Sample records for kagera region tanzania

  1. Diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtypes in Kagera and Kilimanjaro regions, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nyombi, Balthazar M; Kristiansen, Knut I; Bjune, Gunnar; Müller, Fredrik; Holm-Hansen, Carol

    2008-06-01

    A strategy to prevent the spread of HIV-1 worldwide is complicated by the high genetic diversity of the virus. To gain a better understanding of the HIV-1 genetic diversity in Tanzania, a molecular epidemiological investigation was conducted in Kagera and Kilimanjaro regions. While several studies have addressed HIV-1 subtypes in Tanzania, this is the first study to describe the virus subtypes circulating in Kagera. The Kagera region is the epicenter of the HIV-1 epidemic in Africa, and it was therefore of interest to compare the prevalence of HIV subtypes in this region and Kilimanjaro. Blood samples were obtained from 246 HIV-1-infected pregnant women attending antenatal clinics. Plasma HIV-1 RNA was extracted, amplified, and sequenced in the env C2V3 and/or pol regions from 209 samples. Based on the analysis of env C2V3 and pol sequences, 47.4% had concordant subtypes, 19.1% were discordant indicating recombination, and for 33.5% sequences were obtained for only one region. The distribution HIV-1 subtypes based on the phylogenetic analysis of paired env C2V3/ pol sequences in Kagera region was A/A (27.8%), C/C (29.6%), D/D (16.7%), and unique recombinant forms (25.9%), and in Kilimanjaro region was A/A (32.9%), C/C (25.9%), D/D (10.6%), CRF10_CD (1.2%), and unique recombinant forms (29.4%). The env C2V3 subsubtype A2 and env C2V3/pol CRF10_CD were also observed indicating that these recombinants are circulating in Tanzania. The high diversity of HIV-1 subtypes and the high prevalence of recombinants demonstrated in this study necessitate expanded and continuous monitoring of the epidemic in Tanzania. The trend may have implications for current national control strategies against the HIV-1 epidemic.

  2. Social capital and the decline in HIV transmission - A case study in three villages in the Kagera region of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Frumence, Gasto; Killewo, Japhet; Kwesigabo, Gideon; Nyström, Lennarth; Eriksson, Malin; Emmelin, Maria

    2010-10-01

    We present data from an exploratory case study characterising the social capital in three case villages situated in areas of varying HIV prevalence in the Kagera region of Tanzania. Focus group discussions and key informant interviews revealed a range of experiences by community members, leaders of organisations and social groups. We found that the formation of social groups during the early 1990s was partly a result of poverty and the many deaths caused by AIDS. They built on a tradition to support those in need and provided social and economic support to members by providing loans. Their strict rules of conduct helped to create new norms, values and trust, important for HIV prevention. Members of different networks ultimately became role models for healthy protective behaviour. Formal organisations also worked together with social groups to facilitate networking and to provide avenues for exchange of information. We conclude that social capital contributed in changing HIV related risk behaviour that supported a decline of HIV infection in the high prevalence zone and maintained a low prevalence in the other zones.

  3. The rise and fall of water hyacinth in Lake Victoria and the Kagera River basin, 1989-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albright, Thomas P.; Moorhouse, T.G.; McNabb, T.J.

    2004-01-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) is an invasive aquatic macrophyte associated with major negative economic and ecological impacts to the Lake Victoria region since the plant's establishment in Uganda in the 1980s. Reliable estimates of water hyacinth distribution and extent are required to gauge the severity of the problem through time, relate water hyacinth abundance to environmental factors, identify areas requiring management action, and assess the efficacy of management actions. To provide such estimates and demonstrate the utility of remote sensing for this application, we processed and analyzed remotely sensed imagery to determine the distribution and extent of water hyacinth. Maps were produced and coverage was quantified using a hybrid unsupervised image classification approach with manual editing for each of the riparian countries of Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, as well as for numerous gulfs and bays. A similar procedure was carried out for selected lakes in the Rwanda-Tanzania borderlands lakes region in the Kagera River basin. Results confirm the severity of the water hyacinth infestation, especially in the northern parts of the lake. A maximum lake-wide extent of at least 17,374 ha was attained in 1998. Following this, a combination of factors, including conditions associated with the 1997 to 1998 El Nin??o and biocontrol with water hyacinth weevils, appear to have contributed to a major decline in water hyacinth in the most affected parts of the lake. Some lakes in the Kagera basin, such as Lake Mihindi, Rwanda, were severely infested in the late 1990s, but the level of infestation in most of these decreased markedly by the early 2000s.

  4. Exploring the role of cognitive and structural forms of social capital in HIV/AIDS trends in the Kagera region of Tanzania - a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Frumence, Gasto; Eriksson, Malin; Nystrom, Lennarth; Killewo, Japhet; Emmelin, Maria

    2011-04-01

    The article presents a synthesis of data from three village case studies focusing on how structural and cognitive social capital may have influenced the progression of the HIV epidemic in the Kagera region of Tanzania. Grounded theory was used to develop a theoretical model describing the possible links between structural and cognitive social capital and the impact on sexual health behaviours. Focus group discussions and key informant interviews were carried out to represent the range of experiences of existing social capital. Both structural and cognitive social capital were active avenues for community members to come together, empower each other, and develop norms, values, trust and reciprocal relations. This empowerment created an enabling environment in which members could adopt protective behaviours against HIV infection. On the one hand, we observed that involvement in formal and informal organisations resulted in a reduction of numbers of sexual partners, led people to demand abstinence from sexual relations until marriage, caused fewer opportunities for casual sex, and gave individuals the agency to demand the use of condoms. On the other hand, strict membership rules and regulations excluded some members, particularly excessive alcohol drinkers and debtors, from becoming members of the social groups, which increased their vulnerability in terms of exposure to HIV. Social gatherings (especially those organised during the night) were also found to increase youths' risk of HIV infection through instances of unsafe sex. We conclude that even though social capital may at times have negative effects on individuals' HIV-prevention efforts, this study provides initial evidence that social capital is largely protective through empowering vulnerable groups such as women and the poor to protect against HIV infection and by promoting protective sexual behaviours.

  5. Use of insecticide quantification kits to investigate the quality of spraying and decay rate of bendiocarb on different wall surfaces in Kagera region, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Thawer, Narjis G; Ngondi, Jeremiah M; Mugalura, Frances E; Emmanuel, Isaac; Mwalimu, Charles D; Morou, Evangelia; Vontas, John; Protopopoff, Natacha; Rowland, Mark; Mutagahywa, Joshua; Lalji, Shabbir; Molteni, Fabrizio; Ramsan, Mahdi M; Willilo, Ritha; Wright, Alexandra; Kafuko, Jessica M; Ndong, Isaiah; Reithinger, Richard; Magesa, Stephen Masingili

    2015-04-22

    Bendiocarb was introduced for the first time for Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) in Tanzania in 2012 as part of the interim national insecticide resistance management plan. This move followed reports of increasingly alarming levels of pyrethroid resistance across the country. This study used the insecticide quantification kit (IQK) to investigate the intra-operational IRS coverage and quality of spraying, and decay rate of bendiocarb on different wall surfaces in Kagera region. To assess intra-operational IRS coverage and quality of spraying, 104 houses were randomly selected out of 161,414 sprayed houses. A total of 509 samples (218 in Muleba and 291 in Karagwe) were obtained by scraping the insecticide samples from wall surfaces. To investigate decay rate, 66 houses (36 in Muleba and 30 in Karagwe) were selected and samples were collected monthly for a period of five months. Laboratory testing of insecticide concentration was done using IQK(TM) [Innovative Vector Control Consortium]. Of the 509 samples, 89.5% met the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended concentration (between 100-400 mg/m(2)) for IRS target dosage. The proportion of samples meeting WHO standards varied between Karagwe (84.3%) and Muleba (96.3%) (p < 0.001). Assessment of quality of spraying at house level revealed that Muleba (84.8%) had a significantly higher proportion of households that met the expected target dosage (100-400 mg/m(2)) compared to Karagwe (68.9%) (p < 0.001). The quality of spraying varied across different wall substrates in both districts. Evaluation of bendiocarb decay showed that the proportion of houses with recommended concentration declined from 96.9%, 93.5% and 76.2% at months one, two, and three post IRS, respectively (p-trend = 0.03). The rate of decay increased in the fourth and fifth month post spraying with only 55.9% and 26.3% houses meeting the WHO recommendations, respectively. IQK is an important tool for assessing IRS coverage and quality of

  6. Brine shrimp toxicity of some plants used as traditional medicines in Kagera Region, north western Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Moshi, M J; Innocent, E; Magadula, J J; Otieno, D F; Weisheit, A; Mbabazi, P K; Nondo, R S O

    2010-01-01

    Dichloromethane and/or ethanol extracts of 30 plants used as traditional medicines in Bukoba district, northwestern Tanzania were evaluated for brine shrimp toxicity. Among the 50 extracts tested, 32 extracts (64%) showed very low toxicity with LC50 values above 100 microg/ml. Among these 12 (24%) which had LC50 >500 microg/ml can be categorized as being practically non-toxic. Among the remaining extracts 19 (38%) which showed LC50 > 100 < 500 microg/ml are also considered to be non-toxic. Extracts that showed LC50 results between 30-100 microg/ml have been categorized as mildly toxic; these include ethanol extracts of Lantana trifolia (LC50 32.3 microg/ml), Vernonia bradycalyx (LC50 33.9 microg/ml), Antiaris toxicaria (LC50 38.2 microg/ml) and Rubus rigidus (LC50 41.7 microg/ml) and the dichloromethane extracts of Gynura scandens (LC50 36.5 microg/ml) and Bridelia micrantha (LC50 32.0 microg/ml). The dichloromethane extracts of Picralima nitida (LC50 18.3 microg/ml) and Rubus rigidus (LC50 19.8 microg/ml), were only moderately toxic. Picralima nitida and Rubus rigidus extracts are only 1.1 and 1.2 less toxic than the standard drug, cyclophosphamide (LC50 16.3 microg/ml). In conclusion, the results indicate that among the 30 plants used as traditional medicines, 28 are safe for short term use. Picralima nitida and Rubus rigidus extracts are mildly toxic, but by comparison have a remote possibility to yield active anticancer compounds.

  7. [AIDS in Tanzania].

    PubMed

    Barstad, S

    1993-04-20

    The World Health Organization has announced that within 3 years 10% of Tanzania's population of 26 million will be infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). But there is some faint hope in the research of Tanzanian traditional medicine. An almost 90-year-man, Waziri Mrisho, is credited with having treated AIDS patients successfully with herbs that strengthen the immune system. Margaret Nakamya was stricken by the symptoms of AIDs in March 1990. She was referred to Waziri and started using his herbs. 3 years later she weighs 49 kg compared to 40 kg before. The old man's son set up a little factory where he pulverizes herbs and sells them at the price he can command The 3 types of trees that the herbal medicine is taken from grow in the wild, but some have also been planted around the factory. Even if these herbs are effective, it will take years before the AIDS epidemic is over, when people have changed their lifestyles. The means of communication (TV, cinema, radio, telephone) are missing or inadequate. In the Kagera region, with 1.2 million inhabitants, 25% of pregnant women are HIV-infected and 65,000 children lost their parents to AIDS. There are 2000 children in Dar Es Salaam living in the streets. The Anglican St. Albans Church runs a center for street kids where they get meals 3 times a week. The nurse Ruth Nesje enlisted a Norwegian physician and homeopath in a research project involving 30 AIDS patients in Norway. The University in Bergen will do in vitro testing. One group of patients will receive both AZT and the herbs, another group will get only AZT, and the 3rd group will obtain only the herbs. The Norwegian Nursing Association, NORAD, and DANIDA also plan various projects in the Tanga region.

  8. Costs and Impacts of Scaling up Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Veena; Gold, Elizabeth; Godbole, Ramona; Castor, Delivette; Mahler, Hally; Forsythe, Steven; Ally, Mariam; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Background Given the proven effectiveness of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in preventing the spread of HIV, Tanzania is scaling up VMMC as an HIV prevention strategy. This study will inform policymakers about the potential costs and benefits of scaling up VMMC services in Tanzania. Methodology The analysis first assessed the unit costs of delivering VMMC at the facility level in three regions—Iringa, Kagera, and Mbeya—via three currently used VMMC service delivery models (routine, campaign, and mobile/island outreach). Subsequently, using these unit cost data estimates, the study used the Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool (DMPPT) to estimate the costs and impact of a scaled-up VMMC program. Results Increasing VMMC could substantially reduce HIV infection. Scaling up adult VMMC to reach 87.9% coverage by 2015 would avert nearly 23,000 new adult HIV infections through 2015 and an additional 167,500 from 2016 through 2025—at an additional cost of US$253.7 million through 2015 and US$302.3 million from 2016 through 2025. Average cost per HIV infection averted would be US$11,300 during 2010–2015 and US$3,200 during 2010–2025. Scaling up VMMC in Tanzania will yield significant net benefits (benefits of treatment costs averted minus the cost of performing circumcisions) in the long run—around US$4,200 in net benefits for each infection averted. Conclusion VMMC could have an immediate impact on HIV transmission, but the full impact on prevalence and deaths will only be apparent in the longer term because VMMC averts infections some years into the future among people who have been circumcised. Given the health and economic benefits of investing in VMMC, the scale-up of services should continue to be a central component of the national HIV prevention strategy in Tanzania. PMID:24802022

  9. Prevalence and risk factors associated with Theileria parva infection in cattle in three regions of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kerario, Isack I; Simuunza, Martin C; Chenyambuga, Sebastian W; Koski, Marja; Hwang, Seong-Gu; Muleya, Walter

    2017-12-01

    Ticks and tickborne diseases (TBDs) are serious constraints to cattle production in Tanzania and other tropical and subtropical countries. Among the TBDs, East Coast fever (ECF) is the most important as it causes significant economic losses to the cattle industry in Tanzania. However, control of ECF in Tanzania has continued to be a challenge due to inadequate epidemiological information. The main objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological situation of Theileria parva infections in cattle kept under pastoral and agro-pastoral farming systems in Mara, Singida, and Mbeya regions of Tanzania. Blood samples were collected from 648 cattle in the three regions. Genomic DNA was extracted and amplified in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using T. parva-specific primers targeting the 104-kD antigen (P104) gene. In addition, information was collected on the possible risk factors of T. parva infection (animal age, region, animal sex, tick burden, tick control method, and frequency of acaricide application). The prevalence of T. parva across the three regions was 14.2%. There was variation in prevalence among the three regions with Mara (21.8%) having a significantly higher (p = 0.001) prevalence than the other regions. Moreover, Mbeya exhibited relatively lower prevalence (7.4%) compared to the other regions. Factors found to be significantly associated with an animal being PCR positive for T. parva were region (p = 0.001) and tick burden (p = 0.003). Other factors were not found to be significant predictors of being PCR positive for T. parva. The present study showed high variation in tick burden and T. parva prevalence across the regions. Therefore, different strategic planning and cost-effective control measures for ticks and T. parva infection should be implemented region by region in order to reduce losses caused by ticks and ECF in the study area.

  10. Distribution of Aedes mosquitoes in the Kilimanjaro Region of northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Julian T; Lyaruu, Lucille J; Ooi, Eng Eong; Mosha, Franklin W; Crump, John A

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the presence and distribution of Aedes mosquitoes in northern Tanzania despite the occurence of viruses transmitted by these mosquitoes such as Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) in the region. Adult and larval mosquitoes were collected from rural and urban settings across a wide range of altitudes in the Kilimanjaro Region using the Mosquito Magnet CO2 Trap for collection of adults and old tires for breeding of larvae. Polymerase chain reaction assays were performed on captured adult mosquitoes to detect the presence of CHIKV and DENV. A total of 2609 Aedes aegypti adult mosquitoes were collected; no other Aedes species larvae were found. Mosquito yields were significantly higher in urban settings than rural settings (26.5 vs. 1.9 mosquitoes per day, p = 0.037). A total of 6570 Ae. aegypti larvae were collected from old tires; no other Aedes species larvae were found. Of the 2609 adult mosquitoes collected, none tested positive for CHIKV or DENV. As far as we are aware, this paper reports for the first time the presence of Ae. aegypti in the Kilimanjaro Region of northern Tanzania. Although CHIKV and DENV were not isolated from any of the collected mosquitoes in this study, the apparent absence of other Aedes species in the area suggests that Ae. aegypti is the primary local vector of these infections.

  11. Corporal Punishment in Tanzania's Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinstein, Sheryl; Mwahombela, Lucas

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this survey was to acquire descriptive information regarding corporal punishment in Tanzania's O-level secondary schools. 448 individuals participated in the study: 254 teachers and 194 students, all from government or private secondary schools in the Iringa Region of Tanzania. In addition, 14 students and 14 teachers were…

  12. Sex preference and contraceptive behaviour among men in Mbeya region, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwageni, E A; Ankomah, A; Powell, R A

    2001-04-01

    While recent studies confirm parental child sex preference in less developed countries, its pattern varies. Son preference is especially prevalent in Bangladesh, China, India, and Pakistan. Sex preference in sub-Saharan Africa is a neglected area of enquiry. Completed research focuses on women's views to the neglect of men, despite the latter's importance as primary decision-makers. This study identifies factors influencing contraceptive behaviour among men in Mbeya region, Tanzania, demonstrating how it is affected by their preferred family sex composition. Data used were collected from a cross-sectional survey of 600 men aged 16-50 and six focus groups conducted in the region's rural and urban areas. Using single statements and Coombs' Scales, sex preference was found to be prevalent in the study area, with sons strongly preferred to daughters. Sex preference is significantly associated with the number of existing daughters a man has, his marital status, residence and occupation. Findings suggest programmes should be initiated to challenge men's attitudes towards one-sex family composition. Men should be educated about the advantages of small family sizes and persuaded that both children's sexes are equally important. Such measures can assist men in reconsidering their desired family sizes, reduce biases towards one sex, minimise marital problems and improve women's status. Efforts to increase contraceptive use in Tanzania will be hampered, however, if men maintain their preference for sons over daughters.

  13. Orphanhood and Self-Esteem: An 18-Year Longitudinal Study From an HIV-Affected Area in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    De Weerdt, Joachim; Beegle, Kathleen; Dercon, Stefan

    2017-11-01

    The HIV epidemic exacerbated the prevalence of prime-aged adult death in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, resulting in increased rates of orphanhood. Little is known about whether this will coincide with adverse psychosocial well-being in adulthood for those who were orphaned at childhood. We studied a cohort of 1108 children from Kagera, a region of Tanzania that was heavily affected by HIV early in the epidemic. During the baseline data collection in 1991-1994, these children were aged 0-16 years and had both parents alive. We followed them roughly 16-19 years later in 2010, by which time 531 children (36%) had lost either one or both parents before their 19th birthday. We compared the 2010 10-item Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) score between children who lost a parent before the age of 19 and those who did not. We used the baseline data to control for preorphanhood confounders. This is important because we find that children who will lose their fathers in the future before age 19 came from somewhat lower socioeconomic backgrounds. We found no correlation between maternal death and self-esteem measured through RSES. Paternal death was strongly correlated with lower levels of self-esteem (0.2 SDs lower RSES 95% confidence interval: 0.059 to 0.348), and the correlation was stronger when the death occurred during the child's teenage years. These effects are a net of socioeconomic differences that existed before the orphanhood event. Our study supports the further development and piloting of programs that address psychosocial problems of orphans.

  14. Diagnosis of human fascioliasis in Arusha region, northern Tanzania by microscopy and clinical manifestations in patients.

    PubMed

    Lukambagire, Abdul-Hamid Settenda; Mchaile, Deborah N; Nyindo, Mramba

    2015-12-23

    Human fascioliasis (HF) is a zoonotic disease that has been identified in many countries worldwide. This report concerns the identification and clinical management of cases of human fascioliasis in the suburbs of Arusha city, northern Tanzania in 2013. Fascioliasis is included among the WHO's Neglected Tropical Diseases as a plant transmitted trematode infection. Human fascioliasis has not been described before in the East Africa region, including Tanzania. Patients presenting at a primary healthcare centre in Arusha Region, northern Tanzania provided fresh stool samples for routine ova and parasite screening (saline and iodine preparations). Subsequent stool samples were preserved in 5 % formalin in saline and subjected to ether sedimentation for examination. Out of 1460 patients, 305 (21 %) were diagnosed positive for fascioliasis based on the demonstration of brownish, oval eggs with inconspicuous opercula in stool. Two distinct egg sizes were identified; large 170-212.5 by 115-150 μm (mean 194.5 by 130.5 μm) and smaller eggs 120-150 by 87.5 - 112.5 μm (mean 138.8 by 101 μm). Clinically, patients presented with fever (39 - 40 °C) and abdominal pain. Some patients had pruritis around the mouth and their lips were swollen. 3 patients were treated and cured with single dose Triclabendazole. The remaining 302 patients were treated with Nitazoxanide and 122 (40 %) were cleared of infection with a single course. Snails of the genus Lymnaea were found in the surroundings. This report serves to remind medical professionals in East Africa that HF is a probable differential diagnosis in patients presenting with similar symptoms. It is possible to diagnose fascioliasis by light microscopy although specific antigen tests are required for confirmation. Human fascioliasis however, has not been described or reported in Tanzania before and begs further investigation.

  15. Experience on healthcare utilization in seven administrative regions of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Health care utilization in many developing countries, Tanzania included, is mainly through the use of traditional medicine (TRM) and its practitioners despite the presence of the conventional medicine. This article presents findings on the study that aimed to get an experience of health care utilization from both urban and rural areas of seven administrative regions in Tanzania. A total of 33 health facility managers were interviewed on health care provision and availability of supplies including drugs, in their respective areas. The findings revealed that the health facilities were overburden with higher population to serve than it was planned. Consequently essential drugs and other health supplies were available only in the first two weeks of the month. Conventional health practitioners considered traditional health practitioners to be more competent in mental health management, and overall, they were considered to handle more HIV/AIDS cases knowingly or unknowingly due to shear need of healthcare by this group. In general conventional health practitioners were positive towards traditional medicine utilization; and some of them admitted using traditional medicines. Traditional medicines like other medical health systems worldwide have side effects and some contentious ethical issues that need serious consideration and policy direction. Since many people will continue using traditional/alternative medicine, there is an urgent need to collaborate with traditional/alternative health practitioners through the institutionalization of basic training including hygiene in order to improved healthcare in the community and attain the Millennium Development Goals by 2015. PMID:22284539

  16. Intimate partner violence and challenges facing women living with HIV/AIDS in accessing antiretroviral treatment at Singida Regional Hospital, central Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kosia, Agnes; Kakoko, Deodatus; Semakafu, Ave Maria Emilius; Nyamhanga, Tumaini; Frumence, Gasto

    2016-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a global public health problem. Sub-Saharan Africa is the region most affected by HIV/AIDS in the world. Globally, and in Tanzania in particular, women are more affected by HIV/AIDS than men. Tanzania has been reported to be among the countries with the highest burden of intimate partner violence (IPV). This study explored the challenges facing women living with HIV/AIDS (LWHA) attending the care and treatment clinic (CTC) in Singida Regional Hospital in Tanzania. Design A qualitative study was performed in which data were collected through in-depth interviews with 35 women LWHA who also experienced IPV. Content analysis was used to analyse the data. Results The study findings showed that women LWHA experienced challenges from their male partners in the form of lack of fare to attend CTC, delayed attendance to CTC, verbal threats and intimidation, mistrust partner resulting in changed antiretroviral (ARV) dosing time. Also, systemic challenges such as malfunction of CD4 count testing apparatus contributed to mistrust from their male partners which led to IPV. Conclusion In this study, women LWHA experienced IPV challenges that resulted in poor adherence to ARV medication and CTC attendance, as well as insufficient time to collect ARV medication. It is recommended that the government address systemic challenges faced by women LWHA, introduce multiple approaches to address the needs of women LWHA experiencing IPV, and develop strong policies to prevent IPV against women in Tanzania, regardless of their HIV status. PMID:27987296

  17. Costs of delivering human papillomavirus vaccination to schoolgirls in Mwanza Region, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the leading cause of female cancer-related deaths in Tanzania. Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) offers a new opportunity to control this disease. This study aimed to estimate the costs of a school-based HPV vaccination project in three districts in Mwanza Region (NCT ID: NCT01173900), Tanzania and to model incremental scaled-up costs of a regional vaccination program. Methods We first conducted a top-down cost analysis of the vaccination project, comparing observed costs of age-based (girls born in 1998) and class-based (class 6) vaccine delivery in a total of 134 primary schools. Based on the observed project costs, we then modeled incremental costs of a scaled-up vaccination program for Mwanza Region from the perspective of the Tanzanian government, assuming that HPV vaccines would be delivered through the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). Results Total economic project costs for delivering 3 doses of HPV vaccine to 4,211 girls were estimated at about US$349,400 (including a vaccine price of US$5 per dose). Costs per fully-immunized girl were lower for class-based delivery than for age-based delivery. Incremental economic scaled-up costs for class-based vaccination of 50,290 girls in Mwanza Region were estimated at US$1.3 million. Economic scaled-up costs per fully-immunized girl were US$26.41, including HPV vaccine at US$5 per dose. Excluding vaccine costs, vaccine could be delivered at an incremental economic cost of US$3.09 per dose and US$9.76 per fully-immunized girl. Financial scaled-up costs, excluding costs of the vaccine and salaries of existing staff were estimated at US$1.73 per dose. Conclusions Project costs of class-based vaccination were found to be below those of age-based vaccination because of more eligible girls being identified and higher vaccine uptake. We estimate that vaccine can be delivered at costs that would make HPV vaccination a very cost-effective intervention. Potentially

  18. Costs of delivering human papillomavirus vaccination to schoolgirls in Mwanza Region, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Quentin, Wilm; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Changalucha, John; Soteli, Selephina; Edmunds, W John; Hutubessy, Raymond; Ross, David A; Kapiga, Saidi; Hayes, Richard; Watson-Jones, Deborah

    2012-11-13

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of female cancer-related deaths in Tanzania. Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) offers a new opportunity to control this disease. This study aimed to estimate the costs of a school-based HPV vaccination project in three districts in Mwanza Region (NCT ID: NCT01173900), Tanzania and to model incremental scaled-up costs of a regional vaccination program. We first conducted a top-down cost analysis of the vaccination project, comparing observed costs of age-based (girls born in 1998) and class-based (class 6) vaccine delivery in a total of 134 primary schools. Based on the observed project costs, we then modeled incremental costs of a scaled-up vaccination program for Mwanza Region from the perspective of the Tanzanian government, assuming that HPV vaccines would be delivered through the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). Total economic project costs for delivering 3 doses of HPV vaccine to 4,211 girls were estimated at about US$349,400 (including a vaccine price of US$5 per dose). Costs per fully-immunized girl were lower for class-based delivery than for age-based delivery. Incremental economic scaled-up costs for class-based vaccination of 50,290 girls in Mwanza Region were estimated at US$1.3 million. Economic scaled-up costs per fully-immunized girl were US$26.41, including HPV vaccine at US$5 per dose. Excluding vaccine costs, vaccine could be delivered at an incremental economic cost of US$3.09 per dose and US$9.76 per fully-immunized girl. Financial scaled-up costs, excluding costs of the vaccine and salaries of existing staff were estimated at US$1.73 per dose. Project costs of class-based vaccination were found to be below those of age-based vaccination because of more eligible girls being identified and higher vaccine uptake. We estimate that vaccine can be delivered at costs that would make HPV vaccination a very cost-effective intervention. Potentially, integrating HPV vaccine delivery with cost

  19. Health worker motivation in the context of HIV care and treatment challenges in Mbeya Region, Tanzania: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Health worker motivation can potentially affect the provision of health services. The HIV pandemic has placed additional strain on health service provision through the extra burden of increased testing and counselling, treating opportunistic infections and providing antiretroviral treatment. The aim of this paper is to explore the challenges generated by HIV care and treatment and their impact on health worker motivation in Mbeya Region, Tanzania. Methods Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with health workers across the range of health care professions in health facilities in two high HIV-prevalence districts of Mbeya Region, Tanzania. A qualitative framework analysis was adopted for data analysis. Results The negative impact of HIV-related challenges on health worker motivation was confirmed by this study. Training seminars and workshops related to HIV contributed to the shortage of health workers in the facilities. Lower status workers were frequently excluded from training and were more severely affected by the consequent increase in workload as seminars were usually attended by higher status professionals who controlled access. Constant and consistent complaints by clients have undermined health workers' expectations of trust and recognition. Health workers were forced to take responsibility for dealing with problems arising from organisational inefficiencies within the health system. Conclusion HIV-related challenges undermine motivation among health workers in Mbeya, Tanzania with the burden falling most heavily on lower status workers. Strained relations between health workers and the community they serve, further undermine motivation of health workers. PMID:21992700

  20. Malaria diagnostic testing and treatment practices in three different Plasmodium falciparum transmission settings in Tanzania: before and after a government policy change.

    PubMed

    Bastiaens, Guido J H; Schaftenaar, Erik; Ndaro, Arnold; Keuter, Monique; Bousema, Teun; Shekalaghe, Seif A

    2011-04-02

    Patterns of decreasing malaria transmission intensity make presumptive treatment of malaria an unjustifiable approach in many African settings. The controlled use of anti-malarials after laboratory confirmed diagnosis is preferable in low endemic areas. Diagnosis may be facilitated by malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). In this study, the impact of a government policy change, comprising the provision of RDTs and advice to restrict anti-malarial treatment to RDT-positive individuals, was assessed by describing diagnostic behaviour and treatment decision-making in febrile outpatients <10 years of age in three hospitals in the Kagera and Mwanza Region in northern Tanzania. Prospective data from Biharamulo and Rubya Designated District Hospital (DDH) were collected before and after policy change, in Sumve DDH no new policy was implemented. Diagnosis of malaria was confirmed by RDT; transmission intensity was evaluated by a serological marker of malaria exposure in hospital attendees. Prior to policy change, there was no evident association between the actual level of transmission intensity and drug-prescribing behaviour. After policy change, there was a substantial decrease in anti-malarial prescription and an increase in prescription of antibiotics. The proportion of parasite-negative individuals who received anti-malarials decreased from 89.1% (244/274) to 38.7% (46/119) in Biharamulo and from 76.9% (190/247) to 10.0% (48/479) in Rubya after policy change. This study shows that an official policy change, where RDTs were provided and healthcare providers were advised to adhere to RDT results in prescribing drugs can be followed by more rational drug-prescribing behaviour. The current findings are promising for improving treatment policy in Tanzanian hospitals.

  1. Sources of community health worker motivation: a qualitative study in Morogoro Region, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a renewed interest in community health workers (CHWs) in Tanzania, but also a concern that low motivation of CHWs may decrease the benefits of investments in CHW programs. This study aimed to explore sources of CHW motivation to inform programs in Tanzania and similar contexts. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 CHWs in Morogoro Region, Tanzania. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and coded prior to translation and thematic analysis. The authors then conducted a literature review on CHW motivation and a framework that aligned with our findings was modified to guide the presentation of results. Results Sources of CHW motivation were identified at the individual, family, community, and organizational levels. At the individual level, CHWs are predisposed to volunteer work and apply knowledge gained to their own problems and those of their families and communities. Families and communities supplement other sources of motivation by providing moral, financial, and material support, including service fees, supplies, money for transportation, and help with farm work and CHW tasks. Resistance to CHW work exhibited by families and community members is limited. The organizational level (the government and its development partners) provides motivation in the form of stipends, potential employment, materials, training, and supervision, but inadequate remuneration and supplies discourage CHWs. Supervision can also be dis-incentivizing if perceived as a sign of poor performance. Conclusions Tanzanian CHWs who work despite not receiving a salary have an intrinsic desire to volunteer, and their motivation often derives from support received from their families when other sources of motivation are insufficient. Policy-makers and program managers should consider the burden that a lack of remuneration imposes on the families of CHWs. In addition, CHWs’ intrinsic desire to volunteer does not preclude a desire for external rewards

  2. Sources of community health worker motivation: a qualitative study in Morogoro Region, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Greenspan, Jesse A; McMahon, Shannon A; Chebet, Joy J; Mpunga, Maurus; Urassa, David P; Winch, Peter J

    2013-10-10

    There is a renewed interest in community health workers (CHWs) in Tanzania, but also a concern that low motivation of CHWs may decrease the benefits of investments in CHW programs. This study aimed to explore sources of CHW motivation to inform programs in Tanzania and similar contexts. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 CHWs in Morogoro Region, Tanzania. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and coded prior to translation and thematic analysis. The authors then conducted a literature review on CHW motivation and a framework that aligned with our findings was modified to guide the presentation of results. Sources of CHW motivation were identified at the individual, family, community, and organizational levels. At the individual level, CHWs are predisposed to volunteer work and apply knowledge gained to their own problems and those of their families and communities. Families and communities supplement other sources of motivation by providing moral, financial, and material support, including service fees, supplies, money for transportation, and help with farm work and CHW tasks. Resistance to CHW work exhibited by families and community members is limited. The organizational level (the government and its development partners) provides motivation in the form of stipends, potential employment, materials, training, and supervision, but inadequate remuneration and supplies discourage CHWs. Supervision can also be dis-incentivizing if perceived as a sign of poor performance. Tanzanian CHWs who work despite not receiving a salary have an intrinsic desire to volunteer, and their motivation often derives from support received from their families when other sources of motivation are insufficient. Policy-makers and program managers should consider the burden that a lack of remuneration imposes on the families of CHWs. In addition, CHWs' intrinsic desire to volunteer does not preclude a desire for external rewards. Rather, adequate and formal financial

  3. Prevalence and risk factors for poor nutritional status among children in the Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Abubakar, Amina; Uriyo, Jacqueline; Msuya, Sia E; Swai, Mark; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2012-10-05

    The current study investigated the prevalence and risk factors for poor nutritional status among children less than 36 months of age in the Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania. Using a cross sectional study design, children and their caregivers were recruited into the study. Anthropometric measures were taken based on established protocol while a standard questionnaire was utilized to collect socio-demographic data. A finger-prick blood sample was collected from all the children and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration analyzed using a HemoCue photometer (HemoCue AB, Angelholm, Sweden). Four hundred and twenty three (423) children (214 females) took part in this study. Participating children were aged between 1–35 months (mean = 13.04, SD = 7.70). We observed high rates of stunting (44.2%) and underweight (19.1%). Nearly 70% (n = 295) of the sample was anaemic (Hb < 11 g/dL). In a multivariate logistic regression model concerns on child growth, maternal education, and child's age were found to independently predict stunting; whereas concerns over child's growth and development, and distance to water source were found to uniquely predict being underweight. Maternal education was the only factor related to the child's anaemia. The current study further emphasizes the need to implement context relevant interventions to combat malnutrition in this region of Tanzania and other similar settings.

  4. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Poor Nutritional Status among Children in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Abubakar, Amina; Uriyo, Jacqueline; Msuya, Sia E.; Swai, Mark; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigated the prevalence and risk factors for poor nutritional status among children less than 36 months of age in the Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania. Using a cross sectional study design, children and their caregivers were recruited into the study. Anthropometric measures were taken based on established protocol while a standard questionnaire was utilized to collect socio-demographic data. A finger-prick blood sample was collected from all the children and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration analyzed using a HemoCue photometer (HemoCue AB, Angelholm, Sweden). Four hundred and twenty three (423) children (214 females) took part in this study. Participating children were aged between 1–35 months (mean = 13.04, SD = 7.70). We observed high rates of stunting (44.2%) and underweight (19.1%). Nearly 70% (n = 295) of the sample was anaemic (Hb < 11 g/dL). In a multivariate logistic regression model concerns on child growth, maternal education, and child’s age were found to independently predict stunting; whereas concerns over child’s growth and development, and distance to water source were found to uniquely predict being underweight. Maternal education was the only factor related to the child’s anaemia. The current study further emphasizes the need to implement context relevant interventions to combat malnutrition in this region of Tanzania and other similar settings. PMID:23202759

  5. Racemization of amino acids in fossil bones and teeth from the Olduvai Gorge region, Tanzania, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bada, Jeffrey L.

    1981-10-01

    Investigation of amino acid racemization in fossil bones and teeth from the Olduvai Gorge region, Tanzania, indicates that aspartic acid racemization can be used to date samples which are less than ˜80,000-100,000 years old in this area. In older samples, significant secondary aspartic acid is apparently present and thus these samples have lower than expectedD/L aspartic acid ratios. Isoleucine in older samples, however, is apparently syngenetic with the samples, so the epimerization of isoleucine to alloisoleucine can be used with certain limitations to date fossil bones and teeth from the older stratigraphic sections in the Olduvai region.

  6. Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-20

    STS072-722-004 (11-20 Jan. 1996) --- Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania is featured in this 70mm frame exposed from the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour. Orient with the clouds trailing to the left; then the view is southwest from Kenya past Kilimanjaro to Mount Meru, in Tanzania. Mount Kilimanjaro is about three degrees south of the Equator, but at nearly 6,000 meters has a permanent snowfield. The mountain displays a classic zonation of vegetation types from seasonally dry savannah on the plains at 1,000 meters, to the cloud forest near the top. The mountain is being managed experimentally as an international biosphere reserve. A buffer zone of "traditional" agriculture and pastoral land use is designated around the closed-canopy forest reserve. Specialists familiar with this area say management is partially successful so far, but cleared areas of the forest can be seen on this photograph as light green "nibbles" or "cookie cuts" extending into the dark forest region.

  7. Safe injections and waste management among healthcare workers at a regional hospital in northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Josefine; Pembe, Andrea B; Urasa, Miriam; Darj, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Unsafe injections and substandard waste management are public health issues exposing healthcare workers and the community to the risk of infections. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice of safe injections and health care waste management among healthcare workers at a regional hospital in northern Tanzania. This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in a regional hospital in northern Tanzania. Data was collected through a self-administered questionnaire with additional observations of the incinerator, injections, waste practices, and the availability of medical supplies. Data was analysed in SPSS descriptive statistics and chi-square tests were performed. A total of 223 of 305 (73%) healthcare workers from different cadres were included in the study. The majority of healthcare workers had adequate knowledge and practice of safe injections, but inadequate knowledge about waste management. The majority of the staff reported knowledge of HIV as a risk factor, however, had less knowledge about other blood-borne infections. Guidelines and posters on post exposure prophylaxes and waste management -were present at the hospital, however, the incinerator had no fence or temperature gauge. In conclusion, healthcare workers reported good knowledge and practice of injections, and high knowledge of HIV transmission routes. However, the hospital is in need of a well functioning incinerator and healthcare workers require sufficient medical supplies. There was a need for continual training about health care waste management and avoidance of blood-borne pathogens that may be transmitted through unsafe injections or poor health care waste management.

  8. Molecular Characterization of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses Collected in Tanzania Between 1967 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Kasanga, C J; Wadsworth, J; Mpelumbe-Ngeleja, C A R; Sallu, R; Kivaria, F; Wambura, P N; Yongolo, M G S; Rweyemamu, M M; Knowles, N J; King, D P

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV) recovered from outbreaks in Tanzania that occurred between 1967 and 2009. A total of 44 FMDV isolates, containing representatives of serotypes O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2 from 13 regions of Tanzania, were selected from the FAO World Reference Laboratory for FMD (WRLFMD) virus collection. VP1 nucleotide sequences were determined for RT-PCR amplicons, and phylogenetic reconstructions were determined by maximum likelihood and neighbour-joining methods. These analyses showed that Tanzanian type O viruses fell into the EAST AFRICA 2 (EA-2) topotype, type A viruses fell into the AFRICA topotype (genotype I), type SAT 1 viruses into topotype I and type SAT 2 viruses into topotype IV. Taken together, these findings reveal that serotypes O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2 that caused FMD outbreaks in Tanzania were genetically related to lineages and topotypes occurring in the East African region. The close genetic relationship of viruses in Tanzania to those from other countries suggests that animal movements can contribute to virus dispersal in sub-Saharan Africa. This is the first molecular description of viruses circulating in Tanzania and highlights the need for further sampling of representative viruses from the region so as to elucidate the complex epidemiology of FMD in Tanzania and sub-Saharan Africa. © 2014 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Mantle transition zone structure beneath Tanzania, east Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Thomas J.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Gurrola, Harold; Langston, Charles A.

    2000-03-01

    We apply a three-dimensional stacking method to receiver functions from the Tanzania Broadband Seismic Experiment to determine relative variations in the thickness of the mantle transition zone beneath Tanzania. The transition zone under the Eastern rift is 30-40 km thinner than under areas of the Tanzania Craton in the interior of the East African Plateau unaffected by rift faulting. The region of transition zone thinning under the Eastern rift is several hundred kilometers wide and coincides with a 2-3% reduction in S wave velocities. The thinning of the transition zone, as well as the reduction in S wave velocities, can be attributed to a 200-300°K increase in temperature. This thermal anomaly at >400 km depth beneath the Eastern rift cannot be easily explained by passive rifting and but is consistent with a plume origin for the Cenozoic rifting, volcanism and plateau uplift in East Africa.

  10. Knowledge and Practices Relating to Acute Pesticide Poisoning Among Health Care Providers in Selected Regions of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lekei, Elikana; Ngowi, Aiwerasia V; Mkalanga, Habib; London, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Acute pesticide poisoning (APP) is commonly underdiagnosed in Tanzania. Studies in developing countries suggest that a lack of diagnostic skills among health care providers (HCPs) undermines surveillance for APP. This study aimed at characterizing experience and skills of Tanzanian HCPs regarding APP diagnosis and management. The population included HCPs responsible for managing APP in Kilimanjaro and Arusha regions (n = 91). The resulting sample included 66 respondents (response rate: 73%). The data were collected in 2005 using a standardized questionnaire. Half of all respondents (50%) reported handling at least 1 APP case with 15% reporting handling more than 5 cases in the past. Reported experience of handling an APP case was marginally higher in respondents who reported ⩾4 years of work experience in the health sector compared with those with <4 years of work experience (odds ratio = 1.32; 95% confidence interval = 0.9-1.5). Most of the respondents had high knowledge of exposure routes, reporting awareness of oral (98.5%), inhalational (93.9%), and dermal (77%) routes. The study revealed low awareness of pesticide classification by chemical groups (29%) or World Health Organization hazard (0%) and weak knowledge on pesticide label instructions (55%). Organophosphates accounted for 35% of the pesticide products reported by respondents as being responsible for poisoning. Some treatment options were incorrectly reported as first aid options, and some reported first aid options were wrong or inappropriate. The study revealed that HCPs in northern Tanzania lack adequate skills to diagnose and manage APP. For effective surveillance of APP, there is a need to include training on hazards, classification, diagnosis, and health effects in the training programmes for all HCPs in Tanzania.

  11. Corporal punishment in Tanzania's schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinstein, Sheryl; Mwahombela, Lucas

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this survey was to acquire descriptive information regarding corporal punishment in Tanzania's O-level secondary schools. 448 individuals participated in the study: 254 teachers and 194 students, all from government or private secondary schools in the Iringa Region of Tanzania. In addition, 14 students and 14 teachers were interviewed. It was found that corporal punishment was the most common form of punishment in secondary schools. The majority of teachers supported its continued use, but believed in moderation. The majority of students and teachers were unaware of national laws to restrict corporal punishment. There was agreement between students and teachers that corporal punishment was used for major and minor student offences such as misbehaviour and tardiness. Students reported disliking the practice and believed it was ineffective and resulted in emotional, as well as physical, distress.

  12. Factors Contributing to the Accumulation of Primary Teacher's Debts to the Government of Tanzania: A Case Study for Dar Es Salaam Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kombo, Ibun

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of the study which was conducted to determine factors contributing to the accumulation of primary school teacher's debts to the Government of Tanzania, a case study of Dar es Salaam Region in its three municipalities namely, Ilala, Kinondoni and Temeke. Data was obtained through sampling method which also helped to…

  13. USAID and FINCA: helping women in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Henderson, K

    2000-01-01

    In Tanzania, the international microfinance network FINCA set up shop and began training its first Village Banking Groups in June 1998, disbursing its first loans in July with a grant from the US Agency for International Development. Within 2 months, the program reached 757 low-income women and distributed loans worth US$57,183 using the group support system in which 30-50 neighbors come together to guarantee one another's loans. With the loans from FINCA, entrepreneurs quickly became involved in a range of business activities, from selling tomatoes to starting a hair salon. Located in Mwanza, in the Lake Zone, FINCA Tanzania's clients include many members of the Sukuma tribe. It is noted that in this region there are a few job opportunities in the formal economy. In 1999, FINCA Tanzania reached 3632 clients, exceeding its targets despite a difficult economic environment. In that same year, FINCA partnered with Freedom from Hunger in launching a program that offers some of its members health education and basic business training at Village Banking Group meetings.

  14. Development and Education in Appalachia and Tanzania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin

    Development and education in Appalachia and the Republic of Tanzania (Africa) are discussed in this paper. Major topics on Appalachia include geography, early settlers, history, the literary discovery of Appalachia, the missionary discovery of Appalachia, exploitation, depression and welfarism, and the Appalachian Regional Commission. Topics on…

  15. Knowledge and Practices Relating to Acute Pesticide Poisoning Among Health Care Providers in Selected Regions of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Lekei, Elikana; Ngowi, Aiwerasia V; Mkalanga, Habib; London, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Acute pesticide poisoning (APP) is commonly underdiagnosed in Tanzania. Studies in developing countries suggest that a lack of diagnostic skills among health care providers (HCPs) undermines surveillance for APP. This study aimed at characterizing experience and skills of Tanzanian HCPs regarding APP diagnosis and management. Methodology: The population included HCPs responsible for managing APP in Kilimanjaro and Arusha regions (n = 91). The resulting sample included 66 respondents (response rate: 73%). The data were collected in 2005 using a standardized questionnaire. Results: Half of all respondents (50%) reported handling at least 1 APP case with 15% reporting handling more than 5 cases in the past. Reported experience of handling an APP case was marginally higher in respondents who reported ⩾4 years of work experience in the health sector compared with those with <4 years of work experience (odds ratio = 1.32; 95% confidence interval = 0.9-1.5). Most of the respondents had high knowledge of exposure routes, reporting awareness of oral (98.5%), inhalational (93.9%), and dermal (77%) routes. The study revealed low awareness of pesticide classification by chemical groups (29%) or World Health Organization hazard (0%) and weak knowledge on pesticide label instructions (55%). Organophosphates accounted for 35% of the pesticide products reported by respondents as being responsible for poisoning. Some treatment options were incorrectly reported as first aid options, and some reported first aid options were wrong or inappropriate. Conclusions: The study revealed that HCPs in northern Tanzania lack adequate skills to diagnose and manage APP. For effective surveillance of APP, there is a need to include training on hazards, classification, diagnosis, and health effects in the training programmes for all HCPs in Tanzania. PMID:28469444

  16. Pn wave velocities beneath the Tanzania Craton and adjacent rifted mobile belts, east Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazier, Richard A.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Langston, Charles A.; Owens, Thomas J.

    2000-08-01

    P wave travel times from regional earthquakes recorded by the Tanzania Broadband Seismic Experiment have been inverted for long wavelength (>100 km) Pn velocity variations beneath Tanzania using a generalized inverse algorithm. Pn velocities, on average, are 8.40 to 8.45 km/s beneath the center of the Tanzania Craton, 8.30-8.35 km/s beneath the terminus of the Eastern Branch of the rift system, and 8.35-8.40 km/s beneath the Western Branch. These velocities indicate that there are no broad (>100 km wide) thermal anomalies in the uppermost mantle beneath areas of rifting in Tanzania, and suggest that thermal anomalies present deeper in the mantle have not yet reached the base of the crust.

  17. Laboratory quality improvement in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Andiric, Linda R; Massambu, Charles G

    2015-04-01

    The article describes the implementation and improvement in the first groups of medical laboratories in Tanzania selected to participate in the training program on Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA). As in many other African nations, the selected improvement plan consisted of formalized hands-on training (SLMTA) that teaches the tasks and skills of laboratory management and provides the tools for implementation of best laboratory practice. Implementation of the improvements learned during training was verified before and after SLMTA with the World Health Organization African Region Stepwise Laboratory Improvement Process Towards Accreditation checklist. During a 4-year period, the selected laboratories described in this article demonstrated improvement with a range of 2% to 203% (cohort I) and 12% to 243% (cohort II) over baseline scores. The article describes the progress made in Tanzania's first cohorts, the obstacles encountered, and the lessons learned during the pilot and subsequent implementations. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  18. Protecting the rights of people with HIV. Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Temba, P

    1997-04-01

    In Tanzania, preliminary efforts are underway to protect the human rights of people with HIV/AIDS. Tanzania, which has been criticized for failing to recognize human rights abuses against people with HIV/AIDS, is the 15th country in sub-Saharan Africa to establish a regional network of physicians, lawyers, and nongovernmental organizations seeking to protect the rights of people with HIV/AIDS and those vulnerable to the infection with appropriate legislation and policies. Discrimination, which hastens spread of the disease by forcing it underground, is found even among medical personnel who disclose patient information without consent or refuse to treat patients with HIV/AIDS. Certain laws also compromise the rights of infected people by requiring physicians to tender medical reports before the courts, permitting employers to force employees to undergo HIV testing, or requiring rape victims to provide an excessive burden of proof. Participants at a recent workshop recommended a review of national AIDS policy and changes in the law. A computer database will be used to track HIV/AIDS-related human rights abuses in Tanzania.

  19. Notes from the Field: Chlorination Strategies for Drinking Water During a Cholera Epidemic - Tanzania, 2016.

    PubMed

    Wang, Alice; Hardy, Colleen; Rajasingham, Anangu; Martinsen, Andrea; Templin, Lindsay; Kamwaga, Stanislaus; Sebunya, Kiwe; Jhuthi, Brenda; Habtu, Michael; Kiberiti, Stephen; Massa, Khalid; Quick, Rob; Mulungu, Jane; Eidex, Rachel; Handzel, Thomas

    2016-10-21

    Since August 2015, the Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children (MoHCDGEC) of Tanzania has been leading the response to a widespread cholera outbreak. As of June 9, 2016, cholera had affected 23 of 25 regions in Tanzania, with 21,750 cumulative cases and 341 deaths reported (Ally Nyanga, MoHCDGEC Emergency Operations Center, personal communication, June 2016). Approximately one fourth of all cases occurred in the Dar es Salaam region on the east coast. Regions surrounding Lake Victoria, in the north, also reported high case counts, including Mwanza with 9% (Ally Nyanga, MoHCDGEC Emergency Operations Center, personal communication, June 2016). Since the start of the outbreak, MoHCDGEC and the Ministry of Water (MOW) have collaborated with the Tanzania Red Cross Society, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), World Health Organization (WHO), and CDC to enhance the water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) response to prevent the further spread of cholera.

  20. Tanzania Country Analysis Brief

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Tanzania is a small natural gas producer, but the country is planning to become an exporter of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the future. There have been several natural gas discoveries made in offshore southern Tanzania since 2010 large enough to support an LNG plant.

  1. Capture-recapture analysis of East Coast fever in smallholder dairy herds in the Dar es Salaam region of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kivaria, F M; Noordhuizen, J P T M

    2010-05-01

    The prevalence of and case fatality rate due to East Coast fever (ECF) were estimated in 1402 dairy cattle in 87 small herds in the Dar es Salaam region of Tanzania, from January 2003 to January 2005 using a capture-recapture method. Information on clinical cases and deaths due to ECF were obtained from farm records and from a questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey conducted between July 2003 and March 2005 as part of longitudinal studies of bovine mastitis in these herds. The number of clinical cases identified was 567 (from farm records) and 496 (from the questionnaire), and the number of deaths recorded were 305 (from farm records) and 251 (from the questionnaire). In all, 450 clinical cases and 191 deaths due to ECF were identified from the two sources, giving an observed prevalence of 32% (CI(95%) 30-35%) and observed case fatality rate of 42% (CI(95%) 38-47%). Following application of the capture-recapture method, the estimated number of clinical cases and deaths was 625 (CI(95%) 617-633) and 401 (CI(95%) 384-418), respectively. The respective prevalence and case fatality rates were 45% (CI(95%) 41-48%) and 64% (CI(95%) 60-68%). The estimates obtained using the capture-recapture method are higher than those identified by traditional cross-sectional studies conducted in the same study area, and probably provide a more accurate epidemiological picture of ECF in this region of Tanzania. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Instructor Support Services: An Inevitable Critical Success Factor in Blended Learning in Higher Education in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Christina; Mtebe, Joel S.

    2016-01-01

    The adoption of blended learning to widen access, reduce cost, and improve the quality of education is becoming prevalent in higher education in sub-Saharan Africa and Tanzania in particular. University of Dar es Salaam and the Open University of Tanzania offer various blended learning courses using Moodle system via regional centres scattered…

  3. Artisan Training and Employment Outcomes in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennell, Paul; Mukyanuzi, Faustin; Kasogela, Maurice; Mutashubirwa, Francis; Klim, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the main findings of a tracer survey of graduates from two artisan training centres in Tanzania, which was undertaken in early 2002. The two institutions are the Chang'ombe Regional Vocational Training and Service Centre (RVTSC) in Dar es Salaam and the Iringa RVTSC, which are owned and managed by the Vocational Education and…

  4. Cost analysis of large-scale implementation of the 'Helping Babies Breathe' newborn resuscitation-training program in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Sumona; Arlington, Lauren; Brenan, Shelby; Kairuki, Allan Kaijunga; Meda, Amunga Robson; Isangula, Kahabi G; Mponzi, Victor; Bishanga, Dunstan; Thomas, Erica; Msemo, Georgina; Azayo, Mary; Molinier, Alice; Nelson, Brett D

    2016-12-01

    Helping Babies Breathe (HBB) has become the gold standard globally for training birth-attendants in neonatal resuscitation in low-resource settings in efforts to reduce early newborn asphyxia and mortality. The purpose of this study was to do a first-ever activity-based cost-analysis of at-scale HBB program implementation and initial follow-up in a large region of Tanzania and evaluate costs of national scale-up as one component of a multi-method external evaluation of the implementation of HBB at scale in Tanzania. We used activity-based costing to examine budget expense data during the two-month implementation and follow-up of HBB in one of the target regions. Activity-cost centers included administrative, initial training (including resuscitation equipment), and follow-up training expenses. Sensitivity analysis was utilized to project cost scenarios incurred to achieve countrywide expansion of the program across all mainland regions of Tanzania and to model costs of program maintenance over one and five years following initiation. Total costs for the Mbeya Region were $202,240, with the highest proportion due to initial training and equipment (45.2%), followed by central program administration (37.2%), and follow-up visits (17.6%). Within Mbeya, 49 training sessions were undertaken, involving the training of 1,341 health providers from 336 health facilities in eight districts. To similarly expand the HBB program across the 25 regions of mainland Tanzania, the total economic cost is projected to be around $4,000,000 (around $600 per facility). Following sensitivity analyses, the estimated total for all Tanzania initial rollout lies between $2,934,793 to $4,309,595. In order to maintain the program nationally under the current model, it is estimated it would cost $2,019,115 for a further one year and $5,640,794 for a further five years of ongoing program support. HBB implementation is a relatively low-cost intervention with potential for high impact on perinatal

  5. Huntington's disease in Tanzania.

    PubMed Central

    Scrimgeour, E M

    1981-01-01

    Huntington's disease was studied in a Bantu community in northern Tanzania. Although there is evidence to suggest that the disease has been present here for over one hundred years, this is the first report of the condition in Tanzania. A survey of published reports indicates that the disease is infrequently reported in persons of Negro ancestry. PMID:6453998

  6. Spatial Heterogeneity of Habitat Suitability for Rift Valley Fever Occurrence in Tanzania: An Ecological Niche Modelling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sindato, Calvin; Stevens, Kim B.; Karimuribo, Esron D.; Mboera, Leonard E. G.; Paweska, Janusz T.; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the long history of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in Tanzania, extent of its suitable habitat in the country remains unclear. In this study we investigated potential effects of temperature, precipitation, elevation, soil type, livestock density, rainfall pattern, proximity to wild animals, protected areas and forest on the habitat suitability for RVF occurrence in Tanzania. Materials and Methods Presence-only records of 193 RVF outbreak locations from 1930 to 2007 together with potential predictor variables were used to model and map the suitable habitats for RVF occurrence using ecological niche modelling. Ground-truthing of the model outputs was conducted by comparing the levels of RVF virus specific antibodies in cattle, sheep and goats sampled from locations in Tanzania that presented different predicted habitat suitability values. Principal Findings Habitat suitability values for RVF occurrence were higher in the northern and central-eastern regions of Tanzania than the rest of the regions in the country. Soil type and precipitation of the wettest quarter contributed equally to habitat suitability (32.4% each), followed by livestock density (25.9%) and rainfall pattern (9.3%). Ground-truthing of model outputs revealed that the odds of an animal being seropositive for RVFV when sampled from areas predicted to be most suitable for RVF occurrence were twice the odds of an animal sampled from areas least suitable for RVF occurrence (95% CI: 1.43, 2.76, p < 0.001). Conclusion/Significance The regions in the northern and central-eastern Tanzania were more suitable for RVF occurrence than the rest of the regions in the country. The modelled suitable habitat is characterised by impermeable soils, moderate precipitation in the wettest quarter, high livestock density and a bimodal rainfall pattern. The findings of this study should provide guidance for the design of appropriate RVF surveillance, prevention and control strategies which target areas with

  7. Adult Students go to Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Brian

    1976-01-01

    A preparatory course and a three-week study safari to Tanzania were conducted jointly by the University of Southampton and Nottingham University. The course sought to increase the participants' understanding of Tanzania's geography, economy, politics, education, and social systems. The actual visit is also described. (Author/EC)

  8. Context and characteristics of illicit drug use in coastal and interior Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Tiberio, Jenny; Laurent, Yovin Ivo; Ndayongeje, Joel; Msami, Amani; Welty, Susie; Ngonyani, Alois; Mwankemwa, Syangu; Makumbuli, Moza; McFarland, Willi; Morris, Meghan D

    2018-01-01

    An increase in heroin seizures in East Africa may signal wider local consumption of illicit drugs. Most information about drug use in Tanzania is from the economic capital, Dar es Salaam, and well-travelled Zanzibar. More data are needed on the extent, trends, and characteristics of illicit drug use in the vast coast and interior of the country. The study was a rapid assessment, triangulating data from in-depth interviews of primary key informants (people who use drugs [PWUD]), secondary informants (police, community members, service providers), and ethnographic mapping of hotspots in 12 regions of Tanzania. We conducted 436 in-depth interviews from September 2013 to August 2014. Regions were categorized as (1) nascent: drug use is beginning to take root; (2) established: drug use has existed for some time; or (3) pervasive: drug use is spreading into new sub-groups/areas. Multiple sources corroborated that illicit drug use has been increasing in all regions. Most PWUD worked in the cash economy as bus touts, labourers, fishermen, miners, or sex workers, or stole to survive or support their habit. PWUD congregated around bus stops along transit corridors, in abandoned buildings, and in low-income residential areas. Informants described less visible PWUD among military, police, and working-class people. Cannabis was the most common, smoked alone or with tobacco and heroin ("cocktail"). Heroin was available in all regions. Cocaine was less common, likely due to high price and variable availability. Substances such as petrol, shoe polish, and glue were used as inhalants. Illicit drug use is widespread with variable features beyond cosmopolitan areas of Tanzania. Improving transportation infrastructure and economic opportunities combined with poverty and inequality appear key factors for increasing use. Findings call attention to increasing and widening drug use in Tanzania and the need to plan prevention, treatment, and harm-reduction measures nationally. Copyright

  9. Geographic Access Modeling of Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care in Kigoma Region, Tanzania: Transportation Schemes and Programmatic Implications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi No; Schmitz, Michelle M; Serbanescu, Florina; Dynes, Michelle M; Maro, Godson; Kramer, Michael R

    2017-09-27

    Access to transportation is vital to reducing the travel time to emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC) for managing complications and preventing adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. This study examines the distribution of travel times to EmONC in Kigoma Region, Tanzania, using various transportation schemes, to estimate the proportion of live births (a proxy indicator of women needing delivery care) with poor geographic access to EmONC services. The 2014 Reproductive Health Survey of Kigoma Region identified 4 primary means of transportation used to travel to health facilities: walking, cycling, motorcycle, and 4-wheeled motor vehicle. A raster-based travel time model was used to map the 2-hour travel time catchment for each mode of transportation. Live birth density distributions were aggregated by travel time catchments, and by administrative council, to estimate the proportion of births with poor access. Of all live births in Kigoma Region, 13% occurred in areas where women can reach EmONC facilities within 2 hours on foot, 33% in areas that can be reached within 2 hours only by motorized vehicles, and 32% where it is impossible to reach EmONC facilities within 2 hours. Over 50% of births in 3 of the 8 administrative councils had poor estimated access. In half the councils, births with poor access could be reduced to no higher than 12% if all female residents had access to motorized vehicles. Significant differences in geographic access to EmONC in Kigoma Region, Tanzania, were observed both by location and by primary transportation type. As most of the population may only have good EmONC access when using mechanized or motorized vehicles, bicycles and motorcycles should be incorporated into the health transportation strategy. Collaboration between private transportation sectors and obstetric service providers could improve access to EmONC services among most populations. In areas where residents may not access EmONC facilities within 2 hours

  10. Geographic Access Modeling of Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care in Kigoma Region, Tanzania: Transportation Schemes and Programmatic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi No; Schmitz, Michelle M; Serbanescu, Florina; Dynes, Michelle M; Maro, Godson; Kramer, Michael R

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Access to transportation is vital to reducing the travel time to emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC) for managing complications and preventing adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. This study examines the distribution of travel times to EmONC in Kigoma Region, Tanzania, using various transportation schemes, to estimate the proportion of live births (a proxy indicator of women needing delivery care) with poor geographic access to EmONC services. Methods: The 2014 Reproductive Health Survey of Kigoma Region identified 4 primary means of transportation used to travel to health facilities: walking, cycling, motorcycle, and 4-wheeled motor vehicle. A raster-based travel time model was used to map the 2-hour travel time catchment for each mode of transportation. Live birth density distributions were aggregated by travel time catchments, and by administrative council, to estimate the proportion of births with poor access. Results: Of all live births in Kigoma Region, 13% occurred in areas where women can reach EmONC facilities within 2 hours on foot, 33% in areas that can be reached within 2 hours only by motorized vehicles, and 32% where it is impossible to reach EmONC facilities within 2 hours. Over 50% of births in 3 of the 8 administrative councils had poor estimated access. In half the councils, births with poor access could be reduced to no higher than 12% if all female residents had access to motorized vehicles. Conclusion: Significant differences in geographic access to EmONC in Kigoma Region, Tanzania, were observed both by location and by primary transportation type. As most of the population may only have good EmONC access when using mechanized or motorized vehicles, bicycles and motorcycles should be incorporated into the health transportation strategy. Collaboration between private transportation sectors and obstetric service providers could improve access to EmONC services among most populations. In areas where residents may

  11. Toward a nitrogen footprint calculator for Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutton, Mary Olivia; Leach, Allison M.; Leip, Adrian; Galloway, James N.; Bekunda, Mateete; Sullivan, Clare; Lesschen, Jan Peter

    2017-03-01

    We present the first nitrogen footprint model for a developing country: Tanzania. Nitrogen (N) is a crucial element for agriculture and human nutrition, but in excess it can cause serious environmental damage. The Sub-Saharan African nation of Tanzania faces a two-sided nitrogen problem: while there is not enough soil nitrogen to produce adequate food, excess nitrogen that escapes into the environment causes a cascade of ecological and human health problems. To identify, quantify, and contribute to solving these problems, this paper presents a nitrogen footprint tool for Tanzania. This nitrogen footprint tool is a concept originally designed for the United States of America (USA) and other developed countries. It uses personal resource consumption data to calculate a per-capita nitrogen footprint. The Tanzania N footprint tool is a version adapted to reflect the low-input, integrated agricultural system of Tanzania. This is reflected by calculating two sets of virtual N factors to describe N losses during food production: one for fertilized farms and one for unfertilized farms. Soil mining factors are also calculated for the first time to address the amount of N removed from the soil to produce food. The average per-capita nitrogen footprint of Tanzania is 10 kg N yr-1. 88% of this footprint is due to food consumption and production, while only 12% of the footprint is due to energy use. Although 91% of farms in Tanzania are unfertilized, the large contribution of fertilized farms to N losses causes unfertilized farms to make up just 83% of the food production N footprint. In a developing country like Tanzania, the main audiences for the N footprint tool are community leaders, planners, and developers who can impact decision-making and use the calculator to plan positive changes for nitrogen sustainability in the developing world.

  12. Estimating Leptospirosis Incidence Using Hospital-Based Surveillance and a Population-Based Health Care Utilization Survey in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, Holly M.; Hertz, Julian T.; Munishi, O. Michael; Galloway, Renee L.; Marks, Florian; Saganda, Wilbrod; Maro, Venance P.; Crump, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of leptospirosis, a neglected zoonotic disease, is uncertain in Tanzania and much of sub-Saharan Africa, resulting in scarce data on which to prioritize resources for public health interventions and disease control. In this study, we estimate the incidence of leptospirosis in two districts in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a population-based household health care utilization survey in two districts in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania and identified leptospirosis cases at two hospital-based fever sentinel surveillance sites in the Kilimanjaro Region. We used multipliers derived from the health care utilization survey and case numbers from hospital-based surveillance to calculate the incidence of leptospirosis. A total of 810 households were enrolled in the health care utilization survey and multipliers were derived based on responses to questions about health care seeking in the event of febrile illness. Of patients enrolled in fever surveillance over a 1 year period and residing in the 2 districts, 42 (7.14%) of 588 met the case definition for confirmed or probable leptospirosis. After applying multipliers to account for hospital selection, test sensitivity, and study enrollment, we estimated the overall incidence of leptospirosis ranges from 75–102 cases per 100,000 persons annually. Conclusions/Significance We calculated a high incidence of leptospirosis in two districts in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania, where leptospirosis incidence was previously unknown. Multiplier methods, such as used in this study, may be a feasible method of improving availability of incidence estimates for neglected diseases, such as leptospirosis, in resource constrained settings. PMID:24340122

  13. Health Libraries and Information Services in Tanzania: A Strategic Assessment.

    PubMed

    Haruna, Hussein; Mtoroki, Majaliwa; Gerendasy, Dan D; Detlefsen, Ellen G

    The intention of the Government of Tanzania is to establish more health information resource canters in all health facilities. With this regard, health information science personnel are needed to provide adequate and accurate health information services. However, availability of these personnel remains to be a challenge because of their non-existence. To identify the current status and local impact of health sciences libraries and user perception of these libraries, as a prerequisite to the development of a competence-based curriculum for health information science training in Tanzania. A needs assessment was carried out using a convenience sample of local respondents, including librarians, trainers, academicians, students, health care providers, and patients and families, drawn from national, referral, regional, district hospitals, health training institutions, and universities from both government and nongovernment entities in Tanzania. A focus group approach was used to gather data from respondents. Results from this assessment revealed that health science libraries in Tanzania are faced with the challenges of insufficient infrastructure, old technology, limited facilities and furniture, inadequate and incompetent library staff, lack of health sciences librarians, outdated and insufficient resources, and low knowledge and use of information technologies by library clients. Most respondents would prefer to have both physical and electronic libraries, as well as librarians with specialized health information science skills, to cope with changing nature of the medical field. The findings obtained from this assessment are strong enough to guide the development of a curriculum and training strategy and an operational plan and training packages for health information professionals. The development of a training curriculum for health information science professionals will mean better health information service delivery for Tanzania. Copyright © 2016 Icahn School of

  14. Health Libraries and Information Services in Tanzania: A Strategic Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Haruna, Hussein; Mtoroki, Majaliwa; Gerendasy, Dan D.; Detlefsen, Ellen G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the current status and local impact of health sciences libraries and the perception of these libraries by their users, as a pre-requisite to the development of a competence-based curriculum for health information science training in Tanzania. Methodology A needs assessment was carried out using a convenience sample of local respondents, including librarians, trainers, academicians, students, health care providers and patients and families, drawn from national, referral, regional, district hospitals, health training institutions, and Universities from both government and non-government entities in Tanzania. A focus group approach was used to gather data from respondents. Results Results from this assessment revealed that health science libraries in Tanzania are faced with the challenges of insufficient infrastructure, old technology, limited facilities and furniture, inadequate and incompetent library staff, lack of health sciences librarians, outdated and insufficient resources, as well as low knowledge and use of information technologies by library clients. Most respondents would prefer to have both physical and electronic libraries, as well as librarians with specialized health information science skills, to cope with changing nature of the medical field. Conclusion The findings obtained from this assessment are strong enough to guide the development of a curriculum and training strategy and an operational plan and training packages for health information professionals. The development of a training curriculum for health information science professionals will mean better health information service delivery for Tanzania. PMID:28283146

  15. Acute Pesticide Poisoning in Children: Hospital Review in Selected Hospitals of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lekei, Elikana; Ngowi, Aiwerasia V; London, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Acute pesticide poisoning (APP) is a serious problem worldwide. Because the burden of childhood APP is unknown in Tanzania, this study describes the distribution, circumstances, and patterns of APP involving children under 18 years in Tanzania. A 12-month prospective study was conducted in 10 Tanzanian healthcare facilities in 2006 using a data collection tool for surveillance. Of 53 childhood poisoning cases identified, 56.6% were female. The most common poisoning circumstances were accidents (49.1%) and suicide (30.2%). The most vulnerable children were 16-17 years old (30.2%). Suicide was significantly more common in females (PRR females/males = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.03-2.68) and accidental cases were more common in children aged 10 years or younger. Suicide was concentrated in children over 10 years, comprising 53% of cases in this age group. Organophosphates (OPs), zinc phosphide, and endosulfan were common amongst reported poisoning agents. The annual APP incidence rate was 1.61/100,000. APP is common among children in this region of Tanzania. Prevention of suicide in older children should address mental health issues and control access to toxic pesticides. Prevention of accidents in younger children requires safer storage and hygiene measures. Diverse interventions are needed to reduce pesticide poisoning among children in Tanzania.

  16. Incidence of human brucellosis in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania in the periods 2007–2008 and 2012–2014

    PubMed Central

    Carugati, Manuela; Biggs, Holly M; Maze, Michael J; Stoddard, Robyn A; Cash-Goldwasser, Shama; Hertz, Julian T; Halliday, Jo E B; Saganda, Wilbrod; Lwezaula, Bingileki F; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Cleaveland, Sarah; Maro, Venance P; Rubach, Matthew P; Crump, John A

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Brucellosis causes substantial morbidity among humans and their livestock. There are few robust estimates of the incidence of brucellosis in sub-Saharan Africa. Using cases identified through sentinel hospital surveillance and health care utilization data, we estimated the incidence of brucellosis in Moshi Urban and Moshi Rural Districts, Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania, for the periods 2007–2008 and 2012–2014. Methods Cases were identified among febrile patients at two sentinel hospitals and were defined as having either a 4-fold increase in Brucella microscopic agglutination test titres between acute and convalescent serum or a blood culture positive for Brucella spp. Findings from a health care utilization survey were used to estimate multipliers to account for cases not seen at sentinel hospitals. Results Of 585 patients enrolled in the period 2007–2008, 13 (2.2%) had brucellosis. Among 1095 patients enrolled in the period 2012–2014, 32 (2.9%) had brucellosis. We estimated an incidence (range based on sensitivity analysis) of brucellosis of 35 (range 32–93) cases per 100 000 persons annually in the period 2007–2008 and 33 (range 30–89) cases per 100 000 persons annually in the period 2012–2014. Conclusions We found a moderate incidence of brucellosis in northern Tanzania, suggesting that the disease is endemic and an important human health problem in this area. PMID:29697848

  17. Upper mantle Q and thermal structure beneath Tanzania, East Africa from teleseismic P wave spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkataraman, Anupama; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Ritsema, Jeroen

    2004-08-01

    We measure P wave spectral amplitude ratios from deep-focus earthquakes recorded at broadband seismic stations of the Tanzania network to estimate regional variation of sublithospheric mantle attenuation beneath the Tanzania craton and the eastern branch of the East African Rift. One-dimensional profiles of QP adequately explain the systematic variation of P wave attenuation in the sublithospheric upper mantle: QP ~ 175 beneath the cratonic lithosphere, while it is ~ 80 beneath the rifted lithosphere. By combining the QP values and a model of P wave velocity perturbations, we estimate that the temperature beneath the rifted lithosphere (100-400 km depth) is 140-280 K higher than ambient mantle temperatures, consistent with the observation that the 410 km discontinuity in this region is depressed by 30-40 km.

