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Sample records for kah-nee-tah lodge warm

  1. Improving Hatchery Effectiveness as Related to Smoltification: Proceedings of a Workshop held at Kah-Nee-Tah Lodge, Warm Springs, Oregon, May 20-23, 1985.

    SciTech Connect

    Bouck, Gerald R.

    1987-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) intends to develop a smoltification research effort that would have broad support among the interested parties. BPA sponsored this workshop on smoltification and related research to gather leading technical experts in the field in smoltification, permit them to exchange information about the state of the art of smoltification research, and allow them to identify and rank high-priority projects. This document includes keynote speeches, technical papers, and other sessions that summarize both what is known and what information is needed.

  2. 38 CFR 60.8 - Lodging availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lodging availability. 60.8 Section 60.8 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) FISHER HOUSES AND OTHER TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.8 Lodging availability. Fisher Houses are available...

  3. 38 CFR 60.8 - Lodging availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lodging availability. 60.8 Section 60.8 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) FISHER HOUSES AND OTHER TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.8 Lodging availability. Fisher Houses are available...

  4. 38 CFR 60.8 - Lodging availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lodging availability. 60.8 Section 60.8 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) FISHER HOUSES AND OTHER TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.8 Lodging availability. Fisher Houses are available...

  5. 38 CFR 60.3 - Other donated temporary lodging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FISHER HOUSES AND OTHER TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.3 Other donated temporary lodging. Whenever VA receives, from a source other than the Fisher House Foundation, an undesignated donation of lodging to be used on a temporary basis, the lodging will be designated as if it were Fisher House lodging or...

  6. 38 CFR 60.3 - Other donated temporary lodging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FISHER HOUSES AND OTHER TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.3 Other donated temporary lodging. Whenever VA receives, from a source other than the Fisher House Foundation, an undesignated donation of lodging to be used on a temporary basis, the lodging will be designated as if it were Fisher House lodging or...

  7. 1. photocopy of postcard (from Glenwood Springs Lodge & Pool, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. photocopy of postcard (from Glenwood Springs Lodge & Pool, Inc., Date unknown) Photographer unknown, Date unknown GENERAL VIEW OF LODGE, HOT SPRINGS POOL AND ENVIRONS - Hot Springs Lodge, Garfield County, CO

  8. Deer Lodge Valley investigations, western Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Wideman, C.J.; Sonderegger, J.; Crase, E.; Peterson, J.; Ruscetta, C.A.

    1982-07-01

    A review of the geothermal investigations conducted in the Deer Lodge Valley of Western Montana is briefly presented. Maps of the generalized geology and Bouguer gravity and graphs of selected geothermal gradients and resistivity sounding profiles are presented. (MJF)

  9. 41 CFR 301-11.14 - How is my daily lodging rate computed when I rent lodging on a long-term basis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... rate computed when I rent lodging on a long-term basis? 301-11.14 Section 301-11.14 Public Contracts... computed when I rent lodging on a long-term basis? When you obtain lodging on a long-term basis (e.g., weekly or monthly) your daily lodging rate is computed by dividing the total lodging cost by the...

  10. 41 CFR 301-11.14 - How is my daily lodging rate computed when I rent lodging on a long-term basis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... rate computed when I rent lodging on a long-term basis? 301-11.14 Section 301-11.14 Public Contracts... computed when I rent lodging on a long-term basis? When you obtain lodging on a long-term basis (e.g., weekly or monthly) your daily lodging rate is computed by dividing the total lodging cost by the...

  11. 38 CFR 60.7 - Duration of temporary lodging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duration of temporary lodging. 60.7 Section 60.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) FISHER HOUSES AND OTHER TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.7 Duration of temporary lodging. Temporary...

  12. 36 CFR 5.10 - Eating, drinking, or lodging establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eating, drinking, or lodging... INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.10 Eating, drinking, or lodging establishments. (a) No establishment offering food, drink, or lodging for sale on any privately owned lands under the...

  13. 36 CFR 5.10 - Eating, drinking, or lodging establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eating, drinking, or lodging... INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.10 Eating, drinking, or lodging establishments. (a) No establishment offering food, drink, or lodging for sale on any privately owned lands under the...

  14. LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, FACING NORTHWEST Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, FACING NORTHWEST - Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, Spanning Marble Fork of Kaweah River, approximately 21 miles northwest of Ash Mountain Entrance, Three Rivers, Tulare County, CA

  15. LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, FACING SOUTHEAST Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, FACING SOUTHEAST - Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, Spanning Marble Fork of Kaweah River, approximately 21 miles northwest of Ash Mountain Entrance, Three Rivers, Tulare County, CA

  16. Analysing lodging of the panicle bearing cereal teff (Eragrostis tef).

    PubMed

    van Delden, S H; Vos, J; Ennos, A R; Stomph, T J

    2010-05-01

    Lodging, the permanent displacement of crop plants from their vertical because of root or shoot failure, is a major yield constraint of the gluten free, panicle bearing cereal teff. The objective of this paper was to analyse the causes of lodging of teff by using, modifying and validating conventional biomechanical models. The model parameters were obtained from a field trial with two contrasting teff cultivars, using novel in situ and laboratory measurements under wet and dry conditions. Cross-species model validation was done with rice (Oryza sativa). Teff is more susceptible to root lodging than to shoot lodging, although the data indicated that shoot strength is also insufficient. Hence, simultaneously breeding for both improved root anchorage and shoot strength is advocated. The study showed that the lodging model, derived for the spike-bearing cereal wheat, needed modifications in order to be able to deal with panicle-bearing plants such as teff and rice. Water adhering to plants owing to rain or dew increased calculated lodging susceptibility. To prevent underestimation of lodging susceptibility, future lodging research should be done under completely wet conditions (water saturated soil and wetted shoots). PMID:20345637

  17. Analysing lodging of the panicle bearing cereal teff (Eragrostis tef).

    PubMed

    van Delden, S H; Vos, J; Ennos, A R; Stomph, T J

    2010-05-01

    Lodging, the permanent displacement of crop plants from their vertical because of root or shoot failure, is a major yield constraint of the gluten free, panicle bearing cereal teff. The objective of this paper was to analyse the causes of lodging of teff by using, modifying and validating conventional biomechanical models. The model parameters were obtained from a field trial with two contrasting teff cultivars, using novel in situ and laboratory measurements under wet and dry conditions. Cross-species model validation was done with rice (Oryza sativa). Teff is more susceptible to root lodging than to shoot lodging, although the data indicated that shoot strength is also insufficient. Hence, simultaneously breeding for both improved root anchorage and shoot strength is advocated. The study showed that the lodging model, derived for the spike-bearing cereal wheat, needed modifications in order to be able to deal with panicle-bearing plants such as teff and rice. Water adhering to plants owing to rain or dew increased calculated lodging susceptibility. To prevent underestimation of lodging susceptibility, future lodging research should be done under completely wet conditions (water saturated soil and wetted shoots).

  18. 36 CFR 5.10 - Eating, drinking, or lodging establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eating, drinking, or lodging establishments. 5.10 Section 5.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.10 Eating, drinking, or lodging establishments. (a)...

  19. 36 CFR 5.10 - Eating, drinking, or lodging establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eating, drinking, or lodging establishments. 5.10 Section 5.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.10 Eating, drinking, or lodging establishments. (a)...

  20. 41 CFR 301-11.11 - How do I select lodging and make lodging reservations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... such as FedRooms® (http://www.fedrooms.com). The advantages of obtaining lodging using the FedRooms... all booking channels (e.g., E-Gov Travel Service, Travel Management Service, FedRooms® Web site, and hotel reservation call centers). The FedRooms® rate code (XVU) must be entered to get the...

  1. 41 CFR 301-11.11 - How do I select lodging and make lodging reservations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... such as FedRooms® (http://www.fedrooms.com). The advantages of obtaining lodging using the FedRooms... all booking channels (e.g., E-Gov Travel Service, Travel Management Service, FedRooms® Web site, and hotel reservation call centers). The FedRooms® rate code (XVU) must be entered to get the...

  2. 41 CFR 301-11.11 - How do I select lodging and make lodging reservations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... such as FedRooms® (http://www.fedrooms.com). The advantages of obtaining lodging using the FedRooms... all booking channels (e.g., E-Gov Travel Service, Travel Management Service, FedRooms® Web site, and hotel reservation call centers). The FedRooms® rate code (XVU) must be entered to get the...

  3. Global Warming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hileman, Bette

    1989-01-01

    States the foundations of the theory of global warming. Describes methodologies used to measure the changes in the atmosphere. Discusses steps currently being taken in the United States and the world to slow the warming trend. Recognizes many sources for the warming and the possible effects on the earth. (MVL)

  4. A new method for assessing plant lodging and the impact of management options on lodging in canola crop production.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Ma, Bao-Luo

    2016-01-01

    Lodging, defined as the permanent displacement of aboveground parts, is a common problem to cause yield loss, deterioration in seed quality and difficult to harvest in canola (Brassica napus L.) crop production. This study aimed to develop a method for assessing crop lodging, to examine how agronomic practices affected the relationships between root lodging and electrical capacitance traits. Canola plants were more susceptible to root lodging than stem lodging. The electrical measurements were more closely related with anchorage strength (Sp) than stem bending strength (Ss). Among the three electrical measurements, the root capacitance (C) displayed the most consistent and significant relationships with Sp in all three field experiments (R(2) = 0.88-0.56; P ≤ 0.01). This study indicates that the risk of lodging can be reduced by using appropriate management practices and variety selection. Enhancing root Sp was advocated as a priority over enhancing stem Ss in cultivar improvement. Electrical measurements, especially of root C, can be considered as a non-invasive technique that could partially replace the intrusive methods used for the in situ assessment of lodging resistance among various agronomic practices or can be applied in breeding programs for selecting genotypes with high yield potentials and strong Sp values. PMID:27552909

  5. A new method for assessing plant lodging and the impact of management options on lodging in canola crop production

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Ma, Bao–Luo

    2016-01-01

    Lodging, defined as the permanent displacement of aboveground parts, is a common problem to cause yield loss, deterioration in seed quality and difficult to harvest in canola (Brassica napus L.) crop production. This study aimed to develop a method for assessing crop lodging, to examine how agronomic practices affected the relationships between root lodging and electrical capacitance traits. Canola plants were more susceptible to root lodging than stem lodging. The electrical measurements were more closely related with anchorage strength (Sp) than stem bending strength (Ss). Among the three electrical measurements, the root capacitance (C) displayed the most consistent and significant relationships with Sp in all three field experiments (R2 = 0.88–0.56; P ≤ 0.01). This study indicates that the risk of lodging can be reduced by using appropriate management practices and variety selection. Enhancing root Sp was advocated as a priority over enhancing stem Ss in cultivar improvement. Electrical measurements, especially of root C, can be considered as a non–invasive technique that could partially replace the intrusive methods used for the in situ assessment of lodging resistance among various agronomic practices or can be applied in breeding programs for selecting genotypes with high yield potentials and strong Sp values. PMID:27552909

  6. LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, SOUTH ELEVATION, FACING NORTHWEST Generals Highway, Lodge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, SOUTH ELEVATION, FACING NORTHWEST - Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, Spanning Marble Fork of Kaweah River, approximately 21 miles northwest of Ash Mountain Entrance, Three Rivers, Tulare County, CA

  7. LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, SOUTH ELEVATION, FACING EAST Generals Highway, Lodge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, SOUTH ELEVATION, FACING EAST - Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, Spanning Marble Fork of Kaweah River, approximately 21 miles northwest of Ash Mountain Entrance, Three Rivers, Tulare County, CA

  8. LODGEPOLE BRIDGE DETAIL, FACING SOUTHEAST Generals Highway, Lodge Pole ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LODGEPOLE BRIDGE DETAIL, FACING SOUTHEAST - Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, Spanning Marble Fork of Kaweah River, approximately 21 miles northwest of Ash Mountain Entrance, Three Rivers, Tulare County, CA

  9. LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, NORTH ELEVATION, FACING SOUTHWEST Generals Highway, Lodge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, NORTH ELEVATION, FACING SOUTHWEST - Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, Spanning Marble Fork of Kaweah River, approximately 21 miles northwest of Ash Mountain Entrance, Three Rivers, Tulare County, CA

  10. Assessing and Reducing Miscellaneous Electric Loads (MELs) in Lodging

    SciTech Connect

    Rauch, Emily M.

    2011-09-01

    Miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) are the loads outside of a building's core functions of heating, ventilating, air conditioning, lighting, and water heating. This report reviews methods to reduce MELs in lodging.

  11. OVERALL VIEW OF CEMETERY ENTRANCE, WITH LODGE BUILDING AT LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF CEMETERY ENTRANCE, WITH LODGE BUILDING AT LEFT AND FLAGPOLE AT RIGHT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Baton Rouge National Cemetery, 220 North 19th Street, Baton Rouge, East Baton Rouge Parish, LA

  12. SECTIONS 3 AND 6 WITH LODGE BUILDING IN CENTER BACKGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SECTIONS 3 AND 6 WITH LODGE BUILDING IN CENTER BACKGROUND AND MAINTENANCE BUILDING AT LEFT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Baton Rouge National Cemetery, 220 North 19th Street, Baton Rouge, East Baton Rouge Parish, LA

  13. View from southeast of engine lathe (Lodge and Shippley Machine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from southeast of engine lathe (Lodge and Shippley Machine Tools, Cincinnati, Ohio) - East Broad Top Railroad & Coal Company, Machine Shop, State Route 994, West of U.S. Route 522, Rockhill Furnace, Huntingdon County, PA

  14. 76 FR 44358 - Notice of Lodging Proposed Consent Decree

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... hereby given that a proposed Consent Decree in United States v. Northstar Materials, Inc. (d/b/a Knife River Materials) & Knife River Corporation, Civil No. 0:11-cv-01950-RHK-LIB, was lodged with the...

  15. Transverse section through the Grand Lodge and Grand Chapter rooms ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Transverse section through the Grand Lodge and Grand Chapter rooms of James H. Windrim and George Summers’s neoclassical competition design for the New Masonic Temple, Philadelphia, 1867 - Masonic Temple, 1 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. 76 FR 25710 - Notice of Lodging Proposed Consent Decree

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ..., and KOR Ethanol, Inc., Case No. 10- 4086, was lodged with the United States District Court for the... complaint filed by the United States against Richard D. Kor, Wesley D. Kor, and Kor Ethanol, Inc.,...

  17. View of secondfloor Blue Lodge lobby from the southwest. Left ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of second-floor Blue Lodge lobby from the southwest. Left door leads to the hallway to Norman Hall. Central door opens to the Egyptian Hall inner vestibule. - Masonic Temple, 1 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. 38 CFR 60.7 - Duration of temporary lodging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... health care facility. When a veteran is undergoing extensive treatment or procedures, such as an organ transplant or chemotherapy, eligible persons may be furnished temporary lodging for the duration of...

  19. 38 CFR 60.7 - Duration of temporary lodging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... health care facility. When a veteran is undergoing extensive treatment or procedures, such as an organ transplant or chemotherapy, eligible persons may be furnished temporary lodging for the duration of...

  20. 83. VIEW SHOWING DRIFTWOOD LODGED AGAINST SHOOFLY BRIDGE, WITH RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    83. VIEW SHOWING DRIFTWOOD LODGED AGAINST SHOOFLY BRIDGE, WITH RIVER AT FLOOD STAGE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, April 8, 1935 - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  1. Yellow steam and electrical pipes across from Bright Angel Lodge. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Yellow steam and electrical pipes across from Bright Angel Lodge. Note control valve to right of control box, view E. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  2. 75 FR 63103 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Lodging and Transportation Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GENERAL SERVICES...); Lodging and Transportation Amendment AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy, General Services... Federal Travel Regulation (FTR) by revising and updating its policy on lodging and transportation....

  3. 38 CFR 60.20 - Duration of Fisher House or other temporary lodging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Duration of Fisher House... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) FISHER HOUSES AND OTHER TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.20 Duration of Fisher House or other temporary lodging. Fisher House or other temporary lodging may be awarded for the...

  4. 38 CFR 60.20 - Duration of Fisher House or other temporary lodging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Duration of Fisher House... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) FISHER HOUSES AND OTHER TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.20 Duration of Fisher House or other temporary lodging. Fisher House or other temporary lodging may be awarded for the...

  5. 1. GUEST HOUSE KNOWN AS 'THE LODGE' REPORTEDLY BUILT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GUEST HOUSE KNOWN AS 'THE LODGE' REPORTEDLY BUILT TO BE USED BY J.D. ROSS ON HIS VISITS TO THE SKAGIT PROJECT. DURING THE 1930S THE U.S. FOREST SERVICE EXERTED A STONG INFLUENCE ON BUILDING STYLES FOR RESIDENCES AT THE SKAGIT PROJECT, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Skagit River & Newhalem Creek Hydroelectric Project, On Skagit River, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  6. The Native American Sweat Lodge as Metaphor for Group Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Michael Walkingstick; Osborne, W. Larry

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how the interrelationship and growth emphasized by the Native American sweat lodge ceremony and "the talking circle" can provide a richer understanding of group counseling. Details each ceremony and explores the implications of practices that are based on cultural traditions, arguing that such traditions can enrich the group experience.…

  7. The Sweat Lodge Ceremony in Challenge/Adventure Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, William J.; Smith, Thomas E.

    This paper advocates the potentials of "sweat lodge" rituals for adventure education programs. Historically, rituals and ceremonies have been instrumental in passing major philosophical and sociological paradigms from one generation to the next. However, there is little theory and research about how ritual and ceremony results in the transmission…

  8. 14. TIOGA ROAD VIEW NEAR TOULUMNE LODGE AT 9000 FT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. TIOGA ROAD VIEW NEAR TOULUMNE LODGE AT 9000 FT ELEVATION MARKER. UNICORN PEAK CENTER DISTANCE. LOOKING SW. GIS: N-37 52.52.6 / W-119 19 31.4 - Tioga Road, Between Crane Flat & Tioga Pass, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  9. 29 CFR 531.29 - Board, lodging, or other facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Board, lodging, or other facilities. 531.29 Section 531.29 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS WAGE PAYMENTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 Interpretations How Payments May Be Made §...

  10. 29 CFR 531.29 - Board, lodging, or other facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Board, lodging, or other facilities. 531.29 Section 531.29 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS WAGE PAYMENTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 Interpretations How Payments May Be Made §...

  11. 29 CFR 531.29 - Board, lodging, or other facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Board, lodging, or other facilities. 531.29 Section 531.29 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS WAGE PAYMENTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 Interpretations How Payments May Be Made §...

  12. 29 CFR 531.29 - Board, lodging, or other facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Board, lodging, or other facilities. 531.29 Section 531.29 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS WAGE PAYMENTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 Interpretations How Payments May Be Made §...

  13. 29 CFR 531.29 - Board, lodging, or other facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Board, lodging, or other facilities. 531.29 Section 531.29 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS WAGE PAYMENTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 Interpretations How Payments May Be Made §...

  14. Manual for Accessibility: [Conference, Meeting, and Lodging Facilities]. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Rehabilitation Association, Alexandria, VA.

    This illustrated manual and survey forms are designed to be used by organizations, hotel and restaurant associations, interested individuals and others as a guide for selecting accessible conference, meeting, and lodging facilities. The guidelines can also be used with existing facilities to identify specific modifications and accommodations. The…

  15. 29 CFR 541.606 - Board, lodging or other facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... restaurants to their employees; meals, dormitory rooms, and tuition furnished by a college to its student... other facilities” means “free and clear” or independent of any claimed credit for non-cash items of...) Regulations defining what constitutes “board, lodging, or other facilities” are contained in 29 CFR part...

  16. 29 CFR 541.606 - Board, lodging or other facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... restaurants to their employees; meals, dormitory rooms, and tuition furnished by a college to its student... other facilities” means “free and clear” or independent of any claimed credit for non-cash items of...) Regulations defining what constitutes “board, lodging, or other facilities” are contained in 29 CFR part...

  17. 29 CFR 541.606 - Board, lodging or other facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... restaurants to their employees; meals, dormitory rooms, and tuition furnished by a college to its student... other facilities” means “free and clear” or independent of any claimed credit for non-cash items of...) Regulations defining what constitutes “board, lodging, or other facilities” are contained in 29 CFR part...

  18. 29 CFR 541.606 - Board, lodging or other facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... restaurants to their employees; meals, dormitory rooms, and tuition furnished by a college to its student... other facilities” means “free and clear” or independent of any claimed credit for non-cash items of...) Regulations defining what constitutes “board, lodging, or other facilities” are contained in 29 CFR part...

  19. 29 CFR 541.606 - Board, lodging or other facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... restaurants to their employees; meals, dormitory rooms, and tuition furnished by a college to its student... other facilities” means “free and clear” or independent of any claimed credit for non-cash items of...) Regulations defining what constitutes “board, lodging, or other facilities” are contained in 29 CFR part...

  20. 36 CFR 5.10 - Eating, drinking, or lodging establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Rocky Mountain, Sequoia-Kings Canyon, Yellowstone, and Yosemite National Parks may be operated without a... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eating, drinking, or lodging establishments. 5.10 Section 5.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. Developments in Art Education: Study Conference. Coombe Lodge Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Developments in Art Education, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The nine papers presented in the document are part of a conference held at Coombe Lodge in Bristol, England, which focused on an analysis of the objectives of vocational art and design education and a re-appraisal of the curriculum. The papers include the following: (1) The Report of the Working Group on Vocational Courses, (2) Design Education--A…

  2. 78 FR 22900 - Notice of Lodging Proposed Consent Decree

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... D. Raether, d/b/a County Line Grading, Civil Action No.13-cv-246, was lodged with the United States.... Raether, d/b/a County Line Grading, pursuant to Section 309(b) of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1319(b... written comments relating to this proposed Consent Decree for thirty (30) days from the date...

  3. 76 FR 40393 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decrees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... Decrees were lodged with the United States District Court for the Central District of California. The... mail from the Consent Decree Library, P.O. Box 7611, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC 20044...) 514-0097, phone confirmation No. (202) 514-1547. In requesting a copy from the Consent Decree...

  4. 75 FR 61773 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... Decree was lodged with the United States District Court for the Central District of California. The... may also be obtained by mail from the Consent Decree Library, P.O. Box 7611, U.S. Department of... from the Consent Decree Library, please enclose a check payable to the ``U.S. Treasury'' or, if...

  5. Alabama State Lodging Tax: A Lesson for All Camps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieckmann, Amy

    2003-01-01

    A dispute between an Alabama business conference center and a nearby camp prompted the state's revenue department to charge camps an old lodging tax that had never been applied to them before. The state camping association members worked together to have the tax law and regulations amended so that nonprofit camps were exempt from the tax in most…

  6. Section BB Hatch Coating; Framing Plan on Line C Lodging ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section B-B Hatch Coating; Framing Plan on Line C Lodging Knees at Hatch; Elevation A-A Hull Framing; Section at Hatch Frame 36, Starboard Looking Aft; Midship Section Frame 37, Port Looking Aft - Steam Schooner WAPAMA, Kaiser Shipyard No. 3 (Shoal Point), Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  7. Lodging Management Career Questionnaire of Greater Philadelphia Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Robert C., Jr.; Wetzel, Susan J.

    A survey was undertaken by Delaware County Community College's (Pennsylvania) Hotel/Restaurant Management program: (1) to provide students with local up-to-date information regarding the lodging industry in the Greater Philadelphia area; and (2) to provide information regarding necessary skills as perceived by the managers for the purpose of…

  8. Global Warming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichman, Julia Christensen; Brown, Jeff A.

    1994-01-01

    Presents information and data on an experiment designed to test whether different atmosphere compositions are affected by light and temperature during both cooling and heating. Although flawed, the experiment should help students appreciate the difficulties that researchers face when trying to find evidence of global warming. (PR)

  9. Global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, John

    2005-06-01

    'Global warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and act as blankets over the surface keeping it warmer than it would otherwise be. Associated with this warming are changes of climate. The basic science of the 'greenhouse effect' that leads to the warming is well understood. More detailed understanding relies on numerical models of the climate that integrate the basic dynamical and physical equations describing the complete climate system. Many of the likely characteristics of the resulting changes in climate (such as more frequent heat waves, increases in rainfall, increase in frequency and intensity of many extreme climate events) can be identified. Substantial uncertainties remain in knowledge of some of the feedbacks within the climate system (that affect the overall magnitude of change) and in much of the detail of likely regional change. Because of its negative impacts on human communities (including for instance substantial sea-level rise) and on ecosystems, global warming is the most important environmental problem the world faces. Adaptation to the inevitable impacts and mitigation to reduce their magnitude are both necessary. International action is being taken by the world's scientific and political communities. Because of the need for urgent action, the greatest challenge is to move rapidly to much increased energy efficiency and to non-fossil-fuel energy sources.

  10. [Relationship between cellulose synthesis metabolism and lodging resistance in intercropping soybean at seedling stage].

    PubMed

    Deng, Yu-chuan; Liu, Wei-guo; Yuan, Xiao-qin; Yuan, Jin; Zou, Jun-lin; Du, Jun-bo; Yang, Wen-yu

    2016-02-01

    Physical characteristics of stem are closely relative to the crop lodging. Increase of stem strength is conducive to resolve the problem of lodging. Three soybean cultivars with different shade tolerance were planted under maize-soybean intercropping and soybean monocropping, respectively. Physiological and biochemical indices including cellulose, soluble sugar, sucrose, starch contents and enzyme activity were investigated to assess the snapping resistance and lodging resistance of the stems of soybean seedling, and snapping- and lodging-resistance indices were calculated for further verification. Furthermore, relationship analyses between these factors and the lodging of inter-cropped soybean showed that the intercropping soybean lodged seriously, the snapping resistance, lodging resistance index, contents of cellulose, soluble sugar, sucrose, starch and activities of the related enzymes were significantly lower than monocropping soybean at seedling stage. The three soybean cultivars showed different phenotypes in intercropping condition. The snapping-resistant Nandou12 with strong shade-tolerant traits was the most lodging-resistant phenotype, and it also harbored high contents of cellulose, soluble sugar, sucrose, starch and active enzymes. The lodging resistance index, cellulose content of the stems of intercropped soybean seedling were significantly positively correlated with the snapping resistance, and were significantly negatively correlated with the actual lodging percentage. The activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) , sucrose synthase (SS) and neutral invertase (NI) were positively correlated with sucrose is content, but not the acid invertase (AI). The activities of SPS, NI and SS were positively correlated with cellulose content, but not Al. In a word, the high activities of SPS and SS in the soybean stem were the enzymatic basis to maintain relatively higher cellulose and sucrose content, which is conducive to improve the stem-sfrength and

  11. [Relationship between cellulose synthesis metabolism and lodging resistance in intercropping soybean at seedling stage].

    PubMed

    Deng, Yu-chuan; Liu, Wei-guo; Yuan, Xiao-qin; Yuan, Jin; Zou, Jun-lin; Du, Jun-bo; Yang, Wen-yu

    2016-02-01

    Physical characteristics of stem are closely relative to the crop lodging. Increase of stem strength is conducive to resolve the problem of lodging. Three soybean cultivars with different shade tolerance were planted under maize-soybean intercropping and soybean monocropping, respectively. Physiological and biochemical indices including cellulose, soluble sugar, sucrose, starch contents and enzyme activity were investigated to assess the snapping resistance and lodging resistance of the stems of soybean seedling, and snapping- and lodging-resistance indices were calculated for further verification. Furthermore, relationship analyses between these factors and the lodging of inter-cropped soybean showed that the intercropping soybean lodged seriously, the snapping resistance, lodging resistance index, contents of cellulose, soluble sugar, sucrose, starch and activities of the related enzymes were significantly lower than monocropping soybean at seedling stage. The three soybean cultivars showed different phenotypes in intercropping condition. The snapping-resistant Nandou12 with strong shade-tolerant traits was the most lodging-resistant phenotype, and it also harbored high contents of cellulose, soluble sugar, sucrose, starch and active enzymes. The lodging resistance index, cellulose content of the stems of intercropped soybean seedling were significantly positively correlated with the snapping resistance, and were significantly negatively correlated with the actual lodging percentage. The activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) , sucrose synthase (SS) and neutral invertase (NI) were positively correlated with sucrose is content, but not the acid invertase (AI). The activities of SPS, NI and SS were positively correlated with cellulose content, but not Al. In a word, the high activities of SPS and SS in the soybean stem were the enzymatic basis to maintain relatively higher cellulose and sucrose content, which is conducive to improve the stem-sfrength and

  12. 78 FR 34405 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... Justice lodged a proposed Consent Decree in United States v. PCS Nitrogen Fertilizer, L.P., Civil Action... and manufactures nitrogen solutions, phosphate fertilizer and other industrial products....

  13. Influence of Speed and Rainfall on Large-Scale Wheat Lodging from 2007 to 2014 in China.

    PubMed

    Niu, Liyuan; Feng, Suwei; Ding, Weihua; Li, Gan

    2016-01-01

    Strong wind and heavy rain remain the two most important causes of large acreage wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) lodging in China. For research the influence of wind speed and rainfall-separately as well as together-on the extent and degree of lodging, five levels of the severity of lodging were defined based on a combination of the lodging area and the degree of tilting. Detailed meteorological information was studied on 52 instances of large-scale lodging that occurred from 2007 to 2014. The results showed that strong wind's lodging accounted for 8% of the instances studied, continuous rainfall's lodging accounted for 19% and strong winds-heavy rainfall's accounted for 73%. The minimum instantaneous wind speed that could cause large-scale lodging was closely related to rainfall. Without rainfall, the wind speed that resulted in lodging ranging in severity from slight to severe (Level 2 to Level 5) was 14.9 m/s, 19.3 m/s, 21.5 m/s, and 26.5 m/s, respectively; when accompanied by rainfall, the wind speed that resulted in lodging of the same severity decreased linearly with the increase of rainfall. These results will be particularly useful in preventing and alleviating wheat lodging as well screening wheat varieties with good lodging resistance. PMID:27367926

  14. Influence of Speed and Rainfall on Large-Scale Wheat Lodging from 2007 to 2014 in China

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Liyuan; Feng, Suwei; Ding, Weihua; Li, Gan

    2016-01-01

    Strong wind and heavy rain remain the two most important causes of large acreage wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) lodging in China. For research the influence of wind speed and rainfall—separately as well as together—on the extent and degree of lodging, five levels of the severity of lodging were defined based on a combination of the lodging area and the degree of tilting. Detailed meteorological information was studied on 52 instances of large-scale lodging that occurred from 2007 to 2014. The results showed that strong wind’s lodging accounted for 8% of the instances studied, continuous rainfall’s lodging accounted for 19% and strong winds-heavy rainfall’s accounted for 73%. The minimum instantaneous wind speed that could cause large-scale lodging was closely related to rainfall. Without rainfall, the wind speed that resulted in lodging ranging in severity from slight to severe (Level 2 to Level 5) was 14.9 m/s, 19.3 m/s, 21.5 m/s, and 26.5 m/s, respectively; when accompanied by rainfall, the wind speed that resulted in lodging of the same severity decreased linearly with the increase of rainfall. These results will be particularly useful in preventing and alleviating wheat lodging as well screening wheat varieties with good lodging resistance. PMID:27367926

  15. 41 CFR 301-31.7 - May my family and I occupy lodging at different locations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May my family and I occupy lodging at different locations? 301-31.7 Section 301-31.7 Public Contracts and Property Management...-THREATENED LAW ENFORCEMENT/INVESTIGATIVE EMPLOYEES § 301-31.7 May my family and I occupy lodging at...

  16. 38 CFR 60.10 - Eligibility criteria for Fisher House or other temporary lodging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... from the VA health care facility without an overnight stay. (e) Special authority for organ transplant... lodging for individuals who must be present on site for evaluation, donation, and care related to their status as an organ donor for a veteran. VA may also provide Fisher House or other temporary lodging...

  17. 38 CFR 60.10 - Eligibility criteria for Fisher House or other temporary lodging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... from the VA health care facility without an overnight stay. (e) Special authority for organ transplant... lodging for individuals who must be present on site for evaluation, donation, and care related to their status as an organ donor for a veteran. VA may also provide Fisher House or other temporary lodging...

  18. "As if Reviewing His Life": Bull Lodge's Narrative and the Mediation of Self-Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gone, Joseph P.

    2006-01-01

    In 1980, on behalf of the Gros Ventre people, George P. Horse Capture published "The Seven Visions of Bull Lodge, as Told by His Daughter, Garter Snake." "The Seven Visions" describes a lifetime of personal encounters with Powerful other-than-human Persons by the noted Gros Ventre warrior and ritual leader, Bull Lodge (ca. 1802-86). Bull Lodge…

  19. Crying for a Vision: The Native American Sweat Lodge Ceremony as Therapeutic Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Michael Tlanusta; Torres-Rivera, Edil; Brubaker, Michael; Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe; Brotherton, Dale; West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Conwill, William; Grayshield, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The Native American sweat lodge ceremony or sweat therapy is being used increasingly in various medical, mental health, correctional, and substance abuse treatment centers serving both Native and non-Native clients. This article explores the sweat lodge ceremony's background, elements of Native American spirituality, origin story, cultural…

  20. 77 FR 12079 - Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ..., and either emailed to pubcomment-ees.enrd@usdoj.gov or mailed to P.O. Box 7611, U.S. Department of... of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and... Canal Corp., et al., Case No. 08-36642- DOT, was lodged with the United States Bankruptcy Court for...

  1. 20 CFR 230.5 - Exception concerning service to a local lodge or division.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... or division. 230.5 Section 230.5 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE... to a local lodge or division. In determining whether an annuity is subject to the provisions of this... lodge or division of a railway-labor-organization employer if the compensation for such service...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1043 - Facilities or privileges-meals and lodging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Facilities or privileges-meals and lodging... Wages § 404.1043 Facilities or privileges—meals and lodging. (a) Excluding the value of employer... such items as entertainment, medical services, and so-called courtesy discounts on purchases. (b)...

  3. 78 FR 54484 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 On August 28, 2013 the Department of Justice lodged a proposed Consent Decree with the United States District Court for...

  4. 77 FR 14425 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act Notice is hereby given that on February 24, 2012 a proposed Consent Decree (``Decree'') in United States v. Roy Stricklin, Civil Action No. 11-CV-158-J, was lodged with the United...

  5. Geology and ground-water resources of the Deer Lodge Valley, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konizeski, Richard L.; McMurtrey, R.G.; Brietkrietz, Alex

    1968-01-01

    clay to boulder-sized aggregates. Throughout most of the area the strata dip gently towards the valley axis, but along the western margins of the valley they dip steeply into the mountains. In late Pliocene or early Pleistocene the Tertiary strata were eroded to a nearly regular valley divide surface. In the western part of the valley the erosion surface was thinly mantled by glacial debris from the Flint Creek Range. Still later, probably during several interglacial intervals, the Clark Fork and its tributaries entrenched themselves in the Tertiary strata to an average depth of about 150 feet. The resultant erosional features were further modified by Wisconsin to Recent glaciofluvial deposition. Three east-west cross .sections and a corrected gravity map were drawn for the valley. They indicate a maximum depth of fill of more than 5,500 feet in the southern part. Depths decrease to the north to approximately 2,300 feet near the town of Deer Lodge. The principal source of ground water in the Deer Lodge Valley is the upper few hundred feet of unconsolidated valley fill. Most of the wells tapping these deposits range in depth from a few feet to 250 feet. Water levels range from somewhat above land surface (in flowing wells) to about 150 feet below. Yields of the wells range from a few gallons per minute to 1,000 gallons per minute. Generally, wells having the highest yields are on the flood plain of the Clark Fork or the coalescent fans of Warm Springs and Mill Creeks. Discharge of ground water by seepage into streams, by evapotranspiration, and by pumping from wells causes a gradual lowering of the water table. Each spring and early summer, seepage of water from irrigation and streams and infiltration of water from snowmelt and precipitation replenish the ground-water reservoir. Seasonal fluctuation of the water table generally is less than 10 feet. The small yearly water table fluctuation indicates that recharge about balances discharge from th

  6. Solar hot water system installed at Day's Lodge, Atlanta, Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    The solar energy hot water system installed in the Days Inns of America, Inc., Day's Lodge I-85 and Shallowford Road, NE Atlanta, Georgia is described. This system is one of eleven systems planned under this grant and was designed to provide for 81% of the total hot water demand. There are two separate systems, each serving one building of the lodge (total of 65 suites). The entire system contains only potable city water. The 1024 square feet of Grumman Sunstream Model 332 liquid flat plate collectors and the outside piping drains whenever the collector plates approach freezing or when power is interrupted. Solar heated water from the two above ground cement lined steel tanks (1000 gallon tank) is drawn into the electric domestic hot water (DHW) tanks as hot water is drawn. Electric resistance units in the DHW tanks top off the solar heated water, if needed, to reach thermostat setting. Operation of this system was begun in August, 1979. The solar components were partly funded ($18,042 of $36,084 cost) by the Department of Energy.

  7. Genetic relationship between lodging and lodging components in barley (Hordeum vulgare) based on unconditional and conditional quantitative trait locus analyses.

    PubMed

    Chen, W Y; Liu, Z M; Deng, G B; Pan, Z F; Liang, J J; Zeng, X Q; Tashi, N M; Long, H; Yu, M Q

    2014-03-17

    Lodging (LD) is a major constraint limiting the yield and forage quality of barley. Detailed analyses of LD component (LDC) traits were conducted using 246 F2 plants generated from a cross between cultivars ZQ320 and 1277. Genetic relationships between LD and LDC were evaluated by unconditional and conditional quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping with 117 simple sequence repeat markers. Ultimately, 53 unconditional QTL related to LD were identified on seven barley chromosomes. Up to 15 QTL accounted for over 10% of the phenotypic variation, and up to 20 QTL for culm strength were detected. Six QTL with pleiotropic effects showing significant negative correlations with LD were found between markers Bmag353 and GBM1482 on chromosome 4H. These alleles and alleles of QTL for wall thickness, culm strength, plant height, and plant weight originated from ZQ320. Conditional mapping identified 96 additional QTL for LD. Conditional QTL analysis demonstrated that plant height, plant height center of gravity, and length of the sixth internode had the greatest contribution to LD, whereas culm strength and length of the fourth internode, and culm strength of the second internode were the key factors for LD-resistant. Therefore, lodging resistance in barley can be improved based on selection of alleles affecting culm strength, wall thickness, plant height, and plant weight. The conditional QTL mapping method can be used to evaluate possible genetic relationships between LD and LDC while efficiently and precisely determining counteracting QTL, which will help in understanding the genetic basis of LD in barley.

