aims to explore the WRKY transcription factors (TFs) and terpene synthase (TPS) unigenes that might be involved in terpene biosynthesis in A. villosum, and thus providing some new information on the regulation of terpenes in plants. RNA sequencing of A. villosum induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) revealed that the WRKY family was the second largest TF family in the transcriptome. Thirty-six complete WRKY domain sequences were expressed in response to MeJA. Further, six WRKY unigenes were highly correlated with eight deduced TPS unigenes. Ultimately, we combined the terpene abundance with the expression of candidate WRKY TFs and TPS unigenes to presume a possible model wherein AvWRKY61, AvWRKY28, and AvWRKY40 might coordinately trans-activate the AvNeoD promoter. We propose an approach to further investigate TF unigenes that might be involved in terpenoid biosynthesis, and identified four unigenes for further analyses.

  12. European network for Health Technology Assessment Joint Action (EUnetHTA JA): a process evaluation performed by questionnaires and documentary analysis.

    PubMed

    Woodford Guegan, Eleanor; Cook, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    The European network for Health Technology Assessment Joint Action (EUnetHTA JA) project's overarching objective was to 'establish an effective and sustainable HTA [Health technology assessment] collaboration in Europe that brings added value at the regional, national and European level'. Specific objectives were to develop a strategy and business model for sustainable European collaboration on HTA, develop HTA tools and methods and promote good practice in HTA methods and processes. We describe activities performed on behalf of the National Institute for Health Research HTA programme; evaluating the project processes and developing a data set for a registry of planned clinical studies of relevance to public funders. Annual self-completion online questionnaires were sent to project participants and external stakeholders to identify their views about the project processes. Documentary review was undertaken at the project end on the final technical reports from the work packages to examine whether or not their deliverables had been achieved. The project's impact was assessed by whether or not the deliverables were produced, the objectives met and additional 'added value' generated. The project's effectiveness was evaluated by its processes, communication, administration, workings of individual work packages and involvement of external stakeholders. A two-stage Delphi exercise was undertaken to identify the data elements that should be included in a registry of planned clinical studies of relevance to public funders. The data set was validated by an efficacy testing exercise. High response rates were achieved for the questionnaires sent to project participants and this was attributed to the evidence-based strategy implemented. Response rates to questionnaires sent to external stakeholders were disappointingly lower. Most of the high-level objectives were achieved, although applying the developed tools in practice will be implemented in the European network for Health

  13. European network for Health Technology Assessment Joint Action (EUnetHTA JA): a process evaluation performed by questionnaires and documentary analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Woodford Guegan, Eleanor; Cook, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The European network for Health Technology Assessment Joint Action (EUnetHTA JA) project's overarching objective was to 'establish an effective and sustainable HTA [Health technology assessment] collaboration in Europe that brings added value at the regional, national and European level'. Specific objectives were to develop a strategy and business model for sustainable European collaboration on HTA, develop HTA tools and methods and promote good practice in HTA methods and processes. We describe activities performed on behalf of the National Institute for Health Research HTA programme; evaluating the project processes and developing a data set for a registry of planned clinical studies of relevance to public funders. METHODS Annual self-completion online questionnaires were sent to project participants and external stakeholders to identify their views about the project processes. Documentary review was undertaken at the project end on the final technical reports from the work packages to examine whether or not their deliverables had been achieved. The project's impact was assessed by whether or not the deliverables were produced, the objectives met and additional 'added value' generated. The project's effectiveness was evaluated by its processes, communication, administration, workings of individual work packages and involvement of external stakeholders. A two-stage Delphi exercise was undertaken to identify the data elements that should be included in a registry of planned clinical studies of relevance to public funders. The data set was validated by an efficacy testing exercise. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION High response rates were achieved for the questionnaires sent to project participants and this was attributed to the evidence-based strategy implemented. Response rates to questionnaires sent to external stakeholders were disappointingly lower. Most of the high-level objectives were achieved, although applying the developed tools in practice will be

  14. Mechanical Properties of Aerojet, Thiokol, and JA2 High-Energy Gun Propellants at 1.5 m/s Deformation Rate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    a2 6 n -32 4C La /C A> i c 4S Figure 5. Remains of specimens tested at 210, 630, and -32 0C. 5 I AUg 2001 "-1t AERQJET/"THIDKOL LOTS 0111W PM 4-40.00...10.00 +78.00 STRESS (Mra) -THIOKOL LOT LA -10T3--01 +5.C THIOKOL LOT JA-IEZ35--Z-02 JAZ LOT HCL03JO14-001 -28.00 AE J>:T? +0.00 4.00 0.0 .0 *20.0 O30 +40M0...WARREN MI 48397-5000 MATERIAL SCIENCE TEAM AMSSB RSS 14 BENET LABORATORIES J HERBERT AMSTA AR CCB M SENNETT R FISCELLA KANSAS ST M SOJA NATICK MA 01760

  15. Monitoring of selected priority and emerging contaminants in the Guadalquivir River and other related surface waters in the province of Jaén, South East Spain.

    PubMed

    Robles-Molina, José; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    The province of Jaén counts with four natural parks, numerous rivers, reservoirs and wetlands; moreover, it is probably the region with higher olive oil production in the world, which makes this zone a proper target to be studied based on the European Water Framework Directive 2000/60/CE. The aim of this survey is to monitor a total number of 373 compounds belonging to different families (pesticides, PAHs, nitrosamines, drugs of abuse, pharmaceuticals and life-style compounds) in surface waters located at different points of the province of Jaén. Among these compounds some priority organic substances (regulated by the EU Directive 2008/105/EC) and pollutants of emerging concern (not regulated yet) can be found. A liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS) method covering 340 compounds was developed and applied, together with a gas chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method which enabled the analysis of 63 organic contaminants (30 of these compounds are analyzed by LC-TOFMS as well). From April 2009 to November 2010 a total of 83 surface water samples were collected (rivers, reservoirs and wetlands). In this period numerous organic contaminants were detected, most of them at the ng L(-1) level. The most frequently priority substances found were chlorpyrifos ethyl, diuron and hexachlorobenzene. Within the other groups, the most frequently detected compounds were: terbuthylazine, oxyfluorfen, desethyl terbuthylazine, diphenylamine (pesticide family); fluorene, phenanthrene, pyrene (PAHs group), codeine, paracetamol (pharmaceuticals compounds) and caffeine, nicotine (life-style compounds). As is could be expected, the total concentration of emerging contaminants is distinctly larger than that of priority pollutants, highlighting the importance of continuing with the study of their presence, fate and effects in aquatic environments. However, concentration levels (at the ng per liter level) are low in

  16. LOW-TEMPERATURE ION TRAP STUDIES OF N{sup +}({sup 3} P{sub ja} ) + H{sub 2}(j) {yields} NH{sup +} + H

    SciTech Connect

    Zymak, I.; Hejduk, M.; Mulin, D.

    2013-05-01

    Using a low-temperature 22-pole ion trap apparatus, detailed measurements for the title reaction have been performed between 10 K and 100 K in order to get some state specific information about this fundamental hydrogen abstraction process. The relative population of the two lowest H{sub 2} rotational states, j = 0 and 1, has been varied systematically. NH{sup +} formation is nearly thermo-neutral; however, to date, the energetics are not known with the accuracy required for low-temperature astrochemistry. Additional complications arise from the fact that, so far, there is no reliable theoretical or experimental information on how the reactivity of themore » N{sup +} ion depends on its fine-structure (FS) state {sup 3} P{sub ja} . Since in the present trapping experiment, thermalization of the initially hot FS population competes with hydrogen abstraction, the evaluation of the decay of N{sup +} ions over long storage times and at various He and H{sub 2} gas densities provides information on these processes. First assuming strict adiabatic behavior, a set of state specific rate coefficients is derived from the measured thermal rate coefficients. In addition, by recording the disappearance of the N{sup +} ions over several orders of magnitude, information on nonadiabatic transitions is extracted including FS-changing collisions.« less

  17. Partial amino acid sequence of the branched chain amino acid aminotransferase (TmB) of E. coli JA199 pDU11

    SciTech Connect

    Feild, M.J.; Armstrong, F.B.

    1987-05-01

    E. coli JA199 pDU11 harbors a multicopy plasmid containing the ilv GEDAY gene cluster of S. typhimurium. TmB, gene product of ilv E, was purified, crystallized, and subjected to Edman degradation using a gas phase sequencer. The intact protein yielded an amino terminal 31 residue sequence. Both carboxymethylated apoenzyme and (/sup 3/H)-NaBH-reduced holoenzyme were then subjected to digestion by trypsin. The digests were fractionated using reversed phase HPLC, and the peptides isolated were sequenced. The borohydride-treated holoenzyme was used to isolate the cofactor-binding peptide. The peptide is 27 residues long and a comparison with known sequences of other aminotransferases revealedmore » limited homology. Peptides accounting for 211 of 288 predicted residues have been sequenced, including 9 residues of the carboxyl terminus. Comparison of peptides with the inferred amino acid sequence of the E. coli K-12 enzyme has helped determine the sequence of the amino terminal 59 residues; only two differences between the sequences are noted in this region.« less

  18. Multimorbidity care model: Recommendations from the consensus meeting of the Joint Action on Chronic Diseases and Promoting Healthy Ageing across the Life Cycle (JA-CHRODIS).

    PubMed

    Palmer, Katie; Marengoni, Alessandra; Forjaz, Maria João; Jureviciene, Elena; Laatikainen, Tiina; Mammarella, Federica; Muth, Christiane; Navickas, Rokas; Prados-Torres, Alexandra; Rijken, Mieke; Rothe, Ulrike; Souchet, Laurène; Valderas, Jose; Vontetsianos, Theodore; Zaletel, Jelka; Onder, Graziano

    2018-01-01

    Patients with multimorbidity have complex health needs but, due to the current traditional disease-oriented approach, they face a highly fragmented form of care that leads to inefficient, ineffective, and possibly harmful clinical interventions. There is limited evidence on available integrated and multidimensional care pathways for multimorbid patients. An expert consensus meeting was held to develop a framework for care of multimorbid patients that can be applied across Europe, within a project funded by the European Union; the Joint Action on Chronic Diseases and Promoting Healthy Ageing across the Life Cycle (JA-CHRODIS). The experts included a diverse group representing care providers and patients, and included general practitioners, family medicine physicians, neurologists, geriatricians, internists, cardiologists, endocrinologists, diabetologists, epidemiologists, psychologists, and representatives from patient organizations. Sixteen components across five domains were identified (Delivery of Care; Decision Support; Self Management Support; Information Systems and Technology; and Social and Community Resources). The description and aim of each component are described in these guidelines, along with a summary of key characteristics and relevance to multimorbid patients. Due to the lack of evidence-based recommendations specific to multimorbid patients, this care model needs to be assessed and validated in different European settings to examine specifically how multimorbid patients will benefit from this care model, and whether certain components have more importance than others. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Condensed-Phase Processes during Solid Propellant Combustion. Part 2: Chemical and Microscopic Examination of Conductively Quenched Samples of RDX, XM39, JA2, M30, and HMX-Binder Compositions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    combustion of most of the propellants, with the possible exception of JA2; scanning electron microcope examination shows the existence of a liquid layer but... compounds are similar (Fifer et Sl. 1985; Hoffsommer, Glover, and Elban 1985), the relative Intensities In Table 2 should provide rough, order-of...top of the liquid layer. In addition, the HPLC chromatograms contained a number of very weak, unknown peaks apparently corresponding to compounds

  20. JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for detection of genotoxic carcinogens: II. Summary of definitive validation study results.

    PubMed

    Uno, Yoshifumi; Kojima, Hajime; Omori, Takashi; Corvi, Raffaella; Honma, Masamistu; Schechtman, Leonard M; Tice, Raymond R; Beevers, Carol; De Boeck, Marlies; Burlinson, Brian; Hobbs, Cheryl A; Kitamoto, Sachiko; Kraynak, Andrew R; McNamee, James; Nakagawa, Yuzuki; Pant, Kamala; Plappert-Helbig, Ulla; Priestley, Catherine; Takasawa, Hironao; Wada, Kunio; Wirnitzer, Uta; Asano, Norihide; Escobar, Patricia A; Lovell, David; Morita, Takeshi; Nakajima, Madoka; Ohno, Yasuo; Hayashi, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    The in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay (comet assay) is used internationally to investigate the in vivo genotoxic potential of test chemicals. This assay, however, has not previously been formally validated. The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM), with the cooperation of the U.S. NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM)/the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), and the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society/Mammalian Mutagenesis Study Group (JEMS/MMS), organized an international validation study to evaluate the reliability and relevance of the assay for identifying genotoxic carcinogens, using liver and stomach as target organs. The ultimate goal of this exercise was to establish an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline. The study protocol was optimized in the pre-validation studies, and then the definitive (4th phase) validation study was conducted in two steps. In the 1st step, assay reproducibility was confirmed among laboratories using four coded reference chemicals and the positive control ethyl methanesulfonate. In the 2nd step, the predictive capability was investigated using 40 coded chemicals with known genotoxic and carcinogenic activity (i.e., genotoxic carcinogens, genotoxic non-carcinogens, non-genotoxic carcinogens, and non-genotoxic non-carcinogens). Based on the results obtained, the in vivo comet assay is concluded to be highly capable of identifying genotoxic chemicals and therefore can serve as a reliable predictor of rodent carcinogenicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. La–Ce isotope measurements by multicollector-ICPMS† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c7ja00256d

    PubMed Central

    Münker, Carsten; Strub, Erik

    2017-01-01

    radiogenic 138Ce and to perform isochron dating, a protocol was developed where La and Ce concentrations are determined by isotope dilution (ID), using an isotope tracer enriched in 138La and 142Ce. The new protocols were applied to determine the variations of Ce isotope compositions and La–Ce concentrations of certified geochemical reference materials (CRMs): BCR-2, BCR-1, BHVO-2, JR-1, JA-2, JB-3, JG-1, JR-1, JB-1b, AGV-1 and one in-house La Palma standard. PMID:29456283

  2. Comparative genomic analysis of single-molecule sequencing and hybrid approaches for finishing the Clostridium autoethanogenum JA1-1 strain DSM 10061 genome

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Steven D; Nagaraju, Shilpa; Utturkar, Sagar M

    Background Clostridium autoethanogenum strain JA1-1 (DSM 10061) is an acetogen capable of fermenting CO, CO2 and H2 (e.g. from syngas or waste gases) into biofuel ethanol and commodity chemicals such as 2,3-butanediol. A draft genome sequence consisting of 100 contigs has been published. Results A closed, high-quality genome sequence for C. autoethanogenum DSM10061 was generated using only the latest single-molecule DNA sequencing technology and without the need for manual finishing. It is assigned to the most complex genome classification based upon genome features such as repeats, prophage, nine copies of the rRNA gene operons. It has a low G +more » C content of 31.1%. Illumina, 454, Illumina/454 hybrid assemblies were generated and then compared to the draft and PacBio assemblies using summary statistics, CGAL, QUAST and REAPR bioinformatics tools and comparative genomic approaches. Assemblies based upon shorter read DNA technologies were confounded by the large number repeats and their size, which in the case of the rRNA gene operons were ~5 kb. CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Paloindromic Repeats) systems among biotechnologically relevant Clostridia were classified and related to plasmid content and prophages. Potential associations between plasmid content and CRISPR systems may have implications for historical industrial scale Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) fermentation failures and future large scale bacterial fermentations. While C. autoethanogenum contains an active CRISPR system, no such system is present in the closely related Clostridium ljungdahlii DSM 13528. A common prophage inserted into the Arg-tRNA shared between the strains suggests a common ancestor. However, C. ljungdahlii contains several additional putative prophages and it has more than double the amount of prophage DNA compared to C. autoethanogenum. Other differences include important metabolic genes for central metabolism (as an additional hydrogenase and the absence of a

  3. Citrus leprosis virus C Infection Results in Hypersensitive-Like Response, Suppression of the JA/ET Plant Defense Pathway and Promotion of the Colonization of Its Mite Vector

    PubMed Central

    Arena, Gabriella D.; Ramos-González, Pedro L.; Nunes, Maria A.; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Camargo, Luis E. A.; Kitajima, Elliot W.; Machado, Marcos A.; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Leprosis is a serious disease of citrus caused by Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C, genus Cilevirus) whose transmission is mediated by false spider mites of the genus Brevipalpus. CiLV-C infection does not systemically spread in any of its known host plants, thus remaining restricted to local lesions around the feeding sites of viruliferous mites. To get insight into this unusual pathosystem, we evaluated the expression profiles of genes involved in defense mechanisms of Arabidopsis thaliana and Citrus sinensis upon infestation with non-viruliferous and viruliferous mites by using reverse-transcription qPCR. These results were analyzed together with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the appearance of dead cells as assessed by histochemical assays. After interaction with non-viruliferous mites, plants locally accumulated ROS and triggered the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonate/ethylene (JA/ET) pathways. ERF branch of the JA/ET pathways was highly activated. In contrast, JA pathway genes were markedly suppressed upon the CiLV-C infection mediated by viruliferous mites. Viral infection also intensified the ROS burst and cell death, and enhanced the expression of genes involved in the RNA silencing mechanism and SA pathway. After 13 days of infestation of two sets of Arabidopsis plants with non-viruliferous and viruliferous mites, the number of mites in the CiLV-C infected Arabidopsis plants was significantly higher than in those infested with the non-viruliferous ones. Oviposition of the viruliferous mites occurred preferentially in the CiLV-C infected leaves. Based on these results, we postulated the first model of plant/Brevipalpus mite/cilevirus interaction in which cells surrounding the feeding sites of viruliferous mites typify the outcome of a hypersensitive-like response, whereas viral infection induces changes in the behavior of its vector. PMID:27933078

  4. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) Sprout Treated with Methyl Jasmonate (MeJA) Improved Anti-Adipogenic Activity Associated with the Oxidative Stress System in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Jun; Kim, Kui-Jin; Park, Kee-Jai; Yoon, Bo-Ra; Lim, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Ok-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Buckwheat sprouts contain various bioactive compounds including rutin which have a number of biological activities. We have previously shown that buckwheat sprouts (TBWE) treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) significantly increased the amount of phenolics and the antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of TBWE on anti-adipogenesis and pro-oxidant enzyme in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We also evaluated the anti-oxidative activity of TBWE in adipocytes by using the nitroblue tetrazolium assay. Our data showed that TBWE markedly inhibited adipocyte differentiation and ROS production in 3T3-L1 cells compared with control groups. Moreover, TBWE has strongly shown the inhibition of adipogenic transcription factor as well as pro-oxidant enzymes. Together, we demonstrate that the MeJA treatment significantly increased the amount of phenolic compound, resulting in the suppression of adipogenesis and ROS production in the 3T3-L1 cells. These findings indicate that TBWE has the potential for anti-adipogenesis activity with anti-oxidative properties. PMID:23344050

  5. Evaluation of methyl methanesulfonate, 2,6-diaminotoluene and 5-fluorouracil: Part of the Japanese center for the validation of alternative methods (JaCVAM) international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    Plappert-Helbig, Ulla; Junker-Walker, Ursula; Martus, Hans-Joerg

    2015-07-01

    As a part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), we examined methyl methanesulfonate, 2,6-diaminotoluene, and 5-fluorouracil under coded test conditions. Rats were treated orally with the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and two additional descending doses of the respective compounds. In the MMS treated groups liver and stomach showed significantly elevated DNA damage at each dose level and a significant dose-response relationship. 2,6-diaminotoluene induced significantly elevated DNA damage in the liver at each dose and a statistically significant dose-response relationship whereas no DNA damage was obtained in the stomach. 5-fluorouracil did not induce DNA damage in either liver or stomach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of a standardized JaCVAM in vivo rat comet assay protocol to assess the genotoxicity of three coded test compounds; ampicillin trihydrate, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride, and N-nitrosodimethylamine.

    PubMed

    McNamee, J P; Bellier, P V

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), our laboratory examined ampicillin trihydrate (AMP), 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH), and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDA) using a standard comet assay validation protocol (v14.2) developed by the JaCVAM validation management team (VMT). Coded samples were received by our laboratory along with basic MSDS information. Solubility analysis and range-finding experiments of the coded test compounds were conducted for dose selection. Animal dosing schedules, the comet assay processing and analysis, and statistical analysis were conducted in accordance with the standard protocol. Based upon our blinded evaluation, AMP was not found to exhibit evidence of genotoxicity in either the rat liver or stomach. However, both NDA and DMH were observed to cause a significant increase in % tail DNA in the rat liver at all dose levels tested. While acute hepatoxicity was observed for these compounds in the high dose group, in the investigators opinion there were a sufficient number of consistently damaged/measurable cells at the medium and low dose groups to judge these compounds as genotoxic. There was no evidence of genotoxicity from either NDA or DMH in the rat stomach. In conclusion, our laboratory observed increased DNA damage from two blinded test compounds in rat liver (later identified as genotoxic carcinogens), while no evidence of genotoxicity was observed for the third blinded test compound (later identified as a non-genotoxic, non-carcinogen). This data supports the use of a standardized protocol of the in vivo comet assay as a cost-effective alternative genotoxicity assay for regulatory testing purposes. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether in the rat comet assay: Part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of in vivo rat alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    Priestley, Catherine C; Walker, Joanne S; O'Donovan, Michael R; Doherty, Ann T

    2015-07-01

    As a part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay, 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether (DPE), a known rodent genotoxic carcinogen, was tested in this laboratory. Sprague Dawley rats (7-9 weeks of age) were given three oral doses of DPE, 24 and 21 h apart and liver or stomach sampled 3h after the final dose. Under the conditions of the test, no increases in DNA damage in liver and stomach were observed with DPE (up to 200 mg/kg/day). A dose-dependent decrease in DNA migration, compared to vehicle controls, was noted for DPE in rat stomach. Further analysis is required to elucidate fully whether this decrease is a consequence of the mode of action or due to the toxicity of DPE. What is perhaps surprising is the inability of the comet assay to detect a known rat genotoxic carcinogen in liver. Further investigation is needed to clarify whether this apparent lack of response results from limited tissue exposure or metabolic differences between species. This finding highlights a need for careful consideration of study design when evaluating assay performance as a measure of in vivo genotoxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for the detection of genotoxic carcinogens: I. Summary of pre-validation study results.

    PubMed

    Uno, Yoshifumi; Kojima, Hajime; Omori, Takashi; Corvi, Raffaella; Honma, Masamistu; Schechtman, Leonard M; Tice, Raymond R; Burlinson, Brian; Escobar, Patricia A; Kraynak, Andrew R; Nakagawa, Yuzuki; Nakajima, Madoka; Pant, Kamala; Asano, Norihide; Lovell, David; Morita, Takeshi; Ohno, Yasuo; Hayashi, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    The in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay (comet assay) is used internationally to investigate the in vivo genotoxic potential of test chemicals. This assay, however, has not previously been formally validated. The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM), with the cooperation of the U.S. NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM)/the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), and the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society/Mammalian Mutagenesis Study Group (JEMS/MMS), organized an international validation study to evaluate the reliability and relevance of the assay for identifying genotoxic carcinogens, using liver and stomach as target organs. The ultimate goal of this validation effort was to establish an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline. The purpose of the pre-validation studies (i.e., Phase 1 through 3), conducted in four or five laboratories with extensive comet assay experience, was to optimize the protocol to be used during the definitive validation study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Nanoporous Silicon Ignition of JA2 Propellant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    signals that would satisfy the hazard of electromagnetic radiation to ordnance (HERO) requirements of modern munitions. Such integrated circuits can...NUMBER (Include area code) 410-278-6098 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 iii Contents List of Figures iv 1...fabricated as an integral element of a silicon chip. Integrated circuits that filter the firing command signal could remove extraneous electromagnetic

  10. Ecology for the shrinking city (JA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article brings together the concepts of shrinking cities—the hundreds of cities worldwide experiencing long-term population loss—and ecology for the city. Ecology for the city is the application of a social–ecological understanding to shaping urban form and function along su...

  11. Evaluation of p-phenylenediamine, o-phenylphenol sodium salt, and 2,4-diaminotoluene in the rat comet assay as part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiated international validation study of in vivo rat alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    De Boeck, Marlies; van der Leede, Bas-jan; De Vlieger, Kathleen; Geys, Helena; Vynckier, An; Van Gompel, Jacky

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiated international validation study of in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (PPD), o-phenylphenol sodium salt (OPP), and 2,4-diaminotoluene (2,4-DAT), were analyzed in this laboratory as coded test chemicals. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (7-9 weeks of age) were given three oral doses of the test compounds, 24 and 21 h apart and liver and stomach were sampled 3h after the final dose administration. Under the conditions of the test, no increases in DNA damage were observed in liver and stomach with PPD and OPP up to 100 and 1000 mg/kg/day, respectively. 2,4-DAT, a known genotoxic carcinogen, induced a weak but reproducible, dose-related and statistically significant increase in DNA damage in liver cells while no increases were observed in stomach cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Results of the International Validation of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for the detection of genotoxic carcinogens: Individual data for 1,2-dibromoethane, p-anisidine, and o-anthranilic acid in the 2nd step of the 4th phase Validation Study under the JaCVAM initiative.

    PubMed

    Takasawa, Hironao; Takashima, Rie; Narumi, Kazunori; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Hattori, Akiko; Kawabata, Masayoshi; Hamada, Shuichi

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative International Validation Study of an in vivo rat alkaline comet assay, we examined 1,2-dibromoethane (DBE), p-anisidine (ASD), and o-anthranilic acid (ANT) to investigate the effectiveness of the comet assay in detecting genotoxic carcinogens. Each of the three test chemicals was administered to 5 male Sprague-Dawley rats per group by oral gavage at 48, 24, and 3h before specimen preparation. Single cells were collected from the liver and glandular stomach at 3h after the final dosing, and the specimens prepared from these two organs were subjected to electrophoresis under alkaline conditions (pH>13). The percentage of DNA intensity in the comet tail was then assessed using an image analysis system. A micronucleus (MN) assay was also conducted using these three test chemicals with the bone marrow (BM) cells collected from the same animals simultaneously used in the comet assay, i.e., combination study of the comet assay and BM MN assay. A genotoxic (Ames positive) rodent carcinogen, DBE gave a positive result in the comet assay in the present study, while a genotoxic (Ames positive) non-carcinogen, ASD and a non-genotoxic (Ames negative) non-carcinogen, ANT showed negative results in the comet assay. All three chemicals produced negative results in the BM MN assay. While the comet assay findings in the present study were consistent with those obtained from the rodent carcinogenicity studies for the three test chemicals, we consider the positive result in the comet assay for DBE to be particularly meaningful, given that this chemical produced a negative result in the BM MN assay. Therefore, the combination study of the comet assay and BM MN assay is a useful method to detect genotoxic carcinogens that are undetectable with the BM MN assay alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Adaptive management for ecosystem services (j/a) | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Management of natural resources for the production of ecosystem services, which are vital for human well-being, is necessary even when there is uncertainty regarding system response to management action. This uncertainty is the result of incomplete controllability, complex internal feedbacks, and non-linearity that often interferes with desired management outcomes, and insufficient understanding of nature and people. Adaptive management was developed to reduce such uncertainty. We present a framework for the application of adaptive management for ecosystem services that explicitly accounts for cross-scale tradeoffs in the production of ecosystem services. Our framework focuses on identifying key spatiotemporal scales (plot, patch, ecosystem, landscape, and region) that encompass dominant structures and processes in the system, and includes within- and cross-scale dynamics, ecosystem service tradeoffs, and management controllability within and across scales. Resilience theory recognizes that a limited set of ecological processes in a given system regulate ecosystem services, yet our understanding of these processes is poorly understood. If management actions erode or remove these processes, the system may shift into an alternative state unlikely to support the production of desired services. Adaptive management provides a process to assess the underlying within and cross-scale tradeoffs associated with production of ecosystem services while proceeding with manage

  14. Adaptive management for ecosystem services (j/a)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Management of natural resources for the production of ecosystem services, which are vital for human well-being, is necessary even when there is uncertainty regarding system response to management action. This uncertainty is the result of incomplete controllability, complex intern...

  15. Ecology for the shrinking city (JA) | Science Inventory | US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This article brings together the concepts of shrinking cities—the hundreds of cities worldwide experiencing long-term population loss—and ecology for the city. Ecology for the city is the application of a social–ecological understanding to shaping urban form and function along sustainable trajectories. Ecology for the shrinking city therefore acknowledges that urban transformations to sustainable trajectories may be quite different in shrinking cities as compared with growing cities. Shrinking cities are well poised for transformations, because shrinking is perceived as a crisis and can mobilize the social capacity to change. Ecology is particularly well suited to contribute solutions because of the extent of vacant land in shrinking cities that can be leveraged for ecosystem-services provisioning. A crucial role of an ecology for the shrinking city is identifying innovative pathways that create locally desired amenities that provide ecosystem services and contribute to urban sustainability at multiple scales. This paper brings together the concepts of ecology for the city and shrinking cities – the hundreds of cities worldwide experiencing long-term population loss. Ecology for the city is the application of social-ecological understanding to shaping urban form and function along sustainable trajectories. Ecology for the shrinking city acknowledges that urban transformations to sustainable trajectories may be quite different in shrinking cities as compa

  16. Treatment Plan Adherence for Your Child With JA

    MedlinePlus

    ... afternoon. “I tell them every time there’s a commercial, the TV goes mute,” says Wright. “Do 10 ... afternoon. “I tell them every time there’s a commercial, the TV goes mute,” says Wright. “Do 10 ...

  17. JaK/STAT Inhibition to Prevent Post-Traumatic Epileptogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    necessary because, although global pSTAT upregulation has been identified after status epilepticus following pilocarpine treatment in rats (Kim et...100 mg/kg, i.p.) in pilocarpine-treated rats indicated that it was able to suppress pSTAT3 upregulation after status epilepticus , this procedure had...cellular responses n status epilepticus models (Schauwecker and Steward, 1997), nd/or are often used in transgenic studies. Severe brain injury was

  18. The Flintlock Site (8JA1763): An Unusual Underwater Deposit in the Apalachicola River, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horrell, Christopher E.; Scott-Ireton, Della A.; Smith, Roger C.; Levy, James; Knetsch, Joe

    2009-06-01

    In the fall of 2001, staff of the Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research were led by river divers to an underwater site in the Apalachicola River containing a large concentration of prehistoric and historic artifacts lying on the riverbed. Subsequent inspection of the submerged river bank and scoured limestone river channel revealed a myriad of objects, which included iron fasteners, metal tools and implements, broken glass bottles, stone projectile points, scattered bricks and stone blocks, and other materials. Discovery of two large fragments of a wooden watercraft, a bayonet, a copper arrowhead, and flintlock gun barrels initially prompted researchers to hypothesize that the site might represent the remains of a U.S. Army boat that was attacked in 1817 by Seminole Indians while en route upriver. The episode, which caused the deaths of more than 30 soldiers and several women who were aboard the boat, led to the First Seminole War and the U.S. Army invasion of Florida. To investigate this hypothesis, a systematic survey of the riverbed was undertaken in the spring of 2002 to record underwater features and recover additional diagnostic artifacts. These activities employed side-scan sonar as well as diver visual investigations. This paper presents a case study of the value and broader significance of aggregate data where interpretation was underpinned by artefactual, historical and environmental analysis.

  19. JaK/STAT Inhibition to Prevent Post-Traumatic Epileptogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), a frequently medically intractable and permanent epilepsy syndrome. Unlike many TLE models, which cause global brain injury...addresses the FY10 PRMRP topic area of Epilepsy . Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a well-established etiology of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), a...is one of the most common causes of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Changes in inhibitory signaling after CCI include hilar inhibitory neuron loss

  20. JaK/STAT Inhibition to Prevent Post-Traumatic Epileptogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a well-established inducer of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE...INTRODUCTION: This research addresses the FY10 PRMRP topic area of Epilepsy . Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a well- established etiology of temporal ... lobe epilepsy (TLE), a frequently medically intractable and often progressive epilepsy syndrome. Much evidence indicates that abnormalities in

  1. JaMBES: A "New" Way of Calculating Plate Tectonic Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambord, A. I.; Smith, E. G. C.; Sutherland, R.

    2014-12-01

    Calculating the paleoposition of tectonic plates using marine geophysical data has been usually done by using the Hellinger criterion [Hellinger, 1981]. However, for the Hellinger software [Kirkwood et al., 1999] to produce stable results, we find that the input data must be abundant and spatially well distributed. Although magnetic anomalies and fracture zone data have been increasingly abundant since the 1960s, some parts of the globe remain too sparsely explored to provide enough data for the Hellinger code to provide satisfactory rotations. In this poster, we present new software to calculate the paleopositions of tectonic plates using magnetic anomalies and fracture zone data. Our method is based on the theory of plate tectonics as introduced by [Bullard et al., 1965] and [Morgan, 1968], which states that ridge segments (ie. magnetic lineations) and fracture zones are at right angles to each other. In order to test our software, we apply it to a region of the world where climatic conditions hinder the acquisition of magnetic data: the Southwest Pacific, between New Zealand and Antarctica from breakup time to chron 20 (c43Ma). Bullard, E., J. E. Everett, and A. G. Smith (1965), The fit of continents around the atlantic, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series A: Mathematical and Physical Sciences, 258(1088), 41-51. Hellinger, S. J. (1981), The uncertainties of finite rotations in plate tectonics, Journal of Geophysical Research, 86(B10), 9312-9318. Kirkwood, B. H., J. Y. Royer, T. C. Chang, and R. G. Gordon (1999), Statistical tools for estimating and combining finite rotations and their uncertainties, Geophysical Journal International, 137(2), 408-428. Morgan, W. J. (1968), Rises, trenches, great faults, and crustal blocks, Journal of Geophysical Research, 73(6), 1959-1982.

  2. JaK/STAT Inhibition to Prevent Post-Traumatic Epileptogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a well-established inducer of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), a frequently medically intractable... epilepsy syndrome. The controlled cortical impact (CCI) model of posttraumatic epilepsy in mice is a well established animal model of TBI that results...reduce development of post-traumatic epilepsy , and did not significantly improve memory function, but did enhance the motor recovery. These findings

  3. Greener routes to organics and nanomaterials: Sustainable applications of nano-catalysts (JA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable synthetic activity involving alternate energy input and greener reaction medium in aqueous or under solvent-free conditions is summarized. This includes the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, coupling reactions, and a variety of reactions catalyzed by basic water o...

  4. Parasitism by Cuscuta pentagona sequentially induces JA and SA defence pathways in tomato

    Treesearch

    Justin B. Runyon; Mark C. Mescher; Gary W. Felton; Consuelo M. De Moraes

    2010-01-01

    While plant responses to herbivores and pathogens are well characterized, responses to attack by other plants remain largely unexplored. We measured phytohormones and C18 fatty acids in tomato attacked by the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona, and used transgenic and mutant plants to explore the roles of the defence-related phytohormones salicylic...

  5. "City of Richmond v. J.A. Croson Company": The Decision and Some of Its Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, A. Fleming, II

    1989-01-01

    The Supreme Court's "Croson" decision has major implications for local government and school administrative units that wish to encourage the use of minority contractors. Discusses the decision and some of the effects that the rules announced in the case may have on North Carolina's local governments and schools. (MLF)

  6. Visualization and Measurement of the Deflagration of JA2 Bonded to Various Metal Foils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    Disclaimers The findings in this report are not to be construed as an official Department of the Army position unless so designated by other... design tools. There are numerous design parameters, including 1) the wires’ thermophysical properties and diameter(s), 2) their quantity, spacing, and...gasified by combustion. This is suggested by Figs. 7 and 8, which present posttest examinations of 2- and 3-mil-thick foils. On the 2-mil-thick Cu foils, a

  7. Judge Advocate (NGB-JA) - Personal Staff - Joint Staff - The National Guard

    Science.gov Websites

    training. Assists in identifying NG JAs to meet service operational requirements. And Coordinates and ARNG Command Sergeant Major of the ARNG State Mission Sustainability Training ARNG Distributed Learning Program Training & Technology Battle Lab (T3BL) Civil Support Simulation Exercises Regional Training

  8. Japan Link Center (JaLC): link management and DOI assignment for Japanese electronic scholarly contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Takafumi; Tsuchiya, Eri; Kubota, Soichi; Miyagawa, Yoshiyuki

    JST, cooperated with several national institutes, is currently developing “Japan Link Center”, which manages Japanese electronic scholarly contents (journal articles, books, dissertations etc.) in an integrated fashion using Digital Object Identifier (DOI). Japan Link Center will manage metadata and whereabouts information of the contents in the digital environment and provide domestic and international linking information, cite/cited information to activate dissemination of S&T information, furthermore, to strengthen transmission of S&T information from Japan. Japan Link Center is expected to be appointed as the 9th DOI registration agency (RA) in the world by the International DOI Foundation (IDF) this spring.

  9. Unclassified Publications of Lincoln Laboratory, 1 January - 31 December 1991. Volume 17

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-31

    FIBER OPTIC ANALOG LINK MS-9183 MS-8873 FABRY - PEROT LASER FIBER OPTIC APPLICATIONS JA-6656 JA-6686 FABRY - PEROT SCANNING FIBER OPTIC LINK JA-6567 MS...8532, MS-9353 FABRY - PEROT SPECTRUM ANALYZER FIBER OPTICS TECHNOLOGY JA-6682 JA-6458 FAR-FIELD BEAM DIVERGENCE FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTORS JA-6505 JA-6662...8734 JA-6604, JA-6680 CRAMER-RAO LOWER BOUND DELAY LINES JA-6461 MS-8890 CROSS-CORRELATION DEMODULATION MS-8734 TR-91 0 CROSSLINK DEPOSITION METHODS JA

  10. Unclassified Publications of Lincoln Laboratory 1 January - 31 December 1994, Volume 20.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-31

    J. Ehrlich, DJ. Hollis, M.A. Kosicki, B.B. Powdrill, T. Beattie, K. Smith, S. Varma, R. Gangadharan, R. Mallik , A. Burke, B.E. Wallace, D...JA-6972, JA-7028 Mallik , A., JA-7164 Manfra, M.J., JA-7027, MS-10604 Mankiewich, P.M., JA-7001 Maragos, P., JA-6764, JA-6888 Marcus, S., JA-6898

  11. Unclassified Publications of Lincoln Laboratory, 1 January - 31 December 1989. Volume 15

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    BOLTZMANN MACHINE JA-6051 JA-6290 BEAM PATH CONDITIONING BORON CONTAINING MOLECULES MS-8143 JA-6135 BEAM STEERING BORON TRICHLORIDE MS-8285 JA-6129...BERNZOMATIC TOTE TORCH BORON TRICHLORIDE -ARGON DISCHARGE JA-6260 JA-6129 BIAS CORRELATION BOUNDARY LAYER JA-6326 JA-6192, MS-8141 BINARY INTEGRATION BROADBAND...MS-8345 MODULATORS IRIDIUM MS-7998 JA-6192 67 Subject Index IRIDIUM SILICIDE SCHOTTKY-BARRIER KWAJALEIN DISCRIMINATION SYSTEM INFRARED DETECTORS JA

  12. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ja of... - Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat... Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents Constituent MEVa dscf/mol MHCb Btu/mol... standard conditions of 68 °F and 1 atmosphere. b MHC = molar heat content (higher heating value basis), Btu...

  13. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ja of... - Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat... Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents Constituent MEVa dscf/mol MHCb Btu/mol... standard conditions of 68 °F and 1 atmosphere. b MHC = molar heat content (higher heating value basis), Btu...

  14. In Response to Laovirojjanakul W, Acharya N and Gonzales JA's "Ultra-Widefield Fluorescein Angiography in Intermediate Uveitis".

    PubMed

    Babu, Kalpana; Kumaradas, Mrinalini

    2017-12-28

    We read with great interest the article by Laovirojjanakul et al. on ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography in intermediate uveitis. We would like to share a similar case of chronic intermediate uveitis highlighting a fern-like pattern of diffuse vascular leakage on fluorescein angiography, with good visual acuity, absence of clinically active inflammation, and a similar fluorescein angiography picture over a follow-up of 4 years.

  15. J.A. Schumpeter and T.B. Veblen on economic evolution: the dichotomy between statics and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Schütz, Marlies; Rainer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract At present, the discussion on the dichotomy between statics and dynamics is resolved by concentrating on its mathematical meaning. Yet, a simple formalisation masks the underlying methodological discussion. Overcoming this limitation, the paper discusses Schumpeter's and Veblen's viewpoint on dynamic economic systems as systems generating change from within. It contributes to an understanding on their ideas of how economics could become an evolutionary science and on their contributions to elaborate an evolutionary economics. It confronts Schumpeter's with Veblen's perspective on evolutionary economics and provides insight into their evolutionary economic theorising by discussing their ideas on the evolution of capitalism. PMID:28057981

  16. Test Review: Wechsler, D., & Naglieri, J.A. (2006). "Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability". San Antonio, TX--Harcourt Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Idalia; Rivera, Vivina

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a review of the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV), a general cognitive ability assessment tool for individuals' aged 4 year 0 months through 21 years 11 months with English language and/or communicative limitations. The test targets a population whose performance on intelligence batteries might be compromised by…

  17. Position Data Analysis Job Aid (PDAT-JA) Prototype Software (Version 2. 0), User’s Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    am I II£3 10111 1 1IUmmii INmuFT 11 4325L5 10454 11616 01475 0l a Mi DIy 1ŕ 3?9 TAWi 1411R11 14 41110 I am1 I I 13 UD momiii mullw1t 4301 maIM...mist 51 43201 M5400 91616 01675 0 o War 11 s 5w 43 i cm mAW w a auto I 611 I 1 Tor V. mmii SmaiS 91 43201 MaiA 90160146170 COMY 09i D t 44 " 01011 a

  18. Effect of energy taxation on fuel choice and emissions (Energiaverojen vaikutus polttoainevalintoihin ja paeaestoeihin). Research notes (in English;Finnish)

    SciTech Connect

    Leino, P.; Kosunen, P.; Rauhamaeki, J.

    1997-05-01

    The aim of the project was to study how various tax models for power plant fuels affect the fuel consumption and emissions of particles, sulphur dioxide (SO{sup 2}), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO{sup 2}). First, the development of Finnish energy taxation is discussed, followed by a survey of the energy production structure for 1994. For this purpose, it was necessary to prepare a large boiler database, which covers about 95% of the fuel consumption of Finnish energy production. The boiler database was used to calculate the emissions of particles, SO{sup 2}, NOx and CO{sup 2} in 1994. Themore » year 2010 selected under review is the year by which the Ministry of Trade and Industry has prepared their primary energy consumption estimates. Four different alternatives were studied as future tax models. In the first alternative taxation would be as it in years 1995--1996 and in the second alternative taxation would be as 1 January 1997. In the third alternative the Finnish application of EU taxes would be in force in full, i.e., the tax on heavy fuel oil would be 10 US dollars a barrel. In the fourth alternative there would be no taxes on fuels.« less

  19. State-Level Mandates for Financial Literacy Education, JA Finance Park, and the Impact on Eighth-Grade Students in Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Sherri L.

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, the Colorado General Assembly passed legislation requiring the adoption of personal financial literacy (PFL) education standards for kindergarten through 12th-grade students. Beginning in 2014, the state plans to conduct standardized testing to determine financial literacy of 3rd- through 12th-grade students. The state did not allocate…

  20. Puolin ja toisin: Suomalais-virolaista kielentutkimusta. AFinLAn vuosikirja 1998 (On Both Sides: Finnish-Estonian Research on Language. AFinLA Yearbook 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luukka, Minna-Riitta, Ed.; Salla, Sigrid, Ed.; Dufva, Hannele, Ed.

    The papers included in this yearbook of the Finnish Society of Applied Linguistics (AFinLA) were presented at the 1998 AFinLA conference "Linguistics and Finland: Crossing the Gulf." Papers are in Finnish, Estonian, or English, but all have accompanying English abstracts. The topics discussed in the papers include the following: speed…

  1. Worldwide measurements of radioxenon background near isotope production facilities, a nuclear power plant and at remote sites: the ‘‘EU/JA-II’’ Project

    SciTech Connect

    Saey, P. R.J.; Ringbom, Anders; Bowyer, Ted W.

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) specifies that radioxenon measurements should be performed at 40 or more stations worldwide within the International Monitoring System (IMS). Measuring radioxenon is one of the principle techniques to detect underground nuclear explosions. Specifically, presence and ratios of different radioxenon isotopes allows determining whether a detection event under consideration originated from a nuclear explosion or a civilian source. However, radioxenon monitoring on a global scale is a novel technology and the global civil background must be characterized sufficiently. This paper lays out a study, based on several unique measurement campaigns, of the worldwide concentrations and sourcesmore » of verification relevant xenon isotopes. It complements the experience already gathered with radioxenon measurements within the CTBT IMS programme and focuses on locations in Belgium, Germany, Kuwait, Thailand and South Africa where very little information was available on ambient xenon levels or interesting sites offered opportunities to learn more about emissions from known sources. The findings corroborate the hypothesis that a few major radioxenon sources contribute in great part to the global radioxenon background. Additionally, the existence of independent sources of 131mXe (the daughter of 131I) has been demonstrated, which has some potential to bias the isotopic signature of signals from nuclear explosions.« less

  2. Condensed-Phase Processes during Solid Propellant Combustion. 3. Preliminary Depth-Profiling Studies on XM39, JA2, M9, M30, and HMX2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    are listed in Schroeder et al. (1992). Wilmot et al. (1981) and Sharma et al. (1991) describe the chemical analysis of the burned surface of nitrate...below the surface (spectrum(b)) and are totally absent from the spectrum(c) of the region 40-80 pm below the surface CF (spectrum(d)). This suggests...Proving Ground, MD, May 1992. (AD-A250 799) Sharma, J., G. B. Wilmot , A. A. Campolattaro, and F. Santiago. "XPS Study of Condensed Phase Combustion in

  3. Analyzing the environmental impacts of laptop enclosures using screening-level life cycle assessment to support sustainable consumer electronics (j/a)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The market growth of consumer electronics makes it essential for industries and policy-makers to work together to develop sustainable products. The objective of this study is to better understand how to promote environmentally sustainable consumer electronics by examining the use...

  4. Definition of reference ranges for free T4, TSH, and thyroglobulin levels in healthy subjects of the Jaén Health District.

    PubMed

    Olmedo Carrillo, Pablo; Santiago Fernández, Piedad; García Fuentes, Eduardo; Ureña Fernández, Tomás; Gutiérrez Alcántara, Carmen; Sánchez-Malo, Carolina; Gassó Campos, Manuela; Martínez Ramírez, María José

    2017-10-01

    The treatment guidelines for thyroid dysfunction recommend defining reference ranges for thyroid hormones in each area through assessment of local population data considering the iodine nutritional status. The aim of this study was to define the reference ranges of free thyroxine (FT4), TSH, and thyroglobulin levels in a general population from Jaen, an area of southern Spain with an adequate iodine nutritional status, and whether they were associated with urinary iodine levels. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1,003 subjects of the general population of the Jaen Health District. Levels of urinary iodine, FT4, TSH, thyroglobulin, and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies were measured according to age and sex. Median and mean urinary iodine levels were 110.59μg/L and 130.11μg/L respectively. Median TSH level was 1.83μIU/mL (p2.5=0.56μIU/mL, p97.5=4.66μIU/mL). Median FT4 level was 0.84ng/dL (p2.5=0.62ng/dL, p97.5=1.18ng/dL). TPO antibodies were detected in 5.7% of subjects. There was no correlation between urinary iodine levels and FT4, TSH or TPO antibodies. Subjects with positive TPO antibodies had higher TSH levels (3.34μIU/L versus 2.14μIU/mL, P=.001; odds ratio=2.42). Urinary iodine levels in Jaen are optimal according to World Health Organization standards. Reference ranges of FT4, TSH, and thyroglobulin do not differ from those reported in the literature and are no associated to urinary iodine levels. The prevalence of positive TPO antibodies was similar to that reported in other Spanish areas. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Hg soil pollution around a decommissioned and unrestored Chlor-alkali plant: Jodar, Jaén province, SE Spain. Incidence in other environmental compartments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; María Esbrí, José; Lorenzo, Saturnino; Higueras, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    Data from soil pollution and its consequences around a decommissioned chlor-alkali plant are presented in this communication. The plant was active in the period 1977-1991, producing during these years a heavily pollution of Guadalquivir River and hidrargirism in more than local 45 workers. It is located at 7 km South of Jódar, a locality with some 12,120 inhabitants. Mercury usage was general in this type of plants, but at present it is being replaced by other types of technologies, due to the risks of mercury usage in personal and environment. A soil geochemistry survey was carried out in the area, together with the analysis of olive-tree leaves from the same area. 75 soil samples were taken at two different depths (0-15 cm. and 15-30 cm), together with 75 olive tree samples, 5 water samples. Besides, two monitoring surveys for total gaseous mercury in the atmosphere were performed. Mercury content of geologic and biologic samples was determined by means of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Zeeman Effect, using a Lumex RA-915+ device with the RP-91C pyrolysis attachment. Air surveys were carried our using a RA-915M Lumex portable analytical device, with GPS georreferenciation of the analysis points. Soil mercury contents were higher in topsoil than in the deeper soil samples, indicating that incorporation of mercury was due to dry and wet deposition of mercury vapors emitted from the plant. A local reference level was calculated as GM + 2SD (where GM is the geometric mean and SD the standard deviation). With this reference level it was possible to delimitate a contaminated soil area centered on the decommissioned chlor-alkali plant. A high affinity of local olive trees to accumulate mercury from the contaminated soil was also found, with a calculated maximum mercury content of 243.5 ng g-1. This maximum level is slightly higher than tolerable level for agronomic crops. Total mercury content in the analyzed waters was slightly higher than the chronic exposure level for aquatic life. Atmospheric mercury levels registered on the study area were much lower than most restrictive levels for chronic exposure. The area of influence of the facility (in terms of mercury content in air) was restricted to distances between 100 and 200 meters, depending on meteorological conditions. Main conclusions of this research work are the following: i) The Jódar decommissioned chlor-alkali plant is still a mercury source 20 years after its cease of activities without any reclamation measures; ii) The activity of the plant has produced an important dissemination of mercury in the surrounding environment; and iii) The corresponding pollution levels, in particular in soils, may suppose a risk to the main crops of the area (olive trees).

  6. "'AchJA,' Dann Kenn Ich Das Auch!" Managing Understanding and Knowledge: On Teaching Response Tokens in the German Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taleghani-Nikazm, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers an instructional unit on the response token "achja" in everyday German conversation. The paper first provides a description of "achja" and its distinctive prosodic features based on empirical research in conversation analysis. The goal of the paper is to provide instructors of German with information and…

  7. Computer program documentation modified version of the JA70 aerodynamic heating computer program H800 (MINIVER with a DISSPLA plot package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olmedo, L.

    1980-01-01

    The changes, modifications, and inclusions which were adapted to the current version of the MINIVER program are discussed. Extensive modifications were made to various subroutines, and a new plot package added. This plot package is the Johnson Space Center DISSPLA Graphics System currently driven under an 1110 EXEC 8 configuration. User instructions on executing the MINIVER program are provided and the plot package is described.

  8. Comparative Transcriptome Analyses between a Spontaneous Late-Ripening Sweet Orange Mutant and Its Wild Type Suggest the Functions of ABA, Sucrose and JA during Citrus Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-Jian; Wang, Xing-Jian; Wu, Ju-Xun; Chen, Shan-Yan; Chen, Hong; Chai, Li-Jun; Yi, Hua-Lin

    2014-01-01

    A spontaneous late-ripening mutant of ‘Jincheng’ (C. sinensis L. Osbeck) sweet orange exhibited a delay of fruit pigmentation and harvesting. In this work, we studied the processes of orange fruit ripening through the comparative analysis between the Jincheng mutant and its wild type. This study revealed that the fruit quality began to differ on 166th days after anthesis. At this stage, fruits were subjected to transcriptome analysis by RNA sequencing. 13,412 differentially expressed unigenes (DEGs) were found. Of these unigenes, 75.8% were down-regulated in the wild type, suggesting that the transcription level of wild type was lower than that of the mutant during this stage. These DEGs were mainly clustered into five pathways: metabolic pathways, plant-pathogen interaction, spliceosome, biosynthesis of plant hormones and biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids. Therefore, the expression profiles of the genes that are involved in abscisic acid, sucrose, and jasmonic acid metabolism and signal transduction pathways were analyzed during the six fruit ripening stages. The results revealed the regulation mechanism of sweet orange fruit ripening metabolism in the following four aspects: First, the more mature orange fruits were, the lower the transcription levels were. Second, the expression level of PME boosted with the maturity of the citrus fruit. Therefore, the expression level of PME might represent the degree of the orange fruit ripeness. Third, the interaction of PP2C, PYR/PYL, and SnRK2 was peculiar to the orange fruit ripening process. Fourth, abscisic acid, sucrose, and jasmonic acid all took part in orange fruit ripening process and might interact with each other. These findings provide an insight into the intricate process of sweet orange fruit ripening. PMID:25551568

  9. Synthesis and mode of action studies of N-[(-)-jasmonyl]-S-tyrosin and ester seiridin jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Reveglia, Pierluigi; Chini, Andrea; Mandoli, Alessandro; Masi, Marco; Cimmino, Alessio; Pescitelli, Gennaro; Evidente, Antonio

    2018-03-01

    Recent analyses on fungal jasmonic acid (JA)-containing metabolites suggest a mode-of-action of these naturally occurring compounds as inactive storage pools of JA. Plants and/or fungi can catabolize JA into the bioactive jasmonyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) that in turn activates the JA-Ile-pathway in planta. To extend our knowledge on JA-derivates related to natural occurring JA conjugates, N-[(-)-jasmonyl]-S-tyrosin (JA-Tyr) and the ester JA-Sei between JA and seiridin, a fungal disubstituted furanone, were synthesized. The classical procedures for ester synthesis were applied for compound JA-Sei, while N-[(-)-jasmonyl]-S-tyrosin was synthesized with an optimized procedure. JA-Tyr and JA-Sei were characterized by spectroscopic method (essentially 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and ESI-MS) and their stereochemical composition was determined by means of HPLC and circular dichroism analysis. Finally, the activity of these JA-derivates was analyzed in planta. JA-Tyr and JA-Sei trigger JA-regulated plant responses, such as protein degradation and growth inhibition. These effects require the conversion of JA into JA-Ile and its recognition by the plant JA-Ile perception complex COI1-JAZ. Overall, these data suggest a mode-of-action of JA-Tyr and JA-Sei as inactive pool of JA that can be transformed into the bioactive JA-Ile to induce the canonical JA-Ile-pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 42 CFR 488.115 - Care guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Care guidelines. 488.115 Section 488.115 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 488.115 Care guidelines. EC01JA91.110 EC01JA91.111 EC01JA91.112 EC01JA91.113 EC01JA91.114 EC01JA91.115...

  11. Mesenteric angiography

    MedlinePlus

    ... Arteriogram - abdomen; Mesenteric angiogram Images Mesenteric arteriography References Kaufman JA. Fundamentals of angiography. In: Kaufman JA, Lee MJ, eds. Vascular and Interventional Radiology: ...

  12. Unclassified Publications of Lincoln Laboratory, 1 January - 31 December 1990. Volume 16

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-31

    Apr. 1990 ADA223419 Hopped Communication Systems with Nonuniform Hopping Distributions 880 Bistatic Radar Cross Section of a Fenn, A.J. 2 May1990...EXPERIMENT JA-6241 MS-8424 LUNAR PERTURBATION MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD ALGORITHM JA-6241 JA-6467 LWIR SPECTRAL BAND MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATOR JA-6476 MS-8466

  13. Jasmonic acid/methyl jasmonate accumulate in wounded soybean hypocotyls and modulate wound gene expression.

    PubMed

    Creelman, R A; Tierney, M L; Mullet, J E

    1992-06-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and its methyl ester, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), are plant lipid derivatives that resemble mammalian eicosanoids in structure and biosynthesis. These compounds are proposed to play a role in plant wound and pathogen responses. Here we report the quantitative determination of JA/MeJA in planta by a procedure based on the use of [13C,2H3]MeJA as an internal standard. Wounded soybean (Glycine max [L] Merr. cv. Williams) stems rapidly accumulated MeJA and JA. Addition of MeJA to soybean suspension cultures also increased mRNA levels for three wound-responsive genes (chalcone synthase, vegetative storage protein, and proline-rich cell wall protein) suggesting a role for MeJA/JA in the mediation of several changes in gene expression associated with the plants' response to wounding.