  18. Comparison of the Estimated Incidence of Acute Leptospirosis in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania between 2007–08 and 2012–14

    PubMed Central

    Maze, Michael J.; Biggs, Holly M.; Rubach, Matthew P.; Galloway, Renee L.; Cash-Goldwasser, Shama; Allan, Kathryn J.; Halliday, Jo E. B.; Hertz, Julian T.; Saganda, Wilbrod; Lwezaula, Bingileki F.; Cleaveland, Sarah; Mmbaga, Blandina T.; Maro, Venance P.; Crump, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The sole report of annual leptospirosis incidence in continental Africa of 75–102 cases per 100,000 population is from a study performed in August 2007 through September 2008 in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania. To evaluate the stability of this estimate over time, we estimated the incidence of acute leptospirosis in Kilimanjaro Region, northern Tanzania for the time period 2012–2014. Methodology and Principal Findings Leptospirosis cases were identified among febrile patients at two sentinel hospitals in the Kilimanjaro Region. Leptospirosis was diagnosed by serum microscopic agglutination testing using a panel of 20 Leptospira serovars belonging to 17 separate serogroups. Serum was taken at enrolment and patients were asked to return 4–6 weeks later to provide convalescent serum. Confirmed cases required a 4-fold rise in titre and probable cases required a single titre of ≥800. Findings from a healthcare utilisation survey were used to estimate multipliers to adjust for cases not seen at sentinel hospitals. We identified 19 (1.7%) confirmed or probable cases among 1,115 patients who presented with a febrile illness. Of cases, the predominant reactive serogroups were Australis 8 (42.1%), Sejroe 3 (15.8%), Grippotyphosa 2 (10.5%), Icterohaemorrhagiae 2 (10.5%), Pyrogenes 2 (10.5%), Djasiman 1 (5.3%), Tarassovi 1 (5.3%). We estimated that the annual incidence of leptospirosis was 11–18 cases per 100,000 population. This was a significantly lower incidence than 2007–08 (p<0.001). Conclusions We estimated a much lower incidence of acute leptospirosis than previously, with a notable absence of cases due to the previously predominant serogroup Mini. Our findings indicate a dynamic epidemiology of leptospirosis in this area and highlight the value of multi-year surveillance to understand leptospirosis epidemiology. PMID:27911902

  19. Acute Pesticide Poisoning in Children: Hospital Review in Selected Hospitals of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    London, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Background Acute pesticide poisoning (APP) is a serious problem worldwide. Because the burden of childhood APP is unknown in Tanzania, this study describes the distribution, circumstances, and patterns of APP involving children under 18 years in Tanzania. Methodology A 12-month prospective study was conducted in 10 Tanzanian healthcare facilities in 2006 using a data collection tool for surveillance. Results Of 53 childhood poisoning cases identified, 56.6% were female. The most common poisoning circumstances were accidents (49.1%) and suicide (30.2%). The most vulnerable children were 16-17 years old (30.2%). Suicide was significantly more common in females (PRR females/males = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.03–2.68) and accidental cases were more common in children aged 10 years or younger. Suicide was concentrated in children over 10 years, comprising 53% of cases in this age group. Organophosphates (OPs), zinc phosphide, and endosulfan were common amongst reported poisoning agents. The annual APP incidence rate was 1.61/100,000. Conclusion APP is common among children in this region of Tanzania. Prevention of suicide in older children should address mental health issues and control access to toxic pesticides. Prevention of accidents in younger children requires safer storage and hygiene measures. Diverse interventions are needed to reduce pesticide poisoning among children in Tanzania. PMID:29441090

  20. Monitoring basin-scale land cover changes in Kagera Basin of Lake Victoria using ancillary data and remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasige, John E.; Groen, Thomas A.; Smaling, Eric; Jetten, Victor

    2013-04-01

    The Kagera Basin is a high value ecosystem in the Lake Victoria watershed because of the hydrological and food services it provides. The basin has faced large scale human induced land use and land cover changes (LUCC), but quantitative data is to date lacking. A combination of ancillary data and satellite imagery were interpreted to construct LUCC dynamics for the last century. This study is an initial step towards assessing the impact of LUCC on sustainable agriculture and water quality in the watershed. The results show that large trends of LUCC have rapidly occurred over the last 100 years. The most dominant LUCC processes were gains in farmland areas (not detectable in 1901 to 60% in 2010) and a net reduction in dense forest (7% to 2.6%), woodlands (51% to 6.9%) and savannas (35% to 19.6%) between 1901 and 2010. Forest degradation rapidly occurred during 1974 and 1995 but the forest re-grew between 1995 and 2010 due to forest conservation efforts. Afforestation efforts have resulted in plantation forest increases between 1995 and 2010. The rates of LUCC observed are higher than those reported in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) and other parts of the world. This is one of the few studies in SSA at a basin scale that combines multi-source spatio-temporal data on land cover to enable long-term quantification of land cover changes. In the discussion we address future research needs for the area based on the results of this study. These research needs include quantifying the impacts of land cover change on nutrient and sediment dynamics, soil organic carbon stocks, and changes in biodiversity.

  1. AgriSense-STARS: Advancing Methods of Agricultural Monitoring for Food Security in Smallholder Regions - the Case for Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempewolf, J.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Nakalembe, C. L.; Tumbo, S.; Maurice, S.; Mbilinyi, B.; Ntikha, O.; Hansen, M.; Justice, C. J.; Adusei, B.; Kongo, V.

    2015-12-01

    In-season monitoring of crop conditions provides critical information for agricultural policy and decision making and most importantly for food security planning and management. Nationwide agricultural monitoring in countries dominated by smallholder farming systems, generally relies on extensive networks of field data collectors. In Tanzania, extension agents make up this network and report on conditions across the country, approaching a "near-census". Data is collected on paper which is resource and time intensive, as well as prone to errors. Data quality is ambiguous and there is a general lack of clear and functional feedback loops between farmers, extension agents, analysts and decision makers. Moreover, the data are not spatially explicit, limiting the usefulness for analysis and quality of policy outcomes. Despite significant advances in remote sensing and information communication technologies (ICT) for monitoring agriculture, the full potential of these new tools is yet to be realized in Tanzania. Their use is constrained by the lack of resources, skills and infrastructure to access and process these data. The use of ICT technologies for data collection, processing and analysis is equally limited. The AgriSense-STARS project is developing and testing a system for national-scale in-season monitoring of smallholder agriculture using a combination of three main tools, 1) GLAM-East Africa, an automated MODIS satellite image processing system, 2) field data collection using GeoODK and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and 3) the Tanzania Crop Monitor, a collaborative online portal for data management and reporting. These tools are developed and applied in Tanzania through the National Food Security Division of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food Security and Cooperatives (MAFC) within a statistically representative sampling framework (area frame) that ensures data quality, representability and resource efficiency.

  2. Trachoma and Health Education in Primary Schools in Tanzania: A Pointer to Community Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansdow, Richard; Issae, Wahab; Katala, Sidney; Mwaisumo, Rose

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The primary aim of the work reported here is to determine whether a low cost teaching approach which had been successfully used in one region of Tanzania (Tanga) could be introduced to other teachers in a different region by teachers, rather than outside experts. A second aim is to determine whether changes occurred in children's…

  3. Risk factors for prevalence of pig parasitoses in Mbeya Region, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kabululu, Mwemezi Lutakyawa; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Kimera, Sharadhuli Iddi; Lekule, Faustin Paul; Kimbi, Eliakunda Casmir; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2015-09-15

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine risk factors for prevalence of common endo- and ectoparasites of pigs kept by smallholder farmers in Mbozi and Mbeya (Rural) districts of Mbeya Region, in Tanzania. A total of 482 pigs from 220 households of 16 villages, eight in each district were randomly selected and examined. Prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis was 11.5%, gastrointestinal nematodes 63.7% and ectoparasites 21.2% based on Ag-ELISA, McMaster technique and full body searches/ear scrapings, respectively. Nematode eggs identified were strongyles (Oesophagostomum spp. and Trichostrongylus spp.), Ascaris suum, Trichuris suis and Strongyloides ransomi with prevalence of 57.4%, 17.5%, 5.3% and 1.1%, respectively. Four groups of ectoparasites were identified, i.e. lice (Haematopinus suis), ticks (Rhipicephalus spp., Amblyomma spp., Haemaphysalis spp. and Boophilus spp.), fleas (Ctenocephalides canis) and mites (Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis and Demodex phylloides), with prevalence of 19.1%, 2.1%, 0.4%, and 1.2%, respectively. Pigs in Mbeya (Rural) District had higher odds for porcine cysticercosis (OR=2.63, 95% CI: [1.22-5.55]). Poor pen hygiene and infrequent antiparasitic treatment were identified to be risk factors for prevalence of nematode infections (OR=1.95 [1.09-3.52] and OR=1.78 [1.06-2.94], respectively). The odds for high nematode burdens increased in cases of poor pen hygiene (OR=4.20 [2.54-6.62]) and poor feed quality (OR=3.7 [1.66-8.33]). Pigs not treated with antiparasitic drugs within the last three months had higher odds for ectoparasite (OR=4.0 [1.78-9.09]) and lice infestations (OR=8.33 [1.96-14.28]) than treated pigs. This study has shown that parasitoses constitute a major burden for smallholder pigs in Mbeya Region and major risk factors included infrequent antiparasitic treatment, poor pen hygiene and poor feed quality. Cost-effective intervention strategies are needed to improve pork production, secure pig welfare and ensure

  4. Clusters and Factors Associated with Complementary Basic Education in Tanzania Mainland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwin, Paul; Amina, Msengwa S.; Godwin, Naimani M.

    2017-01-01

    Complimentary Basic Education in Tanzania (COBET) is a community-based programme initiated in 1999 to provide formal education system opportunity to over aged children or children above school age. The COBET program was analyzed using secondary data collected from 21 regions from 2008 to 2012. Cluster analysis was applied to classify the 21…

  5. "Hakuna Matata": Lakeside Literacy in Tanzania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Alan J.

    This paper begins by telling the story of Edward, a preacher/teacher in Tanzania who, although poor and uneducated himself, managed to teach his parishioners how to read. The paper describes the experience of one man and his wife who spent 4 years at Katoke Teachers College in northwest Tanzania during the early 1970s, after which they returned to…

  6. Peasants and Educators: A Study of the Literacy Environment in Rural Tanzania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadege, Nyasugara P.; And Others

    A study mapped out the current provision of and needs for post-literacy facilities in Tanzania, in particular in the rural regions. Study activities included the following: literature review on post-literacy provision and participation; review of the Ministry of Education and Culture's (MEC's) official statistics on post-literacy provision and…

  7. Skin diseases among elderly patients attending skin clinic at the Regional Dermatology Training Centre, Northern Tanzania: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mponda, Kelvin; Masenga, John

    2016-02-22

    As global population of the elderly continues to rise, a critical need to provide it with health services, including dermatology, will be significant, especially in developing countries like Tanzania. To adequately meet their dermatologic needs, knowledge of local patterns of skin conditions is vital. This study was aimed to describe the spectrum of skin diseases among elderly patients attending skin clinic at the Regional Dermatology Training Centre (RDTC) in Northern Tanzania. A descriptive hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2013 and April 2013 at RDTC and included all patients aged 55 years and above who consented to be examined. Diagnoses were clinical, diagnostic tests being done only when necessary. Ethical clearance to conduct the study was granted. A total of 142 patients, age ranges 55-99 years, median age of 67.5 years were seen. Eczemas were the leading disease group (43.7%), with unclassified eczemas (33.9%) predominating. Papulosquamous disorders (15.4%) were second with psoriasis (50%) being the leading disease. Infections (11.3% with fungal infections the leading group representing 5.6% of all diseases), tumours (9.8%: Kaposi's sarcoma 4.2%), vascular disorders 9.1% (lymphedema 4.9%), autoimmune disorders 7.7% (connective tissue diseases 4.9%), vitiligo 4.2%, nutritional diseases 2.1% (pellagra 0.7%), urticaria 0.7% and drug reactions 0.7%. Eczemas are the most common group of disorders among elderly patients presenting at RDTC.

  8. Effects of trophy hunting on lion and leopard populations in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Packer, C; Brink, H; Kissui, B M; Maliti, H; Kushnir, H; Caro, T

    2011-02-01

    Tanzania holds most of the remaining large populations of African lions (Panthera leo) and has extensive areas of leopard habitat (Panthera pardus), and both species are subjected to sizable harvests by sport hunters. As a first step toward establishing sustainable management strategies, we analyzed harvest trends for lions and leopards across Tanzania's 300,000 km(2) of hunting blocks. We summarize lion population trends in protected areas where lion abundance has been directly measured and data on the frequency of lion attacks on humans in high-conflict agricultural areas. We place these findings in context of the rapidly growing human population in rural Tanzania and the concomitant effects of habitat loss, human-wildlife conflict, and cultural practices. Lion harvests declined by 50% across Tanzania between 1996 and 2008, and hunting areas with the highest initial harvests suffered the steepest declines. Although each part of the country is subject to some form of anthropogenic impact from local people, the intensity of trophy hunting was the only significant factor in a statistical analysis of lion harvest trends. Although leopard harvests were more stable, regions outside the Selous Game Reserve with the highest initial leopard harvests again showed the steepest declines. Our quantitative analyses suggest that annual hunting quotas be limited to 0.5 lions and 1.0 leopard/1000 km(2) of hunting area, except hunting blocks in the Selous Game Reserve, where harvests should be limited to 1.0 lion and 3.0 leopards/1000 km(2) . ©2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Child Sexual Abuse in Tanzania and Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalor, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Most research on child abuse in Tanzania and Kenya is unpublished in the international literature. The purpose of this paper is to examine the various commentaries and reports extant, toward an overview of the nature and frequency of child sexual abuse in Tanzania and Kenya. Methods: Contacts were made with academics, government…

  10. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Human Taenia Solium Infections in Mbozi District, Mbeya Region, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mwanjali, Gloria; Kihamia, Charles; Kakoko, Deodatus Vitalis Conatus; Lekule, Faustin; Ngowi, Helena; Johansen, Maria Vang; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2013-01-01

    Background Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniosis is emerging as a serious public health and economic problem in many developing countries. This study was conducted to determine prevalence and risk factors of human T. solium infections in Mbeya Region, Tanzania. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 13 villages of Mbozi district in 2009. Sera of 830 people (mean 37.9±11.3 years (SD); 43% females) were tested for circulating cysticerci antigen (Ag-ELISA) and antibody (Ab-ELISA). A subset of persons found seropositive by Ag-ELISA underwent computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain for evidence of neurocysticercosis. Stool samples from 820 of the same participants were tested for taeniosis by copro-antigens (copro-Ag-ELISA) and formol-ether concentration technique. Cases of T. solium taeniosis were confirmed serologically by EITB assay (rES38). A questionnaire was used for identification of risk factors. Active cysticercosis by positive Ag-ELISA was found in 139 (16.7%) persons while anti-cysticercal antibodies were detected in 376 (45.3%) persons by Ab-ELISA. Among 55 persons positive for Ag-ELISA undergoing CT scan, 30 (54.6%) were found to have structures in the brain suggestive of neurocysticercosis. Using faecal analysis, 43 (5.2%) stool samples tested positive for taeniosis by copro-Ag-ELISA while Taenia eggs were detected in 9 (1.1%) stool samples by routine coprology. Antibodies specifically against adult T. solium were detected in 34 copro-Ag-ELISA positive participants by EITB (rES38) indicating T. solium taeniosis prevalence of 4.1%. Increasing age and hand washing by dipping in contrast to using running water, were found associated with Ag-ELISA seropositivity by logistic regression. Gender (higher risk in females) and water source were risk factors associated with Ab-ELISA seropositivity. Reported symptoms of chronic severe headaches and history of epileptic seizures were found associated with positive Ag-ELISA (p≤0

  11. Acne at the Regional Dermatology Training Centre (RDTC), Tanzania. Clinical, social, and demografic characteristics of patients with focus on severity factors.

    PubMed

    Amani, U A; Mshana, J; Kiprono, S; Mavura, D; Masenga, E J; Cazzaniga, S; Todd, G; Beltraminelli, H

    2018-05-05

    Acne is a common dermatosis and is associated with a significant disease burden. Despite this, studies from Sub-Saharan Africa are rare. However, the prevalence of acne vulgaris in developing countries is increasing, eventually due to the adoption of a western life style especially in urban areas. We conducted an analytical, cross-sectional, hospital-based study between September 2012 and February 2013 (6 months) at the Regional Dermatology Training Centre (RDTC) in Moshi, Tanzania. The clinical, social, and demographic characteristics of patients with acne were assessed. The study was approved by the KCMU-CO Ethical Board. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Ruminant methane reduction through livestock development in Tanzania. Final report for US Department of Energy and US Initiative on Joint Implementation--Activities Implemented Jointly

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Livingston, Roderick

    1999-07-01

    This project was designed to help develop the US Initiative on Joint Implementation activities in Eastern Africa. It has been communicated in meetings with representatives from the Ministry of Environment of Tanzania and the consultant group that developed Tanzania's National Climate Change Action Plan, the Centre for Energy, Environment, Science and Technology, that this project fits very well with the developmental and environmental goals of the Government of Tanzania. The goal of the Activities Implemented Jointly ruminant livestock project is to reduce ruminant methane emissions in Eastern Africa. The project plans a sustainable cattle multiplication unit (CMU) at Mabuki Ranchmore » in the Mwanza Region of Tanzania. This CMU will focus on raising genetically improved animals to be purchased by farmers, developmental organizations, and other CMUs in Tanzania. Through the purchase of these animals farmers will raise their income generation potential and reduce ruminant methane emissions.« less

  13. Occupational exposure to the risk of HIV infection among health care workers in Mwanza Region, United Republic of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Gumodoka, B; Favot, I; Berege, Z A; Dolmans, W M

    1997-01-01

    During 1993, we collected data on knowledge of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission, availability of equipment, protective practices and the occurrence of prick and splash incidents in nine hospitals in the Mwanza Region in the north-west of the United Republic of Tanzania. Such incidents were common, with the average health worker being pricked five times and being splashed nine times per year. The annual occupational risk of HIV transmission was estimated at 0.27% for health workers. Among surgeons, the risk was 0.7% (i.e. more than twice as high) if no special protective measures were taken. Health workers' knowledge and personal protective practices must therefore be improved and the supply of protective equipment supported. Reduction of occupational risk of HIV infection among health workers should be an integral part of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) control strategies.

  14. Health insurance is important in improving maternal health service utilization in Tanzania-analysis of the 2011/2012 Tanzania HIV/AIDS and malaria indicator survey.

    PubMed

    Kibusi, Stephen M; Sunguya, Bruno Fokas; Kimunai, Eunice; Hines, Courtney S

    2018-02-13

    Maternal mortality rates vary significantly from region to region. Interventions such as early and planned antenatal care attendance and facility delivery with skilled health workers can potentially reduce maternal mortality rates. Several factors can be attributed to antenatal care attendance, or lack thereof, including the cost of health care services. The aim of this study was to examine the role of health insurance coverage in utilization of maternal health services in Tanzania. Secondary data analysis was conducted on the nationally representative sample of men and women aged 15-49 years using the 2011/12 Tanzania HIV and Malaria Indicator Survey. It included 4513 women who had one or more live births within three years before the survey. The independent variable was health insurance coverage. Outcome variables included proper timing of the first antenatal care visit, completing the recommended number of antenatal care (ANC) visits, and giving birth under skilled worker. Data were analyzed both descriptively and using regression analyses to examine independent association of health insurance and maternal health services. Of 4513 women, only 281 (6.2%) had health insurance. Among all participants, only 16.9%, 7.1%, and 56.5%, respectively, made their first ANC visit as per recommendation, completed the recommended number of ANC visits, and had skilled birth assistance at delivery. A higher proportion of women with health insurance had a proper timing of 1st ANC attendance compared to their counterparts (27.0% vs. 16.0%, p < 0.001). Similar trend was for skilled birth attendance (77.6% vs. 55.1%, p < 0.001). After adjusting for other confounders and covariates, having health insurance was associated with proper timing of 1st ANC attendance (AOR = 1.89, p < 0.001) and skilled birth attendance (AOR = 2.01, p < 0.01). Health insurance coverage and maternal health services were low in this nationally representative sample in Tanzania. Women

  15. Contrasting rainfall declines in northern and southern Tanzania: Potential differential impacts of west Pacific warming and east Pacific cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, L.; Funk, C. C.; Verdin, J. P.; Pedreros, D. H.; Shukla, S.; Husak, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    Here, we present analysis of a new 1900-2014 rainfall record for the Greater Horn of Africa with high station density (CenTrends), and evaluate potential climate change "hot spots" in Tanzania. We identify recent (1981-2014) downward trends in Tanzanian rainfall, use CenTrends to place these in a longer historical context, and relate rainfall in these regions to decadal changes in global sea surface temperatures (SSTs). To identify areas of concern, we consider the potential food security impacts of the recent rainfall declines and also rapid population growth. Looking forward, we consider what the links to SSTs might mean for rainfall in the next several decades based on SST projections. In addition to CenTrends, we use a variety of geographic data sets, including 1981-2014 rainfall from the Climate Hazards group InfraRed Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPSv2.0), simulated crop stress from the USGS Geospatial Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (GeoWRSI) model, NOAA Extended Reconstructed SSTs (ERSST v4), SST projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), and land cover and population maps from SERVIR, WorldPOP, and CIESIN's Gridded Population of the World. The long-term CenTrends record allows us to suggest an interesting dichotomy in decadal rainfall forcing. During the March to June season, SSTs in the west Pacific appear to be driving post-1980 rainfall reductions in northern Tanzania. In the 2000s, northern Tanzania's densely populated Pangani River, Internal Drainage, and Lake Victoria basins experienced the driest period in more than a century. During summer, negative trends in southern Tanzania appear linked to a negative SST trend in the Nino3.4 region. Since the SST trend in the west (east) Pacific appears strongly influenced by global warming (natural decadal variability), we suggest that water resources in northern Tanzania may face increasing challenges, but that this will be less the case in southern Tanzania.

  16. Nutritional status and birth outcomes of adolescent pregnant girls in Morogoro, Coast, and Dar es Salaam regions, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Shirima, Candida P; Kinabo, Joyce L

    2005-01-01

    Studies that link adolescence pregnancies, nutritional status, and birth outcomes in Tanzania are scarce. We examined the nutritional status and birth outcomes of pregnant adolescent girls from rural and urban areas of three regions in Tanzania. The study was carried out in the regions of Dar es Salaam (Chamazi and Gezaulole dispensaries and Round Table Maternity Home), Coast (Tumbi Regional Hospital and Mlandizi Health Center), and Morogoro (Regional Hospital, Uhuru Clinic, and Mlali Health Center). One hundred eighty pregnant adolescent girls ages 15 to 19 y were recruited and interviewed, and their nutritional status measurements were taken at the seven health facilities. Information concerning date of birth, marital status, educational status, sex education, and income status was collected with a structured questionnaire. Height, weight, and mid-upper arm circumference were measured according to standard techniques. Hemoglobin concentration was measured with a hemoglobinometer and the HemoCue technique. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index, and hemoglobin concentration was determined by cutoff points of the World Health Organization. Suitable statistical analysis was done with SPSS 9.0. Weekly weight gain during pregnancy was measured in 123 subjects who kept their appointments and reported back after 2 wk. Fifty-seven subjects did not keep their appointments and were lost to follow-up. Records of infants' birth weights and mode of delivery were obtained from 50 subjects who delivered at the study sites. The height of about 54% of the subjects was shorter than 151 cm, suggestive of short maternal height. Severe wasting was observed in 27% of subjects. Mean weekly weight gain during pregnancy was 317 +/-110 g (-500 to 500 g). No significant differences were observed between rural and urban settings. Mean infant birth weight was 2600 +/- 480 g. About 48% of infants had low birth weight (<2500 g) and only 14% of infants had birth weight greater than

  17. Marble-hosted ruby deposits of the Morogoro Region, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balmer, Walter A.; Hauzenberger, Christoph A.; Fritz, Harald; Sutthirat, Chakkaphan

    2017-10-01

    The ruby deposits of the Uluguru and Mahenge Mts, Morogoro Region, are related to marbles which represent the cover sequence of the Eastern Granulites in Tanzania. In both localities the cover sequences define a tectonic unit which is present as a nappe structure thrusted onto the gneissic basement in a north-western direction. Based on structural geological observations the ruby deposits are bound to mica-rich boudins in fold hinges where fluids interacted with the marble-host rock in zones of higher permeability. Petrographic observations revealed that the Uluguru Mts deposits occur within calcite-dominated marbles whereas deposits in the Mahenge Mts are found in dolomite-dominated marbles. The mineral assemblage describing the marble-hosted ruby deposit in the Uluguru Mts is characterised by corundum-dolomite-phlogopite ± spinel, calcite, pargasite, scapolite, plagioclase, margarite, chlorite, tourmaline whereas the assemblage corundum-calcite-plagioclase-phlogopite ± dolomite, pargasite, sapphirine, titanite, tourmaline is present in samples from the Mahenge Mts. Although slightly different in mineral assemblage it was possible to draw a similar ruby formation history for both localities. Two ruby forming events were distinguished by textural differences, which could also be modeled by thermodynamic T-XCO2 calculations using non-ideal mixing models of essential minerals. A first formation of ruby appears to have taken place during the prograde path (M1) either by the breakdown of diaspore which was present in the original sedimentary precursor rock or by the breakdown of margarite to corundum and plagioclase. The conditions for M1 metamorphism was estimated at ∼750 °C at 10 kbar, which represents granulite facies conditions. A change in fluid composition towards a CO2 dominated fluid triggered a second ruby generation to form. Subsequently, the examined units underwent a late greenschist facies overprint. In the framework of the East African Orogen we

  18. Towards a National Research Information Service for Tanzania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjerppe, Roland

    This report documents initiatives taken to establish scientific and technical information services in Tanzania. The program has as a short term goal the establishment of a national information service for research by the Tanzania National Scientific Research Council with the cooperation and assistance of the Swedish Royal Institute of Technology…

  19. Expanding Cervical Cancer Screening and Treatment in Tanzania: Stakeholders’ Perceptions of Structural Influences on Scale-Up

    PubMed Central

    Giattas, Mary Rose; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V.; Jolly, Pauline E.; Martin, Michelle Y.; Usdan, Stuart Lawrence; Kohler, Connie; Lisovicz, Nedra

    2015-01-01

    Tanzania has the highest burden of cervical cancer in East Africa. This study aims to identify perceived barriers and facilitators that influence scale-up of regional and population-level cervical cancer screening and treatment programs in Tanzania. Convenience sampling was used to select participants for this qualitative study among 35 key informants. Twenty-eight stakeholders from public-sector health facilities, academia, government, and nongovernmental organizations completed in-depth interviews, and a seven-member municipal health management team participated in a focus group discussion. The investigation identified themes related to the infrastructure of health services for cervical cancer prevention, service delivery, political will, and sociocultural influences on screening and treatment. Decentralizing service delivery, improving access to screening and treatment, increasing the number of trained health workers, and garnering political will were perceived as key facilitators for enhancing and initiating screening and treatment services. In conclusion, participants perceived that system-level structural factors should be addressed to expand regional and population-level service delivery of screening and treatment. Implications for Practice: Tanzanian women have a high burden of cervical cancer. Understanding the perceived structural factors that may influence screening coverage for cervical cancer and availability of treatment may be beneficial for program scale-up. This study showed that multiple factors contribute to the challenge of cervical cancer screening and treatment in Tanzania. In addition, it highlighted systematic developments aimed at expanding services. This study is important because the themes that emerged from the results may help inform programs that plan to improve screening and treatment in Tanzania and potentially in other areas with high burdens of cervical cancer. PMID:25926351

  20. Science Education in Tanzania: Challenges and Policy Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semali, Ladislaus M.; Mehta, Khanjan

    2012-01-01

    Students in rural and urban areas in Tanzania, and elsewhere in Africa, continue to have limited or lack access to culturally and employment-relevant science education. The current case study, a 2007-2009 examination of barriers to the reform movement of science education in Tanzania, uses data from interviews, classroom observations, document…

  1. A Modernized System for Agricultural Monitoring for Food Security in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempewolf, J.; Nakalembe, C. L.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Justice, C. J.; Tumbo, S.; Mbilinyi, B.; Maurice, S.; Mtalo, M.

    2016-12-01

    Accurate and timely information on agriculture, particularly in many countries dominated by complex smallholder, subsistence agricultural systems is often difficult to obtain or not available. This includes up-to-date information during the growing season on crop type, crop area and crop condition such as developmental stage, damage from pests and diseases, drought or flooding. These data are critical for government decision making on production forecasts, planning for commodity market transactions, food aid delivery, responding to disease outbreaks and for implementing agricultural extension and development efforts. In Tanzania we have been working closely with the National Food Security Division (NFSD) at the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries (MALF) on designing and implementing an advanced agricultural monitoring system, utilizing satellite remote sensing, smart phone and internet technologies. Together with our local implementing partner, the Sokoine University of Agriculture we trained a large number of agricultural extension agents in different regions of Tanzania to deliver field data in near-realtime. Using our collaborative internet portal (Crop Monitor) the team of analysts compiles pertinent information on current crop and weather conditions from throughout the country in a standardized, consistent manner. Using the portal traditionally collected data are combined with electronically collected field data and MODIS satellite image time series from GLAM East-Africa (Global Agricultural Monitoring System, customized for stakeholders in East Africa). The main outcome of this work has been the compilation of the National Food Security Bulletin for Tanzania with plans for a public release and the intention for it to become the main avenue to dispense current updates and analysis on agriculture in the country. The same information is also a potential contribution to the international Early Warning Crop Monitor, which currently covers Tanzania

  2. Epidemiologic and clinical aspects of a Rift Valley fever outbreak in humans in Tanzania, 2007.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mohamed; Mosha, Fausta; Mghamba, Janeth; Zaki, Sherif R; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Paweska, Janusz; Omulo, Sylvia; Gikundi, Solomon; Mmbuji, Peter; Bloland, Peter; Zeidner, Nordin; Kalinga, Raphael; Breiman, Robert F; Njenga, M Kariuki

    2010-08-01

    In January 2007, an outbreak of Rift Valley fever (RVF) was detected among humans in northern Tanzania districts. By the end of the outbreak in June, 2007, 511 suspect RVF cases had been recorded from 10 of the 21 regions of Tanzania, with laboratory confirmation of 186 cases and another 123 probable cases. All confirmed RVF cases were located in the north-central and southern regions of the country, with an eventual fatality rate of 28.2% (N = 144). All suspected cases had fever; 89% had encephalopathy, 10% hemorrhage, and 3% retinopathy. A total of 169 (55%) of the 309 confirmed or probable cases were also positive for malaria as detected by peripheral blood smear. In a cohort of 20 RVF cases with known outcome that were also positive for human immunodeficiency virus, 15 (75%) died. Contact with sick animals and animal products, including blood, meat, and milk, were identified as major risk factors of acquiring RVF.

  3. Epidemiologic and Clinical Aspects of a Rift Valley Fever Outbreak in Humans in Tanzania, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Mohamed; Mosha, Fausta; Mghamba, Janeth; Zaki, Sherif R.; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Paweska, Janusz; Omulo, Sylvia; Gikundi, Solomon; Mmbuji, Peter; Bloland, Peter; Zeidner, Nordin; Kalinga, Raphael; Breiman, Robert F.; Njenga, M. Kariuki

    2010-01-01

    In January 2007, an outbreak of Rift Valley fever (RVF) was detected among humans in northern Tanzania districts. By the end of the outbreak in June, 2007, 511 suspect RVF cases had been recorded from 10 of the 21 regions of Tanzania, with laboratory confirmation of 186 cases and another 123 probable cases. All confirmed RVF cases were located in the north-central and southern regions of the country, with an eventual fatality rate of 28.2% (N = 144). All suspected cases had fever; 89% had encephalopathy, 10% hemorrhage, and 3% retinopathy. A total of 169 (55%) of the 309 confirmed or probable cases were also positive for malaria as detected by peripheral blood smear. In a cohort of 20 RVF cases with known outcome that were also positive for human immunodeficiency virus, 15 (75%) died. Contact with sick animals and animal products, including blood, meat, and milk, were identified as major risk factors of acquiring RVF. PMID:20682902

  4. Challenges in day-to-day midwifery practice; a qualitative study from a regional referral hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Bremnes, Hanna Strømholt; Wiig, Åsil Kjøl; Abeid, Muzdalifat; Darj, Elisabeth

    2018-01-01

    Maternal and infant mortality rates in Tanzania have decreased over the past decades, but remain high. One of the challenges the country faces, is the lack of skilled health care workers. High fertility rates make midwives and their patients particularly susceptible to stress as a result of understaffing. This paper explores the challenges midwives face in their day-to-day practice at a regional referral hospital in Tanzania, and investigates which measures the midwives themselves find necessary to implement to improve their situation. A qualitative study design with focus group discussions (FGDs) was employed to explore which challenges the midwives experienced. Each focus group consisted of five to six midwives. A FGD topic guide covering challenges, consequences, motivation, ideal situation and possible solutions was used. These data were analyzed using Systematic Text Condensation. A total of 28 Midwives, six men and 22 women, participated in five FGDs. Four categories emerged from the collected material: Feelings of demoralization, shortage of resources, societal challenges and personal struggles. A feeling of demoralization was especially prevalent and was caused by a lack of support from the leaders and little appreciation from the patients. Shortage of resources, and shortage of personnel in particular, was also highlighted as it led to an excessive workload resulting in difficulties with providing adequate care. These difficulties were intensified by lack of equipment, facilities and a non-optimal organization of the healthcare system. The challenges revealed during the FGDs prevent the midwives from providing sufficient midwifery care. To improve the situation, measures such as supportive leadership, reduction of workload, increasing availability of equipment and increasing knowledge of reproductive health in society, should be taken.

  5. Palliative care in northern Tanzania: doing a lot with a little.

    PubMed

    Bond, Melissa J; Knopp, Andrea

    2018-06-02

    The number of people in need of palliative care is growing worldwide, particularly in the developing world. The World Health Organization recognises palliative care as a basic human right, but there are many challenges for delivering palliative care in low- and middle-income countries. In the African continent, the African Palliative Care Association (APCA) provides guidance for political advocacy for developing palliative care programmes and has developed the APCA Palliative Outcome Score (POS), an evidence-based tool for measuring outcomes of palliative care. This article focuses on palliative care delivery in Shirati, Tanzania, located in the Rorya District in the Mara Region in northern Tanzania, highlighting the impressive work done with limited resources and despite many challenges. Recommendations for future research include evaluation of outcomes using the APCA POS, the application of mobile technology, and governmental advocacy for increased access to opioid medications, which have shown promise in broadening the reach of palliative care in the East African Community.

  6. Transcultural nursing course in Tanzania, Africa.

    PubMed

    Owens, Rhoda

    2012-06-01

    A transcultural nursing course in Tanzania was offered in fall 2010 at Williston State College, located in North Dakota. Madeleine Leininger's Culture Care: Diversity and Universality Theory (Principles of Developing Cultural Competence) was the framework used for the experience. The course provided nursing students the opportunity to learn about the culture, health, and illness beliefs of Tanzanians; their values and practices; the prevalence of HIV/AIDS; and the differences and similarities between the healthcare systems, hospice/palliative care, and home visits in Tanzania as compared to the United States.

  7. Spatial and Temporal Climatic Variation in Coastal Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohli, R. V.; Ates, S.; Rivera-Monroy, V. H.; Polito, M. J.; Midway, S. R.; Gold, A.; Castañeda-Moya, E.; Uchida, E.; Suwa, M.; Mangora, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    Climatic controls are particularly important to the natural and human systems in coastal Tanzania, where mangrove vegetation is a major component of world-renowned biodiversity. This research provides an improved understanding of the climatic features and forcing mechanisms that support the critical mangroves of Tanzania and the livelihoods of its populace, using updated and complete datasets. Updated data confirm that coastal Tanzania falls in the tropical wet-dry Köppen-Geiger climatic type, except for the extreme north, where tropical rain forest exists north of Pangani. The northeast monsoon, known as the kaskazi, largely corresponds to the rainy November-December and March-May months. The southeast monsoon - known as the kusi - overlaps with the drier June-September. Results suggest that El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) are key modulators of precipitation variability in the entire area. More specifically, September-November positive precipitation anomalies occur during positive IOD, especially when combined with El Niño, with slightly negative anomalies during negative IOD, especially when combined with La Niña. The rest of the year tends to show similar precipitation during both IOD phases (March-August) or less precipitation during the positive phase (December-February). Because the literature suggests likelihood of more frequent positive IOD mode and a strengthened relationship of these events to warm-ENSO events, changes to the hydrologic cycle in east Africa may be likely in the future, with a potential for an expanded secondary rainy season and a drier "saddle" between the secondary and primary rainy seasons (i.e., December-February). Therefore, future research should investigate in more detail the influence of the IOD and ENSO on various components of the climatic water balance. Results may be useful to earth, environmental, and social scientists as they seek further understanding of the drivers of ecological and

  8. Male partner involvement in the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV infection in Mwanza Region, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Elias, Munda; Mmbaga, Elia John; Mohamed, Ahmed Abade; Kishimba, Rogath Saika

    2017-01-01

    Globally, there are 3.3 million children < 15 years of age living with HIV infection. About 95% of HIV infected children have acquired infection from their mothers. Although new pediatric HIV infection in Tanzania has declined by 48% and Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) coverage of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) has increased to 77%, the MTCT rate remains high (15%). Poor male partner involvement in PMTCT services is one of the factors contributing to reduced effectiveness of the PMTCT and hence failure to achieve the elimination of maternal to child transmission of HIV. This study examined the predictors of male involvement in PMTCT services in Mwanza Region, Tanzania from perspectives of the mother. A cross sectional study involving selected health facilities was conducted in Mwanza urban from October 2013 through January 2014. HIV positive pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic (ANC) were interviewed using a semi structured questionnaire. Univariate analysis was used to describe the study respondents where bivariate and logistic regression was used to determine predictors of male involvement. A total of 300 HIV positive mothers attending ANC with the mean age of 27.5 + 5.6 were interviewed. Few mothers (24.7%) had their male partners involved in PMTCT. Predictors of male partner involvement in PMTCT were mothers being proactive (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 28.6; Confidence Interval (CI) 7-116), perceived partners knowledge on PMTCT (AOR 24.6, CI 5.9-102.8), exposure to TV/Radio announcements on PMTCT (AOR 4.6, CI 1.5-14) and married status of the mother (AOR 3.7, CI 1.5-9). Mothers who never wanted to be escorted by their male partners and busy partners were associated with reduced odds of male involvement into PMTCT (AOR 0.07, CI 0.007-0.68) and (AOR 0.46 CI 0.21-0.99) respectively. Male partner involvement was associated with 98% reduced odds of violence (Crude Odds Ratio 0.018 CI 0.002-0.14). Male partner involvement in

  9. The Determinants of Traditional Medicine Use in Northern Tanzania: A Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Stanifer, John W.; Patel, Uptal D.; Karia, Francis; Thielman, Nathan; Maro, Venance; Shimbi, Dionis; Kilaweh, Humphrey; Lazaro, Matayo; Matemu, Oliver; Omolo, Justin; Boyd, David

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Traditional medicines are an important part of healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa, and building successful disease treatment programs that are sensitive to traditional medicine practices will require an understanding of their current use and roles, including from a biomedical perspective. Therefore, we conducted a mixed-method study in Northern Tanzania in order to characterize the extent of and reasons for the use of traditional medicines among the general population so that we can better inform public health efforts in the region. Methods Between December 2013 and June 2014 in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, we conducted 5 focus group discussions and 27 in-depth interviews of key informants. The data from these sessions were analyzed using an inductive framework method with cultural insider-outsider coding. From these results, we developed a structured survey designed to test different aspects of traditional medicine use and administered it to a random sample of 655 adults from the community. The results were triangulated to explore converging and diverging themes. Results Most structured survey participants (68%) reported knowing someone who frequently used traditional medicines, and the majority (56%) reported using them themselves in the previous year. The most common uses were for symptomatic ailments (42%), chronic diseases (15%), reproductive problems (11%), and malaria/febrile illnesses (11%). We identified five major determinants for traditional medicine use in Northern Tanzania: biomedical healthcare delivery, credibility of traditional practices, strong cultural identities, individual health status, and disease understanding. Conclusions In order to better formulate effective local disease management programs that are sensitive to TM practices, we described the determinants of TM use. Additionally, we found TM use to be high in Northern Tanzania and that its use is not limited to lower-income areas or rural settings. After symptomatic ailments

  10. Pass Rates in Primary School Leaving Examination in Tanzania: Implication for Efficient Allocation of Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassile, Telemu

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines regional differentials in pass rates in Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE) in Mainland Tanzania. In particular, the paper investigates the effects of pupil-teacher ratio (PTR), pupil-latrine ratio (PLR), pupil-classroom ratio (PCR), availability of electricity in schools, and secondary school and above education of women…

  11. Incidence of Induced Abortion and Post-Abortion Care in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Keogh, Sarah C.; Kimaro, Godfather; Muganyizi, Projestine; Philbin, Jesse; Kahwa, Amos; Ngadaya, Esther; Bankole, Akinrinola

    2015-01-01

    Background Tanzania has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world, and unsafe abortion is one of its leading causes. Yet little is known about its incidence. Objectives To provide the first ever estimates of the incidence of unsafe abortion in Tanzania, at the national level and for each of the 8 geopolitical zones (7 in Mainland plus Zanzibar). Methods A nationally representative survey of health facilities was conducted to determine the number of induced abortion complications treated in facilities. A survey of experts on abortion was conducted to estimate the likelihood of women experiencing complications and obtaining treatment. These surveys were complemented with population and fertility data to obtain abortion numbers, rates and ratios, using the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology. Results In Tanzania, women obtained just over 405,000 induced abortions in 2013, for a national rate of 36 abortions per 1,000 women age 15–49 and a ratio of 21 abortions per 100 live births. For each woman treated in a facility for induced abortion complications, 6 times as many women had an abortion but did not receive care. Abortion rates vary widely by zone, from 10.7 in Zanzibar to 50.7 in the Lake zone. Conclusions The abortion rate is similar to that of other countries in the region. Variations by zone are explained mainly by differences in fertility and contraceptive prevalence. Measures to reduce the incidence of unsafe abortion and associated maternal mortality include expanding access to post-abortion care and contraceptive services to prevent unintended pregnancies. PMID:26361246

  12. Incidence of Induced Abortion and Post-Abortion Care in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Sarah C; Kimaro, Godfather; Muganyizi, Projestine; Philbin, Jesse; Kahwa, Amos; Ngadaya, Esther; Bankole, Akinrinola

    2015-01-01

    Tanzania has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world, and unsafe abortion is one of its leading causes. Yet little is known about its incidence. To provide the first ever estimates of the incidence of unsafe abortion in Tanzania, at the national level and for each of the 8 geopolitical zones (7 in Mainland plus Zanzibar). A nationally representative survey of health facilities was conducted to determine the number of induced abortion complications treated in facilities. A survey of experts on abortion was conducted to estimate the likelihood of women experiencing complications and obtaining treatment. These surveys were complemented with population and fertility data to obtain abortion numbers, rates and ratios, using the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology. In Tanzania, women obtained just over 405,000 induced abortions in 2013, for a national rate of 36 abortions per 1,000 women age 15-49 and a ratio of 21 abortions per 100 live births. For each woman treated in a facility for induced abortion complications, 6 times as many women had an abortion but did not receive care. Abortion rates vary widely by zone, from 10.7 in Zanzibar to 50.7 in the Lake zone. The abortion rate is similar to that of other countries in the region. Variations by zone are explained mainly by differences in fertility and contraceptive prevalence. Measures to reduce the incidence of unsafe abortion and associated maternal mortality include expanding access to post-abortion care and contraceptive services to prevent unintended pregnancies.

  13. Maritime and Underwater Cultural Heritage Initiatives in Tanzania and Mozambique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, Bill; Parthesius, Robert

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this paper is provide an overview of the capacity building programmes in maritime and underwater cultural heritage (MUCH) conducted by the authors in Tanzania and Mozambique. Tanzania and Mozambique have long histories of indigenous cultures, foreign contacts and influences and African adaptations beginning in the late Greco-Roman period, when the coastal populations exploited the peoples and riches of the interior. Today the coastline contains numerous examples of indigenous tangible and intangible heritage and many sites and histories related to the Swahili culture. Some exploratory research and training has been conducted in Tanzania and Mozambique, but the implementation by local residents of their own MUCH programme is still at an early stage. Under a UNESCO agreement framework, Tanzania in particular has started to develop a MUCH programme, which can assist in highlighting their extensive histories, cultural landscapes and cultural identity.

  14. Covering the Last Kilometer: Using GIS to Scale-Up Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Services in Iringa and Njombe Regions, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mahler, Hally; Searle, Sarah; Plotkin, Marya; Kulindwa, Yusuph; Greenberg, Seth; Mlanga, Erick; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Lija, Gissenje

    2015-09-01

    Based on the established protective effect of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in reducing female-to-male HIV transmission, Tanzania's Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW) embarked on the scale-up of VMMC services in 2009. The Maternal and Child Health Integrated Project (MCHIP) supported the MOHSW to roll out VMMC services in Iringa and Njombe, 2 regions of Tanzania with among the highest HIV and lowest circumcision prevalence. With ambitious targets of reaching 264,990 males aged 10-34 years with VMMC in 5 years, efficient and innovative program approaches were necessary. Outreach campaigns, in which mobile teams set up temporary services in facilities or non-facility settings, are used to reach lesser-served areas with VMMC. In 2012, MCHIP began using geographic information systems (GIS) to strategically plan the location of outreach campaigns. MCHIP gathered geocoded data on variables such as roads, road conditions, catchment population, staffing, and infrastructure for every health facility in Iringa and Njombe. These data were uploaded to a central database and overlaid with various demographic and service delivery data in order to identify the VMMC needs of the 2 regions. MCHIP used the interactive digital maps as decision-making tools to extend mobile VMMC outreach to "the last kilometer." As of September 2014, the MOHSW with MCHIP support provided VMMC to 267,917 men, 259,144 of whom were men were aged 10-34 years, an achievement of 98% of the target of eligible males in Iringa and Njombe. The project reached substantially more men through rural dispensaries and non-health care facilities each successive year after GIS was introduced in 2012, jumping from 48% of VMMCs performed in rural areas in fiscal year 2011 to 88% in fiscal year 2012 and to 93% by the end of the project in 2014. GIS was an effective tool for making strategic decisions about where to prioritize VMMC service delivery, particularly for mobile and outreach services

  15. Covering the Last Kilometer: Using GIS to Scale-Up Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Services in Iringa and Njombe Regions, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mahler, Hally; Plotkin, Marya; Kulindwa, Yusuph; Greenberg, Seth; Mlanga, Erick; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Lija, Gissenje

    2015-01-01

    Background: Based on the established protective effect of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in reducing female-to-male HIV transmission, Tanzania's Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW) embarked on the scale-up of VMMC services in 2009. The Maternal and Child Health Integrated Project (MCHIP) supported the MOHSW to roll out VMMC services in Iringa and Njombe, 2 regions of Tanzania with among the highest HIV and lowest circumcision prevalence. With ambitious targets of reaching 264,990 males aged 10–34 years with VMMC in 5 years, efficient and innovative program approaches were necessary. Program Description: Outreach campaigns, in which mobile teams set up temporary services in facilities or non-facility settings, are used to reach lesser-served areas with VMMC. In 2012, MCHIP began using geographic information systems (GIS) to strategically plan the location of outreach campaigns. MCHIP gathered geocoded data on variables such as roads, road conditions, catchment population, staffing, and infrastructure for every health facility in Iringa and Njombe. These data were uploaded to a central database and overlaid with various demographic and service delivery data in order to identify the VMMC needs of the 2 regions. Findings: MCHIP used the interactive digital maps as decision-making tools to extend mobile VMMC outreach to “the last kilometer.” As of September 2014, the MOHSW with MCHIP support provided VMMC to 267,917 men, 259,144 of whom were men were aged 10–34 years, an achievement of 98% of the target of eligible males in Iringa and Njombe. The project reached substantially more men through rural dispensaries and non-health care facilities each successive year after GIS was introduced in 2012, jumping from 48% of VMMCs performed in rural areas in fiscal year 2011 to 88% in fiscal year 2012 and to 93% by the end of the project in 2014. Conclusion: GIS was an effective tool for making strategic decisions about where to prioritize VMMC

  16. Bovine tuberculosis at the human-livestock-wildlife interface: is it a public health problem in Tanzania? A review.

    PubMed

    Katale, Bugwesa Z; Mbugi, Erasto V; Kendal, Sharon; Fyumagwa, Robert D; Kibiki, Gibson S; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Keyyu, Julius D; Van Helden, Paul; Matee, Mecky I

    2012-06-20

    Despite the apparent public health concern about Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in Tanzania, little has been done regarding the zoonotic importance of the disease and raising awareness of the community to prevent the disease. Bovine tuberculosis is a potential zoonotic disease that can infect a variety of hosts, including humans. The presence of multiple hosts including wild animals, inefficient diagnostic techniques, absence of defined national controls and eradication programs could impede the control of bovine TB. In Tanzania, the diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis in animals is mostly carried out by tuberculin skin testing, meat inspection in abattoirs and only rarely using bacteriological techniques. The estimated prevalence of BTB in animals in Tanzania varies and ranges across regions from 0.2% to 13.3%, which is likely to be an underestimate if not confirmed by bacteriology or molecular techniques. Mycobacterium bovis has been detected and isolated from different animal species and has been recovered in 10% of apparently healthy wildebeest that did not show lesions at post-mortem. The transmission of the disease from animals to humans can occur directly through the aerosol route and indirectly by consumption of raw milk. This poses an emerging disease threat in the current era of HIV confection in Tanzania and elsewhere. Mycobacterium bovis is one of the causative agents of human extra pulmonary tuberculosis. In Tanzania there was a significant increase (116.6%) of extrapulmonary cases reported between 1995 and 2009, suggesting the possibility of widespread M. bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection due to general rise of Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This paper aims to review the potential health and economic impact of bovine tuberculosis and challenges to its control in order to safeguard human and animal population in Tanzania.

  17. Geospatial Resource Access Analysis In Hedaru, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Dylan G.; Premkumar, Deepak; Mazur, Robert; Kisimbo, Elibariki

    2013-12-01

    Populations around the world are facing increased impacts of anthropogenic-induced environmental changes and rapid population movements. These environmental and social shifts are having an elevated impact on the livelihoods of agriculturalists and pastoralists in developing countries. This appraisal integrates various tools—usually used independently— to gain a comprehensive understanding of the regional livelihood constraints in the rural Hedaru Valley of northeastern Tanzania. Conducted in three villages with different natural resources, using three primary methods: 1) participatory mapping of infrastructures; 2) administration of quantitative, spatially-tied surveys (n=80) and focus groups (n=14) that examined land use, household health, education, and demographics; 3) conducting quantitative time series analysis of Landsat- based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index images. Through various geospatial and multivariate linear regression analyses, significant geospatial trends emerged. This research added to the academic understanding of the region while establishing pathways for climate change adaptation strategies.

  18. Islam in Tanzania and Kenya: Ally or Foe in the War on Terror?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    US foreign policy in the region. The recent US strategy of intelligence-sharing with Kenya, training and military support to both Kenya and Tanzania...assisted one another in establishing businesses , houses, schools, and so forth.43 Indeed, they were among the first Muslim groups to establish...be debated at that level , although under supervision from the central government. Also, local elections occurred for representatives, even if both

  19. Cancer Training for Frontline Healthcare Providers in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Rick, Tara J; Deming, Cassondra M; Helland, Janey R; Hartwig, Kari A

    2017-08-16

    Cervical and breast cancer are responsible for the highest cancer-related mortality in Tanzania, although both are preventable or curable if diagnosed at an early stage. Limited knowledge of cervical cancer by clinic and dispensary level healthcare providers in Tanzania is a barrier for prevention and control strategies. The purpose of the study was to provide basic oncology training to frontline healthcare workers with a focus on cervical and breast cancer in order to increase knowledge. A 1-day cancer training symposium was conducted in Arusha, Tanzania, with 43 clinicians. Pre- and post-intervention surveys assessed cancer knowledge and confidence of clinicians in risk assessment. Sixty-nine percent of the participants reported never receiving any cervical cancer training in the past. A significant difference was found between the pre- and post-test in a majority of knowledge questions and in reported confidence recognizing signs and symptoms of breast and cervical cancer (p < 0.05). The 1-day community oncology training symposium was effective in delivering and increasing basic knowledge about cervical and breast cancers to these healthcare providers. The low level of baseline cancer knowledge among frontline medical providers in Tanzania illustrates the need for increased training around the country.

  20. Restoring dignity: social reintegration after obstetric fistula repair in Ukerewe, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Pope, Rachel; Bangser, Maggie; Requejo, Jennifer Harris

    2011-01-01

    This study explores barriers and facilitating factors women experience re-integrating into society after treatment of an obstetric fistula in rural Tanzania. A total of 71 women were interviewed in the Mwanza region of Tanzania, including a community control group. The majority of the women who received successful surgical repairs reported that, over time, they were able to resume many of the social and economic activities they engaged in prior to the development of a fistula. Familial support facilitated both accessing repair and recovery. For 60% of the women recovering from an obstetric fistula, work was the most important factor in helping them feel 'normal again'. However, physical limitations and other residual problems often hampered their ability to continue working. All of the treated women expressed interest in follow-up discussions with health care providers regarding their health and concerns about future pregnancies. Special attention is needed for women who are not completely healed and/or for those who experience other related medical or emotional problems after repair, especially if they lack a social network.

  1. Agropastoral Mobility and Rangelands Multiple Uses in the Miombo Frontier Ecozone of Tabora Region, Western Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Masanja, George Felix

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the argument of environmental resource-use conflict as the primary cause of crop farmers and agropastoralists conflicts in Tabora Region, Tanzania. It explored the multiple interdependent phenomena that affect livelihoods relationships between crop farmers and agropastoralists and the nature of their continuing conflicts over the ecozonal resources. A primary dataset of the two groups' conflicts was used. An ex post facto and multistage sampling design was adopted. A total of 252 respondents were interviewed in three separate villages drawn from agroecological zones fringing the miombo woodland where such tensions are high. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. Results indicate that education ( β = -1.215, .297; p = .050), household size ( β = .958, 2.607; p = .017), herd size ( β = 4.276, 7.197; p = 0.001), farm size ( β = -1.734, .048; p = .176), the police ( β = -.912, 4.582; p = .043), and village leaders ( β = -.122, .885; p = .012) were the most potent predictors of causes of conflicts. The study found no support for demographic variables, like age, sex, marital status, income, duration of residence, and distance to resource base. The study recommends population growth control and strengthening of local institutions and recommends local communities to sustain management of natural resources base in the area.

  2. Geologic map of Oldonyo Lengai (Oldoinyo Lengai) Volcano and surroundings, Arusha Region, United Republic of Tanzania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, David R.; Magigita, Masota M.; Kwelwa, Shimba

    2013-01-01

    The geology of Oldonyo Lengai volcano and the southernmost Lake Natron basin, Tanzania, is presented on this geologic map at scale 1:50,000. The map sheet can be downloaded in pdf format for online viewing or ready to print (48 inches by 36 inches). A 65-page explanatory pamphlet describes the geologic history of the area. Its goal is to place the new findings into the framework of previous investigations while highlighting gaps in knowledge. In this way questions are raised and challenges proposed to future workers. The southernmost Lake Natron basin is located along the East African rift zone in northern Tanzania. Exposed strata provide a history of volcanism, sedimentation, and faulting that spans 2 million years. It is here where Oldonyo Lengai, Tanzania’s most active volcano of the past several thousand years, built its edifice. Six new radiometric ages, by the 40Ar/39Ar method, and 48 new geochemical analyses from Oldonyo Lengai and surrounding volcanic features deepen our understanding of the area. Those who prefer the convenience and access offered by Geographic Information Systems (GIS) may download an electronic database, suitable for most GIS software applications. The GIS database is in a Transverse Mercator projection, zone 36, New (1960) Arc datum. The database includes layers for hypsography (topography), hydrography, and infrastructure such as roads and trails.

  3. The economic costs of malaria in children in three sub-Saharan countries: Ghana, Tanzania and Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria causes significant mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), especially among children less than five years of age (U5 children). Although the economic burden of malaria in this region has been assessed previously, the extent and variation of this burden remains unclear. This study aimed to estimate the economic costs of malaria in U5 children in three countries (Ghana, Tanzania and Kenya). Methods Health system and household costs previously estimated were integrated with costs associated with co-morbidities, complications and productivity losses due to death. Several models were developed to estimate the expected treatment cost per episode per child, across different age groups, by level of severity and with or without controlling for treatment-seeking behaviour. Total annual costs (2009) were calculated by multiplying the treatment cost per episode according to severity by the number of episodes. Annual health system prevention costs were added to this estimate. Results Household and health system costs per malaria episode ranged from approximately US$ 5 for non-complicated malaria in Tanzania to US$ 288 for cerebral malaria with neurological sequelae in Kenya. On average, up to 55% of these costs in Ghana and Tanzania and 70% in Kenya were assumed by the household, and of these costs 46% in Ghana and 85% in Tanzania and Kenya were indirect costs. Expected values of potential future earnings (in thousands) lost due to premature death of children aged 0–1 and 1–4 years were US$ 11.8 and US$ 13.8 in Ghana, US$ 6.9 and US$ 8.1 in Tanzania, and US$ 7.6 and US$ 8.9 in Kenya, respectively. The expected treatment costs per episode per child ranged from a minimum of US$ 1.29 for children aged 2–11 months in Tanzania to a maximum of US$ 22.9 for children aged 0–24 months in Kenya. The total annual costs (in millions) were estimated at US$ 37.8, US$ 131.9 and US$ 109.0 nationwide in Ghana, Tanzania and Kenya and included average

  4. AIDSCAP initiative. Innovation in NGO capacity building: Tanzania AIDS project.

    PubMed

    Dadian, M J

    1998-01-01

    Tanzania has since the mid-1980s experienced some of the highest rates of HIV infection in the world, with data now showing the mean levels of HIV seroprevalence nationwide to be greater than 13%, and even higher than 30% in some districts. By 2000, as many as 2.4 million Tanzanians will be infected with HIV and more than 850,000 Tanzanian children will be orphaned by the epidemic. The Tanzania AIDS Project (TAP), funded by the US Agency for International Development (USAID), was implemented through the AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project by Family Health International (FHI) during 1993-97. TAP will receive support throughout 1998 through a cooperative agreement between USAID and FHI. Nongovernmental organization (NGO) representatives meet on a regular basis in Dar es Salaam and in 8 other regions of the country to plan and coordinate the major aspects of TAP's HIV/AIDS prevention activities in each area. The author describes the evolution of the idea to bring NGOs together into geographic clusters, the diversity of talents enjoyed from using the cluster concept, building institutional capacity, the challenges facing TAP's 9 clusters, and working with traditional communities.

  5. Supradapedon revisited: geological explorations in the Triassic of southern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    da Rosa, Átila A.S.; Montefeltro, Felipe C.

    2017-01-01

    The upper Triassic deposits of the Selous Basin in south Tanzania have not been prospected for fossil tetrapods since the middle of last century, when Gordon M. Stockley collected two rhynchosaur bone fragments from the so called “Tunduru beds”. Here we present the results of a field trip conducted in July 2015 to the vicinities of Tunduru and Msamara, Ruvuma Region, Tanzania, in search for similar remains. Even if unsuccessful in terms of fossil discoveries, the geological mapping conducted during the trip improved our knowledge of the deposition systems of the southern margin of the Selous Basin during the Triassic, allowing tentative correlations to its central part and to neighbouring basins. Moreover, we reviewed the fossil material previously collected by Gordon M. Stockley, confirming that the remains correspond to a valid species, Supradapedon stockleyi, which was incorporated into a comprehensive phylogeny of rhynchosaurs and found to represent an Hyperodapedontinae with a set of mostly plesiomorphic traits for the group. Data gathered form the revision and phylogenetic placement of Su. stockleyi helps understanding the acquisition of the typical dental traits of Late Triassic rhynchosaurs, corroborating the potential of hyperodapedontines as index fossils of the Carnian-earliest Norian. PMID:29152419

  6. Academia-Industry-Government Linkages in Tanzania: Trends, Challenges and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mpehongwa, Gasper

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzed trends, challenges and prospects of academia-industry-government linkages in Tanzania. Using case study design, and documentary review to gather the required data, the study sought to answer three research questions: (1) what are the trends of academia-industry-government linkages in Tanzania?, (2) what are the challenges…

  7. Determination of essential and toxic elements in clay soil commonly consumed by pregnant women in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwalongo, D.; Mohammed, N. K.

    2013-10-01

    A habit of eating clay soil especially among pregnant women is a common practice in Tanzania. This practice known as geophagy might introduce toxic elements in the consumer's body to endanger the health of the mother and her child. Therefore it is very important to have information on the elemental composition of the eaten soil so as to assess the safety nature of the habit. In this study 100 samples of clay soil, which were reported to be originating from five regions in Tanzania and are consumed by pregnant women were analyzed to determine their levels of essential and toxic elements. The analysis was carried out using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescent technique (EDXRF) of Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission, Arusha. Essential elements Fe, Zn, Cu, Se and Mn and toxic elements As, Pb, Co, Ni, U and Th were detected in concentrations above WHO permissible limits in some of the samples. The results from this study show that the habit of eating soil is exposing the pregnant mothers and their children to metal toxicity which is detrimental to their health. Hence, further actions should be taken to discourage the habit of eating soil at all levels.

  8. Gender context of sexual violence and HIV sexual risk behaviors among married women in Iringa Region, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nyamhanga, Tumaini M; Frumence, Gasto

    2014-01-01

    There is a dearth of empirical research illuminating possible connections between gender imbalances and sexual violence among married women in Tanzania. There is a need to generate in-depth information on the connectivity between gender imbalances (asymmetrical resource ownership, sexual decision making, roles, and norms) and sexual violence plus associated HIV risky sexual behavior among married women. This paper is based on a qualitative case study that involved use of focus group discussions (FGDs). A thematic analysis approach was used in analyzing the study findings. The study findings are presented under the three structures of gender and power theory. On sexual division of labor, our study found that economic powerlessness exposes women to sexual violence. This study suggests that married women experience a sexual risk of acquiring HIV that results from non-consensual sex. That non-consensual sex is a function of gender imbalances - ranging from women's economic dependence on their husbands or partners to socioculturally rooted norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior. The HIV risk is especially heightened because masculine sexual norms encourage men [husbands/partners] to engage in unprotected intra- and extramarital sex. It is recommended that the Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS) should address the gender dimensions of sexual violence in marriage.

  9. Escalation and Resolution of Border Disputes and Interstate Conflicts in Africa: The Malawi-Tanzania Case

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    struggle in the region. They cause relentless strife, including refugee problems, environmental degradation, deforestation , small arms proliferation...human and natural resources, extreme poverty and hunger abound on the continent.”42 Furthermore, a snapshot of Africa reveals deforestation , fast...Malawi, while Tanzania is disadvantaged . Since players selfishly attempt to maximize their outcomes, via ‘maximin theorem,’ the outcome is BD that

  10. Introducing payment for performance in the health sector of Tanzania- the policy process.

    PubMed

    Chimhutu, Victor; Tjomsland, Marit; Songstad, Nils Gunnar; Mrisho, Mwifadhi; Moland, Karen Marie

    2015-09-02

    Prompted by the need to achieve progress in health outcomes, payment for performance (P4P) schemes are becoming popular policy options in the health systems in many low income countries. This paper describes the policy process behind the introduction of a payment for performance scheme in the health sector of Tanzania illuminating in particular the interests of and roles played by the Government of Norway, the Government of Tanzania and the other development partners. The study employed a qualitative research design using in-depth interviews (IDIs), observations and document reviews. Thirteen IDIs with key-informants representing the views of ten donor agencies and government departments influential in the process of introducing the P4P scheme in Tanzania were conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Oslo, Norway. Data was collected on the main trends and thematic priorities in development aid policy, countries and actors perceived to be proponents and opponents to the P4P scheme, and P4P agenda setting in Tanzania. The initial introduction of P4P in the health sector of Tanzania was controversial. The actors involved including the bilateral donors in the Health Basket Fund, the World Bank, the Tanzanian Government and high level politicians outside the Health Basket Fund fought for their values and interests and formed alliances that shifted in the course of the process. The process was characterized by high political pressure, conflicts, changing alliances, and, as it evolved, consensus building. The P4P policy process was highly political with external actors playing a significant role in influencing the agenda in Tanzania, leaving less space for the Government of Tanzania to provide leadership in the process. Norway in particular, took a leading role in setting the agenda. The process of introducing P4P became long and frustrating causing mistrust among partners in the Health Basket Fund.

  11. Cost of microbial larviciding for malaria control in rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Rifat; Lesser, Adriane; Mboera, Leonard; Kramer, Randall

    2016-11-01

    Microbial larviciding may be a potential supplement to conventional malaria vector control measures, but scant information on its relative implementation costs and effectiveness, especially in rural areas, is an impediment to expanding its uptake. We perform a costing analysis of a seasonal microbial larviciding programme in rural Tanzania. We evaluated the financial and economic costs from the perspective of the public provider of a 3-month, community-based larviciding intervention implemented in twelve villages in the Mvomero District of Tanzania in 2012-2013. Cost data were collected from financial reports and invoices and through discussion with programme administrators. Sensitivity analysis explored the robustness of our results to varying key parameters. Over the 2-year study period, approximately 6873 breeding sites were treated with larvicide. The average annual economic costs of the larviciding intervention in rural Tanzania are estimated at 2014 US$ 1.44 per person protected per year (pppy), US$ 6.18 per household and US$ 4481.88 per village, with the larvicide and staffing accounting for 14% and 58% of total costs, respectively. We found the costs pppy of implementing a seasonal larviciding programme in rural Tanzania to be comparable to the costs of other larviciding programmes in urban Tanzania and rural Kenya. Further research should evaluate the cost-effectiveness of larviciding relative to, and in combination with, other vector control strategies in rural settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Research Trends in Emerging Contaminants on the Aquatic Environments of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Miraji, H.; Othman, O. C.; Ngassapa, F. N.; Mureithi, E. W.

    2016-01-01

    The continuity for discovery and production of new chemicals, allied products, and uses has currently resulted into generation of recent form of contaminants known as Emerging Contaminants (ECs). Once in the aquatic environment ECs are carcinogenic and cause other threats to both human's and animals' health. Due to their effects this study was aimed at investigating research trends of ECs in Tanzania. Findings revealed that USA and EU countries were leading in ECs researches, little followed by Asia, South Africa, and then Zambia. Only few guidelines from USA-EPA, WHO, Canada, and Australia existed. Neither published guidelines nor regulations for ECs existed in Tanzania; rather only the occurrence of some disinfection by-products and antibiotics was, respectively, reported in Arusha and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. As these reports had a limited coverage of ECs, henceforth, these findings constitute the first-line reference materials for ECs research in Tanzania which shall be useful for future monitoring and regulation planning. PMID:26998381

  13. Agropastoral Mobility and Rangelands Multiple Uses in the Miombo Frontier Ecozone of Tabora Region, Western Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the argument of environmental resource-use conflict as the primary cause of crop farmers and agropastoralists conflicts in Tabora Region, Tanzania. It explored the multiple interdependent phenomena that affect livelihoods relationships between crop farmers and agropastoralists and the nature of their continuing conflicts over the ecozonal resources. A primary dataset of the two groups' conflicts was used. An ex post facto and multistage sampling design was adopted. A total of 252 respondents were interviewed in three separate villages drawn from agroecological zones fringing the miombo woodland where such tensions are high. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. Results indicate that education (β = −1.215, .297; p = .050), household size (β = .958, 2.607; p = .017), herd size (β = 4.276, 7.197; p = 0.001), farm size (β = −1.734, .048; p = .176), the police (β = −.912, 4.582; p = .043), and village leaders (β = −.122, .885; p = .012) were the most potent predictors of causes of conflicts. The study found no support for demographic variables, like age, sex, marital status, income, duration of residence, and distance to resource base. The study recommends population growth control and strengthening of local institutions and recommends local communities to sustain management of natural resources base in the area. PMID:29201492

  14. Prevalence of Malaria Parasitemia and Purchase of Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies (ACTs) among Drug Shop Clients in Two Regions in Tanzania with ACT Subsidies

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Melissa A.; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Bruxvoort, Katia; Wiegand, Ryan; Lopez, Gerard; Festo, Charles; Lyaruu, Pierre; Kenani, Mitya; Abdulla, Salim; Goodman, Catherine; Kachur, S. Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Background Throughout Africa, many people seek care for malaria in private-sector drug shops where diagnostic testing is often unavailable. Recently, subsidized artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs), a first-line medication for uncomplicated malaria, were made available in these drug shops in Tanzania. This study assessed the prevalence of malaria among and purchase of ACTs by drug shop clients in the setting of a national ACT subsidy program and sub-national drug shop accreditation program. Method and Findings A cross-sectional survey of drug shop clients was performed in two regions in Tanzania, one with a government drug shop accreditation program and one without, from March-May, 2012. Drug shops were randomly sampled from non-urban districts. Shop attendants were interviewed about their education, training, and accreditation status. Clients were interviewed about their symptoms and medication purchases, then underwent a limited physical examination and laboratory testing for malaria. Malaria prevalence and predictors of ACT purchase were assessed using univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression. Amongst 777 clients from 73 drug shops, the prevalence of laboratory-confirmed malaria was 12% (95% CI: 6–18%). Less than a third of clients with malaria had purchased ACTs, and less than a quarter of clients who purchased ACTs tested positive for malaria. Clients were more likely to have purchased ACTs if the participant was <5 years old (aOR: 6.6; 95% CI: 3.9–11.0) or the shop attendant had >5 years, experience (aOR: 2.8; 95% CI: 1.2–6.3). Having malaria was only a predictor of ACT purchase in the region with a drug shop accreditation program (aOR: 3.4; 95% CI: 1.5–7.4). Conclusion Malaria is common amongst persons presenting to drug shops with a complaint of fever. The low proportion of persons with malaria purchasing ACTs, and the high proportion of ACTs going to persons without malaria demonstrates a need to better target who receives

  15. Prevalence of malaria parasitemia and purchase of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) among drug shop clients in two regions in Tanzania with ACT subsidies.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Melissa A; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Bruxvoort, Katia; Wiegand, Ryan; Lopez, Gerard; Festo, Charles; Lyaruu, Pierre; Kenani, Mitya; Abdulla, Salim; Goodman, Catherine; Kachur, S Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Throughout Africa, many people seek care for malaria in private-sector drug shops where diagnostic testing is often unavailable. Recently, subsidized artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs), a first-line medication for uncomplicated malaria, were made available in these drug shops in Tanzania. This study assessed the prevalence of malaria among and purchase of ACTs by drug shop clients in the setting of a national ACT subsidy program and sub-national drug shop accreditation program. A cross-sectional survey of drug shop clients was performed in two regions in Tanzania, one with a government drug shop accreditation program and one without, from March-May, 2012. Drug shops were randomly sampled from non-urban districts. Shop attendants were interviewed about their education, training, and accreditation status. Clients were interviewed about their symptoms and medication purchases, then underwent a limited physical examination and laboratory testing for malaria. Malaria prevalence and predictors of ACT purchase were assessed using univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression. Amongst 777 clients from 73 drug shops, the prevalence of laboratory-confirmed malaria was 12% (95% CI: 6-18%). Less than a third of clients with malaria had purchased ACTs, and less than a quarter of clients who purchased ACTs tested positive for malaria. Clients were more likely to have purchased ACTs if the participant was <5 years old (aOR: 6.6; 95% CI: 3.9-11.0) or the shop attendant had >5 years, experience (aOR: 2.8; 95% CI: 1.2-6.3). Having malaria was only a predictor of ACT purchase in the region with a drug shop accreditation program (aOR: 3.4; 95% CI: 1.5-7.4). Malaria is common amongst persons presenting to drug shops with a complaint of fever. The low proportion of persons with malaria purchasing ACTs, and the high proportion of ACTs going to persons without malaria demonstrates a need to better target who receives ACTs in these drug shops.