  8. Barriers and facilitators to Veterans Administration collaboration with community providers: the Lodge Project for homeless veterans.

    PubMed

    Cretzmeyer, Margaret; Moeckli, Jane; Liu, William Ming

    2014-01-01

    Since 2009, the U.S. Veterans Administration has made concentrated efforts to end homelessness among veterans. As part of these efforts, the Iowa City, Iowa, VA Health Care System in collaboration with local community providers deployed a supportive housing program aimed at homeless veterans. Called the Lodge program, it is intended to serve a Mid-Western mid-size city and its surrounding rural communities. This article presents qualitative findings from a mixed-method, two-year formative evaluation of the Lodge's implementation. Primary barriers to the effectiveness of the Lodge program were regulations hindering cooperation between service programs, followed by problems regarding information sharing and client substance abuse. Facilitators included personal communication and cooperation between individuals within and among service groups. The feasibility of implementing a Lodge program in a more rural community than Iowa City was also discussed.

  9. 76 FR 20372 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree and Settlement Agreement Regarding Natural Resource Damage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree and Settlement Agreement Regarding Natural Resource Damage Claims... St. Regis Mohawk Tribe. The NRD Settlement Agreement resolves claims for natural resource damages and... be addressed to the Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources Division,...

  10. 77 FR 67669 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Responsibility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Responsibility... Defendant under Sections 106 and 107 of the Comprehensive Environmental Responsibility, Compensation...

  11. 77 FR 48541 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... request to Environment and Natural Resources Division, Environmental Enforcement Section, fax no. (202..., Environmental Enforcement Section, Environment and Natural Resources Division. BILLING CODE 4410-15-P ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation,...

  12. 75 FR 68001 - Revision to Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Comprehensive Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ..., Environmental Enforcement Section, Environment and Natural Resources Division. BILLING CODE 4410-15-P ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Revision to Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Comprehensive Environmental...

  13. 78 FR 54276 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ..., Assistant Chief Management, Environmental Enforcement Section, Environment and Natural Resources Division... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and... Illinois. In this action under Section 107(a) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response,...

  14. 75 FR 7626 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... Chief, Environmental Enforcement Section, Environment and Natural Resources Division. BILLING CODE 4410... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation,...

  15. 75 FR 6220 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... address. Maureen Katz, Assistant Chief, Environmental Enforcement Section, Environment and Natural... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and... resource damages under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, 42...

  16. 77 FR 33769 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree under Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... Goldberg & Son, Inc., et al., Civil Action No. 10 Civ. 3237, were lodged with the United States District... of Justice, Washington, DC 20044-7611, and should refer to U.S. v. Jacob Goldberg & Son, Inc., et...

  17. CONSERVATIVE ATTITUDES TO OLD-ESTABLISHED ORGANS: OLIVER LODGE AND PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Imogen; Mussell, James

    2015-09-20

    In 1921 Oliver Lodge defended Philosophical Magazine against charges of mismanagement from the National Union of Scientific Workers. They alleged that its editors performed little editorial work, the bulk being done by the publishers, Taylor & Francis. Lodge reassured Nature's readers that the journal did consult its editors, and suggested 'a conservative attitude towards old-established organs is wise; and that it is possible to over-organise things into lifelessness.' The paper explores Lodge's response by considering the editorial arrangements at Philosophical Magazine. Founded in 1798, it remained remarkably unchanged and so appeared old-fashioned when compared with its closest rivals, Proceedings of the Royal Society and Proceedings of the Physical Society. We argue that for Lodge the management of Philosophical Magazine gave it the flexibility and independence required to sustain the kind of physics, also open to accusations of obsolescence, in which he believed. PMID:26495580

  18. 78 FR 79484 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... and Liability Act (``CERCLA''), the Clean Water Act (``CWA''), and the Missouri Rev. Stat. of the Missouri Clean Water Law On December 20, 2013, the Department of Justice lodged a proposed Consent...

  19. 76 FR 19127 - Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... Technologies et al., No. 02- 11125(KJC) (Bankr. D. Del.), was lodged with the United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware. In this bankruptcy matter the United States, on behalf of...

  20. 75 FR 42785 - Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... bankruptcy matter, Old Carco LLC (f/k/a Chrysler LLC), et al., Jointly Administered Case No. 09-50002 (AJG), was lodged with the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York....

  1. 75 FR 14629 - Notice of Lodging of Second Modification to Consent Decree Under Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    .... Marathon Ashland Petroleum LLC, Civil Action No. 01-40119 (PVG), was lodged with the United States District... to United States, et al. v. Marathon Ashland Petroleum LLC, D.J. Ref. No. 90-5-2-1-07247. The...

  2. 75 FR 1412 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    .... Highview Gardens, Inc., Civil Action No. 2:09-cv-02827-PD was lodged with the United States District Court... of Justice, Washington, DC 20044-7611, and should refer to United States v. Highview Gardens,...

  3. Conservative attitudes to old-established organs: Oliver Lodge and Philosophical Magazine

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Imogen; Mussell, James

    2015-01-01

    In 1921 Oliver Lodge defended Philosophical Magazine against charges of mismanagement from the National Union of Scientific Workers. They alleged that its editors performed little editorial work, the bulk being done by the publishers, Taylor & Francis. Lodge reassured Nature's readers that the journal did consult its editors, and suggested ‘a conservative attitude towards old-established organs is wise; and that it is possible to over-organise things into lifelessness.’ The paper explores Lodge's response by considering the editorial arrangements at Philosophical Magazine. Founded in 1798, it remained remarkably unchanged and so appeared old-fashioned when compared with its closest rivals, Proceedings of the Royal Society and Proceedings of the Physical Society. We argue that for Lodge the management of Philosophical Magazine gave it the flexibility and independence required to sustain the kind of physics, also open to accusations of obsolescence, in which he believed. PMID:26495580

  4. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Wei; Gowri, Krishnan; Lane, Michael D.; Thornton, Brian A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Liu, Bing

    2009-09-28

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process, methodology and assumptions for development of the 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings, a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings in highway lodging properties over the energy-efficiency levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.

  5. Chestnut Lodge and the psychoanalytic approach to psychosis.

    PubMed

    Kafka, John S

    2011-02-01

    The study of psychosis has a long history in psychoanalysis, as does the debate over the suitability of psychoanalysis for treating schizophrenia. For decades, Chestnut Lodge was not only a hospital but also a clinical research and educational institution. A unique patient-staff ratio--about twenty analytic therapists for a hundred patients--made possible prolonged and intense clinical work with schizophrenic and other severely disturbed patients. Interstaff discussions were encouraged and facilitated. This quasi-academic approach to in-depth individual case studies led to clinical findings and theoretical formulations that had a significant impact on developments in psychoanalysis, both here and abroad. Many of these findings and theoretical formulations are relevant to current studies and treatments of psychotic and nonpsychotic patients.

  6. Solar hot water system installed at Day's Lodge, Atlanta, Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy hot water system installed in the Days Inns of America, Inc., Atlanta, Georgia is described. This system provides for 81 percent of the total hot water demand. There are two separate systems, each serving one building of the lodge (total of 65 suites). The entire system contains only potable city water. The 1024 square feet of Grumman Sunstream Model 332 liquid flat plate collectors and the outside piping drain whenever the collector plates approach freezing or when power is interrupted. Solar heated water from the two above ground cement lined steel tanks (1000 gallon tank) is drawn into the electric Domestic Hot Water (DHW) tanks as hot water is drawn. Electric resistance units in the DHW tanks top off the solar heated water, if needed, to reach thermostat setting.

  7. Beaver lodge distributions and damage assessments in a forested wetland ecosystem in the southern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, S.L.; Keeland, B.D.; Moore, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    Caddo Lake, USA, a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance, is a lacustrine wetland complex consisting of stands of flooded baldcypress intermixed with open water and emergent wetland habitats. Recently, concern has been expressed over a perceived increase in the beaver population and the impact of beaver on the long-term sustainability of the baldcypress ecosystem. We used intensive beaver lodge surveys to determine the distribution and relative abundance of beaver and the amount, type, and distribution of beaver damage to mature trees and seedlings at Caddo Lake. A total of 229 lodges were located with a combination of aerial and boat/ground surveys. Most lodges were located in open water and edge habitats. About 95% of the lodges were occupied by beaver or nutria. Some form of damage was exhibited by one or more trees near 85% of the lodges. Intensive damage assessments around 35 lodges indicated that most damage to trees, baldcypress in particular, was restricted to peeling or stripping of bark which is believed to have minimal effect on tree survival. Surveys of regeneration indicated that baldcypress seedlings were very abundant; however, over 99.9% were less than 30 cm tall. The lack of recruitment into the larger size classes appears to be a result of high stand densities and water management practices. At this time, the young age and density of the baldcypress forests suggest that recruitment is not a major concern and herbivore damage appears to be having a minimal effect on the forest.

  8. Warm Up with Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyle, R. J.; Smith, Robert F.

    1989-01-01

    Too little time is often spent on warm-up activities in the school or recreation class. Warm-ups are often perfunctory and unimaginative. Several suggestions are made for warm-up activities that incorporate both previously learned and new skills, while preparing the body for more vigorous activity. (IAH)

  9. Toward an Understanding of Online Word-of-Mouth Message Content and the Booking Intentions of Lodging Consumers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Loon, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which the message structure of an online word-of-mouth referral influences the booking intentions of lodging consumers. The objectives were (1) determine what elements of the message structure of an online word-of-mouth referral influenced the booking intention of lodging consumers and (2)…

  10. 78 FR 68093 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree; Pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree; Pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Clean Water Act On October 28, 2013, the Department of Justice lodged a proposed Consent Decree (``Decree... Waste et seq. (Section 3005 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (``RCRA''), 42 U.S.C....

  11. 76 FR 15341 - Notice of Lodging of a Stipulated Order for Preliminary Relief Pursuant to the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of a Stipulated Order for Preliminary Relief Pursuant to the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that a proposed Stipulated Order for Preliminary Relief was lodged on March 15, 2011, with the United States District Court for...

  12. 77 FR 61027 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act On September 28, 2012, the Department of Justice lodged a proposed Consent Decree with the United States District Court for the Eastern District...

  13. Sweat lodge ceremonies for jail-based treatment.

    PubMed

    Gossage, J Phillip; Barton, Louie; Foster, Lenny; Etsitty, Larry; LoneTree, Clayton; Leonard, Carol; May, Philip A

    2003-01-01

    Sweat lodge ceremonies (SLCs) have been an integral part of Navajo culture for hundreds of year. The Dine' Center for Substance Abuse Treatment staff utilized SLCs as a modality for jail-based treatment. Data were collected from the Spring of 1996 through the Spring of 1999 from 190 men ranging in age from 18 to 64. These inmate/patients (IPs) provided information at intake on a broad range of questions which were important in understanding the problems these men were having with alcohol and other drugs. Experiential data were collected from 123 IPs after each SLC. Several cultural variables showed improvement in the IP's world view following the SLCs. Even though there were few areas where data were statistically significant, several drinking measures changed in a positive direction. For example, among those subjects who were followed-up, analysis revealed a decrease in the number of drinks consumed in drinking sessions from a mean of 6.7 drinks at intake to a mean of 5.3 drinks. This article examines the role of SLCs in traditional counseling in jail-based treatment of alcohol abuse. PMID:12733756

  14. 'A ticklish sort of affair': Charles Mott, Haydock Lodge and the economics of asylumdom.

    PubMed

    Hirst, David

    2005-09-01

    In June 1846 complaints about the treatment of a Welsh clergyman at the privately run Haydock Lodge Asylum in England heralded a series of allegations about maltreatment of pauper patients at the institution. These prompted a number of Parliamentary reports on the institution. Allegations were also made about connections between the asylum and officials at the Poor Law Commission. This article demonstrates that many of the problems at Haydock Lodge relate to the character and personal circumstances of its first Superintendent, Charles Mott, a former Assistant Poor Law Commissioner. Despite this specific causation, the Haydock Lodge affair had a more general influence in raising once again questions about the propriety of entrusting the care of publicly funded patients to private institutions.

  15. Changes in the Lodging-Related Traits along with Rice Genetic Improvement in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Guanglong; Li, Guohui; Wang, Depeng; Yuan, Shen; Wang, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Rice yield potential was greatly improved since the green revolution, but the occurrence of lodging often restricts the achievement of potential yield. Currently, it is still obscure about how the lodging-related traits change along with the genetic improvement in yield potential of rice, although much efforts have been devoted to study the trend of and physiological mechanisms underlying changes in grain yield. Therefore, fourteen rice mega-varieties that were released and disseminated from 1930s to 2005 in China were investigated through a two-year experiment in the field condition. The results showed that large genotypic differences in lodging-related morphological traits were observed among these varieties. Lodging index (LI) of semi-dwarf varieties was significantly lower compared with that of SLX(Shenglixian). There were significant differences in LI among the semi-dwarf varieties, but no relationship between LI and the release year was found. Bending moment (BM) of semi-dwarf varieties released in 1940s-1980s was significantly lower than that of SLX. However, varieties released after 1980s had similar bending moment with SLX, but significantly higher breaking resistance (BR). The increase in both BM and BR after 1980s was related with the increase in internode diameter (ND) and stem fresh weight. Overall, this study disclosed the changing pattern of lodging-related traits in the genetic improvement of rice, and suggested that further increase in ND, internode dry weight (NDW) and dry weight per unit length (DWUL) of lower internode in modern super rice variety could effectively enhance lodging resistance and bring down LI. PMID:27466812

  16. Changes in the Lodging-Related Traits along with Rice Genetic Improvement in China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guanglong; Li, Guohui; Wang, Depeng; Yuan, Shen; Wang, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Rice yield potential was greatly improved since the green revolution, but the occurrence of lodging often restricts the achievement of potential yield. Currently, it is still obscure about how the lodging-related traits change along with the genetic improvement in yield potential of rice, although much efforts have been devoted to study the trend of and physiological mechanisms underlying changes in grain yield. Therefore, fourteen rice mega-varieties that were released and disseminated from 1930s to 2005 in China were investigated through a two-year experiment in the field condition. The results showed that large genotypic differences in lodging-related morphological traits were observed among these varieties. Lodging index (LI) of semi-dwarf varieties was significantly lower compared with that of SLX(Shenglixian). There were significant differences in LI among the semi-dwarf varieties, but no relationship between LI and the release year was found. Bending moment (BM) of semi-dwarf varieties released in 1940s-1980s was significantly lower than that of SLX. However, varieties released after 1980s had similar bending moment with SLX, but significantly higher breaking resistance (BR). The increase in both BM and BR after 1980s was related with the increase in internode diameter (ND) and stem fresh weight. Overall, this study disclosed the changing pattern of lodging-related traits in the genetic improvement of rice, and suggested that further increase in ND, internode dry weight (NDW) and dry weight per unit length (DWUL) of lower internode in modern super rice variety could effectively enhance lodging resistance and bring down LI. PMID:27466812

  17. [Effects of strong wind lodging at pre- and post-tasseling stages on growth and yield of summer maize].

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-yan; Wang, Yu-xiang; Hu, Cheng-da; Yan, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Surveying data for wind lodging disaster happening in Nanyang of Henan Province in August 1, 2013, were used to analyze the effects of strong wind lodging at pre- and post-tasseling stages on growth and yield of summer maize, and to determine the differences in lodging resistance among varieties and the suitable sowing time for summer maize. The survey included two varieties of summer maize, Xundan 20 and Zhengdan 958, with five and three sowing dates, respectively. The lodging was divided into four types, i.e., root slope ( RS) , root lodging ( RL) , stem bending (SB) and stem broken (SBK). The results showed that wind lodging occurring at pre- and post-tasseling stages resulted in high lodging percentages for both varieties and all sowing dates. The lodging percentage of Xundan 20 variety ranged between 86.0% and 98.5% for five sowing dates. For Zhengdan 958 variety, it ranged between 60.0% and 76.4% for three sowing dates. After tasseling, the earlier the sowing date, the lower the lodging rate occurred. The main lodging types happening around the tasseling stage were RL with the lodging rate of 53.0%-84.3% for sowing dates II-V of Xundan 20. The main lodging type for sowing date I was SB with the lodging rate of 37.5%. Lodging reduced the aboveground dry matter with the greatest reduction rate occurring in SB, followed by RS and RL. Lodging increased the allocation of dry matter to leaves and stems, but decreased the allocation to spikes. RL and SB shortened the length and diameter of spike, and reduced the grain number per spike. The lodging occurring after the tasseling stage also reduced 100-grain mass. RS had no significant effects on spike characters and yield components. The lodging had serious effects on the yield of summer maize. The yield loss was highest for SB with the reduction percentages of 74.2% and 68.7% for Xundan 20 and Zhengdan 958, respectively. SB occurring before the tasseling stage would lead to a complete crop failure. RL decreased the

  18. [Effects of strong wind lodging at pre- and post-tasseling stages on growth and yield of summer maize].

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-yan; Wang, Yu-xiang; Hu, Cheng-da; Yan, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Surveying data for wind lodging disaster happening in Nanyang of Henan Province in August 1, 2013, were used to analyze the effects of strong wind lodging at pre- and post-tasseling stages on growth and yield of summer maize, and to determine the differences in lodging resistance among varieties and the suitable sowing time for summer maize. The survey included two varieties of summer maize, Xundan 20 and Zhengdan 958, with five and three sowing dates, respectively. The lodging was divided into four types, i.e., root slope ( RS) , root lodging ( RL) , stem bending (SB) and stem broken (SBK). The results showed that wind lodging occurring at pre- and post-tasseling stages resulted in high lodging percentages for both varieties and all sowing dates. The lodging percentage of Xundan 20 variety ranged between 86.0% and 98.5% for five sowing dates. For Zhengdan 958 variety, it ranged between 60.0% and 76.4% for three sowing dates. After tasseling, the earlier the sowing date, the lower the lodging rate occurred. The main lodging types happening around the tasseling stage were RL with the lodging rate of 53.0%-84.3% for sowing dates II-V of Xundan 20. The main lodging type for sowing date I was SB with the lodging rate of 37.5%. Lodging reduced the aboveground dry matter with the greatest reduction rate occurring in SB, followed by RS and RL. Lodging increased the allocation of dry matter to leaves and stems, but decreased the allocation to spikes. RL and SB shortened the length and diameter of spike, and reduced the grain number per spike. The lodging occurring after the tasseling stage also reduced 100-grain mass. RS had no significant effects on spike characters and yield components. The lodging had serious effects on the yield of summer maize. The yield loss was highest for SB with the reduction percentages of 74.2% and 68.7% for Xundan 20 and Zhengdan 958, respectively. SB occurring before the tasseling stage would lead to a complete crop failure. RL decreased the

  19. Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Naik, Rakhi

    2015-06-01

    Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is defined as the destruction of circulating red blood cells (RBCs) in the setting of anti-RBC autoantibodies that optimally react at 37°C. The pathophysiology of disease involves phagocytosis of autoantibody-coated RBCs in the spleen and complement-mediated hemolysis. Thus far, treatment is aimed at decreasing autoantibody production with immunosuppression or reducing phagocytosis of affected cells in the spleen. The role of complement inhibitors in warm AIHA has not been explored. This article addresses the diagnosis, etiology, and treatment of warm AIHA and highlights the role of complement in disease pathology.

  20. 78 FR 44599 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act On July 15, 2013, the Department of... United States filed this lawsuit under the Clean Water Act. The United States' complaint seeks injunctive relief and civil penalties for discharges of pollutants, in violation of Section 301 of the Clean...

  1. 77 FR 25750 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on April 19, 2012... the Clean Water Act and Kansas state law. The proposed Consent Decree settles these claims in...

  2. 77 FR 37439 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on June 6... City of Perth Amboy's (Perth Amboy) Clean Water Act (CWA) violations stemming from its failure...

  3. 75 FR 43206 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on July 20, 2010... National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit issued under the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251,...

  4. 75 FR 26275 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on April... Sites throughout the country. The Consent Decree addresses Hovnanian's violations of the Clean Water...

  5. 78 FR 40769 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act On July 1, 2013, the Department of... projects. The complaint alleged violations of Section 301(a) and 402 of the Clean Water Act...

  6. 76 FR 10390 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Water Act Pursuant to 28 CFR 50.7, notice... violations of the federal Clean Water Act and state permits issued in North Carolina and South...

  7. 77 FR 43860 - Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that a proposed... claims under Sections 301, 309 and 402 of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251, et seq., against the...

  8. 77 FR 11158 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on... under Section 311(b) of the Clean Water Act, ] 33 U.S.C. 1321(b), against multiple parties,...

  9. 77 FR 38084 - Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on June 20, 2012... (``NPDES'') permits which are federally-enforceable under Section 309 of the Clean Water Act (``CWA''),...

  10. 77 FR 25751 - Amended Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Amended Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Water Act On April 24, 2012, at Federal... Section 301, 309, and 402 of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1311, 1319, and 1342; and Tenn. Code...

  11. 78 FR 20140 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act On March 28, 2013, the Department of... against Marisco, Ltd. for injunctive relief and civil penalties based on violations of the Clean Water...

  12. 77 FR 52762 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to The Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to The Clean Water Act In accordance with 28 CFR 50.7, 38 FR....). The Modified Consent Decree addresses, among other things, alleged violations of the federal Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251, et seq., and the Massachusetts Clean Waters Act, Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 21,...

  13. 78 FR 46369 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act On July 23, 2013, the Department of... to Sections 301 and 309 of the Clean Water Act (``CWA''), 33 U.S.C. Sec. Sec. 1311 and 1319,...

  14. 78 FR 21150 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on December 20... Authority''), violated various provisions of a permit issued under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act, 33...

  15. 77 FR 36575 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on May 29, 2012, a... of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1311, 1319, 1321, stemming from three discharges of...

  16. 75 FR 79390 - Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on December 13...Kalb County for the Clean Water Act violations involving its sanitary sewer system, alleged in...

  17. 76 FR 27350 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on April 27, 2011... National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit issued under the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251,...

  18. 75 FR 37837 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on June 2, 2010, a..., pursuant to Section 309(b) and (d) of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1319(b) and (d), for civil...

  19. 76 FR 15998 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on March 14, 2011, a proposed consent decree in United States v. Consol Energy, Inc., et al., Civil Action No....

  20. 75 FR 68620 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on... Pennsylvania. The United States and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania also filed claims pursuant to the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq, and the Pennsylvania Clean Streams Law, 35 P.S. Sec. Sec. 691.1 et...

  1. 76 FR 12369 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on March 1, 2011, a proposed consent decree in United States, et al. v. Arch Coal, Inc., et al., Civil Action No....

  2. 76 FR 63954 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on September 21... the Clean Water Act (``CWA''), 33 U.S.C. 1319 and 1342. The United States alleged that by failing...

  3. 77 FR 75446 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act On December 13, 2012, the Department..., Civil Action No. 3:09-cv-1873. The United States filed this lawsuit under the Clean Water Act. The United States' complaint seeks injunctive relief and civil penalties for violations of the Clean...

  4. 77 FR 43860 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Water Act In accordance with 28 CFR 50.7, 38 FR...'') violated Sections 301, 311, and 402 of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1311, 1321, and 1342, applicable... and undertake measures to achieve compliance with the above-referenced provisions of the Clean...

  5. 78 FR 57176 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act On September 9, 2013, the Department... violations of Sections 301 and 402 of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1311 and 1342, and Sections 48-1-50...

  6. 78 FR 37847 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act On June 18, 2013, the Department of...-00584-JPG-SCW. The United States filed this lawsuit under the Clean Water Act. The United States... 301 of the Clean Water Act, at property located approximately five miles east of Johnston City...

  7. 77 FR 14830 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on March 6, 2012, a... against Spectro Alloys Corporation pursuant to Section 113(b) of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7413(b... results in emissions of regulated air pollutants, including dioxins and furans, hydrogen...

  8. 75 FR 9612 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Consistent with Section 122 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, as amended...

  9. 77 FR 15125 - Notice of Lodging of Second Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... of Lodging of Second Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on March 6, 2012, a proposed Second Consent Decree in United States and the State of Kansas v. Coffeyville... matter at its oil refinery located in Coffeyville, Kansas. Under the proposed Second Consent Decree...

  10. Using the Sweat Lodge Ceremony as Group Therapy for Navajo Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colmant, Stephen A.; Merta, Rod J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the sweat lodge ceremony used at a residential treatment center located on the Navajo Nation and compares the ceremony to modern group work identifying Yalom's (1995) 11 therapeutic factors of group therapy within the ceremony. Considers widespread use of the ceremony with Native Americans and nonnative Americans as well as…

  11. 75 FR 27580 - Notice of Lodging of the Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... with the Surface Water Treatment Rule (``SWTR''), at three Water Treatment Plants (``WTPs'') owned and... treatment plant improvement projects over the next 15 years valued at $195 million. These projects are... of Lodging of the Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on May 3,...

  12. 77 FR 40084 - Notice of Lodging of Modification of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ..., implement injunctive relief measures at 126 water treatment plants (WTPs) over a 15 year period throughout... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Modification of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that...

  13. 78 FR 21418 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... Liability Act, Concerning Natural Resource Damages On April 3, 2013, the Department of Justice lodged a... damages to natural resources that resulted from discharge of hazardous substances at and from a facility... state natural resource trustees a total of $1.4 million, of which more than $1.1 million will be...

  14. 77 FR 25499 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Natural Resource Damages Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Natural Resource Damages Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental... Freeport-McMoRan is civilly liable for payment of damages for injuries to natural resources belonging to... Interior's Natural Resource Damage Assessment and Restoration Fund, which can be used to...

  15. 76 FR 11814 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    .... SKF USA Inc., Crane Co., and Osram Sylvania, Inc., Civil Action No. 3:09-cv-00174, was lodged with the... Defendants, SKF USA Inc., Crane Co., and Osram Sylvania, Inc., will reimburse the United States $575,000 for... of Justice, Washington, DC 20044-7611, and should refer to United States v. SKF USA Inc., Crane...

  16. SNP markers linked to QTL conditioning plant height, lodging, and maturity in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) is a major crop and a leading source of protein meal and edible oil worldwide. Plant height (PHT), lodging (LDG), and days to maturity (MAT) are three important agronomic traits that influence the seed yield of soybean. The objective of this study was to map quantitati...

  17. Teaching American Indian Geography and History with New Perspectives: The Lodge Pole River Project Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurt, Douglas A.; Wallace, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    A three-year institute called "The Lodge Pole River Project" was designed to change educator perceptions of American Indian historical geography and encourage the creation of balanced and culturally sensitive American Indian K-12 curriculum. This project offered unique opportunities to assess a geography institute's impact upon teacher knowledge…

  18. 75 FR 1082 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (``CERCLA'') Notice is hereby given that on December 22, 2009 a proposed consent decree (``proposed Decree'') in United States v....

  19. 76 FR 18782 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and... Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (``CERCLA''), 42 U.S.C. 9607(a)(3). The complaint filed... at the stated address. Thomas A. Mariani, Jr., Assistant Chief, Environmental Enforcement...

  20. 41 CFR 301-31.6 - Where must I and/or my family obtain lodging?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Where must I and/or my family obtain lodging? 301-31.6 Section 301-31.6 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 31-THREATENED...

  1. 75 FR 1412 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... United States v. Anderson & Sons, Inc., No. 3:09-cv-2096, was lodged with the United States District..., Washington, DC 20044-7611, and should refer to United States v. Anderson & Sons, Inc., No. 3:09-cv-2096, D.J... the Office of the United States Attorney, District of Connecticut, 157 Church Street, New Haven,...

  2. 75 FR 57817 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... response actions or the recovery of response costs incurred by the United States at the Kim-Stan Landfill... Liability Act Notice is hereby given that on September 16, 2010, a proposed consent decree in United States v. Hercules Inc., et al., Civil Action No. 10-412, was lodged with the United States District...

  3. Lodging industry solutions: Heating and cooling space conditioning technology guidebook. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, K.

    1998-12-01

    The American lodging industry has experienced growth and relative prosperity in recent years. Operating costs and occupancy rates are critical to the economic success of any lodging establishment. Recent financial gains in the lodging industry are making more funds available for heating and cooling system upgrades. Among new equipment installations in the lodging industry (air handling equipment, water heaters, laundry and cooking equipment), about 70% is in new construction, remodeling, or expansion, 14% replaces non-functioning equipment, and the remainder is for miscellaneous purposes (AGA 1998). By providing good advice on heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment, utilities can help property owners and managers make wise decisions and avoid poor equipment choices that could hamper their profits over the long run. The benefits to utilities of offering this service will take the form of improved customer relations and strengthened customer loyalty. This guidebook is developed to assist utilities in advising the loading industry about HVAC equipment options. By serving as a useful reference source, it can help them perform this much-needed, valuable service.

  4. 75 FR 79392 - Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... (``Scatterfield Settlement Agreement'') in the bankruptcy matter, Motors Liquidation Company, et al., f/k/a General Motors Corp., et al., Jointly Administered Case No. 09-50026 (REG), was lodged with the United... of Justice, Washington, DC 20044-7611, and should refer to In re Motors Liquidation Corp., et al.,...

  5. 75 FR 39041 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Solid Waste Disposal Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Solid Waste Disposal Act Notice is hereby given that... Environmental Protection Agency (``EPA'') for violations of Section 7003 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act...

  6. 75 FR 70947 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to Oil Pollution Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to Oil Pollution Act Notice is hereby given that on November 15... Rhode Island for natural resource damages under the Oil Pollution Act, 33 U.S.C. 2701, et seq... to an oil spill from the tank barge Bouchard No. 120, which occurred in April 2003 in Buzzards...

  7. 75 FR 13304 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act (OPA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act (OPA) Notice is hereby given that on March... Decree alleging that on or about October 13, 2004, the oil tank vessel POLAR TEXAS, owned by Polar Tankers, Inc., a subsidiary of ConocoPhillips, Inc., discharged oil into waterways near Vashon and...

  8. 76 FR 45618 - Notice of Lodging of Joint Stipulation Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... of Lodging of Joint Stipulation Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on July 25, 2011, a proposed Joint Stipulation to Modify the Sixth Amendment to the Consent Decree entered in United States v. BP Exploration and Oil Co., et al., (Civil No. 2:96 CV 095 RL) (``Joint Stipulation''),...

  9. 76 FR 33364 - Notice of Lodging of Two Consent Decrees Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... of Lodging of Two Consent Decrees Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act Notice is hereby given that on June 1, 2011, two proposed consent decrees in United States and... after the date of this publication, the Department of Justice will receive comments relating to the...

  10. 77 FR 71196 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ... Justice lodged a proposed consent decree with the United States District Court for the Middle District of... be addressed to the Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources Division, and..., Environment and Natural Resources Division. BILLING CODE 4410-15-P...

  11. 77 FR 5570 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on January 30... Consent Decree to provide for construction of a Kaneohe-Kailua Tunnel and an associated influent pump... be needed following completion of the tunnel project. The Department of Justice will receive, for...

  12. 77 FR 30555 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... proposed Consent Decree in United States et al. v. Questar Gas Management Co., Civil Action No. 2:08-cv-00167-TS-PMW, was lodged with the United States District Court for the District of Utah. In this action the United States seeks civil penalties and injunctive relief for alleged violations of the Clean...

  13. 77 FR 1948 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... violations of Sections 301, 308, and 402(p) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (the ``Clean Water Act'' or the ``Act''), 33 U.S.C. 1311, 1318 & 1342(p), and implementing regulations. See 40... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on December...

  14. 76 FR 68788 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ...) Sections 301(a), 309(b) and (d), and 402 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, also known as the... of Water Pollution, 7 Del. Admin. Code Sec. 7201. The United States and Delaware contend that Dupont... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on October...

  15. 78 FR 23957 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... establish a Storm Water Pollution Protection Plan (``SWPPP'') addressing all elements specified in the CD... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act On April 4, 2013, the Department of...) and (d) of the Clean Water Act (``CWA'' or ``Act''), 33 U.S.C. 1319(b) and (d). The United...

  16. 77 FR 71633 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... Sections 301, 309, and 402 of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251, et seq. and under the Mississippi Air and Water Pollution Control Law (``MAWPCL'') (Miss. Code Ann. Sec. Sec. 49-17-1 through 49-17-45... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act On November 20, 2012, the...

  17. 78 FR 35315 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under The Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... Miami-Dade County on December 13, 2012 pursuant to Clean Water Act (``CWA'') Sections 309(b) and (d) and 504, 33 U.S.C. 1319(b) and (d) and 1364, and the Florida Air and Water Pollution Control Act, Fla... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under The Clean Water Act On June 6, 2013, the Department...

  18. 76 FR 51397 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ...., at its sewer system and water pollution control plant. To resolve the United States' claims, the... pollution control plant to eliminate violations of the Clean Water Act. The Department of Justice will... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on August 11,...

  19. 75 FR 49947 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (``CERCLA'') Notice is hereby given that on August 6, 2010 a proposed consent decree (``proposed Decree'') in United States v....

  20. 77 FR 67396 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under The Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation... Shooting Range Site in the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest near Index, Washington. Index Sportsmen, Inc., operated a trap shooting range at the site for more than 60 years and the site is...

  1. 76 FR 50758 - Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act and Chapter 11 of the United States Bankruptcy Code Notice is hereby given that on August...

  2. 77 FR 21807 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under Massachusetts General Laws Chapter 21E

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under Massachusetts General Laws Chapter 21E Notice is hereby given that..., filed a complaint pursuant to Chapter 21E of the Massachusetts General Laws (``Mass. Gen. L. ch....

  3. 76 FR 2134 - Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act and Chapter 11 of the United States Bankruptcy Code Notice is hereby given that on January...

  4. 75 FR 39278 - Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, the Clean Air Act, and Chapter 11 of the United States Bankruptcy Code Notice is hereby...

  5. 75 FR 81311 - Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act and Chapter 11 of the United States Bankruptcy Code Notice is hereby given that on December...

  6. 77 FR 50531 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Water Act In accordance with 28 CFR 50.7, 38 FR...) and (d) of the Clean Water Act (``CWA''), 33 U.S.C. 1309(b) and (d), and applicable regulations... works (``POTW'') to collect and treat sanitary sewage and industrial wastes. The consent decree...

  7. 76 FR 24467 - Fire Mountain Lodge; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions To Intervene...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Fire Mountain Lodge; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions To Intervene and Protests, Ready for Environmental Analysis, and Soliciting Comments, Recommendations, Terms and Conditions,...

  8. 75 FR 65509 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice... Liability Act Pursuant to 28 CFR 50.7 and Department of Justice policy, notice is hereby given that on...'') was lodged with the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Wisconsin in a...

  9. 75 FR 2887 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... Liability Act Notice is hereby given that on January 8, 2010, a proposed Consent Decree in United States v. Davenport Realty Trust, et al., Civil Action No. 1:07-cv-00010-PB, was lodged with the United States District Court for the District of New Hampshire. The proposed Consent Decree will settle the United...

  10. 75 FR 1413 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to The Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... Liability Act (CERCLA) Notice is hereby given that on January 5, 2010, a proposed Consent Decree in United States v. Louis Vinagro Jr., CIV No. 07-264S (D.R.I.) was lodged with the United States District Court for the District of Rhode Island. The proposed Consent Decree is between the United States on...

  11. 78 FR 69875 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act On November 15, 2013, the....) Inc. (``Suncor'') pursuant to the Oil Pollution Act, 33 U.S.C. 2701-2762. The United States'...

  12. 77 FR 1085 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act Notice is hereby given that on December 21... Pollution Act, 33 U.S.C. 2710, et seq., which arose from an alleged August 2008 discharge, from a...

  13. 78 FR 1251 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act On December 21, 2012, the...'') natural resource damage claims brought pursuant to Sections 1002 and 1006 of the Oil Pollution Act, 33...

  14. 78 FR 34406 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act On June 3, 2013, the Department of... International, Inc. (``Davisco'') for penalties pursuant to Section 309 of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1319... Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued by EPA under Section 402 of the Clean Water Act, 33...

  15. 78 FR 28242 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Ramos and Carmen Aurea Fernandez Ramos for violations of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) and the Surface Water Treatment Rule, promulgated under the SDWA. Under the terms of the consent decree, Victor... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act On May 7, 2013,...

  16. 78 FR 54484 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act (CAA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ..., 2013, a proposed consent decree (``proposed Decree'') in United States and the People of the State of... Chi Zheng, C.A. No. 1:11-cv-08023 GHK was lodged with the United States District Court for the Central.... and Chi Zheng, individually, for alleged violations arising from Defendants' motor vehicle...

  17. 75 FR 42132 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Pursuant to 28 CFR 50.7, notice is hereby given... injunctive relief under Section 113(b) of the Clean Air Act (the Act), 42 U.S.C. 7413(b), for failure to... earthmoving, failure to operate a water application system while conducting earthmoving, and failure...

  18. 77 FR 11159 - Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... ``Agreement'') in In re: Wood Treaters, LLC, Bankruptcy Case No. 3:09-bk-01895-PMG, was lodged with the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Middle District of Florida. In this Chapter 7 bankruptcy case, the United... United States, on behalf of EPA, and the Chapter 7 Trustee, EPA covenants not to take administrative...

  19. 76 FR 61738 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... Concrete Company, Inc., Civil Action No. 2:11-cv-228, was lodged with the United States District Court for... against Newport Sand & Gravel Company, Inc., and Carroll Concrete Company, Inc. (``Defendants'') for... water at three concrete ready-mix plants in Vermont, one concrete ready-mix plant in New Hampshire,...

  20. 76 FR 62446 - Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Notice is hereby given that on October 4, 2011, a proposed Settlement Agreement in the bankruptcy matter In re DPH Holdings Corp.,...

  1. 76 FR 76437 - Notice of Lodging of a Bankruptcy Settlement Agreement Pursuant to the Comprehensive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of a Bankruptcy Settlement Agreement Pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Notice is hereby given that a proposed Bankruptcy Settlement Agreement between the debtors and the...

  2. 75 FR 52778 - Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Notice is hereby given that on August 24, 2010, a proposed Settlement Agreement in the bankruptcy matter, In re Chemtura Corp., et...