  14. Jasmonic acid/methyl jasmonate accumulate in wounded soybean hypocotyls and modulate wound gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Creelman, R A; Tierney, M L; Mullet, J E

    1992-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and its methyl ester, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), are plant lipid derivatives that resemble mammalian eicosanoids in structure and biosynthesis. These compounds are proposed to play a role in plant wound and pathogen responses. Here we report the quantitative determination of JA/MeJA in planta by a procedure based on the use of [13C,2H3]MeJA as an internal standard. Wounded soybean (Glycine max [L] Merr. cv. Williams) stems rapidly accumulated MeJA and JA. Addition of MeJA to soybean suspension cultures also increased mRNA levels for three wound-responsive genes (chalcone synthase, vegetative storage protein, and proline-rich cell wall protein) suggesting a role for MeJA/JA in the mediation of several changes in gene expression associated with the plants' response to wounding. Images PMID:1594598

  15. 17 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 45 - Tables of Minimum Primary Economic Terms Data

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tables of Minimum Primary Economic Terms Data 1 Appendix 1 to Part 45 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... Minimum Primary Economic Terms Data ER13JA12.003 ER13JA12.004 ER13JA12.005 ER13JA12.006 ER13JA12.007...

  16. 17 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 45 - Tables of Minimum Primary Economic Terms Data

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tables of Minimum Primary Economic Terms Data 1 Appendix 1 to Part 45 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... Minimum Primary Economic Terms Data ER13JA12.003 ER13JA12.004 ER13JA12.005 ER13JA12.006 ER13JA12.007...

  17. Fully quantum-state resolved study of NO{sub 2} photodissociation. Correlated NO({sup 2}{Pi}{sub {Omega}}, {nu} = 0 J,A) + O({sup 3}P{sub j}) distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Sanov, A.; Bieler, C.R.; Reisler, H.

    1995-09-14

    Relative O({sup 3}P{sub j} = 2.1.0) spin-orbit populations correlated with specific NO[{sup 2}{Pi}{sub {Omega}} = {1/2}, 3/2; {nu} = 0; f; {Lambda} = {Pi}(A{prime}), {Pi}(A{double_prime})] product states were obtained following photolysis of NO{sub 2} at excess energies E{sup {+-}} = 390, 425, and 1054 cm{sup -1}. These fully quantum state-resolved measurements were carried out by recording spatial profiles of recoiling NO({sup 2}{Pi}{sub {Omega}}, J, {Lambda}) products using polarized radiation for photolysis and state-selective laser ionization detection. The relative O({sup 3}P{sub j}) populations correlated with each NO({sup 2}{Pi}{sub {Omega}}, J, {Lambda}) state show marked fluctuations at each excess energy as amore » function of rotational state and {Lambda}-doublet component. The relative populations also fluctuate as a function of excess energy. The O({sup 3}P{sub j}) spin-orbit population ratios, when averaged over all measurements, exhibit distributions that are colder than statistical, in agreement with previous results. In particular, we find that, on average, O({sup 3}P{sub 1}):O({sup 3}P{sub 2}) population ratios correlated with the ground NO({sup 2}{Pi}{sub {1/2}}) state are colder than the corresponding ratios correlated with the excited NO({sup 2}{Pi}{sub 3/2}) spin-orbit state. These results are in agreement with the state-specific calculations of Katigiri and Kato. 45 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  18. A Catharanthus roseus BPF-1 homologue interacts with an elicitor-responsive region of the secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene Str and is induced by elicitor via a JA-independent signal transduction pathway.

    PubMed

    van der Fits, L; Zhang, H; Menke, F L; Deneka, M; Memelink, J

    2000-11-01

    Plants respond to pathogen attack by induction of various defence responses, including the biosynthesis of protective secondary metabolites. In Catharanthus roseus, the elicitor-induced expression of the terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthetic gene Strictosidine synthase (Str) is mediated via the plant stress hormonejasmonate. In the promoters of several defence-related genes, cis-acting elements have been identified that are important for transcriptional regulation upon stress signals. Here we show that an upstream region in the Str promoter confers responsiveness to partially purified yeast elicitor and jasmonate. Yeast one-hybrid screening with this element as a bait identified a MYB-like protein, which shows high homology to parsley box P-binding factor-1 (PcBPF-1). In vitro analyses showed that the Str promoter fragment contained a novel binding site for BPF-1-like proteins with higher binding affinity than the previously described box P. CrBPF-1 mRNA accumulated rapidly in elicitor-treated C. roseus suspension cells, whereas no induction was observed with jasmonate. Inhibitor studies indicated that CrBPF-1 plays a role in an elicitor-responsive but jasmonate-independent signal transduction pathway, acting downstream of protein phosphorylation and calcium influx.

  19. Testing the usefulness of 222Rn to complement conventional hydrochemical data to trace groundwater provenance in complex multi-layered aquifers. Application to the Úbeda aquifer system (Jaén, SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Ortega, L; Manzano, M; Rodríguez-Arévalo, J

    2017-12-01

    The Úbeda aquifer system is a multi-layered aquifer intensively exploited for irrigation. It covers 1100km 2 and consists of piled up sedimentary aquifer and aquitard layers from Triassic sandstones and clays at the bottom, to Jurassic carbonates (main exploited layer) in the middle, and Miocene sandstones and marls at the top. Flow network modification by intense exploitation and the existence of deep faults favour vertical mixing of waters from different layers and with distinct chemical composition. This induces quality loss and fosters risk of quantity restrictions. To support future groundwater abstraction management, a hydrogeochemical (major and some minor solutes) and isotopic ( 222 Rn) study was performed to identify the chemical signatures of the different layers and their mixing proportions in mixed samples. The study of 134 groundwater samples allowed a preliminary identification of hydrochemical signatures and mixtures, but the existence of reducing conditions in the most exploited sector prevents the utility of sulphate as a tracer of Triassic groundwater in the Jurassic boreholes. The potential of 222 Rn to establish isotopic signatures and to trace groundwater provenance in mixtures was tested. 222 Rn was measured in 48 samples from springs and boreholes in most aquifer layers. At first, clear correlations were observed between 222 Rn, Cl and SO 4 in groundwater. Afterwards, very good correlations were observed between 222 Rn and the chemical facies of the different layers established with End Member Mixing Analysis (EMMA). Using 222 Rn as part of the signatures, EMMA helped to identify end-member samples, and to quantify the mixing proportions of water from the Triassic and the Deep Miocene layers in groundwater pumped by deep agricultural wells screened in the Jurassic. The incorporation of 222 Rn to the study also allowed identifying the impact of irrigation returns through the association of moderate NO 3 , Cl, and Br contents with very low 222 Rn activities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Comment on: Lawrence, J.A., Mortimore, R.N., Stone, K.J., Busby, J.P., 2013. Sea saltwater weakening of chalk and the impact on cliff instability. Geomorphology 191, 14-22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dornbusch, Uwe

    2015-02-01

    This comment relates to the conclusion of the recently published paper that "This work challenges the established view by identifying the role of salt from seawater in the degradation of porous rocks in coastal environments as a third and potentially the most important mechanism leading to chalk cliff collapse." (Lawrence et al., 2013: 15). The 'established view' relates to "Traditionally, the two main factors leading to cliff collapse have been considered to be (i) waves attacking and eroding the base of the cliff […] and (ii) water weakening as the chalk becomes saturated […]." (Lawrence et al., 2013: 14). The particular aspect of the paper of making surface weakening the primary process has been picked up more widely following publication under the headlines 'Salt causes chalk cliffs to collapse' in Jarlett (2013), 'Salt makes chalk cliffs collapse' in NERC (2013) and in the web resource 'How does salt make chalk cliffs collapse?' from Leeds University (2013).

  1. Reply to comment on: Lawrence, J.A., Mortimore, R.N., Stone, K.J., and Busby, J.P., 2013. Sea saltwater weakening of chalk and the impact on cliff instability. Geomorphology 191, 14-22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, James A.; Mortimore, Rory N.

    2015-02-01

    We are grateful to Dornbusch (2014) for the opportunity to clarify the role we propose for salt water weakening of the chalk and its potential importance as a mechanism contributing to cliff instability. Dornbusch's argument is based largely on a single comment "This work challenges the established view by identifying the role of salt from seawater in the degradation of porous rocks in coastal environments as a third and potentially the most important mechanism leading to chalk cliff collapse" (Lawrence et al., 2013: 15). This was not intended as a "conclusion" as suggested by Dornbusch (2014) but is rather a qualitative introductory statement highlighting the potential importance of the salt water weakening process in coastal cliff instability. The actual conclusions of the work are not challenged by Dornbusch (2014).

  2. Commentary on "Patient-reported outcomes after 3-dimensional conformal, intensity-modulated, or proton beam radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer." Gray PJ, Paly JJ, Yeap BY, Sanda MG, Sandler HM, Michalski JM, Talcott JA, Coen JJ, Hamstra DA, Shipley WU, Hahn SM, Zietman AL, Bekelman JE, Efstathiou JA. Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, MA.: Cancer 2013;119(9):1729-35. doi: 10.1002/cncr.27956. [Epub 2013 Feb 22].

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Alexander

    2014-04-01

    Recent studies have suggested differing toxicity patterns for patients with prostate cancer who receive treatment with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), or proton beam therapy (PBT). The authors reviewed patient-reported outcomes data collected prospectively using validated instruments that assessed bowel and urinary quality of life (QOL) for patients with localized prostate cancer who received 3DCRT (n = 123), IMRT (n = 153) or PBT (n = 95). Clinically meaningful differences in mean QOL scores were defined as those exceeding half the standard deviation of the baseline mean value. Changes from baseline were compared within groups at the first post-treatment follow-up (2-3 months from the start of treatment) and at 12 months and 24 months. At the first post-treatment follow-up, patients who received 3DCRT and IMRT, but not those who received PBT, reported a clinically meaningful decrement in bowel QOL. At 12 months and 24 months, all 3 cohorts reported clinically meaningful decrements in bowel QOL. Patients who received IMRT reported clinically meaningful decrements in the domains of urinary irritation/obstruction and incontinence at the first post-treatment follow-up. At 12 months, patients who received PBT, but not those who received IMRT or 3DCRT, reported a clinically meaningful decrement in the urinary irritation/obstruction domain. At 24 months, none of the 3 cohorts reported clinically meaningful changes in urinary QOL. Patients who received 3DCRT, IMRT, or PBT reported distinct patterns of treatment-related QOL. Although the timing of toxicity varied between the cohorts, patients reported similar modest QOL decrements in the bowel domain and minimal QOL decrements in the urinary domains at 24 months. Prospective randomized trials are needed to further examine these differences. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Gene Expression Profiling Confirms the Dosage-Dependent Additive Neuroprotective Effects of Jasminoidin in a Mouse Model of Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Haixia; Wang, Jingtao; Wang, Pengqian; Zhang, Yingying; Liu, Jun; Yu, Yanan; Li, Bing; Wang, Zhong

    2018-01-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates that a double dose of Jasminoidin (2·JA) is more effective than Jasminoidin (JA) in cerebral ischemia therapy, but its dosage-effect mechanisms are unclear. In this study, the software GeneGo MetaCore was used to perform pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes obtained in microarrays of mice belonging to four groups (Sham, Vehicle, JA, and 2·JA), aiming to elucidate differences in JA and 2·JA's dose-dependent pharmacological mechanism from a system's perspective. The top 10 enriched pathways in the 2·JA condition were mainly involved in neuroprotection (70% of the pathways), apoptosis and survival (40%), and anti-inflammation (20%), while JA induced pathways were mainly involved in apoptosis and survival (60%), anti-inflammation (20%), and lipid metabolism (20%). Regarding shared pathways and processes, 3, 1, and 3 pathways overlapped between the Vehicle and JA, Vehicle and 2·JA, and JA and 2·JA conditions, respectively; for the top ten overlapped processes these numbers were 3, 0, and 4, respectively. The common pathways and processes in the 2·JA condition included differentially expressed genes significantly different from those in JA. Seven representative pathways were only activated by 2·JA, such as Gamma-Secretase regulation of neuronal cell development. Process network comparison indicated that significant nodes, such as alpha-MSH , ACTH , PKR1 , and WNT , were involved in the pharmacological mechanism of 2·JA. Function distribution was different between JA and 2·JA groups, indicating a dosage additive mechanism in cerebral ischemia treatment. Such systemic approach based on whole-genome multiple pathways and networks may provide an effective and alternative approach to identify alterations underlining dosage-dependent therapeutic benefits of pharmacological compounds on complex disease processes.

  4. Possible role of jasmonic acid in the regulation of floral induction, evocation and floral differentiation in Lemna minor L.

    PubMed

    Krajncic, B; Kristl, J; Janzekovic, I

    2006-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is implicated in a wide variety of developmental and physiological processes in plants. Here, we studied the effects of JA and the combination of JA and ethylenediamine-dio-hydroxyphenyl-acetic acid (EDDHA) on flowering in Lemna minor in axenical cultures. JA (0.475-47.5 nmol l(-1)) enhanced floral induction in L. minor under long-day (LD) conditions. Under the same conditions, at a concentration of 237.5 nmol l(-1), JA inhibited floral induction, and at a concentration of 475 nmol l(-1) it prevented floral induction. Under LD conditions with LD preculture, a combination of EDDHA (20,500 nmol l(-1)) and JA (47.5 nmol l(-1)) had a synergistic effect on the promotion of floral induction. Floral induction was enhanced to the greatest extent in experiments with LD precultures. Microscopic examination of microphotographs of histological sections showed that JA and, to an even greater extent, JA+EDDHA at optimal concentrations promote apical floral induction (evocation). Furthermore, JA, and to an even greater extent JA in combination with EDDHA in an optimal concentration, also promote flower differentiation, especially the development of stamens, as is evident from the microphotographs. The experimental results show that JA promotes floral induction in other species of Lemnaceae from various groups according to their photoperiodic response. The results support our hypothesis that, in addition to previously ascribed functions, JA may regulate floral induction, evocation and floral differentiation. Our hypothesis is supported also by the results obtained by quantitative determination of endogenous JA levels in L. minor at three growth stages. The levels of endogenous JA decreased from 389 ng JA g(-1) (fresh weight) of L. minor during the vegetative stage to 217 ng JA g(-1) during the evocation stage, and to 37.5 ng JA g(-1) during the flowering stage, which proves that JA is used for flowering.

  5. Unclassified Publications of Lincoln Laboratory 1 January - 31 December 1997. Volume 23.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-31

    ADA333490 7497 Nonconventional 3D Imaging Shirley, L.G. Line. Lab. J., Vol. 9, Using Wavelength-Dependent Hallerman , G.R. No. 2, 1996...11883 11905A 11941 A Comparison of Surface Contour Measurements Based on Speckle Pattern Sampling and Coordinate Measuring Machines Hallerman , G.R...Halbritter, J., MS-11729 Hall, K.L., JA-7354, JA-7367, JA-7462, JA-7477, MS-11776A, MS-12227, MS-12409 Haller, E.E., JA-7433 Hallerman , G.R., JA

  6. Jasmonic acid and salicylic acid activate a common defense system in rice.

    PubMed

    Tamaoki, Daisuke; Seo, Shigemi; Yamada, Shoko; Kano, Akihito; Miyamoto, Ayumi; Shishido, Hodaka; Miyoshi, Seika; Taniguchi, Shiduku; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Gomi, Kenji

    2013-06-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) play important roles in plant defense systems. JA and SA signaling pathways interact antagonistically in dicotyledonous plants, but, the status of crosstalk between JA and SA signaling is unknown in monocots. Our rice microarray analysis showed that more than half of the genes upregulated by the SA analog BTH are also upregulated by JA, suggesting that a major portion of the SA-upregulated genes are regulated by JA-dependent signaling in rice. A common defense system that is activated by both JA and SA is thus proposed which plays an important role in pathogen defense responses in rice.

  7. Disentangling the initiation from the response in joint attention: an eye-tracking study in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Billeci, L; Narzisi, A; Campatelli, G; Crifaci, G; Calderoni, S; Gagliano, A; Calzone, C; Colombi, C; Pioggia, G; Muratori, F

    2016-05-17

    Joint attention (JA), whose deficit is an early risk marker for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), has two dimensions: (1) responding to JA and (2) initiating JA. Eye-tracking technology has largely been used to investigate responding JA, but rarely to study initiating JA especially in young children with ASD. The aim of this study was to describe the differences in the visual patterns of toddlers with ASD and those with typical development (TD) during both responding JA and initiating JA tasks. Eye-tracking technology was used to monitor the gaze of 17 children with ASD and 15 age-matched children with TD during the presentation of short video sequences involving one responding JA and two initiating JA tasks (initiating JA-1 and initiating JA-2). Gaze accuracy, transitions and fixations were analyzed. No differences were found in the responding JA task between children with ASD and those with TD, whereas, in the initiating JA tasks, different patterns of fixation and transitions were shown between the groups. These results suggest that children with ASD and those with TD show different visual patterns when they are expected to initiate joint attention but not when they respond to joint attention. We hypothesized that differences in transitions and fixations are linked to ASD impairments in visual disengagement from face, in global scanning of the scene and in the ability to anticipate object's action.

  8. Mapping methyl jasmonate-mediated transcriptional reprogramming of metabolism and cell cycle progression in cultured Arabidopsis cells

    PubMed Central

    Pauwels, Laurens; Morreel, Kris; De Witte, Emilie; Lammertyn, Freya; Van Montagu, Marc; Boerjan, Wout; Inzé, Dirk; Goossens, Alain

    2008-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are plant-specific signaling molecules that steer a diverse set of physiological and developmental processes. Pathogen attack and wounding inflicted by herbivores induce the biosynthesis of these hormones, triggering defense responses both locally and systemically. We report on alterations in the transcriptome of a fast-dividing cell culture of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana after exogenous application of methyl JA (MeJA). Early MeJA response genes encoded the JA biosynthesis pathway proteins and key regulators of MeJA responses, including most JA ZIM domain proteins and MYC2, together with transcriptional regulators with potential, but yet unknown, functions in MeJA signaling. In a second transcriptional wave, MeJA reprogrammed cellular metabolism and cell cycle progression. Up-regulation of the monolignol biosynthesis gene set resulted in an increased production of monolignols and oligolignols, the building blocks of lignin. Simultaneously, MeJA repressed activation of M-phase genes, arresting the cell cycle in G2. MeJA-responsive transcription factors were screened for their involvement in early signaling events, in particular the regulation of JA biosynthesis. Parallel screens based on yeast one-hybrid and transient transactivation assays identified both positive (MYC2 and the AP2/ERF factor ORA47) and negative (the C2H2 Zn finger proteins STZ/ZAT10 and AZF2) regulators, revealing a complex control of the JA autoregulatory loop and possibly other MeJA-mediated downstream processes. PMID:18216250

  9. Endoplasmic reticulum-associated inactivation of the hormone jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine by multiple members of the cytochrome P450 94 family in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Koo, Abraham J; Thireault, Caitlin; Zemelis, Starla; Poudel, Arati N; Zhang, Tong; Kitaoka, Naoki; Brandizzi, Federica; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Howe, Gregg A

    2014-10-24

    The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) controls diverse aspects of plant immunity, growth, and development. The amplitude and duration of JA responses are controlled in large part by the intracellular level of jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile). In contrast to detailed knowledge of the JA-Ile biosynthetic pathway, little is known about enzymes involved in JA-Ile metabolism and turnover. Cytochromes P450 (CYP) 94B3 and 94C1 were recently shown to sequentially oxidize JA-Ile to hydroxy (12OH-JA-Ile) and dicarboxy (12COOH-JA-Ile) derivatives. Here, we report that a third member (CYP94B1) of the CYP94 family also participates in oxidative turnover of JA-Ile in Arabidopsis. In vitro studies showed that recombinant CYP94B1 converts JA-Ile to 12OH-JA-Ile and lesser amounts of 12COOH-JA-Ile. Consistent with this finding, metabolic and physiological characterization of CYP94B1 loss-of-function and overexpressing plants demonstrated that CYP94B1 and CYP94B3 coordinately govern the majority (>95%) of 12-hydroxylation of JA-Ile in wounded leaves. Analysis of CYP94-promoter-GUS reporter lines indicated that CYP94B1 and CYP94B3 serve unique and overlapping spatio-temporal roles in JA-Ile homeostasis. Subcellular localization studies showed that CYP94s involved in conversion of JA-Ile to 12COOH-JA-Ile reside on endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In vitro studies further showed that 12COOH-JA-Ile, unlike JA-Ile, fails to promote assembly of COI1-JAZ co-receptor complexes. The double loss-of-function mutant of CYP94B3 and ILL6, a JA-Ile amidohydrolase, displayed a JA profile consistent with the collaborative action of the oxidative and the hydrolytic pathways in JA-Ile turnover. Collectively, our results provide an integrated view of how multiple ER-localized CYP94 and JA amidohydrolase enzymes attenuate JA signaling during stress responses. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Inactivation of the Hormone Jasmonoyl-l-Isoleucine by Multiple Members of the Cytochrome P450 94 Family in Arabidopsis*

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Abraham J.; Thireault, Caitlin; Zemelis, Starla; Poudel, Arati N.; Zhang, Tong; Kitaoka, Naoki; Brandizzi, Federica; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Howe, Gregg A.

    2014-01-01

    The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) controls diverse aspects of plant immunity, growth, and development. The amplitude and duration of JA responses are controlled in large part by the intracellular level of jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile). In contrast to detailed knowledge of the JA-Ile biosynthetic pathway, little is known about enzymes involved in JA-Ile metabolism and turnover. Cytochromes P450 (CYP) 94B3 and 94C1 were recently shown to sequentially oxidize JA-Ile to hydroxy (12OH-JA-Ile) and dicarboxy (12COOH-JA-Ile) derivatives. Here, we report that a third member (CYP94B1) of the CYP94 family also participates in oxidative turnover of JA-Ile in Arabidopsis. In vitro studies showed that recombinant CYP94B1 converts JA-Ile to 12OH-JA-Ile and lesser amounts of 12COOH-JA-Ile. Consistent with this finding, metabolic and physiological characterization of CYP94B1 loss-of-function and overexpressing plants demonstrated that CYP94B1 and CYP94B3 coordinately govern the majority (>95%) of 12-hydroxylation of JA-Ile in wounded leaves. Analysis of CYP94-promoter-GUS reporter lines indicated that CYP94B1 and CYP94B3 serve unique and overlapping spatio-temporal roles in JA-Ile homeostasis. Subcellular localization studies showed that CYP94s involved in conversion of JA-Ile to 12COOH-JA-Ile reside on endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In vitro studies further showed that 12COOH-JA-Ile, unlike JA-Ile, fails to promote assembly of COI1-JAZ co-receptor complexes. The double loss-of-function mutant of CYP94B3 and ILL6, a JA-Ile amidohydrolase, displayed a JA profile consistent with the collaborative action of the oxidative and the hydrolytic pathways in JA-Ile turnover. Collectively, our results provide an integrated view of how multiple ER-localized CYP94 and JA amidohydrolase enzymes attenuate JA signaling during stress responses. PMID:25210037

  11. Genetics Home Reference: idiopathic inflammatory myopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... MYOSITIS MYOSITIS Sources for This Page Chinoy H, Lamb JA, Ollier WE, Cooper RG. An update on ... Review. Citation on PubMed Chinoy H, Platt H, Lamb JA, Betteridge Z, Gunawardena H, Fertig N, Varsani ...

  12. Identification of jasmonic acid and its methyl ester as gum-inducing factors in tulips.

    PubMed

    Skrzypek, Edyta; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Saniewski, Marian; Ueda, Junichi

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify endogenous factors that induce gummosis and to show their role in gummosis in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L. cv. Apeldoorn) stems. Using procedures to detect endogenous factors that induce gum in the stem of tulips, jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) were successfully identified using gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total amounts of JA and JA-Me designated as jasmonates in tulip stems were also estimated at about 70-80 ng/g fresh weight, using deuterium-labeled jasmonates as internal standards. The application of JA and JA-Me as lanolin pastes substantially induced gums in tulip stems with ethylene production. The application of ethephon, an ethylene-generating compound, however, induced no gummosis although it slightly affected jasmonate content in tulip stems. These results strongly suggest that JA and JA-Me are endogenous factors that induce gummosis in tulip stems.

  13. Transillumination

    MedlinePlus

    ... test References Ball JW, Dains JE, Flynn JA, Solomon BS, Stewart RW. Examination techniques and equipment. In: Ball JW, Dains JE, Flynn JA, Solomon BS, Stewart RW, eds. Seidel's Guide to Physical ...

  14. Blood pressure measurement

    MedlinePlus

    ... pubmed/27979896 . Ball JW, Dains JE, Flynn JA, Solomon BS, Stewart RW. Examination techniques and equipment. In: Ball JW, Dains JE, Flynn JA, Solomon BS, Stewart RW, eds. Seidel's Guide to Physical ...

  15. Phlegmasia cerulea dolens

    MedlinePlus

    Deep vein thrombosis - Phlegmasia cerulea dolens; DVT - Phlegmasia cerulea dolens; Phlegmasia alba dolens ... 2016:chap 81. Kline JA. Pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. ...

  16. The relationship between joint attention and theory of mind in neurotypical adults.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jordan A; Bryant, Lauren K; Malle, Bertram F; Povinelli, Daniel J; Pruett, John R

    2017-05-01

    Joint attention (JA) is hypothesized to have a close relationship with developing theory of mind (ToM) capabilities. We tested the co-occurrence of ToM and JA in social interactions between adults with no reported history of psychiatric illness or neurodevelopmental disorders. Participants engaged in an experimental task that encouraged nonverbal communication, including JA, and also ToM activity. We adapted an in-lab variant of experience sampling methods (Bryant et al., 2013) to measure ToM during JA based on participants' subjective reports of their thoughts while performing the task. This experiment successfully elicited instances of JA in 17/20 dyads. We compared participants' thought contents during episodes of JA and non-JA. Our results suggest that, in adults, JA and ToM may occur independently. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Facial swelling

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap ... Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap ...

  18. Decerebrate posture

    MedlinePlus

    ... posture; Decorticate posture - decerebrate posture References Ball JW, Dains JE, Flynn JA, Solomon BS, Stewart RW. Neurologic system. In: Ball JW, Dains JE, Flynn JA, Solomon BS, Stewart RW, eds. ...

  19. Hypermobile joints

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hypermobility syndrome Images Hypermobile joints References Ball JW, Dains JE, Flynn JA, Solomon BS, Stewart RW. Musculoskeletal system. In: Ball JW, Dains JE, Flynn JA, Solomon BS, Stewart RW, eds. ...

  20. 17 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 45 - Tables of Minimum Primary Economic Terms Data

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tables of Minimum Primary Economic Terms Data 1 Appendix 1 to Part 45 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... 45—Tables of Minimum Primary Economic Terms Data ER13JA12.003 ER13JA12.004 ER13JA12.005 ER13JA12.006...

  1. Selective enhancement of scopadulcic acid B production in the cultured tissues of Scoparia dulcis by methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Nkembo, Kasidimoko Marguerite; Lee, Jung-Bum; Hayashi, Toshimitsu

    2005-07-01

    The effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on isoprenoid production were evaluated in cultured tissues of Scoparia dulcis. It was found that MeJA suppressed the accumulation of chlorophylls, carotenoids, phytol and beta-sitosterol in the tissues. MeJA, however, remarkably enhanced the production of scopadulcic acid B (SDB), with 10 microM being optimal observed concentration for stimulation of SDB production. The maximum concentration of SDB was observed 6 d after MeJA treatment.

  2. Unclassified Publications of Lincoln Laboratory 1 January-31 December 1993. Volume 19

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-31

    Netishen, CM. Rothschild, M. Blundell, R Papa, D.C. Brown, E.R. Parker, CD. Shirley, L.G. Ariel, E.D. Hallerman , G.R. Payson, H.C Vivilecchia...Gustafson, T.K., JA-6838 Hallerman , G.R., JA-6932 Hallowell, R.G., MS-10253 Halversen, S.D., JA-6948, MS-10057, MS-10114 Hanes, A.S., JA-6924

  3. Induced plant-defenses suppress herbivore reproduction but also constrain predation of their offspring.

    PubMed

    Ataide, Livia M S; Pappas, Maria L; Schimmel, Bernardus C J; Lopez-Orenes, Antonio; Alba, Juan M; Duarte, Marcus V A; Pallini, Angelo; Schuurink, Robert C; Kant, Merijn R

    2016-11-01

    Inducible anti-herbivore defenses in plants are predominantly regulated by jasmonic acid (JA). On tomato plants, most genotypes of the herbivorous generalist spider mite Tetranychus urticae induce JA defenses and perform poorly on it, whereas the Solanaceae specialist Tetranychus evansi, who suppresses JA defenses, performs well on it. We asked to which extent these spider mites and the predatory mite Phytoseiulus longipes preying on these spider mites eggs are affected by induced JA-defenses. By artificially inducing the JA-response of the tomato JA-biosynthesis mutant def-1 using exogenous JA and isoleucine (Ile), we first established the relationship between endogenous JA-Ile-levels and the reproductive performance of spider mites. For both mite species we observed that they produced more eggs when levels of JA-Ile were low. Subsequently, we allowed predatory mites to prey on spider mite-eggs derived from wild-type tomato plants, def-1 and JA-Ile-treated def-1 and observed that they preferred, and consumed more, eggs produced on tomato plants with weak JA defenses. However, predatory mite oviposition was similar across treatments. Our results show that induced JA-responses negatively affect spider mite performance, but positively affect the survival of their offspring by constraining egg-predation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase regulates development and herbivory-induced defense response in rice.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jinfeng; Li, Jiancai; Han, Xiu; Li, Ran; Wu, Jianqiang; Yu, Haixin; Hu, Lingfei; Xiao, Yutao; Lu, Jing; Lou, Yonggen

    2016-06-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and related metabolites play a key role in plant defense and growth. JA carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT) may be involved in plant defense and development by methylating JA to methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and thus influencing the concentrations of JA and related metabolites. However, no JMT gene has been well characterized in monocotyledon defense and development at the molecular level. After we cloned a rice JMT gene, OsJMT1, whose encoding protein was localized in the cytosol, we found that the recombinant OsJMT1 protein catalyzed JA to MeJA. OsJMT1 is up-regulated in response to infestation with the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens). Plants in which OsJMT1 had been overexpressed (oe-JMT plants) showed reduced height and yield. These oe-JMT plants also exhibited increased MeJA levels but reduced levels of herbivore-induced JA and jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile). The oe-JMT plants were more attractive to BPH female adults but showed increased resistance to BPH nymphs, probably owing to the different responses of BPH female adults and nymphs to the changes in levels of H2 O2 and MeJA in oe-JMT plants. These results indicate that OsJMT1, by altering levels of JA and related metabolites, plays a role in regulating plant development and herbivore-induced defense responses in rice. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. Jasmonate and Phytochrome A Signaling in Arabidopsis Wound and Shade Responses Are Integrated through JAZ1 Stability[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Frances; Okamoto, Haruko; Patrick, Elaine; Harris, Sue-Ré; Wasternack, Claus; Brearley, Charles; Turner, John G.

    2010-01-01

    Jasmonate (JA) activates plant defense, promotes pollen maturation, and suppresses plant growth. An emerging theme in JA biology is its involvement in light responses; here, we examine the interdependence of the JA- and light-signaling pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana. We demonstrate that mutants deficient in JA biosynthesis and signaling are deficient in a subset of high irradiance responses in far-red (FR) light. These mutants display exaggerated shade responses to low, but not high, R/FR ratio light, suggesting a role for JA in phytochrome A (phyA) signaling. Additionally, we demonstrate that the FR light–induced expression of transcription factor genes is dependent on CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1), a central component of JA signaling, and is suppressed by JA. phyA mutants had reduced JA-regulated growth inhibition and VSP expression and increased content of cis-(+)-12-oxophytodienoic acid, an intermediate in JA biosynthesis. Significantly, COI1-mediated degradation of JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN1-β-glucuronidase (JAZ1-GUS) in response to mechanical wounding and JA treatment required phyA, and ectopic expression of JAZ1-GUS resulted in exaggerated shade responses. Together, these results indicate that JA and phyA signaling are integrated through degradation of the JAZ1 protein, and both are required for plant responses to light and stress. PMID:20435902

  6. Genome-wide association study reveals novel players in defense hormone crosstalk in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Silvia; Caarls, Lotte; Coolen, Silvia; Van Pelt, Johan A; Van Wees, Saskia C M; Pieterse, Corné M J

    2018-05-31

    Jasmonic acid (JA) regulates plant defenses against necrotrophic pathogens and insect herbivores. Salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) can antagonize JA-regulated defenses, thereby modulating pathogen or insect resistance. We performed a genome-wide association (GWA) study on natural genetic variation in Arabidopsis thaliana for the effect of SA and ABA on the JA pathway. We treated 349 Arabidopsis accessions with methyl JA (MeJA), or a combination of MeJA and either SA or ABA, after which expression of the JA-responsive marker gene PDF1.2 was quantified as a readout for GWA analysis. Both hormones antagonized MeJA-induced PDF1.2 in the majority of the accessions, but with a large variation in magnitude. GWA mapping of the SA- and ABA-affected PDF1.2 expression data revealed loci associated with crosstalk. GLYI4 (encoding a glyoxalase) and ARR11 (encoding an Arabidopsis response regulator involved in cytokinin signaling) were confirmed by T-DNA insertion mutant analysis to affect SA-JA crosstalk and resistance against the necrotroph Botrytis cinerea. In addition, At1g16310 (encoding a cation efflux family protein) was confirmed to affect ABA-JA crosstalk and susceptibility to Mamestra brassicae herbivory. Collectively, this GWA study identified novel players in JA hormone crosstalk with potential roles in the regulation of pathogen or insect resistance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Ethylene signaling renders the jasmonate response of Arabidopsis insensitive to future suppression by salicylic Acid.

    PubMed

    Leon-Reyes, Antonio; Du, Yujuan; Koornneef, Annemart; Proietti, Silvia; Körbes, Ana P; Memelink, Johan; Pieterse, Corné M J; Ritsema, Tita

    2010-02-01

    Cross-talk between jasmonate (JA), ethylene (ET), and Salicylic acid (SA) signaling is thought to operate as a mechanism to fine-tune induced defenses that are activated in response to multiple attackers. Here, 43 Arabidopsis genotypes impaired in hormone signaling or defense-related processes were screened for their ability to express SA-mediated suppression of JA-responsive gene expression. Mutant cev1, which displays constitutive expression of JA and ET responses, appeared to be insensitive to SA-mediated suppression of the JA-responsive marker genes PDF1.2 and VSP2. Accordingly, strong activation of JA and ET responses by the necrotrophic pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria brassicicola prior to SA treatment counteracted the ability of SA to suppress the JA response. Pharmacological assays, mutant analysis, and studies with the ET-signaling inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene revealed that ET signaling renders the JA response insensitive to subsequent suppression by SA. The APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR transcription factor ORA59, which regulates JA/ET-responsive genes such as PDF1.2, emerged as a potential mediator in this process. Collectively, our results point to a model in which simultaneous induction of the JA and ET pathway renders the plant insensitive to future SA-mediated suppression of JA-dependent defenses, which may prioritize the JA/ET pathway over the SA pathway during multi-attacker interactions.

  8. Complementary action of jasmonic acid on salicylic acid in mediating fungal elicitor-induced flavonol glycoside accumulation of Ginkgo biloba cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Maojun; Dong, Jufang; Wang, Huizhong; Huang, Luqi

    2009-08-01

    The antagonistic action between jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) in plant defence responses has been well documented. However, their relationship in secondary metabolite production is largely unknown. Here, we report that PB90, a protein elicitor from Phytophthora boehmeriae, triggers JA generation, SA accumulation and flavonol glycoside production of Ginkgo biloba cells. JA inhibitors suppress not only PB90-triggered JA generation, but also the elicitor-induced flavonol glycoside production. However, the elicitor can still enhance flavonol glycoside production even though the JA generation is totally inhibited. Over-expression of SA hydrolase gene NahG not only abolishes SA accumulation, but also suppresses the elicitor-induced flavonol glycoside production when JA signalling is inhibited. Interestingly, expression of NahG does not inhibit the elicitor-induced flavonol glycoside accumulation in the absence of JA inhibitors. Moreover, JA levels are significantly enhanced when SA accumulation is impaired in the transgenic cells. Together, the data suggest that both JA and SA are involved in PB90-induced flavonol glycoside production. Furthermore, we demonstrate that JA signalling might be enhanced to substitute for SA to mediate the elicitor-induced flavonol glycoside accumulation when SA signalling is impaired, which reveals an unusual complementary relationship between JA and SA in mediating plant secondary metabolite production.

  9. Role of jasmonic acid in improving tolerance of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) to Cd toxicity*

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Essa; Hussain, Nazim; Shamsi, Imran Haider; Jabeen, Zahra; Siddiqui, Muzammil Hussain; Jiang, Li-xi

    2018-01-01

    The well-known detrimental effects of cadmium (Cd) on plants are chloroplast destruction, photosynthetic pigment inhibition, imbalance of essential plant nutrients, and membrane damage. Jasmonic acid (JA) is an alleviator against different stresses such as salinity and drought. However, the functional attributes of JA in plants such as the interactive effects of JA application and Cd on rapeseed in response to heavy metal stress remain unclear. JA at 50 μmol/L was observed in literature to have senescence effects in plants. In the present study, 25 μmol/L JA is observed to be a “stress ameliorating molecule” by improving the tolerance of rapeseed plants to Cd toxicity. JA reduces the Cd uptake in the leaves, thereby reducing membrane damage and malondialdehyde content and increasing the essential nutrient uptake. Furthermore, JA shields the chloroplast against the damaging effects of Cd, thereby increasing gas exchange and photosynthetic pigments. Moreover, JA modulates the antioxidant enzyme activity to strengthen the internal defense system. Our results demonstrate the function of JA in alleviating Cd toxicity and its underlying mechanism. Moreover, JA attenuates the damage of Cd to plants. This study enriches our knowledge regarding the use of and protection provided by JA in Cd stress. PMID:29405041

  10. Jasmonate induction of the monoterpene linalool confers resistance to rice bacterial blight and its biosynthesis is regulated by JAZ protein in rice.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Shiduku; Hosokawa-Shinonaga, Yumi; Tamaoki, Daisuke; Yamada, Shoko; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Gomi, Kenji

    2014-02-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is involved in the regulation of host immunity in plants. Recently, we demonstrated that JA signalling has an important role in resistance to rice bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) in rice. Here, we report that many volatile compounds accumulate in response to exogenous application of JA, including the monoterpene linalool. Expression of linalool synthase was up-regulated by JA. Vapour treatment with linalool induced resistance to Xoo, and transgenic rice plants overexpressing linalool synthase were more resistance to Xoo, presumably due to the up-regulation of defence-related genes in the absence of any treatment. JA-induced accumulation of linalool was regulated by OsJAZ8, a rice jasmonate ZIM-domain protein involving the JA signalling pathway at the transcriptional level, suggesting that linalool plays an important role in JA-induced resistance to Xoo in rice. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Complete genome analysis of jasmine virus T from Jasminum sambac in China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yajun; Gao, Fangluan; Yang, Zhen; Wu, Zujian; Yang, Liang

    2016-07-01

    The genome of a potyvirus (isolate JaVT_FZ) recovered from jasmine (Jasminum sambac L.) showing yellow ringspot symptoms in Fuzhou, China, was sequenced. JaVT_FZ is closely related to seven other potyviruses with completely sequenced genomes, with which it shares 66-70 % nucleotide and 52-56 % amino acid sequence identity. However, the coat protein (CP) gene shares 82-92 % nucleotide and 90-97 % amino acid sequence identity with those of two partially sequenced potyviruses, named jasmine potyvirus T (JaVT-jasmine) and jasmine yellow mosaic potyvirus (JaYMV-India), respectively. This suggests that JaVT_FZ, JaVT-jasmine and JaYMV-India should be regarded as members of a single potyvirus species, for which the name "Jasmine virus T" has priority.

  12. Jasmonic acid-isoleucine formation in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) by two enzymes with distinct transcription profiles.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Christine; Burbidge, Crista A; di Rienzo, Valentina; Boss, Paul K; Davies, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) is essential for stress responses and the formation of reproductive organs, but its role in fruit development and ripening is unclear. Conjugation of JA to isoleucine is a crucial step in the JA signaling pathway since only JA-Ile is recognized by the jasmonate receptor. The conjugation reaction is catalyzed by JA-amido synthetases, belonging to the family of Gretchen Hagen3 (GH3) proteins. Here, in vitro studies of two grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Shiraz) GH3 enzymes, VvGH3-7 and VvGH3-9, demonstrated JA-conjugating activities with an overlapping range of amino acid substrates, including isoleucine. Expression studies of the corresponding genes in grape berries combined with JA and JA-Ile measurements suggested a primary role for JA signaling in fruit set and cell division and did not support an involvement of JA in the ripening process. In response to methyl JA (MeJA) treatment, and in wounded and unwounded (distal) leaves, VvGH3-9 transcripts accumulated, indicating a participation in the JA response. In contrast, VvGH3-7 was unresponsive to MeJA and local wounding, demonstrating a differential transcriptional regulation of VvGH3-7 and VvGH3-9. The transient induction of VvGH3-7 in unwounded, distal leaves was suggestive of the involvement of an unknown mobile wound signal. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Jasmonic acid distribution and action in plants: regulation during development and response to biotic and abiotic stress.

    PubMed Central

    Creelman, R A; Mullet, J E

    1995-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a naturally occurring growth regulator found in higher plants. Several physiological roles have been described for this compound (or a related compound, methyl jasmonate) during plant development and in response to biotic and abiotic stress. To accurately determine JA levels in plant tissue, we have synthesized JA containing 13C for use as an internal standard with an isotopic composition of [225]:[224] 0.98:0.02 compared with [225]:[224] 0.15:0.85 for natural material. GC analysis (flame ionization detection and MS) indicate that the internal standard is composed of 92% 2-(+/-)-[13C]JA and 8% 2-(+/-)-7-iso-[13C]JA. In soybean plants, JA levels were highest in young leaves, flowers, and fruit (highest in the pericarp). In soybean seeds and seedlings, JA levels were highest in the youngest organs including the hypocotyl hook, plumule, and 12-h axis. In soybean leaves that had been dehydrated to cause a 15% decrease in fresh weight, JA levels increased approximately 5-fold within 2 h and declined to approximately control levels by 4 h. In contrast, a lag time of 1-2 h occurred before abscisic acid accumulation reached a maximum. These results will be discussed in the context of multiple pathways for JA biosynthesis and the role of JA in plant development and responses to environmental signals. PMID:11607536

  14. Jasmonic acid distribution and action in plants: regulation during development and response to biotic and abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Creelman, R A; Mullet, J E

    1995-05-09

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a naturally occurring growth regulator found in higher plants. Several physiological roles have been described for this compound (or a related compound, methyl jasmonate) during plant development and in response to biotic and abiotic stress. To accurately determine JA levels in plant tissue, we have synthesized JA containing 13C for use as an internal standard with an isotopic composition of [225]:[224] 0.98:0.02 compared with [225]:[224] 0.15:0.85 for natural material. GC analysis (flame ionization detection and MS) indicate that the internal standard is composed of 92% 2-(+/-)-[13C]JA and 8% 2-(+/-)-7-iso-[13C]JA. In soybean plants, JA levels were highest in young leaves, flowers, and fruit (highest in the pericarp). In soybean seeds and seedlings, JA levels were highest in the youngest organs including the hypocotyl hook, plumule, and 12-h axis. In soybean leaves that had been dehydrated to cause a 15% decrease in fresh weight, JA levels increased approximately 5-fold within 2 h and declined to approximately control levels by 4 h. In contrast, a lag time of 1-2 h occurred before abscisic acid accumulation reached a maximum. These results will be discussed in the context of multiple pathways for JA biosynthesis and the role of JA in plant development and responses to environmental signals.

  15. Cognitive and adaptive correlates of an ADOS-derived joint attention composite

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Ashley Johnson; Lu, Zhenqiu (Laura); McLean, Rebecca L.; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Joint attention skills have been shown to predict language outcomes in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Less is known about the relationship between joint attention (JA) abilities in children with ASD and cognitive and adaptive abilities. In the current study, a subset of items from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), designed to quantify JA abilities, were used to investigate social attention among an unusually large cross-sectional sample of children with ASD (n = 1061). An examination of the association between JA and a range of functional correlates (cognitive and adaptive) revealed JA was significantly related to verbal (VIQ) and non-verbal (NVIQ) cognitive ability as well as all domains of adaptive functioning (socialization, communication, and daily living skills). Additional analyses examined the degree to which the relation between adaptive abilities (socialization, communication, and daily living skills) and JA was maintained after taking into account the potentially mediating role of verbal and nonverbal cognitive ability. Results revealed that VIQ fully mediated the relation between JA and adaptive functioning, whereas the relation between these adaptive variables and JA was only partially mediated by NVIQ. Moderation analyses were also conducted to examine how verbal and non-verbal cognitive ability and gender impacted the relation between JA and adaptive functioning. In line with research showing a relation between language and JA, this indicates that while JA is significantly related to functional outcomes, this appears to be mediated specifically through a verbal cognitive pathway. PMID:28168003

  16. Jasmonoyl-l-Isoleucine Coordinates Metabolic Networks Required for Anthesis and Floral Attractant Emission in Wild Tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata)[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Stitz, Michael; Hartl, Markus; Baldwin, Ian T.; Gaquerel, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Jasmonic acid and its derivatives (jasmonates [JAs]) play central roles in floral development and maturation. The binding of jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile) to the F-box of CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) is required for many JA-dependent physiological responses, but its role in anthesis and pollinator attraction traits remains largely unexplored. Here, we used the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, which develops sympetalous flowers with complex pollination biology, to examine the coordinating function of JA homeostasis in the distinct metabolic processes that underlie flower maturation, opening, and advertisement to pollinators. From combined transcriptomic, targeted metabolic, and allometric analyses of transgenic N. attenuata plants for which signaling deficiencies were complemented with methyl jasmonate, JA-Ile, and its functional homolog, coronatine (COR), we demonstrate that (1) JA-Ile/COR-based signaling regulates corolla limb opening and a JA-negative feedback loop; (2) production of floral volatiles (night emissions of benzylacetone) and nectar requires JA-Ile/COR perception through COI1; and (3) limb expansion involves JA-Ile-induced changes in limb fresh mass and carbohydrate metabolism. These findings demonstrate a master regulatory function of the JA-Ile/COI1 duet for the main function of a sympetalous corolla, that of advertising for and rewarding pollinator services. Flower opening, by contrast, requires JA-Ile signaling-dependent changes in primary metabolism, which are not compromised in the COI1-silenced RNA interference line used in this study. PMID:25326292

  17. Costs of jasmonic acid induced defense in aboveground and belowground parts of corn (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuanjiao; Wang, Jianwu; Luo, Shiming; Fan, Huizhi; Jin, Qiong

    2012-08-01

    Costs of jasmonic acid (JA) induced plant defense have gained increasing attention. In this study, JA was applied continuously to the aboveground (AG) or belowground (BG) parts, or AG plus BG parts of corn (Zea mays L.) to investigate whether JA exposure in one part of the plant would affect defense responses in another part, and whether or not JA induced defense would incur allocation costs. The results indicated that continuous JA application to AG parts systemically affected the quantities of defense chemicals in the roots, and vice versa. Quantities of DIMBOA and total amounts of phenolic compounds in leaves or roots generally increased 2 or 4 wk after the JA treatment to different plant parts. In the first 2 wk after application, the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots was accompanied by a significant decrease of root length, root surface area, and root biomass. Four weeks after the JA application, however, no such costs for the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots were detected. Instead, shoot biomass and root biomass increased. The results suggest that JA as a defense signal can be transferred from AG parts to BG parts of corn, and vice versa. Costs for induced defense elicited by continuous JA application were found in the early 2 wk, while distinct benefits were observed later, i.e., 4 wk after JA treatment.

  18. Embryo-Specific Gene Expression in Microspore-Derived Embryos of Brassica napus. An Interaction between Abscisic Acid and Jasmonic Acid1, 2

    PubMed Central

    Hays, Dirk B.; Wilen, Ronald W.; Sheng, Chuxing; Moloney, Maurice M.; Pharis, Richard P.

    1999-01-01

    The induction of napin and oleosin gene expression in Brassica napus microspore-derived embryos (MDEs) was studied to assess the possible interaction between abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA). Napin and oleosin transcripts were detected sooner following treatment with ABA than JA. Treatment of MDEs with ABA plus JA gave an additive accumulation of both napin and oleosin mRNA, the absolute amount being dependent on the concentration of each hormone. Endogenous ABA levels were reduced by 10-fold after treatment with JA, negating the possibility that the observed additive interaction was due to JA-induced ABA biosynthesis. Also, JA did not significantly increase the uptake of [3H-ABA] from the medium into MDEs. This suggests that the additive interaction was not due to an enhanced carrier-mediated ABA uptake by JA. Finally, when JA was added to MDEs that had been treated with the ABA biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone, napin mRNA did not increase. Based on these results with the MDE system, it is possible that embryos of B. napus use endogenous JA to modulate ABA effects on expression of both napin and oleosin. In addition, JA could play a causal role in the reduction of ABA that occurs during late stages of seed development. PMID:10069845

  19. Look into my eyes: Investigating joint attention using interactive eye-tracking and fMRI in a developmental sample.

    PubMed

    Oberwelland, E; Schilbach, L; Barisic, I; Krall, S C; Vogeley, K; Fink, G R; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Konrad, K; Schulte-Rüther, M

    2016-04-15

    Joint attention, the shared attentional focus of at least two people on a third significant object, is one of the earliest steps in social development and an essential aspect of reciprocal interaction. However, the neural basis of joint attention (JA) in the course of development is completely unknown. The present study made use of an interactive eye-tracking paradigm in order to examine the developmental trajectories of JA and the influence of a familiar interaction partner during the social encounter. Our results show that across children and adolescents JA elicits a similar network of "social brain" areas as well as attention and motor control associated areas as in adults. While other-initiated JA particularly recruited visual, attention and social processing areas, self-initiated JA specifically activated areas related to social cognition, decision-making, emotions and motivational/reward processes highlighting the rewarding character of self-initiated JA. Activation was further enhanced during self-initiated JA with a familiar interaction partner. With respect to developmental effects, activation of the precuneus declined from childhood to adolescence and additionally shifted from a general involvement in JA towards a more specific involvement for self-initiated JA. Similarly, the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) was broadly involved in JA in children and more specialized for self-initiated JA in adolescents. Taken together, this study provides first-time data on the developmental trajectories of JA and the effect of a familiar interaction partner incorporating the interactive character of JA, its reciprocity and motivational aspects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of marker genes for jasmonic acid signaling in shoots and roots of wheat

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongwei; Carvalhais, Lilia Costa; Kazan, Kemal; Schenk, Peer M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway plays key roles in a diverse array of plant development, reproduction, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Most of our understanding of the JA signaling pathway derives from the dicot model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, while corresponding knowledge in wheat is somewhat limited. In this study, the expression of 41 genes implicated in the JA signaling pathway has been assessed on 10 day-old bread wheat seedlings, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h after methyl-jasmonate (MeJA) treatment using quantitative real-time PCR. The examined genes have been previously reported to be involved in JA biosynthesis and catabolism, JA perception and signaling, and pathogen defense in wheat shoots and roots. This study provides evidence to suggest that the effect of MeJA treatment is more prominent in shoots than roots of wheat seedlings, and substantial regulation of the JA pathway-dependent defense genes occurs at 72 h after MeJA treatment. Results show that the expression of 22 genes was significantly affected by MeJA treatment in wheat shoots. However, only PR1.1 and PR3 were significantly differentially expressed in wheat roots, both at 24 h post-MeJA treatment, with other genes showing large variation in their gene expression in roots. While providing marker genes on JA signaling in wheat, future work may focus on elucidating the regulatory function of JA-modulated transcription factors, some of which have well-studied potential orthologs in Arabidopsis. PMID:27115051

  1. Salicylic acid and jasmonic acid are essential for systemic resistance against tobacco mosaic virus in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Xi, De-Hui; Yuan, Shu; Xu, Fei; Zhang, Da-Wei; Lin, Hong-Hui

    2014-06-01

    Systemic resistance is induced by pathogens and confers protection against a broad range of pathogens. Recent studies have indicated that salicylic acid (SA) derivative methyl salicylate (MeSA) serves as a long-distance phloem-mobile systemic resistance signal in tobacco, Arabidopsis, and potato. However, other experiments indicate that jasmonic acid (JA) is a critical mobile signal. Here, we present evidence suggesting both MeSA and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) are essential for systemic resistance against Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), possibly acting as the initiating signals for systemic resistance. Foliar application of JA followed by SA triggered the strongest systemic resistance against TMV. Furthermore, we use a virus-induced gene-silencing-based genetics approach to investigate the function of JA and SA biosynthesis or signaling genes in systemic response against TMV infection. Silencing of SA or JA biosynthetic and signaling genes in Nicotiana benthamiana plants increased susceptibility to TMV. Genetic experiments also proved the irreplaceable roles of MeSA and MeJA in systemic resistance response. Systemic resistance was compromised when SA methyl transferase or JA carboxyl methyltransferase, which are required for MeSA and MeJA formation, respectively, were silenced. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that JA and MeJA accumulated in phloem exudates of leaves at early stages and SA and MeSA accumulated at later stages, after TMV infection. Our data also indicated that JA and MeJA could regulate MeSA and SA production. Taken together, our results demonstrate that (Me)JA and (Me)SA are required for systemic resistance response against TMV.

  2. Book review of Dragonfly Genera of the New World. An Illustrated and Annotated Key to the Anisoptera. Garrison, R.W., N. Von Ellenrieder and J.A. Louton, Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore, MD. xi+368 pp. Hardback, ISBN 0-8018-8446-2

    SciTech Connect

    Cannings, R.A.

