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Sample records for kagaku busshitsu kanren

  1. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    sea. It has been observed in the conventional marine food chain that the primary products were promptly consumed by the phytophagous animals. When... productive strains in seawater (using V. parahaemolyticus and Staphylococcus aureus as the substrate cell) were found 39 to constitute about 24...Research Discussed 31 Research Trends [Uchio Shimizu; KAIYO KAGAKU, Jan 88] 31 Food Chain, Aquatic Breeding [Masachika Maeda; KAIYO KAGAKU, Jan 88

  2. Japan Report, Science and Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Outlined (FUNE NO KAGAKU, Oct 86) NEW MATERIALS Strategies of Nonferrous- Metals Corporations Discussed (KINZOKU JIHO, various dates) Sumitomo... Metal Mining Corp, Masaaki Ueda Interview Mitsui Mining, Smelting, Toru Kwakita Interview NUCLEAR DEVELOPMENT Partial Revision of Regulatory Law on...that by application of this technology it will be possible to also eradicate the highly toxic heavy metal material contained in drainage water, which

  3. Phosphorus-Nitrogen Compounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    933 720 (1963). - 51- 57) V.B. Tolstoguzov, S.M. Zhlvukhin, and V.V. Kireev : UdSSR Pat. 158 415 (1963). 58) M. Yokoyama and F. Goda: Kogyo Kagaku...Tolstoguzov, and V.V. Kireev : Vysokomolekul. Soedin 6, 1111 (1964). 70) A. Winter-Klein, Verres et refract. 9, 147 (1955). 71) H. Moureau and P. Rocquet

  4. Au42: A possible ground-state noble metallic nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Ning, Hua; Ma, Qing-Min; Liu, Ying; Li, You-Cheng

    2008-10-01

    A large hollow tubelike Au42 is predicted as a new ground-state configuration based on the scalar relativistic density functional theory. The shape of this new Au42 cluster is similar to a (5,5) single-wall gold nanotube, the two ends of which are capped by half of a fullerenelike Au32. In the same way, a series of Aun (n =37,42,47,52,57,62,67,72,…, Δn =5) tubelike structures has been constructed. The highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital gaps suggested a significant semiconductor-conductor alternation in n ɛ[32,47]. Similar to the predictions and speculation of Daedalus [D. E. H. Jones, New Sci. 32, 245 (1966); E. Osawa, Superaromaticity (Kagaku, Kyoto, 1970), Vol. 25, pp. 854-863; Z. Yoshida and E. Osawa, Aromaticity Chemical Monograph (Kagaku Dojin, Kyoto, Japan, 1971), Vol. 22, pp. 174-176; D. A. Bochvar and E. G. Gal'pern, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 209, 610 (1973)], here a large hollow ground-state gold nanotube was predicted theoretically.

  5. Au42: a possible ground-state noble metallic nanotube.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Ning, Hua; Ma, Qing-Min; Liu, Ying; Li, You-Cheng

    2008-10-07

    A large hollow tubelike Au(42) is predicted as a new ground-state configuration based on the scalar relativistic density functional theory. The shape of this new Au(42) cluster is similar to a (5,5) single-wall gold nanotube, the two ends of which are capped by half of a fullerenelike Au(32). In the same way, a series of Au(n) (n = 37, 42, 47, 52, 57, 62, 67, 72, ..., Delta n = 5) tubelike structures has been constructed. The highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital gaps suggested a significant semiconductor-conductor alternation in n is an element of [32,47]. Similar to the predictions and speculation of Daedalus [D. E. H. Jones, New Sci. 32, 245 (1966); E. Osawa, Superaromaticity (Kagaku, Kyoto, 1970), Vol. 25, pp. 854-863; Z. Yoshida and E. Osawa, Aromaticity Chemical Monograph (Kagaku Dojin, Kyoto, Japan, 1971), Vol. 22, pp. 174-176; D. A. Bochvar and E. G. Gal'pern, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 209, 610 (1973)], here a large hollow ground-state gold nanotube was predicted theoretically.

  6. American Diabetes Association--70th scientific sessions--research on novel therapeutics: part 1.

    PubMed

    Croasdell, Gary

    2010-09-01

    The American Diabetes Association 70th Scientific Sessions, held in Orlando, FL, USA, included topics covering new therapeutic developments in the field of diabetes research. This conference report highlights selected presentations on new research with novel agents. Investigational drugs discussed include the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonist taspoglutide (Roche Holding AG/Teijin Ltd/ Chugai Pharmaceutical Co Ltd), the GLP-1 analog SKL-18287 (Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho Co Ltd), the sodium glucose transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor ASP-1941 (Astellas Pharma Inc/Kotobuki Pharmaceutical Co Ltd), the dual SGLT2/1 inhibitor LX-4211 (Lexicon Pharmaceuticals Inc), and the selective PPARgamma modulator INT-131 (InteKrin Therapeutics Inc).