  3. The Impact of the Sweat Lodge Ceremony on Dimensions of Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiff, Jeannette Wagemakers; Moore, Kerrie

    2006-01-01

    The importance of traditional healing practices for First Nations people has created interest in traditional ceremonies, including sweat lodges, which are increasingly incorporated into programs serving Aboriginal people. Despite the fact that traditional healing practices have always been valued by Aboriginal people, there is virtually no…

  4. 77 FR 54926 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Notice is hereby given that on August 28, 2012, a proposed Consent Decree in United States v. Cornell-Dubilier Electronics, Inc.,...

  5. 77 FR 43859 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Notice is hereby given that on July, 13, 2012, a proposed Consent Decree in...

  6. 76 FR 1459 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (``CERCLA'') Pursuant to Section 122(d)(2) of CERCLA, 42 U.S.C. 9622(d)(2), notice is...

  7. 75 FR 39278 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree; Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree; Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (``CERCLA'') Notice is hereby given that on July 1, 2010, a proposed Consent Decree in...

  8. 75 FR 28819 - Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under CERCLA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under CERCLA Notice is hereby given that on May 4, 2010, a proposed..., Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, as amended (``CERCLA''), 42 U.S.C. 9606, 9607 and 9613(g)(2),...

  9. 75 FR 17770 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Consistent with 28 CFR 50.7, notice is hereby given that on April 1, 2010, a...

  10. 77 FR 12616 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... lodged with the United States District Court for the Central District of California. In Seachrome, the... proposed Consent Decree may also be obtained by mail from the Consent Decree Library, P.O. Box 7611, U.S... copy from the Consent Decree Library, please enclose a check payable to the ``U.S. Treasury'' or, if...

  11. 75 FR 29584 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... Chemical Industries, Inc. (``Rineco'') was lodged with the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Arkansas in the case of United States v. Rineco Chemical Industries, Inc., Civil Action No. 4..., Washington, DC 20044-7611, and should refer to United States et al v. Rineco Chemical Industries, Inc.,...

  12. 77 FR 38654 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... and Pacific Longline Company LLC (``Consent Decree'') was lodged with the United States District Court... forth in 40 CFR Part 82, Subparts A and F, pertaining to the management and control of ozone-depleting..., including requirements to retire the equivalent of ozone-depleting substances consumption allowances...

  13. 77 FR 809 - Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on December 29... injunctive relief for violations of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq., Title 13 of the Indiana Code... requires South Bend to pay a total civil penalty of $88,200 split equally between the United States and...

  14. 75 FR 45666 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... in United States v. BIM Investment Corp. et al., Civil Action No. 1:10-cv-11263, was lodged with the...--BIM Investment Corporation, Shaffer Realty Nominee Trust, Tyco Healthcare Group LP, and W.R. Grace... to United States v. BIM Investment Corp. et al., D.J. Ref. No. 90-11-3- 09667. The Consent Decree...

  15. 76 FR 19128 - Notice of Lodging of Stipulation of Judgment Pursuant to Safe Drinking Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... of Lodging of Stipulation of Judgment Pursuant to Safe Drinking Water Act Notice is hereby given that... United States (on behalf of the Environmental Protection Agency), for violations of the Safe Drinking Water Act and the implementing regulations, 42 U.S.C. 300h, et seq., and the implementing...

  16. 75 FR 12569 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act Pursuant to 28 CFR 50.7, notice is... Safe Drinking Water Act (``SDWA''), 42 U.S.C. 300G-3(b), based upon Evenhouse's alleged violations of the SDWA and regulations thereunder at two separate community water systems serving the...

  17. 77 FR 40382 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act Notice is hereby given that on June 29... the Safe Drinking Water Act (``SDWA''), 42 U.S.C. 300f through 300j-26, including violations of the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (``NPDWRs''), at Lincoln Road RV Park, Inc.'s...

  18. 78 FR 45971 - Amended Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ..., 78 FR 137. Notice is hereby given that on July 9, 2013, the Department of Justice lodged a proposed... provide a paper copy of the Consent Decree upon written request and payment of reproduction costs. Please... 20044-7611. Please enclose a check or money order for $4.75 (25 cents per page reproduction costs for...

  19. 78 FR 42801 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ...., New Hanover County, N.C., and Cape Fear Public Utility Authority, (the ``Defendants'') and the State... filing of the complaint and the lodging of this Consent Decree. The Consent Decree requires the Cape Fear... United States v. City of Wilmington, New Hanover County, and Cape Fear Public Utility...

  20. 76 FR 9052 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... Construction Materials Atlantic, LLC, Civil Action No. 3:11-cv-00037, was lodged with the United States... proposed Decree resolves the United States' claims against CEMEX, Inc. and CEMEX Construction Materials... refer to United States v. CEMEX, Inc. and CEMEX Construction Materials Atlantic, LLC, D.J. Ref. No....

  1. Vulnerability of lodging risk to elevated CO2 and increased soil temperature differs between rice cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthropogenic increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, [CO2], and subsequent increases in surface temperatures, are likely to impact the growth and yield of cereal crops. One means for yield reduction is for climate parameters to increase the occurrence of lodging. Using an in situ f...

  2. 76 FR 61384 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on September 28, 2011, a proposed Consent Decree (the ``Consent Decree'') in United States of America v. Trident Seafoods Corporation, Civil Action No. 11-1616,...

  3. 75 FR 53342 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on August 25, 2010, a proposed Consent Decree (``Consent Decree'') in United States v. City of Revere, Massachusetts, Civil Action No. 1:10-cv-11460...

  4. 77 FR 42332 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Modification Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Modification Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on July 2, 2012, a proposed Consent Decree Modification (``Modification'') in United States and State of New Hampshire v. City of Portsmouth,...

  5. 75 FR 22843 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act Notice is hereby given that on April 22, 2010, a proposed Partial Consent Decree (``CD'') in United States v. James Y. Saporito and Paul...

  6. Warm and Cool Dinosaurs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannlein, Sally

    2001-01-01

    Presents an art activity in which first grade students draw dinosaurs in order to learn about the concept of warm and cool colors. Explains how the activity also helped the students learn about the concept of distance when drawing. (CMK)

  7. Draft global warming study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The 1990 Resource Program Global Warming Study examines potential Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) resource alternatives related to the risk of global warming. The study evaluates strategies for reducing net carbon emissions, and identifies the net carbon contribution of certain resource strategies designed to reduce those emissions. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is the greenhouse gas'' most associated with electricity production. The main purpose of the global warming study is to identify possible courses of action that BPA might take to reduce its contributions to the risk of global warming and to estimate the efficacy and costs of each approach. The principal measure of effectiveness is the reduction in total atmospheric carbon emissions compared to a base case. 13 refs., 2 tabs.

  8. Reconciling Warming Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Gavin A.; Shindell, Drew T.; Tsigaridis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Climate models projected stronger warming over the past 15 years than has been seen in observations. Conspiring factors of errors in volcanic and solar inputs, representations of aerosols, and El NiNo evolution, may explain most of the discrepancy.

  9. QTL mapping for yield and lodging resistance in an enhanced SSR-based map for tef.

    PubMed

    Zeid, M; Belay, G; Mulkey, S; Poland, J; Sorrells, M E

    2011-01-01

    Tef is a cereal crop of cultural and economic importance in Ethiopia. It is grown primarily for its grain though it is also an important source of fodder. Tef suffers from lodging that reduces both grain yield and quality. As a first step toward executing a marker-assisted breeding program for lodging resistance and grain yield improvement, a linkage map was constructed using 151 F(9) recombinant inbred lines obtained by single-seed-descent from a cross between Eragrostis tef and its wild relative Eragrostis pilosa. The map was primarily based on microsatellite (SSR) markers that were developed from SSR-enriched genomic libraries. The map consisted of 30 linkage groups and spanned a total length of 1,277.4 cM (78.7% of the genome) with an average distance of 5.7 cM between markers. This is the most saturated map for tef to date, and for the first time, all of the markers are PCR-based. Using agronomic data from 11 environments and marker data, it was possible to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling lodging, grain yield and 15 other related traits. The positive effects of the QTL identified from the wild parent were mainly for earliness, reduced culm length and lodging resistance. In this population, it is now possible to combine lodging resistance and grain yield using a marker-assisted selection program targeting the QTL identified for both traits. The newly developed SSR markers will play a key role in germplasm organization, fingerprinting and monitoring the success of the hybridization process in intra-specific crosses lacking distinctive morphological markers.

  10. Gibberellin Deficiency Confers Both Lodging and Drought Tolerance in Small Cereals.

    PubMed

    Plaza-Wüthrich, Sonia; Blösch, Regula; Rindisbacher, Abiel; Cannarozzi, Gina; Tadele, Zerihun

    2016-01-01

    Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] and finger millet [Eleusine coracana Gaertn] are staple cereal crops in Africa and Asia with several desirable agronomic and nutritional properties. Tef is becoming a life-style crop as it is gluten-free while finger millet has a low glycemic index which makes it an ideal food for diabetic patients. However, both tef and finger millet have extremely low grain yields mainly due to moisture scarcity and susceptibility of the plants to lodging. In this study, the effects of gibberellic acid (GA) inhibitors particularly paclobutrazol (PBZ) on diverse physiological and yield-related parameters were investigated and compared to GA mutants in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The application of PBZ to tef and finger millet significantly reduced the plant height and increased lodging tolerance. Remarkably, PBZ also enhanced the tolerance of both tef and finger millet to moisture deficit. Under moisture scarcity, tef plants treated with PBZ did not exhibit drought-related symptoms and their stomatal conductance was unaltered, leading to higher shoot biomass and grain yield. Semi-dwarf rice mutants altered in GA biosynthesis, were also shown to have improved tolerance to dehydration. The combination of traits (drought tolerance, lodging tolerance and increased yield) that we found in plants with altered GA pathway is of importance to breeders who would otherwise rely on extensive crossing to introgress each trait individually. The key role played by PBZ in the tolerance to both lodging and drought calls for further studies using mutants in the GA biosynthesis pathway in order to obtain candidate lines which can be incorporated into crop-breeding programs to create lodging tolerant and climate-smart crops.

  11. Gibberellin Deficiency Confers Both Lodging and Drought Tolerance in Small Cereals

    PubMed Central

    Plaza-Wüthrich, Sonia; Blösch, Regula; Rindisbacher, Abiel; Cannarozzi, Gina; Tadele, Zerihun

    2016-01-01

    Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] and finger millet [Eleusine coracana Gaertn] are staple cereal crops in Africa and Asia with several desirable agronomic and nutritional properties. Tef is becoming a life-style crop as it is gluten-free while finger millet has a low glycemic index which makes it an ideal food for diabetic patients. However, both tef and finger millet have extremely low grain yields mainly due to moisture scarcity and susceptibility of the plants to lodging. In this study, the effects of gibberellic acid (GA) inhibitors particularly paclobutrazol (PBZ) on diverse physiological and yield-related parameters were investigated and compared to GA mutants in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The application of PBZ to tef and finger millet significantly reduced the plant height and increased lodging tolerance. Remarkably, PBZ also enhanced the tolerance of both tef and finger millet to moisture deficit. Under moisture scarcity, tef plants treated with PBZ did not exhibit drought-related symptoms and their stomatal conductance was unaltered, leading to higher shoot biomass and grain yield. Semi-dwarf rice mutants altered in GA biosynthesis, were also shown to have improved tolerance to dehydration. The combination of traits (drought tolerance, lodging tolerance and increased yield) that we found in plants with altered GA pathway is of importance to breeders who would otherwise rely on extensive crossing to introgress each trait individually. The key role played by PBZ in the tolerance to both lodging and drought calls for further studies using mutants in the GA biosynthesis pathway in order to obtain candidate lines which can be incorporated into crop-breeding programs to create lodging tolerant and climate-smart crops. PMID:27242844

  12. Gibberellin Deficiency Confers Both Lodging and Drought Tolerance in Small Cereals.

    PubMed

    Plaza-Wüthrich, Sonia; Blösch, Regula; Rindisbacher, Abiel; Cannarozzi, Gina; Tadele, Zerihun

    2016-01-01

    Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] and finger millet [Eleusine coracana Gaertn] are staple cereal crops in Africa and Asia with several desirable agronomic and nutritional properties. Tef is becoming a life-style crop as it is gluten-free while finger millet has a low glycemic index which makes it an ideal food for diabetic patients. However, both tef and finger millet have extremely low grain yields mainly due to moisture scarcity and susceptibility of the plants to lodging. In this study, the effects of gibberellic acid (GA) inhibitors particularly paclobutrazol (PBZ) on diverse physiological and yield-related parameters were investigated and compared to GA mutants in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The application of PBZ to tef and finger millet significantly reduced the plant height and increased lodging tolerance. Remarkably, PBZ also enhanced the tolerance of both tef and finger millet to moisture deficit. Under moisture scarcity, tef plants treated with PBZ did not exhibit drought-related symptoms and their stomatal conductance was unaltered, leading to higher shoot biomass and grain yield. Semi-dwarf rice mutants altered in GA biosynthesis, were also shown to have improved tolerance to dehydration. The combination of traits (drought tolerance, lodging tolerance and increased yield) that we found in plants with altered GA pathway is of importance to breeders who would otherwise rely on extensive crossing to introgress each trait individually. The key role played by PBZ in the tolerance to both lodging and drought calls for further studies using mutants in the GA biosynthesis pathway in order to obtain candidate lines which can be incorporated into crop-breeding programs to create lodging tolerant and climate-smart crops. PMID:27242844

  13. Warm Hands and Feet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Comfort Products, Inc. was responsible for the cold weather glove and thermal boots, adapted from a spacesuit design that kept astronauts warm or cool in the temperature extremes of the Apollo Moon Mission. Gloves and boots are thermally heated. Batteries are worn inside wrist of glove or sealed in sole of skiboot and are rechargeable hundreds of times. They operate flexible resistance circuit which is turned on periodically when wearer wants to be warm.

  14. Polar Warming Drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDunn, T. L.; Bougher, S. W.; Mischna, M. A.; Murphy, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Polar warming is a dynamically induced temperature enhancement over mid-to-high latitudes that results in a reversed (poleward) meridional temperature gradient. This phenomenon was recently characterized over the 40-90 km altitude region [1] based on nearly three martian years of Mars Climate Sounder observations [2, 3]. Here we investigate which forcing mechanisms affect the magnitude and distribution of the observed polar warming by conducting simulations with the Mars Weather Research and Forecasting General Circulation Model [4, 5]. We present simulations confirming the influence topography [6] and dust loading [e.g., 7] have upon polar warming. We then present simulations illustrating the modulating influence gravity wave momentum deposition exerts upon polar warming, consistent with previous modeling studies [e.g., 8]. The results of this investigation suggest the magnitude and distribution of polar warming in the martian middle atmosphere is modified by gravity wave activity and that the characteristics of the gravity waves that most significantly affect polar warming vary with season. References: [1] McDunn, et al., 2012 (JGR), [2]Kleinböhl, et al., 2009 (JGR), [3] Kleinböhl, et al., 2011 (JQSRT), [4] Richardson, et al., 2007 (JGR), [5] Mischna, et al., 2011 (Planet. Space Sci.), [6] Richardson and Wilson, 2002 (Nature), [7] Haberle, et al., 1982 (Icarus), [8] Barnes, 1990 (JGR).

  15. 76 FR 58043 - Notice of Lodging of Stipulation of Settlement and Judgment Pursuant to the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... Links at Columbia, LP and Lindsey Construction Company, Inc., No. 2:11-cv-04232- NKL, was lodged with... States v. The Links at Columbia and Lindsey Construction Company, D.J. Ref. No. 90-5-1-1-09277....

  16. 76 FR 14427 - Revision to Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Clean Air Act, Comprehensive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    .../Notices/page 13208). Maureen Katz, Assistant Section Chief, Environmental Enforcement Section, Environment... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Revision to Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Clean Air Act, Comprehensive...

  17. Knowledge synthesis and application of crisis-expectant lodging/shelter guidance. Final report, July 1, 1980-September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.W.; Hecht, J.C.; Studebaker, D.P.; Banathy, B.H.

    1981-09-30

    The report presents literature reviews and synthesis on selected topics related to the training of lodging/shelter managers in a crisis-expectant period. Two principle task areas were addressed and the following products are reported: a content outline for shelter management training with an accompanying proposal for course elements of a complete training package for lodging/shelter managers; and detailed outlines and specifications for two of the elements (training modules) from this package - shelter organization and radiological defense. Also included in this report are: a review of and a set of recommendations for procedures that would allow for staff expansion and rapid training of lodging/shelter managers in a crisis-expectant period; a review of techniques and recommendations for insuring trainee motivation and commitment during peacetime; and a brief summary of ancillary knowledge consolidation and application tasks related to lodging/shelter guidance.

  18. Warm up to the idea: Global warming is here

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, C.F.

    1996-07-01

    This article summarizes recent information about global warming as well as the history of greenhouse gas emissions which have lead to more and more evidence of global warming. The primary source detailed is the second major study report on global warming by the Intergovernmental Panel on climate change. Along with comments about the environmental effects of global warming such as coastline submersion, the economic, social and political aspects of alleviating greenhouse emissions and the threat of global warming are discussed.

  19. Long range global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Rolle, K.C.; Pulkrabek, W.W.; Fiedler, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper explores one of the causes of global warming that is often overlooked, the direct heating of the environment by engineering systems. Most research and studies of global warming concentrate on the modification that is occurring to atmospheric air as a result of pollution gases being added by various systems; i.e., refrigerants, nitrogen oxides, ozone, hydrocarbons, halon, and others. This modification affects the thermal radiation balance between earth, sun and space, resulting in a decrease of radiation outflow and a slow rise in the earth`s steady state temperature. For this reason the solution to the problem is perceived as one of cleaning up the processes and effluents that are discharged into the environment. In this paper arguments are presented that suggest, that there is a far more serious cause for global warming that will manifest itself in the next two or three centuries; direct heating from the exponential growth of energy usage by humankind. Because this is a minor contributor to the global warming problem at present, it is overlooked or ignored. Energy use from the combustion of fuels and from the output of nuclear reactions eventually is manifest as warming of the surroundings. Thus, as energy is used at an ever increasing rate the consequent global warming also increases at an ever increasing rate. Eventually this rate will become equal to a few percent of solar radiation. When this happens the earth`s temperature will have risen by several degrees with catastrophic results. The trends in world energy use are reviewed and some mathematical models are presented to suggest future scenarios. These models can be used to predict when the global warming problem will become undeniably apparent, when it will become critical, and when it will become catastrophic.

  20. Model predicts global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainger, Lisa A.

    Global greenhouse warming will be clearly identifiable by the 1990s, according to eight scientists who have been studying climate changes using computer models. Researchers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, say that by the 2010s, most of the globe will be experiencing “substantial” warming. The level of warming will depend on amounts of trace gases, or greenhouse gases, in the atmosphere.Predictions for the next 70 years are based on computer simulations of Earth's climate. In three runs of the model, James Hansen and his colleagues looked at the effects of changing amounts of atmospheric gases with time.

  1. Technical Support Document: The Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Highway Lodging Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Wei; Jarnagin, Ronald E.; Gowri, Krishnan; McBride, M.; Liu, Bing

    2008-09-30

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process and methodology for development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Highway Lodgings (AEDG-HL or the Guide), a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 30% energy savings in highway lodging properties over levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. The AEDG-HL is the fifth in a series of guides being developed by a partnership of organizations, including the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA), the United States Green Buildings Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  2. Warm and Cool Cityscapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jubelirer, Shelly

    2012-01-01

    Painting cityscapes is a great way to teach first-grade students about warm and cool colors. Before the painting begins, the author and her class have an in-depth discussion about big cities and what types of buildings or structures that might be seen in them. They talk about large apartment and condo buildings, skyscrapers, art museums,…

  3. Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Highway Lodging Buildings: Development of 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Wei; Gowri, Krishnan; Thornton, Brian A.; Liu, Bing

    2010-06-30

    This paper presents the process, methodology, and assumptions for development of the 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings, a design guidance document that provides specific recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings in roadside motels (highway lodging) above the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004. This 50% solution represents a further step toward realization of the U.S. Department of Energy’s net-zero energy building goal, and go beyond the 30% savings in the Advanced Energy Design Guide series (upon which this work was built). This work can serve as the technical feasibility study for the development of a 50% saving Advanced Energy Design Guide for highway lodging, and thus should greatly expedite the development process. The purpose of this design package is to provide user-friendly design assistance to designers, developers, and owners of highway lodging properties. It is intended to encourage energy-efficient design by providing prescriptive energy-efficiency recommendations for each climate zone that attains the 50% the energy savings target. This paper describes the steps that were taken to demonstrate the technical feasibility of achieving a 50% reduction in whole-building energy use with practical and commercially available technologies. The energy analysis results are presented, indicating the recommended energy-efficient measures achieved a national-weighted average energy savings of 55%, relative to Standard 90.1-2004. The cost-effectiveness of the recommended technology package is evaluated and the result shows an average simple payback of 11.3 years.

  4. Minto, Alaska Lakeview Lodge START Program Weatherization and Rehab Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Titus, Bessie; Messier, Dave

    2015-11-20

    This report details the process that Minto Village Council undertook during the DOE sponsored START program and the work that was completed on the main energy consumer in the community, the Minto Lakeview Lodge. The report takes a look at the steps leading up to the large weatherization and renovation project, the work the was completed as a result of the funding and the results in terms of effect on the community and real energy savings.

  5. An Unusual Case of Foreign Body Lodged in the Laryngopharynx of Neonate with Esophageal Atresia.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rahul; Saxena, Manisha; Paul, Rozy; Gubbi, Sharan; Mathur, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    A blunt‑tipped red rubber catheter is used to confirm the presence of esophageal atresia in any newborn with drooling of saliva and frothing from the mouth. Failure to pass it beyond 10cms into the esophagus is considered diagnostic. We here in report an extremely rare case of broken tip of red rubber catheter lodged in the laryngopharynx of 2-day-old neonate of esophageal atresia with distal tracheoesophageal fistula. During endotracheal intubation foreign body was accidentally removed. PMID:26793600

  6. -induced continental warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamae, Youichi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kimoto, Masahide; Shiogama, Hideo

    2014-11-01

    In this the second of a two-part study, we examine the physical mechanisms responsible for the increasing contrast of the land-sea surface air temperature (SAT) in summertime over the Far East, as observed in recent decades and revealed in future climate projections obtained from a series of transient warming and sensitivity experiments conducted under the umbrella of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5. On a global perspective, a strengthening of land-sea SAT contrast in the transient warming simulations of coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models is attributed to an increase in sea surface temperature (SST). However, in boreal summer, the strengthened contrast over the Far East is reproduced only by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. In response to SST increase alone, the tropospheric warming over the interior of the mid- to high-latitude continents including Eurasia are weaker than those over the surrounding oceans, leading to a weakening of the land-sea SAT contrast over the Far East. Thus, the increasing contrast and associated change in atmospheric circulation over East Asia is explained by CO2-induced continental warming. The degree of strengthening of the land-sea SAT contrast varies in different transient warming scenarios, but is reproduced through a combination of the CO2-induced positive and SST-induced negative contributions to the land-sea contrast. These results imply that changes of climate patterns over the land-ocean boundary regions are sensitive to future scenarios of CO2 concentration pathways including extreme cases.

  7. Teaching Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, Art

    2004-05-01

    Every citizen's education should include socially relevant science courses because, as the American Association for the Advancement of Science puts it, "Without a scientifically literate population, the outlook for a better world is not promising." I have developed a conceptual liberal-arts physics course that covers the major principles of classical physics, emphasizes modern/contemporary physics, and includes societal topics such as global warming, ozone depletion, transportation, exponential growth, scientific methodology, risk assessment, nuclear weapons, nuclear power, and the energy future. The societal topics, occupying only about 15% of the class time, appear to be the main cause of the surprising popularity of this course among non-scientists. I will outline some ideas for incorporating global warming into such a course or into any other introductory physics course. For further details, see my textbook Physics: Concepts and Connections (Prentice Hall, 3rd edition 2003).

  8. Warm Little Inflaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastero-Gil, Mar; Berera, Arjun; Ramos, Rudnei O.; Rosa, João G.

    2016-10-01

    We show that inflation can naturally occur at a finite temperature T >H that is sustained by dissipative effects, when the inflaton field corresponds to a pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson of a broken gauge symmetry. Similar to the Little Higgs scenarios for electroweak symmetry breaking, the flatness of the inflaton potential is protected against both quadratic divergences and the leading thermal corrections. We show that, nevertheless, nonlocal dissipative effects are naturally present and are able to sustain a nearly thermal bath of light particles despite the accelerated expansion of the Universe. As an example, we discuss the dynamics of chaotic warm inflation with a quartic potential and show that the associated observational predictions are in very good agreement with the latest Planck results. This model constitutes the first realization of warm inflation requiring only a small number of fields; in particular, the inflaton is directly coupled to just two light fields.

  9. 78 FR 1251 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act and the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1301 et seq.; and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 42 U.S.C. 6901 et seq... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act On December 31, 2012, the Department of Justice lodged a proposed Consent...

  10. Global Warming And Meltwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratu, S.

    2012-04-01

    In order to find new approaches and new ideas for my students to appreciate the importance of science in their daily life, I proposed a theme for them to debate. They had to search for global warming information and illustrations in the media, and discuss the articles they found in the classroom. This task inspired them to search for new information about this important and timely theme in science. I informed my students that all the best information about global warming and meltwater they found would be used in a poster that would help us to update the knowledge base of the Physics laboratory. I guided them to choose the most eloquent images and significant information. Searching and working to create this poster, the students arrived to better appreciate the importance of science in their daily life and to critically evaluate scientific information transmitted via the media. In the poster we created, one can find images, photos and diagrams and some interesting information: Global warming refers to the rising average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans and its projected evolution. In the last 100 years, the Earth's average surface temperature increased by about 0.8 °C with about two thirds of the increase occurring over just the last three decades. Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and scientists are more than 90% certain most of it is caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as deforestation and burning fossil fuel. They indicate that during the 21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1.1 to 2.9 °C for the lowest emissions scenario and 2.4 to 6.4 °C for the highest predictions. An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation, and potentially result in expansion of subtropical deserts. Warming is expected to be strongest in the Arctic and would be associated with continuing decrease of

  11. Warm hilltop inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Juan Carlos Bueno; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Bastero-Gil, Mar; Berera, Arjun

    2008-06-15

    We study the low-temperature limit of warm inflation in a hilltop model. This limit remains valid up to the end of inflation, allowing an analytic description of the entire inflationary stage. In the weak dissipative regime, if the kinetic density of the inflaton dominates after inflation, low-scale inflation is attained with Hubble scale as low as 1 GeV. In the strong dissipative regime, the model satisfies the observational requirements for the spectral index with a mild tuning of the model parameters, while also overcoming the {eta}-problem of inflation. However, there is some danger of gravitino overproduction unless the particle content of the theory is large.

  12. FLATs: Warming Up - continuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzetti, Daniela

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to monitor the flat fields during the interval between the end of science observations and the exhaustion of cryogen and subsequent warming of the dewar to > 100K. These flats will provide a monitor for particulate comtamination {GROT} and detector lateral position {from the coronagraphic spot and FDA vignetting}. They will provide some measure of relative {flat field} and absolute QE variation as a function of temperature. When stars are visible they might provide a limited degree of focus determination.

  13. FLATs: Warming Up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzetti, Daniela

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to monitor the flat fields during the interval between the end of science observations and the exhaustion of cryogen and subsequent warming of the dewar to > 100K. These flats will provide a monitor for particulate comtamination {GROT} and detector lateral position {from the coronagraphic spot and FDA vignetting}. They will provide some measure of relative {flat field} and absolute QE variation as a function of temperature. When stars are visible they might provide a limited degree of focus determination.

  14. Raising yield potential of wheat. III. Optimizing partitioning to grain while maintaining lodging resistance.

    PubMed

    Foulkes, M John; Slafer, Gustavo A; Davies, William J; Berry, Pete M; Sylvester-Bradley, Roger; Martre, Pierre; Calderini, Daniel F; Griffiths, Simon; Reynolds, Matthew P

    2011-01-01

    A substantial increase in grain yield potential is required, along with better use of water and fertilizer, to ensure food security and environmental protection in future decades. For improvements in photosynthetic capacity to result in additional wheat yield, extra assimilates must be partitioned to developing spikes and grains and/or potential grain weight increased to accommodate the extra assimilates. At the same time, improvement in dry matter partitioning to spikes should ensure that it does not increase stem or root lodging. It is therefore crucial that improvements in structural and reproductive aspects of growth accompany increases in photosynthesis to enhance the net agronomic benefits of genetic modifications. In this article, six complementary approaches are proposed, namely: (i) optimizing developmental pattern to maximize spike fertility and grain number, (ii) optimizing spike growth to maximize grain number and dry matter harvest index, (iii) improving spike fertility through desensitizing floret abortion to environmental cues, (iv) improving potential grain size and grain filling, and (v) improving lodging resistance. Since many of the traits tackled in these approaches interact strongly, an integrative modelling approach is also proposed, to (vi) identify any trade-offs between key traits, hence to define target ideotypes in quantitative terms. The potential for genetic dissection of key traits via quantitative trait loci analysis is discussed for the efficient deployment of existing variation in breeding programmes. These proposals should maximize returns in food production from investments in increased crop biomass by increasing spike fertility, grain number per unit area and harvest index whilst optimizing the trade-offs with potential grain weight and lodging resistance.

  15. Is Global Warming Accelerating?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, J.; Delsole, T. M.; Tippett, M. K.

    2009-12-01

    A global pattern that fluctuates naturally on decadal time scales is identified in climate simulations and observations. This newly discovered component, called the Global Multidecadal Oscillation (GMO), is related to the Atlantic Meridional Oscillation and shown to account for a substantial fraction of decadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature. IPCC-class climate models generally underestimate the variance of the GMO, and hence underestimate the decadal fluctuations due to this component of natural variability. Decomposing observed sea surface temperature into a component due to anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing plus the GMO, reveals that most multidecadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature can be accounted for by these two components alone. The fact that the GMO varies naturally on multidecadal time scales implies that it can be predicted with some skill on decadal time scales, which provides a scientific rationale for decadal predictions. Furthermore, the GMO is shown to account for about half of the warming in the last 25 years and hence a substantial fraction of the recent acceleration in the rate of increase in global average sea surface temperature. Nevertheless, in terms of the global average “well-observed” sea surface temperature, the GMO can account for only about 0.1° C in transient, decadal-scale fluctuations, not the century-long 1° C warming that has been observed during the twentieth century.

  16. Warm Inflation Model Building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastero-Gil, Mar; Berera, Arjun

    We review the main aspects of the warm inflation scenario, focusing on the inflationary dynamics and the predictions related to the primordial spectrum of perturbations, to be compared with the recent cosmological observations. We study in detail three different classes of inflationary models, chaotic, hybrid models and hilltop models, and discuss their embedding into supersymmetric models and the consequences for model building of the warm inflationary dynamics based on first principles calculations. Due to the extra friction term introduced in the inflaton background evolution generated by the dissipative dynamics, inflation can take place generically for smaller values of the field, and larger values of couplings and masses. When the dissipative dynamics dominates over the expansion, in the so-called strong dissipative regime, inflation proceeds with sub-Planckian inflaton values. Models can be naturally embedded into a supergravity framework, with SUGRA corrections suppressed by the Planck mass now under control, for a larger class of Kähler potentials. In particular, this provides a simpler solution to the "eta" problem in supersymmetric hybrid inflation, without restricting the Kähler potentials compatible with inflation. For chaotic models dissipation leads to a smaller prediction for the tensor-to-scalar ratio and a less tilted spectrum when compared to the cold inflation scenario. We find in particular that a small component of dissipation renders the quartic model now consistent with the current CMB data.

  17. [Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy on a clam shell fragment lodged in the ileocecal valve].

    PubMed

    Ramón Dalmau, M; Ibarz Servio, L; Mauri Cunill, A; Ruiz Marcellán, F J

    1994-03-01

    Herein we describe what may be the first case of ESWL used in the treatment of mechanical ileus caused by a fragment of clam shell lodged in the terminal ileum. The 66-year-old patient was referred by the emergency department with symptoms and signs of upper GI tract obstruction. ESWL with the modified Dornier HM3 was performed under neuroleptoanalgesia with the patient in the prone decubitus position. 1700 shock waves at 20 Kv were used to achieve fragmentation and restore intestinal transit, thus avoiding surgery.

  18. RHIC warm-bore systems

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, K.M.

    1994-07-01

    Pressure profiles, in time, are calculated as a consequence of anticipated outgassing of various beam components (e.g., rf cavities, etc.) and warm-bore beam pipes. Gold beam lifetimes and transverse beam emittance growth are given for calculated average pressures. Examples of undesirable warm-bore conditions are presented such as contaminated experimental beam pipes and warm-bore magnets (i.e., DX). These examples may prove instructive. The methods used in making these calculations are presented in Section 2. They are applicable to all linear systems. The calculations given apply to the RHIC accelerator and more specifically to warm-bore regions of the machine.

  19. Warm waters, bleached corals

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, L.

    1990-10-12

    Two researchers, Tom Goreau of the Discovery Laboratory in Jamaica and Raymond Hayes of Howard University, claim that they have evidence that nearly clinches the temperature connection to the bleached corals in the Caribbean and that the coral bleaching is an indication of Greenhouse warming. The incidents of scattered bleaching of corals, which have been reported for decades, are increasing in both intensity and frequency. The researchers based their theory on increased temperature of the seas measured by satellites. However, some other scientists feel that the satellites measure the temperature of only the top few millimeters of the water and that since corals lie on reefs perhaps 60 to 100 feet below the ocean surface, the elevated temperatures are not significant.

  20. Global warming challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Hengeveld, H. )

    1994-11-01

    Global warming will necessitate significant adjustments in Canadian society and its economy. In 1979, the Canadian federal government created its Canadian Climate Program (CCP) in collaboration with other agencies, institutions, and individuals. It sought to coordinate national efforts to understand global and regional climate, and to promote better use of the emerging knowledge. Much of the CCP-coordinated research into sources and sinks of greenhouse gases interfaces with other national and international programs. Other researchers have become involved in the Northern Wetlands Study, a cooperative United States-Canada initiative to understand the role of huge northern bogs and muskegs in the carbon cycle. Because of the need to understand how the whole, linked climate system works, climate modeling emerged as a key focus of current research. 35 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Global Warming on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, J. L.; Hammel, H. B.; Wasserman, L. H.; Franz, O. G.; McDonald, S. W.; Person, M. J.; Olkin, C. B.; Dunham, E. J.; Spencer, J. R.; Stansberry, J. A.; Buie, M. W.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; McConnochie, T. H.

    1998-01-01

    Triton, Neptune's largest moon, has been predicted to undergo significant seasonal changes that would reveal themselves as changes in its mean frost temperature. But whether this temperature should at the present time be increasing, decreasing or constant depends on a number of parameters (such as the thermal properties of the surface, and frost migration patterns) that are unknown. Here we report observations of a recent stellar occultation by Triton which, when combined with earlier results, show that Triton has undergone a period of global warming since 1989. Our most conservative estimates of the rate of temperature and surface-pressure increase during this period imply that the atmosphere is doubling in bulk every 10 years, significantly faster than predicted by any published frost model for Triton. Our result suggests that permanent polar caps on Triton play a c dominant role in regulating seasonal atmospheric changes. Similar processes should also be active on Pluto.

  2. Diffuse, Warm Ionized Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haffner, L. M.

    2002-05-01

    Over the past decade, new high-sensitivity observations have significantly advanced our knowledge of the diffuse, ionized gas in spiral galaxies. This component of the interstellar medium, often referred to as Warm Ionized Medium (WIM) or Diffuse Ionized Gas (DIG), plays an important role in the complex stellar-interstellar matter and energy cycle. In examining the distribution and physical properties of this gas, we learn not only about the conditions of the medium but also about processes providing heating and ionization in the halos of spiral galaxies. For the Milky Way, three new Hα surveys are available providing large sky coverage, arc-minute spatial resolution, and the ability to kinematically resolve this prominent optical emission line. These new, global views show that the Warm Ionized Medium of the Galaxy is ubiquitous as previously suspected, is rich with filamentary structure down to current resolution limits, and can be traced into the halo at large distances from the Galactic plane. Observations of additional optical emission lines are beginning to probe the physical conditions of the WIM. Early results suggest variations in the temperature and ionization state of the gas which are not adequately explained by Lyman continuum stellar photoionization alone. In parallel with this intensive work in the Milky Way have been numerous studies about the diffuse, ionized gas in other spiral galaxies. Here, deep, face-on spiral investigations provide some of the best maps of the global DIG distribution in a galaxy and begin to allow a probe of the local link between star formation and the powering of ionized gas. In addition, ionized gas has been traced out to impressive distances (z > 3 kpc) in edge-on spirals, revealing out large-scale changes in the physical conditions and kinematics of galactic halos.

  3. Interacting warm dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, Norman; Palma, Guillermo; Zambrano, David; Avelino, Arturo E-mail: guillermo.palma@usach.cl E-mail: avelino@fisica.ugto.mx

    2013-05-01

    We explore a cosmological model composed by a dark matter fluid interacting with a dark energy fluid. The interaction term has the non-linear λρ{sub m}{sup α}ρ{sub e}{sup β} form, where ρ{sub m} and ρ{sub e} are the energy densities of the dark matter and dark energy, respectively. The parameters α and β are in principle not constrained to take any particular values, and were estimated from observations. We perform an analytical study of the evolution equations, finding the fixed points and their stability properties in order to characterize suitable physical regions in the phase space of the dark matter and dark energy densities. The constants (λ,α,β) as well as w{sub m} and w{sub e} of the EoS of dark matter and dark energy respectively, were estimated using the cosmological observations of the type Ia supernovae and the Hubble expansion rate H(z) data sets. We find that the best estimated values for the free parameters of the model correspond to a warm dark matter interacting with a phantom dark energy component, with a well goodness-of-fit to data. However, using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) we find that this model is overcame by a warm dark matter – phantom dark energy model without interaction, as well as by the ΛCDM model. We find also a large dispersion on the best estimated values of the (λ,α,β) parameters, so even if we are not able to set strong constraints on their values, given the goodness-of-fit to data of the model, we find that a large variety of theirs values are well compatible with the observational data used.