    2007-03-15

    This superb book is the most important reference on the Order Odonata to appear since the 1999 publication of Philip Corbet's monumental work on the behavior and ecology of Odonata. In the context of specimen identification and faunistics, it is the most significant contribution in decades, for it opens a new door to the most diverse and least known dragonfly fauna on Earth, that of the Neotropical Region. The book treats the genera of all the New World dragonflies, but while the Nearctic Anisoptera (at least north of the Mexican border) is extensively summarized in many taxonomic and identification manualsmore » (e.g., Needham et al. 2000), the Neotropical fauna remains rather poorly known. Much of it still is undescribed and taxonomic syntheses are few and far between. This is partly because of its huge diversity, the remoteness of much of the region, and the relative scarcity of specimens in collections. As T. W. Donnelly (2006) noted in a recent review of this book, the New World tropics have always been a challenge to biologists in many disciplines because the region was first colonized by the Spanish and Portuguese who largely lacked the tradition of natural history studies characteristic of the British, French, Dutch and Germans in Africa, India or Southeast Asia. In South America there simply was no F. C. Fraser to write an equivalent to his three volumes on the Odonata in The Fauna of British India. Borror (1945) was an early and wonderful resource for deciphering the genera of the large family Libellulidae in the Americas. Calvert's hard-to-find contributions on the Odonata (1902-1908) in the Biologia Centrali-Americana helped students of the Central American fauna; the updated equivalent by Foerster (2001) for Mesoamerican genera is also important. But as far as syntheses and overviews, that's about all there was - until now.« less

  3. Improvements in Cd stable isotope analysis achieved through use of liquid–liquid extraction to remove organic residues from Cd separates obtained by extraction chromatography† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ja00115c Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Rehkämper, Mark; Kreissig, Katharina; Coles, Barry; van de Flierdt, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Organic compounds released from resins that are commonly employed for trace element separations are known to have a detrimental impact on the quality of isotopic analyses by MC-ICP-MS. A recent study highlighted that such effects can be particularly problematic for Cd stable isotope measurements (M. Gault-Ringold and C. H. Stirling, J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 2012, 27, 449–459). In this case, the final stage of sample purification commonly applies extraction chromatography with Eichrom TRU resin, which employs particles coated with octylphenyl-N,N-di-isobutyl carbamoylphosphine oxide (CMPO) dissolved in tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). During chromatography, it appears that some of these compounds are eluted alongside Cd and cannot be removed by evaporation due to their high boiling points. When aliquots of the zero-ε reference material were processed through the purification procedure, refluxed in concentrated HNO3 and analyzed at minimum dilution (in 1 ml 0.1 M HNO3), they yielded Cd isotopic compositions (ε114/110Cd = 4.6 ± 3.4, 2SD, n = 4) that differed significantly from the expected value, despite the use of a double spike technique to correct for instrumental mass fractionation. This result was accompanied by a 35% reduction in instrumental sensitivity for Cd. With increasing dilution of the organic resin residue, both of these effects are reduced and they are insignificant when the eluted Cd is dissolved in ≥3 ml 0.1 M HNO3. Our results, furthermore, indicate that the isotopic artefacts are most likely related to anomalous mass bias behavior. Previous studies have shown that perchloric acid can be effective at avoiding such effects (Gault-Ringold and Stirling, 2012; K. C. Crocket, M. Lambelet, T. van de Flierdt, M. Rehkämper and L. F. Robinson, Chem. Geol., 2014, 374–375, 128–140), presumably by oxidizing the resin-derived organics, but there are numerous disadvantages to its use. Here we show that liquid–liquid extraction with n-heptane removes the organic compounds, dramatically improving quality of the Cd isotope data for samples that are analyzed at or close to minimum dilution factors. This technique is quick, simple and may be of use prior to analysis of other isotope systems where similar resins are employed. PMID:27284213

  4. IM-CRDS for the analysis of matrix-bound water isotopes: a streamlined (and updated) tool for ecohydrologists to probe small-scale variability in plants Yasuhara, S. (syasuhara@picarro.com)1,Carter, J.A. (jcarter@picarro.com)1, Dennis, K.J. (kdennis@picarro.com)1 1Picarro Inc., 3105 Patrick Henry Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95054

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuhara, S.

    2013-12-01

    The ability to measure the isotopic composition of matrix-bound water is valuable to many facets of earth and environmental sciences. For example, ecohydrologists use stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in plant and soil water, in combination with measurements of atmospheric water vapor, surface water and precipitation, to estimate budgets of evapotranspiration. Likewise, water isotopes of oceanic water, brines and other waters with high total dissolved solids (TDS, e.g., juices) are relevant to studying large-scale oceanic circulation, small-scale mixing, groundwater contamination, the balance of evaporation to precipitation, and the provenance of food. Conventionally matrix-bound water has been extracted using cryogenic distillation, whereby water is distilled from the material in question (e.g., a leaf sample) by heating under vacuum and collecting the resultant water vapor using liquid nitrogen. The water can then be analyzed for its stable isotopic composition by a variety of methods, including isotope ratio mass spectrometry and laser techniques, such as Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS). Here we present recent improvements in an alternative, and stream-lined, solution for integrated sample extraction and isotopic measurement using a Picarro Induction Module (IM) coupled to commercially-available CRDS analyzer from Picarro. This technique is also valuable for waters with high TDS, which can have detrimental effects on flash vaporization process, typically used for the introduction of water to Picarro CRDS water isotope analyzers. The IM works by inductively heating a sample held within a metal sample holder in a glass vial flushed with dry air. Tested samples include leaves, stems, twigs, calibration water, juices, and salt water. The heating process evolves water vapor which is then swept through the system at approximately 150 standard cubic centimeters per minute. The evolved water vapor passes through an activated charcoal cartridge for removal of large organics, and then through Picarro's Micro-Combustion Cartridge that acts to oxidize interfering organics to CO2 and H2O. Using an open-split, the IM is interfaced directly with a CRDS system (in this case, an L2130-i) for the measurement of δ18O and δD. Based on replicate measurements of water introduced to the system using glass filter paper, the precision of the system is better than 0.35 and 1.5 ‰ for δ18O and δD, respectively. We will present improvements in system operation that have reduced systematic errors associated with (i) variable backgrounds, and (ii) exchange between the sample and the local atmosphere during sample introduction. In addition, we will present calibration data, and data demonstrating the effectiveness of the Micro-Combustion Cartridge at removing organics, which can result in spectroscopic interference. Finally, we will compare localized leaf water data against integrated whole leaf water data to demonstrate the added value of being able to sample small (approximately 5 mm diameter) areas of a leaf, and compare the results of measuring samples with high TDS on an IM and a Picarro High Precision Vaporizer.

  5. jsc2017e136056 - On a snowy night at Red Square in Moscow, Expedition 54-55 crewmembers Scott Tingle of NASA (left), Anton Shkaplerov of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos, center) and Norishige Kanai of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-30

    jsc2017e136056 - On a snowy night at Red Square in Moscow, Expedition 54-55 crewmembers Scott Tingle of NASA (left), Anton Shkaplerov of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos, center) and Norishige Kanai of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA, right) pose for pictures at the Kremlin Wall where Russian space icons are interred in traditional pre-launch ceremonies Nov. 30. They will launch from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on the Soyuz MS-07 spacecraft Dec. 17 for a five-month mission on the International Space Station...Andrey Shelepin/Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center.

  6. jsc2017e136059 - On a snowy night at Red Square in Moscow, Expedition 54-55 crewmembers Anton Shkaplerov of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos, left), Scott Tingle of NASA (center) and Norishige Kanai of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-30

    jsc2017e136059 - On a snowy night at Red Square in Moscow, Expedition 54-55 crewmembers Anton Shkaplerov of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos, left), Scott Tingle of NASA (center) and Norishige Kanai of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA, right) pose for pictures in front of St. Basil’s Cathedral in traditional pre-launch ceremonies Nov. 30. They will launch from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on the Soyuz MS-07 spacecraft Dec. 17 for a five-month mission on the International Space Station...Andrey Shelepin/Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center.

  7. Commentary on "Robot-assisted laparoscopic vs open radical cystectomy: Comparison of complications and perioperative oncological outcomes in 200 patients." Kader AK, Richards KA, Krane LS, Pettus JA, Smith JJ, Hemal AK, Division of Urology, UC San Diego Health System, San Diego, CA.: BJU Int 2013; 112(4):E290-4. doi:10.1111/bju.12167. [Epub 2013 Jul 1].

    PubMed

    See, William A

    2014-11-01

    To compare perioperative morbidity and oncological outcomes of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy (RARC) to open RC (ORC) at a single institution. A retrospective analysis was performed on a consecutive series of patients undergoing RC (100 RARC and 100 ORC) at Wake Forest University with curative intent from 2006 until 2010. Complication data using the Clavien system were collected for 90 days postoperatively. Complications and other perioperative outcomes were compared between patient groups. Patients in both groups had comparable preoperative characteristics. The overall and major complication (Clavien ≥ 3) rates were lower for RARC patients at 35 vs 57% (P = 0.001) and 10 vs 22% (P = 0.019), respectively. There were no significant differences between groups for pathological outcomes, including stage, number of nodes harvested or positive margin rates. Our data suggest that patients undergoing RARC have perioperative oncological outcomes comparable with ORC, with fewer overall or major complications. Definitive claims about comparative outcomes with RARC require results from larger, randomised controlled trials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Measurement of polar stratospheric NO2 from the 23rd and 24th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE) balloon experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibasaki, K.; Iwagami, N.; Ogawa, T.

    1985-01-01

    As a part of the Japanese activities of MAP in the Antarctica, balloon-borne measurements of the stratospheric NO2 profile were planned and carried out by the JARE 23rd and 24th wintering parties. Few results have been reported so far as the stratospheric NO2 profile at high latitude. There were no reported balloon measurements carried out in the Southern Hemisphere. Profiles are presented for the first balloon-borne measurement of the stratospheric NO2 in the Antarctica. Three balloons named JA21, JA25 and JA26 were launched from Syowa Station (69 deg S, 35.6 deg E) using 5000 cu. cm plastic balloons. JA21 balloon was launched on November 24, 1982, and JA25 and JA26 balloons on November 12 and 20, 1983, respectively.

  9. Polarization properties of long-lived stimulated photon echo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetov, V. A.; Popov, E. N.

    2015-01-01

    The polarization properties of the long-lived stimulated photon echo formed on the transition ja → jb with the atomic levels degenerate in the projections of the angular momenta are studied theoretically. The two particular transitions ja = 1 → jb = 0 and ja = 1 → jb = 1 with degenerate ground state ja = 1 are discussed. For the transitions ja = 1 → jb = 1 the polarizations and areas of the first (‘write’) and the third (‘read’) excitation pulses are found when the echo polarization faithfully reproduces the arbitrary polarization of the weak (single-photon) second (‘information’) pulse, so that this echo scheme may implement the quantum memory for a single-photon polarization qubit, while for the transitions ja = 1 → jb = 0 it is shown, that the echo polarization differs from that of the second pulse at any conditions.

  10. The Treatment of BRCA1/2 Hereditary Breast Cancer and Sporadic Breast Cancer with Poly(ADP-ribose) PARP-1 Inhibitors and Chemotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    American population d) D) Obesity, and breast cancer J. of Nursing and Bariatric Surgery . 2008 submitting. This paper uses in part mechanisms worked...National Med. Society. 2008 submitting D) Obesity, and breast cancer J. of Nursing and Bariatric Surgery . 2008 submitting Abstracts: A) De Soto JA...submitting De Soto JA. Obesity, breast cancer and bariatric surgery . J. of Nursing and Bariatric Surgery . 2008 submitting Davis JH, De Soto JA

  11. 45 CFR Appendix B to Part 1158 - Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying B Appendix B to... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 1158, App. B Appendix B to Part 1158—Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying EC01JA91.010 EC01JA91.011 EC01JA91.012 ...

  12. 45 CFR Appendix B to Part 1168 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying B Appendix B to Part 1168 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE..., App. B Appendix B to Part 1168—Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying EC01JA91.013 EC01JA91.014 EC01JA91...

  13. In Silico Identification of Mimicking Molecules as Defense Inducers Triggering Jasmonic Acid Mediated Immunity against Alternaria Blight Disease in Brassica Species

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Rajesh K.; Baunthiyal, Mamta; Shukla, Rohit; Pandey, Dinesh; Taj, Gohar; Kumar, Anil

    2017-01-01

    Alternaria brassicae and Alternaria brassicicola are two major phytopathogenic fungi which cause Alternaria blight, a recalcitrant disease on Brassica crops throughout the world, which is highly destructive and responsible for significant yield losses. Since no resistant source is available against Alternaria blight, therefore, efforts have been made in the present study to identify defense inducer molecules which can induce jasmonic acid (JA) mediated defense against the disease. It is believed that JA triggered defense response will prevent necrotrophic mode of colonization of Alternaria brassicae fungus. The JA receptor, COI1 is one of the potential targets for triggering JA mediated immunity through interaction with JA signal. In the present study, few mimicking compounds more efficient than naturally occurring JA in terms of interaction with COI1 were identified through virtual screening and molecular dynamics simulation studies. A high quality structural model of COI1 was developed using the protein sequence of Brassica rapa. This was followed by virtual screening of 767 analogs of JA from ZINC database for interaction with COI1. Two analogs viz. ZINC27640214 and ZINC43772052 showed more binding affinity with COI1 as compared to naturally occurring JA. Molecular dynamics simulation of COI1 and COI1-JA complex, as well as best screened interacting structural analogs of JA with COI1 was done for 50 ns to validate the stability of system. It was found that ZINC27640214 possesses efficient, stable, and good cell permeability properties. Based on the obtained results and its physicochemical properties, it is capable of mimicking JA signaling and may be used as defense inducers for triggering JA mediated resistance against Alternaria blight, only after further validation through field trials. PMID:28487711

  14. The Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act (USERRA) Guide. Volume II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    Deployment Guide JA 274 Uniformed Services Former Spouses’ Protection Act - Outline and References JA 275 Model Tax Assistance Program JA 276 Preventive...uniformed services. (b) It is the sense of Congress that the Federal Government should be a model employer in carrying out the provisions of this...Under CSRS .-Section 8351(b) of title 5, United States Code, is amended by adding at the end the following: A-29 (11) In applying section 8432b to

  15. 45 CFR Appendix B to Part 93 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying B Appendix B to Part 93 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 93, App. B Appendix B to Part 93—Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying EC01JA91.003 EC01JA91.004 EC01JA91.00...

  16. 45 CFR Appendix B to Part 604 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying B Appendix B to Part 604 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 604, App. B Appendix B to Part 604—Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying EC01JA91.007 EC01JA91.008 EC01JA91.00...

  17. Cumulative and Synergistic Effects of Physical, Biological, and Acoustic Signals on Marine Mammal Habitat Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    Science 59, 1326-1336. PUBLICATIONS Nystuen, JA, Miksis-Olds, JL, Stabeno, PJ (in prep). Soundscapes under sea ice. Journal of the Acoustical...International Conference:The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life. Cork, Ireland. August 16-20. Nystuen, JA, Miksis-Olds, JL (2010). Soundscapes under sea... Soundscapes under sea ice:Can we listen for open water? Acoustical Society of America, Baltimore, MD. April 19-23. Miksis-Olds, JL, Nystuen, JA

  18. Cumulative and Synergistic Effects of Physical, Biological, and Acoustic Signals on Marine Mammal Habitat Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    Science, Special Issue on Ocean Observatories. 7 Nystuen, JA, Miksis-Olds, JL, Stabeno, PJ (in prep). Soundscapes under sea ice. Journal of the...Conference:The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life. Cork, Ireland. August 16-20. Nystuen, JA, Miksis-Olds, JL (2010). Soundscapes under sea ice:Can we...listen for open water? European Conference on Underwater Acoustics. Istanbul, Turkey. July 5-9. Nystuen, JA, Miksis-Olds, JL (2010). Soundscapes

  19. Exogenous polyamines elicit herbivore-induced volatiles in lima bean leaves: involvement of calcium, H2O2 and Jasmonic acid.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Rika; Bertea, Cinzia M; Foti, Maria; Narayana, Ravishankar; Arimura, Gen-Ichiro; Muroi, Atsushi; Horiuchi, Jun-Ichiro; Nishioka, Takaaki; Maffei, Massimo E; Takabayashi, Junji

    2009-12-01

    We investigated the role of polyamines (PAs) in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) leaves on the production of herbivorous mite (Tetranychus urticae)-induced plant volatiles that attract carnivorous natural enemies of the herbivores. To do this, we focused on the effects of the exogenous PAs [cadaverine, putrescine, spermidine and spermine (Spm)] on the production of volatiles, H(2)O(2) and jasmonic acid (JA) and the levels of defensive genes, cytosolic calcium and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Among the tested PAs, Spm was the most active in inducing the production of volatile terpenoids known to be induced by T. urticae. An increase in JA levels was also found after Spm treatment, indicating that Spm induces the biosynthesis of JA, which has been shown elsewhere to regulate the production of some volatile terpenoids. Further, treatment with JA and Spm together resulted in greater volatile emission than that with JA alone. In a Y-tube olfactometer, leaves treated with Spm + JA attracted more predatory mites (Phytoseiulus persimilis) than those treated with JA alone. After treatment with Spm + JA, no effects were found on the enzyme activity of polyamine oxidase and copper amine oxidase. However, induction of calcium influx and ROS production, and increased enzyme activities and gene expression for NADPH oxidase complex, superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase were found after treatment with Spm + JA. These results indicate that Spm plays an important role in the production of T. urticae-induced lima bean leaf volatiles.

  20. Contrasting nutrient-disease relationships: Potassium gradients in barley leaves have opposite effects on two fungal pathogens with different sensitivities to jasmonic acid.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jayne L; Armengaud, Patrick; Larson, Tony R; Graham, Ian A; White, Philip J; Newton, Adrian C; Amtmann, Anna

    2018-05-31

    Understanding the interactions between mineral nutrition and disease is essential for crop management. Our previous studies with Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrated that potassium (K) deprivation induced the biosynthesis of jasmonate (JA) and increased the plant's resistance to herbivorous insects. Here we addressed the question how tissue K affects the development of fungal pathogens and whether sensitivity of the pathogens to JA could play a role for the K-disease relationship in barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Optic). We report that K-deprived barley plants showed increased leaf concentrations of JA and other oxylipins. Furthermore, a natural tip-to base K-concentrations gradient within leaves of K-sufficient plants was quantitatively mirrored by the transcript levels of JA-responsive genes. The local leaf tissue K concentrations affected the development of two economically important fungi in opposite ways, showing a positive correlation with powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis) and a negative correlation with leaf scald (Rhynchosporium commune) disease symptoms. B. graminis induced a JA-response in the plant and was sensitive to methyl-JA treatment while R. commune initiated no JA-response and was JA-insensitive. Our study challenges the view that high K generally improves plant health and suggests that JA-sensitivity of pathogens could be an important factor determining the exact K-disease relationship. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. MYC2 Orchestrates a Hierarchical Transcriptional Cascade That Regulates Jasmonate-Mediated Plant Immunity in Tomato.

    PubMed

    Du, Minmin; Zhao, Jiuhai; Tzeng, David T W; Liu, Yuanyuan; Deng, Lei; Yang, Tianxia; Zhai, Qingzhe; Wu, Fangming; Huang, Zhuo; Zhou, Ming; Wang, Qiaomei; Chen, Qian; Zhong, Silin; Li, Chang-Bao; Li, Chuanyou

    2017-08-01

    The hormone jasmonate (JA), which functions in plant immunity, regulates resistance to pathogen infection and insect attack through triggering genome-wide transcriptional reprogramming in plants. We show that the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor (TF) MYC2 in tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) acts downstream of the JA receptor to orchestrate JA-mediated activation of both the wounding and pathogen responses. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) coupled with RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) assays, we identified 655 MYC2-targeted JA-responsive genes. These genes are highly enriched in Gene Ontology categories related to TFs and the early response to JA, indicating that MYC2 functions at a high hierarchical level to regulate JA-mediated gene transcription. We also identified a group of MYC2-targeted TFs (MTFs) that may directly regulate the JA-induced transcription of late defense genes. Our findings suggest that MYC2 and its downstream MTFs form a hierarchical transcriptional cascade during JA-mediated plant immunity that initiates and amplifies transcriptional output. As proof of concept, we showed that during plant resistance to the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea , MYC2 and the MTF JA2-Like form a transcription module that preferentially regulates wounding-responsive genes, whereas MYC2 and the MTF ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR.C3 form a transcription module that preferentially regulates pathogen-responsive genes. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  2. MYC2 Orchestrates a Hierarchical Transcriptional Cascade That Regulates Jasmonate-Mediated Plant Immunity in Tomato[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Deng, Lei; Wu, Fangming; Huang, Zhuo; Zhou, Ming; Chen, Qian; Zhong, Silin

    2017-01-01

    The hormone jasmonate (JA), which functions in plant immunity, regulates resistance to pathogen infection and insect attack through triggering genome-wide transcriptional reprogramming in plants. We show that the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor (TF) MYC2 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) acts downstream of the JA receptor to orchestrate JA-mediated activation of both the wounding and pathogen responses. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) coupled with RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) assays, we identified 655 MYC2-targeted JA-responsive genes. These genes are highly enriched in Gene Ontology categories related to TFs and the early response to JA, indicating that MYC2 functions at a high hierarchical level to regulate JA-mediated gene transcription. We also identified a group of MYC2-targeted TFs (MTFs) that may directly regulate the JA-induced transcription of late defense genes. Our findings suggest that MYC2 and its downstream MTFs form a hierarchical transcriptional cascade during JA-mediated plant immunity that initiates and amplifies transcriptional output. As proof of concept, we showed that during plant resistance to the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea, MYC2 and the MTF JA2-Like form a transcription module that preferentially regulates wounding-responsive genes, whereas MYC2 and the MTF ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR.C3 form a transcription module that preferentially regulates pathogen-responsive genes. PMID:28733419

  3. Defense Priming and Jasmonates: A Role for Free Fatty Acids in Insect Elicitor-Induced Long Distance Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ting; Cofer, Tristan; Engelberth, Marie; Engelberth, Jurgen

    2016-01-01

    Green leaf volatiles (GLV) prime plants against insect herbivore attack resulting in stronger and faster signaling by jasmonic acid (JA). In maize this response is specifically linked to insect elicitor (IE)-induced signaling processes, which cause JA accumulation not only around the damage site, but also in distant tissues, presumably through the activation of electrical signals. Here, we present additional data further characterizing these distal signaling events in maize. Also, we describe how exposure to GLV increases free fatty acid (fFA) levels in maize seedlings, but also in other plants, and how increased fFA levels affect IE-induced JA accumulation. Increased fFA, in particular α-linolenic acid (LnA), caused a significant increase in JA accumulation after IE treatment, while JA induced by mechanical wounding (MW) alone was not affected. We also identified treatments that significantly decreased certain fFA level including simulated wind and rain. In such treated plants, IE-induced JA accumulation was significantly reduced when compared to un-moved control plants, while MW-induced JA accumulation was not significantly affected. Since only IE-induced JA accumulation was altered by changes in the fFA composition, we conclude that changing levels of fFA affect primarily IE-induced signaling processes rather than serving as a substrate for JA. PMID:27135225

  4. Involvement of nitric oxide in the jasmonate-dependent basal defense against root-knot nematode in tomato plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jie; Jia, Feifei; Shao, Shujun; Zhang, Huan; Li, Guiping; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Yanhong; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and nitric oxide (NO) are well-characterized signaling molecules in plant defense responses. However, their roles in plant defense against root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) infection are largely unknown. In this study, we found that the transcript levels of the JA- and NO-related biosynthetic and signaling component genes were induced after RKN infection. Application of exogenous JA and sodium nitroprusside (SNP; a NO donor) significantly decreased the number of egg masses in tomato roots after RKN infection and partially alleviated RKN-induced decreases in plant fresh weight and net photosynthetic rate. These molecules also alleviated RKN-induced increases in root electrolyte leakage and membrane peroxidation. Importantly, NO scavenger partially inhibited JA-induced RKN defense. The pharmacological inhibition of JA biosynthesis significantly increased the plants’ susceptibility to RKNs, which was effectively alleviated by SNP application, showing that NO may be involved in the JA-dependent RKN defense pathway. Furthermore, both JA and SNP induced increases in protease inhibitor 2 (PI2) gene expression after RKN infestation. Silencing of PI2 compromised both JA- and SNP-induced RKN defense responses, suggesting that the PI2 gene mediates JA- and NO-induced defense against RKNs. This work will be important for deepening the understanding of the mechanisms involved in basal defense against RKN attack in plants. PMID:25914698

  5. Involvement of nitric oxide in the jasmonate-dependent basal defense against root-knot nematode in tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Jia, Feifei; Shao, Shujun; Zhang, Huan; Li, Guiping; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Yanhong; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and nitric oxide (NO) are well-characterized signaling molecules in plant defense responses. However, their roles in plant defense against root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) infection are largely unknown. In this study, we found that the transcript levels of the JA- and NO-related biosynthetic and signaling component genes were induced after RKN infection. Application of exogenous JA and sodium nitroprusside (SNP; a NO donor) significantly decreased the number of egg masses in tomato roots after RKN infection and partially alleviated RKN-induced decreases in plant fresh weight and net photosynthetic rate. These molecules also alleviated RKN-induced increases in root electrolyte leakage and membrane peroxidation. Importantly, NO scavenger partially inhibited JA-induced RKN defense. The pharmacological inhibition of JA biosynthesis significantly increased the plants' susceptibility to RKNs, which was effectively alleviated by SNP application, showing that NO may be involved in the JA-dependent RKN defense pathway. Furthermore, both JA and SNP induced increases in protease inhibitor 2 (PI2) gene expression after RKN infestation. Silencing of PI2 compromised both JA- and SNP-induced RKN defense responses, suggesting that the PI2 gene mediates JA- and NO-induced defense against RKNs. This work will be important for deepening the understanding of the mechanisms involved in basal defense against RKN attack in plants.

  6. Influence of (9Z)-12-hydroxy-9-dodecenoic acid and methyl jasmonate on plant protein phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Tarchevsky, I A; Karimova, F G; Grechkin, A N; Moukhametchina, N U

    2000-12-01

    The products of the lipoxygenase pathway, methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA) and (9Z)-12-hydroxy-9-dodecenoic acid (HDA), hardly changed the relative level of phosphorylated polypeptides (RLPPs) during 2 h of incubation: 15 and 17 kDa RLPPs were enhanced by HDA, but decreased by MeJA. RLPPs of 73 and 82 kDa were increased by both compounds. MeJA and HDA treatment induced specific and unspecific effects in some RLPPs. It was shown that HDA and MeJA increased protein kinase activity in the presence of 1 microM cAMP.

  7. The Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase CPK28 Regulates Development by Inducing Growth Phase-Specific, Spatially Restricted Alterations in Jasmonic Acid Levels Independent of Defense Responses in Arabidopsis[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Matschi, Susanne; Hake, Katharina; Herde, Marco; Hause, Bettina; Romeis, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Phytohormones play an important role in development and stress adaptations in plants, and several interacting hormonal pathways have been suggested to accomplish fine-tuning of stress responses at the expense of growth. This work describes the role played by the CALCIUM-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE CPK28 in balancing phytohormone-mediated development in Arabidopsis thaliana, specifically during generative growth. cpk28 mutants exhibit growth reduction solely as adult plants, coinciding with altered balance of the phytohormones jasmonic acid (JA) and gibberellic acid (GA). JA-dependent gene expression and the levels of several JA metabolites were elevated in a growth phase-dependent manner in cpk28, and accumulation of JA metabolites was confined locally to the central rosette tissue. No elevated resistance toward herbivores or necrotrophic pathogens was detected for cpk28 plants, either on the whole-plant level or specifically within the tissue displaying elevated JA levels. Abolishment of JA biosynthesis or JA signaling led to a full reversion of the cpk28 growth phenotype, while modification of GA signaling did not. Our data identify CPK28 as a growth phase-dependent key negative regulator of distinct processes: While in seedlings, CPK28 regulates reactive oxygen species-mediated defense signaling; in adult plants, CPK28 confers developmental processes by the tissue-specific balance of JA and GA without affecting JA-mediated defense responses. PMID:25736059

  8. Characterization of a JAZ7 activation-tagged Arabidopsis mutant with increased susceptibility to the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum

    PubMed Central

    Thatcher, Louise F.; Cevik, Volkan; Grant, Murray; Zhai, Bing; Jones, Jonathan D.G.; Manners, John M.; Kazan, Kemal

    2016-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, jasmonate (JA)-signaling plays a key role in mediating Fusarium oxysporum disease outcome. However, the roles of JASMONATE ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins that repress JA-signaling have not been characterized in host resistance or susceptibility to this pathogen. Here, we found most JAZ genes are induced following F. oxysporum challenge, and screening T-DNA insertion lines in Arabidopsis JAZ family members identified a highly disease-susceptible JAZ7 mutant (jaz7-1D). This mutant exhibited constitutive JAZ7 expression and conferred increased JA-sensitivity, suggesting activation of JA-signaling. Unlike jaz7 loss-of-function alleles, jaz7-1D also had enhanced JA-responsive gene expression, altered development and increased susceptibility to the bacterial pathogen Pst DC3000 that also disrupts host JA-responses. We also demonstrate that JAZ7 interacts with transcription factors functioning as activators (MYC3, MYC4) or repressors (JAM1) of JA-signaling and contains a functional EAR repressor motif mediating transcriptional repression via the co-repressor TOPLESS (TPL). We propose through direct TPL recruitment, in wild-type plants JAZ7 functions as a repressor within the JA-response network and that in jaz7-1D plants, misregulated ectopic JAZ7 expression hyper-activates JA-signaling in part by disturbing finely-tuned COI1-JAZ-TPL-TF complexes. PMID:26896849

  9. Transcriptome-wide analysis of jasmonate-treated BY-2 cells reveals new transcriptional regulators associated with alkaloid formation in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuping; Yan, Pengcheng; Yi, Che; Li, Wenzheng; Chai, Yuhui; Fei, Lingling; Gao, Ping; Zhao, Heping; Wang, Yingdian; Timko, Michael P; Wang, Bingwu; Han, Shengcheng

    2017-08-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are well-known regulators of stress, defence, and secondary metabolism in plants, with JA perception triggering extensive transcriptional reprogramming, including both activation and/or repression of entire metabolic pathways. We performed RNA sequencing based transcriptomic profiling of tobacco BY-2 cells before and after treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) to identify novel transcriptional regulators associated with alkaloid formation. A total of 107,140 unigenes were obtained through de novo assembly, and at least 33,213 transcripts (31%) encode proteins, in which 3419 transcription factors (TFs) were identified, representing 72 gene families, as well as 840 transcriptional regulators (TRs) distributed among 19 gene families. After MeJA treatment BY-2 cells, 7260 differentially expressed transcripts were characterised, which include 4443 MeJA-upregulated and 2817 MeJA-downregulated genes. Of these, 227 TFs/TRs in 36 families were specifically upregulated, and 102 TFs/TRs in 38 families were downregulated in MeJA-treated BY-2 cells. We further showed that the expression of 12 ethylene response factors and four basic helix-loop-helix factors increased at the transcriptional level after MeJA treatment in BY-2 cells and displayed specific expression patterns in nic mutants with or without MeJA treatments. Our data provide a catalogue of transcripts of tobacco BY-2 cells and benefit future study of JA-modulated regulation of secondary metabolism in tobacco. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Rheumatoid Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... condition? What if my symptoms come back? Other organizations National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Citations Diagnosis and Management of Rheumatoid Arthritis by JA Rindfleisch, ...

  11. The Recently Identified Isoleucine Conjugate of cis-12-Oxo-Phytodienoic Acid Is Partially Active in cis-12-Oxo-Phytodienoic Acid-Specific Gene Expression of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Floková, Kristýna; Miersch, Otto; Strnad, Miroslav; Novák, Ondřej; Wasternack, Claus; Hause, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Oxylipins of the jasmonate family are active as signals in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as in development. Jasmonic acid (JA), its precursor cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) and the isoleucine conjugate of JA (JA-Ile) are the most prominent members. OPDA and JA-Ile have individual signalling properties in several processes and differ in their pattern of gene expression. JA-Ile, but not OPDA, is perceived by the SCFCOI1-JAZ co-receptor complex. There are, however, numerous processes and genes specifically induced by OPDA. The recently identified OPDA-Ile suggests that OPDA specific responses might be mediated upon formation of OPDA-Ile. Here, we tested OPDA-Ile-induced gene expression in wild type and JA-deficient, JA-insensitive and JA-Ile-deficient mutant background. Tests on putative conversion of OPDA-Ile during treatments revealed only negligible conversion. Expression of two OPDA-inducible genes, GRX480 and ZAT10, by OPDA-Ile could be detected in a JA-independent manner in Arabidopsis seedlings but less in flowering plants. The data suggest a bioactivity in planta of OPDA-Ile. PMID:27611078

  12. Undescended testicle

    MedlinePlus

    ... undescended testes); Monorchism; Vanished testes - undescended; Retractile testes Images Male reproductive anatomy Male reproductive system References Barthold JS, Hagerty JA. Etiology, diagnosis, and management of the ...

  13. Continuously Monocropped Jerusalem Artichoke Changed Soil Bacterial Community Composition and Ammonia-Oxidizing and Denitrifying Bacteria Abundances.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xingang; Wang, Zhilin; Jia, Huiting; Li, Li; Wu, Fengzhi

    2018-01-01

    Soil microbial communities have profound effects on the growth, nutrition and health of plants in agroecosystems. Understanding soil microbial dynamics in cropping systems can assist in determining how agricultural practices influence soil processes mediated by microorganisms. In this study, soil bacterial communities were monitored in a continuously monocropped Jerusalem artichoke (JA) system, in which JA was successively monocropped for 3 years in a wheat field. Soil bacterial community compositions were estimated by amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Abundances of ammonia-oxidizing and denitrifying bacteria were estimated by quantitative PCR analysis of the amoA , nirS , and nirK genes. Results showed that 1-2 years of monocropping of JA did not significantly impact the microbial alpha diversity, and the third cropping of JA decreased the microbial alpha diversity ( P < 0.05). Principal coordinates analysis and permutational multivariate analysis of variance analyses revealed that continuous monocropping of JA changed soil bacterial community structure and function profile ( P < 0.001). At the phylum level, the wheat field was characterized with higher relative abundances of Latescibacteria , Planctomycetes , and Cyanobacteria , the first cropping of JA with Actinobacteria , the second cropping of JA with Acidobacteria , Armatimonadetes , Gemmatimonadetes , and Proteobacteria . At the genus level, the first cropping of JA was enriched with bacterial species with pathogen-antagonistic and/or plant growth promoting potentials, while members of genera that included potential denitrifiers increased in the second and third cropping of JA. The first cropping of JA had higher relative abundances of KO terms related to lignocellulose degradation and phosphorus cycling, the second cropping of JA had higher relative abundances of KO terms nitrous-oxide reductase and nitric-oxide reductase, and the third cropping of JA had higher relative abundances of KO terms

  14. Insect-Induced Conifer Defense. White Pine Weevil and Methyl Jasmonate Induce Traumatic Resinosis, de Novo Formed Volatile Emissions, and Accumulation of Terpenoid Synthase and Putative Octadecanoid Pathway Transcripts in Sitka Spruce1[w

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Barbara; Madilao, Lufiani L.; Ralph, Steven; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2005-01-01

    Stem-boring insects and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) are thought to induce similar complex chemical and anatomical defenses in conifers. To compare insect- and MeJA-induced terpenoid responses, we analyzed traumatic oleoresin mixtures, emissions of terpenoid volatiles, and expression of terpenoid synthase (TPS) genes in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) following attack by white pine weevils (Pissodes strobi) or application of MeJA. Both insects and MeJA caused traumatic resin accumulation in stems, with more accumulation induced by the weevils. Weevil-induced terpenoid emission profiles were also more complex than emissions induced by MeJA. Weevil feeding caused a rapid release of a blend of monoterpene olefins, presumably by passive evaporation of resin compounds from stem feeding sites. These compounds were not found in MeJA-induced emissions. Both weevils and MeJA caused delayed, diurnal emissions of (−)-linalool, indicating induced de novo biosynthesis of this compound. TPS transcripts strongly increased in stems upon insect attack or MeJA treatment. Time courses and intensity of induced TPS transcripts were different for monoterpene synthases, sesquiterpene synthases, and diterpene synthases. Increased levels of weevil- and MeJA-induced TPS transcripts accompanied major changes in terpenoid accumulation in stems. Induced TPS expression profiles in needles were less complex than those in stems and matched induced de novo emissions of (−)-linalool. Overall, weevils and MeJA induced similar, but not identical, terpenoid defense responses in Sitka spruce. Findings of insect- and MeJA-induced accumulation of allene oxide synthase-like and allene oxide cyclase-like transcripts are discussed in the context of traumatic resinosis and induced volatile emissions in this gymnosperm system. PMID:15618433

  15. Both the Jasmonic Acid and the Salicylic Acid Pathways Contribute to Resistance to the Biotrophic Clubroot Agent Plasmodiophora brassicae in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lemarié, Séverine; Robert-Seilaniantz, Alexandre; Lariagon, Christine; Lemoine, Jocelyne; Marnet, Nathalie; Jubault, Mélanie; Manzanares-Dauleux, Maria J; Gravot, Antoine

    2015-11-01

    The role of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling in resistance to root pathogens has been poorly documented. We assessed the contribution of SA and JA to basal and partial resistance of Arabidopsis to the biotrophic clubroot agent Plasmodiophora brassicae. SA and JA levels as well as the expression of the SA-responsive genes PR2 and PR5 and the JA-responsive genes ARGAH2 and THI2.1 were monitored in infected roots of the accessions Col-0 (susceptible) and Bur-0 (partially resistant). SA signaling was activated in Bur-0 but not in Col-0. The JA pathway was weakly activated in Bur-0 but was strongly induced in Col-0. The contribution of both pathways to clubroot resistance was then assessed using exogenous phytohormone application and mutants affected in SA or JA signaling. Exogenous SA treatment decreased clubroot symptoms in the two Arabidopsis accessions, whereas JA treatment reduced clubroot symptoms only in Col-0. The cpr5-2 mutant, in which SA responses are constitutively induced, was more resistant to clubroot than the corresponding wild type, and the JA signaling-deficient mutant jar1 was more susceptible. Finally, we showed that the JA-mediated induction of NATA1 drove N(δ)-acetylornithine biosynthesis in infected Col-0 roots. The 35S::NATA1 and nata1 lines displayed reduced or enhanced clubroot symptoms, respectively, thus suggesting that in Col-0 this pathway was involved in the JA-mediated basal clubroot resistance. Overall, our data support the idea that, depending on the Arabidopsis accession, both SA and JA signaling can play a role in partial inhibition of clubroot development in compatible interactions with P. brassicae. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The Licensing of Negative Sensitive Items in Jordanian Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsarayreh, Atef

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the licensing conditions on Negative Sensitive Items (NSIs) in Jordanian Arabic (JA). JA exhibits both types of NSIs that are discussed in the literature: Negative Polarity Items (NPIs) and Negative Concord Items (NCIs). Although these two sets of items seem to form a natural class in the sense that they show certain…

  17. Tense Use and Move Analysis in Journal Article Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shih-ping; Tu, Pin-ning

    2014-01-01

    There has long been a growing interest in journal article (JA) abstract writing, and this pervading interest has boosted the exigency for further research. This current study therefore aims to investigate both the various applications of verb tense and the rhetorical structure within JA abstracts. A corpus of 1,000 JAs was collected from four…

  18. TIME FOR COFFEE Represses Accumulation of the MYC2 Transcription Factor to Provide Time-of-Day Regulation of Jasmonate Signaling in Arabidopsis[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jieun; Heidrich, Katharina; Sanchez-Villarreal, Alfredo; Parker, Jane E.; Davis, Seth J.

    2012-01-01

    Plants are confronted with predictable daily biotic and abiotic stresses that result from the day–night cycle. The circadian clock provides an anticipation mechanism to respond to these daily stress signals to increase fitness. Jasmonate (JA) is a phytohormone that mediates various growth and stress responses. Here, we found that the circadian-clock component TIME FOR COFFEE (TIC) acts as a negative factor in the JA-signaling pathway. We showed that the tic mutant is hypersensitive to growth-repressive effects of JA and displays altered JA-regulated gene expression. TIC was found to interact with MYC2, a key transcription factor of JA signaling. From this, we discovered that the circadian clock rhythmically regulates JA signaling. TIC is a key determinant in this circadian-gated process, and as a result, the tic mutant is defective in rhythmic JA responses to pathogen infection. TIC acts here by inhibiting MYC2 protein accumulation and by controlling the transcriptional repression of CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 in an evening-phase–specific manner. Taken together, we propose that TIC acts as an output component of the circadian oscillator to influence JA signaling directly. PMID:22693280

  19. MYC2 Differentially Modulates Diverse Jasmonate-Dependent Functions in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Dombrecht, Bruno; Xue, Gang Ping; Sprague, Susan J.; Kirkegaard, John A.; Ross, John J.; Reid, James B.; Fitt, Gary P.; Sewelam, Nasser; Schenk, Peer M.; Manners, John M.; Kazan, Kemal

    2007-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana basic helix-loop-helix Leu zipper transcription factor (TF) MYC2/JIN1 differentially regulates jasmonate (JA)-responsive pathogen defense (e.g., PDF1.2) and wound response (e.g., VSP) genes. In this study, genome-wide transcriptional profiling of wild type and mutant myc2/jin1 plants followed by functional analyses has revealed new roles for MYC2 in the modulation of diverse JA functions. We found that MYC2 negatively regulates Trp and Trp-derived secondary metabolism such as indole glucosinolate biosynthesis during JA signaling. Furthermore, MYC2 positively regulates JA-mediated resistance to insect pests, such as Helicoverpa armigera, and tolerance to oxidative stress, possibly via enhanced ascorbate redox cycling and flavonoid biosynthesis. Analyses of MYC2 cis binding elements and expression of MYC2-regulated genes in T-DNA insertion lines of a subset of MYC2–regulated TFs suggested that MYC2 might modulate JA responses via differential regulation of an intermediate spectrum of TFs with activating or repressing roles in JA signaling. MYC2 also negatively regulates its own expression, and this may be one of the mechanisms used in fine-tuning JA signaling. Overall, these results provide new insights into the function of MYC2 and the transcriptional coordination of the JA signaling pathway. PMID:17616737

  20. A role for jasmonates in the release of dormancy by cold stratification in wheat

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qian; Truong, Thy T.; Barrero, Jose M.; Jacobsen, John V.; Hocart, Charles H.; Gubler, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Hydration at low temperatures, commonly referred to as cold stratification, is widely used for releasing dormancy and triggering germination in a wide range of species including wheat. However, the molecular mechanism that underlies its effect on germination has largely remained unknown. Our previous studies showed that methyl-jasmonate, a derivative of jasmonic acid (JA), promotes dormancy release in wheat. In this study, we found that cold-stimulated germination of dormant grains correlated with a transient increase in JA content and expression of JA biosynthesis genes in the dormant embryos after transfer to 20 oC. The induction of JA production was dependent on the extent of cold imbibition and precedes germination. Blocking JA biosynthesis with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) inhibited the cold-stimulated germination in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, we have explored the relationship between JA and abscisic acid (ABA), a well-known dormancy promoter, in cold regulation of dormancy. We found an inverse relationship between JA and ABA content in dormant wheat embryos following stratification. ABA content decreased rapidly in response to stratification, and the decrease was reversed by addition of ASA. Our results indicate that the action of JA on cold-stratified grains is mediated by suppression of two key ABA biosynthesis genes, TaNCED1 and TaNCED2. PMID:27140440

  1. A Data Collection and Representation Framework for Software and Human-Computer Interaction Measurements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-04

    by Miara , Musselman, Navarro, and Shneiderman [ Miara et al. 1983] they found that indentation correlated strongly with comprehension. They tested 47...Dissertation, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, August 1996. MIARA , R.J., MUSSELMAN, JA., NAVARRO, JA., AND SHNEIDERMAN, B. 1983. Program Indentation and

  2. Using Junior Achievement as a Vocational Option for Youth with Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoff, Patty

    Junior Achievement (JA) offers high school students its traditional evening program, in which business advisors help students run their own mini-businesses. In 1980, JA offered this program to mentally, emotionally, and physically disabled students aged 16-21. The special needs component operates an in-class program where students run companies…

  3. The effects of surface-applied jasmonic and salicylic acids on caterpillar growth and damage to tomato plants

    Treesearch

    Aaron L. Iverson; Louis R. Iverson; Steve Eshita

    2001-01-01

    We tested the role of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) in altering the tomato plant's defense against herbivory by tobacco hornworm. Treatments of SA or JA were topically applied to tomato plants, hornworm consumption was allowed to proceed for 12 days, and harvest analyses were performed Measurements taken included a subjective plant rating (1-10 score...

  4. Questionnaire survey on pediatric hypertension in Japan and Korea.

    PubMed

    Yim, Hyung Eun; Lee, Eun Hee; Jang, Gi Young; Yoo, Kee Hwan; Son, Chang Sung; Hong, Young Sook; Lee, Joo Won; Ito, Yuhei; Ikezumi, Yohei; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2010-02-01

    Hypertension (HTN) is no longer viewed as an adult disease. The purpose of the present study was to understand how hypertensive children are evaluated and managed, by surveying pediatricians in Japan and South Korea. A questionnaire was mailed to 109 Japanese (JA) and 159 Korean (KO) pediatric cardiologists, pediatric nephrologists, and other pediatricians. A total of 127 replies were received (response rate 47%). Most of respondents did not check blood pressure (BP) routinely in outpatient clinics (JA 77%, KO 88%). A mercury sphygmomanometer was the most commonly used method for BP measurements (JA 72%, KO 62%). BP treatment goals were usually set at the 95th percentile for age, gender, and height (JA 47%, KO 54%). More KO used a lower goal in children with primary HTN than JA. KO respondents preferred angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) as initial agents regardless of underlying diseases whereas JA respondents chose various medications, that is, calcium channel blockers, diuretics, and ACEI. For BP monitoring, self-monitoring was found to be most frequent in both countries (JA 80%, KO 57%). Ambulatory BP monitoring was not frequently utilized in both countries (JA 33% KO 34%). The current assessment, management and differing trends in pediatric HTN in Japan and Korea have been identified in the present study. Pediatricians should be aware of the growing implications of HTN in children.

  5. Arabidopsis MYC Transcription Factors Are the Target of Hormonal Salicylic Acid/Jasmonic Acid Cross Talk in Response to Pieris brassicae Egg Extract1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Schmiesing, André; Gouhier-Darimont, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants recognize insect eggs and activate the salicylic acid (SA) pathway. As a consequence, expression of defense genes regulated by the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway is suppressed and larval performance is enhanced. Cross talk between defense signaling pathways is common in plant-pathogen interactions, but the molecular mechanism mediating this phenomenon is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that egg-induced SA/JA antagonism works independently of the APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) transcription factor ORA59, which controls the ERF branch of the JA pathway. In addition, treatment with egg extract did not enhance expression or stability of JASMONATE ZIM-domain transcriptional repressors, and SA/JA cross talk did not involve JASMONATE ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKEs, which are negative regulators of the JA pathway. Investigating the stability of MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4, three basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that additively control jasmonate-related defense responses, we found that egg extract treatment strongly diminished MYC protein levels in an SA-dependent manner. Furthermore, we identified WRKY75 as a novel and essential factor controlling SA/JA cross talk. These data indicate that insect eggs target the MYC branch of the JA pathway and uncover an unexpected modulation of SA/JA antagonism depending on the biological context in which the SA pathway is activated. PMID:26884488

  6. 48 CFR 53.301-1094A - SF 1094A, Tax Exemption Certificates Accountability Record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false SF 1094A, Tax Exemption Certificates Accountability Record. 53.301-1094A Section 53.301-1094A Federal Acquisition Regulations System... 1094A, Tax Exemption Certificates Accountability Record. ER02JA97.013 ER02JA97.014 [62 FR 247, Jan. 2...

  7. TAF1, From a General Transcription Factor to Modulator of Androgen Receptor in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    kinase CK2. Mol Cell Biochem 316:99-106 21. Lively TN, Ferguson HA, Galasinski SK, Seto AG, Goodrich JA 2001 c-Jun binds the N terminus of human TAF(II...Nguyen TN, Galasinski SK, Goodrich JA 2004 The basic leucine zipper domain of c-Jun functions in transcriptional activation through interaction with

  8. TAF1, From a General Transcription Factor to Modulator of Androgen Receptor in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    TN, Ferguson HA, Galasinski SK, Seto AG, Goodrich JA 2001 c-Jun binds the N terminus of human TAF(II)250 to derepress RNA polymerase II... Galasinski SK, Goodrich JA 2004 The basic leucine zipper domain of c-Jun functions in transcriptional activation through interaction with the N

  9. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 679 - Product Recovery Rates for Groundfish Species and Conversion Rates for Pacific Halibut

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Product Recovery Rates for Groundfish Species and Conversion Rates for Pacific Halibut 3 Table 3 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... Rates for Groundfish Species and Conversion Rates for Pacific Halibut ER28JA02.074 ER10JY02.000 ER28JA02...

  10. Effects of High Altitude Hypoxia on Lung and Chest Wall Function during Exercise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-15

    Chronic Lung Disease. (L. Hall and G. Meyer, eds) Human Kinetics Publ., Champaign, IL pp 199-223, 1988. 3) Dempsey, J.A., E. Aaron and K. Henke...and Sports Science Research. (J.S. Skinner, et al., eds) Human Kinetics Books, Champaign, IL. pp 313-327, 1989. 8) Powers, S.K., J. Lawler, J.A

  11. Behavioral and electrophysiological responses of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, to induced volatiles of Manchurian ash, Fraxinus mandshurica

    Treesearch

    Cesar Rodriguez-Saona; Therese M. Poland; James R. Miller; Lukasz L. Stelinski; Gary G. Grant; Peter de Groot; Linda Buchan; Linda Mac Donald

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the volatile emissions of Manchurian ash seedlings, Fraxinus mandshurica, in response to feeding by the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, and to exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Feeding damage by adult A. planipennis and MeJA treatment increased volatile emissions compared...

  12. Integrative Pre-Service Elementary Teacher Training: The Role of Interdisciplinary Collaborative Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiatula, Victoria Oliaku

    2015-01-01

    This primer summarizes interdisciplinary collaborative mathematics as an integrative approach to train pre-service elementary teachers to teach math utilizing Junior Achievement USA (JA) educational programs within an elementary Math Methods course. The primer provides a JA historical background/program overview, summarizes the interdisciplinary…

  13. Discovery of a novel aquaporin ZmPIP2-8 from southern corn rootworm infested maize

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A common paradigm of infestation by chewing insects is a jasmonic acid (JA) cascade that results in the induction of JA responsive genes. However examination of several maize genes induced by Southern corn rootworm (SCR) infestation, an insect that chews into and significantly damages maize roots, ...

  14. An Analysis of Vertebral Stress and BMD During +Gz Impact Accelerations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    Responses During Laboratory Frontal –Gx Axis Impact Tests. AFRL Technical Report AFRL-HE-WP-TR-2001-0022. 9) Buhrman, J.R., Plaga , J.A., Cheng, H...University of Munich. Naval Biodynamics Laboratory, New Orleans, LA. 4) Buhrman, J.R., Plaga , J.A., Cheng, H., Mosher, S.E. (2001) The AFRL Biodynamics

  15. The Syntax of Elliptical Constructions in Jordanian Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Bukhari, Juman

    2016-01-01

    The syntax of Arabic elliptical constructions is unsettled, as there are few studies that have been done in the Arabic descriptive literature, as well as in Jordanian Arabic (henceforth, JA) specifically. Therefore, this paper will investigate some elliptical constructions in JA in particular to figure out the analysis of these constructions. In…

  16. Overt and Null Subject Pronouns in Jordanian Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Momani, Islam M.

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims at examining the role that morphology plays in allowing and/or motivating sentences in Jordanian Arabic (hereafter JA) to be formed with or without subject pronouns. It also aims at giving a comprehensive and descriptive presentation of the distribution of overt and null subject pronouns in JA, and tries to determine to what extent…

  17. Aroma changes of black tea prepared from methyl jasmonate treated tea plants*

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jiang; Wang, Li; Ma, Cheng-ying; Lv, Hai-peng; Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was widely applied in promoting food quality. Aroma is one of the key indicators in judging the quality of tea. This study examined the effect of exogenous MeJA treatment on tea aroma. The aroma components in black tea prepared from MeJA-treated fresh tea leaves were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-olfactometry (GC-O). Forty-five volatile compounds were identified. The results revealed that the MeJA-treated black tea had higher levels of terpene alcohols and hexenyl esters than the untreated tea. Moreover, several newly components, including copaene, cubenol, and indole, were induced by the MeJA treatment. The activities of polyphenol oxidase and β-glucosidase in fresh tea leaves changed after the MeJA treatment. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the gene expression levels of polyphenol oxidase and β-primeverosidase were upregulated by two and three folds, respectively, by the MeJA treatment (P<0.01); however, the gene expression of β-glucosidase was downregulated to a half level. In general, the aroma quality of the MeJA-treated black tea was clearly improved. PMID:24711352

  18. Effect of methyl jasmonate on secondary metabolites of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Chen, Feng; Wang, Xi; Rajapakse, Nihal C

    2006-03-22

    The effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) in terms of its induction of inherent bioactive chemicals in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) was evaluated after MeJA was sprayed on healthy basil plants. The total phenolic content of the sweet basil significantly increased after 0.1 and 0.5 mM MeJA treatments compared with the control not subjected to MeJA. Two phenolic compounds, rosmarinic acid (RA) and caffeic acid (CA), were identified as strong antioxidant constituents of the sweet basil. Their amounts also significantly increased after the MeJA treatment. In addition, eugenol and linalool increased 56 and 43%, respectively, by the 0.5 mM MeJA treatment. Due to the accumulation of RA, CA, and eugenol, which possess strong 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) free radical scavenging activities, the antioxidant activity of the sweet basil extract was 2.3-fold greater than that of the control after the 0.5 mM MeJA treatment. In the DPPH* assay, the EC50 values of RA, CA, and eugenol were determined as 23, 46, and 59 microM, respectively, which indicated they were 6-, 3-, and 2.4-fold more efficient than BHT (140 microM). Besides, an unidentified HPLC peak in the methanolic extract of the sweet basil was 4.3-fold higher than that of the control after the 0.5 mM MeJA treatment.

  19. 77 FR 64475 - Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Circular Welded Carbon-Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ...) (Preliminary Determination). On June 12, 2012, respondent Universal Tube and Plastic Industries, Ltd. (UTP-JA... Universal Tube and Plastic Industries, Ltd. in the Antidumping Duty Investigation of Circular Welded Carbon... Verification of Universal Tube and Plastic Industries, Ltd. (UTP-JA) and Its Home Market Affiliates...

  20. Use of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid to inhibit growth of sugarbeet storage rot pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are endogenous plant hormones that induce native plant defense responses and provide protection against a wide range of diseases. Previously, JA, applied after harvest, was shown to protect sugarbeet roots against the storage pathogens, Botrytis cinerea, P...

  1. Education System of John Amos Comenius and Its Implications in Modern Didactics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukaš, Mirko; Munjiza, Emerik

    2014-01-01

    The authors were particularly interested in scientific conceptions shaped and systematized in subject-teaching school system proposed by J.A. Comenius, which are still actively applied in day-to-day school practice. Within the analysed ideas of J.A. Comenius the goal and the task of this paper is to present to the pedagogic public the originality…

  2. PAMP-induced defense responses in potato require both salicylic acid and jasmonic acid.

    PubMed

    Halim, Vincentius A; Altmann, Simone; Ellinger, Dorothea; Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Miersch, Otto; Scheel, Dierk; Rosahl, Sabine

    2009-01-01

    To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-induced defense responses in potato (Solanum tuberosum), the role of the signaling compounds salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) was analyzed. Pep-13, a PAMP from Phytophthora, induces the accumulation of SA, JA and hydrogen peroxide, as well as the activation of defense genes and hypersensitive-like cell death. We have previously shown that SA is required for Pep-13-induced defense responses. To assess the importance of JA, RNA interference constructs targeted at the JA biosynthetic genes, allene oxide cyclase and 12-oxophytodienoic acid reductase, were expressed in transgenic potato plants. In addition, expression of the F-box protein COI1 was reduced by RNA interference. Plants expressing the RNA interference constructs failed to accumulate the respective transcripts in response to wounding or Pep-13 treatment, neither did they contain significant amounts of JA after elicitation. In response to infiltration of Pep-13, the transgenic plants exhibited a highly reduced accumulation of reactive oxygen species as well as reduced hypersensitive cell death. The ability of the JA-deficient plants to accumulate SA suggests that SA accumulation is independent or upstream of JA accumulation. These data show that PAMP responses in potato require both SA and JA and that, in contrast to Arabidopsis, these compounds act in the same signal transduction pathway. Despite their inability to fully respond to PAMP treatment, the transgenic RNA interference plants are not altered in their basal defense against Phytophthora infestans.