  16. Tanzania: Country Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Barbara

    A survey of the status of language usage in Tanzania begins with an overview of the three levels of language use: (1) Swahili, the national and official language, used in public life; (2) English, used in international affairs and in technical and intellectual matters; and (3) the over 120 vernacular languages used in family and religious life,…

  17. The reality of task shifting in medicines management- a case study from Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Wiedenmayer, Karin A; Kapologwe, Ntuli; Charles, James; Chilunda, Fiona; Mapunjo, Siana

    2015-01-01

    Tanzania suffers a severe shortage of pharmaceutical staff. This negatively affects the provision of pharmaceutical services and access to medicines, particularly in rural areas. Task shifting has been proposed as a way to mitigate the impact of health worker shortfalls.The aim of this study was to understand the context and extent of task shifting in pharmaceutical management in Dodoma Region, Tanzania. We explored 1) the number of trained pharmaceutical staff as compared to clinical cadres managing medicines, 2) the national establishment for staffing levels, 3) job descriptions, 4) supply management training conducted and 5) availability of medicines and adherence to Good Storage Practice. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 270 public health facilities in 2011. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to the person in charge of the facility to collect data on staff employed and their respective pharmaceutical tasks. Availability of 26 tracer medicines and adherence to Good Storage Practice guidelines was surveyed by direct observation. The national establishments for pharmaceutical staffing levels and job descriptions of facility cadres were analysed. While required staffing levels in 1999 were 50, the region employed a total of only 14 pharmaceutical staff in 2011. Job descriptions revealed that, next to pharmaceutical staff, only nurses were required to provide dispensing services and adherence counselling. In 95.5% of studied health facilities medicines management was done by non-pharmaceutically trained cadres, predominantly medical attendants. The first training on supply management was provided in 2005 with no refresher training thereafter. Mean availability of tracer medicines was 53%, while 56% of health facilities fully met criteria of Good Storage Practice. Task shifting is a reality in the pharmaceutical sector in Tanzania and it occurs mainly as a coping mechanism rather than a formal response to the workforce crisis. In Dodoma Region

  18. 'Repel all biters': an enhanced collection of endophilic Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis in CDC light-traps, from the Kagera Region of Tanzania, in the presence of a combination mosquito net impregnated with piperonyl butoxide and permethrin.

    PubMed

    LeClair, Corey; Cronery, Judith; Kessy, Enock; Tomás, Elsa V E; Kulwa, Yohannes; Mosha, Franklin W; Rowland, Mark; Protopopoff, Natacha; Derek Charlwood, J

    2017-08-15

    Mosquito nets containing synergists designed to overcome metabolic resistance mechanisms in vectors have been developed. These may enhance excitability in the mosquitoes and affect how they respond to CDC light-traps. Investigating the behaviour of vectors of disease in relation to novel mosquito nets is, therefore, essential for the design of sampling and surveillance systems. In an initial experiment in Muleba, Tanzania, nine bedrooms from three housing clusters were sampled. CDC light-traps were operated indoors next to occupied untreated nets (UTN), Olyset ® long lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) and Olyset Plus ® LLIN containing piperonyl butoxide (PBO) synergist. Nets were rotated daily between the nine rooms over nine nights. A further series of experiments using the nets on alternate nights in a single room was undertaken during the short rains. Anopheles gambiae s.l. were collected in CDC light-traps, a window-trap and Furvela tent-trap. Anopheles gambiae s.l. were identified to species by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the initial experiment 97.7% of the 310 An. gambiae s.l. were An. gambiae s.s., the remainder being Anopheles arabiensis. The number of mosquitoes collected from 81 light-trap collections was greater in the presence of an Olyset [density rate ratio 1.81, 95% CI (1.22-2.67), p = 0.003] relative to an UTN. In a second experiment, in the wet season 84% of the 180 An. gambiae s.l. identified were An. arabiensis. The number of An. gambiae s.l. collected from a light-trap compared to a tent-trap was significantly higher when an Olyset Plus net was used compared to an UTN. Survival of the mosquitoes in the window trap was not reduced by the use of an Olyset Plus net in the bedroom relative to an Olyset net. Mosquitoes entering bedrooms, even those susceptible to pyrethroids, were not killed by contact with an Olyset Plus LLIN. The enhanced numbers of An. gambiae or An. arabiensis collected in light-traps when a treated net is used requires

  19. "Ormilo disease" a disorder of zebu cattle in Tanzania: bovine cerebral theileriosis or new protozoan disease?

    PubMed

    Catalano, Deborah; Biasibetti, Elena; Lynen, Godelieve; Di Giulio, Giuseppe; De Meneghi, Daniele; Tomassone, Laura; Valenza, Federico; Capucchio, Maria Teresa

    2015-06-01

    "Ormilo" disease is a neurological disorder of cattle described by Maasai herders in Tanzania. It is attributed to infection by Theileria species, although no detailed data are available in the literature. The authors describe the macroscopical and histological changes observed in 30 brains of indigenous short-horn zebu cattle from Northern Tanzania, aged 2-9 years, with the characteristic neurological signs of "Ormilo". Moreover, the ultrastructural details observed in 14 selected brain samples were reported. Areas of congestion and hemorrhages, associated with the obstruction of the cerebral vessels with large numbers of parasitized lymphoid cells, were observed. Electron microscopy showed the presence of intralymphocytic parasites morphologically comparable to flagellated protozoa, not previously described in the lymphoid cells of cattle, but only reported during the sexual stages within the vector. Theileria taurotragi was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse line blot (RLB) in nine samples. The authors hypothesize that the parasite detected by electron microscopy could be a strain of a Theileria endemic to this region till now not investigated, having an intralymphocytic phase and being associated with other Theileria spp. infestation. Further studies are needed to better understand the etiology of "Ormilo" disease and to characterize the morphology of the observed parasite, clarifying its role in the disease in Tanzania.

  20. Standards to Assure Quality in Tertiary Education: The Case of Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manyaga, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide information on development of standards in Tanzania which may be of help to training providers in other countries as they seek to improve the quality and standards of their provision. Design/methodology/approach: The need to provide quality assured tertiary qualifications in Tanzania to win both…

  1. Community and health system intervention to reduce disrespect and abuse during childbirth in Tanga Region, Tanzania: A comparative before-and-after study.

    PubMed

    Kujawski, Stephanie A; Freedman, Lynn P; Ramsey, Kate; Mbaruku, Godfrey; Mbuyita, Selemani; Moyo, Wema; Kruk, Margaret E

    2017-07-01

    Abusive treatment of women during childbirth has been documented in low-resource countries and is a deterrent to facility utilization for delivery. Evidence for interventions to address women's poor experience is scant. We assessed a participatory community and health system intervention to reduce the prevalence of disrespect and abuse during childbirth in Tanzania. We used a comparative before-and-after evaluation design to test the combined intervention to reduce disrespect and abuse. Two hospitals in Tanga Region, Tanzania were included in the study, 1 randomly assigned to receive the intervention. Women who delivered at the study facilities were eligible to participate and were recruited upon discharge. Surveys were conducted at baseline (December 2011 through May 2012) and after the intervention (March through September 2015). The intervention consisted of a client service charter and a facility-based, quality-improvement process aimed to redefine norms and practices for respectful maternity care. The primary outcome was any self-reported experiences of disrespect and abuse during childbirth. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate a difference-in-difference model. At baseline, 2,085 women at the 2 study hospitals who had been discharged from the maternity ward after delivery were invited to participate in the survey. Of these, 1,388 (66.57%) agreed to participate. At endline, 1,680 women participated in the survey (72.29% of those approached). The intervention was associated with a 66% reduced odds of a woman experiencing disrespect and abuse during childbirth (odds ratio [OR]: 0.34, 95% CI: 0.21-0.58, p < 0.0001). The biggest reductions were for physical abuse (OR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.05-0.97, p = 0.045) and neglect (OR: 0.36, 95% CI: 0.19-0.71, p = 0.003). The study involved only 2 hospitals in Tanzania and is thus a proof-of-concept study. Future, larger-scale research should be undertaken to evaluate the applicability of this approach to other

  2. Focal mechanisms and the stress regime in NE and SW Tanzania, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazier, Richard A.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Florentin, Juliette

    2005-07-01

    We report 12 new focal mechanisms from earthquakes in NE and SW Tanzania where the stress regime within the East African rift system is not well constrained. Focal mechanisms for events at the intersection of the Lake Tanganyika and Rukwa rifts in SW Tanzania indicate a complicated stress pattern with possible dextral strike-slip motion on some faults but oblique motion on others (either sinistral on NW striking faults or dextral on NE striking faults). Within the Rukwa rift, focal mechanisms indicate normal dip-slip motion with NE-SW opening. In NE Tanzania where the Eastern rift impinges on the margin of the Tanzania Craton, fault motions are consistent with a zone of distributed block faults and sub E-W extension. All twelve earthquakes likely nucleated within the crust.

  3. Early Child Development and Care in Tanzania: Challenges for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mtahabwa, Lyabwene

    2009-01-01

    Much remains unknown about the status of early child development and care in Tanzania. The little information available has never been put together to provide a holistic picture of the progress so far made in this important area. This paper intends to synchronise the information available in Tanzania for the purpose of depicting the country's…

  4. Development of a hydrogeological conceptual wetland model in the data-scarce north-eastern region of Kilombero Valley, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burghof, Sonja; Gabiri, Geofrey; Stumpp, Christine; Chesnaux, Romain; Reichert, Barbara

    2018-02-01

    Understanding groundwater/surface-water interactions in wetlands is crucial because wetlands provide not only a high potential for agricultural production, but also sensitive and valuable ecosystems. This is especially true for the Kilombero floodplain wetland in Tanzania, which represents a data-scarce region in terms of hydrological and hydrogeological data. A comprehensive approach combining hydrogeological with tracer-based assessments was conducted, in order to develop a conceptual hydrogeological wetland model of the area around the city of Ifakara in the north-eastern region of Kilombero catchment. Within the study site, a heterogeneous porous aquifer, with a range of hydraulic conductivities, is underlain by a fractured-rock aquifer. Groundwater chemistry is mainly influenced by silicate weathering and depends on groundwater residence times related to the hydraulic conductivities of the porous aquifer. Groundwater flows from the hillside to the river during most of the year. While floodwater close to the river is mainly derived from overbank flow of the river, floodwater at a greater distance from the river mainly originates from precipitation and groundwater discharge. Evaporation effects in floodwater increase with increasing distance from the river. In general, the contribution of flood and stream water to groundwater recharge is negligible. In terms of an intensification of agricultural activities in the wetland, several conclusions can be drawn from the conceptual model. Results of this study are valuable as a base for further research related to groundwater/surface-water interactions and the conceptual model can be used in the future to set up numerical flow and transport models.

  5. Pathogenic seedborne viruses are rare but Phaseolus vulgaris endornaviruses are common in bean varieties grown in Nicaragua and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nordenstedt, Noora; Marcenaro, Delfia; Chilagane, Daudi; Mwaipopo, Beatrice; Rajamäki, Minna-Liisa; Nchimbi-Msolla, Susan; Njau, Paul J R; Mbanzibwa, Deusdedith R; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2017-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is an annual grain legume that was domesticated in Mesoamerica (Central America) and the Andes. It is currently grown widely also on other continents including Africa. We surveyed seedborne viruses in new common bean varieties introduced to Nicaragua (Central America) and in landraces and improved varieties grown in Tanzania (eastern Africa). Bean seeds, harvested from Nicaragua and Tanzania, were grown in insect-controlled greenhouse or screenhouse, respectively, to obtain leaf material for virus testing. Equal amounts of total RNA from different samples were pooled (30-36 samples per pool), and small RNAs were deep-sequenced (Illumina). Assembly of the reads (21-24 nt) to contiguous sequences and searches for homologous viral sequences in databases revealed Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 (PvEV-1) and PvEV-2 in the bean varieties in Nicaragua and Tanzania. These viruses are not known to cause symptoms in common bean and are considered non-pathogenic. The small-RNA reads from each pool of samples were mapped to the previously characterized complete PvEV-1 and PvEV-2 sequences (genome lengths ca. 14 kb and 15 kb, respectively). Coverage of the viral genomes was 87.9-99.9%, depending on the pool. Coverage per nucleotide ranged from 5 to 471, confirming virus identification. PvEV-1 and PvEV-2 are known to occur in Phaseolus spp. in Central America, but there is little previous information about their occurrence in Nicaragua, and no information about occurrence in Africa. Aside from Cowpea mild mosaic virus detected in bean plants grown from been seeds harvested from one region in Tanzania, no other pathogenic seedborne viruses were detected. The low incidence of infections caused by pathogenic viruses transmitted via bean seeds may be attributable to new, virus-resistant CB varieties released by breeding programs in Nicaragua and Tanzania.

  6. The Integration Of Adult Education In Tanzania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mhaiki, Paul J.; Hall, Budd L.

    Brief historical background of Tanzania; Links between adult education and development objectives, Links between Adult Education and Formal Education are outlined. Importance of adult education is emphasized. (NF)

  7. Domestic pigs as potential reservoirs of human and animal trypanosomiasis in Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pig keeping is becoming increasingly common across sub-Saharan Africa. Domestic pigs from the Arusha region of northern Tanzania were screened for trypanosomes using PCR-based methods to examine the role of pigs as a reservoir of human and animal trypanosomiasis. Methods A total of 168 blood samples were obtained from domestic pigs opportunistically sampled across four districts in Tanzania (Babati, Mbulu, Arumeru and Dodoma) during December 2004. A suite of PCR-based methods was used to identify the species and sub-species of trypanosomes including: Internally Transcribed Sequence to identify multiple species; species specific PCR to identify T. brucei s. l. and T. godfreyi and a multiplex PCR reaction to distinguish T. b. rhodesiense from T. brucei s. l. Results Of the 168 domestic pigs screened for animal and human infective trypanosome DNA, 28 (16.7%) were infected with one or more species of trypanosome; these included: six pigs infected with Trypanosoma vivax (3.6%); three with Trypanosoma simiae (1.8%); two with Trypanosoma congolense (Forest) (1%) and four with Trypanosoma godfreyi (2.4%). Nineteen pigs were infected with Trypanosoma brucei s. l. (10.1%) of which eight were identified as carrying the human infective sub-species Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (4.8%). Conclusion These results show that in Tanzania domestic pigs may act as a significant reservoir for animal trypanosomiasis including the cattle pathogens T. vivax and T. congolense, the pig pathogen T. simiae, and provide a significant reservoir for T. b. rhodesiense, the causative agent of acute Rhodesian sleeping sickness. PMID:24499540

  8. Smallholder farmers' attitudes toward the provision of drinking water for dairy cows in Kagera, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Barbara; Kepe, Thembela

    2015-02-01

    Agriculture's large share of Tanzanian GDP and the large percentage of rural poor engaged in the sector make it a focus for many development projects that see it as an area of attention for reducing rural poverty. This paper uses a case of the Kamachumu community, where a dairy cow loan project was implemented using the heifer-in-trust (HIT) model. This study finds that productivity is limited by how the cows are being managed, particularly with many animals not having ad lib access to drinking water. The paper explores reasons why farmers do or do not provide their cows with unlimited access to drinking water. The study concludes that there are many barriers farmers face, including water accessibility, education and training, infrastructure, simple negligence, and security. These results suggest an increase in extension services and national and local livestock policies that consider the specific realities of small-scale dairy farmers.

  9. Acute schistosomiasis in European students returning from fieldwork at Lake Tanganyika, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Florian; Ignatius, Ralf; Friedrich-Jaenicke, Barbara; Dieckmann, Sebastian; Harms, Gundel; Poppert, Sven; Mockenhaupt, Frank P

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is common in many African regions and poses a risk for travelers and the local population. So far, schistosomiasis in travelers or expatriates returning from the Tanzanian bank of Lake Tanganyika has not been reported. We report a group of students who sought treatment with signs of acute schistosomiasis after having returned from Lake Tanganyika, Tanzania. Information as to travel and exposure as well as clinical and laboratory data were collected. Schistosomiasis was diagnosed in 8 of 16 students from Berlin, Germany, who had returned from a 2- to 3-month stay of fieldwork in Kigoma District at Lake Tanganyika, Tanzania. All 16 students reported frequent freshwater exposure at the lake. Six patients showed signs of acute schistosomiasis and had fever, and some of them also had cough, weakness, headache, or abdominal pain. Eosinophilia was present in five of the six symptomatic individuals. Notably, two serologically enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-positive individuals did not report or present with symptoms or abnormal laboratory parameters. Schistosoma mansoni eggs were found in one symptomatic and one asymptomatic individual each. Blood and stool samples from the other eight individuals who were equally exposed to freshwater yielded negative results. This is the first report of an outbreak of acute schistosomiasis imported from the Tanzanian shore of Lake Tanganyika and highlights the risk for travelers and the local population of acquiring the infection in that part of Tanzania. It provides arguments for routine serological screening for schistosomiasis in individuals who had prior freshwater contact in endemic areas, irrespective of symptoms or other laboratory findings. © 2013 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  10. Wildlife and wildlife management in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Caro, Tim; Davenport, Tim R B

    2016-08-01

    Tanzania, arguably mainland Africa's most important nation for conservation, is losing habitat and natural resources rapidly. Moving away from a charcoal energy base and developing sustainable finance mechanisms for natural forests are critical to slowing persistent deforestation. Addressing governance and capacity deficits, including law enforcement, technical skills, and funding, across parts of the wildlife sector are key to effective wildlife protection. These changes could occur in tandem with bringing new models of natural resource management into play that include capacity building, corporate payment for ecosystem services, empowering nongovernmental organizations in law enforcement, greater private-sector involvement, and novel community conservation strategies. The future of Tanzania's wildlife looks uncertain-as epitomized by the current elephant crisis-unless the country confronts issues of governance, embraces innovation, and fosters greater collaboration with the international community. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Access to Orthopaedic Surgical Care in Northern Tanzania: A Modelling Study.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, Ajay; Ying, Xiaohan; Mack Hardaker, W; Massawe, Honest H; Mshahaba, David J; Mandari, Faiton; Pallangyo, Anthony; Temu, Rogers; Masenga, Gileard; Spiegel, David A; Sheth, Neil P

    2018-04-25

    The global burden of musculoskeletal disease and resulting disability is enormous and is expected to increase over the next few decades. In the world's poorest regions, the paucity of information defining and quantifying the current state of access to orthopaedic surgical care is a major problem in developing effective solutions. This study estimates the number of individuals in Northern Tanzania without adequate access to orthopaedic surgical services. A chance tree was created to model the probability of access to orthopaedic surgical services in the Northern Tanzanian regions of Arusha, Kilimanjaro, Tanga, Singida, and Manyara, with respect to four dimensions: timeliness, surgical capacity, safety, and affordability. Timeliness was estimated by the proportion of people living within a 4-h driving distance from a hospital with an orthopaedic surgeon, capacity by comparing number of surgeries performed to the number of surgeries indicated, safety by applying WHO Emergency and Essential Surgical Care infrastructure and equipment checklists, and affordability by approximating the proportion of the population protected from catastrophic out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure. We accounted for uncertainty in our model with one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Data sources included the Tanzanian National Bureau of Statistics and Ministry of Finance, World Bank, World Health Organization, New Zealand Ministry of Health, Google Corporation, NASA population estimator, and 2015 hospital records from Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Center, Machame Hospital, Nkoroanga Hospital, Mt. Meru Hospital, and Arusha Lutheran Medical Center. Under the most conservative assumptions, more than 90% of the Northern Tanzanian population does not have access to orthopaedic surgical services. There is a near absence of access to orthopaedic surgical care in Northern Tanzania. These findings utilize more precise country and region-specific data and are consistent with prior published

  12. Conventialization of Numerals in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kajoro, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The supposed pre-eminence of an external examination can exert a disproportionate influence on a curriculum and the associated learning and teaching. Teaching can easily subordinate learning and understanding to curriculum coverage if the society develops a culture that appears to make such demands. This study focuses on Tanzania and provides the…

  13. Anthrax outbreaks in the humans - livestock and wildlife interface areas of Northern Tanzania: a retrospective record review 2006-2016.

    PubMed

    Mwakapeje, Elibariki Reuben; Høgset, Sol; Fyumagwa, Robert; Nonga, Hezron Emmanuel; Mdegela, Robinson Hammerthon; Skjerve, Eystein

    2018-01-05

    Anthrax outbreaks in Tanzania have been reported from the human, livestock and wildlife sectors over several years, and is among the notifiable diseases. Despite frequent anthrax outbreaks, there is no comprehensive dataset indicating the magnitude and distribution of the disease in susceptible species. This study is a retrospective review of anthrax outbreaks from the human, livestock, and wildlife surveillance systems from 2006 to 2016. The objectives were to identify hotspot districts, describe anthrax epidemiology in the hotspot areas, evaluate the efficiency of the anthrax response systems and identify potential areas for further observational studies. We prepared a spreadsheet template for a retrospective comprehensive record review at different surveillance levels in Tanzania. We captured data elements including demographic characteristics of different species, the name of health facility, and date of anthrax diagnosis. Also, we collected data on the date of specimen collection, species screened, type of laboratory test, laboratory results and the outcome recorded at the end of treatment in humans. After establishing the database, we produced maps in Quantum GIS software and transferred cleaned data to Stata software for supportive statistical analysis. Anthrax reported incidences over 4 years in humans were much higher in the Arusha region (7.88/100,000) followed by Kilimanjaro region (6.64/100,000) than other regions of Tanzania Mainland. The health facility based review from hotspot districts in parts of Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions from 2006 to 2016, identified 330 human anthrax cases from the selected health facilities in the two regions. Out of 161 livestock and 57 wildlife specimen tested, 103 and 18 respectively, were positive for anthrax. This study revealed that there is gross under-reporting in the existing surveillance systems which is an obstacle for estimating a true burden of anthrax in the hotspot districts. Repeated occurrences of

  14. Reforming Teacher Education in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardman, Frank; Abd-Kadir, Jan; Tibuhinda, Audax

    2012-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that in order to improve the quality of education in primary schools in developing countries there is a need to place pedagogy and its training implications at the centre of teacher education reform. Like many countries in Eastern and Southern Africa, Tanzania has introduced various initiatives and reforms to improve the…

  15. Unpredictable checks of yellow fever vaccination certificates upon arrival in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Schönenberger, Selina; Hatz, Christoph; Bühler, Silja

    2016-05-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is a mosquito-borne disease, which can be prevented by vaccination. While YF vaccination (YFV) is not generally recommended for travellers to Tanzania, proof of YFV may be required upon arrival. In April 2013, the World Health Organization concluded that one dose of YFV confers lifelong protection and countries have started to adapt their entry requirements. The traveller's consultant has to balance the risk of YFV and the risk of encountering problems when entering a country without a valid YFV, especially because countries are slowly implementing the requirements. We performed a survey among 421 travellers to Tanzania with a pre-travel consultation at the Travel Clinic of the University of Zurich about their experiences with YFV certificate inspections upon arrival in Tanzania between January and November 2015. There were three main findings: (i) most vaccine card checks were done while crossing the land border of Tanzania. Inspections were frequently conducted at Arusha airport, less often in Dar es Salaam and Zanzibar. In the latter a significantly larger percentage of individuals arriving by ferry/boat were checked than those arriving by plane. (ii) Checks appeared to be non-systematic. They were also performed in travellers who did not enter Tanzania from a YF-endemic country. No seasonal or daytime pattern could be identified; the thoroughness of checks varied widely. (iii) In the case of travel without valid YFV, an exemption certificate was always accepted. In travellers with neither a valid YFV nor an exemption certificate, travellers reported forced YF vaccination and fines before entry was granted. We recommend YFV or a YF exemption certificate for all travellers to Tanzania until further notice. The decision of whether to vaccinate against YF or to issue an exemption should be based on exposure risk to YF infection in other countries during travel. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by

  16. Educational, scientific, tourist and outreach potential of the September 1, 2016 Annular Solar Eclipse in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayabali Jiwaji, Noorali

    2015-08-01

    Tanzania will witness a major astronomical spectacle of an annular eclipse on September 1, 2016. The central part of the eclipse will pass through southern Tanzania, crossing national parks and game reserves such as Katavi and the world famous Selous. For the rest of Tanzania and neighbouring countries it will be a memorable event with large of the proportion of the Sun being covered up. The climate in Tanzania during September is cool and dry which will provide ideal viewing conditions. Solar eclipse events attract "eclipse chasers" from around the globe.Scientific interest in measuring the properties of the Sun and the effects of the eclipse on the atmosphere will allow local scientists to partner with leading scientists to gain valuable experience and knowledge.Local population's wonder and interest in eclipses can be exploited through public-private partnerships by encouraging students and local people to travel to the central path or to observe from their backyards. Large number of eclipse glasses can be manufactured cheaply using safe solar filters for supplying to students and general population in Tanzania and neigbouring countries. This will raise science awareness about the wonders of our Universe.When combined with the attraction of Tanzania's treasures in the north and the 16 tonne Mbozi meteorite in southern Tanzania, the touristic potential of this event can be exploited through tour packages and worldwide advertisements during the coming year.

  17. A review of pig pathology in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Richard Trevor; Swai, Emmanuel

    2013-08-01

    The approximately 1.58 million pigs in Tanzania represent 3.7% of the national population of quadruped meat-producing animals. Pigs are kept mainly by small producers who own 99.5% of the national stock in units that average 3.04 animals (range 2-48). Government policy has had little practical application. African swine fever, foot-and-mouth disease and Cysticercosis are important diseases. The first two are notifiable diseases under Tanzania legislation; the last has widespread distribution and relevance as a major zoonosis. Ascariasis (Ascaris suum), hydatidosis (Echinococcus granulosus), leptospirosis (Leptospira interrogans) and thermophilic Campylobacter are other zoonoses associated with pigs. Gastrointestinal helminths and external parasites, especially Sarcoptes scabiei, are common. Risk factors associated with cysticercosis for humans working with pigs or eating their meat include the free-range or semi-confined management systems, the use of rivers or ponds as a source of water, lack of household sanitation, informal home slaughter, pork not being inspected at slaughter slabs and undercooked and barbecued meat. Pigs are a minor component of Tanzania's livestock sector but there is potential for increasing their contribution to human welfare. Prospects are enhanced by the shorter life cycle, greater number of young produced per year and the possibility of producing high-quality animal protein at a lower cost than meat produced by cattle and small ruminants.

  18. Albinism, stigma, subjectivity and global-local discourses in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Brocco, Giorgio

    2016-12-01

    Societal ideas and explanations of albinism at the local level in Tanzania are conceived in terms of family history, social relations, economic status, moral-religious positions, global-local flows of information and humanitarian actions on behalf of people with the congenital condition. This paper aims to show how the subjectivities of people with albinism in Tanzania are shaped and re-shaped through local moral conceptions as well as globalizing (bio)medical explanations of albinism. An exemplary case study of a 28-year-old woman, plus episodes from the lives of seven other informants with the condition, are analyzed in order to understand, on the one hand, local social relationships between people with albinism and other individuals in family and community settings, and on the other hand, the interconnections between persons with albinism and global humanitarian actors and the broadcast media. When stigma and marginalizing behaviors are perceived by individuals with albinism in Tanzania as impeding their social lives, they employ different coping strategies and discourses to enhance social acceptance.

  19. The challenge to avoid anti-malarial medicine stock-outs in an era of funding partners: the case of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Between 2007 and 2013, the Tanzanian public sector received 93.1 million doses of first-line anti-malarial artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in the form of artemether-lumefantrine entirely supplied by funding partners. The introduction of a health facility ACT stock monitoring system using SMS technology by the National Malaria Control Programme in mid 2011 revealed a high frequency of stock-outs of ACT in primary care public health facilities. The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of availability of ACT and possible causes of observed stock-outs across public health facilities in Tanzania since mid-2011. Methods Data were collected weekly by the mobile phone reporting tool SMS for Life on ACT availability from over 5,000 public health facilities in Tanzania starting from September 2011 to December 2012. Stock data for all four age-dose levels of ACT across health facilities were summarized and supply of ACT at the national level was also documented. Results Over the period of 15 months, on average 29% of health facilities in Tanzania were completely stocked out of all four-age dose levels of the first-line anti-malarial with a median duration of total stock-out of six weeks. Patterns of total stock-out by region ranged from a low of 9% to a high of 52%. The ACT stock-outs were most likely caused by: a) insufficient ACT supplies entering Tanzania (e.g. in 2012 Tanzania received 10.9 million ACT doses compared with a forecast demand of 14.4 million doses); and b) irregular pattern of ACT supply (several months with no ACT stock). Conclusion The reduced ACT availability and irregular pattern of supply were due to cumbersome bureaucratic processes and delays both within the country and from the main donor, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Tanzania should invest in strengthening both the supply system and the health information system using mHealth solutions such as SMS for Life. This will continue to

  20. The challenge to avoid anti-malarial medicine stock-outs in an era of funding partners: the case of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen-Lopez, Inez; Shango, Winna; Barrington, Jim; Ziegler, Rene; Smith, Tom; deSavigny, Don

    2014-05-11

    Between 2007 and 2013, the Tanzanian public sector received 93.1 million doses of first-line anti-malarial artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in the form of artemether-lumefantrine entirely supplied by funding partners. The introduction of a health facility ACT stock monitoring system using SMS technology by the National Malaria Control Programme in mid 2011 revealed a high frequency of stock-outs of ACT in primary care public health facilities. The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of availability of ACT and possible causes of observed stock-outs across public health facilities in Tanzania since mid-2011. Data were collected weekly by the mobile phone reporting tool SMS for Life on ACT availability from over 5,000 public health facilities in Tanzania starting from September 2011 to December 2012. Stock data for all four age-dose levels of ACT across health facilities were summarized and supply of ACT at the national level was also documented. Over the period of 15 months, on average 29% of health facilities in Tanzania were completely stocked out of all four-age dose levels of the first-line anti-malarial with a median duration of total stock-out of six weeks. Patterns of total stock-out by region ranged from a low of 9% to a high of 52%. The ACT stock-outs were most likely caused by: a) insufficient ACT supplies entering Tanzania (e.g. in 2012 Tanzania received 10.9 million ACT doses compared with a forecast demand of 14.4 million doses); and b) irregular pattern of ACT supply (several months with no ACT stock). The reduced ACT availability and irregular pattern of supply were due to cumbersome bureaucratic processes and delays both within the country and from the main donor, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Tanzania should invest in strengthening both the supply system and the health information system using mHealth solutions such as SMS for Life. This will continue to assist in tracking ACT availability across

  1. Science-based health innovation in Tanzania: bednets and a base for invention.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ronak; Singer, Peter A; Daar, Abdallah S

    2010-12-13

    Tanzania is East Africa's largest country. Although it is socially diverse, it has experienced general political stability since independence in 1964. Despite gradual economic development and Tanzania's status as one of the biggest recipients of aid in Africa, health status remains poor. This paper explores Tanzania's science-based health innovation system, and highlights areas which can be strengthened. Qualitative case study research methodology was used. Data were collected through reviews of academic literature and policy documents, and through open-ended, face-to-face interviews with 52 people from across the science-based health innovation system over two visits to Tanzania from July to October 2007. Tanzania has a rich but complex S&T governance landscape, with the public sector driving the innovation agenda through a series of different bodies which are not well-coordinated. It has some of the leading health research on the continent at the University of Dar es Salaam, Muhimbili University of Health and Applied Sciences, the National Institute for Medical Research and the Ifakara Medical Institute, with strong donor support. Tanzania has found developing an entrepreneurial culture difficult; nevertheless projects such as the clusters initiative at the University of Dar es Salaam are encouraging low-tech innovation and overcoming knowledge-sharing barriers. In the private sector, one generics company has developed a South-South collaboration to enable technology transfer and hence the local production of anti-retrovirals. Local textile company A to Z Textiles is now manufacturing 30 million insecticide impregnated bednets a year. To have a coherent vision for innovation, Tanzania may wish to address some key issues: coordination across stakeholders involved with health research, increasing graduates in health-related disciplines, and building capabilities in biological testing, preclinical testing, formulation and standardization, and related areas important

  2. A comparison of seroprevalence and risk factors for Theileria parva and T. mutans in smallholder dairy cattle in the Tanga and Iringa regions of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Swai, Emmanuel S; Karimuribo, Esrony D; Kambarage, Dominic M; Moshy, Winford E; Mbise, Adam N

    2007-09-01

    A cross sectional serological survey was carried out in two geographical small-scale dairying areas of Tanzania to determine the distribution and prevalence and to quantify risk factors for Theileria parva and T. mutans during the period January to April 1999. The prevalence of serum antibodies to these two Theileria parasites was determined using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The results suggest that the parasites are widely distributed through out the two study sites and seroprevalence of 23% and 48% for T. parva were obtained for Tanga and Iringa regions, respectively. Seroprevalence of T. mutans ranged from 17% in the Tanga region to 40% in the Iringa region. Farm and animal data were collected and analysed by multiple logistic regression models to explore the risk factors associated with seroprevalence to T. parva and T. mutans pathogens. In both regions, seroprevalence for the two Theileria spp. pathogens increased significantly with age. Pasture grazed animals were more likely to be seropositive than those that were zero-grazed. Among individual animal characteristics, seropositivity was higher in cash-bought and charity gifted animals compared to cattle obtained using a formal credit agreement. Further studies on the relative role of risk factors for theileriosis found in this study may assist in the development of an effective control package.

  3. Stakeholders’ participation in planning and priority setting in the context of a decentralised health care system: the case of prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV programme in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Tanzania, decentralisation processes and reforms in the health sector aimed at improving planning and accountability in the sector. As a result, districts were given authority to undertake local planning and set priorities as well as allocate resources fairly to promote the health of a population with varied needs. Nevertheless, priority setting in the health care service has remained a challenge. The study assessed the priority setting processes in the planning of the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programme at the district level in Tanzania. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in Mbarali district, south-western Tanzania. The study applied in-depth interviews and focus group discussions in the data collection. Informants included members of the Council Health Management Team, regional PMTCT managers and health facility providers. Results Two plans were reported where PMTCT activities could be accommodated; the Comprehensive Council Health Plan and the Regional PMTCT Plan that was donor funded. As donors had their own globally defined priorities, it proved difficult for district and regional managers to accommodate locally defined PMTCT priorities in these plans. As a result few of these were funded. Guidelines and main priority areas of the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MoHSW) also impacted on the ability of the districts and regions to act, undermining the effectiveness of the decentralisation policy in the health sector. Conclusion The challenges in the priority setting processes revealed within the PMTCT initiative indicate substantial weaknesses in implementing the Tanzania decentralisation policy. There is an urgent need to revive the strategies and aims of the decentralisation policy at all levels of the health care system with a view to improving health service delivery. PMID:23849730

  4. Factors that influence women's health in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lugina, H I

    1994-01-01

    A descriptive account of factors that influence women's health in Tanzania is given. The social and cultural processes that enhance or undermine women's health are emphasized. Recommendations for changes to improve women's health are made.

  5. Assessment of animal hosts of pathogenic Leptospira in northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Allan, Kathryn J; Halliday, Jo E B; Moseley, Mark; Carter, Ryan W; Ahmed, Ahmed; Goris, Marga G A; Hartskeerl, Rudy A; Keyyu, Julius; Kibona, Tito; Maro, Venance P; Maze, Michael J; Mmbaga, Blandina T; Tarimo, Rigobert; Crump, John A; Cleaveland, Sarah

    2018-06-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic bacterial disease that affects more than one million people worldwide each year. Human infection is acquired through direct or indirect contact with the urine of an infected animal. A wide range of animals including rodents and livestock may shed Leptospira bacteria and act as a source of infection for people. In the Kilimanjaro Region of northern Tanzania, leptospirosis is an important cause of acute febrile illness, yet relatively little is known about animal hosts of Leptospira infection in this area. The roles of rodents and ruminant livestock in the epidemiology of leptospirosis were evaluated through two linked studies. A cross-sectional study of peri-domestic rodents performed in two districts with a high reported incidence of human leptospirosis found no evidence of Leptospira infection among rodent species trapped in and around randomly selected households. In contrast, pathogenic Leptospira infection was detected in 7.08% cattle (n = 452 [5.1-9.8%]), 1.20% goats (n = 167 [0.3-4.3%]) and 1.12% sheep (n = 89 [0.1-60.0%]) sampled in local slaughterhouses. Four Leptospira genotypes were detected in livestock. Two distinct clades of L. borgpetersenii were identified in cattle as well as a clade of novel secY sequences that showed only 95% identity to known Leptospira sequences. Identical L. kirschneri sequences were obtained from qPCR-positive kidney samples from cattle, sheep and goats. These results indicate that ruminant livestock are important hosts of Leptospira in northern Tanzania. Infected livestock may act as a source of Leptospira infection for people. Additional work is needed to understand the role of livestock in the maintenance and transmission of Leptospira infection in this region and to examine linkages between human and livestock infections.

  6. Role of condom negotiation on condom use among women of reproductive age in three districts in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Exavery, Amon; Kanté, Almamy M; Jackson, Elizabeth; Noronha, John; Sikustahili, Gloria; Tani, Kassimu; Mushi, Hildegalda P; Baynes, Colin; Ramsey, Kate; Hingora, Ahmed; Phillips, James F

    2012-12-20

    HIV/AIDS remains being a disease of great public health concern worldwide. In regions such as sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where women are disproportionately infected with HIV, women are reportedly less likely capable of negotiating condom use. However, while knowledge of condom use for HIV prevention is extensive among men and women in many countries including Tanzania, evidence is limited about the role of condom negotiation on condom use among women in rural Tanzania. Data originate from a cross-sectional survey of random households conducted in 2011 in Rufiji, Kilombero and Ulanga districts in Tanzania. The survey assessed health-seeking behaviour among women and children using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. A total of 2,614 women who were sexually experienced and aged 15-49 years were extracted from the main database for the current analysis. Linkage between condom negotiation and condom use at the last sexual intercourse was assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Prevalence of condom use at the last sexual intercourse was 22.2% overall, ranging from12.2% among married women to 54.9% among unmarried (single) women. Majority of the women (73.4%) reported being confident to negotiate condom use, and these women were significantly more likely than those who were not confident to have used a condom at the last sexual intercourse (OR = 3.13, 95% CI 2.22-4.41). This effect was controlled for marital status, age, education, religion, number of sexual partners, household wealth and knowledge of HIV prevention by condom use. Confidence to negotiate condom use is a significant predictor of actual condom use among women in rural Tanzania. Women, especially unmarried ones, those in multiple partnerships or anyone needing protection should be empowered with condom negotiation skills for increased use of condoms in order to enhance their sexual and reproductive health outcomes.

  7. Role of condom negotiation on condom use among women of reproductive age in three districts in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV/AIDS remains being a disease of great public health concern worldwide. In regions such as sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where women are disproportionately infected with HIV, women are reportedly less likely capable of negotiating condom use. However, while knowledge of condom use for HIV prevention is extensive among men and women in many countries including Tanzania, evidence is limited about the role of condom negotiation on condom use among women in rural Tanzania. Methods Data originate from a cross-sectional survey of random households conducted in 2011 in Rufiji, Kilombero and Ulanga districts in Tanzania. The survey assessed health-seeking behaviour among women and children using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. A total of 2,614 women who were sexually experienced and aged 15-49 years were extracted from the main database for the current analysis. Linkage between condom negotiation and condom use at the last sexual intercourse was assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Results Prevalence of condom use at the last sexual intercourse was 22.2% overall, ranging from12.2% among married women to 54.9% among unmarried (single) women. Majority of the women (73.4%) reported being confident to negotiate condom use, and these women were significantly more likely than those who were not confident to have used a condom at the last sexual intercourse (OR = 3.13, 95% CI 2.22-4.41). This effect was controlled for marital status, age, education, religion, number of sexual partners, household wealth and knowledge of HIV prevention by condom use. Conclusion Confidence to negotiate condom use is a significant predictor of actual condom use among women in rural Tanzania. Women, especially unmarried ones, those in multiple partnerships or anyone needing protection should be empowered with condom negotiation skills for increased use of condoms in order to enhance their sexual and reproductive health outcomes. PMID:23256530

  8. Evolution of Elections Management in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, A. S.; Mdegella, O. M.; Lubawa, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a discussion on the evolution of elections management in Tanzania with a focus on technological advancement in administering registration of voters. The paper provides the merits that permanent voters register has brought over the thumb practice. It traces the management of elections during colonialism, after independence…

  9. Lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and chemostratigraphy of Upper Cretaceous sediments from southern Tanzania: Tanzania drilling project sites 21-26

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez Berrocoso, Álvaro; MacLeod, Kenneth G.; Huber, Brian T.; Lees, Jacqueline A.; Wendler, Ines; Bown, Paul R.; Mweneinda, Amina K.; Isaza Londoño, Carolina; Singano, Joyce M.

    2010-04-01

    The 2007 drilling season by the Tanzania drilling project (TDP) reveals a much more expanded Upper Cretaceous sequence than was recognized previously in the Lindi region of southern Tanzania. This TDP expedition targeted recovery of excellently preserved microfossils (foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils) for Late Cretaceous paleoclimatic, paleoceanographic and biostratigraphic studies. A total of 501.17 m of core was drilled at six Upper Cretaceous sites (TDP Sites 21, 22, 23, 24, 24B and 26) and a thin Miocene-Pleistocene section (TDP Site 25). Microfossil preservation at all these sites is good to excellent, with foraminifera often showing glassy shells and consistently good preservation of small and delicate nannofossil taxa. In addition to adding to our knowledge of the subsurface geology, new surface exposures were mapped and the geological map of the region is revised herein. TDP Sites 24, 24B and 26 collectively span the upper Albian to lower-middle Turonian (planktonic foraminiferal Planomalina buxtorfi- Whiteinella archaeocretacea Zones and calcareous nannofossil zones UC0a-UC8a). The bottom of TDP Site 21 is barren, but the rest of the section represents the uppermost Cenomanian-Coniacian ( W. archaeocretacea- Dicarinella concavata Zones and nannofossil zones UC5c-UC10). Bulk organic δ 13C data suggest recovery of part of Ocean Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2) from these four sites. In the upper part of this interval, the lower Turonian nannofossil zones UC6a-7 are characterized by a low-diversity nannoflora that may be related to OAE2 surface-water conditions. TDP Site 22 presents a 122-m-thick, lower-middle Turonian ( W. archaeocretacea- Helvetoglobotruncana helvetica Zones) sequence that includes the nannofossil zones UC6a(-7?), but invariable isotopic curves. Further, a lower to upper Campanian ( Globotruncana ventricosa- Radotruncana calcarata Zones and nannofossil subzones UC15b TP-UC15d TP) succession was drilled at TDP Site 23. Lithologies of the new

  10. Feasibility of Cloud Computing Implementation for eLearning in Secondary Schools in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwakisole, Kennedy F.; Kissaka, Mussa M.; Mtebe, Joel S.

    2018-01-01

    This article assessed the feasibility of implementing eLearning systems in a cloud-based infrastructure for secondary schools in Tanzania. The study adopted questionnaire and document reviews as data collection tools. A total of 820 students successfully returned the questionnaire from seven secondary schools in Tanzania. The study found that 11%…

  11. Dengue data and surveillance in Tanzania: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Ward, Tara; Samuel, Moody; Maoz, Dorit; Runge-Ranzinger, Silvia; Boyce, Ross; Toledo, Joao; Velayudhan, Raman; Horstick, Olaf

    2017-08-01

    Although there is evidence that dengue virus is circulating in Tanzania, the country lacks a dengue surveillance system. Consequently, the true estimate of dengue seroprevalence, as well as the incidence in the population, the frequency and magnitude of outbreaks is unknown. This study therefore sought to systematically review available dengue data from Tanzania. The systematic review was conducted and reported using the PRISMA tool. Five databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, WHOLIS and Google Scholar) were searched for articles using various keywords on the illness, data and geographical location. Identified articles were assessed for inclusion based on predefined eligibility criteria. Data were extracted from included articles, analysed and reported. Based on the 10 seroprevalence studies in defined populations with estimates of acute confirmed infections that were included in the review, the estimated seroprevalence of past dengue infection in Tanzania ranged from 50.6% in a health facility-based study to 11% in a population-based study. Acute confirmed infections of dengue were estimated to be as high as 38.2% of suspected cases. Only one study reported on an outbreak. It is evident that dengue needs to become part of regular disease surveillance in Tanzania. Control measures need to be instituted with a focus on building human resource capacity and integrating dengue control measures in ongoing health programmes, for both preventive and curative interventions. Systematic reviews are valuable in assessing health issues when surveillance data are not available. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Reviewing progress: 7 year trends in characteristics of adults and children enrolled at HIV care and treatment clinics in the United Republic of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha, Harriet; Kilama, Bonita; Antelman, Gretchen; Khatib, Ahmed; Almeida, Annette; Reidy, William; Ramadhani, Gongo; Lamb, Matthew R; Mbatia, Redempta; Abrams, Elaine J

    2013-10-27

    To evaluate the on-going scale-up of HIV programs, we assessed trends in patient characteristics at enrolment and ART initiation over 7 years of implementation. Data were from Optimal Models, a prospective open cohort study of HIV-infected (HIV+) adults (≥15 years) and children (<15 years) enrolled from January 2005 to December 2011 at 44 HIV clinics in 3 regions of mainland Tanzania (Kagera, Kigoma, Pwani) and Zanzibar. Comparative statistics for trends in characteristics of patients enrolled in 2005-2007, 2008-2009 and 2010-2011 were examined. Overall 62,801 HIV + patients were enrolled: 58,102(92.5%) adults, (66.5% female); 4,699(7.5%) children.Among adults, pregnant women enrolment increased: 6.8%, 2005-2007; 12.1%, 2008-2009; 17.2%, 2010-2011; as did entry into care from prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programs: 6.6%, 2005-2007; 9.5%, 2008-2009; 12.6%, 2010-2011. WHO stage IV at enrolment declined: 27.1%, 2005-2007; 20.2%, 2008-2009; 11.1% 2010-2011. Of the 42.5% and 29.5% with CD4+ data at enrolment and ART initiation respectively, median CD4+ count increased: 210 cells/μL, 2005-2007; 262 cells/μL, 2008-2009; 266 cells/μL 2010-2011; but median CD4+ at ART initiation did not change (148 cells/μL overall). Stavudine initiation declined: 84.9%, 2005-2007; 43.1%, 2008-2009; 19.7%, 2010-2011.Among children, median age (years) at enrolment decreased from 6.1(IQR:2.7-10.0) in 2005-2007 to 4.8(IQR:1.9-8.6) in 2008-2009, and 4.1(IQR:1.5-8.1) in 2010-2011 and children <24 months increased from 18.5% to 26.1% and 31.5% respectively. Entry from PMTCT was 7.0%, 2005-2007; 10.7%, 2008-2009; 15.0%, 2010-2011. WHO stage IV at enrolment declined from 22.9%, 2005-2007, to 18.3%, 2008-2009 to 13.9%, 2010-2011. Proportion initiating stavudine was 39.8% 2005-2007; 39.5%, 2008-2009; 26.1%, 2010-2011. Median age at ART initiation also declined significantly. Over time, the proportion of pregnant women and of adults and children enrolled from

  13. Exclusive breast-feeding is rarely practised in rural and urban Morogoro, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Shirima, R; Greiner, T; Kylberg, E; Gebre-Medhin, M

    2001-04-01

    To investigate and compare feeding practices among infants of less than 7 months of age in a rural and an urban area in Tanzania. Cross-sectional, questionnaire-based interview of mothers and focus group discussions with extension workers and community leaders. Eleven villages in a rural district and 10 wards in an urban district in the Morogoro region, Tanzania, west of Dar es Salaam. Probability samples of mothers with infants of less than 7 months of age from each area). Exclusive breast-feeding was rarely practised in either the rural or urban areas investigated. However, the urban mothers initiated breast-feeding earlier, discarded colostrum less frequently, breast-fed exclusively for a longer period, gave breast milk as the first feed more often and delayed the introduction of solid foods for longer than their rural counterparts. The rural mothers, on the other hand, breast-fed their previous infants slightly longer than the urban mothers. The better performance of urban mothers could be partly due to sustained breast-feeding support in hospital settings and other campaigns which may not have reached the rural areas. In both the rural and urban areas more efforts are needed to encourage exclusive breast-feeding, to avoid premature complementation and, in the case of the urban areas, to protect extended breast-feeding.

  14. The influence of climate change on Tanzania's hydropower sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperna Weiland, Frederiek; Boehlert, Brent; Meijer, Karen; Schellekens, Jaap; Magnell, Jan-Petter; Helbrink, Jakob; Kassana, Leonard; Liden, Rikard

    2015-04-01

    Economic costs induced by current climate variability are large for Tanzania and may further increase due to future climate change. The Tanzanian National Climate Change Strategy addressed the need for stabilization of hydropower generation and strengthening of water resources management. Increased hydropower generation can contribute to sustainable use of energy resources and stabilization of the national electricity grid. To support Tanzania the World Bank financed this study in which the impact of climate change on the water resources and related hydropower generation capacity of Tanzania is assessed. To this end an ensemble of 78 GCM projections from both the CMIP3 and CMIP5 datasets was bias-corrected and down-scaled to 0.5 degrees resolution following the BCSD technique using the Princeton Global Meteorological Forcing Dataset as a reference. To quantify the hydrological impacts of climate change by 2035 the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB was set-up for Tanzania at a resolution of 3 minutes and run with all 78 GCM datasets. From the full set of projections a probable (median) and worst case scenario (95th percentile) were selected based upon (1) the country average Climate Moisture Index and (2) discharge statistics of relevance to hydropower generation. Although precipitation from the Princeton dataset shows deviations from local station measurements and the global hydrological model does not perfectly reproduce local scale hydrographs, the main discharge characteristics and precipitation patterns are represented well. The modeled natural river flows were adjusted for water demand and irrigation within the water resources model RIBASIM (both historical values and future scenarios). Potential hydropower capacity was assessed with the power market simulation model PoMo-C that considers both reservoir inflows obtained from RIBASIM and overall electricity generation costs. Results of the study show that climate change is unlikely to negatively affect the

  15. Can community carers cope?

    PubMed

    1989-07-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) leads to severe social, psychological, and financial consequences for affected families and communities. In response to this stress, service organizations in both developed and developing countries are providing support both to People with AIDS (PWAs) and to their caregivers. In New York, for example, Gay Men's Health Crisis volunteers visit PWAs in hospitals, assist PWAs after discharge with daily chores such as shopping and getting to medical appointments, and provide psychological support through peer and group counseling. The 1st self-help group in Africa, Uganda's AIDS Service Organization (TASO), was established by the widow of an AIDS victim in response to the abandonment of many PWAs by their families. TASO helps families with the practical and financial burdens of caring for AIDS patients, seeks to overcome the fears and misconceptions surrounding the disease, operates a center where those infected with the AIDS virus can gather, and offers income-generating opportunities to PWAs. In the Kagera region of Tanzania, where at least 4000 children have been orphaned by AIDS, villages have allocated community funds for the needs of these children. Other voluntary organizations have focused on providing legal advice to PWAs who have faced discrimination in the workplace or in housing. The World Health Organization's Global Program on AIDS has reiterated its commitment to work with community-based organizations.

  16. Assessment of HIV/AIDS and Life Skills Delivery in Primary Schools in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushahu, Bernadetha Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS and the Life Skills Education delivery in primary schools in Tanzania. Specifically the study investigated pupils' views about the effect of HIV/AIDS and Life Skills teaching in primary schools in Tanzania; assessed pupils' knowledge related to HIV/AIDS and Life Skills education, and…

  17. Sustainability and Long Term-Tenure: Lion Trophy Hunting in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Brink, Henry; Skinner, Kirsten; Leader-Williams, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    It is argued that trophy hunting of large, charismatic mammal species can have considerable conservation benefits but only if undertaken sustainably. Social-ecological theory suggests such sustainability only results from developing governance systems that balance financial and biological requirements. Here we use lion (Panthera leo) trophy hunting data from Tanzania to investigate how resource ownership patterns influence hunting revenue and offtake levels. Tanzania contains up to half of the global population of free-ranging lions and is also the main location for lion trophy hunting in Africa. However, there are concerns that current hunting levels are unsustainable. The lion hunting industry in Tanzania is run by the private sector, although the government leases each hunting block to companies, enforces hunting regulation, and allocates them a species-specific annual quota per block. The length of these leases varies and theories surrounding property rights and tenure suggest hunting levels would be less sustainable in blocks experiencing a high turnover of short-term leases. We explored this issue using lion data collected from 1996 to 2008 in the Selous Game Reserve (SGR), the most important trophy hunting destination in Tanzania. We found that blocks in SGR with the highest lion hunting offtake were also those that experienced the steepest declines in trophy offtake. In addition, we found this high hunting offtake and the resultant offtake decline tended to be in blocks under short-term tenure. In contrast, lion hunting levels in blocks under long-term tenure matched more closely the recommended sustainable offtake of 0.92 lions per 1000 km2. However, annual financial returns were higher from blocks under short-term tenure, providing $133 per km2 of government revenue as compared to $62 per km2 from long-term tenure blocks. Our results provide evidence for the importance of property rights in conservation, and support calls for an overhaul of the system in

  18. Sustainability and Long Term-Tenure: Lion Trophy Hunting in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Brink, Henry; Smith, Robert J; Skinner, Kirsten; Leader-Williams, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    It is argued that trophy hunting of large, charismatic mammal species can have considerable conservation benefits but only if undertaken sustainably. Social-ecological theory suggests such sustainability only results from developing governance systems that balance financial and biological requirements. Here we use lion (Panthera leo) trophy hunting data from Tanzania to investigate how resource ownership patterns influence hunting revenue and offtake levels. Tanzania contains up to half of the global population of free-ranging lions and is also the main location for lion trophy hunting in Africa. However, there are concerns that current hunting levels are unsustainable. The lion hunting industry in Tanzania is run by the private sector, although the government leases each hunting block to companies, enforces hunting regulation, and allocates them a species-specific annual quota per block. The length of these leases varies and theories surrounding property rights and tenure suggest hunting levels would be less sustainable in blocks experiencing a high turnover of short-term leases. We explored this issue using lion data collected from 1996 to 2008 in the Selous Game Reserve (SGR), the most important trophy hunting destination in Tanzania. We found that blocks in SGR with the highest lion hunting offtake were also those that experienced the steepest declines in trophy offtake. In addition, we found this high hunting offtake and the resultant offtake decline tended to be in blocks under short-term tenure. In contrast, lion hunting levels in blocks under long-term tenure matched more closely the recommended sustainable offtake of 0.92 lions per 1000 km2. However, annual financial returns were higher from blocks under short-term tenure, providing $133 per km2 of government revenue as compared to $62 per km2 from long-term tenure blocks. Our results provide evidence for the importance of property rights in conservation, and support calls for an overhaul of the system in

  19. Tanzania.

    PubMed

    1992-05-01

    Background notes on Tanzania present a profile of nationality, population count of 26 million, growth rate of 3.5%, ethnic groups (130), religions (33% Muslim, 33% animist, 33% Christian), languages, education (86% primary), literacy (79%), health (infant mortality of 106/1000), and work force (90% agriculture). Geographic data are given for the area, cities, terrain, and climate. The Tanzanian government is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. There is 1 political party and everyone 18 years is eligible to vote. 4% of the gross domestic product (GDP) ($5.9 billion) is devoted to defense. Economic growth is 4.3%/year and person income is $240/capita. Natural resources, agriculture, industry, and trade are identified. $400 million has been received between 1970-92 in US economic aid. The 1992 official exchange rate is 300 Tanzanian shillings to the US dollar. Descriptive text is given for the population, the history of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, the government, principal government officials (President, 1st Vice President [VP], 2nd VP and President of Zanzibar, Prime Minister, Foreign Affairs Minister, Ambassador to the US, Ambassador to the UN, and US embassy address and phone number), political conditions, the economy, the defense, foreign relations, and US-Tanzanian relations. Principal US officials are identified for the Ambassador, Deputy Chief of Mission, USAID Director, and Public Affairs Officer; the US embassy address is given also. The population is 80% rural with a density of 1/sq km in arid areas, 51/sq km on the mainland, and 134/sq km on Zanzibar. The new capital will be Dodoma in central Tanzania. Most residents are of Bantu stock; nomadic groups are the Masai and the Luo. 1% are non-Africans. Government has a strong central executive. The current President is Ali Hassan Mwinyi. The Revolutionary Party is in the primary policymaking body and provides all government leaders. The government seeks to foster the

  20. An analytical perspective of Global health initiatives in Tanzania and Zambia.

    PubMed

    Mwisongo, Aziza; Soumare, Alice Ntamwishimiro; Nabyonga-Orem, Juliet

    2016-07-18

    A number of Global health initiatives (GHIs) have been created to support low and middle income countries. Their support has been of different forms. The African Region has benefitted immensely from GHIs and continues to register an increase in health partnerships and initiatives. However, information on the functioning and operationalisation of GHIs in the countries is limited. This study involved two country case studies, one in Tanzania and the other one in Zambia. Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. The aims were to understand and profile the GHIs supporting health development and to assess their governance and alignment with country priorities, harmonisation and alignment of their interventions and efforts, and contribution towards health systems strengthening. The respondents included senior officers from health stakeholder agencies at the national and sub-national levels. The qualitative data were analysed using thematic content analysis in MAXQDA software. Health systems in both Tanzania and Zambia are decentralised. They have benefitted from GHI support in fighting the common health problems of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and vaccine-preventable diseases. In both countries, no GHI adequately made use of the existing Sector-wide Approach (SWAp) mechanisms but they largely operate through their unique structures and committees. GHI efforts to improve general health governance have not been matched with similar efforts from the countries. Their support to health system strengthening has not been comprehensive but has involved the selection of a few areas some of which were disease-focused. On the positive side, however, in both Tanzania and Zambia improved alignment with the countries' priorities is noted in that most of the proposals submitted to the GHIs refer to the priorities, objectives and strategies in the national health development plans and, GHIs depend on the national health information systems. GHIs are important funders

  1. Evidence for mafic lower crust in Tanzania, East Africa, from joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave dispersion velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julià, Jordi; Ammon, Charles J.; Nyblade, Andrew A.

    2005-08-01

    The S-wave velocity structure of Precambrian terranes in Tanzania, East Africa is modelled by jointly inverting receiver functions and surface wave dispersion velocities from the 1994-1995 Tanzania broad-band seismic experiment. The study region, which consists of an Archean craton surrounded by Proterozoic mobile belts, forms a unique setting for evaluating Precambrian crustal evolution. Our results show a uniform crustal structure across the region, with a 10-15 km thick upper crust with VS= 3.4-3.5 km s-1, overlying a gradational lower crust with S-wave velocities up to 4.1 km s-1 at 38-42 km depth. The upper-mantle lid displays uniform S-wave velocities of 4.5-4.7 km s-1 to depths of 100-150 km and overlays a prominent low-velocity zone. This low-velocity zone is required by the dispersion and receiver function data, but its depth interval is uncertain. The high crustal velocities within the lowermost crust characterize the entire region and suggest that mafic lithologies are present in both Archean and Proterozoic terranes. The ubiquitous mafic lower crust can be attributed to underplating associated with mafic dyke emplacement. This finding suggests that in East Africa there has been little secular variation in Precambrian crustal development.

  2. Education and Poverty Reduction in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedgwood, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews research on the returns to education in Tanzania, both financial and non-financial, and considers whether these returns translate into poverty reduction. It looks at reasons why achievement of high primary enrolment rates in the past did not lead to the realisation of the associated developmental outcomes, considering factors…

  3. Nutritional Problems and Policy in Tanzania. Cornell International Nutrition Monograph Series, Number 7 (1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mgaza, Olyvia

    This monograph discusses policies designed to deal with food and nutrition problems in Tanzania. Available information on food supplies and nutritional conditions in Tanzania clearly shows that the country faces nutritional problems; protein energy malnutrition is the most serious and requires priority action. Iron deficiency anemia, goiter, and…

  4. The make or buy debate: considering the limitations of domestic production in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kinsley Rose; Kohler, Jillian Clare; Ovtcharenko, Natalia

    2012-06-29

    In order to ensure their population's regular access to essential medicines, many least developed countries and developing countries are faced with the policy question of whether to import or manufacture drugs locally, in particular for life-saving antiretroviral medicines for HIV/AIDS patients. In order for domestic manufacturing to be viable and cost-effective, the local industry must be able to compete with international suppliers of medicines by producing sufficiently low cost ARVs. This paper considers the 'make-or-buy' dilemma by using Tanzania as a case study. Key informant interviews, event-driven observation, and purposive sampling of documents were used to evaluate the case study. The case study focused on Tanzania's imitation technology transfer agreement to locally manufacture a first-line ARV (3TC + d4T + NVP), reverse engineering the ARV. Tanzania is limited by weak political support for the use of TRIPS flexibilities, limited production capacity for ARVs and limited competitiveness in both domestic and regional markets. The Ministry of Health and Social Welfare encourages the use of flexibilities while others push for increased IP protection. Insufficient production capacity and lack of access to donor-financed tenders make it difficult to obtain economies of scale and provide competitive prices. Within the "make-or-buy" context, it was determined that there are significant limitations in domestic manufacturing for developing countries. The case study highlights the difficulty of governments to make use of economies of scale and produce low-cost medicines, attract technology transfer, and utilize the flexibilities of the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). The results demonstrate the importance of evaluating barriers to the use of TRIPS flexibilities and long-term planning across sectors in future technology transfer and manufacturing initiatives.

  5. CBDs take messages to communities in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    1996-02-01

    The Family Planning Association of Tanzania (UMATI)/JOICFP Integrated Project to promote the use of contraceptive methods was launched in 1984 to a target population of 20,000 spread over three villages. The project now covers 117 villages with a total population of 356,000. In initial project areas, the project has increased the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) to more than 50% compared to the national average of 11.3% in five years. In overwhelmingly Catholic areas in Mgeta, Morogoro Region, the CPR increased from 1.0% in 1990 at the project start to reach 50.4% in 1994. The community-based distribution (CBD) system is one of the most impressive aspects of the UMATI/JOICFP project. The flexibility and ready accessibility of CBD personnel have made them more effective in reaching community people than clinical services. CBD personnel also work closely with government health workers. To further improve the CBD system, UMATI is concentrating upon the development of an effective CBD supervision system.

  6. A reassessment of the indicators of primary education quality in developing countries: Emerging evidence from Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosha, Herme Joseph

    1988-03-01

    This article seeks to identify factors affecting the quality of primary education in five regions of Tanzania by extensively reviewing relevant literature and empirical data. Some of the shortcomings emphasised by the author are: frequent staff turnover, declining financial support for primary education, ineffective curricula, shortage of teachers' guides and textbooks, and unfavourable working conditions for teachers in rural areas. Beyond this, the need for freely available material, efficient school management and regular inspections is stressed by the author.

  7. Popular soap opera helps raise contraceptive use. Tanzania.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    The latest Demographic and Health Surveys Report on Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice documents an increase in the level of use of modern contraceptive methods in Tanzania between 1991 and 1994 from 5.9% to 11.3% of reproductive-age women. 53.2% of all women of reproductive age were exposed to mass media messages about family planning, which large majorities of men and women consider acceptable. 48.3% were exposed through radio, 22.9% reported listening to the US Agency for International Development-funded family planning promotional radio soap opera "Zinduka]", 22.5% read newspaper items, 17.5% saw posters, and 7.3% saw leaflets. 4.5% were visited by a family planning worker, 24.7% discussed family planning with a friend or relative, and 24.7% discussed family planning with health facility personnel. Zinduka], a popular 52-episode soap opera, depicts how the lives of Bomu wa Kabuma's family, in Msongano Town and Tawanya village in Tanzania, are affected because he is unable to provide for his eight children, parents, wife, mistress, and the mistress's child. The soap was produced with technical assistance from the Johns Hopkins University Center for Communication Programs Population Communication Services project. The 15-minute episodes were first broadcast in Swahili on Radio Tanzania from October 1993 through October 1994. The series was then resumed in September 1995 for another 12 months.

  8. Schistosomiasis and US Peace Corps volunteers in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Outwater, Anne H; Mpangala, Edith

    2005-01-01

    Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni are endemic to East Africa. US Peace Corps volunteers (PCVs) serving in Tanzania were not experiencing symptoms of infection, but in 1998 when comprehensive testing was instituted, more than one-quarter were found to be infected with schistosomiasis at the close of their 27-month tour of service. An education campaign was instituted by the in-country Peace Corps Medical Officers. At their close of service, all PCVs had a medical examination and blood, urine, and stool samples were tested for schistosomiasis. PCVs also answered a survey that included questions about their knowledge of the blood fluke and the disease, symptoms, where and how many times they had gone swimming, and what precautionary measures they had taken. PCVs in Tanzania are most susceptible to infection from recreational activities within the Lake Victoria ecosystem. After an education campaign, incident cases dropped quickly. Vigorous toweling after exposure may have decreased the risk of disease for those PCVs who went swimming in freshwater. Although schistosomiasis is common in Tanzania and PCVs are highly susceptible, it is possible for them to spend their entire tour without contracting the disease, even if they live by Lake Victoria. People should be encouraged not to swim in Lake Victoria. The possibility that vigorous toweling immediately after exposure to infected waters is a useful protective measure warrants further investigation.

  9. Experiences of and responses to disrespectful maternity care and abuse during childbirth; a qualitative study with women and men in Morogoro Region, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Shannon A; George, Asha S; Chebet, Joy J; Mosha, Idda H; Mpembeni, Rose N M; Winch, Peter J

    2014-08-12

    Interventions to reduce maternal mortality have focused on delivery in facilities, yet in many low-resource settings rates of facility-based birth have remained persistently low. In Tanzania, rates of facility delivery have remained static for more than 20 years. With an aim to advance research and inform policy changes, this paper builds on a growing body of work that explores dimensions of and responses to disrespectful maternity care and abuse during childbirth in facilities across Morogoro Region, Tanzania. This research drew on in-depth interviews with 112 respondents including women who delivered in the preceding 14 months, their male partners, public opinion leaders and community health workers to understand experiences with and responses to abuse during childbirth. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, translated and coded using Atlas.ti. Analysis drew on the principles of Grounded Theory. When initially describing birth experiences, women portrayed encounters with providers in a neutral or satisfactory light. Upon probing, women recounted events or circumstances that are described as abusive in maternal health literature: feeling ignored or neglected; monetary demands or discriminatory treatment; verbal abuse; and in rare instances physical abuse. Findings were consistent across respondent groups and districts. As a response to abuse, women described acquiescence or non-confrontational strategies: resigning oneself to abuse, returning home, or bypassing certain facilities or providers. Male respondents described more assertive approaches: requesting better care, paying a bribe, lodging a complaint and in one case assaulting a provider. Many Tanzanian women included in this study experienced unfavorable conditions when delivering in facilities. Providers, women and their families must be made aware of women's rights to respectful care. Recommendations for further research include investigations of the prevalence and dimensions of disrespectful care and

  10. Helium and carbon isotope systematics of Rungwe geothermal gases and fluids; southern Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, P. H.

    2009-12-01

    P. H. BARRY1*, D. R. HILTON1, T. P. FISCHER2, J. M. DE MOOR2, F. MANGASINI3 C. RAMIREZ4 1 Geosciences Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UCSD, La Jolla, California 92093-0244, USA (*Correspondence: pbarry@ucsd.edu) 2 Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, MSC 03 2040, 1 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-0001, USA. 3 Department of Mining and Mineral Processing Engineering, University of Dar Es Salaam, PO Box 35131, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. 4 Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias Geologicas, Escuela Centroamericana de Geologia, Universidad de Costa Rica. The East African Rift (EAR) is the largest modern example of continental rifting, extending from the Afar depression in the north to the Rungwe region in southern Tanzania. EAR volcanism is attributed to the presence of one or more mantle plumes [1]. Late Miocene to recent volcanism and geothermal activity mark the Rungwe region [2], with mafic eruptions as recently as 200 years ago. Our aim is to delineate the southern geographical extent of plume influence on the propagating EAR by investigating the He-CO2 characteristics of geothermal fluids in the Rungwe region. We report new helium (He) and carbon (C) isotopes (3He/4He, δ13C) and relative abundance (CO2/3He) characteristics for a suite of 20 geothermal gas and fluid samples from 11 different localities in the Rungwe region. He-isotopes are in good agreement with previous reports [3], and range from ~1 RA to ~7 RA (MORB-like values), indicating admixture between upper mantle He and variable proportions of radiogenic He. C-isotopes ranges from -2.8 to -6.5 ‰ (vs. PDB) with all falling in the MORB range (~4.5 ± 2‰). CO2/3He ratios vary over 5 orders of magnitude from ~3 x 10^9 (MORB-like) to higher values (up to ~3 x 10^13) normally associated with crustal lithologies. Taken together, the He-CO2 data can be explained by 2-component mixing of a deep-seated mantle source with crustal component(s). There are no

  11. Tanzania Higher Education--Fifty Years after Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mnubi, Godfrey M.

    2013-01-01

    As Tanzania celebrates fifty years of independence at the crossroads of globalization, the country has experienced a changing landscape and a major transformation in higher learning education with spectacular expansion in student enrollment rates. This requires its higher education institutions, particularly universities, to function effectively…

  12. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among type 2 diabetic patients attending diabetes clinics in northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Damian, Damian J; Kimaro, Kelvin; Mselle, Godwin; Kaaya, Rose; Lyaruu, Isaac

    2017-10-26

    To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among patients with type 2 diabetes who are attending diabetes clinics in northern Tanzania. In total 227 type 2 diabetic patients attending diabetes clinics were enrolled. Majority of patients 193 (85.0%) were overweight (44.9%) or obese (40.1%). Of them, 65 (33.7%) were overweight/obese after diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was significantly higher in female participants than the males [92.2% vs. 69.2%; OR = 5.10; 95% CI 2.22-11.05]. Regarding the region of residence, Kilimanjaro (100.0%) and Arusha (89.8%) regions had significantly highest prevalence of overweight/obesity compared to Tanga region (69.2%) [χ 2  = 32.455, P < 0.001].