  4. Local warming: daily temperature change influences belief in global warming.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Johnson, Eric J; Zaval, Lisa

    2011-04-01

    Although people are quite aware of global warming, their beliefs about it may be malleable; specifically, their beliefs may be constructed in response to questions about global warming. Beliefs may reflect irrelevant but salient information, such as the current day's temperature. This replacement of a more complex, less easily accessed judgment with a simple, more accessible one is known as attribute substitution. In three studies, we asked residents of the United States and Australia to report their opinions about global warming and whether the temperature on the day of the study was warmer or cooler than usual. Respondents who thought that day was warmer than usual believed more in and had greater concern about global warming than did respondents who thought that day was colder than usual. They also donated more money to a global-warming charity if they thought that day seemed warmer than usual. We used instrumental variable regression to rule out some alternative explanations.

  5. 77 FR 7182 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act (“CWA”)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act (``CWA'') Notice is hereby given that on... and civil penalties under the Clean Water Act (``CWA''), 33 U.S.C. 1251-1387, resulting...

  6. 78 FR 41803 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Amendment to Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Amendment to Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act On July 5, 2013, the... with the Clean Water Act, including constructing and implementing specific combined sewer...

  7. 78 FR 35315 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Third Amendment to Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Third Amendment to Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act On June 5, 2013... Indiana, and the City of Indianapolis, Indiana, which resolved various alleged violations of the Clean Water Act. The Consent Decree obligated the City of Indianapolis to implement certain combined...

  8. 20 CFR 204.7 - Employment relation-service to a local lodge or division of a railway labor organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... or division of a railway labor organization. 204.7 Section 204.7 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYMENT RELATION § 204.7 Employment relation—service to a local lodge or division of a railway labor organization. Service by an individual...

  9. Agreement Between Michigan State University and Lodge 141, Fraternal Order of Police, Michigan State University Division, July 1, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing.

    This agreement, entered into July 1, 1974, is between the Board of Trustees of Michigan State University and Lodge 141 of the Fraternal Order of Police, Michigan State University Division. It is the intent and purpose of this agreement to assure sound and mutually beneficial working and economic relationships between the parties, to provide an…

  10. 75 FR 47627 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree With Hoosier Energy Rural Electric Cooperative, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree With Hoosier Energy Rural Electric Cooperative, Inc. Under The Clean Air Act Pursuant to 28 CFR 50.7, notice is hereby given that on July 23, 2010, a proposed Consent Decree in United States of America et al. v. Hoosier Energy Rural Electric Cooperative, Inc.,...

  11. 75 FR 7627 - Notice of Lodging of Material Modification to Consent Decree under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... of Lodging of Material Modification to Consent Decree under the Clean Air Act Pursuant to Department of Justice policy, notice is hereby given that, on February 4, 2010, a proposed First Material... equipment to capture and recycle the vast majority of the hot water that is condensed from its use of...

  12. 75 FR 69704 - Notice of Lodging of Second Proposed Amendment to Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... of Lodging of Second Proposed Amendment to Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on November 8, 2010, a proposed Second Amendment to 2006 Consent Decree, pertaining to United..., the proposed Second Amendment is much more extensive, and would authorize the modification of...

  13. 77 FR 39737 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree With Dairyland Power Cooperative Under the Clean Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... permits and failed to install and apply required pollution control devices to reduce emissions of various... lodged with the Court requires installation and operation of certain pollution control devices at the... million to mitigate the alleged adverse effects of its past violations, and will pay a civil penalty...

  14. 78 FR 15739 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Third Modification to Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Third Modification to Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act On February 22... Unit 4); (5) to the installation of 200 MW of renewable energy; (6) to provide the State...

  15. 76 FR 11280 - Notice of Lodging of an Amendment to Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... America, et al., Civil Action No. 3:10-cv-44-JPG was lodged with the United States District Court for the...-JPG, DJ 90-5-2-1-08221. The proposed Amendment to the consent decree may be examined at the Office of... Library, please enclose a check in the amount of $4.50 (25 cents per page reproduction cost) payable...

  16. 76 FR 42138 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) In accordance... Conservation and Recovery Act (``RCRA'') Section 3008(a), 42 U.S.C. 6928(a), and the federal regulations... RCRA Section 3004(d), 42 U.S.C. 6924(d), and Fla. Stat. Chapter 403 ] (Environmental Control), Part...

  17. 77 FR 49830 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Amendment to the Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ...-cv-02672-CCC, was lodged with the United States District Court for the Middle District of... the Amendment. Comments should be addressed to the Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural... Chief, Environmental Enforcement Section, Environment and Natural Resources Division. BILLING CODE...

  18. 75 FR 22626 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree With Big River Zinc Corporation Providing for Civil Penalties...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree With Big River Zinc Corporation Providing for Civil Penalties and... Decree with Big River Zinc Corporation (``BRZ'') providing for civil penalties and injunctive Relief under the Clean Air Act in United States v. Big River Zinc Corp., Civil Action No....

  19. 41 CFR 301-11.27 - Are taxes included in the lodging portion of the Government per diem rate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are taxes included in... Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE... you a maximum lodging rate of $50 per night, and you elect to stay at a hotel that costs $100...

  20. 78 FR 17229 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Amendment Under the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Amendment Under the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water Act; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; the Missouri Air Conservation Law; the Missouri Clean Water Law and..., the Clean Water Act, the Missouri Clean Water Law, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and...

  1. 77 FR 518 - Notice of Lodging of the Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... of Lodging of the Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Clean Water... Conservation and Recovery Act (``RCRA'') violations stemming from its failure to meet cathodic protection... resolves Erie's Clean Water Act (``CWA'') violations stemming from its failure to prepare and...

  2. 78 FR 70960 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, and the Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, and the Resource Conservation... the United States and the State of Illinois under the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and relevant state law at facilities formerly owned by PolyOne...

  3. Detection of QTL for forage yield, lodging resistance and spring vigor traits in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is an internationally significant forage crop. Forage yield, lodging resistance and spring vigor are important agronomic traits conditioned by quantitative genetic and environmental effects. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) and mo...

  4. 76 FR 72444 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Resolving Claims for Contamination of Mountain Lake in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Resolving Claims for Contamination of Mountain Lake in the Presidio of... contamination, to pay $4 million for repair or replacement of the overflow pipeline that drains Mountain...

  5. 78 FR 47411 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act, Emergency Planning and Community...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act, Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, and Oil Pollution Act Notice is hereby given that on July 31, 2013, a proposed Consent Decree...'') alleging violations of Sections 311(c) and (j) of the Clean Water Act (``CWA''), 33 U.S.C. 1321(c) and...

  6. 75 FR 7627 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Notice is hereby... requirements of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (Clean Water Act), 40 CFR part 403 and 33 U.S.C....

  7. 75 FR 43554 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (“Clean Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (``Clean Water Act... Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1311 and 1318, at thirteen of its facilities in Massachusetts by discharging pollutants in storm water associated with construction activity without a permit, failing to timely ]...

  8. 76 FR 59738 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the National Marine Sanctuaries Act, The Park System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the National Marine Sanctuaries Act, The Park System Resource Protection Act, The Oil Pollution Act and The Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on September...

  9. 76 FR 72973 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... ``Fort Gay'') for permanent injunctive relief and civil penalties under the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251-387; the Safe Drinking Water Act, 42 U.S.C. 300f-300j-26; the West Virginia Water Pollution... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act Notice is...

  10. 78 FR 11682 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 and the Clean...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 and the Clean Water Act On... under Sections 301 and 311 of the Clean Water Act (``CWA''), 33 U.S.C. 1311, 1321, relating to a June 30 and July 1, 2007 discharge of approximately 2,145 barrels of crude oil, diesel fuel, and oily...

  11. 78 FR 52972 - Re-Publication of Notice of Lodging of Proposed Third Amendment to Consent Decree Under the Clean...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... FR 45,272). We are re-publishing this notice to correct a typographical error in the Internet Web... et al v. Lafarge North America et al, Civil Action No. 3:10-cv- 44. Notice of lodging of the Proposed... certain violations of the federal Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq. by Lafarge North America,...

  12. 41 CFR 301-11.12 - How does the type of lodging I select affect my reimbursement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does the type of lodging I select affect my reimbursement? 301-11.12 Section 301-11.12 Public Contracts and Property... public by area residents in their homes. (e) Recreational vehicle (trailer/camper). You may be...

  13. 77 FR 55861 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (“OPA”)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (``OPA'') Notice is hereby given... and Section 48-1-90 of the South Carolina Pollution Control Act, S.C. Code Ann. Sec. 48-1-90. In...

  14. 20 CFR 204.7 - Employment relation-service to a local lodge or division of a railway labor organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... or division of a railway labor organization. 204.7 Section 204.7 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYMENT RELATION § 204.7 Employment relation—service to a local lodge or division of a railway labor organization. Service by an individual...

  15. 75 FR 21660 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Residential Lead- Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act Notice is... (``HUD'') under the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act, 42 U.S.C. 4851 et seq. (``Lead... Lead Hazard Reduction Act. Under the Consent Decree, the Defendant will certify that it is...

  16. 77 FR 22612 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Residential Lead- Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act Notice is... Urban Development (``HUD'') under the Residential Lead- Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act, 42 U.S.C. 4851 et seq. (``Lead Hazard Reduction Act.'') The United States alleged in the complaint that...

  17. 75 FR 76754 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Residential Lead- Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act Notice is... Urban Development (``HUD'') under the Residential Lead- Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act, 42 U.S.C. 4851 et seq. (``Lead Hazard Reduction Act''). The United States alleged in the complaint that...

  18. 75 FR 159 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Residential Lead- Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act Notice is.... EPA'') and the Department of Housing and Urban Development (``HUD'') under the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act, 42 U.S.C. 4851 et seq. (``Lead Hazard Reduction Act''). The United...

  19. 77 FR 46770 - Notice of Lodging of Fourth Amendment to Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... States, et al. v. Phillips 66 Company, et al., Civil Action No. H-05-0258, was lodged with the United...Phillips Company (``COPC'') agreed to implement innovative pollution control technologies to reduce... (the Wood River and Borger Refineries) was added as a defendant. Finally, on June 1, 2012, Phillips...

  20. 75 FR 11560 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that... violations of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq., and the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq....

  1. 76 FR 65534 - Notice of Lodging of Modification of Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... United States of America and Rineco Chemical Industries, Inc. (``Rineco'') was lodged with the United... Chemical Industries, Inc., Civil Action No. 4-07-CV-01189SWW. In December 2007, the United States filed a.... Department of Justice, Washington, DC 20044-7611, and should refer to United States et al. v. Rineco...

  2. 75 FR 10503 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Emergency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act, and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act... Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7401-7671q, the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251-1387, the Emergency...

  3. 78 FR 15376 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Amendment Under the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Amendment Under the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water Act; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act; and the... Clean Air Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Clean Water Act, the Emergency...

  4. 75 FR 42130 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act; Clean Water Act; Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act; Clean Water Act; Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; Safe Drinking Water Act; Toxic Substances Control Act; and the Reporting Requirements of the... U.S.C. 6901 to 6992k; Safe Drinking Water Act (``SDWA''), 42 U.S.C. 300f to 300j-26;...

  5. 77 FR 12880 - Notice of Lodging of Agreement and Order Regarding Modification of Consent Decree as to ARCO...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... of Lodging of Agreement and Order Regarding Modification of Consent Decree as to ARCO Chemical... Modification of Consent Decree as to ARCO Chemical Company and Atlantic Richfield Company (``Consent Decree... Plan (``NCP''), 40 CFR part 300. On December 8, 1998, the court entered a Consent Decree as to...

  6. 77 FR 54924 - Temporary Concession Contract for the Operation of Lodging, Food and Beverage and Retail Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ...The National Park Service intends to award a temporary concession contract to a qualified person for the conduct of certain visitor services within Canyon de Chelly National Mounument for a term not to exceed 3 years. The visitor services include lodging, food and beverage and...

  7. Defining Sudden Stratospheric Warmings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Amy; Seidel, Dian; Hardiman, Steven; Butchart, Neal; Birner, Thomas; Match, Aaron

    2015-04-01

    The general form of the definition for Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) is largely agreed to be a reversal of the temperature gradient and of the zonal circulation polewards of 60° latitude at the 10 hPa level, as developed by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in the 1960s and 1970s. However, the details of the definition and its calculation are ambiguous, resulting in inconsistent classifications of SSW events. These discrepancies are problematic for understanding the observed frequency and statistical relationships with SSWs, and for maintaining a robust metric with which to assess wintertime stratospheric variability in observations and climate models. To provide a basis for community-wide discussion, we examine how the SSW definition has changed over time and how sensitive the detection of SSWs is to the definition used. We argue that the general form of the SSW definition should be clarified to ensure that it serves current research and forecasting purposes, and propose possible ways to update the definition.

  8. Warm dense crystallography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenza, Ryan A.; Seidler, Gerald T.

    2016-03-01

    The intense femtosecond-scale pulses from x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) are able to create and interrogate interesting states of matter characterized by long-lived nonequilibrium semicore or core electron occupancies or by the heating of dense phases via the relaxation cascade initiated by the photoelectric effect. We address here the latter case of "warm dense matter" (WDM) and investigate the observable consequences of x-ray heating of the electronic degrees of freedom in crystalline systems. We report temperature-dependent density functional theory calculations for the x-ray diffraction from crystalline LiF, graphite, diamond, and Be. We find testable, strong signatures of condensed-phase effects that emphasize the importance of wide-angle scattering to study nonequilibrium states. These results also suggest that the reorganization of the valence electron density at eV-scale temperatures presents a confounding factor to achieving atomic resolution in macromolecular serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) studies at XFELs, as performed under the "diffract before destroy" paradigm.

  9. Warming up for Planck

    SciTech Connect

    Bartrum, Sam; Berera, Arjun; Rosa, João G. E-mail: ab@ph.ed.ac.uk

    2013-06-01

    The recent Planck results and future releases on the horizon present a key opportunity to address a fundamental question in inflationary cosmology of whether primordial density perturbations have a quantum or thermal origin, i.e. whether particle production may have significant effects during inflation. Warm inflation provides a natural arena to address this issue, with interactions between the scalar inflaton and other degrees of freedom leading to dissipative entropy production and associated thermal fluctuations. In this context, we present relations between CMB observables that can be directly tested against observational data. In particular, we show that the presence of a thermal bath warmer than the Hubble scale during inflation decreases the tensor-to-scalar ratio with respect to the conventional prediction in supercooled inflation, yielding r < 8|n{sub t}|, where n{sub t} is the tensor spectral index. Focusing on supersymmetric models at low temperatures, we determine consistency relations between the observables characterizing the spectrum of adiabatic scalar and tensor modes, both for generic potentials and particular canonical examples, and which we compare with the WMAP and Planck results. Finally, we include the possibility of producing the observed baryon asymmetry during inflation through dissipative effects, thereby generating baryon isocurvature modes that can be easily accommodated by the Planck data.

  10. Recent warming of lake Kivu.

    PubMed

    Katsev, Sergei; Aaberg, Arthur A; Crowe, Sean A; Hecky, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    Lake Kivu in East Africa has gained notoriety for its prodigious amounts of dissolved methane and dangers of limnic eruption. Being meromictic, it is also expected to accumulate heat due to rising regional air temperatures. To investigate the warming trend and distinguish between atmospheric and geothermal heating sources, we compiled historical temperature data, performed measurements with logging instruments, and simulated heat propagation. We also performed isotopic analyses of water from the lake's main basin and isolated Kabuno Bay. The results reveal that the lake surface is warming at the rate of 0.12°C per decade, which matches the warming rates in other East African lakes. Temperatures increase throughout the entire water column. Though warming is strongest near the surface, warming rates in the deep waters cannot be accounted for solely by propagation of atmospheric heat at presently assumed rates of vertical mixing. Unless the transport rates are significantly higher than presently believed, this indicates significant contributions from subterranean heat sources. Temperature time series in the deep monimolimnion suggest evidence of convection. The progressive deepening of the depth of temperature minimum in the water column is expected to accelerate the warming in deeper waters. The warming trend, however, is unlikely to strongly affect the physical stability of the lake, which depends primarily on salinity gradient.

  11. Recent Warming of Lake Kivu

    PubMed Central

    Katsev, Sergei; Aaberg, Arthur A.; Crowe, Sean A.; Hecky, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Lake Kivu in East Africa has gained notoriety for its prodigious amounts of dissolved methane and dangers of limnic eruption. Being meromictic, it is also expected to accumulate heat due to rising regional air temperatures. To investigate the warming trend and distinguish between atmospheric and geothermal heating sources, we compiled historical temperature data, performed measurements with logging instruments, and simulated heat propagation. We also performed isotopic analyses of water from the lake's main basin and isolated Kabuno Bay. The results reveal that the lake surface is warming at the rate of 0.12°C per decade, which matches the warming rates in other East African lakes. Temperatures increase throughout the entire water column. Though warming is strongest near the surface, warming rates in the deep waters cannot be accounted for solely by propagation of atmospheric heat at presently assumed rates of vertical mixing. Unless the transport rates are significantly higher than presently believed, this indicates significant contributions from subterranean heat sources. Temperature time series in the deep monimolimnion suggest evidence of convection. The progressive deepening of the depth of temperature minimum in the water column is expected to accelerate the warming in deeper waters. The warming trend, however, is unlikely to strongly affect the physical stability of the lake, which depends primarily on salinity gradient. PMID:25295730

  12. Delayed flowering and global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, B. I.; Wolkovich, E. M.; Parmesan, C.

    2011-12-01

    Within general trends toward earlier spring, observed cases of species and ecosystems that have not advanced their phenology, or have even delayed it, appear paradoxical, especially when made in temperate regions experiencing significant warming. The typical interpretation of this pattern has been that non-responders are insensitive to relatively small levels of warming over the past 40 years, while species showing delays are often viewed as statistical noise or evidence for unknown confounding factors at play. However, plant physiology studies suggest that when winter chilling (vernalization) is required to initiate spring development, winter warming may retard spring events, masking expected advances caused by spring warming. Here, we analyzed long-term data on phenology and seasonal temperatures from 490 species on two continents and demonstrate that 1) apparent non-responders are indeed responding to warming, but their responses to winter and spring warming are opposite in sign, 2) observed trends in first flowering date depend strongly on the magnitude of a given species' response to autumn/winter versus spring warming, and 3) inclusion of these effects strongly improves hindcast predictions of long-term flowering trends. With a few notable exceptions, climate change research has focused on the overall mean trend towards phenological advance, minimizing discussion of apparently non-responding species. Our results illuminate an under-studied source of complexity in wild species responses and support the need for models incorporating diverse environmental cues in order to improve predictability of species responses to anthropogenic climate change.

  13. Amplified Arctic warming by phytoplankton under greenhouse warming

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Yeon; Kug, Jong-Seong; Bader, Jürgen; Rolph, Rebecca; Kwon, Minho

    2015-01-01

    Phytoplankton have attracted increasing attention in climate science due to their impacts on climate systems. A new generation of climate models can now provide estimates of future climate change, considering the biological feedbacks through the development of the coupled physical–ecosystem model. Here we present the geophysical impact of phytoplankton, which is often overlooked in future climate projections. A suite of future warming experiments using a fully coupled ocean−atmosphere model that interacts with a marine ecosystem model reveals that the future phytoplankton change influenced by greenhouse warming can amplify Arctic surface warming considerably. The warming-induced sea ice melting and the corresponding increase in shortwave radiation penetrating into the ocean both result in a longer phytoplankton growing season in the Arctic. In turn, the increase in Arctic phytoplankton warms the ocean surface layer through direct biological heating, triggering additional positive feedbacks in the Arctic, and consequently intensifying the Arctic warming further. Our results establish the presence of marine phytoplankton as an important potential driver of the future Arctic climate changes. PMID:25902494

  14. Amplified Arctic warming by phytoplankton under greenhouse warming.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Yeon; Kug, Jong-Seong; Bader, Jürgen; Rolph, Rebecca; Kwon, Minho

    2015-05-12

    Phytoplankton have attracted increasing attention in climate science due to their impacts on climate systems. A new generation of climate models can now provide estimates of future climate change, considering the biological feedbacks through the development of the coupled physical-ecosystem model. Here we present the geophysical impact of phytoplankton, which is often overlooked in future climate projections. A suite of future warming experiments using a fully coupled ocean-atmosphere model that interacts with a marine ecosystem model reveals that the future phytoplankton change influenced by greenhouse warming can amplify Arctic surface warming considerably. The warming-induced sea ice melting and the corresponding increase in shortwave radiation penetrating into the ocean both result in a longer phytoplankton growing season in the Arctic. In turn, the increase in Arctic phytoplankton warms the ocean surface layer through direct biological heating, triggering additional positive feedbacks in the Arctic, and consequently intensifying the Arctic warming further. Our results establish the presence of marine phytoplankton as an important potential driver of the future Arctic climate changes.

  15. Bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax secondary to aspiration pneumonia induced by a wristwatch lodged at the pharyngoesophageal junction.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Chihiro; Miyao, Masashi; Kotani, Hirokazu; Tamaki, Keiji

    2015-06-01

    Bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax secondary to disease is rare and seldom encountered in forensic autopsies; however, traumatic bilateral pneumothorax occurs often. Herein, we present a forensic case involving a 50-year-old woman who died 4 days after ingesting a wristwatch. Postmortem computed tomography and autopsy findings demonstrated that the wristwatch was lodged at the pharyngoesophageal junction, that she had a bilateral pneumothorax unaccompanied by any thoracic wound, and that macular hemorrhagic lesions on the lung surfaces were responsible for the pneumothorax. A histological examination of the macular lesions revealed that they were aspiration pneumonia foci with many birefringent foreign materials. Furthermore, a necrotic process secondary to aspiration pneumonia with a one way check-valve hyperinflation caused by foreign materials in the bronchioles was the most probable pathogenesis of her pneumothorax. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a bilateral secondary spontaneous pneumothorax caused by a large foreign body at the pharyngoesophageal junction leading to death.

  16. Weird Warm Spot on Exoplanet

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation illustrates an unexpected warm spot on the surface of a gaseous exoplanet. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope discovered that the hottest part of the planet, shown here as bright, orange...

  17. The Great Warming Brian Fagan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagan, B. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Great Warming is a journey back to the world of a thousand years ago, to the Medieval Warm Period. Five centuries of irregular warming from 800 to 1250 had beneficial effects in Europe and the North Atlantic, but brought prolonged droughts to much of the Americas and lands affected by the South Asian monsoon. The book describes these impacts of warming on medieval European societies, as well as the Norse and the Inuit of the far north, then analyzes the impact of harsh, lengthy droughts on hunting societies in western North America and the Ancestral Pueblo farmers of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. These peoples reacted to drought by relocating entire communities. The Maya civilization was much more vulnerable that small-scale hunter-gatherer societies and subsistence farmers in North America. Maya rulers created huge water storage facilities, but their civilization partially collapsed under the stress of repeated multiyear droughts, while the Chimu lords of coastal Peru adapted with sophisticated irrigation works. The climatic villain was prolonged, cool La Niñalike conditions in the Pacific, which caused droughts from Venezuela to East Asia, and as far west as East Africa. The Great Warming argues that the warm centuries brought savage drought to much of humanity, from China to Peru. It also argues that drought is one of the most dangerous elements in today’s humanly created global warming, often ignored by preoccupied commentators, but with the potential to cause over a billion people to starve. Finally, I use the book to discuss the issues and problems of communicating multidisciplinary science to the general public.

  18. How warm days increase belief in global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaval, Lisa; Keenan, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, Eric J.; Weber, Elke U.

    2014-02-01

    Climate change judgements can depend on whether today seems warmer or colder than usual, termed the local warming effect. Although previous research has demonstrated that this effect occurs, studies have yet to explain why or how temperature abnormalities influence global warming attitudes. A better understanding of the underlying psychology of this effect can help explain the public's reaction to climate change and inform approaches used to communicate the phenomenon. Across five studies, we find evidence of attribute substitution, whereby individuals use less relevant but available information (for example, today's temperature) in place of more diagnostic but less accessible information (for example, global climate change patterns) when making judgements. Moreover, we rule out alternative hypotheses involving climate change labelling and lay mental models. Ultimately, we show that present temperature abnormalities are given undue weight and lead to an overestimation of the frequency of similar past events, thereby increasing belief in and concern for global warming.

  19. Distinguishing warming-induced drought from drought-induced warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roderick, M. L.; Yin, D.

    2015-12-01

    It is usually observed that temperatures, especially maximum temperatures are higher during drought. A very widely held public perception is that the increase in temperature is a cause of drought. This represents the warming-induced drought scenario. However, the agricultural and hydrologic scientific communities have a very different interpretation with drought being the cause of increasing temperature. In essence, those communities assume the warming is a surface feedback and their interpretation is for drought-induced warming. This is a classic cause-effect problem that has resisted definitive explanation due to the lack of radiative observations at suitable spatial and temporal scales. In this presentation we first summarise the observations and then use theory to untangle the cause-effect relationships that underlie the competing interpretations. We then show how satellite data (CERES, NASA) can be used to disentangle the cause-effect relations.

  20. Analysis of data from spacecraft (stratospheric warmings)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. D.

    1974-01-01

    Links between the upper atmosphere and the stratosphere were studied to explain stratospheric warmings, and to correlate the warmings with other terrestrial and solar phenomena. Physical mechanisms for warming, or which may act as a trigger are discussed along with solar and geophysical indices. Two stratospheric warming cases are analyzed.

  1. Active Movement Warm-Up Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Teri; Quint, Ashleigh; Fischer, Kim; Kiger, Joy

    2011-01-01

    This article presents warm-ups that are designed to physiologically and psychologically prepare students for vigorous physical activity. An active movement warm-up routine is made up of three parts: (1) active warm-up movement exercises, (2) general preparation, and (3) the energy system. These warm-up routines can be used with all grade levels…

  2. Global warming and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Khasnis, Atul A; Nettleman, Mary D

    2005-01-01

    Global warming has serious implications for all aspects of human life, including infectious diseases. The effect of global warming depends on the complex interaction between the human host population and the causative infectious agent. From the human standpoint, changes in the environment may trigger human migration, causing disease patterns to shift. Crop failures and famine may reduce host resistance to infections. Disease transmission may be enhanced through the scarcity and contamination of potable water sources. Importantly, significant economic and political stresses may damage the existing public health infrastructure, leaving mankind poorly prepared for unexpected epidemics. Global warming will certainly affect the abundance and distribution of disease vectors. Altitudes that are currently too cool to sustain vectors will become more conducive to them. Some vector populations may expand into new geographic areas, whereas others may disappear. Malaria, dengue, plague, and viruses causing encephalitic syndromes are among the many vector-borne diseases likely to be affected. Some models suggest that vector-borne diseases will become more common as the earth warms, although caution is needed in interpreting these predictions. Clearly, global warming will cause changes in the epidemiology of infectious diseases. The ability of mankind to react or adapt is dependent upon the magnitude and speed of the change. The outcome will also depend on our ability to recognize epidemics early, to contain them effectively, to provide appropriate treatment, and to commit resources to prevention and research.

  3. Warming early Earth and Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Kasting, J.F.

    1997-05-23

    Sagan and Chyba, in their article on page 1217 of this issue, have revived an old debate about how liquid water was maintained on early Earth and Mars despite a solar luminosity 25 to 30% lower than that at present. A theory that has been popular for some time is that greatly elevated concentrations of atmospheric COD produced by the action of the carbonate-silicate cycle, provided enough of a greenhouse effect to warm early Earth. However, Rye et al. have placed geochemical constraints on early atmospheric CO{sub 2} abundances that fall well below the levels needed to warm the surface. These constraints are based on the absence of siderite (FeCO{sub 3}) in ancient soil profiles-a negative and, hence, rather weak form of evidence- and apply to the time period 2.2 to 2.8 billion years ago, when Earth was already middle aged. Nonetheless, the soil data provide some indication that atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels may have been lower than previously thought. An even more serious problem arises if one tries to keep early Mars warm with CO{sub 2}. Model calculations predict that CO{sub 2} clouds would form on Mars in the upper troposphere, reducing the lapse rate and severely limiting the amount of surface warming. A suggestion that CO{sub 2} clouds may have warmed the planet radiatively has yet to be borne out by detailed calculations. 26 refs.

  4. Increased lodging resistance in long-culm, low-lignin gh2 rice for improved feed and bioenergy production

    PubMed Central

    Ookawa, Taiichiro; Inoue, Kazuya; Matsuoka, Makoto; Ebitani, Takeshi; Takarada, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Toshio; Ueda, Tadamasa; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Sugiyama, Chisato; Nakaba, Satoshi; Funada, Ryo; Kato, Hiroshi; Kanekatsu, Motoki; Toyota, Koki; Motobayashi, Takashi; Vazirzanjani, Mehran; Tojo, Seishu; Hirasawa, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    Lignin modification has been a breeding target for the improvements of forage digestibility and energy yields in forage and bioenergy crops, but decreased lignin levels are often accompanied by reduced lodging resistance. The rice mutant gold hull and internode2 (gh2) has been identified to be lignin deficient. GH2 has been mapped to the short arm of chromosome 2 and encodes cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). We developed a long-culm variety, ‘Leaf Star’, with superior lodging resistance and a gh phenotype similar to one of its parents, ‘Chugoku 117’. The gh loci in Leaf Star and Chugoku 117 were localized to the same region of chromosome 2 as the gh2 mutant. Leaf Star had culms with low lignin concentrations due to a natural mutation in OsCAD2 that was not present in Chugoku 117. However, this variety had high culm strength due to its strong, thick culms. Additionally, this variety had a thick layer of cortical fiber tissue with well-developed secondary cell walls. Our results suggest that rice can be improved for forage and bioenergy production by combining superior lodging resistance, which can be obtained by introducing thick and stiff culm traits, with low lignin concentrations, which can be obtained using the gh2 variety. PMID:25298209

  5. Global warming: trends and effects.

    PubMed

    Tickell, C

    1993-01-01

    As animals we have been a remarkably successful species; but also as animals we are vulnerable to environmental, in particular climate change. Such change is accelerating as a result of human activity, and global warming may already be taking place. Although we can foresee the trends, we cannot yet be specific about the results. Change usually proceeds by steps rather than gradients. But warming would probably include new risks to human health and contribute to an increase in human displacement. Of course climate change is only one among other complex problems facing human society, but it is closely related to them all, including population increase, environmental degradation and loss of biodiversity. We cannot prevent global warming but we can anticipate and mitigate some of its worst effects. Peoples and governments still need persuading of the need for action and of the magnitude of the issue at stake.

  6. Cosmic Rays and Global Warming

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, T.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    2008-01-24

    Some workers have claimed that the observed temporal correlations of (low level) terrestrial cloud cover with the cosmic ray intensity changes, due to solar modulation, are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global Warming. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim in some detail. So far, we have not found any evidence in support and so our conclusions are to doubt it. From the absence of corroborative evidence we estimate that less than 15% at the 95% confidence level, of the 11-year cycle warming variations are due to cosmic rays and less than 2% of the warming over the last 43 years is due to this cause. The origin of the correlation itself is probably the cycle of solar irradiance although there is, as yet, no certainty.

  7. Global Warming: Physics and Facts

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, B.G.; Hafemeister, D.; Scribner, R.

    1992-05-01

    This report contains papers on: A tutorial on global atmospheric energetics and the greenhouse effect; global climate models: what and how; comparison of general circulation models; climate and the earth`s radiation budget; temperature and sea level change; short-term climate variability and predictions; the great ocean conveyor; trace gases in the atmosphere: temporal and spatial trends; the geochemical carbon cycle and the uptake of fossil fuel CO{sub 2}; forestry and global warming; the physical and policy linkages; policy implications of greenhouse warming; options for lowering US carbon dioxide emissions; options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions; and science and diplomacy: a new partnership to protect the environment.

  8. Global Warming: Physics and Facts

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, B.G. ); Hafemeister, D. , Washington, DC ); Scribner, R. )

    1992-01-01

    This report contains papers on: A tutorial on global atmospheric energetics and the greenhouse effect; global climate models: what and how; comparison of general circulation models; climate and the earth's radiation budget; temperature and sea level change; short-term climate variability and predictions; the great ocean conveyor; trace gases in the atmosphere: temporal and spatial trends; the geochemical carbon cycle and the uptake of fossil fuel CO{sub 2}; forestry and global warming; the physical and policy linkages; policy implications of greenhouse warming; options for lowering US carbon dioxide emissions; options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions; and science and diplomacy: a new partnership to protect the environment.

  9. Global warming at the summit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    During the recent summit meeting between Russian President Vladimir Putin and U.S. President Bill Clinton, the two leaders reaffirmed their concerns about global warming and the need to continue to take actions to try to reduce the threat.In a June 4 joint statement, they stressed the need to develop flexibility mechanisms, including international emissions trading, under the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. They also noted that initiatives to reduce the risk of greenhouse warming, including specific mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol, could potentially promote economic growth.

  10. Warming up to solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Biondo, B.

    1996-07-01

    Increasingly alarmed by threats to their financial security posed by an escalating number of weather-related catastrophes, major insurance companaies, particularly those in Europe and Asia, are starting to support a variety of measures that would slowe the production of grenhouse gases worlwide. As the insurance and banking industries turn their attention to global warming, investments in solar energy take on growing appeal.

  11. Semi-dwarfism and lodging tolerance in tef (Eragrostis tef) is linked to a mutation in the α-Tubulin 1 gene.

    PubMed

    Jöst, Moritz; Esfeld, Korinna; Burian, Agata; Cannarozzi, Gina; Chanyalew, Solomon; Kuhlemeier, Cris; Assefa, Kebebew; Tadele, Zerihun

    2015-02-01

    Genetic improvement of native crops is a new and promising strategy to combat hunger in the developing world. Tef is the major staple food crop for approximately 50 million people in Ethiopia. As an indigenous cereal, it is well adapted to diverse climatic and soil conditions; however, its productivity is extremely low mainly due to susceptibility to lodging. Tef has a tall and weak stem, liable to lodge (or fall over), which is aggravated by wind, rain, or application of nitrogen fertilizer. To circumvent this problem, the first semi-dwarf lodging-tolerant tef line, called kegne, was developed from an ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS)-mutagenized population. The response of kegne to microtubule-depolymerizing and -stabilizing drugs, as well as subsequent gene sequencing and segregation analysis, suggests that a defect in the α-Tubulin gene is functionally and genetically tightly linked to the kegne phenotype. In diploid species such as rice, homozygous mutations in α-Tubulin genes result in extreme dwarfism and weak stems. In the allotetraploid tef, only one homeologue is mutated, and the presence of the second intact α-Tubulin gene copy confers the agriculturally beneficial semi-dwarf and lodging-tolerant phenotype. Introgression of kegne into locally adapted and popular tef cultivars in Ethiopia will increase the lodging tolerance in the tef germplasm and, as a result, will improve the productivity of this valuable crop.

  12. Semi-dwarfism and lodging tolerance in tef (Eragrostis tef) is linked to a mutation in the α-Tubulin 1 gene

    PubMed Central

    Jöst, Moritz; Esfeld, Korinna; Burian, Agata; Cannarozzi, Gina; Chanyalew, Solomon; Kuhlemeier, Cris; Assefa, Kebebew; Tadele, Zerihun

    2015-01-01

    Genetic improvement of native crops is a new and promising strategy to combat hunger in the developing world. Tef is the major staple food crop for approximately 50 million people in Ethiopia. As an indigenous cereal, it is well adapted to diverse climatic and soil conditions; however, its productivity is extremely low mainly due to susceptibility to lodging. Tef has a tall and weak stem, liable to lodge (or fall over), which is aggravated by wind, rain, or application of nitrogen fertilizer. To circumvent this problem, the first semi-dwarf lodging-tolerant tef line, called kegne, was developed from an ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS)-mutagenized population. The response of kegne to microtubule-depolymerizing and -stabilizing drugs, as well as subsequent gene sequencing and segregation analysis, suggests that a defect in the α-Tubulin gene is functionally and genetically tightly linked to the kegne phenotype. In diploid species such as rice, homozygous mutations in α-Tubulin genes result in extreme dwarfism and weak stems. In the allotetraploid tef, only one homeologue is mutated, and the presence of the second intact α-Tubulin gene copy confers the agriculturally beneficial semi-dwarf and lodging-tolerant phenotype. Introgression of kegne into locally adapted and popular tef cultivars in Ethiopia will increase the lodging tolerance in the tef germplasm and, as a result, will improve the productivity of this valuable crop. PMID:25399019

  13. Semi-dwarfism and lodging tolerance in tef (Eragrostis tef) is linked to a mutation in the α-Tubulin 1 gene.

    PubMed

    Jöst, Moritz; Esfeld, Korinna; Burian, Agata; Cannarozzi, Gina; Chanyalew, Solomon; Kuhlemeier, Cris; Assefa, Kebebew; Tadele, Zerihun

    2015-02-01

    Genetic improvement of native crops is a new and promising strategy to combat hunger in the developing world. Tef is the major staple food crop for approximately 50 million people in Ethiopia. As an indigenous cereal, it is well adapted to diverse climatic and soil conditions; however, its productivity is extremely low mainly due to susceptibility to lodging. Tef has a tall and weak stem, liable to lodge (or fall over), which is aggravated by wind, rain, or application of nitrogen fertilizer. To circumvent this problem, the first semi-dwarf lodging-tolerant tef line, called kegne, was developed from an ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS)-mutagenized population. The response of kegne to microtubule-depolymerizing and -stabilizing drugs, as well as subsequent gene sequencing and segregation analysis, suggests that a defect in the α-Tubulin gene is functionally and genetically tightly linked to the kegne phenotype. In diploid species such as rice, homozygous mutations in α-Tubulin genes result in extreme dwarfism and weak stems. In the allotetraploid tef, only one homeologue is mutated, and the presence of the second intact α-Tubulin gene copy confers the agriculturally beneficial semi-dwarf and lodging-tolerant phenotype. Introgression of kegne into locally adapted and popular tef cultivars in Ethiopia will increase the lodging tolerance in the tef germplasm and, as a result, will improve the productivity of this valuable crop. PMID:25399019

  14. Equatorial refuge amid tropical warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnauskas, Kristopher B.; Cohen, Anne L.