  3. Arabidopsis MYC Transcription Factors Are the Target of Hormonal Salicylic Acid/Jasmonic Acid Cross Talk in Response to Pieris brassicae Egg Extract.

    PubMed

    Schmiesing, André; Emonet, Aurélia; Gouhier-Darimont, Caroline; Reymond, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants recognize insect eggs and activate the salicylic acid (SA) pathway. As a consequence, expression of defense genes regulated by the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway is suppressed and larval performance is enhanced. Cross talk between defense signaling pathways is common in plant-pathogen interactions, but the molecular mechanism mediating this phenomenon is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that egg-induced SA/JA antagonism works independently of the APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) transcription factor ORA59, which controls the ERF branch of the JA pathway. In addition, treatment with egg extract did not enhance expression or stability of JASMONATE ZIM-domain transcriptional repressors, and SA/JA cross talk did not involve JASMONATE ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKEs, which are negative regulators of the JA pathway. Investigating the stability of MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4, three basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that additively control jasmonate-related defense responses, we found that egg extract treatment strongly diminished MYC protein levels in an SA-dependent manner. Furthermore, we identified WRKY75 as a novel and essential factor controlling SA/JA cross talk. These data indicate that insect eggs target the MYC branch of the JA pathway and uncover an unexpected modulation of SA/JA antagonism depending on the biological context in which the SA pathway is activated. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Root response of Jerusalem artichoke genotypes to different water regimes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine effects of drought on selected root growth parameters and develop relationships between root parameters and tuber yield for selected Jerusalem artichoke (JA) genotypes. Three water regimes (Field capacity, 50% available water (AW) and 25% AW) and five JA...

  5. 32 CFR 776.12 - Maintenance of files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Research and Civil Law Branch, JA Division, HQMC. (a) Requests for access to such records should be..., Judge Advocate Research and Civil Law Branch, JA Division, Headquarters Marine Corps, Washington Navy... § 776.12 Maintenance of files. Ethics complaint records shall be maintained by the Administrative Law...

  6. 32 CFR 776.12 - Maintenance of files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Research and Civil Law Branch, JA Division, HQMC. (a) Requests for access to such records should be..., Judge Advocate Research and Civil Law Branch, JA Division, Headquarters Marine Corps, Washington Navy... § 776.12 Maintenance of files. Ethics complaint records shall be maintained by the Administrative Law...

  7. 32 CFR 776.12 - Maintenance of files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Research and Civil Law Branch, JA Division, HQMC. (a) Requests for access to such records should be..., Judge Advocate Research and Civil Law Branch, JA Division, Headquarters Marine Corps, Washington Navy... § 776.12 Maintenance of files. Ethics complaint records shall be maintained by the Administrative Law...

  8. 32 CFR 776.12 - Maintenance of files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Research and Civil Law Branch, JA Division, HQMC. (a) Requests for access to such records should be..., Judge Advocate Research and Civil Law Branch, JA Division, Headquarters Marine Corps, Washington Navy... § 776.12 Maintenance of files. Ethics complaint records shall be maintained by the Administrative Law...

  9. 32 CFR 776.12 - Maintenance of files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Research and Civil Law Branch, JA Division, HQMC. (a) Requests for access to such records should be..., Judge Advocate Research and Civil Law Branch, JA Division, Headquarters Marine Corps, Washington Navy... § 776.12 Maintenance of files. Ethics complaint records shall be maintained by the Administrative Law...

  10. Silencing brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 impairs herbivory-elicited accumulation of jasmonic acid-isoleucine and diterpene glycosides, but not jasmonic acid and trypsin proteinase inhibitors in Nicotiana attenuata.

    PubMed

    Yang, Da-Hai; Baldwin, Ian T; Wu, Jianqiang

    2013-06-01

    The brassinosteroid (BR) receptor, BR insensitive 1 (BRI1), plays a critical role in plant development, but whether BRI1-mediated BR signaling is involved in plant defense responses to herbivores was largely unknown. Here, we examined the function of BRI1 in the resistance of Nicotiana attenuata (Solanaceae) to its specialist insect herbivore Manduca sexta. Jasmonic acid (JA) and JA-isoleucine conjugate (JA-Ile) are important hormones that mediate resistance to herbivores and we found that after wounding or simulated herbivory NaBRI1 had little effect on JA levels, but was important for the induction of JA-Ile. Further experiments revealed that decreased JAR (the enzyme for JA-Ile production) activity and availability of Ile in NaBRI1-silenced plants were likely responsible for the low JA-Ile levels. Consistently, M. sexta larvae gained more weight on NaBRI1-silenced plants than on the control plants. Quantification of insect feeding-induced secondary metabolites revealed that silencing NaBRI1 resulted in decreased levels of carbon-rich defensive secondary metabolites (hydroxygeranyllinalool diterpene glycosides, chlorogenic acid, and rutin), but had little effect on the nitrogen-rich ones (nicotine and trypsin proteinase inhibitors). Thus, NaBRI1-mediated BR signaling is likely involved in plant defense responses to M. sexta, including maintaining JA-Ile levels and the accumulation of several carbon-rich defensive secondary metabolites. © 2013 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  11. Plants on constant alert: elevated levels of jasmonic acid and jasmonate-induced transcripts in caterpillar resistant maize

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant defense responses against insect herbivores frequently depend on the biosynthesis and action of jasmonic acid (JA) and its conjugates. To better understand JA signaling pathways in maize (Zea mays L.), we have examined two maize genotypes, Mp708 and Tx601. Mp708 is resistant to feeding by le...

  12. Juvenile Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    Juvenile arthritis (JA) is arthritis that happens in children. It causes joint swelling, pain, stiffness, and loss of motion. It can affect any joint, but ... of JA that children get is juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There are several other forms of arthritis affecting ...

  13. Japanese apricot improves symptoms of gastrointestinal dysmotility associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Maekita, Takao; Kato, Jun; Enomoto, Shotaro; Yoshida, Takeichi; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Hanamitsu, Toshiko; Inoue, Izumi; Maeda, Yoshimasa; Moribata, Kosaku; Muraki, Yosuke; Shingaki, Naoki; Deguchi, Hisanobu; Ueda, Kazuki; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Tamai, Hideyuki; Ichinose, Masao

    2015-07-14

    To investigate the effects of Japanese apricot (JA) consumption on gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)-related symptoms. Participants included individuals living in Minabe-cho, a well-known JA-growing region, who received specific medical check-ups by the local community health service in 2010. GERD-related symptoms were examined in 1303 Japanese individuals using a validated questionnaire, the Frequency Scale for Symptoms of GERD (FSSG), which consists of 7 questions associated with acid reflux symptoms and 5 questions asking about gastrointestinal dysmotility symptoms. Each question was answered using a 4-point scale, with higher scores indicating more severe GERD-related symptoms. Subjects were divided into two groups according to their intake of dried and pickled JA: daily intake (≥ 1 JA daily) (392 subjects) and none or occasional intake (< 1 JA daily) (911 subjects). FSSG scores were compared between subjects who consumed JA daily and those who did not. Next, subjects were stratified by age, gender and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) status for subanalyses. Those who ate JA daily were significantly older than those who did not (60.6 ± 10.5 years vs 56.0 ± 11.0 years, P < 0.001). Total FSSG scores were significantly lower in subjects with daily JA intake than in those with none or only occasional intake (2.13 ± 3.14 vs 2.70 ± 3.82, P = 0.005). In particular, subjects who consumed JA daily showed significantly improved FSSG dysmotility scores compared with subjects who did not (1.05 ± 1.58 vs 1.46 ± 2.11, P < 0.001). In contrast, the FSSG reflux score did not differ between subjects with and without daily intake of JA (1.08 ± 1.90 vs 1.24 ± 2.11, P = 0.177). Subanalysis indicated that improvement in dysmotility by JA intake was specifically observed in non-elderly (1.24 ± 1.68 vs 1.62 ± 2.22, P = 0.005) and H. pylori-negative subjects (0.99 ± 1.58 vs 1.57 ± 2.06, P < 0.001). GERD patients (total FSSG score ≥ 8) were less frequently observed

  14. CYP94-mediated jasmonoyl-isoleucine hormone oxidation shapes jasmonate profiles and attenuates defence responses to Botrytis cinerea infection

    PubMed Central

    Aubert, Yann; Widemann, Emilie; Miesch, Laurence; Pinot, Franck; Heitz, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Induced resistance to the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea depends on jasmonate metabolism and signalling in Arabidopsis. We have presented here extensive jasmonate profiling in this pathosystem and investigated the impact of the recently reported jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) catabolic pathway mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP94) enzymes. Using a series of mutant and overexpressing (OE) plant lines, we showed that CYP94B3 and CYP94C1 are integral components of the fungus-induced jasmonate metabolic pathway and control the abundance of oxidized conjugated but also some unconjugated derivatives, such as sulfated 12-HSO4-JA. Despite causing JA-Ile overaccumulation due to impaired oxidation, CYP94 deficiency had negligible impacts on resistance, associated with enhanced JAZ repressor transcript levels. In contrast, plants overexpressing (OE) CYP94B3 or CYP94C1 were enriched in 12-OH-JA-Ile or 12-COOH-JA-Ile respectively. This shift towards oxidized JA-Ile derivatives was concomitant with strongly impaired defence gene induction and reduced disease resistance. CYP94B3-OE, but unexpectedly not CYP94C1-OE, plants displayed reduced JA-Ile levels compared with the wild type, suggesting that increased susceptibility in CYP94C1-OE plants may result from changes in the hormone oxidation ratio rather than absolute changes in JA-Ile levels. Consistently, while feeding JA-Ile to seedlings triggered strong induction of JA pathway genes, induction was largely reduced or abolished after feeding with the CYP94 products 12-OH-JA-Ile and 12-COOH-JA-Ile, respectively. This trend paralleled in vitro pull-down assays where 12-COOH-JA-Ile was unable to promote COI1–JAZ9 co-receptor assembly. Our results highlight the dual function of CYP94B3/C1 in antimicrobial defence: by controlling hormone oxidation status for signal attenuation, these enzymes also define JA-Ile as a metabolic hub directing jasmonate profile complexity. PMID:25903915

  15. Assessing the Role of ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR Transcriptional Repressors in Salicylic Acid-Mediated Suppression of Jasmonic Acid-Responsive Genes.

    PubMed

    Caarls, Lotte; Van der Does, Dieuwertje; Hickman, Richard; Jansen, Wouter; Verk, Marcel C Van; Proietti, Silvia; Lorenzo, Oscar; Solano, Roberto; Pieterse, Corné M J; Van Wees, Saskia C M

    2017-02-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) cross-communicate in the plant immune signaling network to finely regulate induced defenses. In Arabidopsis, SA antagonizes many JA-responsive genes, partly by targeting the ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (ERF)-type transcriptional activator ORA59. Members of the ERF transcription factor family typically bind to GCC-box motifs in the promoters of JA- and ethylene-responsive genes, thereby positively or negatively regulating their expression. The GCC-box motif is sufficient for SA-mediated suppression of JA-responsive gene expression. Here, we investigated whether SA-induced ERF-type transcriptional repressors, which may compete with JA-induced ERF-type activators for binding at the GCC-box, play a role in SA/JA antagonism. We selected ERFs that are transcriptionally induced by SA and/or possess an EAR transcriptional repressor motif. Several of the 16 ERFs tested suppressed JA-dependent gene expression, as revealed by enhanced JA-induced PDF1.2 or VSP2 expression levels in the corresponding erf mutants, while others were involved in activation of these genes. However, SA could antagonize JA-induced PDF1.2 or VSP2 in all erf mutants, suggesting that the tested ERF transcriptional repressors are not required for SA/JA cross-talk. Moreover, a mutant in the co-repressor TOPLESS, that showed reduction in repression of JA signaling, still displayed SA-mediated antagonism of PDF1.2 and VSP2. Collectively, these results suggest that SA-regulated ERF transcriptional repressors are not essential for antagonism of JA-responsive gene expression by SA. We further show that de novo SA-induced protein synthesis is required for suppression of JA-induced PDF1.2, pointing to SA-stimulated production of an as yet unknown protein that suppresses JA-induced transcription. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Effect of Exogenous Abscisic Acid and Methyl Jasmonate on Anthocyanin Composition, Fatty Acids, and Volatile Compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape Berries.

    PubMed

    Ju, Yan-Lun; Liu, Min; Zhao, Hui; Meng, Jiang-Fei; Fang, Yu-Lin

    2016-10-12

    The anthocyanin composition, fatty acids, and volatile aromas are important for Cabernet Sauvignon grape quality. This study evaluated the effect of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on the anthocyanin composition, fatty acids, lipoxygenase activity, and the volatile compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries. Exogenous ABA and MeJA improved the content of total anthocyanins (TAC) and individual anthocyanins. Lipoxygenase (LOX) activity also increased after treatment. Furthermore, 16 fatty acids were detected. The linoleic acid concentration gradually increased with ABA concentration. The fatty acid content decreased with increasing MeJA concentration and then increased again, with the exception of linoleic acid. After exogenous ABA and MeJA treatment, the C6 aroma content increased significantly. Interestingly, the exogenous ABA and MeJA treatments improved mainly the content of 1-hexanol, hexanal, and 2-heptanol. These results provide insight into the effect of plant hormones on wine grapes, which is useful for grape quality improvement.

  17. Top hits in contemporary JAZ: New information on jasmonate signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hoo Sun; Niu, Yajie; Browse, John; Howe, Gregg A.

    2012-01-01

    The phytohormone jasmonate (JA) regulates a wide range of growth, developmental, and defense-related processes during the plant life cycle. Identification of the JAZ family of proteins that repress JA responses has facilitated rapid progress in understanding how this lipid-derived hormone controls gene expression. Recent analysis of JAZ proteins has provided new insight into the nature of the JA receptor, the chemical specificity of signal perception, and cross-talk between JA and other hormone response pathways. Functional diversification of JAZ proteins by alternative splicing, together with the ability of JAZ proteins to homo- and heterodimerize, provide mechanisms to enhance combinatorial diversity and versatility in gene regulation by JA. PMID:19800644

  18. Jasmonic Acid Enhances Al-Induced Root Growth Inhibition1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhong-Bao; Ma, Yanqi

    2017-01-01

    Phytohormones such as ethylene and auxin are involved in the regulation of the aluminum (Al)-induced root growth inhibition. Although jasmonate (JA) has been reported to play a crucial role in the regulation of root growth and development in response to environmental stresses through interplay with ethylene and auxin, its role in the regulation of root growth response to Al stress is not yet known. In an attempt to elucidate the role of JA, we found that exogenous application of JA enhanced the Al-induced root growth inhibition. Furthermore, phenotype analysis with mutants defective in either JA biosynthesis or signaling suggests that JA is involved in the regulation of Al-induced root growth inhibition. The expression of the JA receptor CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) and the key JA signaling regulator MYC2 was up-regulated in response to Al stress in the root tips. This process together with COI1-mediated Al-induced root growth inhibition under Al stress was controlled by ethylene but not auxin. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that many responsive genes under Al stress were regulated by JA signaling. The differential responsive of microtubule organization-related genes between the wild-type and coi1-2 mutant is consistent with the changed depolymerization of cortical microtubules in coi1 under Al stress. In addition, ALMT-mediated malate exudation and thus Al exclusion from roots in response to Al stress was also regulated by COI1-mediated JA signaling. Together, this study suggests that root growth inhibition is regulated by COI1-mediated JA signaling independent from auxin signaling and provides novel insights into the phytohormone-mediated root growth inhibition in response to Al stress. PMID:27932419

  19. Disarming the jasmonate-dependent plant defense makes nonhost Arabidopsis plants accessible to the American serpentine leafminer.

    PubMed

    Abe, Hiroshi; Tateishi, Ken; Seo, Shigemi; Kugimiya, Soichi; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Sawada, Yuji; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Yara, Kaori; Shimoda, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Masatomo

    2013-11-01

    Here, we analyzed the interaction between Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and the American serpentine leafminer (Liriomyza trifolii), an important and intractable herbivore of many cultivated plants. We examined the role of the immunity-related plant hormone jasmonate (JA) in the plant response and resistance to leafminer feeding to determine whether JA affects host suitability for leafminers. The expression of marker genes for the JA-dependent plant defense was induced by leafminer feeding on Arabidopsis wild-type plants. Analyses of JA-insensitive coi1-1 mutants suggested the importance of JA in the plant response to leafminer feeding. The JA content of wild-type plants significantly increased after leafminer feeding. Moreover, coi1-1 mutants showed lower feeding resistance against leafminer attack than did wild-type plants. The number of feeding scars caused by inoculated adult leafminers in JA-insensitive coi1-1 mutants was higher than that in wild-type plants. In addition, adults of the following generation appeared only from coi1-1 mutants and not from wild-type plants, suggesting that the loss of the JA-dependent plant defense converted nonhost plants to accessible host plants. Interestingly, the glucosinolate-myrosinase defense system may play at most a minor role in this conversion, indicating that this major antiherbivore defense of Brassica species plants probably does not have a major function in plant resistance to leafminer. Application of JA to wild-type plants before leafminer feeding enhanced feeding resistance in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and garland chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium). Our results indicate that JA plays an important role in the plant response and resistance to leafminers and, in so doing, affects host plant suitability for leafminers.

  20. The endoscopic endonasal approach for the treatment of juvenile angiofibromas.

    PubMed

    Llorente, José Luis; López, Fernando

    2018-05-12

    Juvenile angiofibroma (JA) is a benign tumour, for which the treatment of choice is surgery. It may be associated with significant morbidity because of its anatomical location and its locally destructive growth pattern. Severe haemorrhage constitutes a high risk in JA and its surgical management can be complex. The management of JA remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to review a series of patients with JA treated via the endonasal/endoscopic approach. Medical records of patients operated for JA were reviewed. tumour stage, intraoperative blood loss, complications and persistence/recurrence rates. A total of 30 male patients and one female were included. The mean age was 17 years. Using the Radkowski classification, one JA was classified as stage I, 5 stage IIA, 9 stage IIB, 4 stage IIC, 10 stage IIIA and 2 stage IIIB. Thirty-nine percent of the JA was classified as advanced stage JA (IIIA and IIIB). The mean blood loss was 1.156mL Except in one case, no significant complications were observed. Tumour persistence/recurrence was observed in 2 JA (6%), at the end of the follow-up. Mean postoperative follow-up time was 86 months. This retrospective study supports the notion that endonasal endoscopic approaches for a JA are a feasible option associated with good long-term results. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Disarming the Jasmonate-Dependent Plant Defense Makes Nonhost Arabidopsis Plants Accessible to the American Serpentine Leafminer1

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Hiroshi; Tateishi, Ken; Seo, Shigemi; Kugimiya, Soichi; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Sawada, Yuji; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Yara, Kaori; Shimoda, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Masatomo

    2013-01-01

    Here, we analyzed the interaction between Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and the American serpentine leafminer (Liriomyza trifolii), an important and intractable herbivore of many cultivated plants. We examined the role of the immunity-related plant hormone jasmonate (JA) in the plant response and resistance to leafminer feeding to determine whether JA affects host suitability for leafminers. The expression of marker genes for the JA-dependent plant defense was induced by leafminer feeding on Arabidopsis wild-type plants. Analyses of JA-insensitive coi1-1 mutants suggested the importance of JA in the plant response to leafminer feeding. The JA content of wild-type plants significantly increased after leafminer feeding. Moreover, coi1-1 mutants showed lower feeding resistance against leafminer attack than did wild-type plants. The number of feeding scars caused by inoculated adult leafminers in JA-insensitive coi1-1 mutants was higher than that in wild-type plants. In addition, adults of the following generation appeared only from coi1-1 mutants and not from wild-type plants, suggesting that the loss of the JA-dependent plant defense converted nonhost plants to accessible host plants. Interestingly, the glucosinolate-myrosinase defense system may play at most a minor role in this conversion, indicating that this major antiherbivore defense of Brassica species plants probably does not have a major function in plant resistance to leafminer. Application of JA to wild-type plants before leafminer feeding enhanced feeding resistance in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and garland chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium). Our results indicate that JA plays an important role in the plant response and resistance to leafminers and, in so doing, affects host plant suitability for leafminers. PMID:24022267

  2. A stable JAZ protein from peach mediates the transition from outcrossing to self-pollination.

    PubMed

    Sherif, Sherif; El-Sharkawy, Islam; Mathur, Jaideep; Ravindran, Pratibha; Kumar, Prakash; Paliyath, Gopinadhan; Jayasankar, Subramanian

    2015-02-13

    Variations in floral display represent one of the core features associated with the transition from allogamy to autogamy in angiosperms. The promotion of autogamy under stress conditions suggests the potential involvement of a signaling pathway with a dual role in both flower development and stress response. The jasmonic acid (JA) pathway is a plausible candidate to play such a role because of its involvement in many plant responses to environmental and developmental cues. In the present study, we used peach (Prunus persica L.) varieties with showy and non-showy flowers to investigate the role of JA (and JA signaling suppressors) in floral display. Our results show that PpJAZ1, a component of the JA signaling pathway in peach, regulates petal expansion during anthesis and promotes self-pollination. PpJAZ1 transcript levels were higher in petals of the non-showy flowers than those of showy flowers at anthesis. Moreover, the ectopic expression of PpJAZ1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) converted the showy, chasmogamous tobacco flowers into non-showy, cleistogamous flowers. Stability of PpJAZ1 was confirmed in vivo using PpJAZ1-GFP chimeric protein. PpJAZ1 inhibited JA-dependent processes in roots and leaves of transgenic plants, including induction of JA-response genes to mechanical wounding. However, the inhibitory effect of PpJAZ1 on JA-dependent fertility functions was weaker, indicating that PpJAZ1 regulates the spatial localization of JA signaling in different plant organs. Indeed, JA-related genes showed differential expression patterns in leaves and flowers of transgenic plants. Our results reveal that under stress conditions – for example, herbivore attacks – stable JAZ proteins such as PpJAZ1 may alter JA signaling in different plant organs, resulting in autogamy as a reproductive assurance mechanism. This represents an additional mechanism by which plant hormone signaling can modulate a vital developmental process in response to stress.

  3. Jasmonic Acid Enhances Al-Induced Root Growth Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhong-Bao; He, Chunmei; Ma, Yanqi; Herde, Marco; Ding, Zhaojun

    2017-02-01

    Phytohormones such as ethylene and auxin are involved in the regulation of the aluminum (Al)-induced root growth inhibition. Although jasmonate (JA) has been reported to play a crucial role in the regulation of root growth and development in response to environmental stresses through interplay with ethylene and auxin, its role in the regulation of root growth response to Al stress is not yet known. In an attempt to elucidate the role of JA, we found that exogenous application of JA enhanced the Al-induced root growth inhibition. Furthermore, phenotype analysis with mutants defective in either JA biosynthesis or signaling suggests that JA is involved in the regulation of Al-induced root growth inhibition. The expression of the JA receptor CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) and the key JA signaling regulator MYC2 was up-regulated in response to Al stress in the root tips. This process together with COI1-mediated Al-induced root growth inhibition under Al stress was controlled by ethylene but not auxin. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that many responsive genes under Al stress were regulated by JA signaling. The differential responsive of microtubule organization-related genes between the wild-type and coi1-2 mutant is consistent with the changed depolymerization of cortical microtubules in coi1 under Al stress. In addition, ALMT-mediated malate exudation and thus Al exclusion from roots in response to Al stress was also regulated by COI1-mediated JA signaling. Together, this study suggests that root growth inhibition is regulated by COI1-mediated JA signaling independent from auxin signaling and provides novel insights into the phytohormone-mediated root growth inhibition in response to Al stress. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Deep sequencing reveals transcriptome re-programming of Taxus × media cells to the elicitation with methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guiling; Yang, Yanfang; Xie, Fuliang; Wen, Jian-Fan; Wu, Jianqiang; Wilson, Iain W; Tang, Qi; Liu, Hongwei; Qiu, Deyou

    2013-01-01

    Plant cell culture represents an alternative source for producing high-value secondary metabolites including paclitaxel (Taxol®), which is mainly produced in Taxus and has been widely used in cancer chemotherapy. The phytohormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA) can significantly increase the production of paclitaxel, which is induced in plants as a secondary metabolite possibly in defense against herbivores and pathogens. In cell culture, MeJA also elicits the accumulation of paclitaxel; however, the mechanism is still largely unknown. To obtain insight into the global regulation mechanism of MeJA in the steady state of paclitaxel production (7 days after MeJA addition), especially on paclitaxel biosynthesis, we sequenced the transcriptomes of MeJA-treated and untreated Taxus × media cells and obtained ∼ 32.5 M high quality reads, from which 40,348 unique sequences were obtained by de novo assembly. Expression level analysis indicated that a large number of genes were associated with transcriptional regulation, DNA and histone modification, and MeJA signaling network. All the 29 known genes involved in the biosynthesis of terpenoid backbone and paclitaxel were found with 18 genes showing increased transcript abundance following elicitation of MeJA. The significantly up-regulated changes of 9 genes in paclitaxel biosynthesis were validated by qRT-PCR assays. According to the expression changes and the previously proposed enzyme functions, multiple candidates for the unknown steps in paclitaxel biosynthesis were identified. We also found some genes putatively involved in the transport and degradation of paclitaxel. Potential target prediction of miRNAs indicated that miRNAs may play an important role in the gene expression regulation following the elicitation of MeJA. Our results shed new light on the global regulation mechanism by which MeJA regulates the physiology of Taxus cells and is helpful to understand how MeJA elicits other plant species besides Taxus.

  5. Androgen deprivation with or without radiation therapy for clinically node-positive prostate cancer. Lin CC, Gray PJ, Jemal A, Efstathiou JA, Surveillance and Health Services Research Program, Intramural Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA (CCL, AJ); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (PJG, JAE); e-mail: jefstathiou@partners.org. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2015 May 9;107(7). pii: djv119. [Print 2015 Jul]. doi: 10.1093/jnci/djv119.

    PubMed

    Scott, Eggener

    2017-03-01

    Clinically lymph node-positive (cN+) prostate cancer (PCa) is an often-fatal disease. Its optimal management remains largely undefined given a lack of prospective, randomized data to inform practice. We sought to describe modern practice patterns in the management of cN+PCa and assess the effect of adding radiation therapy (RT) to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) on survival using the National Cancer Data Base. Patients with cN+PCa and without distant metastases diagnosed between 2004 and 2011 were included. Five-year overall survival for patients diagnosed between 2004 and 2006 and treated with ADT alone or ADT+RT were compared. Propensity score (PS) matching was used to balance baseline characteristics, and Cox multivariate regression analysis was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause mortality. Of 3,540 total patients, 32.2% were treated with ADT alone and 51.4% received ADT+RT. Compared with ADT alone, patients treated with ADT+RT were younger and more likely to have private insurance, lower comorbidity scores, higher Gleason scores, and lower PSA values. After PS matching, 318 patients remained in each group. Compared with ADT alone, ADT+RT was associated with a 50% decreased risk of five-year all-cause mortality (HR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.37-0.67, two-sided P<0.001; crude OS rate: 71.5% vs. 53.2%). Using a large national database, we have identified a statistically significant survival benefit for patients with cN+PCa treated with ADT+RT. These data, if appropriately validated by randomized trials, suggest that a substantial proportion of such patients at high risk for prostate cancer death may be undertreated, warranting a reevaluation of current practice guidelines. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Methyl jasmonate as an allelopathic agent: sagebrush inhibits germination of a neighboring tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata.

    PubMed

    Preston, Catherine A; Betts, Hazel; Baldwi, Ian T

    2002-11-01

    Artemisia tridentata ssp. tridentata is the dominant and defining shrub in the Great Basin Desert, with well-documented allelopathic tendencies that have generally been ascribed to its most abundantly released secondary metabolites. However, as a minor component, sagebrush releases a highly biologically active substance, methyljasmonate (MeJA), which is known to function as both a germination inhibitor and promoter in laboratory studies. Nicotiana attenuata is a tobacco species native to the Great Basin Desert and grows in newly burned juniper-sagebrush habitats for 2-3 yr following a fire. With a combination of field and laboratory studies, we examined the role of MeJA release from sagebrush by both air and water transport in inhibiting N. attenuata seed germination. We demonstrated that sagebrush interacts allelopathically with the seed bank of N. attenuata through its release of MeJA. In the field, seeds buried 0-40 cm from sagebrush plants for 4 months in net bags had significantly reduced germination compared to seeds buried similarly but protected in plastic bags. Moreover, germination on soils collected from underneath sagebrush plants was reduced by 60% compared to seeds placed on soils collected between sagebrush plants or outside of the sagebrush population. Exposure to A. tridentata seeds and seedlings did not affect N. attenuata germination, suggesting that established sagebrush plants only influence the tobacco's seed bank. In the laboratory, exposure of seeds to sagebrush emissions resulted in germination delays of up to 6 d. Exposure to volatile and aqueous MeJA also inhibited germination of N. attenuata seeds at quantities that are released naturally by sagebrush: 3.5 microg/hr and 1.12 microg/seed cup (56 ng/seed), respectively. A. tridentata seeds were significantly more resistant to MeJA, being inhibited at 336 microg MeJA (16.8 microg/seed), 300 times greater than the level of aqueous MeJA required to inhibit N. attenuata seeds. MeJA inhibited N

  7. Transcriptome Analysis of Genes Associated with the Artemisinin Biosynthesis by Jasmonic Acid Treatment under the Light in Artemisia annua

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Xiaolong; Zhong, Yijun; Fu, Xueqing; Lv, Zongyou; Shen, Qian; Yan, Tingxiang; Shi, Pu; Ma, Yanan; Chen, Minghui; Lv, Xueying; Wu, Zhangkuanyu; Zhao, Jingya; Sun, Xiaofen; Li, Ling; Tang, Kexuan

    2017-01-01

    Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene lactone endoperoxide extracted from a traditional Chinese medicinal plant Artemisia annua. Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are recommended as the best treatment of malaria by the World Health Organization (WHO). Both the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) and light promote artemisinin biosynthesis in A. annua. Interestingly, we found that the increase of artemisinin biosynthesis by JA was dependent on light. However, the relationship between the two signal pathways mediated by JA and light remains unclear. Here, we collected the A. annua seedlings of 24 h continuous light (Light), 24 h dark treatment (Dark), 4 h MeJA treatment under the continuous light conditions (Light-MeJA-4h) and 4 h MeJA treatment under the dark conditions (Dark-MeJA-4h) and performed the transcriptome sequencing using Illumina HiSeq 4000 System. A total of 266.7 million clean data were produced and assembled into 185,653 unigenes, with an average length of 537 bp. Among them, 59,490 unigenes were annotated and classified based on the public information. Differential expression analyses were performed between Light and Dark, Light and Light-MeJA-4h, Dark and Dark-MeJA-4h, Light-MeJA-4h, and Dark-MeJA-4h, respectively. Furthermore, transcription factor (TF) analysis revealed that 1588 TFs were identified and divided into 55 TF families, with 284 TFs down-regulated in the Dark relative to Light and 96 TFs up-regulated in the Light-MeJA-4h relative to Light. 8 TFs were selected as candidates for regulating the artemisinin biosynthesis and one of them was validated to be involved in artemisinin transcriptional regulation by Dual-Luciferase (Dual-LUC) assay. The transcriptome data shown in our study offered a comprehensive transcriptional expression pattern influenced by the MeJA and light in A. annua seedling, which will serve as a valuable resource for further studies on transcriptional regulation mechanisms underlying artemisinin biosynthesis. PMID

  8. Repressor- and Activator-Type Ethylene Response Factors Functioning in Jasmonate Signaling and Disease Resistance Identified via a Genome-Wide Screen of Arabidopsis Transcription Factor Gene Expression[w

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Ken C.; Dombrecht, Bruno; Manners, John M.; Schenk, Peer M.; Edgar, Cameron I.; Maclean, Donald J.; Scheible, Wolf-Rüdiger; Udvardi, Michael K.; Kazan, Kemal

    2005-01-01

    To identify transcription factors (TFs) involved in jasmonate (JA) signaling and plant defense, we screened 1,534 Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) TFs by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR for their altered transcript at 6 h following either methyl JA treatment or inoculation with the incompatible pathogen Alternaria brassicicola. We identified 134 TFs that showed a significant change in expression, including many APETALA2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF), MYB, WRKY, and NAC TF genes with unknown functions. Twenty TF genes were induced by both the pathogen and methyl JA and these included 10 members of the AP2/ERF TF family, primarily from the B1a and B3 subclusters. Functional analysis of the B1a TF AtERF4 revealed that AtERF4 acts as a novel negative regulator of JA-responsive defense gene expression and resistance to the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum and antagonizes JA inhibition of root elongation. In contrast, functional analysis of the B3 TF AtERF2 showed that AtERF2 is a positive regulator of JA-responsive defense genes and resistance to F. oxysporum and enhances JA inhibition of root elongation. Our results suggest that plants coordinately express multiple repressor- and activator-type AP2/ERFs during pathogen challenge to modulate defense gene expression and disease resistance. PMID:16183832

  9. Intraspecific variation in a generalist herbivore accounts for differential induction and impact of host plant defences

    PubMed Central

    Kant, Merijn R; Sabelis, Maurice W; Haring, Michel A; Schuurink, Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Plants and herbivores are thought to be engaged in a coevolutionary arms race: rising frequencies of plants with anti-herbivore defences exert pressure on herbivores to resist or circumvent these defences and vice versa. Owing to its frequency-dependent character, the arms race hypothesis predicts that herbivores exhibit genetic variation for traits that determine how they deal with the defences of a given host plant phenotype. Here, we show the existence of distinct variation within a single herbivore species, the spider mite Tetranychus urticae, in traits that lead to resistance or susceptibility to jasmonate (JA)-dependent defences of a host plant but also in traits responsible for induction or repression of JA defences. We characterized three distinct lines of T. urticae that differentially induced JA-related defence genes and metabolites while feeding on tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum). These lines were also differently affected by induced JA defences. The first line, which induced JA-dependent tomato defences, was susceptible to those defences; the second line also induced JA defences but was resistant to them; and the third, although susceptible to JA defences, repressed induction. We hypothesize that such intraspecific variation is common among herbivores living in environments with a diversity of plants that impose diverse selection pressure. PMID:18055390

  10. Joint aperture detection for speckle reduction and increased collection efficiency in ophthalmic MHz OCT

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Thomas; André, Raphael; Wieser, Wolfgang; Pfeiffer, Tom; Huber, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Joint-aperture optical coherence tomography (JA-OCT) is an angle-resolved OCT method, in which illumination from an active channel is simultaneously probed by several passive channels. JA-OCT increases the collection efficiency and effective sensitivity of the OCT system without increasing the power on the sample. Additionally, JA-OCT provides angular scattering information about the sample in a single acquisition, so the OCT imaging speed is not reduced. Thus, JA-OCT is especially suitable for ultra high speed in-vivo imaging. JA-OCT is compared to other angle-resolved techniques, and the relation between joint aperture imaging, adaptive optics, coherent and incoherent compounding is discussed. We present angle-resolved imaging of the human retina at an axial scan rate of 1.68 MHz, and demonstrate the benefits of JA-OCT: Speckle reduction, signal increase and suppression of specular and parasitic reflections. Moreover, in the future JA-OCT may allow for the reconstruction of the full Doppler vector and tissue discrimination by analysis of the angular scattering dependence. PMID:23577296

  11. Epidermal jasmonate perception is sufficient for all aspects of jasmonate-mediated male fertility in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Jeremy B; Browse, John

    2016-03-01

    Jasmonate (JA) signaling is essential for several environmental responses and reproductive development in many plant species. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the most obvious phenotype of JA biosynthetic and perception mutants is profound sporophytic male sterility characterized by failure of stamen filament elongation, severe delay of anther dehiscence and pollen inviability. The site of action of JA in the context of reproductive development has been discussed, but the ideas have not been tested experimentally. To this end we used targeted expression of a COI1-YFP transgene in the coi1-1 mutant background. As COI1 is an essential component of the JA co-receptor complex, the null coi1-1 mutant is male sterile due to lack of JA perception. We show that expression of COI1-YFP in the epidermis of the stamen filament and anther in coi1 mutant plants is sufficient to rescue filament elongation, anther dehiscence and pollen viability. In contrast, filament expression alone or expression in the tapetum do not restore dehiscence and pollen viability. These results demonstrate that epidermal JA perception is sufficient for anther function and pollen viability, and suggest the presence of a JA-dependent non-autonomous signal produced in the anther epidermis to synchronize both anther dehiscence and pollen maturation. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The plastidial retrograde signal methyl erythritol cyclopyrophosphate is a regulator of salicylic acid and jasmonic acid crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Mark; Xiao, Yanmei; Bjornson, Marta; Wang, Jin-zheng; Hicks, Derrick; de Souza, Amancio; Wang, Chang-Quan; Yang, Panyu; Ma, Shisong; Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma; Dehesh, Katayoon

    2016-01-01

    The exquisite harmony between hormones and their corresponding signaling pathways is central to prioritizing plant responses to simultaneous and/or successive environmental trepidations. The crosstalk between jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) is an established effective mechanism that optimizes and tailors plant adaptive responses. However, the underlying regulatory modules of this crosstalk are largely unknown. Global transcriptomic analyses of mutant plants (ceh1) with elevated levels of the stress-induced plastidial retrograde signaling metabolite 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol cyclopyrophosphate (MEcPP) revealed robustly induced JA marker genes, expected to be suppressed by the presence of constitutively high SA levels in the mutant background. Analyses of a range of genotypes with varying SA and MEcPP levels established the selective role of MEcPP-mediated signal(s) in induction of JA-responsive genes in the presence of elevated SA. Metabolic profiling revealed the presence of high levels of the JA precursor 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), but near wild type levels of JA in the ceh1 mutant plants. Analyses of coronatine-insensitive 1 (coi1)/ceh1 double mutant plants confirmed that the MEcPP-mediated induction is JA receptor COI1 dependent, potentially through elevated OPDA. These findings identify MEcPP as a previously unrecognized central regulatory module that induces JA-responsive genes in the presence of high SA, thereby staging a multifaceted plant response within the environmental context. PMID:26733689

  13. Control of Carbon Assimilation and Partitioning by Jasmonate: An Accounting of Growth-Defense Tradeoffs.

    PubMed

    Havko, Nathan E; Major, Ian T; Jewell, Jeremy B; Attaran, Elham; Browse, John; Howe, Gregg A

    2016-01-15

    Plant growth is often constrained by the limited availability of resources in the microenvironment. Despite the continuous threat of attack from insect herbivores and pathogens, investment in defense represents a lost opportunity to expand photosynthetic capacity in leaves and absorption of nutrients and water by roots. To mitigate the metabolic expenditure on defense, plants have evolved inducible defense strategies. The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) is a key regulator of many inducible defenses. Synthesis of JA in response to perceived danger leads to the deployment of a variety of defensive structures and compounds, along with a potent inhibition of growth. Genetic studies have established an important role for JA in mediating tradeoffs between growth and defense. However, several gaps remain in understanding of how JA signaling inhibits growth, either through direct transcriptional control of JA-response genes or crosstalk with other signaling pathways. Here, we highlight recent progress in uncovering the role of JA in controlling growth-defense balance and its relationship to resource acquisition and allocation. We also discuss tradeoffs in the context of the ability of JA to promote increased leaf mass per area (LMA), which is a key indicator of leaf construction costs and leaf life span.

  14. Control of Carbon Assimilation and Partitioning by Jasmonate: An Accounting of Growth–Defense Tradeoffs

    PubMed Central

    Havko, Nathan E.; Major, Ian T.; Jewell, Jeremy B.; Attaran, Elham; Browse, John; Howe, Gregg A.

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth is often constrained by the limited availability of resources in the microenvironment. Despite the continuous threat of attack from insect herbivores and pathogens, investment in defense represents a lost opportunity to expand photosynthetic capacity in leaves and absorption of nutrients and water by roots. To mitigate the metabolic expenditure on defense, plants have evolved inducible defense strategies. The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) is a key regulator of many inducible defenses. Synthesis of JA in response to perceived danger leads to the deployment of a variety of defensive structures and compounds, along with a potent inhibition of growth. Genetic studies have established an important role for JA in mediating tradeoffs between growth and defense. However, several gaps remain in understanding of how JA signaling inhibits growth, either through direct transcriptional control of JA-response genes or crosstalk with other signaling pathways. Here, we highlight recent progress in uncovering the role of JA in controlling growth-defense balance and its relationship to resource acquisition and allocation. We also discuss tradeoffs in the context of the ability of JA to promote increased leaf mass per area (LMA), which is a key indicator of leaf construction costs and leaf life span. PMID:27135227

  15. Jasmonic Acid Signaling Modulates Ozone-Induced Hypersensitive Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Mulpuri V.; Lee, Hyung-il; Creelman, Robert A.; Mullet, John E.; Davis, Keith R.

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that cross-talk between salicylic acid (SA)–, jasmonic acid (JA)–, and ethylene-dependent signaling pathways regulates plant responses to both abiotic and biotic stress factors. Earlier studies demonstrated that ozone (O3) exposure activates a hypersensitive response (HR)–like cell death pathway in the Arabidopsis ecotype Cvi-0. We now have confirmed the role of SA and JA signaling in influencing O3-induced cell death. Expression of salicylate hydroxylase (NahG) in Cvi-0 reduced O3-induced cell death. Methyl jasmonate (Me-JA) pretreatment of Cvi-0 decreased O3-induced H2O2 content and SA concentrations and completely abolished O3-induced cell death. Cvi-0 synthesized as much JA as did Col-0 in response to O3 exposure but exhibited much less sensitivity to exogenous Me-JA. Analyses of the responses to O3 of the JA-signaling mutants jar1 and fad3/7/8 also demonstrated an antagonistic relationship between JA- and SA-signaling pathways in controlling the magnitude of O3-induced HR-like cell death. PMID:11006337

  16. Jasmonic acid signaling modulates ozone-induced hypersensitive cell death.

    PubMed

    Rao, M V; Lee, H; Creelman, R A; Mullet, J E; Davis, K R

    2000-09-01

    Recent studies suggest that cross-talk between salicylic acid (SA)-, jasmonic acid (JA)-, and ethylene-dependent signaling pathways regulates plant responses to both abiotic and biotic stress factors. Earlier studies demonstrated that ozone (O(3)) exposure activates a hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death pathway in the Arabidopsis ecotype Cvi-0. We now have confirmed the role of SA and JA signaling in influencing O(3)-induced cell death. Expression of salicylate hydroxylase (NahG) in Cvi-0 reduced O(3)-induced cell death. Methyl jasmonate (Me-JA) pretreatment of Cvi-0 decreased O(3)-induced H(2)O(2) content and SA concentrations and completely abolished O(3)-induced cell death. Cvi-0 synthesized as much JA as did Col-0 in response to O(3) exposure but exhibited much less sensitivity to exogenous Me-JA. Analyses of the responses to O(3) of the JA-signaling mutants jar1 and fad3/7/8 also demonstrated an antagonistic relationship between JA- and SA-signaling pathways in controlling the magnitude of O(3)-induced HR-like cell death.

  17. Differential Effects of Methyl Jasmonate on the Expression of the Early Light-Inducible Proteins and Other Light-Regulated Genes in Barley1

    PubMed Central

    Wierstra, Inken; Kloppstech, Klaus

    2000-01-01

    The effects of methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) on early light-inducible protein (ELIP) expression in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Apex) have been studied. Treatment of leaf segments with JA-Me induces the same symptoms as those exhibited by norflurazon bleaching, including a loss of pigments and enhanced light stress that results in increased ELIP expression under both high- and low-light conditions. The expression of both low- and high-molecular-mass ELIP families is considerably down-regulated by JA-Me at the transcript and protein levels. This repression occurs despite increased photoinhibition measurable as a massive degradation of D1 protein and a delayed recovery of photosystem II activity. In JA-Me-treated leaf segments, the decrease of the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II under high light is substantially more pronounced as compared to controls in water. The repression of ELIP expression by JA-Me is superimposed on the effect of the increased light stress that leads to enhanced ELIP expression. The fact that the reduction of ELIP transcript levels is less pronounced than those of light-harvesting complex II and small subunit of Rubisco transcripts indicates that light stress is still affecting gene expression in the presence of JA-Me. The jasmonate-induced protein transcript levels that are induced by JA-Me decline under light stress conditions. PMID:11027731

  18. Memory responses of jasmonic acid-associated Arabidopsis genes to a repeated dehydration stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Staswick, Paul E; Avramova, Zoya

    2016-11-01

    Dehydration stress activates numerous genes co-regulated by diverse signaling pathways. Upon repeated exposures, however, a subset of these genes does not respond maintaining instead transcription at their initial pre-stressed levels ('revised-response' genes). Most of these genes are involved in jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis, JA-signaling and JA-mediated stress responses. How these JA-associated genes are regulated to provide different responses to similar dehydration stresses is an enigma. Here, we investigate molecular mechanisms that contribute to this transcriptional behavior. The memory-mechanism is stress-specific: one exposure to dehydration stress or to abscisic acid (ABA) is required to prevent transcription in the second. Both ABA-mediated and JA-mediated pathways are critical for the activation of these genes, but the two signaling pathways interact differently during a single or multiple encounters with dehydration stress. Synthesis of JA during the first (S1) but not the second dehydration stress (S2) accounts for the altered transcriptional responses. We propose a model for these memory responses, wherein lack of MYC2 and of JA synthesis in S2 is responsible for the lack of expression of downstream genes. The similar length of the memory displayed by different memory-type genes suggests biological relevance for transcriptional memory as a gene-regulating mechanism during recurring bouts of drought. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Ligand-receptor co-evolution shaped the jasmonate pathway in land plants.

    PubMed

    Monte, Isabel; Ishida, Sakiko; Zamarreño, Angel M; Hamberg, Mats; Franco-Zorrilla, José M; García-Casado, Gloria; Gouhier-Darimont, Caroline; Reymond, Philippe; Takahashi, Kosaku; García-Mina, José M; Nishihama, Ryuichi; Kohchi, Takayuki; Solano, Roberto

    2018-05-01

    The phytohormone jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) regulates defense, growth and developmental responses in vascular plants. Bryophytes have conserved sequences for all JA-Ile signaling pathway components but lack JA-Ile. We show that, in spite of 450 million years of independent evolution, the JA-Ile receptor COI1 is functionally conserved between the bryophyte Marchantia polymorpha and the eudicot Arabidopsis thaliana but COI1 responds to different ligands in each species. We identified the ligand of Marchantia MpCOI1 as two isomeric forms of the JA-Ile precursor dinor-OPDA (dinor-cis-OPDA and dinor-iso-OPDA). We demonstrate that AtCOI1 functionally complements Mpcoi1 mutation and confers JA-Ile responsiveness and that a single-residue substitution in MpCOI1 is responsible for the evolutionary switch in ligand specificity. Our results identify the ancestral bioactive jasmonate and clarify its biosynthetic pathway, demonstrate the functional conservation of its signaling pathway, and show that JA-Ile and COI1 emergence in vascular plants required co-evolution of hormone biosynthetic complexity and receptor specificity.

  20. Extrafloral nectar production of the ant-associated plant, Macaranga tanarius, is an induced, indirect, defensive response elicited by jasmonic acid

    PubMed Central

    Heil, Martin; Koch, Thomas; Hilpert, Andrea; Fiala, Brigitte; Boland, Wilhelm; Linsenmair, K. Eduard

    2001-01-01

    Plant species in at least 66 families produce extrafloral nectar (EFN) on their leaves or shoots and therewith attract predators and parasitoids, such as ants and wasps, which in turn defend them against herbivores. We investigated whether EFN secretion is induced by herbivory and/or artificial damage, and thus can be regarded as an induced defensive response. In addition, we studied the underlying signaling pathway. EFN secretion by field-grown Macaranga tanarius increased after herbivory, artificial leaf damage, and exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) application. Artificial damage strongly enhanced endogenous JA concentrations. The response in EFN production to artificial damage was much less pronounced in those leaves that were treated with phenidone to inhibit endogenous JA synthesis. Quantitative dose–response relations were found between the increase in nectar production and both the intensity of leaf damage and the amounts of exogenously applied JA. The amount of endogenously produced JA was positively correlated with the intensity of leaf damage. Increased numbers of defending insects and decreased numbers of herbivores were observed on leaves after inducing EFN production by exogenous JA treatment. Over 6 weeks, repeatedly applied JA or artificial damage resulted in a ten-fold reduction in herbivory. These results demonstrate that EFN production represents an alternative mechanism for induced, indirect defensive plant responses that are mediated via the octadecanoid signal transduction cascade. PMID:11158598

  1. Constitutive activation of jasmonate signaling in an Arabidopsis mutant correlates with enhanced resistance to Erysiphe cichoracearum, Pseudomonas syringae, and Myzus persicae.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Christine; Karafyllidis, Ioannis; Turner, John G

    2002-10-01

    In Arabidopsis spp., the jasmonate (JA) response pathway generally is required for defenses against necrotrophic pathogens and chewing insects, while the salicylic acid (SA) response pathway is generally required for specific, resistance (R) gene-mediated defenses against both biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens. For example, SA-dependent defenses are required for resistance to the biotrophic fungal pathogen Erysiphe cichoracearum UCSC1 and the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola, and also are expressed during response to the green peach aphid Myzus persicae. However, recent evidence indicates that the expression of JA-dependent defenses also may confer resistance to E. cichoracearum. To confirm and to extend this observation, we have compared the disease and pest resistance of wild-type Arabidopsis plants with that of the mutants coil, which is insensitive to JA, and cev1, which has constitutive JA signaling. Measurements of the colonization of these plants by E. cichoracearum, P. syringae pv. maculicola, and M. persicae indicated that activation of the JA signal pathway enhanced resistance, and was associated with the activation of JA-dependent defense genes and the suppression of SA-dependent defense genes. We conclude that JA and SA induce alternative defense pathways that can confer resistance to the same pathogens and pests.

  2. Jasmonic acid-mediated defense suppresses brassinosteroid-mediated susceptibility to Rice black streaked dwarf virus infection in rice.

    PubMed

    He, Yuqing; Zhang, Hehong; Sun, Zongtao; Li, Junmin; Hong, Gaojie; Zhu, Qisong; Zhou, Xuebiao; MacFarlane, Stuart; Yan, Fei; Chen, Jianping

    2017-04-01

    Plant hormones play a vital role in plant immune responses. However, in contrast to the relative wealth of information on hormone-mediated immunity in dicot plants, little information is available on monocot-virus defense systems. We used a high-throughput-sequencing approach to compare the global gene expression of Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV)-infected rice plants with that of healthy plants. Exogenous hormone applications and transgenic rice were used to test RBSDV infectivity and pathogenicity. Our results revealed that the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway was induced while the brassinosteroid (BR) pathway was suppressed in infected plants. Foliar application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or brassinazole (BRZ) resulted in a significant reduction in RBSDV incidence, while epibrassinolide (BL) treatment increased RBSDV infection. Infection studies using coi1-13 and Go mutants demonstrated JA-mediated resistance and BR-mediated susceptibility to RBSDV infection. A mixture of MeJA and BL treatment resulted in a significant reduction in RBSDV infection compared with a single BL treatment. MeJA application efficiently suppressed the expression of BR pathway genes, and this inhibition depended on the JA coreceptor OsCOI1. Collectively, our results reveal that JA-mediated defense can suppress the BR-mediated susceptibility to RBSDV infection. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Herbivore- and Elicitor- Induced Resistance in Groundnut to Asian armyworm, Spodoptera litura (Fab.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    War, Abdul Rashid; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; War, Mohd Yousf; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2011-01-01

    Induced defense was studied in three groundnut genotypes ICGV 86699 (resistant), NCAc 343 (resistant) and TMV 2 (susceptible) in response to Spodoptera litura infestation and jasmonic acid (JA) application. The activity of the oxidative enzymes [peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO)] and the amounts other host plant defense components [total phenols, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein content] were recorded at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h in JA pretreated (one day before) plants and infested with S. litura, and JA application and simultaneous infestation with S. litura to understand the defense response of groundnut genotypes against S. litura damage. Data on plant damage, larval survival and larval weights were also recorded. There was a rapid increase in the activities of POD and PPO and in the quantities of total phenols, H2O2, MDA and protein content in the JA pretreated + S. litura infested plants. All the three genotypes showed quick response to JA application and S. litura infestation by increasing the defensive compounds. Among all the genotypes, higher induction was recorded in ICGV 86699 in most of the parameters. Reduced plant damage, low larval survival and larval weights were observed in JA pretreated plants. It suggests that pretreatment with elicitors, such as JA could provide more opportunity for plant defense against herbivores. PMID:22042128

  4. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and methyl jasmonate avoid the inhibition of root hydraulic conductivity caused by drought.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Romera, Beatriz; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel; Zamarreño, Ángel María; García-Mina, José María; Aroca, Ricardo

    2016-02-01

    Hormonal regulation and symbiotic relationships provide benefits for plants to overcome stress conditions. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) application on root hydraulic conductivity (L) of Phaseolus vulgaris plants which established arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis under two water regimes (well-watered and drought conditions). The variation in endogenous contents of several hormones (MeJA, JA, abscisic acid (ABA), indol-3-acetic acid (IAA), salicylic acid (SA)) and the changes in aquaporin gene expression, protein abundance and phosphorylation state were analyzed. AM symbiosis decreased L under well-watered conditions, which was partially reverted by the MeJA treatment, apparently by a drop in root IAA contents. Also, AM symbiosis and MeJA prevented inhibition of L under drought conditions, most probably by a reduction in root SA contents. Additionally, the gene expression of two fungal aquaporins was upregulated under drought conditions, independently of the MeJA treatment. Plant aquaporin gene expression could not explain the behaviour of L. Conversely, evidence was found for the control of L by phosphorylation of aquaporins. Hence, MeJA addition modified the response of L to both AM symbiosis and drought, presumably by regulating the root contents of IAA and SA and the phosphorylation state of aquaporins.

  5. Physicochemical and thermodynamic characterization of the encapsulation of methyl jasmonate by natural and modified cyclodextrins using reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    López-Nicolás, José Manuel; Escorial Camps, Marta; Pérez-Sánchez, Horacio; García-Carmona, Francisco

    2013-11-27

    Although the combinations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and cyclodextrins (CDs) have been used by different authors to stimulate the production of several metabolites, no study has been published about the possible formation of MeJA-CD complexes when these two molecules are added together to the reaction medium as elicitors. For this reason and because knowledge of the possible complexation process of MeJA with CD under different physicochemical conditions is essential if these two molecules are to be used in cell cultures, this paper looks at the complexation of MeJA with natural and modified CDs using a reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) system. The interaction of MeJA with β-CD was more efficient than with α- and γ-CDs. However, a modified CD, HP-β-CD, was the most effective of all of the CDs tested. Moreover, MeJA formed complexes with CD with a 1:1 stoichiometry, and the formation constants of these complexes were strongly dependent upon the temperature of the mobile phase used but not the pH. To obtain information about the mechanism of the affinity of MeJA for CD, the thermodynamic parameters ΔG°, ΔH°, and ΔS° were calculated. Finally, molecular modeling studies were carried out to propose which molecular interactions are established in the complexation process.