  7. Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO)--2010 Annual Meeting. For Sight: The Future of Eye and Vision Research--part 2.

    PubMed

    Hookes, Livia

    2010-07-01

    The 2010 Annual Meeting of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO), held in Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA, included topics covering new therapeutic developments in the field of eye and vision research. This conference report highlights selected presentations on the development of OT-440 (Othera Pharmaceuticals Inc) for the potential treatment of glaucoma, an extended-release implant of brimonidine (pSivida Corp) for ocular hypertension, AR-12286 (Aerie Pharmaceuticals Inc) for ocular hypertension or glaucoma, AC-8 (Calmune Corp/RiboVax Biotechnologies SA) for ocular diseases following HSV infection, and fidarestat (Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho Co Ltd) and the recombinant proteins NOV and NOVCter (INSERM/University Rene Descartes) for corneal neovascularization.

  8. Chimpanzee pinworm, Enterobius anthropopitheci (Nematoda: Oxyuridae), maintained for more than twenty years in captive chimpanzees in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Udono, Toshifumi

    2007-08-01

    The chimpanzee pinworm, Enterobius anthropopitheci (Gedoelst, 1916), was found in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, reared in Kumamoto Primate Research Park, Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho Co., Ltd., Kumamoto, Japan, in 2006. Because the chimpanzees in this institution originated from chimpanzees imported from Africa before 1984, it is considered that E. anthropopitheci infection has persisted for more than 20 yr in the chimpanzees. Analysis of pinworm specimens preserved in the institution revealed that transition of predominant pinworm species occurred, responding to the change of anthelmintics used for pinworm treatment. Present dominance of E. anthropopitheci is surmised to be caused by fenbendazole, which has been adopted from 2002. Scarcity of mixed infection with E. anthropopitheci and Enterobius vermicularis suggests interspecific competition between the pinworms.

  9. [Phantom Study on Dose Reduction Using Iterative Reconstruction in Low-dose Computed Tomography for Lung Cancer Screening].

    PubMed

    Minehiro, Kaori; Takata, Tadanori; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Sakuda, Keita; Nunome, Haruka; Kawashima, Hiroko; Sanada, Shigeru

    2015-12-01

    We investigated dose reduction ability of an iterative reconstruction technology for low-dose computed tomography (CT) for lung cancer screening. The Sinogram Affirmed Iterative Reconstruction (SAFIRE) provided in a multi slice CT system, Somatom Definition Flash (Siemens Healthcare) was used. An anthropomorphic chest phantom (N-1, Kyoto Kagaku) was scanned at volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) of 0.50-11.86 mGy with 120 kV. For noise (standard deviation) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) measurements, CTP486 and CTP515 modules in the Catphan (The Phantom Laboratory) were scanned. Radiological technologists were participated in the perceptual comparison. SAFIRE reduced the SD values by approximately 50% compared with filter back projection (FBP). The estimated dose reduction rates by SAFIRE determined from the perceptual comparison was approximately 23%, while 75% dose reduction rate was expected from the SD value reduction of 50%.

  10. Ophthalmology simulation for undergraduate and postgraduate clinical education

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Daniel Shu Wei; Sim, Shaun Sebastian Khung Peng; Yau, Christine Wen Leng; Rosman, Mohamad; Aw, Ai Tee; Yeo, Ian Yew San

    2016-01-01

    This is a review education paper on the current ophthalmology simulators utilized worldwide for undergraduate and postgraduate training. At present, various simulators such as the EYE Exam Simulator (Kyoto Kagaku Co. Ltd., Kyoto, Japan), Eyesi direct ophthalmoscope simulator (VRmagic, GmbH, Mannheim, Germany), Eyesi indirect ophthalmoscope simulator (VRmagic, GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) and Eyesi cataract simulators (VRmagic, GmbH, Mannheim, Germany). These simulators are thought to be able to reduce the initial learning curve for the ophthalmology training but further research will need to be conducted to assess the effectiveness of the simulation-assisted Ophthalmology training. Future research will be of great value to assess the medical students and residents' responses and performance regarding the usefulness of the individual eye simulator. PMID:27366698

  11. Assessing the realism of colonoscopy simulation: the development of an instrument and systematic comparison of 4 simulators.