  13. Tanzania: Background and Current Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-08

    movement of refugees. Societal violence against women and persons with albinism and women persisted. Female genital mutilation (FGM), especially of...Zanzibar /islands over 99% Muslim Literacy: Male, 77.5%; Female , 66.2% (2003) Under-5 Mortality: 165 deaths/1,000 live births HIV/AIDS adult...infection rate: 6.2% (2007) Life Expectancy, years at birth: Male, 50.5 Female , 53.5 (2009 est.) Sources: CIA World Factbook 2010. Tanzania

  14. Tanzania: Background and Current Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-23

    persons with albinism and women persisted. Female genital mutilation (FGM), especially of young girls, continued to be practiced. Trafficking in...35%; Zanzibar /islands over 99% Muslim Literacy: Male, 77.5%; Female , 66.2% (2003) Under-5 Mortality: 165 deaths/1,000 live births HIV/AIDS adult...infection rate: 6.2% (2007) Life Expectancy, years at birth: Male, 50.5 Female , 53.5 (2009 est.) Sources: CIA World Factbook 2010. Tanzania

  15. Design, implementation and evaluation of a national campaign to distribute nine million free LLINs to children under five years of age in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background After a national voucher scheme in 2004 provided pregnant women and infants with highly subsidized insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), use among children under five years (U5s) in mainland Tanzania increased from 16% in 2004 to 26.2% in 2007. In 2008, the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare planned a catch-up campaign to rapidly and equitably deliver a free long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) to every child under five years in Tanzania. Methods The ITN Cell, a unit within the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP), coordinated the campaign on behalf of the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare. Government contractors trained and facilitated local government officials to supervise village-level volunteers on a registration of all U5s and the distribution and issuing of LLINs. The registration results formed the basis for the LLIN order and delivery to village level. Caregivers brought their registration coupons to village issuing posts during a three-day period where they received LLINs for their U5s. Household surveys in five districts assessed ITN ownership and use immediately after the campaign. Results Nine donors contributed to the national campaign that purchased and distributed 9.0 million LLINs at an average cost of $7.07 per LLIN, including all campaign-associated activities. The campaign covered all eight zones of mainland Tanzania, the first region being covered separately during an integrated measles immunization/malaria LLIN distribution in August 2008, and was implemented one zone at a time from March 2009 until May 2010. ITN ownership at household level increased from Tanzania's 2008 national average of 45.7% to 63.4%, with significant regional variations. ITN use among U5s increased from 28.8% to 64.1%, a 2.2-fold increase, with increases ranging from 22.1-38.3% percentage points in different regions. Conclusion A national-level LLIN distribution strategy that fully engaged local government authorities helped avoid additional burden on

  16. A review on prevalence, control measure, and tolerance of Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu cattle to East Coast fever in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Laisser, E L K; Chenyambuga, S W; Karimuribo, E D; Msalya, G; Kipanyula, M J; Mwilawa, A J; Mdegela, R H; Kusiluka, L J M

    2017-04-01

    In Tanzania, control of East Coast fever (ECF) has predominantly relied on tick control using acaricides and chemotherapy, little on ECF vaccination, and very little on dissemination regarding animal immunization. In this paper, the prevalence, control measure, and tolerance of Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu (TSHZ) cattle to ECF are reviewed. In addition, the opportunities available for reducing the use of acaricides for the benefit of the farmers in terms of reduction of costs of purchasing acaricides and environmental pollution are described. The tick distribution and epidemiological factors for ECF such as the agro-ecological zones (AEZ), livestock production systems (LPS), strain, and age of the animals are also described. These factors influence the epidemiology of ECF and the distribution of TSHZ strains in different geographic locations of Tanzania. We have further showed that there is a tendency of farmers to select among the strains of TSHZ for animals which can tolerate ticks and ECF and crossbreed them with their local strains with the aim of benefiting from the inherent characteristics of the most tolerant strains. Generally, many strains of TSHZ cattle are tolerant to tick infestation and ECF infection and can be bred to respond to the needs of the people. In this review paper, we recommend that in future, ECF epidemiological studies should account for factors such as livestock production system, agro-climate, breed of animal, tick control strategy, and the dynamic interactions between them. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that an integrated control method involving use of acaricides, immunization, and ECF-tolerant/-resistant animals is required.

  17. Potential for Rabies Control through Dog Vaccination in Wildlife-Abundant Communities of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Meagan C.; Hampson, Katie; Cleaveland, Sarah; Meyers, Lauren Ancel; Townsend, Jeffrey P.; Galvani, Alison P.

    2012-01-01

    Canine vaccination has been successful in controlling rabies in diverse settings worldwide. However, concerns remain that coverage levels which have previously been sufficient might be insufficient in systems where transmission occurs both between and within populations of domestic dogs and other carnivores. To evaluate the effectiveness of vaccination targeted at domestic dogs when wildlife also contributes to transmission, we applied a next-generation matrix model based on contract tracing data from the Ngorongoro and Serengeti Districts in northwest Tanzania. We calculated corresponding values of R 0, and determined, for policy purposes, the probabilities that various annual vaccination targets would control the disease, taking into account the empirical uncertainty in our field data. We found that transition rate estimates and corresponding probabilities of vaccination-based control indicate that rabies transmission in this region is driven by transmission within domestic dogs. Different patterns of rabies transmission between the two districts exist, with wildlife playing a more important part in Ngorongoro and leading to higher recommended coverage levels in that district. Nonetheless, our findings indicate that an annual dog vaccination campaign achieving the WHO-recommended target of 70% will control rabies in both districts with a high level of certainty. Our results support the feasibility of controlling rabies in Tanzania through dog vaccination. PMID:22928056

  18. Exposure to Aflatoxin and Fumonisin in Children at Risk for Growth Impairment in Rural Tanzania

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background. Stunted growth is a major public health issue for children in Tanzania. We examined dietary exposures to aflatoxin and fumonisin and their potential roles in growth impairment in children under 36 months of age in Haydom, Tanzania. Methods. Plasma samples collected at 24 months of age ...

  19. Provision of Pre-Primary Education as a Basic Right in Tanzania: Reflections from Policy Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mtahabwa, Lyabwene

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to assess provision of pre-primary education in Tanzania as a basic right through analyses of relevant policy documents. Documents which were published over the past decade were considered, including educational policies, action plans, national papers, the "Basic Education Statistics in Tanzania" documents, strategy…

  20. Coinfection of intestinal schistosomiasis and malaria and association with haemoglobin levels and nutritional status in school children in Mara region, Northwestern Tanzania: a cross-sectional exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Kinung'hi, Safari M; Mazigo, Humphrey D; Dunne, David W; Kepha, Stella; Kaatano, Godfrey; Kishamawe, Coleman; Ndokeji, Samuel; Angelo, Teckla; Nuwaha, Fred

    2017-11-09

    Schistosomiasis represents a major public health problem in Tanzania despite ongoing national control efforts. This study examined whether intestinal schistosomiasis is associated with malaria and assessed the contribution of intestinal schistosomiasis and malaria on anaemia and undernutrition in school children in Mara region, North-western Tanzania. Stool samples were collected from each of 928 school children randomly selected from 5 schools and examined for intestinal schistosomiasis using the Kato Katz method. Finger prick blood samples were collected and examined for malaria parasites and haemoglobin concentrations using the Giemsa stain and Haemocue methods, respectively. Nutritional status was assessed by taking anthropometric measurements. The overall prevalence and infection intensity of S. mansoni was 85.6% (794/928) and 192 (100-278), respectively. The prevalence of malaria was 27.4% (254/928) with significant differences among villages (χ 2  = 96.11, p < 0.001). The prevalence of anaemia was 42.3% (392/928) with significant differences among villages (χ 2  = 39.61, p < 0.001). The prevalence of stunting, thinness and underweight was 21, 6.8 and 1.3%, respectively. Stunting varied significantly by sex (χ 2  = 267.8, p < 0.001), age group (χ 2  = 96.4, p < 0.001) and by village (χ 2  = 20.5, p < 0.001). Out of the 825 infected children, 217 (26.4%) had multiple parasite infections (two to three parasites). The prevalence of co-infections occurred more frequently in boys than in girls (χ 2  = 21.65, p = 0.010). Mean haemoglobin concentrations for co-infected children was significantly lower than that of children not co-infected (115.2 vs 119.6; t = 0.01, p = 0.002). Co-infected children were more likely to be stunted than children who were not co-infected (χ 2  = 11.6, p = 0.003). On multivariate analysis, age group, village of residence and severe anaemia were significant predictors of stunting after adjusting for

  1. Disparities in Risk Factors Associated with Obesity between Zanzibar and Tanzania Mainland among Women of Reproductive Age Based on the 2010 TDHS

    PubMed Central

    Mtumwa, Abdalla H.; Ntwenya, Julius Edward; Vuai, Said A. H.

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of overweight and obesity has serious health implications. The 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey data set was reanalysed to compare the prevalences of overweight and obesity between Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar and to determine how demographic factors can predict overweight and obesity across the United Republic of Tanzania. About 7.92% of the Tanzanian women of reproductive age were obese, 15% were overweight, and 11.5% were underweight. Women from Mainland Tanzania (6.56%) were significantly less likely (AOR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.53–0.82) to be affected by obesity as compared to women from Zanzibar (12.19%). The common predictors of obesity in Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar were wealth index, marital status, and age. Whereas the place of residence and education level emerged as predictors of obesity in the Mainland Tanzania alone, the number of meals per day did so in Zanzibar. Most importantly, Zanzibar had a greater prevalence of obesity compared to Mainland Tanzania. PMID:27721990

  2. Cost-effectiveness of live oral attenuated human rotavirus vaccine in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ruhago, George M; Ngalesoni, Frida N; Robberstad, Bjarne; Norheim, Ole F

    2015-01-01

    Globally, diarrhoea is the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality, responsible for the annual loss of about 10% of the total global childhood disease burden. In Tanzania, Rotavirus infection is the major cause of severe diarrhoea and diarrhoeal mortality in children under five years. Immunisation can reduce the burden, and Tanzania added rotavirus vaccine to its national immunisation programme in January 2013. This study explores the cost effectiveness of introducing rotavirus vaccine within the Tanzania Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI). We quantified all health system implementation costs, including programme costs, to calculate the cost effectiveness of adding rotavirus immunisation to EPI and the existing provision of diarrhoea treatment (oral rehydration salts and intravenous fluids) to children. We used ingredients and step down costing methods. Cost and coverage data were collected in 2012 at one urban and one rural district hospital and a health centre in Tanzania. We used Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) as the outcome measure and estimated incremental costs and health outcomes using a Markov transition model with weekly cycles up to a five-year time horizon. The average unit cost per vaccine dose at 93% coverage is US$ 8.4, with marked difference between the urban facility US$ 5.2; and the rural facility US$ 9.8. RV1 vaccine added to current diarrhoea treatment is highly cost effective compared to diarrhoea treatment given alone, with incremental cost effectiveness ratio of US$ 112 per DALY averted, varying from US$ 80-218 in sensitivity analysis. The intervention approaches a 100% probability of being cost effective at a much lower level of willingness-to-pay than the US$609 per capita Tanzania gross domestic product (GDP). The combination of rotavirus immunisation with diarrhoea treatment is likely to be cost effective when willingness to pay for health is higher than USD 112 per DALY. Universal coverage of the vaccine will

  3. Ethnobotanical study of some of mosquito repellent plants in north-eastern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kweka, Eliningaya J; Mosha, Franklin; Lowassa, Asanterabi; Mahande, Aneth M; Kitau, Jovin; Matowo, Johnson; Mahande, Michael J; Massenga, Charles P; Tenu, Filemoni; Feston, Emmanuel; Lyatuu, Ester E; Mboya, Michael A; Mndeme, Rajabu; Chuwa, Grace; Temu, Emmanuel A

    2008-01-01

    Background The use of plant repellents against nuisance biting insects is common and its potential for malaria vector control requires evaluation in areas with different level of malaria endemicity. The essential oils of Ocimum suave and Ocimum kilimandscharicum were evaluated against malaria vectors in north-eastern Tanzania. Methodology An ethnobotanical study was conducted at Moshi in Kilimanjaro region north-eastern Tanzania, through interviews, to investigate the range of species of plants used as insect repellents. Also, bioassays were used to evaluate the protective potential of selected plants extracts against mosquitoes. Results The plant species mostly used as repellent at night are: fresh or smoke of the leaves of O. suave and O. kilimandscharicum (Lamiaceae), Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), Eucalyptus globules (Myrtaceae) and Lantana camara (Verbenaceae). The most popular repellents were O. kilimandscharicum (OK) and O. suave (OS) used by 67% out of 120 households interviewed. Bioassay of essential oils of the two Ocimum plants was compared with citronella and DEET to study the repellence and feeding inhibition of untreated and treated arms of volunteers. Using filter papers impregnated with Ocimum extracts, knockdown effects and mortality was investigated on malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae, including a nuisance mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus. High biting protection (83% to 91%) and feeding inhibition (71.2% to 92.5%) was observed against three species of mosquitoes. Likewise the extracts of Ocimum plants induced KD90 of longer time in mosquitoes than citronella, a standard botanical repellent. Mortality induced by standard dosage of 30 mg/m2 on filter papers, scored after 24 hours was 47.3% for OK and 57% for OS, compared with 67.7% for citronella. Conclusion The use of whole plants and their products as insect repellents is common among village communities of north-eastern Tanzania and the results indicate that the use of

  4. Societal Incentives for Work: Lessons from Tanzania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorkquist, David C.

    1993-01-01

    A study of work and economics, technology, and culture in Tanzania reveals that (1) material returns to rural workers were barely life sustaining; (2) people live dignified lives without consuming much; (3) simpler technological solutions were better; (4) tension exists between competitiveness and humaneness; and (5) tribal traditions contribute…

  5. Effects of Cooking Fuels on Acute Respiratory Infections in Children in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kilabuko, James H.; Nakai, Satoshi

    2007-01-01

    Biomass fuels, charcoal and kerosene are the most used cooking fuels in Tanzania. Biomass fuel use has been linked to Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) in children. It is not clear whether the use of charcoal and kerosene has health advantage over biomass fuels. In this study, the effects of biomass fuels, charcoal/kerosene on ARI in children under five years old in Tanzania are quantified and compared based on data from Tanzania Demographic and Health survey conducted between 2004 and 2005. Approximately 85% and 15% of children were from biomass fuels and charcoal/kerosene using homes respectively. Average ARI prevalence was about 11%. The prevalence of ARI across various fuel types used for cooking did not vary much from the national prevalence. Odds ratio for ARI, adjusting for child’s sex, age and place of residence; mother’s education, mother’s age at child birth and household living standard, indicated that the effect of biomass fuels on ARI is the same as the effect of charcoal/kerosene (OR 1.01; 95% CI: 0.78–1.42). The findings suggest that to achieve meaningful reduction of ARI prevalence in Tanzania, a shift from the use of biomass fuels, charcoal and kerosene for cooking to clean fuels such as gas and electricity may be essential. Further studies, however, are needed for concrete policy recommendation. PMID:18180538

  6. Supply-side dimensions and dynamics of integrating HIV testing and counselling into routine antenatal care: a facility assessment from Morogoro Region, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    An, Selena J; George, Asha S; LeFevre, Amnesty E; Mpembeni, Rose; Mosha, Idda; Mohan, Diwakar; Yang, Ann; Chebet, Joy; Lipingu, Chrisostom; Baqui, Abdullah H; Killewo, Japhet; Winch, Peter J; Kilewo, Charles

    2015-10-04

    Integration of HIV into RMNCH (reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health) services is an important process addressing the disproportionate burden of HIV among mothers and children in sub-Saharan Africa. We assess the structural inputs and processes of care that support HIV testing and counselling in routine antenatal care to understand supply-side dynamics critical to scaling up further integration of HIV into RMNCH services prior to recent changes in HIV policy in Tanzania. This study, as a part of a maternal and newborn health program evaluation in Morogoro Region, Tanzania, drew from an assessment of health centers with 18 facility checklists, 65 quantitative and 57 qualitative provider interviews, and 203 antenatal care observations. Descriptive analyses were performed with quantitative data using Stata 12.0, and qualitative data were analyzed thematically with data managed by Atlas.ti. Limitations in structural inputs, such as infrastructure, supplies, and staffing, constrain the potential for integration of HIV testing and counselling into routine antenatal care services. While assessment of infrastructure, including waiting areas, appeared adequate, long queues and small rooms made private and confidential HIV testing and counselling difficult for individual women. Unreliable stocks of HIV test kits, essential medicines, and infection prevention equipment also had implications for provider-patient relationships, with reported decreases in women's care seeking at health centers. In addition, low staffing levels were reported to increase workloads and lower motivation for health workers. Despite adequate knowledge of counselling messages, antenatal counselling sessions were brief with incomplete messages conveyed to pregnant women. In addition, coping mechanisms, such as scheduling of clinical activities on different days, limited service availability. Antenatal care is a strategic entry point for the delivery of critical tests and counselling messages

  7. Comparing the Role of Education in Serving Socioeconomic and Political Development in Tanzania and Cuba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mtonga, Harry L.

    1993-01-01

    Compares Tanzania and Cuba to show how, in each case, the state has used education in political and socioeconomic development as a means of achieving socialism. In Cuba, the school system has contributed to creation of the new society, whereas Tanzania continues with piecemeal reconstruction of the educational system. (SLD)

  8. Independent Origin of Plasmodium falciparum Antifolate Super-Resistance, Uganda, Tanzania, and Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Alifrangis, Michael; Schousboe, Mette L.; Ishengoma, Deus; Lusingu, John; Pota, Hirva; Kavishe, Reginald A.; Pearce, Richard; Ord, Rosalynn; Lynch, Caroline; Dejene, Seyoum; Cox, Jonathan; Rwakimari, John; Minja, Daniel T.R.; Lemnge, Martha M.; Roper, Cally

    2014-01-01

    Super-resistant Plasmodium falciparum threatens the effectiveness of sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine in intermittent preventive treatment for malaria during pregnancy. It is characterized by the A581G Pfdhps mutation on a background of the double-mutant Pfdhps and the triple-mutant Pfdhfr. Using samples collected during 2004–2008, we investigated the evolutionary origin of the A581G mutation by characterizing microsatellite diversity flanking Pfdhps triple-mutant (437G+540E+581G) alleles from 3 locations in eastern Africa and comparing it with double-mutant (437G+540E) alleles from the same area. In Ethiopia, both alleles derived from 1 lineage that was distinct from those in Uganda and Tanzania. Uganda and Tanzania triple mutants derived from the previously characterized southeastern Africa double-mutant lineage. The A581G mutation has occurred multiple times on local Pfdhps double-mutant backgrounds; however, a novel microsatellite allele incorporated into the Tanzania lineage since 2004 illustrates the local expansion of emergent triple-mutant lineages. PMID:25061906

  9. Cropland land surface phenology and seasonality in East Africa: Ethiopia, Tanzania, and South Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemu, W. G.; Henebry, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Most people in East Africa depend on rainfed agriculture. Rainfall in the region has been decreasing recently and is highly variable in space and time leading to high food insecurity. A comprehensive understanding of the regional cropland dynamics is therefore needed. Land surface phenology and land surface seasonality have important roles in monitoring cropland dynamics in a region with sparse coverage of in situ climatic and biophysical observations. However, commonly used optical satellite data are often degraded by cloud cover, aerosols, and dust and they are restricted to daytime observations. Here we used near-daily passive microwave (PM) data at 25 km spatial resolution from a series of microwave radiometers—AMSR-E, FengYun3B/MWRI, AMSR2—to study cropland dynamics for 2003-2013 in three important grain production areas of East Africa: Ethiopia, Tanzania, and South Sudan. PM data can be collected through clouds and at night. Based on Google Earth imagery, we identified several cropland areas corresponding to PM grid cells. Rainfall from TRMM and atmospheric water vapor (V) from PM data displayed temporal patterns that were unimodal in Ethiopia and South Sudan, but bimodal in Tanzania. We fitted convex quadratic models to link growing season increments of V and vegetation optical depth (VOD) to accumulated V (AV). The models yielded high coefficients of determination (r2 ≥0.8) and phenometrics calculated from the parameter coefficients. Peak rainfall lagged peak V, but preceded peak VOD. Growing degree-days (GDD), calculated from the PM air temperature data, displayed a weaker bimodal seasonality in which the lowest values occurred during the peak rainy season, due to the cooling effect of latent heat flux and coupled with higher reflection of insolation by the cloud deck. V as a function of GDD displays quasi-periodic behavior. Drier sites in the region displayed larger (smaller) intra-annual dynamic range of V (GDD) compared to the moister sites.

  10. Learning about War and Peace in the Great Lakes Region of Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Lyndsay

    2007-01-01

    Two-thirds of the world's conflicts are in Africa. In particular, the Great Lakes region (Rwanda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda and Tanzania) continues to see conflicts that are complex, extreme and seemingly intractable. By exploring the narrative experiences of those most affected by the conflicts in the region--specifically…

  11. Microbial quality and associated health risks of raw milk marketed in the Tanga region of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Swai, E S; Schoonman, L

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate microbial quality and associated health risks of raw milk marketed in the Tanga region of Tanzania. A microbial quality assessment of marketed raw milk was undertaken by evaluating 59 samples of milk from selling points (collecting centres =15), bicycle boys (12) and kiosks/restaurants (32) in Tanga city during April-May 2005. Quality and milk-borne hazards were assessed using a combination of tests in order to quantify the occurrence of Brucellosis (milk ring test), Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 (culture), the coliform bacteria as well as standard plate count (SPC). Specific gravity (SG) determination was used as an indicator of adulteration. The mean coliform plate count (c.f.u/mL) of milk handled by bicycle boys (4.2×10(6)) was significantly higher than that handled by collecting centres (3.0×10(6)) and kiosk/ restaurants (1.4×10(6)), respectively (P < 0.05). Of the 59 milk samples collected, 33 (56%) were Brucella milk ring test (MRT)-positive and 78% and 17% of the samples graded satisfactorily based on SG and coliform plate counts as prescribed by East African Community standards for raw milk. There was no verocytotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) O157: H7 in any of the milk samples collected and analysed during the present study. It can be concluded that raw market milk in the study area is of poor bacteriological quality and hazardous for human consumption. This highlights the need to implement good hygiene practices and effective monitoring from production through the delivery chain to the consumer. Further studies are needed for detection of toxins that are produced by E. coli, other pathogenic spore forming bacteria (Bacillus spp. and Clostridium spp.) and other harmful microorganisms.

  12. Tanzania benefits from inter-organizational cooperation.

    PubMed

    1998-08-01

    This article describes observations of a monitoring mission by JOICFP, the IPPF Regional Africa Office, and JICA in Tanzania, during June 7-13, 1998. The team visited the Morogoro region to review and assess the current major Integrated Program (IP) activities. The community-based distribution agents have been successful in gaining the trust of the community and contributing to social change. Agents are motivated to work and receive additional training, even though they do not receive a salary. Communities recognize the agents as their representatives. Training agents at the grass roots level has been cost effective. The visiting doctor scheme has been successful in maximizing use of health personnel. In one example, 92 patients from 3 villages were treated by a visiting doctor, who had an adequate supply of basic drugs. Service fees paid by patients cover the cost of medicine. Women receive reproductive health and sexually transmitted disease check-ups. The Income Generation Activities (IGA) program strengthens income generation and women's organizations. IGA also provides tools for masonry and carpentry to encourage male participation in the program. The IP has cooperative support from UMATI, the Ministry of Health, UNFPA, and the Japanese government. Essential drugs and equipment are procured by JICA, and delivered through the UMATI-JOICFP distribution channels to government health centers and dispensaries and UMATI's clinics. The experience has confirmed the ability of nongovernmental organizations to supply a multi-bilateral project. Grassroots staff are most appreciative.

  13. Establishing an Anaesthesia and Intensive Care partnership and aiming for national impact in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ulisubisya, Mpoki; Jörnvall, Henrik; Irestedt, Lars; Baker, Tim

    2016-03-18

    Anaesthesia and Intensive Care is a neglected specialty in low-income countries. There is an acute shortage of health workers - several low-income countries have less than 1 anaesthesia provider per 100,000 population. Only 1.5% of hospitals in Africa have the intensive care resources needed for managing patients with sepsis. Health partnerships between institutions in high and low-income countries have been proposed as an effective way to strengthen health systems. The aim of this article is to describe the origin and conduct of a health partnership in Anaesthesia and Intensive Care between institutions in Tanzania and Sweden and how the partnership has expanded to have an impact at regional and national levels.The Muhimbili-Karolinska Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Collaboration was initiated in 2008 on the request of the Executive Director of Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam. The partnership has conducted training courses, exchanges, research projects and introduced new equipment, routines and guidelines. The partnership has expanded to include all hospitals in Dar es Salaam. Through the newly formed Life Support Foundation, the partnership has had a national impact assisting the reanimation of the Society of Anaesthesiologists of Tanzania and has seen a marked increase of the number of young doctors choosing a residency in Anaesthesia and Intensive Care.

  14. Electronic Field Data Collection in Support of Satellite-Based Food Security Monitoring in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakalembe, C. L.; Dempewolf, J.; Justice, C. J.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Tumbo, S.; Maurice, S.; Mbilinyi, B.; Ibrahim, K.; Materu, S.

    2016-12-01

    In Tanzania agricultural extension agents traditionally collect field data on agriculture and food security on paper, covering most villages throughout the country. The process is expensive, slow and cumbersome and prone to data transcription errors when the data get entered at the district offices into electronic spreadsheets. Field data on the status and condition of agricultural crops, the population's nutritional status, food storage levels and other parameters are needed in near realtime for early warning to make critical but most importantly timely and appropriate decisions that are informed with verified data from the ground. With the ubiquitous distribution of cell phones, which are now used by the vast majority of the population in Tanzania including most farmers, new, efficient and cost-effective methods for field data collection have become available. Using smartphones and tablets data on crop conditions, pest and diseases, natural disasters and livelihoods can be collected and made available and easily accessible in near realtime. In this project we implemented a process for obtaining high quality electronic field data using the GeoODK application with a large network of field extension agents in Tanzania and Uganda. These efforts contribute to work being done on developing an advanced agriculture monitoring system for Tanzania, incorporating traditional data collection with satellite information and field data. The outcomes feed directly into the National Food Security Bulletin for Tanzania produced by the Ministry of Agriculture as well as a form a firm evidence base and field scale monitoring of the disaster risk financing in Uganda.

  15. Implementing Educational Policies in Tanzania. World Bank Discussion Papers No. 86. Africa Technical Department Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galabawa, C. J.

    Of the three East African British colonies (Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania), Tanzania was the least well off at the time of independence in 1961. At that time, only 16,691 students were enrolled in secondary schools, and all general education at higher levels was provided outside the country. Thus, the goals of post-independence educational policy…

  16. The Epidemiology of Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Disorders among Young People in Northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Francis, Joel M; Weiss, Helen A; Mshana, Gerry; Baisley, Kathy; Grosskurth, Heiner; Kapiga, Saidi H

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use is a global public health problem, including as a risk factor for HIV infection, but few data are available on the epidemiology of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders (AUD) among young people in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 4 groups of young people aged 15-24 years old (secondary school students, college/university students, employees of local industries and casual labourers) in two regions (Kilimanjaro and Mwanza) of northern Tanzania. Using a multistage stratified random sampling strategy, we collected information on demographics, alcohol use, and behavioural factors. We screened severity of alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) and estimated the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption using the timeline-follow-back-calendar (TLFB) method. A total of 1954 young people were surveyed. The prevalence of reported alcohol use was higher among males (47-70% ever users and 20-45% current users) than females (24-54% ever users and 12-47% current users). Prevalence of use was substantially higher in Kilimanjaro than Mwanza region. In both regions, participants reported high exposure to alcohol advertisements, and wide alcohol availability. College students reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol use (45% among males; 26% among females) and of heavy episodic drinking (71% among males; 27% among females) followed by casual labourers. Males were more likely to have AUD (an AUDIT score ≥8) than females, with 11-28% of males screening positive for AUD. Alcohol use was associated with male gender, being in a relationship, greater disposable income, non-Muslim religion and a higher number of sexual partners. Alcohol use is a significant problem among young people in northern Tanzania. There is an urgent need to develop, pilot and deliver interventions to help young people delay initiation and reduce levels of harmful drinking, particularly among college students and casual

  17. The feasibility and acceptability of screening for hypertension in private drug retail outlets: a pilot study in Mwanza region, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Michael, Denna; Kezakubi, Dotto; Juma, Adinan; Todd, Jim; Reyburn, Hugh; Renju, Jenny

    2016-09-01

    Hypertension is a major contributor to ill health in sub-Saharan Africa. Developing countries need to increase access for screening. This study assesses the feasibility and acceptability of using private sector drug retail outlets to screen for hypertension in Mwanza region, Tanzania. A pilot study took place in eight drug retail outlets from August 2013 to February 2014. Customers ≥18 years were invited for screening. Socio-demographic characteristics, hypertension knowledge, hypertension screening and treatment history were collected. Subjects with systolic blood pressure over 140 mmHg were referred for follow up. Referral slips captured attendance. Mystery client visits and follow up phone calls were conducted to assess service quality. A total of 971 customers were screened, one person refused; 109 (11.2%) had blood pressure over 140/90 mmHg and were referred for ongoing assessment; 85/109 (78.0%) were newly diagnosed. Customers reported that the service was acceptable. Service providers were able to follow the protocol. Only 18/85 (21%) newly diagnosed participants visited the referral clinic within two weeks. Blood pressure screening was feasible and acceptable to customers of private drug retail outlets. However many who were referred failed to attend at a referral centre and further research is needed in this area. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. A comparison of stigma among patients with leprosy in rural Tanzania and urban United States: a role for public health in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Roosta, Neda; Black, David S; Rea, Thomas H

    2013-04-01

      Leprosy is a chronic infection of the skin and peripheral nerves caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae, which causes peripheral insensitivity and disfigurements of the skin, limbs, and digits. Social stigma is a common consequence of leprosy and may differ according to level of physical disfigurement and geographic location. The objective of this study was to assess social stigma encountered by patients with leprosy in clinical settings located in rural Tanzania and urban USA and to compare the social stigma reported in these regions.   A total of 56 respondents were recruited from one leprosy inpatient facility in Shirati, Tanzania (n = 28), and one outpatient clinic in Los Angeles, USA (n = 28). Cross-sectional data were obtained from face-to-face interviews, which were conducted with respondents at each clinic location. Measures of perceived stigma were assessed in family relationship, vocational, social interaction, and interpersonal contexts.   Patients in Tanzania, as compared with those in the USA, reported significantly higher levels of stigma in family relationship and vocational contexts. Tanzanian patients also reported higher levels of stigma in social interaction and self-esteem contexts, but these differences were marginally significant and may reflect the small sample size.   Leprosy-related social stigma is a major problem in regions of both developed and developing countries; however, patients with leprosy in developing countries reported higher levels of stigma in four social contexts. A public health role in dermatology is discussed as an agent of early diagnosis, control, and education in order to reduce social stigma and promote social rehabilitation. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  19. Estimating the costs of the vaccine supply chain and service delivery for selected districts in Kenya and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mvundura, Mercy; Lorenson, Kristina; Chweya, Amos; Kigadye, Rosemary; Bartholomew, Kathryn; Makame, Mohammed; Lennon, T Patrick; Mwangi, Steven; Kirika, Lydia; Kamau, Peter; Otieno, Abner; Murunga, Peninah; Omurwa, Tom; Dafrossa, Lyimo; Kristensen, Debra

    2015-05-28

    Having data on the costs of the immunization system can provide decision-makers with information to benchmark the costs when evaluating the impact of new technologies or programmatic innovations. This paper estimated the supply chain and immunization service delivery costs and cost per dose in selected districts in Kenya and Tanzania. We also present operational data describing the supply chain and service delivery points (SDPs). To estimate the supply chain costs, we collected resource-use data for the cold chain, distribution system, and health worker time and per diems paid. We also estimated the service delivery costs, which included the time cost of health workers to provide immunization services, and per diems and transport costs for outreach sessions. Data on the annual quantities of vaccines distributed to each facility, and the occurrence and duration of stockouts were collected from stock registers. These data were collected from the national store, 2 regional and 4 district stores, and 12 SDPs in each country for 2012. Cost per dose for the supply chain and immunization service delivery were estimated. The average annual costs per dose at the SDPs were $0.34 (standard deviation (s.d.) $0.18) for Kenya when including only the vaccine supply chain costs, and $1.33 (s.d. $0.82) when including immunization service delivery costs. In Tanzania, these costs were $0.67 (s.d. $0.35) and $2.82 (s.d. $1.64), respectively. Both countries experienced vaccine stockouts in 2012, bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine being more likely to be stocked out in Kenya, and oral poliovirus vaccine in Tanzania. When stockouts happened, they usually lasted for at least one month. Tanzania made investments in 2011 in preparation for planned vaccine introductions, and their supply chain cost per dose is expected to decline with the new vaccine introductions. Immunization service delivery costs are a significant portion of the total costs at the SDPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All

  20. Child Sexual Abuse: Community Concerns in Urban Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisanga, Felix; Nystrom, Lennarth; Hogan, Nora; Emmelin, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore community perceptions about child sexual abuse in Tanzania. Thirteen focus group discussions were conducted with adult community members. The core category, "children's rights challenged by lack of agency", was supported by eight categories. "Aware but distressed" portrayed feelings of…

  1. Childhood Sexual Abuse among University Students in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrann, Denis; Lalor, Kevin; Katabaro, Joviter Kamugisha

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: There are no prevalence data for childhood sexual abuse among Tanzanian university students. This investigation addressed this paucity. The nature of sexual abuse was also investigated. Method: Participants (N=487) from a university in Tanzania completed a questionnaire which assessed abusive childhood sexual experiences, gathering…

  2. Epidemiology and control of human schistosomiasis in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In Tanzania, the first cases of schistosomiasis were reported in the early 19th century. Since then, various studies have reported prevalences of up to 100% in some areas. However, for many years, there have been no sustainable control programmes and systematic data from observational and control studies are very limited in the public domain. To cover that gap, the present article reviews the epidemiology, malacology, morbidity, and the milestones the country has made in efforts to control schistosomiasis and discusses future control approaches. The available evidence indicates that, both urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis are still highly endemic in Tanzania and cause significant morbidity.Mass drug administration using praziquantel, currently used as a key intervention measure, has not been successful in decreasing prevalence of infection. There is therefore an urgent need to revise the current approach for the successful control of the disease. Clearly, these need to be integrated control measures. PMID:23192005

  3. Task shifting for cataract surgery in eastern Africa: productivity and attrition of non-physician cataract surgeons in Kenya, Malawi and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Eliah, Edson; Lewallen, Susan; Kalua, Khumbo; Courtright, Paul; Gichangi, Michael; Bassett, Ken

    2014-01-01

    This project examined the surgical productivity and attrition of non-physician cataract surgeons (NPCSs) in Tanzania, Malawi, and Kenya. Baseline (2008-9) data on training, support, and productivity (annual cataract surgery rate) were collected from officially trained NPCSs using mailed questionnaires followed by telephone interviews. Telephone interviews were used to collect follow-up data annually on productivity and semi-annually on attrition. A detailed telephone interview was conducted if a surgeon left his/her post. Data were entered into and analysed using STATA. Among the 135 NPCSs, 129 were enrolled in the study (Kenya 88, Tanzania 38, and Malawi 3) mean age 42 years; average time since completing training 6.6 years. Employment was in District 44%, Regional 24% or mission/ private 32% hospitals. Small incision cataract surgery was practiced by 38% of the NPCSs. The mean cataract surgery rate was 188/year, median 76 (range 0-1700). For 39 (31%) NPCSs their surgical rate was more than 200/year. Approximately 22% in Kenya and 25% in Tanzania had years where the cataract surgical rate was zero. About 11% of the surgeons had no support staff. High quality training is necessary but not sufficient to result in cataract surgical activity that meets population needs and maintains surgical skill. Needed are supporting institutions and staff, functioning equipment and programs to recruit and transport patients.

  4. The "politics of the queue": the politicization of people living with HIV/AIDS in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Nadine; Bujra, Janet

    2010-01-01

    Starting from a body of literature on movements around "biological citizenship," this article analyses the political significance of HIV-positive people's collective action in Tanzania. We explore reasons for the limited impact of Tanzanian AIDS activism on the wider political scene, concluding that the formation of a "movement" is still in its infancy and faces many constraints, though some breakthroughs have been made. Participation in PLHA groups in Tanzania encourages politicizing struggles over representation, democratic forms and gender that can lead to a process of political socialization in which members learn to recognize and confront abuses of power. It is in such low-level, less visible social transformations that the greatest potential of participation in collective action around HIV/AIDS in Tanzania lies.

  5. Tanzania at the Turn of the Century: Background Papers and Statistics. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This report presents lessons from Tanzania's development experience of the past four decades, with emphasis on the period since the last report (1996), and assesses the imperatives for higher sustained growth and better livelihood for its citizens in the future. The background papers review and assess Tanzania's actual growth and poverty reduction…

  6. Knowledge, attitudes and practice pertaining to depression among primary health care workers in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mbatia, Joseph; Shah, Ajit; Jenkins, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Background Examination of consultation data in a variety of primary care settings in Tanzania shows that, while psychoses are routinely diagnosed and treated at primary care level, depression is rarely recorded as a reason for consultation. Since, epidemiological studies elswhere show that depression is a much more common disorder than psychosis, a series of studies were undertaken to elucidate this apparent paradox in Tanzania and inform mental health policy; firstly, a household prevalence study to ascertain the prevalence of common mental disorders at community level in Tanzania; secondly, a study to ascertain the prevalence of common mental disorders in primary care attenders; and thirdly, a study to ascertain the current status of the knowledge, attitude and practice pertaining to depression among primary health care workers. This paper reports the findings of the latter study. Methods All the primary health care workers (N = 14) in four primary health care centres in Tanzania were asked to complete the Depression Attitude Questionnaire, which assesses the health worker's knowledge and attitude towards the causes, consequences and treatment of depression. Results The majority of respondents felt that rates of depression had increased in recent years, believed that life events were important in the aetiology of depression, and generally held positive views about pharmacological and psychological treatments of depression, prognosis and their own involvement in the treatment of depressed patients. However, the majority of respondents felt that becoming depressed is a way that people with poor stamina deal with life difficulties. Conclusion The findings suggest a need to strengthen the training of primary health care workers in Tanzania about the detection of depression, pharmacological and psychological treatments, and psychosocial interventions. PMID:19243596

  7. An evaluation of a project to improve child nutrition in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kibona, N; Doland, C; Watson, F E; Alnwick, D; Tomkins, A

    1995-08-01

    Dietary bulk has been cited as an important factor influencing the nutritional intake of young children in developing countries. In Tanzania, a potential solution to the problem of dietary bulk in weaning foods, has been the promotion of 'kimea' or 'power flour' which is a cereal grain that has been sprouted (germinated). Flour made from this germinated grain contains amylase and has a thinning effect when added in small quantities to thick porridge thus allowing small children to consume a greater quantity of porridge. Alternatively, the effect of adding kimea to porridge can be seen as improving energy density because more flour can be added to the mixture whilst the same consistency is maintained. The frequency of use of kimea and mothers' perceptions about its value for young child feeding were evaluated in eight villages of Kyela district, Mbeya region, Tanzania. In four villages kimea had been promoted (project villages) and in the other four villages there had been no special programme of promotion (nonproject). A total of 131 mothers attending MCH clinics and 37 dispensary staff were interviewed. Forty two per cent of project village mothers and 18% of nonproject village mothers had heard about the use of kimea for young child feeding but only 45% of these mothers used kimea when preparing porridge for their young children. Reasons for low adoption rates are discussed. Thirty seven per cent of mothers who had heard about kimea were unable to describe correctly how to use it to thin porridge.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Surgical task-shifting in a low-resource setting: outcomes after major surgery performed by nonphysician clinicians in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Beard, Jessica H; Oresanya, Lawrence B; Akoko, Larry; Mwanga, Ally; Mkony, Charles A; Dicker, Rochelle A

    2014-06-01

    Little is known about the breadth and quality of nonobstetric surgical care delivered by nonphysician clinicians (NPCs) in low-resource settings. We aimed to document the scope of NPC surgical practice and characterize outcomes after major surgery performed by nonphysicians in Tanzania. A retrospective records review of major surgical procedures (MSPs) performed in 2012 was conducted at seven hospitals in Pwani Region, Tanzania. Patient and procedure characteristics and level of surgical care provider were documented for each procedure. Rates of postoperative morbidity and mortality after nonobstetric MSPs performed by NPCs and physicians were compared using multivariate logistic regression. There were 6.5 surgical care providers per 100,000 population performing a mean rate of 461 procedures per 100,000 population during the study period. Of these cases, 1,698 (34.7 %) were nonobstetric MSPs. NPCs performed 55.8 % of nonobstetric MSPs followed by surgical specialists (28.7 %) and medical officers (15.5 %). The most common nonobstetric MSPs performed by NPCs were elective groin hernia repair, prostatectomy, exploratory laparotomy, and hydrocelectomy. Postoperative mortality was 1.7 % and 1.5 % in cases done by NPCs and physicians respectively. There was no significant difference in outcomes after procedures performed by NPCs compared with physicians. Surgical output is low and the workforce is limited in Tanzania. NPCs performed the majority of major surgical procedures during the study period. Outcomes after nonobstetric major surgical procedures done by NPCs and physicians were similar. Task-shifting of surgical care to nonphysicians may be a safe and sustainable way to address the global surgical workforce crisis.

  9. East Coast fever immunisation field trial in crossbred dairy cattle in Hanang and Handeni districts in northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lynen, Godelieve; Yrjö-Koskinen, Alma E; Bakuname, Christine; Di Giulio, Giuseppe; Mlinga, Nevil; Khama, Isaac; Hanks, James; Taylor, Nick M; James, Andrew D; McKeever, Declan; Peters, Andy R; Rushton, Jonathan

    2012-03-01

    East Coast fever (ECF) causes considerable mortality and production losses in the Tanzania smallholder dairy sector and limits the introduction of improved dairy breeds in areas where the disease is present. The infection and treatment method (ITM) was adopted by smallholder dairy farms for ECF immunisation in Hanang and Handeni districts of Tanzania. This study recorded incidence rates for ECF and other tick-borne diseases (TBDs) for ECF-immunised and non-immunised cattle between 1997 and 2000. Approximately 80% of smallholder households from both sites (n = 167) participated in this longitudinal study, with immunisations carried out at the request of the livestock owners. Efficacy of ITM for preventing ECF cases in these crossbred dairy cattle was estimated at 97.6%, while that for preventing ECF deaths was 97.9%. One percent of the cattle developed clinical ECF as a result of immunisation. Since ECF immunisation permits a reduction in acaricide use, an increase in other TBDs is a potential concern. Sixty-three percent of farmers continued to use the same acaricide after immunisation, with 80% of these reducing the frequency of applications. Overall, 78% of farmers increased the acaricide application interval after immunisation beyond that recommended by the manufacturer, resulting in annual savings in the region of USD 4.77 per animal. No statistical difference was observed between the immunised and non-immunised animals in the incidence of non-ECF TBDs. However, immunised animals that succumbed to these diseases showed fewer case fatalities. ITM would therefore appear to be a suitable method for ECF control in Tanzania's smallholder dairy sector.

  10. Validation of the Identification and Intervention for Dementia in Elderly Africans (IDEA) cognitive screen in Nigeria and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Paddick, Stella-Maria; Gray, William K; Ogunjimi, Luqman; Lwezuala, Bingileki; Olakehinde, Olaide; Kisoli, Aloyce; Kissima, John; Mbowe, Godfrey; Mkenda, Sarah; Dotchin, Catherine L; Walker, Richard W; Mushi, Declare; Collingwood, Cecilia; Ogunniyi, Adesola

    2015-04-25

    We have previously described the development of the Identification and Intervention for Dementia in Elderly Africans (IDEA) cognitive screen for use in populations with low levels of formal education. The IDEA cognitive screen was developed and field-tested in an elderly, community-based population in rural Tanzania with a relatively high prevalence of cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to validate the IDEA cognitive screen as an assessment of major cognitive impairment in hospital settings in Nigeria and Tanzania. In Nigeria, 121 consecutive elderly medical clinic outpatients reviewed at the University College Hospital, Ibadan were screened using the IDEA cognitive screen. In Tanzania, 97 consecutive inpatients admitted to Mawenzi Regional Hospital (MRH), Moshi, and 108 consecutive medical clinic outpatients attending the geriatric medicine clinic at MRH were screened. Inter-rater reliability was assessed in Tanzanian outpatients attending St Joseph's Hospital in Moshi using three raters. A diagnosis of dementia or delirium (DSM-IV criteria) was classified as major cognitive impairment and was provided independently by a physician blinded to the results of the screening assessment. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve in Nigerian outpatients, Tanzanian outpatients and Tanzanian inpatients was 0.990, 0.919 and 0.917 respectively. Inter-rater reliability was good (intra-class correlation coefficient 0.742 to 0.791). In regression models, the cognitive screen did not appear to be educationally biased. The IDEA cognitive screen performed well in these populations and should prove useful in screening for dementia and delirium in other areas of sub-Saharan Africa.

  11. Initial experiences and innovations in supervising community health workers for maternal, newborn, and child health in Morogoro region, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Roberton, Timothy; Applegate, Jennifer; Lefevre, Amnesty E; Mosha, Idda; Cooper, Chelsea M; Silverman, Marissa; Feldhaus, Isabelle; Chebet, Joy J; Mpembeni, Rose; Semu, Helen; Killewo, Japhet; Winch, Peter; Baqui, Abdullah H; George, Asha S

    2015-04-09

    Supervision is meant to improve the performance and motivation of community health workers (CHWs). However, most evidence on supervision relates to facility health workers. The Integrated Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health (MNCH) Program in Morogoro region, Tanzania, implemented a CHW pilot with a cascade supervision model where facility health workers were trained in supportive supervision for volunteer CHWs, supported by regional and district staff, and with village leaders to further support CHWs. We examine the initial experiences of CHWs, their supervisors, and village leaders to understand the strengths and challenges of such a supervision model for CHWs. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected concurrently from CHWs, supervisors, and village leaders. A survey was administered to 228 (96%) of the CHWs in the Integrated MNCH Program and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 CHWs, 8 supervisors, and 15 village leaders purposefully sampled to represent different actor perspectives from health centre catchment villages in Morogoro region. Descriptive statistics analysed the frequency and content of CHW supervision, while thematic content analysis explored CHW, supervisor, and village leader experiences with CHW supervision. CHWs meet with their facility-based supervisors an average of 1.2 times per month. CHWs value supervision and appreciate the sense of legitimacy that arises when supervisors visit them in their village. Village leaders and district staff are engaged and committed to supporting CHWs. Despite these successes, facility-based supervisors visit CHWs in their village an average of only once every 2.8 months, CHWs and supervisors still see supervision primarily as an opportunity to check reports, and meetings with district staff are infrequent and not well scheduled. Supervision of CHWs could be strengthened by streamlining supervision protocols to focus less on report checking and more on problem solving and skills development

  12. Evaluating a School-Based Trachoma Curriculum in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewallen, Susan; Massae, Patrick; Tharaney, Manisha; Somba, Margareth; Geneau, Robert; MacArthur, Chad; Courtright, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Trachoma remains a public health problem in a number of sub-Saharan Africa countries; behavioral change and environmental improvements are cornerstones of prevention efforts. Evidence of successful health education are few in Africa. Health education efforts through primary schools have recently been developed and adopted in Tanzania. We evaluated…

  13. The Demand for Cigarettes in Tanzania and Implications for Tobacco Taxation Policy.

    PubMed

    Kidane, Asmerom; Mduma, John; Naho, Alexis; Ngeh, Ernest Tingum; Hu, Teh-Wei

    2015-10-01

    The study attempts to estimate the demand for cigarettes in Tanzania and presents simulation results on the effect of the cigarette excise tax on smoking participation, government revenue, and related topics. After briefly summarizing the magnitude and spread of cigarette consumption in the country, the paper reviews some empirical estimates from African and other countries. The 2008 Tanzanian household budget survey was used to estimate the demand for cigarettes in Tanzania. The descriptive statistics suggest that the smoking prevalence for Tanzania is 15.35 percent with low variability across expenditure (income) groups. Smoking intensity and per capita consumption were estimated at 7.08 cigarettes and 1.33 cigarettes, respectively, a relatively low value. A two-part demand equation model was used to estimate various elasticities. For the overall equation, the price elasticities of smoking participation, smoking intensity, and total elasticity were estimated at -0.879, -0.853, and -1.732, respectively. Compared to similar results in other developing countries, the estimates appear quite high. When estimated by expenditure (income) groups, the magnitude of the elasticity appears higher among high expenditure groups than among low expenditure groups. Two simulation exercises were undertaken. First, the effect of different excise rates on smoking participation rate, cigarette consumption, tax revenue, and related responses was estimated and highlighted. Second, the same exercise was undertaken to determine the effect of a given increase in the cigarette excise tax on various expenditure groups. The overall results suggest that an increase in the excise tax on cigarettes in Tanzania would reduce cigarette consumption and increase government tax revenue.

  14. Pharmacoeconomics and its implication on priority-setting for essential medicines in Tanzania: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mori, Amani Thomas; Robberstad, Bjarne

    2012-09-27

    Due to escalating treatment costs, pharmacoeconomic analysis has been assigned a key role in the quest for increased efficiency in resource allocation for drug therapies in high-income countries. The extent to which pharmacoeconomic analysis is employed in the same role in low-income countries is less well established. This systematic review identifies and briefly describes pharmacoeconomic studies which have been conducted in Tanzania and further assesses their influence in the selection of essential medicines. Pubmed, Embase, Cinahl and Cochrane databases were searched using "economic evaluation", "cost-effectiveness analysis", "cost-benefit analysis" AND "Tanzania" as search terms. We also scanned reference lists and searched in Google to identify other relevant articles. Only articles reporting full economic evaluations about drug therapies and vaccines conducted in Tanzania were included. The national essential medicine list and other relevant policy documents related to the identified articles were screened for information regarding the use of economic evaluation as a criterion for medicine selection. Twelve pharmacoeconomic studies which met our inclusion criteria were identified. Seven studies were on HIV/AIDS, malaria and diarrhoea, the three highest ranked diseases on the disease burden in Tanzania. Six studies were on preventive and treatment interventions targeting pregnant women and children under the age of five years. The national essential medicine list and the other identified policy documents do not state the use of economic evaluation as one of the criteria which has influenced the listing of the drugs. Country specific pharmacoeconomic analyses are too scarce and inconsistently used to have had a significant influence on the selection of essential medicines in Tanzania. More studies are required to fill the existing gap and to explore whether decision-makers have the ability to interpret and utilise pharmacoeconomic evidence. Relevant health

  15. Burns in Tanzania: morbidity and mortality, causes and risk factors: a review

    PubMed Central

    Outwater, Anne H; Ismail, Hawa; Mgalilwa, Lwidiko; Justin Temu, Mary; Mbembati, Naboth A

    2013-01-01

    Burn injuries in low and middle income countries still remain a significant health problem, even though numbers of burn injuries in high income countries have decreased showing that such events are not “accidents” but are usually preventable. WHO states that the vast majority (over 95%) of fire-related burns occur in low and middle income countries. Burn injuries are a major cause of prolonged hospital stays, disfigurement, disability, and death in Africa Region. Evidence shows that prevention strategies can work. However prevention strategies need to be tailored to the specific environment taking into account local risk factors and available resources. An examination of the patterns and causes of burns should allow site specific recommendations for interventions. This literature review, specific to the United Republic of Tanzania, was conducted by researching PubMed, SafetyLit, and African Journals on Line data bases for primary sources using key words <Tanzania> plus . Two sets of student data collected as part of Bachelor’s degree final dissertations at Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences were used. In all, twenty two primary sources were found. Risk factors for burn morbidity in Tanzania are: 1/ a young age, especially years 1-3, 2/ home environment, especially around cooking fires, 3/ epilepsy, during seizures, and 4/ perceived inevitability of the incident. It was expected that ground level cooking fires would be found to be a risk factor, but several studies have shown non-significant results about raised cooking fires, types of fuel used, and cooking appliances. Risk factors for burn mortality are: being male, between 20-30 years of age, and being punished for alleged thieving by community mobs. An important factor in reducing burn morbidity, especially in children, is to educate people that burns are preventable in most cases and that most burns occur in the home around

  16. Mapping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Genetic Diversity Profiles in Tanzania and Other African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Mbugi, Erasto V.; Katale, Bugwesa Z.; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Keyyu, Julius D.; Kendall, Sharon L.; Dockrell, Hazel M.; Michel, Anita L.; Rweyemamu, Mark M.; Warren, Robin M.; Matee, Mecky I.; van Helden, Paul D.; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and characterize Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) genotypic diversity in Tanzania, as well as in neighbouring East and other several African countries. We used spoligotyping to identify a total of 293 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates (one isolate per patient) collected in the Bunda, Dar es Salaam, Ngorongoro and Serengeti areas in Tanzania. The results were compared with results in the SITVIT2 international database of the Pasteur Institute of Guadeloupe. Genotyping and phylogeographical analyses highlighted the predominance of the CAS, T, EAI, and LAM MTBC lineages in Tanzania. The three most frequent Spoligotype International Types (SITs) were: SIT21/CAS1-Kili (n = 76; 25.94%), SIT59/LAM11-ZWE (n = 22; 7.51%), and SIT126/EAI5 tentatively reclassified as EAI3-TZA (n = 18; 6.14%). Furthermore, three SITs were newly created in this study (SIT4056/EAI5 n = 2, SIT4057/T1 n = 1, and SIT4058/EAI5 n = 1). We noted that the East-African-Indian (EAI) lineage was more predominant in Bunda, the Manu lineage was more common among strains isolated in Ngorongoro, and the Central-Asian (CAS) lineage was more predominant in Dar es Salaam (p-value<0.0001). No statistically significant differences were noted when comparing HIV status of patients vs. major lineages (p-value = 0.103). However, when grouping lineages as Principal Genetic Groups (PGG), we noticed that PGG2/3 group (Haarlem, LAM, S, T, and X) was more associated with HIV-positive patients as compared to PGG1 group (Beijing, CAS, EAI, and Manu) (p-value = 0.03). This study provided mapping of MTBC genetic diversity in Tanzania (containing information on isolates from different cities) and neighbouring East African and other several African countries highlighting differences as regards to MTBC genotypic distribution between Tanzania and other African countries. This work also allowed underlining of spoligotyping patterns tentatively grouped within the newly designated EAI3-TZA

  17. Investigation of household contacts of pulmonary tuberculosis patients increases case detection in Mwanza City, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Beyanga, Medard; Kidenya, Benson R; Gerwing-Adima, Lisa; Ochodo, Eleanor; Mshana, Stephen E; Kasang, Christa

    2018-03-06

    Tuberculosis (TB) contact tracing is a key strategy for containing TB and provides addition to the passive case finding approach. However, this practice has not been implemented in Tanzania, where there is unacceptably high treatment gap of 62.1% between cases estimated and cases detected. Therefore calls for more aggressive case finding for TB to close this gap. We aimed to determine the magnitude and predictors of bacteriologically-confirmed pulmonary TB among household contacts of bacteriologically-confirmed pulmonary TB index cases in the city of Mwanza, Tanzania. This study was carried out from August to December 2016 in Mwanza city at the TB outpatient clinics of Tertiary Hospital of the Bugando Medical Centre, Sekou-Toure Regional Hospital, and Nyamagana District Hospital. Bacteriologically-confirmed TB index cases diagnosed between May and July 2016 were identified from the laboratory registers book. Contacts were traced by home visits by study TB nurses, and data were collected using a standardized TB screening questionnaire. To detect the bacterioriologically-confirmed pulmonary TB, two sputum samples per household contact were collected under supervision for all household contacts following standard operating procedures. Samples were transported to the Bugando Medical Centre TB laboratory for investigation for TB using fluorescent smear microscopy, GeneXpert MTB/RIF and Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture. Logistic regression was used to determine predictors of bacteriologically-confirmed pulmonary TB among household contacts. During the study period, 456 household contacts from 93 TB index cases were identified. Among these 456 household contacts, 13 (2.9%) were GeneXpert MTB/RIF positive, 18 (3.9%) were MTB-culture positive and four (0.9%) were AFB-smear positive. Overall, 29 (6.4%) of contacts had bacteriologically-confirmed pulmonary TB. Predictors of bacteriologically-confirmed pulmonary TB among household contacts were7being married (Odds ratio [OR

  18. The societal cost of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Chiara; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Schmidt, Veronika; Winkler, Andrea Sylvia; Harrison, Wendy; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2017-01-01

    Taenia solium is a zoonotic parasite prevalent in many low income countries throughout Latin America, Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, including Tanzania. The parasite is recognized as a public health threat; however the burden it poses on populations of Tanzania is unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate the societal cost of T. solium cysticercosis in Tanzania, by assessing both the health and economic burden. The societal cost of T. solium cysticercosis was assessed in humans and pigs based on data obtained by a systematic review. Experts' opinion was sought in cases where data were not retrievable. The health burden was assessed in terms of annual number of neurocysticercosis (NCC) associated epilepsy incident cases, deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), while the economic burden was assessed in terms of direct and indirect costs imposed by NCC-associated epilepsy and potential losses due to porcine cysticercosis. Based on data retrieved from the systematic review and burden assessments, T. solium cysticercosis contributed to a significant societal cost for the population. The annual number of NCC-associated epilepsy incident cases and deaths were 17,853 (95% Uncertainty Interval (UI), 5666-36,227) and 212 (95% UI, 37-612), respectively. More than 11% (95% UI, 6.3-17) of the pig population was infected with the parasite when using tongue examination as diagnostic method. For the year 2012 the number of DALYs per thousand person-years for NCC-associated epilepsy was 0.7 (95% UI, 0.2-1.6). Around 5 million USD (95% UI, 797,535-16,933,477) were spent due to NCC-associated epilepsy and nearly 3 million USD (95% UI, 1,095,960-5,366,038) were potentially lost due to porcine cysticercosis. Our results show that T. solium imposes a serious public health, agricultural and economic threat for Tanzania. We urge that a One Health approach, which involves the joint collaboration and effort of veterinarians, medical doctors, agricultural extension officers

  19. Investigating Motivations for Women's Skin Bleaching in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kelly M.; Robkin, Navit; Gaska, Karie; Njoki, Lillian Carol

    2011-01-01

    Why do many African women continue to use damaging skin-bleaching cosmetics that contain dangerous chemicals (e.g., mercury) that may increase their rates of infertility, skin cancer, and serious skin/brain/kidney disease? To address this question, our study investigated motivations driving the preservation of skin-bleaching practices in Tanzania.…

  20. Higher Education System and Jobless Graduates in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndyali, Lyata

    2016-01-01

    The Tanzania's higher education institutions haven't raised much of expectations the graduates lack the skills required by the labor market and this trend results in mass graduate unemployment, otherwise this would have assisted them to be more self-reliant. The study explores the importance of higher-level business education human resources…

  1. Soil Correlates and Mortality from Giraffe Skin Disease in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Bond, Monica L; Strauss, Megan K L; Lee, Derek E

    2016-10-01

    Giraffe skin disease (GSD) is a disorder of undetermined etiology that causes lesions on the forelimbs of Masai giraffe ( Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) in Tanzania, East Africa. We examined soil correlates of prevalence of GSD from 951 giraffe in 14 sites in Tanzania, and estimated mortality using 3 yr of longitudinal mark-recapture data from 382 giraffe with and without GSD lesions, in Tarangire National Park (TNP). Spatial variation in GSD prevalence was best explained by soil fertility, measured as cation exchange capacity. We found no mortality effect of GSD on adult giraffe in TNP. Based on our findings, GSD is unlikely to warrant immediate veterinary intervention, but continued monitoring is recommended to ensure early detection if GSD-afflicted animals begin to show signs of increased mortality or other adverse effects.

  2. The Costs of Climate Change: A Study of Cholera in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Trærup, Sara L. M.; Ortiz, Ramon A.; Markandya, Anil

    2011-01-01

    Increased temperatures and changes in rainfall patterns as a result of climate change are widely recognized to entail potentially serious consequences for human health, including an increased risk of diarrheal diseases. This study integrates historical data on temperature and rainfall with the burden of disease from cholera in Tanzania and uses socioeconomic data to control for the impacts of general development on the risk of cholera. The results show a significant relationship between temperature and the incidence of cholera. For a 1 degree Celsius temperature increase the initial relative risk of cholera increases by 15 to 29 percent. Based on the modeling results, we project the number and costs of additional cases of cholera that can be attributed to climate change by 2030 in Tanzania for a 1 and 2 degree increase in temperatures, respectively. The total costs of cholera attributable to climate change are shown to be in the range of 0.32 to 1.4 percent of GDP in Tanzania 2030. The results provide useful insights into national-level estimates of the implications of climate change on the health sector and offer information which can feed into both national and international debates on financing and planning adaptation. PMID:22408580

  3. Structural connectivity at a national scale: Wildlife corridors in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Riggio, Jason; Caro, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife corridors can help maintain landscape connectivity but novel methods must be developed to assess regional structural connectivity quickly and cheaply so as to determine where expensive and time-consuming surveys of functional connectivity should occur. We use least-cost methods, the most accurate and up-to-date land conversion dataset for East Africa, and interview data on wildlife corridors, to develop a single, consistent methodology to systematically assess wildlife corridors at a national scale using Tanzania as a case study. Our research aimed to answer the following questions; (i) which corridors may still remain open (i.e. structurally connected) at a national scale, (ii) which have been potentially severed by anthropogenic land conversion (e.g., agriculture and settlements), (iii) where are other remaining potential wildlife corridors located, and (iv) which protected areas with lower forms of protection (e.g., Forest Reserves and Wildlife Management Areas) may act as stepping-stones linking more than one National Park and/or Game Reserve. We identify a total of 52 structural connections between protected areas that are potentially open to wildlife movement, and in so doing add 23 to those initially identified by other methods in Tanzanian Government reports. We find that the vast majority of corridors noted in earlier reports as "likely to be severed" have actually not been cut structurally (21 of 24). Nonetheless, nearly a sixth of all the wildlife corridors identified in Tanzania in 2009 have potentially been separated by land conversion, and a third now pass across lands likely to be converted to human use in the near future. Our study uncovers two reserves with lower forms of protection (Uvinza Forest Reserve in the west and Wami-Mbiki Wildlife Management Area in the east) that act as apparently crucial stepping-stones between National Parks and/or Game Reserves and therefore require far more serious conservation support. Methods used in this

  4. Structural connectivity at a national scale: Wildlife corridors in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Caro, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife corridors can help maintain landscape connectivity but novel methods must be developed to assess regional structural connectivity quickly and cheaply so as to determine where expensive and time-consuming surveys of functional connectivity should occur. We use least-cost methods, the most accurate and up-to-date land conversion dataset for East Africa, and interview data on wildlife corridors, to develop a single, consistent methodology to systematically assess wildlife corridors at a national scale using Tanzania as a case study. Our research aimed to answer the following questions; (i) which corridors may still remain open (i.e. structurally connected) at a national scale, (ii) which have been potentially severed by anthropogenic land conversion (e.g., agriculture and settlements), (iii) where are other remaining potential wildlife corridors located, and (iv) which protected areas with lower forms of protection (e.g., Forest Reserves and Wildlife Management Areas) may act as stepping-stones linking more than one National Park and/or Game Reserve. We identify a total of 52 structural connections between protected areas that are potentially open to wildlife movement, and in so doing add 23 to those initially identified by other methods in Tanzanian Government reports. We find that the vast majority of corridors noted in earlier reports as “likely to be severed” have actually not been cut structurally (21 of 24). Nonetheless, nearly a sixth of all the wildlife corridors identified in Tanzania in 2009 have potentially been separated by land conversion, and a third now pass across lands likely to be converted to human use in the near future. Our study uncovers two reserves with lower forms of protection (Uvinza Forest Reserve in the west and Wami-Mbiki Wildlife Management Area in the east) that act as apparently crucial stepping-stones between National Parks and/or Game Reserves and therefore require far more serious conservation support. Methods used in

  5. Population growth, agrarian peasant economy and environmental degradation in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Madulu, N F

    1995-03-01

    Population strategies to relieve the density pressures on land and resources in Tanzania have not considered the basic causes of population growth. Resettlement results in the same environmental degradation as in the original settlement. There should be a reduction in the population growth and planning of proper land use and resource exploitation before resettlement. Rural development must include a decline in the dependency on subsistence agriculture. Population in Tanzania increased by 213% during 1948-88. An absolute increase in population size during 1978-88 is recorded despite a slight decline in the rate of growth. Death rates declined, but birth rates were relatively stable at around 50 per 1000 population. Regions with the highest growth rates were Dar es Salaam (4.8%), Rukwa (4.3%), Arusha (3.8%), Mbeya (3.1%), and Ruvuma (3.2%). The regions with the lowest rates were Tanga and Kilimanjaro (2.1%), Coast (2.1%), Lindi (2%), and Mtwara (1.4%). Low growth rates are attributed to low fertility and high infertility. Other factors affecting high growth rates are culture, rates of natural increase, intensity of internal and international migration, climatic conditions, and availability of resources. In 1988 46% of the population was under 15 years old. Per capita land availability declined from 11.8 hectares in 1948 to 3.8 hectares in 1988. The number of landless peasants increased. Productivity declined, and distances to farms increased. The total fertility rate was 6.5 children per woman in 1988 and 6.1 during 1991-92. Slight declines were apparent in the crude birth rate also. High fertility was a response to universal marriage, low contraceptive use (7% using modern methods during 1991-92), declining lactation periods, high mortality rates, and old traditions favoring large families. Children were used extensively in time-consuming and labor-intensive activities, such as fetching water. The mean number of children ever born was higher among women with 1

  6. Development of a Brief Intervention to Improve Knowledge of Autism and Behavioral Strategies among Parents in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Ashley Johnson; Long, Kristin A.; Manji, Karim P.; Blane, Karyn K.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the global presence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a paucity of treatment services exists in Tanzania and other low- and middle-income countries. The effect of delayed or low-quality treatments is enduring and contributes to lifelong variability in ASD-related functional impairments. Service disparities in Tanzania derive in part from…

  7. The Demand for Cigarettes in Tanzania and Implications for Tobacco Taxation Policy

    PubMed Central

    Kidane, Asmerom; Mduma, John; Naho, Alexis; Ngeh, Ernest Tingum; Hu, Teh-wei

    2016-01-01

    The study attempts to estimate the demand for cigarettes in Tanzania and presents simulation results on the effect of the cigarette excise tax on smoking participation, government revenue, and related topics. After briefly summarizing the magnitude and spread of cigarette consumption in the country, the paper reviews some empirical estimates from African and other countries. The 2008 Tanzanian household budget survey was used to estimate the demand for cigarettes in Tanzania. The descriptive statistics suggest that the smoking prevalence for Tanzania is 15.35 percent with low variability across expenditure (income) groups. Smoking intensity and per capita consumption were estimated at 7.08 cigarettes and 1.33 cigarettes, respectively, a relatively low value. A two-part demand equation model was used to estimate various elasticities. For the overall equation, the price elasticities of smoking participation, smoking intensity, and total elasticity were estimated at −0.879, −0.853, and −1.732, respectively. Compared to similar results in other developing countries, the estimates appear quite high. When estimated by expenditure (income) groups, the magnitude of the elasticity appears higher among high expenditure groups than among low expenditure groups. Two simulation exercises were undertaken. First, the effect of different excise rates on smoking participation rate, cigarette consumption, tax revenue, and related responses was estimated and highlighted. Second, the same exercise was undertaken to determine the effect of a given increase in the cigarette excise tax on various expenditure groups. The overall results suggest that an increase in the excise tax on cigarettes in Tanzania would reduce cigarette consumption and increase government tax revenue. PMID:27358905

  8. Brucellosis among Hospitalized Febrile Patients in Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Bouley, Andrew J.; Biggs, Holly M.; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Morrissey, Anne B.; Bartlett, John A.; Afwamba, Isaac A.; Maro, Venance P.; Kinabo, Grace D.; Saganda, Wilbrod; Cleaveland, Sarah; Crump, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Acute and convalescent serum samples were collected from febrile inpatients identified at two hospitals in Moshi, Tanzania. Confirmed brucellosis was defined as a positive blood culture or a ≥ 4-fold increase in microagglutination test titer, and probable brucellosis was defined as a single reciprocal titer ≥ 160. Among 870 participants enrolled in the study, 455 (52.3%) had paired sera available. Of these, 16 (3.5%) met criteria for confirmed brucellosis. Of 830 participants with ≥ 1 serum sample, 4 (0.5%) met criteria for probable brucellosis. Brucellosis was associated with increased median age (P = 0.024), leukopenia (odds ratio [OR] 7.8, P = 0.005), thrombocytopenia (OR 3.9, P = 0.018), and evidence of other zoonoses (OR 3.2, P = 0.026). Brucellosis was never diagnosed clinically, and although all participants with brucellosis received antibacterials or antimalarials in the hospital, no participant received standard brucellosis treatment. Brucellosis is an underdiagnosed and untreated cause of febrile disease among hospitalized adult and pediatric patients in northern Tanzania. PMID:23091197

  9. Leptospirosis among Hospitalized Febrile Patients in Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, Holly M.; Bui, Duy M.; Galloway, Renee L.; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Shadomy, Sean V.; Morrissey, Anne B.; Bartlett, John A.; Onyango, Jecinta J.; Maro, Venance P.; Kinabo, Grace D.; Saganda, Wilbrod; Crump, John A.

    2011-01-01

    We enrolled consecutive febrile admissions to two hospitals in Moshi, Tanzania. Confirmed leptospirosis was defined as a ≥ 4-fold increase in microscopic agglutination test (MAT) titer; probable leptospirosis as reciprocal MAT titer ≥ 800; and exposure to pathogenic leptospires as titer ≥ 100. Among 870 patients enrolled in the study, 453 (52.1%) had paired sera available, and 40 (8.8%) of these met the definition for confirmed leptospirosis. Of 832 patients with ≥ 1 serum sample available, 30 (3.6%) had probable leptospirosis and an additional 277 (33.3%) had evidence of exposure to pathogenic leptospires. Among those with leptospirosis the most common clinical diagnoses were malaria in 31 (44.3%) and pneumonia in 18 (25.7%). Leptospirosis was associated with living in a rural area (odds ratio [OR] 3.4, P < 0.001). Among those with confirmed leptospirosis, the predominant reactive serogroups were Mini and Australis. Leptospirosis is a major yet underdiagnosed cause of febrile illness in northern Tanzania, where it appears to be endemic. PMID:21813847

  10. An Overview of HIV Prevention Interventions for People Who Inject Drugs in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Ratliff, Eric A.; McCurdy, Sheryl A.; Mbwambo, Jessie K. K.; Lambdin, Barrot H.; Voets, Ancella; Pont, Sandrine; Maruyama, Haruka; Kilonzo, Gad P.