    2012-07-01

    Upwelling across the tropical Pacific Ocean is projected to weaken in accordance with a reduction of the atmospheric overturning circulation, enhancing the increase in sea surface temperature relative to other regions in response to greenhouse-gas forcing. In the central Pacific, home to one of the largest marine protected areas and fishery regions in the global tropics, sea surface temperatures are projected to increase by 2.8°C by the end of this century. Of critical concern is that marine protected areas may not provide refuge from the anticipated rate of large-scale warming, which could exceed the evolutionary capacity of coral and their symbionts to adapt. Combining high-resolution satellite measurements, an ensemble of global climate models and an eddy-resolving regional ocean circulation model, we show that warming and productivity decline around select Pacific islands will be mitigated by enhanced upwelling associated with a strengthening of the equatorial undercurrent. Enhanced topographic upwelling will act as a negative feedback, locally mitigating the surface warming. At the Gilbert Islands, the rate of warming will be reduced by 0.7+/-0.3°C or 25+/-9% per century, or an overall cooling effect comparable to the local anomaly for a typical El Niño, by the end of this century. As the equatorial undercurrent is dynamically constrained to the Equator, only a handful of coral reefs stand to benefit from this equatorial island effect. Nevertheless, those that do face a lower rate of warming, conferring a significant advantage over neighbouring reef systems. If realized, these predictions help to identify potential refuges for coral reef communities from anticipated climate changes of the twenty-first century.

  15. Isolating Stratospheric Warmings -- Mesosphere to Troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, K.

    Stratospheric Warming events exhibit the most drastic changes seen in the stratosphere and yet the categorization of these events continues to be adhoc Understandably the definitions of major warming minor warmings and or Canadian warmings often depend on the scientific problem at hand And yet we show here that these events are statistically separated from the rest of the days in the winter stratosphere We show how warmings can be isolated and defined in a objective manner Furthermore we are then able to show the effect of these warmings from the mesosphere down to the troposphere

  16. Preventing lodging in bioenergy crops: a biomechanical analysis of maize stalks suggests a new approach.

    PubMed

    Von Forell, Greg; Robertson, Daniel; Lee, Shien Yang; Cook, Douglas D

    2015-07-01

    The hypothetical ideal for maize (Zea mays) bioenergy production would be a no-waste plant: high-yielding, with silage that is easily digestible for conversion to biofuel. However, increased digestibility is typically associated with low structural strength and a propensity for lodging. The solution to this dilemma may lie in our ability to optimize maize morphology using tools from structural engineering. To investigate how material (tissue) and geometric (morphological) factors influence stalk strength, detailed structural models of the maize stalk were created using finite-element software. Model geometry was obtained from high-resolution x-ray computed tomography (CT) scans, and scan intensity information was integrated into the models to infer inhomogeneous material properties. A sensitivity analysis was performed by systematically varying material properties over broad ranges, and by modifying stalk geometry. Computational models exhibited realistic stress and deformation patterns. In agreement with natural failure patterns, maximum stresses were predicted near the node. Maximum stresses were observed to be much more sensitive to changes in dimensions of the stalk cross section than they were to changes in material properties of stalk components. The average sensitivity to geometry was found to be more than 10-fold higher than the average sensitivity to material properties. These results suggest a new strategy for the breeding and development of bioenergy maize varieties in which tissue weaknesses are counterbalanced by relatively small increases (e.g. 5%) in stalk diameter that reduce structural stresses.

  17. The effects of additional flora on the response of salmonella mutants lodged in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, L A; Carter, J H; Ingelfinger, J A; Soderberg, F B; Goldman, P

    1977-02-01

    A histidine auxotroph of Salmonella typhimurium, strain TA1538, will lodge for several months in the gastrointestinal tract of otherwise germ-free rats and of rats additionally associated with bacteria characteristic of the normal flora such as Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacteroides vulgatus. In the presence of the additional flora, the concentration of strain TA1538 is diminished in the stomach but not in the lower gastrointestinal tract or in the feces. Following the ingestion of 2-nitrofluorene, there is an increase in the concentration of revertants in the feces which reflects that observed in the colon and cecum. A dose-response relationship can be demonstrated between the amount of 2-nitrofluorene ingested and the concentration of revertants in the feces. A given dose of 2-nitrofluorene, however, produces fewer revertants in the feces of rats with the additional flora than in the feces of rats associated only with strain TA1538. It is not clear whether the decreased number of revertants in the feces in the presence of the additional flora is a result of metabolic transformations of 2-nitrofluorene by B. vulgatus, which can be demonstrated in vitro, or a result of the displacement of strain TA1538 from the stomach. The rat associated with strain TA1538, or other Ames tester strains, may be useful for detecting carcinogens as mutagens within the gastrointestinal tract and for determining the influence of various constituents of the bacterial flora on the concentration of mutagenic compounds. PMID:318921

  18. A firearm bullet lodged into the thoracic spinal canal without vertebral bone destruction: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Firearm injuries account for 13% to 17% of all spinal cord injuries, and are generally caused during warfare or assault with intent to kill. Spinal cord injuries caused by firearms are usually observed in patients aged 15 to 34 years old, and are especially common among men. Case presentation We report the case of a 28-year-old Iraqi man who was referred to our radiology department with lower limb paraplegia secondary to a gunshot wound. We performed 64-slice computerized tomography with two-dimensional and three-dimensional reconstruction of the thoracolumbar spine. On the two-dimensional and three-dimensional reconstructed axial images of the thoracolumbar spine, an intra-canalicular bullet nucleus was found at the mid-spinal cord at the T8 level, with no evidence of vertebral bone destruction. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, there is only one previous report in the literature describing a case of a bullet nucleus lodged into the inferior epidural spinal canal without destruction of the vertebral bone. With the rise of violence worldwide the incidence of gunshot injuries continues to increase, and, thus, it is essential for radiologists to have a clear understanding of gunshot injuries and the findings on radiographic images. PMID:21733154

  19. Warming trends: Adapting to nonlinear change

    SciTech Connect

    Jonko, Alexandra K.

    2015-01-28

    As atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations rise, some regions are expected to warm more than others. Research suggests that whether warming will intensify or slow down over time also depends on location.

  20. Trophic mismatch requires seasonal heterogeneity of warming.

    PubMed

    Straile, Dietmar; Kerimoglu, Onur; Peeters, Frank

    2015-10-01

    Climate warming has been shown to advance the phenology of species. Asynchronous changes in phenology between interacting species may disrupt feeding interactions (phenological mismatch), which could have tremendous consequences for ecosystem functioning. Long-term field observations have suggested asynchronous shifts in phenology with warming, whereas experimental studies have not been conclusive. Using proxy-based modeling of three trophic levels (algae, herbivores, and fish), we .show that asynchronous changes in phenology only occur if warming is seasonally heterogeneous, but not if warming is constant throughout the year. If warming is seasonally heterogeneous, the degree and even direction of asynchrony depends on the specific seasonality of the warming. Conclusions about phenological mismatches in food web interactions may therefore produce controversial results if the analyses do not distinguish between seasonally constant and seasonal specific warming. Furthermore, our results suggest that predicting asynchrony between interacting species requires reliable warming predictions that resolve sub-seasonal time scales. PMID:26649399

  1. Arctic climate change: Greenhouse warming unleashed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauritsen, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Human activity alters the atmospheric composition, which leads to global warming. Model simulations suggest that reductions in emission of sulfur dioxide from Europe since the 1970s could have unveiled rapid Arctic greenhouse gas warming.

  2. Multidecadal warming of Antarctic waters.

    PubMed

    Schmidtko, Sunke; Heywood, Karen J; Thompson, Andrew F; Aoki, Shigeru

    2014-12-01

    Decadal trends in the properties of seawater adjacent to Antarctica are poorly known, and the mechanisms responsible for such changes are uncertain. Antarctic ice sheet mass loss is largely driven by ice shelf basal melt, which is influenced by ocean-ice interactions and has been correlated with Antarctic Continental Shelf Bottom Water (ASBW) temperature. We document the spatial distribution of long-term large-scale trends in temperature, salinity, and core depth over the Antarctic continental shelf and slope. Warming at the seabed in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas is linked to increased heat content and to a shoaling of the mid-depth temperature maximum over the continental slope, allowing warmer, saltier water greater access to the shelf in recent years. Regions of ASBW warming are those exhibiting increased ice shelf melt. PMID:25477461

  3. Hydrological consequences of global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Norman L.

    2009-06-01

    The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change indicates there is strong evidence that the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide far exceeds the natural range over the last 650,000 years, and this recent warming of the climate system is unequivocal, resulting in more frequent extreme precipitation events, earlier snowmelt runoff, increased winter flood likelihoods, increased and widespread melting of snow and ice, longer and more widespread droughts, and rising sea level. The effects of recent warming has been well documented and climate model projections indicate a range of hydrological impacts with likely to very likely probabilities (67 to 99 percent) of occurring with significant to severe consequences in response to a warmer lower atmosphere with an accelerating hydrologic cycle.

  4. Solar trends and global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benestad, R. E.; Schmidt, G. A.

    2009-07-01

    We use a suite of global climate model simulations for the 20th century to assess the contribution of solar forcing to the past trends in the global mean temperature. In particular, we examine how robust different published methodologies are at detecting and attributing solar-related climate change in the presence of intrinsic climate variability and multiple forcings. We demonstrate that naive application of linear analytical methods such as regression gives nonrobust results. We also demonstrate that the methodologies used by Scafetta and West (2005, 2006a, 2006b, 2007, 2008) are not robust to these same factors and that their error bars are significantly larger than reported. Our analysis shows that the most likely contribution from solar forcing a global warming is 7 ± 1% for the 20th century and is negligible for warming since 1980.

  5. MCCB warm adjustment testing concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdei, Z.; Horgos, M.; Grib, A.; Preradović, D. M.; Rodic, V.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation in to operating of thermal protection device behavior from an MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker). One of the main functions of the circuit breaker is to assure protection for the circuits where mounted in for possible overloads of the circuit. The tripping mechanism for the overload protection is based on a bimetal movement during a specific time frame. This movement needs to be controlled and as a solution to control this movement we choose the warm adjustment concept. This concept is meant to improve process capability control and final output. The warm adjustment device design will create a unique adjustment of the bimetal position for each individual breaker, determined when the testing current will flow thru a phase which needs to trip in a certain amount of time. This time is predetermined due to scientific calculation for all standard types of amperages and complies with the IEC 60497 standard requirements.

  6. Lagrangian description of warm plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, H.

    1970-01-01

    Efforts are described to extend the averaged Lagrangian method of describing small signal wave propagation and nonlinear wave interaction, developed by earlier workers for cold plasmas, to the more general conditions of warm collisionless plasmas, and to demonstrate particularly the effectiveness of the method in analyzing wave-wave interactions. The theory is developed for both the microscopic description and the hydrodynamic approximation to plasma behavior. First, a microscopic Lagrangian is formulated rigorously, and expanded in terms of perturbations about equilibrium. Two methods are then described for deriving a hydrodynamic Lagrangian. In the first of these, the Lagrangian is obtained by velocity integration of the exact microscopic Lagrangian. In the second, the expanded hydrodynamic Lagrangian is obtained directly from the expanded microscopic Lagrangian. As applications of the microscopic Lagrangian, the small-signal dispersion relations and the coupled mode equations are derived for all possible waves in a warm infinite, weakly inhomogeneous magnetoplasma, and their interactions are examined.

  7. The heated debate. [Global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Balling, R.C. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The Heated Debate challenges head on the popular vision' of anthropogenically-caused global warming as characterized by catastrophic sea level rise, drought-desiccated farmlands, and more frequent and intense hurricanes spinning up and out from warmer tropical seas. The message of this book is that apocalyptic devastation of natural ecosystems and human socio-economic systems will not necessarily follow from a mild warming of earth's climate. According to Balling, the specter of apocalypse is clearly the dominant view held by scientists, decisionmakers and the public specter of apocalypse is clearly the dominant view held by scientists, decisionmakers and the public at large, and, in his view, it is just as clearly incorrect based on a careful examination of the historical evidence. The Heated Debate present the other side' of global warming; a kinder, gentler greenhouse debate, the stated purpose of the book is to provide the reader with some background to the greenhouse issue, present an analysis of the certainties and uncertainties for future climate change, and examine the most probably changes in climate that may occur as the greenhouse gases increase in concentration. Ultimately the author hopes the book will more completely inform decisionmakers so that they do not commit money and resources to what may turn out to be a non-problem. Indeed, global warming may have many more benefits than costs, and, in any event, the (climate) penalty for postponing action a few years is potentially small, while our knowledge base will increase tremendously allowing society to make wiser and more informed decisions.

  8. Economic Theory and Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzawa, Hirofumi

    2003-08-01

    Hirofumi Uzawa's theoretical framework addresses three major problems concerning global warming and other environmental hazards. First, it considers all phenomena involved with global environmental issues that exhibit externalities of one kind or another. Secondly, it covers global environmental issues involving international and intergenerational equity and justice. Lastly, it deals with global environmental issues concerning the management of the atmosphere, the oceans, water, soil, and other natural resources having to be decided by a consensus of affected countries.

  9. Analysis of data from spacecraft (stratospheric warmings)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The details of the stratospheric warming processes as to time, area, and intensity were established, and the warmings with other terrestrial and solar phenomena occurring at satellite platform altitudes, or observable from satellite platforms, were correlated. Links were sought between the perturbed upper atmosphere (mesosphere and thermosphere) and the stratosphere that might explain stratospheric warmings.

  10. Warm Dense Matter: An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Kalantar, D H; Lee, R W; Molitoris, J D

    2004-04-21

    This document provides a summary of the ''LLNL Workshop on Extreme States of Materials: Warm Dense Matter to NIF'' which was held on 20, 21, and 22 February 2002 at the Wente Conference Center in Livermore, CA. The warm dense matter regime, the transitional phase space region between cold material and hot plasma, is presently poorly understood. The drive to understand the nature of matter in this regime is sparking scientific activity worldwide. In addition to pure scientific interest, finite temperature dense matter occurs in the regimes of interest to the SSMP (Stockpile Stewardship Materials Program). So that obtaining a better understanding of WDM is important to performing effective experiments at, e.g., NIF, a primary mission of LLNL. At this workshop we examined current experimental and theoretical work performed at, and in conjunction with, LLNL to focus future activities and define our role in this rapidly emerging research area. On the experimental front LLNL plays a leading role in three of the five relevant areas and has the opportunity to become a major player in the other two. Discussion at the workshop indicated that the path forward for the experimental efforts at LLNL were two fold: First, we are doing reasonable baseline work at SPLs, HE, and High Energy Lasers with more effort encouraged. Second, we need to plan effectively for the next evolution in large scale facilities, both laser (NIF) and Light/Beam sources (LCLS/TESLA and GSI) Theoretically, LLNL has major research advantages in areas as diverse as the thermochemical approach to warm dense matter equations of state to first principles molecular dynamics simulations. However, it was clear that there is much work to be done theoretically to understand warm dense matter. Further, there is a need for a close collaboration between the generation of verifiable experimental data that can provide benchmarks of both the experimental techniques and the theoretical capabilities. The conclusion of this

  11. EVALUATION OF LODGE POLE PINE TREE REMOVAL ON THE STORAGE POTENTIAL OF A SHALLOW AQUIFER IN A MOUNTAIN MEADOW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesh, M.; Cornwell, K.; Koler, T.

    2009-12-01

    During a time of ever-increasing awareness of the importance of well functioning stream and associated riparian areas, forest managers face a wide range of restoration alternatives. Many of these systems occur at higher elevations, often in non-forested alpine or in less productive forests and woodlands where mountain meadows are commonly found. A common theme of these restoration efforts in western North America over the past 20 years has been to re-establish degraded systems to significant sources of groundwater storage in an effort to preserve and replenish water resources. Historically, restorations efforts in meadow systems have commonly been focused on quantifying the water supply impacts of stream and river degradation due to unchecked erosion. However, other restoration alternatives may be available to forest managers when degradation is shown to not be correlated to stream and river function, but rather vegetation growth patterns within the system. This study evaluates the physical characteristics and predicted hydrologic function in response to the removal of Pinus contorta (commonly referred to as lodge pole pine trees) of Timothy Meadow located in northern Sierra Nevada, Eldorado County, California. Forest Service managers in the Eldorado National forest are presently considering the removal of lodge pole pine trees that have encroached on the meadow in an effort to increase the amount of groundwater storage in the meadow sediments. Previous work in vegetation management as it relates to storage has been conducted in other parts of the country with differing results following tree harvesting. The results of these studies would appear to indicate that the effectiveness of vegetation removal correlates to the hydrologic functionality of the meadow or wetlands prior to removal. Timothy Meadow offers a unique opportunity to study the predicted response of a hydrologically functional meadow to simulated removal of lodge pole pine trees. The physical

  12. Extracardiac-Lodged Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Propel an Inflammatory Response Against Myocardial Infarction via Paracrine Effects.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yi; Pan, Wei; Ou, Yali; Xu, Weifang; Kaelber, Sussannah; Borlongan, Cesario V; Sun, Meiqin; Yu, Guolong

    2016-01-01

    Transplantation of stem cells, including mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), improves the recovery of cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI) in experimental studies using animal models and in patients. However, the improvement of cardiac function following MSC transplantation remains suboptimal in both preclinical and clinical studies. Understanding the mechanism of cell therapy may improve its therapeutic outcomes, but the mode of action mediating stem cell promotion of cardiac repair is complex and not fully understood. Recent studies suggest that the immunomodulatory effects of MSCs on the macrophage M1/M2 subtype transition allow the transplanted stem cells to inhibit inflammation-induced injury and promote cardiac repair in acute MI. However, equally compelling evidence shows that there is poor survival and minimal graft persistence of transplanted MSCs within the infarcted heart tissues, negating the view that graft survival per se is required for the observed high rate and long duration of the transition from proinflammatory M1 to reparative M2 macrophages in the infarcted myocardium. Therefore, we raised a novel hypothesis that the therapeutic effects of MSC transplantation for acute MI depends not primarily on the grafted cells in infarct myocardium, but that MSCs migrating to and being lodged in the extracardiac organs, demonstrating good graft survival and persistence, may render the therapeutic effects in MI. More specifically, MSC transplantation promotes the transition from M1 to M2 in extracardiac organs, such as spleen and bone marrow, and therapeutic effects are conferred to the infarcted myocardium via paracrine effects. In MSC transplantation, the conversion from proinflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2 monocytes may occur remotely from the heart and may serve as one of the major pathways in regulating the dual effects of inflammation. This hypothesis, if proven valid, may represent an important new mechanism of action to be considered

  13. Methods of Patient Warming during Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Li; Zheng, Hong; Jia, Feng-Ju; Wang, Hui-Qin; Liu, Li; Sun, Qi; An, Meng-Ying; Zhang, Xiu-Hua; Wen, Hao

    2012-01-01

    Background Keeping abdominal surgery patients warm is common and warming methods are needed in power outages during natural disasters. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of low-cost, low-power warming methods for maintaining normothermia in abdominal surgery patients. Methods Patients (n = 160) scheduled for elective abdominal surgery were included in this prospective clinical study. Five warming methods were applied: heated blood transfusion/fluid infusion vs. unheated; wrapping patients vs. not wrapping; applying moist dressings, heated or not; surgical field rinse heated or not; and applying heating blankets or not. Patients’ nasopharyngeal and rectal temperatures were recorded to evaluate warming efficacy. Significant differences were found in mean temperatures of warmed patients compared to those not warmed. Results When we compared temperatures of abdominal surgery patient groups receiving three specific warming methods with temperatures of control groups not receiving these methods, significant differences were revealed in temperatures maintained during the surgeries between the warmed groups and controls. Discussion The value of maintaining normothermia in patients undergoing abdominal surgery under general anesthesia is accepted. Three effective economical and practically applicable warming methods are combined body wrapping and heating blanket; combined body wrapping, heated moist dressings, and heating blanket; combined body wrapping, heated moist dressings, and warmed surgical rinse fluid, with or without heating blanket. These methods are practically applicable when low-cost method is indeed needed. PMID:22808045

  14. Cutaneous warming promotes sleep onset.

    PubMed

    Raymann, Roy J E M; Swaab, Dick F; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2005-06-01

    Sleep occurs in close relation to changes in body temperature. Both the monophasic sleep period in humans and the polyphasic sleep periods in rodents tend to be initiated when core body temperature is declining. This decline is mainly due to an increase in skin blood flow and consequently skin warming and heat loss. We have proposed that these intrinsically occurring changes in core and skin temperatures could modulate neuronal activity in sleep-regulating brain areas (Van Someren EJW, Chronobiol Int 17: 313-54, 2000). We here provide results compatible with this hypothesis. We obtained 144 sleep-onset latencies while directly manipulating core and skin temperatures within the comfortable range in eight healthy subjects under controlled conditions. The induction of a proximal skin temperature difference of only 0.78 +/- 0.03 degrees C (mean +/- SE) around a mean of 35.13 +/- 0.11 degrees C changed sleep-onset latency by 26%, i.e., by 3.09 minutes [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.91 to 4.28] around a mean of 11.85 min (CI, 9.74 to 14.41), with faster sleep onsets when the proximal skin was warmed. The reduction in sleep-onset latency occurred despite a small but significant decrease in subjective comfort during proximal skin warming. The induction of changes in core temperature (delta = 0.20 +/- 0.02 degrees C) and distal skin temperature (delta = 0.74 +/- 0.05 degrees C) were ineffective. Previous studies have demonstrated correlations between skin temperature and sleep-onset latency. Also, sleep disruption by ambient temperatures that activate thermoregulatory defense mechanisms has been shown. The present study is the first to experimentally demonstrate a causal contribution to sleep-onset latency of skin temperature manipulations within the normal nocturnal fluctuation range. Circadian and sleep-appetitive behavior-induced variations in skin temperature might act as an input signal to sleep-regulating systems. PMID:15677527

  15. High dissipative nonminimal warm inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozari, Kourosh; Shoukrani, Masoomeh

    2016-09-01

    We study a model of warm inflation in which both inflaton field and its derivatives are coupled nonminimally to curvature. We survey the spectrum of the primordial perturbations in high dissipative regime. By expanding the action up to the third order, the amplitude of the non-Gaussianity is studied both in the equilateral and orthogonal configurations. Finally, by adopting four sort of potentials, we compare our model with the Planck 2015 released observational data and obtain some constraints on the model's parameters space in the high dissipation regime.

  16. Warm/cold cloud processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowdle, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    Technical assistance continued in support of the Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory is discussed. A study of factors affecting warm cloud formation showed that the time of formation during an arbitrary expansion is independent of carrier gas composition for ideal gases and independent of aerosol concentration for low concentrations of very small aerosols. Equipment and procedures for gravimetric evaluation of a precision saturator were laboratory tested. A numerical feasibility study was conducted for the stable levitation of charged solution droplets by an electric field in a one-g static diffusion chamber. The concept, operating principles, applications, limits, and sensitivity of the levitation technique are discussed.

  17. Sorghum Dw1, an agronomically important gene for lodging resistance, encodes a novel protein involved in cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Miki; Fujimoto, Haruka; Hirano, Ko; Araki-Nakamura, Satoko; Ohmae-Shinohara, Kozue; Fujii, Akihiro; Tsunashima, Masako; Song, Xian Jun; Ito, Yusuke; Nagae, Rie; Wu, Jianzhong; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Yonemaru, Jun-Ichi; Matsumoto, Takashi; Kitano, Hidemi; Matsuoka, Makoto; Kasuga, Shigemitsu; Sazuka, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Semi-dwarfing genes have contributed to enhanced lodging resistance, resulting in increased crop productivity. In the history of grain sorghum breeding, the spontaneous mutation, dw1 found in Memphis in 1905, was the first widely used semi-dwarfing gene. Here, we report the identification and characterization of Dw1. We performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis and cloning, and revealed that Dw1 encodes a novel uncharacterized protein. Knockdown or T-DNA insertion lines of orthologous genes in rice and Arabidopsis also showed semi-dwarfism similar to that of a nearly isogenic line (NIL) carrying dw1 (NIL-dw1) of sorghum. A histological analysis of the NIL-dw1 revealed that the longitudinal parenchymal cell lengths of the internode were almost the same between NIL-dw1 and wildtype, while the number of cells per internode was significantly reduced in NIL-dw1. NIL-dw1dw3, carrying both dw1 and dw3 (involved in auxin transport), showed a synergistic phenotype. These observations demonstrate that the dw1 reduced the cell proliferation activity in the internodes, and the synergistic effect of dw1 and dw3 contributes to improved lodging resistance and mechanical harvesting. PMID:27329702

  18. Sorghum Dw1, an agronomically important gene for lodging resistance, encodes a novel protein involved in cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Miki; Fujimoto, Haruka; Hirano, Ko; Araki-Nakamura, Satoko; Ohmae-Shinohara, Kozue; Fujii, Akihiro; Tsunashima, Masako; Song, Xian Jun; Ito, Yusuke; Nagae, Rie; Wu, Jianzhong; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Yonemaru, Jun-ichi; Matsumoto, Takashi; Kitano, Hidemi; Matsuoka, Makoto; Kasuga, Shigemitsu; Sazuka, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Semi-dwarfing genes have contributed to enhanced lodging resistance, resulting in increased crop productivity. In the history of grain sorghum breeding, the spontaneous mutation, dw1 found in Memphis in 1905, was the first widely used semi-dwarfing gene. Here, we report the identification and characterization of Dw1. We performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis and cloning, and revealed that Dw1 encodes a novel uncharacterized protein. Knockdown or T-DNA insertion lines of orthologous genes in rice and Arabidopsis also showed semi-dwarfism similar to that of a nearly isogenic line (NIL) carrying dw1 (NIL-dw1) of sorghum. A histological analysis of the NIL-dw1 revealed that the longitudinal parenchymal cell lengths of the internode were almost the same between NIL-dw1 and wildtype, while the number of cells per internode was significantly reduced in NIL-dw1. NIL-dw1dw3, carrying both dw1 and dw3 (involved in auxin transport), showed a synergistic phenotype. These observations demonstrate that the dw1 reduced the cell proliferation activity in the internodes, and the synergistic effect of dw1 and dw3 contributes to improved lodging resistance and mechanical harvesting. PMID:27329702

  19. Precise estimation of genomic regions controlling lodging resistance using a set of reciprocal chromosome segment substitution lines in rice

    PubMed Central

    Ookawa, Taiichiro; Aoba, Ryo; Yamamoto, Toshio; Ueda, Tadamasa; Takai, Toshiyuki; Fukuoka, Shuichi; Ando, Tsuyu; Adachi, Shunsuke; Matsuoka, Makoto; Ebitani, Takeshi; Kato, Yoichiro; Mulsanti, Indria Wahyu; Kishii, Masahiro; Reynolds, Matthew; Piñera, Francisco; Kotake, Toshihisa; Kawasaki, Shinji; Motobayashi, Takashi; Hirasawa, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Severe lodging has occurred in many improved rice varieties after the recent strong typhoons in East and Southeast Asian countries. The indica variety Takanari possesses strong culm characteristics due to its large section modulus, which indicates culm thickness, whereas the japonica variety Koshihikari is subject to substantial bending stress due to its thick cortical fibre tissue. To detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for lodging resistance and to eliminate the effects of genetic background, we used reciprocal chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) derived from a cross between Koshihikari and Takanari. The oppositional effects of QTLs for section modulus were confirmed in both genetic backgrounds on chromosomes 1, 5 and 6, suggesting that these QTLs are not affected by the genetic background and are controlled independently by a single factor. The candidate region of a QTL for section modulus included SD1. The section modulus of NIL-sd1 was lower than that of Koshihikari, whereas the section modulus of NIL-SD1 was higher than that of Takanari. This result indicated that those regions regulate the culm thickness. The reciprocal effects of the QTLs for cortical fibre tissue thickness were confirmed in both genetic backgrounds on chromosome 9 using CSSLs. PMID:27465821

  20. Precise estimation of genomic regions controlling lodging resistance using a set of reciprocal chromosome segment substitution lines in rice.

    PubMed

    Ookawa, Taiichiro; Aoba, Ryo; Yamamoto, Toshio; Ueda, Tadamasa; Takai, Toshiyuki; Fukuoka, Shuichi; Ando, Tsuyu; Adachi, Shunsuke; Matsuoka, Makoto; Ebitani, Takeshi; Kato, Yoichiro; Mulsanti, Indria Wahyu; Kishii, Masahiro; Reynolds, Matthew; Piñera, Francisco; Kotake, Toshihisa; Kawasaki, Shinji; Motobayashi, Takashi; Hirasawa, Tadashi

    2016-07-28

    Severe lodging has occurred in many improved rice varieties after the recent strong typhoons in East and Southeast Asian countries. The indica variety Takanari possesses strong culm characteristics due to its large section modulus, which indicates culm thickness, whereas the japonica variety Koshihikari is subject to substantial bending stress due to its thick cortical fibre tissue. To detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for lodging resistance and to eliminate the effects of genetic background, we used reciprocal chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) derived from a cross between Koshihikari and Takanari. The oppositional effects of QTLs for section modulus were confirmed in both genetic backgrounds on chromosomes 1, 5 and 6, suggesting that these QTLs are not affected by the genetic background and are controlled independently by a single factor. The candidate region of a QTL for section modulus included SD1. The section modulus of NIL-sd1 was lower than that of Koshihikari, whereas the section modulus of NIL-SD1 was higher than that of Takanari. This result indicated that those regions regulate the culm thickness. The reciprocal effects of the QTLs for cortical fibre tissue thickness were confirmed in both genetic backgrounds on chromosome 9 using CSSLs.

  1. 76 FR 26768 - Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under The Clean Water Act, The Clean Air Act, and The...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under The Clean Water Act, The Clean Air Act, and The Federal Pipeline Safety Laws Notice is hereby given that on May 3, 2011, a proposed Consent Decree in United States v. BP... relief for violations of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1311, 1319, 1321, as amended by the Oil...

  2. 76 FR 43725 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, Sections 113(b) and 304(a), 42 U.S.C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, Sections 113(b) and 304(a), 42 U.S.C. 7413(b), 7604(a) Notice is hereby given that on July 13, 2009, a proposed Second Amendment Consent Decree...

  3. Forecasting phenology under global warming.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Inés; Primack, Richard B; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J; Ellwood, Elizabeth; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi; Lee, Sang Don; Kobori, Hiromi; Silander, John A

    2010-10-12

    As a consequence of warming temperatures around the world, spring and autumn phenologies have been shifting, with corresponding changes in the length of the growing season. Our understanding of the spatial and interspecific variation of these changes, however, is limited. Not all species are responding similarly, and there is significant spatial variation in responses even within species. This spatial and interspecific variation complicates efforts to predict phenological responses to ongoing climate change, but must be incorporated in order to build reliable forecasts. Here, we use a long-term dataset (1953-2005) of plant phenological events in spring (flowering and leaf out) and autumn (leaf colouring and leaf fall) throughout Japan and South Korea to build forecasts that account for these sources of variability. Specifically, we used hierarchical models to incorporate the spatial variability in phenological responses to temperature to then forecast species' overall and site-specific responses to global warming. We found that for most species, spring phenology is advancing and autumn phenology is getting later, with the timing of events changing more quickly in autumn compared with the spring. Temporal trends and phenological responses to temperature in East Asia contrasted with results from comparable studies in Europe, where spring events are changing more rapidly than are autumn events. Our results emphasize the need to study multiple species at many sites to understand and forecast regional changes in phenology. PMID:20819816

  4. Population growth and global warming.

    PubMed

    Short, R V

    2009-01-01

    When I was born in 1930, the human population of the world was a mere 2 billion. Today, it has already reached 6.8 billion, and is projected to reach 9.1 billion by 2050. That is unsustainable. It is slowly beginning to dawn on us that Global Warming is the result of increasing human CO2 emissions, and the more people there are in the world, the worse it will become. Ultimately, it is the sky that will prove to be the limit to our numbers. The developed countries of the world are the most affluent, and also the most effluent, so we must lead by example and contain our own population growth and per capita emissions. We also have a big debt to repay to former colonial territories in Africa, Asia and South America, who desperately need our help to contain their excessive rates of population growth. Belgian and Dutch obstetricians and gynaecologists can play a critical role in this endeavour. After all, we already have a pill that will stop global warming - the oral contraceptive pill. PMID:25478068

  5. Population growth and global warming.

    PubMed

    Short, R V

    2009-01-01

    When I was born in 1930, the human population of the world was a mere 2 billion. Today, it has already reached 6.8 billion, and is projected to reach 9.1 billion by 2050. That is unsustainable. It is slowly beginning to dawn on us that Global Warming is the result of increasing human CO2 emissions, and the more people there are in the world, the worse it will become. Ultimately, it is the sky that will prove to be the limit to our numbers. The developed countries of the world are the most affluent, and also the most effluent, so we must lead by example and contain our own population growth and per capita emissions. We also have a big debt to repay to former colonial territories in Africa, Asia and South America, who desperately need our help to contain their excessive rates of population growth. Belgian and Dutch obstetricians and gynaecologists can play a critical role in this endeavour. After all, we already have a pill that will stop global warming - the oral contraceptive pill.

  6. Rapid endovascular warming for profound hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Laniewicz, Megan; Lyn-Kew, Kenneth; Silbergleit, Robert

    2008-02-01

    Profound hypothermia is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Optimal outcomes have been reported with invasive extracorporeal warming techniques not readily available in most hospitals. Endovascular warming devices may provide a less invasive alternative. A 68-year-old woman developed profound hypothermia after environmental exposure. On arrival, she was comatose, severely bradycardic, without palpable pulses, and with a core body temperature of 23.0 degrees C (72 degrees F). Attempts to warm her with traditional methods during 2 hours were ineffective. An endovascular temperature control system was placed and effectively warmed the patient at about 3 degrees C (4.5 degrees F) per hour, with return of hemodynamic stability. When hypothermia is profound, surface warming works poorly and invasive strategies, including cardiopulmonary bypass, are recommended. Rapid warming from profound hypothermia can be accomplished with endovascular systems, and these may be an effective alternative to more invasive extracorporeal methods. PMID:17681640

  7. Global warming; What needs to be done

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    This paper names global warming as a high-level risk. However, global warming's risk status is a point of debate in some circles, reflecting one of the complexities of using risk-based criteria to establish priorities for action. The position that global warming is a long-term environmental trend that must be halted. In this paper, argument son both sides of the global warming issue are presented to illustrate the difficulties associated with establishing the existence and magnitude of environmental and health risks, an issue that must be faced if the SAB recommendations for EPA policy change are implemented.

  8. Stratospheric sudden warming and lunar tide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Yosuke; Kosch, Michael

    2016-07-01

    A stratospheric sudden warming is a large-scale disturbance in the middle atmosphere. Recent studies have shown that the effect of stratospheric sudden warnings extends well into the upper atmosphere. A stratospheric sudden warming is often accompanied by an amplification of lunar tides in the ionosphere/theremosphere. However, there are occasionally winters when a stratospheric sudden warming occurs without an enhancement of the lunar tide in the upper atmosphere, and other winters when large lunar tides are observed without a strong stratospheric sudden warming. We examine the winters when the correlation breaks down and discuss possible causes.

  9. Modern Physics and Warm Friendship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chen Ning

    2013-05-01

    During the academic year 1941-42 I was a senior in the Physics Department at the National Southwest Associated University in Kunming. The Department was quite small, with about 10 faculty members, 10 instructors, a few graduate students and not more than 20 students in each undergraduate class. When the academic year started in the fall of 1941, a new face appeared, auditing many of the senior and graduate courses and participating in all discussions. That was Huang Kun. He had already received his bachelor's degree in physics from Yenching University in Beiping, and had come to Kunming to join the Southwest Associated University as an instructor. Soon we got to know each other well, and that was the beginning of half of a century of warm friendship...

  10. How to stop global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Goldenberg, J. . Dept. de Fisica)

    1990-11-01

    This paper reports on how to stop global warming. At the Toronto Conference on Climate Change in 1988, the world's industrialized nations agreed on a goal of cutting greenhouse gas emissions 20 percent by the year 2005. This would not stabilize atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases but would at least slow their accumulation. Although difficult to achieve, the Toronto goal is certainly reachable. Newer, more efficient technologies can lower energy consumption without effecting economic output. CFC- substitutes can provide refrigeration. In fact, an international carbon tax of just $1 per barrel of oil, or $6 per ton of coal, would generate more than enough revenue to pay for the necessary fuel-saving measures. This tax could result from an international agreement similar to the 1987 Montreal Protocol, which obliges its signatories to cut down on production of CFCs.

  11. Meteorology: hurricanes and global warming.

    PubMed

    Landsea, Christopher W

    2005-12-22

    Anthropogenic climate change has the potential for slightly increasing the intensity of tropical cyclones through warming of sea surface temperatures. Emanuel has shown a striking and surprising association between sea surface temperatures and destructiveness by tropical cyclones in the Atlantic and western North Pacific basins. However, I question his analysis on the following grounds: it does not properly represent the observations described; the use of his Atlantic bias-removal scheme may not be warranted; and further investigation of a substantially longer time series for tropical cyclones affecting the continental United States does not show a tendency for increasing destructiveness. These factors indicate that instead of "unprecedented" tropical cyclone activity having occurred in recent years, hurricane intensity was equal or even greater during the last active period in the mid-twentieth century.