    PubMed

    Hill, Andrew; Horswill, Mark S; Plooy, Annaliese M; Watson, Marcus O; Karamatic, Rozemary; Basit, Tabinda A; Wallis, Guy M; Riek, Stephan; Burgess-Limerick, Robin; Hewett, David G

    2012-03-01

    No useful comparative data exist on the relative realism of commercially available devices for simulating colonoscopy. To develop an instrument for quantifying realism and provide the first wide-ranging empiric comparison. Repeated measures, observational study. Nineteen experienced colonoscopists completed cases on 4 colonoscopy simulators (AccuTouch, GI Mentor II, Koken, and Kyoto Kagaku) and evaluated each device. A medical simulation center in a large tertiary hospital. For each device, colonoscopists completed the newly developed Colonoscopy Simulator Realism Questionnaire (CSRQ), which contains 58 items grouped into 10 subscales measuring the realism of different aspects of the simulation. Subscale scores are weighted and combined into an aggregated score, and there is also a single overall realism item. Overall, current colonoscopy simulators were rated as only moderately realistic compared with real human colonoscopy (mean aggregated score, 56.28/100; range, 48.39-60.45, where 0 = "extremely unrealistic" and 100 = "extremely realistic"). On both overall realism measures, the GI Mentor II was rated significantly less realistic than the AccuTouch, Kyoto Kagaku, and Koken (P < .001). There were also significant differences between simulators on 9 subscales, and the pattern of results varied between subscales. The study was limited to commercially available simulators, excluding ex-vivo models. The CSRQ does not assess simulated therapeutic procedures. The CSRQ is a useful instrument for quantifying simulator realism. There is no clear "first choice" simulator among those assessed. Each has unique strengths and weaknesses, reflected in the differing results observed across 9 subscales. These findings may facilitate the targeted selection of simulators for various aspects of colonoscopy training. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Using motion capture to assess colonoscopy experience level

    PubMed Central

    Svendsen, Morten Bo; Preisler, Louise; Hillingsoe, Jens Georg; Svendsen, Lars Bo; Konge, Lars

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To study technical skills of colonoscopists using a Microsoft Kinect™ for motion analysis to develop a tool to guide colonoscopy education. RESULTS: Ten experienced endoscopists (gastroenterologists, n = 2; colorectal surgeons, n = 8) and 11 novices participated in the study. A Microsoft Kinect™ recorded the movements of the participants during the insertion of the colonoscope. We used a modified script from Microsoft to record skeletal data. Data were saved and later transferred to MatLab for analysis and the calculation of statistics. The test was performed on a physical model, specifically the “Kagaku Colonoscope Training Model” (Kyoto Kagaku Co. Ltd, Kyoto, Japan). After the introduction to the scope and colonoscopy model, the test was performed. Seven metrics were analyzed to find discriminative motion patterns between the novice and experienced endoscopists: hand distance from gurney, number of times the right hand was used to control the small wheel of the colonoscope, angulation of elbows, position of hands in relation to body posture, angulation of body posture in relation to the anus, mean distance between the hands and percentage of time the hands were approximated to each other. RESULTS: Four of the seven metrics showed discriminatory ability: mean distance between hands [45 cm for experienced endoscopists (SD 2) vs 37 cm for novice endoscopists (SD 6)], percentage of time in which the two hands were within 25 cm of each other [5% for experienced endoscopists (SD 4) vs 12% for novice endoscopists (SD 9)], the level of the right hand below the sighting line (z-axis) (25 cm for experienced endoscopists vs 36 cm for novice endoscopists, P < 0.05) and the level of the left hand below the z-axis (6 cm for experienced endoscopists vs 15 cm for novice endoscopists, P < 0.05). By plotting the distributions of the percentages for each group, we determined the best discriminatory value between the groups. A pass score was set at the intersection of

  13. Performance evaluation of iterative reconstruction algorithms for achieving CT radiation dose reduction - a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Dodge, Cristina T; Tamm, Eric P; Cody, Dianna D; Liu, Xinming; Jensen, Corey T; Wei, Wei; Kundra, Vikas; Rong, X John

    2016-03-08

    The purpose of this study was to characterize image quality and dose performance with GE CT iterative reconstruction techniques, adaptive statistical iterative recontruction (ASiR), and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR), over a range of typical to low-dose intervals using the Catphan 600 and the anthropomorphic Kyoto Kagaku abdomen phantoms. The scope of the project was to quantitatively describe the advantages and limitations of these approaches. The Catphan 600 phantom, supplemented with a fat-equivalent oval ring, was scanned using a GE Discovery HD750 scanner at 120 kVp, 0.8 s rotation time, and pitch factors of 0.516, 0.984, and 1.375. The mA was selected for each pitch factor to achieve CTDIvol values of 24, 18, 12, 6, 3, 2, and 1 mGy. Images were reconstructed at 2.5 mm thickness with filtered back-projection (FBP); 20%, 40%, and 70% ASiR; and MBIR. The potential for dose reduction and low-contrast detectability were evaluated from noise and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) measurements in the CTP 404 module of the Catphan. Hounsfield units (HUs) of several materials were evaluated from the cylinder inserts in the CTP 404 module, and the modulation transfer function (MTF) was calculated from the air insert. The results were con-firmed in the anthropomorphic Kyoto Kagaku abdomen phantom at 6, 3, 2, and 1mGy. MBIR reduced noise levels five-fold and increased CNR by a factor of five compared to FBP below 6mGy CTDIvol, resulting in a substantial improvement in image quality. Compared to ASiR and FBP, HU in images reconstructed with MBIR were consistently lower, and this discrepancy was reversed by higher pitch factors in some materials. MBIR improved the conspicuity of the high-contrast spatial resolution bar pattern, and MTF quantification confirmed the superior spatial resolution performance of MBIR versus FBP and ASiR at higher dose levels. While ASiR and FBP were relatively insensitive to changes in dose and pitch, the spatial resolution for MBIR