    2013-01-01

    In the past decade, Tanzania has seen a rapid rise in the number of people who inject drugs (PWID), specifically heroin. While the overall HIV prevalence in Tanzania has declined recently to 5.6%, in 2009, the HIV prevalence among PWID remains alarmingly high at 35%. In this paper, we describe how the Tanzania AIDS Prevention Program (TAPP), Médecins du Monde France (MdM-F), and other organisations have been at the forefront of addressing this public health issue in Africa, implementing a wide array of harm reduction interventions including medication-assisted treatment (MAT), needle and syringe programs (NSP), and “sober houses” for residential treatment in the capital, Dar es Salaam, and in Zanzibar. Looking toward the future, we discuss the need to (1) extend existing services and programs to reach more PWID and others at risk for HIV, (2) develop additional programs to strengthen existing programs, and (3) expand activities to include structural interventions to address vulnerabilities that increase HIV risk for all Tanzanians. PMID:23346410

  11. Access to HIV prevention services among gender based violence survivors in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mboya, Beati; Temu, Florence; Awadhi, Bayoum; Ngware, Zubeda; Ndyetabura, Elly; Kiondo, Gloria; Maridadi, Janneth

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Currently, Tanzania's HIV prevalence is 5.7%. Gender inequality and Gender Based Violence (GBV) are among factors fuelling the spread of HIV in Tanzania. This study was conducted to assess universal access to HIV prevention services among GBV survivors in Iringa and Dar-es-Salaam where HIV prevalence is as high as 14.7% and 9% respectively compared to a national average of 5.7%. Methods In 2010, a mixed methods study using triangulation model was conducted in Iringa and Dar-es-Salaam regions to represent rural and urban settings respectively. Questionnaires were administered to 283 randomly selected survivors and 37 health providers while 28 in-depth interviews and 16 focus group discussions were conducted among various stakeholders. Quantitative data was analyzed in SPSS by comparing descriptive statistics while qualitative data was analyzed using thematic framework approach. Results Counseling and testing was the most common type of HIV prevention services received by GBV survivors (29%). Obstacles for HIV prevention among GBV survivors included: stigma, male dominance culture and fear of marital separation. Bribery in service delivery points, lack of confidentiality, inadequate GBV knowledge among health providers, and fear of being involved in legal matters were mentioned to be additional obstacles to service accessibility by survivors. Reported consequences of GBV included: psychological problems, physical trauma, chronic illness, HIV infection. Conclusion GBV related stigma and cultural norms are obstacles to HIV services accessibility. Initiation of friendly health services, integration of GBV into HIV services and community based interventions addressing GBV related stigma and cultural norms are recommended. PMID:23467278

  12. Children's medicines in Tanzania: a national survey of administration practices and preferences.

    PubMed

    Adams, Lisa V; Craig, Sienna R; Mmbaga, Elia John; Naburi, Helga; Lahey, Timothy; Nutt, Cameron T; Kisenge, Rodrick; Noel, Gary J; Spielberg, Stephen P

    2013-01-01

    The dearth of age-appropriate formulations of many medicines for children poses a major challenge to pediatric therapeutic practice, adherence, and health care delivery worldwide. We provide information on current administration practices of pediatric medicines and describe key stakeholder preferences for new formulation characteristics. We surveyed children aged 6-12 years, parents/caregivers over age 18 with children under age 12, and healthcare workers in 10 regions of Tanzania to determine current pediatric medicine prescription and administration practices as well as preferences for new formulations. Analyses were stratified by setting, pediatric age group, parent/caregiver education, and healthcare worker cadre. Complete data were available for 206 children, 202 parents/caregivers, and 202 healthcare workers. Swallowing oral solid dosage forms whole or crushing/dissolving them and mixing with water were the two most frequently reported methods of administration. Children frequently reported disliking medication taste, and many had vomited doses. Healthcare workers reported medicine availability most significantly influences prescribing practices. Most parents/caregivers and children prefer sweet-tasting medicine. Parents/caregivers and healthcare workers prefer oral liquid dosage forms for young children, and had similar thresholds for the maximum number of oral solid dosage forms children at different ages can take. There are many impediments to acceptable and accurate administration of medicines to children. Current practices are associated with poor tolerability and the potential for under- or over-dosing. Children, parents/caregivers, and healthcare workers in Tanzania have clear preferences for tastes and formulations, which should inform the development, manufacturing, and marketing of pediatric medications for resource-limited settings.

  13. Access to HIV prevention services among gender based violence survivors in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mboya, Beati; Temu, Florence; Awadhi, Bayoum; Ngware, Zubeda; Ndyetabura, Elly; Kiondo, Gloria; Maridadi, Janneth

    2012-01-01

    Currently, Tanzania's HIV prevalence is 5.7%. Gender inequality and Gender Based Violence (GBV) are among factors fuelling the spread of HIV in Tanzania. This study was conducted to assess universal access to HIV prevention services among GBV survivors in Iringa and Dar-es-Salaam where HIV prevalence is as high as 14.7% and 9% respectively compared to a national average of 5.7%. In 2010, a mixed methods study using triangulation model was conducted in Iringa and Dar-es-Salaam regions to represent rural and urban settings respectively. Questionnaires were administered to 283 randomly selected survivors and 37 health providers while 28 in-depth interviews and 16 focus group discussions were conducted among various stakeholders. Quantitative data was analyzed in SPSS by comparing descriptive statistics while qualitative data was analyzed using thematic framework approach. Counseling and testing was the most common type of HIV prevention services received by GBV survivors (29%). Obstacles for HIV prevention among GBV survivors included: stigma, male dominance culture and fear of marital separation. Bribery in service delivery points, lack of confidentiality, inadequate GBV knowledge among health providers, and fear of being involved in legal matters were mentioned to be additional obstacles to service accessibility by survivors. Reported consequences of GBV included: psychological problems, physical trauma, chronic illness, HIV infection. GBV related stigma and cultural norms are obstacles to HIV services accessibility. Initiation of friendly health services, integration of GBV into HIV services and community based interventions addressing GBV related stigma and cultural norms are recommended.

  14. Motivation and satisfaction among community health workers in Morogoro Region, Tanzania: nuanced needs and varied ambitions.

    PubMed

    Mpembeni, Rose N M; Bhatnagar, Aarushi; LeFevre, Amnesty; Chitama, Dereck; Urassa, David P; Kilewo, Charles; Mdee, Rebecca M; Semu, Helen; Winch, Peter J; Killewo, Japhet; Baqui, Abdullah H; George, Asha

    2015-06-05

    In 2012, the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW), Tanzania, approved national guidelines and training materials for community health workers (CHWs) in integrated maternal, newborn and child health (Integrated MNCH), with CHWs trained and deployed across five districts of Morogoro Region soon after. To inform future scale up, this study assessed motivation and satisfaction among these CHWs. A survey of all CHWs trained by the Integrated MNCH Programme was conducted in the last quarter of 2013. Motivation and satisfaction were assessed using a five-point Likert scale with 29 and 27 items based on a literature review and discussions with CHW programme stakeholders. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to identify motivation and satisfaction determinants. Out of 238 eligible CHWs, 96 % were included in the study. Findings showed that respondents were motivated to become CHWs due to altruism (work on MNCH, desire to serve God, work hard) and intrinsic needs (help community, improve health, pride) than due to external stimuli (monetary incentives, skill utilization, community respect or hope for employment). CHWs were satisfied by relationships with health workers and communities, job aids and the capacity to provide services. CHWs were dissatisfied with the lack of transportation, communication devices and financial incentives for carrying out their tasks. Factors influencing motivation and satisfaction did not differ across CHW socio-demographic characteristics. Nonetheless, older and less educated CHWs were more likely to be motivated by altruism, intrinsic needs and skill utilization, community respect and hope for employment. Less educated CHWs were more satisfied with service and quality factors and more wealthy CHWs satisfied with job aids. A combination of financial and non-financial incentives is required to support motivation and satisfaction among CHWs. Although CHWs joined mainly due to their altruistic nature, they became discontented with

  15. Explaining Electronic Learning Management Systems (ELMS) Continued Usage Intentions among Facilitators in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muries, Bruckse; Masele, Juma James

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to explain ELMS continued usage intentions among HEIs in Tanzania. The study was guided by main research question, "What explains ELMS continued usage intentions among facilitators in HEIs in Tanzania?" The study used descriptive cross sectional design administered to 264 respondents drawn from five universities…

  16. Exploring Competence Based Education (CBE) in Rural Secondary Schools in Tanzania: English Language Teachers' Conceptions and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukindo, Jesse John

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at getting an insight on the implementation of Competence Based Education in Tanzania (CBE) in Tanzania. A study was conducted in Changchun, Jilin in China due to limited time the researcher had. The study was guided by the following research objective; specifically this study did the following; to assess the knowledge that rural…

  17. An eye for inequality: how trachoma relates to poverty in Tanzania and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Evertjan; Baltussen, Rob M P M; van Doorslaer, Eddy; Ngirwamungu, Edith; Nguyen, Mai P; Kilima, Peter M

    2007-01-01

    An important challenge for trachoma control strategies is to break the circle of poverty, poor hygiene and poor health by bringing its benefits to the poor. This article aims to assess to what extent trachoma is a disease of the poor, and trachoma services reach the poor in Tanzania and Vietnam. Individual level data on trachoma prevalence (active trachoma and trichiasis) and utilization of trachoma-related services were collected in both countries in 2004. Prevalence data were also available for Vietnam in 2001. We used household level data to construct an asset index as our living standards measure. Next, we related trachoma prevalence and service use to living standards, and used concentration indices to summarize and test the degree of inequality. Trachoma prevalence was higher among the poorest groups in Tanzania. No such relation could be established in Vietnam where prevalence declined over the period 2001-2004 and particularly so among the least poor. Antibiotics were used more by the poorest in Tanzania and by the less poor in Vietnam. In both countries, there was no unequivocal pattern for the relation between living standards and the use of trachoma services. Trachoma is found to be a disease of the poorest in Tanzania, but not in Vietnam. In the latter country there are indications that district characteristics have an important impact on trachoma prevalence. The higher use of antibiotics among the better-off in Vietnam may have contributed to their larger decline in active trachoma prevalence between 2001 and 2004 compared to the poorer segments.

  18. Origins and development of adult education innovations in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushi, Philemon A. K.

    1991-09-01

    A number of adult education innovations were introduced in Tanzania in the late 1960s and early 1970s. This article analyzes the context of three innovations, namely functional literacy, workers' education and the programme of the Folk Development Colleges. The analysis reveals that these innovations had firm roots within the socio-economic conditions prevailing in the country in the 1960s and 1970s, Nyerere's influence as President and Party leader, Tanzania's ideology of development, the policy of popular participation, the roots of educational policy in a humanistic philosophy of education, and indigenous education. Some of the factors which affected their implementation included lack of trained educators, inadequate financial resources, ineffective evaluation mechanisms, and a mis-match between participants' needs and actual programmes. It is suggested that there is a need to introduce economic innovations alongside educational innovations, to involve participants in determining their training needs, and to train and retain adult educators with a view to improving adult education initiatives in the country.

  19. Tanzania Images Highlight Improvements in Full-Resolution SRTM Africa Data

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-24

    A site in the Crater Highlands of Tanzania reveals the difference between NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission SRTM digital elevation model data as originally released in 2004 left and as now released at full resolution in 2014 right.

  20. Women's experiences and views about costs of seeking malaria chemoprevention and other antenatal services: a qualitative study from two districts in rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mubyazi, Godfrey M; Bloch, Paul; Magnussen, Pascal; Olsen, Øystein E; Byskov, Jens; Hansen, Kristian S; Bygbjerg, Ib C

    2010-02-17

    The Tanzanian government recommends women who attend antenatal care (ANC) clinics to accept receiving intermittent preventive treatment against malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) and vouchers for insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) at subsidized prices. Little emphasis has been paid to investigate the ability of pregnant women to access and effectively utilize these services. To describe the experience and perceptions of pregnant women about costs and cost barriers for accessing ANC services with emphasis on IPTp in rural Tanzania. Qualitative data were collected in the districts of Mufindi in Iringa Region and Mkuranga in Coast Region through 1) focus group discussions (FGDs) with pregnant women and mothers to infants and 2) exit-interviews with pregnant women identified at ANC clinics. Data were analyzed manually using qualitative content analysis methodology. FGD participants and interview respondents identified the following key limiting factors for women's use of ANC services: 1) costs in terms of money and time associated with accessing ANC clinics, 2) the presence of more or less official user-fees for some services within the ANC package, and 3) service providers' application of fines, penalties and blame when failing to adhere to service schedules. Interestingly, the time associated with travelling long distances to ANC clinics and ITN retailers and with waiting for services at clinic-level was a major factor of discouragement in the health seeking behaviour of pregnant women because it seriously affected their domestic responsibilities. A variety of resource-related factors were shown to affect the health seeking behaviour of pregnant women in rural Tanzania. Thus, accessibility to ANC services was hampered by direct and indirect costs, travel distances and waiting time. Strengthening of user-fee exemption practices and bringing services closer to the users, for example by promoting community-directed control of selected public health services, including IPTp

  1. Significance of Trends on Enrolment, Budget and Actual Expenditure in the Examination of Higher Education Financing in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memba, Albert Zephaniah; Feng, Zhao Jun

    2016-01-01

    Financing of higher education in Tanzania is considered a crucial factor in realizing the country's development vision. It is for these reasons that Tanzania has been financing its higher education since its inception. Diminishing resource capacity and competing interests for government finance plunged the higher education into financial doldrums.…

  2. Characteristics and geographic distribution of HIV-positive women diagnosed with cervical cancer in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lovgren, Kathleen; Soliman, Amr S; Ngoma, Twalib; Kahesa, Crispin; Meza, Jane

    2016-10-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading incident cancer and the main cause of cancer-related mortality among women in sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, HIV-infected women are at a higher risk of developing cervical cancer than HIV-negative women. The purpose of this study was to distinguish differences in characteristics of HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients with cervical cancer in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The HIV status of cervical cancer patients diagnosed and/or treated at Ocean Road Cancer Institute in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, during the period 2007-2011 was abstracted from the medical records. Additional abstracted information included patient's name, age, place of residence, occupation, education, marital status, age at marriage, gravidity, and screening clinic visit results. Ocean Road Cancer Institute patients came from two sources: the screening clinic followed by treatment clinic or the treatment clinic without prior screening. HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients were compared regarding the above-listed clinical and epidemiologic factors. Multivariable analysis was also performed to assess the risk factors associated with cervical cancer treatment without prior screening at Ocean Road Cancer Institute. HIV-positive cervical cancer patients tended to be younger, with higher education and lower parity. Patients screened for cervical cancer prior to treatment were more likely to be HIV-positive (OR: 2.09, 95% CI: 1.36, 3.21), less likely to have higher disease stages (OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.43, 0.94), and less likely to reside outside of Dar es Salaam (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.30, 0.65). Screening for cervical cancer at Ocean Road Cancer Institute is utilised by more HIV-positive patients from Dar es Salaam. Future studies should focus on identifying the reasons for lower utilisation of screening by HIV-negative patients and patients from other distant rural regions in Tanzania. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Country watch. Tanzania / Uganda / Zaire.

    PubMed

    Senturias, E N

    1994-01-01

    A participatory action research program was implemented in Tanzania, Uganda, and Zaire to sensitize and encourage church leaders and members to more actively participate in HIV/AIDS prevention and care. Communities had a major role in the process, even defining research questions. The program effectively helped sensitize individuals at the community and international levels, with its effects ongoing even though the program has officially ended. Collective community consciousness was raised on the need to address the epidemic, while identifying important issues to confront. Focus group discussions and the conference generated open and frank discussions on condom use, culture, and sexual behavior.

  4. Hookworm Infection and Environmental Factors in Mbeya Region, Tanzania: A Cross-Sectional, Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Riess, Helene; Clowes, Petra; Kroidl, Inge; Kowuor, Dickens O.; Nsojo, Anthony; Mangu, Chacha; Schüle, Steffen A.; Mansmann, Ulrich; Geldmacher, Christof; Mhina, Seif; Maboko, Leonard; Hoelscher, Michael; Saathoff, Elmar

    2013-01-01

    Background Hookworm disease is one of the most common infections and cause of a high disease burden in the tropics and subtropics. Remotely sensed ecological data and model-based geostatistics have been used recently to identify areas in need for hookworm control. Methodology Cross-sectional interview data and stool samples from 6,375 participants from nine different sites in Mbeya region, south-western Tanzania, were collected as part of a cohort study. Hookworm infection was assessed by microscopy of duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears from one stool sample from each participant. A geographic information system was used to obtain remotely sensed environmental data such as land surface temperature (LST), vegetation cover, rainfall, and elevation, and combine them with hookworm infection data and with socio-demographic and behavioral data. Uni- and multivariable logistic regression was performed on sites separately and on the pooled dataset. Principal Findings Univariable analyses yielded significant associations for all ecological variables. Five ecological variables stayed significant in the final multivariable model: population density (odds ratio (OR) = 0.68; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.63–0.73), mean annual vegetation density (OR = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.06–0.18), mean annual LST during the day (OR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.75–0.88), mean annual LST during the night (OR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.44–1.64), and latrine coverage in household surroundings (OR = 1.02; 95% CI = 1.01–1.04). Interaction terms revealed substantial differences in associations of hookworm infection with population density, mean annual enhanced vegetation index, and latrine coverage between the two sites with the highest prevalence of infection. Conclusion/Significance This study supports previous findings that remotely sensed data such as vegetation indices, LST, and elevation are strongly associated with hookworm prevalence. However, the results indicate

  5. Morphologic and Genetic Identification of Taenia Tapeworms in Tanzania and DNA Genotyping of Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Keeseon S.; Chai, Jong-Yil; Yong, Tai-Soon; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Kihamia, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Species identification of Taenia tapeworms was performed using morphologic observations and multiplex PCR and DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cox1 gene. In 2008 and 2009, a total of 1,057 fecal samples were collected from residents of Kongwa district of Dodoma region, Tanzania, and examined microscopically for helminth eggs and proglottids. Of these, 4 Taenia egg positive cases were identified, and the eggs were subjected to DNA analysis. Several proglottids of Taenia solium were recovered from 1 of the 4 cases. This established that the species were T. solium (n=1) and T. saginata (n=3). One further T. solium specimen was found among 128 fecal samples collected from Mbulu district in Arusha, and this had an intact strobila with the scolex. Phylegenetic analysis of the mtDNA cox1 gene sequences of these 5 isolates showed that T. saginata was basal to the T. solium clade. The mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences of 3 of these Tanzanian isolates showed 99% similarity to T. saginata, and the other 2 isolates showed 100% similarity to T. solium. The present study has shown that Taenia tapeworms are endemic in Kongwa district of Tanzania, as well as in a previously identified Mbulu district. Both T. solium isolates were found to have an "African/Latin American" genotype (cox1). PMID:22355207

  6. Morphologic and genetic identification of Taenia tapeworms in Tanzania and DNA genotyping of Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Eom, Keeseon S; Chai, Jong-Yil; Yong, Tai-Soon; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Kihamia, Charles; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu

    2011-12-01

    Species identification of Taenia tapeworms was performed using morphologic observations and multiplex PCR and DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cox1 gene. In 2008 and 2009, a total of 1,057 fecal samples were collected from residents of Kongwa district of Dodoma region, Tanzania, and examined microscopically for helminth eggs and proglottids. Of these, 4 Taenia egg positive cases were identified, and the eggs were subjected to DNA analysis. Several proglottids of Taenia solium were recovered from 1 of the 4 cases. This established that the species were T. solium (n = 1) and T. saginata (n = 3). One further T. solium specimen was found among 128 fecal samples collected from Mbulu district in Arusha, and this had an intact strobila with the scolex. Phylegenetic analysis of the mtDNA cox1 gene sequences of these 5 isolates showed that T. saginata was basal to the T. solium clade. The mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences of 3 of these Tanzanian isolates showed 99% similarity to T. saginata, and the other 2 isolates showed 100% similarity to T. solium. The present study has shown that Taenia tapeworms are endemic in Kongwa district of Tanzania, as well as in a previously identified Mbulu district. Both T. solium isolates were found to have an "African/Latin American" genotype (cox1).

  7. Profile, knowledge, and work patterns of a cadre of maternal, newborn, and child health CHWs focusing on preventive and promotive services in Morogoro Region, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    LeFevre, Amnesty E; Mpembeni, Rose; Chitama, Dereck; George, Asha S; Mohan, Diwakar; Urassa, David P; Gupta, Shivam; Feldhaus, Isabelle; Pereira, Audrey; Kilewo, Charles; Chebet, Joy J; Cooper, Chelsea M; Besana, Giulia; Lutale, Harriet; Bishanga, Dunstan; Mtete, Emmanuel; Semu, Helen; Baqui, Abdullah H; Killewo, Japhet; Winch, Peter J

    2015-12-24

    Despite impressive decreases in under-five mortality, progress in reducing maternal and neonatal mortality in Tanzania has been slow. We present an evaluation of a cadre of maternal, newborn, and child health community health worker (MNCH CHW) focused on preventive and promotive services during the antenatal and postpartum periods in Morogoro Region, Tanzania. Study findings review the effect of several critical design elements on knowledge, time allocation, service delivery, satisfaction, and motivation. A quantitative survey on service delivery and knowledge was administered to 228 (of 238 trained) MNCH CHWs. Results are compared against surveys administered to (1) providers in nine health centers (n = 88) and (2) CHWs (n = 53) identified in the same districts prior to the program's start. Service delivery outputs were measured by register data and through a time motion study conducted among a sub-sample of 33 randomly selected MNCH CHWs. Ninety-seven percent of MNCH CHWs (n = 228) were interviewed: 55% male, 58% married, and 52% with secondary school education or higher. MNCH CHWs when compared to earlier CHWs were more likely to be unmarried, younger, and more educated. Mean MNCH CHW knowledge scores were <50% for 8 of 10 MNCH domains assessed and comparable to those observed for health center providers but lower than those for earlier CHWs. MNCH CHWs reported covering a mean of 186 households and were observed to provide MNCH services for 5 h weekly. Attendance of monthly facility-based supervision meetings was nearly universal and focused largely on registers, yet data quality assessments highlighted inconsistencies. Despite program plans to provide financial incentives and bicycles for transport, only 56% of CHWs had received financial incentives and none received bicycles. Initial rollout of MNCH CHWs yields important insights into addressing program challenges. The social profile of CHWs was not significantly associated with knowledge or

  8. Spatial and Temporal Pattern of Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks in Tanzania; 1930 to 2007

    PubMed Central

    Sindato, Calvin; Karimuribo, Esron D.; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.; Mboera, Leonard E. G.; Kivaria, Fredrick; Dautu, George; Bernard, Bett; Paweska, Janusz T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rift Valley fever (RVF)-like disease was first reported in Tanzania more than eight decades ago and the last large outbreak of the disease occurred in 2006–07. This study investigates the spatial and temporal pattern of RVF outbreaks in Tanzania over the past 80 years in order to guide prevention and control strategies. Materials and Methods A retrospective study was carried out based on disease reporting data from Tanzania at district or village level. The data were sourced from the Ministries responsible for livestock and human health, Tanzania Meteorological Agency and research institutions involved in RVF surveillance and diagnosis. The spatial distribution of outbreaks was mapped using ArcGIS 10. The space-time permutation model was applied to identify clusters of cases, and a multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of outbreaks in the district. Principal Findings RVF outbreaks were reported between December and June in 1930, 1947, 1957, 1960, 1963, 1968, 1977–79, 1989, 1997–98 and 2006–07 in 39.2% of the districts in Tanzania. There was statistically significant spatio-temporal clustering of outbreaks. RVF occurrence was associated with the eastern Rift Valley ecosystem (OR = 6.14, CI: 1.96, 19.28), total amount of rainfall of >405.4 mm (OR = 12.36, CI: 3.06, 49.88), soil texture (clay [OR = 8.76, CI: 2.52, 30.50], and loam [OR = 8.79, CI: 2.04, 37.82]). Conclusion/Significance RVF outbreaks were found to be distributed heterogeneously and transmission dynamics appeared to vary between areas. The sequence of outbreak waves, continuously cover more parts of the country. Whenever infection has been introduced into an area, it is likely to be involved in future outbreaks. The cases were more likely to be reported from the eastern Rift Valley than from the western Rift Valley ecosystem and from areas with clay and loam rather than sandy soil texture. PMID:24586433

  9. Risk factors associated with the incidence rate of clinical mastitis in smallholder dairy cows in the Dar es Salaam region of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kivaria, F M; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Msami, H M

    2007-05-01

    Smallholder dairy herds around the Dar es Salaam region of Tanzania supply 86% of raw milk consumed by the city dwellers. Previous studies have indicated that clinical mastitis is an important disease affecting smallholder dairy cows and an 18-month questionnaire-based longitudinal field-study was conducted between July 2003 and March 2005 to elucidate risk factors associated with the incidence. A total of 6057 quarter-level observations from 317 lactating cows on 87 randomly selected smallholder dairy herds were analysed at the quarter and cow level using logistic and Poisson regression models, respectively. At the quarter level, the average incidence rate of clinical mastitis was 38.4 cases per 100 quarter-years at risk whereas at the cow level the incidence rate was 43.3 cases per 100 cow-years at risk. The incidence was significantly (P< or =0.001) associated with cow factors (body condition score, parity, stage of lactation, and udder consistency), housing (floor type) conditions and milking (cow and udder preparation) practices. It was concluded that the extrapolation of the classic ten-point mastitis control plan into smallholder dairy herds should be undertaken cautiously. An integrated approach to dairy extension should focus more on the creation of mastitis awareness among smallholder producers and on the improvement of animal nutrition and reproduction indices-factors that may also have a direct impact on milk yield.

  10. Evaluation of potential impacts of climate change and water management on streamflow in the Rovuma River, Mozambique and Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minihane, M.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    Economic development and public health are tied to water resources development in many parts of the world. Effective use of water management infrastructure investments requires projections of future climatic and water use conditions. This is particularly true in developing countries. We explore in this work water resource availability in the Rovuma River, which lies in a sparsely-populated region of southeastern Africa, on the border of Mozambique and Tanzania. While there are only limited documented observations of flow of the Rovuma River and it's tributaries, particularly in recent years, there is widespread interest in development of the water resources of the region. The national governments are interested in hydropower potential while private companies, many of them large multinational organizations, have started irrigation programs to increase agricultural output. While the Mozambique and Tanzania governments have a joint agreement over the river development, there is a need to assess both current and potential future water resource conditions in the basin. The sustainability of these developments, however, may be affected by climate change. Here we quantify potential changes in streamflow in the Rovuma River under dry and wet climate projection scenarios using the delta method and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macro-scale hydrology model. We then evaluate streamflow changes relative to water withdrawals required for a range of irrigated agriculture scenarios. Our analysis is intended to be a starting point for planners to consider potential impacts of both streamflow withdrawal permits (for irrigated agriculture) and future uncertain climate conditions.

  11. Did Tanzania Achieve the Second Millennium Development Goal? Statistical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magoti, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Development Goal "Achieve universal primary education", the challenges faced, along with the way forward towards achieving the fourth Sustainable Development Goal "Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all". Statistics show that Tanzania has made very promising steps…

  12. Characterization of the common bean host and Pseudocercospora griseola the causative agent of angular leaf spot disease in Tanzania

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Angular leaf spot (ALS) caused by the fungus Pseudocercospora griseola is one of the most important diseases of common bean in Tanzania. Breeding for resistance to this disease is complicated by the variable nature of the pathogen. In Tanzania no thorough analysis of the variability of this pathogen...

  13. Career development expectations and challenges of midwives in Urban Tanzania: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Nao; Horiuchi, Shigeko; Shimpuku, Yoko; Leshabari, Sebalda

    2015-01-01

    Approaches to addressing the shortage of midwives are a great need especially in Sub-Saharan Africa including Tanzania. The midwifery shortage in Tanzania consists of two major causes; the first is the shortage of pre-service nursing training and the second is the low rate of retention as it is difficult to sustain midwives' career motivations. Lack of opportunities for career development, is one of the most related problems to keep midwives motivated. Continuing education as an approach to career development can heighten midwives' motivation and cultivate more skilled midwives who can educate other midwives or students and who could raise the status of midwives. Effective continuing education is ongoing, interactive, contextually relevant and based on needs assessment, however there is very limited research that describes Tanzanian midwives perspective of expectations for career development; hence this research is significant for revealing important and meaningful professional desires of midwives in Tanzania. This was a preliminary qualitative study, using snowball sampling to recruit 16 midwives in Tanzania. The researchers used a semi-structured interview including probing questions with both a focus group and several individuals. The data were collected from July to December 2013 and coded into categories and sub-categories. There were 14 midwives in the focus group interview and two midwives in the individual interviews. Through data analysis, four major categories (with subcategories) emerged: (1) motivation for learning (to achieve the MDGs, and to raise reproductive health), (2) knowledge is power (to provide good practice based on knowledge, to be a role model, knowledge gives higher position and courage, and knowledge enables one to approach to the government), (3) there is no end to learning (hunger for learning, and ripple effect). From findings, four major categories plainly showed midwives' desire for learning, however they experienced a number of

  14. Science-based health innovation in Tanzania: bednets and a base for invention

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Tanzania is East Africa’s largest country. Although it is socially diverse, it has experienced general political stability since independence in 1964. Despite gradual economic development and Tanzania’s status as one of the biggest recipients of aid in Africa, health status remains poor. This paper explores Tanzania’s science-based health innovation system, and highlights areas which can be strengthened. Methods Qualitative case study research methodology was used. Data were collected through reviews of academic literature and policy documents, and through open-ended, face-to-face interviews with 52 people from across the science-based health innovation system over two visits to Tanzania from July to October 2007. Results and discussion Tanzania has a rich but complex S&T governance landscape, with the public sector driving the innovation agenda through a series of different bodies which are not well-coordinated. It has some of the leading health research on the continent at the University of Dar es Salaam, Muhimbili University of Health and Applied Sciences, the National Institute for Medical Research and the Ifakara Medical Institute, with strong donor support. Tanzania has found developing an entrepreneurial culture difficult; nevertheless projects such as the clusters initiative at the University of Dar es Salaam are encouraging low-tech innovation and overcoming knowledge-sharing barriers. In the private sector, one generics company has developed a South-South collaboration to enable technology transfer and hence the local production of anti-retrovirals. Local textile company A to Z Textiles is now manufacturing 30 million insecticide impregnated bednets a year. Conclusions To have a coherent vision for innovation, Tanzania may wish to address some key issues: coordination across stakeholders involved with health research, increasing graduates in health-related disciplines, and building capabilities in biological testing, preclinical testing

  15. Contraceptive knowledge, sexual behavior, and factors associated with contraceptive use among female undergraduate university students in Kilimanjaro region in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Sweya, Mussa N; Msuya, Sia E; Mahande, Michael J; Manongi, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that knowledge of contraceptives, especially among the youth in universities, remains limited, and the rate of premarital sexual activity, unwanted pregnancies, and illegal abortions remains higher among university students. This study aimed to assess contraceptive knowledge, sexual behavior, and factors associated with contraceptive use among female undergraduate university students in Kilimanjaro region in Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted from May to June 2015 among undergraduate female students in four universities in Kilimanjaro region. A self-administered questionnaire was given to the participants. Data analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. An odds ratio with 95% confidence interval for factors associated with modern contraceptive use was computed using multiple logistic regression models. A P-value of <5% (two-tailed) was considered statistically significant. Results A total of 401 students were involved in the study. Two-thirds (260, 64.8%) of the participants had had sexual intercourse. The majority (93.8%) of the participants had knowledge of contraception. One hundred and seventy-five (43.6%) sexually active women reported that they used contraceptives in the past, while 162 (40.4%) were current contraceptive users. More than half (54.2%) of the sexually active group started sexual activity between the ages of 20–24 years. The most popular methods of contraception used were condoms, withdrawal, and periodic abstinence. The main sources of information about contraception were friends, television, and health care workers (44.8%, 40.3%, and 39.0%, respectively). Conclusion Most of the participants had knowledge of contraception. However, the rate of contraceptive use was low. The majority of the respondents were sexually active and started sexual activity at >18 years of age. Hence, advocacy for

  16. Citywide trauma experience in Mwanza, Tanzania: a need for urgent intervention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Trauma remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in resource limited countries. There is paucity of published reports on trauma care in Tanzania, particularly the study area. This study was carried out to describe our experiences in trauma management outlining the etiological spectrum, injury characteristics and treatment outcome of trauma patients at our local setting and compare our results with those from other centers in the world. Methods A descriptive prospective study of trauma patients was conducted at Bugando Medical Centre from April 2010 to March 2012. Statistical data analysis was done using SPSS software version 17.0. Results A total of 5672 trauma patients were enrolled in the study. The male to female ratio was 2.3: 1. The majority of patients were in the 2nd decade of life. Road traffic accident was the most common cause of trauma accounting for 60.7% of cases. The majority of patients (76.6%) sustained blunt injuries. Musculoskeletal (68.5%) and head/neck (52.6%) were the most frequent body region injured. Soft tissue injuries (open wounds) and fractures were the most common injuries accounting for 82.8% and 76.8% respectively. Majority of patients (74.4%) were treated surgically with wound debridement (94.0%) being the most frequently performed procedure. Postoperative complications were recorded in 31.5% of cases. The overall median duration of hospitalization was 26 days (range 1 day to 144 days). Mortality rate was 16.7%. Patients who had polytrauma, burn injuries and those who had tetanus and long bone fractures stayed longer in the hospital and this was statistically significant (P < 0.001), whereas the age > 65 years, severe trauma, admission Systolic Blood Pressure < 90 mmHg, presence of tetanus, severe head injury, the duration of loss of consciousness, the need for intensive care unit admission and finding of space occupying lesion on CT scan of the brain significantly influenced mortality (P < 0

  17. Pregnancy history and current use of contraception among women of reproductive age in Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda: analysis of demographic and health survey data.

    PubMed

    Bakibinga, Pauline; Matanda, Dennis J; Ayiko, Rogers; Rujumba, Joseph; Muiruri, Charles; Amendah, Djesika; Atela, Martin

    2016-03-10

    To examine the relationship between pregnancy history and the use of contraception among women of reproductive age (15-49 years) in East Africa. Demographic and Health Surveys data from Burundi (2010), Kenya (2008-2009), Rwanda (2010), Tanzania (2010) and Uganda (2011) were used in the analysis. Logistic regression was used to determine the effects of women's pregnancy history on their use of contraception. Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. 3226, 2377, 4396, 3250 and 2596 women of reproductive age (15-49 years) from Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda, respectively, were included in the analysis. Women who had experienced a mistimed pregnancy were more likely to use a modern contraceptive method during their most recent sexual encounter in Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi and Uganda. Other significant correlates of women's contraceptive use were: desire for more children, parity, household wealth, maternal education and access information through radio. In-country regional differences on use of modern contraceptive methods were noted across five East African countries. Women's birth histories were significantly associated with their decision to adopt a modern contraceptive method. This highlights the importance of considering women's birth histories, especially women with mistimed births, in the promotion of contraceptive use in East Africa. Variations as a result of place of residency, educational attainment, access to family planning information and products, and wealth ought to be addressed in efforts to increase use of modern contraceptive methods in the East African region. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Poverty, partner discord, and divergent accounts; a mixed methods account of births before arrival to health facilities in Morogoro Region, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Shannon A; Chase, Rachel P; Winch, Peter J; Chebet, Joy J; Besana, Giulia V R; Mosha, Idda; Sheweji, Zaina; Kennedy, Caitlin E

    2016-09-27

    Births before arrival (BBA) to health care facilities are associated with higher rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality compared to facility deliveries or planned home births. Research on such births has been conducted in several high-income countries, but there are almost no studies from low-income settings where a majority of maternal and newborn deaths occur. Drawing on a household survey of women and in-depth interviews with women and their partners, we examined the experience of BBA in rural districts of Morogoro Region, Tanzania. Among survey respondents, 59 births (4 %) were classified as BBAs. Most of these births occurred in the presence of a family member (47 %) or traditional birth attendant (24 %). Low socioeconomic status was the strongest predictor of BBA. After controlling for wealth via matching, high parity and a low number of antenatal care (ANC) visits retained statistical significance. While these variables are useful indicators of which women are at greater risk of BBA, their predictive power is limited in a context where many women are poor, multiparous, and make multiple ANC visits. In qualitative interviews, stories of BBAs included themes of partner disagreement regarding when to depart for facilities and financial or logistical constraints that underpinned departure delays. Women described wanting to depart earlier to facilities than partners. As efforts continue to promote facility birth, we highlight the financial demands associated with facility delivery and the potential for these demands to place women at a heightened risk for BBAs.

  19. Detection of African swine fever virus DNA in blood samples stored on FTA cards from asymptomatic pigs in Mbeya region, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Braae, U C; Johansen, M V; Ngowi, H A; Rasmussen, T B; Nielsen, J; Uttenthal, Å

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess whether blood samples collected onto FTA(®) cards could be used in combination with real-time PCR for the detection of African swine fever virus (ASFV) DNA in samples from resource-poor settings under the assumption that asymptomatically (sub-clinically) infected pigs may be present. Blood samples were collected from clinically healthy pigs from Mbeya Region, Tanzania. The blood samples were stored on FTA(®) cards and analysed by real-time PCR assays in duplicate; three pigs had high levels of viral DNA (Ct values of 27-29), and three pigs had a low level of viral DNA (Ct 36-45). Four pigs were positive in one of the duplicate samples only, but clear products of the expected size were obtained when the reactions were analysed by gel electrophoresis. For comparison, blood samples from pigs experimentally infected with either a pathogenic (OURT T88/1) or a non-pathogenic (OURT T88/3) isolate of ASFV were collected, stored on FTA(®) cards and analysed in the same way. The blood from pigs infected with the OURT T88/1 isolate showed high levels of viral DNA (Ct 22-33), whereas infection with non-pathogenic OURT T88/3 isolate resulted in only low levels of viral DNA (Ct 39) in samples collected at 10-14 days after inoculation. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Health laboratories in the Tanga region of Tanzania: the quality of diagnostic services for malaria and other communicable diseases.

    PubMed

    Ishengoma, D R S; Rwegoshora, R T; Mdira, K Y; Kamugisha, M L; Anga, E O; Bygbjerg, I C; Rønn, A M; Magesa, S M

    2009-07-01

    Although critical for good case management and the monitoring of health interventions, the health-laboratory services in sub-Saharan Africa are grossly compromised by poor infrastructures and a lack of trained personnel, essential reagents and other supplies. The availability and quality of diagnostic services in 37 health laboratories in three districts of the Tanga region of Tanzania have recently been assessed. The results of the survey, which involved interviews with health workers, observations and a documentary review, revealed that malaria accounted for >50% of admissions and out-patient visits. Most (92%) of the laboratories were carrying out malaria diagnosis and 89% were measuring haemoglobin concentrations but only one (3%) was conducting culture and sensitivity tests, and those only on urine and pus samples. Only 14 (17%) of the 84 people found working in the visited laboratories were laboratory technologists with a diploma certificate or higher qualification. Sixteen (43%) of the study laboratories each had five or fewer types of equipment and only seven (19%) had more than 11 types each. Although 11 (30%) of the laboratories reported that they conducted internal quality control, none had standard operating procedures (SOP) on display or evidence of such quality assurance. Although malaria was the main health problem, diagnostic services for malaria and other diseases were inadequate and of poor quality because of the limited human resources, poor equipment and shortage of supplies. If the health services in Tanga are not to be overwhelmed by the progressively increasing burden of HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis and other emerging and re-emerging diseases, more funding and appropriate policies to improve the availability and quality of the area's diagnostic services will clearly be required.

  1. Resistance to Information Technology in Public Procurement in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nditi, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Organizations have become more dependent on information technology (IT) in the 21st century. But IT implementation and use is resisted in certain sectors of Tanzania, particularly in government-run enterprises. The purpose of this study was to investigate the causes and consequences of resistance to IT development and implementation in the…

  2. Educating a Nation towards Self-Reliance: Tanzania's Journey in Search for an Education That Is Meaningful to Its People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wabike, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Since independence in 1961, Tanzania's political ideology (known as Ujamaa-familyhood) has gone hand in hand with the country's education philosophy. The most important feature of this combination is that people should be educated to fit in Tanzania's environment and culture. Education should emancipate man from mental slavery inherited from…

  3. Factors Affecting Exclusive Breastfeeding among Women in Muheza District Tanga Northeastern Tanzania: A Mixed Method Community Based Study.

    PubMed

    Maonga, Aubrey R; Mahande, Michael J; Damian, Damian J; Msuya, Sia E

    2016-01-01

    Estimates shows exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) has the potential to prevent 11.6% of all under-five deaths in developing countries. Prevalence of EBF is low globally (35%), and in sub Saharan Africa ranges between 22 and 33%. Like other developing countries the prevalence of EBF is 50% in Tanzania. There is limited information in Tanzania on factors influencing EBF apart from information specific for HIV positive women. This study aimed at examining factors that affect EBF practice among women in Muheza district, Tanga region, northeastern Tanzania. A community based cross-sectional study using both qualitative and quantitative methods was conducted from April to June 2014. To collect relevant information, a total of 316 women with infants aged 6-12 months were interviewed using a questionnaire and 12 key informants using in-depth interview guide. Qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis while bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used assess association between EBF and predictor variables. The prevalence of EBF was 24.1%. The perception that mothers' breast milk is insufficient for child's growth, child being thirsty and the need to introduce herbal medicine for cultural purposes were among the important factors for early mixed feeding. In multivariate analysis advanced maternal age (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.18-5.59) and knowledge on EBF duration and advantages (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.2-3.8) remained significantly associated with EBF practice. The prevalence of EBF in our study is low compared with the national prevalence. Strategies to target beliefs that breast milk is insufficient for growth need to be strengthened in the community. Furthermore opportunity to increase EBF training during ante and postnatal visits for women should be enhanced as more than 90% of women in the district use skilled attendants during pregnancy and delivery.

  4. Rationale and design of the Tanzania Vitamin and HIV Infection Trial.

    PubMed

    Fawzi, W W; Msamanga, G I; Spiegelman, D; Urassa, E J; Hunter, D J

    1999-02-01

    We present the rationale and design of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin supplements among HIV-positive pregnant women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Higher levels of intake of vitamins A, B, C, and E may decrease the risk of vertical transmission and progression of HIV infection by enhancing maternal and infant immune function; by reducing viral load in the blood, breast milk, or lower genital tract secretions; and/or by strengthening the placental barrier to infection. Eligible pregnant women were randomized to receive vitamin A, multivitamins excluding A, vitamin A and multivitamins, or placebo. The main endpoints include vertical transmission of HIV infection, as assessed by examination of infection in infants using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and progression of HIV disease as measured by the WHO clinical staging system. Over a period of 2 years, 13,876 women were tested for HIV infection, with appropriate pre- and posttest counseling, to enroll 1085 consenting HIV-positive women. The trial assesses women and their children once a month for a minimum of 18 months after delivery or up to the end of this 5-year study. We examine recruitment strategies and means of enhancing cohort retention in long-term follow-up. We assess compliance with the use of supplements by direct questioning, by counting pills, and biochemically by using serum beta-carotene and urine riboflavin levels. Briefly, we discuss ethical issues related to the conduct of AIDS prevention trials in this setting. In sub-Saharan Africa, most HIV-infected persons lack access to the relevant antiretroviral and prophylactic drugs, and the region urgently needs low-cost treatments and preventive strategies. The Tanzania trial should provide valuable data to address the effect of vitamin supplements in the transmission and progression of HIV infection.

  5. Determinants of moderate-to-severe anaemia among women of reproductive age in Tanzania: analysis of data from the 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Wilunda, Calistus; Massawe, Siriel; Jackson, Caroline

    2013-12-01

    To identify determinants of moderate-to-severe anaemia among women of reproductive age in Tanzania. We included participants from the 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey, which collected data on socio-demographic and maternal health and determined haemoglobin levels from blood samples. We performed logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios for associations between socio-demographic, contextual, reproductive and lifestyle factors, and moderate-to-severe anaemia and investigated interactions between certain risk factors. Of 9477 women, 20.1% were anaemic. Pregnancy was significantly associated with anaemia (adjusted OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.43-2.15), but the effect varied significantly by urban/rural residence, wealth and education. The effect of pregnancy was stronger in women without education and those who were in lower wealth groups, with significant interactions observed for each of these factors. Education was associated with a lower anaemia risk, particularly in the poorest group (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.43-0.80), and in pregnant women. The risk of anaemia fell with rising iron supplementation coverage. Lack of toilet facilities increased anaemia risk (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.00-1.60), whereas using hormonal contraception reduced it. There was no association with age, urban/rural residence, wealth or type of cooking fuel in adjusted analysis. Pregnant women in Tanzania are particularly at risk of moderate-to-severe anaemia, with the effect modified by urban/rural residence, education and wealth. Prevention interventions should target women with lower education or without proper sanitation facilities, and women who are pregnant, particularly if they are uneducated or in lower wealth groups. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Human migration, protected areas, and conservation outreach in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Jonathan D; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Kefauver, Shawn C

    2014-06-01

    A recent discussion debates the extent of human in-migration around protected areas (PAs) in the tropics. One proposed argument is that rural migrants move to bordering areas to access conservation outreach benefits. A counter proposal maintains that PAs have largely negative effects on local populations and that outreach initiatives even if successful present insufficient benefits to drive in-migration. Using data from Tanzania, we examined merits of statistical tests and spatial methods used previously to evaluate migration near PAs and applied hierarchical modeling with appropriate controls for demographic and geographic factors to advance the debate. Areas bordering national parks in Tanzania did not have elevated rates of in-migration. Low baseline population density and high vegetation productivity with low interannual variation rather than conservation outreach explained observed migration patterns. More generally we argue that to produce results of conservation policy significance, analyses must be conducted at appropriate scales, and we caution against use of demographic data without appropriate controls when drawing conclusions about migration dynamics. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Healthcare Cost of Smoking Induced Cardiovascular Disease in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kidane, Asmerom; Hepelwa, Aloyce; Ngeh, Ernest Tingum; Hu, Teh-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The study presented here estimates the total health care cost attributable to smoking induced cardiovascular disease in Tanzania. The study based on a survey conducted at a referral university hospital in Dar es Salaam in 2014. Assuming a 2% prevalence rate of cardiovascular disease and a population of 47.2 million, it was estimated that there are 943,800 cardiovascular patients in Tanzania. The proportion of ever smokers among the surveyed patients was found to be 25 percent yielding 240,400 patients who suffer from smoking induced cardiovascular diseases. Per capita annual expenditure per patient is estimated to be 566.6 US dollars and total annual expenditure for the country was estimated to be 136.1 million US dollars. On a per capita basis more direct and indirect cost is incurred on males compared to females; more is spent on the elderly (40 or more years) compared to the youth (less than 20 years). When compared with the mean annual household income of the surveyed population, the smoking induced per capita expenditure constitutes 35% of household income.

  8. Undereporting of acute pesticide poisoning in Tanzania: modelling results from two cross-sectional studies.

    PubMed

    Lekei, Elikana E; Ngowi, Aiwerasia V; London, Leslie

    2016-11-29

    Acute pesticide poisoning (APP) is known to cause serious injuries to end users globally but the magnitude of this problem in Tanzania is not well known. This study aimed to determine the extent and pattern of underreporting of APP in Tanzania to inform the development of a surveillance system and appropriate interventions. This study integrates findings from two recent Tanzanian studies. A household survey established the proportion of poisoned farmers in a typical rural area who reported to hospital for a pesticide poisoning. Only 5 of the 112 farmers who reported attending hospital due to poisonings could be traced in medical records at the facilities they claimed to have attended. The 95% confidence interval for this ratio (5/112) was used to generate a high and low boundary for the estimates. Three under-estimation factors were generated for sensitivity analysis to adjust for under-reporting. A review of health facilities in three regions of Tanzania collected prospective data on admissions for APP in 2006 to generate population-based APP incidence rates stratified by circumstances of poisoning (occupational, accidental, suicide, and unknown). Sensitivity analysis was conducted involving adjustment for high and low boundaries of the under-reporting of occupational APP and an adjustment for different scenario allocations of cases with 'unknown' circumstances to different combinations of known circumstances. The study estimated the rate of occupational poisoning as ranging from 11.3-37.7 cases/million to 84.3-279.9 cases per million. The rate of all poisonings (occupational and non-occupational) ranged from 24.45-48.01 cases per million to 97.37-290.29 cases per million. Depending on the choice of scenario and under-reporting correction factor used, occupational APP could comprise from 52.2 to 96% of all APP cases. The study confirms that data on APP in Tanzanian hospitals are poorly reported and that occupational circumstances are particularly overlooked in

  9. Mass distribution of free insecticide-treated nets do not interfere with continuous net distribution in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To protect the most vulnerable groups from malaria (pregnant women and infants) the Tanzanian Government introduced a subsidy (voucher) scheme in 2004, on the basis of a public-private partnership. These vouchers are provided to pregnant women at their first antenatal care visit and mothers of infants at first vaccination. The vouchers are redeemed at registered retailers for a long-lasting insecticidal net against the payment of a modest top-up price. The present work analysed a large body of data from the Tanzanian National Voucher Scheme, focusing on interactions with concurrent mass distribution campaigns of free nets. Methods In an ecologic study involving all regions of Tanzania, voucher redemption data for the period 2007 2011, as well as data on potential determinants of voucher redemption were analysed. The four outcome variables were: pregnant woman and infant voucher redemption rates, use of treated bed nets by all household members and by under- five children. Each of the outcomes was regressed with selected determinants, using a generalized estimating equation model and accounting for regional data clustering. Results There was a consistent improvement in voucher redemption rates over the selected time period, with rates >80% in 2011. The major determinants of redemption rates were the top-up price paid by the voucher beneficiary, the retailer- clinic ratio, and socio-economic status. Improved redemption rates after 2009 were most likely due to reduced top-up prices (following a change in policy). Redemption rates were not affected by two major free net distribution campaigns. During this period, there was a consistent improvement in net use across all the regions, with rates of up to 75% in 2011. Conclusion The key components of the National Treated Nets Programme (NATNETS) seem to work harmoniously, leading to a high level of net use in the entire population. This calls for the continuation of this effort in Tanzania and for emulation by

  10. Mass distribution of free insecticide-treated nets do not interfere with continuous net distribution in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Eze, Ikenna C; Kramer, Karen; Msengwa, Amina; Mandike, Renata; Lengeler, Christian

    2014-05-27

    To protect the most vulnerable groups from malaria (pregnant women and infants) the Tanzanian Government introduced a subsidy (voucher) scheme in 2004, on the basis of a public-private partnership. These vouchers are provided to pregnant women at their first antenatal care visit and mothers of infants at first vaccination. The vouchers are redeemed at registered retailers for a long-lasting insecticidal net against the payment of a modest top-up price. The present work analysed a large body of data from the Tanzanian National Voucher Scheme, focusing on interactions with concurrent mass distribution campaigns of free nets. In an ecologic study involving all regions of Tanzania, voucher redemption data for the period 2007-2011, as well as data on potential determinants of voucher redemption were analysed. The four outcome variables were: pregnant woman and infant voucher redemption rates, use of treated bed nets by all household members and by under- five children. Each of the outcomes was regressed with selected determinants, using a generalized estimating equation model and accounting for regional data clustering. There was a consistent improvement in voucher redemption rates over the selected time period, with rates >80% in 2011. The major determinants of redemption rates were the top-up price paid by the voucher beneficiary, the retailer- clinic ratio, and socio-economic status. Improved redemption rates after 2009 were most likely due to reduced top-up prices (following a change in policy). Redemption rates were not affected by two major free net distribution campaigns. During this period, there was a consistent improvement in net use across all the regions, with rates of up to 75% in 2011. The key components of the National Treated Nets Programme (NATNETS) seem to work harmoniously, leading to a high level of net use in the entire population. This calls for the continuation of this effort in Tanzania and for emulation by other countries with endemic malaria.

  11. Contextualized IT Education in Tanzania: Beyond Standard IT Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedre, Matti; Bangu, Nicholas; Nyagava, Seth I.

    2009-01-01

    Tumaini University at Iringa, Tanzania, started a new B.Sc. program in IT in 2007. In the course of planning and implementation of the program, we found out that standard ACM/IEEE IT curricula are not adequate for an IT program in a poor, developing country. The standard curricula describe, in detail, the competences that IT specialists in…

  12. Literacy and Power--The Cases of Tanzania and Rwanda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedin, Asa

    2008-01-01

    In this paper it is claimed that the relation between literacy and power is complex. What people do with literacy has effects on power relations but literacy is not democratic "per se". Drawing from two cases from Tanzania and Rwanda it is argued that plans for adult education and literacy education should consider the perspectives of…

  13. Sexual practices among unmarried adolescents in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kazaura, Method R; Masatu, Melkiory C

    2009-01-01

    Background Sexual activities are increasingly changing from the cultural point of view what they used to be. Knowledge of these practices among adolescents may be a basis to create awareness among adolescents on practices that involve risks. This study aims to assess sexual practices among unmarried adolescents in Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among in-school and out-of-school but unmarried adolescents aged 10 to 19 in five locations in Tanzania. A questionnaire was used to collect information and to characterize sexual practices among these adolescents. Results About 32% of adolescents reported being sexually active; a higher proportion being males than females. The only inquired and reported sexual practices include vaginal sex, masturbation, oral and anal sex. About 15% of sexually active adolescents reported having multiple sexual partners. Significantly more males reported having multiple partners than females. Nearly 42% of sexually active adolescents reported having used a condom during most recent sexual act. Females reported older partners at first sexual act. Conclusion Adolescents experience several sexual practices that include penetrative and non-penetrative. More males reported being sexually active than females. Despite adolescents reporting having multiple sexual partners, reported condom use during the most recent sexual act was low. We advocate for a more enhanced approach of reproductive health education that includes safer sex to adolescents without forgetting those in-schools. PMID:19804651

  14. Sexual practices among unmarried adolescents in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kazaura, Method R; Masatu, Melkiory C

    2009-10-06

    Sexual activities are increasingly changing from the cultural point of view what they used to be. Knowledge of these practices among adolescents may be a basis to create awareness among adolescents on practices that involve risks. This study aims to assess sexual practices among unmarried adolescents in Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among in-school and out-of-school but unmarried adolescents aged 10 to 19 in five locations in Tanzania. A questionnaire was used to collect information and to characterize sexual practices among these adolescents. About 32% of adolescents reported being sexually active; a higher proportion being males than females. The only inquired and reported sexual practices include vaginal sex, masturbation, oral and anal sex. About 15% of sexually active adolescents reported having multiple sexual partners. Significantly more males reported having multiple partners than females. Nearly 42% of sexually active adolescents reported having used a condom during most recent sexual act. Females reported older partners at first sexual act. Adolescents experience several sexual practices that include penetrative and non-penetrative. More males reported being sexually active than females. Despite adolescents reporting having multiple sexual partners, reported condom use during the most recent sexual act was low. We advocate for a more enhanced approach of reproductive health education that includes safer sex to adolescents without forgetting those in-schools.

  15. Lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and chemostratigraphy of Upper Cretaceous and Paleogene sediments from southern Tanzania: Tanzania Drilling Project Sites 27-35

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimènez Berrocoso, Àlvaro; Huber, Brian T.; MacLeod, Kenneth G.; Petrizzo, Maria Rose; Lees, Jacqueline A.; Wendler, Ines; Coxall, Helen; Mweneinda, Amina K.; Falzoni, Francesca; Birch, Heather; Singano, Joyce M.; Haynes, Shannon; Cotton, Laura; Wendler, Jens; Bown, Paul R.; Robinson, Stuart A.; Gould, Jeremy

    2012-07-01

    The 2008 Tanzania Drilling Project (TDP) expedition recovered common planktonic foraminifera (PF), calcareous nannofossils (CN) and calcareous dinoflagellates with extraordinary shell preservation at multiple Cenomanian-Campanian sites that will be used for paleoclimatic, paleoceanographic, and biostratigraphic studies. New cores confirm the existence of a more expanded and continuous Upper Cretaceous sequence than had previously been documented in the Lindi and Kilwa regions of southeastern coastal Tanzania. This TDP expedition cored 684.02 m at eight Upper Cretaceous sites (TDP Sites 28-35) and a thin Paleocene section (TDP Site 27). TDP Sites 29, 30, 31 and 34 together span the lowermost Turonian to Coniacian (PF Whiteinella archaeocretacea to Dicarinella concavata Zones and CN Zones UC6a-9b), with TDP Site 31 being the most biostratigraphically complete Turonian section found during TDP drilling. A discontinuous section from the Santonian-upper Campanian (PF D. asymetrica to Radotruncana calcarata Zones and CN Zones UC12-16) was collectively recovered at TDP Sites 28, 32 and 35, while thin sequences of the lower Cenomanian (PF Thalmanninella globotruncanoides Zone and CN subzones UC3a-b) and middle Paleocene (Selandian; PF Zone P3a and CN Zone NP5) were cored in TDP Sites 33 and 27, respectively. Records of δ13Corg and δ13Ccarb from bulk sediments generated for all the Cretaceous sites show largely stable values through the sections. Only a few parallel δ13Corg and δ13Ccarb shifts have been found and they are interpreted to reflect local processes. The δ18Ocarb record, however, is consistent with Late Cretaceous cooling trends from the Turonian into the Campanian. Lithologies of these sites include thick intervals of claystones and siltstones with locally abundant, finely-laminated fabrics, irregular occurrences of thin sandstone layers, and sporadic bioclastic debris (e.g., inoceramids, ammonites). Minor lithologies represent much thinner units of up to

  16. “Man, what took you so long?” Social and individual factors affecting adult attendance at voluntary medical male circumcision services in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Plotkin, Marya; Castor, Delivette; Mziray, Hawa; Küver, Jan; Mpuya, Ezekiel; Luvanda, Paul James; Hellar, Augustino; Curran, Kelly; Lukobo-Durell, Mainza; Ashengo, Tigistu Adamu; Mahler, Hally

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: In 2009, the Government of Tanzania embarked on scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) services for HIV prevention in 8 priority regions, with the aim of serving 2.8 million boys and men ages 10–34 years by 2013. By mid-2012, more than 110,000 boys and men in Iringa and Njombe regions had received VMMC. The majority (85%) of these VMMC clients were under 19 years old (average age, 16 years). This study aimed to identify potential barriers and facilitators to VMMC among older men. Methods: We conducted 16 focus group discussions, stratified by sex and age, with 142 purposefully selected participants in 3 districts of Iringa and Njombe regions. Results: Both men and women generally had positive attitudes toward VMMC. Social and personal barriers to obtaining VMMC among adult men included shame associated with seeking services co-located with younger boys and perceived inappropriateness of VMMC after puberty, particularly after marriage and after having children. Additional barriers included concerns about partner infidelity during the post-surgical abstinence period, loss of income, and fear of pain associated with post-surgical erections. Facilitators included awareness of the HIV-prevention benefit and perceptions of cleanliness and enhanced attractiveness to women. Conclusions: While men and women in Iringa and Njombe regions in Tanzania generally view VMMC as a desirable procedure, program implementers need to address barriers to VMMC services among adult men. Selected service delivery sites in the Iringa and Njombe regions will be segregated by age to provide services that are “friendly” to adult men. Services will be complemented with behavior change communication initiatives to address concerns of older men, encourage women’s support for circumcision and adherence to the post-surgical abstinence period, and change social norms that inhibit older men from seeking circumcision. PMID:25276521

  17. Anti-mosquito plants as an alternative or incremental method for malaria vector control among rural communities of Bagamoyo District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Innocent, Ester; Hassanali, Ahmed; Kisinza, William Nw; Mutalemwa, Prince Pp; Magesa, Stephen; Kayombo, Edmund

    2014-07-11

    Plants represent one of the most accessible resources available for mosquito control by communities in Tanzania. However, no documented statistics exist for their contribution in the management of mosquitoes and other insects except through verbal and some publications. This study aimed at assessing communities' knowledge, attitudes and practices of using plants as an alternative method for mosquito control among selected communities in a malaria-prone area in Tanzania. Questionnaires were administered to 202 respondents from four villages of Bagamoyo District, Pwani Region, in Tanzania followed by participatory rural appraisal with village health workers. Secondary data collection for plants mentioned by the communities was undertaken using different search engines such as googlescholar, PubMED and NAPRALERT. Results showed about 40.3% of respondents used plants to manage insects, including mosquitoes. A broad profile of plants are used, including "mwarobaini" (Azadirachta indica) (22.5%), "mtopetope" (Annona spp) (20.8%), "mchungwa/mlimau" (Citrus spp) (8.3%), "mvumbashi/uvumbati" (Ocimum spp) (7.4%), "mkorosho" (Anacadium occidentale) (7.1%), "mwembe" (5.4%) (Mangifera indica), "mpera" (4.1%) (Psidium spp) and "maganda ya nazi" (4.1%) (Cocos nucifera). Majority of respondents collected these plants from the wild (54.2%), farms (28.9%) and/or home gardens (6%). The roles played by these plants in fighting mosquitoes is reflected by the majority that deploy them with or without bed-nets (p > 0.55) or insecticidal sprays (p >0.22). Most respondents were aware that mosquitoes transmit malaria (90.6%) while few respondents associated elephantiasis/hydrocele (46.5%) and yellow fever (24.3%) with mosquitoes. Most of the ethnobotanical uses mentioned by the communities were consistent with scientific information gathered from the literature, except for Psidium guajava, which is reported for the first time in insect control. This survey has indicated some knowledge gap

  18. Comparison of Methods for Xenomonitoring in Vectors of Lymphatic Filariasis in Northeastern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Irish, Seth R.; Stevens, William M. B.; Derua, Yahya A.; Walker, Thomas; Cameron, Mary M.

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring Wuchereria bancrofti infection in mosquitoes (xenomonitoring) can play an important role in determining when lymphatic filariasis has been eliminated, or in focusing control efforts. As mosquito infection rates can be low, a method for collecting large numbers of mosquitoes is necessary. Gravid traps collected large numbers of Culex quinquefasciatus in Tanzania, and a collection method that targets mosquitoes that have already fed could result in increased sensitivity in detecting W. bancrofti-infected mosquitoes. The aim of this experiment was to test this hypothesis by comparing U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps with CDC gravid traps in northeastern Tanzania, where Cx. quinquefasciatus is a vector of lymphatic filariasis. After an initial study where small numbers of mosquitoes were collected, a second study collected 16,316 Cx. quinquefasciatus in 60 gravid trap-nights and 240 light trap-nights. Mosquitoes were pooled and tested for presence of W. bancrofti DNA. Light and gravid traps collected similar numbers of mosquitoes per trap-night, but the physiological status of the mosquitoes was different. The estimated infection rate in mosquitoes collected in light traps was considerably higher than in mosquitoes collected in gravid traps, so light traps can be a useful tool for xenomonitoring work in Tanzania. PMID:26350454

  19. Smallholder Information Sources and Communication Pathways for Cashew Production and Marketing in Tanzania: An Ex-Post Study in Tandahimba and Lindi Rural Districts, Southern Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyambo, Brigitte; Ligate, Elly

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To identify and review production and marketing information sources and flows for smallholder cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) growers in Tanzania and recommend systems improvements for better technology uptake. Design/methodology/approach: Two-stage purposive samples were drawn. First, two districts in the main cashew producing areas,…

  20. Predicting Potential Risk Areas of Human Plague for the Western Usambara Mountains, Lushoto District, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Neerinckx, Simon; Peterson, A. Townsend; Gulinck, Hubert; Deckers, Jozef; Kimaro, Didas; Leirs, Herwig

    2010-01-01

    A natural focus of plague exists in the Western Usambara Mountains of Tanzania. Despite intense research, questions remain as to why and how plague emerges repeatedly in the same suite of villages. We used human plague incidence data for 1986–2003 in an ecological-niche modeling framework to explore the geographic distribution and ecology of human plague. Our analyses indicate that plague occurrence is related directly to landscape-scale environmental features, yielding a predictive understanding of one set of environmental factors affecting plague transmission in East Africa. Although many environmental variables contribute significantly to these models, the most important are elevation and Enhanced Vegetation Index derivatives. Projections of these models across broader regions predict only 15.5% (under a majority-rule threshold) or 31,997 km2 of East Africa as suitable for plague transmission, but they successfully anticipate most known foci in the region, making possible the development of a risk map of plague. PMID:20207880

  1. What lies behind gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan African countries: evidence from Kenya, Lesotho and Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Sia, Drissa; Onadja, Yentéma; Nandi, Arijit; Foro, Anne; Brewer, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Within sub-Saharan Africa, women are disproportionately at risk for acquiring and having human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is important to clarify whether gender inequalities in HIV prevalence in this region are explained by differences in the distributions of HIV risk factors, differences in the effects of these risk factors or some combination of both. We used an extension of the Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition approach to explain gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS in Kenya, Lesotho and Tanzania using data from the demographic and health and AIDS indicator surveys. After adjusting for covariates using Poisson regression models, female gender was associated with a higher prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Kenya [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.33, 2.23 in 2003] and Lesotho (PR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.20, 1.62 in 2004/05), but not in Tanzania. Decomposition analyses demonstrated two distinct patterns over time. In Tanzania, the gender inequality in HIV/AIDS was explained by differences in the distributions of HIV risk factors between men and women. In contrast, in Kenya and Lesotho, this inequality was partly explained by differences in the effects across men and women of measured HIV/AIDS risk factors, including socio-demographic characteristics (age and marital status) and sexual behaviours (age at first sex); these results imply that gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS would persist in Kenya and Lesotho even if men and women had similar distributions of HIV risk factors. The production of gender inequalities may vary across countries, with inequalities attributable to the unequal distribution of risk factors among men and women in some countries and the differential effect of these factors between groups in others. These different patterns have important implications for policies to reduce gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS. PMID:24345343

  2. HIV-1 pol Diversity among Female Bar and Hotel Workers in Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kiwelu, Ireen E.; Novitsky, Vladimir; Kituma, Elimsaada; Margolin, Lauren; Baca, Jeannie; Manongi, Rachel; Sam, Noel; Shao, John; McLane, Mary F.; Kapiga, Saidi H.; Essex, M.

    2014-01-01

    A national ART program was launched in Tanzania in October 2004. Due to the existence of multiple HIV-1 subtypes and recombinant viruses co-circulating in Tanzania, it is important to monitor rates of drug resistance. The present study determined the prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations among ART-naive female bar and hotel workers, a high-risk population for HIV-1 infection in Moshi, Tanzania. A partial HIV-1 pol gene was analyzed by single-genome amplification and sequencing in 45 subjects (622 pol sequences total; median number of sequences per subject, 13; IQR 5–20) in samples collected in 2005. The prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes A1, C, and D, and inter-subtype recombinant viruses, was 36%, 29%, 9% and 27%, respectively. Thirteen different recombination patterns included D/A1/D, C/A1, A1/C/A1, A1/U/A1, C/U/A1, C/A1, U/D/U, D/A1/D, A1/C, A1/C, A2/C/A2, CRF10_CD/C/CRF10_CD and CRF35_AD/A1/CRF35_AD. CRF35_AD was identified in Tanzania for the first time. All recombinant viruses in this study were unique, suggesting ongoing recombination processes among circulating HIV-1 variants. The prevalence of multiple infections in this population was 16% (n = 7). Primary HIV-1 drug resistance mutations to RT inhibitors were identified in three (7%) subjects (K65R plus Y181C; N60D; and V106M). In some subjects, polymorphisms were observed at the RT positions 41, 69, 75, 98, 101, 179, 190, and 215. Secondary mutations associated with NNRTIs were observed at the RT positions 90 (7%) and 138 (6%). In the protease gene, three subjects (7%) had M46I/L mutations. All subjects in this study had HIV-1 subtype-specific natural polymorphisms at positions 36, 69, 89 and 93 that are associated with drug resistance in HIV-1 subtype B. These results suggested that HIV-1 drug resistance mutations and natural polymorphisms existed in this population before the initiation of the national ART program. With increasing use of ARV, these results highlight the importance of drug

  3. HIV-1 pol diversity among female bar and hotel workers in Northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kiwelu, Ireen E; Novitsky, Vladimir; Kituma, Elimsaada; Margolin, Lauren; Baca, Jeannie; Manongi, Rachel; Sam, Noel; Shao, John; McLane, Mary F; Kapiga, Saidi H; Essex, M

    2014-01-01

    A national ART program was launched in Tanzania in October 2004. Due to the existence of multiple HIV-1 subtypes and recombinant viruses co-circulating in Tanzania, it is important to monitor rates of drug resistance. The present study determined the prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations among ART-naive female bar and hotel workers, a high-risk population for HIV-1 infection in Moshi, Tanzania. A partial HIV-1 pol gene was analyzed by single-genome amplification and sequencing in 45 subjects (622 pol sequences total; median number of sequences per subject, 13; IQR 5-20) in samples collected in 2005. The prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes A1, C, and D, and inter-subtype recombinant viruses, was 36%, 29%, 9% and 27%, respectively. Thirteen different recombination patterns included D/A1/D, C/A1, A1/C/A1, A1/U/A1, C/U/A1, C/A1, U/D/U, D/A1/D, A1/C, A1/C, A2/C/A2, CRF10_CD/C/CRF10_CD and CRF35_AD/A1/CRF35_AD. CRF35_AD was identified in Tanzania for the first time. All recombinant viruses in this study were unique, suggesting ongoing recombination processes among circulating HIV-1 variants. The prevalence of multiple infections in this population was 16% (n = 7). Primary HIV-1 drug resistance mutations to RT inhibitors were identified in three (7%) subjects (K65R plus Y181C; N60D; and V106M). In some subjects, polymorphisms were observed at the RT positions 41, 69, 75, 98, 101, 179, 190, and 215. Secondary mutations associated with NNRTIs were observed at the RT positions 90 (7%) and 138 (6%). In the protease gene, three subjects (7%) had M46I/L mutations. All subjects in this study had HIV-1 subtype-specific natural polymorphisms at positions 36, 69, 89 and 93 that are associated with drug resistance in HIV-1 subtype B. These results suggested that HIV-1 drug resistance mutations and natural polymorphisms existed in this population before the initiation of the national ART program. With increasing use of ARV, these results highlight the importance of drug

  4. Why do health workers in rural Tanzania prefer public sector employment?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Severe shortages of qualified health workers and geographical imbalances in the workforce in many low-income countries require the national health sector management to closely monitor and address issues related to the distribution of health workers across various types of health facilities. This article discusses health workers' preferences for workplace and their perceptions and experiences of the differences in working conditions in the public health sector versus the church-run health facilities in Tanzania. The broader aim is to generate knowledge that can add to debates on health sector management in low-income contexts. Methods The study has a qualitative study design to elicit in-depth information on health workers' preferences for workplace. The data comprise ten focus group discussions (FGDs) and 29 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with auxiliary staff, nursing staff, clinicians and administrators in the public health sector and in a large church-run hospital in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in Tanzania. Results The study found a clear preference for public sector employment. This was associated with health worker rights and access to various benefits offered to health workers in government service, particularly the favourable pension schemes providing economic security in old age. Health workers acknowledged that church-run hospitals generally were better equipped and provided better quality patient care, but these concerns tended to be outweighed by the financial assets of public sector employment. In addition to the sector specific differences, family concerns emerged as important in decisions on workplace. Conclusions The preference for public sector employment among health workers shown in this study seems to be associated primarily with the favourable pension scheme. The overall shortage of health workers and the distribution between health facilities is a challenge in a

  5. Why do health workers in rural Tanzania prefer public sector employment?

    PubMed

    Songstad, Nils Gunnar; Moland, Karen Marie; Massay, Deodatus Amadeus; Blystad, Astrid

    2012-04-05

    Severe shortages of qualified health workers and geographical imbalances in the workforce in many low-income countries require the national health sector management to closely monitor and address issues related to the distribution of health workers across various types of health facilities. This article discusses health workers' preferences for workplace and their perceptions and experiences of the differences in working conditions in the public health sector versus the church-run health facilities in Tanzania. The broader aim is to generate knowledge that can add to debates on health sector management in low-income contexts. The study has a qualitative study design to elicit in-depth information on health workers' preferences for workplace. The data comprise ten focus group discussions (FGDs) and 29 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with auxiliary staff, nursing staff, clinicians and administrators in the public health sector and in a large church-run hospital in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in Tanzania. The study found a clear preference for public sector employment. This was associated with health worker rights and access to various benefits offered to health workers in government service, particularly the favourable pension schemes providing economic security in old age. Health workers acknowledged that church-run hospitals generally were better equipped and provided better quality patient care, but these concerns tended to be outweighed by the financial assets of public sector employment. In addition to the sector specific differences, family concerns emerged as important in decisions on workplace. The preference for public sector employment among health workers shown in this study seems to be associated primarily with the favourable pension scheme. The overall shortage of health workers and the distribution between health facilities is a challenge in a resource constrained health system

  6. The Implementation of Curricular Reform: Tanzania and Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Murray; Vulliamy, Graham

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the origins and policy characteristics of the Education for Self Reliance project in Tanzania and the Secondary Schools Community Extension Project in Papua New Guinea. Compares the sociopolitical climate, the policy characteristics, the role of academic assessment, policy change, and examples of the existing policy in the two countries.…

  7. Adult Education in Tanzania: Life-Long Process for National Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbunda, Daniel

    For Tanzanians, education to be meaningful implies human development through education. Tanzania's commitment to build a socialist state, based on traditional African socialism, is also a commitment to socialist education, the necessary tool for social development. Since work is a lifelong duty for any socialist, work-oriented education is also a…

  8. National and Global: A History of Scholars' Experiences with Research at the University of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania (1961-Present)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamison, Amy J.