  6. Jasmonic acid-induced volatiles of Brassica oleracea attract parasitoids: effects of time and dose, and comparison with induction by herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Bruinsma, Maaike; Posthumus, Maarten A.; Mumm, Roland; Mueller, Martin J.; van Loon, Joop J. A.; Dicke, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    Caterpillar feeding induces direct and indirect defences in brassicaceous plants. This study focused on the role of the octadecanoid pathway in induced indirect defence in Brassica oleracea. The effect of induction by exogenous application of jasmonic acid (JA) on the responses of Brussels sprouts plants and on host-location behaviour of associated parasitoid wasps was studied. Feeding by the biting–chewing herbivores Pieris rapae and Plutella xylostella resulted in significantly increased endogenous levels of JA, a central component in the octadecanoid signalling pathway that mediates induced plant defence. The levels of the intermediate 12-oxophyto-dienoic acid (OPDA) were significantly induced only after P. rapae feeding. Three species of parasitoid wasps, Cotesia glomerata, C. rubecula, and Diadegma semiclausum, differing in host range and host specificity, were tested for their behavioural responses to volatiles from herbivore-induced, JA-induced, and non-induced plants. All three species were attracted to volatiles from JA-induced plants compared with control plants; however, they preferred volatiles from herbivore-induced plants over volatiles from JA-induced plants. Attraction of C. glomerata depended on both timing and dose of JA application. JA-induced plants produced larger quantities of volatiles than herbivore-induced and control plants, indicating that not only quantity, but also quality of the volatile blend is important in the host-location behaviour of the wasps. PMID:19451186

  7. Feeding by whiteflies suppresses downstream jasmonic acid signaling by eliciting salicylic acid signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng-Jun; Li, Wei-Di; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Jin-Ming; Xu, Fang-Cheng; Lu, Yao-Bin

    2013-05-01

    Phloem-feeding whiteflies in the species complex Bemisia tabaci cause extensive crop damage worldwide. One of the reasons for their "success" is their ability to suppress the effectual jasmonic acid (JA) defenses of the host plant. However, little is understood about the mechanisms underlying whitefly suppression of JA-regulated defenses. Here, we showed that the expression of salicylic acid (SA)-responsive genes (EDS1 and PR1) in Arabidopsis thaliana was significantly enhanced during feeding by whitefly nymphs. Whereas upstream JA-responsive genes (LOX2 and OPR3) also were induced, the downstream JA-responsive gene (VSP1) was repressed, i.e., whiteflies only suppressed downstream JA signaling. Gene-expression analyses with various Arabidopsis mutants, including NahG, npr-1, ein2-1, and dde2-2, revealed that SA signaling plays a key role in the suppression of downstream JA defenses by whitefly feeding. Assays confirmed that SA activation enhanced whitefly performance by suppressing downstream JA defenses.

  8. Salicylic acid receptors activate jasmonic acid signalling through a non-canonical pathway to promote effector-triggered immunity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lijing; Sonbol, Fathi-Mohamed; Huot, Bethany; Gu, Yangnan; Withers, John; Mwimba, Musoki; Yao, Jian; He, Sheng Yang; Dong, Xinnian

    2016-10-11

    It is an apparent conundrum how plants evolved effector-triggered immunity (ETI), involving programmed cell death (PCD), as a major defence mechanism against biotrophic pathogens, because ETI-associated PCD could leave them vulnerable to necrotrophic pathogens that thrive on dead host cells. Interestingly, during ETI, the normally antagonistic defence hormones, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) associated with defence against biotrophs and necrotrophs respectively, both accumulate to high levels. In this study, we made the surprising finding that JA is a positive regulator of RPS2-mediated ETI. Early induction of JA-responsive genes and de novo JA synthesis following SA accumulation is activated through the SA receptors NPR3 and NPR4, instead of the JA receptor COI1. We provide evidence that NPR3 and NPR4 may mediate this effect by promoting degradation of the JA transcriptional repressor JAZs. This unique interplay between SA and JA offers a possible explanation of how plants can mount defence against a biotrophic pathogen without becoming vulnerable to necrotrophic pathogens.

  9. Low concentrations of salicylic acid delay methyl jasmonate-induced leaf senescence by up-regulating nitric oxide synthase activity.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yingbin; Liu, Jian; Xing, Da

    2016-09-01

    In plants, extensive efforts have been devoted to understanding the crosstalk between salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling in pathogen defenses, but this crosstalk has scarcely been addressed during senescence. In this study, the effect of SA application on methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-induced leaf senescence was assessed. We found that low concentrations of SA (1-50 μM) played a delayed role against the senescence promoted by MeJA. Furthermore, low concentrations of SA enhanced plant antioxidant defenses and restricted reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in MeJA-treated leaves. When applied simultaneously with MeJA, low concentrations of SA triggered a nitric oxide (NO) burst, and the elevated NO levels were linked to the nitric oxide associated 1 (NOA1)-dependent pathway via nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. The ability of SA to up-regulate plant antioxidant defenses, reduce ROS accumulation, and suppress leaf senescence was lost in NO-deficient Atnoa1 plants. In a converse manner, exogenous addition of NO donors increased the plant antioxidant capacity and lowered the ROS levels in MeJA-treated leaves. Taken together, the results indicate that SA at low concentrations counteracts MeJA-induced leaf senescence through NOA1-dependent NO signaling and strengthening of the antioxidant defense. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Cloning of genes related to aliphatic glucosinolate metabolism and the mechanism of sulforaphane accumulation in broccoli sprouts under jasmonic acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liping; Yang, Runqiang; Gu, Zhenxin

    2016-10-01

    Cytochrome P450 79F1 (CYP79F1), cytochrome P450 83A1 (CYP83A1), UDP-glucosyltransferase 74B1 (UGT74B1), sulfotransferase 18 (ST5b) and flavin-containing monooxygenase GS-OX1 (FMOGS - OX1 ) are important enzymes in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. In this study, their full-length cDNA in broccoli was firstly cloned, then the mechanism of sulforaphane accumulation under jasmonic acid (JA) treatment was investigated. The full-length cDNA of CYP79F1, CYP83A1, UGT74B1, ST5b and FMOGS - OX1 comprised 1980, 1652, 1592, 1378 and 1623 bp respectively. The increase in aliphatic glucosinolate accumulation in broccoli sprouts treated with JA was associated with elevated expression of genes in the aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway. Application of 100 µmol L(-1) JA increased myrosinase (MYR) activity but did not affect epithiospecifier protein (ESP) activity in broccoli sprouts, which was supported by the expression of MYR and ESP. Sulforaphane formation in 7-day-old sprouts treated with 100 µmol L(-1) JA was 3.36 and 1.30 times that in the control and 300 µmol L(-1) JA treatment respectively. JA enhanced the accumulation of aliphatic glucosinolates in broccoli sprouts via up-regulation of related gene expression. Broccoli sprouts treated with 100 µmol L(-1) JA showed higher sulforphane formation than those treated with 300 µmol L(-1) JA owing to the higher glucoraphanin content and myrosinase activity under 100 µmol L(-1) JA treatment. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Jungermannenone A and B induce ROS- and cell cycle-dependent apoptosis in prostate cancer cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yan-xia; Lin, Zhao-min; Wang, Mei-juan; Dong, Yi-wen; Niu, Huan-min; Young, Charles YF; Lou, Hong-xiang; Yuan, Hui-qing

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Jungermannenone A and B (JA, JB) are new ent-kaurane diterpenoids isolated from Chinese liverwort Jungermannia fauriana, which show anti-proliferation activities in cancer cells. In this study we investigated the mechanisms underlying the anticancer action of JA and JB in PC3 human prostate cancer cells in vitro. Methods: A panel of 9 human cancer cell lines was tested. Cell proliferation was assessed with a real-time cell analyzer and MTT assay. Cell apoptosis, cell cycle distribution and ROS levels were measured using cytometry. Mitochondrial damage was examined by transmission electron microscopy. DNA damage was detected with comet assay. Apoptotic, DNA damage- and cell cycle-related proteins were analyzed using Western blotting. The expression of DNA repair genes was measured with qRT-PCR. Results: Both JA and JB exerted potent anti-proliferative action against the 9 cancer cell lines, and PC3 cells were more sensitive with IC50 values of 1.34±0.09 and 4.93±0.20 μmol/L, respectively. JA (1.5 μmol/L) and JB (5 μmol/L) induced PC3 cell apoptosis, which was attenuated by the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD. Furthermore, both JA and JB caused mitochondrial damage and ROS accumulation in PC3 cells, whereas vitamin C blocked the ROS accumulation and attenuated the cytotoxicity of JA and JB. Moreover, both JA and JB induced DNA damage, accompanied by downregulated DNA repair proteins Ku70/Ku80 and RDA51. JA induced marked cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, which was related to c-Myc suppression, whereas JB enforced the cell cycle blockade in the G2/M phase, which associated with activation of the JNK signaling. Conclusion: Both JA and JB induce prostate cancer apoptosis via ROS accumulation and induction of cell cycle arrest. PMID:27133304

  12. Jungermannenone A and B induce ROS- and cell cycle-dependent apoptosis in prostate cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan-Xia; Lin, Zhao-Min; Wang, Mei-Juan; Dong, Yi-Wen; Niu, Huan-Min; Young, Charles Yf; Lou, Hong-Xiang; Yuan, Hui-Qing

    2016-06-01

    Jungermannenone A and B (JA, JB) are new ent-kaurane diterpenoids isolated from Chinese liverwort Jungermannia fauriana, which show anti-proliferation activities in cancer cells. In this study we investigated the mechanisms underlying the anticancer action of JA and JB in PC3 human prostate cancer cells in vitro. A panel of 9 human cancer cell lines was tested. Cell proliferation was assessed with a real-time cell analyzer and MTT assay. Cell apoptosis, cell cycle distribution and ROS levels were measured using cytometry. Mitochondrial damage was examined by transmission electron microscopy. DNA damage was detected with comet assay. Apoptotic, DNA damage- and cell cycle-related proteins were analyzed using Western blotting. The expression of DNA repair genes was measured with qRT-PCR. Both JA and JB exerted potent anti-proliferative action against the 9 cancer cell lines, and PC3 cells were more sensitive with IC50 values of 1.34±0.09 and 4.93±0.20 μmol/L, respectively. JA (1.5 μmol/L) and JB (5 μmol/L) induced PC3 cell apoptosis, which was attenuated by the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD. Furthermore, both JA and JB caused mitochondrial damage and ROS accumulation in PC3 cells, whereas vitamin C blocked the ROS accumulation and attenuated the cytotoxicity of JA and JB. Moreover, both JA and JB induced DNA damage, accompanied by downregulated DNA repair proteins Ku70/Ku80 and RDA51. JA induced marked cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, which was related to c-Myc suppression, whereas JB enforced the cell cycle blockade in the G2/M phase, which associated with activation of the JNK signaling. Both JA and JB induce prostate cancer apoptosis via ROS accumulation and induction of cell cycle arrest.

  13. Expression profiles of genes involved in jasmonic acid biosynthesis and signaling during growth and development of carrot.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanglong; Huang, Wei; Li, Mengyao; Xu, Zhisheng; Wang, Feng; Xiong, Aisheng

    2016-09-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are recognized as essential regulators in response to environmental stimuli and plant development. Carrot is an Apiaceae vegetable with great value and undergoes significant size changes over the course of plant growth. However, JA accumulation and its potential roles in carrot growth remain unclear. Here, methyl JA (MeJA) levels and expression profiles of JA-related genes were analyzed in carrot roots and leaves at five developmental stages. MeJA levels in the roots and leaves were the highest at the first stage and decreased as carrot growth proceeded. Transcript levels of several JA-related genes (Dc13-LOX1, Dc13-LOX2, DcAOS, DcAOC, DcOPR2, DcOPR3, DcOPCL1, DcJAR1, DcJMT, DcCOI1, DcJAZ1, DcJAZ2, DcMYC2, DcCHIB/PR3, DcLEC, and DcVSP2) were not well correlated with MeJA accumulation during carrot root and leaf development. In addition, some JA-related genes (DcJAR1, DcJMT, DcCOI1, DcMYC2, and DcVSP2) showed differential expression between roots and leaves. These results suggest that JAs may regulate carrot plant growth in stage-dependent and organ-specific manners. Our work provides novel insights into JA accumulation and its potential roles during carrot growth and development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The Jasmonate Pathway Is a Key Player in Systemically Induced Defense against Root Knot Nematodes in Rice1[C

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Kamrun; Kyndt, Tina; De Vleesschauwer, David; Höfte, Monica; Gheysen, Godelieve

    2011-01-01

    Complex defense signaling pathways, controlled by different hormones, are involved in the reaction of plants to a wide range of biotic and abiotic stress factors. We studied the ability of salicylic acid, jasmonate (JA), and ethylene (ET) to induce systemic defense in rice (Oryza sativa) against the root knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola. Exogenous ET (ethephon) and JA (methyl jasmonate) supply on the shoots induced a strong systemic defense response in the roots, exemplified by a major up-regulation of pathogenesis-related genes OsPR1a and OsPR1b, while the salicylic acid analog BTH (benzo-1,2,3-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester) was a less potent systemic defense inducer from shoot to root. Experiments with JA biosynthesis mutants and ET-insensitive transgenics showed that ET-induced defense requires an intact JA pathway, while JA-induced defense was still functional when ET signaling was impaired. Pharmacological inhibition of JA and ET biosynthesis confirmed that JA biosynthesis is needed for ET-induced systemic defense, and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction data revealed that ET application onto the shoots strongly activates JA biosynthesis and signaling genes in the roots. All data provided in this study point to the JA pathway to play a pivotal role in rice defense against root knot nematodes. The expression of defense-related genes was monitored in root galls caused by M. graminicola. Different analyzed defense genes were attenuated in root galls caused by the nematode at early time points after infection. However, when the exogenous defense inducers ethephon and methyl jasmonate were supplied to the plant, the nematode was less effective in counteracting root defense pathways, hence making the plant more resistant to nematode infection. PMID:21715672

  15. Jasmonate Controls Leaf Growth by Repressing Cell Proliferation and the Onset of Endoreduplication while Maintaining a Potential Stand-By Mode1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Noir, Sandra; Bömer, Moritz; Takahashi, Naoki; Ishida, Takashi; Tsui, Tjir-Li; Balbi, Virginia; Shanahan, Hugh; Sugimoto, Keiko; Devoto, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Phytohormones regulate plant growth from cell division to organ development. Jasmonates (JAs) are signaling molecules that have been implicated in stress-induced responses. However, they have also been shown to inhibit plant growth, but the mechanisms are not well understood. The effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on leaf growth regulation were investigated in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants altered in JA synthesis and perception, allene oxide synthase and coi1-16B (for coronatine insensitive1), respectively. We show that MeJA inhibits leaf growth through the JA receptor COI1 by reducing both cell number and size. Further investigations using flow cytometry analyses allowed us to evaluate ploidy levels and to monitor cell cycle progression in leaves and cotyledons of Arabidopsis and/or Nicotiana benthamiana at different stages of development. Additionally, a novel global transcription profiling analysis involving continuous treatment with MeJA was carried out to identify the molecular players whose expression is regulated during leaf development by this hormone and COI1. The results of these studies revealed that MeJA delays the switch from the mitotic cell cycle to the endoreduplication cycle, which accompanies cell expansion, in a COI1-dependent manner and inhibits the mitotic cycle itself, arresting cells in G1 phase prior to the S-phase transition. Significantly, we show that MeJA activates critical regulators of endoreduplication and affects the expression of key determinants of DNA replication. Our discoveries also suggest that MeJA may contribute to the maintenance of a cellular “stand-by mode” by keeping the expression of ribosomal genes at an elevated level. Finally, we propose a novel model for MeJA-regulated COI1-dependent leaf growth inhibition. PMID:23439917

  16. Thiorhodococcus fuscus sp. nov., isolated from a lagoon.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, K V N S; Divyasree, B; Sucharita, K; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2015-11-01

    A brown, moderately halophilic, photoautotrophic bacterium designated strain JA363T was purified from a photoheterotrophic enrichment obtained from sediment from Chilika lagoon, Odisha, India. Cells of the isolate were coccoid, motile by means of single polar flagellum and Gram-stain-negative. Strain JA363T had an obligate requirement for NaCl and could tolerate up to 7 % (w/v) NaCl. Strain JA363T had complex growth factor requirements. Internal photosynthetic membranes were present as vesicles. Strain JA363T contained bacteriochlorophyll a and spirilloxanthin series carotenoids with rhodopin as a major (>85 %) component. C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c, C18 : 1ω7c and C16 : 0 were the major fatty acids and phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine were the major polar lipids. Q8 was the predominant quinone system of strain JA363T. The DNA G+C content was 64 mol%. The highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of strain JA363T was found with the type strains of Thiorhodococcus kakinadensis (98.7 %), Thiohalobacter thiocyanaticus (98.2 %), Thiophaeococcus fuscus (97.4 %) and Thiorhodococcus bheemlicus (96.3 %). However, the phylogenetic trees generated firmly placed strain JA363T in the genus Thiorhodococcus, which was further supported by phenotypic and chemotaxonomic evidence. Consequently, strain JA363T is described as representing a novel species of the genus Thiorhodococcus as Thiorhodococcus fuscus sp. nov. The type strain is JA363T ( = KCTC 5701T = NBRC 104959T).

  17. Structural insights into alternative splicing-mediated desensitization of jasmonate signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Ke, Jiyuan; Zhang, Li; Chen, Rongzhi; Sugimoto, Koichi; Howe, Gregg A; Xu, H Eric; Zhou, Mingguo; He, Sheng Yang; Melcher, Karsten

    2017-02-14

    Jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) transcriptional repressors play a key role in regulating jasmonate (JA) signaling in plants. Below a threshold concentration of jasmonoyl isoleucine (JA-Ile), the active form of JA, the C-terminal Jas motif of JAZ proteins binds MYC transcription factors to repress JA signaling. With increasing JA-Ile concentration, the Jas motif binds to JA-Ile and the COI1 subunit of the SCF COI1 E3 ligase, which mediates ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of JAZ repressors, resulting in derepression of MYC transcription factors. JA signaling subsequently becomes desensitized, in part by feedback induction of JAZ splice variants that lack the C-terminal Jas motif but include an N-terminal cryptic MYC-interaction domain (CMID). The CMID sequence is dissimilar to the Jas motif and is incapable of recruiting SCF COI1 , allowing CMID-containing JAZ splice variants to accumulate in the presence of JA and to re-repress MYC transcription factors as an integral part of reestablishing signal homeostasis. The mechanism by which the CMID represses MYC transcription factors remains elusive. Here we describe the crystal structure of the MYC3-CMID JAZ10 complex. In contrast to the Jas motif, which forms a single continuous helix when bound to MYC3, the CMID adopts a loop-helix-loop-helix architecture with modular interactions with both the Jas-binding groove and the backside of the Jas-interaction domain of MYC3. This clamp-like interaction allows the CMID to bind MYC3 tightly and block access of MED25 (a subunit of the Mediator coactivator complex) to the MYC3 transcriptional activation domain, shedding light on the enigmatic mechanism by which JAZ splice variants desensitize JA signaling.

  18. Transcriptional Profiling of Sorghum Induced by Methyl Jasmonate, Salicylic Acid, and Aminocyclopropane Carboxylic Acid Reveals Cooperative Regulation and Novel Gene Responses1[w

    PubMed Central

    Salzman, Ron A.; Brady, Jeff A.; Finlayson, Scott A.; Buchanan, Christina D.; Summer, Elizabeth J.; Sun, Feng; Klein, Patricia E.; Klein, Robert R.; Pratt, Lee H.; Cordonnier-Pratt, Marie-Michèle; Mullet, John E.

    2005-01-01

    We have conducted a large-scale study of gene expression in the C4 monocot sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) L. Moench cv BTx623 in response to the signaling compounds salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), and the ethylene precursor aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid. Expression profiles were generated from seedling root and shoot tissue at 3 and 27 h, using a microarray containing 12,982 nonredundant elements. Data from 102 slides and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR data on mRNA abundance from 171 genes were collected and analyzed and are here made publicly available. Numerous gene clusters were identified in which expression was correlated with particular signaling compound and tissue combinations. Many genes previously implicated in defense responded to the treatments, including numerous pathogenesis-related genes and most members of the phenylpropanoid pathway, and several other genes that may represent novel activities or pathways. Genes of the octadecanoic acid pathway of jasmonic acid (JA) synthesis were induced by SA as well as by MeJA. The resulting hypothesis that increased SA could lead to increased endogenous JA production was confirmed by measurement of JA content. Comparison of responses to SA, MeJA, and combined SA+MeJA revealed patterns of one-way and mutual antagonisms, as well as synergistic effects on regulation of some genes. These experiments thus help further define the transcriptional results of cross talk between the SA and JA pathways and suggest that a subset of genes coregulated by SA and JA may comprise a uniquely evolved sector of plant signaling responsive cascades. PMID:15863699

  19. Salicylic Acid Suppresses Jasmonic Acid Signaling Downstream of SCFCOI1-JAZ by Targeting GCC Promoter Motifs via Transcription Factor ORA59[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Van der Does, Dieuwertje; Leon-Reyes, Antonio; Koornneef, Annemart; Van Verk, Marcel C.; Rodenburg, Nicole; Pauwels, Laurens; Goossens, Alain; Körbes, Ana P.; Memelink, Johan; Ritsema, Tita; Van Wees, Saskia C.M.; Pieterse, Corné M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Antagonism between the defense hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) plays a central role in the modulation of the plant immune signaling network, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that suppression of the JA pathway by SA functions downstream of the E3 ubiquitin-ligase Skip-Cullin-F-box complex SCFCOI1, which targets JASMONATE ZIM-domain transcriptional repressor proteins (JAZs) for proteasome-mediated degradation. In addition, neither the stability nor the JA-induced degradation of JAZs was affected by SA. In silico promoter analysis of the SA/JA crosstalk transcriptome revealed that the 1-kb promoter regions of JA-responsive genes that are suppressed by SA are significantly enriched in the JA-responsive GCC-box motifs. Using GCC:GUS lines carrying four copies of the GCC-box fused to the β-glucuronidase reporter gene, we showed that the GCC-box motif is sufficient for SA-mediated suppression of JA-responsive gene expression. Using plants overexpressing the GCC-box binding APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) transcription factors ERF1 or ORA59, we found that SA strongly reduces the accumulation of ORA59 but not that of ERF1. Collectively, these data indicate that the SA pathway inhibits JA signaling downstream of the SCFCOI1-JAZ complex by targeting GCC-box motifs in JA-responsive promoters via a negative effect on the transcriptional activator ORA59. PMID:23435661

  20. Endogenous jasmonic and salicylic acids levels in the Cd-hyperaccumulator Noccaea (Thlaspi) praecox exposed to fungal infection and/or mechanical stress.

    PubMed

    Llugany, M; Martin, S R; Barceló, J; Poschenrieder, C

    2013-08-01

    Sensitivity to Erysiphe in Noccaea praecox with low metal supply is related to the failure in enhancing SA. Cadmium protects against fungal-infection by direct toxicity and/or enhanced fungal-induced JA signaling. Metal-based defense against biotic stress is an attractive hypothesis on evolutionary advantages of plant metal hyperaccumulation. Metals may compensate for a defect in biotic stress signaling in hyperaccumulators (metal-therapy) by either or both direct toxicity to pathogens and by metal-induced alternative signaling pathways. Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are well-established components of stress signaling pathways. However, few studies evaluate the influence of metals on endogenous concentrations of these defense-related hormones. Even less data are available for metal hyperaccumulators. To further test the metal-therapy hypothesis we analyzed endogenous SA and JA concentrations in Noccaea praecox, a cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator. Plants treated or not with Cd, were exposed to mechanical wounding, expected to enhance JA signaling, and/or to infection by biotrophic fungus Erysiphe cruciferarum for triggering SA. JA and SA were analyzed in leaf extracts using LC-ESI(-)-MS/MS. Plants without Cd were more susceptible to fungal attack than plants receiving Cd. Cadmium alone tended to increase leaf SA but not JA. Either or both fungal attack and mechanical wounding decreased SA levels and enhanced JA in the Cd-rich leaves of plants exposed to Cd. High leaf Cd in N. praecox seems to hamper biotic-stress-induced SA, while triggering JA signaling in response to fungal attack and wounding. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the endogenous JA and SA levels in a Cd-hyperaccumulator exposed to different biotic and abiotic stresses. Our results support the view of a defect in SA stress signaling in Cd hyperaccumulating N. praecox.

  1. Leaf and root glucosinolate profiles of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) as a systemic response to methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid elicitation.

    PubMed

    Zang, Yun-xiang; Ge, Jia-li; Huang, Ling-hui; Gao, Fei; Lv, Xi-shan; Zheng, Wei-wei; Hong, Seung-beom; Zhu, Zhu-jun

    2015-08-01

    Glucosinolates (GSs) are an important group of defensive phytochemicals mainly found in Brassicaceae. Plant hormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are major regulators of plant response to pathogen attack. However, there is little information about the interactive effect of both elicitors on inducing GS biosynthesis in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). In this study, we applied different concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and/or SA onto the leaf and root of Chinese cabbage to investigate the time-course interactive profiles of GSs. Regardless of the site of the elicitation and the concentrations of the elicitors, the roots accumulated much more GSs and were more sensitive and more rapidly responsive to the elicitors than leaves. Irrespective of the elicitation site, MeJA had a greater inducing and longer lasting effect on GS accumulation than SA. All three components of indole GS (IGS) were detected along with aliphatic and aromatic GSs. However, IGS was a major component of total GSs that accumulated rapidly in both root and leaf tissues in response to MeJA and SA elicitation. Neoglucobrassicin (neoGBC) did not respond to SA but to MeJA in leaf tissue, while it responded to both SA and MeJA in root tissue. Conversion of glucobrassicin (GBC) to neoGBC occurred at a steady rate over 3 d of elicitation. Increased accumulation of 4-methoxy glucobrassicin (4-MGBC) occurred only in the root irrespective of the type of elicitors and the site of elicitation. Thus, accumulation of IGS is a major metabolic hallmark of SA- and MeJA-mediated systemic response systems. SA exerted an antagonistic effect on the MeJA-induced root GSs irrespective of the site of elicitation. However, SA showed synergistic and antagonistic effects on the MeJA-induced leaf GSs when roots and leaves are elicitated for 3 d, respectively.

  2. Salicylic acid suppresses jasmonic acid signaling downstream of SCFCOI1-JAZ by targeting GCC promoter motifs via transcription factor ORA59.

    PubMed

    Van der Does, Dieuwertje; Leon-Reyes, Antonio; Koornneef, Annemart; Van Verk, Marcel C; Rodenburg, Nicole; Pauwels, Laurens; Goossens, Alain; Körbes, Ana P; Memelink, Johan; Ritsema, Tita; Van Wees, Saskia C M; Pieterse, Corné M J

    2013-02-01

    Antagonism between the defense hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) plays a central role in the modulation of the plant immune signaling network, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that suppression of the JA pathway by SA functions downstream of the E3 ubiquitin-ligase Skip-Cullin-F-box complex SCF(COI1), which targets JASMONATE ZIM-domain transcriptional repressor proteins (JAZs) for proteasome-mediated degradation. In addition, neither the stability nor the JA-induced degradation of JAZs was affected by SA. In silico promoter analysis of the SA/JA crosstalk transcriptome revealed that the 1-kb promoter regions of JA-responsive genes that are suppressed by SA are significantly enriched in the JA-responsive GCC-box motifs. Using GCC:GUS lines carrying four copies of the GCC-box fused to the β-glucuronidase reporter gene, we showed that the GCC-box motif is sufficient for SA-mediated suppression of JA-responsive gene expression. Using plants overexpressing the GCC-box binding APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) transcription factors ERF1 or ORA59, we found that SA strongly reduces the accumulation of ORA59 but not that of ERF1. Collectively, these data indicate that the SA pathway inhibits JA signaling downstream of the SCF(COI1)-JAZ complex by targeting GCC-box motifs in JA-responsive promoters via a negative effect on the transcriptional activator ORA59.

  3. Prebiotic potential of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) in Wistar rats: effects of levels of supplementation on hindgut fermentation, intestinal morphology, blood metabolites and immune response.

    PubMed

    Samal, Lipismita; Chaturvedi, Vishwa Bandhu; Saikumar, Guttula; Somvanshi, Ramesh; Pattanaik, Ashok Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Many studies have been conducted using purified prebiotics such as inulin or fructooligosaccharides (FOS) as nutraceuticals, but there is very little information available on the prebiotic potential of raw products rich in inulin and FOS, such as Jerusalem artichoke (JA; Helianthus tuberosus L.). The present experiment aimed to evaluate the prebiotic effects of JA tubers in rats. Seventy-two Wistar weanling rats divided into four groups were fed for 12 weeks on a basal diet fortified with pulverized JA tubers at 0 (control), 20, 40 and 60 g kg(-1) levels. Enhanced cell-mediated immunity in terms of skin indurations (P = 0.082) and CD4+ T-lymphocyte population (P = 0.002) was observed in the JA-supplemented groups compared with the control group. Blood haemoglobin (P = 0.017), glucose (P = 0.001), urea (P = 0.004) and calcium (P = 0.048) varied favourably upon inclusion of JA. An increasing trend (P = 0.059) in the length of large intestine was apparent in the JA-fed groups. The tissue mass of caecum (P = 0.069) and colon (P = 0.003) was increased in the JA-supplemented groups, accompanied by higher (P = 0.007) caecal crypt depth. The pH and ammonia concentrations of intestinal digesta decreased and those of lactate and total volatile fatty acids increased in the JA-fed groups. The results suggest that JA had beneficial effects on immunity, blood metabolites, intestinal morphometry and hindgut fermentation of rats. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Ethylene independent induction of lycopene biosynthesis in tomato fruits by jasmonates

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jia; Wang, Qiaomei

    2012-01-01

    One of the main characteristics of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening is a massive accumulation of carotenoids (mainly lycopene), which may contribute to the nutrient quality of tomato fruit and its role in chemoprevention. Previous studies have shown that ethylene (ET) plays a central role in promoting fruit ripening. In this study, the role of jasmonic acid (JA) in controlling lycopene accumulation in tomato fruits was analysed by measuring fruit lycopene content and the expression levels of lycopene biosynthetic genes in JA-deficient mutants (spr2 and def1) and a 35S::prosystemin transgenic line (35S::prosys) with increased JA levels and constitutive JA signalling. The lycopene content was significantly decreased in the fruits of spr2 and def1, but was enhanced in 35S::prosys fruits. Simultaneously, the expression of lycopene biosynthetic genes followed a similar trend. Lycopene synthesis in methyl jasmonate (MeJA) vapour-treated fruits showed an inverted U-shaped dose response, which significantly enhanced the fruit lycopene content and restored lycopene accumulation in spr2 and def1 at a concentration of 0.5 µM. The results indicated that JA plays a positive role in lycopene biosynthesis. In addition, the role of ET in JA-induced lycopene accumulation was also examined. Ethylene production in tomato fruits was depressed in spr2 and def1 while it increased in 35S::prosys. However, the exogenous application of MeJA to Never ripe (Nr), the ET-insensitive mutant, significantly promoted lycopene accumulation, as well as the expression of lycopene biosynthetic genes. Based on these results, it is proposed that JA might function independently of ethylene to promote lycopene biosynthesis in tomato fruits. PMID:22945939

  5. Methyl jasmonate-induced defense responses are associated with elevation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase in Lycopersicon esculentum fruit.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mengmeng; Shen, Lin; Zhang, Aijun; Sheng, Jiping

    2011-10-15

    It has been known that methyl jasmonate (MeJA) interacts with ethylene to elicit resistance. In green mature tomato fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Lichun), 0.02mM MeJA increased the activity of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO), and consequently influenced the last step of ethylene biosynthesis. Fruits treated with a combination of 0.02 MeJA and 0.02 α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB, a competitive inhibitor of ACO) exhibited a lower ethylene production comparing to that by 0.02mM MeJA alone. The increased activities of defense enzymes and subsequent control of disease incidence caused by Botrytis cinerea with 0.2mM MeJA treatment was impaired by AIB as well. A close relationship (P<0.05) was found between the activity alterations of ACO and that of chitinase (CHI) and β-1,3-glucanase (GLU). In addition, this study further detected the changes of gene expressions and enzyme kinetics of ACO to different concentrations of MeJA. LeACO1 was found the principal member from the ACO gene family to respond to MeJA. Accumulation of LeACO1/3/4 transcripts followed the concentration pattern of MeJA treatments, where the largest elevations were reached by 0.2mM. For kinetic analysis, K(m) values of ACO stepped up during the experiment and reached the maximums at 0.2mM MeJA with ascending concentrations of treatments. V(max) exhibited a gradual increase from 3h to 24h, and the largest induction appeared with 1.0mM MeJA. The results suggested that ACO is involved in MeJA-induced resistance in tomato, and the concentration influence of MeJA on ACO was attributable to the variation of gene transcripts and enzymatic properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Methyl jasmonate elicits the biotransformation of geraniol stored as its glucose conjugate into methyl geranate in Achyranthes bidentata plant.

    PubMed

    Tamogami, Shigeru; Agrawal, Ganesh K; Rakwal, Randeep

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the biotransformation pathway of airborne geraniol by Achyranthes bidentata (A. bidentata), deuterium labeled geraniol was applied with or without methyl jasmonate (MeJA), and the biosynthesized metabolites were analyzed. In A. bidentata leaves, geraniol was conjugated with glucose. The conjugate was then metabolized to afford methyl geranate only under MeJA elicitation. MeJA elicits the biotransformation of geraniol into methyl geranate by inducing the conversion of the intermediate, glucose conjugate of geraniol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Multilayered Organization of Jasmonate Signalling in the Regulation of Root Growth

    PubMed Central

    Gasperini, Debora; Chételat, Aurore; Acosta, Ivan F.; Goossens, Jonas; Pauwels, Laurens; Goossens, Alain; Dreos, René; Alfonso, Esteban; Farmer, Edward E.

    2015-01-01

    Physical damage can strongly affect plant growth, reducing the biomass of developing organs situated at a distance from wounds. These effects, previously studied in leaves, require the activation of jasmonate (JA) signalling. Using a novel assay involving repetitive cotyledon wounding in Arabidopsis seedlings, we uncovered a function of JA in suppressing cell division and elongation in roots. Regulatory JA signalling components were then manipulated to delineate their relative impacts on root growth. The new transcription factor mutant myc2-322B was isolated. In vitro transcription assays and whole-plant approaches revealed that myc2-322B is a dosage-dependent gain-of-function mutant that can amplify JA growth responses. Moreover, myc2-322B displayed extreme hypersensitivity to JA that totally suppressed root elongation. The mutation weakly reduced root growth in undamaged plants but, when the upstream negative regulator NINJA was genetically removed, myc2-322B powerfully repressed root growth through its effects on cell division and cell elongation. Furthermore, in a JA-deficient mutant background, ninja1 myc2-322B still repressed root elongation, indicating that it is possible to generate JA-responses in the absence of JA. We show that NINJA forms a broadly expressed regulatory layer that is required to inhibit JA signalling in the apex of roots grown under basal conditions. By contrast, MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4 displayed cell layer-specific localisations and MYC3 and MYC4 were expressed in mutually exclusive regions. In nature, growing roots are likely subjected to constant mechanical stress during soil penetration that could lead to JA production and subsequent detrimental effects on growth. Our data reveal how distinct negative regulatory layers, including both NINJA-dependent and -independent mechanisms, restrain JA responses to allow normal root growth. Mechanistic insights from this work underline the importance of mapping JA signalling components to specific

  8. Cloning of organic solvent tolerance gene ostA that determines n-hexane tolerance level in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Aono, R; Negishi, T; Nakajima, H

    1994-01-01

    A variety of genes are involved in determining the level of organic solvent tolerance of Escherichia coli K-12. Gene ostA is one of the genes contributing to the level of organic solvent tolerance. This gene was cloned from an n-hexane-tolerant strain of E. coli, JA300. A JA300-based n-hexane-sensitive strain, OST4251, was converted to the n-hexane-tolerant phenotype by transformation with DNA containing the ostA gene derived from JA300. Thus, the cloned ostA gene complemented the n-hexane-sensitive phenotype of OST4251. Images PMID:7811102

  9. Complete nucleotide sequence of jasmine virus H, a new member of the family Tombusviridae.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Tao; Zhu, Li-Juan; Lu, Cheng-Cong; Jiang, Chao-Yang; Chen, Zi-Yin; Zhang, Guangzhi; Wang, Zong-Hua; Jovel, Juan; Han, Yan-Hong

    2018-03-01

    Jasmine virus H (JaVH) is a novel virus associated with symptoms of yellow mosaic on jasmine. The JaVH genome is 3,867 nt in length with five open reading frames (ORFs) encoding a 27-kDa protein (ORF 1), an 87-kDa replicase protein (ORF 2), two centrally located movement proteins (ORF 3 and 4), and a 37-kDa capsid protein (ORF 5). Based on genomic and phylogenetic analysis, JaVH is predicted to be a member of the genus Pelarspovirus in the family Tombusviridae.

  10. Broadening and Shifting of Atomic Strontium and Diatomic Bismuth Spectral Lines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-01

    Upper Energy State, Ek kA q kA q jA jA Figure 2-4. Transition between the lower and upper energy states of an atom or molecule affected by quenching...broadened by both lifetime effects and quenching. This profile has a F HM given by Equation 2-16. W q q jA kA qq vNA (2-17) where N is the...December 1998 (AD-A361408)(9921302). 42. Predoi-Cross, Adriana , J. P. Bouanich, D. C. Benner, A. D. May, and J. R. Drummond. “Broadening, Shifting

  11. An Evaluation of the Anti-Soviet Guerrilla Warfare Potential in Soviet Estonia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-15

    der Waffen-S[., p. 95. 21 42. Arnold Purre, "Saksa-NÖuk. Liidu soja uldjooni," in Eestl Rllk ja Rahvas Telses Maallmasojas, Vol. 7, ed. by...Purre, "Saksa-Nouk. Liidu söja uldjooni," p. 35. 45. Hausser, pp. 95-96. 46. Purre, "Saksa-Nouk. Liidu soja uldjooni," p. 35. 47. Ibid. p. 36...of Estot.ia and life under the Soviet occupation.) 10. Maasing, Richard, et al. Ecsti Rilk Ja Rahvas Telses Maallma- sojas . Vol. 1

  12. Safety and quality parameters of ready-to-cook minced pork meat products supplemented with Helianthus tuberosus L. tubers fermented by BLIS producing lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Stimbirys, Arturas; Bartkiene, Elena; Siugzdaite, Jurate; Augeniene, Dovile; Vidmantiene, Daiva; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Maruska, Audrius; Stankevicius, Mantas; Cizeikiene, Dalia

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of additives of Jerusalem artichoke (JA), fermented with P. acidilactici KTU05-7, P. pentosaceus KTU05-9, L. sakei KTU05-6, on the quality and safety parameters of ready - to cook - minced pork (RCMP). Fermented JA additives reduced pH of the meat products and decreased water holding capacity (WHC) from 2.01 till 2.93 %. Concentrations of biogenic amines in RCMP with additives of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) - fermented JA were significantly lower comparing with control sample. The number of pathogenic bacteria in artificially contaminated meat samples was significantly reduced in case of LAB-fermented JA additives. The highest antimicrobial activity was obtained using P. acidilactici fermented JA additives. The amounts of microbial pathogens E. coli and Ent. faecalis, S. aureus and Streptococcus spp. were determined 3.41, 3.38, 3,96 and 4.74 log CFU/g correspondingly, whereas without LAB-fermented JA additives were 8.94, 7.75, 8.82 and 8.58 log CFU/g, correspondingly. A possibility to improve sensory properties (flavor) of RCMP using LAB fermented JA additives was investigated. The composition of volatile compounds of RCMP without additive and with LAB-fermented JA additives was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results of sensory evaluation of meat products supplemented with fermented JA additives revealed specific odor, which is pleasant and acceptable for consumers might be explainable that LAB-fermented JA additives have shown considerable differences mainly due to the accumulation of volatiles such as toluene, ethylbenzene, decane, undecane, 2 methyl undecane. N-morpholinomethyl-isopropyl-sulfide, 6-undecilamine and N,N-dimethyl-1-pentadecanamine were not determined in RCMP with LAB-fermented JA additives. The results obtained show, that P. acidilactici fermented JA 5 % additive is most suitable for the RCMP processing in order to prevent microbiological spoilage, increase

  13. Comprehensive Synchronization Elimination for Java (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    e : % thread-local % reentrant % enclosed Figure...0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 ca ss ow ar y ja va c ja va cu p ja va do c jg l jle x pi zz a ar ra y in st an td b jlo go pl as m a sl ic e Figure 6...1998. [DR98] P. Diniz and M. Rinard. Lock Coarsening: Eliminating Lock Overhead in Automatically Parallelized Object-based Programs. In Journal

  14. Avulsion Fracture: How Is It Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marx JA, et al., eds. General principles of orthopedic injuries. In: Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ... trademarks of Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. © 1998-2018 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and ...

  15. Tendinitis Pain: Should I Apply Ice or Heat?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marx JA, et al., eds. General Principles of Orthopedic Injuries. In: Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ... trademarks of Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. © 1998-2018 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and ...

  16. Sickle Cell Screening: Emphasis on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valente, Carmine; Frank, William

    1972-01-01

    This article relates the sickle cell education program, the personnel training and the screening procedures of a pilot sickle cell screening program by the Prince George's County Health Department. (JA)

  17. Periosteum

    MedlinePlus

    ... anatomy of the musculoskeletal system. In: Standring S, ed. Gray's Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice . 41st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 5. Silverstein JA, Moeller ...

  18. Vomiting blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the vomit References Goralnick E, Meguerdichian DA. Gastrointestinal bleeding. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ... Saunders; 2016:chap 135. Savides TJ, Jensen DM. Gastrointestinal bleeding. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. ...

  19. Septicemia

    MedlinePlus

    Blood poisoning; Bacteremia with sepsis ... Shapiro NI, Zimmer GD, Barkin AZ. Sepsis syndromes. In: Marx, JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  20. Tooth formation - delayed or absent

    MedlinePlus

    ... missing teeth they never developed. Cosmetic or orthodontic dentistry can correct this problem. Causes Specific diseases can ... process. In: Dean JA, ed. McDonald and Avery's Dentistry for the Child and Adolescent . 10th ed. St. ...

  1. Dental x-rays

    MedlinePlus

    ... techniques. In: Dean JA, ed. McDonald and Avery's Dentistry for the Child and Adolescent . 10th ed. St. ... Updated by: Michael Kapner, DDS, general and aesthetic dentistry, Norwalk Medical Center, Norwalk, CT. Review provided by ...

  2. Natal teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... process. In: Dean JA, ed. McDonald and Avery's Dentistry for the Child and Adolescent . 10th ed. St. ... Updated by: Michael Kapner, DDS, general and aesthetic dentistry, Norwalk Medical Center, Norwalk, CT. Review provided by ...

  3. The Pilot Programme for Teacher Education at Dalhousie University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremer, Anne

    1973-01-01

    A program for prospective elementary school teachers was structured so that students' learning activities including continuous planning and evaluation, were metaphors for the experiences they wished to engender as professional teachers. The metaphorical principle is elaborated. (Author/JA)

  4. Subcutaneous emphysema

    MedlinePlus

    ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 84. Eckstein M, Henderson SO. Thoracic trauma. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, ... by: Jacob L. Heller, MD, MHA, Emergency Medicine, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by ...

  5. Piaget's Theory of Child Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Robbie

    1972-01-01

    This article traces Piaget's theory of child development from its philosophic foundations in Kantian organization and then describes in sequence Piaget's four stages. (A follow-up article on Piaget and educational practice will appear in a later issue.) (JA)

  6. Astronaut Edwin Aldrin photographed with pilot's hatch of spacecraft open

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot of the Gemini 12 space flight, is photographed with pilot's hatch of spacecraft open. Note J.A. Maurer camera which was used to photograph some of his extravehicular activity.

  7. Pseudomonas syringae Type III Effector HopBB1 Promotes Host Transcriptional Repressor Degradation to Regulate Phytohormone Responses and Virulence.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Teixeira, Paulo José Pereira Lima; Biswas, Surojit; Finkel, Omri M; He, Yijian; Salas-Gonzalez, Isai; English, Marie E; Epple, Petra; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Dangl, Jeffery L

    2017-02-08

    Independently evolved pathogen effectors from three branches of life (ascomycete, eubacteria, and oomycete) converge onto the Arabidopsis TCP14 transcription factor to manipulate host defense. However, the mechanistic basis for defense control via TCP14 regulation is unknown. We demonstrate that TCP14 regulates the plant immune system by transcriptionally repressing a subset of the jasmonic acid (JA) hormone signaling outputs. A previously unstudied Pseudomonas syringae (Psy) type III effector, HopBB1, interacts with TCP14 and targets it to the SCF COI1 degradation complex by connecting it to the JA signaling repressor JAZ3. Consequently, HopBB1 de-represses the TCP14-regulated subset of JA response genes and promotes pathogen virulence. Thus, HopBB1 fine-tunes host phytohormone crosstalk by precisely manipulating part of the JA regulon to avoid pleiotropic host responses while promoting pathogen proliferation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Publications - GMC 10 | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys

    Science.gov Websites

    DGGS GMC 10 Publication Details Title: Total organic carbon and vitrinite reflectance for eight North for more information. Bibliographic Reference Curiale, J.A., 1982, Total organic carbon and vitrinite

  9. 21 CFR 177.1660 - Poly (tetra-methylene tereph-thalate).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Identity. For the purpose of this section, poly (tetramethylene terephthalate) is the reaction product of...) and calculated from the following equation: ER01JA93.400 where: Nr=Ratio of flow time of the polymer...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Neidich JA, Wilcox WR. Subtle radiographic findings of achondroplasia in patients with Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans ... of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 disorders: the achondroplasia family of skeletal dysplasias, Muenke craniosynostosis, and Crouzon ...

  11. Photographic Technology and the Research Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noss, Jerome

    1974-01-01

    Description of photogrammetric analyses which, combined with the current emergence of biomechanics, is utilized to explain and measure photographs of human movement. Oriented towards the use of photogrammetric analysis in physical education research. (JA)

  12. Journey to Elsewhere and Elsewhen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagan, Carl

    1973-01-01

    A Cornell University astronomer discusses teaching astronomy in schools and provides details on concepts such as the theorized black holes that may be apertures to distant galaxies and remote epochs. (Author/JA)

  13. Role of Ability and Extroversion in Concept Attainment of Individuals Trained in Heterogeneous or Homogeneous Personality Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemke, E. A.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Subjects stratified by ability and extroversion initially achieved concept attainment in homogeneous (all introverts or all extroverts) or heterogeneous (one-half of the members extroverts) personality groups. Concepts were attained individually in a subsequent transfer stage. (Authors/JA)

  14. Treatment Goals for Quadriplegic and Paraplegic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Doris Plasterer

    1974-01-01

    This study describes the use of a rating scale to obtain feedback from a group of quadriplegic and paraplegic subjects with regard to what they felt to be important in occupational therapy treatment. (Author/JA)

  15. Genetics Home Reference: hepatic veno-occlusive disease with immunodeficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donald JA, Kirk EP, Ziegler JB, Salzer U, McDonald GB, Wong M, Lindeman R, Buckley MF. Mutations ... of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  16. Enseigner les termes techniques en francais

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charbonneau, Yvon

    1974-01-01

    The author notes that most business and economic terms are in English; this, he writes, is unfortunate for the future of the French language. He gives nine ways to teach a technical vocabulary. (The article is in French.) (JA)

  17. Genetics Home Reference: microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sources for This Page Bober MB, Khan N, Kaplan J, Lewis K, Feinstein JA, Scott CI Jr, ... Sutton syndrome All New & Updated Pages Reviewed : February 2018 Published : June 19, 2018 The resources on this ...

  18. Skin - clammy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adult Emergency Medicine . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2015:chap 2. Brown A. Resuscitation. In: ... Adult Emergency Medicine . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2015:chap 1. Jones AE, Kline JA. ...

  19. Secondary infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Practice of Medicine . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2014:chap 13. Reid PT, Innes JA. ... Practice of Medicine . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2014:chap 19.

  20. Fainting

    MedlinePlus

    ... Syncope. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice ... by: Laura J. Martin, MD, MPH, ABIM Board Certified in Internal Medicine ...

  1. A Memorial to a President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Nash

    1974-01-01

    This document describes the plan for a living memorial to commemorate Lyndon Baines Johnson, 36th President of the United States: a 15-acre grove with hike and bike paths, white pine trees, rhododendrons, and other flowering shrubs. (JA)

  2. Intercostal retractions

    MedlinePlus

    ... AP, Clark JA, Sarnaik AA. Respiratory distress and failure. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme ... Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David ...

  3. Nasal flaring

    MedlinePlus

    ... AP, Clark JA, Sarnaik AA. Respiratory distress and failure. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme ... Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David ...

  4. Metabolic analysis of elicited cell suspension cultures of Cannabis sativa L. by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pec, Jaroslav; Flores-Sanchez, Isvett Josefina; Choi, Young Hae; Verpoorte, Robert

    2010-07-01

    Cannabis sativa L. plants produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites. Cannabis cell cultures were treated with jasmonic acid (JA) and pectin as elicitors to evaluate their effect on metabolism from two cell lines using NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis. According to principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), the chloroform extract of the pectin-treated cultures were more different than control and JA-treated cultures; but in the methanol/water extract the metabolome of the JA-treated cells showed clear differences with control and pectin-treated cultures. Tyrosol, an antioxidant metabolite, was detected in cannabis cell cultures. The tyrosol content increased after eliciting with JA.

  5. Vital signs

    MedlinePlus

    ... assessment. In: Ball JW, Dains JE, Flynn JA, Solomon BS, Stewart RW, eds. Seidel's Guide to Physical Examination . 8th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby; 2015:chap 4. Simel DL. Approach to the patient: history and ...

  6. 78 FR 29499 - Proposed Priorities, Requirements, Definitions, and Selection Criteria-Race to the Top-Early...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... social development. Teachers College Record, 112(3), 579-620. \\5\\ Reynolds, A.J., Temple, J.A., Ou, S... and family engagement, including in the early grades; (d) Increasing the percentage of children who...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: maternally inherited diabetes and deafness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Maassen JA. Mutation in mitochondrial tRNA(Leu)(UUR) gene in a large pedigree with maternally transmitted type II diabetes mellitus ... are genome editing and CRISPR-Cas9? What is precision medicine? What ...

  8. The Arabidopsis mutant cev1 has constitutively active jasmonate and ethylene signal pathways and enhanced resistance to pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ellis, C; Turner, J G

    2001-05-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) inhibit plant growth and induce plant defense responses. To define genes in the Arabidopsis JA signal pathway, we screened for mutants with constitutive expression of a luciferase reporter for the JA-responsive promoter from the vegetative storage protein gene VSP1. One mutant, named constitutive expression of VSP1 (cev1), produced plants that were smaller than wild type, had stunted roots with long root hairs, accumulated anthocyanin, had constitutive expression of the defense-related genes VSP1, VSP2, Thi2.1, PDF1.2, and CHI-B, and had enhanced resistance to powdery mildew diseases. Genetic evidence indicated that the cev1 phenotype required both COI1, an essential component of the JA signal pathway, and ETR1, which encodes the ethylene receptor. We conclude that cev1 stimulates both the JA and the ethylene signal pathways and that CEV1 regulates an early step in an Arabidopsis defense pathway.

  9. The Arabidopsis Mutant cev1 Has Constitutively Active Jasmonate and Ethylene Signal Pathways and Enhanced Resistance to Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Christine; Turner, John G.

    2001-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) inhibit plant growth and induce plant defense responses. To define genes in the Arabidopsis JA signal pathway, we screened for mutants with constitutive expression of a luciferase reporter for the JA-responsive promoter from the vegetative storage protein gene VSP1. One mutant, named constitutive expression of VSP1 (cev1), produced plants that were smaller than wild type, had stunted roots with long root hairs, accumulated anthocyanin, had constitutive expression of the defense-related genes VSP1, VSP2, Thi2.1, PDF1.2, and CHI-B, and had enhanced resistance to powdery mildew diseases. Genetic evidence indicated that the cev1 phenotype required both COI1, an essential component of the JA signal pathway, and ETR1, which encodes the ethylene receptor. We conclude that cev1 stimulates both the JA and the ethylene signal pathways and that CEV1 regulates an early step in an Arabidopsis defense pathway. PMID:11340179

  10. 46 CFR 502.502 - Information required from applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... section 15(a) of the Agricultural Marketing Act (12 U.S.C. 1141j(a)). (3) The petition shall state the... the fees and expenses, including the cost of any study, analysis, engineering report, test, project or...

  11. 46 CFR 502.501 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in section 15(a) of the Agricultural Marketing Act (12 U.S.C. 1141j(a)) with not more than 500... on the value of the services provided. (4) The reasonable cost of any study, analysis, engineering...

  12. 46 CFR 502.502 - Information required from applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... section 15(a) of the Agricultural Marketing Act (12 U.S.C. 1141j(a)). (3) The petition shall state the... the fees and expenses, including the cost of any study, analysis, engineering report, test, project or...

  13. 46 CFR 502.502 - Information required from applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... section 15(a) of the Agricultural Marketing Act (12 U.S.C. 1141j(a)). (3) The petition shall state the... the fees and expenses, including the cost of any study, analysis, engineering report, test, project or...

  14. 46 CFR 502.501 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... in section 15(a) of the Agricultural Marketing Act (12 U.S.C. 1141j(a)) with not more than 500... on the value of the services provided. (4) The reasonable cost of any study, analysis, engineering...

  15. 46 CFR 502.502 - Information required from applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... section 15(a) of the Agricultural Marketing Act (12 U.S.C. 1141j(a)). (3) The petition shall state the... the fees and expenses, including the cost of any study, analysis, engineering report, test, project or...

  16. 46 CFR 502.501 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... in section 15(a) of the Agricultural Marketing Act (12 U.S.C. 1141j(a)) with not more than 500... on the value of the services provided. (4) The reasonable cost of any study, analysis, engineering...

  17. 46 CFR 502.501 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... in section 15(a) of the Agricultural Marketing Act (12 U.S.C. 1141j(a)) with not more than 500... on the value of the services provided. (4) The reasonable cost of any study, analysis, engineering...

  18. 46 CFR 502.501 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in section 15(a) of the Agricultural Marketing Act (12 U.S.C. 1141j(a)) with not more than 500... on the value of the services provided. (4) The reasonable cost of any study, analysis, engineering...

  19. 46 CFR 502.502 - Information required from applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... section 15(a) of the Agricultural Marketing Act (12 U.S.C. 1141j(a)). (3) The petition shall state the... the fees and expenses, including the cost of any study, analysis, engineering report, test, project or...

  20. Collateral ligament (CL) injury - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disorders, Pain, and Rehabilitation . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 66. Miller RH, Azar FM. ... eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 45. Niska JA, Petrigliano FA, McAllister ...

  1. Clean catch urine sample

    MedlinePlus

    ... JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 99. Nicolle LE, Norrby SR. Approach to the patient with urinary ...

  2. 10 CFR 1023.304 - Eligibility of applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Marketing Act (12 U.S.C. 1141j(a)) with not more than 500 employees; and (5) Any other partnership... relationship between the affiliated entities. In addition, the Board may determine that financial relationships...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: otulipenia

    MedlinePlus

    ... AND DERMATOSIS SYNDROME Sources for This Page Damgaard RB, Walker JA, Marco-Casanova P, Morgan NV, Titheradge ... K, Elliott PR, Glockner L, Fiil BK, Damgaard RB, Kulathu Y, Wauer T, Hospenthal MK, Gyrd-Hansen ...

  4. Gunshot wounds -- aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... wound References Simon BC, Hern HG. Wound management principles. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ... member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...

  5. The Use and Abuse of Anabolic Steroids: A Discussion for Health and Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, John A.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    This article reviews research on anabolic steroids, indicating that athletes are mistaken in believing that taking them will improve their physical performance. Dangerous side-effects are also discussed. (JA)

  6. Heart disease and intimacy

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000540.htm Heart disease and intimacy To use the sharing features on ... 22267844 . Morrow DA, de Lemos JA. Stable ischemic heart disease. In: Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann ...