  14. History of T-cain: a local anesthetic developed and manufactured in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tobe, Masaru; Saito, Shigeru

    2015-10-01

    In many anesthesia textbooks written in English, lidocaine, tetracaine, bupivacaine, ropivacaine, and chloroprocaine are listed as useful local anesthetics for spinal anesthesia. In contrast, T-cain is not included in these lists, even though it has been reported to be suitable for spinal anesthesia in Japan. T-cain was developed as a local anesthetic in the early 1940s by Teikoku Kagaku Sangyo Inc. in Itami, Japan, by replacing a methyl group on tetracaine (Pantocaine(®)) with an ethyl group. T-cain was clinically approved for topical use in Japan in November 1949, and a mixture of dibucaine and T-cain (Neo-Percamin S(®)) was approved for spinal use in May 1950. Simply because of a lack of foreign marketing strategy, T-cain has never attracted global attention as a local anesthetic. However, in Japan, T-cain has been used topically or intrathecally (as Neo-Percamin S(®)) for more than 60 years. Other than the side effects generally known for all local anesthetics, serious side effects have not been reported for T-cain. In fact, several articles have reported that T-cain decreases the neurotoxicity of dibucaine. In this historical review, the characteristics of T-cain and its rise to become a major spinal anesthetic in Japan are discussed.

  15. Determination of total selenium content in sediments and natural water by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectroscopy after collection as a selenium(IV) complex on activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Kubota, T; Suzuki, K; Okutani, T

    1995-07-01

    A trace level of Se was collected on activated carbon (AC) as the Se(IV)-3-phenyl-5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2(3H)-thione (Bismuthiol II) complex. The AC was directly introduced as an AC-suspension into the graphite tube atomizer and the Se concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (T. Okutani, T. Kubota, N. Sugiyama and Y. Turuta, Nippon Kagaku Kaishi, (1991) 375). The amount of Se in heavily contaminated samples including sediment, lake water and seawater was determined using this method. The sediments were digested with HNO(3)HClO(4)HF and the interference from AlF(3) was removed using H(3)BO(3)HClO(4). Lake water and seawater were acidified with H(2)SO(4) and digested with KMnO(4). The Se concentrations of these samples were determined by this method with satisfactory results. The above method is simple, rapid and applicable to heavily contaminated samples.

  16. Detection of anti-heart antibody in sera from patients with myocarditis or myocardiopathy by use of microcalorimetry.

    PubMed

    Shingu, M; Shingu, M

    1990-09-01

    Circulating autoantibodies have been commonly demonstrated in patients with viral heart disease. However, most of the previously established methods are limited to detection of circulating autoantibodies in sera, and the results correlate poorly with each other and with disease activity. Therefore, there is a need for new methods which can be used to study the resulting cellular effects after binding of autoantibodies to cell surface receptors and to correlate serum autoantibodies with disease activity. A microcalorimetric method was applied to detect circulating autoantibodies by measuring heat production of a line of cells from human embryo heart tissue. The instrument used was a thermoactive cell analyzer ESCO-3000 (Denshi kagaku Co, Musashino-shi, Tokyo). With the microcalorimeter, decreased heat production by cultured cells was demonstrated after admixture of anti-cellular antibody in vitro. Cardiac-specific autoantibodies were found in 53% of patients with viral heart disease. The microcalorimetric method of measuring anti-cellular antibody by monitoring heat production can be very useful and informative.

  17. Development and comparison of projection and image space 3D nodule insertion techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robins, Marthony; Solomon, Justin; Sahbaee, Pooyan; Samei, Ehsan

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to develop and compare two methods of inserting computerized virtual lesions into CT datasets. 24 physical (synthetic) nodules of three sizes and four morphologies were inserted into an anthropomorphic chest phantom (LUNGMAN, KYOTO KAGAKU). The phantom was scanned (Somatom Definition Flash, Siemens Healthcare) with and without nodules present, and images were reconstructed with filtered back projection and iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) at 0.6 mm slice thickness using a standard thoracic CT protocol at multiple dose settings. Virtual 3D CAD models based on the physical nodules were virtually inserted (accounting for the system MTF) into the nodule-free CT data using two techniques. These techniques include projection-based and image-based insertion. Nodule volumes were estimated using a commercial segmentation tool (iNtuition, TeraRecon, Inc.). Differences were tested using paired t-tests and R2 goodness of fit between the virtually and physically inserted nodules. Both insertion techniques resulted in nodule volumes very similar to the real nodules (<3% difference) and in most cases the differences were not statistically significant. Also, R2 values were all <0.97 for both insertion techniques. These data imply that these techniques can confidently be used as a means of inserting virtual nodules in CT datasets. These techniques can be instrumental in building hybrid CT datasets composed of patient images with virtually inserted nodules.

  18. CT x-ray tube voltage optimisation and image reconstruction evaluation using visual grading analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaoming; Kim, Ted M.; Davidson, Rob; Lee, Seongju; Shin, Cheongil; Yang, Sook

    2014-03-01

    The purposes of this work were to find an optimal x-ray voltage for CT imaging and to determine the diagnostic effectiveness of image reconstruction techniques by using the visual grading analysis (VGA). Images of the PH-5 CT abdomen phantom (Kagaku Co, Kyoto) were acquired by the Toshiba Aquillion One 320 slices CT system with various exposures (from 10 to 580 mAs) under different tube peak voltages (80, 100 and 120 kVp). The images were reconstructed by employing the FBP and the AIDR 3D iterative reconstructions with Mild, Standard and Strong FBP blending. Image quality was assessed by measuring noise, contrast to noise ratio and human observer's VGA scores. The CT dose index CTDIv was obtained from the values displayed on the images. The best fit for the curves of the image quality VGA vs dose CTDIv is a logistic function from the SPSS estimation. A threshold dose Dt is defined as the CTDIv at the just acceptable for diagnostic image quality and a figure of merit (FOM) is defined as the slope of the standardised logistic function. The Dt and FOM were found to be 5.4, 8.1 and 9.1 mGy and 0.47, 0.51 and 0.38 under the tube voltages of 80, 100 and 120 kVp, respectively, from images reconstructed by the FBP technique. The Dt and FOM values were lower from the images reconstructed by the AIDR 3D in comparison with the FBP technique. The optimal xray peak voltage for the imaging of the PH-5 abdomen phantom by the Aquillion One CT system was found to be at 100 kVp. The images reconstructed by the FBP are more diagnostically effective than that by the AIDR 3D but with a higher dose Dt to the patients.

  19. Validation study of the thorax phantom Lungman for optimization purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Pérez, Sunay; Marshall, Nicholas W.; Struelens, Lara; Bosmans, Hilde

    2017-03-01

    This work aims to investigate the advantages and limitations of the Kyoto Kagaku thorax phantom Lungman for use in chest radiography optimization studies. First, patient survey data were gathered for chest posterior anterior (PA) and lateral (LAT) examinations in a standard chest X-ray room over a period of one year, using a Caesium Iodide (CsI) based flat panel detector with automatic exposure control (AEC). Parameters surveyed included exposure index (EI), dose area product (DAP) and AEC exposure time. PA and LAT projections of the phantom were then compared to these values. Additionally, the equivalence in millimetres of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was established for the different regions of the Lungman phantom (lungs and mediastinum). Finally, a voxel model of the Lungman phantom was developed by the segmentation of a volumetric dataset of the phantom acquired using CT scanning. Subsequently, the model was used in Monte Carlo simulations with PENELOPE/penEasy code to calculate the energy deposited in the organs of the phantom. This enabled comparison of the phantom tissue-equivalent materials with materials defined by ICRP 89 in terms of energy deposition. For the survey data, close agreement was found between phantom and the median values for the patient data (deviations ranged from 4% to 31%, one outlier). The phantom lung region is equivalent to 89 mm to 106 mm of PMMA, depending on tube voltage. Energy deposited in the phantom material compared to those for ICRP defined material differed by at most 36% in AP irradiations and 49% in PA irradiations.

  20. A stylized computational model of the head for the reference Japanese male

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi, M.; Ishikawa, M.; Hoshi, M.

    2005-01-01

    Computational models of human anatomy, along with Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations, have been used by Snyder et al. [MIRD Pamphlet No. 5, revised (The Society of Nuclear Medicine, New York, 1978)], Cristy and Eckerman [ORNL/TM-8381/VI, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (1987)] and Zubal et al. [Med. Phys. 21, 299-302 (1994)] to estimate internal organ doses from internal and external radiation sources. These were created using physiological data from Caucasoid subjects but not from other races. There is a need for research to determine whether the obvious differences from the Caucasoid anatomy make these models unsuitable for estimating the absorbed dose in other races such as the Mongoloid. We used the cranial region of the adult Japanese male to represent the Mongoloid race. This region contains organs that are highly sensitive to radiation. The cranial region of a physical phantom produced by KYOTO KAGAKU Co., LTD. using numerical data from a Japanese Reference Man [Tanaka, Nippon Acta. Radiol. 48, 509-513 (1988)] was used to supply the data for the geometry of a stylized computational model. Our computational model was constructed with equations rather than voxel-based, in order to deal with as small a number of parameters as possible in the computer simulation experiment. The accuracy of our computational model was checked by comparing simulated experimental results obtained with MCNP4C with actual doses measured with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) inside the physical phantom from which our computational model was constructed. The TLDs, whose margin of error is less than {+-}10%, were arranged at six positions. Co-60 was used as the radiation source. The irradiated dose was 2 Gy in terms of air kerma. In the computer simulation experiments, we used our computational model and Cristy's computational model, whose component data are those of the tissue substitute materials and of the human body as published in ICRU Report 46. The

  1. Techniques for virtual lung nodule insertion: volumetric and morphometric comparison of projection-based and image-based methods for quantitative CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robins, Marthony; Solomon, Justin; Sahbaee, Pooyan; Sedlmair, Martin; Choudhury, Kingshuk Roy; Pezeshk, Aria; Sahiner, Berkman; Samei, Ehsan

    2017-09-01

    Virtual nodule insertion paves the way towards the development of standardized databases of hybrid CT images with known lesions. The purpose of this study was to assess three methods (an established and two newly developed techniques) for inserting virtual lung nodules into CT images. Assessment was done by comparing virtual nodule volume and shape to the CT-derived volume and shape of synthetic nodules. 24 synthetic nodules (three sizes, four morphologies, two repeats) were physically inserted into the lung cavity of an anthropomorphic chest phantom (KYOTO KAGAKU). The phantom was imaged with and without nodules on a commercial CT scanner (SOMATOM Definition Flash, Siemens) using a standard thoracic CT protocol at two dose levels (1.4 and 22 mGy CTDIvol). Raw projection data were saved and reconstructed with filtered back-projection and sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE, strength 5) at 0.6 mm slice thickness. Corresponding 3D idealized, virtual nodule models were co-registered with the CT images to determine each nodule’s location and orientation. Virtual nodules were voxelized, partial volume corrected, and inserted into nodule-free CT data (accounting for system imaging physics) using two methods: projection-based Technique A, and image-based Technique B. Also a third Technique C based on cropping a region of interest from the acquired image of the real nodule and blending it into the nodule-free image was tested. Nodule volumes were measured using a commercial segmentation tool (iNtuition, TeraRecon, Inc.) and deformation was assessed using the Hausdorff distance. Nodule volumes and deformations were compared between the idealized, CT-derived and virtual nodules using a linear mixed effects regression model which utilized the mean, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation (Mea{{n}RHD} , ST{{D}RHD} and C{{V}RHD}{) }~ of the regional Hausdorff distance. Overall, there was a close concordance between the volumes of the CT-derived and

  2. SU-E-I-22: Dependence On Calibration Phantom and Field Area of the Conversion Factor Used to Calculate Skin Dose During Neuro-Interventional Fluoroscopic Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Rana, V K; Vijayan, S; Rudin, S R; Bednarek, D R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the appropriate calibration factor to use when calculating skin dose with our real-time dose-tracking system (DTS) during neuro-interventional fluoroscopic procedures by evaluating the difference in backscatter from different phantoms and as a function of entrance-skin field area. Methods: We developed a dose-tracking system to calculate and graphically display the cumulative skin-dose distribution in real time. To calibrate the DTS for neuro-interventional procedures, a phantom is needed that closely approximates the scattering properties of the head. We compared the x-ray backscatter from eight phantoms: 20-cm-thick solid water, 16-cm diameter water-filled container, 16-cm CTDI phantom, modified-ANSI head phantom, 20-cm-thick PMMA, Kyoto-Kagaku PBU- 50 head, Phantom-Labs SK-150 head, and RSD RS-240T head. The phantoms were placed on the patient table with the entrance surface at 15 cm tube-side from the isocenter of a Toshiba Infinix C-arm, and the entrance-skin exposure was measured with a calibrated 6-cc PTW ionization chamber. The measurement included primary radiation, backscatter from the phantom and forward scatter from the table and pad. The variation in entrance-skin exposure was also measured as a function of the skin-entrance area for a 30x30 cm by 20-cm-thick PMMA phantom and the SK-150 head phantom using four different added beam filters. Results: The entranceskin exposure values measured for eight different phantoms differed by up to 12%, while the ratio of entrance exposure of all phantoms relative to solid water showed less than 3% variation with kVp. The change in entrance-skin exposure with entrance-skin area was found to differ for the SK-150 head compared to the 20-cm PMMA phantom and the variation with field area was dependent on the added beam filtration. Conclusion: To accurately calculate skin dose for neuro-interventional procedures with the DTS, the phantom for calibration should be carefully chosen since different

  3. Techniques for virtual lung nodule insertion: volumetric and morphometric comparison of projection-based and image-based methods for quantitative CT.