  12. End Calorimeter Warm Tube Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Primdahl, K.; /Fermilab

    1991-08-06

    The Tevatron accelerator beam tube must pass through the End Calorimeter cryostats of the D-Zero Collider Detector. Furthermore, the End Calorimeter cryostats must be allowed to roll back forty inches without interruption of the vacuum system; hence, the Tev tube must slide through the End Calorimeter cryostat as it is rolled back. The Tev pass through the End Calorimeter can actually be thought of as a cluster of concentric tubes: Tev tube, warm (vacuum vessel) tube, IS layers of superinsulation, cold tube (argon vessel), and Inner Hadronic center support tube. M. Foley generated an ANSYS model to study the heat load. to the cryostat. during collider physics studies; that is, without operation of the heater. A sketch of the model is included in the appendix. The vacuum space and superinsulation was modeled as a thermal solid, with conductivity derived from tests performed at Fermilab. An additional estimate was done. by this author, using data supplied by NR-2. a superinsulation manufacturer. The ANSYS result and hand calculation are in close agreement. The ANSYS model was modified. by this author. to incorporate the effect of the heater. Whereas the earlier model studied steady state operation only. the revised model considers the heater-off steady state mode as the initial condition. then performs a transient analysis with a final load step for time tending towards infinity. Results show the thermal gradient as a function of time and applied voltage. It should be noted that M. Foley's model was generated for one half the warm tube. implying the tube to be symmetric. In reality. the downstream connection (relative to the collision point) attachment to the vacuum shell is via several convolutions of a 0.020-inch wall bellows; hence. a nearly adiabatic boundary condition. Accordingly. the results reported in the table reflect extrapolation of the curves to the downstream end of the tube. Using results from the ANSYS analysis, that is, tube temperature and

  13. Liquid Cooling/Warming Garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koscheyev, Victor S.; Leon, Gloria R.; Dancisak, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA liquid cooling/ventilating garment (LCVG) currently in use was developed over 40 years ago. With the commencement of a greater number of extra-vehicular activity (EVA) procedures with the construction of the International Space Station, problems of astronaut comfort, as well as the reduction of the consumption of energy, became more salient. A shortened liquid cooling/warming garment (SLCWG) has been developed based on physiological principles comparing the efficacy of heat transfer of different body zones; the capability of blood to deliver heat; individual muscle and fat body composition as a basis for individual thermal profiles to customize the zonal sections of the garment; and the development of shunts to minimize or redirect the cooling/warming loop for different environmental conditions, physical activity levels, and emergency situations. The SLCWG has been designed and completed, based on extensive testing in rest, exercise, and antiorthostatic conditions. It is more energy efficient than the LCVG currently used by NASA. The total length of tubing in the SLCWG is approximately 35 percent less and the weight decreased by 20 percent compared to the LCVG. The novel features of the innovation are: 1. The efficiency of the SLCWG to maintain thermal status under extreme changes in body surface temperatures while using significantly less tubing than the LCVG. 2. The construction of the garment based on physiological principles of heat transfer. 3. The identification of the body areas that are most efficient in heat transfer. 4. The inclusion of a hood as part of the garment. 5. The lesser consumption of energy.

  14. Design and performance of combined infrared canopy and belowground warming in the B4WarmED (Boreal Forest Warming at an Ecotone in Danger) experiment.

    PubMed

    Rich, Roy L; Stefanski, Artur; Montgomery, Rebecca A; Hobbie, Sarah E; Kimball, Bruce A; Reich, Peter B

    2015-06-01

    Conducting manipulative climate change experiments in complex vegetation is challenging, given considerable temporal and spatial heterogeneity. One specific challenge involves warming of both plants and soils to depth. We describe the design and performance of an open-air warming experiment called Boreal Forest Warming at an Ecotone in Danger (B4WarmED) that addresses the potential for projected climate warming to alter tree function, species composition, and ecosystem processes at the boreal-temperate ecotone. The experiment includes two forested sites in northern Minnesota, USA, with plots in both open (recently clear-cut) and closed canopy habitats, where seedlings of 11 tree species were planted into native ground vegetation. Treatments include three target levels of plant canopy and soil warming (ambient, +1.7°C, +3.4°C). Warming was achieved by independent feedback control of voltage input to aboveground infrared heaters and belowground buried resistance heating cables in each of 72-7.0 m(2) plots. The treatments emulated patterns of observed diurnal, seasonal, and annual temperatures but with superimposed warming. For the 2009 to 2011 field seasons, we achieved temperature elevations near our targets with growing season overall mean differences (∆Tbelow ) of +1.84°C and +3.66°C at 10 cm soil depth and (∆T(above) ) of +1.82°C and +3.45°C for the plant canopies. We also achieved measured soil warming to at least 1 m depth. Aboveground treatment stability and control were better during nighttime than daytime and in closed vs. open canopy sites in part due to calmer conditions. Heating efficacy in open canopy areas was reduced with increasing canopy complexity and size. Results of this study suggest the warming approach is scalable: it should work well in small-statured vegetation such as grasslands, desert, agricultural crops, and tree saplings (<5 m tall). PMID:25640748

  15. Design and performance of combined infrared canopy and belowground warming in the B4WarmED (Boreal Forest Warming at an Ecotone in Danger) experiment.

    PubMed

    Rich, Roy L; Stefanski, Artur; Montgomery, Rebecca A; Hobbie, Sarah E; Kimball, Bruce A; Reich, Peter B

    2015-06-01

    Conducting manipulative climate change experiments in complex vegetation is challenging, given considerable temporal and spatial heterogeneity. One specific challenge involves warming of both plants and soils to depth. We describe the design and performance of an open-air warming experiment called Boreal Forest Warming at an Ecotone in Danger (B4WarmED) that addresses the potential for projected climate warming to alter tree function, species composition, and ecosystem processes at the boreal-temperate ecotone. The experiment includes two forested sites in northern Minnesota, USA, with plots in both open (recently clear-cut) and closed canopy habitats, where seedlings of 11 tree species were planted into native ground vegetation. Treatments include three target levels of plant canopy and soil warming (ambient, +1.7°C, +3.4°C). Warming was achieved by independent feedback control of voltage input to aboveground infrared heaters and belowground buried resistance heating cables in each of 72-7.0 m(2) plots. The treatments emulated patterns of observed diurnal, seasonal, and annual temperatures but with superimposed warming. For the 2009 to 2011 field seasons, we achieved temperature elevations near our targets with growing season overall mean differences (∆Tbelow ) of +1.84°C and +3.66°C at 10 cm soil depth and (∆T(above) ) of +1.82°C and +3.45°C for the plant canopies. We also achieved measured soil warming to at least 1 m depth. Aboveground treatment stability and control were better during nighttime than daytime and in closed vs. open canopy sites in part due to calmer conditions. Heating efficacy in open canopy areas was reduced with increasing canopy complexity and size. Results of this study suggest the warming approach is scalable: it should work well in small-statured vegetation such as grasslands, desert, agricultural crops, and tree saplings (<5 m tall).

  16. Warming: mechanism and latitude dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yury

    2010-05-01

    Introduction. In the work it is shown, that in present warming of climate of the Earth and in style of its display a fundamental role the mechanism of the forced swing and relative oscillations of eccentric core of the Earth and its mantle plays. Relative displacements of the centers of mass of the core and the mantle are dictated by the features of orbital motions of bodies of solar system and nonineriality of the Earth reference frame (or ot the mantle) at the motion of the Earth with respect to a baricenter of solar system and at rotation of the planet. As a result in relative translational displacements of the core and the mantle the frequencies characteristic for orbital motion of all bodies of solar system, and also their combination are shown. Methods of a space geodesy, gravimetry, geophysics, etc. unequivocally and clearly confirm phenomenon of drift of the center of mass of the Earth in define northern direction. This drift is characterized by the significant velocity in about 5 mm/yr. The unique opportunity of its explanation consists in the natural assumption of existence of the unidirectional relative displacement (drift) the center of mass of the core and the center of mass of the mantle of the Earth. And this displacement (at superfluous mass of the core in 16.7 % from the mass of full the Earth) is characterized still more significant velocity in 2.6 cm/yr and occurs on our geodynamic studies in a direction to Taimyr peninsula. The dynamic explanation to century drift for today does not exist. It is possible to note, however, that data of observations of last years, indirectly testifying that similar drifts of the centers of mass in present epoch occur on other bodies of Solar system have been obtain: the Sun, Mars, the Titan, Enceladus, the Neptune, etc. We connect with mentioned phenomena the observed secular variations of natural processes on this celestial bodies. I.e. it is possible to assume, that observable eccentric positions of the centers

  17. Efficient Warm-ups: Creating a Warm-up That Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauffenburger, Sandra Kay

    1992-01-01

    Proper warm-up is important for any activity, but designing an effective warm-up can be time consuming. An alternative approach is to take a cue from Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) and consider movement design from the perspective of space and planes of motion. Efficient warm-up exercises using LMA are described. (SM)

  18. Nonlinear electron oscillations in a warm plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, Anwesa; Maity, Chandan; Chakrabarti, Nikhil

    2013-12-15

    A class of nonstationary solutions for the nonlinear electron oscillations of a warm plasma are presented using a Lagrangian fluid description. The solution illustrates the nonlinear steepening of an initial Gaussian electron density disturbance and also shows collapse behavior in time. The obtained solution may indicate a class of nonlinear transient structures in an unmagnetized warm plasma.

  19. Warming of Water in a Glass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulins, Paulis; Krauze, Armands; Ozolinsh, Maris; Muiznieks, Andris

    2016-01-01

    The article focuses on the process of water warming from 0 °C in a glass. An experiment is performed that analyzes the temperature in the top and bottom layers of water during warming. The experimental equipment is very simple and can be easily set up using devices available in schools. The temperature curves obtained from the experiment help us…

  20. Warm-up: A Psychophysiological Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Richard; Dausman, Cindy

    1981-01-01

    The effectiveness of warm-up as an aid to athletic performance is related to an interaction of both psychological and physiological factors. Benefits of warm-up include an increase in blood and muscle temperatures and an increased muscular endurance. (JN)

  1. Exploring the Sociopolitical Dimensions of Global Warming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Troy D.; Klosterman, Michelle L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors present an activity to help high school students conceptualize the sociopolitical complexity of global warming through an exploration of varied perspectives on the issue. They argue that socioscientific issues such as global warming present important contexts for learning science and that the social and political dimensions of these…

  2. Global Warming: Lessons from Ozone Depletion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Art

    2010-01-01

    My teaching and textbook have always covered many physics-related social issues, including stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. The ozone saga is an inspiring good-news story that's instructive for solving the similar but bigger problem of global warming. Thus, as soon as students in my physics literacy course at the University of…

  3. Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Bill

    1994-01-01

    A resource for the teaching of the history and causes of climate change. Discusses evidence of climate change from the Viking era, early ice ages, the most recent ice age, natural causes of climate change, human-made causes of climate change, projections of global warming, and unequal warming. (LZ)

  4. Turkish Students' Ideas about Global Warming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilinc, Ahmet; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

    2008-01-01

    A questionnaire was used to explore the prevalence of ideas about global warming in Year 10 (age 15-16 years) school students in Turkey. The frequencies of individual scientific ideas and misconceptions about the causes, consequences and "cures" of global warming were identified. In addition, several general findings emerged from this study.…

  5. Rapid warming of Large Marine Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkin, Igor M.

    2009-04-01

    The need to understand local effects of global climate change is most urgent in the Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs) since marine ecosystem-based management requires information on the LME scale. Reported here is a study of sea surface temperature (SST) change in the World Ocean LMEs in 1957-2006 that revealed strong regional variations in the rate of SST change. The rapid warming in 1982-2006 was confined to the Subarctic Gyre, European Seas, and East Asian Seas. These LMEs warmed at rates 2-4 times the global mean rate. The most rapid warming was observed in the land-locked or semi-enclosed European and East Asian Seas (Baltic Sea, North Sea, Black Sea, Japan Sea/East Sea, and East China Sea) and also over the Newfoundland-Labrador Shelf. The Indian Ocean LMEs’ warming was slow, while two major upwelling areas - California and Humboldt Currents - experienced a slight cooling. The Subarctic Gyre warming was likely caused by natural variability related to the North Atlantic Oscillation. The extremely rapid surface warming in the enclosed and semi-enclosed European and East Asian Seas surrounded by major industrial/population agglomerations may have resulted from the observed terrestrial warming directly affecting the adjacent coastal seas. Regions of freshwater influence in the European and East Asian Seas seem to play a special role in modulating and exacerbating global warming effects on the regional scale.

  6. Global Warming: How Much and Why?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanouette, William

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes the history of the study of global warming and includes a discussion of the role of gases, like carbon dioxide, methane, and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). Discusses modern research on the global warming, including computer modelling and the super-greenhouse effect. (YP)

  7. Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Bill

    1995-01-01

    A resource for teaching about the consequences of global warming. Discusses feedback from the temperature increase, changes in the global precipitation pattern, effects on agriculture, weather extremes, effects on forests, effects on biodiversity, effects on sea levels, and actions which will help the global community cope with global warming. (LZ)

  8. Catching a Cold When It's Warm

    MedlinePlus

    ... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Catching a Cold When It’s Warm What’s the Deal with Summertime Sniffles? Most ... be more unfair than catching a cold when it’s warm? How can cold symptoms arise when it’s ...

  9. Warm Disks from Giant Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    In the process of searching for exoplanetary systems, weve discovered tens of debris disks close around distant stars that are especially bright in infrared wavelengths. New research suggests that we might be looking at the late stages of terrestrial planet formation in these systems.Forming Terrestrial PlanetsAccording to the widely-accepted formation model for our solar-system, protoplanets the size of Mars formed within a protoplanetary disk around our Sun. Eventually, the depletion of the gas in the disk led the orbits of these protoplanets to become chaotically unstable. Finally, in the giant impact stage, many of the protoplanets collided with each other ultimately leading to the formation of the terrestrial planets and their moons as we know them today.If giant impact stages occur in exoplanetary systems, too leading to the formation of terrestrial exoplanets how would we detect this process? According to a study led by Hidenori Genda of the Tokyo Institute of Technology, we might be already be witnessing this stage in observations of warm debris disks around other stars. To test this, Genda and collaborators model giant impact stages and determine what we would expect to see from a system undergoing this violent evolution.Modeling CollisionsSnapshots of a giant impact in one of the authors simulations. The collision causes roughly 0.05 Earth masses of protoplanetary material to be ejected from the system. Click for a closer look! [Genda et al. 2015]The collaborators run a series of simulations evolving protoplanetary bodies in a solar system. The simulations begin 10 Myr into the lifetime of the solar system, i.e., after the gas from the protoplanetary disk has had time to be cleared and the protoplanetary orbits begin to destabilize. The simulations end when the protoplanets are done smashing into each other and have again settled into stable orbits, typically after ~100 Myr.The authors find that, over an average giant impact stage, the total amount of

  10. Global Warming: Lessons from Ozone Depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, Art

    2010-11-01

    My teaching and textbook have always covered many physics-related social issues, including stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. The ozone saga is an inspiring good-news story that's instructive for solving the similar but bigger problem of global warming. Thus, as soon as students in my physics literacy course at the University of Arkansas have developed a conceptual understanding of energy and of electromagnetism, including the electromagnetic spectrum, I devote a lecture (and a textbook section) to ozone depletion and another lecture (and section) to global warming. Humankind came together in 1986 and quickly solved, to the extent that humans can solve it, ozone depletion. We could do the same with global warming, but we haven't and as yet there's no sign that we will. The parallel between the ozone and global warming cases, and the difference in outcomes, are striking and instructive.

  11. Eurasian Arctic abyssal waters are warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauer, Ursula; von Appen, Wilken-Jon; Somavilla Cabrillo, Raquel; Behrendt, Axel; Rabe, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    In the past decades, not only the upper water layers, but also the deepest layers of the Arctic Ocean have been warming. Observations show that the rate of warming varies markedly in the different basins with the fastest warming in the deep Greenland Sea (ca. 0.11°C per decade) and the Eurasian Basin featuring an average rate of ca. 0.01°C per decade. While the warming in the Greenland Sea is attributed to ongoing export of relatively warmer deep waters from the Arctic Ocean in combination with the halt of deep convection, the reason of Eurasian Basin deep warming is less clear. We discuss possible causes such as changes in the abyssal ventilation through slope convection, advection from other basins and/or geothermal heating through various sources.

  12. Global warming, insurance losses and financial industry

    SciTech Connect

    Low, N.C.

    1996-12-31

    Global warming causes extremely bad weather in the near term. They have already caught the attention of the insurance industry, as they suffered massive losses in the last decade. Twenty-one out of the 25 largest catastrophes in the US, mainly in the form of hurricanes have occurred in the last decade. The insurance industry has reacted by taking the risk of global warming in decisions as to pricing and underwriting decisions. But they have yet to take a more active role in regulating the factors that contributes to global warming. How global warming can impact the financial industry and the modern economy is explored. Insurance and modern financial derivatives are key to the efficient functioning of the modern economy, without which the global economy can still function but will take a giant step backward. Any risk as global warming that causes economic surprises will hamper the efficient working of the financial market and the modern economy.

  13. Geology and description of thorium and rare-earth deposits in the southern Bear Lodge Mountains, northeastern Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staatz, M.H.

    1983-01-01

    The Bear Lodge Mountains are a small northerly trending range approximately 16 km northwest of the Black Hills in the northeast corner of Wyoming. Thorium and rare-earth deposits occur over an area of 16 km 2 in the southern part of these mountains. These deposits occur in the core of the Bear Lodge dome in a large multiple intrusive body made up principally of trachyte and phonolite. Two types of deposits are recognized: disseminated deposits and veins. The disseminated deposits are made up of altered igneous rocks cut by numerous crisscrossing veinlets. The disseminated deposits contain thorium and rare-earth minerals in a matrix consisting principally of potassium feldspar, quartz, and iron and manganese oxides. Total rare-earth content of these deposits is about 27 times that of the thorium content. The general size and shape of the disseminated deposits were outlined by making a radiometric map using a scintillation counter of the entire Bear Lodge core, an area of approximately 30 km 2 . The most favorable part of this area, which was outlined by the 40 countJs (count-per-second) isograd on the radiometric map, was sampled in detail. A total of 341 samples were taken over an area of 10.6 km 2 and analyzed for as many as 60 elements. Rare earths and thorium are the principal commodities of interest in these deposits. Total rare-earth content of these samples ranged from 47 to 27,145 ppm (parts per million), and the thorium content from 9.3 to 990 ppm. The amount of total rare earths of individual samples shows little correlation with that of thorium. Contour maps were constructed using the analytical data for total rare earths, thorium, uranium, and potassium. The total rare-earth and thorium maps can be used to define the size of the deposits based on what cut-off grade may be needed during mining. The size is large as the 2,000 ppm total rare-earth isograd encloses several areas that total 3.22 km 2 in size, and the 200 ppm thorium isograd encloses several

  14. Global warming: The complete briefing

    SciTech Connect

    Houghton, J.

    1994-12-31

    John Houghton has drawn on the exhaustive efforts of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to produce a notably compact, impeccably complete and authoritative, meticulously balanced, and lucidly presented guide to the complex yet vital issue of global warming. Its subtitle is not mere hyperbole: this truly is a complete briefing. Certainly, one could not ask for a more authoritative brief: Houghton has led an imposing series of national and international efforts relating to climate, including the most recent scientific assessments of the IPCC. Citing many concrete examples, Houghton begins by convincing that climate truly is important to humankind and that climate is far from constant. He then elucidates the mechanisms that maintain the benign climate of our planet, providing in the process, for example, the most accurate explanation of the natural greenhouse effect that has yet appeared in print. He then treats the individual greenhouse gases responsible for maintaining the earth`s warmth and presents projections of their probable future concentrations as influenced by human activities. Further chapters deal with conclusions drawn from climate models, estimates of the impacts on human activities, and possible policies and actions to mitigate or alleviate the changes and their consequences.

  15. Global warming and reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Potts, Malcolm; Henderson, Courtney E

    2012-10-01

    The largest absolute numbers of maternal deaths occur among the 40-50 million women who deliver annually without a skilled birth attendant. Most of these deaths occur in countries with a total fertility rate of greater than 4. The combination of global warming and rapid population growth in the Sahel and parts of the Middle East poses a serious threat to reproductive health and to food security. Poverty, lack of resources, and rapid population growth make it unlikely that most women in these countries will have access to skilled birth attendants or emergency obstetric care in the foreseeable future. Three strategies can be implemented to improve women's health and reproductive rights in high-fertility, low-resource settings: (1) make family planning accessible and remove non-evidenced-based barriers to contraception; (2) scale up community distribution of misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage and, where it is legal, for medical abortion; and (3) eliminate child marriage and invest in girls and young women, thereby reducing early childbearing.

  16. Thermal pollution causes global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordell, Bo

    2003-09-01

    Over longer time-scales there is no net heat inflow to Earth since incoming solar energy is re-emitted at exactly the same rate. To maintain Earth's thermal equilibrium, however, there must be a net outflow equal to the geothermal heat flow. Performed calculations show that the net heat outflow in 1880 was equal to the geothermal heat flow, which is the only natural net heat source on Earth. Since then, heat dissipation from the global use of nonrenewable energy sources has resulted in additional net heating. In, e.g. Sweden, which is a sparsely populated country, this net heating is about three times greater than the geothermal heat flow. Such thermal pollution contributes to global warming until the global temperature has reached a level where this heat is also emitted to space. Heat dissipation from the global use of fossil fuels and nuclear power is the main source of thermal pollution. Here, it was found that one third of current thermal pollution is emitted to space and that a further global temperature increase of 1.8 °C is required until Earth is again in thermal equilibrium.

  17. Some economics of global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Schelling, T.C. )

    1992-03-01

    The greenhouse effect itself is simple enough to understand and is not in any real dispute. What is in dispute is its magnitude over the coming century, its translation into changes in climates around the globe, and the impacts of those climate changes on human welfare and the natural environment. These are beyond the professional understanding of any single person. The sciences involved are too numerous and diverse. Demography, economics, biology, and the technology sciences are needed to project emissions; atmospheric chemistry, oceanography, biology, and meteorology are needed to translate emissions into climates; biology, agronomy, health sciences, economics, sociology, and glaciology are needed to identify and assess impacts on human societies and natural ecosystems. And those are not all. There are expert judgments on large pieces of the subject, but no single person clothed in this panoply of disciplines has shown up or is likely to. This article makes an attempt to forecast the economic and social consequences of global warming due to anthropogenic greenhouse gases, and attempting to prevent it.

  18. Global metabolic impacts of recent climate warming.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Michael E; Wang, George; Huey, Raymond B

    2010-10-01

    Documented shifts in geographical ranges, seasonal phenology, community interactions, genetics and extinctions have been attributed to recent global warming. Many such biotic shifts have been detected at mid- to high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere-a latitudinal pattern that is expected because warming is fastest in these regions. In contrast, shifts in tropical regions are expected to be less marked because warming is less pronounced there. However, biotic impacts of warming are mediated through physiology, and metabolic rate, which is a fundamental measure of physiological activity and ecological impact, increases exponentially rather than linearly with temperature in ectotherms. Therefore, tropical ectotherms (with warm baseline temperatures) should experience larger absolute shifts in metabolic rate than the magnitude of tropical temperature change itself would suggest, but the impact of climate warming on metabolic rate has never been quantified on a global scale. Here we show that estimated changes in terrestrial metabolic rates in the tropics are large, are equivalent in magnitude to those in the north temperate-zone regions, and are in fact far greater than those in the Arctic, even though tropical temperature change has been relatively small. Because of temperature's nonlinear effects on metabolism, tropical organisms, which constitute much of Earth's biodiversity, should be profoundly affected by recent and projected climate warming.

  19. Relative roles of differential SST warming, uniform SST warming and land surface warming in determining the Walker circulation changes under global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Most of CMIP5 models projected a weakened Walker circulation in tropical Pacific, but what causes such change is still an open question. By conducting idealized numerical simulations separating the effects of the spatially uniform sea surface temperature (SST) warming, extra land surface warming and differential SST warming, we demonstrate that the weakening of the Walker circulation is attributed to the western North Pacific (WNP) monsoon and South America land effects. The effect of the uniform SST warming is through so-called "richest-get-richer" mechanism. In response to a uniform surface warming, the WNP monsoon is enhanced by competing moisture with other large-scale convective branches. The strengthened WNP monsoon further induces surface westerlies in the equatorial western-central Pacific, weakening the Walker circulation. The increase of the greenhouse gases leads to a larger land surface warming than ocean surface. As a result, a greater thermal contrast occurs between American Continent and equatorial Pacific. The so-induced zonal pressure gradient anomaly forces low-level westerly anomalies over the equatorial eastern Pacific and weakens the Walker circulation. The differential SST warming also plays a role in driving low-level westerly anomalies over tropical Pacific. But such an effect involves a positive air-sea feedback that amplifies the weakening of both east-west SST gradient and Pacific trade winds.

  20. Climatic warming destabilizes forest ant communities

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Sarah E.; Nichols, Lauren M.; Pelini, Shannon L.; Penick, Clint A.; Barber, Grace W.; Cahan, Sara Helms; Dunn, Robert R.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Sanders, Nathan J.; Gotelli, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    How will ecological communities change in response to climate warming? Direct effects of temperature and indirect cascading effects of species interactions are already altering the structure of local communities, but the dynamics of community change are still poorly understood. We explore the cumulative effects of warming on the dynamics and turnover of forest ant communities that were warmed as part of a 5-year climate manipulation experiment at two sites in eastern North America. At the community level, warming consistently increased occupancy of nests and decreased extinction and nest abandonment. This consistency was largely driven by strong responses of a subset of thermophilic species at each site. As colonies of thermophilic species persisted in nests for longer periods of time under warmer temperatures, turnover was diminished, and species interactions were likely altered. We found that dynamical (Lyapunov) community stability decreased with warming both within and between sites. These results refute null expectations of simple temperature-driven increases in the activity and movement of thermophilic ectotherms. The reduction in stability under warming contrasts with the findings of previous studies that suggest resilience of species interactions to experimental and natural warming. In the face of warmer, no-analog climates, communities of the future may become increasingly fragile and unstable.

  1. Global Warming Estimation from MSU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, Robert; Yoo, Jung-Moon

    1998-01-01

    Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) radiometer observations in Ch 2 (53.74 GHz) from sequential, sun-synchronous, polar-orbiting NOAA satellites contain small systematic errors. Some of these errors are time-dependent and some are time-independent. Small errors in Ch 2 data of successive satellites arise from calibration differences. Also, successive NOAA satellites tend to have different Local Equatorial Crossing Times (LECT), which introduce differences in Ch 2 data due to the diurnal cycle. These two sources of systematic error are largely time independent. However, because of atmospheric drag, there can be a drift in the LECT of a given satellite, which introduces time-dependent systematic errors. One of these errors is due to the progressive chance in the diurnal cycle and the other is due to associated chances in instrument heating by the sun. In order to infer global temperature trend from the these MSU data, we have eliminated explicitly the time-independent systematic errors. Both of the time-dependent errors cannot be assessed from each satellite. For this reason, their cumulative effect on the global temperature trend is evaluated implicitly. Christy et al. (1998) (CSL). based on their method of analysis of the MSU Ch 2 data, infer a global temperature cooling trend (-0.046 K per decade) from 1979 to 1997, although their near nadir measurements yield near zero trend (0.003 K/decade). Utilising an independent method of analysis, we infer global temperature warmed by 0.12 +/- 0.06 C per decade from the observations of the MSU Ch 2 during the period 1980 to 1997.

  2. The gravitino problem in supersymmetric warm inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez, Juan C. Bueno; Bastero-Gil, Mar; Berera, Arjun; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Kohri, Kazunori E-mail: mbg@ugr.es E-mail: konst.dimopoulos@lancaster.ac.uk

    2011-03-01

    The warm inflation paradigm considers the continuous production of radiation during inflation due to dissipative effects. In its strong dissipation limit, warm inflation gives way to a radiation dominated Universe. High scale inflation then yields a high reheating temperature, which then poses a severe gravitino overproduction problem for the supersymmetric realisations of warm inflation. In this paper we show that, in a certain class of supersymmetric models, the dissipative dynamics of the inflaton is such that the field can avoid its complete decay after inflation. In some cases, the residual energy density stored in the inflaton field oscillations may come to dominate over the radiation bath at a later epoch. If the inflaton field finally decays much later than the onset of this matter dominated phase, the entropy produced from its decay may be sufficient to counteract the excess of gravitinos produced during the last stages of warm inflation.

  3. Revised projection of future greenhouse warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlesinger, Michael E.; Jiang, Xingjian

    1991-03-01

    Recent projections of greenhouse warming to 2100 are broadened here to include a recently suggested lower temperature sensitivity Delta T(2x) = 0.5 C. All projections are also revised by prescribing a lower value for a key parameter of the simple ocean model Pi which indicates the warming of the polar ocean relative to the warming of the nonpolar ocean. It is found that, for any value of Delta T(2x), the atmospheric temperature increases more rapidly with time as a consequence of the reduction in Pi. It is also found that a delay of 10 yrs in initiating a 20-year transition from the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) 'business as usual' scenario to any other IPCC scenario has only a small effect on the projected warming in 2100, regardless of the value of Delta T(2x). This indicates that the penalty for a 10-yr delay is small.

  4. Chamberless residential warm air furnace design

    SciTech Connect

    Godfree, J.

    1996-07-01

    This brief paper is an introduction to the concept of designing residential warm air furnaces without combustion chambers. This is possible since some small burners do not require the thermal support of a combustion chamber to complete the combustion process.

  5. Carbon cycle: Global warming then and now

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stassen, Peter

    2016-04-01

    A rapid warming event 55.8 million years ago was caused by extensive carbon emissions. The rate of change of carbon and oxygen isotopes in marine shelf sediments suggests that carbon emission rates were much slower than anthropogenic emissions.

  6. Observational constraints on monomial warm inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visinelli, Luca

    2016-07-01

    Warm inflation is, as of today, one of the best motivated mechanisms for explaining an early inflationary period. In this paper, we derive and analyze the current bounds on warm inflation with a monomial potential U propto phip, using the constraints from the PLANCK mission. In particular, we discuss the parameter space of the tensor-to-scalar ratio r and the potential coupling λ of the monomial warm inflation in terms of the number of e-folds. We obtain that the theoretical tensor-to-scalar ratio r ~ 10‑8 is much smaller than the current observational constrain r lesssim 0.12, despite a relatively large value of the field excursion Δ phi ~ 0.1MPl. Warm inflation thus eludes the Lyth bound set on the tensor-to-scalar ratio by the field excursion.

  7. Global temperatures and the global warming ``debate''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrecht, Gordon

    2009-04-01

    Many ordinary citizens listen to pronouncements on talk radio casting doubt on anthropogenic global warming. Some op-ed columnists likewise cast doubts, and are read by credulous citizens. For example, on 8 March 2009, the Boston Globe published a column by Jeff Jacoby, ``Where's global warming?'' According to Jacoby, ``But it isn't such hints of a planetary warming trend that have been piling up in profusion lately. Just the opposite.'' He goes on to write, ``the science of climate change is not nearly as important as the religion of climate change,'' and blamed Al Gore for getting his mistaken views accepted. George Will at the Washington Post also expressed denial. As a result, 44% of U.S. voters, according to the January 19 2009 Rasmussen Report, blame long-term planetary trends for global warming, not human beings. Is there global cooling, as skeptics claim? We examine the temperature record.

  8. An outbreak of waterborne giardiasis associated with heavy water runoff due to warm weather and volcanic ashfall.

    PubMed Central

    Weniger, B G; Blaser, M J; Gedrose, J; Lippy, E C; Juranek, D D

    1983-01-01

    From mid-June through early August 1980, an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness in Red Lodge, Montana affected approximately 780 persons, as estimated from attack rates of 33 per cent and 15 per cent in urban and rural residents, respectively. Giardia lamblia was identified in stool specimens from 51 per cent of 47 persons with a history of untreated gastrointestinal illness and in 13 per cent of 24 specimens from asymptomatic persons (p = .00045, Fisher's Exact Test). The epidemic curve was bimodal with peaks in mid-June and mid-July. Each peak occurred about three weeks after an episode of very heavy water runoff resulting from warm sunny weather and snow darkened by ashfall from the Mt. St. Helens volcanic eruption of May 18, 1980. Unfiltered and inadequately chlorinated surface water was supplied by the city water system, which was implicated as the vehicle of transmission in the outbreak. Water systems providing unfiltered surface water are more likely to become contaminated during periods of heavy water runoff. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:6869640

  9. Should we be concerned about global warming?

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2006-01-01

    Accurate scientific predictions of the true human health outcomes of global climate change are significantly confounded by several effect modifiers that cannot be adjusted for analytically. Nevertheless, with the documented increase in average global surface temperature of 0.6 C. since 1975, there is uniform consensus in the international scientific community that the earth is warming from a variety of climatic effects, including cyclical re-warming and the cascading effects of greenhouse gas emissions to support human activities.

  10. Global warming: a vicious circle.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, J

    1991-01-01

    The problem of global warming (GW) is larger than it was originally suspected. The release of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (ME), and nitrous oxide (NO2) by the activities of humans will do more than simply raise the global temperature. It will also trigger a variety of feedback loops that will accelerate the GW process. The extent of these feedback loops is currently impossible to incorporate into the computer models because they are not fully understood. But, from what we do know, it is clear that reductions in greenhouse gas (GG) emissions must be halted immediately. We are already committed to regional droughts, storms, water shortages, fishery disruptions and plant and animal extinctions. But the response of the oceans, forest, and ice masses has not yet been incorporated into our predictions. Almost all the feedbacks identified promise to increase GG concentrations. The carbon cycle is going to be affected in a variety of ways. Plants and soil store almost 3 times the CO2 as found in the atmosphere. Increased temperatures will increase plant respiration, thus increasing CO2 emissions. Forests will die, permafrost will melt and the result will be increased releases of CO2 and ME. The oceans and plankton can not absorb as much CO2 as the water temperature rises. At present levels GG concentrations will double by 2025. Thus scientists are calling for an immediate 60-80% reduction in CO2 and other GG emissions. It is up to the industrialized nations to solve this problem since they are the ones who created it. 75% of all human made CO2 comes from these countries. They also have the ability to help developing nations to do the same. 20 nations have already announced plans to stabilize or reduce their GG emissions, but it is attitudes and lifestyles that must be changed. This is the largest problem to ever face the human race and never before have we acted as we now must act in order to avoid a worldwide catastrophe.

  11. Global warming and nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, L., LLNL

    1998-07-10

    -fold reduction might be attained. Even the first such halving of carbon intensivity of stationary-source energy production world-wide might permit continued slow power-demand growth in the highly developed countries and rapid development of the other 80% of the world, both without active governmental suppression of fossil fuel usage - while also stabilizing carbon input-rates into the Earth`s atmosphere. The second two-fold reduction might obviate most global warming concerns.

  12. Is global warming harmful to health?

    PubMed

    Epstein, P R

    2000-08-01

    Projections from computer models predict that global warming will expand the incidence and distribution of many serious medical disorders. Global warming, aside from indirectly causing death by drowning or starvation, promotes by various means the emergence, resurgence, and spread of infectious diseases. This article addresses the health effects of global warming and disrupted climate patterns in detail. Among the greatest health concerns are diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, such as malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, and several kinds of encephalitis. Such disorders are projected to become increasingly prevalent because their insect carriers are very sensitive to meteorological conditions. In addition, floods and droughts resulting from global warming can each help trigger outbreaks by creating breeding grounds for insects whose desiccated eggs remain viable and hatch in still water. Other effects of global warming on health include the growth of opportunist populations and the increase of the incidence of waterborne diseases because of lack of clean water. In view of this, several steps are cited in order to facilitate the successful management of the dangers of global warming.

  13. The importance of warm season warming to western U.S. streamflow changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Das, T.; Pierce, D.W.; Cayan, D.R.; Vano, J.A.; Lettenmaier, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    Warm season climate warming will be a key driver of annual streamflow changes in four major river basins of the western U.S., as shown by hydrological model simulations using fixed precipitation and idealized seasonal temperature changes based on climate projections with SRES A2 forcing. Warm season (April-September) warming reduces streamflow throughout the year; streamflow declines both immediately and in the subsequent cool season. Cool season (October-March) warming, by contrast, increases streamflow immediately, partially compensating for streamflow reductions during the subsequent warm season. A uniform warm season warming of 3C drives a wide range of annual flow declines across the basins: 13.3%, 7.2%, 1.8%, and 3.6% in the Colorado, Columbia, Northern and Southern Sierra basins, respectively. The same warming applied during the cool season gives annual declines of only 3.5%, 1.7%, 2.1%, and 3.1%, respectively. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Warming shifts 'worming': effects of experimental warming on invasive earthworms in northern North America.

    PubMed

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Stefanski, Artur; Fisichelli, Nicholas A; Rice, Karen; Rich, Roy; Reich, Peter B

    2014-01-01

    Climate change causes species range shifts and potentially alters biological invasions. The invasion of European earthworm species across northern North America has severe impacts on native ecosystems. Given the long and cold winters in that region that to date supposedly have slowed earthworm invasion, future warming is hypothesized to accelerate earthworm invasions into yet non-invaded regions. Alternatively, warming-induced reductions in soil water content (SWC) can also decrease earthworm performance. We tested these hypotheses in a field warming experiment at two sites in Minnesota, USA by sampling earthworms in closed and open canopy in three temperature treatments in 2010 and 2012. Structural equation modeling revealed that detrimental warming effects on earthworm densities and biomass could indeed be partly explained by warming-induced reductions in SWC. The direction of warming effects depended on the current average SWC: warming had neutral to positive effects at high SWC, whereas the opposite was true at low SWC. Our results suggest that warming limits the invasion of earthworms in northern North America by causing less favorable soil abiotic conditions, unless warming is accompanied by increased and temporally even distributions of rainfall sufficient to offset greater water losses from higher evapotranspiration. PMID:25363633

  15. Warming shifts 'worming': effects of experimental warming on invasive earthworms in northern North America.

    PubMed

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Stefanski, Artur; Fisichelli, Nicholas A; Rice, Karen; Rich, Roy; Reich, Peter B

    2014-11-03

    Climate change causes species range shifts and potentially alters biological invasions. The invasion of European earthworm species across northern North America has severe impacts on native ecosystems. Given the long and cold winters in that region that to date supposedly have slowed earthworm invasion, future warming is hypothesized to accelerate earthworm invasions into yet non-invaded regions. Alternatively, warming-induced reductions in soil water content (SWC) can also decrease earthworm performance. We tested these hypotheses in a field warming experiment at two sites in Minnesota, USA by sampling earthworms in closed and open canopy in three temperature treatments in 2010 and 2012. Structural equation modeling revealed that detrimental warming effects on earthworm densities and biomass could indeed be partly explained by warming-induced reductions in SWC. The direction of warming effects depended on the current average SWC: warming had neutral to positive effects at high SWC, whereas the opposite was true at low SWC. Our results suggest that warming limits the invasion of earthworms in northern North America by causing less favorable soil abiotic conditions, unless warming is accompanied by increased and temporally even distributions of rainfall sufficient to offset greater water losses from higher evapotranspiration.