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, I draw on research carried out at the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM), Tanzania in 2008 to examine Tanzanian academics' experience with research throughout the history of this institution. This dissertation is designed as an historical case study and investigates how economic and political changes in Tanzania's…

  9. Towards the Social and Economic Promotion of Rural Women in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokuhirwa, Hilda

    1975-01-01

    The report describes the changing image of women in rural Tanzania and the various agencies responsible for their social, economic, cultural, and political promotion in rural areas, including the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU), and the Union of Women in Tanganyika (UWT). (LH)

  10. Breastfeeding and Complementary Feeding Practices among HIV-Exposed Infants in Coastal Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Williams, Anne M; Chantry, Caroline; Geubbels, Eveline L; Ramaiya, Astha K; Shemdoe, Aloisia I; Tancredi, Daniel J; Young, Sera L

    2016-02-01

    Appropriate infant feeding is a persistent challenge for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected mothers in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to describe correlates of infant feeding among HIV-infected mothers in coastal Tanzania. HIV-infected women (n = 400) with infants younger than 18 months were enrolled from June to November 2011 from 3 public health facilities in Pwani, Tanzania: Tumbi Regional Hospital (TRH), Chalinze Health Center (CHC), and Bagamoyo District Hospital (BDH). Participants were surveyed about sociodemographics and infant feeding behavior at enrollment; infant feeding data were collected prospectively and retrospectively in the month of study follow-up. Statistically significant correlates of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) were infant age (months) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5-0.9), enrollment facility (TRH: reference; CHC: AOR = 5.0, 95% CI, 1.2-20.8; BDH: AOR = 11.6, 95% CI, 2.3-59.9), and HIV disclosure to one's mother (AOR = 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.6). Exclusive breastfeeding prevalence among infants younger than 6 months was 77%, but 50% of infants older than 6 months no longer receiving breast milk did not receive animal source foods (ASF) daily. Enrollment facility (TRH: reference; CHC: AOR = 0.2, 95% CI, 0.1-1.0; BDH: AOR = 0.1, 95% CI, 0.01-0.4) and HIV disclosure (to mother-in-law: AOR = 0.2, 95% CI, 0.1-0.8; to brother: AOR = 0.3, 95% CI, 0.1-0.8) were negatively associated with ASF provision. High prevalence of EBF suggests that it is an attainable behavior, whereas low prevalence of daily ASF provision suggests that adequate diets are difficult to achieve after breastfeeding cessation. These findings support current recommendations for HIV-infected mothers in resource-poor regions to continue breastfeeding for at least 1 year and suggest the need for greater support with complementary feeding. Associations between HIV disclosure and infant feeding merit further exploration, and correlations

  11. Understanding the partial protection of male circumcision for HIV prevention among women in Iringa Region, Tanzania: an ethnomedical model.

    PubMed

    Layer, Erica H; Beckham, Sarah W; Momburi, Romani B; Kennedy, Caitlin E

    2013-08-01

    Communicating the partial efficacy of male circumcision for HIV prevention is challenging. Understanding how people conceptualize risk can help programs communicate messages in a way that is understandable to local communities. This article explores women's ethnomedical model of disease transmission related to male circumcision in Iringa Region, Tanzania. We conducted in-depth interviews (IDIs) with 32 female partners of male circumcision clients and focus group discussions (FGDs) with married (n=3) and unmarried (n=3) women from November 2011 to February 2012. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and translated into English, and codes were developed based on emerging themes. While women understand that circumcised men are still at risk of HIV, risk is perceived to be low as long as both partners avoid abrasions during sexual intercourse and the man's penis is kept clean. Women said that HIV transmission only occurs when both partners have abrasions on their genitalia and mixing of blood occurs. Abrasions are thought to be the result of friction from fast or dry sex and are more likely to occur with uncircumcised men; thus, HIV can be prevented if a man is circumcised and couples have gentle, lubricated sex. In addition, women reported that the foreskin traps particles of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV, which can easily be passed on to female partners. In contrast, circumcised men are viewed as being able to clean themselves of disease particles and, therefore, do not easily acquire diseases or transmit them to female partners. These findings align with the scientific understanding of increased HIV risk associated with abrasions or microflora in the foreskin; however, the ethnomedical model differs from scientific understanding in that disease transmission can in fact occur without either of these conditions. Programs can build upon these findings to better convey risks along with the benefits of male circumcision.

  12. Etiologies of Autism in a Case-Series from Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mankoski, Raymond E.; Collins, Martha; Ndosi, Noah K.; Mgalla, Ella H.; Sarwatt, Veronica V.; Folstein, Susan E.

    2006-01-01

    Most autism has a genetic cause although post-encephalitis cases are reported. In a case-series (N = 20) from Tanzania, 14 met research criteria for autism. Three (M:F = 1:2) had normal development to age 22, 35, and 42 months, with onset of autism upon recovery from severe malaria, attended by prolonged high fever, convulsions, and in one case…

  13. A nationwide survey of the quality of antimalarials in retail outlets in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harparkash; Goodman, Catherine; Thompson, Eloise; Thompson, Katy-Anne; Masanja, Irene; Kachur, S Patrick; Abdulla, Salim

    2008-01-01

    Retail pharmaceutical products are commonly used to treat fever and malaria in sub-Saharan African countries. Small scale studies have suggested that poor quality antimalarials are widespread throughout the region, but nationwide data are not available that could lead to generalizable conclusions about the extent to which poor quality drugs are available in African communities. This study aimed to assess the quality of antimalarials available from retail outlets across mainland Tanzania. We systematically purchased samples of oral antimalarial tablets from retail outlets across 21 districts in mainland Tanzania in 2005. A total of 1080 antimalarial formulations were collected including 679 antifol antimalarial samples (394 sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and 285 sulfamethoxypyrazine/pyrimethamine), 260 amodiaquine samples, 63 quinine samples, and 51 artemisinin derivative samples. A systematic subsample of 304 products was assessed for quality by laboratory based analysis to determine the amount of the active ingredient and dissolution profile by following the published United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) monogram for the particular tablet being tested. Products for which a published analytical monogram did not exist were assessed on amount of active ingredient alone. Overall 38 or 12.2% of the samples were found to be of poor quality. Of the antifolate antimalarial drugs tested 13.4% were found to be of poor quality by dissolution and content analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Nearly one quarter (23.8%) of quinine tablets did not comply within the tolerance limits of the dissolution and quantification analysis. Quality of amodiaquine drugs was relatively better but still unacceptable as 7.5% did not comply within the tolerance limits of the dissolution analysis. Formulations of the artemisinin derivatives all contained the stated amount of active ingredient when analysed using HPLC alone. Substandard antimalarial formulations were widely

  14. A Nationwide Survey of the Quality of Antimalarials in Retail Outlets in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Harparkash; Goodman, Catherine; Thompson, Eloise; Thompson, Katy-Anne; Masanja, Irene; Kachur, S. Patrick; Abdulla, Salim

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Retail pharmaceutical products are commonly used to treat fever and malaria in sub-Saharan African countries. Small scale studies have suggested that poor quality antimalarials are widespread throughout the region, but nationwide data are not available that could lead to generalizable conclusions about the extent to which poor quality drugs are available in African communities. This study aimed to assess the quality of antimalarials available from retail outlets across mainland Tanzania. Methods and Findings We systematically purchased samples of oral antimalarial tablets from retail outlets across 21 districts in mainland Tanzania in 2005. A total of 1080 antimalarial formulations were collected including 679 antifol antimalarial samples (394 sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and 285 sulfamethoxypyrazine/pyrimethamine), 260 amodiaquine samples, 63 quinine samples, and 51 artemisinin derivative samples. A systematic subsample of 304 products was assessed for quality by laboratory based analysis to determine the amount of the active ingredient and dissolution profile by following the published United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) monogram for the particular tablet being tested. Products for which a published analytical monogram did not exist were assessed on amount of active ingredient alone. Overall 38 or 12.2% of the samples were found to be of poor quality. Of the antifolate antimalarial drugs tested 13.4% were found to be of poor quality by dissolution and content analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Nearly one quarter (23.8%) of quinine tablets did not comply within the tolerance limits of the dissolution and quantification analysis. Quality of amodiaquine drugs was relatively better but still unacceptable as 7.5% did not comply within the tolerance limits of the dissolution analysis. Formulations of the artemisinin derivatives all contained the stated amount of active ingredient when analysed using HPLC alone. Conclusions Substandard

  15. Tetanus in adult males, Bugando Medical Centre, United Republic of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Riaz; Peck, Robert N; Kalluvya, Samuel; Kenemo, Bernard; Chandika, Alphonce; Downs, Jennifer A

    2017-11-01

    In the United Republic of Tanzania, the incidence of non-neonatal circumcision-related tetanus is probably underreported. We analysed charts and extracted information on outcome and wound location for non-neonatal cases of tetanus admitted to the intensive care unit of Bugando Medical Centre between 2001 and 2016. Bugando Medical Centre, which is one of four teaching referral hospitals in the United Republic of Tanzania, has a 13-bed intensive care unit that manages all admitted patients with tetanus. Within the United Republic of Tanzania, formal programmes of tetanus immunization are targeted at infants or women. From our inpatient logs, we identified six patients with non-neonatal tetanus among male patients with a recent history of circumcision. Only one of these patients had been circumcised within a subnational programme of voluntary medical male circumcision. The other five had been circumcised outside of the programme - e.g. at small rural dispensaries or by a traditional provider with no formal medical training. The six patients were aged 11-55 years and five (83%) of them died in hospital - all of overwhelming sepsis. Within the Tanzanian programme of voluntary medical male circumcision, education on wound hygiene probably helps to reduce the incidence of non-neonatal circumcision-related tetanus. The corresponding incidence among the boys and men who are circumcised beyond this subnational programme is probably higher. The training of all circumcision providers in wound care and a vaccination programme to ensure that male Tanzanians receive tetanus immunization post-infancy are recommended.

  16. Determinants of concurrent sexual partnerships within stable relationships: a qualitative study in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Carie Muntifering; Babalola, Stella; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Mbwambo, Jessie; Likindikoki, Samuel; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    Objective Concurrent sexual partnerships (CP) have been identified as a potential driver in the HIV epidemic in southern Africa, making it essential to understand motivating factors for engagement in CP. We aimed to assess community attitudes and beliefs about relationship factors that influence men and women in stable relationships to engage in CP in Tanzania. Social exchange theory was used for interpreting the data. Design Qualitative study with focus group discussions (FGDs). Setting Semiurban/rural communities in four regions across Tanzania (Dar es Salaam, Shinyanga, Iringa and Mbeya). Participants 120 women aged 17–45 years and 111 men aged 18–49 years from four study areas participated in 32 FGDs. Outcome measures FGD participants were asked the following questions about CP: definitions and types, motivations and justifications for engaging or not engaging, cultural factors, gender and socialisation, and local resources and efforts available for addressing CP. Our analysis focused specifically on beliefs about how relationship factors influence engagement in CP. Results Dissatisfaction with a stable relationship was believed to be a contributing factor for engagement in CP for both men and women. Participants more commonly reported financial dissatisfaction as a contributing factor for women engaging in CP within stable relationships, whereas emotional and sexual dissatisfaction were reported as contributing factors for men and women. Furthermore, participants described how potential outside partners are often evaluated based on what they are able to offer compared with stable partners. Conclusions Efforts to reach men and women in stable relationships with HIV prevention messages must consider the various dimensions of motivation for engaging in CP, including relationship dynamics. PMID:24508848

  17. Five-year follow-up of a food-based vitamin A intervention in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kidala, D; Greiner, T; Gebre-Medhin, M

    2000-12-01

    : To evaluate the long-term effects of a horticultural and nutrition education intervention in rural Tanzania. : A quasi-experimental post-test design was used. : The research was carried out in 10 villages in Singida region, Tanzania. : Mothers and their children aged 6-71 months (n = 236) from an experimental (Ilongero) and control (Ihanja) area were interviewed regarding knowledge and practices related to vitamin A nutrition. Intake of vitamin A-rich foods by the children during the 7 days prior to the interview was recorded. Stools were examined for helminths and serum samples were analysed for retinol and C-reactive protein (CRP) (n = 146) for the children aged 12-71 months. : Knowledge and practices were more favourable to vitamin A intake in the experimental area than in the control area, and an increased frequency of intake of green leaves was associated with higher serum retinol values. The experimental area had lower mean serum retinol levels (13.7 microg dl(-1), n = 75) than the control area (19.3 microg dl(-1), n = 71). One likely confounder was the higher helminth infestation in the experimental area (n = 75, 79%) than in the control area (n = 71, 49%) (P < 0.001). Children with helminths (n = 94) had a lower mean serum retinol level than those without (n = 52) (12.3 +/- 5 vs. 24 +/- 10 microg dl(-1); P = 0.001). : Food-based vitamin A programmes can make sustainable improvements in knowledge and dietary practices but these may not necessarily be reflected in increases in serum retinol. Programme implementation and evaluation should take confounders into consideration as, in this case, helminth infestation.

  18. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human breast milk and associated health risks to nursing infants in Northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Müller, M H B; Polder, A; Brynildsrud, O B; Karimi, M; Lie, E; Manyilizu, W B; Mdegela, R H; Mokiti, F; Murtadha, M; Nonga, H E; Skaare, J U; Lyche, J L

    2017-04-01

    This is the first study to report organochlorines (OCs), including chlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk from Tanzania. The main aims of this study were to assess the level of contamination and the possible health risks related to OC exposure in nursing infants from the Northern parts of Tanzania. Ninety-five healthy mother-infant couples attending Mount Meru Regional Referral Hospital (MMRRH), Arusha, Tanzania, were assessed for associations between maternal/infant characteristics, i.e. mother's age, BMI, gestational weight gain, occupation, residence and fetal growth parameters and breast milk levels of OCPs, such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, dieldrin and PCBs. p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT were detected in 100% and 75% of the breast milk samples, respectively, and ranged between 24 and 2400ng/g lipid weight (lw) and

  19. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in breast milk and associated health risks to nursing infants in Northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Müller, M H B; Polder, A; Brynildsrud, O B; Lie, E; Løken, K B; Manyilizu, W B; Mdegela, R H; Mokiti, F; Murtadha, M; Nonga, H E; Skaare, J U; Lyche, J L

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to assess brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in breast milk in the Northern parts of Tanzania. Ninety-five colostrum samples from healthy, primiparous mothers at Mount Meru Regional Referral Hospital (MMRRH), Arusha Tanzania, were analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB), (2,3-dibromopropyl) (2,4,6-tribromophenyl) ether (DPTE), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB) and 2,3,4,5,6-pentabromotoluene (PBT). The Ʃ7PBDE (BDE 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183) ranged from below level of detection (

  20. The Role of Vernacularization in Tanzania: Swahili as Political Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Joan

    A discussion of the role of Swahili in Tanzania looks at its elaboration as an indigenous language, involving both internal modification of the written language and the extension of its institutionalized domains of use. Because of its role as the lingua franca of the independence movement, Swahili became a vehicle for national political…

  1. Women's Access to Higher Education in Tanzania: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Megan Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the ways in which first-generation women in Tanzania explained their success in pursuing a university education despite cultural and social obstacles. Such obstacles include social policies, socio-cultural factors, and academic factors. A review of the literature revealed that issues such as patriarchy,…

  2. An epidemic of East Coast fever on a dairy farm in eastern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Msami, H M

    2001-04-13

    During the period August-September 1995, an epidemic of East Coast fever occurred at a dairy farm in Morogoro region of eastern Tanzania. Due to an intensive dipping scheme since 1970, a very unstable endemic status had been established in the animals. A breakdown in the dipping scheme caused a major disease outbreak; the dip wash was not changed for 18 months prior to the outbreak and dipping continued in a dip wash of unknown strength. There was also a delay in detecting the disease at an early stage. In total, 180 out of 432 (42%) of the cattle at the farm died--resulting in a loss of Tshs. 26,330,000 (US$ 42,879). The attack risk was nearly 77%. The outbreak points to the importance of adopting integrated strategies for the control of ticks and tick-borne diseases.

  3. Design principles and common pool resource management: an institutional approach to evaluating community management in semi-arid Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Claire H; Huby, Meg; Kiwasila, Hilda; Lovett, Jon C

    2007-07-01

    This paper analyses the role of institutions in the management of common pool resources (CPRs) in semi-arid Tanzania. Common property regimes have often been considered inadequate for the management of CPRs because of the problems of excludability, but they are becoming more widely supported as the way forward to overcome the problems of resource use and degradation in developing countries. A series of design principles for long enduring common property institutions have been proposed by Ostrom, but there is concern that they are not applicable to a wide range of real life situations or that they may be specific to certain types of CPR. Here, we compare these principles to the situation prevailing in 12 villages in six districts in semi-arid Tanzania. Data on management institutions were collected through semi-structured interviews and meetings at district and village level. The combined information was used to make a qualitative assessment of the strength with which each design principle appeared to operate in the management of forest, pasture and water resources. Boundaries, conflict and negotiation in CPR management are of key importance in semi-arid regions. However, the need for flexibility in order to deal with ecological uncertainty means that many management institutions would be considered weak or absent according to the design principle approach. This supports the view that the design principles should not be used as a 'blueprint to be imposed on resource management regimes' rather that they provide a framework for investigating common property regimes with the proviso that, certainly for semi-arid regions, they may highlight where management cannot be explained by institutional theory alone.

  4. Status of pesticides pollution in Tanzania - A review.

    PubMed

    Elibariki, Raheli; Maguta, Mihayo Musabila

    2017-07-01

    Various studies have been conducted in Tanzania to assess the magnitude of pesticides pollution associated with pesticides application, storage, disposal as well as knowledge of farmers on pesticides handling. The studies analysed samples from different matrices covering vegetation, biota, water, sediments and soil. The objective of this review was to summarise the results of pesticides residues reported in different components of the environment to give a clear picture of pesticides pollution status in the country for law enforcement as well as for taking precaution measures. Gaps which need to be filled in order to establish a comprehensive understanding on pesticides pollution in the country have also been highlighted. Reviewed studies revealed that, most of the samples contained pesticides below permissible limits (WHO, FAO, US-EPA) except for few samples such as water from Kikavu river, Kilimanjaro region and Kilolo district, Iringa region which were detected with some Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) above WHO permissible limits. Some soil samples from the former storage sites also contained pesticides above FAO permissible limits. Pesticides and their metabolites were also detected both in vegetation, food and biota samples. The prevalent pesticides in the reviewed studies were the organochlorines such as Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), endosulfan and Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). Surveys to assess farmer's knowledge on pesticides handling observed poor understanding of farmers on pesticides storage, application and disposal. Decontamination of former storage areas, continuous monitoring of pesticide applications and training of farmers on proper handling of pesticides are highly recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Is there a threshold level of maternal education sufficient to reduce child undernutrition? Evidence from Malawi, Tanzania and Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Makoka, Donald; Masibo, Peninah Kinya

    2015-08-22

    Maternal education is strongly associated with young child nutrition outcomes. However, the threshold of the level of maternal education that reduces the level of undernutrition in children is not well established. This paper investigates the level of threshold of maternal education that influences child nutrition outcomes using Demographic and Health Survey data from Malawi (2010), Tanzania (2009-10) and Zimbabwe (2005-06). The total number of children (weighted sample) was 4,563 in Malawi; 4,821 children in Tanzania; and 3,473 children in Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Surveys. Using three measures of child nutritional status: stunting, wasting and underweight, we employ a survey logistic regression to analyse the influence of various levels of maternal education on child nutrition outcomes. In Malawi, 45% of the children were stunted, 42% in Tanzania and 33% in Zimbabwe. There were 12% children underweight in Malawi and Zimbabwe and 16% in Tanzania.The level of wasting was 6% of children in Malawi, 5% in Tanzania and 4% in Zimbabwe. Stunting was significantly (p values < 0.0001) associated with mother's educational level in all the three countries. Higher levels of maternal education reduced the odds of child stunting, underweight and wasting in the three countries. The maternal threshold for stunting is more than ten years of schooling. Wasting and underweight have lower threshold levels. These results imply that the free primary education in the three African countries may not be sufficient and policies to keep girls in school beyond primary school hold more promise of addressing child undernutrition.

  6. Factors affecting vasectomy acceptability in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Bunce, Arwen; Guest, Greg; Searing, Hannah; Frajzyngier, Veronica; Riwa, Peter; Kanama, Joseph; Achwal, Isaac

    2007-03-01

    Calls for increased inclusion of men in matters of reproductive health emphasize the need for research into vasectomy acceptability and decision making. Vasectomy is a safe, simple and effective method of contraception, but is underused worldwide. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with potential and actual sterilization clients and their partners in the Kigoma Region of Tanzania. Content analysis was used to search for emergent themes related to vasectomy decision making. Six themes emerged as overarching factors contributing to the vasectomy decision-making process: economics, spousal influence, religion, provider reputation and availability, uncertainty about the future, and poor vasectomy knowledge and understanding. There was substantial communication between partners regarding the vasectomy decision, and wives had a strong influence on the outcome; however, men and women agreed that husbands would resist vasectomy if wives initially raised the topic. Vasectomy acceptance is limited by the scarcity of skilled vasectomy providers and by the fact that men and women hold many of the same misunderstandings about vasectomy, including a fear of decreased sexual performance as a result of the procedure. Spousal discussions are important in the decision to get a vasectomy, but these discussions should be initiated by the male partner. Programs need to educate men about contraceptive options, including vasectomies. Detailed, culturally relevant knowledge of the barriers and facilitators individuals experience during their decision- making process will enable vasectomy promotion programs to more successfully target appropriate populations.

  7. Depositional evolution of permo-triassic karoo basins in Tanzania with reference to their economic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreuser, T.; Wopfner, H.; Kaaya, C. Z.; Markwort, S.; Semkiwa, P. M.; Aslandis, P.

    The Karoo basins of Tanzania contain in excess of 3000 m of sediments which were preserved in several NNE-NE striking half grabens or other structural basin conditions. They are all intracratonic basins, most of which filled with terrestrial sediments. In some basins situated nearer the coastal region short marine incursions occurred in the Late Permian. The Ruhuhu Rasin in SW Tanzania provides a typical depositional sequence of a Karoo basin in eastern Africa. Sedimentation commenced with glacigene deposits. These are of Late Carboniferous to Early Permian age and may be equated with other glacial successions in Africa and elsewhere in Gondwana. The glacigene beds are overlain by fluvial-deltaic coal-bearing deposits succeeded by arkoses and continental red beds. A transitionary formation of carbonaceous shales with impure coals gradually develops into thick lacustrine series which are topped by Late Permian bone bearing beds. The Triassic is characterized by a very thick fluvio-deltaic succession of siliciclastics resting with regional unconformity on the Permian. This Early Triassic sequence exhibits well-developed repetitive depositional cycles. Current azimuth measurements indicate fluctuating flow regimes in the Early Permian but relative stable source areas to the west of the basin later on. The depositional evolution of the Ruhuhu Basin is controlled by both tectonic and climatic factors. During basin evolution important energy resources were deposited such as considerable reserves of coal and source rocks of moderate potential for hydrocarbon generation. Uranium enrichment is observed in the Triassic arenaceous series where diagenetic alterations and subsequent cementation processes led to the formation of laumontite. Post Karoo dykes and plugs had only local effect on thermal evolution of potential source rocks. Enrichments of elements, i.e., Nb, Zr, Rb, Cr, and V present additional exploration targets. A comparison with the Karoo basins of the coastal

  8. Risk factors for genital human papillomavirus among men in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Tina Bech; Mwaiselage, Julius; Iftner, Thomas; Kahesa, Crispin; Rasch, Vibeke; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Munk, Christian; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the study was to assess risk factors for Human Papillomavirus (HPV) among men in Tanzania, both overall and in relation to HIV status. In a cross-sectional study conducted among 1,813 men in Tanzania, penile swabs were tested for HPV using Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2). Study participants were offered HIV testing. Risk factors for HPV (HC2 high-risk and/or low-risk positivity) were assessed using logistic regression with adjustment for age, lifetime number of sexual partners, and HIV status. Altogether, 372 men (20.5%) were HPV-positive. Among men tested for HIV (n = 1,483), the HIV prevalence was 9.4%. The odds ratio (OR) of HPV increased with increasing age. HIV-positivity was associated with an increased odds ratio of HPV (OR = 1.91; 95%CI: 1.30-2.82), whereas the odds of HPV tended to be lower in circumcised men than in uncircumcised men (OR = 0.77; 95%CI: 0.54-1.09). When stratifying by HIV status, we found lower odds of HPV in overweight HIV-positive men (BMI > 25) than in normal weight HIV-positive men (OR = 0.25; 95%CI: 0.08-0.78). This did not apply to HIV-negative men. Circumcision tended to decrease the odds of HPV both in HIV-positive men and in HIV-negative men, although not being statistically significant. In conclusion, HIV is a strong risk factor for HPV among men in Tanzania. Additionally, in HIV-positive men a high BMI seems to be associated with a lower risk of HPV. Finally, we observed a tendency toward a lower risk of HPV both among HIV-positive and HIV-negative circumcised men compared to their uncircumcised counterparts. J. Med. Virol. 89:345-351, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. High Prevalence of Faecal Carriage of ESBL-Producing Enterobacteriaceae among Children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Tellevik, Marit G; Blomberg, Bjørn; Kommedal, Øyvind; Maselle, Samuel Y; Langeland, Nina; Moyo, Sabrina J

    2016-01-01

    Faecal carriage of ESBL-producing bacteria is a potential risk for transmission and infection. Little is known about faecal carriage of antibiotic resistance in Tanzania. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of faecal carriage of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and to identify risk factors for carriage among young children in Tanzania. From August 2010 to July 2011, children below 2 years of age were recruited in Dar es Salaam, including healthy community children (n = 250) and children hospitalized due to diarrhoea (n = 250) or other diseases (n = 103). ChromID ESBL agar and ChromID CARBA SMART agar were used for screening. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method. ESBL genotypes were identified by Real-Time PCR and sequencing. The overall prevalence of ESBL carriage was 34.3% (207/ 603). The prevalence of ESBL carriage was significantly higher among hospitalized children (50.4%), compared to community children (11.6%; P < 0.001; OR = 7.75; 95% CI: 4.99-12.03). We found high prevalence of Multidrug-resistance (94%) among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. No resistance to carbapenems was detected. For the majority of isolates (94.7%) we detected a blaCTX-M-15-like gene. In addition, the plasmid mediated AmpC beta-lactamase CMY-2 was detected for the first time in Tanzania. ESBL prevalence was significantly higher among HIV positive (89.7%) than HIV negative (16.9%) children (P = 0.001; OR = 9.99; 95% CI: 2.52-39.57). Use of antibiotics during the past 14 days and age below 1 year was also associated with ESBL carriage. We report a high rate of faecal carriage of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae among children below 2 years of age in Tanzania, particularly those with HIV-infection. Resistance to a majority of the available antimicrobials commonly used for children in Tanzania leaves few treatment options for infections when caused by these bacteria.

  10. Successful Community Nutrition Programming: Lessons from Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannotti, Lora; Gillespie, Stuart

    This report on the key findings from a series of assessments of successful community nutrition programming conducted in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda between 1999 and 2000. The aim of the assessments was to identify key lessons learned from the successful processes and outcomes in these programs. The report is divided into eight chapters: (1)…

  11. Schooling, Child Labor, and the Returns to Healthcare in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adhvaryu, Achyuta R.; Nyshadham, Anant

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of accessing better healthcare on the schooling and labor supply decisions of sick children in Tanzania. Using variation in the cost of formal-sector healthcare to predict treatment choice, we show that accessing better healthcare decreases length of illness and changes children's allocation of time to school and work.…

  12. Exploring local knowledge and perceptions on zoonoses among pastoralists in northern and eastern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mangesho, Peter Ernest; Neselle, Moses Ole; Karimuribo, Esron D; Mlangwa, James E; Queenan, Kevin; Mboera, Leonard E G; Rushton, Jonathan; Kock, Richard; Häsler, Barbara; Kiwara, Angwara; Rweyemamu, Mark

    2017-02-01

    Zoonoses account for the most commonly reported emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, there is limited knowledge on how pastoral communities perceive zoonoses in relation to their livelihoods, culture and their wider ecology. This study was carried out to explore local knowledge and perceptions on zoonoses among pastoralists in Tanzania. This study involved pastoralists in Ngorongoro district in northern Tanzania and Kibaha and Bagamoyo districts in eastern Tanzania. Qualitative methods of focus group discussions, participatory epidemiology and interviews were used. A total of 223 people were involved in the study. Among the pastoralists, there was no specific term in their local language that describes zoonosis. Pastoralists from northern Tanzania possessed a higher understanding on the existence of a number of zoonoses than their eastern districts' counterparts. Understanding of zoonoses could be categorized into two broad groups: a local syndromic framework, whereby specific symptoms of a particular illness in humans concurred with symptoms in animals, and the biomedical framework, where a case definition is supported by diagnostic tests. Some pastoralists understand the possibility of some infections that could cross over to humans from animals but harm from these are generally tolerated and are not considered as threats. A number of social and cultural practices aimed at maintaining specific cultural functions including social cohesion and rites of passage involve animal products, which present zoonotic risk. These findings show how zoonoses are locally understood, and how epidemiology and biomedicine are shaping pastoralists perceptions to zoonoses. Evidence is needed to understand better the true burden and impact of zoonoses in these communities. More studies are needed that seek to clarify the common understanding of zoonoses that could be used to guide effective and locally relevant interventions. Such studies should

  13. Exploring local knowledge and perceptions on zoonoses among pastoralists in northern and eastern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mangesho, Peter Ernest; Neselle, Moses Ole; Karimuribo, Esron D.; Mlangwa, James E.; Queenan, Kevin; Mboera, Leonard E. G.; Rushton, Jonathan; Kock, Richard; Häsler, Barbara; Kiwara, Angwara; Rweyemamu, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Background Zoonoses account for the most commonly reported emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, there is limited knowledge on how pastoral communities perceive zoonoses in relation to their livelihoods, culture and their wider ecology. This study was carried out to explore local knowledge and perceptions on zoonoses among pastoralists in Tanzania. Methodology and principal findings This study involved pastoralists in Ngorongoro district in northern Tanzania and Kibaha and Bagamoyo districts in eastern Tanzania. Qualitative methods of focus group discussions, participatory epidemiology and interviews were used. A total of 223 people were involved in the study. Among the pastoralists, there was no specific term in their local language that describes zoonosis. Pastoralists from northern Tanzania possessed a higher understanding on the existence of a number of zoonoses than their eastern districts' counterparts. Understanding of zoonoses could be categorized into two broad groups: a local syndromic framework, whereby specific symptoms of a particular illness in humans concurred with symptoms in animals, and the biomedical framework, where a case definition is supported by diagnostic tests. Some pastoralists understand the possibility of some infections that could cross over to humans from animals but harm from these are generally tolerated and are not considered as threats. A number of social and cultural practices aimed at maintaining specific cultural functions including social cohesion and rites of passage involve animal products, which present zoonotic risk. Conclusions These findings show how zoonoses are locally understood, and how epidemiology and biomedicine are shaping pastoralists perceptions to zoonoses. Evidence is needed to understand better the true burden and impact of zoonoses in these communities. More studies are needed that seek to clarify the common understanding of zoonoses that could be used to guide

  14. Developing and Piloting Interactive Physics Experiments for Secondary Schools in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Msoka, Vidate C.; Mtebe, Joel S.; Kissaka, Mussa M.; Kalinga, Ellen C.

    2015-01-01

    Students in secondary schools in Tanzania have been facing difficulties in conducting laboratory experiments. This has been due to the acute shortage of laboratory facilities and poor teaching methodologies. Consequently, students perceive science subjects as unattractive, difficult and irrelevant to understanding the world around them. An…

  15. Navigating the AIDS industry: being poor and positive in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Boesten, Jelke

    2011-01-01

    This article shows how poor people living with HIV/AIDS in Tanzania navigate a myriad of actors, agencies and organizations to obtain the aid they need to survive. It focuses on community-based organizations which establish networks of care through which people obtain care, treatment and financial support. A case study of a roadside town in Tanzania illustrates that these community-based networks of care — essential to the survival of many — are partly the product of the AIDS industry, which encourages the establishment of community-based organizations and voluntary service delivery rather than more formalized systems of care. Community-based organizations, however, are so poorly supported that they often deploy self-destructive strategies. The need to strategically navigate the AIDS industry creates tension and even conflict among HIV-positive activists, the people they represent and the wider community, which undermines rather than strengthens community-based interventions. Whilst the AIDS industry promises inclusion of HIV-positive people in the response to HIV/AIDS, it succeeds only partially, with the result that it may potentially do more harm than good.

  16. Mycobacteria in Terrestrial Small Mammals on Cattle Farms in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Durnez, Lies; Katakweba, Abdul; Sadiki, Harrison; Katholi, Charles R.; Kazwala, Rudovick R.; Machang'u, Robert R.; Portaels, Françoise; Leirs, Herwig

    2011-01-01

    The control of bovine tuberculosis and atypical mycobacterioses in cattle in developing countries is important but difficult because of the existence of wildlife reservoirs. In cattle farms in Tanzania, mycobacteria were detected in 7.3% of 645 small mammals and in cow's milk. The cattle farms were divided into “reacting” and “nonreacting” farms, based on tuberculin tests, and more mycobacteria were present in insectivores collected in reacting farms as compared to nonreacting farms. More mycobacteria were also present in insectivores as compared to rodents. All mycobacteria detected by culture and PCR in the small mammals were atypical mycobacteria. Analysis of the presence of mycobacteria in relation to the reactor status of the cattle farms does not exclude transmission between small mammals and cattle but indicates that transmission to cattle from another source of infection is more likely. However, because of the high prevalence of mycobacteria in some small mammal species, these infected animals can pose a risk to humans, especially in areas with a high HIV-prevalence as is the case in Tanzania. PMID:21785686

  17. Mobile Phone Use in Two Secondary Schools in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce-Gibbons, Andrew; Galloway, David; Mollel, Andrew; Mgoma, Sylvester; Pima, Madeleke; Deogratias, Enos

    2018-01-01

    Mobile phone technology in Tanzania has grown rapidly but there is insufficient data on its application in schools. This paper aims to show how students in the first and third year (F1 and F3) teachers in two rural secondary schools perceived its use. F1 and F3 students completed a questionnaire. Teachers and students in F1 and F3 discussed the…

  18. Uvulectomy, a traditional surgical procedure in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Manni, J J

    1984-02-01

    Uvulectomy is carried out by traditional healers of Tanzania. The Department of Otorhinolaryngology of the Muhimbili Medical Centre, University of Dar es Salaam, has regularly treated patients who suffered complications arising from this procedure. In April 1980 the author attended the practice of a traditional healer (mganga) in Dar es Salaam and saw many uvulectomies performed. The procedure is described and its indications and complications reviewed. The study illustrates that knowledge and comprehension of traditional medicine is important for the medical profession in those countries where traditional medical procedures are still in use.

  19. Unit cost analysis of training and deploying paid community health workers in three rural districts of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Tani, Kassimu; Exavery, Amon; Baynes, Colin D; Pemba, Senga; Hingora, Ahmed; Manzi, Fatuma; Phillips, James F; Kanté, Almamy Malick

    2016-07-08

    Tanzania, like other African countries, faces significant health workforce shortages. With advisory and partnership from Columbia University, the Ifakara Health Institute and the Tanzanian Training Centre for International Health (TTCIH) developed and implemented the Connect Project as a randomized cluster experimental trial of the childhood survival impact of recruiting, training, and deploying of a new cadre of paid community health workers (CHW), named "Wawazesha wa afya ya Jamii" (WAJA). This paper presents an estimation of the cost of training and deploying WAJA in three rural districts of Tanzania. Costing data were collected by tracking project activity expenditure records and conducting in-depth interviews of TTCIH staff who have led the training and deployment of WAJA, as well as their counterparts at Public Clinical Training Centres who have responsibility for scaling up the WAJA training program. The trial is registered with the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Register number ( ISRCTN96819844 ). The Connect training cost was US$ 2,489.3 per WAJA, of which 40.1 % was for meals, 20.2 % for accommodation 10.2 % for tuition fees and the remaining 29.5 % for other costs including instruction and training facilities and field allowance. A comparable training program estimated unit cost for scaling-up this training via regional/district clinical training centres would be US$ 833.5 per WAJA. Of this unit cost, 50.3 % would involve the cost of meals, 27.4 % training fees, 13.7 % for field allowances, 9 % for accommodation and medical insurance. The annual running cost of WAJA in a village will cost US$ 1.16 per capita. Costs estimated by this study are likely to be sustainable on a large scale, particularly if existing regional/district institutions are utilized for this program.

  20. Tanzania's countdown to 2015: an analysis of two decades of progress and gaps for reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health, to inform priorities for post-2015.

    PubMed

    Afnan-Holmes, Hoviyeh; Magoma, Moke; John, Theopista; Levira, Francis; Msemo, Georgina; Armstrong, Corinne E; Martínez-Álvarez, Melisa; Kerber, Kate; Kihinga, Clement; Makuwani, Ahmad; Rusibamayila, Neema; Hussein, Asia; Lawn, Joy E

    2015-07-01

    -treated bednets. Economic growth was also associated with reductions in child mortality. Child health programmes focused on selected high-impact interventions at lower levels of the health system (eg, the community and dispensary levels). Despite its high priority, implementation of maternal health care has been intermittent. Newborn survival has gained attention only since 2005, but high-impact interventions are already being implemented. Family planning had consistent policies but only recent reinvestment in implementation. Mixed progress in reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health in Tanzania indicates a complex interplay of political prioritisation, health financing, and consistent implementation. Post-2015 priorities for Tanzania should focus on the unmet need for family planning, especially in the Western and Lake regions; addressing gaps for coverage and quality of care at birth, especially in rural areas; and continuation of progress for child health. Government of Canada, Foreign Affairs, Trade, and Development; US Fund for UNICEF; and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Copyright © 2015 Afnan-Holmes et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of carbon dioxide-baited trapping systems for sampling outdoor mosquito populations in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mboera LEG; Knols BGJ; Braks MAH; Takken, W

    2000-09-01

    For collecting mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) the outdoor catching efficiency of four types of trapping devices baited with carbon dioxide (CO2, 300 ml/ min) was evaluated and compared in two areas of Tanzania. The types of traps employed were: the CDC miniature trap with the incandescent light bulb switched on or off; electric nets (ENT) and a Counterflow Geometry (CFG) trap. In Njage, southeast Tanzania, Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto was the most abundant of the seven mosquito species obtained, comprising of 74.3% of the total number caught (n=2,171). In Muheza, north-east Tanzania, Culex quinquefasciatus Say was the predominant species (90.9%) among 1,080 caught. At both localities the CFG trap was superior to the CDC trap with light-on or light-off for sampling both An. gambiae and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Efficiency of the CFG trap and ENT were similar for sampling these species of mosquitoes (P > 0.05). However, ENT was superior to the CDC trap with light-off for collecting both species. Significantly more (P < 0.05) Cx. quinquefasciatus were obtained by the CDC trap with light-off than with light-on, especially outdoors. It is concluded that both ENT and the CFG are effective tools for sampling populations of An. gambiae and Cx. quinquefasciatus outdoors.

  2. From emergency to sustainability: shifting objectives in the US Government's HIV response in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Marten, Meredith G

    2017-08-01

    The US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) was originally designed as an emergency initiative, operating with considerable funds, immediate roll-out, fast scale-up, and top-down technocratic administration. In a more recent iteration, PEPFAR shifted its focus from an emergency response to more closely account for healthcare sustainability. This transition came on the heels of the 2008 financial crisis, which threatened to stall the 'marvellous momentum' of the 2000's boom in donor aid for global health overall. Now many programmes are having to do more with less as funding flattens or decreases. This paper examines how this transition took shape in Tanzania in 2011-2012, and the successes and challenges associated with it, using participant observation and interview data from 20 months of fieldwork in rural and urban healthcare settings. In particular, I discuss (1) efforts to increase sustainability and country ownership of HIV programmes in Tanzania, focusing on the shift from PEPFAR-funded American non-governmental organisations to Tanzanian partner organisations; (2) principal challenges stakeholders encountered during the transition, including fragmented systems of healthcare delivery and a weakened healthcare workforce; and (3) strategies informants identified to better integrate services in order to build a stronger, more equitable, and sustainable health system in Tanzania.

  3. BARRIERS TO ACCESS REPRODUCTIVE HEALTHCARE FOR PREGNANT ADOLESCENT GIRLS: A QUALITATIVE STUDY IN TANZANIA

    PubMed Central

    Hokororo, Adolfine; Kihunrwa, Albert F.; Kalluvya, Samuel; Changalucha, John; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; Downs, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Aims In Tanzania, approximately 25% of adolescents give birth and 50% more become sexually active during adolescence. We hypothesised that reproductive health education and services for adolescent girls are inaccessible and conducted this study to gain insights into their perceptions of sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) and barriers to reproductive health service utilisation in rural Mwanza, Tanzania. Methods We conducted nine focus group among pregnant adolescents aged 15–20 years. Data was transcribed, translated, and coded for relevant themes using NVivo10 software for qualitative data analysis. Results Most participants were aware of the dangers of STIs to themselves and their unborn babies, but did not perceive themselves as at risk of acquiring STIs. They viewed condoms as ineffective for preventing STIs and pregnancies and unnecessary for those in committed relationships. Stigma, and long waiting times and lack of privacy in the clinics discouraged young females from seeking reproductive healthcare. Conclusion Reproductive healthcare for adolescent girls who are not pregnant is practically nonexistent in Tanzania. Healthcare access for pregnant young women is also limited. Targeted changes to increase clinic accessibility and to provide reproductive health education to all rather than only pregnant women have the potential to address these gaps. PMID:25473729

  4. Measuring three aspects of motivation among health workers at primary level health facilities in rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Sato, Miho; Maufi, Deogratias; Mwingira, Upendo John; Leshabari, Melkidezek T; Ohnishi, Mayumi; Honda, Sumihisa

    2017-01-01

    The threshold of 2.3 skilled health workers per 1,000 population, published in the World Health Report in 2006, has galvanized resources and efforts to attain high coverage of skilled birth attendance. With the inception of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), a new threshold of 4.45 doctors, nurses, and midwives per 1,000 population has been identified. This SDG index threshold indicates the minimum density to respond to the needs of health workers to deliver a much broader range of health services, such as management of non-communicable diseases to meet the targets under Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all people of all ages. In the United Republic of Tanzania, the density of skilled health workers in 2012 was 0.5 per 1,000 population, which more than doubled from 0.2 per 1,000 in 2002. However, this showed that Tanzania still faced a critical shortage of skilled health workers. While training, deployment, and retention are important, motivation is also necessary for all health workers, particularly those who serve in rural areas. This study measured the motivation of health workers who were posted at government-run rural primary health facilities. We sought to measure three aspects of motivation-Management, Performance, and Individual Aspects-among health workers deployed in rural primary level government health facilities. In addition, we also sought to identify the job-related attributes associated with each of these three aspects. Two regions in Tanzania were selected for our research. In each region, we further selected two districts in which we carried out our investigation. The two regions were Lindi, where we carried out our study in the Nachingwea District and the Ruangwa District, and Mbeya, within which the Mbarali and Rungwe Districts were selected for research. All four districts are considered rural. This cross-sectional study was conducted by administering a two-part questionnaire in the Kiswahili language. The first

  5. Measuring three aspects of motivation among health workers at primary level health facilities in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mwingira, Upendo John; Leshabari, Melkidezek T.; Ohnishi, Mayumi

    2017-01-01

    Background The threshold of 2.3 skilled health workers per 1,000 population, published in the World Health Report in 2006, has galvanized resources and efforts to attain high coverage of skilled birth attendance. With the inception of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), a new threshold of 4.45 doctors, nurses, and midwives per 1,000 population has been identified. This SDG index threshold indicates the minimum density to respond to the needs of health workers to deliver a much broader range of health services, such as management of non-communicable diseases to meet the targets under Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all people of all ages. In the United Republic of Tanzania, the density of skilled health workers in 2012 was 0.5 per 1,000 population, which more than doubled from 0.2 per 1,000 in 2002. However, this showed that Tanzania still faced a critical shortage of skilled health workers. While training, deployment, and retention are important, motivation is also necessary for all health workers, particularly those who serve in rural areas. This study measured the motivation of health workers who were posted at government-run rural primary health facilities. Objectives We sought to measure three aspects of motivation—Management, Performance, and Individual Aspects—among health workers deployed in rural primary level government health facilities. In addition, we also sought to identify the job-related attributes associated with each of these three aspects. Two regions in Tanzania were selected for our research. In each region, we further selected two districts in which we carried out our investigation. The two regions were Lindi, where we carried out our study in the Nachingwea District and the Ruangwa District, and Mbeya, within which the Mbarali and Rungwe Districts were selected for research. All four districts are considered rural. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted by administering a two-part questionnaire in

  6. First report of Phakopsora pachyrhizi on soybean causing rust in Tanzania

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd. was reported on legume hosts other than soybean in Tanzania as early as 1979. Soybean rust (SBR), caused by P. pachyrhizi, was first reported on soybean in Africa in Uganda in 1996, and its introduction into Africa was proposed to occur through urediniospores blowing from ...

  7. Affirmative Action, Gender Equity and University Admissions--Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onsongo, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The article examines the outcomes of affirmative action policies aimed at improving access for women students to university education in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Different interpretations of affirmative action are found in the three countries. These include lower entry scores, remedial pre-university programmes and financial assistance. There…

  8. Spatial and temporal distribution of rabies in northern Tanzania in the period of 1993-2002.

    PubMed

    Swai, E S; Moshy, W E; Kaaya, J E; Mtui, P F

    2010-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out to investigate the occurrence and distribution patterns of rabies cases in northern Tanzania. Data on laboratory confirmed brain samples and associated case reports submitted to the Arusha Veterinary Investigation Centre, for a period of ten years (1993-2002) was retrieved and reviewed. A total of 98 suspected rabies brain specimens from different animal species and geographical areas were submitted and processed during the period under review. Rabies was confirmed using Fluorescent Antibody Technique test. Of the 98 brain specimens processed, 65 (66.3%) were confirmed to be rabies cases. Canine rabies accounted for 73.8% of the cases and was diagnosed in dogs (43), jackals (4) and hyenas (1). Rabies in wildlife accounted for 5 out of 48 canine confirmed cases. Most of the cases were from Arusha Municipality (20) followed by Arumeru (19), Ngorongoro (9) and Moshi (8) districts. Rabies positive cases in other animal species were in the following order of frequencies: bovine (9 out of 11); feline (5 out of 10); equine (1 out of 2); caprine (2 out of 2). One porcine brain specimen was rabies negative. The high proportion of rabies positive cases confirmed suggests the level of their endemicity in the northern regions of Tanzania. Moreover, the findings highlights the need for sustained surveillance and institution of control measures among dog population and awareness creation particularly among general public and children whom are at high risk of contracting rabies because of their close contact with dogs.

  9. Ixodid Tick Infestation in Cattle and Wild Animals in Maswa and Iringa, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, You Shine; Kim, Tae Yun; Nam, Sung-Hyun; Lee, In-Yong; Kim, Hyung-Pyo; Mduma, Simon; Keyyu, Julius; Fyumagwa, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Ticks and tick-borne diseases are important in human and livestock health worldwide. In November 2012, ixodid ticks were collected and identified morphologically from cattle and wild animals in the Maswa district and Iringa urban, Tanzania. Amblyomma gemma, A. lepidum, and A. variegatum were identified from Maswa cattle, and A. variegatum was the predominant species. A. marmoreum, Hyalomma impeltatum, and Rhipicephalus pulchellus were identified from Iringa cattle in addition to the above 3 Amblyomma species, and A. gemma was the most abundant species. Total 4 Amblyomma and 6 Rhipicephalus species were identified from wild animals of the 2 areas. A. lepidum was predominant in Maswa buffaloes, whereas A. gemma was predominant in Iringa buffaloes. Overall, A. variegatum in cattle was predominant in the Maswa district and A. gemma was predominant in Iringa, Tanzania. PMID:25352709

  10. Ixodid tick infestation in cattle and wild animals in Maswa and Iringa, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kwak, You Shine; Kim, Tae Yun; Nam, Sung-Hyun; Lee, In-Yong; Kim, Hyung-Pyo; Mduma, Simon; Keyyu, Julius; Fyumagwa, Robert; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2014-10-01

    Ticks and tick-borne diseases are important in human and livestock health worldwide. In November 2012, ixodid ticks were collected and identified morphologically from cattle and wild animals in the Maswa district and Iringa urban, Tanzania. Amblyomma gemma, A. lepidum, and A. variegatum were identified from Maswa cattle, and A. variegatum was the predominant species. A. marmoreum, Hyalomma impeltatum, and Rhipicephalus pulchellus were identified from Iringa cattle in addition to the above 3 Amblyomma species, and A. gemma was the most abundant species. Total 4 Amblyomma and 6 Rhipicephalus species were identified from wild animals of the 2 areas. A. lepidum was predominant in Maswa buffaloes, whereas A. gemma was predominant in Iringa buffaloes. Overall, A. variegatum in cattle was predominant in the Maswa district and A. gemma was predominant in Iringa, Tanzania.

  11. Malaria control in Tanzania

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yhdego, M.; Majura, P.

    A review of the malaria control programs and the problem encountered in the United Republic of Tanzania since 1945 to the year 1986 is discussed. Buguruni, one of the squatter areas in the city of Dar es Salaam, is chosen as a case study in order to evaluate the economic advantage of engineering methods for the control of malaria infection. Although the initial capital cost of engineering methods may be high, the cost effectiveness requires a much lower financial burden of only about Tshs. 3 million compared with the conventional methods of larviciding and insecticiding which requires more than Tshs.more » 10 million. Finally, recommendations for the adoption of engineering methods are made concerning the upgrading of existing roads and footpaths in general with particular emphasis on drainage of large pools of water which serve as breeding sites for mosquitoes.« less

  12. What Factors are Responsible for Higher Prevalence of HIV Infection among Urban Women than Rural Women in Tanzania?

    PubMed

    Singh, Rakesh K; Patra, Shraboni

    2015-10-01

    Tanzania is the country hit the hardest by the HIV epidemic in Sub-Saharan Africa. The present study was carried out to examine the factors of HIV infection among women who lived in an urban area in Tanzania. The Tanzania HIV/AIDS and Malaria Indicator Survey (2011-12) data was used. The sample size for urban and rural women who had been tested for HIV and ever had sex was 2227 and 6210 respectively. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. The present study found that rural women were significantly less likely to be HIV-infected compared to urban women (OR = 0.612, p<0.00). About 10% urban women were HIV-infected whereas 5.8% women in rural areas were HIV positive. Women who had more than five sex partners were significantly four times more likely to be HIV-infected as compared to women who had one sex partner (OR = 4.49, p<0.00). The results of this study suggest that less-educated women, women belonging to poor or poorer quintile, women spending nights outside and women having more than one sex partner were significantly more likely to have HIV infection among urban women as compared to rural women. There is an urgent need for a short and effective program to control the HIV epidemic in urban areas of Tanzania especially for less-educated urban women.

  13. Sex, Grades and Power in Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Louise

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative increases tell a partial story about the quality of women's participation in higher education. Women students' reporting of sexual harassment has been noteworthy in a recent study that I directed on widening participation in higher education in Ghana and Tanzania. The hierarchical and gendered power relations within universities have…

  14. Students' Attitudes towards School-Based Sex and Relationships Education in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mkumbo, Kitila A. K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this paper was to assess students' attitudes towards school-based sex and relationships education (SRE). Design: This study featured a cross-sectional survey design. Method: A sample of 715 students from two districts in Tanzania completed a survey questionnaire assessing various aspects related to their attitudes…

  15. Introducing eHealth strategies to enhance maternal and perinatal health care in rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nyamtema, Angelo; Mwakatundu, Nguke; Dominico, Sunday; Kasanga, Mkambu; Jamadini, Fadhili; Maokola, Kelvin; Mawala, Donald; Abel, Zabron; Rumanyika, Richard; Nzabuhakwa, Calist; van Roosmalen, Jos

    2017-01-01

    Globally, eHealth has attracted considerable attention as a means of supporting maternal and perinatal health care. This article describes best practices, gains and challenges of implementing eHealth for maternal and perinatal health care in extremely remote and rural Tanzania. Teleconsultation for obstetric emergency care, audio teleconferences and online eLearning systems were installed in ten upgraded rural health centres, four rural district hospitals and one regional hospital in Tanzania. Uptake of teleconsultation and teleconference platforms were evaluated retrospectively. A cross sectional descriptive study design was applied to assess performance and adoption of eLearning. In 2015 a total of 38 teleconsultations were attended by consultant obstetricians and 33 teleconferences were conducted and attended by 40 health care providers from 14 facilities. A total of 240 clinical cases mainly caesarean sections (CS), maternal and perinatal morbidities and mortalities were discussed and recommendations for improvement were provided. Four modules were hosted and 43 care providers were registered on the eLearning system. For a period of 18-21 months total views on the site, weekly conference forum, chatroom and learning resources ranged between 106 and 1,438. Completion of learning modules, acknowledgment of having acquired and utilized new knowledge and skills in clinical practice were reported in 43-89% of 20 interviewed health care providers. Competencies in using the eLearning system were demonstrated in 62% of the targeted users. E-Health presents an opportunity for improving maternal health care in underserved remote areas in low-resource settings by broadening knowledge and skills, and by connecting frontline care providers with consultants for emergency teleconsultations.

  16. Crater Highlands, Tanzania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), flown aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour in February 2000, acquired elevation measurements for nearly all of Earth's landmass between 60oN and 56oS latitudes. For many areas of the world SRTM data provide the first detailed three-dimensional observation of landforms at regional scales. SRTM data were used to generate this view of the Crater Highlands along the East African Rift in Tanzania. Landforms are depicted with colored height and shaded relief, using a vertical exaggeration of 2X and a southwestwardly look direction.

    Lake Eyasi is depicted in blue at the top of the image, and a smaller lake occurs in Ngorongoro Crater. Near the image center, elevations peak at 3648 meters (11,968 feet) at Mount Loolmalasin, which is south of Ela Naibori Crater. Kitumbeine (left) and Gelai (right) are the two broad mountains rising from the rift lowlands. Mount Longido is seen in the lower left, and the Meto Hills are in the right foreground.

    Tectonics, volcanism, landslides, erosion and deposition -- and their interactions -- are all very evident in this view. The East African Rift is a zone of spreading between the African (on the west) and Somali (on the east) crustal plates. Two branches of the rift intersect here in Tanzania, resulting in distinctive and prominent landforms. One branch trends nearly parallel the view and includes Lake Eyasi and the very wide Ngorongoro Crater. The other branch is well defined by the lowlands that trend left-right across the image (below center, in green). Volcanoes are often associated with spreading zones where magma, rising to fill the gaps, reaches the surface and builds cones. Craters form if a volcano explodes or collapses. Later spreading can fracture the volcanoes, which is especially evident on Kitumbeine and Gelai Mountains (left and right, respectively, lower center).

    The Crater Highlands rise far above the adjacent savannas, capture moisture from passing air masses

  17. The make or buy debate: Considering the limitations of domestic production in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In order to ensure their population’s regular access to essential medicines, many least developed countries and developing countries are faced with the policy question of whether to import or manufacture drugs locally, in particular for life-saving antiretroviral medicines for HIV/AIDS patients. In order for domestic manufacturing to be viable and cost-effective, the local industry must be able to compete with international suppliers of medicines by producing sufficiently low cost ARVs. Methods This paper considers the ‘make-or-buy’ dilemma by using Tanzania as a case study. Key informant interviews, event-driven observation, and purposive sampling of documents were used to evaluate the case study. The case study focused on Tanzania’s imitation technology transfer agreement to locally manufacture a first-line ARV (3TC + d4T + NVP), reverse engineering the ARV. Results Tanzania is limited by weak political support for the use of TRIPS flexibilities, limited production capacity for ARVs and limited competitiveness in both domestic and regional markets. The Ministry of Health and Social Welfare encourages the use of flexibilities while others push for increased IP protection. Insufficient production capacity and lack of access to donor-financed tenders make it difficult to obtain economies of scale and provide competitive prices. Conclusions Within the “make-or-buy” context, it was determined that there are significant limitations in domestic manufacturing for developing countries. The case study highlights the difficulty of governments to make use of economies of scale and produce low-cost medicines, attract technology transfer, and utilize the flexibilities of the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). The results demonstrate the importance of evaluating barriers to the use of TRIPS flexibilities and long-term planning across sectors in future technology transfer and manufacturing initiatives

  18. Modelling and mapping the topsoil organic carbon content for Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempen, Bas; Kaaya, Abel; Ngonyani Mhaiki, Consolatha; Kiluvia, Shani; Ruiperez-Gonzalez, Maria; Batjes, Niels; Dalsgaard, Soren

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC), held in soil organic matter, is a key indicator of soil health and plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. The soil can act as a net source or sink of carbon depending on land use and management. Deforestation and forest degradation lead to the release of vast amounts of carbon from the soil in the form of greenhouse gasses, especially in tropical countries. Tanzania has a high deforestation rate: it is estimated that the country loses 1.1% of its total forested area annually. During 2010-2013 Tanzania has been a pilot country under the UN-REDD programme. This programme has supported Tanzania in its initial efforts towards reducing greenhouse gas emission from forest degradation and deforestation and towards preserving soil carbon stocks. Formulation and implementation of the national REDD strategy requires detailed information on the five carbon pools among these the SOC pool. The spatial distribution of SOC contents and stocks was not available for Tanzania. The initial aim of this research, was therefore to develop high-resolution maps of the SOC content for the country. The mapping exercise was carried out in a collaborative effort with four Tanzanian institutes and data from the Africa Soil Information Service initiative (AfSIS). The mapping exercise was provided with over 3200 field observations on SOC from four sources; this is the most comprehensive soil dataset collected in Tanzania so far. The main source of soil samples was the National Forest Monitoring and Assessment (NAFORMA). The carbon maps were generated by means of digital soil mapping using regression-kriging. Maps at 250 m spatial resolution were developed for four depth layers: 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, and 0-30 cm. A total of 37 environmental GIS data layers were prepared for use as covariates in the regression model. These included vegetation indices, terrain parameters, surface temperature, spectral reflectances, a land cover map and a small

  19. Monitoring the health of selected eastern arc forests in Tanzania

    Treesearch

    Seif Madoffe; Gerard D. Hertel; Paul Rodgers [Rogers; Barbra [Barbara] O' Connel; Raymond Killenga

    2006-01-01

    The eastern arc mountains (EAMs) are a chain of isolated mountains (534,000 ha) in Kenya and Tanzania surrounded by arid woodlands and influenced by the Indian Ocean. In 1900 there was three times the amount of forest cover there is today. Much of the original forests have been converted into agricultural crops. These mountains are recognized as a globally important...

  20. Anti-mosquito plants as an alternative or incremental method for malaria vector control among rural communities of Bagamoyo District, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Plants represent one of the most accessible resources available for mosquito control by communities in Tanzania. However, no documented statistics exist for their contribution in the management of mosquitoes and other insects except through verbal and some publications. This study aimed at assessing communities’ knowledge, attitudes and practices of using plants as an alternative method for mosquito control among selected communities in a malaria-prone area in Tanzania. Methods Questionnaires were administered to 202 respondents from four villages of Bagamoyo District, Pwani Region, in Tanzania followed by participatory rural appraisal with village health workers. Secondary data collection for plants mentioned by the communities was undertaken using different search engines such as googlescholar, PubMED and NAPRALERT. Results Results showed about 40.3% of respondents used plants to manage insects, including mosquitoes. A broad profile of plants are used, including “mwarobaini” (Azadirachta indica) (22.5%), “mtopetope” (Annona spp) (20.8%), “mchungwa/mlimau” (Citrus spp) (8.3%), “mvumbashi/uvumbati” (Ocimum spp) (7.4%), “mkorosho” (Anacadium occidentale) (7.1%), “mwembe” (5.4%) (Mangifera indica), “mpera” (4.1%) (Psidium spp) and “maganda ya nazi” (4.1%) (Cocos nucifera). Majority of respondents collected these plants from the wild (54.2%), farms (28.9%) and/or home gardens (6%). The roles played by these plants in fighting mosquitoes is reflected by the majority that deploy them with or without bed-nets (p > 0.55) or insecticidal sprays (p >0.22). Most respondents were aware that mosquitoes transmit malaria (90.6%) while few respondents associated elephantiasis/hydrocele (46.5%) and yellow fever (24.3%) with mosquitoes. Most of the ethnobotanical uses mentioned by the communities were consistent with scientific information gathered from the literature, except for Psidium guajava, which is reported for the first time in

  1. Memoir of Tanzania: Learning about Early Childhood Projects in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Helen

    2017-01-01

    This article considers the contribution of memoir as a method for understanding complex early childhood issues. It recounts the author's first visit to Tanzania, a low-income country with a chequered history of independence from colonial rule. The article uses memories from that initial visit to reflect on the changing interpretations of colonial…

  2. The Success of Students' Loans in Financing Higher Education in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyahende, Veronica R.

    2013-01-01

    Students' loans in financing higher education in Tanzania have been subjected to many researches. However, less information is available on how the success of students' loans in financing higher education can be revealed. Therefore the purpose of this study is to examine the factors indicating the success of students' loans in financing higher…

  3. Planning and Budgeting for Nutrition Programs in Tanzania: Lessons Learned From the National Vitamin A Supplementation Program.

    PubMed

    Lyatuu, Margaret Benjamin; Mkumbwa, Temina; Stevenson, Raz; Isidro, Marissa; Modaha, Francis; Katcher, Heather; Dhillon, Christina Nyhus

    2016-05-03

    Micronutrient deficiency in Tanzania is a significant public health problem, with vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affecting 34% of children aged 6 to 59 months. Since 2007, development partners have worked closely to advocate for the inclusion of twice-yearly vitamin A supplementation and deworming (VASD) activities with budgets at the subnational level, where funding and implementation occur. As part of the advocacy work, a VASD planning and budgeting tool (PBT) was developed and is used by district officials to justify allocation of funds. Helen Keller International (HKI) and the Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre (TFNC) conduct reviews of VASD funds and health budgets annually in all districts to monitor the impact of advocacy efforts. This paper presents the findings of the fiscal year (FY) 2010 district budget annual review. The review was intended to answer the following questions regarding district-level funding: (1) how many funds were allocated to nutrition-specific activities in FY 2010? (2) how many funds were allocated specifically to twice-yearly VASD activities in FY 2010? and (3) how have VASD funding allocations changed over time? Budgets from all 133 districts in Tanzania were accessed, reviewed and documented to identify line item funds allocated for VASD and other nutrition activities in FY 2010. Retrospective data from prior annual reviews for VASD were used to track trends in funding. The data were collected using specific data forms and then transcribed into an excel spreadsheet for analysis. The total funds allocated in Tanzania's districts in FY 2010 amounted to US$1.4 million of which 92% were for VASD. Allocations for VASD increased from US$0.387 million to US$1.3 million between FY 2005 and FY 2010. Twelve different nutrition activities were identified in budgets across the 133 districts. Despite the increased trend, the percentage of districts allocating sufficient funds to implement VAS (as defined by cost per child) was just 21%. District

  4. Children's Behavioral Adjustment in Pre-Primary Schools in Tanzania: A Multilevel Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shavega, Theresia J.; Brugman, Daniel; van Tuijl, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study concerns children's behavioral adjustment in the context of pre-primary schools in Tanzania. Twenty teachers and 320 children from 20 pre-primary schools participated in the study. Teacher-child relationships, children's behavioral adjustment, and teachers' cultural beliefs were reported by teachers; classroom…

  5. Results of Co-Teaching Instruction to Special Education Teacher Candidates in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Laura M.; Kaff, Marilyn S.

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-method descriptive pilot investigation addressed co-teaching as an inclusive school practice for special education teacher candidates at Sebastian Kolowa Memorial University (SEKOMU) in Tanzania. The investigation results, though preliminary, indicate that course content and instruction in co-teaching had a positive impact on the…

  6. Knowledge and perception on tuberculosis transmission in Tanzania: Multinomial logistic regression analysis of secondary data.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Abbas; Josephat, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most important public health problems in Tanzania and was declared as a national public health emergency in 2006. Community and individual knowledge and perceptions are critical factors in the control of the disease. The objective of this study was to analyze the knowledge and perception on the transmission of TB in Tanzania. Multinomial Logistic Regression analysis was considered in order to quantify the impact of knowledge and perception on TB. The data used was adopted as secondary data from larger national survey 2007-08 Tanzania HIV/AIDS and Malaria Indicator Survey. The findings across groups revealed that knowledge on TB transmission increased with an increase in age and level of education. People in rural areas had less knowledge regarding tuberculosis transmission compared to urban areas [OR = 0.7]. People with the access to radio [OR = 1.7] were more knowledgeable on tuberculosis transmission compared to those who did not have access to radio. People who did not have telephone [OR = 0.6] were less knowledgeable on tuberculosis route of transmission compared to those who had telephone. The findings showed that socio-demographic factors such as age, education, place of residence and owning telephone or radio varied systematically with knowledge on tuberculosis transmission.

  7. Barriers to access reproductive health care for pregnant adolescent girls: a qualitative study in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hokororo, Adolfine; Kihunrwa, Albert F; Kalluvya, Samuel; Changalucha, John; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; Downs, Jennifer A

    2015-12-01

    In Tanzania, approximately 25% of adolescents give birth and 50% more become sexually active during adolescence. We hypothesised that reproductive health education and services for adolescent girls are inaccessible and conducted this study to gain insights into their perceptions of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and barriers to reproductive health service utilisation in rural Mwanza, Tanzania. We conducted nine focus groups among pregnant adolescents aged 15-20 years. Data were transcribed, translated and coded for relevant themes using NVivo10 software for qualitative data analysis. Most participants were aware of the dangers of STIs to themselves and their unborn babies, but did not perceive themselves as at risk of acquiring STIs. They viewed condoms as ineffective for preventing STIs and pregnancies and unnecessary for those in committed relationships. Stigma, long waiting times, and lack of privacy in the clinics discouraged adolescent girls from seeking reproductive health care. Reproductive health care for adolescent girls who are not pregnant is practically nonexistent in Tanzania. Healthcare access for pregnant young women is also limited. Targeted changes to increase clinic accessibility and to provide reproductive health education to all rather than only pregnant women have the potential to address these gaps. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The potential role of mother-in-law in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV: a mixed methods study from the Kilimanjaro region, northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the Kilimanjaro region the mother-in-law has traditionally had an important role in matters related to reproduction and childcare. The aim of this study was to explore the role of the mothers-in-law in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) service utilization and adherence to infant feeding guidelines. Methods The study was conducted during 2007-2008 in rural and urban areas of Moshi district in the Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania. Mixed methods were used and included focus group discussions with mothers-in-law, mothers and fathers; in-depth interviews with mothers-in-law, mothers, fathers and HIV-infected mothers, and a survey of 446 mothers bringing their four-week-old infants for immunisation at five reproductive and child health clinics. Results The study demonstrated that the mother-in-law saw herself as responsible for family health issues in general and child care in particular. However she received limited trust, and couples, in particular couples living in urban areas, tended to exclude her from decisions related to childbearing and infant feeding. Mothers-in-law expected their daughters-in-law to breastfeed in a customary manner and were generally negative towards the infant feeding methods recommended for HIV-infected mothers; exclusive replacement feeding and exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusions Decreasing influence of the mother-in-law and increasing prominence of the conjugal couples in issues related to reproduction and child care, reinforce the importance of continued efforts to include male partners in the PMTCT programme. The potential for involving mothers-in-law in the infant feeding component, where she still has influence in some areas, should be further explored. PMID:21749685

  9. The potential role of mother-in-law in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV: a mixed methods study from the Kilimanjaro region, northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Falnes, Eli Fjeld; Moland, Karen Marie; Tylleskär, Thorkild; de Paoli, Marina Manuela; Leshabari, Sebalda Charles; Engebretsen, Ingunn M S

    2011-07-12

    In the Kilimanjaro region the mother-in-law has traditionally had an important role in matters related to reproduction and childcare. The aim of this study was to explore the role of the mothers-in-law in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) service utilization and adherence to infant feeding guidelines. The study was conducted during 2007-2008 in rural and urban areas of Moshi district in the Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania. Mixed methods were used and included focus group discussions with mothers-in-law, mothers and fathers; in-depth interviews with mothers-in-law, mothers, fathers and HIV-infected mothers, and a survey of 446 mothers bringing their four-week-old infants for immunisation at five reproductive and child health clinics. The study demonstrated that the mother-in-law saw herself as responsible for family health issues in general and child care in particular. However she received limited trust, and couples, in particular couples living in urban areas, tended to exclude her from decisions related to childbearing and infant feeding. Mothers-in-law expected their daughters-in-law to breastfeed in a customary manner and were generally negative towards the infant feeding methods recommended for HIV-infected mothers; exclusive replacement feeding and exclusive breastfeeding. Decreasing influence of the mother-in-law and increasing prominence of the conjugal couples in issues related to reproduction and child care, reinforce the importance of continued efforts to include male partners in the PMTCT programme. The potential for involving mothers-in-law in the infant feeding component, where she still has influence in some areas, should be further explored.