    PubMed

    Robins, Marthony; Solomon, Justin; Sahbaee, Pooyan; Sedlmair, Martin; Roy Choudhury, Kingshuk; Pezeshk, Aria; Sahiner, Berkman; Samei, Ehsan

    2017-08-22

    Virtual nodule insertion paves the way towards the development of standardized databases of hybrid CT images with known lesions. The purpose of this study was to assess three methods (an established and two newly developed techniques) for inserting virtual lung nodules into CT images. Assessment was done by comparing virtual nodule volume and shape to the CT-derived volume and shape of synthetic nodules. 24 synthetic nodules (three sizes, four morphologies, two repeats) were physically inserted into the lung cavity of an anthropomorphic chest phantom (KYOTO KAGAKU). The phantom was imaged with and without nodules on a commercial CT scanner (SOMATOM Definition Flash, Siemens) using a standard thoracic CT protocol at two dose levels (1.4 and 22 mGy CTDIvol). Raw projection data were saved and reconstructed with filtered back-projection and sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE, strength 5) at 0.6 mm slice thickness. Corresponding 3D idealized, virtual nodule models were co-registered with the CT images to determine each nodule's location and orientation. Virtual nodules were voxelized, partial volume corrected, and inserted into nodule-free CT data (accounting for system imaging physics) using two methods: projection-based Technique A, and image-based Technique B. Also a third Technique C based on cropping a region of interest from the acquired image of the real nodule and blending it into the nodule-free image was tested. Nodule volumes were measured using a commercial segmentation tool (iNtuition, TeraRecon, Inc.) and deformation was assessed using the Hausdorff distance. Nodule volumes and deformations were compared between the idealized, CT-derived and virtual nodules using a linear mixed effects regression model which utilized the mean, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] of the regional Hausdorff distance. Overall, there was a close concordance between the volumes of

  4. Iron availability of a fortified processed wheat cereal: a comparison of fourteen iron forms using an in vitro digestion/human colonic adenocarcinoma (CaCo-2) cell model.

    PubMed

    Wortley, Gary; Leusner, Steven; Good, Carolyn; Gugger, Eric; Glahn, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    In this three-phase study we first compared the availability of fourteen Fe forms in a wheat-based ready-to-eat breakfast cereal using an in vitro digestion/human colonic adenocarcinoma (CaCo-2) cell model. We then investigated the effect of milk and/or coffee on those fortified cereals found in phase 1 to show promising increases in Fe availability. The Fe forms assessed in phase 1 were reduced (control), carbonyl, electrolytic, FePO(4), FeSO(4), FeCO(3), Na(2)FeEDTA, Ferrochel (Albion Laboratories, Clearfield, UT, USA; ferrous bis-glycinate), encapsulated ferrous fumarate, FeSO(4), ferrous lactate and Biofer (LipoTech, Britwell Salome, Oxfordshire; FeSO(4)), SQM (Sea-Questra-Min Iron; Quali Tech, Chaska, MN, USA; polysaccharide-complexed FeSO(4)) and Sun Active (Taiyo Kagaku, Yokkaichi, Japan). All these forms increased Fe uptake compared with the unfortified cereal. Relative to the control, the following increases in Fe availability were observed: electrolytic, 52 %; ferrous fumarate, 30-35 %; Sun Active, 78 %; Ferrochel, 125 %; Na(2)FeEDTA, 291 %. Recent human studies have shown similar data with regard to Ferrochel, FeSO4 and Na(2)FeEDTA, with the latter being more bioavailable. Our phase-2 studies indicated that the addition of milk to FeSO(4)-fortified cereal increased Fe availability, but this availability was markedly decreased by the addition of coffee to the digest. Conversely, a loss in availability from Na(2)FeEDTA was observed with the addition of milk; however, the addition of coffee did not markedly affect Fe availability from this form. In phase-3 studies we observed increased Fe availability upon the addition of milk to cereals containing Ferrochel, FeSO(4), Sun Active, a mixture of reduced Fe and Na(2)FeEDTA or reduced Fe. For these forms we did not assess the behaviour after the addition of coffee. In conclusion, when considering possible fortificants for optimizing Fe bioavailability within a foodstuff, it is of paramount importance to consider

  5. The effects of L-theanine (Suntheanine®) on objective sleep quality in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Michael R; Kapoor, Mahendra P; Juneja, Lekh R

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of L-theanine as an aid to the improvement of objectively measured sleep quality in a population of 98 male children formally diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted involving boys, ages 8-12 years, who had been previously diagnosed with ADHD. An experienced physician confirmed the diagnosis of ADHD in each subject. Randomization was stratified based upon current use of stimulant medication to ensure an equal distribution of stimulant/non-stimulant treated subjects into active and placebo treated groups. Participants consumed two chewable tablets twice daily (at breakfast and after school), with each tablet containing 100 mg of L-theanine (total 400 mg daily Suntheanine®, Taiyo Kagaku, Yokkaichi, Japan) or identical tasting chewable placebo for six weeks. Subjects were evaluated for five consecutive nights using wrist actigraphy at baseline, and again at the end of the six-week treatment period. The Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) was completed by parents at baseline and at the end of the treatment period. Actigraph watch data findings indicated that boys who consumed L-theanine obtained significantly higher sleep percentage and sleep efficiency scores, along with a non-significant trend for less activity during sleep (defined as less time awake after sleep onset) compared to those in the placebo group. Sleep latency and other sleep parameters were unchanged. The PSQ data did not correlate significantly to the objective data gathered from actigraphy, suggesting that parents were not particularly aware of their children's sleep quality. L-theanine at relatively high doses was well tolerated with no significant adverse events. This study demonstrates that 400 mg daily of L-theanine is safe and effective in improving some aspects of sleep quality in boys diagnosed with ADHD. Since sleep problems are a

  6. Accuracy and variability of texture-based radiomics features of lung lesions across CT imaging conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yuese; Solomon, Justin; Choudhury, Kingshuk; Marin, Daniele; Samei, Ehsan

    2017-03-01

    Texture analysis for lung lesions is sensitive to changing imaging conditions but these effects are not well understood, in part, due to a lack of ground-truth phantoms with realistic textures. The purpose of this study was to explore the accuracy and variability of texture features across imaging conditions by comparing imaged texture features to voxel-based 3D printed textured lesions for which the true values are known. The seven features of interest were based on the Grey Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM). The lesion phantoms were designed with three shapes (spherical, lobulated, and spiculated), two textures (homogenous and heterogeneous), and two sizes (diameter < 1.5 cm and 1.5 cm < diameter < 3 cm), resulting in 24 lesions (with a second replica of each). The lesions were inserted into an anthropomorphic thorax phantom (Multipurpose Chest Phantom N1, Kyoto Kagaku) and imaged using a commercial CT system (GE Revolution) at three CTDI levels (0.67, 1.42, and 5.80 mGy), three reconstruction algorithms (FBP, IR-2, IR-4), four reconstruction kernel types (standard, soft, edge), and two slice thicknesses (0.6 mm and 5 mm). Another repeat scan was performed. Texture features from these images were extracted and compared to the ground truth feature values by percent relative error. The variability across imaging conditions was calculated by standard deviation across a certain imaging condition for all heterogeneous lesions. The results indicated that the acquisition method has a significant influence on the accuracy and variability of extracted features and as such, feature quantities are highly susceptible to imaging parameter choices. The most influential parameters were slice thickness and reconstruction kernels. Thin slice thickness and edge reconstruction kernel overall produced more accurate and more repeatable results. Some features (e.g., Contrast) were more accurately quantified under conditions that render higher spatial frequencies (e.g., thinner slice

  7. Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) attenuates age-related renal dysfunction by oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Yokozawa, Takako; Kim, Hyun Young; Kim, Hyun Ju; Tanaka, Takashi; Sugino, Hidetoshi; Okubo, Tsutomu; Chu, Djong-Chi; Juneja, Lekh Raj

    2007-09-19

    To investigate the effects of amla on renal dysfunction involved in oxidative stress during the aging process, we employed young (2 months old) and aged (13 months old) male rats and administered SunAmla (Taiyo Kagaku Co., Ltd., Japan) or an ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract of amla, a polyphenol-rich fraction, at a dose of 40 or 10 mg/kg body weight/day for 100 days. The administration of SunAmla or EtOAc extract of amla reduced the elevated levels of serum creatinine and urea nitrogen in the aged rats. In addition, the tail arterial blood pressure was markedly elevated in aged control rats as compared with young rats, while the systolic blood pressure was significantly decreased by the administration of SunAmla or EtOAc extract of amla. Furthermore, the oral administration of SunAmla or EtOAc extract of amla significantly reduced thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels of serum, renal homogenate, and mitochondria in aged rats, suggesting that amla would ameliorate oxidative stress under aging. The increases of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in the aorta of aging rats were also significantly suppressed by SunAmla extract or EtOAc extract of amla, respectively. Moreover, the elevated expression level of bax, a proapoptotic protein, was significantly decreased after oral administration of SunAmla or EtOAc extract of amla. However, the level of bcl-2, an antiapoptotic protein, did not show any difference among the groups. The expressions of renal nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), inhibitory kappaB in cytoplasm, iNOS, and COX-2 protein levels were also increased with aging. However, SunAmla or EtOAc extract of amla reduced the iNOS and COX-2 expression levels by inhibiting NF-kappaB activation in the aged rats. These results indicate that amla would be a very useful antioxidant for the prevention of age-related renal disease.