  16. Warming shifts `worming': effects of experimental warming on invasive earthworms in northern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Stefanski, Artur; Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Rice, Karen; Rich, Roy; Reich, Peter B.

    2014-11-01

    Climate change causes species range shifts and potentially alters biological invasions. The invasion of European earthworm species across northern North America has severe impacts on native ecosystems. Given the long and cold winters in that region that to date supposedly have slowed earthworm invasion, future warming is hypothesized to accelerate earthworm invasions into yet non-invaded regions. Alternatively, warming-induced reductions in soil water content (SWC) can also decrease earthworm performance. We tested these hypotheses in a field warming experiment at two sites in Minnesota, USA by sampling earthworms in closed and open canopy in three temperature treatments in 2010 and 2012. Structural equation modeling revealed that detrimental warming effects on earthworm densities and biomass could indeed be partly explained by warming-induced reductions in SWC. The direction of warming effects depended on the current average SWC: warming had neutral to positive effects at high SWC, whereas the opposite was true at low SWC. Our results suggest that warming limits the invasion of earthworms in northern North America by causing less favorable soil abiotic conditions, unless warming is accompanied by increased and temporally even distributions of rainfall sufficient to offset greater water losses from higher evapotranspiration.

  17. Can Global Warming be Stopped?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luria, M.

    2013-12-01

    Earlier this year, the CO2 levels exceeded the 400 ppm level and there is no sign that the 1-2 ppm annual increase is going to slow down. Concerns regarding the danger of global warming have been reported in numerous occasions for more than a generation, ever since CO2 levels reached the 350 ppm range in the mid 1980's. Nevertheless, all efforts to slow down the increase have showed little if any effect. Mobile sources, including surface and marine transportation and aviation, consist of 20% of the global CO2 emission. The only realistic way to reduce the mobile sources' CO2 signature is by improved fuel efficiency. However, any progress in this direction is more than compensated by continuous increased demand. Stationary sources, mostly electric power generation, are responsible for the bulk of the global CO2 emission. The measurements have shown, that the effect of an increase in renewable sources, like solar wind and geothermal, combined with conversion from coal to natural gas where possible, conservation and efficiency improvement, did not compensate the increased demand mostly in developing countries. Increased usage of nuclear energy can provide some relief in carbon emission but has the potential of even greater environmental hazard. A major decrease in carbon emission can be obtained by either significant reduction in the cost of non-carbon based energy sources or by of carbon sequestration. The most economical way to make a significant decrease in carbon emission is to apply carbon sequestration technology at large point sources that use coal. Worldwide there are about 10,000 major sources that burn >7 billion metric tons of coal which generate the equivalent of 30 trillion kwh. There is a limited experience in CO2 sequestration of such huge quantities of CO2, however, it is estimated that the cost would be US$ 0.01-0.1 per kwh. The cost of eliminating this quantity can be estimated at an average of 1.5 trillion dollars annually. The major emitters, US

  18. 21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma warming device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood and plasma warming device. 864.9205 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma warming device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma warming device—(1) Identification. A nonelectromagnetic blood and plasma warming device is...

  19. 21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma warming device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood and plasma warming device. 864.9205 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma warming device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma warming device—(1) Identification. A nonelectromagnetic blood and plasma warming device is...

  20. 21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma warming device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood and plasma warming device. 864.9205 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma warming device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma warming device—(1) Identification. A nonelectromagnetic blood and plasma warming device is...

  1. 21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma warming device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood and plasma warming device. 864.9205 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma warming device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma warming device—(1) Identification. A nonelectromagnetic blood and plasma warming device is...

  2. 21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma warming device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood and plasma warming device. 864.9205 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma warming device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma warming device—(1) Identification. A nonelectromagnetic blood and plasma warming device is...

  3. Warm Absorber Diagnostics of AGN Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallman, Timothy

    Warm absorbers and related phenomena are observable manifestations of outflows or winds from active galactic nuclei (AGN) that have great potential value. Understanding AGN outflows is important for explaining the mass budgets of the central accreting black hole, and also for understanding feedback and the apparent co-evolution of black holes and their host galaxies. In the X-ray band warm absorbers are observed as photoelectric absorption and resonance line scattering features in the 0.5-10 keV energy band; the UV band also shows resonance line absorption. Warm absorbers are common in low luminosity AGN and they have been extensively studied observationally. They may play an important role in AGN feedback, regulating the net accretion onto the black hole and providing mechanical energy to the surroundings. However, fundamental properties of the warm absorbers are not known: What is the mechanism which drives the outflow?; what is the gas density in the flow and the geometrical distribution of the outflow?; what is the explanation for the apparent relation between warm absorbers and the surprising quasi-relativistic 'ultrafast outflows' (UFOs)? We propose a focused set of model calculations that are aimed at synthesizing observable properties of warm absorber flows and associated quantities. These will be used to explore various scenarios for warm absorber dynamics in order to answer the questions in the previous paragraph. The guiding principle will be to examine as wide a range as possible of warm absorber driving mechanisms, geometry and other properties, but with as careful consideration as possible to physical consistency. We will build on our previous work, which was a systematic campaign for testing important class of scenarios for driving the outflows. We have developed a set of tools that are unique and well suited for dynamical calculations including radiation in this context. We also have state-of-the-art tools for generating synthetic spectra, which are

  4. Global warming without global mean precipitation increase?

    PubMed

    Salzmann, Marc

    2016-06-01

    Global climate models simulate a robust increase of global mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface warming in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K(-1) decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol because the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century warming indicate that the global mean precipitation increase due to GHG warming has, until recently, been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the global mean precipitation to the net global warming recently found in observations. As the importance of GHG warming increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge. PMID:27386558

  5. Warm Indian Ocean, Weak Asian Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koll Roxy, Mathew; Ritika, Kapoor; Terray, Pascal; Murtugudde, Raghu; Ashok, Karumuri; Nath Goswami, Buphendra

    2015-04-01

    There are large uncertainties looming over the status and fate of the South Asian monsoon in a changing climate. Observations and climate models have suggested that anthropogenic warming in the past century has increased the moisture availability and the land-sea thermal contrast in the tropics, favoring an increase in monsoon rainfall. In contrast, we notice that South Asian subcontinent experienced a relatively subdued warming during this period. At the same time, the tropical Indian Ocean experienced a nearly monotonic warming, at a rate faster than the other tropical oceans. Using long-term observations and coupled model experiments, we suggest that the enhanced Indian Ocean warming along with the suppressed warming of the subcontinent weaken the land-sea thermal contrast throughout the troposphere, dampen the monsoon Hadley circulation, and reduce the rainfall over South Asia. As a result, the summer monsoon rainfall during 1901-2012 shows a significant weakening trend over South Asia, extending from Pakistan through central India to Bangladesh.

  6. Global warming without global mean precipitation increase?

    PubMed Central

    Salzmann, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Global climate models simulate a robust increase of global mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface warming in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K−1 decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol because the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century warming indicate that the global mean precipitation increase due to GHG warming has, until recently, been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the global mean precipitation to the net global warming recently found in observations. As the importance of GHG warming increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge. PMID:27386558

  7. Global warming without global mean precipitation increase?

    PubMed

    Salzmann, Marc

    2016-06-01

    Global climate models simulate a robust increase of global mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface warming in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K(-1) decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol because the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century warming indicate that the global mean precipitation increase due to GHG warming has, until recently, been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the global mean precipitation to the net global warming recently found in observations. As the importance of GHG warming increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge.

  8. Global Warming: Settled Science? Unsettled Media Debate??

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, S. H.

    2007-12-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change recently assessed the approximate 0.75°C warming since 1850 as an "unequivocal" trend. This is very rare and strong language for scientists who often lead with their caveats, not with their concerns. Later, the same report says it is "very likely" (i.e.- greater that 90% chance) that most of the warming of the past several decades can be attributed to human activities, primarily greenhouse gas emissions. So far, the science sounds "settled". Furthermore, the IPCC, as well as many other national assessments, assigns very high confidence to projections of further warming, intensified tropical cyclones, more extremes of drought and flood, and melting mountain glaciers and arctic sea ice in the twenty-first century. Still sounds settled. However, the likely range of warming projected by IPCC to 2100 varies by a whopping factor of 6: 1.1-6.4°C above 1990 levels-- hardly "settled science". Projections of precipitation are equivocal even as to the direction of change. Therefore, IPCC Working Group 2 recommends a "risk management" approach to dealing with the combination of well establish and remaining speculative components of global warming that nonetheless pose potentially serious risks to human and natural systems.

  9. Light accelerates plant responses to warming.

    PubMed

    De Frenne, Pieter; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Francisco; De Schrijver, An; Coomes, David A; Hermy, Martin; Vangansbeke, Pieter; Verheyen, Kris

    2015-08-17

    Competition for light has profound effects on plant performance in virtually all terrestrial ecosystems. Nowhere is this more evident than in forests, where trees create environmental heterogeneity that shapes the dynamics of forest-floor communities(1-3). Observational evidence suggests that biotic responses to both anthropogenic global warming and nitrogen pollution may be attenuated by the shading effects of trees and shrubs(4-9). Here we show experimentally that tree shade is slowing down changes in below-canopy communities due to warming. We manipulated levels of photosynthetically active radiation, temperature and nitrogen, alone and in combination, in a temperate forest understorey over a 3-year period, and monitored the composition of the understorey community. Light addition, but not nitrogen enrichment, accelerated directional plant community responses to warming, increasing the dominance of warmth-preferring taxa over cold-tolerant plants (a process described as thermophilization(6,10-12)). Tall, competitive plants took greatest advantage of the combination of elevated temperature and light. Warming of the forest floor did not result in strong community thermophilization unless light was also increased. Our findings suggest that the maintenance of locally closed canopy conditions could reduce, at least temporarily, warming-induced changes in forest floor plant communities.

  10. Morpho-anatomical traits of two lowest internodes related to lodging resistance in selected genotypes of Triticum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packa, Danuta; Wiwart, Marian; Suchowilska, Elżbieta; Bieńkowska, Teresa

    2015-10-01

    The cross-sections of first and second internodes were analyzed under a light and fluorescence microscopes in six varieties of Triticum spelta, two varieties of T. polonicum, and one variety of T. aestivum. The morphometric parameters of stem cross-sections were measured. The analyzed wheats were characterized by significant differences in traits associated with lodging resistance ie: internode diameter, lumen diameter, stem wall thickness, mechanical layer thickness, area of transverse section, and area of lumen for the first and second internode and between the internodes. In all varieties, the values of internode diameter, lumen diameter, area of transverse section and area of lumen were higher for the second internode than for the first internode, whereas the reverse was reported for stem wall thickness and mechanical layer thickness The results of the principal component analysis and section modulus values revealed similarities between spring spelt Wirtas and Rubinas and between common wheat Kontesa and winter spelt Poeme and Epanis. The number of large vascular bundles varied across the studied varieties. The average number of vascular bundles in common wheat Kontesa was significantly higher than in spring spelt Rubinas and Wirtas and significantly lower than in Polish wheat Pol-3 and winter spelt Epanis and Poeme.

  11. Global warming: Science or politics. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Dorweiler, V.P.

    1998-04-01

    ``The balance of evidence suggests that there has been a discernible influence of human activity on global climate`` is a statement employed as the foundation basis to intervene on behalf of the globe and the future. That statement, as scientific evidence of human-produced greenhouse gases (primarily CO{sub 2}) having a warming effect on global climate is a political statement only. Further, the Kyoto conference to consider intervention in human activities regarding global warming was a political conference. Political and treaty issues were the focus; scientific issues were not much discussed. What change is needed then to scientifically determine global warming and to ascertain whether human activity is involved? A better understanding of the natural climate variations related to solar variation can improve understanding of an anthropogenic greenhouse effect on the climate. The purpose of this article is to pose the scientific question. Part 2 will present an answer.

  12. Vertical structure of recent Arctic warming.

    PubMed

    Graversen, Rune G; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Tjernström, Michael; Källén, Erland; Svensson, Gunilla

    2008-01-01

    Near-surface warming in the Arctic has been almost twice as large as the global average over recent decades-a phenomenon that is known as the 'Arctic amplification'. The underlying causes of this temperature amplification remain uncertain. The reduction in snow and ice cover that has occurred over recent decades may have played a role. Climate model experiments indicate that when global temperature rises, Arctic snow and ice cover retreats, causing excessive polar warming. Reduction of the snow and ice cover causes albedo changes, and increased refreezing of sea ice during the cold season and decreases in sea-ice thickness both increase heat flux from the ocean to the atmosphere. Changes in oceanic and atmospheric circulation, as well as cloud cover, have also been proposed to cause Arctic temperature amplification. Here we examine the vertical structure of temperature change in the Arctic during the late twentieth century using reanalysis data. We find evidence for temperature amplification well above the surface. Snow and ice feedbacks cannot be the main cause of the warming aloft during the greater part of the year, because these feedbacks are expected to primarily affect temperatures in the lowermost part of the atmosphere, resulting in a pattern of warming that we only observe in spring. A significant proportion of the observed temperature amplification must therefore be explained by mechanisms that induce warming above the lowermost part of the atmosphere. We regress the Arctic temperature field on the atmospheric energy transport into the Arctic and find that, in the summer half-year, a significant proportion of the vertical structure of warming can be explained by changes in this variable. We conclude that changes in atmospheric heat transport may be an important cause of the recent Arctic temperature amplification.

  13. Communicating the Dangers of Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.

    2006-12-01

    So far, in my opinion, we scientists have not done a good job of communicating the imminent threat posed by global warming, yet I believe there is still time for that if we work efficiently now to overcome existing obstacles. Several of those obstacles are illustrated by contrasting the roles of scientists, the media, special interests, politicians and the public in the ozone depletion and global warming crises. Scientists in America are further challenged by a decline in public science education, a perceived gap between science and religion, increasing politicization of public affairs offices in the government, and accumulation of power by a unitary executive. First order communication tasks are illustrated by a need for improved exchange and understanding, among scientists as well as with the public, of fundamental climate facts: (1) additional global warming exceeding 1C will yield large climate effects, (2) paleoclimate changes contain quantitatively specific information about climate sensitivity that is not widely appreciated, (3) carbon cycle facts, such as the substantial portion of carbon dioxide emissions that will remain in the air "forever", for practical purposes, (4) fossil fuel facts such as the dominant role of coal and unconventional fuels in all business-as-usual scenarios for future energy sources. The facts graphically illustrate the need for prompt actions to avoid disastrous climate change, yet they also reveal the feasibility of a course that minimizes global warming and yields other benefits. Perhaps the greatest challenge is posed by an inappropriate casting of the topic as a dichotomy between those who deny that there is a global warming problem and those who either are exceedingly pessimistic about the prospects for minimizing climate change or believe that solutions would be very expensive. Sensible evaluation of the situation, in my opinion, suggests a strategy for dealing with global warming that is not costly and has many subsidiary

  14. Even warm climates get the shivers

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1993-07-16

    Researchers in the Greenland Ice-Core Project (GRIP) have found evidence of sharp climate shifts during the last two intergalcials. The Greenland ice sheet evidence shows that Greenland, over and over for decades to thousands of years, cooled drastically from temperatures equal to or higher than today's, often to virtual ice age conditions. The researchers believe that disruptions in the flow of warm water from the southern Atlantic to the North Atlantic, and the return flow of cold water to the south, may be linked to these climatic fluctuations. The present climate appears relatively stable, but that may change if temperatures warm due to increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases.

  15. Global warming: a public health concern.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Brenda M

    2007-05-01

    Over the last 100 years the average temperature on the Earth has risen approximately 1ºFahrenheit (F), increasing at a rate twice as fast as has been noted for any period in the last 1,000 years. The Arctic ice cap is shrinking, glaciers are melting, and the Arctic permafrost is thawing. There is mounting evidence that these global climate changes are already affecting human health. This article provides a brief overview of global warming and climate changes, discusses effects of climate change on health, considers the factors which contribute to climate changes, and reviews individual and collective efforts related to reducing global warming. PMID:21848352

  16. The recent warming trend in North Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsi, Anais; Kawamura, Kenji; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Landais, Amaelle; Severinghaus, Jeff

    2015-04-01

    The arctic is the fastest warming region on Earth, but it is also one where there is little historical data. Although summer warming causes melt, the annual temperature trend is dominated by the winter and fall season, which are much less well documented. In addition, the instrumental record relies principally on coastal weather stations, and there are very few direct temperature observations in the interior dating back more than 30 years, especially in North Greenland, where the current warming trend is the largest. Here, we present a temperature reconstruction from NEEM (51°W, 77°N), in North Greenland, for the last 100 years, which allows us to put the recent trend in the context of the longer term climate. We use a combination of two independent proxies to reconstruct the temperature history at NEEM: borehole temperature and inert gas isotope measurements in the firn. Borehole temperature takes advantage of the low temperature diffusivity of the snow and ice, which allows the temperature history to be preserved in the ice for several centuries. Temperature gradients in the firn (old snow above the ice) influence the gas isotopic composition: thermal fractionation causes heavy isotopes to concentrate on the cold end of the firn column. We measured the isotopes of inert gases (N2, Ar and Kr), which have a constant atmospheric composition through time, and use the thermal fractionation signal as an additional constraint on the temperature history at the site. We find that NEEM has been warming by 0.86±0.22°C/decade over the past 30 years, from -28.55±0.29°C for the 1900-1970 average to -26.77±0.16°C for the 2000-2010 average. The warming rate at NEEM is similar to that of Greenland Summit, and confirms the large warming trends in North Greenland (polar amplification) and high altitude sites (tropospheric rather than surface warming). Water isotopes show that the recent past has not met the level of the 1928 anomaly; but the average of the past 30 years has

  17. Analysis of data from spacecraft (stratospheric warmings)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Investigations involved a search through existing literature and data to obtain case histories for the six or more stratospheric warmings that occurred in April - May 1969, June - July 1969, August 1969, December 1969 - January 1970, December 1970 - January 1971, and January 1973 - February 1973. For each of these warmings the following steps have been taken in preparation for analysis: (1) defining the nature of the problem; (2) literature search of stratwarmings and solar-terrestrial phenomens; and (3) file of data sources, especially stratospheric temperatures (radiances) and geophysical indices.

  18. Warming of water in a glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulins, Paulis; Krauze, Armands; Ozolinsh, Maris; Muiznieks, Andris

    2016-03-01

    The article focuses on the process of water warming from 0 °C in a glass. An experiment is performed that analyses the temperature in the top and bottom layers of water during warming. The experimental equipment is very simple and can be easily set up using devices available in schools. The temperature curves obtained from the experiment help us to understand the process of convection in the glass and to determine the temperature at which the density of water is maximum. In addition, computational fluid dynamics—CFD modeling is carried out to facilitate better comprehension of the phenomenon observed in the experiment.

  19. Global warming: a public health concern.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Brenda M

    2007-05-31

    Over the last 100 years the average temperature on the Earth has risen approximately 1ºFahrenheit (F), increasing at a rate twice as fast as has been noted for any period in the last 1,000 years. The Arctic ice cap is shrinking, glaciers are melting, and the Arctic permafrost is thawing. There is mounting evidence that these global climate changes are already affecting human health. This article provides a brief overview of global warming and climate changes, discusses effects of climate change on health, considers the factors which contribute to climate changes, and reviews individual and collective efforts related to reducing global warming.

  20. Ecology: global warming and amphibian losses.

    PubMed

    Alford, Ross A; Bradfield, Kay S; Richards, Stephen J

    2007-05-31

    Is global warming contributing to amphibian declines and extinctions by promoting outbreaks of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis? Analysing patterns from the American tropics, Pounds et al. envisage a process in which a single warm year triggers die-offs in a particular area (for instance, 1987 in the case of Monteverde, Costa Rica). However, we show here that populations of two frog species in the Australian tropics experienced increasing developmental instability, which is evidence of stress, at least two years before they showed chytrid-related declines. Because the working model of Pounds et al. is incomplete, their test of the climate-linked epidemic hypothesis could be inconclusive.

  1. Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Robock, A.; Mao, J.

    1992-01-01

    An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95 percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.

  2. Global warming and sexual plant reproduction.

    PubMed

    Hedhly, Afif; Hormaza, José I; Herrero, María

    2009-01-01

    The sexual reproductive phase in plants might be particularly vulnerable to the effects of global warming. The direct effect of temperature changes on the reproductive process has been documented previously, and recent data from other physiological processes that are affected by rising temperatures seem to reinforce the susceptibility of the reproductive process to a changing climate. But the reproductive phase also provides the plant with an opportunity to adapt to environmental changes. Understanding phenotypic plasticity and gametophyte selection for prevailing temperatures, along with possible epigenetic changes during this process, could provide new insights into plant evolution under a global-warming scenario.

  3. Dynamic characteristics of observed sudden warmings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dartt, D. G.; Venne, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    The planetary wave dynamics of stratospheric sudden warmings in the Northern Hemisphere for a large number of observed events that occurred during winters from 1970 to 1975 and 1978 to 1981 are investigated. The analysis describes wave propagation and zonal flow interaction from the troposphere upwards to near 50 km, and in some years to near 80 km. Three primary topics are covered here: (1) the interaction of zonally propagating and quasi-stationary planetary waves during warming events; (2) planetary wave influence on zonal flow near the stratopause; and (3) planetary wave propagation to near 80 km as seen from Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder (SAMS) data.

  4. Is Europa's Subsurface Water Ocean Warm?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melosh, H. J.; Ekholm, A. G.; Showman, A. P.; Lorenz, R. D.

    2002-01-01

    Europa's subsurface water ocean may be warm: that is, at the temperature of water's maximum density. This provides a natural explanation of chaos melt-through events and leads to a correct estimate of the age of its surface. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. Global warming and extreme storm surges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinsted, Aslak

    2013-04-01

    I will show empirical evidence for how global warming has changed extreme storm surge statistics for different regions in the world. Are there any detectable changes beyond what we expect from sea level rise. What does this suggest about the future of hurricane surges such as from hurricane Katrina and superstorm Sandy?

  6. Can Global Warming Heat Up Environmental Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzatenta, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    Bronx Community College (CUNY) launched "Global Warming Campus Awareness and Action Days" in celebration of Earth Day, 2007. The purpose of this program was to raise awareness of environmental issues in the college population, especially students. To let more students have a grasp of what Environmental Education (EE) is all about, the author…

  7. Warm inflationary model in loop quantum cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Ramon

    2010-06-15

    A warm inflationary universe model in loop quantum cosmology is studied. In general we discuss the condition of inflation in this framework. By using a chaotic potential, V({phi}){proportional_to}{phi}{sup 2}, we develop a model where the dissipation coefficient {Gamma}={Gamma}{sub 0}=constant. We use recent astronomical observations for constraining the parameters appearing in our model.

  8. Climate response: Strong warming at high emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frölicher, Thomas L.

    2016-09-01

    The ratio of global temperature change to cumulative emissions is relatively constant up to two trillion tonnes of carbon emissions. Now a new modelling study suggests that the concept of a constant ratio is even applicable to higher cumulative carbon emissions, with important implications for future warming.

  9. Global warming in the public sphere.

    PubMed

    Corfee-Morlot, Jan; Maslin, Mark; Burgess, Jacquelin

    2007-11-15

    Although the science of global warming has been in place for several decades if not more, only in the last decade and a half has the issue moved clearly into the public sphere as a public policy issue and a political priority. To understand how and why this has occurred, it is essential to consider the history of the scientific theory of the greenhouse effect, the evidence that supports it and the mechanisms through which science interacts with lay publics and other elite actors, such as politicians, policymakers and business decision makers. This article reviews why and how climate change has moved from the bottom to the top of the international political agenda. It traces the scientific discovery of global warming, political and institutional developments to manage it as well as other socially mediated pathways for understanding and promoting global warming as an issue in the public sphere. The article also places this historical overview of global warming as a public issue into a conceptual framework for understanding relationships between society and nature with emphasis on the co-construction of knowledge.

  10. Desert Amplification in a Warming Climate.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liming

    2016-01-01

    Here I analyze the observed and projected surface temperature anomalies over land between 50°S-50°N for the period 1950-2099 by large-scale ecoregion and find strongest warming consistently and persistently seen over driest ecoregions such as the Sahara desert and the Arabian Peninsula during various 30-year periods, pointing to desert amplification in a warming climate. This amplification enhances linearly with the global mean greenhouse gases(GHGs) radiative forcing and is attributable primarily to a stronger GHGs-enhanced downward longwave radiation forcing reaching the surface over drier ecoregions as a consequence of a warmer and thus moister atmosphere in response to increasing GHGs. These results indicate that desert amplification may represent a fundamental pattern of global warming associated with water vapor feedbacks over land in low- and mid- latitudes where surface warming rates depend inversely on ecosystem dryness. It is likely that desert amplification might involve two types of water vapor feedbacks that maximize respectively in the tropical upper troposphere and near the surface over deserts, with both being very dry and thus extremely sensitive to changes of water vapor. PMID:27538725

  11. Temperature Data Shows Warming in 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    TThe figure above depicts how much air temperatures near the Earth's surface changed relative to the global mean temperature from 1951 to 1980. NASA researchers used maps of urban areas derived from city lights data to account for the 'heat island' effect of cities. The red and orange colors show that temperatures are warmer in most regions of the world when compared to the 1951 to 1980 'normal' temperatures. Warming around the world has been widespread, but it is not present everywhere. The largest warming is in Northern Canada, Alaska and Siberia, as indicated by the deeper red colors. The lower 48 United States have become warmer recently, but only enough to make the temperatures comparable to what they were in the 1930s. The scale on the bottom of these temperature anomaly images represent degrees in Celsius. The negative numbers represent cooling and the positive numbers depict warming. Overall, the air temperature near the Earth's surface has warmed by 1oF (0.6oC) globally, on average, over the last century. For more information and additional images, read Satellites Shed Light on a Warmer World. Image courtesy Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS).

  12. Desert Amplification in a Warming Climate.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liming

    2016-08-19

    Here I analyze the observed and projected surface temperature anomalies over land between 50°S-50°N for the period 1950-2099 by large-scale ecoregion and find strongest warming consistently and persistently seen over driest ecoregions such as the Sahara desert and the Arabian Peninsula during various 30-year periods, pointing to desert amplification in a warming climate. This amplification enhances linearly with the global mean greenhouse gases(GHGs) radiative forcing and is attributable primarily to a stronger GHGs-enhanced downward longwave radiation forcing reaching the surface over drier ecoregions as a consequence of a warmer and thus moister atmosphere in response to increasing GHGs. These results indicate that desert amplification may represent a fundamental pattern of global warming associated with water vapor feedbacks over land in low- and mid- latitudes where surface warming rates depend inversely on ecosystem dryness. It is likely that desert amplification might involve two types of water vapor feedbacks that maximize respectively in the tropical upper troposphere and near the surface over deserts, with both being very dry and thus extremely sensitive to changes of water vapor.

  13. National contributions to observed global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damon Matthews, H.; Graham, Tanya L.; Keverian, Serge; Lamontagne, Cassandra; Seto, Donny; Smith, Trevor J.

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in identifying national contributions to global warming as a way of allocating historical responsibility for observed climate change. This task is made difficult by uncertainty associated with national estimates of historical emissions, as well as by difficulty in estimating the climate response to emissions of gases with widely varying atmospheric lifetimes. Here, we present a new estimate of national contributions to observed climate warming, including CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and land-use change, as well as methane, nitrous oxide and sulfate aerosol emissions While some countries’ warming contributions are reasonably well defined by fossil fuel CO2 emissions, many countries have dominant contributions from land-use CO2 and non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions, emphasizing the importance of both deforestation and agriculture as components of a country’s contribution to climate warming. Furthermore, because of their short atmospheric lifetime, recent sulfate aerosol emissions have a large impact on a country’s current climate contribution We show also that there are vast disparities in both total and per-capita climate contributions among countries, and that across most developed countries, per-capita contributions are not currently consistent with attempts to restrict global temperature change to less than 2 °C above pre-industrial temperatures.

  14. Global Warming 'Pause' - Oceans Reshuffle Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieves, V.; Willis, J. K.; Patzert, W. C.

    2015-12-01

    Despite the fact that greenhouse gases are still increasing and all other indicators show warming-related change (+0.0064 °C/year since 1880 or +0.0077 °C/year during 1993-2002), surface temperatures stopped climbing steadily during the past decade at a rate of +0.0010 °C/year from 2003 to 2012. We show that in recent years, the heat was being trapped in the subsurface waters of the western Pacific and eastern Indian oceans between 100 and 300 m. The movement of warm Pacific water below the surface, also related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation climatic pattern, temporarily affected surface temperatures and accounted for the global cooling trend in surface temperature. With the Pacific Decadal Oscillation possibly changing to a warm phase, it is likely that the oceans will drive a major surge in global surface warming sometime in the next decade or two. Reference: Nieves, V., Willis, J. K., and Patzert, W. C. (2015). Recent hiatus caused by decadal shift in Indo-Pacific heating. Science, aaa4521.

  15. Desert Amplification in a Warming Climate

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Liming

    2016-01-01

    Here I analyze the observed and projected surface temperature anomalies over land between 50°S-50°N for the period 1950–2099 by large-scale ecoregion and find strongest warming consistently and persistently seen over driest ecoregions such as the Sahara desert and the Arabian Peninsula during various 30-year periods, pointing to desert amplification in a warming climate. This amplification enhances linearly with the global mean greenhouse gases(GHGs) radiative forcing and is attributable primarily to a stronger GHGs-enhanced downward longwave radiation forcing reaching the surface over drier ecoregions as a consequence of a warmer and thus moister atmosphere in response to increasing GHGs. These results indicate that desert amplification may represent a fundamental pattern of global warming associated with water vapor feedbacks over land in low- and mid- latitudes where surface warming rates depend inversely on ecosystem dryness. It is likely that desert amplification might involve two types of water vapor feedbacks that maximize respectively in the tropical upper troposphere and near the surface over deserts, with both being very dry and thus extremely sensitive to changes of water vapor. PMID:27538725

  16. Desert Amplification in a Warming Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Liming

    2016-08-01

    Here I analyze the observed and projected surface temperature anomalies over land between 50°S-50°N for the period 1950–2099 by large-scale ecoregion and find strongest warming consistently and persistently seen over driest ecoregions such as the Sahara desert and the Arabian Peninsula during various 30-year periods, pointing to desert amplification in a warming climate. This amplification enhances linearly with the global mean greenhouse gases(GHGs) radiative forcing and is attributable primarily to a stronger GHGs-enhanced downward longwave radiation forcing reaching the surface over drier ecoregions as a consequence of a warmer and thus moister atmosphere in response to increasing GHGs. These results indicate that desert amplification may represent a fundamental pattern of global warming associated with water vapor feedbacks over land in low- and mid- latitudes where surface warming rates depend inversely on ecosystem dryness. It is likely that desert amplification might involve two types of water vapor feedbacks that maximize respectively in the tropical upper troposphere and near the surface over deserts, with both being very dry and thus extremely sensitive to changes of water vapor.

  17. Global warming -- Science and anti-science

    SciTech Connect

    Preining, O. |

    1995-06-01

    The global warming debate has sparked many facts activities in almost all sectors of human endeavors. There are the hard facts, the measurements of the greenhouse gases, the statistics of human activities responsible for emissions, the demographic figures. There are the soft facts, the interpretations of the hard facts requiring additional assumptions. There are the media, the press, television, for whom environmental problems make good stories, these can be used to rise emotions, to make heroes and antiheroes. There are politicians, the global warming debate can be used even in electron campaigns. Global warming is a topic within and beyond science. The judgment (and hence use) of scientific facts is overwhelmingly influenced by the ``Weltbild`` (underlying beliefs how the world operates), and consequently opposing positions of well-known scientists arise. There are the attempts to invent futures of man on Earth: policies, regulations, laws on nation, international, and global levels shall facilitate a change in the basic behavior of all men. The global warming issue has many facets and cannot be successfully discussed without including, e.g., the North-South dialogue, world population, etc.

  18. Global warming and health: a review.

    PubMed

    Amofah, G K

    1996-08-01

    The paper looks at the phenomenon of global warming and its potential health effects and outlines a number of plausible response by the health sector in developing countries to its threat. It suggests that the health sector should facilitate an international effort at addressing this challenge, mainly through advocacy, epidemiological surveillance and awareness creation.

  19. Precipitation Characteristics in Warm Convective Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, H.; Ma, Y.; Feingold, G.

    2011-12-01

    The relationship between radar reflectivity factor Z at 9.6 GHz (3 cm) and rain rate R for warm convective clouds is studied. The objectives are to obtain a reasonable Z-R relationship for use in weather radar observation of warm convective precipitation, and to analyze factors that affect the Z-R relationship. Rain rate R is calculated from the drop size distributions in a large eddy simulation (LES); the drop size distributions from LES are also used as inputs into Quickbeam, a software package for simulating atmospheric radiative characteristics, to get radar reflectivity factor Z. It is found that a uniform Z-R relationship is not valid for the cumulus cloud population that develops for several hours. The Z-R relationship depends on the stage of cloud development and the height relative to cloud base. As expected, a range of R values can all lead to the same Z. This is due to the complicated drop size distributions and may cause large uncertainty in precipitation measurement in warm convective clouds using radar data. This study also investigates the Z-R relationship at 94 GHz (3 mm) to evaluate the possibility of measuring precipitation in warm convective clouds using current millimeter wave cloud radars. Results show that a well-defined Z-R relationship at 94 GHz generally exists when the local rain rate is smaller than 1 mm hour-1. This indicates that a millimeter wave cloud radar can be used to measure light precipitation in warm convective clouds. When precipitation is stronger, the attenuation of the signal due to precipitation particles is significant and the estimation of R from the reflectivity factor Z has bigger uncertainty. The domain-averaged rain rate R can be parameterized as a function of domain-averaged liquid water path and cloud drop concentration for the LES clouds. The result for warm convective clouds in this study is consistent with previous findings for stratiform clouds. This may help to better parameterize the warm convective

  20. Impact of warm winters on microbial growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birgander, Johanna; Rousk, Johannes; Axel Olsson, Pål

    2014-05-01

    Growth of soil bacteria has an asymmetrical response to higher temperature with a gradual increase with increasing temperatures until an optimum after which a steep decline occurs. In laboratory studies it has been shown that by exposing a soil bacterial community to a temperature above the community's optimum temperature for two months, the bacterial community grows warm-adapted, and the optimum temperature of bacterial growth shifts towards higher temperatures. This result suggests a change in the intrinsic temperature dependence of bacterial growth, as temperature influenced the bacterial growth even though all other factors were kept constant. An intrinsic temperature dependence could be explained by either a change in the bacterial community composition, exchanging less tolerant bacteria towards more tolerant ones, or it could be due to adaptation within the bacteria present. No matter what the shift in temperature tolerance is due to, the shift could have ecosystem scale implications, as winters in northern Europe are getting warmer. To address the question of how microbes and plants are affected by warmer winters, a winter-warming experiment was established in a South Swedish grassland. Results suggest a positive response in microbial growth rate in plots where winter soil temperatures were around 6 °C above ambient. Both bacterial and fungal growth (leucine incorporation, and acetate into ergosterol incorporation, respectively) appeared stimulated, and there are two candidate explanations for these results. Either (i) warming directly influence microbial communities by modulating their temperature adaptation, or (ii) warming indirectly affected the microbial communities via temperature induced changes in bacterial growth conditions. The first explanation is in accordance with what has been shown in laboratory conditions (explained above), where the differences in the intrinsic temperature relationships were examined. To test this explanation the

  1. High-level hemicellulosic arabinose predominately affects lignocellulose crystallinity for genetically enhancing both plant lodging resistance and biomass enzymatic digestibility in rice mutants.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengcheng; Zhang, Mingliang; Guo, Kai; Hu, Zhen; Zhang, Ran; Feng, Yongqing; Yi, Xiaoyan; Zou, Weihua; Wang, Lingqiang; Wu, Changyin; Tian, Jinshan; Lu, Tiegang; Xie, Guosheng; Peng, Liangcai

    2015-05-01

    Rice is a major food crop with enormous biomass residue for biofuels. As plant cell wall recalcitrance basically decides a costly biomass process, genetic modification of plant cell walls has been regarded as a promising solution. However, due to structural complexity and functional diversity of plant cell walls, it becomes essential to identify the key factors of cell wall modifications that could not much alter plant growth, but cause an enhancement in biomass enzymatic digestibility. To address this issue, we performed systems biology analyses of a total of 36 distinct cell wall mutants of rice. As a result, cellulose crystallinity (CrI) was examined to be the key factor that negatively determines either the biomass enzymatic saccharification upon various chemical pretreatments or the plant lodging resistance, an integrated agronomic trait in plant growth and grain production. Notably, hemicellulosic arabinose (Ara) was detected to be the major factor that negatively affects cellulose CrI probably through its interlinking with β-1,4-glucans. In addition, lignin and G monomer also exhibited the positive impact on biomass digestion and lodging resistance. Further characterization of two elite mutants, Osfc17 and Osfc30, showing normal plant growth and high biomass enzymatic digestion in situ and in vitro, revealed the multiple GH9B candidate genes for reducing cellulose CrI and XAT genes for increasing hemicellulosic Ara level. Hence, the results have suggested the potential cell wall modifications for enhancing both biomass enzymatic digestibility and plant lodging resistance by synchronically overexpressing GH9B and XAT genes in rice.