  7. Indians Learn 3 C's--Campgrounds, Culture, and Currency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, John W.

    1973-01-01

    Many American Indian groups are turning to tourism to better their social and economic conditions. This article details the training programs they needed for campground maintenance and business operations. (JA)

  8. 45 CFR 13.4 - Eligibility of applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Marketing Act (12 U.S.C. 1141j(a)) with not more than 500 employees; (3) Individuals with a net worth of not... net worth of an applicant is determined by generally accepted accounting principles. (d) Whether an...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rahman S, Poulton J, Marchington DR, Landon DN, Debono AG, Morgan-Hughes JA, Hanna MG. New phenotypic diversity ... qualified healthcare professional . About Selection Criteria for Links Data Files & API Site Map Subscribe Customer Support USA. ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Tourette syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rasin MR, Gunel M, Davis NR, Ercan-Sencicek AG, Guez DH, Spertus JA, Leckman JF, Dure LS ... qualified healthcare professional . About Selection Criteria for Links Data Files & API Site Map Subscribe Customer Support USA. ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: leptin receptor deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ferraz-Amaro I, Dattani MT, Ercan O, Myhre AG, Retterstol L, Stanhope R, Edge JA, McKenzie S, Lessan ... qualified healthcare professional . About Selection Criteria for Links Data Files & API Site Map Subscribe Customer Support USA. ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: proximal 18q deletion syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feenstra I, Vissers LE, Orsel M, van Kessel AG, Brunner HG, Veltman JA, van Ravenswaaij-Arts CM. ... qualified healthcare professional . About Selection Criteria for Links Data Files & API Site Map Subscribe Customer Support USA. ...

  13. Integrating transit with road pricing projects : [summary].

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-01-01

    Floridas dramatic growth in residents and visitors : in recent decades has placed a heavy demand : on roadways. To accommodate this growth, : expressways have been added and expanded, : but for many heavily traveled highways, such as : those in Ja...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: Schinzel-Giedion syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... C, Arts P, van Lier B, Steehouwer M, de Vries P, de Reuver R, Wieskamp N, Mortier G, Devriendt K, ... Henderson A, Hayes IM, Thompson EM, Brunner HG, de Vries BB, Veltman JA. De novo mutations of ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... NG, Bakker HD, Meinsma R, Van Lenthe H, De Abreu RA, Smeitink JA, Kayserili H, Apak MY, ... 9. Review. Citation on PubMed van Kuilenburg AB, De Abreu RA, van Gennip AH. Pharmacogenetic and clinical ...

  16. Isopropanol alcohol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... VJ, Pons PT, Bakes KM, Buchanan JA, eds. Emergency Medicine Secrets . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap ... RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  17. Paraffin poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Gummin DD. Hydrocarbons. In: Adams JG, ed. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 152. Kulig K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls ...

  18. Cataract - adult

    MedlinePlus

    ... JA, Vander JF, eds. Ophthalmology Secrets in Color . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2015:chap 21. Wevill ... cataract. In: Yanoff M, Duker JS, eds. Ophthalmology . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 5. ...

  19. Cataract removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... the doctor uses a tool that produces sound waves to break up the cataract into small pieces. ... JA, Vander JF, eds. Ophthalmology Secrets in Color . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 21.

  20. Macular degeneration - age-related

    MedlinePlus

    ... lining of the eye (fundus photography) Using light waves to view the retina (optical coherence tomography) A ... JA, Vander JF, eds. Ophthalmology Secrets in Color . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2015:chap 43. Wenick ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva

    MedlinePlus

    ... Glaser DL, LeMerrer M, Morhart R, Rogers JG, Smith R, Triffitt JT, Urtizberea JA, Zasloff M, Brown ... added]; Morhart, Rolf [added]; Rogers, John G [added]; Smith, Roger [added]; Triffitt, James T [added]; Urtizberea, J ...

  2. Chronobiology--A New Concept in Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eburne, Norman

    1972-01-01

    Autorhytmometry (self-measurement of biorhythms) could serve as a data base in preventive and curative measures in medicine. This article proposes self-measurement programs in public schools as a part of health education. (JA)

  3. 76 FR 1402 - Notice of allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas (TRQ) on the Import of Certain Worsted Wool Fabrics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... Receiving Allocation Adrian Jules LTD--Rochester, NY, HMX, LLC-- New York, NY, Hugo Boss Cleveland, Inc... York, NY, HMX, LLC--New York, NY, Hugo Boss Cleveland, Inc.--Brooklyn, OH, JA Apparel Corp.--New York...

  4. Hygiene Fast Facts: Information on Water-Related Hygiene

    MedlinePlus

    ... V. Handwashing and risk of respiratory infections: a quantitative systematic review. Trop Med Int Health. 2006;11( ... Shih P, Pillai SP, Cooper JA, Quayed EA. Quantitative evaluation of bacteria released by bathers in a ...

  5. Nikolsky sign

    MedlinePlus

    Garber B, Cydulka RK. Dermatologic presentations. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 120. Habif TP. Vesicular and bullous ...

  6. Norpramin overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Antidepressant overdose; Desipramine overdose ... Levine M, Ruha A-M. Antidepressants. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  7. Simultaneous production of bioethanol and value-added d-psicose from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tubers.

    PubMed

    Song, Younho; Oh, Chihoon; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the production of bioethanol and value added d-psicose from Jerusalem artichoke (JA) was attempted by an enzymatic method. An enzyme mixture used for hydrolysis of 100mgmL -1 JA. The resulting concentrations of released d-fructose and d-glucose were measured at approximately 56mgmL -1 and 15mgmL -1 , respectively. The d-psicose was epimerized from the JA hydrolyzate, and the conversion rate was calculated to be 32.1%. The residual fructose was further converted into ethanol at 18.0gL -1 and the yield was approximately 72%. Bioethanol and d-psicose were separated by pervaporation. This is the first study to report simultaneous d-psicose production and bioethanol fermentation from JA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Teacher and Sex Role Stereotyping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhasz, Anne McCreary

    1974-01-01

    In this article, selected research findings are presented on sex role learning, sex role stereotyping, in general and in the school setting, the effect of such stereotyping on the student, and some suggestions for the teacher. (Author/JA)

  9. 32 CFR 776.79 - The complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... attached to the complaint. (b) A complaint may be initiated by any person, including the Administrative Law Division of the Office of JAG (JAG (13)), or the Judge Advocate Research and Civil Law Branch, JA Division...

  10. 32 CFR 776.79 - The complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... attached to the complaint. (b) A complaint may be initiated by any person, including the Administrative Law Division of the Office of JAG (JAG (13)), or the Judge Advocate Research and Civil Law Branch, JA Division...

  11. 32 CFR 776.79 - The complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... attached to the complaint. (b) A complaint may be initiated by any person, including the Administrative Law Division of the Office of JAG (JAG (13)), or the Judge Advocate Research and Civil Law Branch, JA Division...

  12. 32 CFR 776.79 - The complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... attached to the complaint. (b) A complaint may be initiated by any person, including the Administrative Law Division of the Office of JAG (JAG (13)), or the Judge Advocate Research and Civil Law Branch, JA Division...

  13. 32 CFR 776.79 - The complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... attached to the complaint. (b) A complaint may be initiated by any person, including the Administrative Law Division of the Office of JAG (JAG (13)), or the Judge Advocate Research and Civil Law Branch, JA Division...

  14. Lacerations - liquid bandage

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2011:chap 28. Simon BC, Hern HG. Wound management principles. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap ...

  15. Laceration - sutures or staples - at home

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016:chap 28. Simon BC, Hern HG. Wound management principles. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: distal 18q deletion syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Veltman JA, van Ravenswaaij-Arts CM. Genotype-phenotype mapping of chromosome 18q deletions by high-resolution array ... L, Pihko H. 18q deletions: clinical, molecular, and brain MRI findings of 14 individuals. Am J Med ...

  17. De novo characterization of Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr. transcriptome and analysis of its gene expression induced by jasmonates.

    PubMed

    Men, Lina; Yan, Shanchun; Liu, Guanjun

    2013-08-13

    Larix gmelinii is a dominant tree species in China's boreal forests and plays an important role in the coniferous ecosystem. It is also one of the most economically important tree species in the Chinese timber industry due to excellent water resistance and anti-corrosion of its wood products. Unfortunately, in Northeast China, L. gmelinii often suffers from serious attacks by diseases and insects. The application of exogenous volatile semiochemicals may induce and enhance its resistance against insect or disease attacks; however, little is known regarding the genes and molecular mechanisms related to induced resistance. We performed de novo sequencing and assembly of the L. gmelinii transcriptome using a short read sequencing technology (Illumina). Chemical defenses of L. gmelinii seedlings were induced with jasmonic acid (JA) or methyl jasmonate (MeJA) for 6 hours. Transcriptomes were compared between seedlings induced by JA, MeJA and untreated controls using a tag-based digital gene expression profiling system. In a single run, 25,977,782 short reads were produced and 51,157 unigenes were obtained with a mean length of 517 nt. We sequenced 3 digital gene expression libraries and generated between 3.5 and 5.9 million raw tags, and obtained 52,040 reliable reference genes after removing redundancy. The expression of disease/insect-resistance genes (e.g., phenylalanine ammonialyase, coumarate 3-hydroxylase, lipoxygenase, allene oxide synthase and allene oxide cyclase) was up-regulated. The expression profiles of some abundant genes under different elicitor treatment were studied by using real-time qRT-PCR.The results showed that the expression levels of disease/insect-resistance genes in the seedling samples induced by JA and MeJA were higher than those in the control group. The seedlings induced with MeJA elicited the strongest increases in disease/insect-resistance genes. Both JA and MeJA induced seedlings of L. gmelinii showed significantly increased expression

  18. Optimal ECG (Electrocardiogram) Electrode Sites and Criteria for Detection of Asymptomatic Coronary Artery Disease at Rest and with Exercise.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    a healthy coronary artery can increase flow ninefold by dilating during peak workloads. By preventing dilation , circum- ferential atherosclerosis...Ischemic Canine Myocardium, J. Electrocardiol. 15(4):335, 1982. 127. Burgess, M.J., Green, L.S., Millar, K., Wyatt, R., and Abildskov, J.A.: The...Refractory Periods of Ischemic Canine Ventricular Myocardium, J. Electrocardiol. 15(1):I, 1982. 129. Burgess, M.J., Lux, R.L., Wyatt, R.F., and Abildskov, J.A

  19. Determination of the rate of photoreduction of O2 in the water-water cycle in watermelon leaves and enhancement of the rate by limitation of photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Miyake, C; Yokota, A

    2000-03-01

    A study was performed to determine how the electron fluxes for the photosynthetic carbon reduction (PCR) and the photorespiratory carbon oxidation (PCO) cycles affect the photoreduction of O2 at PSI, which is the limiting step in the water-water cycle. Simultaneous measurements were made of CO2-gas exchange, transpiration and quantum yield of PSII [phi(PSII)] using leaves of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). The total electron flux in PSII[Je(PSII)], as estimated from phi(PSII), was always larger than the total electron flux required for the PCR and PCO cycles at various partial pressures of CO2 and O2 and 1,100 micromol photons m(-2)s(-1). This observation suggested the existence of an alternative electron flux (Ja). Ja was divided into O2-dependent [Ja(O2-depend)] and O2-independent [Ja(O2-independ)] components. The magnitude of half Ja(O2-depend), 7.5 to 9.5 micromol e- m(-2)s(-1), and its apparent Km for O2, about 8.0 kPa, could be accounted for by the photoreduction of O2 at PSI either mediated by ferredoxin or catalyzed by monodehydroascorbate reductase. The results indicated that Ja(O2-depend) was driven by the water-water cycle. A decrease in the intercellular partial pressure of CO2 from 23 to 5.0 Pa at 21 kPa O2 enhanced Ja(O2-depend) by a factor of 1.3. Saturation of the activities of both the PCR and PCO cycles by increasing the photon flux density induced Ja. These results indicate the electron flux in PSII that exceeds the flux required for the PCR and PCO cycles induces the photoreduction of O2 in the water-water cycle.

  20. A new species and new records of Pseudocephennium Reitter in Venezuela, with notes on movable endophallic structures (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Scydmaeninae).

    PubMed

    Jałoszyński, Paweł

    2016-03-11

    Pseudocephennium auriculatum sp. n. is described, based on a male specimen collected in north-western Venezuela. New findings of Pseudocephennium maximum Jałoszyński and P. araguanum Jałoszyński, so far known only from holotypes, are reported. The aedeagi of newly found specimens have the endophallic structures extruded to various extent which makes it possible to identify movable components of the internal aedeagal armature.

  1. The Effects of rhBMP-2 Used for Spinal Fusion on Spinal Cord Pathology After Traumatic Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-29

    1219-1224; discussion 1225. Basso DM , Beattie MS, Bresnahan JC (1995) A sensitive and reliable locomotor rating scale for open field testing in rats...usage of rhBMP-2 in the anterior cervical spine. Spine 31:2813-2819. Stuesse SL, Crisp T, McBurney DL, Schechter JB, Lovell JA, Cruce WL (2001...250-256. Stuesse SL, Crisp T, McBurney DL, Schechter JB, Lovell JA, Cruce WL (2001) Neuropathic pain in aged rats: behavioral responses and

  2. Jolkinolide A and Jolkinolide B Inhibit Proliferation of A549 Cells and Activity of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lei; Zhang, Shan-Qiang; Liu, Lei; Sun, Yu; Wu, Yu-Xuan; Xie, Li-Ping; Liu, Ji-Cheng

    2017-01-14

    BACKGROUND Jolkinolide A (JA) and Jolkinolide B (JB) are diterpenoids extracted from the roots of Euphorbia fischeriana Steud and have been shown to have anti-tumor activity. However, their effects on the ability of tumor cells to invade blood vessels and metastasize remain largely unknown. Investigations into the effects of JA and JB on the angiogenesis of tumor tissues may facilitate the identification of new natural drugs with anti-tumor growth and metastasis activities. MATERIAL AND METHODS We used different concentrations of JA and JB (20 μg/ml, 40 μg/ml, 60 μg/ml, 80 μg/ml, and 100 μg/ml) to stimulate A549 cells and then studied the effects on the growth and metastasis of lung cancers. In addition, we used conditional media from A549 cells (A549-CM) stimulated by either JA or JB in different concentrations to culture human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). RESULTS We found that both JA and JB significantly inhibited the Akt-STAT3-mTOR signaling pathway and reduced the expression of VEGF in A549 cells, but JB exhibited more significant inhibitory effects than JA. The JB-stimulated A549 cell conditional media had a greater inhibitory effect on the proliferation and migration of HUVECs than did the conditional media of JA-stimulated A549 cells. This effect gradually increased with increasing concentrations of either type of Jolkinolide. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that JA and JB inhibited VEGF expression in A549 cells through the inhibition of the Akt-STAT3-mTOR signaling pathway, and directly inhibited the proliferation and migration of HUVECs. These findings are of great significance for the development of new plant-derived chemotherapy agents for the treatment of cancer.

  3. Jolkinolide A and Jolkinolide B Inhibit Proliferation of A549 Cells and Activity of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Lei; Zhang, Shan-Qiang; Liu, Lei; Sun, Yu; Wu, Yu-Xuan; Xie, Li-Ping; Liu, Ji-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Background Jolkinolide A (JA) and Jolkinolide B (JB) are diterpenoids extracted from the roots of Euphorbia fischeriana Steud and have been shown to have anti-tumor activity. However, their effects on the ability of tumor cells to invade blood vessels and metastasize remain largely unknown. Investigations into the effects of JA and JB on the angiogenesis of tumor tissues may facilitate the identification of new natural drugs with anti-tumor growth and metastasis activities. Material/Methods We used different concentrations of JA and JB (20 μg/ml, 40 μg/ml, 60 μg/ml, 80 μg/ml, and 100 μg/ml) to stimulate A549 cells and then studied the effects on the growth and metastasis of lung cancers. In addition, we used conditional media from A549 cells (A549-CM) stimulated by either JA or JB in different concentrations to culture human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Results We found that both JA and JB significantly inhibited the Akt-STAT3-mTOR signaling pathway and reduced the expression of VEGF in A549 cells, but JB exhibited more significant inhibitory effects than JA. The JB-stimulated A549 cell conditional media had a greater inhibitory effect on the proliferation and migration of HUVECs than did the conditional media of JA-stimulated A549 cells. This effect gradually increased with increasing concentrations of either type of Jolkinolide. Conclusions Our results suggest that JA and JB inhibited VEGF expression in A549 cells through the inhibition of the Akt-STAT3-mTOR signaling pathway, and directly inhibited the proliferation and migration of HUVECs. These findings are of great significance for the development of new plant-derived chemotherapy agents for the treatment of cancer. PMID:28087861

  4. Contrast image formation based on thermodynamic approach and surface laser oxidation process for optoelectronic read-out system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherbak, Aleksandr; Yulmetova, Olga

    2018-05-01

    A pulsed fiber laser with the wavelength 1.06 μm was used to treat titanium nitride film deposited on beryllium substrates in the air with intensities below an ablation threshold to provide oxide formation. Laser oxidation results were predicted by the chemical thermodynamic method and confirmed by experimental techniques (X-ray diffraction). The developed technology of contrast image formation is intended to be used for optoelectronic read-out system. ja:tail>:article>

  5. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 113 - Sample DD Form 2653, “Involuntary Allotment Application”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample DD Form 2653, âInvoluntary Allotment Applicationâ C Appendix C to Part 113 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE... Part 113—Sample DD Form 2653, “Involuntary Allotment Application” ER05JA95.002 ER05JA95.003 ...

  6. Induction of direct and indirect plant responses by jasmonic acid, low spider mite densities, or a combination of jasmonic acid treatment and spider mite infestation.

    PubMed

    Gols, Rieta; Roosjen, Mara; Dijkman, Herman; Dicke, Marcel

    2003-12-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and the octadecanoid pathway are involved in both induced direct and induced indirect plant responses. In this study, the herbivorous mite, Tetranychus urticae, and its predator, Phytoseiulus persimilis, were given a choice between Lima bean plants induced by JA or spider mites and uninduced control plants. Infestation densities resulting in the induction of predator attractants were much lower than thus far assumed, i.e., predatory mites were significantly attracted to plants that were infested for 2 days with only one or four spider mites per plant. Phytoseiulus persimilis showed a density-dependent response to volatiles from plants that were infested with different numbers of spider mites. Similarly, treating plants with increasing concentrations of JA also led to increased attraction of P. persimilis. Moreover, the duration of spider mite infestation was positively correlated with the proportion of predators that were attracted to mite-infested plants. A pretreatment of the plants with JA followed by a spider mite infestation enhanced the attraction of P. persimilis to plant volatiles compared to attraction to volatiles from plants that were only infested with spider mites and did not receive a pretreatment with JA. The herbivore, T. urticae preferred leaf tissue that previously had been infested with conspecifics to uninfested leaf tissue. In the case of choice tests with JA-induced and control leaf tissue, spider mites slightly preferred control leaf tissue. When spider mites were given a choice between leaf discs induced by JA and leaf discs damaged by spider mite feeding, they preferred the latter. The presence of herbivore induced chemicals and/or spider mite products enhanced settlement of the mites, whereas treatment with JA seemed to impede settlement.

  7. The Arabidopsis KH-Domain RNA-Binding Protein ESR1 Functions in Components of Jasmonate Signalling, Unlinking Growth Restraint and Resistance to Stress

    PubMed Central

    Thatcher, Louise F.; Kamphuis, Lars G.; Hane, James K.; Oñate-Sánchez, Luis; Singh, Karam B.

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play important roles in the protection of cells against toxins and oxidative damage where one Arabidopsis member, GSTF8, has become a commonly used marker gene for early stress and defense responses. A GSTF8 promoter fragment fused to the luciferase reporter gene was used in a forward genetic screen for Arabidopsis mutants with up-regulated GSTF8 promoter activity. This identified the esr1-1 (enhanced stress response 1) mutant which also conferred increased resistance to the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Through positional cloning, the ESR1 gene was found to encode a KH-domain containing RNA-binding protein (At5g53060). Whole transcriptome sequencing of esr1-1 identified altered expression of genes involved in responses to biotic and abiotic stimuli, hormone signaling pathways and developmental processes. In particular was an overall significant enrichment for jasmonic acid (JA) mediated processes in the esr1-1 down-regulated dataset. A subset of these genes were tested for MeJA inducibility and we found the expression of some but not all were reduced in esr1-1. The esr1-1 mutant was not impaired in other aspects of JA-signalling such as JA- sensitivity or development, suggesting ESR1 functions in specific components of the JA-signaling pathway. Examination of salicylic acid (SA) regulated marker genes in esr1-1 showed no increase in basal or SA induced expression suggesting repression of JA-regulated genes is not due to antagonistic SA-JA crosstalk. These results define new roles for KH-domain containing proteins with ESR1 unlinking JA-mediated growth and defense responses. PMID:25985302

  8. The Arabidopsis KH-Domain RNA-Binding Protein ESR1 Functions in Components of Jasmonate Signalling, Unlinking Growth Restraint and Resistance to Stress.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Louise F; Kamphuis, Lars G; Hane, James K; Oñate-Sánchez, Luis; Singh, Karam B

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play important roles in the protection of cells against toxins and oxidative damage where one Arabidopsis member, GSTF8, has become a commonly used marker gene for early stress and defense responses. A GSTF8 promoter fragment fused to the luciferase reporter gene was used in a forward genetic screen for Arabidopsis mutants with up-regulated GSTF8 promoter activity. This identified the esr1-1 (enhanced stress response 1) mutant which also conferred increased resistance to the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Through positional cloning, the ESR1 gene was found to encode a KH-domain containing RNA-binding protein (At5g53060). Whole transcriptome sequencing of esr1-1 identified altered expression of genes involved in responses to biotic and abiotic stimuli, hormone signaling pathways and developmental processes. In particular was an overall significant enrichment for jasmonic acid (JA) mediated processes in the esr1-1 down-regulated dataset. A subset of these genes were tested for MeJA inducibility and we found the expression of some but not all were reduced in esr1-1. The esr1-1 mutant was not impaired in other aspects of JA-signalling such as JA- sensitivity or development, suggesting ESR1 functions in specific components of the JA-signaling pathway. Examination of salicylic acid (SA) regulated marker genes in esr1-1 showed no increase in basal or SA induced expression suggesting repression of JA-regulated genes is not due to antagonistic SA-JA crosstalk. These results define new roles for KH-domain containing proteins with ESR1 unlinking JA-mediated growth and defense responses.

  9. Jasmonate-triggered plant immunity.

    PubMed

    Campos, Marcelo L; Kang, Jin-Ho; Howe, Gregg A

    2014-07-01

    The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) exerts direct control over the production of chemical defense compounds that confer resistance to a remarkable spectrum of plant-associated organisms, ranging from microbial pathogens to vertebrate herbivores. The underlying mechanism of JA-triggered immunity (JATI) can be conceptualized as a multi-stage signal transduction cascade involving: i) pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that couple the perception of danger signals to rapid synthesis of bioactive JA; ii) an evolutionarily conserved JA signaling module that links fluctuating JA levels to changes in the abundance of transcriptional repressor proteins; and iii) activation (de-repression) of transcription factors that orchestrate the expression of myriad chemical and morphological defense traits. Multiple negative feedback loops act in concert to restrain the duration and amplitude of defense responses, presumably to mitigate potential fitness costs of JATI. The convergence of diverse plant- and non-plant-derived signals on the core JA module indicates that JATI is a general response to perceived danger. However, the modular structure of JATI may accommodate attacker-specific defense responses through evolutionary innovation of PRRs (inputs) and defense traits (outputs). The efficacy of JATI as a defense strategy is highlighted by its capacity to shape natural populations of plant attackers, as well as the propensity of plant-associated organisms to subvert or otherwise manipulate JA signaling. As both a cellular hub for integrating informational cues from the environment and a common target of pathogen effectors, the core JA module provides a focal point for understanding immune system networks and the evolution of chemical diversity in the plant kingdom.

  10. Occurrence of jasmonates during cystocarp development in the red alga Grateloupia imbricata.

    PubMed

    Pilar, Garcia-Jimenez; Olegario, Brito-Romano; Rafael, Robaina R

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we highlight the effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJa) on cystocarp development in the red macroscopic alga Grateloupia imbricata. In G. imbricata, jasmonate release is related to the reproductive state, as fertile thalli (i.e., those that have cystocarps) released significant amounts of this volatile compound (1.27 ± 0.20 mM · mg fw -1  · h -1 ) compared with infertile thalli (0.95 ± 0.12 mM · mg fw -1  · h -1 ). Treating G. imbricata thalli with MeJa revealed a significant increase in cystocarp number (1.5 ± 0.27 cystocarps · mm -2 ), which was ~7.5-fold greater than in untreated thalli (0.2 ± 0.07 cystocarps · mm -2 ). Maturation was completed within 48 h with MeJa treatment, a shortening of the typical >3-week maturation period, and included the opening of cystocarps and the presence of dehiscent cavities. Release rates of jasmonates after exogenous MeJa treatment were also modified based on the cystocarp maturation level. All of these effects were reduced in the presence of phenidone, which blocks MeJa production, indicating that the MeJa action is genuine. The effects of MeJa during cystocarp maturation were not replicated by derivatives of reactive oxygen species from the same jasmonic acid biosynthetic pathway, as the activities of scavenger enzymes and lipid peroxidation were unchanged between infertile and fertile thalli. Therefore, a reactive oxygen species-based mechanism is not involved during cystocarp development. We conclude that MeJa has an independent function as a growth regulator during G. imbricata reproduction. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  11. Jasmonates: Multifunctional Roles in Stress Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Rasool, Saiema; Gul, Alvina; Sheikh, Subzar A.; Akram, Nudrat A.; Ashraf, Muhammad; Kazi, A. M.; Gucel, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) [Jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonates (MeJAs)] are known to take part in various physiological processes. Exogenous application of JAs so far tested on different plants under abiotic stresses particularly salinity, drought, and temperature (low/high) conditions have proved effective in improving plant stress tolerance. However, its extent of effectiveness entirely depends on the type of plant species tested or its concentration. The effects of introgression or silencing of different JA- and Me-JA-related genes have been summarized in this review, which have shown a substantial role in improving crop yield and quality in different plants under stress or non-stress conditions. Regulation of JAs synthesis is impaired in stressed as well as unstressed plant cells/tissues, which is believed to be associated with a variety of metabolic events including signal transduction. Although, mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are important components of JA signaling and biosynthesis pathways, nitric oxide, ROS, calcium, ABA, ethylene, and salicylic acid are also important mediators of plant growth and development during JA signal transduction and synthesis. The exploration of other signaling molecules can be beneficial to examine the details of underlying molecular mechanisms of JA signal transduction. Much work is to be done in near future to find the proper answers of the questions like action of JA related metabolites, and identification of universal JA receptors etc. Complete signaling pathways involving MAPKs, CDPK, TGA, SIPK, WIPK, and WRKY transcription factors are yet to be investigated to understand the complete mechanism of action of JAs. PMID:27379115

  12. Statistical Inferences from the Topology of Complex Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-04

    stable, does not lose any information, has continuous and discrete versions, and obeys a strong law of large numbers and a central limit theorem. The...paper (with J.A. Scott) “Categorification of persistent homology” [7] in the journal Discrete and Computational Geome- try and the paper “Metrics for...Generalized Persistence Modules” (with J.A. Scott and V. de Silva) in the journal Foundations of Computational Math - ematics [5]. These papers develop

  13. Jasmonate-Mediated Induced Volatiles in the American Cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon: From Gene Expression to Organismal Interactions.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar R; Polashock, James; Malo, Edi A

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonates, i.e., jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), are signaling hormones that regulate a large number of defense responses in plants which in turn affect the plants' interactions with herbivores and their natural enemies. Here, we investigated the effect of jasmonates on the emission of volatiles in the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, at different levels of biological organization from gene expression to organismal interactions. At the molecular level, four genes (BCS, LLS, NER1, and TPS21) responded significantly to gypsy moth larval feeding, MeJA, and mechanical wounding, but to different degrees. The most dramatic changes in expression of BCS and TPS21 (genes in the sesquiterpenoid pathway) were when treated with MeJA. Gypsy moth-damaged and MeJA-treated plants also had significantly elevated expression of LLS and NER1 (genes in the monoterpene and homoterpene biosynthesis pathways, respectively). At the biochemical level, MeJA induced a complex blend of monoterpene and sesquiterpene compounds that differed from gypsy moth and mechanical damage, and followed a diurnal pattern of emission. At the organismal level, numbers of Sparganothis sulfureana moths were lower while numbers of parasitic wasps were higher on sticky traps near MeJA-treated cranberry plants than those near untreated plants. Out of 11 leaf volatiles tested, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, linalool, and linalool oxide elicited strong antennal (EAG) responses from S. sulfureana, whereas sesquiterpenes elicited weak EAG responses. In addition, mortality of S. sulfureana larvae increased by about 43% in JA treated cranberry plants as compared with untreated plants, indicating a relationship among adult preference, antennal sensitivity to plant odors, and offspring performance. This study highlights the role of the jasmonate-dependent defensive pathway in the emissions of herbivore-induced volatiles in cranberries and its importance in multi-trophic level interactions.

  14. Differential expression of jasmonate biosynthesis genes in cacao genotypes contrasting for resistance against Moniliophthora perniciosa.

    PubMed

    Litholdo, Celso G; Leal, Gildemberg A; Albuquerque, Paulo S B; Figueira, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    The resistance mechanism of cacao against M. perniciosa is likely to be mediated by JA/ET-signaling pathways due to the preferential TcAOS and TcSAM induction in a resistant genotype. The basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa causes a serious disease in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), and the use of resistant varieties is the only sustainable long-term solution. Cacao resistance against M. perniciosa is characterized by pathogen growth inhibition with reduced colonization and an attenuation of disease symptoms, suggesting a regulation by jasmonate (JA)/ethylene (ET) signaling pathways. The hypothesis that genes involved in JA biosynthesis would be active in the interaction of T. cacao and M. perniciosa was tested here. The cacao JA-related genes were evaluated for their relative quantitative expression in susceptible and resistant genotypes upon the exogenous application of ET, methyl-jasmonate (MJ), and salicylic acid (SA), or after M. perniciosa inoculation. MJ treatment triggered changes in the expression of genes involved in JA biosynthesis, indicating that the mechanism of positive regulation by exogenous MJ application occurs in cacao. However, a higher induction of these genes was observed in the susceptible genotype. Further, a contrast in JA-related transcriptional expression was detected between susceptible and resistant plants under M. perniciosa infection, with the induction of the allene oxide synthase gene (TcAOS), which encodes a key enzyme in the JA biosynthesis pathway in the resistant genotype. Altogether, this work provides additional evidences that the JA-dependent signaling pathway is modulating the defense response against M. perniciosa in a cacao-resistant genotype.

  15. Extracellular ATP Acts on Jasmonate Signaling to Reinforce Plant Defense.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Diwaker; Zhang, Tong; Koo, Abraham J; Stacey, Gary; Tanaka, Kiwamu

    2018-01-01

    Damaged cells send various signals to stimulate defense responses. Recent identification and genetic studies of the plant purinoceptor, P2K1 (also known as DORN1), have demonstrated that extracellular ATP is a signal involved in plant stress responses, including wounding, perhaps to evoke plant defense. However, it remains largely unknown how extracellular ATP induces plant defense responses. Here, we demonstrate that extracellular ATP induces plant defense mediated through activation of the intracellular signaling of jasmonate (JA), a well-characterized defense hormone. In Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) leaves, ATP pretreatment induced resistance against the necrotrophic fungus, Botrytis cinerea The induced resistance was enhanced in the P2K1 receptor overexpression line, but reduced in the receptor mutant, dorn1 - 3 Mining the transcriptome data revealed that ATP induces a set of JA-induced genes. In addition, the P2K1-associated coexpression network contains defense-related genes, including those encoding jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins, which play key roles as repressors of JA signaling. We examined whether extracellular ATP impacts the stability of JAZ1 in Arabidopsis. The results showed that the JAZ1 stability decreased in response to ATP addition in a proteasome-dependent manner. This reduction required intracellular signaling via second messengers-cytosolic calcium, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide. Interestingly, the ATP-induced JAZ1 degradation was attenuated in the JA receptor mutant, coi1 , but not in the JA biosynthesis mutant, aos , or upon addition of JA biosynthesis inhibitors. Immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that ATP increases the interaction between COI1 and JAZ1, suggesting direct cross talk between extracellular ATP and JA in intracellular signaling events. Taken together, these results suggest that extracellular ATP signaling directly impacts the JA signaling pathway to maximize plant defense responses. © 2018

  16. Pathogen exploitation of an abscisic acid- and jasmonate-inducible MAPK phosphatase and its interception by Arabidopsis immunity.

    PubMed

    Mine, Akira; Berens, Matthias L; Nobori, Tatsuya; Anver, Shajahan; Fukumoto, Kaori; Winkelmüller, Thomas M; Takeda, Atsushi; Becker, Dieter; Tsuda, Kenichi

    2017-07-11

    Phytopathogens promote virulence by, for example, exploiting signaling pathways mediated by phytohormones such as abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonate (JA). Some plants can counteract pathogen virulence by invoking a potent form of immunity called effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Here, we report that ABA and JA mediate inactivation of the immune-associated MAP kinases (MAPKs), MPK3 and MPK6, in Arabidopsis thaliana ABA induced expression of genes encoding the protein phosphatases 2C (PP2Cs), HAI1 , HAI2 , and HAI3 through ABF/AREB transcription factors. These three HAI PP2Cs interacted with MPK3 and MPK6 and were required for ABA-mediated MPK3/MPK6 inactivation and immune suppression. The bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato ( Pto ) DC3000 activates ABA signaling and produces a JA-mimicking phytotoxin, coronatine (COR), that promotes virulence. We found that Pto DC3000 induces HAI1 through COR-mediated activation of MYC2, a master transcription factor in JA signaling. HAI1 dephosphorylated MPK3 and MPK6 in vitro and was necessary for COR-mediated suppression of MPK3/MPK6 activation and immunity. Intriguingly, upon ETI activation, A. thaliana plants overcame the HAI1-dependent virulence of COR by blocking JA signaling. Finally, we showed conservation of induction of HAI PP2Cs by ABA and JA in other Brassicaceae species. Taken together, these results suggest that ABA and JA signaling pathways, which are hijacked by the bacterial pathogen, converge on the HAI PP2Cs that suppress activation of the immune-associated MAPKs. Also, our data unveil interception of JA-signaling activation as a host counterstrategy against the bacterial suppression of MAPKs during ETI.

  17. B-1 Systems Approach to Training. Volume 3. Appendix B. Bibliography and Data Collection Trips

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-01

    the Fourth Annual Symposium on Psychology in the Air Force, 1974, ~ •—- ~ - --- - Creelman , J.A., Evaluation of Approach Training Procedures...of Engineering Psychology , American Psychologist, 1972, 27 (7), 615-622. Adams, J.A., and Hufford, I.E., Effects of Programmed Perceptual Training on...Control, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, April 7-9, 1970. Aldrich, T.B., Proceedings of the Annual Symposium on Psychology in the Air Force (2nd

  18. Programming Environments for High Level Scientific Problem Solving. IFIP WG 2.5 Working Conference 6 Held in Karlsruhe, Germany on September 23 - 27, 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-27

    Springer Verlag (1989). (13] Hulshof , B.J.A. and van Hulzen, J.A.: "Automatic error cumulation control", Proceedir EUROSAM 󈨘 (J. Fitch. ed.), Springer...User’s Manual", Dept of Comp. Science. Univ. of Twente (In preparation). 268 [15] van Hulzen, J.A., Hulshof , B.J.A.. Gates, B.L. and van Heerwaarden, M.C

  19. Needle-Free Inhalable Vaccine and Antibiotic Powder Aerosols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-15

    NEEDLE-FREE INHALABLE VACCINE AND ANTIBIOTIC POWDER AEROSOLS R. E. Sievers, J.L. Burger,, S. P. Cape, E.T.S. Huang, J.A. Best, J.A. Madsen and...currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 15 NOV 2004 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Needle-Free Inhalable ...soluble drugs: naproxen, budesonide, betamethsone, amphotericin B, cyclosporin, DPPC Sugars: lactose, sucrose, trehalose , mannitol Polymers: PLA, PLGA

  20. Parasitism by Cuscuta pentagona Attenuates Host Plant Defenses against Insect Herbivores1

    PubMed Central

    Runyon, Justin B.; Mescher, Mark C.; De Moraes, Consuelo M.

    2008-01-01

    Considerable research has examined plant responses to concurrent attack by herbivores and pathogens, but the effects of attack by parasitic plants, another important class of plant-feeding organisms, on plant defenses against other enemies has not been explored. We investigated how attack by the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona impacted tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) defenses against the chewing insect beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua; BAW). In response to insect feeding, C. pentagona-infested (parasitized) tomato plants produced only one-third of the antiherbivore phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) produced by unparasitized plants. Similarly, parasitized tomato, in contrast to unparasitized plants, failed to emit herbivore-induced volatiles after 3 d of BAW feeding. Although parasitism impaired antiherbivore defenses, BAW growth was slower on parasitized tomato leaves. Vines of C. pentagona did not translocate JA from BAW-infested plants: amounts of JA in parasite vines grown on caterpillar-fed and control plants were similar. Parasitized plants generally contained more salicylic acid (SA), which can inhibit JA in some systems. Parasitized mutant (NahG) tomato plants deficient in SA produced more JA in response to insect feeding than parasitized wild-type plants, further suggesting cross talk between the SA and JA defense signaling pathways. However, JA induction by BAW was still reduced in parasitized compared to unparasitized NahG, implying that other factors must be involved. We found that parasitized plants were capable of producing induced volatiles when experimentally treated with JA, indicating that resource depletion by the parasite does not fully explain the observed attenuation of volatile response to herbivore feeding. Collectively, these findings show that parasitic plants can have important consequences for host plant defense against herbivores. PMID:18165323

  1. Molecular Genetic Studies of Bone Mechanical Strain and of Pedigrees with Very High Bone Density

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    remodelling. J Biomech, 20:1083-1093. 2. Hillsley MV, and Frangos , JA 1994 Bone tissue engineering: the role of interstitial fluid flow. Biotech Bioeng, 43...However, the nature of interaction between other pathways remains to be determined. References: 1. Hillsley MV, and Frangos , JA (1994) Bone tissue...termination 2. Hillsley, M. V., and Frangos , J. A. (1994) Biotechnol. Bioeng. 43, 573-581 of the IGF-I signaling pathway (16-22). Accordingly, we pos- 3. Kapur

  2. The Legal Limits of Targeting the Cyber Capabilities of a Neutral State

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    power-grid off-line for weeks, pipelines unable to move gas and oil, trains sidelined, ACSC/Williams, Ja Rai A./AY16 10 airlines grounded, banks...Graduation Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF OPERATIONAL ARTS AND SCIENCES Advisor: Wing Commander Graem Corfield, RAF Maxwell Air Force...Base, Alabama October 2015 DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. ACSC/Williams, Ja Rai A./AY16 2 Disclaimer

  3. Insect Outbreaks, Host-Pathogen Interactions, and Induced Plant Defenses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    red oaks increases hydrolyzable tannin concentrations20, an induced defense8 that strongly affects average gypsy-moth infection risk in the...laboratory21. Reassuringly, our JA treatment induced hydrolyzable tannins to the same extent as defoliation in nature8 (Table 1, note that control branches...27.05 ± 1.4 Control 23.36 ± 0.9 19.54 ± 0.9 Table 1: Effects of experimental JA spray and natural defoliation on percent hydrolyzable tannin

  4. Pure mechanistic analysis of additive neuroprotective effects between baicalin and jasminoidin in ischemic stroke mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng-Qian; Liu, Qiong; Xu, Wen-Juan; Yu, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Li, Bing; Liu, Jun; Wang, Zhong

    2018-06-01

    Both baicalin (BA) and jasminoidin (JA) are active ingredients in Chinese herb medicine Scutellaria baicalensis and Fructus gardeniae, respectively. They have been shown to exert additive neuroprotective action in ischemic stroke models. In this study we used transcriptome analysis to explore the pure therapeutic mechanisms of BA, JA and their combination (BJ) contributing to phenotype variation and reversal of pathological processes. Mice with middle cerebral artery obstruction were treated with BA, JA, their combination (BJ), or concha margaritifera (CM). Cerebral infarct volume was examined to determine the effect of these compounds on phenotype. Using the hippocampus microarray and ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) software, we exacted the differentially expressed genes, networks, pathways, and functions in positive-phenotype groups (BA, JA and BJ) by comparing with the negative-phenotype group (CM). In the BA, JA, and BJ groups, a total of 7, 4, and 11 specific target molecules, 1, 1, and 4 networks, 51, 59, and 18 canonical pathways and 70, 53, and 64 biological functions, respectively, were identified. Pure therapeutic mechanisms of BA and JA were mainly overlapped in specific target molecules, functions and pathways, which were related to the nervous system, inflammation and immune response. The specific mechanisms of BA and JA were associated with apoptosis and cancer-related signaling and endocrine and hormone regulation, respectively. In the BJ group, novel target profiles distinct from mono-therapies were revealed, including 11 specific target molecules, 10 functions, and 10 pathways, the majority of which were related to a virus-mediated immune response. The pure additive effects between BA and JA were based on enhanced action in virus-mediated immune response. This pure mechanistic analysis may provide a clearer outline of the target profiles of multi-target compounds and combination therapies.

  5. PgLOX6 encoding a lipoxygenase contributes to jasmonic acid biosynthesis and ginsenoside production in Panax ginseng

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Shadi; Kim, Yu-Jin; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Ginsenosides, the valuable pharmaceutical compounds in Panax ginseng, are triterpene saponins that occur mainly in ginseng plants. It was shown that in vitro treatment with the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) is able to increase ginsenoside production in ginseng plants. To understand the molecular link between JA biosynthesis and ginsenoside biosynthesis, we identified a JA biosynthetic 13-lipoxygenase gene (PgLOX6) in P. ginseng that promotes ginsenoside production. The expression of PgLOX6 was high in vascular bundles, which corresponds with expression of ginsenoside biosynthetic genes. Consistent with the role of PgLOX6 in synthesizing JA and promoting ginsenoside synthesis, transgenic plants overexpressing PgLOX6 in Arabidopsis had increased amounts of JA and methyl jasmonate (MJ), increased expression of triterpene biosynthetic genes such as squalene synthase (AtSS1) and squalene epoxidase (AtSE1), and increased squalene content. Moreover, transgenic ginseng roots overexpressing PgLOX6 had around 1.4-fold increased ginsenoside content and upregulation of ginsenoside biosynthesis-related genes including PgSS1, PgSE1, and dammarenediol synthase (PgDDS), which is similar to that of treatment with MJ. However, MJ treatment of transgenic ginseng significantly enhanced JA and MJ, associated with a 2.8-fold increase of ginsenoside content compared with the non-treated, non-transgenic control plant, which was 1.4 times higher than the MJ treatment effect on non-transgenic plants. These results demonstrate that PgLOX6 is responsible for the biosynthesis of JA and promotion of the production of triterpenoid saponin through up-regulating the expression of ginsenoside biosynthetic genes. This work provides insight into the role of JA in biosynthesizing secondary metabolites and provides a molecular tool for increasing ginsenoside production. PMID:27811076

  6. PgLOX6 encoding a lipoxygenase contributes to jasmonic acid biosynthesis and ginsenoside production in Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Shadi; Kim, Yu-Jin; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2016-11-01

    Ginsenosides, the valuable pharmaceutical compounds in Panax ginseng, are triterpene saponins that occur mainly in ginseng plants. It was shown that in vitro treatment with the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) is able to increase ginsenoside production in ginseng plants. To understand the molecular link between JA biosynthesis and ginsenoside biosynthesis, we identified a JA biosynthetic 13-lipoxygenase gene (PgLOX6) in P. ginseng that promotes ginsenoside production. The expression of PgLOX6 was high in vascular bundles, which corresponds with expression of ginsenoside biosynthetic genes. Consistent with the role of PgLOX6 in synthesizing JA and promoting ginsenoside synthesis, transgenic plants overexpressing PgLOX6 in Arabidopsis had increased amounts of JA and methyl jasmonate (MJ), increased expression of triterpene biosynthetic genes such as squalene synthase (AtSS1) and squalene epoxidase (AtSE1), and increased squalene content. Moreover, transgenic ginseng roots overexpressing PgLOX6 had around 1.4-fold increased ginsenoside content and upregulation of ginsenoside biosynthesis-related genes including PgSS1, PgSE1, and dammarenediol synthase (PgDDS), which is similar to that of treatment with MJ. However, MJ treatment of transgenic ginseng significantly enhanced JA and MJ, associated with a 2.8-fold increase of ginsenoside content compared with the non-treated, non-transgenic control plant, which was 1.4 times higher than the MJ treatment effect on non-transgenic plants. These results demonstrate that PgLOX6 is responsible for the biosynthesis of JA and promotion of the production of triterpenoid saponin through up-regulating the expression of ginsenoside biosynthetic genes. This work provides insight into the role of JA in biosynthesizing secondary metabolites and provides a molecular tool for increasing ginsenoside production. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  7. Parasitism by Cuscuta pentagona attenuates host plant defenses against insect herbivores.

    PubMed

    Runyon, Justin B; Mescher, Mark C; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2008-03-01

    Considerable research has examined plant responses to concurrent attack by herbivores and pathogens, but the effects of attack by parasitic plants, another important class of plant-feeding organisms, on plant defenses against other enemies has not been explored. We investigated how attack by the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona impacted tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) defenses against the chewing insect beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua; BAW). In response to insect feeding, C. pentagona-infested (parasitized) tomato plants produced only one-third of the antiherbivore phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) produced by unparasitized plants. Similarly, parasitized tomato, in contrast to unparasitized plants, failed to emit herbivore-induced volatiles after 3 d of BAW feeding. Although parasitism impaired antiherbivore defenses, BAW growth was slower on parasitized tomato leaves. Vines of C. pentagona did not translocate JA from BAW-infested plants: amounts of JA in parasite vines grown on caterpillar-fed and control plants were similar. Parasitized plants generally contained more salicylic acid (SA), which can inhibit JA in some systems. Parasitized mutant (NahG) tomato plants deficient in SA produced more JA in response to insect feeding than parasitized wild-type plants, further suggesting cross talk between the SA and JA defense signaling pathways. However, JA induction by BAW was still reduced in parasitized compared to unparasitized NahG, implying that other factors must be involved. We found that parasitized plants were capable of producing induced volatiles when experimentally treated with JA, indicating that resource depletion by the parasite does not fully explain the observed attenuation of volatile response to herbivore feeding. Collectively, these findings show that parasitic plants can have important consequences for host plant defense against herbivores.

  8. Jasmonate-Mediated Induced Volatiles in the American Cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon: From Gene Expression to Organismal Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar R.; Polashock, James; Malo, Edi A.

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonates, i.e., jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), are signaling hormones that regulate a large number of defense responses in plants which in turn affect the plants’ interactions with herbivores and their natural enemies. Here, we investigated the effect of jasmonates on the emission of volatiles in the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, at different levels of biological organization from gene expression to organismal interactions. At the molecular level, four genes (BCS, LLS, NER1, and TPS21) responded significantly to gypsy moth larval feeding, MeJA, and mechanical wounding, but to different degrees. The most dramatic changes in expression of BCS and TPS21 (genes in the sesquiterpenoid pathway) were when treated with MeJA. Gypsy moth-damaged and MeJA-treated plants also had significantly elevated expression of LLS and NER1 (genes in the monoterpene and homoterpene biosynthesis pathways, respectively). At the biochemical level, MeJA induced a complex blend of monoterpene and sesquiterpene compounds that differed from gypsy moth and mechanical damage, and followed a diurnal pattern of emission. At the organismal level, numbers of Sparganothis sulfureana moths were lower while numbers of parasitic wasps were higher on sticky traps near MeJA-treated cranberry plants than those near untreated plants. Out of 11 leaf volatiles tested, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, linalool, and linalool oxide elicited strong antennal (EAG) responses from S. sulfureana, whereas sesquiterpenes elicited weak EAG responses. In addition, mortality of S. sulfureana larvae increased by about 43% in JA treated cranberry plants as compared with untreated plants, indicating a relationship among adult preference, antennal sensitivity to plant odors, and offspring performance. This study highlights the role of the jasmonate-dependent defensive pathway in the emissions of herbivore-induced volatiles in cranberries and its importance in multi-trophic level interactions. PMID

  9. Plant hormone jasmonate prioritizes defense over growth by interfering with gibberellin signaling cascade.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dong-Lei; Yao, Jian; Mei, Chuan-Sheng; Tong, Xiao-Hong; Zeng, Long-Jun; Li, Qun; Xiao, Lang-Tao; Sun, Tai-ping; Li, Jigang; Deng, Xing-Wang; Lee, Chin Mei; Thomashow, Michael F; Yang, Yinong; He, Zuhua; He, Sheng Yang

    2012-05-08

    Plants must effectively defend against biotic and abiotic stresses to survive in nature. However, this defense is costly and is often accompanied by significant growth inhibition. How plants coordinate the fluctuating growth-defense dynamics is not well understood and remains a fundamental question. Jasmonate (JA) and gibberellic acid (GA) are important plant hormones that mediate defense and growth, respectively. Binding of bioactive JA or GA ligands to cognate receptors leads to proteasome-dependent degradation of specific transcriptional repressors (the JAZ or DELLA family of proteins), which, at the resting state, represses cognate transcription factors involved in defense (e.g., MYCs) or growth [e.g. phytochrome interacting factors (PIFs)]. In this study, we found that the coi1 JA receptor mutants of rice (a domesticated monocot crop) and Arabidopsis (a model dicot plant) both exhibit hallmark phenotypes of GA-hypersensitive mutants. JA delays GA-mediated DELLA protein degradation, and the della mutant is less sensitive to JA for growth inhibition. Overexpression of a selected group of JAZ repressors in Arabidopsis plants partially phenocopies GA-associated phenotypes of the coi1 mutant, and JAZ9 inhibits RGA (a DELLA protein) interaction with transcription factor PIF3. Importantly, the pif quadruple (pifq) mutant no longer responds to JA-induced growth inhibition, and overexpression of PIF3 could partially overcome JA-induced growth inhibition. Thus, a molecular cascade involving the COI1-JAZ-DELLA-PIF signaling module, by which angiosperm plants prioritize JA-mediated defense over growth, has been elucidated.

  10. Unclassified Publications of Lincoln Laboratory, 1 January - 31 December 1996, Volume 22.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-12-31

    Combination Necioglu, B.F Paul, D.B. Billingsley, J.B. Shirley, L.G. Hallerman , G.R. Yang, D.W. Dionne, G.F. Wallace, T.P. 16 Dec. 1996 29 July...7236A, JA-7263, MS-11826 Hallerman , G.R., TR-1025 Halpern, B.L., MS-11108 Haiversen, S.D., MS-10981, MS-11090, MS-11418 Haner, M., JA-7236A

  11. 49 CFR 173.433 - Requirements for determining basic radionuclide values, and for the listing of radionuclides on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... § 173.435 or § 173.436 or for which no relevant data are available: (1) the radionuclide values in... package must satisfy: ER26JA04.001 Where: B(i) is the activity of radionuclide i in special form; and A1... activity which may be transported in a Type A package must satisfy: ER26JA04.002 Where: C(j) is the...

  12. Modulation of ethylene- and heat-controlled hyponastic leaf movement in Arabidopsis thaliana by the plant defence hormones jasmonate and salicylate.

    PubMed

    van Zanten, Martijn; Ritsema, Tita; Polko, Joanna K; Leon-Reyes, Antonio; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Millenaar, Frank F; Pieterse, Corné M J; Peeters, Anton J M

    2012-04-01

    Upward leaf movement (hyponastic growth) is adopted by several plant species including Arabidopsis thaliana, as a mechanism to escape adverse growth conditions. Among the signals that trigger hyponastic growth are, the gaseous hormone ethylene, low light intensities, and supra-optimal temperatures (heat). Recent studies indicated that the defence-related phytohormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) synthesized by the plant upon biotic infestation repress low light-induced hyponastic growth. The hyponastic growth response induced by high temperature (heat) treatment and upon application of the gaseous hormone ethylene is highly similar to the response induced by low light. To test if these environmental signals induce hyponastic growth via parallel pathways or converge downstream, we studied here the roles of Methyl-JA (MeJA) and SA on ethylene- and heat-induced hyponastic growth. For this, we used a time-lapse camera setup. Our study includes pharmacological application of MeJA and SA and biological infestation using the JA-inducing caterpillar Pieris rapae as well as mutants lacking JA or SA signalling components. The data demonstrate that MeJA is a positive, and SA, a negative regulator of ethylene-induced hyponastic growth and that both hormones repress the response to heat. Taking previous studies into account, we conclude that SA is the first among many tested components which is repressing hyponastic growth under all tested inductive environmental stimuli. However, since MeJA is a positive regulator of ethylene-induced hyponastic growth and is inhibiting low light- and heat-induced leaf movement, we conclude that defence hormones control hyponastic growth by affecting stimulus-specific signalling pathways.

  13. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Foreign Military Review, No. 1, January 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-12

    France G-91T Italy J-35P Draken Sweden AJ-37 Viggen Sweden JA-37 Viggen Sweden Kefir -C.2 larael P-l Japan 16,500 (7400) 1 x 9700 8700...JA-37 Viggan Sweden Kefir -C.2 Iirael P-l Japan 16,500 (7400) 1 x 9700 8700 (3900) 2 x 1850 15.000 (7700) 1 x 7800 20,500 (9000) 1 X

  14. Commensal Gut-Derived Anaerobes as Novel Therapy for Inflammatory Autoimmune Diseases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    Luckey D, Marietta EV, Miller ME, Murray JA, White BA and Taneja V. 2012. HLA-DR polymorphism, gut microbiome and sex may predict susceptibility or...Gomez A, Yoeman C, Luckey D, Marietta EV, Miller ME, Murray JA, White BA and Taneja V. 2012. HLA-DR polymorphism, gut microbiome and sex may... Gut -Derived Anaerobes as Novel Therapy for Inflammatory Autoimmune Diseases Veena Taneja Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN 55905

  15. OsMYC2 mediates numerous defence-related transcriptional changes via jasmonic acid signalling in rice.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Satoshi; Kawahara-Miki, Ryouka; Miyamoto, Koji; Yamane, Hisakazu; Nojiri, Hideaki; Tsujii, Yoshimasa; Okada, Kazunori

    2017-05-06

    Jasmonic acid (JA) plays central roles in various events in plants, especially defence against pathogens and insects. The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor MYC2 has attracted attention as a master regulator of JA signalling in dicotyledonous plants. However, how MYC2 functions in monocotyledonous plants, including agriculturally important crops such as cultivated rice, has been poorly understood. To elucidate the comprehensive effects of rice MYC2 (OsMYC2) on the JA-inducible transcriptional modifications, we performed RNA-sequencing by using OsMYC2-knockdown plants (osmyc2RNAi). In osmyc2RNAi, JA-inducible expression of many defence-related genes, for example chitinases and proteinase inhibitors, was compromised. Decrease in JA-dependent activation of the biosynthetic pathways of specialised metabolites, especially defence compounds, was also evident in the osmyc2RNAi line. Furthermore, a substantial change was noted in the expression of distinct types of transcription factors, such as MYB-type factors, likely depicting the importance of OsMYC2 in not only defence responses but also other morphogenetic events. Our findings provide fundamental information to understand the overall functions of MYC2 in JA signalling in monocotyledonous plants, which might yield agricultural benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Methyl Jasmonate Alleviates Cadmium-Induced Photosynthetic Damages through Increased S-Assimilation and Glutathione Production in Mustard

    PubMed Central

    Per, Tasir S.; Khan, Nafees A.; Masood, Asim; Fatma, Mehar

    2016-01-01

    The effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) in mitigation of 50 μM cadmium (Cd) toxicity on structure and function of photosynthetic apparatus in presence or absence of 1.0 mM SO42– was investigated in mustard (Brassica juncea L. cv. Ro Agro 4001) at 30 days after sowing. Plants exhibited increased oxidative stress, impaired photosynthetic function when grown with Cd, but MeJA in presence of sulfur (S) more prominently ameliorated Cd effects through increased S-assimilation and production of reduced glutathione (GSH) and promoted photosynthetic functions. The transmission electron microscopy showed that MeJA protected chloroplast structure against Cd-toxicity. The use of GSH biosynthetic inhibitor, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) substantiated the findings that ameliorating effect of MeJA was through GSH production. MeJA could not alleviate Cd effects when BSO was used due to unavailability of GSH even with the input of S. The study shows that MeJA regulates S-assimilation and GSH production for protection of structure and function of photosynthetic apparatus in mustard plants under Cd stress. PMID:28066485

  17. Wound-induced endogenous jasmonates stunt plant growth by inhibiting mitosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Turner, John G

    2008-01-01

    When plants are repeatedly injured their growth is stunted and the size of organs such as leaves is greatly reduced. The basis of this effect is not well-understood however, even though it reduces yield of crops injured by herbivory, and produces dramatic effects exemplified in ornamental bonsai plants. We have investigated the genetic and physiological basis of this "bonsai effect" by repeatedly wounding leaves of the model plant Arabidopsis. This treatment stunted growth by 50% and increased the endogenous content of jasmonate (JA), a growth inhibitor, by seven-fold. Significantly, repeated wounding did not stunt the growth of the leaves of mutants unable to synthesise JA, or unable to respond to JA including coi1, jai3, myc2, but not jar1. The stunted growth did not result from reduced cell size, but resulted instead from reduced cell number, and was associated with reduced expression of CycB1;2. Wounding caused systemic disappearance of constitutively expressed JAZ1::GUS. Wounding also activates plant immunity. We show that a gene, 12-oxo-phytodienoate reductase, which catalyses a step in JA biosynthesis, and which we confirm is not required for defence, is however required for wound-induced stunting. Our data suggest that intermediates in the JA biosynthetic pathway activate defence, but a primary function of wound-induced JA is to stunt growth through the suppression of mitosis.

  18. Interacting signal pathways control defense gene expression in Arabidopsis in response to cell wall-degrading enzymes from Erwinia carotovora.

    PubMed

    Norman-Setterblad, C; Vidal, S; Palva, E T

    2000-04-01

    We have characterized the role of salicylic acid (SA)-independent defense signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana in response to the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. Use of pathway-specific target genes as well as signal mutants allowed us to elucidate the role and interactions of ethylene, jasmonic acid (JA), and SA signal pathways in this response. Gene expression studies suggest a central role for both ethylene and JA pathways in the regulation of defense gene expression triggered by the pathogen or by plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (CF) secreted by the pathogen. Our results suggest that ethylene and JA act in concert in this regulation. In addition, CF triggers another, strictly JA-mediated response inhibited by ethylene and SA. SA does not appear to have a major role in activating defense gene expression in response to CF. However, SA may have a dual role in controlling CF-induced gene expression, by enhancing the expression of genes synergistically induced by ethylene and JA and repressing genes induced by JA alone.

  19. UV-C-Induced alleviation of transcriptional gene silencing through plant-plant communication: Key roles of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid pathways.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Wang, Ting; Xu, Shaoxin; Li, Fanghua; Deng, Chenguang; Wu, Lijun; Wu, Yuejin; Bian, Po

    2016-08-01

    Plant stress responses at the epigenetic level are expected to allow more permanent changes of gene expression and potentially long-term adaptation. While it has been reported that plants subjected to adverse environments initiate various stress responses in their neighboring plants, little is known regarding epigenetic responses to external stresses mediated by plant-plant communication. In this study, we show that DNA repetitive elements of Arabidopsis thaliana, whose expression is inhibited epigenetically by transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) mechanism, are activated by UV-C irradiation through airborne plant-plant and plant-plant-plant communications, accompanied by DNA demethylation at CHH sites. Moreover, the TGS is alleviated by direct treatments with exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and methyl salicylate (MeSA). Further, the plant-plant and plant-plant-plant communications are blocked by mutations in the biosynthesis or signaling of jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA), indicating that JA and SA pathways are involved in the interplant communication for epigenetic responses. For the plant-plant-plant communication, stress cues are relayed to the last set of receiver plants by promoting the production of JA and SA signals in relaying plants, which exhibit upregulated expression of genes for JA and SA biosynthesis and enhanced emanation of MeJA and MeSA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Host target modification as a strategy to counter pathogen hijacking of the jasmonate hormone receptor

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Li; Yao, Jian; Withers, John; ...

    2015-11-02

    In the past decade, characterization of the host targets of pathogen virulence factors took a center stage in the study of pathogenesis and disease susceptibility in plants and humans. However, the impressive knowledge of host targets has not been broadly exploited to inhibit pathogen infection. In this paper, we show that host target modification could be a promising new approach to “protect” the disease-vulnerable components of plants. In particular, recent studies have identified the plant hormone jasmonate (JA) receptor as one of the common targets of virulence factors from highly evolved biotrophic/hemibiotrophic pathogens. Strains of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae,more » for example, produce proteinaceous effectors, as well as a JA-mimicking toxin, coronatine (COR), to activate JA signaling as a mechanism to promote disease susceptibility. Guided by the crystal structure of the JA receptor and evolutionary clues, we succeeded in modifying the JA receptor to allow for sufficient endogenous JA signaling but greatly reduced sensitivity to COR. Transgenic Arabidopsis expressing this modified receptor not only are fertile and maintain a high level of insect defense, but also gain the ability to resist COR-producing pathogens Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and P. syringae pv. maculicola. Finally, our results provide a proof-of-concept demonstration that host target modification can be a promising new approach to prevent the virulence action of highly evolved pathogens.« less

  1. Multiple phytohormone signalling pathways modulate susceptibility of tomato plants to Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Chengguo; Zhang, Liping; Wang, Qiaomei

    2013-01-01

    Three phytohormone molecules – ethylene (ET), jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) – play key roles in mediating disease response to necrotrophic fungal pathogens. This study investigated the roles of the ET, JA, and SA pathways as well as their crosstalk during the interaction between tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants and a necrotrophic fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici (AAL). Both the ET and JASMONIC ACID INSENSITIVE1 (JAI1) receptor-dependent JA signalling pathways are necessary for susceptibility, while SA response promotes resistance to AAL infection. In addition, the role of JA in susceptibility to AAL is partly dependent on ET biosynthesis and perception, while the SA pathway enhances resistance to AAL and antagonizes the ET response. Based on these results, it is proposed that ET, JA, and SA each on their own can influence the susceptibility of tomato to AAL. Furthermore, the functions of JA and SA in susceptibility to the pathogen are correlated with the enhanced or decreased action of ET, respectively. This study has revealed the functional relationship among the three key hormone pathways in tomato defence against AAL. PMID:23264518

  2. Regulation of growth-defense balance by the JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ)-MYC transcriptional module

    SciTech Connect

    Major, Ian T.; Yoshida, Yuki; Campos, Marcelo L.

    The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) promotes the degradation of JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins to relieve repression on diverse transcription factors (TFs) that execute JA responses. However, little is known about how combinatorial complexity among JAZ–TF interactions maintains control over myriad aspects of growth, development, reproduction, and immunity. We used loss-of-function mutations to define epistatic interactions within the core JA signaling pathway and to investigate the contribution of MYC TFs to JA responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Constitutive JA signaling in a jaz quintuple mutant (jazQ) was largely eliminated by mutations that block JA synthesis or perception. Comparison of jazQ and amore » jazQ myc2 myc3 myc4 octuple mutant validated known functions of MYC2/3/4 in root growth, chlorophyll degradation,and susceptibility to the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. We found that MYC TFs also control both the enhanced resistance of jazQ leaves to insect herbivory and restricted leaf growth of jazQ. Epistatic transcriptional profiles mirrored these phenotypes and further showed that triterpenoid biosynthetic and glucosinolate catabolic genes are up-regulated in jazQ independently of MYC TFs. Lastly, our study highlights the utility of genetic epistasis to unravel the complexities of JAZ–TF interactions and demonstrates that MYC TFs exert master control over a JAZ-repressible transcriptional hierarchy that governs growth–defense balance.« less

  3. Bioassays for assessing jasmonate-dependent defenses triggered by pathogens, herbivorous insects, or beneficial rhizobacteria.

    PubMed

    Van Wees, Saskia C M; Van Pelt, Johan A; Bakker, Peter A H M; Pieterse, Corné M J

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonates, together with other plant hormones, are important orchestrators of the plant immune system. The different hormone-controlled signaling pathways cross-communicate in an antagonistic or a synergistic manner, providing the plant with a powerful capacity to finely regulate its immune response. Jasmonic acid (JA) signaling is required for plant resistance to harmful organisms, such as necrotrophic pathogens and herbivorous insects. Furthermore, JA signaling is essential in interactions of plants with beneficial microbes that induce systemic resistance to pathogens and insects. The role of JA signaling components in plant immunity can be studied by performing bioassays with different interacting organisms. Determination of the level of resistance and the induction of defense responses in plants with altered JA components, through mutation or ectopic expression, will unveil novel mechanisms of JA signaling. We provide detailed protocols of bioassays with the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana challenged with the pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae, the insect herbivore Pieris rapae, and the beneficial microbe Pseudomonas fluorescens. In addition, we describe pharmacological assays to study the modulation of JA-regulated responses by exogenous application of combinations of hormones, because a simultaneous rise in hormone levels occurs during interaction of plants with other organisms.

  4. Jasmonate response decay and defense metabolite accumulation contributes to age-regulated dynamics of plant insect resistance

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Ying-Bo; Liu, Yao-Qian; Chen, Dian-Yang; Chen, Fang-Yan; Fang, Xin; Hong, Gao-Jie; Wang, Ling-Jian; Wang, Jia-Wei; Chen, Xiao-Ya

    2017-01-01

    Immunity deteriorates with age in animals but comparatively little is known about the temporal regulation of plant resistance to herbivores. The phytohormone jasmonate (JA) is a key regulator of plant insect defense. Here, we show that the JA response decays progressively in Arabidopsis. We show that this decay is regulated by the miR156-targeted SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE9 (SPL9) group of proteins, which can interact with JA ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins, including JAZ3. As SPL9 levels gradually increase, JAZ3 accumulates and the JA response is attenuated. We provide evidence that this pathway contributes to insect resistance in young plants. Interestingly however, despite the decay in JA response, older plants are still comparatively more resistant to both the lepidopteran generalist Helicoverpa armigera and the specialist Plutella xylostella, along with increased accumulation of glucosinolates. We propose a model whereby constitutive accumulation of defense compounds plays a role in compensating for age-related JA-response attenuation during plant maturation. PMID:28067238

  5. Defense Responses in Aspen with Altered Pectin Methylesterase Activity Reveal the Hormonal Inducers of Tyloses.

    PubMed

    Leśniewska, Joanna; Öhman, David; Krzesłowska, Magdalena; Kushwah, Sunita; Barciszewska-Pacak, Maria; Kleczkowski, Leszek A; Sundberg, Björn; Moritz, Thomas; Mellerowicz, Ewa J

    2017-02-01

    Tyloses are ingrowths of parenchyma cells into the lumen of embolized xylem vessels, thereby protecting the remaining xylem from pathogens. They are found in heartwood, sapwood, and in abscission zones and can be induced by various stresses, but their molecular triggers are unknown. Here, we report that down-regulation of PECTIN METHYLESTERASE1 (PtxtPME1) in aspen (Populus tremula × tremuloides) triggers the formation of tyloses and activation of oxidative stress. We tested whether any of the oxidative stress-related hormones could induce tyloses in intact plantlets grown in sterile culture. Jasmonates, including jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonate, induced the formation of tyloses, whereas treatments with salicylic acid (SA) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) were ineffective. SA abolished the induction of tyloses by JA, whereas ACC was synergistic with JA. The ability of ACC to stimulate tyloses formation when combined with JA depended on ethylene (ET) signaling, as shown by a decrease in the response in ET-insensitive plants. Measurements of internal ACC and JA concentrations in wild-type and ET-insensitive plants treated simultaneously with these two compounds indicated that ACC and JA regulate each other's concentration in an ET-dependent manner. The findings indicate that jasmonates acting synergistically with ethylene are the key molecular triggers of tyloses. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Role of β-Oxidation in Jasmonate Biosynthesis and Systemic Wound Signaling in TomatoW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chuanyou; Schilmiller, Anthony L.; Liu, Guanghui; Lee, Gyu In; Jayanty, Sastry; Sageman, Carolyn; Vrebalov, Julia; Giovannoni, James J.; Yagi, Kaori; Kobayashi, Yuichi; Howe, Gregg A.

    2005-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a lipid-derived signal that regulates plant defense responses to biotic stress. Here, we report the characterization of a JA-deficient mutant of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) that lacks local and systemic expression of defensive proteinase inhibitors (PIs) in response to wounding. Map-based cloning studies demonstrated that this phenotype results from loss of function of an acyl-CoA oxidase (ACX1A) that catalyzes the first step in the peroxisomal β-oxidation stage of JA biosynthesis. Recombinant ACX1A exhibited a preference for C12 and C14 straight-chain acyl-CoAs and also was active in the metabolism of C18 cyclopentanoid-CoA precursors of JA. The overall growth, development, and reproduction of acx1 plants were similar to wild-type plants. However, the mutant was compromised in its defense against tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) attack. Grafting experiments showed that loss of ACX1A function disrupts the production of the transmissible signal for wound-induced PI expression but does not affect the recognition of this signal in undamaged responding leaves. We conclude that ACX1A is essential for the β-oxidation stage of JA biosynthesis and that JA or its derivatives is required both for antiherbivore resistance and the production of the systemic wound signal. These findings support a role for peroxisomes in the production of lipid-based signaling molecules that promote systemic defense responses. PMID:15722469

  7. Influence of the extent of westernization of lifestyle on the progression of preclinical atherosclerosis in Japanese subjects.

    PubMed

    Egusa, Genshi; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ohshita, Kayo; Fujikawa, Rumi; Yamane, Kiminori; Okubo, Masamichi; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2002-01-01

    To clarify the influence of a westernized lifestyle on the risk factors for atherosclerosis and preclinical atherosclerosis in Japanese subjects, we surveyed a Japanese population and Japanese immigrants in the United States. Based on the extent of westernization of their lifestyle, the subjects were classified as Japanese (J), first generation Japanese-Americans (JA-I), and second or later generation Japanese-Americans (JA-II). The consumption of animal fat and simple carbohydrates increased in the order of J, JA-I, and JA-II, while the subjects with strenuous physical activity decreased in the same order. The waist-hip ratio, fasting insulin level, serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and prevalence of hypertension increased in the same order as the dietary changes. The carotid intima-media wall thickness and the plaque size, which are indices of preclinical atherosclerosis, also increased in the order of J, JA-I, and JA-II. These data indicate that a westernized lifestyle aggravates the risk factors for atherosclerosis and influences the progression of preclinical atherosclerosis, in correspondence with the extent of westernization.

  8. Effect of jasmonic acid elicitation on the yield, chemical composition, and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of essential oil of lettuce leaf basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    PubMed

    Złotek, Urszula; Michalak-Majewska, Monika; Szymanowska, Urszula

    2016-12-15

    The effect of elicitation with jasmonic acid (JA) on the plant yield, the production and composition of essential oils of lettuce leaf basil was evaluated. JA-elicitation slightly affected the yield of plants and significantly increased the amount of essential oils produced by basil - the highest oil yield (0.78±0.005mL/100gdw) was achieved in plants elicited with 100μM JA. The application of the tested elicitor also influenced the chemical composition of basil essential oils - 100μM JA increased the linalool, eugenol, and limonene levels, while 1μM JA caused the highest increase in the methyl eugenol content. Essential oils from JA-elicited basil (especially 1μM and 100μM) exhibited more effective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential; therefore, this inducer may be a very useful biochemical tool for improving production and composition of herbal essential oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors JASMONATE-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), JAM2, and JAM3 are negative regulators of jasmonate responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sasaki-Sekimoto, Yuko; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Obayashi, Takeshi; Saito, Hikaru; Masuda, Shinji; Kamiya, Yuji; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Shirasu, Ken

    2013-09-01

    Jasmonates regulate transcriptional reprogramming during growth, development, and defense responses. Jasmonoyl-isoleucine, an amino acid conjugate of jasmonic acid (JA), is perceived by the protein complex composed of the F-box protein CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) and JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins, leading to the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of JAZ proteins. This activates basic helix-loop-helix-type MYC transcription factors to regulate JA-responsive genes. Here, we show that the expression of genes encoding other basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, JASMONATE ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), JAM2, and JAM3, is positively regulated in a COI1- and MYC2-dependent manner in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, contrary to myc2, the jam1jam2jam3 triple mutant exhibited shorter roots when treated with methyl jasmonate (MJ), indicating enhanced responsiveness to JA. Our genome-wide expression analyses revealed that key jasmonate metabolic genes as well as a set of genes encoding transcription factors that regulate the JA-responsive metabolic genes are negatively regulated by JAMs after MJ treatment. Consistently, loss of JAM genes resulted in higher accumulation of anthocyanin in MJ-treated plants as well as higher accumulation of JA and 12-hydroxyjasmonic acid in wounded plants. These results show that JAMs negatively regulate the JA responses in a manner that is mostly antagonistic to MYC2.

  10. Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors JASMONATE-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), JAM2, and JAM3 Are Negative Regulators of Jasmonate Responses in Arabidopsis1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki-Sekimoto, Yuko; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Obayashi, Takeshi; Saito, Hikaru; Masuda, Shinji; Kamiya, Yuji; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Shirasu, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonates regulate transcriptional reprogramming during growth, development, and defense responses. Jasmonoyl-isoleucine, an amino acid conjugate of jasmonic acid (JA), is perceived by the protein complex composed of the F-box protein CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) and JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins, leading to the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of JAZ proteins. This activates basic helix-loop-helix-type MYC transcription factors to regulate JA-responsive genes. Here, we show that the expression of genes encoding other basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, JASMONATE ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), JAM2, and JAM3, is positively regulated in a COI1- and MYC2-dependent manner in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, contrary to myc2, the jam1jam2jam3 triple mutant exhibited shorter roots when treated with methyl jasmonate (MJ), indicating enhanced responsiveness to JA. Our genome-wide expression analyses revealed that key jasmonate metabolic genes as well as a set of genes encoding transcription factors that regulate the JA-responsive metabolic genes are negatively regulated by JAMs after MJ treatment. Consistently, loss of JAM genes resulted in higher accumulation of anthocyanin in MJ-treated plants as well as higher accumulation of JA and 12-hydroxyjasmonic acid in wounded plants. These results show that JAMs negatively regulate the JA responses in a manner that is mostly antagonistic to MYC2. PMID:23852442

  11. Regulation of growth-defense balance by the JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ)-MYC transcriptional module

    DOE PAGES

    Major, Ian T.; Yoshida, Yuki; Campos, Marcelo L.; ...

    2017-06-26

    The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) promotes the degradation of JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins to relieve repression on diverse transcription factors (TFs) that execute JA responses. However, little is known about how combinatorial complexity among JAZ–TF interactions maintains control over myriad aspects of growth, development, reproduction, and immunity. We used loss-of-function mutations to define epistatic interactions within the core JA signaling pathway and to investigate the contribution of MYC TFs to JA responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Constitutive JA signaling in a jaz quintuple mutant (jazQ) was largely eliminated by mutations that block JA synthesis or perception. Comparison of jazQ and amore » jazQ myc2 myc3 myc4 octuple mutant validated known functions of MYC2/3/4 in root growth, chlorophyll degradation,and susceptibility to the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. We found that MYC TFs also control both the enhanced resistance of jazQ leaves to insect herbivory and restricted leaf growth of jazQ. Epistatic transcriptional profiles mirrored these phenotypes and further showed that triterpenoid biosynthetic and glucosinolate catabolic genes are up-regulated in jazQ independently of MYC TFs. Lastly, our study highlights the utility of genetic epistasis to unravel the complexities of JAZ–TF interactions and demonstrates that MYC TFs exert master control over a JAZ-repressible transcriptional hierarchy that governs growth–defense balance.« less

  12. Defense Responses in Aspen with Altered Pectin Methylesterase Activity Reveal the Hormonal Inducers of Tyloses1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Leśniewska, Joanna; Krzesłowska, Magdalena; Kushwah, Sunita; Sundberg, Björn; Moritz, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Tyloses are ingrowths of parenchyma cells into the lumen of embolized xylem vessels, thereby protecting the remaining xylem from pathogens. They are found in heartwood, sapwood, and in abscission zones and can be induced by various stresses, but their molecular triggers are unknown. Here, we report that down-regulation of PECTIN METHYLESTERASE1 (PtxtPME1) in aspen (Populus tremula × tremuloides) triggers the formation of tyloses and activation of oxidative stress. We tested whether any of the oxidative stress-related hormones could induce tyloses in intact plantlets grown in sterile culture. Jasmonates, including jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonate, induced the formation of tyloses, whereas treatments with salicylic acid (SA) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) were ineffective. SA abolished the induction of tyloses by JA, whereas ACC was synergistic with JA. The ability of ACC to stimulate tyloses formation when combined with JA depended on ethylene (ET) signaling, as shown by a decrease in the response in ET-insensitive plants. Measurements of internal ACC and JA concentrations in wild-type and ET-insensitive plants treated simultaneously with these two compounds indicated that ACC and JA regulate each other’s concentration in an ET-dependent manner. The findings indicate that jasmonates acting synergistically with ethylene are the key molecular triggers of tyloses. PMID:27923986

  13. Integrating nitric oxide into salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ ethylene plant defense pathways.

    PubMed

    Mur, Luis A J; Prats, Elena; Pierre, Sandra; Hall, Michael A; Hebelstrup, Kim H

    2013-01-01

    Plant defense against pests and pathogens is known to be conferred by either salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) pathways, depending on infection or herbivore-grazing strategy. It is well attested that SA and JA/ET pathways are mutually antagonistic allowing defense responses to be tailored to particular biotic stresses. Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a major signal influencing resistance mediated by both signaling pathways but no attempt has been made to integrate NO into established SA/JA/ET interactions. NO has been shown to act as an inducer or suppressor of signaling along each pathway. NO will initiate SA biosynthesis and nitrosylate key cysteines on TGA-class transcription factors to aid in the initiation of SA-dependent gene expression. Against this, S-nitrosylation of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEINS1 (NPR1) will promote the NPR1 oligomerization within the cytoplasm to reduce TGA activation. In JA biosynthesis, NO will initiate the expression of JA biosynthetic enzymes, presumably to over-come any antagonistic effects of SA on JA-mediated transcription. NO will also initiate the expression of ET biosynthetic genes but a suppressive role is also observed in the S-nitrosylation and inhibition of S-adenosylmethionine transferases which provides methyl groups for ET production. Based on these data a model for NO action is proposed but we have also highlighted the need to understand when and how inductive and suppressive steps are used.

  14. Determination of proteins induced in response to jasmonic acid and salicylic acid in resistant and susceptible cultivars of tomato.

    PubMed

    Afroz, Amber; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2010-07-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are signaling molecules that play key roles in the regulation of metabolic processes, reproduction, and defense against pathogens. The proteomics approach was used to identify proteins that are induced by JA and SA in the tomato cultivars Roma and Pant Bahr, which are susceptible and resistant to bacterial wilt, respectively. Threonine deaminase and leucine amino peptidase were upregulated, and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small chain was downregulated by time-course application of JA. Translationally controlled tumor protein was upregulated by time-course application of SA. Protein disulfide isomerase was upregulated by application of either JA or SA. Proteins related to defense, energy, and protein destination/storage are suspected to be responsible for the susceptibility or resistance of the cultivars. Furthermore, in Roma, iron ABC transporter was upregulated by JA and down-regulated by SA. Iron ABC transporter plays a part in the signal transduction of both JA and SA in cultivars of tomato that are resistant to bacterial wilt.

  15. Induced resistance to Helicoverpa armigera through exogenous application of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid in groundnut, Arachis hypogaea.

    PubMed

    War, Abdul Rashid; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Sharma, Hari Chand

    2015-01-01

    Induced resistance to Helicoverpa armigera through exogenous application of jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) was studied in groundnut genotypes (ICGV 86699, ICGV 86031, ICG 2271 and ICG 1697) with different levels of resistance to insects and the susceptible check JL 24 under greenhouse conditions. Activities of oxidative enzymes and the amounts of secondary metabolites and proteins were quantified at 6 days after JA and SA application/insect infestation. Data were also recorded on plant damage and H. armigera larval weights and survival. Higher levels of enzymatic activities and amounts of secondary metabolites were observed in the insect-resistant genotypes pretreated with JA and then infested with H. armigera than in JL 24. The insect-resistant genotypes suffered lower insect damage and resulted in poor survival and lower weights of H. armigera larvae than JL 24. In some cases, JA and SA showed similar effects. JA and SA induced the activity of antioxidative enzymes in groundnut plants against H. armigera, and reduced its growth and development. However, induced response to application of JA was greater than to SA, and resulted in reduced plant damage, and larval weights and survival, suggesting that induced resistance can be used as a component of pest management in groundnut. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Defense to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in oilseed rape is associated with the sequential activations of salicylic acid signaling and jasmonic acid signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Tan, Xiaoli; Zhang, Zhiyan; Gu, Shoulai; Li, Guanying; Shi, Haifeng

    2012-03-01

    Signaling pathways mediated by salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) are widely studied in various host-pathogen interactions. For oilseed rape (Brassica napus)-Sclerotinia sclerotiorum interaction, little information of the two signaling molecules has been described in detail. In this study, we showed that the level of SA and JA in B. napus leaves was increased with a distinct temporal profile, respectively, after S. sclerotiorum infection. The application of SA or methyl jasmonate enhanced the resistance to the pathogen. Furthermore, a set of SA and JA signaling marker genes were identified from B. napus and were used to monitor the signaling responses to S. sclerotiorum infection by examining the temporal expression profiles of these marker genes. The SA signaling was activated within 12h post inoculation (hpi) followed by the JA signaling which was activated around 24 hpi. In addition, SA-JA crosstalk genes were activated during this process. These results suggested that defense against S. sclerotiorum in oilseed rape is associated with a sequential activation of SA signaling and JA signaling, which provide important clues for designing strategies to curb diseases caused by S. sclerotioru. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Symptomless endophytic fungi suppress endogenous levels of salicylic acid and interact with the jasmonate-dependent indirect defense traits of their host, lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus).

    PubMed

    Navarro-Meléndez, Ariana L; Heil, Martin

    2014-07-01

    Symptomless ‘type II’ fungal endophytes colonize their plant host horizontally and exert diverse effects on its resistance phenotype. Here, we used wild Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) plants that were experimentally colonized with one of three strains of natural endophytes (Bartalinia pondoensis, Fusarium sp., or Cochliobolus lunatus) to investigate the effects of fungal colonization on the endogenous levels of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) and on two JA-dependent indirect defense traits. Colonization with Fusarium sp. enhanced JA levels in intact leaves, whereas B. pondoensis suppressed the induction of endogenous JA in mechanically damaged leaves. Endogenous SA levels in intact leaves were significantly decreased by all strains and B. pondoensis and Fusarium sp. decreased SA levels after mechanical damage. Colonization with Fusarium sp. or C. lunatus enhanced the number of detectable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from intact leaves, and all three strains enhanced the relative amount of several VOCs emitted from intact leaves as well as the number of detectable VOCs emitted from slightly damaged leaves. All three strains completely suppressed the induced secretion of extrafloral nectar (EFN) after the exogenous application of JA. Symptomless endophytes interact in complex and strain-specific ways with the endogenous levels of SA and JA and with the defense traits that are controlled by these hormones. These interactions can occur both upstream and downstream of the defense hormones.

  18. Integrating nitric oxide into salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ ethylene plant defense pathways

    PubMed Central

    Mur, Luis A. J.; Prats, Elena; Pierre, Sandra; Hall, Michael A.; Hebelstrup, Kim H.

    2013-01-01

    Plant defense against pests and pathogens is known to be conferred by either salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) pathways, depending on infection or herbivore-grazing strategy. It is well attested that SA and JA/ET pathways are mutually antagonistic allowing defense responses to be tailored to particular biotic stresses. Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a major signal influencing resistance mediated by both signaling pathways but no attempt has been made to integrate NO into established SA/JA/ET interactions. NO has been shown to act as an inducer or suppressor of signaling along each pathway. NO will initiate SA biosynthesis and nitrosylate key cysteines on TGA-class transcription factors to aid in the initiation of SA-dependent gene expression. Against this, S-nitrosylation of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEINS1 (NPR1) will promote the NPR1 oligomerization within the cytoplasm to reduce TGA activation. In JA biosynthesis, NO will initiate the expression of JA biosynthetic enzymes, presumably to over-come any antagonistic effects of SA on JA-mediated transcription. NO will also initiate the expression of ET biosynthetic genes but a suppressive role is also observed in the S-nitrosylation and inhibition of S-adenosylmethionine transferases which provides methyl groups for ET production. Based on these data a model for NO action is proposed but we have also highlighted the need to understand when and how inductive and suppressive steps are used. PMID:23818890

  19. Conversion from long-term cultivated wheat field to Jerusalem artichoke plantation changed soil fungal communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xingang; Zhang, Jianhui; Gao, Danmei; Gao, Huan; Guo, Meiyu; Li, Li; Zhao, Mengliang; Wu, Fengzhi

    2017-01-01

    Understanding soil microbial communities in agroecosystems has the potential to contribute to the improvement of agricultural productivity and sustainability. Effects of conversion from long-term wheat plantation to Jerusalem artichoke (JA) plantation on soil fungal communities were determined by amplicon sequencing of total fungal ITS regions. Quantitative PCR and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were also used to analyze total fungal and Trichoderma spp. ITS regions and Fusarium spp. Ef1α genes. Results showed that soil organic carbon was higher in the first cropping of JA and Olsen P was lower in the third cropping of JA. Plantation conversion changed soil total fungal and Fusarium but not Trichoderma spp. community structures and compositions. The third cropping of JA had the lowest total fungal community diversity and Fusarium spp. community abundance, but had the highest total fungal and Trichoderma spp. community abundances. The relative abundances of potential fungal pathogens of wheat were higher in the wheat field. Fungal taxa with plant growth promoting, plant pathogen or insect antagonistic potentials were enriched in the first and second cropping of JA. Overall, short-term conversion from wheat to JA plantation changed soil fungal communities, which is related to changes in soil organic carbon and Olsen P contents.

  20. Conversion from long-term cultivated wheat field to Jerusalem artichoke plantation changed soil fungal communities

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xingang; Zhang, Jianhui; Gao, Danmei; Gao, Huan; Guo, Meiyu; Li, Li; Zhao, Mengliang; Wu, Fengzhi

    2017-01-01

    Understanding soil microbial communities in agroecosystems has the potential to contribute to the improvement of agricultural productivity and sustainability. Effects of conversion from long-term wheat plantation to Jerusalem artichoke (JA) plantation on soil fungal communities were determined by amplicon sequencing of total fungal ITS regions. Quantitative PCR and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were also used to analyze total fungal and Trichoderma spp. ITS regions and Fusarium spp. Ef1α genes. Results showed that soil organic carbon was higher in the first cropping of JA and Olsen P was lower in the third cropping of JA. Plantation conversion changed soil total fungal and Fusarium but not Trichoderma spp. community structures and compositions. The third cropping of JA had the lowest total fungal community diversity and Fusarium spp. community abundance, but had the highest total fungal and Trichoderma spp. community abundances. The relative abundances of potential fungal pathogens of wheat were higher in the wheat field. Fungal taxa with plant growth promoting, plant pathogen or insect antagonistic potentials were enriched in the first and second cropping of JA. Overall, short-term conversion from wheat to JA plantation changed soil fungal communities, which is related to changes in soil organic carbon and Olsen P contents. PMID:28134269

  1. Jasmonate signaling in plant stress responses and development - active and inactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Wasternack, Claus; Strnad, Miroslav

    2016-09-25

    Jasmonates (JAs) are lipid-derived signals mediating plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses and in plant development. Following the elucidation of each step in their biosynthesis and the important components of perception and signaling, several activators, repressors and co-repressors have been identified which contribute to fine-tuning the regulation of JA-induced gene expression. Many of the metabolic reactions in which JA participates, such as conjugation with amino acids, glucosylation, hydroxylation, carboxylation, sulfation and methylation, lead to numerous compounds with different biological activities. These metabolites may be highly active, partially active in specific processes or inactive. Hydroxylation, carboxylation and sulfation inactivate JA signaling. The precursor of JA biosynthesis, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), has been identified as a JA-independent signaling compound. An increasing number of OPDA-specific processes is being identified. To conclude, the numerous JA compounds and their different modes of action allow plants to respond specifically and flexibly to alterations in the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Prostate cancer in native Japanese and Japanese-American men: effects of dietary differences on prostatic tissue.

    PubMed

    Marks, Leonard S; Kojima, Munekado; Demarzo, Angelo; Heber, David; Bostwick, David G; Qian, Junqi; Dorey, Frederick J; Veltri, Robert W; Mohler, James L; Partin, Alan W

    2004-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between diet and prostate cancer (CaP) among native Japanese (NJ) and second-generation or third-generation Japanese-American (J-A) men--focusing on the effects of animal fat and soy on prostatic tissues. The subjects were 50 Japanese men undergoing radical prostatectomy, 25 NJ living in Nagoya, Japan and 25 U.S.-born J-A men, living in Los Angeles, California. A priori, the NJ men were believed to be a low-fat, high-soy group and the J-A men, a high-fat, low-soy group. The studies included postoperative measurements of diet (Block questionnaire), body fat (bioimpedance), blood, urine, and prostatic biomarkers in malignant and adjacent normal tissue, using a tissue microarray made from the original paraffin blocks. The NJ and J-A men were similar in age (65 to 70 years old; P <0.05), prostate-specific antigen level (7.1 to 8.6 ng/mL), prostate volume (35 to 38 cm3), and Gleason score (5.6 to 6.6), but their body composition differed. J-A men had more body fat (24% versus 19%), higher serum triglyceride levels (245 versus 106 mg/dL), lower estradiol levels (27 versus 31 ng/mL), and much lower urinary soy-metabolite levels (1:3) than NJ men (P <0.02). In both NJ and J-A groups, expression of numerous tissue biomarkers separated normal from CaP tissue, including markers for apoptosis (Bcl-2, caspase-3), growth factor receptors (epidermal growth factor receptor), racemase, 5-lipoxygenase, kinase inhibition (p27), and cell proliferation (Ki-67; all P <0.02). Furthermore, within both normal and CaP tissues, caspase-3 and 5-lipoxygenase were expressed more in NJ than in J-A men (P <0.01). Nuclear morphometry showed that the chromatin in each of the four groups (normal versus CaP, NJ versus J-A) was different (area under the curve 85% to 94%, P <0.01), despite fundamental genetic homogeneity. NJ and J-A men, products of similar genetics but differing environments, were shown to have differences in body composition that could influence Ca

  3. Temporal transcriptome changes induced by methyl jasmonate in Salvia sclarea.

    PubMed

    Hao, Da Cheng; Chen, Shi Lin; Osbourn, Anne; Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Liu, Li Wei; Jordán, Maria J

    2015-03-01

    Salvia sclarea is a traditional medicinal and aromatic plant that grows in Europe and produces various economically important compounds, including phenylpropanoid derivatives and terpenoids. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is commonly used to elicit plant stress responses. However, how MeJA enhances production of secondary metabolites in S. sclarea is not well understood. We performed a genome-wide analysis of temporal gene expression in S. sclarea leaves and roots. The transcriptome profiles 0, 10 and 26 h after MeJA treatment were analyzed by Illumina RNA-Seq. A total of 16,142 isogenes (average length 866bp; N50 1035bp) were obtained by de novo assembly of 35,757,567 raw sequencing reads. When these sequencing reads were mapped onto the assembled Unigenes, 3236, 2792 and 798 Unigenes were found to be expressed differentially between 0 and 10h, 0 and 26 h, and 10 and 26h, respectively. These included many secondary metabolite biosynthesis, stress and defense-related genes. A qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the expression profiles of selected differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed by RNA-Seq data, and also extended our analysis of differential gene expression to 73 h. Our investigations revealed temporal differences in the responses of S. sclarea to MeJA treatment. MeJA treatment induced the expression of a large number of genes involved in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, especially between 0 and 10h, and 0 and 26 h. Additionally, many genes encoding transcription factors, cytochrome P450s, glycosyltransferases, methyltransferases and transporters were shown to respond to MeJA elicitation. DEGs related to structural molecule activity and cell death showed a significant temporal variation. A chromatographic analysis of metabolites at 26h, 73h and six days after MeJA treatment indicated that these transcriptomic changes precede MeJA-induced changes in secondary metabolite content. This study sheds light on the molecular mechanisms of MeJA elicitation and is helpful in

  4. Jasmonate Hormone: Regulating Synthesis of Reduced Carbon Compounds in Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Browse, John

    Our original interest in understanding the role of jasmonate (JA) in regulating the final stages of stamen and pollen development led to our discovery of the JAZ repressors, and the molecular mechanism of JA action is now a second important focus of our research. The specific goals for this grant period are to: 1. Investigate the generation and clearance of the hormone with emphasis on the regulation of the OPR3 enzyme and the hydrolysis of JA-Ile. 2. Use dominant-negative and overexpression constructs to explore the role of the MYC5 transcription factor in initiating and regulating JA responses. 3. Investigate specificmore » JAZ protein interactions that will help us to recognize and understand the extended network of processes, such as sulfur nutrition, that interface with JA signaling. The COI1 F-Box protein is a JA-Ile coreceptor and coi1 mutant plants lack JA responses. We have tested the possibility that sites of JA action can be probed by using tissue-specific promoters to drive expression of a COI1-YFP fusion protein in coi1 mutant plants deficient in stamen and pollen function. When we expressed COI1 behind a filament-specific promoter (from the DAD1 gene), filament elongation was restored but not anther dehiscence or pollen function. Three tapetum specific promoters, all failed to restore any of these three functions but, unexpectedly, a promoter active in the stomium and epidermal cells, restored both pollen function and anther dehiscence. Most importantly, our results demonstrate the power of promoter::COI1-YFP constructs in revealing the primary sites of JA-regulated gene expression that control developmental and other responses in neighboring tissues. We now plan to use this new tool to test current hypotheses about JA action in other organs of the plant. The MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4 proteins are the primary transcription factors initiating defense and root growth responses to JA signaling. However, transgenic plants overexpressing these proteins do not

  5. Jerusalem artichoke and chicory inulin in bakery products affect faecal microbiota of healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kleessen, Brigitta; Schwarz, Sandra; Boehm, Anke; Fuhrmann, H; Richter, A; Henle, T; Krueger, Monika

    2007-09-01

    A study was conducted to test the effects of Jerusalem artichoke inulin (JA) or chicory inulin (CH) in snack bars on composition of faecal microbiota, concentration of faecal SCFA, bowel habit and gastrointestinal symptoms. Forty-five volunteers participated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. At the end of a 7 d run-in period, subjects were randomly assigned to three groups of fifteen subjects each, consuming either snack bars with CH or JA, or snack bars without fructans (placebo); for 7 d (adaptation period), they ingested one snack bar per day (7.7 g fructan/d) and continued for 14 d with two snack bars per day. The composition of the microbiota was monitored weekly. The consumption of CH or JA increased counts of bifidobacteria (+1.2 log10 in 21 d) and reduced Bacteroides/Prevotella in number and the Clostridium histolyticum/C. lituseburense group in frequency at the end of intervention (P < 0.05). No changes in concentration of faecal SCFA were observed. Consumption of snack bars resulted in a slight increase in stool frequency. Stool consistency was slightly affected in subjects consuming two snack bars containing CH or JA per day (P < 0.05). Consumption of CH or JA resulted in mild and sometimes moderate flatulence in a few subjects compared to placebo (P < 0.05). No structural differences were detected between CH and JA before and after processing. In conclusion, adaptation on increased doses of CH or JA in bakery products stimulates the growth of bifidobacteria and may contribute to the suppression of potential pathogenic bacteria.

  6. Jasmonate signalling pathway in strawberry: Genome-wide identification, molecular characterization and expression of JAZs and MYCs during fruit development and ripening.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Bigotes, Adrián; Figueroa, Nicolás E; Figueroa, Pablo M; Figueroa, Carlos R

    2018-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are signalling molecules involved in stress responses, development and secondary metabolism biosynthesis, although their roles in fleshy-fruit development and ripening processes are not well known. In strawberry fruit, it has been proposed that JAs could regulate the early development through the activation of the JAs biosynthesis. Moreover, it has been reported that JA treatment increases anthocyanin content in strawberry fruit involving the bioactive jasmonate biosynthesis. Nevertheless, JA signalling pathway, of which main components are the COI1-JAZ co-receptor and the MYC transcription factors (TFs), has not been characterized in strawberry until now. Here we identified and characterized the woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) JAZ and MYC genes as well as studied their expression during development and ripening stages in commercial strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit. We described twelve putative JAZ proteins and two MYC TFs, which showed high conservation with respect to their orthologs in Arabidopsis thaliana and in other fleshy-fruit species such as Malus × domestica, Vitis vinifera and Solanum lycopersicum as revealed by gene synteny and phylogenetic analyses. Noteworthy, their expression levels exhibited a significant decrease from fruit development to ripening stages in F. × ananassa, along with others of the JA signalling-related genes such as FaNINJA and FaJAMs, encoding for negative regulators of JA responses. Moreover, we found that main JA signalling-related genes such as FaMYC2, and FaJAZ1 are promptly induced by JA treatment at early times in F. × ananassa fruit. These results suggest the conservation of the canonical JA signalling pathway in strawberry and a possible role of this pathway in early strawberry fruit development, which also correlates negatively with the beginning of the ripening process.

  7. Jasmonate signalling pathway in strawberry: Genome-wide identification, molecular characterization and expression of JAZs and MYCs during fruit development and ripening

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Nicolás E.; Figueroa, Pablo M.

    2018-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are signalling molecules involved in stress responses, development and secondary metabolism biosynthesis, although their roles in fleshy-fruit development and ripening processes are not well known. In strawberry fruit, it has been proposed that JAs could regulate the early development through the activation of the JAs biosynthesis. Moreover, it has been reported that JA treatment increases anthocyanin content in strawberry fruit involving the bioactive jasmonate biosynthesis. Nevertheless, JA signalling pathway, of which main components are the COI1-JAZ co-receptor and the MYC transcription factors (TFs), has not been characterized in strawberry until now. Here we identified and characterized the woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) JAZ and MYC genes as well as studied their expression during development and ripening stages in commercial strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit. We described twelve putative JAZ proteins and two MYC TFs, which showed high conservation with respect to their orthologs in Arabidopsis thaliana and in other fleshy-fruit species such as Malus × domestica, Vitis vinifera and Solanum lycopersicum as revealed by gene synteny and phylogenetic analyses. Noteworthy, their expression levels exhibited a significant decrease from fruit development to ripening stages in F. × ananassa, along with others of the JA signalling-related genes such as FaNINJA and FaJAMs, encoding for negative regulators of JA responses. Moreover, we found that main JA signalling-related genes such as FaMYC2, and FaJAZ1 are promptly induced by JA treatment at early times in F. × ananassa fruit. These results suggest the conservation of the canonical JA signalling pathway in strawberry and a possible role of this pathway in early strawberry fruit development, which also correlates negatively with the beginning of the ripening process. PMID:29746533

  8. The plastidial retrograde signal methyl erythritol cyclopyrophosphate is a regulator of salicylic acid and jasmonic acid crosstalk.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Mark; Xiao, Yanmei; Bjornson, Marta; Wang, Jin-Zheng; Hicks, Derrick; Souza, Amancio de; Wang, Chang-Quan; Yang, Panyu; Ma, Shisong; Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma; Dehesh, Katayoon

    2016-03-01

    The exquisite harmony between hormones and their corresponding signaling pathways is central to prioritizing plant responses to simultaneous and/or successive environmental trepidations. The crosstalk between jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) is an established effective mechanism that optimizes and tailors plant adaptive responses. However, the underlying regulatory modules of this crosstalk are largely unknown. Global transcriptomic analyses of mutant plants (ceh1) with elevated levels of the stress-induced plastidial retrograde signaling metabolite 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol cyclopyrophosphate (MEcPP) revealed robustly induced JA marker genes, expected to be suppressed by the presence of constitutively high SA levels in the mutant background. Analyses of a range of genotypes with varying SA and MEcPP levels established the selective role of MEcPP-mediated signal(s) in induction of JA-responsive genes in the presence of elevated SA. Metabolic profiling revealed the presence of high levels of the JA precursor 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), but near wild type levels of JA in the ceh1 mutant plants. Analyses of coronatine-insensitive 1 (coi1)/ceh1 double mutant plants confirmed that the MEcPP-mediated induction is JA receptor COI1 dependent, potentially through elevated OPDA. These findings identify MEcPP as a previously unrecognized central regulatory module that induces JA-responsive genes in the presence of high SA, thereby staging a multifaceted plant response within the environmental context. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  9. Exogenous application of methyl jasmonate induces a defense response and resistance against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in dry bean plants.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marília Barros; Junior, Murillo Lobo; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria Fátima; Petrofeza, Silvana

    2015-06-15

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen that causes a disease known as white mold, which is a major problem for dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and other crops in many growing areas in Brazil. To investigate the role of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) in defending dry bean plants against S. sclerotiorum, we used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) of cDNA and identified genes that are differentially expressed during plant-pathogen interactions after treatment. Exogenous MeJA application enhanced resistance to the pathogen, and SSH analyses led to the identification of 94 unigenes, presumably involved in a variety of functions, which were classified into several functional categories, including metabolism, signal transduction, protein biogenesis and degradation, and cell defense and rescue. Using RT-qPCR, some unigenes were found to be differentially expressed in a time-dependent manner in dry bean plants during the interaction with S. sclerotiorum after MeJA treatment, including the pathogenesis-related protein PR3 (chitinase), PvCallose (callose synthase), PvNBS-LRR (NBS-LRR resistance-like protein), PvF-box (F-box family protein-like), and a polygalacturonase inhibitor protein (PGIP). Based on these expression data, the putative roles of differentially expressed genes were discussed in relation to the disease and MeJA resistance induction. Changes in the activity of the pathogenesis-related proteins β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, and peroxidase in plants after MeJA treatment and following inoculation of the pathogen were also investigated as molecular markers of induced resistance. Foliar application of MeJA induced partial resistance against S. sclerotiorum in plants as well as a consistent increase in pathogenesis-related protein activities. Our findings provide new insights into the physiological and molecular mechanisms of resistance induced by MeJA in the P. vulgaris-S. sclerotiorum pathosystem

  10. Coregulation of soybean vegetative storage protein gene expression by methyl jasmonate and soluble sugars.

    PubMed

    Mason, H S; Dewald, D B; Creelman, R A; Mullet, J E

    1992-03-01

    The soybean vegetative storage protein genes vspA and vspB are highly expressed in developing leaves, stems, flowers, and pods as compared with roots, seeds, and mature leaves and stems. In this paper, we report that physiological levels of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and soluble sugars synergistically stimulate accumulation of vsp mRNAs. Treatment of excised mature soybean (Glycine max Merr. cv Williams) leaves with 0.2 molar sucrose and 10 micromolar MeJA caused a large accumulation of vsp mRNAs, whereas little accumulation occurred when these compounds were supplied separately. In soybean cell suspension cultures, the synergistic effect of sucrose and MeJA on the accumulation of vspB mRNA was maximal at 58 millimolar sucrose and was observed with fructose or glucose substituted for sucrose. In dark-grown soybean seedlings, the highest levels of vsp mRNAs occurred in the hypocotyl hook, which also contained high levels of MeJA and soluble sugars. Lower levels of vsp mRNAs, MeJA, and soluble sugars were found in the cotyledons, roots, and nongrowing regions of the stem. Wounding of mature soybean leaves induced a large accumulation of vsp mRNAs when wounded plants were incubated in the light. Wounded plants kept in the dark or illuminated plants sprayed with dichlorophenyldimethylurea, an inhibitor of photosynthetic electron transport, showed a greatly reduced accumulation of vsp mRNAs. The time courses for the accumulation of vsp mRNAs induced by wounding or sucrose/MeJA treatment were similar. These results strongly suggest that vsp expression is coregulated by endogenous levels of MeJA (or jasmonic acid) and soluble carbohydrate during normal vegetative development and in wounded leaves.

  11. Coregulation of Soybean Vegetative Storage Protein Gene Expression by Methyl Jasmonate and Soluble Sugars 1

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Hugh S.; DeWald, Daryll B.; Creelman, Robert A.; Mullet, John E.

    1992-01-01

    The soybean vegetative storage protein genes vspA and vspB are highly expressed in developing leaves, stems, flowers, and pods as compared with roots, seeds, and mature leaves and stems. In this paper, we report that physiological levels of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and soluble sugars synergistically stimulate accumulation of vsp mRNAs. Treatment of excised mature soybean (Glycine max Merr. cv Williams) leaves with 0.2 molar sucrose and 10 micromolar MeJA caused a large accumulation of vsp mRNAs, whereas little accumulation occurred when these compounds were supplied separately. In soybean cell suspension cultures, the synergistic effect of sucrose and MeJA on the accumulation of vspB mRNA was maximal at 58 millimolar sucrose and was observed with fructose or glucose substituted for sucrose. In dark-grown soybean seedlings, the highest levels of vsp mRNAs occurred in the hypocotyl hook, which also contained high levels of MeJA and soluble sugars. Lower levels of vsp mRNAs, MeJA, and soluble sugars were found in the cotyledons, roots, and nongrowing regions of the stem. Wounding of mature soybean leaves induced a large accumulation of vsp mRNAs when wounded plants were incubated in the light. Wounded plants kept in the dark or illuminated plants sprayed with dichlorophenyldimethylurea, an inhibitor of photosynthetic electron transport, showed a greatly reduced accumulation of vsp mRNAs. The time courses for the accumulation of vsp mRNAs induced by wounding or sucrose/MeJA treatment were similar. These results strongly suggest that vsp expression is coregulated by endogenous levels of MeJA (or jasmonic acid) and soluble carbohydrate during normal vegetative development and in wounded leaves. ImagesFigure 1Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:16668757

  12. Socio-cultural effects on children's initiation of joint attention

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilov, Yana; Rotem, Sarit; Ofek, Renana; Geva, Ronny

    2012-01-01

    Exchanging gazes with a social partner in response to an event in the environment is considered an effective means to direct attention, share affective experiences, and highlight a target in the environment. This behavior appears during infancy and plays an important role in children's learning and in shaping their socio-emotional development. It has been suggested that cultural values of the community affect socio-emotional development through attentional dynamics of social reference (Rogoff et al., 1993). Maturational processes of brain-circuits have been found to mediate socio-cultural learning and the behavioral manifestation of cultural norms starting at preschool age (Nelson and Guyer, 2011). The aim of the current study was to investigate the relations between cultural ecology levels and children's joint attention (JA). Initiation of JA bids was studied empirically as a function of the level of social load of the target toy (3 levels), the community level of adherence to traditional values (3 levels), parental education (2 levels), and gender. Sixty-two kindergarten aged children were enrolled in a structured toy-exploration task, during which they were presented with toys of various social loads, with social agents (i.e., mother and experimenter) present nearby, and non-social distracters presented intermittently. Measurements included the child's number of JA bids and the extent of positive affect. Analysis of variance indicated that the child's initiation of JA toward the social partner was affected by all levels of cultural ecology (i.e., toy's social load, adherence to tradition values, parental education, gender), thus supporting the study's hypotheses. The effects were such that overall, children, particularly girls' JA initiation was augmented in social toys and moderated by the socio-cultural variables. These results suggest that cultural ecology is related to children's JA, thereby scaffolding initiation of social sharing cues between children and

  13. Regulation of extrafloral nectar secretion by jasmonates in lima bean is light dependent

    PubMed Central

    Radhika, Venkatesan; Kost, Christian; Mithöfer, Axel; Boland, Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    To maximize fitness, plants need to perceive changes in their light environment and adjust their physiological responses accordingly. Whether and how such changes also affect the regulation of their defense responses against herbivores remains largely unclear. We addressed this issue by studying the secretion of extrafloral nectar (EFN) in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus), which is known to be activated by the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) and functions as an indirect defense mechanism against herbivores. We found that the plant’s EFN secretion in response to JA was light dependent: In the dark, JA reduced EFN secretion, whereas under light conditions, JA induced EFN secretion relative to controls. This modulation was affected by the light’s spectral composition [i.e., ratio of red to far-red (R:FR) radiation], but not light intensity. These findings demonstrate a unique differential effect of JA on EFN secretion depending on the ambient light conditions. Interestingly, treatment with the isoleucine–JA conjugate (JA–Ile) enhanced EFN secretion under light conditions yet did not reduce EFN secretion in the dark. Moreover, inhibition of Ile biosynthesis in light-exposed plants significantly decreased the EFN secretion rate. This reduction could be recovered by additional application of JA–Ile, suggesting that JA–Ile is the active compound required to up-regulate EFN secretion. Finally, experiments with mechanically damaged plants revealed that light was required for the formation of JA–Ile, but not of JA. These results demonstrate that in lima bean, the light environment modulates the plant’s response to jasmonates as well as JA–Ile biosynthesis, which controls the subsequent EFN secretion. PMID:20855624

  14. Silencing of miR156 confers enhanced resistance to brown planthopper in rice.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yafei; Han, Junyou; Zhou, Guoxin; Xu, Yunmin; Ding, Yue; Shi, Min; Guo, Changkui; Wu, Gang

    2018-06-22

    Silencing of miR156 in rice confers enhanced resistance to brown planthopper through reducing JA and JA-Ile biosynthesis. Rice brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens Stål) threatens the sustainability of rice production and global food security. Due to the rapid adaptation of BPH to current germplasms in rice, development of novel types of resistant germplasms becomes increasingly important. Plant ontogenetic defense against pathogen and herbivores offers a broad spectrum and durable resistance, and has been experimentally tested in many plants; however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. miR156 is the master regulator of ontogeny in plants; modulation of miR156 is, therefore, expected to cause corresponding changes in BPH resistance. To test this hypothesis, we silenced miR156 using a target mimicry method in rice, and analyzed the resistance of miR156-silenced plants (MIM156) to BPH. MIM156 plants exhibited enhanced resistance to BPH based on analyses of honeydew excretion, nymph survival, fecundity of BPH, and the survival ratio of rice plants after BPH infestation. Molecular analysis indicated that the expression of MPK3, MPK6, and WRKY70, three genes involved in BPH resistance and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling, was altered in MIM156 plants. The JA and bioactive jasmonoyl-isoleucine levels and the expression of genes involved in JA biosynthesis were significantly reduced in MIM156 plants. Restoration of JA level by exogenous application increased the number of BPH feeding on MIM156 plants and reduced its resistance to BPH. Our findings suggest that miR156 negatively regulates BPH resistance by increasing JA level in rice; therefore, modulation of miR156-SPLs' pathway may offer a promising way to breed rice varieties with enhanced resistance against BPH and elite agronomically important traits.

  15. Jasmonic Acid Is a Key Regulator of Spider Mite-Induced Volatile Terpenoid and Methyl Salicylate Emission in Tomato1[w

    PubMed Central

    Ament, Kai; Kant, Merijn R.; Sabelis, Maurice W.; Haring, Michel A.; Schuurink, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) mutant def-1, which is deficient in induced jasmonic acid (JA) accumulation upon wounding or herbivory, was used to study the role of JA in the direct and indirect defense responses to phytophagous mites (Tetranychus urticae). In contrast to earlier reports, spider mites laid as many eggs and caused as much damage on def-1 as on wild-type plants, even though def-1 lacked induction of proteinase inhibitor activity. However, the hatching-rate of eggs on def-1 was significantly higher, suggesting that JA-dependent direct defenses enhanced egg mortality or increased the time needed for embryonic development. As to gene expression, def-1 had lower levels of JA-related transcripts but higher levels of salicylic acid (SA) related transcripts after 1 d of spider mite infestation. Furthermore, the indirect defense response was absent in def-1, since the five typical spider mite-induced tomato-volatiles (methyl salicylate [MeSA], 4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene [TMTT], linalool, trans-nerolidol, and trans-β-ocimene) were not induced and the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis did not discriminate between infested and uninfested def-1 tomatoes as it did with wild-type tomatoes. Similarly, the expression of the MeSA biosynthetic gene salicylic acid methyltransferase (SAMT) was induced by spider mites in wild type but not in def-1. Exogenous application of JA to def-1 induced the accumulation of SAMT and putative geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase transcripts and restored MeSA- and TMTT-emission upon herbivory. JA is therefore necessary to induce the enzymatic conversion of SA into MeSA. We conclude that JA is essential for establishing the spider mite-induced indirect defense response in tomato. PMID:15310835

  16. Jasmonic acid accumulation and systemic photosynthetic and electrical changes in locally burned wild type tomato, ABA-deficient sitiens mutants and sitiens pre-treated by ABA.

    PubMed

    Hlavinka, Jan; Nožková-Hlaváčková, Vladimíra; Floková, Kristýna; Novák, Ondřej; Nauš, Jan

    2012-05-01

    Burning the terminal leaflet of younger tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) leaf caused local and systemic changes in the surface electrical potential (SEP) and gas exchange (GE) parameters. The local and systemic accumulation of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) was measured 85 min after burning. The experiments were conducted with wild type (WT) plants, ABA-deficient mutant sitiens (SIT) and ABA pre-treated SIT plants (SITA). First changes in SEP were detected within 1.5 min after burning and were followed by a decrease in GE parameters within 3-6 min in WT, SIT and SITA plants. GE and SEP time courses of SIT were different and wave amplitudes of SEP of SIT were lower compared to WT and SITA. ABA content in WT and SITA control plants was similar and substantially higher compared to SIT, JA content was similar among WT, SIT and SITA. While changes in the ABA content in systemic leaves have not been recorded after burning, the systemic JA content was substantially increased in WT and more in SIT and SITA. The results suggest that ABA content governs the systemic reaction of GE and the SEP shape upon local burning. ABA, JA and SEP participate in triggering the GE reaction. The ABA shortage in the SIT in the reaction to burning is partly compensated by an enhanced JA accumulation. This JA compensation is maintained even in SIT endogenously supplied with ABA. A correlation between the systemic JA content and changes in GE parameters or SEP was not found. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Rice terpene synthase 24 (OsTPS24) encodes a jasmonate-responsive monoterpene synthase that produces an antibacterial γ-terpinene against rice pathogen.

    PubMed

    Yoshitomi, Kayo; Taniguchi, Shiduku; Tanaka, Keiichiro; Uji, Yuya; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Gomi, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    Rice is one of the most important crops worldwide and is widely used as a model plant for molecular studies of monocotyledonous species. The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) is involved in rice-pathogen interactions. In addition, volatile compounds, including terpenes, whose production is induced by JA, are known to be involved in the rice defense system. In this study, we analyzed the JA-induced terpene synthase OsTPS24 in rice. We found that OsTPS24 was localized in chloroplasts and produced a monoterpene, γ-terpinene. The amount of γ-terpinene increased after JA treatment. γ-Terpinene had significant antibacterial activity against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo); however, it did not show significant antifungal activity against Magnaporthe oryzae. The antibacterial activity of the γ-terpinene against Xoo was caused by damage to bacterial cell membranes. These results suggest that γ-terpinene plays an important role in JA-induced resistance against Xoo, and that it functions as an antibacterial compound in rice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. A Phenolic Extract Obtained from Methyl Jasmonate-Treated Strawberries Enhances Apoptosis in a Human Cervical Cancer Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Spagnuolo, Carmela; Flores, Gema; Russo, Gian Luigi; Ruiz Del Castillo, Maria Luisa

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment on strawberry phenolic composition. Strawberry extracts contain a mixture of phenolic compounds possessing several biological properties. We demonstrated that these extracts were more effective in inducing apoptosis in HeLa cells compared to phenolic preparations derived from untreated strawberries. Treatment of strawberries with 0.5% MeJA resulted in increased polyphenols content (from 7.4 to 8.6 mM quercetin equivalents) and antioxidant properties (from 3.9 to 4.6 mM quercetin equivalents). The identification and quantification of phenolic compounds by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in the strawberry extracts showed that cyanidin glucoside, pelargonidin glucoside, and ellagic glucoside acid were significantly higher in strawberries treated with MeJA. Phenolic extracts from MeJA-treated strawberries significantly decreased the cell viability in HeLa cells, compared to extracts derived from untreated fruits. We hypothesized that the enhanced apoptotic activity of MeJA-treated strawberries was due to a synergistic or additive effect of different phenolic compounds present in the extract, rather than the activity of a single molecule.

  19. Enhancement of broccoli indole glucosinolates by methyl jasmonate treatment and effects on prostate carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ann G; Juvik, John A; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Berman-Booty, Lisa D; Clinton, Steven K; Erdman, John W

    2014-11-01

    Broccoli is rich in bioactive components, such as sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol, which may impact cancer risk. The glucosinolate profile of broccoli can be manipulated through treatment with the plant stress hormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Our objective was to produce broccoli with enhanced levels of indole glucosinolates and determine its impact on prostate carcinogenesis. Brassica oleracea var. Green Magic was treated with a 250 μM MeJA solution 4 days prior to harvest. MeJA-treated broccoli had significantly increased levels of glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, and gluconasturtiin (P < .05). Male transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice (n = 99) were randomized into three diet groups at 5-7 weeks of age: AIN-93G control, 10% standard broccoli powder, or 10% MeJA broccoli powder. Diets were fed throughout the study until termination at 20 weeks of age. Hepatic CYP1A was induced with MeJA broccoli powder feeding, indicating biological activity of the indole glucosinolates. Following ∼ 15 weeks on diets, neither of the broccoli treatments significantly altered genitourinary tract weight, pathologic score, or metastasis incidence, indicating that broccoli powder at 10% of the diet was ineffective at reducing prostate carcinogenesis in the TRAMP model. Whereas broccoli powder feeding had no effect in this model of prostate cancer, our work demonstrates the feasibility of employing plant stress hormones exogenously to stimulate changes in phytochemical profiles, an approach that may be useful for optimizing bioactive component patterns in foods for chronic-disease-prevention studies.

  20. Modeling analysis of pulsed magnetization process of magnetic core based on inverse Jiles-Atherton model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, He; Liu, Siwei; Lin, Fuchang

    2018-05-01

    The J-A (Jiles-Atherton) model is widely used to describe the magnetization characteristics of magnetic cores in a low-frequency alternating field. However, this model is deficient in the quantitative analysis of the eddy current loss and residual loss in a high-frequency magnetic field. Based on the decomposition of magnetization intensity, an inverse J-A model is established which uses magnetic flux density B as an input variable. Static and dynamic core losses under high frequency excitation are separated based on the inverse J-A model. Optimized parameters of the inverse J-A model are obtained based on particle swarm optimization. The platform for the pulsed magnetization characteristic test is designed and constructed. The hysteresis curves of ferrite and Fe-based nanocrystalline cores at high magnetization rates are measured. The simulated and measured hysteresis curves are presented and compared. It is found that the inverse J-A model can be used to describe the magnetization characteristics at high magnetization rates and to separate the static loss and dynamic loss accurately.

  1. The Jasmonate-Activated Transcription Factor MdMYC2 Regulates ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR and Ethylene Biosynthetic Genes to Promote Ethylene Biosynthesis during Apple Fruit Ripening[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yaxiu; Zhang, Lichao; Ji, Yinglin; Tan, Dongmei; Yuan, Hui

    2017-01-01

    The plant hormone ethylene is critical for ripening in climacteric fruits, including apple (Malus domestica). Jasmonate (JA) promotes ethylene biosynthesis in apple fruit, but the underlying molecular mechanism is unclear. Here, we found that JA-induced ethylene production in apple fruit is dependent on the expression of MdACS1, an ACC synthase gene involved in ethylene biosynthesis. The expression of MdMYC2, encoding a transcription factor involved in the JA signaling pathway, was enhanced by MeJA treatment in apple fruits, and MdMYC2 directly bound to the promoters of both MdACS1 and the ACC oxidase gene MdACO1 and enhanced their transcription. Furthermore, MdMYC2 bound to the promoter of MdERF3, encoding a transcription factor involved in the ethylene-signaling pathway, thereby activating MdACS1 transcription. We also found that MdMYC2 interacted with MdERF2, a suppressor of MdERF3 and MdACS1. This protein interaction prevented MdERF2 from interacting with MdERF3 and from binding to the MdACS1 promoter, leading to increased transcription of MdACS1. Collectively, these results indicate that JA promotes ethylene biosynthesis through the regulation of MdERFs and ethylene biosynthetic genes by MdMYC2. PMID:28550149

  2. Elicitation of Diosgenin Production in Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) Seedlings by Methyl Jasmonate

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Spandan; Chikara, Surendra K.; Sharma, Mahesh C.; Chaudhary, Abhinav; Alam Syed, Bakhtiyar; Chaudhary, Pooja S.; Mehta, Aditya; Patel, Maulik; Ghosh, Arpita; Iriti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    The effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), an elicitor of plant defense mechanisms, on the biosynthesis of diosgenin, a steroidal saponin, were investigated in six fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) varieties (Gujarat Methi-2, Kasuri-1, Kasuri-2, Pusa Early Branching, Rajasthan Methi and Maharashtra Methi-5). Treatment with 0.01% MeJA increased diosgenin levels, in 12 days old seedlings, from 0.5%–0.9% to 1.1%–1.8%. In addition, MeJA upregulated the expression of two pivotal genes of the mevalonate pathway, the metabolic route leading to diosgenin: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG) and sterol-3-β-glucosyl transferase (STRL). In particular, MeJA increased the expression of HMG and STRL genes by 3.2- and 22.2-fold, respectively, in the Gujarat Methi-2 variety, and by 25.4- and 28.4-fold, respectively, in the Kasuri-2 variety. Therefore, MeJA may be considered a promising elicitor for diosgenin production by fenugreek plants. PMID:26694357

  3. Induction of Jasmonic Acid-Associated Defenses by Thrips Alters Host Suitability for Conspecifics and Correlates with Increased Trichome Densities in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Klinkhamer, Peter G.L.; Leiss, Kirsten A.

    2017-01-01

    Plant defenses inducible by herbivorous arthropods can determine performance of subsequent feeding herbivores. We investigated how infestation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants with the Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) alters host plant suitability and foraging decisions of their conspecifics. We explored the role of delayed-induced jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated plant defense responses in thrips preference by using the tomato mutant def-1, impaired in JA biosynthesis. In particular, we investigated the effect of thrips infestation on trichome-associated tomato defenses. The results showed that when offered a choice, thrips preferred non-infested plants over infested wild-type plants, while no differences were observed in def-1. Exogenous application of methyl jasmonate restored the repellency effect in def-1. Gene expression analysis showed induction of the JA defense signaling pathway in wild-type plants, while activating the ethylene signaling pathway in both genotypes. Activation of JA defenses led to increases in type-VI leaf glandular trichome densities in the wild type, augmenting the production of trichome-associated volatiles, i.e. terpenes. Our study revealed that plant-mediated intraspecific interactions between thrips are determined by JA-mediated defenses in tomato. We report that insects can alter not only trichome densities but also the allelochemicals produced therein, and that this response might depend on the magnitude and/or type of the induction. PMID:28158865

  4. Jasmonic and salicylic acid response in the fern Azolla filiculoides and its cyanobiont.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Sophie; de Vries, Jan; Teschke, Hendrik; von Dahlen, Janina K; Rose, Laura E; Gould, Sven B

    2018-01-03

    Plants sense and respond to microbes utilizing a multilayered signalling cascade. In seed plants, the phytohormones jasmonic and salicylic acid (JA and SA) are key denominators of how plants respond to certain microbes. Their interplay is especially well-known for tipping the scales in plants' strategies of dealing with phytopathogens. In non-angiosperm lineages, the interplay is less well understood, but current data indicate that it is intertwined to a lesser extent and the canonical JA/SA antagonism appears to be absent. Here, we used the water fern Azolla filiculoides to gain insights into the fern's JA/SA signalling and the molecular communication with its unique nitrogen fixing cyanobiont Nostoc azollae, which the fern inherits both during sexual and vegetative reproduction. By mining large-scale sequencing data, we demonstrate that Azolla has most of the genetic repertoire to produce and sense JA and SA. Using qRT-PCR on the identified biosynthesis and signalling marker genes, we show that Azolla is responsive to exogenously applied SA. Furthermore, exogenous SA application influenced the abundance and gene expression of Azolla's cyanobiont. Our data provide a framework for JA/SA signalling in ferns and suggest that SA might be involved in Azolla's communication with its vertically inherited cyanobiont. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A special pair of phytohormones controls excitability, slow closure, and external stomach formation in the Venus flytrap.

    PubMed

    Escalante-Pérez, María; Krol, Elzbieta; Stange, Annette; Geiger, Dietmar; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Hause, Bettina; Neher, Erwin; Hedrich, Rainer

    2011-09-13

    Venus flytrap's leaves can catch an insect in a fraction of a second. Since the time of Charles Darwin, scientists have struggled to understand the sensory biology and biomechanics of this plant, Dionaea muscipula. Here we show that insect-capture of Dionaea traps is modulated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonates. Water-stressed Dionaea, as well as those exposed to the drought-stress hormone ABA, are less sensitive to mechanical stimulation. In contrast, application of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), a precursor of the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA), the methyl ester of JA (Me-JA), and coronatine (COR), the molecular mimic of the isoleucine conjugate of JA (JA-Ile), triggers secretion of digestive enzymes without any preceding mechanical stimulus. Such secretion is accompanied by slow trap closure. Under physiological conditions, insect-capture is associated with Ca(2+) signaling and a rise in OPDA, Apparently, jasmonates bypass hapto-electric processes associated with trap closure. However, ABA does not affect OPDA-dependent gland activity. Therefore, signals for trap movement and secretion seem to involve separate pathways. Jasmonates are systemically active because application to a single trap induces secretion and slow closure not only in the given trap but also in all others. Furthermore, formerly touch-insensitive trap sectors are converted into mechanosensitive ones. These findings demonstrate that prey-catching Dionaea combines plant-specific signaling pathways, involving OPDA and ABA with a rapidly acting trigger, which uses ion channels, action potentials, and Ca(2+) signals.

  6. Jasmonate Regulates Plant Responses to Postsubmergence Reoxygenation through Transcriptional Activation of Antioxidant Synthesis1

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yang-Shuo; Xie, Li-Juan; Yu, Lu-Jun; Zhou, Ying; Lai, Yong-Xia; Yang, Yi-Cong; Xu, Le; Chen, Qin-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Submergence induces hypoxia in plants; exposure to oxygen following submergence, termed reoxygenation, produces a burst of reactive oxygen species. The mechanisms of hypoxia sensing and signaling in plants have been well studied, but how plants respond to reoxygenation remains unclear. Here, we show that reoxygenation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) involves rapid accumulation of jasmonates (JAs) and increased transcript levels of JA biosynthesis genes. Application of exogenous methyl jasmonate improved tolerance to reoxygenation in wild-type Arabidopsis; also, mutants deficient in JA biosynthesis and signaling were very sensitive to reoxygenation. Moreover, overexpression of the transcription factor gene MYC2 enhanced tolerance to posthypoxic stress, and myc2 knockout mutants showed increased sensitivity to reoxygenation, indicating that MYC2 functions as a key regulator in the JA-mediated reoxygenation response. MYC2 transcriptionally activates members of the VITAMIN C DEFECTIVE (VTC) and GLUTATHIONE SYNTHETASE (GSH) gene families, which encode rate-limiting enzymes in the ascorbate and glutathione synthesis pathways. Overexpression of VTC1 and GSH1 in the myc2-2 mutant suppressed the posthypoxic hypersensitive phenotype. The JA-inducible accumulation of antioxidants may alleviate oxidative damage caused by reoxygenation, improving plant survival after submergence. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that JA signaling interacts with the antioxidant pathway to regulate reoxygenation responses in Arabidopsis. PMID:28082717

  7. Suppression of Allene Oxide Cyclase in Hairy Roots of Medicago truncatula Reduces Jasmonate Levels and the Degree of Mycorrhization with Glomus intraradices1[w

    PubMed Central

    Isayenkov, Stanislav; Mrosk, Cornelia; Stenzel, Irene; Strack, Dieter; Hause, Bettina

    2005-01-01

    During the symbiotic interaction between Medicago truncatula and the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus intraradices, an endogenous increase in jasmonic acid (JA) occurs. Two full-length cDNAs coding for the JA-biosynthetic enzyme allene oxide cyclase (AOC) from M. truncatula, designated as MtAOC1 and MtAOC2, were cloned and characterized. The AOC protein was localized in plastids and found to occur constitutively in all vascular tissues of M. truncatula. In leaves and roots, MtAOCs are expressed upon JA application. Enhanced expression was also observed during mycorrhization with G. intraradices. A partial suppression of MtAOC expression was achieved in roots following transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes harboring the MtAOC1 cDNA in the antisense direction under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. In comparison to samples transformed with 35S∷uidA, roots with suppressed MtAOC1 expression exhibited lower JA levels and a remarkable delay in the process of colonization with G. intraradices. Both the mycorrhization rate, quantified by fungal rRNA, and the arbuscule formation, analyzed by the expression level of the AM-specific gene MtPT4, were affected. Staining of fungal material in roots with suppressed MtAOC1 revealed a decreased number of arbuscules, but these did not exhibit an altered structure. Our results indicate a crucial role for JA in the establishment of AM symbiosis. PMID:16244141

  8. Jasmonic acid protects etiolated seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana against herbivorous arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Boex-Fontvieille, Edouard; Rustgi, Sachin; Von Wettstein, Diter; Pollmann, Stephan; Reinbothe, Steffen; Reinbothe, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Seed predators can cause mass ingestion of larger seed populations. As well, herbivorous arthropods attempt to attack etiolated seedlings and chose the apical hook for ingestion, aimed at dropping the cotyledons for later consumption. Etiolated seedlings, as we show here, have established an efficient mechanism of protecting their Achilles' heel against these predators, however. Evidence is provided for a role of jasmonic acid (JA) in this largely uncharacterized plant-herbivore interaction during skotomorphogenesis and that this comprises the temporally and spatially tightly controlled synthesis of a cysteine protease inhibitors of the Kunitz family. Interestingly, the same Kunitz protease inhibitor was found to be expressed in flowers of Arabidopsis where endogenous JA levels are high for fertility. Because both the apical hook and inflorescences were preferred isopod targets in JA-deficient plants that could be rescued by exogenously administered JA, our data identify a JA-dependent mechanism of plant arthropod deterrence that is recalled in different organs and at quite different times of plant development. PMID:27485473

  9. Evolution of herbivore-induced early defense signaling was shaped by genome-wide duplications in Nicotiana

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wenwu; Brockmöller, Thomas; Ling, Zhihao; Omdahl, Ashton; Baldwin, Ian T; Xu, Shuqing

    2016-01-01

    Herbivore-induced defenses are widespread, rapidly evolving and relevant for plant fitness. Such induced defenses are often mediated by early defense signaling (EDS) rapidly activated by the perception of herbivore associated elicitors (HAE) that includes transient accumulations of jasmonic acid (JA). Analyzing 60 HAE-induced leaf transcriptomes from closely-related Nicotiana species revealed a key gene co-expression network (M4 module) which is co-activated with the HAE-induced JA accumulations but is elicited independently of JA, as revealed in plants silenced in JA signaling. Functional annotations of the M4 module were consistent with roles in EDS and a newly identified hub gene of the M4 module (NaLRRK1) mediates a negative feedback loop with JA signaling. Phylogenomic analysis revealed preferential gene retention after genome-wide duplications shaped the evolution of HAE-induced EDS in Nicotiana. These results highlight the importance of genome-wide duplications in the evolution of adaptive traits in plants. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19531.001 PMID:27813478

  10. Pre-harvest methyl jasmonate treatment enhances cauliflower chemoprotective attributes without a loss in postharvest quality.

    PubMed

    Ku, Kang Mo; Choi, Jeong-Hee; Kushad, Mosbah M; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Juvik, John A

    2013-06-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment can significantly increase glucosinolate (GS) concentrations in Brassica vegetables and potentially enhance anticancer bioactivity. Although MeJA treatment may promote ethylene biosynthesis, which can be detrimental to postharvest quality, there are no previous reports of its effect on cauliflower postharvest quality. To address this, cauliflower curds in field plots were sprayed with either 0.1 % Triton X-100 (control) or 500 μM MeJA solutions four days prior to harvest, then stored at 4 °C. Tissue subsamples were collected after 0, 10, 20, and 30 days of postharvest storage and assayed for visual color change, ethylene production, GS concentrations, and extract quinone reductase inductive activity. MeJA treatment increased curd GS concentrations of glucoraphanin, glucobrassicin, and neoglucobrassicin by 1.5, 2.4, and 4.6-fold over controls, respectively. MeJA treated cauliflower showed significantly higher quinone reductase activity, a biomarker for anticancer bioactivity, without reducing visual color and postharvest quality for 10 days at 4 °C storage.

  11. Plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase is involved in methyl jasmonate-induced root hair formation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Changhua; Yang, Na; Ma, Xiaoling; Li, Guijun; Qian, Meng; Ng, Denny; Xia, Kai; Gan, Lijun

    2015-06-01

    Our results show that methyl jasmonate induces plasma membrane H (+) -ATPase activity and subsequently influences the apoplastic pH of trichoblasts to maintain a cell wall pH environment appropriate for root hair development. Root hairs, which arise from root epidermal cells, are tubular structures that increase the efficiency of water absorption and nutrient uptake. Plant hormones are critical regulators of root hair development. In this study, we investigated the regulatory role of the plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase in methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-induced root hair formation. We found that MeJA had a pronounced effect on the promotion of root hair formation in lettuce seedlings, but that this effect was blocked by the PM H(+)-ATPase inhibitor vanadate. Furthermore, MeJA treatment increased PM H(+)-ATPase activity in parallel with H(+) efflux from the root tips of lettuce seedlings and rhizosphere acidification. Our results also showed that MeJA-induced root hair formation was accompanied by hydrogen peroxide accumulation. The apoplastic acidification acted in concert with reactive oxygen species to modulate root hair formation. Our results suggest that the effect of MeJA on root hair formation is mediated by modulation of PM H(+)-ATPase activity.

  12. A chloroplast lipoxygenase is required for wound-induced jasmonic acid accumulation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, E; Creelman, R A; Mullet, J E

    1995-01-01

    Plant lipoxygenases are thought to be involved in the biosynthesis of lipid-derived signaling molecules. The potential involvement of a specific Arabidopsis thaliana lipoxygenase isozyme, LOX2, in the biosynthesis of the plant growth regulators jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid was investigated. Our characterization of LOX2 indicates that the protein is targeted to chloroplasts. The physiological role of this chloroplast lipoxygenase was analyzed in transgenic plants where cosuppression reduced LOX2 accumulation. The reduction in LOX2 levels caused no obvious changes in plant growth or in the accumulation of abscisic acid. However, the wound-induced accumulation of JA observed in control plants was absent in leaves of transgenic plants that lacked LOX2. Thus, LOX2 is required for the wound-induced synthesis of the plant growth regulator JA in leaves. We also examined the expression of a wound- and JA-inducible Arabidopsis gene, vsp, in transgenic and control plants. Leaves of transgenic plants lacking LOX2 accumulated less vsp mRNA than did control leaves in response to wounding. This result suggests that wound-induced JA (or some other LOX2-requiring component of the wound response pathway) is involved in the wound-induced regulation of this gene. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7567995

  13. A chloroplast lipoxygenase is required for wound-induced jasmonic acid accumulation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Bell, E; Creelman, R A; Mullet, J E

    1995-09-12

    Plant lipoxygenases are thought to be involved in the biosynthesis of lipid-derived signaling molecules. The potential involvement of a specific Arabidopsis thaliana lipoxygenase isozyme, LOX2, in the biosynthesis of the plant growth regulators jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid was investigated. Our characterization of LOX2 indicates that the protein is targeted to chloroplasts. The physiological role of this chloroplast lipoxygenase was analyzed in transgenic plants where cosuppression reduced LOX2 accumulation. The reduction in LOX2 levels caused no obvious changes in plant growth or in the accumulation of abscisic acid. However, the wound-induced accumulation of JA observed in control plants was absent in leaves of transgenic plants that lacked LOX2. Thus, LOX2 is required for the wound-induced synthesis of the plant growth regulator JA in leaves. We also examined the expression of a wound- and JA-inducible Arabidopsis gene, vsp, in transgenic and control plants. Leaves of transgenic plants lacking LOX2 accumulated less vsp mRNA than did control leaves in response to wounding. This result suggests that wound-induced JA (or some other LOX2-requiring component of the wound response pathway) is involved in the wound-induced regulation of this gene.

  14. Silverleaf Whitefly Induces Salicylic Acid Defenses and Suppresses Effectual Jasmonic Acid Defenses1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zarate, Sonia I.; Kempema, Louisa A.; Walling, Linda L.

    2007-01-01

    The basal defenses important in curtailing the development of the phloem-feeding silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci type B; SLWF) on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were investigated. Sentinel defense gene RNAs were monitored in SLWF-infested and control plants. Salicylic acid (SA)-responsive gene transcripts accumulated locally (PR1, BGL2, PR5, SID2, EDS5, PAD4) and systemically (PR1, BGL2, PR5) during SLWF nymph feeding. In contrast, jasmonic acid (JA)- and ethylene-dependent RNAs (PDF1.2, VSP1, HEL, THI2.1, FAD3, ERS1, ERF1) were repressed or not modulated in SLWF-infested leaves. To test for a role of SA and JA pathways in basal defense, SLWF development on mutant and transgenic lines that constitutively activate or impair defense pathways was determined. By monitoring the percentage of SLWF nymphs in each instar, we show that mutants that activate SA defenses (cim10) or impair JA defenses (coi1) accelerated SLWF nymphal development. Reciprocally, mutants that activate JA defenses (cev1) or impair SA defenses (npr1, NahG) slowed SLWF nymphal development. Furthermore, when npr1 plants, which do not activate downstream SA defenses, were treated with methyl jasmonate, a dramatic delay in nymph development was observed. Collectively, these results showed that SLWF-repressed, JA-regulated defenses were associated with basal defense to the SLWF. PMID:17189328

  15. Silverleaf whitefly induces salicylic acid defenses and suppresses effectual jasmonic acid defenses.

    PubMed

    Zarate, Sonia I; Kempema, Louisa A; Walling, Linda L

    2007-02-01

    The basal defenses important in curtailing the development of the phloem-feeding silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci type B; SLWF) on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were investigated. Sentinel defense gene RNAs were monitored in SLWF-infested and control plants. Salicylic acid (SA)-responsive gene transcripts accumulated locally (PR1, BGL2, PR5, SID2, EDS5, PAD4) and systemically (PR1, BGL2, PR5) during SLWF nymph feeding. In contrast, jasmonic acid (JA)- and ethylene-dependent RNAs (PDF1.2, VSP1, HEL, THI2.1, FAD3, ERS1, ERF1) were repressed or not modulated in SLWF-infested leaves. To test for a role of SA and JA pathways in basal defense, SLWF development on mutant and transgenic lines that constitutively activate or impair defense pathways was determined. By monitoring the percentage of SLWF nymphs in each instar, we show that mutants that activate SA defenses (cim10) or impair JA defenses (coi1) accelerated SLWF nymphal development. Reciprocally, mutants that activate JA defenses (cev1) or impair SA defenses (npr1, NahG) slowed SLWF nymphal development. Furthermore, when npr1 plants, which do not activate downstream SA defenses, were treated with methyl jasmonate, a dramatic delay in nymph development was observed. Collectively, these results showed that SLWF-repressed, JA-regulated defenses were associated with basal defense to the SLWF.

  16. Shifting from priming of salicylic acid- to jasmonic acid-regulated defences by Trichoderma protects tomato against the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Fernandez, Ivan; Lok, Gerrit B; Pozo, María J; Pieterse, Corné M J; Van Wees, Saskia C M

    2017-02-01

    Beneficial root endophytes such as Trichoderma spp. can reduce infections by parasitic nematodes through triggering host defences. Little is currently known about the complex hormone signalling underlying the induction of resistance. In this study, we investigated whether Trichoderma modulates the hormone signalling network in the host to induce resistance to nematodes. We investigated the role and the timing of the jasmonic acid (JA)- and salicylic acid (SA)-regulated defensive pathways in Trichoderma-induced resistance to the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. A split-root system of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) was used to study local and systemic induced defences by analysing nematode performance, defence gene expression, responsiveness to exogenous hormone application, and dependence on SA and JA signalling of Trichoderma-induced resistance. Root colonization by Trichoderma impeded nematode performance both locally and systemically at multiple stages of the parasitism, that is, invasion, galling and reproduction. First, Trichoderma primed SA-regulated defences, which limited nematode root invasion. Then, Trichoderma enhanced JA-regulated defences, thereby antagonizing the deregulation of JA-dependent immunity by the nematodes, which compromised galling and fecundity. Our results show that Trichoderma primes SA- and JA-dependent defences in roots, and that the priming of responsiveness to these hormones upon nematode attack is plastic and adaptive to the parasitism stage. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Response of Plutella xylostella and its parasitoid Cotesia plutellae to volatile compounds.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Nissinen, Anne; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2005-09-01

    The effects of limonene, a mixture of limonene + carvone (1:1, v/v), and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on diamondback moth (DBM) (Plutella xylostella L.) oviposition, larval feeding, and the behavior of its larval parasitoid Cotesia plutellae (Kurdjumov) with cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. capitata, cvs. Rinda and Lennox) and broccoli (B. oleracea subsp. Italica cv Lucky) were tested. Limonene showed no deterrent effect on DBM when plants were sprayed with or exposed to limonene, although there was a cultivar difference. A mixture of limonene and carvone released from vermiculite showed a significant repellent effect, reducing the number of eggs laid on the cabbages. MeJA treatment reduced the relative growth rate (RGR) of larvae on cv Lennox leaves. In Y-tube olfactometer tests, C. plutellae preferred the odors of limonene and MeJA to filtered air. In cv Lennox, the parasitoid preferred DBM-damaged plants with limonene to such plants without limonene. C. plutellae females were repelled by the mixture of limonene + carvone. In both cultivars, exogenous MeJA induced the emission of the sesquiterpene (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, the homoterpene (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT), and green leaf volatile (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate + octanal. The attractive effect of limonene and MeJA predicts that these two compounds can be used in sustainable plant protection strategies in organic farming.

  18. Communicative Gesture Use in Infants with and without Autism: A Retrospective Home Video Study

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Linda R.; Crais, Elizabeth R.; Baranek, Grace T.; Dykstra, Jessica R.; Wilson, Kaitlyn P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Compare gesture use in infants with autism to infants with other developmental disabilities (DD) or typical development (TD). Method Children with autism (n = 43), other DD (n = 30), and TD (n = 36) were recruited at ages 2 to 7 years. Parents provided home videotapes of children in infancy. Staff compiled video samples for two age intervals (9-12 and 15-18 months), and coded samples for frequency of social interaction (SI), behavior regulation (BR), and joint attention (JA) gestures. Results At 9-12 months, infants with autism were less likely to use JA gestures than infants with other DD or TD, and less likely to use BR gestures than infants with TD. At 15-18 months, infants with autism were less likely than infants with other DD to use SI or JA gestures, and less likely than infants with TD to use BR, SI, or JA gestures. Among infants able to use gestures, infants with autism used fewer BR gestures than those with TD at 9-12 months, and fewer JA gestures than infants with other DD or TD at 15-18 months. Conclusions Differences in gesture use in infancy have implications for early autism screening, assessment, and intervention. PMID:22846878

  19. Isolation and characterization of a novel violacein-like pigment producing psychrotrophic bacterial species Janthinobacterium svalbardensis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Ambrožič Avguštin, Jerneja; Žgur Bertok, Darja; Kostanjšek, Rok; Avguštin, Gorazd

    2013-04-01

    A bacterial strain designated JA-1, related to Janthinobacterium lividum, was isolated from glacier ice samples from the island Spitsbergen in the Arctic. The strain was tested for phenotypic traits and the most prominent appeared to be the dark red brown to black pigmentation different from the violet pigment of Janthinobacterium, Chromobacterium and Iodobacter. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and DNA-DNA hybridization tests showed that strain JA-1 belongs to the genus Janthinobacterium but represents a novel lineage distinct from the two known species of this genus, J. lividum and Janthinobacterium agaricidamnosum. The DNA G + C content of strain JA-1 was determined to be 62.3 mol %. The isolate is a psychrotrophic Gram negative bacterium, rod-shaped with rounded ends, containing intracellular inclusions and one polar flagellum. On the basis of the presented results strain JA-1 is proposed as the type strain of a novel species of the genus Janthinobacterium, for which the name Janthinobacterium svalbardensis sp. nov. is proposed (JA-1(T) = DSM 25734, ZIM B637).

  20. The Jasmonate-Activated Transcription Factor MdMYC2 Regulates ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR and Ethylene Biosynthetic Genes to Promote Ethylene Biosynthesis during Apple Fruit Ripening.

    PubMed

    Li, Tong; Xu, Yaxiu; Zhang, Lichao; Ji, Yinglin; Tan, Dongmei; Yuan, Hui; Wang, Aide

    2017-06-01

    The plant hormone ethylene is critical for ripening in climacteric fruits, including apple ( Malus domestica ). Jasmonate (JA) promotes ethylene biosynthesis in apple fruit, but the underlying molecular mechanism is unclear. Here, we found that JA-induced ethylene production in apple fruit is dependent on the expression of MdACS1 , an ACC synthase gene involved in ethylene biosynthesis. The expression of MdMYC2 , encoding a transcription factor involved in the JA signaling pathway, was enhanced by MeJA treatment in apple fruits, and MdMYC2 directly bound to the promoters of both MdACS1 and the ACC oxidase gene MdACO1 and enhanced their transcription. Furthermore, MdMYC2 bound to the promoter of MdERF3 , encoding a transcription factor involved in the ethylene-signaling pathway, thereby activating MdACS1 transcription. We also found that MdMYC2 interacted with MdERF2, a suppressor of MdERF3 and MdACS1 This protein interaction prevented MdERF2 from interacting with MdERF3 and from binding to the MdACS1 promoter, leading to increased transcription of MdACS1 Collectively, these results indicate that JA promotes ethylene biosynthesis through the regulation of MdERFs and ethylene biosynthetic genes by MdMYC2. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  1. Reduced Biosynthesis of Digalactosyldiacylglycerol, a Major Chloroplast Membrane Lipid, Leads to Oxylipin Overproduction and Phloem Cap Lignification in Arabidopsis[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lih-Jen; Herrfurth, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    DIGALACTOSYLDIACYLGLYCEROL SYNTHASE1 (DGD1) is a chloroplast outer membrane protein responsible for the biosynthesis of the lipid digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) from monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG). The Arabidopsis thaliana dgd1 mutants have a greater than 90% reduction in DGDG content, reduced photosynthesis, and altered chloroplast morphology. However, the most pronounced visible phenotype is the extremely short inflorescence stem, but how deficient DGDG biosynthesis causes this phenotype is unclear. We found that, in dgd1 mutants, phloem cap cells were lignified and jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive genes were highly upregulated under normal growth conditions. The coronative insensitive1 dgd1 and allene oxide synthase dgd1 double mutants no longer exhibited the short inflorescence stem and lignification phenotypes but still had the same lipid profile and reduced photosynthesis as dgd1 single mutants. Hormone and lipidomics analyses showed higher levels of JA, JA-isoleucine, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, and arabidopsides in dgd1 mutants. Transcript and protein level analyses further suggest that JA biosynthesis in dgd1 is initially activated through the increased expression of genes encoding 13-lipoxygenases (LOXs) and phospholipase A-Iγ3 (At1g51440), a plastid lipase with a high substrate preference for MGDG, and is sustained by further increases in LOX and allene oxide cyclase mRNA and protein levels. Our results demonstrate a link between the biosynthesis of DGDG and JA. PMID:26721860

  2. Interactions between the jasmonic and salicylic acid pathway modulate the plant metabolome and affect herbivores of different feeding types.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, R; Heise, A-M; Persicke, M; Müller, C

    2014-07-01

    The phytohormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) mediate induced plant defences and the corresponding pathways interact in a complex manner as has been shown on the transcript and proteine level. Downstream, metabolic changes are important for plant-herbivore interactions. This study investigated metabolic changes in leaf tissue and phloem exudates of Plantago lanceolata after single and combined JA and SA applications as well as consequences on chewing-biting (Heliothis virescens) and piercing-sucking (Myzus persicae) herbivores. Targeted metabolite profiling and untargeted metabolic fingerprinting uncovered different categories of plant metabolites, which were influenced in a specific manner, indicating points of divergence, convergence, positive crosstalk and pronounced mutual antagonism between the signaling pathways. Phytohormone-specific decreases of primary metabolite pool sizes in the phloem exudates may indicate shifts in sink-source relations, resource allocation, nutrient uptake or photosynthesis. Survival of both herbivore species was significantly reduced by JA and SA treatments. However, the combined application of JA and SA attenuated the negative effects at least against H. virescens suggesting that mutual antagonism between the JA and SA pathway may be responsible. Pathway interactions provide a great regulatory potential for the plant that allows triggering of appropriate defences when attacked by different antagonist species. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory ingredients identified from Jerusalem artichoke flowers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Ming; Zhao, Jian-Qiang; Yang, Jun-Li; Idong, Pema Tsering; Mei, Li-Juan; Tao, Yan-Duo; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2017-11-09

    Jerusalem artichoke (JA, Helianthus tuberosus L.) has been researched extensively due to its wide range of uses, but there are limited studies on its flowers. In this study, we report the first detailed phytochemical study on JA flowers, which yielded 21 compounds. Compound 4 was identified as a major water-soluble yellow pigment of JA flowers. In addition, the methanol extract of JA flowers and the isolates were evaluated for their antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Among the tested compounds, compound 13 showed the strongest ABTS + free radical scavenging activity with SC 50 value of 2.30 ± 0.13 μg/mL, and compound 6 showed most potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with inhibition rate of 60.0% ± 10.3% at a concentration of 250 μg/mL. Results showed that methanol extract of JA flowers exhibited antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities which could be attributed to its phenolic ingredients including chlorogenic acid derivatives, flavonoids and phenols.

  4. Joint Attention, Social-Cognition, and Recognition Memory in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwanguk; Mundy, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The early emerging capacity for Joint Attention (JA), or socially coordinated visual attention, is thought to be integral to the development of social-cognition in childhood. Recent studies have also begun to suggest that JA affects adult cognition as well, but methodological limitations hamper research on this topic. To address this issue we developed a novel virtual reality paradigm that integrates eye-tracking and virtual avatar technology to measure two types of JA in adults, Initiating Joint Attention (IJA) and Responding to Joint Attention (RJA). Distinguishing these types of JA in research is important because they are thought to reflect unique, as well as common constellations of processes involved in human social-cognition and social learning. We tested the validity of the differentiation of IJA and RJA in our paradigm in two studies of picture recognition memory in undergraduate students. Study 1 indicated that young adults correctly identified more pictures they had previously viewed in an IJA condition (67%) than in a RJA (58%) condition, η2 = 0.57. Study 2 controlled for IJA and RJA stimulus viewing time differences, and replicated the findings of Study 1. The implications of these results for the validity of the paradigm and research on the affects of JA on adult social-cognition are discussed. PMID:22712011

  5. Herbivore-induced phenylacetonitrile is biosynthesized from de novo-synthesized L-phenylalanine in the giant knotweed, Fallopia sachalinensis.

    PubMed

    Noge, Koji; Tamogami, Shigeru

    2013-06-19

    Plants emit a series of characteristic volatile blends when damaged by insect feeding. Phenylacetonitrile is one of the volatiles from the leaves of the giant knotweed, Fallopia sachalinensis, infested by the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, or treated with exogenous airborne methyl jasmonate (MeJA). We examined the precursor of the nitrile and its origin in this system. L-Phenylalanine was determined to be a precursor of the nitrile in F. sachalinensis leaves, and the phenylalanine was also induced by beetle feeding and MeJA treatment. We also found that exogenous MeJA enhanced the biosynthesis of several amino acids in F. sachalinensis leaves. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Global MHD simulation of magnetosphere using HPF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogino, T.

    We have translated a 3-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation code of the Earth's magnetosphere from VPP Fortran to HPF/JA on the Fujitsu VPP5000/56 vector-parallel supercomputer and the MHD code was fully vectorized and fully parallelized in VPP Fortran. The entire performance and capability of the HPF MHD code could be shown to be almost comparable to that of VPP Fortran. A 3-dimensional global MHD simulation of the earth's magnetosphere was performed at a speed of over 400 Gflops with an efficiency of 76.5% using 56 PEs of Fujitsu VPP5000/56 in vector and parallel computation that permitted comparison with catalog values. We have concluded that fluid and MHD codes that are fully vectorized and fully parallelized in VPP Fortran can be translated with relative ease to HPF/JA, and a code in HPF/JA may be expected to perform comparably to the same code written in VPP Fortran.

  7. Roles of jasmonate signalling in plant inflorescence and flower development.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zheng; Zhang, Dabing

    2015-10-01

    Development of inflorescences and flowers in plants is controlled by the combined action of environmental and genetic signals. Investigations reveal that the phytohormone jasmonate (JA) plays a critical function in plant reproduction such as male fertility, sex determination and seed maturation. Here, we review recent progress on JA synthesis, signalling, the interplay between JAs and other hormones, and regulatory network of JA in controlling the development of inflorescence, flower and the male organ. The conserved and diversified roles of JAs in meristem transition and specification of flower organ identity and number, and multiple regulatory networks of JAs in stamen development are highlighted. Further, this review provides perspectives on future research endeavors to elucidate mechanisms underlying JAs homeostasis and transport during plant reproductive development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mechanical Four-Pole Parameters: Transmission Matrices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-19

    moment of inertia, it is pcssible to state that 1, = i2 ’jV 2 (127) ~ =v 2 ,(128) B, = B2 ,(129) el e2 (130) 28 1 -JA 0 0 P2 0 1 0 0 VM 0 1 j :(. 131 ...Eq. 129 now becomes + JCI ,2(1.32) so that F1 1 -JaM 0 0 F2 V, 0 1 0 0 V2 ~ :~ (133) B. 0 0o 1 Jcn B 2 1 2 3. Spring of Stiffness K in Cascade [Fig...transmission matrix is that of Eq. 131 in which the element - JaM has been replaced py - Za. 9. VALUES OF TRANSMISSION MATRICES (BERNOULLI-EUER BEANS

  9. Characterization of Bulk GaN Crystals Grown From Solution at Near Atmospheric Pressure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    pressureN.Y. Garces a,n, B.N. Feigelson a, J.A. Freitas Jra, Jihyun Kimb, R.L. Myers-Ward a, E.R. Glaser a a Naval Research Laboratory, Codes 6877, 6882...Lee, I.J. Song, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79 (2001) 2570. [13] J.A. Freitas Jr., W.J. Moore, B.V. Shanabrook, G.C.B. Braga, S.K. Lee, S.S. Park , J.Y. Han...Morkoc, S.S. Park , K.Y. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78 (2001) 3041. [17] J.A. Freitas Jr., G.C.B. Braga, W.J. Moore, J.G. Tischler, J.C. Culbertson, M

  10. Jasmonic and salicylic acids enhanced phytochemical production and biological activities in cell suspension cultures of spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb).

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Rekha, Kaliyaperumal; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Thiruvengadam, Muthu

    2017-03-01

    In vitro cell suspension culture was established for the production of commercially valuable phytochemicals in Momordica dioica. The influence of elicitors in jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) increased their effect on phytochemical production and biomass accumulation in M. dioica. The results indicate that compared with non-elicited cultures, JA- and SA-elicited cell suspension cultures had significantly enhanced phenolic, flavonoid, and carotenoid production, as well as antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiproliferative activities. Furthermore, elicited cultures produced 22 phenolic compounds, such as flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acids, and hydroxybenzoic acids. Greater biomass production, phytochemical accumulation, and biological activity occurred in JA- than in SA-elicited cell cultures. This study is the first to successfully establish M. dioica cell suspension cultures for the production of phenolic compounds and carotenoids, as well as for biomass accumulation.

  11. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of jasmonic acid dependent but salicylic acid independent LeWRKY1.

    PubMed

    Lu, M; Wang, L F; Du, X H; Yu, Y K; Pan, J B; Nan, Z J; Han, J; Wang, W X; Zhang, Q Z; Sun, Q P

    2015-11-30

    Various plant genes can be activated or inhibited by phytohormones under conditions of biotic and abiotic stress, especially in response to jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA). Interactions between JA and SA may be synergistic or antagonistic, depending on the stress condition. In this study, we cloned a full-length cDNA (LeWRKY1, GenBank accession No. FJ654265) from Lycopersicon esculentum by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Sequence analysis showed that this gene is a group II WRKY transcription factor. Analysis of LeWRKY1 mRNA expression in various tissues by qRT-PCR showed that the highest and lowest expression occurred in the leaves and stems, respectively. In addition, LeWRKY1 expression was induced by JA and Botrytis cinerea Pers., but not by SA.

  12. Weights in the balance: jasmonic acid and salicylic acid signaling in root-biotroph interactions.

    PubMed

    Gutjahr, Caroline; Paszkowski, Uta

    2009-07-01

    Work on the interaction of aerial plant parts with pathogens has identified the signaling molecules jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) as important players in induced defense of the plant against invading organisms. Much less is known about the role of JA and SA signaling in root infection. Recent progress has been made in research on plant interactions with biotrophic mutualists and parasites that exclusively associate with roots, namely arbuscular mycorrhizal and rhizobial symbioses on one hand and nematode and parasitic plant interactions on the other hand. Here, we review these recent advances relating JA and SA signaling to specific stages of root colonization and discuss how both signaling molecules contribute to a balance between compatibility and defense in mutualistic as well as parasitic biotroph-root interactions.

  13. Elevated carbon dioxide increases salicylic acid in Glycine max.

    PubMed

    Casteel, Clare L; Segal, Lauren M; Niziolek, Olivia K; Berenbaum, May R; DeLucia, Evan H

    2012-12-01

    Concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) are increasing in the atmosphere, affecting soybean (Glycine max L.) phytohormone signaling and herbivore resistance. Whether the impact of elevated CO(2) on phytohormones and induced defenses is a generalized response within this species is an open question. We examined jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) under ambient and elevated CO(2) concentrations with and without Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman) damage and artificial damage across six soybean cultivars (HS93-4118, Pana, IA 3010, Loda, LN97-15076, and Dwight). Elevated CO(2) reduced constitutive levels of JA and related transcripts in some but not all soybean cultivars. In contrast to the variation in JA, constitutive levels of salicylic were increased universally among soybean cultivars grown under elevated CO(2). Variation in hormonal signaling may underpin observed variation in the response of insect herbivores and pathogens to plants grown under elevated CO(2).

  14. [Content of salicylic and jasmonic acids in pea roots (Pisum sativum L.) at the initial stage of symbiotic or pathogenic interaction with bacteria of the family Rhizobiaceae].

    PubMed

    Rudikovskaya, E G; Akimova, G P; Rudikovskii, A V; Katysheva, N B; Dudareva, L V

    2017-01-01

    A change in the contents of endogenous salicylic and jasmonic acids in the roots of the host plant at the preinfectious stage of interaction with symbiotic (Rhizobium leguminosarum) and pathogenic (Agrobacterium rizogenes) bacteria belonging for to the family Rhizobiaceae was studied. It was found that the jasmonic acid content increased 1.5–2 times 5 min after inoculation with these bacterial species. It was shown that dynamics of the change in the JA and SA contents depends on the type of infection. Thus, the JA content decreased in the case of pathogenesis, while the SA content increased. At the same time, an increased JA content was observed during symbiosis. The observed regularities could indicate the presence of different strategies of hormonal regulation for interaction with symbiotic and pathogenic bacteria belonging to the family Rhizobiaceae in peas plants.

  15. Cellulosic bioethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) using hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid (HPAC) pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Song, Younho; Wi, Seung Gon; Kim, Ho Myeong; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2016-08-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (JA) is recognized as a suitable candidate biomass crop for bioethanol production because it has a rapid growth rate and high biomass productivity. In this study, hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid (HPAC) pretreatment was used to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis and to effectively remove the lignin of JA. With optimized enzyme doses, synergy was observed from the combination of three different enzymes (RUT-C30, pectinase, and xylanase) which provided a conversion rate was approximately 30% higher than the rate with from treatment with RUT-C30 alone. Fermentation of the JA hydrolyzates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced a fermentation yield of approximately 84%. Therefore, Jerusalem artichoke has potential as a bioenergy crop for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Role of phytohormones in insect-specific plant reactions

    PubMed Central

    Erb, Matthias; Meldau, Stefan; Howe, Gregg A.

    2012-01-01

    The capacity to perceive and respond is integral to biological immune systems, but to what extent can plants specifically recognize and respond to insects? Recent findings suggest that plants possess surveillance systems that are able to detect general patterns of cellular damage as well as highly specific herbivore-associated cues. The jasmonate (JA) pathway has emerged as the major signaling cassette that integrates information perceived at the plant–insect interface into broad-spectrum defense responses. Specificity can be achieved via JA-independent processes and spatio-temporal changes of JA-modulating hormones, including ethylene, salicylic acid, abscisic acid, auxin, cytokinins, brassinosteroids and gibberellins. The identification of receptors and ligands and an integrative view of hormone-mediated response systems are crucial to understand specificity in plant immunity to herbivores. PMID:22305233

  17. Methyl jasmonate as a vital substance in plants.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Jong-Joo; Choi, Yang Do

    2003-07-01

    The plant floral scent methyl jasmonate (MeJA) has been identified as a vital cellular regulator that mediates diverse developmental processes and defense responses against biotic and abiotic stresses. The pleiotropic effects of MeJA have raised numerous questions about its regulation for biogenesis and mode of action. Characterization of the gene encoding jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase has provided basic information on the role(s) of this phytohormone in gene-activation control and systemic long-distance signaling. Recent approaches using functional genomics and bioinformatics have identified a whole set of MeJA-responsive genes, and provide insights into how plants use volatile signals to withstand diverse and variable environments.

  18. Jasmonates are essential factors inducing gummosis in tulips: mode of action of jasmonates focusing on sugar metabolism.

    PubMed

    Skrzypek, Edyta; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Saniewski, Marian; Ueda, Junichi

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to know the mechanism of jasmonates to induce gummosis in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L. cv. Apeldoorn) shoots, especially on the focus of sugar metabolism. Gummosis in the first internode of tulip plants was induced by the application of methyl jasmonate (JA-Me, 1% w/w in lanolin) and jasmonic acid (JA, 1% w/w in lanolin) 5 days after application and strongly stimulated by the simultaneous application of ethylene-releasing compound, ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid, 1% w/w in lanolin), although ethephon alone had little effect. JA-Me stimulated ethylene production of the first internodes of tulips, ethylene production increasing up to more than 5 times at day 1 and day 3 after the application. On the other hand, application of ethephon did not increase endogenous levels of jasmonates in tulip stems. Analysis of composition of tulip gums revealed that they were consisted of glucuronoarabinoxylan with an average molecular weight of ca. 700 kDa. JA-Me strongly decreased the total amount of soluble sugars in tulip stems even in 1 day after application, being ca. 50% of initial values 5 days after application, but ethephon did not. However, both JA-Me and ethephon had almost no effect on the neutral sugar compositions of soluble sugars mainly consisting of glucose, mannose and xylose in ratio of 20:2:1 and traces of arabinose. Both JA-Me and ethephon applied exogenously stimulated senescence of tulip shoots shown by the loss of chlorophyll. These results strongly suggest that the essential factor of gummosis in tulips is jasmonates affecting the sugar metabolism in tulip shoots. The mode of action of jasmonates to induce gummosis of tulip shoots is discussed in relation to ethylene production, sugar metabolism and senescence.

  19. Acculturation and Perceptions of a Good Death Among Japanese Americans and Japanese Living in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Mori, Masanori; Kuwama, Yuichiro; Ashikaga, Takamaru; Parsons, Henrique A; Miyashita, Mitsunori

    2018-01-01

    Acculturation is the phenomenon of the attitudinal changes of individuals who come into continuous contact with another culture. Despite the long history of Japanese immigration to America, little is known about the impact of acculturation on perceptions of a good death. To examine differences in perceptions of a good cancer death among Japanese Americans (JA/A), Japanese living in America (J/A), and the Japanese living in Japan (J/J). We administered surveys among JA/A and J/A and used historical J/J data for reference. Primary endpoint was the proportion of respondents who expressed the necessity of core and optional items of the Good Death Inventory. Group differences ≥20% were deemed clinically important. In total, 441 survey responses in America and 2548 in Japan were obtained. More than 80% of respondents consistently considered nine of 10 core items necessary without significant group differences. No core item reached a ≥20% group difference. Three of the eight optional items reached ≥20% group difference: fighting against disease until one's last moment (49%, P < 0.0001; 52%, P < 0.0001; and 73% in JA/A, J/A, and J/J, respectively), knowing what to expect about one's condition in the future (83%, P < 0.0001; 80%, P < 0.0001; and 58%, respectively), and having faith (64%, P = 0.0548; 43%, P = 0.0127; and 38%, respectively). Although most core items of a good death were preserved throughout the levels of acculturation, perceptions of some optional items shifted away from Japanese attitudes as individuals became more acculturated. Understanding of different levels of acculturation may help clinicians provide culturally sensitive end-of-life care. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of Tomato Lipoxygenase D in Wound-Induced Jasmonate Biosynthesis and Plant Immunity to Insect Herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuyu; Wang, Bao; Huang, Tingting; Du, Minmin; Sun, Jiaqiang; Kang, Le; Li, Chang-Bao; Li, Chuanyou

    2013-01-01

    In response to insect attack and mechanical wounding, plants activate the expression of genes involved in various defense-related processes. A fascinating feature of these inducible defenses is their occurrence both locally at the wounding site and systemically in undamaged leaves throughout the plant. Wound-inducible proteinase inhibitors (PIs) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) provide an attractive model to understand the signal transduction events leading from localized injury to the systemic expression of defense-related genes. Among the identified intercellular molecules in regulating systemic wound response of tomato are the peptide signal systemin and the oxylipin signal jasmonic acid (JA). The systemin/JA signaling pathway provides a unique opportunity to investigate, in a single experimental system, the mechanism by which peptide and oxylipin signals interact to coordinate plant systemic immunity. Here we describe the characterization of the tomato suppressor of prosystemin-mediated responses8 (spr8) mutant, which was isolated as a suppressor of (pro)systemin-mediated signaling. spr8 plants exhibit a series of JA-dependent immune deficiencies, including the inability to express wound-responsive genes, abnormal development of glandular trichomes, and severely compromised resistance to cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) and Botrytis cinerea. Map-based cloning studies demonstrate that the spr8 mutant phenotype results from a point mutation in the catalytic domain of TomLoxD, a chloroplast-localized lipoxygenase involved in JA biosynthesis. We present evidence that overexpression of TomLoxD leads to elevated wound-induced JA biosynthesis, increased expression of wound-responsive genes and, therefore, enhanced resistance to insect herbivory attack and necrotrophic pathogen infection. These results indicate that TomLoxD is involved in wound-induced JA biosynthesis and highlight the application potential of this gene for crop protection against insects and