  10. Implementation of a national anti-tuberculosis drug resistance survey in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Chonde, Timothy M; Doulla, Basra; van Leth, Frank; Mfinanga, Sayoki GM; Range, Nyagosya; Lwilla, Fred; Mfaume, Saidi M; van Deun, Armand; Zignol, Matteo; Cobelens, Frank G; Egwaga, Saidi M

    2008-01-01

    Background A drug resistance survey is an essential public health management tool for evaluating and improving the performance of National Tuberculosis control programmes. The current manuscript describes the implementation of the first national drug resistance survey in Tanzania. Methods Description of the implementation process of a national anti-tuberculosis drug resistance survey in Tanzania, in relation to the study protocol and Standard Operating Procedures. Results Factors contributing positively to the implementation of the survey were a continuous commitment of the key stakeholders, the existence of a well organized National Tuberculosis Programme, and a detailed design of cluster-specific arrangements for rapid sputum transportation. Factors contributing negatively to the implementation were a long delay between training and actual survey activities, limited monitoring of activities, and an unclear design of the data capture forms leading to difficulties in form-filling. Conclusion Careful preparation of the survey, timing of planned activities, a strong emphasis on data capture tools and data management, and timely supervision are essential for a proper implementation of a national drug resistance survey. PMID:19116022

  11. Implementation of a national anti-tuberculosis drug resistance survey in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Chonde, Timothy M; Doulla, Basra; van Leth, Frank; Mfinanga, Sayoki G M; Range, Nyagosya; Lwilla, Fred; Mfaume, Saidi M; van Deun, Armand; Zignol, Matteo; Cobelens, Frank G; Egwaga, Saidi M

    2008-12-30

    A drug resistance survey is an essential public health management tool for evaluating and improving the performance of National Tuberculosis control programmes. The current manuscript describes the implementation of the first national drug resistance survey in Tanzania. Description of the implementation process of a national anti-tuberculosis drug resistance survey in Tanzania, in relation to the study protocol and Standard Operating Procedures. Factors contributing positively to the implementation of the survey were a continuous commitment of the key stakeholders, the existence of a well organized National Tuberculosis Programme, and a detailed design of cluster-specific arrangements for rapid sputum transportation. Factors contributing negatively to the implementation were a long delay between training and actual survey activities, limited monitoring of activities, and an unclear design of the data capture forms leading to difficulties in form-filling. Careful preparation of the survey, timing of planned activities, a strong emphasis on data capture tools and data management, and timely supervision are essential for a proper implementation of a national drug resistance survey.

  12. Mob justice in Tanzania: a medico-social problem.

    PubMed

    Ng'walali, Paul M; Kitinya, James N

    2006-03-01

    To investigate the magnitude of mob justice and associated factors. Mob justice is a social and public health problem that has grown in Tanzania in recent decades that has negative effects on social and health of the country, communities, and families. A four-year autopsy study was conducted at the Department of Pathology, MUCHS. Information on the cases was obtained from police, the relatives, friends and other witnesses if available. 1,249 persons were killed by mobs in Dar es Salaam during the period of 5 years (2000-2004). The alleged offense ranged from a serious crime like theft or murder to a mere violation of local customs or religious beliefs. The mode of the killings were mostly burning (48.11%) and stoning (49.96%). Other modes accounted for only 3.0% of the cases. The pattern of injuries ranged from skull and other skeletal fractures to viscera rupture. MJ is a social, legal and public health problem in Tanzania that needs immediate attention. Unemployment of youth and perceived economic inequalities should be addressed. As long as the judicial system doesn't work and corruption is not punished, people will continue to organize their own trials and judge their suspects in the street. These must be tackled in order to reduce the growing incidences of mob justice, hence saving life. It must be ensured that criminals do not violate the freedom, dignity and respect of each and every human or member of the society.

  13. Pre-Service Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs towards Educational Technologies Integration in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Christina; Mtebe, Joel S.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines pre-service teachers' (N = 386) self-efficacy beliefs towards educational technologies integration in the classroom at the two colleges in Tanzania that prepare secondary education teachers. Using regression analysis, the study found out that the determinants of self-efficacy beliefs among pre-service teachers towards…

  14. Prevalence of, and Factors Associated with, Unemployment among Graduates: Evidence from Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amani, Jaquiline

    2017-01-01

    Unemployment in Tanzania and many other sub-Saharan African countries has remained one of the daunting challenges in these nascent economies. Drawing on secondary sources, this article reviews and analyses the employment barriers Tanzanian graduates face, with a view to discussing possible counter-strategies. The article reveals barriers to…

  15. Coteaching in Tanzania Benefits Both the School of St. Jude and Collegiate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Independent School, 2016

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, Louisville Collegiate School (Kentucky) formed a partnership with The School of St. Jude in Arusha, Tanzania. As part of their professional development, six Collegiate faculty members travel each summer to spend two weeks coteaching and interacting with Tanzanian faculty and students. This professional development experience forces…

  16. Hospital-based surveillance for acute pesticide poisoning caused by neurotoxic and other pesticides in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lekei, Elikana; Ngowi, Aiwerasia V; London, Leslie

    2014-12-01

    Acute pesticide poisoning (APP), particularly with neurotoxic agents, is often under-reported in developing countries. This study aimed to estimate the burden of APP in Tanzania due to neurotoxic and other pesticides in order to propose a surveillance system. The study reviewed hospital admission data for APP retrospectively (2000-2005) in 30 facilities in four regions of Tanzania. A prospective follow-up over 12 months in 2006 focused on 10 facilities with the highest reporting of APP. The majority of known poisoning agents were organophosphates or WHO class I and II pesticides. APP involving suicide was significantly more likely to be fatal in both retrospective (PRR fatal/non-fatal=3.8; 95% CI=1.8-8.0) and in prospective (PRR=8.7; 95% CI=1.1-65) studies. There was a significant association between suicide and gender (PRR female/male=1.5; 95% CI=1.1-2.0) in the prospective study. Occupational circumstances as a cause of APP, which was relatively small in both studies (8.5% in the retrospective and 10.2% in the prospective study) was less common amongst men compared to women (6.1% for males versus 12.0% for females) in the retrospective study but almost equal in prospective study (10.2% for males versus 10.1% for females). Contrasting retrospective to prospective studies, the annual incidence rate almost tripled (from 1.43 to 4.05 per 100,000) and mortality rate doubled (from 0.11 to 0.22 per 100,000). Case fatality declined accordingly from 7.8% to 5.6% in prospective study. The study revealed a substantial improvement in the completeness of data with prospective data collection. Missing data for circumstances and agents declined by 24.1% and 9.9%, respectively. Despite this improvement, routine reporting could only generate 33-50% of the information needed for a notification of banned or severely restricted chemicals under the Prior Informed Consent (PIC) convention. The two to threefold increase in rates with prospective data collection suggests significant

  17. Knowledge and attitude towards zoonoses among animal health workers and livestock keepers in Arusha and Tanga, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Swai, Emanuel S; Schoonman, Luuk; Daborn, Chris J

    2010-10-01

    Zoonoses are infections naturally transmitted between vertebrate animals and humans. An exploratory questionnaire-based survey of animal health workers(n=36) and livestock keepers(n=43) was carried out from April 2001 to March 2002 in Tanga and Arusha regions, northern Tanzania, to assess local knowledge, attitudes and public awareness for animal zoonoses. A combination of closed and open-ended questions, focus group discussions and ranking techniques were employed to gather information on perceptions concerning the type of zoonotic diseases prevalent in the study area, level of risk, mode of transmission and methods of preventing disease transmission from animals to humans. The results demonstrated that rabies, tuberculosis and anthrax were considered the three most common zoonotic diseases. Sharing living accommodation with animals, consumption of un-treated livestock products (i.e. milk, meat or eggs) and attending to parturition were perceived as routes of transmission. Knowledge about zoonosis was higher in smallholder dairy (92%; 33/36) than traditional livestock keepers (P<0.05). On the contrary, the perceived risk of contracting a zoonosis was significantly higher in traditional livestock (86%; 6/7) than smallholder dairy keepers (P<0.05). Stratification of the risk of zoonosis by farm location revealed that rural farms (85%; 7/8) were considered significantly at a higher risk when compared to peri or urban located farms (P<0.05). Most of the respondents stated cooking of meat or boiling of milk as a way to prevent transmission. However, there was a significant difference in the perception of the risk posed by contact with potentially infected animals /or animal products with animal health workers having a much higher level of perception compared to livestock keepers. These results suggest that in the Tanga and Arusha, Tanzania, patchy awareness and knowledge of zoonoses, combined with food consumption habits and poor animal husbandry are likely to expose

  18. Obesity as a public health problem among adult women in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Keding, Gudrun B; Msuya, John M; Maass, Brigitte L; Krawinkel, Michael B

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: For many developing countries, obesity and its sequelae have become a challenge of a magnitude similar to hunger and undernutrition. The main objective of this study was, therefore, to investigate the weight status of women in rural Tanzania with reference to season as well as the link between women's weight, food consumption, and attitudes toward obesity. Methods: Three cross-sectional surveys in 3 different seasons within 1 year interviewed the same 210 women, ages 17–45 years, from 3 rural districts of northeastern and central Tanzania. These surveys assessed body mass index (BMI), food intake, and dietary diversity through 24-hour recalls, women's attitudes toward obesity, vegetable production, and socioeconomic status. Results: Although 71% of the women had a normal BMI, 7% were underweight, 16% overweight, and 6% obese. The BMI was correlated with the Dietary Diversity Score (DDS), the Food Variety Score (FVS), with the consumption of foods from the food groups “bread/cakes,” “sugar,” and “tea,” and with the production of exotic vegetables. In a multiple regression model, FVS was directly associated with BMI. When asked to describe the typical characteristics of an obese person, women mentioned more negative than positive characteristics. Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 3 times higher than that of underweight. Apparently, even in rural areas of Tanzania, a nutrition transition is underway. No direct association was identified between vegetable consumption and BMI. Although this study did not assess behavioral factors, such behavioral factors as activity levels as well as attitudes need to be considered, even in rural settings, to address all facets of malnutrition. PMID:25276549

  19. Setting research priorities across science, technology, and health sectors: the Tanzania experience.

    PubMed

    de Haan, Sylvia; Kingamkono, Rose; Tindamanyire, Neema; Mshinda, Hassan; Makandi, Harun; Tibazarwa, Flora; Kubata, Bruno; Montorzi, Gabriela

    2015-03-12

    Identifying research priorities is key to innovation and economic growth, since it informs decision makers on effectively targeting issues that have the greatest potential public benefit. As such, the process of setting research priorities is of pivotal importance for favouring the science, technology, and innovation (STI)-driven development of low- and middle-income countries. We report herein on a major cross-sectoral nationwide research priority setting effort recently carried out in Tanzania by the Tanzania Commission for Science and Technology (COSTECH) in partnership with the Council on Health Research for Development (COHRED) and the NEPAD Agency. The first of its type in the country, the process brought together stakeholders from 42 sub-sectors in science, technology, and health. The cross-sectoral research priority setting process consisted of a 'training-of-trainers' workshop, a demonstration workshop, and seven priority setting workshops delivered to representatives from public and private research and development institutions, universities, non-governmental organizations, and other agencies affiliated to COSTECH. The workshops resulted in ranked listings of research priorities for each sub-sector, totalling approximately 800 priorities. This large number was significantly reduced by an expert panel in order to build a manageable instrument aligned to national development plans that could be used to guide research investments. The Tanzania experience is an instructive example of the challenges and issues to be faced in when attempting to identify research priority areas and setting an STI research agenda in low- and middle-income countries. As countries increase their investment in research, it is essential to increase investment in research management and governance as well, a key and much needed capacity for countries to make proper use of research investments.

  20. Tanzania national survey on iodine deficiency: impact after twelve years of salt iodation

    PubMed Central

    Assey, Vincent D; Peterson, Stefan; Kimboka, Sabas; Ngemera, Daniel; Mgoba, Celestin; Ruhiye, Deusdedit M; Ndossi, Godwin D; Greiner, Ted; Tylleskär, Thorkild

    2009-01-01

    Background In many low-income countries, children are at high risk of iodine deficiency disorders, including brain damage. In the early 1990s, Tanzania, a country that previously suffered from moderate to severe iodine deficiency, adopted universal salt iodation (USI) as an intervention strategy, but its impact remained unknown. Methods We report on the first national survey in mainland Tanzania, conducted in 2004 to assess the extent to which iodated salt was used and its apparent impact on the total goitre prevalence (TGP) and urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) among the schoolchildren after USI was initiated. In 2004, a cross-sectional goitre survey was conducted; covering 140,758 schoolchildren aged 6 - 18 years were graded for goitre according to new WHO goitre classification system. Comparisons were made with district surveys conducted throughout most of the country during the 1980s and 90s. 131,941 salt samples from households were tested for iodine using rapid field test kits. UIC was determined spectrophotometrically using the ammonium persulfate digestion method in 4523 sub-sampled children. Results 83.6% (95% CI: 83.4 - 83.8) of salt samples tested positive for iodine. Whereas the TGP was about 25% on average in the earlier surveys, it was 6.9% (95%CI: 6.8-7.0) in 2004. The TGP for the younger children, 6-9 years old, was 4.2% (95%CI: 4.0-4.4), n = 41,965. In the 27 goitre-endemic districts, TGP decreased from 61% (1980s) to 12.3% (2004). The median UIC was 204 (95% CF: 192-215) μg/L. Only 25% of children had UIC <100 μg/L and 35% were ≥ 300 μg/L, indicating low and excess iodine intake, respectively. Conclusion Our study demonstrates a marked improvement in iodine nutrition in Tanzania, twelve years after the initiation of salt iodation programme. The challenge in sustaining IDD elimination in Tanzania is now two-fold: to better reach the areas with low coverage of iodated salt, and to reduce iodine intake in areas where it is excessive

  1. Tanzania national survey on iodine deficiency: impact after twelve years of salt iodation.

    PubMed

    Assey, Vincent D; Peterson, Stefan; Kimboka, Sabas; Ngemera, Daniel; Mgoba, Celestin; Ruhiye, Deusdedit M; Ndossi, Godwin D; Greiner, Ted; Tylleskär, Thorkild

    2009-09-03

    In many low-income countries, children are at high risk of iodine deficiency disorders, including brain damage. In the early 1990s, Tanzania, a country that previously suffered from moderate to severe iodine deficiency, adopted universal salt iodation (USI) as an intervention strategy, but its impact remained unknown. We report on the first national survey in mainland Tanzania, conducted in 2004 to assess the extent to which iodated salt was used and its apparent impact on the total goitre prevalence (TGP) and urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) among the schoolchildren after USI was initiated. In 2004, a cross-sectional goitre survey was conducted; covering 140,758 schoolchildren aged 6 - 18 years were graded for goitre according to new WHO goitre classification system. Comparisons were made with district surveys conducted throughout most of the country during the 1980s and 90s. 131,941 salt samples from households were tested for iodine using rapid field test kits. UIC was determined spectrophotometrically using the ammonium persulfate digestion method in 4523 sub-sampled children. 83.6% (95% CI: 83.4 - 83.8) of salt samples tested positive for iodine. Whereas the TGP was about 25% on average in the earlier surveys, it was 6.9% (95%CI: 6.8-7.0) in 2004. The TGP for the younger children, 6-9 years old, was 4.2% (95%CI: 4.0-4.4), n = 41,965. In the 27 goitre-endemic districts, TGP decreased from 61% (1980s) to 12.3% (2004). The median UIC was 204 (95% CF: 192-215) microg/L. Only 25% of children had UIC <100 microg/L and 35% were > or = 300 microg/L, indicating low and excess iodine intake, respectively. Our study demonstrates a marked improvement in iodine nutrition in Tanzania, twelve years after the initiation of salt iodation programme. The challenge in sustaining IDD elimination in Tanzania is now two-fold: to better reach the areas with low coverage of iodated salt, and to reduce iodine intake in areas where it is excessive. Particular attention is needed in

  2. Trichuris spp. (Nematoda: Trichuridae) from two rodents, Mastomys natalensis and Gerbilliscus vicinus in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ribas, Alexis; López, Sergi; Makundi, Rhodes H; Leirs, Herwig; de Bellocq, Joëlle Goüy

    2013-10-01

    During a survey of the helminth community of several rodent species in the Morogoro region (Tanzania), Trichuris whipworms (Nematoda: Trichuridae) were found in the ceca of the Natal multimammate mouse, Mastomys natalensis and a gerbil, Gerbilliscus vicinus (both Rodentia: Muridae). The taxonomic literature regarding Trichuris from African native rodents describes 10 species, but includes few metric and morphologic characters that discriminate between some of the pairs. The whipworms we sampled in Tanzanian Natal multimammate mice and gerbils were morphologically identified, respectively, as Trichuris mastomysi Verster, 1960 and Trichuris carlieri Gedoelst, 1916 sensu lato, but with characters that overlap or partially overlap with the cosmopolitan Murinae whipworm, Trichuris muris , already reported from several rodents in Africa. To clarify our identification, we sequenced the ITS-1, 5.8S, and ITS-2 ribosomal DNA region of the worms' nuclear genome. The genetic analyses clearly distinguish the whipworms we found in M. natalensis from those found in the gerbil, and both of these from T. muris whipworm reference sequences. The overlap of morphological characters between rodent whipworms suggests that reports of T. muris from rodent species not closely related to Murinae in other parts of Africa should be treated with caution.

  3. An outbreak of East Coast Fever on the Comoros: a consequence of the import of immunised cattle from Tanzania?

    PubMed

    De Deken, R; Martin, V; Saido, A; Madder, M; Brandt, J; Geysen, D

    2007-02-28

    In 2003 and 2004, a severe epidemic decimated the cattle population on Grand Comore, the largest island of the Union of Comoros. Fatalities started soon after the import of cattle from Tanzania. Theileria parva and its vector, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, could be identified as the main culprits of the epidemic. Characterisation by multilocus genotyping revealed that the T. parva parasites isolated on the Comoros were identical to the components of the Muguga cocktail vaccine used in Tanzania to immunise cattle. Therefore, it is believed that East Coast Fever reached the Comoros while some of the imported livestock got infected in Tanzania by ticks of which the immature stadia fed on Muguga cocktail vaccinated animals. Since the Comorian government neither has the financial means nor the competent staff to pursue an adequate epidemiosurveillance, the danger exists that without external assistance and in a context of continuing globalisation more transboundary diseases will affect the Comorian livestock sector in the future.

  4. The Political Economy of Biofuels and Farming: The Case of Smallholders in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, Kristen

    Following decades of neoliberal policies promoting commodity driven export production, the small scale farming sector in many developing countries has suffered from declining market share, lessening productivity and deepening poverty. In recent years, biofuels have been promoted within developing countries to foster rural development and provide new markets for the smallholders. Using Tanzania as a case study, this thesis evaluates the extent to which the emerging biofuel sector provides opportunities for smallholders to gain beneficial access to markets -- or whether the sector is following the trajectory of other export-oriented commodity projects of the past and resulting in the marginalisation of smallholders. This thesis asserts that the biofuel sector in Tanzania presents more threats than benefits for smallholders; a pattern can be witnessed that favours foreign investors and dispossesses farmers of existing land, while providing few opportunities at a local level for income generation and employment.

  5. Ideologies of sexuality, menstruation and risk: girls' experiences of puberty and schooling in northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Marni

    2009-05-01

    This paper examines girls' voiced experiences of menstruation, puberty and schooling in northern Tanzania. The study was conducted in Moshi and Rombo Districts of Kilimanjaro, a predominantly Chagga region with historically strong support for girls' education. The major question explored was how the onset of menses and puberty may be impacting on girls' school participation, given societal implications of pubertal onset and potentially gender discriminatory school environments. The methodology included a comparative case study using in-depth interviews and participatory research with young women living in urban and rural Kilimanjaro. Along with important findings about how menstrual onset creates challenges for girls attending school emerged findings about the significant gaps in girls' knowledge about body changes, sexual health and HIV/AIDS. These findings underline the importance of identifying new girl-centred approaches to guidance on bodily development and HIV prevention.

  6. Spectroscopy of red dravite from northern Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taran, Michail N.; Dyar, M. Darby; Naumenko, Ievgen V.; Vyshnevsky, Olexij A.

    2015-07-01

    Low-Fe dravite with a formula of Na0.66Ca0.16Mg2.62Fe0.33Mn0.02Ti0.02Al5.95B3Si6.04O27(OH)4 is described from Engusero Sambu, northern Tanzania (On maps, Engusero Sambu may be found to be marked as belonging to Kenya, but in reality, it is located near the border in northern Tanzania). The sample has an unusual red color that is distinctly different from the red dravite from the Osarara, Narok district, in Kenya that was formerly studied by Mattson and Rossman (Phys Chem Miner 14:225-234, 1984) and Taran and Rossman (Am Mineral 87:1148-1153, 2002). This unique sample has been characterized by optical and Mössbauer spectral measurements to investigate underlying cause of the intense bands in absorption spectra that give rise to the red color. These features are shown to be caused by exchange-coupled Fe3+-Fe3+ interactions. Thermal annealing of the samples causes an increase in Fe3+ contents due to oxidation of [Y]Fe2+. However, heat treatment does not change the high-energy absorption edge, which is probably caused by intense ligand-to-Fe3+ charge-transfer UV bands. In fact, Mössbauer results show that high-temperature annealing initiates breakdown of the tourmaline into an Fe oxide and causes accompanying redistribution of Fe3+ within the structure. Because of the popularity of tourmaline as a gemstone, this work has implications for understanding the causes of color in tourmaline, facilitating recognition of the distinctions between naturally occurring and treated tourmalines in the gem industry and enabling heat treatments for color enhancement.

  7. Torches in the Night. Educational Experiences in Tanzania and the Ivory Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muncie, Peter C.

    This booklet describes two educational projects financed by the World Bank in cooperation with UNESCO. Tanzania was the site of one project, where agricultural training at the intermediate and farmer levels was the focus. The second project was in the Ivory Coast and involved construction of technical, vocational, agricultural, teacher training…

  8. "Drugs, Religion and Chemistry in Tanzania": An Interactive Seminar for Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Malcolm S.

    2015-01-01

    Most Tanzanian Higher Education Institutes do not have the materials and technology to give students a significant practical experience in the sciences. In 2013 Tanzania was rated 159th out of 187 countries for "human development" (United Nations Development Program 2014 Report). In order to supplement their current, limited practical…

  9. Total mercury and methylmercury levels in fish from hydroelectric reservoirs in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ikingura, J R; Akagi, H

    2003-03-20

    Total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) levels have been determined in fish species representing various tropic levels in four major hydroelectric reservoirs (Mtera, Kidatu, Hale-Pangani, Nyumba ya Mungu) located in two distinct geographical areas in Tanzania. The Mtera and Kidatu reservoirs are located along the Great Ruaha River drainage basin in the southern central part of the country while the other reservoirs are located within the Pangani River basin in the north eastern part of Tanzania. Fish mercury levels ranged from 5 to 143 microg/kg (mean 40 microg/kg wet weight) in the Mtera Reservoir, and from 7 to 119 microg/kg (mean 21 microg/kg) in the Kidatu Reservoir downstream of the Great Ruaha River. The lowest THg levels, in the range 1-10 microg/kg (mean 5 microg/kg), were found in fish from the Nyumba ya Mungu (NyM) Reservoir, which is one of the oldest reservoirs in the country. Fish mercury levels in the Pangani and Hale mini-reservoirs, downstream of the NyM Reservoir, were in the order of 3-263 microg/kg, with an average level of 21 microg/kg. These THg levels are among the lowest to be reported in freshwater fish from hydroelectric reservoirs. Approximately 56-100% of the total mercury in the fish was methylmercury. Herbivorous fish species contained lower THg levels than the piscivorous species; this was consistent with similar findings in other fish studies. In general the fish from the Tanzanian reservoirs contained very low mercury concentrations, and differed markedly from fish in hydroelectric reservoirs of similar age in temperate and other regions, which are reported to contain elevated mercury concentrations. The low levels of mercury in the fish correlated with low background concentrations of THg in sediment and flooded soil (mean 2-8 microg/kg dry weight) in the reservoir surroundings. This suggested a relatively clean reservoir environment that has not been significantly impacted by mercury contamination from natural or anthropogenic

  10. Climate Influence on Emerging Risk Areas for Rift Valley Fever Epidemics in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mweya, Clement N; Mboera, Leonard E G; Kimera, Sharadhuli I

    2017-07-01

    Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a climate-related arboviral infection of animals and humans. Climate is thought to represent a threat toward emerging risk areas for RVF epidemics globally. The objective of this study was to evaluate influence of climate on distribution of suitable breeding habitats for Culex pipiens complex, potential mosquito vector responsible for transmission and distribution of disease epidemics risk areas in Tanzania. We used ecological niche models to estimate potential distribution of disease risk areas based on vectors and disease co-occurrence data approach. Climatic variables for the current and future scenarios were used as model inputs. Changes in mosquito vectors' habitat suitability in relation to disease risk areas were estimated. We used partial receiver operating characteristic and the area under the curves approach to evaluate model predictive performance and significance. Habitat suitability for Cx. pipiens complex indicated broad-scale potential for change and shift in the distribution of the vectors and disease for both 2020 and 2050 climatic scenarios. Risk areas indicated more intensification in the areas surrounding Lake Victoria and northeastern part of the country through 2050 climate scenario. Models show higher probability of emerging risk areas spreading toward the western parts of Tanzania from northeastern areas and decrease in the southern part of the country. Results presented here identified sites for consideration to guide surveillance and control interventions to reduce risk of RVF disease epidemics in Tanzania. A collaborative approach is recommended to develop and adapt climate-related disease control and prevention strategies.

  11. A categorization of water system breakdowns: Evidence from Liberia, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda.

    PubMed

    Klug, Tori; Cronk, Ryan; Shields, Katherine F; Bartram, Jamie

    2018-04-01

    In rural sub-Saharan Africa, one in three handpumps are non-functional at any time. While there is some evidence describing factors associated with non-functional water systems, there is little evidence describing the categories of water system breakdowns that commonly occur. Insufficient water availability from broken down systems can force people to use unimproved water sources, which undermines the health benefits of an improved water source. We categorized common water system breakdowns using quantitative and qualitative monitoring data from Liberia, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda (each N>3600 water systems) and examined how breakdown category varies by water system type and management characteristics. Specific broken parts were mentioned more frequently than all other reasons for breakdown; hardware parts frequently found at fault for breakdown were aprons (Liberia), pipes (Tanzania and Uganda), taps/spouts (Tanzania and Uganda), and lift mechanisms (Nigeria). Statistically significant differences in breakdown category were identified based on system type, age, management type, and fee collection type. Categorization can help to identify common reasons for water system breakdown. The analysis of these data can be used to develop improved monitoring instruments to inform actors of different breakdown types and provide reasons for system non-functionality. Improved monitoring instruments would enable actors to target appropriate resources to address specific breakdowns likely to arise based on system type and management characteristics in order to inform improved implementation of and post-construction support for water systems in sub-Saharan Africa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Unpacking Global Service-Learning in Developing Contexts: A Case Study from Rural Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberhauser, Ann M.; Daniels, Rita

    2017-01-01

    This article examines intercultural aspects of global service learning (GSL) focused on gender and sustainable development in rural Tanzania. The discussion draws from critical development and postcolonial feminist approaches to examine how GSL addresses globalization, social histories, and political economies of development. The empirical…

  13. Early Cenozoic tropical climate: report from the Tanzania Onshore Paleogene Integrated Coring (TOPIC) workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, P. N.; Hudson, W.

    2014-12-01

    We are currently developing a proposal for a new International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) project to recover a stratigraphic and paleoclimatic record from the full succession of Eocene hemipelagic sediments that are now exposed on land in southern Tanzania. Funding for a workshop was provided by ICDP, and the project was advertised in the normal way. A group of about 30 delegates assembled in Dar-es-Salaam for 3 intensive days of discussion, project development, and proposal writing. The event was hosted by the Tanzania Petroleum Development Corporation (TPDC) and was attended by several geologists, geochemists, geophysicists, and micropaleontologists from TPDC and the University of Dar-es-Salaam. International delegates were from Canada, Germany, India, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, United Kingdom, and United States (and we also have project partners from Australia, Belgium, and Sweden who were not able to attend). Some of the scientists are veterans of previous scientific drilling in the area, but over half are new on the scene, mostly having been attracted by Tanzania's reputation for world-class paleoclimate archives. Here we outline the broad aims of the proposed drilling and give a flavor of the discussions and the way our proposal developed during the workshop. A video of the workshop with an introduction to the scientific goals and interviews of many of the participants is available at http://vimeo.com/107911777.

  14. "Love me, parents!": impact evaluation of a national social and behavioral change communication campaign on maternal health outcomes in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Michelle R; Harman, Jennifer J; Smelyanskaya, Marina; Orkis, Jennifer; Ainslie, Robert

    2017-09-15

    Despite marked improvements over the last few decades, maternal mortality in Tanzania remains among the world's highest at 454 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Many factors contribute to this disparity, such as a lack of attendance at antenatal care (ANC) services and low rates of delivery at a health facility with a skilled provider. The Wazazi Nipendeni (Love me, parents) social and behavioral change communication campaign was launched in Tanzania in 2012 to improve a range of maternal health outcomes, including individual birth planning, timely ANC attendance, and giving birth in a healthcare facility. An evaluation to determine the impact of the national Wazazi Nipendeni campaign was conducted in five purposively selected regions of Tanzania using exit interviews with pregnant and post-natal women attending ANC clinics. A total of 1708 women were interviewed regarding campaign exposure, ANC attendance, and individual birth planning. Over one third of interviewed women (35.1%) reported exposure to the campaign in the last month. The more sources from which women reported hearing the Wazazi Nipendeni message, the more they planned for the birth of their child (β = 0.08, p = .001). Greater numbers of types of exposure to the Wazazi Nipendeni message was associated with an increase in ANC visits (β = 0.05, p = .004). Intervention exposure did not significantly predict the timing of the first ANC visit or HIV testing in the adjusted model, however, findings showed that exposure did predict whether women delivered at a health care facility (or not) and whether they tested for HIV with a partner in the unadjusted models. The Wazazi Nipendeni campaign shows promise that such a behavior change communication intervention could lead to better pregnancy and childbirth outcomes for women in low resource settings. For outcomes such as HIV testing, message exposure showed some promising effects, but demographic variables such as age and socioeconomic status

  15. Late Pan-African and early Mesozoic brittle compressions in East and Central Africa: lithospheric deformation within the Congo-Tanzania Cratonic area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delvaux, D.; Kipata, M. L.; Macheyeki, A. S.

    2012-04-01

    Tectonic reconstructions leading to the formation of the Central-African part of Gondwana have so far not much taken into account constraints provided by the evolution of brittle structures and related stress field. This is largely because little is known on continental brittle deformation in Equatorial Africa before the onset of the Mesozoic Central-African and Late Cenozoic East-African rifts. We present a synthesis of fault-kinematic data and paleostress inversion results from field surveys covering parts of Tanzania, Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo. It is based on investigations along the eastern margin of the Tanzanian craton, in the Ubendian belt between the Tanzanian craton and Bangweulu block, in the Lufilian Arc between the Kalahari and Congo cratons and along the Congo intracratonic basin. Paleostress tensors were computed for a substantial database by interactive stress tensor inversion and data subset separation, and the relative succession of major brittle events established. Two of them appear to be of regional importance and could be traced from one region to the other. The oldest one is the first brittle event recorded after the paroxysm of the Terminal Pan-African event that led to the amalgamation Gondwana at the Precambrian-Cambrian transition. It is related to compressional deformation with horizontal stress trajectories fluctuating from an E-W compression in Central Tanzania to NE-SW in the Ubende belt and Lufilian Arc. The second event is a transpressional inversion with a consistent NW-SE compression that we relate to the far-field effects of the active margin south of Gondwana during the late Triassic - early Jurassic.

  16. How do area-level socioeconomic status and gender norms affect partner violence against women? Evidence from Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Seema; Heise, Lori

    2016-11-01

    To explore how area-level socioeconomic status and gender-related norms influence partner violence against women in Tanzania. We analysed data from the 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey and used multilevel logistic regression to estimate individual and community-level effects on women's risk of current partner violence. Prevalence of current partner violence was 36.1 %; however, variation in prevalence exists across communities. Twenty-nine percent of the variation in the logodds of partner violence is due to community-level influences. When adjusting for individual-level characteristics, this variation falls to 10 % and falls further to 8 % when adjusting for additional community-level factors. Higher levels of women's acceptance towards wife beating, male unemployment, and years of schooling among men were associated with higher risk of partner violence; however, higher levels of women in paid work were associated with lower risk. Area-level poverty and inequitable gender norms were associated with higher risk of partner violence. Empowerment strategies along with addressing social attitudes are likely to achieve reductions in rates of partner violence against women in Tanzania and in other similar low-income country settings.

  17. Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Work Stress in Academia in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mkumbo, Kitila

    2014-01-01

    Work stress has been identified as a common phenomenon in the teaching profession. However, little research has been done to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with work stress among employees in university context in Tanzania and sub-Saharan African countries in general. Using survey design within the quantitative approach, this…

  18. Adolescent Hopefulness in Tanzania: Street Youth, Former Street Youth, and School Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalkur, Priya G.

    2009-01-01

    This study compares hope in street youth, former street youth, and school youth (aged 12-18) in Tanzania. Responding to Snyder's hope theory, the author argues that not only personal agency but also the stability of living context (street, shelter, home) shapes hopefulness. Employing qualitative and quantitative analyses, the author presents a…

  19. Water supply development and tariffs in Tanzania: From free water policy towards cost recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashauri, Damas A.; Katko, Tapio S.

    1993-01-01

    The article describes the historical development of water tariff policy in Tanzania from the colonial times to present. After gaining independence, the country introduced “free” water policy in its rural areas. Criticism against this policy was expressed already in the 1970s, but it was not until the late 1980s that change became unavoidable. All the while urban water tariffs continued to decline in real terms. In rural and periurban areas of Tanzania consumers often have to pay substantial amounts of money for water to resellers and vendors since the public utilities are unable to provide operative service. Besides, only a part of the water bills are actually collected. Now that the free water supply policy has been officially abandoned, the development of water tariffs and the institutions in general are a great challenge for the country.

  20. Landsat-derived cropland mask for Tanzania using 2010-2013 time series and decision tree classifier methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justice, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    80% of Tanzania's population is involved in the agriculture sector. Despite this national dependence, agricultural reporting is minimal and monitoring efforts are in their infancy. The cropland mask developed through this study provides the framework for agricultural monitoring through informing analysis of crop conditions, dispersion, and intensity at a national scale. Tanzania is dominated by smallholder agricultural systems with an average field size of less than one hectare (Sarris et al, 2006). At this field scale, previous classifications of agricultural land in Tanzania using MODIS course resolution data are insufficient to inform a working monitoring system. The nation-wide cropland mask in this study was developed using composited Landsat tiles from a 2010-2013 time series. Decision tree classifiers methods were used in the study with representative training areas collected for agriculture and no agriculture using appropriate indices to separate these classes (Hansen et al, 2013). Validation was done using random sample and high resolution satellite images to compare Agriculture and No agriculture samples from the study area. The techniques used in this study were successful and have the potential to be adapted for other countries, allowing targeted monitoring efforts to improve food security, market price, and inform agricultural policy.

  1. The Past, Present and Future of Domestic Equines in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    WILSON, R. Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Equines are minor species in Tanzania’s array of domestic livestock. Attempts to use them for transport by early explorers from the mid-nineteenth century usually failed. Donkeys were used extensively as pack animals to complement human porters by both British and German forces in the First World War, but their advantages were often outweighed by slow progress and competition with troops and porters for water, and they died in huge numbers. The British had regular cavalry troops in their campaign and mules found limited use as individual mounts for officers. In modern times, there are very few horses in Tanzania but they find several uses. Exotic safaris are made on horseback, they are used as stock horses on ranches, there is a polo club in northern Tanzania and there are leisure riding activities around the capital city. Official census records for donkeys estimate numbers at under 300,000 with concentrations in the northern pastoral and agropastoral areas where they are used as pack animals with water being the main commodity transported. Elsewhere donkeys are used to a limited extent in transport and traction work. There is little interest in equines by the central and local governments or the general public and the status quo can be expected to continue. PMID:24834000

  2. Field evaluation of the photo-induced electron transfer fluorogenic primers (PET) real-time PCR for the detection of Plasmodium falciparum in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Accurate diagnosis of malaria infections remains challenging, especially in the identification of submicroscopic infections. New molecular diagnostic tools that are inexpensive, sensitive enough to detect low-level infections and suitable in laboratory settings of resource-limited countries are required for malaria control and elimination programmes. Here the diagnostic potential of a recently developed photo-induced electron transfer fluorogenic primer (PET) real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) called PET-PCR was investigated. This study aimed to (i) evaluate the use of this assay as a method for the detection of both Plasmodium falciparum and other Plasmodium species infections in a developing country’s diagnostic laboratory; and, (ii) determine the assay’s sensitivity and specificity compared to a nested 18S rRNA PCR. Methods Samples used in this study were obtained from a previous study conducted in the region of Iringa, Tanzania. A total of 303 samples from eight health facilities in Tanzania were utilized for this evaluation. All samples were screened using the multiplex PET-PCR assay designed to detect Plasmodium genus and P. falciparum initially in laboratory in Tanzania and then repeated at a reference laboratory at the CDC in the USA. Microscopy data was available for all the 303 samples. A subset of the samples were tested in a blinded fashion to find the sensitivity and specificity of the PET-PCR compared to the nested 18S rRNA PCR. Results Compared to microscopy, the PET-PCR assay was 59% more sensitive in detecting P. falciparum infections. The observed sensitivity and specificity were 100% (95% confidence interval (CI0.95) = 94-100%) and (CI0.95 = 96-100%), respectively, for the PET-PCR assay when compared to nested 18S rRNA PCR. When compared to 18S rRNA PCR, microscopy had a low sensitivity of 40% (CI0.95 = 23-61%) and specificity of 100% (CI0.95 = 96-100%). The PET-PCR results performed in the field laboratory

  3. Field evaluation of the photo-induced electron transfer fluorogenic primers (PET) real-time PCR for the detection of Plasmodium falciparum in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Talundzic, Eldin; Maganga, Mussa; Masanja, Irene M; Peterson, David S; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Lucchi, Naomi W

    2014-01-27

    Accurate diagnosis of malaria infections remains challenging, especially in the identification of submicroscopic infections. New molecular diagnostic tools that are inexpensive, sensitive enough to detect low-level infections and suitable in laboratory settings of resource-limited countries are required for malaria control and elimination programmes. Here the diagnostic potential of a recently developed photo-induced electron transfer fluorogenic primer (PET) real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) called PET-PCR was investigated. This study aimed to (i) evaluate the use of this assay as a method for the detection of both Plasmodium falciparum and other Plasmodium species infections in a developing country's diagnostic laboratory; and, (ii) determine the assay's sensitivity and specificity compared to a nested 18S rRNA PCR. Samples used in this study were obtained from a previous study conducted in the region of Iringa, Tanzania. A total of 303 samples from eight health facilities in Tanzania were utilized for this evaluation. All samples were screened using the multiplex PET-PCR assay designed to detect Plasmodium genus and P. falciparum initially in laboratory in Tanzania and then repeated at a reference laboratory at the CDC in the USA. Microscopy data was available for all the 303 samples. A subset of the samples were tested in a blinded fashion to find the sensitivity and specificity of the PET-PCR compared to the nested 18S rRNA PCR. Compared to microscopy, the PET-PCR assay was 59% more sensitive in detecting P. falciparum infections. The observed sensitivity and specificity were 100% (95% confidence interval (CI0.95) = 94-100%) and (CI0.95 = 96-100%), respectively, for the PET-PCR assay when compared to nested 18S rRNA PCR. When compared to 18S rRNA PCR, microscopy had a low sensitivity of 40% (CI0.95 = 23-61%) and specificity of 100% (CI0.95 = 96-100%). The PET-PCR results performed in the field laboratory in Tanzania were in 100

  4. The Tanzania Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program: building and transforming the public health workforce

    PubMed Central

    Mmbuji, Peter; Mukanga, David; Mghamba, Janeth; Ahly, Mohamed; Mosha, Fausta; Azima, Simba; Senga, Sembuche; Moshiro, Candida; Semali, Innocent; Rolle, Italia; Wiktor, Stefan; McQueen, Suzzane; McElroy, Peter; Nsubuga, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Tanzania Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (TFELTP) was established in 2008 as a partnership among the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW), Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, National Institute for Medical Research, and local and international partners. TFELTP was established to strengthen the capacity of MOHSW to conduct public health surveillance and response, manage national disease control and prevention programs, and to enhance public health laboratory support for surveillance, diagnosis, treatment and disease monitoring. TFELTP is a 2-year full-time training program with approximately 25% time spent in class, and 75% in the field. TFELTP offers two tracks leading to an MSc degree in either Applied Epidemiology or, Epidemiology and Laboratory Management. Since 2008, the program has enrolled a total of 33 trainees (23 males, 10 females). Of these, 11 were enrolled in 2008 and 100% graduated in 2010. All 11 graduates of cohort 1 are currently employed in public health positions within the country. Demand for the program as measured by the number of applicants has grown from 28 in 2008 to 56 in 2011. While training the public health leaders of the country, TFELTP has also provided essential service to the country in responding to high-profile disease outbreaks, and evaluating and improving its public health surveillance systems and diseases control programs. TFELTP was involved in the country assessment of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR) core capabilities, development of the Tanzania IHR plan, and incorporation of IHR into the revised Tanzania Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) guidelines. TFELTP is training a competent core group of public health leaders for Tanzania, as well as providing much needed service to the MOHSW in the areas of routine surveillance, outbreak detection and response, and disease program management. However, the immediate challenges that the program must

  5. Trends in diarrhea hospitalizations among infants at three hospitals in Tanzania before and after rotavirus vaccine introduction.

    PubMed

    Lyamuya, Faraja; Michael, Fausta; Jani, Bhavin; Fungo, Yohana; Chambo, Alfred; Chami, Inviolatha; Bulali, Regina; Mpamba, Amina; Cholobi, Happy; Kallovya, Dotto; Kamugisha, Christopher; Mwenda, Jason M; Cortese, Margaret M

    2018-04-11

    The Tanzania Ministry of Health introduced monovalent human rotavirus vaccine in January 2013, to be administered at ages 6 and 10 weeks. Data suggest there was high vaccine uptake. We used hospital ward registers from 3 hospitals to examine trends in diarrhea hospitalizations among infants before and after vaccine introduction. Ward registers from Dodoma Regional Referral Hospital (Central Tanzania), and two hospitals in Mbeya (Southwest area), Mbeya Zonal Referral Hospital and Mbalizi Hospital, were used to tally admissions for diarrhea among children by age group, month and year. Rotavirus surveillance had started at these hospitals in early 2013; the proportion of infants enrolled and rotavirus-EIA positive were examined by month to determine peak periods of rotavirus disease post-vaccine introduction. Registers were available for 2-4 prevaccine years and 2-3 post introduction years. At Dodoma Regional Referral Hospital, compared with the mean of 2011 and 2012, diarrhea hospitalizations among infants were 26% lower in 2015 and 58% lower in 2016. The diarrhea peak shifted later in the year first by 1 and then by 2-3 months from prevaccine. At the Mbeya hospitals, the number of diarrhea admissions in prevaccine period varied substantially by year. At Mbeya Referral Hospital, diarrhea hospitalizations among infants were lower by 25-37% in 2014 and 11-26% in 2015, while at Mbalizi Hospital, these hospitalizations were 4% lower in 2014 and 14% higher in 2015. Rotavirus testing data demonstrated a lowering of the prevaccine peak, a shift in timing of the peak months and indicated that other diarrheal peaks in post-introduction years were not due to rotavirus. In this ecological evaluation, total diarrhea hospitalizations among infants were lower (≥25% lower in ≥1 year) following introduction in 2 of 3 hospitals. There are challenges in using ward registers to ascertain possible impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction on trends in hospitalizations for

  6. Globalisation, Language and Education: A Comparative Study of the United States and Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy-Campbell, Zaline M.

    2001-07-01

    Educational language choice has been one of the most provocative issues of the 20th century and continues to be a dominant issue at the turn of the new millennium. Efforts to naturalize English as the only suitable language for post primary school education persist in many African countries, including Tanzania. In the United States the campaign for "English only" in the schools is gaining momentum, despite the increasing multilingual population in the schools. Focusing on Tanzania and the United States, this article examines the fallacy of a monolingual, English only, policy in education. It examines the ethos surrounding the debate about the language of instruction, and considers some of the detrimental effects upon students of attempting to impose a monolingual policy. Finally, the paper suggests possible roles of educators and researchers in fostering international understanding of educational language issues as one aspect of the quest for global peace and social justice in the 21st century.

  7. Variability and validity of intimate partner violence reporting by couples in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Steven, Ester; Reich, Naomi; Badi, Lilian; Messersmith, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, major global institutions have amplified their efforts to address intimate partner violence (IPV) against women—a global health and human rights violation affecting 15–71% of reproductive aged women over their lifetimes. Still, some scholars remain concerned about the validity of instruments used for IPV assessment in population-based studies. In this paper, we conducted two validation analyses using novel data from 450 women-men dyads across nine villages in Northern Tanzania. First, we examined the level of inter-partner agreement in reporting of men’s physical, sexual, emotional and economic IPV against women in the last three and twelve months prior to the survey, ever in the relationship, and during pregnancy. Second, we conducted a convergent validity analysis to compare the relative efficacy of men’s self-reports of perpetration and women’s of victimization as a valid indicator of IPV against Tanzanian women using logistic regression models with village-level clustered errors. We found that, for every violence type across the recall periods of the last three months, the last twelve months and ever in the relationship, at least one in three couples disagreed about IPV occurrences in the relationship. Couples’ agreement about physical, sexual and economic IPV during pregnancy was high with 86–93% of couples reporting concordantly. Also, men’s self-reported perpetration had statistically significant associations with at least as many validated risk factors as had women’s self-reported victimization. This finding suggests that men’s self-reports are at least as valid as women’s as an indicator of IPV against women in Northern Tanzania. We recommend more validation studies are conducted in low-income countries, and that data on relationship factors affecting IPV reports and reporting are made available along with data on IPV occurrences. Keywords: Intimate partner violence; measurement; validity; survey research; Tanzania

  8. Strategies to reduce exposure of fumonisins from complementary foods in rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kimanya, Martin E; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Van Camp, John; Baert, Katleen; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2012-10-01

    Feeding infants with maize can expose them to fumonisin mycotoxins. We assessed fumonisin exposure from complementary foods in rural Tanzania and determined strategies to reduce the exposure. We conducted a cross-sectional study in four villages of Tarakea division, Northern Tanzania. We used a repeat 24-hour dietary recall to collect data of maize consumption as complementary food for 254 infants aged 6-8 months. Fumonisin concentrations in the maize were also estimated. Fumonisin exposure was assessed using @risk analysis software. With the software, several maximum fumonisin contamination and maize consumption patterns were combined in order to determine effective strategies for minimizing fumonisin exposure. Of the infants, 89% consumed maize at amounts up to 158g/person/day (mean; 43g/person/day±28). The maize was contaminated with fumonisins at levels up to 3201µgkg(-1) . Risk of fumonisin intake above the provisional maximum tolerable daily limit of 2µgkg(-1) body weight was 15% (95% confidence interval; 10-19). The risk was minimized when the maximum contamination was set at 150µgkg(-1) . The risk was also minimized when the maximum consumption was set at 20g/child/day while keeping the maximum contamination at the European Union (EU) maximum tolerated limit (MTL) of 1000µgkg(-1) . Considering the economical and technological limitations of adopting good agricultural practices in rural Tanzania, it is practically difficult to reduce contamination in maize to 150µgkg(-1) . We suggest adoption of the EU MTL of 1000µgkg(-1) for fumonisins in maize and reduction, by replacement with another cereal, of the maize component in complementary foods to a maximum intake of 20g/child/day. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Language Ideologies and Schooled Education in Rural Tanzania: The Case of Karagwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedin, Asa

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I argue that language policies for education have effects on pupils' educational possibilities. With the case of the Karagwe district in Tanzania the research suggests that the policy of "Swahili only" in primary school education favours the small minority of the children that live in a context where Swahili is used. This…

  10. Suitable for Whom? The Case of System of Rice Intensification in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tumusiime, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the suitability of the system of rice intensification (SRI) for diverse small-scale farmers in Tanzania by exploring if poor and non-poor farmers adopt the system to a similar extent. Originality: The suitability of low-external input technologies such as SRI for diverse African farmers is a contentious issue. Existing…

  11. Risk Factors for Human Brucellosis in Northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Cash-Goldwasser, Shama; Maze, Michael J; Rubach, Matthew P; Biggs, Holly M; Stoddard, Robyn A; Sharples, Katrina J; Halliday, Jo E B; Cleaveland, Sarah; Shand, Michael C; Mmbaga, Blandina T; Muiruri, Charles; Saganda, Wilbrod; Lwezaula, Bingileki F; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Maro, Venance P; Crump, John A

    2018-02-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of human brucellosis in sub-Saharan Africa. This hampers prevention and control efforts at the individual and population levels. To evaluate risk factors for brucellosis in northern Tanzania, we conducted a study of patients presenting with fever to two hospitals in Moshi, Tanzania. Serum taken at enrollment and at 4-6 week follow-up was tested by Brucella microagglutination test. Among participants with a clinically compatible illness, confirmed brucellosis cases were defined as having a ≥ 4-fold rise in agglutination titer between paired sera or a blood culture positive for Brucella spp., and probable brucellosis cases were defined as having a single reciprocal titer ≥ 160. Controls had reciprocal titers < 20 in paired sera. We collected demographic and clinical information and administered a risk factor questionnaire. Of 562 participants in the analysis, 50 (8.9%) had confirmed or probable brucellosis. Multivariable analysis showed that risk factors for brucellosis included assisting goat or sheep births (Odds ratio [OR] 5.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4, 24.6) and having contact with cattle (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0, 1.4). Consuming boiled or pasteurized dairy products was protective against brucellosis (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.02, 0.93). No participants received a clinical diagnosis of brucellosis from their healthcare providers. The under-recognition of brucellosis by healthcare workers could be addressed with clinician education and better access to brucellosis diagnostic tests. Interventions focused on protecting livestock keepers, especially those who assist goat or sheep births, are needed.

  12. Health and self-reliance: the experience of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Tarimo, E

    1978-01-01

    Since its independence, Tanzania has consistently followed a socialist policy with a strong emphasis on the development of the rural areas and on an equal distribution of goods and services. In the health field, this policy has taken the form of establishing a network of rural health centers, training auxiliaries, and involving the communities through mass mobilization campaigns. Community participation in health care services is hindered by 3 sets of problems related to lack of cohesion, lack of structure, and the autonomous and sometimes paternalist attitude of the health profession. In Tanzania much emphasis is placed on self-reliance. It is in the field of education that policies of self-reliance have been most successfully implemented. Traditional practitioners represent 1 of the health resources that can be tapped. The medical profession cannot claim credit for the major improvements in health, for at times it has even blocked health development. Health standards and quality are important in the 3rd world. Staff must be properly trained to function at a particular level, supplies must be provided regularly, and there must be constant supervision. A health care system that is appropriate to the 3rd world must also emphasize disease prevention. To increase health coverage there must be a program of health service that is within reach of the people, including the rural population. Health cannot be furthered by the health services as tradtionally conceived; an intersectoral approach is essential. It is important that a commitment to an integrated development of the rural areas, with health as a component, be made.

  13. HIV type 1 subtypes among bar and hotel workers in Moshi, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kiwelu, Ireen E; Renjifo, Boris; Chaplin, Beth; Sam, Noel; Nkya, Watoky M M M; Shao, John; Kapiga, Saidi; Essex, Max

    2003-01-01

    The HIV-1 prevalence among bar and hotel workers in Tanzania suggests they are a high-risk group for HIV-1 infection. We determined the HIV-1 subtype of 3'-p24/5'-p7 gag and C2-C5 env sequences from 40 individuals representing this population in Moshi. Genetic patterns composed of A(gag)-A(env), C(gag)-C(env), and D(gag)-D(env) were found in 19 (48.0%), 8 (20.0%), and 3 (8.0%) samples, respectively. The remaining 10 samples (25%) had different subtypes in gag and env, indicative of intersubtype recombinants. Among these recombinants, two contained sequences from HIV-1 subsubtype A2, a new genetic variant in Tanzania. Five bar and hotel workers may have been infected with viruses from a common source, based on phylogenetic analysis. The information obtained by surveillance of HIV-1 subtypes in a high-risk population should be useful in the design and evaluation of behavioral, therapeutic, and vaccine trial interventions aimed at reducing HIV-1 transmission.

  14. Traditional medicine practices among community members with chronic kidney disease in northern Tanzania: an ethnomedical survey.

    PubMed

    Stanifer, John W; Lunyera, Joseph; Boyd, David; Karia, Francis; Maro, Venance; Omolo, Justin; Patel, Uptal D

    2015-10-23

    In sub-Saharan Africa, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is being recognized as a non-communicable disease (NCD) with high morbidity and mortality. In countries like Tanzania, people access many sources, including traditional medicines, to meet their healthcare needs for NCDs, but little is known about traditional medicine practices among people with CKD. Therefore, we sought to characterize these practices among community members with CKD in northern Tanzania. Between December 2013 and June 2014, we administered a previously-developed survey to a random sample of adult community-members from the Kilimanjaro Region; the survey was designed to measure traditional medicine practices such as types, frequencies, reasons, and modes. Participants were also tested for CKD, diabetes, hypertension, and HIV as part of the CKD-AFRiKA study. To identify traditional medicines used in the local treatment of kidney disease, we reviewed the qualitative sessions which had previously been conducted with key informants. We enrolled 481 adults of whom 57 (11.9 %) had CKD. The prevalence of traditional medicine use among adults with CKD was 70.3 % (95 % CI 50.0-84.9 %), and among those at risk for CKD (n = 147; 30.6 %), it was 49.0 % (95 % CI 33.1-65.0 %). Among adults with CKD, the prevalence of concurrent use of traditional medicine and biomedicine was 33.2 % (11.4-65.6 %). Symptomatic ailments (66.7 %; 95 % CI 17.3-54.3), malaria/febrile illnesses (64.0 %; 95 % CI 44.1-79.9), and chronic diseases (49.6 %; 95 % CI 28.6-70.6) were the most prevalent uses for traditional medicines. We identified five plant-based traditional medicines used for the treatment of kidney disease: Aloe vera, Commifora africana, Cymbopogon citrullus, Persea americana, and Zanthoxylum chalybeum. The prevalence of traditional medicine use is high among adults with and at risk for CKD in northern Tanzania where they use them for a variety of conditions including other NCDs. Additionally, many of these same people

  15. Scepticism towards insecticide treated mosquito nets for malaria control in rural community in north-western Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nnko, Soori E; Whyte, Susan R; Geissler, Wenzel P; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens

    2012-04-01

    Despite existence of effective tools for malaria control, malaria continues to be one of the leading killer diseases especially among under-five year children and pregnant women in poor rural populations of Sub Saharan Africa. In Tanzania Mainland the disease contributes to 39.4% of the total OPD attendances. In terms of mortality, malaria is known to be responsible for more than one third of deaths among children of age below 5 years and also contributes for up to one fifth of deaths among pregnant women. This paper is based on a study conducted in a rural community along the shores of Lake Victoria in Mwanza region, North-Western Tanzania. The study explores reasons for scepticism and low uptake of insecticide treated mosquito nets (ITNs) that were promoted through social marketing strategy for malaria control prior to the introduction of long lasting nets (LLN). The paper breaks from traditional approach that tend to study low uptake of health interventions in terms of structural practical constraints--cost, accessibility, everyday priorities--or in terms of cognition--insufficient knowledge of benefits e.g. ignorance of public health messages. This paper has shown that, the majority of people who could afford the prices of ITNs and who knew where to obtain the insecticides did not necessarily buy them. This suggests that, although people tend to report cost-related factors as a barrier against the use of ITNs, there are other critical concerns at work. Without underestimating the practical factors, our study have recommended to consider critical examinations of those other concerns that hinder optimal utilization of ITN for malaria control, and the basis for those concerns.

  16. Exploring Levels of Job Satisfaction among Teachers in Public Secondary Schools in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Msuya, Ombeni William

    2016-01-01

    A case study on the role of extrinsic factors (hygiene factors) and socio-demographic factors in determining job satisfaction among teachers in public secondary schools in Tanzania was undertaken. Biographical variables pertaining to teachers' age, sex, marital status and work experience were investigated to determine whether they had any…

  17. Higher Education as an Instrument of Social Integration in Tanzania: Challenges and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mkude, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In developing countries, higher education is a powerful instrument for social mobility and economic prosperity. An in-depth study of the relationship between higher education and certain equity issues has revealed that in Ghana and Tanzania there is inadequate effort to widen higher education participation to include traditionally disadvantaged…

  18. Stakeholders' opinions and questions regarding the anticipated malaria vaccine in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mtenga, Sally; Kimweri, Angela; Romore, Idda; Ali, Ali; Exavery, Amon; Sicuri, Elisa; Tanner, Marcel; Abdulla, Salim; Lusingu, John; Kafuruki, Shubi

    2016-04-05

    Within the context of combined interventions, malaria vaccine may provide additional value in malaria prevention. Stakeholders' perspectives are thus critical for informed recommendation of the vaccine in Tanzania. This paper presents the views of stakeholders with regards to malaria vaccine in 12 Tanzanian districts. Quantitative and qualitative methods were employed. A structured questionnaire was administered to 2123 mothers of under five children. Forty-six in-depth interviews and 12 focus group discussions were conducted with teachers, religious leaders, community health workers, health care professionals, and scientists. Quantitative data analysis involved frequency distributions and cross tabulations using Chi square test to determine the association between malaria vaccine acceptability and independent variables. Qualitative data were analysed thematically. Overall, 84.2% of the mothers had perfect acceptance of malaria vaccine. Acceptance varied significantly according to religion, occupation, tribe and region (p < 0.001). Ninety two percent reported that they will accept the malaria vaccine despite the need to continue using insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), while 88.4% reported that they will accept malaria vaccine even if their children get malaria less often than non-vaccinated children. Qualitative results revealed that the positive opinions towards malaria vaccine were due to a need for additional malaria prevention strategies and expectations that the vaccine will reduce visits to the health facility, deaths, malaria episodes and treatment-related expenses. Vaccine related questions included its side effects, efficacy, protective duration, composition, interaction with other medications, provision schedule, availability to the pregnant women, mode of administration (oral or injection?) and whether a child born of HIV virus or with a chronic illness will be eligible for the vaccine? Stakeholders had high acceptance and positive opinions towards the

  19. Integrating interannual climate variability forecasts into weather-indexed crop insurance. The case of Malawi, Kenya and Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicarelli, M.; Giannini, A.; Osgood, D.

    2009-12-01

    In this study we explore the potential for re-insurance schemes built on regional climatic forecasts. We focus on micro-insurance contracts indexed on precipitation in 9 villages in Kenya, Tanzania (Eastern Africa) and Malawi (Southern Africa), and analyze the precipitation patterns and payouts resulting from El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The inability to manage future climate risk represents a “poverty trap” for several African regions. Weather shocks can potentially destabilize not only household, but also entire countries. Governments in drought-prone countries, donors and relief agencies are becoming aware of the importance to develop an ex-ante risk management framework for weather risk. Joint efforts to develop innovative mechanisms to spread and pool risk such as microinsurance and microcredit are currently being designed in several developing countries. While ENSO is an important component in modulating the rainfall regime in tropical Africa, the micro-insurance experiments currently under development to address drought risk among smallholder farmers in this region do not take into account ENSO monitoring or forecasting yet. ENSO forecasts could be integrated in the contracts and reinsurance schemes could be designed at the continental scale taking advantage of the different impact of ENSO on different regions. ENSO is associated to a bipolar precipitation pattern in Southern and Eastern Africa. La Niña years (i.e. Cold ENSO Episodes) are characterized by dry climate in Eastern Africa and wet climate in Southern Africa. During El Niño (or Warm Episode) the precipitation dipole is inverted, and Eastern Africa experiences increased probability for above normal rainfall (Halpert and Ropelewski, 1992, Journal of Climate). Our study represents the first exercise in trying to include ENSO forecasts in micro weather index insurance contract design. We analyzed the contracts payouts with respect to climate variability. In particular (i) we simulated

  20. The impact of rapid population growth, expanding urbanisation, and other factors on development in sub-Saharan Africa: the contrasting responses of Tanzania and Kenya.

    PubMed

    Huth, M J

    1984-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of the twin factors of rapid population growth and expanding urbanization on social and economic development in sub-Saharan Africa and compares policies that have been developed in Tanzania and Kenya in response to these factors. The principal consequences of overpopulation and overurbanization have been economic stagnation and physical and cultural malaise in urban population centers. Between 1960-80, per capita incomes in 19 countries of sub-Saharan Africa grew by less than 1%/year and 15 countries recorded a negative rate of growth in per capita income during the 1970s. Urban populations have increased at at overall rate of 6%/year as sub-Saharan Africans have migrated to cities in search of employment. Few national governments in the region have formulated longterm strategies to deal effectively with this double-faceted development constraint or have integrated new urban populations into the national economy. tanzania's development strategy is focused on the goals of socialism, rural development, and self-reliance. Urban development has remained a residual item in Tanzania's national development process, despite the fact that the urban population increased from 5.7% of the total population in 1967 to 12.7% in 1978 and is projected to comprise 24.7% by the year 2000. In contrast, Kenya, whose proportion of urban population increased from 9% to 15% between 1962 and 1979, has pursued an urban-focused development strategy. The strong urban-rural linkages of the economy have focused migration to the secondary towns. The national development plan includes urban spatial, employment, and investment policies. Although this plan constitutes a good basis for future planning, the magnitude of the urban problem is beyond the capabilities of the central government and requires the development of local capabilities.

  1. Internet Access and Usage by Secondary School Students in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarimo, Ronald; Kavishe, George

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to report results of a study on the investigation of the Internet access and usage by secondary school students in Morogoro municipality in Tanzania. A simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 students from six schools. The data was collected through a questionnaire. A quantitative approach using the…

  2. Country watch: Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kishe, F; Mtweve, S P

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the approach of the KIWAKKUKI women's group in helping to change sex behavior among youth and to inform community women's groups in Moshi, Tanzania. The group concluded after four years of experience that people change risky sexual behavior most when participatory methods based on local culture are used in educational programs. KIWAKKUKI established discussion groups for primary and secondary school students in the schools. The approach included use of videos, clothboards, chalkboards, and sometimes role plays. The mothers engaged in discussions with children other than their own, which reduced some embarrassment. Sex education discussion groups were also conducted among church youth and community women's groups. Monthly meetings drew a membership of about 356 persons, of whom 30-50 were trainers and advocates. Some of the topics of conversation were knowledge about physical bodies and personalities, assertiveness and the ability to say "no," laws and regulations relating to marriage, inheritance, sexual harassment, abuse, and AIDS. Other topics focused on the cultural understanding of circumcision, teeth extraction, wife inheritance, and women's income generation. The basic premise of their operation is empowerment of women and the belief that women can make a difference in changing culture. Men, who indicated an interest in forming a group, were redirected to their own group formation.

  3. New Landsat derived cropland mask for Tanzania using 2010-2013 time series and decision tree classifier methods.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justice, C. J.

    2016-12-01

    Eighty percent of Tanzania's population is involved in the agriculture sector. Despite this national dependence, agricultural reporting is minimal and monitoring efforts are in their infancy. The cropland mask developed through this study provides an underpinning for agricultural monitoring by informing analysis of crop conditions, dispersion, and intensity at a national scale. Tanzania is dominated by smallholder agricultural systems with an average field size of less than one hectare. At this field scale, previous classifications of agricultural land in Tanzania using MODIS coarse resolution data are insufficient to inform a working monitoring system. The nation-wide cropland mask in this study was developed using composited Landsat tiles from a 2010-2013 time-series. Decision tree classifier methods were used in the study with representative training areas collected for agriculture and no agriculture using appropriate indices to separate these classes. Validation was undertaken using a random sample and high resolution satellite images to compare agriculture and no agriculture samples from the study area. The cropland mask had high producer and user accuracy in the no agriculture class at 95.0% and 97.35% respectively. There was high producer accuracy in the agriculture class at 80.2% and moderate user accuracy at 67.9%. The principal metrics used for the classification support the theme that agriculture in Tanzania and Sub-Saharan Africa are less vegetated than surrounding areas and most similar to bare ground - emphasizing the need for improved access to inputs and irrigation to enhance productivity and smallholder livelihoods. The techniques used in this study were successful for developing a cropland mask and have the potential to be adapted for other countries, allowing targeted monitoring efforts to improve food security, market price, and inform agricultural policy.

  4. Effects of an entertainment-education radio soap opera on family planning behavior in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Rogers, E M; Vaughan, P W; Swalehe, R M; Rao, N; Svenkerud, P; Sood, S

    1999-09-01

    An entertainment-education radio soap opera introduced in Tanzania in 1993 was evaluated by means of a field experimental design in which the radio program was broadcast by seven mainland stations of Radio Tanzania. An eighth station broadcast alternative programming from 1993 to 1995, its listenership serving as a comparison area in which contemporaneous changes in family planning adoption were measured. The soap opera was subsequently broadcast nationwide from 1995 to 1997. Data about the effects of the radio soap opera were gathered in five annual surveys of about 2,750 households in the comparison and the treatment areas and from a sample of new family planning adopters in 79 health clinics. The soap opera had strong behavioral effects on family planning adoption; it increased listeners' self-efficacy regarding family planning adoption and influenced listeners to talk with their spouses and peers about contraception.

  5. Traditional health practitioner and the scientist: bridging the gap in contemporary health research in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mbwambo, Z H; Mahunnah, R L A; Kayombo, E J

    2007-05-01

    Traditional health practitioners (THPs) and their role in traditional medicine health care system are worldwide acknowledged. Trend in the use of Traditional medicine (TRM) and Alternative or Complementary medicine (CAM) is increasing due to epidemics like HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis and other diseases like cancer. Despite the wide use of TRM, genuine concern from the public and scientists/biomedical heath practitioners (BHP) on efficacy, safety and quality of TRM has been raised. While appreciating and promoting the use of TRM, the World Health Organization (WHO), and WHO/Afro, in response to the registered challenges has worked modalities to be adopted by Member States as a way to addressing these concerns. Gradually, through the WHO strategy, TRM policy and legal framework has been adopted in most of the Member States in order to accommodate sustainable collaboration between THPs and the scientist/BHP. Research protocols on how to evaluate traditional medicines for safety and efficacy for priority diseases in Africa have been formulated. Creation of close working relationship between practitioners of both health care systems is strongly recommended so as to revamp trust among each other and help to access information and knowledge from both sides through appropriate modalities. In Tanzania, gaps that exist between THPs and scientists/BHP in health research have been addressed through recognition of THPs among stakeholders in the country's health sector as stipulated in the National Health Policy, the Policy and Act of TRM and CAM. Parallel to that, several research institutions in TRM collaborating with THPs are operating. Various programmed research projects in TRM that has involved THPs and other stakeholders are ongoing, aiming at complementing the two health care systems. This paper discusses global, regional and national perspectives of TRM development and efforts that have so far been directed towards bridging the gap between THPs and scientist/BHP in

  6. The challenges of achieving high training coverage for IMCI: case studies from Kenya and Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mushi, Hildegalda P; Mullei, Kethi; Macha, Janet; Wafula, Frank; Borghi, Josephine; Goodman, Catherine; Gilson, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    Health worker training is a key component of the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI). However, training coverage remains low in many countries. We conducted in-depth case studies in two East African countries to examine the factors underlying low training coverage 10 years after IMCI had been adopted as policy. A document review and in-depth semi-structured interviews with stakeholders at facility, district, regional/provincial and national levels in two districts in Kenya (Homa Bay and Malindi) and Tanzania (Bunda and Tarime) were carried out in 2007–08. Bunda and Malindi achieved higher levels of training coverage (44% and 25%) compared with Tarime and Homa Bay (5% and 13%). Key factors allowing the first two districts to perform better were: strong district leadership and personal commitment to IMCI, which facilitated access to external funding and encouraged local-level policy adaptation; sensitization and training of district health managers; and lower staff turnover. However, IMCI training coverage remained well below target levels across all sites. The main barrier to expanding coverage was the cost of training due to its duration, the number of facilitators and its residential nature. Mechanisms for financing IMCI also restricted district capacity to raise funds. In Tanzania, districts could not spend more than 10% of their budgets on training. In Kenya, limited financial decentralization meant that district managers had to rely on donors for financial support. Critically, the low priority given to IMCI at national and international levels also limited the expansion of training. Levels of domestic and donor support for IMCI have diminished over time in favour of vertical programmes, partly due to the difficulty in monitoring and measuring the impact of an integrated intervention like IMCI. Alternative, lower cost methods of IMCI training need to be promoted, and greater advocacy for IMCI is needed both nationally and internationally. PMID

  7. District health managers' perceptions of supervision in Malawi and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Susan; Kamwendo, Francis; Masanja, Honorati; de Pinho, Helen; Waxman, Rachel; Boostrom, Camille; McAuliffe, Eilish

    2013-09-05

    Mid-level cadres are being used to address human resource shortages in many African contexts, but insufficient and ineffective human resource management is compromising their performance. Supervision plays a key role in performance and motivation, but is frequently characterised by periodic inspection and control, rather than support and feedback to improve performance. This paper explores the perceptions of district health management teams in Tanzania and Malawi on their role as supervisors and on the challenges to effective supervision at the district level. This qualitative study took place as part of a broader project, "Health Systems Strengthening for Equity: The Power and Potential of Mid-Level Providers". Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 district health management team personnel in Malawi and 37 council health team members in Tanzania. The interviews covered a range of human resource management issues, including supervision and performance assessment, staff job descriptions and roles, motivation and working conditions. Participants displayed varying attitudes to the nature and purpose of the supervision process. Much of the discourse in Malawi centred on inspection and control, while interviewees in Tanzania were more likely to articulate a paradigm characterised by support and improvement. In both countries, facility level performance metrics dominated. The lack of competency-based indicators or clear standards to assess individual health worker performance were considered problematic. Shortages of staff, at both district and facility level, were described as a major impediment to carrying out regular supervisory visits. Other challenges included conflicting and multiple responsibilities of district health team staff and financial constraints. Supervision is a central component of effective human resource management. Policy level attention is crucial to ensure a systematic, structured process that is based on common understandings of the

  8. District health managers’ perceptions of supervision in Malawi and Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mid-level cadres are being used to address human resource shortages in many African contexts, but insufficient and ineffective human resource management is compromising their performance. Supervision plays a key role in performance and motivation, but is frequently characterised by periodic inspection and control, rather than support and feedback to improve performance. This paper explores the perceptions of district health management teams in Tanzania and Malawi on their role as supervisors and on the challenges to effective supervision at the district level. Methods This qualitative study took place as part of a broader project, “Health Systems Strengthening for Equity: The Power and Potential of Mid-Level Providers”. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 district health management team personnel in Malawi and 37 council health team members in Tanzania. The interviews covered a range of human resource management issues, including supervision and performance assessment, staff job descriptions and roles, motivation and working conditions. Results Participants displayed varying attitudes to the nature and purpose of the supervision process. Much of the discourse in Malawi centred on inspection and control, while interviewees in Tanzania were more likely to articulate a paradigm characterised by support and improvement. In both countries, facility level performance metrics dominated. The lack of competency-based indicators or clear standards to assess individual health worker performance were considered problematic. Shortages of staff, at both district and facility level, were described as a major impediment to carrying out regular supervisory visits. Other challenges included conflicting and multiple responsibilities of district health team staff and financial constraints. Conclusion Supervision is a central component of effective human resource management. Policy level attention is crucial to ensure a systematic, structured process that

  9. Evaluation of a Short-term Training Program in Bedside Emergency Ultrasound in Southwestern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Mark; Brown, Heather A; McCoy, Chloé; Bashaka, Prosper

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of a short-term training program in emergency ultrasound on physician skills and attitudes in southwestern Tanzania. Eight registrar physicians at Mbeya Zonal Referral Hospital (Mbeya, Tanzania) underwent a 5-day course in bedside emergency ultrasound, focusing primarily on the focused assessment with sonography for trauma examination, including didactic sessions, practical sessions, and on-job training. The impact on ultrasound knowledge was assessed by pretest and posttest evaluations. Provider skill was evaluated by a standardized observed simulated patient encounter. Attitudes toward ultrasound training, utility, and self-confidence were assessed by a post-training questionnaire. All 8 physicians who began the training completed the course and successfully passed their objective structured clinical examination. There was a statistically significant improvement in written ultrasound test scores from 31% to 66% (P < .01) after the course. Most trainees felt confident performing and interpreting a basic focused assessment with sonography for trauma examination at the end of the course, and 7 of 8 stated that they would consider paying tuition for similar courses in the future. Main concerns with the course revolved around insufficient time dedicated to practicing under supervision. Registrar physicians in Tanzania can effectively learn basic emergency ultrasound skills in a short-term training program. Similar future programs may consider heavier emphasis on practical hands-on training with experts. Ongoing data collection is required to understand the true impact of such training on long-term ultrasound use and patient outcomes. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  10. Antecedents of Continued Usage Intentions of Web-Based Learning Management System in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lwoga, Edda Tandi; Komba, Mercy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine factors that predict students' continued usage intention of web-based learning management systems (LMS) in Tanzania, with a specific focus on the School of Business of Mzumbe University. Specifically, the study investigated major predictors of actual usage and continued usage intentions of…

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of Common Mental Disorders among Mothers of Young Children in Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Uriyo, Jacqueline G.; Abubakar, Amina; Swai, Mark; Msuya, Sia E.; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2013-01-01

    Background Although poor maternal mental health is a major public health problem, with detrimental effects on the individual, her children and society, information on its correlates in low-income countries is sparse. Aims This study investigates the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) among at-risk mothers, and explores its associations with sociodemographic factors. Methods This population-based survey of mothers of children aged 0–36 months used the 14-item Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ). Mothers whose response was “yes” to 8 or more items on the scale were defined as “at risk of CMD.” Results Of the 1,922 mothers (15–48 years), 28.8% were at risk of CMD. Risk of CMD was associated with verbal abuse, physical abuse, a partner who did not help with the care of the child, being in a polygamous relationship, a partner with low levels of education, and a partner who smoked cigarettes. Cohabiting appeared to be protective. Conclusions Taken together, our results indicate the significance of the quality of relations with one’s partner in shaping maternal mental health. The high proportion of mothers who are at risk of CMD emphasizes the importance of developing evidence-based mental health programmes as part of the care package aimed at improving maternal well-being in Tanzania and other similar settings. PMID:23844249

  12. Understanding the Role of Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets in Tanzania's Health System.

    PubMed

    Embrey, Martha; Vialle-Valentin, Catherine; Dillip, Angel; Kihiyo, Bernard; Mbwasi, Romuald; Semali, Innocent A; Chalker, John C; Liana, Jafary; Lieber, Rachel; Johnson, Keith; Rutta, Edmund; Kimatta, Suleiman; Shekalaghe, Elizabeth; Valimba, Richard; Ross-Degnan, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    People in many low-income countries access medicines from retail drug shops. In Tanzania, a public-private partnership launched in 2003 used an accreditation approach to improve access to quality medicines and pharmaceutical services in underserved areas. The government scaled up the accredited drug dispensing outlet (ADDO) program nationally, with over 9,000 shops now accredited. This study assessed the relationships between community members and their sources of health care and medicines, particularly antimicrobials, with a specific focus on the role ADDOs play in the health care system. Using mixed methods, we collected data in four regions. We surveyed 1,185 households and audited 96 ADDOs and 84 public/nongovernmental health facilities using a list of 17 tracer drugs. To determine practices in health facilities, we interviewed 1,365 exiting patients. To assess dispensing practices, mystery shoppers visited 306 ADDOs presenting one of three scenarios (102 each) about a child's respiratory symptoms. Of 614 household members with a recent acute illness, 73% sought outside care-30% at a public facility and 31% at an ADDO. However, people bought medicines more often at ADDOs no matter who recommended the treatment; of the 581 medicines that people had received, 49% came from an ADDO. Although health facilities and ADDOs had similar availability of antimicrobials, ADDOs had more pediatric formulations available (p<0.001). The common perception was that drugs from ADDOs are more expensive, but the difference in the median cost to treat pneumonia was relatively minimal (US$0.26 in a public facility and US$0.30 in an ADDO). Over 20% of households said they had someone with a chronic condition, with 93% taking medication, but ADDOs are allowed to sell very few chronic care-related medicines. ADDO dispensers are trained to refer complicated cases to a health facility, and notably, 99% of mystery shoppers presenting a pneumonia scenario received an antimicrobial (54%), a

  13. Sale of fluoroquinolones in northern Tanzania: a potential threat for fluoroquinolone use in tuberculosis treatment.

    PubMed

    van den Boogaard, Jossy; Semvua, Hadija H; Boeree, Martin J; Aarnoutse, Rob E; Kibiki, Gibson S

    2010-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones have a potential role in shortening tuberculosis (TB) treatment duration. They are currently used in the treatment of other infections. This has raised concerns about development of mycobacterial resistance. The current study evaluates the sale of fluoroquinolones (among other antibacterials) in Moshi, Tanzania, a country with one of the highest burdens of TB in the world. Trained pharmacy assistants registered the sale of fluoroquinolones during February and March 2009 to outpatients in Moshi in all 14 pharmacies that are authorized to sell antibacterials for systemic use. The sale of all antibacterials of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) J01 class was expressed in defined daily doses (DDDs) per 1000 inhabitants per day (DID). The availability of fluoroquinolones in drug outlets that are not authorized to sell antibacterials for systemic use was assessed in 15 randomly selected outlets in Moshi. The sale of antibacterials to outpatients in Moshi by authorized pharmacies was 4.99 DID. The sale of fluoroquinolones was 0.62 DID (12% of total antibacterial sales). Ciprofloxacin was available in all 15 unauthorized drug outlets. The substantial sales of fluoroquinolones by authorized pharmacies and the wide availability of fluoroquinolones in unauthorized drug outlets in Moshi constitute a challenge to the use of fluoroquinolones in TB treatment in Tanzania. Control of antibacterial use in Tanzania requires the implementation of surveillance systems for antibacterial use and resistance, and adequate restriction of antibacterial sales to authorized pharmacies only.