  2. Investigation to determine staff exposure and describe animal bite surveillance after detection of a rabid zebra in a safari lodge in Kenya, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Obonyo, Mark; Arvelo, Wences; Kadivane, Samuel; Orundu, Moses; Lankau, Emily; Gakuya, Francis; Munyua, Peninah; Githinji, Jane; Marano, Nina; Njenga, Kariuki; Omolo, Jared; Montgomery, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Rabies is a fatal viral infection, resulting in >55,000 deaths globally each year. In August 2011, a young orphaned zebra at a Kenyan safari lodge acquired rabies and potentially exposed >150 tourists and local staff. An investigation was initiated to determine exposures among the local staff, and to describe animal bite surveillance in the affected district. Methods We interviewed lodge staff on circumstances surrounding the zebra's illness and assessed their exposure status. We reviewed animal bite report forms from the outpatient department at the district hospital. Results The zebra was reported bitten by a dog on 31st July 2011, became ill on 23rdAugust, and died three days later. There were 22 employees working at the lodge during that time. Six (27%) had high exposure due to contact with saliva (bottle feeding, veterinary care) and received four doses of rabies vaccine and one of immune-globulin, and 16 (73%) had low exposure due to casual contact and received only four doses of rabies vaccine. From January 2010 to September 2011, 118 cases of animal bites were reported in the district; 67 (57%) occurred among males, 65 (57%) in children <15 years old, and 61 (52%) were inflicted in a lower extremity. Domestic and stray dogs accounted for 98% of reported bites. Conclusion Dog bites remains the main source of rabies exposure in the district, but exposure can result from wildlife. This highlights the importance of a one health approach with strong communication between wildlife, veterinary, and human health sectors to improve rabies prevention and control. PMID:25815092

  3. An apparent hiatus in global warming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenberth, Kevin E.; Fasullo, John T.

    2013-12-01

    Global warming first became evident beyond the bounds of natural variability in the 1970s, but increases in global mean surface temperatures have stalled in the 2000s. Increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases, notably carbon dioxide, create an energy imbalance at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) even as the planet warms to adjust to this imbalance, which is estimated to be 0.5-1 W m-2 over the 2000s. Annual global fluctuations in TOA energy of up to 0.2 W m-2 occur from natural variations in clouds, aerosols, and changes in the Sun. At times of major volcanic eruptions the effects can be much larger. Yet global mean surface temperatures fluctuate much more than these can account for. An energy imbalance is manifested not just as surface atmospheric or ground warming but also as melting sea and land ice, and heating of the oceans. More than 90% of the heat goes into the oceans and, with melting land ice, causes sea level to rise. For the past decade, more than 30% of the heat has apparently penetrated below 700 m depth that is traceable to changes in surface winds mainly over the Pacific in association with a switch to a negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) in 1999. Surface warming was much more in evidence during the 1976-1998 positive phase of the PDO, suggesting that natural decadal variability modulates the rate of change of global surface temperatures while sea-level rise is more relentless. Global warming has not stopped; it is merely manifested in different ways.

  4. Frequency of Deep Convective Clouds and Global Warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Teixeira, Joao

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the effect of global warming on the formation of Deep Convective Clouds (DCC). It concludes that nature responds to global warming with an increase in strong convective activity. The frequency of DCC increases with global warming at the rate of 6%/decade. The increased frequency of DCC with global warming alone increases precipitation by 1.7%/decade. It compares the state of the art climate models' response to global warming, and concludes that the parametrization of climate models need to be tuned to more closely emulate the way nature responds to global warming.

  5. Southern Hemisphere and deep-sea warming led deglacial atmospheric CO2 rise and tropical warming.

    PubMed

    Stott, Lowell; Timmermann, Axel; Thunell, Robert

    2007-10-19

    Establishing what caused Earth's largest climatic changes in the past requires a precise knowledge of both the forcing and the regional responses. We determined the chronology of high- and low-latitude climate change at the last glacial termination by radiocarbon dating benthic and planktonic foraminiferal stable isotope and magnesium/calcium records from a marine core collected in the western tropical Pacific. Deep-sea temperatures warmed by approximately 2 degrees C between 19 and 17 thousand years before the present (ky B.P.), leading the rise in atmospheric CO2 and tropical-surface-ocean warming by approximately 1000 years. The cause of this deglacial deep-water warming does not lie within the tropics, nor can its early onset between 19 and 17 ky B.P. be attributed to CO2 forcing. Increasing austral-spring insolation combined with sea-ice albedo feedbacks appear to be the key factors responsible for this warming.

  6. Discrimination of a major stratospheric warming event in February-March 1984 from earlier minor warmings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, K. W.; Quiroz, R. S.; Gelman, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    As part of its responsibility for stratospheric monitoring, the Climate Analysis Center derives time trends of various dynamic parameters from NMC stratospheric analyses. Selected figures from this stratospheric monitoring data base are published in Climate Diagnostics Bulletin in March and October, after each hemispheric winter. During the Northern Hemisphere winter of December 1983-February 1984 several warming events may be seen in the plot of 60 deg. N zonal mean temperatures for 10 mb. Minor warmings may be noted in early December, late December, mid January and early February. A major warming with the 60 deg. N zonal mean temperatures reaching -40C is observed in late February, associated with a circulation reversal. In all of the minor warming episodes, there is a polarward movement of the Aleutian anticyclone; however, at 10 mb the North Pole remains in the cyclonic circulation of the stratospheric vortex which is not displaced far from its usual position. In the case of the later February major warming, the 10 mb circulation pattern over the North Pole is anticyclonic, and the cyclonic circulation has moved to the south and east with a considerable elongation. Cross sections of heat transport and momentum transport are not dramatically different for the minor and major warming episodes.

  7. OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND WARM SPRINGS CAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND WARM SPRINGS CAMP BUILDINGS, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. THE FUNCTION OF THE FLAT AREA AT CENTER RIGHT IS UNKNOWN. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  8. Cognitive Egocentrism Differentiates Warm and Cold People.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Ryan L; Bresin, Konrad; Ode, Scott; Robinson, Michael D

    2013-02-01

    Warmth-coldness is a fundamental dimension of social behavior. Cold individuals are egocentric in their social relations, whereas warm individuals are not. Previous theorizing suggests that cognitive egocentrism underlies social egocentrism. It was hypothesized that higher levels of interpersonal coldness would predict greater cognitive egocentrism. Cognitive egocentrism was assessed in basic terms through tasks wherein priming a lateralized self-state biased subsequent visual perceptions in an assimilation-related manner. Such effects reflect a tendency to assume that the self's incidental state provides meaningful information concerning the external world. Cognitive egocentrism was evident at high, but not low, levels of interpersonal coldness. The findings reveal a basic difference between warm and cold people, encouraging future research linking cognitive egocentrism to variability in relationship functioning.

  9. Global Warming, Drought and a Greening Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donohue, R. J.; Roderick, M. L.; McVicar, T.; Farquhar, G. D.; Yang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    A commonly held perception is that global warming will result in a drier planet with a greater occurrence of droughts. Across water-limited environments, droughts result in declines in vegetation productivity and cover. However, observations indicate that productivity and cover have, on average, been increasing across the globe's water-limited regions. This raises the question of what the relationship is between drought and vegetation, and how might vegetation-water dynamics change as global warming progresses. Of particular interest is the role that CO2 fertilisation has in changing landscape-scale vegetation water use. We will present both observation- and model-based analyses of the possible CO2-driven changes in vegetation cover, productivity and water use.

  10. Management of drought risk under global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Han, Lanying; Jia, Jianying; Song, Lingling; Wang, Jinsong

    2016-07-01

    Drought is a serious ecological problem around the world, and its impact on crops and water availability for humans can jeopardize human life. Although drought has always been common, the drought risk has become increasingly prominent because of the climatic warming that has occurred during the past century. However, it still does not comprehensively understand the mechanisms that determine the occurrence of the drought risk it poses to humans, particularly in the context of global climate change. In this paper, we summarize the progress of research on drought and the associated risk, introduce the principle of a drought "transition" from one stage to another, synthesize the characteristics of key factors and their interactions, discuss the potential effect of climatic warming on drought risk, and use this discussion to define the basic requirements for a drought risk management system. We also discuss the main measures that can be used to prevent or mitigate droughts in the context of a risk management strategy.

  11. Environmental colonialism Leadership and global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-16

    The vast majority of the world's scientific community believes there is global warming and that it is global problem requiring international cooperation. But policy makers in industrialized countries are at a crossroads:Listen to the skeptics, who demand more proof and who fear economic consequences of an anti-greenhouse campaign, or take the more difficult path of commitment to attacking the problem. Meanwhile, poverty and debt keep. The Third world locked out of any active partnership. This issue of ED highlight their results of recently tapping documents and seminar findings on the subject of global warming. This issue also contains the following: (1) ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of the February 9, 1990; and (2) ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, February 1990 edition. 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Indian Ocean warming modulates Pacific climate change

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jing-Jia; Sasaki, Wataru; Masumoto, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    It has been widely believed that the tropical Pacific trade winds weakened in the last century and would further decrease under a warmer climate in the 21st century. Recent high-quality observations, however, suggest that the tropical Pacific winds have actually strengthened in the past two decades. Precise causes of the recent Pacific climate shift are uncertain. Here we explore how the enhanced tropical Indian Ocean warming in recent decades favors stronger trade winds in the western Pacific via the atmosphere and hence is likely to have contributed to the La Niña-like state (with enhanced east–west Walker circulation) through the Pacific ocean–atmosphere interactions. Further analysis, based on 163 climate model simulations with centennial historical and projected external radiative forcing, suggests that the Indian Ocean warming relative to the Pacific’s could play an important role in modulating the Pacific climate changes in the 20th and 21st centuries. PMID:23112174

  13. Giant natural fluctuation models and anthropogenic warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovejoy, S.; Rio Amador, L.; Hébert, R.; Lima, I.

    2016-08-01

    Explanations for the industrial epoch warming are polarized around the hypotheses of anthropogenic warming (AW) and giant natural fluctuations (GNFs). While climate sceptics have systematically attacked AW, up until now they have only invoked GNFs. This has now changed with the publication by D. Keenan of a sample of 1000 series from stochastic processes purporting to emulate the global annual temperature since 1880. While Keenan's objective was to criticize the International Panel on Climate Change's trend uncertainty analysis (their assumption that residuals are only weakly correlated), for the first time it is possible to compare a stochastic GNF model with real data. Using Haar fluctuations, probability distributions, and other techniques of time series analysis, we show that his model has unrealistically strong low-frequency variability so that even mild extrapolations imply ice ages every ≈1000 years. Helped by statistics, the GNF model can easily be scientifically rejected.

  14. Cognitive Egocentrism Differentiates Warm and Cold People.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Ryan L; Bresin, Konrad; Ode, Scott; Robinson, Michael D

    2013-02-01

    Warmth-coldness is a fundamental dimension of social behavior. Cold individuals are egocentric in their social relations, whereas warm individuals are not. Previous theorizing suggests that cognitive egocentrism underlies social egocentrism. It was hypothesized that higher levels of interpersonal coldness would predict greater cognitive egocentrism. Cognitive egocentrism was assessed in basic terms through tasks wherein priming a lateralized self-state biased subsequent visual perceptions in an assimilation-related manner. Such effects reflect a tendency to assume that the self's incidental state provides meaningful information concerning the external world. Cognitive egocentrism was evident at high, but not low, levels of interpersonal coldness. The findings reveal a basic difference between warm and cold people, encouraging future research linking cognitive egocentrism to variability in relationship functioning. PMID:23564985

  15. Parameters of human discomfort in warm environments

    SciTech Connect

    Berglund, L.G.; Cunningham, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between thermoregulatory responses during exposure to warm and hot environments and the associated subjective perceptions, e.g., comfort, thermal sensation, etc., have been studied by numerous investigators over a considerable span of time, i.e., roughly 50 years. Skin temperature, mean body temperature, sweating, and percent of skin wettedness have been shown to have a role in comfort, thermal sensation, and perception of skin moisture. This paper reviews studies concerned with the physical and physiological parameters relative to these subjective responses and their level of magnitude, with primary emphasis on warm discomfort and skin moisture. The review indicates that, while utilizing different methodologies for quantification of skin moisture under a wide range of ambient conditions and experimental protocols, the relationship between skin wettedness and discomfort or unpleasantness is consistent and experimentally supported.

  16. Indian Ocean warming modulates Pacific climate change.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jing-Jia; Sasaki, Wataru; Masumoto, Yukio

    2012-11-13

    It has been widely believed that the tropical Pacific trade winds weakened in the last century and would further decrease under a warmer climate in the 21st century. Recent high-quality observations, however, suggest that the tropical Pacific winds have actually strengthened in the past two decades. Precise causes of the recent Pacific climate shift are uncertain. Here we explore how the enhanced tropical Indian Ocean warming in recent decades favors stronger trade winds in the western Pacific via the atmosphere and hence is likely to have contributed to the La Niña-like state (with enhanced east-west Walker circulation) through the Pacific ocean-atmosphere interactions. Further analysis, based on 163 climate model simulations with centennial historical and projected external radiative forcing, suggests that the Indian Ocean warming relative to the Pacific's could play an important role in modulating the Pacific climate changes in the 20th and 21st centuries.

  17. Latitudinal distribution of the recent Arctic warming

    SciTech Connect

    Chylek, Petr; Lesins, Glen K; Wang, Muyin

    2010-12-08

    Increasing Arctic temperature, disappearance of Arctic sea ice, melting of the Greenland ice sheet, sea level rise, increasing strength of Atlantic hurricanes are these impending climate catastrophes supported by observations? Are the recent data really unprecedented during the observational records? Our analysis of Arctic temperature records shows that the Arctic and temperatures in the 1930s and 1940s were almost as high as they are today. We argue that the current warming of the Arctic region is affected more by the multi-decadal climate variability than by an increasing concentration of carbon dioxide. Unfortunately, none of the existing coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models used in the IPCC 2007 cIimate change assessment is able to reproduce neither the observed 20th century Arctic cIimate variability nor the latitudinal distribution of the warming.

  18. Isolating the anthropogenic component of Arctic warming

    SciTech Connect

    Chylek, Petr; Hengartner, Nicholas; Lesins, Glen; Klett, James D.; Humlum, Ole; Wyatt, Marcia; Dubey, Manvendra K.

    2014-05-28

    Structural equation modeling is used in statistical applications as both confirmatory and exploratory modeling to test models and to suggest the most plausible explanation for a relationship between the independent and the dependent variables. Although structural analysis cannot prove causation, it can suggest the most plausible set of factors that influence the observed variable. We apply structural model analysis to the annual mean Arctic surface air temperature from 1900 to 2012 to find the most effective set of predictors and to isolate the anthropogenic component of the recent Arctic warming by subtracting the effects of natural forcing and variability from the observed temperature. We find that anthropogenic greenhouse gases and aerosols radiative forcing and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation internal mode dominate Arctic temperature variability. Furthermore, our structural model analysis of observational data suggests that about half of the recent Arctic warming of 0.64 K/decade may have anthropogenic causes.

  19. Isolating the anthropogenic component of Arctic warming

    DOE PAGES

    Chylek, Petr; Hengartner, Nicholas; Lesins, Glen; Klett, James D.; Humlum, Ole; Wyatt, Marcia; Dubey, Manvendra K.

    2014-05-28

    Structural equation modeling is used in statistical applications as both confirmatory and exploratory modeling to test models and to suggest the most plausible explanation for a relationship between the independent and the dependent variables. Although structural analysis cannot prove causation, it can suggest the most plausible set of factors that influence the observed variable. We apply structural model analysis to the annual mean Arctic surface air temperature from 1900 to 2012 to find the most effective set of predictors and to isolate the anthropogenic component of the recent Arctic warming by subtracting the effects of natural forcing and variability frommore » the observed temperature. We find that anthropogenic greenhouse gases and aerosols radiative forcing and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation internal mode dominate Arctic temperature variability. Furthermore, our structural model analysis of observational data suggests that about half of the recent Arctic warming of 0.64 K/decade may have anthropogenic causes.« less

  20. Early Mars: how warm and how wet?

    PubMed

    Squyres, S W; Kasting, J F

    1994-08-01

    Early in its history, Mars underwent fluvial erosion that has been interpreted as evidence for a warmer, wetter climate. However, no atmosphere composed of only CO2 and H2O appears capable of producing mean planetary temperatures even close to 0 degrees C. Rather than by precipitation, aquifer recharge and ground water seepage may have been enabled by hydrothermal convection driven by geothermal heat and heat associated with impacts. Some climatic warming was probably necessary to allow water to flow for long distances across the surface. Modest warming could be provided by even a low-pressure CO2 atmosphere if it was supplemented with small amounts of CH4, NH3, or SO2. Episodic excursions to high obliquities may also have raised temperatures over some portions of the planet's surface. PMID:11539185

  1. Was early Mars warmed by ammonia?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasting, J. F.; Brown, L. L.; Acord, J. M.; Pollack, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    Runoff channels and valley networks present on ancient, heavily cratered Martian terrain suggests that the climate of Mars was originally warm and wet. One explanation for the formation of these channels is that the surface was warmed by the greenhouse effect of a dense, CO2 atmosphere. However, recent work shows that this theory is not consistent for the early period of the solar system. One way to increase the surface temperature predicted is to assume that other greenhouse gases were present in Mars' atmosphere in addition to CO2 and H2O. This possible gas is ammonia, NH3. If ammonia was present in sufficient quantities, it could have raised the surface temperature to 273 K. An adequate source would have been volcanic outgassing if the NH3 produced was shielded from photolysis by an ultraviolet light absorber.

  2. [Global warming and spread of infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Ebert, B; Fleischer, B

    2005-01-01

    At the end of the twentieth century, tropical infectious diseases increased despite earlier successes of eradication campaigns. As a global warming of 1.4-5.8 degrees C is anticipated to occur by 2100, mainly the vector-borne tropical diseases that are particularly sensitive to climate are expected to spread. Although biological reasons seemingly support this hypothesis, ecological and socioeconomic factors have in the past proven to be stronger driving forces for the spread of infectious disease than climate.

  3. Robust warming of the global upper ocean.

    PubMed

    Lyman, John M; Good, Simon A; Gouretski, Viktor V; Ishii, Masayoshi; Johnson, Gregory C; Palmer, Matthew D; Smith, Doug M; Willis, Josh K

    2010-05-20

    A large ( approximately 10(23) J) multi-decadal globally averaged warming signal in the upper 300 m of the world's oceans was reported roughly a decade ago and is attributed to warming associated with anthropogenic greenhouse gases. The majority of the Earth's total energy uptake during recent decades has occurred in the upper ocean, but the underlying uncertainties in ocean warming are unclear, limiting our ability to assess closure of sea-level budgets, the global radiation imbalance and climate models. For example, several teams have recently produced different multi-year estimates of the annually averaged global integral of upper-ocean heat content anomalies (hereafter OHCA curves) or, equivalently, the thermosteric sea-level rise. Patterns of interannual variability, in particular, differ among methods. Here we examine several sources of uncertainty that contribute to differences among OHCA curves from 1993 to 2008, focusing on the difficulties of correcting biases in expendable bathythermograph (XBT) data. XBT data constitute the majority of the in situ measurements of upper-ocean heat content from 1967 to 2002, and we find that the uncertainty due to choice of XBT bias correction dominates among-method variability in OHCA curves during our 1993-2008 study period. Accounting for multiple sources of uncertainty, a composite of several OHCA curves using different XBT bias corrections still yields a statistically significant linear warming trend for 1993-2008 of 0.64 W m(-2) (calculated for the Earth's entire surface area), with a 90-per-cent confidence interval of 0.53-0.75 W m(-2).

  4. Global warming and the hydrologic cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loaiciga, Hugo A.; Valdes, Juan B.; Vogel, Richard; Garvey, Jeff; Schwarz, Harry

    1996-01-01

    Starting with a review of the basic processes that govern greenhouse warming, we have demonstrated that the hydrologic cycle plays a key role in the heat balance of the Earth's surface—atmosphere system. Through the water and other climatic feedbacks, the hydrologic cycle is shown to be a key factor in the climate's evolution as greenhouse gases continue to build up in the atmosphere. This paper examines the current predictive capability of general circulation models linked with macroscale and landscape-scale hydrologic models that simulate regional and local hydrologic regimes under global warming scenarios. Issues concerning hydrologic model calibration and validation in the context of climate change are addressed herein. It is shown that the natural uncertainty in hydrologic regimes in the present climate introduces a signal-to-noise interpretation problem for discerning greenhouse-induced variations in regional hydrologic regimes. Simulations of river basins by means of macroscale hydrologic models nested within general circulation models have been implemented in a few selected cases. From the perspective of water resources management, such simulations, carried out in detail under greenhouse-warming scenarios in midlatitudinal basins of the United States, predict shorter winter seasons, larger winter floods, drier and more frequent summer weather, and overall enhanced and protracted hydrologic variability. All these predictions point to potentially worsening conditions for flood control, water storage, and water supply in areas of semiarid midlatitudinal climate currently dependent of spring snowmelt. Little information of this type is currently available for other areas of the world. Practice of sound water resources engineering principles ought to be adequate to cope with additional hydrologic uncertainty that might arise from global warming.

  5. An Implicit Psychology of Warm and Cold Interpersonal Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Charles J.; Sarteschi, Randy

    Currently it is recognized that psychology of people may involve both an implicit theory of interpersonal warmness and the personality trait of warmness. Just as the trait of dominance depends on the relative strengths of interactants, so may perceivers expect the trait of warmness to derive its meaning from an interpersonal context. Elements of…

  6. Phytotoxicity of floodplain soils contaminated with trace metals along the Clark Fork River, Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site, Deer Lodge, Montana, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Rader, B.R.; Nimmo, D.W.R.; Chapman, P.L.

    1997-07-01

    Concentrations of metals in sediments and soils deposited along the floodplain of the Clark Fork River, within the Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site, Deer Lodge, Montana, USA, have exceeded maximum background concentrations in the United States for most metals tested. As a result of mining and smelting activities, portions of the Deer Lodge Valley, including the Grant-Kohrs Ranch, have received National Priority List Designation under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act. Using a series of plant germination tests, pH measurements, and metal analyses, this study investigated the toxicity of soils from floodplain slicken areas, bare spots devoid of vegetation, along the Clark Fork River. The slicken soils collected from the Grant-Kohrs Ranch were toxic to all four plant species tested. The most sensitive endpoint in the germination tests was root length and the least sensitive was emergence. Considering emergence, the most sensitive species was the resident grass species Agrostis gigantea. The sensitivities were reversed when root lengths were examined, with Echinochloa crusgalli showing the greatest sensitivity. Both elevated concentrations of metals and low pH were necessary to produce an acutely phytotoxic response in laboratory seed germination tests using slicken soils. Moreover, pH values on the Grant-Kohrs Ranch appear to be a better predictor of acutely phytotoxic conditions than total metal levels.

  7. Phytotoxicity of floodplain soils contaminated with trace metals along the clark fork river, Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site, Deer Lodge, Montana, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rader, B.R.; Nimmo, D.W.R.; Chapman, P.L.

    1997-01-01

    Concentrations of metals in sediments and soils deposited along the floodplain of the Clark Fork River, within the Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site, Deer Lodge, Montana, USA, have exceeded maximum background concentrations in the United States for most metals tested. As a result of mining and smelting activities, portions of the Deer Lodge Valley, including the Grant-Kohrs Ranch, have received National Priority List Designation under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act. Using a series of plant germination tests, pH measurements, and metal analyses, this study investigated the toxicity of soils from floodplain 'slicken' areas, bare spots devoid of vegetation, along the Clark Fork River. The slicken soils collected from the Grant-Kohrs Ranch were toxic to all four plant species tested. The most sensitive endpoint in the germination tests was root length and the least sensitive was emergence. Considering emergence, the most sensitive species was the resident grass species Agrostis gigantea. The sensitivities were reversed when root lengths were examined, with Echinochloa crusgalli showing the greatest sensitivity. Both elevated concentrations of metals and low pH were necessary to produce an acutely phytotoxic response in laboratory seed germination tests using slicken soils. Moreover, pH values on the Grant-Kohrs Ranch appear to be a better predictor of acutely phytotoxic conditions than total metal levels.

  8. Urbanization enhances surface warming in Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dagang

    2016-04-01

    This study aims at observing urban effects on surface warming in eastern China, where many cities have undergone a rapid development of urbanization in the last few decades. Daily mean, maximum and minimum surface air temperature records from 1971-2010 in 277 meteorological stations are used to investigate the effects of urbanization on temperature change. Due to the expansion of cities, the temperature records in some of the stations which were not close to cities in the past are gradually influenced by urbanization. In order to detect the effects of urbanization on surface warming effectively, the stations are classified into 'urban' and 'rural' types dynamically based on the land use data in four periods, 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010 in this study. By comparing the temperature trend differences between all of the urban and rural stations in eastern China, the results show that annual averaged daily minimum temperature are suffered the strongest effects from urbanization with an increased rate of 0.870°C decade-1 in urban stations, and the contribution of urban effects to its total surface warming is estimated to be 52.8% during 1971-2010.

  9. Effects of Global Warming on Vibrio Ecology.

    PubMed

    Vezzulli, Luigi; Pezzati, Elisabetta; Brettar, Ingrid; Höfle, Manfred; Pruzzo, Carla

    2015-06-01

    Vibrio-related infections are increasing worldwide both in humans and aquatic animals. Rise in global sea surface temperature (SST), which is approximately 1 °C higher now than 140 years ago and is one of the primary physical impacts of global warming, has been linked to such increases. In this chapter, major known effects of increasing SST on the biology and ecology of vibrios are described. They include the effects on bacterial growth rate, both in the field and in laboratory, culturability, expression of pathogenicity traits, and interactions with aquatic organisms and abiotic surfaces. Special emphasis is given to the effect of ocean warming on Vibrio interactions with zooplankters, which represent one of the most important aquatic reservoirs for these bacteria. The reported findings highlight the biocomplexity of the interactions between vibrios and their natural environment in a climate change scenario, posing the need for interdisciplinary studies to properly understand the connection between ocean warming and persistence and spread of vibrios in sea waters and the epidemiology of the diseases they cause. PMID:26185070

  10. Scientists' views about attribution of global warming.

    PubMed

    Verheggen, Bart; Strengers, Bart; Cook, John; van Dorland, Rob; Vringer, Kees; Peters, Jeroen; Visser, Hans; Meyer, Leo

    2014-08-19

    Results are presented from a survey held among 1868 scientists studying various aspects of climate change, including physical climate, climate impacts, and mitigation. The survey was unique in its size, broadness and level of detail. Consistent with other research, we found that, as the level of expertise in climate science grew, so too did the level of agreement on anthropogenic causation. 90% of respondents with more than 10 climate-related peer-reviewed publications (about half of all respondents), explicitly agreed with anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) being the dominant driver of recent global warming. The respondents' quantitative estimate of the GHG contribution appeared to strongly depend on their judgment or knowledge of the cooling effect of aerosols. The phrasing of the IPCC attribution statement in its fourth assessment report (AR4)-providing a lower limit for the isolated GHG contribution-may have led to an underestimation of the GHG influence on recent warming. The phrasing was improved in AR5. We also report on the respondents' views on other factors contributing to global warming; of these Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) was considered the most important. Respondents who characterized human influence on climate as insignificant, reported having had the most frequent media coverage regarding their views on climate change.

  11. Global Warming: Evidence from Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.

    2001-01-01

    Observations made in Channel 2 (53.74 GHz) of the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) radiometer, flown on-board sequential, sun-synchronous, polar orbiting NOAA operational satellites, indicate that the mean temperature of the atmosphere over the globe increased during the period 1980 to 1999. In this study we have minimized systematic errors in the time series introduced by the satellite orbital drift in an objective manner. This is done with the help the onboard warm black body temperature, which is used in the calibration of the MSU radiometer. The corrected MSU Channel 2 observations of the NOAA satellite series reveal that the vertically weighted global mean temperature of the atmosphere, with a peak weight near the mid-troposphere, warmed at the rate of 0.13 K per decade (with an uncertainty of 0.05 K per decade) during 1980 to 1999. The global warming deduced from conventional meteorological data that have been corrected for urbanization effects agrees reasonably with this satellite deuced result.

  12. Effects of Global Warming on Vibrio Ecology.

    PubMed

    Vezzulli, Luigi; Pezzati, Elisabetta; Brettar, Ingrid; Höfle, Manfred; Pruzzo, Carla

    2015-06-01

    Vibrio-related infections are increasing worldwide both in humans and aquatic animals. Rise in global sea surface temperature (SST), which is approximately 1 °C higher now than 140 years ago and is one of the primary physical impacts of global warming, has been linked to such increases. In this chapter, major known effects of increasing SST on the biology and ecology of vibrios are described. They include the effects on bacterial growth rate, both in the field and in laboratory, culturability, expression of pathogenicity traits, and interactions with aquatic organisms and abiotic surfaces. Special emphasis is given to the effect of ocean warming on Vibrio interactions with zooplankters, which represent one of the most important aquatic reservoirs for these bacteria. The reported findings highlight the biocomplexity of the interactions between vibrios and their natural environment in a climate change scenario, posing the need for interdisciplinary studies to properly understand the connection between ocean warming and persistence and spread of vibrios in sea waters and the epidemiology of the diseases they cause.

  13. Global Warming: Evidence from Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R.; Yoo, J.-M.; Dalu, G.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Observations made in Channel 2 (53.74 GHz) of the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) radiometer, flown onboard sequential, sun-synchronous, polar-orbiting NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) operational satellites, indicate that the mean temperature of the atmosphere over the globe increased during the period 1980 to 1999. In this study, we have minimized systematic errors in the time series introduced by satellite orbital drift in an objective manner. This is done with the help of the onboard warm-blackbody temperature, which is used in the calibration of the MSU radiometer. The corrected MSU Channel 2 observations of the NOAA satellite series reveal that the vertically-weighted global-mean temperature of the atmosphere, with a peak weight near the mid troposphere, warmed at the rate of 0.13 +/- 0.05 K/decade during 1980 to 1999. The global warming deduced from conventional meteorological data that have been corrected for urbanization effects agrees reasonably with this satellite-deduced result.

  14. Toward international law on global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Shultz, E.B. Jr.; Johns, C.; Pauken, M.T. )

    1991-01-01

    Legal precedent in the history of international environmental law is considered. Then, the legal principles, rights and obligations related to transboundary environmental interference are drawn from the precedent. From this legal and historical background, and a brief overview of the principal technical aspects of the emerging global warming problem, the authors suggest a number of possible international protocols. These include outlines of multilateral treaties on energy efficiency, reduction in utilization of coal, increased adoption efficiency, reduction in utilization of coal, increased adoption of renewable and solar energy, and stimulation of several types of forestation, with creation of practical regimes and remedies. Each protocol has its own environmental social and economic merits and urgency, apart from the prevention of global warming. In each suggested protocol, the political obstacles are analyzed. Suggestions are presented for reduction of levels of disagreement standing in the way of obtaining viable treaties likely to be upheld in practice by the signatories. An agenda for study and action is presented, on the assumption that prudence dictates that international environmental law must be expanded as soon as feasible to regulate global warming.

  15. Seaweed communities in retreat from ocean warming.

    PubMed

    Wernberg, Thomas; Russell, Bayden D; Thomsen, Mads S; Gurgel, C Frederico D; Bradshaw, Corey J A; Poloczanska, Elvira S; Connell, Sean D

    2011-11-01

    In recent decades, global climate change [1] has caused profound biological changes across the planet [2-6]. However, there is a great disparity in the strength of evidence among different ecosystems and between hemispheres: changes on land have been well documented through long-term studies, but similar direct evidence for impacts of warming is virtually absent from the oceans [3, 7], where only a few studies on individual species of intertidal invertebrates, plankton, and commercially important fish in the North Atlantic and North Pacific exist. This disparity of evidence is precarious for biological conservation because of the critical role of the marine realm in regulating the Earth's environmental and ecological functions, and the associated socioeconomic well-being of humans [8]. We interrogated a database of >20,000 herbarium records of macroalgae collected in Australia since the 1940s and documented changes in communities and geographical distribution limits in both the Indian and Pacific Oceans, consistent with rapid warming over the past five decades [9, 10]. We show that continued warming might drive potentially hundreds of species toward and beyond the edge of the Australian continent where sustained retreat is impossible. The potential for global extinctions is profound considering the many endemic seaweeds and seaweed-dependent marine organisms in temperate Australia.

  16. Global warming and allergy in Asia Minor.

    PubMed

    Bajin, Munir Demir; Cingi, Cemal; Oghan, Fatih; Gurbuz, Melek Kezban

    2013-01-01

    The earth is warming, and it is warming quickly. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that global warming is correlated with the frequency of pollen-induced respiratory allergy and allergic diseases. There is a body of evidence suggesting that the prevalence of allergic diseases induced by pollens is increasing in developed countries, a trend that is also evident in the Mediterranean area. Because of its mild winters and sunny days with dry summers, the Mediterranean area is different from the areas of central and northern Europe. Classical examples of allergenic pollen-producing plants of the Mediterranean climate include Parietaria, Olea and Cupressaceae. Asia Minor is a Mediterranean region that connects Asia and Europe, and it includes considerable coastal areas. Gramineae pollens are the major cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis in Asia Minor, affecting 1.3-6.4 % of the population, in accordance with other European regions. This article emphasizes the importance of global climate change and anticipated increases in the prevalence and severity of allergic disease in Asia Minor, mediated through worsening air pollution and altered local and regional pollen production, from an otolaryngologic perspective.

  17. Attribution of polar warming to human influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillett, Nathan P.; Stone, Dáithí A.; Stott, Peter A.; Nozawa, Toru; Karpechko, Alexey Yu.; Hegerl, Gabriele C.; Wehner, Michael F.; Jones, Philip D.

    2008-11-01

    The polar regions have long been expected to warm strongly as a result of anthropogenic climate change, because of the positive feedbacks associated with melting ice and snow. Several studies have noted a rise in Arctic temperatures over recent decades, but have not formally attributed the changes to human influence, owing to sparse observations and large natural variability. Both warming and cooling trends have been observed in Antarctica, which the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report concludes is the only continent where anthropogenic temperature changes have not been detected so far, possibly as a result of insufficient observational coverage. Here we use an up-to-date gridded data set of land surface temperatures and simulations from four coupled climate models to assess the causes of the observed polar temperature changes. We find that the observed changes in Arctic and Antarctic temperatures are not consistent with internal climate variability or natural climate drivers alone, and are directly attributable to human influence. Our results demonstrate that human activities have already caused significant warming in both polar regions, with likely impacts on polar biology, indigenous communities, ice-sheet mass balance and global sea level.

  18. Multishock Compression Properties of Warm Dense Argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Chen, Qifeng; Yunjun, Gu; Li, Zhiguo; Shen, Zhijun

    2015-10-01

    Warm dense argon was generated by a shock reverberation technique. The diagnostics of warm dense argon were performed by a multichannel optical pyrometer and a velocity interferometer system. The equations of state in the pressure-density range of 20-150 GPa and 1.9-5.3 g/cm3 from the first- to fourth-shock compression were presented. The single-shock temperatures in the range of 17.2-23.4 kK were obtained from the spectral radiance. Experimental results indicates that multiple shock-compression ratio (ηi = ρi/ρ0) is greatly enhanced from 3.3 to 8.8, where ρ0 is the initial density of argon and ρi (i = 1, 2, 3, 4) is the compressed density from first to fourth shock, respectively. For the relative compression ratio (ηi’ = ρi/ρi-1), an interesting finding is that a turning point occurs at the second shocked states under the conditions of different experiments, and ηi’ increases with pressure in lower density regime and reversely decreases with pressure in higher density regime. The evolution of the compression ratio is controlled by the excitation of internal degrees of freedom, which increase the compression, and by the interaction effects between particles that reduce it. A temperature-density plot shows that current multishock compression states of argon have distributed into warm dense regime.

  19. Multishock Compression Properties of Warm Dense Argon.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jun; Chen, Qifeng; Yunjun, Gu; Li, Zhiguo; Shen, Zhijun

    2015-01-01

    Warm dense argon was generated by a shock reverberation technique. The diagnostics of warm dense argon were performed by a multichannel optical pyrometer and a velocity interferometer system. The equations of state in the pressure-density range of 20-150 GPa and 1.9-5.3 g/cm(3) from the first- to fourth-shock compression were presented. The single-shock temperatures in the range of 17.2-23.4 kK were obtained from the spectral radiance. Experimental results indicates that multiple shock-compression ratio (ηi = ρi/ρ0) is greatly enhanced from 3.3 to 8.8, where ρ0 is the initial density of argon and ρi (i = 1, 2, 3, 4) is the compressed density from first to fourth shock, respectively. For the relative compression ratio (ηi' = ρi/ρi-1), an interesting finding is that a turning point occurs at the second shocked states under the conditions of different experiments, and ηi' increases with pressure in lower density regime and reversely decreases with pressure in higher density regime. The evolution of the compression ratio is controlled by the excitation of internal degrees of freedom, which increase the compression, and by the interaction effects between particles that reduce it. A temperature-density plot shows that current multishock compression states of argon have distributed into warm dense regime. PMID:26515505

  20. Wind changes above warm Agulhas Current eddies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouault, M.; Verley, P.; Backeberg, B.

    2016-04-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) estimated from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer E onboard the Aqua satellite and altimetry-derived sea level anomalies are used south of the Agulhas Current to identify warm-core mesoscale eddies presenting a distinct SST perturbation greater than to 1 °C to the surrounding ocean. The analysis of twice daily instantaneous charts of equivalent stability-neutral wind speed estimates from the SeaWinds scatterometer onboard the QuikScat satellite collocated with SST for six identified eddies shows stronger wind speed above the warm eddies than the surrounding water in all wind directions, if averaged over the lifespan of the eddies, as was found in previous studies. However, only half of the cases showed higher wind speeds above the eddies at the instantaneous scale; 20 % of cases had incomplete data due to partial global coverage by the scatterometer for one path. For cases where the wind is stronger above warm eddies, there is no relationship between the increase in surface wind speed and the SST perturbation, but we do find a linear relationship between the decrease in wind speed from the centre to the border of the eddy downstream and the SST perturbation. SST perturbations range from 1 to 6 °C for a mean eddy SST of 15.9 °C and mean SST perturbation of 2.65 °C. The diameter of the eddies range from 100 to 250 km. Mean background wind speed is about 12 m s-1 (mostly southwesterly to northwesterly) and ranging mainly from 4 to 16 m s-1. The mean wind increase is about 15 %, which corresponds to 1.8 m s-1. A wind speed increase of 4 to 7 m s-1 above warm eddies is not uncommon. Cases where the wind did not increase above the eddies or did not decrease downstream had higher wind speeds and occurred during a cold front associated with intense cyclonic low-pressure systems, suggesting certain synoptic conditions need to be met to allow for the development of wind speed anomalies over warm-core ocean eddies. In many cases