  14. Occupational injuries and fatalities in a tanzanite mine: Need to improve workers safety in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Boniface, Respicious; Museru, Lawrence; Munthali, Victoria; Lett, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Work related injuries are common, and the mining industry accounts for a significant proportion of these injuries. Tanzania is among the countries with high rates of mining injuries, nevertheless pre-hospital care is almost non existant and health care service deliveries are poor. This study sought to identify factors associated with injuries and fatalities among miners in Mererani, Tanzania. Methods A Cross - Sectional study of miners who sustained injuries and seen at Mererani health centre between January 2009 and May 2012. Results In the selected period 248 injury patients were seen. All were males, and 54% were between 18 - 30 years age-group. Almost all (98.7%) didn’t use protective gears at work, and worked for more than 12 hours daily. Falling rocks were the leading cause of injury (18.2%), and majority sustained multiple injuries (33%). Of the patients seen, 41.3% died. The following were more likely to die than others; Primary education (p = 0.04), Less than 5 years work experience (p = 0.000), unintentional injuries (p = 0.000), fall injuries (p = 0.000) and sustaining multiple injuries (p = 0.000). Conclusion The burden of injuries and fatalities demonstrated in this study, point to the need for implementation and monitoring of the use of safety equipment and operating procedures of the mines by government and other regulatory authorities. Initiation of pre hospital care at the mines and improved emergency medical service delivery at health centers in Tanzania. PMID:24778757

  15. Late Quaternary vegetation reconstruction from the Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumbi, C. T.; Marchant, R.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Wooller, M. J.

    2008-03-01

    Pollen, spore, macrofossil and stable isotope (C and N) analyses from a 266-cm sediment core collected from a swamp on the Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania, are used to reconstruct vegetation and environmental history. An estimated time scale based on five 14C ages records approximately 38,000 yr. This palaeorecord is the first from this biodiversity hotspot and importantly extends through the last glacial maximum (LGM). The altitudinal transition from montane to upper montane forest shifted from 1700-1800 m (38,000 14C yr BP) to 1800-1900 m (35,000-29,000 14C yr BP). From 29,000 to 10,000 14C yr BP, it shifted from 1850-1950 m across the LGM to 1750-1800 m (during 10,000-3500 14C yr BP), and to present-day elevations at 2000 m during the last 3500 14C yr BP. The relative ecosystem stability across the LGM may be explained by the Indian Ocean's influence in maintaining continuous moist forest cover during a period of East African regional climate aridity. During the late Holocene, presence of abundant coprophilous fungi and algal blooms demonstrates increasing human impact. Neurospora spores indicate frequent fires, coinciding with clear signals of decline in Podocarpus and Psychotria trees that possibly represent selective logging.

  16. Knowledge, attitudes and practices on Rift Valley fever among agro pastoral communities in Kongwa and Kilombero districts, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Shabani, Sasita S; Ezekiel, Mangi J; Mohamed, Mohamed; Moshiro, Candida S

    2015-08-21

    Rift valley fever (RVF) is a re-emerging viral vector-borne disease with rapid global socio-economic impact. A large RVF outbreak occurred in Tanzania in 2007 and affected more than half of the regions with high (47 %) case fatality rate. Little is known about RVF and its dynamics. A cross sectional study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding RVF in Kongwa and Kilombero districts, Tanzania. We conducted a cross sectional survey among a randomly selected sample of individuals in 2011. We administered questionnaires to collect data on demographic characteristics, knowledge on symptoms, mode of transmission, prevention, attitudes and health seeking practices. A total of 463 community members participated in this study. The mean (±SD) age was 39.8 ± 14.4 years and 238 (51.4 %) were female. Majority of respondents had heard of RVF. However, only 8.8 % knew that mosquitoes were transmitting vectors. Male respondents were more likely to have greater knowledge about RVF. A small proportion mentioned clinical signs and symptoms of RVF in animals while 73.7 % mentioned unhealthy practices related to handling and consumption of dead animals. Thorough boiling of milk and cooking of meat were commonly mentioned as preventive measures for RVF. Majority (74.6 %) sought care for febrile illness at health facilities. Few (24.3 %) reported the use of protective gears to handle dead/sick animal while 15.5 % were consuming dead animals. Our study highlights the need to address the limited knowledge about RVF and promoting appropriate and timely health seeking practices. Rift valley fever outbreaks can be effectively managed with collaborative efforts of lay and professional communities with a shared perception that it poses a serious threat to public and animal health. The fact that this study was conducted in "high risk transmission areas" warrants further inquiry in other geographic regions with relatively low risk of RVF.

  17. Comparing the job satisfaction and intention to leave of different categories of health workers in Tanzania, Malawi, and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Blaauw, Duane; Ditlopo, Prudence; Maseko, Fresier; Chirwa, Maureen; Mwisongo, Aziza; Bidwell, Posy; Thomas, Steve; Normand, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Background Job satisfaction is an important determinant of health worker motivation, retention, and performance, all of which are critical to improving the functioning of health systems in low- and middle-income countries. A number of small-scale surveys have measured the job satisfaction and intention to leave of individual health worker cadres in different settings, but there are few multi-country and multi-cadre comparative studies. Objective The objective of this study was to compare the job satisfaction and intention to leave of different categories of health workers in Tanzania, Malawi, and South Africa. Methods We undertook a cross-sectional survey of a stratified cluster sample of 2,220 health workers, 564 from Tanzania, 939 from Malawi, and 717 from South Africa. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire, which included demographic information, a 10-item job satisfaction scale, and one question on intention to leave. Multiple regression was used to identify significant predictors of job satisfaction and intention to leave. Results There were statistically significant differences in job satisfaction and intention to leave between the three countries. Approximately 52.1% of health workers in South Africa were satisfied with their jobs compared to 71% from Malawi and 82.6% from Tanzania (χ2=140.3, p<0.001). 18.8% of health workers in Tanzania and 26.5% in Malawi indicated that they were actively seeking employment elsewhere, compared to 41.4% in South Africa (χ2=83.5, p<0.001). The country differences were confirmed by multiple regression. The study also confirmed that job satisfaction is statistically related to intention to leave. Conclusions We have shown differences in the levels of job satisfaction and intention to leave between different groups of health workers from Tanzania, Malawi, and South Africa. Our results caution against generalising about the effectiveness of interventions in different contexts and highlight the need for less

  18. Pedagogical Practices in Early Childhood Education and Care in Tanzania: Policy and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mligo, Ignasia; Mitchell, Linda; Bell, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine current pedagogical practices in early childhood education and care in Tanzania, a reflection from policy and practices to the implementation of Learner-Centred Pedagogy and to put forward possible improvements for the future. In 2005 a new pre-school education curriculum introduced a learner-centred…

  19. Adult Literacy in Africa--Nigeria, Rhodesia, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania. Literacy Bibliographies 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Inst. for Adult Literacy Methods, Teheran (Iran).

    Approximately 200 items are listed in this bibliography of materials pertaining to adult literacy in Nigeria, Rhodesia, South Africa, the Sudan, and Tanzania. The listed materials are categorized according to country and deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) adult education and adaptation to change in Nigeria; (2) adult…

  20. A Bibliography on Rural Development in Tanzania. MSU Rural Development Paper No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocher, James E.; Fleisher, Beverly

    Rural development is understood to mean both the increased productivity of agriculture and other rural economic activities and the enhancement of the material well-being of the rural people (who comprise about 90% of Tanzania's 16 million population) through education, improved health, and better nutrition. Seven hundred and sixty-one books,…

  1. Globalisation, Language and Education: A Comparative Study of the United States and Tanzania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy-Campbell, Zaline M.

    2001-01-01

    Focusing on Tanzania and the United States, this article examines the fallacy of a monolingual, English-only policy in education. It also examines the philosophy surrounding this debate and considers the detrimental effects upon students of attempting to impose a monolingual policy. Discusses the role of educational language in the quest for…

  2. Marketing of Information in the Water Sector in Tanzania: A Strategy for MAJIDOC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Benedict P.

    1992-01-01

    Outlines a strategy for marketing the information products and services of the Water and Sanitation Information and Documentation Centre (MAJIDOC) of the Water Resources Institute in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Objectives of the marketing strategy are explained, ideas for internal and external promotion are described, and a budget plan is included.…

  3. Cost-effectiveness of improved treatment services for sexually transmitted diseases in preventing HIV-1 infection in Mwanza Region, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Gilson, L; Mkanje, R; Grosskurth, H; Mosha, F; Picard, J; Gavyole, A; Todd, J; Mayaud, P; Swai, R; Fransen, L; Mabey, D; Mills, A; Hayes, R

    A community-randomised trial was undertaken to assess the impact, cost, and cost-effectiveness of averting HIV-1 infection through improved management of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) by primary-health-care workers in Mwanza Region, Tanzania. The impact of improved treatment services for STDs on HIV-1 incidence was assessed by comparison of six intervention communities with six matched communities. We followed up a random cohort of 12,537 adults aged 15-54 years for 2 years to record incidence of HIV-1 infection. The total and incremental costs of the intervention were estimated (ingredients approach) and used to calculate the total cost per case treated, the incremental cost per HIV-1 infection averted, and the incremental cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) saved. During 2 years of follow-up, 11,632 cases of STDs were treated in the intervention health units. The baseline prevalence of HIV-1 infection was 4%. The incidence of HIV-1 infection during the 2 years was 1.16% in the intervention communities and 1.86% in the comparison communities. An estimated 252 HIV-1 infections were averted each year. The total annual cost of the intervention was US$59,060 (1993 prices), equivalent to $0.39 per head of population served. The cost for STD case treated was $10.15, of which the drug cost was $2.11. The incremental annual cost of the intervention was $54,839, equivalent to $217.62 per HIV-1 infection averted and $10.33 per DALY saved (based on Tanzanian life expectancy) or $9.45 per DALY saved (based on the assumptions of the World Development Report). In a sensitivity analysis of factors influencing cost-effectiveness, cost per DALY saved ranged from $2.51 to $47.86. Improved management of STDs in rural health units reduced the incidence of HIV-1 infection in the general population by about 40%. The estimated cost-effectiveness of this intervention ($10 per DALY) compares favourably with that of, for example, childhood immunisation programmes ($12

  4. Trichuris trichiura infection and its relation to environmental factors in Mbeya region, Tanzania: A cross-sectional, population-based study.

    PubMed

    Manz, Kirsi M; Clowes, Petra; Kroidl, Inge; Kowuor, Dickens O; Geldmacher, Christof; Ntinginya, Nyanda E; Maboko, Leonard; Hoelscher, Michael; Saathoff, Elmar

    2017-01-01

    The intestinal nematode Trichuris trichiura is among the most common causes of human infectious disease worldwide. As for other soil-transmitted nematodes, its reproductive success and thus prevalence and intensity of infection in a given area strongly depend on environmental conditions. Characterization of the influence of environmental factors can therefore aid to identify infection hot spots for targeted mass treatment. We analyzed data from a cross-sectional survey including 6234 participants from nine distinct study sites in Mbeya region, Tanzania. A geographic information system was used to combine remotely sensed and individual data, which were analyzed using uni- and multivariable Poisson regression. Household clustering was accounted for and when necessary, fractional polynomials were used to capture non-linear relationships between T. trichiura infection prevalence and environmental variables. T. trichiura infection was restricted to the Kyela site, close to Lake Nyasa with only very few cases in the other eight sites. The prevalence of T. trichiura infection in Kyela was 26.6% (95% confidence interval (CI) 23.9 to 29.6%). Multivariable models revealed a positive association of infection with denser vegetation (prevalence ratio (PR) per 0.1 EVI units = 2.12, CI 1.28 to 3.50) and inverse associations with rainfall (PR per 100 mm = 0.54, CI 0.44 to 0.67) and elevation (PR per meter = 0.89, CI 0.86 to 0.93) while adjusting for age and previous worm treatment. Slope of the terrain was modelled non-linearly and also showed a positive association with T. trichiura infection (p-value p<0.001). Higher prevalences of T. trichiura infection were only found in Kyela, a study site characterized by denser vegetation, high rainfall, low elevation and flat terrain. But even within this site, we found significant influences of vegetation density, rainfall, elevation and slope on T. trichiura infection. The inverse association of rainfall with infection in Kyela is likely

  5. Quantitative market survey of non-woody plants sold at Kariakoo Market in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Posthouwer, Chantal; Veldman, Sarina; Abihudi, Siri; Otieno, Joseph N; van Andel, Tinde R; de Boer, Hugo J

    2018-04-30

    In Tanzania, traditional medicine plays a significant role in health care and local economies based on the harvesting, trade and sale of medicinal plant products. The majority of this plant material is said to originate from wild sources, and both traditional healers and vendors are concerned about the increasing scarcity of certain species. A market survey of non-powdered, non-woody medicinal plants was conducted at Kariakoo Market in Dar es Salaam, the major hub for medicinal plant trade in Tanzania, to assess sustainability of traded herbal medicine. For this study, fresh and dried herbs, seeds and fruits were collected and interviews were conducted to obtain information on vernacular names, preparation methods, monthly sales, uses and prices. Bundles of herbal medicine offered for sale were weighed and counted to calculate the value and volumes of daily stock at the market. A total of 71 medicinal plant products belonging to 62 to 67 different species from at least 41 different plant families were identified. We identified 45 plant products to species level, 20 products to genus level and four to family level. Plant species most encountered at the market were Suregada zanzibariensis, Myrothamnus flabellifolia and Sclerocarya birrea. The major use categories reported by the vendors were ritual purposes, digestive disorders and women's health. Annual sales are estimated to be in excess of 30 t and close to 200,000 USD, and trade in herbal medicine at Kariakoo Market provides subsistence income to many local vendors. A large diversity of wild-harvested plant species is traded as medicinal products in Tanzania, including species listed on CITES Appendices. Identifying and monitoring temporal changes in availability per season and from year to year will reveal which species are most affected by this trade, and help relevant authorities in Tanzania to find alternative sources of income for dependent stakeholders and initiate targeted efforts to protect threatened

  6. East African and Kuunga Orogenies in Tanzania - South Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, H.; Hauzenberger, C. A.; Tenczer, V.

    2012-04-01

    Tanzania and southern Kenya hold a key position for reconstructing Gondwana consolidation because here different orogen belts with different tectonic styles interfere. The older, ca. 650-620 Ma East African Orogeny resulted from the amalgamation of arc terranes in the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) and continental collision between East African pieces and parts of the Azania terrane in the south (Collins and Pisarevsky, 2005). The change form arc suturing to continental collision settings is found in southern Kenya where southernmost arcs of the ANS conjoin with thickened continental margin suites of the Eastern Granulite Belt. The younger ca. 570-530 Ma Kuunga orogeny heads from the Damara - Zambesi - Irumide Belts (De Waele et al., 2006) over Tanzania - Mozambique to southern India and clashes with the East African orogen in southern-central Tanzania. Two transitional orogen settings may be defined, (1) that between island arcs and inverted passive continental margin within the East African Orogen and, (2) that between N-S trending East African and W-E trending Kuungan orogenies. The Neoproterozoic island arc suites of SE-Kenya are exposed as a narrow stripe between western Azania and the Eastern Granulite belt. This suture is a steep, NNW stretched belt that aligns roughly with the prominent southern ANS shear zones that converge at the southern tip of the ANS (Athi and Aswa shear zones). Oblique convergence resulted in low-vorticity sinstral shear during early phases of deformation. Syn-magmatic and syn-tectonic textures are compatible with deformation at granulite metamorphic conditions and rocks exhumed quickly during ongoing transcurrent motion. The belt is typified as wrench tectonic belt with horizontal northwards flow of rocks within deeper portions of an island arc. The adjacent Eastern Granulite Nappe experienced westward directed, subhorizontal, low-vorticity, high temperature flow at partly extreme metamorphic conditions (900°C, 1.2 to 1.4 GPa

  7. Sickle cell disease in Africa: an overview of the integrated approach to health, research, education and advocacy in Tanzania, 2004–2016

    PubMed Central

    Tluway, Furahini; Makani, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Summary Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the single most important genetic cause of childhood mortality globally. Tanzania has one of the highest annual births of SCD individuals in the world, estimated to reach 11 000 births a year. Without intervention, 50–90% of children will die in childhood. However, cost-effective interventions have the potential to reduce childhood mortality by up to 70%. The effects of SCD are multi-dimensional, ranging from causing high morbidity and mortality, and reducing the quality of life, to imposing a high socio-economic burden on individuals, families and health systems. In the past 12 years, the SCD programme in Tanzania has developed, with local and global partnerships, a systematic framework for comprehensive research that is integrated into providing healthcare, training and advocacy in SCD. This report outlines the approach and achievements of collective initiatives for management and control of SCD in Tanzania. PMID:28295224

  8. Acridine Orange for malaria diagnosis: its diagnostic performance, its promotion and implementation in Tanzania, and the implications for malaria control.

    PubMed

    Keiser, J; Utzinger, J; Premji, Z; Yamagata, Y; Singer, B H

    2002-10-01

    One hundred years ago, Giemsa's stain was employed for the first time for malaria diagnosis. Giemsa staining continues to be the method of choice in most malarious countries, although, in the recent past, several alternatives have been developed that exhibit some advantages. Considerable progress has been made with fluorescent dyes, particularly with Acridine Orange (AO). The literature on the discovery, development and validation of the AO method for malaria diagnosis is reviewed here. Compared with conventional Giemsa staining, AO shows a good diagnostic performance, with sensitivities of 81.3%-100% and specificities of 86.4%-100%. However, sensitivities decrease with lower parasite densities, and species differentiation may occasionally be difficult. The most notable advantage of the AO method over Giemsa staining is its promptness; results are readily available within 3-10 min, whereas Giemsa staining may take 45 min or even longer. This is an important advantage for the organization of health services and the provision of effective treatment of malaria cases. The national malaria control programme of Tanzania, together with the Japan International Co-operation Agency, began to introduce the AO method in Tanzania in 1994. So far, AO staining has been introduced in 70 regional and district hospitals, and 400 laboratory technicians have been trained to use the method. The results of this introduction, which are reviewed here and have several important implications, indicate that AO is a viable alternative technique for the laboratory diagnosis of malaria in highly endemic countries.

  9. Prevalence of Schistosomes and Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Morbidity Associated with Schistosomiasis among Adult Population in Lake Victoria Basin, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Siza, Julius E; Kaatano, Godfrey M; Chai, Jong-Yil; Eom, Keeseon S; Rim, Han-Jong; Yong, Tai-Soon; Min, Duk-Young; Chang, Su Young; Ko, Yunsuk; Changalucha, John M

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to carry out a community survey on schistosomiais and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in order to suggest feasible and effective intervention strategies in Lake Victoria basin, Tanzania. A total of 37 communities selected from 23 districts of the 4 regions in the Lake Victoria basin of Tanzania were involved in the study. From each of the selected locality, 50 adult community members, 25 males and 25 females, were recruited for the study. Each study participant was requested to submit stool and urine specimens. From each stool specimen, duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears were prepared and microscopically examined for Schistosoma mansoni and STH eggs. Urine specimens were processed by the filtration technique and microscopically examined for Schistosoma haematobium eggs. Ultrasound examination for morbidity due to schistosomiasis was performed. Mass treatment was done using praziquantel and albendazole for schistosome and STHs infections, respectively. Out of 1,606 adults who provided stool specimens, 199 (12.4%) were positive for S. mansoni, 349 (21.7%) for hookworms, 133 (8.3%) for Ascaris lumbricoides, and 33 (2.0%) for Trichuris trichiura. Out of 1,400 participants who provided urine specimens, 25 (1.8%) were positive for S. haematobium eggs. Because of the co-endemicity of these afflictions and their impact on vulnerable population groups, the helminthiasis could be simultaneously treated with 2 drugs, praziquantel for schistosomiasis and albendazole for STHs.

  10. Changing practices and shifting meanings of female genital cutting among the Maasai of Arusha and Manyara regions of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Van Bavel, Hannelore; Coene, Gily; Leye, Els

    2017-12-01

    Using mixed methods that combined participant observation and semi-structured in-depth interviews, this study looked at changing practices and shifting meanings of female genital cutting among the Maasai people in Tanzania. The findings suggest that an increasing social pressure to abandon female genital cutting has inspired the hiding of the practice, causing the actual cutting to become detached from its traditional ceremonial connotations. This detaching of cutting from ceremony has created a shift in meanings: the ceremony still carries the meaning of passage into adulthood, while the cutting seems to function as a way of inscribing Maasai identity into the body. The detaching of genital cutting from ceremony offers those willing to continue the practice the opportunity to do so without being prosecuted, and those unwilling to undergo or perform the practice the opportunity to evade it by faking the cutting without being socially sanctioned for it. Findings also suggest changing attitudes towards the practice among the younger generation as the result of education. Maasai culture and the practice of female genital cutting are not static but actively challenged and reinterpreted from within the community, with formally schooled and women taking up leading roles in reshaping gender norms.

  11. Herd- and animal-level risk factors for bovine leptospirosis in Tanga region of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Schoonman, L; Swai, Emanuel Senyael

    2010-10-01

    Leptospirosis is the zoonosis of worldwide distribution and common cause of economic loss and ill health among animals and human populations. A cross-sectional seroprevalence study, using a microscopic agglutination test (MAT) with a threshold titre of >or=1:160, to elucidate disease magnitude, distribution and associated risk factors in cattle in Tanga, Tanzania was conducted from May 2003 to January 2004. Serum (n = 655) samples collected from randomly selected herds (n = 130) were tested for antibodies against four different Leptospira interrogans serovars (Bataviae, Tarassovi, Hardjo and Pomona) used in the agglutination test. Positive titres were detected in 30.3% [95% confidence intervals (CI) = 26.7-33.9] of cattle and 58.5% (95% CI = 49.5-67.1) of herds, respectively. Of the 198 MAT positive serum samples, 98 (49.5%) were positive against serovar Hardjo, 80 (40.4%) were positive against serovar Tarassovi, 12 (6.1%) was positive against serovar Bataviae and eight (4%) were positive against serovar Pomona. Associations found to be statistically significant in univariate analyses (at P < 0.1) were assessed by multivariable logistic regression to control for confounding factors. The results showed that risk factors for cattle were pasture grazing [odd ratio (OR) = 2.83, 95% CI = 1.57-5.12, P = 0.001], presence of goats/sheep on the farm (OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.17-2.56, P = 0.001) and age of the animal (OR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.42-2.96, P = 0.001), while concrete floor housing was protective (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.30-0.74, P = 0.001). Herds managed under pasture grazing system were more likely to be sero-positive than those managed under zero grazed practices (OR = 9.31; 95% CI = 3.67-23.64 for grazing herd). We concluded that bovine leptospirosis is an endemic and locally widespread disease in Tanga and suggest that it may play a role in zoonotic transmission to humans.

  12. The dependency on central government funding of decentralised health systems: experiences of the challenges and coping strategies in the Kongwa District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Frumence, Gasto; Nyamhanga, Tumaini; Mwangu, Mughwira; Hurtig, Anna-Karin

    2014-01-25

    Decentralised health systems in Tanzania depend largely on funding from the central government to run health services. Experience has shown that central funding in a decentralised system is not an appropriate approach to ensure the effective and efficient performance of local authorities due to several limitations. One of the limitations is that funds from the central government are not disbursed on a timely basis, which in turn, leads to the serious problem of shortage of financial resources for Council Health Management Teams (CHMT). This paper examines how dependency on central government funding in Tanzania affects health activities in Kongwa district council and the strategies used by the CHMT cope with the situation. The study adopted a qualitative approach and data were collected using semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. One district in the central region of Tanzania was strategically selected. Ten key informants involved in the management of health service delivery at the district level were interviewed and one focus group discussion was held, which consisted of members of the council health management team. The data generated were analysed for themes and patterns. The results showed that late disbursement of funds interrupts the implementation of health activities in the district health system. This situation delays the implementation of some activities, while a few activities may not be implemented at all. However, based on their prior knowledge of the anticipated delays in financial disbursements, the council health management team has adopted three main strategies to cope with this situation. These include obtaining supplies and other services on credit, borrowing money from other projects in the council, and using money generated from cost sharing. Local government authorities (LGAs) face delays in the disbursement of funds from the central government. This has necessitated introduction of informal coping strategies to deal with the

  13. The dependency on central government funding of decentralised health systems: experiences of the challenges and coping strategies in the Kongwa District, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Decentralised health systems in Tanzania depend largely on funding from the central government to run health services. Experience has shown that central funding in a decentralised system is not an appropriate approach to ensure the effective and efficient performance of local authorities due to several limitations. One of the limitations is that funds from the central government are not disbursed on a timely basis, which in turn, leads to the serious problem of shortage of financial resources for Council Health Management Teams (CHMT). This paper examines how dependency on central government funding in Tanzania affects health activities in Kongwa district council and the strategies used by the CHMT cope with the situation. Methods The study adopted a qualitative approach and data were collected using semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. One district in the central region of Tanzania was strategically selected. Ten key informants involved in the management of health service delivery at the district level were interviewed and one focus group discussion was held, which consisted of members of the council health management team. The data generated were analysed for themes and patterns. Results The results showed that late disbursement of funds interrupts the implementation of health activities in the district health system. This situation delays the implementation of some activities, while a few activities may not be implemented at all. However, based on their prior knowledge of the anticipated delays in financial disbursements, the council health management team has adopted three main strategies to cope with this situation. These include obtaining supplies and other services on credit, borrowing money from other projects in the council, and using money generated from cost sharing. Conclusion Local government authorities (LGAs) face delays in the disbursement of funds from the central government. This has necessitated introduction of

  14. Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Tanzania: Current Status and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Bakshi, Fatma A.; Jaka, Hyasinta

    2018-01-01

    Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases in the world with high prevalence in most of sub-Saharan Africa countries. The complexity in its diagnosis and treatment poses a significant management challenge in the resource-limited settings including Tanzania, where most of the tests and drugs are either unavailable or unaffordable. This mini review aims at demonstrating the current status of the disease in the country and discussing the concomitant challenges in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. PMID:29666656

  15. Chikungunya and dengue fever among hospitalized febrile patients in northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Julian T; Munishi, O Michael; Ooi, Eng Eong; Howe, Shiqin; Lim, Wen Yan; Chow, Angelia; Morrissey, Anne B; Bartlett, John A; Onyango, Jecinta J; Maro, Venance P; Kinabo, Grace D; Saganda, Wilbrod; Gubler, Duane J; Crump, John A

    2012-01-01

    Consecutive febrile admissions were enrolled at two hospitals in Moshi, Tanzania. Confirmed acute Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Dengue virus (DENV), and flavivirus infection were defined as a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) result. Presumptive acute DENV infection was defined as a positive anti-DENV immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme-linked immunsorbent assay (ELISA) result, and prior flavivirus exposure was defined as a positive anti-DENV IgG ELISA result. Among 870 participants, PCR testing was performed on 700 (80.5%). Of these, 55 (7.9%) had confirmed acute CHIKV infection, whereas no participants had confirmed acute DENV or flavivirus infection. Anti-DENV IgM serologic testing was performed for 747 (85.9%) participants, and of these 71 (9.5%) had presumptive acute DENV infection. Anti-DENV IgG serologic testing was performed for 751 (86.3%) participants, and of these 80 (10.7%) had prior flavivirus exposure. CHIKV infection was more common among infants and children than adults and adolescents (odds ratio [OR] 1.9, P = 0.026) and among HIV-infected patients with severe immunosuppression (OR 10.5, P = 0.007). CHIKV infection is an important but unrecognized cause of febrile illness in northern Tanzania. DENV or other closely related flaviviruses are likely also circulating.

  16. Factors Influencing Teachers' Use of Multimedia Enhanced Content in Secondary Schools in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mtebe, Joel S.; Mbwilo, Betty; Kissaka, Mussa M.

    2016-01-01

    Tanzania is faced with a severe shortage of qualified in-service school science and mathematics teachers. While science and mathematics account for 46% of the curriculum, only 28% of teachers are qualified to teach these subjects. In order to overcome this challenge, the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training (MoEVT) implemented a project…

  17. Critical Success Factors for Adoption of Web-Based Learning Management Systems in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lwoga, Edda Tandi

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines factors that predict students' continual usage intention of web-based learning content management systems in Tanzania, with a specific focus at Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Science (MUHAS). This study sent a questionnaire surveys to 408 first year undergraduate students, with a rate of return of 66.7. This study…

  18. Status of health sector strategic plans in five countries of the WHO African Region.

    PubMed

    Barry, S P; Sambo, L G; Bakeera, S; Kirigia, J M; Diarra-Nama, A J

    2009-01-01

    To assess the adequacy of the existing strategic plans and compare the format and content of health sector strategic plans with the guidelines in selected countries of the African region. The health strategic plans for Gambia, Liberia, Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda, which are kept at the WHO/AFRO, were reviewed. All health strategic plans among the Anglophone countries (Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mauritius, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe) that were developed after the year 2000 were eligible for inclusion. Fifty percent of these countries that fitted this criterion were randomly selected. They included Gambia, Liberia, Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda. The analysis framework used in the review included situation analysis; an assessment of appropriateness of strategies that are selected; well developed indicators for each strategy; the match between the service and outcomes targets with available resources; and existence of a clear framework for partnership engagement for implementation. Most of the strategic plans identify key ill health conditions and their contributing factors. Health service and resource gaps are described but not quantified in the Botswana, Gambia, Malawi, Tanzania strategic documents. Most of the plans selected strategies that related to the situational analysis. Generally, countries' plans had clear indicators. Matching service and outcome targets to available resources was the least addressed area in majority of the plans. Most of the strategic plans identified stakeholders and acknowledged their participation in the implementation, providing different levels of comprehensiveness. Some of the areas that are well addressed according to the analysis framework included: addressing the strategic concerns of the health policies; identifying key partners for implementation; and selection of appropriate strategies. The following areas needed more emphasis: quantification of health system gaps; setting targets that are cognisant of the

  19. Anaemia in Pregnancy: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Adverse Perinatal Outcomes in Northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Grace; Mgongo, Melina; Hussein Hashim, Tamara; Katanga, Johnson; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Msuya, Sia Emmanueli

    2018-01-01

    Anaemia in pregnancy is a public health problem in developing countries. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, risk factors, and adverse perinatal outcomes of anaemia among pregnant women in Moshi Municipal, Northern Tanzania. This was a follow-up study conducted from October 2013 to June 2015. A total of 539 pregnant women were enrolled in this study. Interviews were conducted followed by determination of haemoglobin level. Women were followed up at delivery and at 7 days and 28 days after delivery. A total of 529 women were included in this analysis. Their mean age was 25.8 (SD 5.73). The prevalence of anaemia was 18.0% and 2% had severe anaemia. The clinic of recruitment and low education level of the women were the factors that were independently associated with anaemia during pregnancy. At delivery, there were 10 stillbirths, 16 low birth weight (LBW) newborns, and 2 preterm birth cases. No association was found between anaemia and LBW, preterm birth, or stillbirths. Anaemia in pregnancy was a mild public health problem in the study setting of Northern Tanzania.

  20. Larvicidal, antimicrobial and brine shrimp activities of extracts from Cissampelos mucronata and Tephrosia villosa from coast region, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nondo, Ramadhani S O; Mbwambo, Zakaria H; Kidukuli, Abdul W; Innocent, Ester M; Mihale, Matobola J; Erasto, Paul; Moshi, Mainen J

    2011-04-23

    The leaves and roots of Cissampelos mucronata A. Rich (Menispermaceae) are widely used in the tropics and subtropics to manage various ailments such as gastro-intestinal complaints, menstrual problems, venereal diseases and malaria. In the Coast region, Tanzania, roots are used to treat wounds due to extraction of jigger. Leaves of Tephrosia villosa (L) Pers (Leguminosae) are reported to be used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in India. In this study, extracts from the roots and aerial parts of C. mucronata and extracts from leaves, fruits, twigs and roots of T. villosa were evaluated for larvicidal activity, brine shrimps toxicity and antimicrobial activity. Powdered materials from C. mucronata were extracted sequentially by dichloromethane followed by ethanol while materials from T.villosa were extracted by ethanol only. The extracts obtained were evaluated for larvicidal activity using Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae, cytotoxicity using brine shrimp larvae and antimicrobial activity using bacteria and fungi. Extracts from aerial parts of C. Mucronata exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholera, Bacillus anthracis, Streptococcus faecalis and antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. They exhibited very low toxicity to brine shrimps and had no larvicidal activity. The root extracts exhibited good larvicidal activity but weak antimicrobial activity. The root dichloromethane extracts from C. mucronata was found to be more toxic with an LC50 value of 59.608 μg/mL while ethanolic extracts from root were not toxic with LC50>100 μg/mL). Ethanol extracts from fruits and roots of T. villosa were found to be very toxic with LC50 values of 9.690 μg/mL and 4.511 μg/mL, respectively, while, ethanol extracts from leaves and twigs of T. villosa were found to be non toxic (LC50>100 μg/mL). These results support the use of C. mucronata in

  1. Productive Activity in the Curriculum: Changing the Literate Bias of Secondary Schools in Tanzania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Murray

    1982-01-01

    Analyzes Tanzania's efforts to modify the secondary curriculum by unifying academics and productive work. Teachers have not adopted the new approach. The author suggests that teachers' reactions are affected by the relationship between schools and the division of labor, difficulties of specifying what unity means, and problems of school…

  2. The Occurrence and Prevalence of Giraffe Skin Disease in Protected Areas of Northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lee, Derek E; Bond, Monica L

    2016-07-01

    Giraffe skin disease (GSD) is a disorder of undetermined etiology that causes lesions on the forelimbs of Masai giraffe ( Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi). We estimated occurrence and prevalence of GSD in six wildlife conservation areas of Tanzania. The disjunct spatial pattern of occurrence implies that environmental factors may influence GSD.

  3. Costing maternal health services in South Tanzania: a case study from Mtwara Urban District.

    PubMed

    von Both, Claudia; Jahn, Albrecht; Fleba, Steffen

    2008-05-01

    The following paper presents the methodology and results of a costing exercise of maternal health services in Tanzania. The main objective of this study was to determine the actual costs of antenatal and obstetric care in different health institutions in a district in Tanzania as a basis of more efficient resource allocation. A costing tool was developed that allows the calculation of costs of service units, such as deliveries and antenatal care, and separates these costs from the costs of other services. Time consumed by each activity was used as an allocation key. For that purpose, we recorded the personnel consumption with different time-study methodologies. This approach was tested and implemented in Mtwara Urban District, South Tanzania. The results were analyzed by a spreadsheet program. The paper presents average costs for different costing units of maternal care. Among other findings, we found that the cost of a normal vaginal delivery is US $12.30 in a dispensary and US $6.30 in the hospital--a result that needs explanation, as usually one would expect that hospitals are more cost-intensive than first-line facilities. However, dispensaries are grossly underutilized so that the costs per service unit are rather high. The cost for surgical delivery (only in hospitals) was found to be US $69.26 and the average cost per antenatal care consultation (only at dispensaries) was US $2.50. We conclude that improved planning of elective services is a prerequisite for more effective and efficient use of personnel resources. In addition, the definition of medically and economically sound standards, in particular staffing standards, is critical to make cost analysis an effective management tool to guide rational resource allocation.

  4. From nature tourism to ecotourism? The case of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania.

    Treesearch

    Susan Charnley

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines what is needed to transform nature tourism to protected areas into ecotourism, having genuine social benefits and serving as a tool for sustainable community development. It draws on the case of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania's most visited protected area, and a multiple land use zone inhabited by the pastoral Maasai peoples. I...

  5. A qualitative exploration of health workers' and clients' perceptions of barriers to completing four antenatal care visits in Morogoro Region, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Callaghan-Koru, Jennifer A; McMahon, Shannon A; Chebet, Joy J; Kilewo, Charles; Frumence, Gasto; Gupta, Shivam; Stevenson, Raz; Lipingu, Chrisostom; Baqui, Abdullah H; Winch, Peter J

    2016-10-01

    Antenatal care (ANC) remains an important contact point on the continuum of care for mothers and children in low- and middle-income countries. In Tanzania, the proportion of pregnant women completing at least four ANC visits (ANC-4) dropped from 70% to 43% between 1999 and 2010. To identify potential causes of the decline in the number of ANC visits, we conducted qualitative research at 18 health centres in Morogoro Region, exploring providers' communication about ANC visits and clients' and providers' perceptions of changes in ANC services and barriers to completing four visits. We also observed counselling messages delivered during 203 ANC consultations. Our results indicate that provider communication about ANC visit recommendations is inadequate, and confusion exists among clients about when and how often they should attend. Participants highlighted how the scale up of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission, with routine human immunodeficiency virus testing for women and their male partners, presents additional barriers for some women. Changes to the timing and content of ANC services following the adoption of the Focused ANC model was described by participants as changing women's perceptions and decisions in how they utilize ANC services. In particular, condensed delivery of technical interventions fostered a sense among clients that multiple visits are unnecessary. Other barriers that may contribute to declining ANC-4 include changing norms about family planning and birth spacing, out-of-pocket costs for clients and informal practices adopted by health facilities and providers such as turning women away who attend early in pregnancy or are not accompanied by male partners. Further research is needed to determine the role and extent that these barriers may be contributing to declining ANC-4. Issues of poor communication, supply inadequacies and informal practices, deserve immediate attention from the health system. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford

  6. Animal research ethics in Africa: is Tanzania making progress?

    PubMed

    Seth, Misago; Saguti, Fredy

    2013-12-01

    The significance of animals in research cannot be over-emphasized. The use of animals for research and training in research centres, hospitals and schools is progressively increasing. Advances in biotechnology to improve animal productivity require animal research. Drugs being developed and new interventions or therapies being invented for cure and palliation of all sorts of animal diseases and conditions need to be tested in animals for their safety and efficacy at some stages of their development. Drugs and interventions for human use pass through a similar development process and must be tested pre-clinically in laboratory animals before clinical trials in humans can be conducted. Therefore, animals are important players in research processes which directly and indirectly benefit animals and humans. However, questions remain as to whether these uses of animals consider the best interests of animals themselves. Various research and training institutions in Tanzania have established some guidelines on animal use, including establishing animal ethics committees. However, most institutions have not established oversight committees. In institutions where there may be guidelines and policies, there are no responsible committees or units to directly oversee if and how these guidelines and policies are enforced; thus, implementation becomes difficult or impossible. This paper endeavours to raise some issues associated with the responsible use of animals in research and training in Tanzania and highlights suggestions for improvement of deficiencies that exist in order to bridge the gap between what ought to be practised and what is practised. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Community perceptions of intimate partner violence - a qualitative study from urban Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence against women is a prevailing public health problem in Tanzania, where four of ten women have a lifetime exposure to physical or sexual violence by their male partners. To be able to suggest relevant and feasible community and health care based interventions, we explored community members' understanding and their responses to intimate partner violence. Methods A qualitative study using focus group discussions with 75 men and women was conducted in a community setting of urban Tanzania. We analysed data using a grounded theory approach and relate our findings to the ecological framework of intimate partner violence. Results The analysis resulted in one core category, "Moving from frustration to questioning traditional gender norms", that denoted a community in transition where the effects of intimate partner violence had started to fuel a wish for change. At the societal level, the category "Justified as part of male prestige" illustrates how masculinity prevails to justify violence. At the community level, the category "Viewed as discreditable and unfair" indicates community recognition of intimate partner violence as a human rights concern. At the relationship level, the category "Results in emotional entrapment" shows the shame and self-blame that is often the result of a violent relationship. At the individual level, the risk factors for intimate partner violence were primarily associated with male characteristics; the category "Fed up with passivity" emerged as an indication that community members also acknowledge their own responsibility for change in actions. Conclusions Prevailing gender norms in Tanzania accept women's subordination and justify male violence towards women. At the individual level, an increasing openness makes it possible for women to report, ask for help, and become proactive in suggesting preventive measures. At the community level, there is an increased willingness to intervene but further

  8. The Successful Education Sector Development in Tanzania--Comment on Gender Balance and Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okkolin, Mari-Anne; Lehtomaki, Elina; Bhalalusesa, Eustella

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we discuss to what extent the international and national equality goals regarding gender balance and inclusive education have been reached in the education sector development in Tanzania. According to recent reports, the development trend has been generally positive, and the country is close to achieving its primary education…

  9. Sibling Negotiations and the Construction of Literacy Events in an Urban Area of Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenberg, Sofia Johnson; Holmqvist, Rolf; Rubenson, Birgitta; Rindstedt, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    This study presents findings from analyses of naturally occurring literacy events, where children jointly focus on reading and writing letters of the alphabet, illustrating social constructions of learning created through language and embodied action. Video recorded data from two different families living in an urban low-income area in Tanzania is…

  10. Prevalence and determinants of stunting in under-five children in central Tanzania: remaining threats to achieving Millennium Development Goal 4.

    PubMed

    Semali, Innocent Antony; Tengia-Kessy, Anna; Mmbaga, Elia John; Leyna, Germana

    2015-11-21

    The Millennium Development Goal No 4 (MDG 4) requires countries to scale up interventions addressing malnutrition and other immediate determinants of burden of disease among children to reduce child mortality by two thirds by 2015, which is this year. Whereas globally some achievements have been registered, under-nourishment remains a significant problem in some developing countries such as Tanzania. This study set out to estimate the extent of stunting and its associated determinants to assess the progress made thus far towards achieving MDG 4 in Tanzania. A random sample of 678 households with under-five children was selected from two randomly selected wards of Kongwa district in Dodoma region, Tanzania. The WHO anthropometric calculator, which computes Z-scores using a reference population, was used to process the anthropometric measurement data taken from all the participants. Children with height for age Z-score of less than 2 were categorised as stunted and coded as 1 and the rest were coded as 0. Proportions of stunting were compared using the chi-square test to determine the association between stunting and the independent variables. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to determine the Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) of the independent determinants of stunting. The cut-off for significant association was set at p = 0.05. All these analyses used the STATA 12 software. About half (49.7 %) of the children were stunted. This stunting was associated with belonging to households where the head of family was young (<35 years) (AOR = 0.67, 95 % CI 0.47-0.96, p = 0.031), young age of the mothers (AOR = 1.54, 95 % CI 1.06-2.24, p = 0.023), and economic variables such as owning a cellular phone (AOR = 0.66, 96 % CI 0.46-0.94, p = 0.023). Stunting was highly prevalent in Kongwa district despite general improvements in child nutritional status at the national level. Household characteristics and economic status were found to

  11. Adaptive livelihood strategies for coping with water scarcity in the drylands of central Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liwenga, Emma T.

    In this paper, it is argued that local knowledge for adapting to water scarcity is important for integrated resource management by taking into consideration both the natural and social constraints in a particular setting based on accumulated experience. The paper examines the relevance of local knowledge in sustaining agricultural production in the semiarid areas of central Tanzania. The paper specifically focuses on how water scarcity, as the major limiting factor, is addressed in the study area using local knowledge to sustain livelihoods of its people. The study was conducted in four villages; Mzula, Ilolo, Chanhumba and Ngahelezi, situation in Mvumi Division in Dodoma Region. The study mainly employed qualitative data collection techniques. Participatory methods provided a means of exploring perceptions and gaining deeper insights regarding natural resource utilization in terms of problems and opportunities. The main data sources drawn upon in this study were documentation, group interviews and field observations. Group interviews involved discussions with a group of 6-12 people selected on the basis of gender, age and socio-economic groups. Data analysis entailed structural and content analysis within the adaptive livelihood framework in relation to management of water scarcity using local knowledge. The findings confirm that rainfall is the main limiting factor for agricultural activities in the drylands of Central Tanzania. As such, local communities have developed, through time, indigenous knowledge to cope with such environments utilizing seasonality and diversity of landscapes. Use of this local knowledge is therefore effective in managing water scarcity by ensuring a continuous production of crops throughout the year. This practice implies increased food availability and accessibility through sales of such agricultural products. Local innovations for water management, such as cultivation in sandy rivers, appear to be very important means of accessing

  12. Predominant Leptospiral Serogroups Circulating among Humans, Livestock and Wildlife in Katavi-Rukwa Ecosystem, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Assenga, Justine A.; Matemba, Lucas E.; Muller, Shabani K.; Mhamphi, Ginethon G.; Kazwala, Rudovick R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease and a serious, under-reported public health problem, particularly in rural areas of Tanzania. In the Katavi-Rukwa ecosystem, humans, livestock and wildlife live in close proximity, which exposes them to the risk of a number of zoonotic infectious diseases, including leptospirosis. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional epidemiological study was carried out in the Katavi region, South-west Tanzania, to determine the seroprevalence of Leptospira spp in humans, domestic ruminants and wildlife. Blood samples were collected from humans (n = 267), cattle (n = 1,103), goats (n = 248), buffaloes (n = 38), zebra (n = 2), lions (n = 2), rodents (n = 207) and shrews (n = 11). Decanted sera were tested using the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) for antibodies against six live serogroups belonging to the Leptospira spp, with a cutoff point of ≥ 1:160. The prevalence of leptospiral antibodies was 29.96% in humans, 30.37% in cattle, 8.47% in goats, 28.95% in buffaloes, 20.29% in rodents and 9.09% in shrews. Additionally, one of the two samples in lions was seropositive. A significant difference in the prevalence P<0.05 was observed between cattle and goats. No significant difference in prevalence was observed with respect to age and sex in humans or any of the sampled animal species. The most prevalent serogroups with antibodies of Leptospira spp were Sejroe, Hebdomadis, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagie and Australis, which were detected in humans, cattle, goats and buffaloes; Sejroe and Grippotyphosa, which were detected in a lion; Australis, Icterohaemorrhagie and Grippotyphosa, which were detected in rodents; and Australis, which was detected in shrews. Antibodies to serogroup Ballum were detected only in humans. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that leptospiral antibodies are widely prevalent in humans, livestock and wildlife from the Katavi-Rukwa ecosystem. The disease poses a serious

  13. Malaria entomological profile in Tanzania from 1950 to 2010: a review of mosquito distribution, vectorial capacity and insecticide resistance.

    PubMed

    Kabula, Bilali; Derua, Yahya A; Tungui, Patrick; Massue, Dennis J; Sambu, Edward; Stanley, Grades; Mosha, Franklin W; Kisinza, William N

    2011-12-01

    In Sub Saharan Africa where most of the malaria cases and deaths occur, members of the Anopheles gambiae species complex and Anophelesfunestus species group are the important malaria vectors. Control efforts against these vectors in Tanzania like in most other Sub Saharan countries have failed to achieve the set objectives of eliminating transmission due to scarcity of information about the enormous diversity of Anopheles mosquito species and their susceptibility status to insecticides used for malaria vector control. Understanding the diversity and insecticide susceptibility status of these vectors and other factors relating to their importance as vectors (such as malaria transmission dynamics, vector biology, ecology, behaviour and population genetics) is crucial to developing a better and sound intervention strategies that will reduce man-vector contact and also manage the emergency of insecticide resistance early and hence .a success in malaria control. The objective of this review was therefore to obtain the information from published and unpublished documents on spatial distribution and composition of malaria vectors, key features of their behaviour, transmission indices and susceptibility status to insecticides in Tanzania. All data available were collated into a database. Details recorded for each data source were the locality, latitude/longitude, time/period of study, species, abundance, sampling/collection methods, species identification methods, insecticide resistance status, including evidence of the kdr allele, and Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite rate. This collation resulted in a total of 368 publications, encompassing 806,273 Anopheles mosquitoes from 157 georeferenced locations being collected and identified across Tanzania from 1950s to 2010. Overall, the vector species most often reported included An. gambiae complex (66.8%), An. funestus complex (21.8%), An. gambiae s.s. (2.1%) and An. arabiensis (9%). A variety of sampling/ collection and

  14. Dietary patterns and breast cancer risk among women in northern Tanzania: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Irmgard; Hebestreit, Antje; Swai, Britta; Krawinkel, Michael B

    2013-04-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among women in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania. It was tested within a case-control study in this region whether a specific dietary pattern impacts on the breast cancer risk. A validated semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to assess the dietary intake of 115 female breast cancer patients and 230 healthy age-matched women living in the same districts. A logistic regression was performed to estimate breast cancer risk. Dietary patterns were obtained using principal component analysis with Varimax rotation. The adjusted logistic regression estimated an increased risk for a "Fatty Diet", characterized by a higher consumption of milk, vegetable oils and fats, butter, lard and red meat (OR = 1.42, 95 % CI 1.08-1.87; P = 0.01), and for a "Fruity Diet", characterized by a higher consumption of fish, mango, papaya, avocado and watery fruits (OR = 1.61, 95 % CI 1.14-2.28; P = 0.01). Both diets showed an inverse association with the ratio between polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids (P/S ratio). A diet characterized by a low P/S ratio seems to be more important for the development of breast cancer than total fat intake.

  15. Impediments of E-Learning Adoption in Higher Learning Institutions of Tanzania: An Empirical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwakyusa, Wilson Pholld; Mwalyagile, Neema Venance

    2016-01-01

    It is experienced that most of the Higher Learning Institutions (HLIs) in developing countries including Tanzania fails to fully implement e-learning system as a an alternative method of delivering education to a large population in the universities. However, some of HLIs are practicing the blended method by which both elearning and traditional…

  16. Conservation biology: lion attacks on humans in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Packer, Craig; Ikanda, Dennis; Kissui, Bernard; Kushnir, Hadas

    2005-08-18

    Large carnivores inspire opposition to conservation efforts owing to their impact on livestock and human safety. Here we analyse the pattern of lion attacks over the past 15 years on humans in Tanzania, which has the largest population of lions in Africa, and find that they have killed more than 563 Tanzanians since 1990 and injured at least 308. Attacks have increased dramatically during this time: they peak at harvest time each year and are most frequent in areas with few prey apart from bush pigs (Potamochoerus larvatus), the most common nocturnal crop pest. Our findings provide an important starting point for devising strategies to reduce the risk to rural Tanzanians of lion attacks.

  17. Morphostructural evidence for Recent/active extension in Central Tanzania beyond the southern termination of the Kenya Rift.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gall, B.; Rolet, J.; Gernigon, L.; Ebinger, C.; Gloaguen, R.

    2003-04-01

    The southern tip zone of the Kenya Rift on the eastern branch of the East African System is usually thought to occur in the so-called North Tanzanian Divergence. In this region, the narrow (50 km-wide) axial graben of southern Kenya splays southwards, via a major EW-trending volcanic lineament, into a 200 km-wide broad rifted zone with three separate arms of normal faulting and tilted fault blocks (Eyasi, Manyara and Pangani arms from W to E). Remote sensing analysis from Central Tanzania demonstrates that rift morphology exists over an area lying 400 km beyond the southern termination of the Kenya Rift. The most prominent rift structures are observed in the Kilombero region and consist of a 100 km-wide range of uplifted basement blocks fringed to the west by an E-facing half-graben inferred to reach depths of 6-8 km from aeromagnetic dataset. Physiographic features (fault scarps), and river drainage anomalies suggest that the present-day rift pattern in the Kilombero extensional province principally results from Recent/Neogene deformation. That assumption is also supported by the seismogenic character of a number of faults. The Kilombero half-graben is superimposed upon an earlier rift system, Karoo in age, which is totally overprinted and is only evidenced from its sedimentary infill. On the other hand, the nature and thickness of the inferred Neogene synrift section is still unknown. The Kilombero rifted zone is assumed to connect northwards into the central rift arm (Manyara) of the South Kenya Rift via a seismically active transverse fault zone that follows ductile fabrics within the Mozambican crystalline basement. The proposed rift model implies that incipient rifting propagates hroughout the cold and strong crust/lithosphere of Central Tanzania along Proterozoic (N140=B0E) basement weakness zones and earlier Karoo (NS)rift structures. A second belt of Recent-active linked fault/basins also extends further East from the Pangani rift arm to the offshore

  18. Provision of family planning services in Tanzania: a comparative analysis of public and private facilities.

    PubMed

    Kakoko, Deodatus C; Ketting, Evert; Kamazima, Switbert R; Ruben, Ruerd

    2012-12-01

    Adherence to the policy guidelines and standards is necessary for family planning services. We compared public and private facilities in terms of provision of family planning services. We analyzed data from health facility questionnaire of the 2006 Tanzania Service Provision Assessment survey, based on 529 health facilities. Majority of public facilities (95.4%) offered family planning services, whereas more than half of private facilities (52.1%) did not offer those. Public facilities were more likely to offer modern contraceptives as compared to private facilities. However, private facilities were more likely to offer counseling on natural methods of family planning [AOR = 2.12 (1.15-3.92), P < or = 0.001]. Public facilities were more likely to report having guidelines or protocols for family planning services and various kinds of visual aids for family planning and STIs when compared to private facilities. This comparative analysis entails the need to enforce the standards of family planning services in Tanzania.

  19. Claiming territory: medical mission, interreligious revivalism, and the spatialization of health interventions in urban Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Dilger, Hansjörg

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades, new religious actors have become involved in the provision of medical care in urban Tanzania. Muslim revivalist organizations and neo-Pentecostal churches in particular have established a range of health interventions that are tied to revisionist claims about religion, spirituality, and politics in society. In this article I discuss medical mission in Dar es Salaam in the light of (post)colonial histories of health service provision as well as with regard to inter- and intradenominational contestations over health and well-being, a morally acceptable life, and political participation. I argue that the nature of the inscription of revivalist organizations in urban space through health interventions depends on their structural location and their respective members' social and economic capital. I also show that the ongoing transformations of urban space through medical mission have become reflective of, as well as are triggering, moral interpretations of history and social inequality in contemporary Tanzania.

  20. Identification of diverse Bartonella genotypes among small mammals from Democratic Republic of Congo and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Gundi, Vijay A K B; Kosoy, Michael Y; Makundi, Rhodes H; Laudisoit, Anne

    2012-08-01

    Small mammals from the Democratic Republic (DR) of the Congo and Tanzania were tested to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella species. The presence of Bartonella DNA was assessed in spleen samples of the animals by rpoB- and gltA-polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). By rpoB-PCR, Bartonella was detected in 8 of 59 animals of DR Congo and in 16 of 39 Tanzanian animals. By gltA-PCR, Bartonella was detected in 5 and 15 animals of DR Congo and Tanzania, respectively. The gene sequences from Arvicanthis neumanni were closely related to Bartonella elizabethae. The genotypes from Lophuromys spp. and from Praomys delectorum were close to Bartonella tribocorum. Five genogroups were not genetically related to any known Bartonella species. These results suggest the need to conduct further studies to establish the zoonotic risks linked with those Bartonella species and, in particular, to verify whether these agents might be responsible for human cases of febrile illness of unknown etiology in Africa.

  1. Breaking ground in Tanzania. GO-NGO collaboration.

    PubMed

    1998-05-01

    JOICFP's reproductive health(RH)-oriented Integrated Project (IP) is being implemented by JOICFP's counterpart, the Family Planning Association of Tanzania (UMATI). The Japanese government usually provides support to help governmental programs. However, through this collaborative effort, the government of Japan is providing commodity and equipment assistance to support the RH/family planning and safe motherhood activities promoted by UMATI in collaboration with the Tanzanian government, with support provided through multilateral-bilateral assistance in collaboration with UNFPA. The Japanese government has agreed to provide US$170,000 annually in commodity and equipment assistance to the project over the period 1997-2000. The funds will be used to support family planning/maternal and child health clinics and dispensaries in project areas run by the government, as well as to support UMATI activities.

  2. Increasing Access to Subsidized Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy through Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Tanzania, many people seek malaria treatment from retail drug sellers. The National Malaria Control Program identified the accredited drug dispensing outlet (ADDO) program as a private sector mechanism to supplement the distribution of subsidized artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) from public facilities and increase access to the first-line antimalarial in rural and underserved areas. The ADDO program strengthens private sector pharmaceutical services by improving regulatory and supervisory support, dispenser training, and record keeping practices. Methods The government's pilot program made subsidized ACTs available through ADDOs in 10 districts in the Morogoro and Ruvuma regions, covering about 2.9 million people. The program established a supply of subsidized ACTs, created a price system with a cost recovery plan, developed a plan to distribute the subsidized products to the ADDOs, trained dispensers, and strengthened the adverse drug reactions reporting system. As part of the evaluation, 448 ADDO dispensers brought their records to central locations for analysis, representing nearly 70% of ADDOs operating in the two regions. ADDO drug register data were available from July 2007-June 2008 for Morogoro and from July 2007-September 2008 for Ruvuma. This intervention was implemented from 2007-2008. Results During the pilot, over 300,000 people received treatment for malaria at the 448 ADDOs. The percentage of ADDOs that dispensed at least one course of ACT rose from 26.2% during July-September 2007 to 72.6% during April-June 2008. The number of malaria patients treated with ACTs gradually increased after the start of the pilot, while the use of non-ACT antimalarials declined; ACTs went from 3% of all antimalarials sold in July 2007 to 26% in June 2008. District-specific data showed substantial variation among the districts in ACT uptake through ADDOs, ranging from ACTs representing 10% of all antimalarial sales in Kilombero to 47% in

  3. Reflecting and shaping the discourse: the role of music in AIDS communication in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Bastien, Sheri

    2009-04-01

    Failure to recognize the importance of oral traditions in Africa and the potential of music and song for stimulating social and behavior change would represent a missed opportunity in HIV prevention strategies. Local narratives concerning AIDS are often utilized in popular songs and constitute rich sources of contextual information about the epidemic that have thus far been un- or underutilized in HIV prevention strategies. Endogenously conceived messages delivered via a channel such as music increase the likelihood of messages being contextually appropriate and culturally engaging. This form of media also presents the greatest opportunity for wide dissemination. Drawing on field work conducted in the Kilimanjaro region, this paper presents examples of how music and musicians in Tanzania reflect and potentially shape AIDS discourse. Three broad recurrent themes addressed in songs are discussed: AIDS metaphors, stigma and broader HIV prevention messages. By tapping into the wealth of information about AIDS discourse contained within popular songs, and by recognizing musicians as potential opinion leaders and agents of social change, the effectiveness of prevention strategies may be increased.

  4. Fault kinematics and tectonic stress in the seismically active Manyara Dodoma Rift segment in Central Tanzania Implications for the East African Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macheyeki, Athanas S.; Delvaux, Damien; De Batist, Marc; Mruma, Abdulkarim

    2008-07-01

    The Eastern Branch of the East African Rift System is well known in Ethiopia (Main Ethiopian Rift) and Kenya (Kenya or Gregory Rift) and is usually considered to fade away southwards in the North Tanzanian Divergence, where it splits into the Eyasi, Manyara and Pangani segments. Further towards the south, rift structures are more weakly expressed and this area has not attracted much attention since the mapping and exploratory works of the 1950s. In November 4, 2002, an earthquake of magnitude Mb = 5.5 struck Dodoma, the capital city of Tanzania. Analysis of modern digital relief, seismological and geological data reveals that ongoing tectonic deformation is presently affecting a broad N-S trending belt, extending southward from the North Tanzanian Divergence to the region of Dodoma, forming the proposed "Manyara-Dodoma Rift segment". North of Arusha-Ngorongoro line, the rift is confined to a narrow belt (Natron graben in Tanzania) and south of it, it broadens into a wide deformation zone which includes both the Eyasi and Manyara grabens. The two-stage rifting model proposed for Kenya and North Tanzania also applies to the Manyara-Dodoma Rift segment. In a first stage, large, well-expressed topographic and volcanogenic structures were initiated in the Natron, Eyasi and Manyara grabens during the Late Miocene to Pliocene. From the Middle Pleistocene onwards, deformations related to the second rifting stage propagated southwards to the Dodoma region. These young structures have still limited morphological expressions compared to the structures formed during the first stage. However, they appear to be tectonically active as shown by the high concentration of moderate earthquakes into earthquake swarms, the distribution of He-bearing thermal springs, the morphological freshness of the fault scarps, and the presence of open surface fractures. Fault kinematic and paleostress analysis of geological fault data in basement rocks along the active fault lines show that recent

  5. Trabeculectomy or Transscleral Cyclophotocoagulation as Initial Treatment of Secondary Childhood Glaucoma in Northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Fieß, Achim; Shah, Peter; Sii, Freda; Godfrey, Furahini; Abbott, Joe; Bowman, Richard; Bauer, Jacqueline; Dithmar, Stefan; Philippin, Heiko

    2017-07-01

    The purpose is to describe the outcome of trabeculectomy with transscleral cyclophotocoagulation (TSCPC) as an initial intervention for secondary childhood glaucoma in Northern Tanzania. A retrospective, consecutive case series was analyzed of all children with secondary childhood glaucoma who underwent initial trabeculectomy or TSCPC between 2000 and 2013 at a referral eye unit in Northern Tanzania. Retrospective data were collected on causes of glaucoma, intraocular pressure (IOP), visual acuity, complications, and subsequent interventions. Outcomes were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and compared with Cox regression analysis. The main outcome measure was failure (IOP>21 mm Hg). Thirty-six eyes of 27 children (male, 21; median age, 9 y; range, 0.3 to 15 y) with secondary childhood glaucoma underwent trabeculectomy (19 eyes, 53%) or TSCPC (17 eyes, 47%). Causes included ocular trauma (13, 36%), previous cataract surgery (12, 33%), congenital aniridia (5, 14%), Sturge-Weber syndrome (2, 6%), steroid-induced glaucoma (2, 6%), uveitis (1, 3%), and unspecified leucoma (1, 3%). After 12 months, success was achieved in 48% after trabeculectomy and 18% after TSCPC, with visual acuity remaining unchanged in 11 of 14 (79%) and 4 of 5 eyes (80%), respectively. One third of the children did not return for follow-up after 1 year. Distance to the hospital (>100 km) was a significant risk factor for trabeculectomy failure (P=0.031). A high proportion of secondary childhood glaucoma in Northern Tanzania was caused by trauma and previous cataract surgery. Trabeculectomy was associated with better IOP control but also a higher complication rate. The ability to maintain visual function was comparable after both interventions. Failure was associated with a journey to the eye hospital (>100 km) possibly leading to late presentation with advanced disease and erratic follow-up.

  6. Community perceptions of rape and child sexual abuse: a qualitative study in rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Abeid, Muzdalifat; Muganyizi, Projestine; Olsson, Pia; Darj, Elisabeth; Axemo, Pia

    2014-08-18

    Rape of women and children is recognized as a health and human rights issue in Tanzania and internationally. Exploration of the prevailing perceptions in rural areas is needed in order to expand the understanding of sexual violence in the diversity of Tanzania's contexts. The aim of this study therefore was to explore and understand perceptions of rape of women and children at the community level in a rural district in Tanzania with the added objective of exploring those perceptions that may contribute to perpetuating and/or hindering the disclosure of rape incidences. A qualitative design was employed using focus group discussions with male and female community members including religious leaders, professionals, and other community members. The discussions centered on causes of rape, survivors of rape, help-seeking and reporting, and gathered suggestions on measures for improvement. Six focus group discussions (four of single gender and two of mixed gender) were conducted. The focus group discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using manifest qualitative content analysis. The participants perceived rape of women and children to be a frequent and hidden phenomenon. A number of factors were singled out as contributing to rape, such as erosion of social norms, globalization, poverty, vulnerability of children, alcohol/drug abuse and poor parental care. Participants perceived the need for educating the community to raise their knowledge of sexual violence and its consequences, and their roles as preventive agents. In this rural context, social norms reinforce sexual violence against women and children, and hinder them from seeking help from support services. Addressing the identified challenges may promote help-seeking behavior and improve care of survivors of sexual violence, while changes in social and cultural norms are needed for the prevention of sexual violence.

  7. Perceptions on diabetes care provision among health providers in rural Tanzania: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Geubbels, Eveline; Klatser, Paul; Dieleman, Marjolein

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Diabetes prevalence in Tanzania was estimated at 9.1% in 2012 among adults aged 24–65 years — higher than the HIV prevalence in the general population at that time. Health systems in lower- and middle-income countries are not designed for chronic health care, yet the rising burden of non-communicable diseases such as diabetes demands chronic care services. To inform policies on diabetes care, we conducted a study on the health services in place to diagnose, treat and care for diabetes patients in rural Tanzania. The study was an exploratory and descriptive study involving qualitative methods (in-depth interviews, observations and document reviews) and was conducted in a rural district in Tanzania. Fifteen health providers in four health facilities at different levels of the health care system were interviewed. The health care organization elements of the Innovative Care for Chronic Conditions (ICCC) framework were used to guide assessment of the diabetes services in the district. We found that diabetes care in this district was centralized at the referral and district facilities, with unreliable supply of necessary commodities for diabetes care and health providers who had some knowledge of what was expected of them but felt ill-prepared for diabetes care. Facility and district level guidance was lacking and the continuity of care was broken within and between facilities. The HMIS could not produce reliable data on diabetes. Support for self-management to patients and their families was weak at all levels. In conclusion, the rural district we studied did not provide diabetes care close to the patients. Guidance on diabetes service provision and human resource management need strengthening and policies related to task-shifting need adjustment to improve quality of service provision for diabetes patients in rural settings. PMID:27935802

  8. Some Considerations for the Planning of Village Libraries in Tanzania. Occasional Paper No. 33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwasha, A. Z.

    This essay reviews the major issues which must be addressed in the planning of village libraries to support development activities and adult education programs in the rural areas of Tanzania. The importance of the development of such libraries is discussed in light of the Tanzanian government's policies concerning the role of library services in…

  9. Factors affecting adoption, implementation fidelity, and sustainability of the Redesigned Community Health Fund in Tanzania: a mixed methods protocol for process evaluation in the Dodoma region

    PubMed Central

    Kalolo, Albino; Radermacher, Ralf; Stoermer, Manfred; Meshack, Menoris; De Allegri, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite