Science.gov

Sample records for kai kisand toomas

  1. Structural model of the circadian clock KaiB-KaiC complex and mechanism for modulation of KaiC phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Pattanayek, Rekha; Williams, Dewight R; Pattanayek, Sabuj; Mori, Tetsuya; Johnson, Carl H; Stewart, Phoebe L; Egli, Martin

    2010-03-08

    The circadian clock of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus can be reconstituted in vitro by the KaiA, KaiB and KaiC proteins in the presence of ATP. The principal clock component, KaiC, undergoes regular cycles between hyper- and hypo-phosphorylated states with a period of ca. 24 h that is temperature compensated. KaiA enhances KaiC phosphorylation and this enhancement is antagonized by KaiB. Throughout the cycle Kai proteins interact in a dynamic manner to form complexes of different composition. We present a three-dimensional model of the S. elongatus KaiB-KaiC complex based on X-ray crystallography, negative-stain and cryo-electron microscopy, native gel electrophoresis and modelling techniques. We provide experimental evidence that KaiB dimers interact with KaiC from the same side as KaiA and for a conformational rearrangement of the C-terminal regions of KaiC subunits. The enlarged central channel and thus KaiC subunit separation in the C-terminal ring of the hexamer is consistent with KaiC subunit exchange during the dephosphorylation phase. The proposed binding mode of KaiB explains the observation of simultaneous binding of KaiA and KaiB to KaiC, and provides insight into the mechanism of KaiB's antagonism of KaiA.

  2. CryoEM and Molecular Dynamics of the Circadian KaiB-KaiC Complex Indicates That KaiB Monomers Interact with KaiC and Block ATP Binding Clefts

    SciTech Connect

    Villarreal, Seth A.; Pattanayek, Rekha; Williams, Dewight R.; Mori, Tetsuya; Qin, Ximing; Johnson, Carl H.; Egli, Martin; Stewart, Phoebe L.

    2014-10-02

    The circadian control of cellular processes in cyanobacteria is regulated by a posttranslational oscillator formed by three Kai proteins. During the oscillator cycle, KaiA serves to promote autophosphorylation of KaiC while KaiB counteracts this effect. Here, we present a crystallographic structure of the wild-type Synechococcus elongatus KaiB and a cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) structure of a KaiBC complex. The crystal structure shows the expected dimer core structure and significant conformational variations of the KaiB C-terminal region, which is functionally important in maintaining rhythmicity. The KaiBC sample was formed with a C-terminally truncated form of KaiC, KaiC-Δ489, which is persistently phosphorylated. The KaiB–KaiC-Δ489 structure reveals that the KaiC hexamer can bind six monomers of KaiB, which form a continuous ring of density in the KaiBC complex. We performed cryoEM-guided molecular dynamics flexible fitting simulations with crystal structures of KaiB and KaiC to probe the KaiBC protein–protein interface. This analysis indicated a favorable binding mode for the KaiB monomer on the CII end of KaiC, involving two adjacent KaiC subunits and spanning an ATP binding cleft. A KaiC mutation, R468C, which has been shown to affect the affinity of KaiB for KaiC and lengthen the period in a bioluminescence rhythm assay, is found within the middle of the predicted KaiBC interface. The proposed KaiB binding mode blocks access to the ATP binding cleft in the CII ring of KaiC, which provides insight into how KaiB might influence the phosphorylation status of KaiC.

  3. Loop-Loop Interactions Regulate KaiA-Stimulated KaiC Phosphorylation in the Cyanobacterial KaiABC Circadian Clock

    SciTech Connect

    Egli, Martin; Pattanayek, Rekha; Sheehan, Jonathan H.; Xu, Yao; Mori, Tetsuya; Smith, Jarrod A.; Johnson, Carl H.

    2013-01-25

    We found that the Synechococcus elongatus KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC proteins in the presence of ATP generate a post-translational oscillator that runs in a temperature-compensated manner with a period of 24 h. KaiA dimer stimulates phosphorylation of KaiC hexamer at two sites per subunit, T432 and S431, and KaiB dimers antagonize KaiA action and induce KaiC subunit exchange. Neither the mechanism of KaiA-stimulated KaiC phosphorylation nor that of KaiB-mediated KaiC dephosphorylation is understood in detail at present. We demonstrate here that the A422V KaiC mutant sheds light on the former mechanism. It was previously reported that A422V is less sensitive to dark pulse-induced phase resetting and has a reduced amplitude of the KaiC phosphorylation rhythm in vivo. A422 maps to a loop (422-loop) that continues toward the phosphorylation sites. By pulling on the C-terminal peptide of KaiC (A-loop), KaiA removes restraints from the adjacent 422-loop whose increased flexibility indirectly promotes kinase activity. We found in the crystal structure that A422V KaiC lacks phosphorylation at S431 and exhibits a subtle, local conformational change relative to wild-type KaiC. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate higher mobility of the 422-loop in the absence of the A-loop and mobility differences in other areas associated with phosphorylation activity between wild-type and mutant KaiCs. Finally, the A-loop–422-loop relay that informs KaiC phosphorylation sites of KaiA dimer binding propagates to loops from neighboring KaiC subunits, thus providing support for a concerted allosteric mechanism of phosphorylation.

  4. A dynamic interaction process between KaiA and KaiC is critical to the cyanobacterial circadian oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Pei; Fan, Ying; Sun, Jianqiang; Lv, Mengting; Yi, Ming; Tan, Xiao; Liu, Sen

    2016-04-01

    The core circadian oscillator of cyanobacteria consists of three proteins, KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC. This circadian oscillator could be functionally reconstituted in vitro with these three proteins, and therefore has been a very important model in circadian rhythm research. KaiA can bind to KaiC and then stimulate its phosphorylation, but their interaction mechanism remains elusive. In this study, we followed the “second-site suppressor” strategy to investigate the interaction mechanism of KaiA and KaiC. Using protein sequence analyses, we showed that there exist co-varying residues in the binding interface of KaiA and KaiC. The followed mutagenesis study verified that these residues are important to the functions of KaiA and KaiC, but their roles could not be fully explained by the reported complex structures of KaiA and KaiC derived peptides. Combining our data with previous reports, we suggested a dynamic interaction mechanism in KaiA-KaiC interaction, in which both KaiA and the intrinsically disordered tail of KaiC undergo significant structural changes through conformational selection and induced fit during the binding process. At last, we presented a mathematic model to support this hypothesis and explained the importance of this interaction mechanism for the KaiABC circadian oscillator.

  5. Anabaena circadian clock proteins KaiA and KaiB reveal a potential common binding site to their partner KaiC

    PubMed Central

    Garces, Robert G; Wu, Ning; Gillon, Wanda; Pai, Emil F

    2004-01-01

    The cyanobacterial clock proteins KaiA and KaiB are proposed as regulators of the circadian rhythm in cyanobacteria. Mutations in both proteins have been reported to alter or abolish circadian rhythmicity. Here, we present molecular models of both KaiA and KaiB from the cyanobacteria Anabaena sp PCC7120 deduced by crystal structure analysis, and we discuss how clock-changing or abolishing mutations may cause their resulting circadian phenotype. The overall fold of the KaiA monomer is that of a four-helix bundle. KaiB, on the other hand, adopts an alpha–beta meander motif. Both proteins purify and crystallize as dimers. While the folds of the two proteins are clearly different, their size and some surface features of the physiologically relevant dimers are very similar. Notably, the functionally relevant residues Arg 69 of KaiA and Arg 23 of KaiB align well in space. The apparent structural similarities suggest that KaiA and KaiB may compete for a potential common binding site on KaiC. PMID:15071498

  6. Molecular synchronization, the Kai system, and biological oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubensky, David K.

    2008-03-01

    In most textbook examples, oscillations in cell biology are driven by the periodic creation and destruction of one or more chemical species. The past few years, however, have seen growing interest in a different sort of oscillator. In these systems, the total concentrations of the major protein components are constant, but the molecules move sequentially through a cycle of different states (e.g. covalent modifications). Macroscopic oscillations appear when the progress of the many individual molecules becomes synchronized. The recently-characterized cyanobacterial circadian clock provides a particularly elegant example of such molecular synchronization. Remarkably, with only the 3 proteins KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC, a ˜24 hour oscillation in KaiC phosphorylation can be reconstituted in vitro. We can thus dissect this biochemical circuit in almost unprecedented detail. Here, we give an overview of the Kai system and its relationship to other oscillators. We begin with a review of the major experimental facts about the Kai system, emphasizing possible mechanisms to synchronize KaiC phosphorylation. We then examine in more detail models in which this synchronization occurs through sequestration of KaiA via differential affinity: KaiA, which stimulates KaiC phosphorylation, has a higher affinity for KaiC during certain stages of the phosphorylation cycle; as long as some KaiC molecules at these stages are present in the reaction mixture, they bind all the available KaiA, thereby preventing the other KaiC's from being phosphorylated and proceeding through the cycle. We also discuss the implications of this mechanism for phenomena such as temperature compensation. Finally, we suggest that, in light of lessons learned from the Kai system, a number of other biological oscillators can fruitfully be viewed as examples of molecular synchronization.

  7. Crystal Structure of the Redox-Active Cofactor Dibromothymoquinone Bound to Circadian Clock Protein KaiA and Structural Basis for Dibromothymoquinone's Ability to Prevent Stimulation of KaiC Phosphorylation by KaiA

    SciTech Connect

    Pattanayek, Rekha; Sidiqi, Said K.; Egli, Martin

    2013-09-19

    KaiA protein that stimulates KaiC phosphorylation in the cyanobacterial circadian clock was recently shown to be destabilized by dibromothymoquinone (DBMIB), thus revealing KaiA as a sensor of the plastoquinone (PQ) redox state and suggesting an indirect control of the clock by light through PQ redox changes. Here we show using X-ray crystallography that several DBMIBs are bound to KaiA dimer. Some binding modes are consistent with oligomerization of N-terminal KaiA pseudoreceiver domains and/or reduced interdomain flexibility. DBMIB bound to the C-terminal KaiA (C-KaiA) domain and limited stimulation of KaiC kinase activity by C-KaiA in the presence of DBMIB demonstrate that the cofactor may weakly inhibit KaiA-KaiC binding.

  8. Structural characterization of the circadian clock protein complex composed of KaiB and KaiC by inverse contrast-matching small-angle neutron scattering

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Masaaki; Yagi, Hirokazu; Ishii, Kentaro; Porcar, Lionel; Martel, Anne; Oyama, Katsuaki; Noda, Masanori; Yunoki, Yasuhiro; Murakami, Reiko; Inoue, Rintaro; Sato, Nobuhiro; Oba, Yojiro; Terauchi, Kazuki; Uchiyama, Susumu; Kato, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    The molecular machinery of the cyanobacterial circadian clock consists of three proteins: KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC. Through interactions among the three Kai proteins, the phosphorylation states of KaiC generate circadian oscillations in vitro in the presence of ATP. Here, we characterized the complex formation between KaiB and KaiC using a phospho-mimicking mutant of KaiC, which had an aspartate substitution at the Ser431 phosphorylation site and exhibited optimal binding to KaiB. Mass-spectrometric titration data showed that the proteins formed a complex exclusively in a 6:6 stoichiometry, indicating that KaiB bound to the KaiC hexamer with strong positive cooperativity. The inverse contrast-matching technique of small-angle neutron scattering enabled selective observation of KaiB in complex with the KaiC mutant with partial deuteration. It revealed a disk-shaped arrangement of the KaiB subunits on the outer surface of the KaiC C1 ring, which also serves as the interaction site for SasA, a histidine kinase that operates as a clock-output protein in the regulation of circadian transcription. These data suggest that cooperatively binding KaiB competes with SasA with respect to interaction with KaiC, thereby promoting the synergistic release of this clock-output protein from the circadian oscillator complex. PMID:27752127

  9. Active output state of the Synechococcus Kai circadian oscillator.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Mark L; Boyd, Joseph S; Adin, Dawn M; Golden, Susan S

    2013-10-01

    The mechanisms by which cellular oscillators keep time and transmit temporal information are poorly understood. In cyanobacteria, the timekeeping aspect of the circadian oscillator, composed of the KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC proteins, involves a cyclic progression of phosphorylation states at Ser431 and Thr432 of KaiC. Elucidating the mechanism that uses this temporal information to modulate gene expression is complicated by unknowns regarding the number, structure, and regulatory effects of output components. To identify oscillator signaling states without a complete description of the output machinery, we defined a simple metric, Kai-complex output activity (KOA), that represents the difference in expression of reporter genes between strains that carry specific variants of KaiC and baseline strains that lack KaiC. In the absence of the oscillator, expression of the class 1 paradigm promoter P(kaiBC) was locked at its usual peak level; conversely, that of the class 2 paradigm promoter P(purF) was locked at its trough level. However, for both classes of promoters, peak KOA in wild-type strains coincided late in the circadian cycle near subjective dawn, when KaiC-pST becomes most prevalent (Ser431 is phosphorylated and Thr432 is not). Analogously, peak KOA was detected specifically for the phosphomimetic of KaiC-pST (KaiC-ET). Notably, peak KOA required KaiB, indicating that a KaiBC complex is involved in the output activity. We also found evidence that phosphorylated RpaA (regulator of phycobilisome associated) represses an RpaA-independent output of KOA. A simple mathematical expression successfully simulated two key features of the oscillator-the time of peak KOA and the peak-to-trough amplitude changes.

  10. Overexpression of KAI1 inhibits retinoblastoma metastasis in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hui; Ji, Xunda; Li, Jing; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Peiquan

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the expression of cluster of differentiation 82 (KAI1), a gene involved in the suppression of tumor metastasis, in human retinoblastoma (RB) tissue and to study the effect of KAI1 expression on RB cell migration and invasion. KAI1 expression was examined in 26 patients with non-invasive and invasive retinoblastoma using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. A lentiviral vector containing KAI1 cDNA was used to transfect the two RB cell lines, HXO-Rb44-Gl and Y79. Following successful transfection, the migratory and invasive capacity of the two RB cell lines was evaluated using a Transwell® migration assay. KAI1 expression was observed to be downregulated in invasive RB compared to non-invasive RB. The migratory and invasive capacities of KAI1 transfected cell lines were significantly decreased compared to those of the control cells. KAI1 may be involved in retinoblastoma metastasis, and increased expression of KAI1 significantly inhibits the metastatic ability of RB cells in vitro. PMID:28356965

  11. The Legionella pneumophila kai operon is implicated in stress response and confers fitness in competitive environments

    PubMed Central

    Loza-Correa, Maria; Sahr, Tobias; Rolando, Monica; Daniels, Craig; Petit, Pierre; Skarina, Tania; Valero, Laura Gomez; Dervins-Ravault, Delphine; Honoré, Nadine; Savchenko, Aleksey; Buchrieser, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Summary Legionella pneumophila uses aquatic protozoa as replication niche and protection from harsh environments. Although L. pneumophila is not known to have a circadian clock, it encodes homologues of the KaiBC proteins of Cyanobacteria that regulate circadian gene expression. We show that L. pneumophila kaiB, kaiC and the downstream gene lpp1114, are transcribed as a unit under the control of the stress sigma factor RpoS. KaiC and KaiB of L. pneumophila do not interact as evidenced by yeast and bacterial two-hybrid analyses. Fusion of the C-terminal residues of cyanobacterial KaiB to Legionella KaiB restores their interaction. In contrast, KaiC of L. pneumophila conserved autophosphorylation activity, but KaiB does not trigger the dephosphorylation of KaiC like in Cyanobacteria. The crystal structure of L. pneumophila KaiB suggests that it is an oxidoreductase-like protein with a typical thioredoxin fold. Indeed, mutant analyses revealed that the kai operon-encoded proteins increase fitness of L. pneumophila in competitive environments, and confer higher resistance to oxidative and sodium stress. The phylogenetic analysis indicates that L. pneumophila KaiBC resemble Synechosystis KaiC2B2 and not circadian KaiB1C1. Thus, the L. pneumophila Kai proteins do not encode a circadian clock, but enhance stress resistance and adaption to changes in the environments. PMID:23957615

  12. Enhancing Māori food security using traditional kai.

    PubMed

    McKerchar, Christina; Bowers, Sharron; Heta, Craig; Signal, Louise; Matoe, Leonie

    2015-09-01

    Lack of food security is one of the major nutrition issues facing Māori today. Loss of traditional kai (food) gathering places and practices following colonisation and urbanisation has impacted negatively on food security for Māori. This paper explores the role of Māori in enhancing Māori food security through revitalising traditional kai. A narrative literature review of peer reviewed and grey literature on revitalising traditional kai for Māori was conducted. The focus was on two areas: increasing the availability of traditional kai to Māori households (such as through replenishing fish stocks, and gardening projects) and increasing the financial means available to Māori households to purchase food (by economic development of traditional kai industries and employment creation). A range of activities to improve food security for Māori by revitalising traditional kai was identified in the literature. Māori are now significant players in New Zealand's fishing industry, and are developing their horticultural resources. Gardening initiatives have also grown considerably in Māori communities. Enabling factors included: the return of traditional kai resources by the Crown, and successful pursuit by Māori of the legal rights to develop them; development of Māori models of governance; government policy around Māori economic development and healthy eating; and Māori leadership on the issue. Barriers to revitalising traditional kai that remain to be addressed include: tensions between Government and Māori goals and models of resource management; economic pressures resulting in severely depleted fishing stocks; and pollution of marine and freshwater fish. Revitalising traditional kai has considerable potential to improve food security for Māori, both directly in terms of food supply and by providing income, and warrants policy and practical support. These findings have implications for other indigenous cultures who are struggling to be food secure. © The

  13. Mechanism of Tumor Metastasis Suppression by the KAI1 Gene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    antibody to Flag covalently crosslinked to agarose beads followed by western blot with monoclonal antibody to Flag (lanes 1, 2). For coimmunoprecipitation...and KAI1 was detected by western blot with antibody to hemagglutinin (lane 3). To confirm the HA-KAI1 position, the AT6.1/Flag-DARC cells were...followed by western blot with the same monoclonal antibody (lane 5). AT6.1/Flag-DARC cells without KAI1 transfection or parental AT6.1 cells served as

  14. Biochemical analysis of three putative KaiC clock proteins from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 suggests their functional divergence.

    PubMed

    Wiegard, Anika; Dörrich, Anja K; Deinzer, Hans-Tobias; Beck, Christian; Wilde, Annegret; Holtzendorff, Julia; Axmann, Ilka M

    2013-05-01

    Cyanobacteria have been shown to have a circadian clock system that consists mainly of three protein components: KaiA, KaiB and KaiC. This system is well understood in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, for which robust circadian oscillations have been shown. Like many other cyanobacteria, the chromosome of the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 contains additional kaiC and kaiB gene copies besides the standard kaiABC gene cluster. The respective gene products differ significantly in their amino acid sequences, especially in their C-terminal regions, suggesting different functional characteristics. Here, phosphorylation assays of the three Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 KaiC proteins revealed that KaiC1 phosphorylation depends on KaiA, as is well documented for the Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 KaiC protein, whereas KaiC2 and KaiC3 autophosphorylate independently of KaiA. This was confirmed by in vivo protein-protein interaction studies, which demonstrate that only KaiC1 interacts with KaiA. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the three different Kai proteins form only homomeric complexes in vivo. As only KaiC1 phosphorylation depends on KaiA, a prerequisite for robust oscillations, we suggest that the kaiAB1C1 gene cluster in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 controls circadian timing in a manner similar to the clock described in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942.

  15. A sequestration feedback determines dynamics and temperature entrainment of the KaiABC circadian clock

    PubMed Central

    Brettschneider, Christian; Rose, Rebecca J; Hertel, Stefanie; Axmann, Ilka M; Heck, Albert J R; Kollmann, Markus

    2010-01-01

    The circadian rhythm of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus is controlled by three proteins, KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC. In a test tube, these proteins form complexes of various stoichiometry and the average phosphorylation level of KaiC exhibits robust circadian oscillations in the presence of ATP. Using mathematical modeling, we were able to reproduce quantitatively the experimentally observed phosphorylation dynamics of the KaiABC clockwork in vitro. We thereby identified a highly non-linear feedback loop through KaiA inactivation as the key synchronization mechanism of KaiC phosphorylation. By using the novel method of native mass spectrometry, we confirm the theoretically predicted complex formation dynamics and show that inactivation of KaiA is a consequence of sequestration by KaiC hexamers and KaiBC complexes. To test further the predictive power of the mathematical model, we reproduced the observed phase synchronization dynamics on entrainment by temperature cycles. Our model gives strong evidence that the underlying entrainment mechanism arises from a temperature-dependent change in the abundance of KaiAC and KaiBC complexes. PMID:20631683

  16. Conversion between two conformational states of KaiC is induced by ATP hydrolysis as a trigger for cyanobacterial circadian oscillation

    PubMed Central

    Oyama, Katsuaki; Azai, Chihiro; Nakamura, Kaori; Tanaka, Syun; Terauchi, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    The cyanobacterial circadian oscillator can be reconstituted in vitro by mixing three clock proteins, KaiA, KaiB and KaiC, with ATP. KaiC is the only protein with circadian rhythmic activities. In the present study, we tracked the complex formation of the three Kai proteins over time using blue native (BN) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), in which proteins are charged with the anionic dye Coomassie brilliant blue (CBB). KaiC was separated as three bands: the KaiABC complex, KaiC hexamer and KaiC monomer. However, no KaiC monomer was observed using gel filtration chromatography and CBB-free native PAGE. These data indicate two conformational states of KaiC hexamer and show that the ground-state KaiC (gs-KaiC) is stable and competent-state KaiC (cs-KaiC) is labile and degraded into monomers by the binding of CBB. Repeated conversions from gs-KaiC to cs-KaiC were observed over 24 h using an in vitro reconstitution system. Phosphorylation of KaiC promoted the conversion from gs-KaiC to cs-KaiC. KaiA sustained the gs-KaiC state, and KaiB bound only cs-KaiC. An E77Q/E78Q-KaiC variant that lacked N-terminal ATPase activity remained in the gs-KaiC state. Taken together, ATP hydrolysis induces the formation of cs-KaiC and promotes the binding of KaiB, which is a trigger for circadian oscillations. PMID:27580682

  17. A thermodynamically consistent model of the post-translational Kai circadian clock

    PubMed Central

    Lubensky, David K.; ten Wolde, Pieter Rein

    2017-01-01

    The principal pacemaker of the circadian clock of the cyanobacterium S. elongatus is a protein phosphorylation cycle consisting of three proteins, KaiA, KaiB and KaiC. KaiC forms a homohexamer, with each monomer consisting of two domains, CI and CII. Both domains can bind and hydrolyze ATP, but only the CII domain can be phosphorylated, at two residues, in a well-defined sequence. While this system has been studied extensively, how the clock is driven thermodynamically has remained elusive. Inspired by recent experimental observations and building on ideas from previous mathematical models, we present a new, thermodynamically consistent, statistical-mechanical model of the clock. At its heart are two main ideas: i) ATP hydrolysis in the CI domain provides the thermodynamic driving force for the clock, switching KaiC between an active conformational state in which its phosphorylation level tends to rise and an inactive one in which it tends to fall; ii) phosphorylation of the CII domain provides the timer for the hydrolysis in the CI domain. The model also naturally explains how KaiA, by acting as a nucleotide exchange factor, can stimulate phosphorylation of KaiC, and how the differential affinity of KaiA for the different KaiC phosphoforms generates the characteristic temporal order of KaiC phosphorylation. As the phosphorylation level in the CII domain rises, the release of ADP from CI slows down, making the inactive conformational state of KaiC more stable. In the inactive state, KaiC binds KaiB, which not only stabilizes this state further, but also leads to the sequestration of KaiA, and hence to KaiC dephosphorylation. Using a dedicated kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm, which makes it possible to efficiently simulate this system consisting of more than a billion reactions, we show that the model can describe a wealth of experimental data. PMID:28296888

  18. Structural basis of unique ligand specificity of KAI2-like protein from parasitic weed Striga hermonthica

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yuqun; Miyakawa, Takuya; Nakamura, Hidemitsu; Nakamura, Akira; Imamura, Yusaku; Asami, Tadao; Tanokura, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    The perception of two plant germination inducers, karrikins and strigolactones, are mediated by the proteins KAI2 and D14. Recently, KAI2-type proteins from parasitic weeds, which are possibly related to seed germination induced by strigolactone, have been classified into three clades characterized by different responses to karrikin/strigolactone. Here we characterized a karrikin-binding protein in Striga (ShKAI2iB) that belongs to intermediate-evolving KAI2 and provided the structural bases for its karrikin-binding specificity. Binding assays showed that ShKAI2iB bound karrikins but not strigolactone, differing from other KAI2 and D14. The crystal structures of ShKAI2iB and ShKAI2iB-karrikin complex revealed obvious structural differences in a helix located at the entry of its ligand-binding cavity. This results in a smaller closed pocket, which is also the major cause of ShKAI2iB’s specificity of binding karrikin. Our structural study also revealed that a few non-conserved amino acids led to the distinct ligand-binding profile of ShKAI2iB, suggesting that the evolution of KAI2 resulted in its diverse functions. PMID:27507097

  19. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: RADIO FREQUENCY HEATING - KAI TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radio frequency heating (RFH) is a process that uses electromagnetic energy in the radio frequency (RF) band to heat soil in situ, thereby potentially enhancing the performance of standard soil vapor extraction (SVE) technologies. An RFH system developed by KAI Technologies, I...

  20. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: KAI RADIO FREQUENCY HEATING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    KAI developed a patented, in situ RFH technology to enhance the removal of volatile and semi-volatile organics by soil vapor extraction (SVE). Electromagnetic energy heats the soil resulting in increased contaminant vapor pressures and soil permeability that may increase with dry...

  1. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: RADIO FREQUENCY HEATING - KAI TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radio frequency heating (RFH) is a process that uses electromagnetic energy in the radio frequency (RF) band to heat soil in situ, thereby potentially enhancing the performance of standard soil vapor extraction (SVE) technologies. An RFH system developed by KAI Technologies, I...

  2. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: RADIO FREQUENCY HEATING, KAI TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A demonstration of KAI Technologies in-situ radio frequency heating system for soil treatment was conducted from January 1994 to July 1994 at Kelly Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas. This demonstration was conducted as a joint effort between the USEPA and the USAF. The technol...

  3. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: KAI RADIO FREQUENCY HEATING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    KAI developed a patented, in situ RFH technology to enhance the removal of volatile and semi-volatile organics by soil vapor extraction (SVE). Electromagnetic energy heats the soil resulting in increased contaminant vapor pressures and soil permeability that may increase with dry...

  4. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: RADIO FREQUENCY HEATING, KAI TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A demonstration of KAI Technologies in-situ radio frequency heating system for soil treatment was conducted from January 1994 to July 1994 at Kelly Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas. This demonstration was conducted as a joint effort between the USEPA and the USAF. The technol...

  5. Intersubunit communications within KaiC hexamers contribute the robust rhythmicity of the cyanobacterial circadian clock

    PubMed Central

    Kitayama, Yohko; Nishiwaki-Ohkawa, Taeko; Kondo, Takao

    2014-01-01

    Circadian rhythms, endogenous oscillations with periods of ~24 h, are found in many organisms, and they enhance fitness in alternating day/night environments. In cyanobacteria, three clock proteins, KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC, control the timekeeping mechanism. KaiC, the central component of the system, is a hexameric ATPase that also has autokinase and autophosphatase activities. It has been assumed that KaiC’s hexameric structure was critical for regulation of the circadian clock; however, the underlying molecular mechanism of such regulation has remained unclear. Recently, we elucidated the regulation of KaiC’s activities by its phosphorylation state, in the context of its hexameric structure. We found that local interactions at subunit interfaces regulate KaiC’s activities by coupling the nucleotide-binding states. We also discovered the mechanism of regulation by intersubunit communication in KaiC hexamers. Our observations suggest that intersubunit communication precisely synchronizes KaiC subunits to avoid dephasing, and contributes to the robustness of circadian rhythms in cyanobacteria [Kitayama, Y. et al. Nat. Commun. 4:2897 doi: 10.1038/ncomms3897 (2013)].

  6. Dephosphorylation of the Core Clock Protein KaiC in the Cyanobacterial KaiABC Circadian Oscillator Proceeds via an ATP Synthase Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Egli, Martin; Mori, Tetsuya; Pattanayek, Rekha; Xu, Yao; Qin, Ximing; Johnson, Carl H.

    2014-10-02

    The circadian clock of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus can be reconstituted in vitro from three proteins, KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC in the presence of ATP, to tick in a temperature-compensated manner. KaiC, the central cog of this oscillator, forms a homohexamer with 12 ATP molecules bound between its N- and C-terminal domains and exhibits unusual properties. Both the N-terminal (CI) and C-terminal (CII) domains harbor ATPase activity, and the subunit interfaces between CII domains are the sites of autokinase and autophosphatase activities. Hydrolysis of ATP correlates with phosphorylation at threonine and serine sites across subunits in an orchestrated manner, such that first T432 and then S431 are phosphorylated, followed by dephosphorylation of these residues in the same order. Although structural work has provided insight into the mechanisms of ATPase and kinase, the location and mechanism of the phosphatase have remained enigmatic. From the available experimental data based on a range of approaches, including KaiC crystal structures and small-angle X-ray scattering models, metal ion dependence, site-directed mutagenesis (i.e., E318, the general base), and measurements of the associated clock periods, phosphorylation patterns, and dephosphorylation courses as well as a lack of sequence motifs in KaiC that are typically associated with known phosphatases, we hypothesized that KaiCII makes use of the same active site for phosphorylation and dephosphorlyation. We observed that wild-type KaiC (wt-KaiC) exhibits an ATP synthase activity that is significantly reduced in the T432A/S431A mutant. We interpret the first observation as evidence that KaiCII is a phosphotransferase instead of a phosphatase and the second that the enzyme is capable of generating ATP, both from ADP and P{sub i} (in a reversal of the ATPase reaction) and from ADP and P-T432/P-S431 (dephosphorylation). This new concept regarding the mechanism of dephosphorylation is also supported by the

  7. KAI1 gene expression in colonic carcinoma and its clinical significances

    PubMed Central

    Wu, De-Hua; Liu, Li; Chen, Long-Hua; Ding, Yan-Qing

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate KAI1 gene expression in the progression of human colonic carcinoma and its clinical significances. METHODS: KAI1 expression was detected by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry in the 4 established cell lines of colorectal carcinoma with different metastatic potentials, and in 80 specimens of colonic carcinoma, 21 colonic carcinoma specimens with lymphatic metastasis and 20 controls of normal colonic mucosa. RESULTS: The expressions of KAI1 in HT29 and SW480 cell lines were higher than those in LoVo and SW620. The expression of KAI1 gene was significantly higher in colorectal carcinoma compared with normal colonic mucosa and lymphatic metastasis (χ2 = 46.838, P < 0.01). The expression of KAI1 gene had no relationship with histological grade. The KAI1 expressions in Dukes A and B carcinoma were higher at both mRNA and protein levels compared to Dukes C carcinoma (χ2 = 16.061, P < 0.05). The expression of KAI1 in colonic carcinoma specimens with lymphatic metastasis was almost lost. The results of in situ hybridization were in concordance with immunohistochemistry. CONCLUSION: KAI1 is highly related to the metastasis of colonic carcinoma and may be a useful indicator of metastasis in colonic carcinoma. PMID:15259074

  8. The role of the metastasis suppressor gene KAI1 in melanoma angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yun; Bhandaru, Madhuri; Cheng, Yabin; Lu, Jing; Li, Gang; Ong, Christopher J

    2015-11-01

    The tetraspan protein KAI1 (CD82) has been previously shown to have important roles in cell migration, invasion, and melanoma prognosis. In this study, we investigated the role of KAI1 regarding melanoma angiogenesis. KAI1 overexpression strongly suppressed the growth of the human umbilical vein endothelial cells and their tubular structure formation in vitro. Also, KAI1 was able to inhibit both interleukin-6 (IL-6) and VEGF at mRNA and protein levels. Using nude mice in the in vivo study, we showed that KAI1, through the regulation of ING4, inhibited blood vessel formation in matrigel plugs along with the downregulation of IL-6 and VEGF, and the recruitment of CD31-positive cells. Finally, we found that KAI1 was able to suppress the activity of a serine/threonine kinase Akt by suppressing Akt phosphorylation (Ser473). Taken together, our results suggested that KAI1 was able to suppress melanoma angiogenesis by downregulating IL-6 and VEGF expression, and the restoration of KAI1 functionality offered a new approach in human melanoma treatment.

  9. Dephosphorylation of the Core Clock Protein KaiC in the Cyanobacterial KaiABC Circadian Oscillator Proceeds via an ATP Synthase Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Egli, Martin; Mori, Tetsuya; Pattanayek, Rekha; Xu, Yao; Qin, Ximing; Johnson, Carl H.

    2012-01-01

    The circadian clock of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus can be reconstituted in vitro from three proteins, KaiA, KaiB and KaiC in the presence of ATP, to tick in a temperature-compensated manner. KaiC, the central cog of this oscillator, forms a homo-hexamer with twelve ATP molecules bound between its N- and C-terminal domains and exhibits unusual properties. Both the N-terminal (CI) and C-terminal (CII) domains harbor ATPase activity and the subunit interfaces between CII domains are the sites of auto-kinase and auto-phosphatase activities. Hydrolysis of ATP correlates with phosphorylation at threonine and serine sites across subunits in an orchestrated manner, such that first T432 and then S431 is phosphorylated, followed by dephosphorylation of these residues in the same order. Although structural work has provided insight into the mechanisms of ATPase and kinase, the location and mechanism of the phosphatase have remained enigmatic. From the available experimental data based on a range of approaches, including KaiC crystal structures and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) models, metal ion dependence, site-directed mutagenesis (i.e. E318, the general base) and measurements of the associated clock periods, phosphorylation patterns and dephosphorylation courses as well as a lack of sequence motifs in KaiC that are typically associated with known phosphatases, we hypothesized that KaiCII makes use of the same active site for phosphorylation and dephosphorlyation. We observed that wt-KaiC exhibits an ATP synthase activity that is significantly reduced in the T432A/S431A mutant. We interpret the first observation as evidence that KaiCII is a phospho-transferase instead of a phosphatase and the second that the enzyme is capable of generating ATP, both from ADP + Pi (in a reversal of the ATPase reaction), and ADP + P-T432/P-S431 (dephosphorylation). This new concept regarding the mechanism of dephosphorylation is also supported by strikingly similar make

  10. Expression of the KAI1 protein in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, T.; Ichikawa, T.; Tamaru, J.; Mikata, A.; Akakura, K.; Akimoto, S.; Imai, T.; Yoshie, O.; Shiraishi, T.; Yatani, R.; Ito, H.; Shimazaki, J.

    1996-01-01

    The KAI1 gene, recently identified as a metastatic suppressor gene for prostate cancer, was cloned and was revealed to be identical to the C33/IA4/ R2/4R9 gene. The expression of KAI1 protein was examined immunohistochemically in the tissues from 14 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia and 46 cases of prostate cancer using mouse monoclonal anti-human C33 antibody. In benign prostatic hyperplasia tissues, KAI1 protein was uniformly expressed in the glandular cell membrane at cell-to-cell borders. The KAI1 protein in the tissues of untreated prostate cancer was also located at similar sites to those of benign prostatic hyperplasia, but the percentage of strongly positive cancer cells was correlated inversely to the Gleason pattern (P < 0.0001, one-way analysis of variance). There was also a statistically inverse correlation between the percentage of KAI1-positive cancer cells and the clinical stage (chi 2 = 9.6; P = 0.0081). In 4 cancer death cases relapsed from endocrine therapy, KAI1 protein was not stained in either primary or metastatic foci. These results indicate that the expression of KAI1 protein correlates to tumor characteristics in prostate cancer. Images Figure 1 PMID:8909232

  11. ADP Regulates the Structure and Function of the Protein KaiC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-11

    Cycle 12, 810-817. Pattanayek, R., Williams, D.R., Pattanayek, S., Mori, T., Johnson, C.H., Stewart , P.L., and Egli, M. (2008). Structural model of...Rossi, G., Weigand, S., Mori, T., Johnson, C.H., Stewart , P.L., and Egli, M. (2011). Combined SAXS/EM Based Models of the S. elongatus Post...Johnson, C.H., Egli, M., and Stewart , P.L. (2013). CryoEM and Molecular Dynamics of the Circadian KaiB–KaiC Complex Indicates That KaiB Monomers

  12. Detecting KaiC phosphorylation rhythms of the cyanobacterial circadian oscillator in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Ick; Boyd, Joseph S.; Espinosa, Javier; Golden, Susan S.

    2016-01-01

    The central oscillator of the cyanobacterial circadian clock is unique in the biochemical simplicity of its components and the robustness of the oscillation. The oscillator is composed of three cyanobacterial proteins, KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC. If very pure preparations of these three proteins are mixed in a test tube in the right proportions and with ATP and MgCl2, the phosphorylation states of KaiC will oscillate with a circadian period and these states can be analyzed simply by SDS-PAGE. The purity of the proteins is critical for obtaining robust oscillation. Contaminating proteases will destroy oscillation by degradation of Kai proteins, and ATPases will attenuate robustness by consumption of ATP. Here, we provide a detailed protocol to obtain pure recombinant proteins from Escherichia coli to construct a robust cyanobacterial circadian oscillator in vitro. In addition, we present a protocol that facilitates analysis of phosphoryation states of KaiC and other phosphorylated proteins from in vivo samples. PMID:25662456

  13. An arginine tetrad as mediator of input-dependent and input-independent ATPases in the clock protein KaiC.

    PubMed

    Pattanayek, Rekha; Xu, Yao; Lamichhane, Aashish; Johnson, Carl H; Egli, Martin

    2014-05-01

    A post-translational oscillator (PTO) composed of the proteins KaiA, KaiB and KaiC is at the heart of the cyanobacterial circadian clock. KaiC interacts with KaiA and KaiB over the daily cycle, and CII domains undergo rhythmic phosphorylation/dephosphorylation with a 24 h period. Both the N-terminal (CI) and C-terminal (CII) rings of KaiC exhibit ATPase activity. The CI ATPase proceeds in an input-independent fashion, but the CII ATPase is subject to metabolic input signals. The crystal structure of KaiC from Thermosynechococcus elongatus allows insight into the different anatomies of the CI and CII ATPases. Four consecutive arginines in CI (Arg linker) that connect the P-loop, CI subunits and CI and CII at the ring interface are primary candidates for the coordination of the CI and CII activities. The mutation of linker residues alters the period or triggers arhythmic behavior. Comparison between the CI and CII structures also reveals differences in loop regions that are key to KaiA and KaiB binding and activation of CII ATPase and kinase. Common packing features in KaiC crystals shed light on the KaiB-KaiC interaction.

  14. Expression of KAI1/CD82 and MRP-1/CD9 in transitional cell carcinoma of bladder.

    PubMed

    Ai, Xing; Zhang, Xu; Wu, Zhun; Ma, Xin; Ju, Zhenghua; Wang, Baojun; Shi, Taoping

    2007-02-01

    The expression of KAI1/CD82 and MRP-1/CD9 in transitional cell carcinoma of bladder (TCCB) and its clinical significance were investigated. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect KAI1/CD82 and MRP-1/CD9 protein expression in 52 TCCB specimens. Correlation between the expression of KAI1/CD82 and MRP-1/CD9 to clinicopathologic factors was statistically analyzed. The results showed that the positive rate of KAI1/CD82 and MRP-1/CD9 in TCCB was 50% and 61.5%, respectively. The MRP-1/CD9 and KAI1/CD82 expression was significantly associated with grade of TCCB (P<0.05), but no correlation was found between MRP-1/CD9 or KAI1/CD82 expression and clinical stage of TCCB (P>0.05). The expression level of MRP-1/CD9 and KAI1/CD82 in recurrent TCCB samples was lower than that in non-recurrent samples (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the correlation between the KAI1/CD82 expression and MRP-1/CD9 expression was statistically significant (r=0.316, P<0.05). It was concluded that KAI1/CD82 and MRP-1/CD9 expression may be important prognostic indicators and potentially useful for assessing the biological behavior of TCCB.

  15. The circadian clock-related gene pex regulates a negative cis element in the kaiA promoter region.

    PubMed

    Kutsuna, Shinsuke; Kondo, Takao; Ikegami, Haruki; Uzumaki, Tatsuya; Katayama, Mitsunori; Ishiura, Masahiro

    2007-11-01

    In the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942, a circadian clock-related gene, pex, was identified as the gene prolonging the period of the clock. A PadR domain, which is a newly classified transcription factor domain, and the X-ray crystal structure of the Pex protein suggest a role for Pex in transcriptional regulation in the circadian system. However, the regulatory target of the Pex protein is unknown. To determine the role of Pex, we monitored bioluminescence rhythms that reported the expression activity of the kaiA gene or the kaiBC operon in pex deficiency, pex constitutive expression, and the wild-type genotype. The expression of kaiA in the pex-deficient or constitutive expression genotype was 7 or 1/7 times that of the wild type, respectively, suggesting that kaiA is the target of negative regulation by Pex. In contrast, the expression of the kaiBC gene in the two pex-related genotypes was the same as that in the wild type, suggesting that Pex specifically regulates kaiA expression. We used primer extension analysis to map the transcription start site for the kaiA gene 66 bp upstream of the translation start codon. Mapping with deletion and base pair substitution of the kaiA upstream region revealed that a 5-bp sequence in this region was essential for the regulation of kaiA. The repression or constitutive expression of the kaiA transgene caused the prolongation or shortening of the circadian period, respectively, suggesting that the Pex protein changes the period via the negative regulation of kaiA.

  16. Tumor suppressor KAI1 affects integrin {alpha}v{beta}3-mediated ovarian cancer cell adhesion, motility, and proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Ruseva, Zlatna; Geiger, Pamina Xenia Charlotte; Hutzler, Peter; Kotzsch, Matthias; Luber, Birgit; Schmitt, Manfred; Gross, Eva; Reuning, Ute

    2009-06-10

    The tetraspanin KAI1 had been described as a metastasis suppressor in many different cancer types, a function for which associations of KAI1 with adhesion and signaling receptors of the integrin superfamily likely play a role. In ovarian cancer, integrin {alpha}v{beta}3 correlates with tumor progression and its elevation in vitro provoked enhanced cell adhesion accompanied by significant increases in cell motility and proliferation in the presence of its major ligand vitronectin. In the present study, we characterized integrin {alpha}v{beta}3-mediated tumor biological effects as a function of cellular KAI1 restoration and proved for the first time that KAI1, besides its already known physical crosstalk with {beta}1-integrins, also colocalizes with integrin {alpha}v{beta}3. Functionally, elevated KAI1 levels drastically increased integrin {alpha}v{beta}3/vitronectin-dependent ovarian cancer cell adhesion. Since an intermediate level of cell adhesive strength is required for optimal cell migration, we next studied ovarian cancer cell motility as a function of KAI1 restoration. By time lapse video microscopy, we found impaired integrin {alpha}v{beta}3/vitronectin-mediated cell migration most probably due to strongly enhanced cellular immobilization onto the adhesion-supporting matrix. Moreover, KAI1 reexpression significantly diminished cell proliferation. These data strongly indicate that KAI1 may suppress ovarian cancer progression by inhibiting integrin {alpha}v{beta}3/vitronectin-provoked tumor cell motility and proliferation as important hallmarks of the oncogenic process.

  17. The Structure of the Karrikin-Insensitive Protein (KAI2) in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Bythell-Douglas, Rohan; Waters, Mark T.; Scaffidi, Adrian; Flematti, Gavin R.; Smith, Steven M.; Bond, Charles S.

    2013-01-01

    KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE 2 (KAI2) is an α/β hydrolase involved in seed germination and seedling development. It is essential for plant responses to karrikins, a class of butenolide compounds derived from burnt plant material that are structurally similar to strigolactone plant hormones. The mechanistic basis for the function of KAI2 in plant development remains unclear. We have determined the crystal structure of Arabidopsis thaliana KAI2 in space groups P21 21 21 (a  = 63.57 Å, b  = 66.26 Å, c  = 78.25 Å) and P21 (a  = 50.20 Å, b  = 56.04 Å, c  = 52.43 Å, β  = 116.12°) to 1.55 and 2.11 Å respectively. The catalytic residues are positioned within a large hydrophobic pocket similar to that of DAD2, a protein required for strigolactone response in Petunia hybrida. KAI2 possesses a second solvent-accessible pocket, adjacent to the active site cavity, which offers the possibility of allosteric regulation. The structure of KAI2 is consistent with its designation as a serine hydrolase, as well as previous data implicating the protein in karrikin and strigolactone signalling. PMID:23349965

  18. KAI2- and MAX2-mediated responses to karrikins and strigolactones are largely independent of HY5 in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Waters, Mark T; Smith, Steven M

    2013-01-01

    Karrikins are butenolide compounds released from burning vegetation that stimulate seed germination and enhance seedling photomorphogenesis. Strigolactones are structurally similar plant hormones that regulate shoot and root development, and promote the germination of parasitic weed seeds. In Arabidopsis, the F-box protein MAX2 is required for responses to karrikins and strigolactones, and the α/β hydrolase KAI2 is necessary for responses to karrikins. Both MAX2 and KAI2 are essential for normal light-dependent seedling development. The bZIP transcription factor HY5 acts downstream of multiple photoreceptors and promotes photomorphogenesis, but its relationship with MAX2 and KAI2 in terms of seedling development and responses to karrikins and strigolactones is poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate that HY5 action is genetically separable from that of MAX2 and KAI2. While hy5 mutants have weak hypocotyl elongation responses to karrikins and the artificial strigolactone GR24, they have normal transcriptional responses, suggesting that HY5 is not involved in perception or action of karrikins or strigolactones. Furthermore, we show that overexpression of KAI2 is sufficient to enhance responses to both karrikins and GR24 in wild-type seedlings, and that KAI2 overexpression partially suppresses the hy5 long hypocotyl phenotype. These results suggest that KAI2 and MAX2 define a regulatory pathway that largely operates independently of HY5 to mediate seedling responses to abiotic signals such as smoke and light.

  19. Structures of KaiC Circadian Clock Mutant Proteins: A New Phosphorylation Site at T426 and Mechanisms of Kinase, ATPase and Phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Pattanayek, Rekha; Mori, Tetsuya; Xu, Yao; Pattanayek, Sabuj; Johnson, Carl H.; Egli, Martin

    2010-09-02

    The circadian clock of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus can be reconstituted in vitro by three proteins, KaiA, KaiB and KaiC. Homo-hexameric KaiC displays kinase, phosphatase and ATPase activities; KaiA enhances KaiC phosphorylation and KaiB antagonizes KaiA. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of the two known sites in the C-terminal half of KaiC subunits, T432 and S431, follow a strict order (TS {yields} pTS {yields} pTpS {yields} TpS {yields} TS) over the daily cycle, the origin of which is not understood. To address this void and to analyze the roles of KaiC active site residues, in particular T426, we determined structures of single and double P-site mutants of S. elongatus KaiC. The conformations of the loop region harboring P-site residues T432 and S431 in the crystal structures of six KaiC mutant proteins exhibit subtle differences that result in various distances between Thr (or Ala/Asn/Glu) and Ser (or Ala/Asp) residues and the ATP {gamma}-phosphate. T432 is phosphorylated first because it lies consistently closer to P{gamma}. The structures of the S431A and T432E/S431A mutants reveal phosphorylation at T426. The environments of the latter residue in the structures and functional data for T426 mutants in vitro and in vivo imply a role in dephosphorylation. We provide evidence for a third phosphorylation site in KaiC at T426. T426 and S431 are closely spaced and a KaiC subunit cannot carry phosphates at both sites simultaneously. Fewer subunits are phosphorylated at T426 in the two KaiC mutants compared to phosphorylated T432 and/or S431 residues in the structures of wt and other mutant KaiCs, suggesting that T426 phosphorylation may be labile. The structures combined with functional data for a host of KaiC mutant proteins help rationalize why S431 trails T432 in the loss of its phosphate and shed light on the mechanisms of the KaiC kinase, ATPase and phosphatase activities.

  20. Diversity of KaiC-based timing systems in marine Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Axmann, Ilka M; Hertel, Stefanie; Wiegard, Anika; Dörrich, Anja K; Wilde, Annegret

    2014-04-01

    The coordination of biological activities into daily cycles provides an important advantage for the fitness of diverse organisms. Most eukaryotes possess an internal clock ticking with a periodicity of about one day to anticipate sunrise and sunset. The 24-hour period of the free-running rhythm is highly robust against many changes in the natural environment. Among prokaryotes, only Cyanobacteria are known to harbor such a circadian clock. Its core oscillator consists of just three proteins, KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC that produce 24-hour oscillations of KaiC phosphorylation, even in vitro. This unique three-protein oscillator is well documented for the freshwater cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. Several physiological studies demonstrate a circadian clock also for other Cyanobacteria including marine species. Genes for the core clock components are present in nearly all marine cyanobacterial species, though there are large differences in the specific composition of these genes. In the first section of this review we summarize data on the model circadian clock from S. elongatus PCC 7942 and compare it to the reduced clock system of the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus marinus MED4. In the second part we discuss the diversity of timing mechanisms in other marine Cyanobacteria with regard to the presence or absence of different components of the clock.

  1. Overexpression of KAI1 induces autophagy and increases MiaPaCa-2 cell survival through the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Chun-Yan; Yan, Jun; Yang, Yue-Feng; Xiao, Feng-Jun; Li, Qing-Fang; Zhang, Qun-Wei; Wang, Li-Sheng; Guo, Xiao-Zhong; Wang, Hua

    2011-01-21

    Research highlights: {yields} We first investigate the effects of KAI1 on autophagy in MiaPaCa-2 cells. {yields} Our findings demonstrate that KAI1 induces autophagy, which in turn inhibits KAI1-induced apoptosis. {yields} This study also supplies a possible novel therapeutic method for the treatment of pancreatic cancer using autophagy inhibitors. -- Abstract: KAI1, a metastasis-suppressor gene belonging to the tetraspanin family, is known to inhibit cancer metastasis without affecting the primary tumorigenicity by inhibiting the epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling pathway. Recent studies have shown that hypoxic conditions of solid tumors induce high-level autophagy and KAI1 expression. However, the relationship between autophagy and KAI1 remains unclear. By using transmission electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and Western blotting, we found that KAI1 can induce autophagy in a dose- and time-dependent manner in the human pancreatic cell line MiaPaCa-2. KAI1-induced autophagy was confirmed by the expression of autophagy-related proteins LC3 and Beclin 1. KAI1 induces autophagy through phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinases rather than that of AKT. KAI1-induced autophagy protects MiaPaCa-2 cells from apoptosis and proliferation inhibition partially through the downregulation of poly [adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose] polymerase (PARP) cleavage and caspase-3 activation.

  2. [Expressions of CD133 and CD82/KAI1 in bladder urothelial carcinoma and their correlation with vasculogenic mimicry].

    PubMed

    Yu, Lan; Wu, Shiwu; Zhou, Lei; Song, Wenqing; Wang, Danna

    2013-09-01

    To explore the expressions of CD133 and CD82/KAI1 in bladder urothelial carcinoma, their association with the clinicopathological factors and their roles in vasculogenic mimicry (VM) in the tumor. The expressions of CD133 and CD82/KAI1 and VM were detected by immunohistochemistry and histochemistry in 90 specimens of bladder urothelial carcinoma and 20 specimens of normal bladder epithelium tissue. The positivity rates of CD133, CD82/KAI1 and VM in normal bladder epithelium tissue were 0, 90% and 0, showing significant differences from the rates of 65.6%, 31.1% and 31.1% in urothelial carcinoma, respectively (P<0.01). Positive expressions of CD133, CD82/KAI1 and VM were significantly correlated with pTNM stage and tumor relapse (P<0.01) but not with gender, age, or tumor numbers (P>0.05). CD133 expression was positively correlated with VM (P=0.487, P<0.05), and CD82/KAI1 expression was negatively correlated with VM (r=-0.452, P<0.01) and CD133 (r=-0.776, P<0.05). The expressions of CD133 and CD82/KAI1 proteins are involved in the occurrence of VM in bladder urothelial carcinoma to contribute to the invasion and relapse of bladder carcinoma.

  3. Chiang Kai-Shek, the United States, and the Fall of the Kuomintang Regime

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-07

    open publication untU ·" llflproprlat.o ·rnmcary IO!tvl~ or CRIANG KAI-SHEK, TP.E·: UNITED . STATES , AND THE . ’FALL OF , THE :imC>MINTANG REGIME...15. SECURITY CLASS. (of this report) 15a. DECLASSI FICATION/DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE 16. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of this Report) Approved for public ...College Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania 17013 7 June 1983 Approved for public release distribution unlimited. - - . -ABSTRACT AUTHOR: Walter H. Yates

  4. KAI-1 and p53 expression in oral squamous cell carcinomas: Markers of significance in future diagnostics and possibly therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Namrata N; Wadhwan, Vijay; Chaudhary, Minal; Nayyar, Abhishek Singh

    2016-01-01

    Context: KAI-1/CD82 is a tumor suppressor gene with decreased gene expression being associated with increased invasive ability of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). p53 protein functions in the G1-S phase of the cell cycle to allow repair of damaged DNA. In the present study, p53 and KAI-1 expression was investigated using monoclonal antibodies in OSCC. Aims: The aim of this study was to detect KAI-1 and p53 expression in OSCCs and to assess the relation between both in OSCCs. Materials and Methods: The present study included histopathologically diagnosed thirty cases of well- and moderately differentiated OSCCs to study the expression of KAI-1 and p53 antibodies. Statistical Analysis: The results obtained were tabulated and statistically analyzed using descriptive statistical analysis; one-way ANOVA; least square difference method and independent t-test. Results: OSCCs exhibited 41.62% positivity for KAI-1 while p53 positive cells were recorded to an extent of 60.82%. A significant positive correlation was observed between KAI-1 and p53 expression in OSCCs. Conclusions: Although a significant amount of work is still required to uncover the mechanisms of action and regulation of KAI-1 and p53 expression, control of the complex metastatic processes would be of interest in controlling the tumor biology in OSCCs as well as other types of malignancies to enhance prognosis in the affected patients and to help protect against future metastasis in the going to be treated and treated patients. PMID:27721601

  5. Cyanobacterial daily life with Kai-based circadian and diurnal genome-wide transcriptional control in Synechococcus elongatus.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroshi; Mutsuda, Michinori; Murayama, Yoriko; Tomita, Jun; Hosokawa, Norimune; Terauchi, Kazuki; Sugita, Chieko; Sugita, Mamoru; Kondo, Takao; Iwasaki, Hideo

    2009-08-18

    In the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, essentially all promoter activities are under the control of the circadian clock under continuous light (LL) conditions. Here, we used high-density oligonucleotide arrays to explore comprehensive profiles of genome-wide Synechococcus gene expression in wild-type, kaiABC-null, and kaiC-overexpressor strains under LL and continuous dark (DD) conditions. In the wild-type strains, >30% of transcripts oscillated significantly in a circadian fashion, peaking at subjective dawn and dusk. Such circadian control was severely attenuated in kaiABC-null strains. Although it has been proposed that KaiC globally represses gene expression, our analysis revealed that dawn-expressed genes were up-regulated by kaiC-overexpression so that the clock was arrested at subjective dawn. Transfer of cells to DD conditions from LL immediately suppressed expression of most of the genes, while the clock kept even time in the absence of transcriptional feedback. Thus, the Synechococcus genome seems to be primarily regulated by light/dark cycles and is dramatically modified by the protein-based circadian oscillator.

  6. KAI1 gene is engaged in NDRG1 gene-mediated metastasis suppression through the ATF3-NFkappaB complex in human prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen; Iiizumi-Gairani, Megumi; Okuda, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Aya; Watabe, Misako; Pai, Sudha K; Pandey, Puspa R; Xing, Fei; Fukuda, Koji; Modur, Vishnu; Hirota, Shigeru; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Chiba, Toshimi; Endo, Masaki; Sugai, Tamotsu; Watabe, Kounosuke

    2011-05-27

    NDRG1 and KAI1 belong to metastasis suppressor genes, which impede the dissemination of tumor cells from primary tumors to distant organs. Previously, we identified the metastasis promoting transcription factor, ATF3, as a downstream target of NDRG1. Further analysis revealed that the KAI1 promoter contained a consensus binding motif of ATF3, suggesting a possibility that NDRG1 suppresses metastasis through inhibition of ATF3 expression followed by activation of the KAI1 gene. In this report, we found that ectopic expression of NDRG1 was able to augment endogenous KAI1 gene expression in prostate cancer cell lines, whereas silencing NDRG1 was accompanied with significant decrease in KAI1 expression in vitro and in vivo. In addition, our results of ChIP analysis indicate that ATF3 indeed bound to the promoter of the KAI1 gene. Importantly, our promoter-based analysis revealed that ATF3 modulated KAI1 transcription through cooperation with other endogenous transcription factor as co-activator (ATF3-JunB) or co-repressor (ATF3-NFκB). Moreover, loss of KAI1 expression significantly abrogated NDRG1-mediated metastatic suppression in vitro as well as in a spontaneous metastasis animal model, indicating that KA11 is a functional downstream target of the NDRG1 pathway. Our result of immunohistochemical analysis showed that loss of NDRG1 and KAI1 occurs in parallel as prostate cancer progresses. We also found that a combined expression status of these two genes serves as a strong independent prognostic marker to predict metastasis-free survival of prostate cancer patients. Taken together, our result revealed a novel regulatory network of two metastasis suppressor genes, NDRG1 and KAI1, which together concerted metastasis-suppressive activities through an intrinsic transcriptional cascade.

  7. Structural modelling and transcriptional responses highlight a clade of PpKAI2-LIKE genes as candidate receptors for strigolactones in Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Obando, Mauricio; Conn, Caitlin E; Hoffmann, Beate; Bythell-Douglas, Rohan; Nelson, David C; Rameau, Catherine; Bonhomme, Sandrine

    2016-06-01

    A set of PpKAI2 - LIKE paralogs that may encode strigolactone receptors in Physcomitrella patens were identified through evolutionary, structural, and transcriptional analyses, suggesting that strigolactone perception may have evolved independently in basal land plants in a similar manner as spermatophytes. Carotenoid-derived compounds known as strigolactones are a new class of plant hormones that modulate development and interactions with parasitic plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The strigolactone receptor protein DWARF14 (D14) belongs to the α/β hydrolase family. D14 is closely related to KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE2 (KAI2), a receptor of smoke-derived germination stimulants called karrikins. Strigolactone and karrikin structures share a butenolide ring that is necessary for bioactivity. Charophyte algae and basal land plants produce strigolactones that influence their development. However phylogenetic studies suggest that D14 is absent from algae, moss, and liverwort genomes, raising the question of how these basal plants perceive strigolactones. Strigolactone perception during seed germination putatively evolved in parasitic plants through gene duplication and neofunctionalization of KAI2 paralogs. The moss Physcomitrella patens shows an increase in KAI2 gene copy number, similar to parasitic plants. In this study we investigated whether P. patens KAI2-LIKE (PpKAI2L) genes may contribute to strigolactone perception. Based on phylogenetic analyses and homology modelling, we predict that a clade of PpKAI2L proteins have enlarged ligand-binding cavities, similar to D14. We observed that some PpKAI2L genes have transcriptional responses to the synthetic strigolactone GR24 racemate or its enantiomers. These responses were influenced by light and dark conditions. Moreover, (+)-GR24 seems to be the active enantiomer that induces the transcriptional responses of PpKAI2L genes. We hypothesize that members of specific PpKAI2L clades are candidate strigolactone

  8. Correlation between reduction of metastasis in the MDA-MB-435 model system and increased expression of the Kai-1 protein.

    PubMed

    Phillips, K K; White, A E; Hicks, D J; Welch, D R; Barrett, J C; Wei, L L; Weissman, B E

    1998-02-01

    Using microcell-mediated transfer of a normal chromosome 11 into the highly metastatic MDA-MB-435 human breast carcinoma cell line, we previously showed that human chromosome 11 contains a metastasis-suppressor gene for breast cancer. A known metastasis-suppressor gene, kai-1, and a related family member, tapa-1, have been mapped to chromosome 11p11.2 and 11p15.5, respectively. To determine if these genes are responsible for the metastasis suppression seen in our microcell hybrids, we examined their expression by western blot analysis. Although tapa-1 expression did not significantly correlate with metastasis suppression, kai-1 production was dramatically increased in the metastasis-suppressed chromosome 11 microcell hybrids and unchanged in the metastatic chromosome 6 controls. Transfection of full-length kai-1 cDNA into MDA-MB-435 cells resulted in clones that did not have a significantly decreased in vivo incidence of lung metastases. However, western blot analysis showed that the primary tumors and the metastatic lesions of the transfectants had decreased levels of kai-1 protein compared with the inoculated cells. Furthermore, several of the transfectant clones expressed heavily modified kai-1 protein compared with that of the microcell hybrids. Our data indicate that protein modification may affect the normal function of kai-1 in vivo and that a threshold level of kai-1 protein expression may be necessary for suppression of the metastatic phenotype.

  9. The Use of Rockets as Military Weapons at the Siege of Kai Fung Foo in 1232 A.D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    One of the earliest recorded instances of the use of rockets was as military weapons against the Mongols by the Chinese at the siege of Kai Fung Foo in 1232 A.D. An arrow with a tube of gunpowder produced an arrow of flying fire. The Mongol attackers fled in terror, even though the rockets were inaccurate and relatively harmless.

  10. The Use of Rockets as Military Weapons at the Siege of Kai Fung Foo in 1232 A.D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    One of the earliest recorded instances of the use of rockets was as military weapons against the Mongols by the Chinese at the siege of Kai Fung Foo in 1232 A.D. An arrow with a tube of gunpowder produced an arrow of flying fire. The Mongol attackers fled in terror, even though the rockets were inaccurate and relatively harmless.

  11. The Academic Profession and University Governance Participation in Japan: Focusing on the Role of Kyoju-kai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonezawa, Akiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The dominant role of Kyoju-kai (the professoriate) in university governance in Japan is now facing a critical examination as part of university reforms in response to global competition. What are the determinants of the characteristics of participation in university governance by individual faculty members? In what way does the organizational…

  12. KAI1/CD82 decreases Rac1 expression and cell proliferation through PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in H1299 lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Un-Jong; Jee, Bo-Keun; Lim, Young; Lee, Kweon-Haeng

    2009-01-01

    Although the KAI1/CD82 protein has been reported to inhibit cell metastasis in many studies, its mechanism of action has not yet been fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the possible effects of KAI1/CD82 on the metastatic phenotype in H1299 lung carcinoma cells. These studies were based on the pivotal role that the acquisition of motile phenotype plays on the initial steps of metastasis. KAI1/CD82-mediated morphological changes were observed using phase contrast microscopy. We report here, that a KAI1/CD82-induced phenotypic change was involved in the decrease of Rac1 expression and GTPase activity. However, we found that KAI1/CD82 did not regulate Rac1 mRNA levels. This suggests the existence of another regulatory mechanism of Rac1 protein maturation or activation. To identify the signaling pathway of Rac1 regulation, we investigated the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, since the PI3K/Akt pathway regulates Rac1 activation and mTOR is known to play a regulatory role in protein translation. H1299/CD82-transfectants showed lower mTOR expression and cell growth than the control group. The data obtained from this study suggested that KAI1/CD82 decreased the metastatic phenotype of H1299 lung carcinoma cells by down-regulating Rac1 expression through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.

  13. Differential expression of the metastasis suppressor KAI1 in decidual cells and trophoblast giant cells at the feto-maternal interface

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Tae Bon; Han, Min-Su; Tadashi, Yamashita; Seong, Won Joon; Choi, Je-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Invasion of trophoblasts into maternal uterine tissue is essential for establishing mature feto-maternal circulation. The trophoblast invasion associated with placentation is similar to tumor invasion. In this study, we investigated the role of KAI1, an anti-metastasis factor, at the maternal-fetal interface during placentation. Mouse embryos were obtained from gestational days 5.5 (E5.5) to E13.5. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that KAI1 was expressed on decidual cells around the track made when a fertilized ovum invaded the endometrium, at days E5.5 and E7.5, and on trophoblast giant cells, along the central maternal artery of the placenta at E9.5. KAI1 in trophoblast giant cells was increased at E11.5, and then decreased at E13.5. Furthermore, KAI1 was upregulated during the forskolinmediated trophoblastic differentiation of BeWo cells. Collectively, these results indicate that KAI1 is differentially expressed in decidual cells and trophoblasts at the maternal-fetal interface, suggesting that KAI1 prevents trophoblast invasion during placentation. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(10): 507-512] PMID:24148772

  14. KAI407, a Potent Non-8-Aminoquinoline Compound That Kills Plasmodium cynomolgi Early Dormant Liver Stage Parasites In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zeeman, Anne-Marie; van Amsterdam, Sandra M.; McNamara, Case W.; Voorberg-van der Wel, Annemarie; Klooster, Els J.; van den Berg, Alexander; Remarque, Edmond J.; Plouffe, David M.; van Gemert, Geert-Jan; Luty, Adrian; Sauerwein, Robert; Gagaring, Kerstin; Borboa, Rachel; Chen, Zhong; Kuhen, Kelli; Glynne, Richard J.; Chatterjee, Arnab K.; Nagle, Advait; Roland, Jason; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.; Leroy, Didier; Campo, Brice; Diagana, Thierry T.; Yeung, Bryan K. S.; Thomas, Alan W.

    2014-01-01

    Preventing relapses of Plasmodium vivax malaria through a radical cure depends on use of the 8-aminoquinoline primaquine, which is associated with safety and compliance issues. For future malaria eradication strategies, new, safer radical curative compounds that efficiently kill dormant liver stages (hypnozoites) will be essential. A new compound with potential radical cure activity was identified using a low-throughput assay of in vitro-cultured hypnozoite forms of Plasmodium cynomolgi (an excellent and accessible model for Plasmodium vivax). In this assay, primary rhesus hepatocytes are infected with P. cynomolgi sporozoites, and exoerythrocytic development is monitored in the presence of compounds. Liver stage cultures are fixed after 6 days and stained with anti-Hsp70 antibodies, and the relative proportions of small (hypnozoite) and large (schizont) forms relative to the untreated controls are determined. This assay was used to screen a series of 18 known antimalarials and 14 new non-8-aminoquinolines (preselected for blood and/or liver stage activity) in three-point 10-fold dilutions (0.1, 1, and 10 μM final concentrations). A novel compound, designated KAI407 showed an activity profile similar to that of primaquine (PQ), efficiently killing the earliest stages of the parasites that become either primary hepatic schizonts or hypnozoites (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] for hypnozoites, KAI407, 0.69 μM, and PQ, 0.84 μM; for developing liver stages, KAI407, 0.64 μM, and PQ, 0.37 μM). When given as causal prophylaxis, a single oral dose of 100 mg/kg of body weight prevented blood stage parasitemia in mice. From these results, we conclude that KAI407 may represent a new compound class for P. vivax malaria prophylaxis and potentially a radical cure. PMID:24366744

  15. Spent mushroom waste as a media replacement for peat moss in Kai-Lan (Brassica oleracea var. Alboglabra) production.

    PubMed

    Sendi, H; Mohamed, M T M; Anwar, M P; Saud, H M

    2013-01-01

    Peat moss (PM) is the most widely used growing substrate for the pot culture. Due to diminishing availability and increasing price of PM, researchers are looking for viable alternatives for peat as a growth media component for potted plants. A pot study was conducted with a view to investigate the possibility of using spent mushroom waste (SMW) for Kai-lan (Brassica oleracea var. Alboglabra) production replacing peat moss (PM) in growth media. The treatments evaluated were 100% PM (control), 100% SMW, and mixtures of SMW and PM in different ratios like 1 : 1, 1 : 2, and 2 : 1 (v/v) with/without NPK amendment. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with five replications per treatment. Chemical properties like pH and salinity level (EC) of SMW were within the acceptable range of crop production but, nutrient content, especially nitrogen content was not enough to provide sufficient nutrition to plant for normal growth. Only PM (100%) and SMW and PM mixture in 1 : 1 ratio with NPK amendment performed equally in terms of Kai-lan growth. This study confirms the feasibility of replacing PM by SMW up to a maximum of 50% in the growth media and suggests that NPK supplementation from inorganic sources is to ensure a higher productivity of Kai-lan.

  16. Spent Mushroom Waste as a Media Replacement for Peat Moss in Kai-Lan (Brassica oleracea var. Alboglabra) Production

    PubMed Central

    Sendi, H.; Mohamed, M. T. M.; Anwar, M. P.; Saud, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Peat moss (PM) is the most widely used growing substrate for the pot culture. Due to diminishing availability and increasing price of PM, researchers are looking for viable alternatives for peat as a growth media component for potted plants. A pot study was conducted with a view to investigate the possibility of using spent mushroom waste (SMW) for Kai-lan (Brassica oleracea var. Alboglabra) production replacing peat moss (PM) in growth media. The treatments evaluated were 100% PM (control), 100% SMW, and mixtures of SMW and PM in different ratios like 1 : 1, 1 : 2, and 2 : 1 (v/v) with/without NPK amendment. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with five replications per treatment. Chemical properties like pH and salinity level (EC) of SMW were within the acceptable range of crop production but, nutrient content, especially nitrogen content was not enough to provide sufficient nutrition to plant for normal growth. Only PM (100%) and SMW and PM mixture in 1 : 1 ratio with NPK amendment performed equally in terms of Kai-lan growth. This study confirms the feasibility of replacing PM by SMW up to a maximum of 50% in the growth media and suggests that NPK supplementation from inorganic sources is to ensure a higher productivity of Kai-lan. PMID:24106452

  17. Genetic diversity and population structure of 'Khao Kai Noi', a Lao rice (Oryza sativa L.) landrace, revealed by microsatellite DNA markers.

    PubMed

    Vilayheuang, Koukham; Machida-Hirano, Ryoko; Bounphanousay, Chay; Watanabe, Kazuo N

    2016-03-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the main food for people in Laos, where it has been grown and eaten since prehistory. Diverse landraces are grown in Laos. 'Khao Kai Noi', a landrace favored for its eating quality, is held in the nationwide collection of traditional landraces in the Lao national genebank. Genetic diversity is crucial for sustainable use of genetic resources and conservation. To investigate the genetic diversity of 'Khao Kai Noi' for conservation, we genotyped 70 accessions by using 23 polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers. The markers generated 2 to 17 alleles (132 in total), with an average of 5.7 per locus. The total expected heterozygosity over all 'Khao Kai Noi' accessions was 0.271. Genetic variation was largest among accessions and smallest within accessions. Khao Kai Noi accessions were classified into three different genetic backgrounds, but there was unclear association between the three inferred population and name subgroups and geographical distribution. Most of the accessions were clustered with temperate japonica and showed genetic relatedness to rice from neighboring provinces of Vietnam, suggesting a Vietnamese origin. The results of this study will contribute to the conservation, core collection and future breeding of the Khao Kai Noi population.

  18. Deletion of the Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 kaiAB1C1 gene cluster causes impaired cell growth under light-dark conditions.

    PubMed

    Dörrich, Anja K; Mitschke, Jan; Siadat, Olga; Wilde, Annegret

    2014-11-01

    In contrast to Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, few data exist on the timing mechanism of the widely used cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The standard kaiAB1C1 operon present in this organism was shown to encode a functional KaiC protein that interacted with KaiA, similar to the S. elongatus PCC 7942 clock. Inactivation of this operon in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 resulted in a mutant with a strong growth defect when grown under light-dark cycles, which was even more pronounced when glucose was added to the growth medium. In addition, mutants showed a bleaching phenotype. No effects were detected in mutant cells grown under constant light. Microarray experiments performed with cells grown for 1 day under a light-dark cycle revealed many differentially regulated genes with known functions in the ΔkaiABC mutant in comparison with the WT. We identified the genes encoding the cyanobacterial phytochrome Cph1 and the light-repressed protein LrtA as well as several hypothetical ORFs with a complete inverse behaviour in the light cycle. These transcripts showed a stronger accumulation in the light but a weaker accumulation in the dark in ΔkaiABC cells in comparison with the WT. In general, we found a considerable overlap with microarray data obtained for hik31 and sigE mutants. These genes are known to be important regulators of cell metabolism in the dark. Strikingly, deletion of the ΔkaiABC operon led to a much stronger phenotype under light-dark cycles in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 than in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942. © 2014 The Authors.

  19. Early diagenetic processes of saline meromictic Lake Kai-ike, southwest Japan: III. Sulfur speciation and isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, N.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Oguri, K.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Kai-ike is a saline meromictic lake located along the coast of Kami-Koshiki Island. The lake is isolated from ocean by a gravel bar, through which seawater infiltrates by tidal pumping. The lake is permanently redox (density)-stratified with a mid-depth development of photic zone anoxia and a dense community of photosynthetic bacteria pinkish "bacterial plate". The early diagenesis of sulfur in sediments overlain by an anoxic water body was investigated using a sediment core (KAI4) from the lake. We determined abundance of various S-bearing species (i.e., Cr-reducible sulfide (= pyrite S: Spy), acid-volatile sulfide (AVS), sulfate sulfur (SSO4), elemental sulfur (S0), and organic sulfur) by an improved sequential extraction method. Here we focus on drastic and rapid changes on sulfur biogeochemistry found in the uppermost 5cm layer. With increasing depth, abundance of Spy increased but that of SSO4 and δ34S value of Spy (δ34Spy) decreased. These results suggest progressive formation of bacteriogenic pyrite. The δ34S values of SSO4 (δ34SSO4) ranged from 25.1 ‰ (at sediment surface) to 3.8 ‰ in the uppermost 5 cm layer. This δ34SSO4 decrease in the top 5 cm sediment suggests that SSO4 in the surface sediment inherits SO42- with elevated δ34S values (higher than typical seawater δ34S value of 21‰) in the water column, which is due to extensive bacterial sulfate reduction with preferential removal of low-δ34S sulfur as sulfide. In the lower part of the uppermost 5 cm layer, SO42- formed by oxidation of S0, AVS, and/or Spy with low-δ34S values by SO42--bearing seawater introduced by infiltration through the gravel bar. Increasing δ34Spy values with increasing depth suggest near complete consumption of SO42- by active bacterial sulfate reduction, and this process could be explained by Rayleigh distillation model. Early diagenesis of sulfur does occur in whole section of 25cm-long KAI4 core that accumulated for the last ~60 years (Yamaguchi et al

  20. Hui Malama o ke Kai: mobilizing to prevent youth violence and substance use with passion, common goals, and culture.

    PubMed

    Akeo, Nani P; Bunyan, Eric S; Burgess, Kaui N; Eckart, David R; Evensen, Shirley L; Hirose-Wong, Shannon M; Majit-Gorion, Sharon S; Takeshita, Carl K; Takeshita, Irene K; Vasconcellos, Carl G

    2008-03-01

    The goal of the Hui Malama o ke Kai project was the development of a community-based youth program that supported the prevention of youth violence and substance use among 5th- and 6th-grade students from a predominantly Hawaiian community. This program's development included engaging with a variety of community partners and mobilizing parents through the youths' cultural development. Recommendations for working with Hawaiians and other indigenous peoples include having program evaluators work more intimately with program participants and developing program components that address ethnic identity and family engagement. In doing so, youth programs with indigenous peoples can also galvanize small communities that are coping with destructive social concerns.

  1. Phosphorus and iron cycles during early diagenesis of Lake Kai-ike sediments, Kami-koshiki Island, southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, H.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Oguri, K.

    2014-12-01

    A meromictic Lake Kai-ike is located on the northeastern margin of Kami-koshiki island, Japan. Permanent density stratification develops due to seawater infiltration through a gravel bar separating the lake from the ocean. The oxygenated surface water overlays a stagnant, saline, and anoxic deep water containing hydrogen sulfide. Purple sulfur bacteria (Chromatium sp.) inhabit the chemocline at 4.5m depth. At the lake bottom, green sulfur bacteria form microbial mat-like structures (Nakajima et al., 2003; Environ. Microbiol.). Such environment can be treated as a model for the past anoxic ocean, such as during Cretaceous OAEs (Oguri et al., 2003; Frontier Res. on Earth Evol.). A 25 cm-long KAI4 sediment core (Yamaguchi et al., 2010; Palaeo3) was used for two sequential extraction methods. SEDEX method (Ruttenberg, 1992; Limnol. Oceanogr.) was used for partitioning phosphorus-bearing species into Pabs (absorbed), PFe (Fe-bound), Pauth (authigenic), Pdet (detrital), and Porg (organic). Iron-bearing species were also divided into FeHCl (HCl-soluble), Fecarb (carbonate), Feox (oxide), Femag (magnetite), and Feresi (residue), following the method of Poulton et al. (2005; Chem. Geol.). At the uppermost part of KAI4 core, Porg was the most abundant P-bearing species (~90% of total P). The Porg content sharply decreased with increasing depth to 5cm. The second most abundant species was PFe; however, PFe and Feox contents remained constant throughout the whole depth. At sediment surface in present-day oxygenated ocean, Fe3+-(oxy)hydroxides trap phosphate diffusing from deeper-anoxic sediment, and the phosphate concentration in pore water becomes high enough to precipitate authigenic apatite (Slomp et al., 1996; J. Mar. Res.). In case of Lake Kai-ike, however, the amount of Fe3+-(oxy)hydroxides was small relative to that of Porg (PFe/Porg = ~0.1). We suggest that the excess phosphate not adsorbed on Fe3+-(oxy)hydroxides was diffused out to the overlying water mass, and the

  2. Characterization of multiple constituents in Kai-Xin-San prescription and rat plasma after oral administration by liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaowen; Li, Qing; Lv, Chunxiao; Xu, Huarong; Liu, Xujia; Sui, Zhenyu; Bi, Kaishun

    2015-06-01

    A sensitive and reliable ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry method was established to separate and identify the chemical constituents of Kai-Xin-San prescription, a classic traditional Chinese medicine formula that plays an important role in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The detection was performed on an Agilent 6520 Accurate-Mass quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source in negative modes. With the optimized conditions, a total of 54 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized. Out of the 54 compounds, six compounds were identified by comparing the retention time and mass spectrometry data with reference standards, the rest were characterized by analyzing mass spectrometry data and retrieving the literature data. Results indicated ginsenosides, polygala saponins, terpenoids, and oligosaccharide esters were the major effective constituents in Kai-Xin-San prescription. There were 26 prototype ingredients that were assigned for identification in rat plasma. It is also concluded that the developed ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry method with high sensitivity and resolution is suitable for identifying and characterizing the chemical constituents of Kai-Xin-San prescription, and the analysis provides a helpful chemical basis for further research on Kai-Xin-San prescription and the clinical diagnostics of Alzheimer's disease.

  3. KAI1/CD82 suppresses tumor invasion by MMP9 inactivation via TIMP1 up-regulation in the H1299 human lung carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Jee, Bo Keun; Park, Koung Min; Surendran, Sibin; Lee, Woon Kyu; Han, Chang Whan; Kim, Yong Sik; Lim, Young

    2006-04-07

    We conducted a study on the mechanism of KAI1/CD82-mediated suppression of tumor invasiveness and metastasis, and examined its effect on MMP-9 activity and the TIMP1 levels in H1299 human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells. The H1299 human lung carcinoma cells were transfected with pcDNA3.1-CD82 and stable transfectant clones that had a high KAI1/CD82 expression were obtained. We performed Western blot analysis, cell invasion assay, gelatin zymography, and RT-PCR to assess the KAI1/CD82 expression and tumor invasiveness, the MMP-9 activity, the MMP-9 mRNA and protein levels, and the TIMP1 levels in the H1299/CD82 transfectant cells and compared the results with those of the control groups. The H1299/CD82 transfectants exhibited significant suppression of cell invasion, reduced MMP9 enzyme activity, elevated MMP9 mRNA and MMP-9 protein levels, and elevated TIMP1 levels. It may be postulated that KAI1/CD82 over-expression in the H1299 non-small cell lung carcinoma cells suppresses the tumor invasiveness and metastatic potential by inducing MMP9 inactivation via the up-regulation of TIMP1.

  4. The Experience of KAI MAHI, an Employment Initiative for People with an Experience of Mental Illness, as Told by Zarna, Zeus, Lulu, Mary, Paul, and Hemi.

    PubMed

    de Malmanche, Janie; Robertson, Linda

    2015-11-01

    There is a growing body of evidence endorsing the use of supported employment models for people with an experience of mental illness. However current literature and research regarding the perspective of people with experience of mental illness, as well as alternate models of employment support, is sparse. This study has captured the stories of employment of people with experience of mental illness who participated in KAI MAHI, a group based employment program. Findings identified key components of KAI MAHI, consistent with their overall experiences of employment, which were influential in assisting them to find and sustain employment. These included the opportunity for self-determination, a sense of self-efficacy, and respectful relationships.

  5. Effect of kai xin san on learning and memory in a rat model of paradoxical sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuan; Liu, Ming; Liu, Ping; Yan, Juan-Juan; Liu, Ming-Yue; Zhang, Gang-Qiang; Zhou, Xiao-Jiang; Yu, Bing-Ying

    2013-04-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of kai xin san (KXS, at doses of 500, 250, and 125 mg/kg body weight per day), a well-known traditional Chinese medicine, on learning and memory in paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD)-induced cognition deficit rats. Two behavior tests (the Open Field test and the Morris water maze task) were used for testing the effects of KXS on a PSD-induced learning and memory deficit model. Furthermore, its effect on the glutamic acid (GLU) and γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA) levels in the brain tissue, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB), and phosphorylated-CREB (p-CREB) expression in the hippocampus was also tested. KXS exerted the greatest cognition against the 48 h PSD-induced cognitive deficit and these effects may be mediated by decreasing the GLU and GABA levels and increasing the levels of BDNF, CREB, and p-CREB. This study indicates that the effect of KXS on learning and memory in a rat model of PSD could be associated with the modulation of neurotransmitter levels and the expression of some genes in the brain that contribute to memory functions.

  6. Field-programmable gate array-based hardware architecture for high-speed camera with KAI-0340 CCD image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Yan, Su; Zhou, Zuofeng; Cao, Jianzhong; Yan, Aqi; Tang, Linao; Lei, Yangjie

    2013-08-01

    We present a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based hardware architecture for high-speed camera which have fast auto-exposure control and colour filter array (CFA) demosaicing. The proposed hardware architecture includes the design of charge coupled devices (CCD) drive circuits, image processing circuits, and power supply circuits. CCD drive circuits transfer the TTL (Transistor-Transistor-Logic) level timing Sequences which is produced by image processing circuits to the timing Sequences under which CCD image sensor can output analog image signals. Image processing circuits convert the analog signals to digital signals which is processing subsequently, and the TTL timing, auto-exposure control, CFA demosaicing, and gamma correction is accomplished in this module. Power supply circuits provide the power for the whole system, which is very important for image quality. Power noises effect image quality directly, and we reduce power noises by hardware way, which is very effective. In this system, the CCD is KAI-0340 which is can output 210 full resolution frame-per-second, and our camera can work outstandingly in this mode. The speed of traditional auto-exposure control algorithms to reach a proper exposure level is so slow that it is necessary to develop a fast auto-exposure control method. We present a new auto-exposure algorithm which is fit high-speed camera. Color demosaicing is critical for digital cameras, because it converts a Bayer sensor mosaic output to a full color image, which determines the output image quality of the camera. Complexity algorithm can acquire high quality but cannot implement in hardware. An low-complexity demosaicing method is presented which can implement in hardware and satisfy the demand of quality. The experiment results are given in this paper in last.

  7. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the KaiC-like protein PH0187 from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hee-Jin; Kubota, Keiko; Miyazono, Ken-ichi; Tanokura, Masaru

    2011-01-01

    KaiC is the central protein in the circadian rhythm in cyanobacteria. The 28 kDa KaiC-like protein PH0187 from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method at 293 K. Crystals of PH0187 were obtained using a reservoir solution consisting of 1.0 M ammonium phosphate monobasic and 0.1 M sodium citrate tribasic pH 5.3 (the final pH value of the reservoir solution was 4.8) and diffracted X-rays to 2.75 Å resolution. The crystal of PH0187 belonged to space group P6322, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 239.1, c = 106.5 Å. The crystal contained four PH0187 molecules in the asymmetric unit. PMID:21206047

  8. Effects of a Chinese traditional formula Kai Xin San (KXS) on chronic fatigue syndrome mice induced by forced wheel running.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yin; Hu, Yuan; Liu, Ping; Zhao, Hai-Xia; Zhou, Xiao-Jiang; Wei, Ying-Mei

    2012-01-06

    In traditional medicine, Kai Xin San (KXS), composed of ginseng (Panax ginseng), hoelen (Wolfiporia cocos), polygala (Polygala tenuifolia) and Acorus gramineus, is famous for the treatment of emotion-thought disease, such as settling fright, quieting the spirit and nourishing the heart. The present study investigated the effect of KXS on chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) mice induced by forced wheel running. Seventy two healthy adult male Kunming mice were randomly divided into six groups: home cage control group, CFS group, CFS group with Modafinil treatment at 13 mg/kg/d doge, KXS treatment at 175 mg/kg/d, 350 mg/kg/d and 700 mg/kg/d doge. CFS mice were induced by forced wheel running with higher speed for 4 weeks and then taken an exhausted exercise. The biochemical parameters including serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum urea nitrogen (SUN), serum testosterone (T), liver glycogen (LG), muscle glycogen (MG) and muscle lactic acid (MLA) were determined by using commercially available kits. The splenocytes proliferation from mice was examined by MTT method. The levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) secreted by splenocytes were determined by ELISA. CFS mice with KXS administration exhibited less electric shock time when compared with CFS group without drug treatment. The effect of KXS has after demonstrated reduction in SUN, LDH and MLA levels and an increase in T, LG and MG levels. CFS mice with KXS could improve the proliferation of splenocytes compared with CFS group without drug treatment. The cultured splenocytes from CFS mice without KXS supplementation produced more interleukin-2 (IL-2) but less interleukin-4 (IL-4) when compared with home cage control mice. The cultured splenocytes of CFS mice with KXS supplementation produced more interleukin-2 (IL-2) but less interleukin-4 (IL-4) when compared with CFS group without drug treatment. The results of this preliminary study provide evidence that KXS could ameliorate CFS by affecting the

  9. A comitative source for object markers in Sinitic languages: 跟 kai55 in Waxiang and 共 kang7 in Southern Min

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, Hilary; Peyraube, Alain; Wu, Yunji

    2013-01-01

    This analysis sets out to specifically discuss the polyfunctionality of 跟 [kai55] in Waxiang (Sinitic), whose lexical source is the verb ‘to follow’. Amongst its various uses, we find a preposition ‘with, along’, a marker of adjuncts and a NP conjunction, thus superficially resembling its Mandarin cognate 跟 gēn ‘with’. Curiously, however, it has also evolved into a direct object marker in Waxiang, with a function similar to that of preposition 把 bă < ‘hold, take’ as found in the S–bă–O–VP or so-called ‘disposal’ form in standard Mandarin. The pathways of grammaticalization for 跟 [kai55] in Waxiang are thus discussed in order to determine how it has developed this unusual grammatical function in one of the linguistic zones of China where verbs of giving or taking are, in fact, the main source for grammaticalized object markers in ‘disposal’ constructions. On the basis of 16th and 17th century Southern Min literature (Sinitic), a comparison is also made with analogous developments for comitative 共 gòng ‘with’ to provide support for our hypothesis that the direct object marking use has evolved from the oblique function of a benefactive or dative, and is clearly separate from the crosslinguistically well-attested pathway that leads to its use as a conjunction. We would thus like to propose that these data contribute a new pattern to the stock of grammaticalization pathways, specifically, comitative > dative/benefactive > accusative (direct object marker). PMID:24273384

  10. The memory enhancement effect of Kai Xin San on cognitive deficit induced by simulated weightlessness in rats.

    PubMed

    Qiong, Wang; Yong-Liang, Zhang; Ying-Hui, Li; Shan-Guang, Chen; Jiang-Hui, Gao; Yi-Xi, Chen; Ning, Jiang; Xin-Min, Liu

    2016-07-01

    It is vital for astronauts to develop effective countermeasures to prevent their decline of cognitive performance in microgravity to make space-flight missions successful. The traditional Chinese herbal formula Kai Xin San (KXS) has been used to treat amnesia for thousands years. It is a traditional complex prescription comprising of ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer), hoelen (Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf), polygala (Polygala tenaifolia Willd), and acorus (Acorus tatarinowii Schott). Previous study showed KXS could improve CMS-induced memory impairment in rats. In this paper, a unique environmental factor-microgravity (weightlessness) was simulated as hindlimb suspension (HLS) by tail in rats for two weeks as the HLS animal model. The KXS at the doses of 0.3 or 0.6g/kg p.o. daily was administrated to HLS rats for two weeks at the same time of HLS, the memory behavior tests were investigated with Morris water maze (MWM) and Shuttle Box (SB) test. The levels of ROS, 8-OHdG and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) in the serum, and AChE and ChAT activity in the brain of rats were determined by ELISA or biochemical analysis. After HLS for two weeks, the escape latency and the swimming distance were significantly increased in the MWM test in rats in the HLS group, compared with control group. The percent of swimming distance in target quadrant and the number of target crossing was significantly decreased in rats in the HLS group compared with the control group. Performance in the SB test showed, the numbers and the distance of active avoidance was decreased from day 4 to day 7, the time spent in electric area was increased in rats in the HLS group compared with the control group. Administration of KXS 0.3 or 0.6g/kg to the HLS rats for two weeks significantly reduced the escape latency and the swimming distance, increased the percentage of swimming distance in target quadrant and the number of target crossings (P<0.01, compared with the HLS group) in the MWM test. Similar treatment with

  11. The metastasis suppressor CD82/KAI1 inhibits fibronectin adhesion-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in prostate cancer cells by repressing the associated integrin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Moon-Sung; Jin, Young-June; Jeoung, Dooil; Kim, Young-Myeong; Lee, Hansoo

    2017-01-01

    The transmembrane protein CD82/KAI1 suppresses the metastatic potential of various cancer cell types. Moreover, decrease or loss of CD82 expression is closely associated with malignancy and poor prognosis in many human cancers including prostate cancer. Despite intense scrutiny, the mechanisms underlying the metastasis-suppressing role of CD82 are still not fully understood. Here, we found that a fibronectin matrix induced mesenchymal phenotypes in human prostate cancer cells with no or low CD82 expression levels. However, high CD82 expression rendered prostate cancer cells to have intensified epithelial characteristics upon fibronectin engagement, along with decreased cell motility and invasiveness. The CD82 function of inhibiting fibronectin-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was dependent not only on CD82 interactions with fibronectin-binding α3β1/α5β1 integrins but also on the integrin-mediated intracellular signaling events. Notably, CD82 attenuated the FAK-Src and ILK pathways downstream of the fibronectin-receptor integrins. Immunofluorescence staining of human prostate cancer tissue specimens illustrated a negative association of CD82 with EMT-related gene expression as well as prostate malignancy. Altogether, these results suggest that CD82 suppresses EMT in prostate cancer cells adhered to the fibronectin matrix by repressing adhesion signaling through lateral interactions with the associated α3β1 and α5β1 integrins, leading to reduced cell migration and invasive capacities. PMID:27926483

  12. Anti-RhoC siRNAs inhibit the proliferation and invasiveness of breast cancer cells via modulating the KAI1, MMP9, and CXCR4 expression

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xu-Dong; Shen, Han-Bin; Zhu, Li; Lu, Jian-Qin; Zhang, Lin; Luo, Zhi-Yong; Wu, Ya-Qun

    2017-01-01

    Overexpression of RhoC in breast cancer cells indicates poor prognosis. In the present study, we aim to investigate the possible antitumor effects of anti-RhoC small-interfering RNA (siRNA) in inflammatory breast cancer cells. In this study, a specific anti-RhoC siRNA was used to inhibit RhoC synthesis. Transfection of anti-RhoC siRNA into two IBC cells SUM149 and SUM190 induced extensive degradation of target mRNA and led to significant decrease in the synthesis of protein. Anti-RhoC siRNA inhibited cell proliferation and invasion, increased cell apoptosis, and induced cell cycle arrest in vitro. Moreover, the transfection of siRNA increased the expression of KAI1 and decreased the expression of MMP9 and CXCR4 in both mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, transplantation tumor experiments in BALB/c-nu mice showed that intratumoral injection of anti-RhoC siRNA inhibited tumor growth and increased survival rate. Our results suggested that RhoC gene silencing with specific anti-RhoC siRNA would be a potential therapeutic method for metastatic breast cancer. PMID:28367066

  13. A standardized chinese herbal decoction, kai-xin-san, restores decreased levels of neurotransmitters and neurotrophic factors in the brain of chronic stress-induced depressive rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kevin Yue; Mao, Qing-Qiu; Ip, Siu-Po; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Lau, David Tai-Wai; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung

    2012-01-01

    Kai-xin-san (KXS), a Chinese herbal decoction being prescribed by Sun Simiao in Beiji Qianjin Yaofang about 1400 years ago, contains Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria. KXS has been used to treat stress-related psychiatric disease with the symptoms of depression and forgetfulness in ancient China until today. However, the mechanism of its antidepression action is still unknown. Here, the chronic mild-stress-(CMS-) induced depressive rats were applied in exploring the action mechanisms of KXS treatment. Daily intragastric administration of KXS for four weeks significantly alleviated the CMS-induced depressive symptoms displayed by enhanced sucrose consumption. In addition, the expressions of those molecular bio-markers relating to depression in rat brains were altered by the treatment of KXS. These KXS-regulated brain biomarkers included: (i) the levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin (ii) the transcript levels of proteins relating to neurotransmitter metabolism; (iii) the transcript levels of neurotrophic factors and their receptors. The results suggested that the anti-depressant-like action of KXS might be mediated by an increase of neurotransmitters and expression of neurotrophic factors and its corresponding receptors in the brain. Thus, KXS could serve as alternative medicine, or health food supplement, for patients suffering from depression.

  14. A Standardized Chinese Herbal Decoction, Kai-Xin-San, Restores Decreased Levels of Neurotransmitters and Neurotrophic Factors in the Brain of Chronic Stress-Induced Depressive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Kevin Yue; Mao, Qing-Qiu; Ip, Siu-Po; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Lau, David Tai-Wai; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung

    2012-01-01

    Kai-xin-san (KXS), a Chinese herbal decoction being prescribed by Sun Simiao in Beiji Qianjin Yaofang about 1400 years ago, contains Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria. KXS has been used to treat stress-related psychiatric disease with the symptoms of depression and forgetfulness in ancient China until today. However, the mechanism of its antidepression action is still unknown. Here, the chronic mild-stress-(CMS-) induced depressive rats were applied in exploring the action mechanisms of KXS treatment. Daily intragastric administration of KXS for four weeks significantly alleviated the CMS-induced depressive symptoms displayed by enhanced sucrose consumption. In addition, the expressions of those molecular bio-markers relating to depression in rat brains were altered by the treatment of KXS. These KXS-regulated brain biomarkers included: (i) the levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin (ii) the transcript levels of proteins relating to neurotransmitter metabolism; (iii) the transcript levels of neurotrophic factors and their receptors. The results suggested that the anti-depressant-like action of KXS might be mediated by an increase of neurotransmitters and expression of neurotrophic factors and its corresponding receptors in the brain. Thus, KXS could serve as alternative medicine, or health food supplement, for patients suffering from depression. PMID:22973399

  15. A Chinese herbal decoction, reformulated from Kai-Xin-San, relieves the depression-like symptoms in stressed rats and induces neurogenesis in cultured neurons

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lu; Hu, Qinghua; Mak, Marvin S. H.; Lou, Jianshu; Xu, Sherry L.; Bi, Cathy W. C.; Zhu, Yue; Wang, Huaiyou; Dong, Tina T. X.; Tsim, Karl W. K.

    2016-01-01

    Kai-Xin-San (KXS), a Chinese herbal decoction for anti-depression, is a combination of paired-herbs, i.e. Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma (GR)-Polygalae Radix (PR) and Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma (ATR)-Poria (PO). The make-up of the paired-herbs has been commonly revised according to syndrome differentiation and treatment variation of individual. Currently, an optimized KXS (KXS2012) was prepared by functional screening different combination of GR-PR and ATR-PO. The aim of this study was to verify the effect and underlying mechanism of KXS2012 against depression in chronic mild stress (CMS)-induced depressive rats and in primary cultures of neurons and astrocytes. In rat model, the CMS-induced depressive symptoms were markedly alleviated by the treatment with KXS2012. The CMS-suppressed neurotransmitter amounts were restored in the presence of KXS2012. And the expressions of neurotropic factors and its corresponding receptors were increased under KXS2012 administration. In cultured neurons, application of KXS2012 could promote neurogenesis by inducing the expression of synaptotagmin and dendritic spine density. Moreover, application of KXS2012 in cultured astrocytes, or in H2O2-stressed astrocytes, induced the expressions of neurotrophic factors: the increase might be associated with the modification of Erk1/2 and CREB phosphorylation. Our current results fully support the therapeutic efficacy of KXS2012 against depression in cell and animal models. PMID:27444820

  16. Kai-Xin-San, a traditional Chinese medicine formulation, exerts antidepressive and neuroprotective effects by promoting pCREB upstream pathways

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xian-Zhe; Wang, Dong-Xiao; Yu, Bing-Ying; Liu, Ping; Hu, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Kai-Xin-San (KXS) is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been widely used for the treatment of emotion-related disease. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. The present study aimed to examine whether phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) and upstream components, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), phospho-ERK (pERK), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt), glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and pGSK3β are associated with the antidepressive effect of KXS. In total, 24 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups, including control (n=8, no treatment), induced with chronic unpredictable mild stress (CMS) (n=8), and CMS rats treated with KXS at dosage of 370 mg/kg/day orally. Primary hippocampal neuronal cultures were prepared from Wistar rats for cell survival and proliferation assays. In KXS rats, increased protein expression levels of pCREB, BDNF and tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) were observed in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, compared with the CMS model group. Furthermore, increased expression levels of ERK, pERK, PI3K, Akt, and GSK3β were also detected in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of KXS-treated rats compared with CMS model rats and in primary hippocampal neuronal cells treated with KXS. These results suggest that pCREB and upstream components, including TrkB/ERK/CREB and TrkB/PI3 K/CREB, may contribute to the antidepressive effect induced by KXS. Further studies are required to confirm these findings. PMID:27882154

  17. Kai-Xin-San, a traditional Chinese medicine formulation, exerts antidepressive and neuroprotective effects by promoting pCREB upstream pathways.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xian-Zhe; Wang, Dong-Xiao; Yu, Bing-Ying; Liu, Ping; Hu, Yuan

    2016-11-01

    Kai-Xin-San (KXS) is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been widely used for the treatment of emotion-related disease. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. The present study aimed to examine whether phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) and upstream components, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), phospho-ERK (pERK), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt), glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and pGSK3β are associated with the antidepressive effect of KXS. In total, 24 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups, including control (n=8, no treatment), induced with chronic unpredictable mild stress (CMS) (n=8), and CMS rats treated with KXS at dosage of 370 mg/kg/day orally. Primary hippocampal neuronal cultures were prepared from Wistar rats for cell survival and proliferation assays. In KXS rats, increased protein expression levels of pCREB, BDNF and tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) were observed in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, compared with the CMS model group. Furthermore, increased expression levels of ERK, pERK, PI3K, Akt, and GSK3β were also detected in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of KXS-treated rats compared with CMS model rats and in primary hippocampal neuronal cells treated with KXS. These results suggest that pCREB and upstream components, including TrkB/ERK/CREB and TrkB/PI3 K/CREB, may contribute to the antidepressive effect induced by KXS. Further studies are required to confirm these findings.

  18. Synergism and rules from combination of Baicalin, Jasminoidin and Desoxycholic acid in refined Qing Kai Ling for treat ischemic stroke mice model.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Wu, Run-guo; Meng, Fan-yun; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Chang-ming; Wang, Yong-yan; Zhang, Zhan-jun

    2012-01-01

    Refined Qing-Kai-Ling (QKL), a modified Chinese medicine, consists of three main ingredients (Baicalin, Jasminoidin and Desoxycholic acid), plays a synergistic effect on the treatment of the acute stage of ischemic stroke. However, the rules of the combination and synergism are still unknown. Based on the ischemic stroke mice model, all different kinds of combination of Baicalin, Jasminoidin, and Desoxycholic acid were investigated by the methods of neurological examination, microarray, and genomics analysis. As a result, it confirmed that the combination of three drugs offered a better therapeutical effect on ischemic stroke than monotherapy of each drug. Additionally, we used Ingenuity pathway Analysis (IPA) and principal component analysis (PCA) to extract the dominant information of expression changes in 373 ischemia-related genes. The results suggested that 5 principal components (PC1-5) could account for more than 95% energy in the gene data. Moreover, 3 clusters (PC1, PC2+PC5, and PC3+PC4) were addressed with cluster analysis. Furthermore, we matched PCs on the drug-target networks, the findings demonstrated that Baicalin related with PC1 that played the leading role in the combination; Jasminoidin related with PC2+PC5 that played a compensatory role; while Desoxycholic acid had the least performance alone which could relate with PC3+PC4 that played a compatible role. These manifestations were accorded with the principle of herbal formulae of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), emperor-minister-adjuvant-courier. In conclusion, we firstly provided scientific evidence to the classic theory of TCM formulae, an initiating holistic viewpoint of combination therapy of TCM. This study also illustrated that PCA might be an applicable method to analyze the complicated data of drug combination.

  19. Synergism and Rules from Combination of Baicalin, Jasminoidin and Desoxycholic acid in Refined Qing Kai Ling for Treat Ischemic Stroke Mice Model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhong; Wang, Chang-ming; Wang, Yong-yan; Zhang, Zhan-jun

    2012-01-01

    Refined Qing-Kai-Ling (QKL), a modified Chinese medicine, consists of three main ingredients (Baicalin, Jasminoidin and Desoxycholic acid), plays a synergistic effect on the treatment of the acute stage of ischemic stroke. However, the rules of the combination and synergism are still unknown. Based on the ischemic stroke mice model, all different kinds of combination of Baicalin, Jasminoidin, and Desoxycholic acid were investigated by the methods of neurological examination, microarray, and genomics analysis. As a result, it confirmed that the combination of three drugs offered a better therapeutical effect on ischemic stroke than monotherapy of each drug. Additionally, we used Ingenuity pathway Analysis (IPA) and principal component analysis (PCA) to extract the dominant information of expression changes in 373 ischemia-related genes. The results suggested that 5 principal components (PC1-5) could account for more than 95% energy in the gene data. Moreover, 3 clusters (PC1, PC2+PC5, and PC3+PC4) were addressed with cluster analysis. Furthermore, we matched PCs on the drug-target networks, the findings demonstrated that Baicalin related with PC1 that played the leading role in the combination; Jasminoidin related with PC2+PC5 that played a compensatory role; while Desoxycholic acid had the least performance alone which could relate with PC3+PC4 that played a compatible role. These manifestations were accorded with the principle of herbal formulae of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), emperor-minister-adjuvant-courier. In conclusion, we firstly provided scientific evidence to the classic theory of TCM formulae, an initiating holistic viewpoint of combination therapy of TCM. This study also illustrated that PCA might be an applicable method to analyze the complicated data of drug combination. PMID:23049867

  20. Ultra-fast liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry determination of eight bioactive components of Kai-Xin-San in rat plasma and its application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study in normal and Alzheimer's disease rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaotong; Zhang, Yue; Niu, Huibin; Geng, Yajing; Wang, Bing; Yang, Xiaomei; Yan, Pengyu; Li, Qing; Bi, Kaishun

    2017-05-01

    A method of ultra-fast liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitation of eight bioactive components, including polygalaxanthone III, sibiricaxanthone B, tenuifolin, sibiricose A5, sibiricose A6, tenuifoliside A, ginsenoside Re and ginsenoside Rb1 in rat plasma after oral administration of Kai-Xin-San. The plasma samples were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction using digoxin as an internal standard. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Venusil MP C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 3 μm) with methanol and 0.05% acetic acid in water as mobile phase. The tandem mass spectrometric detection was performed in the multiple reaction monitoring with turbo ion spray source in the negative ionization. Validation parameters were within acceptable ranges. The established method has been successfully applied to compare the pharmacokinetic profiles of the analytes between normal and Alzheimer's disease rats. The results indicated that there were significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters of some components between two groups, which may be due to the mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease and pharmacological effects of the analytes. The pharmacokinetic research in the pathological state might provide more useful information to guide the clinical usage of herbal medicine. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Kai-xin-san, a chinese herbal decoction containing ginseng radix et rhizoma, polygalae radix, acori tatarinowii rhizoma, and poria, stimulates the expression and secretion of neurotrophic factors in cultured astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kevin Yue; Xu, Sherry Li; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Yan, Artemis Lu; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung

    2013-01-01

    Kai-xin-san (KXS), a Chinese herbal decoction prescribed by Sun Simiao in Beiji Qianjin Yaofang about 1400 years ago, contains Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria. In China, KXS has been used to treat stress-related psychiatric diseases with the symptoms of depression and forgetfulness. Although animal study has supported the antidepression function of KXS, the mechanism in cellular level is still unknown. Here, a chemically standardized water extract of KXS was applied onto cultured astrocytes in exploring the action mechanisms of KXS treatment, which significantly stimulated the expression and secretion of neurotrophic factors, including NGF, BDNF, and GDNF, in a dose-dependent manner: the stimulation was both in mRNA and protein levels. In addition, the water extracts of four individual herbs did not significantly stimulate the expression of neurotrophic factors, which could explain the optimized effect of KXS in a herbal decoction. The KXS-induced expression of neurotrophic factors did not depend on signaling mediated by estrogen receptor or protein kinase. The results suggested that the antidepressant-like action of KXS might be mediated by an increase of expression of neurotrophic factors in astrocytes, which fully supported the clinical usage of this decoction.

  2. Kai-Xin-San, a Chinese Herbal Decoction Containing Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria, Stimulates the Expression and Secretion of Neurotrophic Factors in Cultured Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Kevin Yue; Xu, Sherry Li; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Yan, Artemis Lu; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung

    2013-01-01

    Kai-xin-san (KXS), a Chinese herbal decoction prescribed by Sun Simiao in Beiji Qianjin Yaofang about 1400 years ago, contains Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria. In China, KXS has been used to treat stress-related psychiatric diseases with the symptoms of depression and forgetfulness. Although animal study has supported the antidepression function of KXS, the mechanism in cellular level is still unknown. Here, a chemically standardized water extract of KXS was applied onto cultured astrocytes in exploring the action mechanisms of KXS treatment, which significantly stimulated the expression and secretion of neurotrophic factors, including NGF, BDNF, and GDNF, in a dose-dependent manner: the stimulation was both in mRNA and protein levels. In addition, the water extracts of four individual herbs did not significantly stimulate the expression of neurotrophic factors, which could explain the optimized effect of KXS in a herbal decoction. The KXS-induced expression of neurotrophic factors did not depend on signaling mediated by estrogen receptor or protein kinase. The results suggested that the antidepressant-like action of KXS might be mediated by an increase of expression of neurotrophic factors in astrocytes, which fully supported the clinical usage of this decoction. PMID:24222781

  3. Mechanisms of KAI1/CD82 - Induced Prostate Cancer Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    metastatic phenotype of prostate cancer. It has been proposed that migration of tumor cells on laminin-enriched nerve fibers via integrins...cancer. It has been proposed that migration of tumor cells on laminin-enriched nerve fibers via 6 1 and 3 1 integrins facilitates prostate cancer... extracellular matrix. The logical connection to metastasis suppression is that enhanced integrin-mediated migration is crucial for detachment of tumor

  4. Mechanisms of KAI1/CD82-Induced Prostate Cancer Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    tetraspanins be preserved for assessing fullfunctionality. For instance, multiple myeloma cell lines over expres- sing GFP-N-terminal CD82 or CD81, but not C...was present only in the CD82/CD151/α6β1 complex. Thus, CD82 seems to favor the formation of a complex between α6β1/CD151/c-Met, at the expense of... Hospital , Boston, MA 3Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, College of Human Sciences, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids

  5. Mechanism of tumor Metastasis Suppression by the KAI1 Gene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    significantly reduced in breast tumor cells, particularly in cysteine, Ni2 +, N-Myc and PTEN ( Kokame et al., 1996; patients with lymph node or bone metastasis...SC, Hirota S, Hosobe S, Kokame K, Kato H and Miyata T. (1996). J. Biol. Chem., 271, Miura K, Saito K, Commes T, Hayashi S, Watabe M and 29659-29665

  6. Mechanism of Tumor Metastasis Suppression by the KAI1 Gene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    Cell culture. The rat prostatic carcinoma cell line AT6.1, the human breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-435...purchased the human lung epithelial carcinoma cell line A549 and colon carcinoma cell line HT-38 from American Type Tissue Culture Collection. We cultured...selectin and alpha 3 integrin in the transendothelial invasion by HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells . Clin. Exp. Metastasis 12, 305–314. Paavonen, T.,

  7. He Hawa'e Kai Nui a Kau ma Kula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, K. Laiana

    2004-01-01

    This article calls attention to the practices, policies, and procedures at the University of Hawai'i that infringe on the rights of Native Hawaiians to utilize the Hawaiian language in learning and teaching, and in the conduct and dissemination of research. Addressing these infringements, however, appears more easily said than done. The author's…

  8. Will Kai Become a Skinhead? Cultures of Hate in Germany and the New Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lhotzky, Stephan

    2001-01-01

    The rise of hate crimes and development of right-wing extremism among adolescents in Europe will require a response involving a multitude of measures in different areas and various levels. Combating this development will necessitate cooperation of experts in different fields. Individuals and groups will need to contribute knowledge in a way that…

  9. Will Kai Become a Skinhead? Cultures of Hate in Germany and the New Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lhotzky, Stephan

    2001-01-01

    The rise of hate crimes and development of right-wing extremism among adolescents in Europe will require a response involving a multitude of measures in different areas and various levels. Combating this development will necessitate cooperation of experts in different fields. Individuals and groups will need to contribute knowledge in a way that…

  10. AB051. Assessment of pulmonary function kai effect of treatment in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF)

    PubMed Central

    Organtzis, Ioannis; Fouka, Evangelia; Efthymiou, Christoforos; Mourouzidou, Violetta; Spyropoulos, Georgios; Kontakiotis, Theodoros; Papakosta, Despina

    2016-01-01

    Background Evaluation of characteristics and disease progression during twelve-month follow up in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Methods Retrospective study of patients with IPF followed on a regular basis in Interstitial Lung Diseases Clinic. Results Fifty-six patients were studied, 16 female and 40 male, with mean age 69.51±7.32 years (45–84) and mean disease duration since diagnosis 25.58±21.19 months. Seventeen patients demonstrated concomitant emphysema on HRCT. Pulmonary function tests were performed in 50 patients, which presented a mild restrictive pattern, with mean FEV1 =82.21±17.05%, FVC =74.66±17.30% and FEV1/FVC =84.39±7.68 and a moderately reduced transfer factor for carbon monoxide (TLCOSB), with a mean value of 45.79±14.60%. Patients were classified according the prognostic GAP index as class I (0–1) =4, II (2–3) =13, III (4–5) =28 and IV (>5) =5 patients. Pulmonary hypertension, with right ventricle systolic pressure (RSVP) >35 mmHg documented by cardiac ultrasound, was found in 12 from the 23 patients tested, with mean RVSP 44.50±11.49 mmHg. Thirty-seven patients underwent a six-minute walking test, with mean distance walked 345±148 m and mean SpO2 recorded in the beginning and after the end of the procedure 93±2.86% and 84±7.94%, respectively. Thirty-five patients were on antifibrotic therapy, with 30 patients receiving pirfenidone and 5 patients nintedanib, respectively, for a mean duration of 16.8±8.76 months. From the 37 patients that were followed for 12 months after diagnosis, 25 had been receiving pirfenidone and 2 patients were on nintedanib. Conclusions Fifty-nine percent of patients presented an increased GAP index at diagnosis, indicative of an unfavorable prognosis, a fact that might have been responsible for their functional deterioration. Our results emphasize the need for prompt initiation of treatment.

  11. It Started in Hawai'i Kai: Reminiscences of 43 Years (and Counting) of Collaboration and Friendship.

    PubMed

    Popper, Arthur N; Fay, Richard R

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the 43+ year collaboration of Arthur Popper and Richard Fay. Over these years, we have co-authored over 30 papers and 55 books. The collaboration benefits from a strong friendship that includes our spouses and children. By any measure, our collaboration must be seen as being successful. The basis for this success is, we think, twofold. First, we have very complementary and overlapping research interests. This has enabled us to tackle issues, whether in research or in planning meetings or books, from different perspectives. Second, a hallmark of our successful collaboration has been our deep and close friendship and the extension of that friendship to our spouses and children. In this paper, we discuss some of the events that have shaped our collaboration, and some of the people who have impacted our lives.

  12. Combined SAXS/EM Based Models of the S. elongatus Post-Translational Circadian Oscillator and its Interactions with the Output His-Kinase SasA

    SciTech Connect

    Pattanayek, Rekha; Williams, Dewight R.; Rossi, Gian; Weigand, Steven; Mori, Tetsuya; Johnson, Carl H.; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Egli, Martin

    2012-03-15

    The circadian clock in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus is composed of a post-translational oscillator (PTO) that can be reconstituted in vitro from three different proteins in the presence of ATP and a transcription-translation feedback loop (TTFL). The homo-hexameric KaiC kinase, phosphatase and ATPase alternates between hypo- and hyper-phosphorylated states over the 24-h cycle, with KaiA enhancing phosphorylation, and KaiB antagonizing KaiA and promoting KaiC subunit exchange. SasA is a His kinase that relays output signals from the PTO formed by the three Kai proteins to the TTFL. Although the crystal structures for all three Kai proteins are known, atomic resolution structures of Kai and Kai/SasA protein complexes have remained elusive. Here, we present models of the KaiAC and KaiBC complexes derived from solution small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), which are consistent with previous EM based models. We also present a combined SAXS/EM model of the KaiC/SasA complex, which has two N-terminal SasA sensory domains occupying positions on the C-terminal KaiC ring reminiscent of the orientations adopted by KaiB dimers. Using EM we demonstrate that KaiB and SasA compete for similar binding sites on KaiC. We also propose an EM based model of the ternary KaiABC complex that is consistent with the sequestering of KaiA by KaiB on KaiC during the PTO dephosphorylation phase. This work provides the first 3D-catalogue of protein-protein interactions in the KaiABC PTO and the output pathway mediated by SasA.

  13. PLANT EVOLUTION. Convergent evolution of strigolactone perception enabled host detection in parasitic plants.

    PubMed

    Conn, Caitlin E; Bythell-Douglas, Rohan; Neumann, Drexel; Yoshida, Satoko; Whittington, Bryan; Westwood, James H; Shirasu, Ken; Bond, Charles S; Dyer, Kelly A; Nelson, David C

    2015-07-31

    Obligate parasitic plants in the Orobanchaceae germinate after sensing plant hormones, strigolactones, exuded from host roots. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the α/β-hydrolase D14 acts as a strigolactone receptor that controls shoot branching, whereas its ancestral paralog, KAI2, mediates karrikin-specific germination responses. We observed that KAI2, but not D14, is present at higher copy numbers in parasitic species than in nonparasitic relatives. KAI2 paralogs in parasites are distributed into three phylogenetic clades. The fastest-evolving clade, KAI2d, contains the majority of KAI2 paralogs. Homology models predict that the ligand-binding pockets of KAI2d resemble D14. KAI2d transgenes confer strigolactone-specific germination responses to Arabidopsis thaliana. Thus, the KAI2 paralogs D14 and KAI2d underwent convergent evolution of strigolactone recognition, respectively enabling developmental responses to strigolactones in angiosperms and host detection in parasites.

  14. Acetone-butanol-ethanol competitive sorption simulation from single, binary, and ternary systems in a fixed-bed of KA-I resin.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinglan; Zhuang, Wei; Ying, Hanjie; Jiao, Pengfei; Li, Renjie; Wen, Qingshi; Wang, Lili; Zhou, Jingwei; Yang, Pengpeng

    2015-01-01

    Separation of butanol based on sorption methodology from acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation broth has advantages in terms of biocompatibility and stability, as well as economy, and therefore gains much attention. In this work a chromatographic column model based on the solid film linear driving force approach and the competitive Langmuir isotherm equations was used to predict the competitive sorption behaviors of ABE single, binary, and ternary mixture. It was observed that the outlet concentration of weaker retained components exceeded the inlet concentration, which is an evidence of competitive adsorption. Butanol, the strongest retained component, could replace ethanol almost completely and also most of acetone. In the end of this work, the proposed model was validated by comparison of the experimental and predicted ABE ternary breakthrough curves using the real ABE fermentation broth as a feed solution. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  15. HBCU Equipment for AFOSR Project 13RSL012: The Mechanism by which ADP Regulates the Structure and Function of the Protein KaiC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-18

    Caldwell J. (2006) Investigating systematic individual differences in sleep - deprived performance on a high-fidelity flight simulator. Behav. Res. Meth...circadian clock, which induces healthy rhythms of rest and activity in synchrony with the earth’s rotation. Adverse health and cognitive effects are...SUBTITLE 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12. DISTRIBUTION AVAILIBILITY STATEMENT 6. AUTHORS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAMES AND ADDRESSES 15. SUBJECT

  16. Integrin-Mediated Signaling in Prostate Cancer: Role of KAI1/CD82 in Regulating Integrin and Androgen Receptor Function During Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Both media were supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (Gibco), 2mM glutamine, and 50U of penicillin and 50 mg of streptomycin/ml. PC3 or DU145...fibronectin, or laminin in an 8μm Boyden chamber assay in the absence of growth factors or serum was monitored. Cells passing through the pores were...PC3 cells stably transfected with vector, but not primary cells (PECs), were able to invade the matrigel in the absence of serum or growth factors c

  17. 77 FR 51754 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final Rescission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... Amini met with the Department.\\5\\ \\3\\ See letter from Amini to the Honorable John Bryson, Acting... Results, we also found that (1) Baigou Crafts Factory of Fengkai, (2) Locke Furniture Factory; Kai Chan Furniture Co., Ltd.; Kai Chan (Hong Kong) Enterprise Ltd.; Taiwan Kai Chan Co., Ltd, (collectively, Locke...

  18. Attenuation of the posttranslational oscillator via transcription-translation feedback enhances circadian-phase shifts in Synechococcus.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Norimune; Kushige, Hiroko; Iwasaki, Hideo

    2013-08-27

    Circadian rhythms are endogenous biological timing processes that are ubiquitous in organisms ranging from cyanobacteria to humans. In the photoautotrophic unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, under continuous light (LL) conditions, the transcription-translation feedback loop (TTFL) of KaiC generates a rhythmic change in the accumulation of KaiC relative to KaiA clock proteins (KaiC/KaiA ratio), which peak and trough at subjective dawn and dusk, respectively. However, the role of TTFL in the cyanobacterial circadian system remains unclear because it is not an essential requirement for the basic oscillation driven by the Kai-based posttranslational oscillator (PTO) and the transcriptional output mechanisms. Here, we show that TTFL is important for the circadian photic resetting property in Synechococcus. The robustness of PTO, which is exemplified by the amplitude of the KaiC phosphorylation cycle, changed depending on the KaiC/KaiA ratio, which was cyclic under LL. After cells were transferred from LL to the dark, the clock protein levels remained constant in the dark. When cells were transferred from LL to continuous dark at subjective dawn, the KaiC phosphorylation cycle was attenuated with a lower KaiC/KaiA ratio, a higher KaiC phosphorylation level, and a lower amplitude than that in cells transferred at subjective dusk. We also found that the greater the degree to which PTO was attenuated in continuous dark, the greater the phase shifts upon the subsequent light exposure. Based on these results, we propose that TTFL enhances resetting of the Kai-based PTO in Synechococcus.

  19. A Selaginella moellendorffii Ortholog of KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE2 Functions in Arabidopsis Development but Cannot Mediate Responses to Karrikins or Strigolactones.

    PubMed

    Waters, Mark T; Scaffidi, Adrian; Moulin, Solène L Y; Sun, Yueming K; Flematti, Gavin R; Smith, Steven M

    2015-07-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the α/β-fold hydrolase KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE2 (KAI2) is essential for normal seed germination, seedling development, and leaf morphogenesis, as well as for responses to karrikins. KAI2 is a paralog of DWARF14 (D14), the proposed strigolactone receptor, but the evolutionary timing of functional divergence between the KAI2 and D14 clades has not been established. By swapping gene promoters, we show that Arabidopsis KAI2 and D14 proteins are functionally distinct. We show that the catalytic serine of KAI2 is essential for function in plants and for biochemical activity in vitro. We identified two KAI2 homologs from Selaginella moellendorffii and two from Marchantia polymorpha. One from each species could hydrolyze the strigolactone analog GR24 in vitro, but when tested for their ability to complement Arabidopsis d14 and kai2 mutants, neither of these homologs was effective. However, the second KAI2 homolog from S. moellendorffii was able to complement the seedling and leaf development phenotypes of Arabidopsis kai2. This homolog could not transduce signals from exogenous karrikins, strigolactone analogs, or carlactone, but its activity did depend on the conserved catalytic serine. We conclude that KAI2, and most likely the endogenous signal to which it responds, has been conserved since the divergence of lycophytes and angiosperm lineages, despite their major developmental and morphogenic differences.

  20. A Selaginella moellendorffii Ortholog of KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE2 Functions in Arabidopsis Development but Cannot Mediate Responses to Karrikins or Strigolactones[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Mark T.; Scaffidi, Adrian; Moulin, Solène L.Y.; Sun, Yueming K.; Flematti, Gavin R.; Smith, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the α/β-fold hydrolase KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE2 (KAI2) is essential for normal seed germination, seedling development, and leaf morphogenesis, as well as for responses to karrikins. KAI2 is a paralog of DWARF14 (D14), the proposed strigolactone receptor, but the evolutionary timing of functional divergence between the KAI2 and D14 clades has not been established. By swapping gene promoters, we show that Arabidopsis KAI2 and D14 proteins are functionally distinct. We show that the catalytic serine of KAI2 is essential for function in plants and for biochemical activity in vitro. We identified two KAI2 homologs from Selaginella moellendorffii and two from Marchantia polymorpha. One from each species could hydrolyze the strigolactone analog GR24 in vitro, but when tested for their ability to complement Arabidopsis d14 and kai2 mutants, neither of these homologs was effective. However, the second KAI2 homolog from S. moellendorffii was able to complement the seedling and leaf development phenotypes of Arabidopsis kai2. This homolog could not transduce signals from exogenous karrikins, strigolactone analogs, or carlactone, but its activity did depend on the conserved catalytic serine. We conclude that KAI2, and most likely the endogenous signal to which it responds, has been conserved since the divergence of lycophytes and angiosperm lineages, despite their major developmental and morphogenic differences. PMID:26175507

  1. Functional divergence of the circadian clock proteins in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Dvornyk, Volodymyr; Knudsen, Bjarne

    2005-07-01

    Cyanobacteria are only prokaryotes known so far to have a circadian system. It may be based either on two (kaiB and kaiC) or three (kaiA, kaiB and kaiC) circadian genes. The homologs of two circadian proteins, KaiB and KaiC, form four major subfamilies (K1-K4) and also occur in some other prokaryotes. Using the likelihood-ratio tests, we studied a rate shift at the functional divergence of the proteins from the different subfamilies. It appears that only two of the subfamilies (K1 and K2) perform circadian functions. We identified in total 92 sites that have significantly different rates of evolution between the clades K1/K2 and K3/K4; 67 sites (15 in KaiB and 52 in KaiC) been evolving significantly slower in K1/K2 than the overall average for the entire sequence. Many critical sites are located in the identified functionally important motifs and regions, e.g. one of the Walker's motif As, DXXG motif, and two KaiA-binding domains of KaiC. There are also 36 sites (approximately 5%) with rate shift between K1 and K2. The rate shift at these sites may be related to the interaction with KaiA. Rate shift analyses have identified residues whose manipulation in the Kai proteins may lead to better understanding of their functions in the two different types of the cyanobacterial circadian system.

  2. Hourglass Model for a Protein-Based Circadian Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emberly, Eldon; Wingreen, Ned S.

    2006-01-01

    Many organisms possess internal biochemical clocks, known as circadian oscillators, which allow them to regulate their biological activity with a 24-hour period. It was recently discovered that the circadian oscillator of photosynthetic cyanobacteria is able to function in a test tube with only three proteins, KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC, and ATP. Biochemical events are intrinsically stochastic, and this tends to desynchronize oscillating protein populations. We propose that stability of the Kai-protein oscillator relies on active synchronization by (i) monomer exchange between KaiC hexamers during the day, and (ii) formation of clusters of KaiC hexamers at night. Our results highlight the importance of collective assembly or disassembly of proteins in biochemical networks, and may help guide design of novel protein-based oscillators.

  3. Distinguishing Feedback Mechanisms in Clock Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, Alexander; Lubensky, David

    Biological oscillators are very diverse but can be classified based on dynamical motifs such as type of feedback. The S. Elongatus circadian oscillator is a novel circadian oscillator that can operate at constant protein number by modifying covalent states. It can be reproduced in vitro with only 3 different purified proteins: KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC. We use computational and analytic techniques to compare models of the S. Elongatus post-translational oscillator that rely on positive feedback with models that rely on negative feedback. We show that introducing a protein that binds competitively with KaiA to the KaiB-KaiC complex can distinguish between positive and negative feedback as the primary driver of the rhythm, which has so far been difficult to address experimentally. NSF Grant DMR-1056456.

  4. The Magic Background of Pearl Harbor. Volume 1 (February 14, 1941 - May 12, 1941)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    Despite these allegations of friendship, many sources of friction existed between Japan and the United States. While the troops of Chiang Kai -Shek...with Chiang Kai -Shek. Secretary Hull then asked for more details concerning the proposed peace, but the Japanese Ambassador requested that further...but further aid to Chiang Kai -Shek was to be stopped by the United States, if the Chinese would not come to peace with Japan. Furthermore, Hongkong

  5. Chinese Ambition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-01

    revolution training for example Chiang Kai- shek a future Chinese leader. Sun never fully reunified China nor gained control of northern provinces in his...lifetime but one of his lieutenants, Chiang Kai- shek (or Jiang Jieshi), did eventually gain control of all China at least nominally by 1928. Under the...population as the potential source for rebellion and struggled with the nationalist government of Chiang Kai- shek as early as 1921 to gain control of China

  6. Reporter Gene-Facilitated Detection of Compounds in Arabidopsis Leaf Extracts that Activate the Karrikin Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yueming K.; Flematti, Gavin R.; Smith, Steven M.; Waters, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    Karrikins are potent germination stimulants generated by the combustion of plant matter. Treatment of Arabidopsis with karrikins triggers a signaling process that is dependent upon a putative receptor protein KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE 2 (KAI2). KAI2 is a homolog of DWARF 14 (D14), the receptor for endogenous strigolactone hormones. Genetic analyses suggest that KAI2 also perceives endogenous signal(s) that are not strigolactones. Activation of KAI2 by addition of karrikins to Arabidopsis plants induces expression of transcripts including D14-LIKE 2 (DLK2). We constructed the synthetic reporter gene DLK2:LUC in Arabidopsis, which comprises the firefly luciferase gene (LUC) driven by the DLK2 promoter. Here we describe a luminescence-based reporter assay with Arabidopsis seeds to detect chemical signals that can activate the KAI2 signaling pathway. We demonstrate that the DLK2:LUC assay can selectively and sensitively detect karrikins and a functionally similar synthetic strigolactone analog. Crucially we show that crude extracts from Arabidopsis leaves can also activate DLK2:LUC in a KAI2-dependent manner. Our work provides the first direct evidence for the existence of endogenous chemical signals that can activate the KAI2-mediated signaling pathway in Arabidopsis. This sensitive reporter system can now be used for the bioassay-guided purification and identification of putative endogenous KAI2 ligands or their precursors, and endogenous compounds that might modulate the KAI2 signaling pathway. PMID:27994609

  7. A resolution commemorating and celebrating the lives of Officer Kristine Marie Fairbanks, Deputy Anne Marie Jackson, and Sergeant Nelson Kai Ng who gave their lives in the service of the people of Washington State in 2008.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Murray, Patty [D-WA

    2009-05-14

    Senate - 05/14/2009 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Agreed to in SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. A resolution commemorating and celebrating the lives of Officer Kristine Marie Fairbanks, Deputy Anne Marie Jackson, and Sergeant Nelson Kai Ng who gave their lives in the service of the people of Washington State in 2008.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Murray, Patty [D-WA

    2009-05-14

    05/14/2009 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S5538-5539; text as passed Senate: CR S5538-5539; text of measure as introduced: CR S5530) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. A resolution commemorating and celebrating the lives of Officer Kristine Marie Fairbanks, Deputy Anne Marie Jackson, and Sergeant Nelson Kai Ng who gave their lives in the service of the people of Washington State in 2008.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Murray, Patty [D-WA

    2009-05-14

    05/14/2009 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Agreed to in SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Daily Expression Pattern of Protein-Encoding Genes and Small Noncoding RNAs in Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Christian; Hertel, Stefanie; Rediger, Anne; Lehmann, Robert; Wiegard, Anika; Kölsch, Adrian; Heilmann, Beate; Georg, Jens; Hess, Wolfgang R.

    2014-01-01

    Many organisms harbor circadian clocks with periods close to 24 h. These cellular clocks allow organisms to anticipate the environmental cycles of day and night by synchronizing circadian rhythms with the rising and setting of the sun. These rhythms originate from the oscillator components of circadian clocks and control global gene expression and various cellular processes. The oscillator of photosynthetic cyanobacteria is composed of three proteins, KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC, linked to a complex regulatory network. Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 possesses the standard cyanobacterial kaiABC gene cluster plus multiple kaiB and kaiC gene copies and antisense RNAs for almost every kai transcript. However, there is no clear evidence of circadian rhythms in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 under various experimental conditions. It is also still unknown if and to what extent the multiple kai gene copies and kai antisense RNAs affect circadian timing. Moreover, a large number of small noncoding RNAs whose accumulation dynamics over time have not yet been monitored are known for Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Here we performed a 48-h time series transcriptome analysis of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, taking into account periodic light-dark phases, continuous light, and continuous darkness. We found that expression of functionally related genes occurred in different phases of day and night. Moreover, we found day-peaking and night-peaking transcripts among the small RNAs; in particular, the amounts of kai antisense RNAs correlated or anticorrelated with those of their respective kai target mRNAs, pointing toward the regulatory relevance of these antisense RNAs. Surprisingly, we observed that the amounts of 16S and 23S rRNAs in this cyanobacterium fluctuated in light-dark periods, showing maximum accumulation in the dark phase. Importantly, the amounts of all transcripts, including small noncoding RNAs, did not show any rhythm under continuous light or darkness, indicating the absence

  11. Synchronized Cycles: An allosteric model of the cyanobacterial circadian oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubensky, David; van Zon, J. S.; Altena, P.; Ten Wolde, P. R.

    2007-03-01

    In a remarkable experiment, Nakajima et al. [Science, 2005] showed that the 3 cyanobacterial clock proteins KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC are sufficient to generate circadian phosphorylation of KaiC in vitro. This system is thus a rare example of a functioning biochemical circuit that can be reconstituted in the test tube. Theoretically, it presents the further challenge that the only reactions driven out of equilibrium are those associated with KaiC phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Here, we present a model of the Kai system. At its heart is the assumption, motivated by classical models of allostery, that each KaiC hexamer to tends to be phosphorylated in a cyclic manner. For macroscopic oscillations to be possible, however, the cycles of the different hexamers must be synchronized. We propose a novel synchronisation mechanism that allows us to reproduce a wide range of published data, including temperature compensation of the oscillation period, and to make nontrivial predictions about the effects of varying the concentrations of the Kai proteins.

  12. Circadian clock proteins in prokaryotes: hidden rhythms?

    PubMed

    Loza-Correa, Maria; Gomez-Valero, Laura; Buchrieser, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Circadian clock genes are vital features of eukaryotes that have evolved such that organisms can adapt to our planet's rotation in order to anticipate the coming day or night as well as unfavorable seasons. This circadian clock uses oscillation as a timekeeping element. However, circadian clock mechanisms exist also in prokaryotes. The circadian clock of Cyanobacteria is well studied. It is regulated by a cluster of three genes: kaiA, kaiB, and kaiC. In this review, we will discuss the circadian system in cyanobacteria, and provide an overview and updated phylogenetic analysis of prokaryotic organisms that contain the main circadian genes. It is evident that the evolution of the kai genes has been influenced by lateral transfers but further and deeper studies are needed to get an in depth understanding of the exact evolutionary history of these genes. Interestingly, Legionella pneumophila an environmental bacterium and opportunistic human pathogen that parasitizes protozoa in fresh water environments also contains kaiB and kaiC, but their functions are not known. All of the residues described for the biochemical functions of the main pacemaker KaiC in Synechococcus elongatus are also conserved in the L. pneumophila KaiC protein.

  13. Architecture and mechanism of the central gear in an ancient molecular timer.

    PubMed

    Egli, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Molecular clocks are the product of natural selection in organisms from bacteria to human and their appearance early in evolution such as in the prokaryotic cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus suggests that these timers served a crucial role in genetic fitness. Thus, a clock allows cyanobacteria relying on photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation to temporally space the two processes and avoid exposure of nitrogenase carrying out fixation to high levels of oxygen produced during photosynthesis. Fascinating properties of molecular clocks are the long time constant, their precision and temperature compensation. Although these are hallmarks of all circadian oscillators, the actual cogs and gears that control clocks vary widely between organisms, indicating that circadian timers evolved convergently multiple times, owing to the selective pressure of an environment with a daily light/dark cycle. In S. elongatus, the three proteins KaiA, KaiB and KaiC in the presence of ATP constitute a so-called post-translational oscillator (PTO). The KaiABC PTO can be reconstituted in an Eppendorf tube and keeps time in a temperature-compensated manner. The ease by which the KaiABC clock can be studied in vitro has made it the best-investigated molecular clock system. Over the last decade, structures of all three Kai proteins and some of their complexes have emerged and mechanistic aspects have been analysed in considerable detail. This review focuses on the central gear of the S. elongatus clock and only enzyme among the three proteins: KaiC. Our determination of the three-dimensional structure of KaiC early in the quest for a better understanding of the inner workings of the cyanobacterial timer revealed its unusual architecture and conformational differences and unique features of the two RecA-like domains constituting KaiC. The structure also pinpointed phosphorylation sites and differential interactions with ATP molecules at subunit interfaces, and helped guide experiments to

  14. Architecture and mechanism of the central gear in an ancient molecular timer

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Molecular clocks are the product of natural selection in organisms from bacteria to human and their appearance early in evolution such as in the prokaryotic cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus suggests that these timers served a crucial role in genetic fitness. Thus, a clock allows cyanobacteria relying on photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation to temporally space the two processes and avoid exposure of nitrogenase carrying out fixation to high levels of oxygen produced during photosynthesis. Fascinating properties of molecular clocks are the long time constant, their precision and temperature compensation. Although these are hallmarks of all circadian oscillators, the actual cogs and gears that control clocks vary widely between organisms, indicating that circadian timers evolved convergently multiple times, owing to the selective pressure of an environment with a daily light/dark cycle. In S. elongatus, the three proteins KaiA, KaiB and KaiC in the presence of ATP constitute a so-called post-translational oscillator (PTO). The KaiABC PTO can be reconstituted in an Eppendorf tube and keeps time in a temperature-compensated manner. The ease by which the KaiABC clock can be studied in vitro has made it the best-investigated molecular clock system. Over the last decade, structures of all three Kai proteins and some of their complexes have emerged and mechanistic aspects have been analysed in considerable detail. This review focuses on the central gear of the S. elongatus clock and only enzyme among the three proteins: KaiC. Our determination of the three-dimensional structure of KaiC early in the quest for a better understanding of the inner workings of the cyanobacterial timer revealed its unusual architecture and conformational differences and unique features of the two RecA-like domains constituting KaiC. The structure also pinpointed phosphorylation sites and differential interactions with ATP molecules at subunit interfaces, and helped guide experiments to

  15. An allele of the crm gene blocks cyanobacterial circadian rhythms.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Joseph S; Bordowitz, Juliana R; Bree, Anna C; Golden, Susan S

    2013-08-20

    The SasA-RpaA two-component system constitutes a key output pathway of the cyanobacterial Kai circadian oscillator. To date, rhythm of phycobilisome associated (rpaA) is the only gene other than kaiA, kaiB, and kaiC, which encode the oscillator itself, whose mutation causes completely arrhythmic gene expression. Here we report a unique transposon insertion allele in a small ORF located immediately upstream of rpaA in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 termed crm (for circadian rhythmicity modulator), which results in arrhythmic promoter activity but does not affect steady-state levels of RpaA. The crm ORF complements the defect when expressed in trans, but only if it can be translated, suggesting that crm encodes a small protein. The crm1 insertion allele phenotypes are distinct from those of an rpaA null; crm1 mutants are able to grow in a light:dark cycle and have no detectable oscillations of KaiC phosphorylation, whereas low-amplitude KaiC phosphorylation rhythms persist in the absence of RpaA. Levels of phosphorylated RpaA in vivo measured over time are significantly altered compared with WT in the crm1 mutant as well as in the absence of KaiC. Taken together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that the Crm polypeptide modulates a circadian-specific activity of RpaA.

  16. Structural insights into a circadian oscillator.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Carl Hirschie; Egli, Martin; Stewart, Phoebe L

    2008-10-31

    An endogenous circadian system in cyanobacteria exerts pervasive control over cellular processes, including global gene expression. Indeed, the entire chromosome undergoes daily cycles of topological changes and compaction. The biochemical machinery underlying a circadian oscillator can be reconstituted in vitro with just three cyanobacterial proteins, KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC. These proteins interact to promote conformational changes and phosphorylation events that determine the phase of the in vitro oscillation. The high-resolution structures of these proteins suggest a ratcheting mechanism by which the KaiABC oscillator ticks unidirectionally. This posttranslational oscillator may interact with transcriptional and translational feedback loops to generate the emergent circadian behavior in vivo. The conjunction of structural, biophysical, and biochemical approaches to this system reveals molecular mechanisms of biological timekeeping.

  17. 75 FR 19364 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Sunset...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... this review are addressed in the ``Issues and Decision Memorandum'' (``Decision Memorandum'') from John.... Ltd., or Dongguan Haoshun Furniture Ltd Locke Furniture Factory, or Kai Chan Furniture Co., 7.24 Ltd...

  18. Kenya AIDS Indicator Surveys 2007 and 2012: implications for public health policies for HIV prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Maina, William K; Kim, Andrea A; Rutherford, George W; Harper, Malayah; K'Oyugi, Boniface O; Sharif, Shahnaaz; Kichamu, George; Muraguri, Nicholas M; Akhwale, Willis; De Cock, Kevin M

    2014-05-01

    AIDS Indicator Surveys are standardized surveillance tools used by countries with generalized HIV epidemics to provide, in a timely fashion, indicators for effective monitoring of HIV. Such data should guide responses to the HIV epidemic, meet program reporting requirements, and ensure comparability of findings across countries and over time. Kenya has conducted 2 AIDS Indicator Surveys, in 2007 (KAIS 2007) and 2012-2013 (KAIS 2012). These nationally representative surveys have provided essential epidemiologic, sociodemographic, behavioral, and biologic data on HIV and related indicators to evaluate the national HIV response and inform policies for prevention and treatment of the disease. We present a summary of findings from KAIS 2007 and KAIS 2012 and the impact that these data have had on changing HIV policies and practice.

  19. Kenya AIDS Indicator Surveys 2007 and 2012: Implications for Public Health Policies for HIV Prevention and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Maina, William K.; Kim, Andrea A.; Rutherford, George W.; Harper, Malayah; K’Oyugi, Boniface O.; Sharif, Shahnaaz; Kichamu, George; Muraguri, Nicholas M.; Akhwale, Willis; De Cock, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    AIDS Indicator Surveys are standardized surveillance tools used by countries with generalized HIV epidemics to provide, in a timely fashion, indicators for effective monitoring of HIV. Such data should guide responses to the HIV epidemic, meet program reporting requirements, and ensure comparability of findings across countries and over time. Kenya has conducted 2 AIDS Indicator Surveys, in 2007 (KAIS 2007) and 2012–2013 (KAIS 2012). These nationally representative surveys have provided essential epidemiologic, socio-demographic, behavioral, and biologic data on HIV and related indicators to evaluate the national HIV response and inform policies for prevention and treatment of the disease. We present a summary of findings from KAIS 2007 and KAIS 2012 and the impact that these data have had on changing HIV policies and practice. PMID:24732817

  20. Daily expression pattern of protein-encoding genes and small noncoding RNAs in synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Beck, Christian; Hertel, Stefanie; Rediger, Anne; Lehmann, Robert; Wiegard, Anika; Kölsch, Adrian; Heilmann, Beate; Georg, Jens; Hess, Wolfgang R; Axmann, Ilka M

    2014-09-01

    Many organisms harbor circadian clocks with periods close to 24 h. These cellular clocks allow organisms to anticipate the environmental cycles of day and night by synchronizing circadian rhythms with the rising and setting of the sun. These rhythms originate from the oscillator components of circadian clocks and control global gene expression and various cellular processes. The oscillator of photosynthetic cyanobacteria is composed of three proteins, KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC, linked to a complex regulatory network. Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 possesses the standard cyanobacterial kaiABC gene cluster plus multiple kaiB and kaiC gene copies and antisense RNAs for almost every kai transcript. However, there is no clear evidence of circadian rhythms in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 under various experimental conditions. It is also still unknown if and to what extent the multiple kai gene copies and kai antisense RNAs affect circadian timing. Moreover, a large number of small noncoding RNAs whose accumulation dynamics over time have not yet been monitored are known for Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Here we performed a 48-h time series transcriptome analysis of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, taking into account periodic light-dark phases, continuous light, and continuous darkness. We found that expression of functionally related genes occurred in different phases of day and night. Moreover, we found day-peaking and night-peaking transcripts among the small RNAs; in particular, the amounts of kai antisense RNAs correlated or anticorrelated with those of their respective kai target mRNAs, pointing toward the regulatory relevance of these antisense RNAs. Surprisingly, we observed that the amounts of 16S and 23S rRNAs in this cyanobacterium fluctuated in light-dark periods, showing maximum accumulation in the dark phase. Importantly, the amounts of all transcripts, including small noncoding RNAs, did not show any rhythm under continuous light or darkness, indicating the absence

  1. Mass Estimation and Its Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-23

    submitted for review: [6] Sunil Aryal, Kai Ming Ting & Jonathan R. Wells. MassCfier: A new generative classifier based on Mass. Submitted to ACM SIGKDD...based on Mass Sunil Aryal Gippsland School of IT Monash University, Australia sunil.aryal@monash.edu Kai Ming Ting Gippsland School of IT Monash...8. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This project is supported by a grant from the Air Force Research Laboratory, under agreement# FA2386-10-1-4052. Sunil Aryal is

  2. New wearable walking-type continuous passive motion device for postsurgery walking rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong; Nakamura, Masahiro; Horiuchi, Tadahiro; Kohno, Hideki; Takahashi, Rei; Terada, Hidetsugu; Haro, Hirotaka

    2013-07-01

    While total knee arthroplasty is useful for treating osteoarthritis of the knee, the success of this treatment depends on effective rehabilitation. The goal of this study was to develop an assistive device for post-total knee arthroplasty patients for walking rehabilitation and for shortening the hospitalization period. We developed a brace electronic assist system termed the knee assistive instrument for walking rehabilitation (KAI-R) to illustrate the need for training during postoperative rehabilitation. Sixteen osteoarthritis patients (1 male and 15 females; average age 68.9 years) who underwent total knee arthroplasty were analyzed before operation and 2-4 weeks after operation, and 25 healthy individuals (14 males and 11 females; average age 26.2 years) formed the control group. Based on the pre- and postoperative data on peak knee flexion angle, foot height, and walking velocity, we developed the KAI-R, which consists of an assistive mechanism for the knee joint, a hip joint support system, and a foot pressure sensor system and is driven by a CPU board that generates the walking pattern. We then tested the walking gait in seven healthy volunteers with and without KAI-R assistance. KAI-R increased the peak flexion angle of the knee and foot height in all seven volunteers; their range of motion of the knee joint was increased. However, KAI-R also decreased the walking velocity of subjects, which was explained by reaction delay and slightly compromised physical balance, which was caused by wearing the KAI-R. KAI-R is useful for gait improvement. In future studies, KAI-R will be investigated in a clinical trial for its ability for walking rehabilitation in post-total knee arthroplasty patients.

  3. Non-Metric Similarity Measures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    Sunil Aryal and Kai Ming Ting. (2015) A generic ensemble approach to estimate multi-dimensional likelihood in Bayesian classifier learning...Computational Intelligence. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/coin.12063/abstract 5.2 List of peer-reviewed conference publications [3] Sunil Aryal...International Conference on Data Mining. 707-711. [4] Sunil Aryal, Kai Ming Ting, Jonathan R. Wells and Takashi Washio. (2014) Improv- ing iForest with

  4. Grain Boundary Curvature in a Model Ni-Based Superalloy (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    AFRL-ML-WP-TP-2006-482 GRAIN BOUNDARY CURVATURE IN A MODEL Ni-BASED SUPERALLOY (PREPRINT) Kai Song and Mark Aindow JULY 2006... MODEL Ni-BASED SUPERALLOY (PREPRINT) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62712E 5d. PROJECT NUMBER K720 5e. TASK NUMBER 01 6. AUTHOR(S) Kai Song...AFRL/WS 06-1882, 09 Aug 2006. 14. ABSTRACT The local grain boundary curvature in a model Ni-based superalloy was measured experimentally using

  5. Oxidized quinones signal onset of darkness directly to the cyanobacterial circadian oscillator.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Ick; Vinyard, David J; Ananyev, Gennady M; Dismukes, G Charles; Golden, Susan S

    2012-10-30

    Synchronization of the circadian clock in cyanobacteria with the day/night cycle proceeds without an obvious photoreceptor, leaving open the question of its specific mechanism. The circadian oscillator can be reconstituted in vitro, where the activities of two of its proteins, KaiA and KaiC, are affected by metabolites that reflect photosynthetic activity: KaiC phosphorylation is directly influenced by the ATP/ADP ratio, and KaiA stimulation of KaiC phosphorylation is blocked by oxidized, but not reduced, quinones. Manipulation of the ATP/ADP ratio can reset the timing of KaiC phosphorylation peaks in the reconstituted in vitro oscillator. Here, we show that pulses of oxidized quinones reset the cyanobacterial circadian clock both in vitro and in vivo. Onset of darkness causes an abrupt oxidation of the plastoquinone pool in vivo, which is in contrast to a gradual decrease in the ATP/ADP ratio that falls over the course of hours until the onset of light. Thus, these two metabolic measures of photosynthetic activity act in concert to signal both the onset and duration of darkness to the cyanobacterial clock.

  6. Oxidized quinones signal onset of darkness directly to the cyanobacterial circadian oscillator

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Ick; Vinyard, David J.; Ananyev, Gennady M.; Dismukes, G. Charles; Golden, Susan S.

    2012-01-01

    Synchronization of the circadian clock in cyanobacteria with the day/night cycle proceeds without an obvious photoreceptor, leaving open the question of its specific mechanism. The circadian oscillator can be reconstituted in vitro, where the activities of two of its proteins, KaiA and KaiC, are affected by metabolites that reflect photosynthetic activity: KaiC phosphorylation is directly influenced by the ATP/ADP ratio, and KaiA stimulation of KaiC phosphorylation is blocked by oxidized, but not reduced, quinones. Manipulation of the ATP/ADP ratio can reset the timing of KaiC phosphorylation peaks in the reconstituted in vitro oscillator. Here, we show that pulses of oxidized quinones reset the cyanobacterial circadian clock both in vitro and in vivo. Onset of darkness causes an abrupt oxidation of the plastoquinone pool in vivo, which is in contrast to a gradual decrease in the ATP/ADP ratio that falls over the course of hours until the onset of light. Thus, these two metabolic measures of photosynthetic activity act in concert to signal both the onset and duration of darkness to the cyanobacterial clock. PMID:23071342

  7. Accelerating in vitro studies on circadian clock systems using an automated sampling device

    PubMed Central

    Furuike, Yoshihiko; Abe, Jun; Mukaiyama, Atsushi; Akiyama, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    KaiC, a core protein of the cyanobacterial circadian clock, is rhythmically autophosphorylated and autodephosphorylated with a period of approximately 24 h in the presence of two other Kai proteins, KaiA and KaiB. In vitro experiments to investigate the KaiC phosphorylation cycle consume considerable time and effort. To automate the fractionation, quantification, and evaluation steps, we developed a suite consisting of an automated sampling device equipped with an 8-channel temperature controller and accompanying analysis software. Eight sample tables can be controlled independently at different temperatures within a fluctuation of ±0.01°C, enabling investigation of the temperature dependency of clock activities simultaneously in a single experiment. The suite includes an independent software that helps users intuitively conduct a densitometric analysis of gel images in a short time with improved reliability. Multiple lanes on a gel can be detected quasi-automatically through an auto-detection procedure implemented in the software, with or without correction for lane ‘smiling.’ To demonstrate the performance of the suite, robustness of the period against temperature variations was evaluated using 32 datasets of the KaiC phosphorylation cycle. By using the software, the time required for the analysis was reduced by approximately 65% relative to the conventional method, with reasonable reproducibility and quality. The suite is potentially applicable to other clock or clock-related systems in higher organisms, relieving users from having to repeat multiple manual sampling and analytical steps. PMID:27924279

  8. Strigolactone Hormones and Their Stereoisomers Signal through Two Related Receptor Proteins to Induce Different Physiological Responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Scaffidi, Adrian; Waters, Mark T; Sun, Yueming K; Skelton, Brian W; Dixon, Kingsley W; Ghisalberti, Emilio L; Flematti, Gavin R; Smith, Steven M

    2014-07-01

    Two α/β-fold hydrolases, KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE2 (KAI2) and Arabidopsis thaliana DWARF14 (AtD14), are necessary for responses to karrikins (KARs) and strigolactones (SLs) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Although KAI2 mediates responses to KARs and some SL analogs, AtD14 mediates SL but not KAR responses. To further determine the specificity of these proteins, we assessed the ability of naturally occurring deoxystrigolactones to inhibit Arabidopsis hypocotyl elongation, regulate seedling gene expression, suppress outgrowth of secondary inflorescences, and promote seed germination. Neither 5-deoxystrigol nor 4-deoxyorobanchol was active in KAI2-dependent seed germination or hypocotyl elongation, but both were active in AtD14-dependent hypocotyl elongation and secondary shoot growth. However, the nonnatural enantiomer of 5-deoxystrigol was active through KAI2 in growth and gene expression assays. We found that the four stereoisomers of the SL analog GR24 had similar activities to their deoxystrigolactone counterparts. The results suggest that AtD14 and KAI2 exhibit selectivity to the butenolide D ring in the 2'R and 2'S configurations, respectively. However, we found, for nitrile-debranone (CN-debranone, a simple SL analog), that the 2'R configuration is inactive but that the 2'S configuration is active through both AtD14 and KAI2. Our results support the conclusion that KAI2-dependent signaling does not respond to canonical SLs. Furthermore, racemic mixtures of chemically synthesized SLs and their analogs, such as GR24, should be used with caution because they can activate responses that are not specific to naturally occurring SLs. In contrast, the use of specific stereoisomers might provide valuable information about the specific perception systems operating in different plant tissues, parasitic weed seeds, and arbuscular mycorrhizae. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Selective separation of biobutanol from acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation broth by means of sorption methodology based on a novel macroporous resin.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaoqing; Wu, Jinglan; Jin, Xiaohong; Fan, Jiansheng; Li, Renjie; Wen, Qingshi; Qian, Wenbin; Liu, Dong; Chen, Xiaochun; Chen, Yong; Xie, Jingjing; Bai, Jianxin; Ying, Hanjie

    2012-07-01

    The traditional distillation method for recovery of butanol from fermentation broth is an energy-intensive process. Separation of butanol based on adsorption methodology has advantages in terms of biocompatibility and stability, as well as economy, and therefore gains much attention. However, the application of the commercial adsorbents in the integrated acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process is restricted due to the low recovery (less than 85%) and the weak capability of enrichment in the eluent (3-4 times). In this study, we investigated the sorption properties of butanol onto three kinds of adsorbents with different polarities developed in our laboratory, that is, XD-41, H-511, and KA-I resin. The sorption behaviors of single component and ABE ternary mixtures presented in the fermentation broths on KA-I resin were investigated. KA-I resin had higher affinity for butanol than for acetone, ethanol, glucose, acetic acid, and butyric acid. Multicomponent ABE sorption on KA-I resin was modeled using a single site extended Langmuir isotherm model. In a desorption study, all the adsorbed components were desorbed in one bed volume of methanol, and the recovery of butanol from KA-I resin was 99.7%. The concentration of butanol in the eluent was increased by a factor of 6.13. In addition, KA-I resin was successfully regenerated by two bed volumes of water. Because of its quick sorption, high sorption capacity, low cost, and ease of desorption and regeneration, KA-I resin exhibits good potential for compatibility with future ABE fermentation coupled with in situ recovery product removal techniques. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  10. Overexpression of lalA, a paralog of labA, is capable of affecting both circadian gene expression and cell growth in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Yasuhito; Nishikawa, Tomoe; Kondo, Takao; Oyama, Tokitaka

    2012-03-23

    In the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus, LabA negatively regulates circadian gene expression under the control of Kai-protein-based clock. Here we conducted a molecular genetic analysis of lalA, a paralog of labA. Although a lalA loss of function mutant did not exhibit any apparent phenotype under our experimental conditions, lalA overexpression inhibited cell growth and decreased cell viability. Moderate lalA overexpression brought about abnormalities in circadian gene expression: reduced amplitude of kaiBC expression rhythm, and altered peak and trough timing of psbAI and kaiA expression rhythms. These results imply that lalA is capable of affecting circadian gene expression and cell growth. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. China: Domestic Change and Foreign Policy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    leaders such as Sun Yat- sen , Chiang Kai-shek, Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, and Deng Xiaoping have exerted an inordinately high level of influence over the...Group Wang Jun Chairman, CITIC He Jingzhi son-in-law Acting Cultural Minister Xi Zhongxun Xi Jinping son Secretary, Fuzhou City CPC Com- mittee Xi

  12. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    One of the earliest recorded instances of the use of rockets was as military weapons against the Mongols by the Chinese at the siege of Kai Fung Foo in 1232 A.D. An arrow with a tube of gunpowder produced an arrow of flying fire. The Mongol attackers fled in terror, even though the rockets were inaccurate and relatively harmless.

  13. Biomarkers for Pulmonary Injury Following Deployment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    Systems Biology Seattle, WA 98103...Gelinas; Dr. Kai Wang; Dr. Joseph Brown Institute for Systems Biology Seattle, WA 98103 To understand the risks of lung disease faced by soldiers...dust was studied for changes by veterinary pathologists, while microRNAs (miRNA) or proteins in BALF and miRNAs in serum were profiled at ISB and

  14. Does access to care still affect health care utilization by immigrants? Testing of an empirical explanatory model of health care utilization by Korean American immigrants with high blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Song, Hee-Jung; Han, Hae-Ra; Lee, Jong-Eun; Kim, Ji-Yun; Kim, Kim B; Ryu, Jai Poong; Kim, Miyong

    2010-08-01

    Despite well-known benefits of health care utilization for the effective management of chronic diseases, the underlying mechanism of understanding health care utilization in ethnic minority population has not been systematically explored. The purpose of this paper is to examine the predictive ability of a health care utilization model by analyzing the interplay between predisposing, enabling, and need factors. The sample consisted of hypertensive Korean American immigrants (KAIs) 40-64 years of age who participated in a self-help intervention for high blood pressure care (SHIP-HBP). Using structured questionnaires, data were collected from 445 KAIs at baseline and analyzed with path analysis. Insurance status and relevant medical history were not just strong direct effects but also carried the most total effect on the health care utilization of these patients. Life priorities, years of residence in the US and perceived income level exerted indirect effects through the participants' insurance status. Our statistical analysis indicated a good fit for the proposed model (x (2) = 28.4, P = 0.29; NFI = 0.91; CFI = 0.99; RMSEA = 0.02). Overall, the model explained 18% of the variance in health care utilization of hypertensive KAIs. These findings strongly support a need to improve access to health care for KAIs by introducing a variety of community resources and building sustainable community infrastructures.

  15. Two Viewpoints on the Challenges of ICT in Education: Knowledge-Building Theory vs. a Pragmatist Conception of Learning in Social Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivinen, Osmo; Piiroinen, Tero; Saikkonen, Loretta

    2016-01-01

    The paper contrasts two different approaches to the educational challenges of the ubiquitous, rapidly developing information and communication technologies (ICT). The first is the constructivist "knowledge building" theory spearheaded by Carl Bereiter and Marlene Scardamalia and recently further developed by Kai Hakkarainen and Sami…

  16. Chinese Lessons: Shanghai's Rise to the Top of the PISA League Tables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Marc S., Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Marc Tucker, President of the National Center on Education and the Economy, presents this compilation of interviews with top Chinese education leaders and international researchers exploring some of the policies and practices behind Shanghai's outstanding performance on PISA 2009 and PISA 2012. The interviews include perspectives from Kai-ming…

  17. Font Effects of Chinese Characters and Pseudo-Characters on the N400: Evidence for an Orthographic Processing View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lv, Caixia; Wang, Quanhong

    2012-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a Chinese character decision task to examine whether N400 amplitude is modulated by stimulus font. Results revealed large negative-going ERPs in an N400 time window of 300-500 ms to stimuli presented in degraded Xing Kai Ti (XKT) font compared with more intact Song Ti (ST) font regardless…

  18. Effects of Typographic Variables on Eye-Movement Measures in Reading Chinese from a Screen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Nai-Shing; Tsai, Jie-Li; Chen, Pei-Ling; Lin, Hsuan-Yu; Chen, Arbee L. P.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the most efficient way to represent text in reading Chinese on computer displays, three typographic variables, character size (41[feet] arc/24 pixels and 60[feet] arc/32 pixels), character spacing (1/4 and 1/8 character width) and font type (Kai and Ming), were manipulated. Results showed that the reading speed for Chinese…

  19. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of RecA superfamily ATPase PH0284 from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3

    SciTech Connect

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Kunishima, Naoki

    2006-04-01

    RecA superfamily ATPase PH0284 from P. horikoshii OT3 was overexpressed, purified, crystallized and cocrystallized with ATP. Both crystal forms belong to the trigonal space group P3{sub 2}21 and diffract X-rays to 2.0 and 2.3 Å resolution, respectively. Circadian (daily) protein clocks are found in cyanobacteria, where a complex of the KaiA, KaiB and KaiC proteins generates circadian rhythms. The 28.09 kDa KaiC homologue PH0284 protein from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 was cloned and expressed and the purified protein was crystallized by the oil-microbatch method at 295 K. X-ray diffraction data from the crystal were collected to 2.0 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation at 100 K. The crystal belongs to the trigonal space group P3{sub 2}21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 96.06, c = 298.90 Å. Assuming the presence of one hexamer in the asymmetric unit gives a V{sub M} value of 2.36 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 47.9%. A cocrystal with ATP was prepared and a diffraction data set was collected at 2.3 Å resolution.

  20. ICCE/ICCAI 2000 Full & Short Papers (Methodologies).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains the full text of the following full and short papers on methodologies from ICCE/ICCAI 2000 (International Conference on Computers in Education/International Conference on Computer-Assisted Instruction): (1) "A Methodology for Learning Pattern Analysis from Web Logs by Interpreting Web Page Contents" (Chih-Kai Chang and…

  1. The Role of Ethnicity in Conceptualizing and Practicing Leadership in a Japanese-American Student Organization. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamasaki, Erika

    In order to examine the gap between Asian American over-representation in higher education and their under-representation in leadership positions in United States society, this study examined leadership in a Japanese American college student organization, the "Tomo No Kai (Tomo)." In particular it examined the role of personal qualities,…

  2. Collaborative Research: Neutrinos and Nucleosynthesis in Hot and Dense Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Alford, Mark

    2015-05-31

    The Topical Collaboration funded one of Prof. Alford's graduate students, Jun (Sophia) Han, by providing 75% of her support. The work reported here was wholly or partly supported by the Topical Collaboration. Additional support, e.g. for postdoc Kai Schwenzer, came from Nuclear Theory grant #DE-FG02-05ER41375.

  3. Effects of Typographic Variables on Eye-Movement Measures in Reading Chinese from a Screen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Nai-Shing; Tsai, Jie-Li; Chen, Pei-Ling; Lin, Hsuan-Yu; Chen, Arbee L. P.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the most efficient way to represent text in reading Chinese on computer displays, three typographic variables, character size (41[feet] arc/24 pixels and 60[feet] arc/32 pixels), character spacing (1/4 and 1/8 character width) and font type (Kai and Ming), were manipulated. Results showed that the reading speed for Chinese…

  4. Timing-Accurate Storage Emulation: Evaluating Hypothetical Storage Components in Real Computer Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-13

    Distributed Systems, 5(8):874–879, August 1994. 154 [109] David Lie, Chandramohan A. Thekkath, Mark Mitchell, Patrick Lincoln, Dan Boneh , John C. Mitchell...Dr. Kai Chang, Dr. James Cross, W. Colby Gibson, Will Hancock, Seth Mason, Dan O’Halloran, Susan Reynolds, Dr. Marllin Simon, and Dr. Tom Smith and

  5. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, PARATHION 8E, 10/28 ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    ... tmlll .. I<>fIlfot If"ull.., I,f .lIlal,,",r a"' .. II~" C ... pphratioll 11 •• "h., ctflll alln.lion 10 VU"'~1I1 'fmlll.luo 'fultnl( ... oi\\l"IL (;KAI~~ ."'t:AI It\\j ... II\\JiI.~\\1 '1".,,: r ...

  6. Mitigating Cost and Schedule Risk from Environmental Litigation Over DOD Projects in Hawaii

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    39 Figure 7. Honolulu Rail Transit Project Map (From HART, 2012)................................41 Figure 8. Hawaii ...providing service between Pearl City and Hawaii Kai. 39 Figure 6. HART Project Route and Station Map (From Daniel Mann, Johnson...SCHEDULE RISK FROM ENVIRONMENTAL LITIGATION OVER DOD PROJECTS IN HAWAII by Michael R. Stefani March 2013 Thesis Advisor: David H. Olwell

  7. Influence of Creative Style and Gender on Students' Achievement in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mkpanang, John T.

    2016-01-01

    The research investigated the influence of creative style and gender on students' achievement in physics. The sample consisting one hundred (100) Senior Secondary II physics students, made up of 50 males and 50 females in Oruk Anam Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, were administered the Kirton Adaptor-Innovator Inventory (KAI),…

  8. Determining the Effects of Reflection Type and Cognitive Style on Students' Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, J. Joey; Robinson, J. Shane; Kacal, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory, experimental study was to determine the effects that the type of reflection-in-action and students' cognitive style had on content knowledge of preservice agriculture teachers (N = 57) at Oklahoma State University. Students' cognitive style was assessed using Kirton's Adaptation-Innovation Inventory (KAI). Students…

  9. Contract W911NF-09-1-0384 (Purdue University)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-27

    Herschbach. Entanglement of polar molecules in pendular states, The Journal of Chemical Physics , (3 2011): 124107. doi: 10.1063/1.3567486 08/31/2011...6.00 Sabre Kais, Yong P. Chen, Qi Wei. Communications: Entanglement switch for dipole arrays, The Journal of Chemical Physics , (3 2010): 121104. doi

  10. Two Viewpoints on the Challenges of ICT in Education: Knowledge-Building Theory vs. a Pragmatist Conception of Learning in Social Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivinen, Osmo; Piiroinen, Tero; Saikkonen, Loretta

    2016-01-01

    The paper contrasts two different approaches to the educational challenges of the ubiquitous, rapidly developing information and communication technologies (ICT). The first is the constructivist "knowledge building" theory spearheaded by Carl Bereiter and Marlene Scardamalia and recently further developed by Kai Hakkarainen and Sami…

  11. Changes in primary metabolism under light and dark conditions in response to overproduction of a response regulator RpaA in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Hiroko; Shirai, Tomokazu; Okamoto, Mami; Kondo, Akihiko; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Osanai, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The study of the primary metabolism of cyanobacteria in response to light conditions is important for environmental biology because cyanobacteria are widely distributed among various ecological niches. Cyanobacteria uniquely possess circadian rhythms, with central oscillators consisting from three proteins, KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC. The two-component histidine kinase SasA/Hik8 and response regulator RpaA transduce the circadian signal from KaiABC to control gene expression. Here, we generated a strain overexpressing rpaA in a unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The rpaA-overexpressing strain showed pleiotropic phenotypes, including slower growth, aberrant degradation of an RNA polymerase sigma factor SigE after the light-to-dark transition, and higher accumulation of sugar catabolic enzyme transcripts under dark conditions. Metabolome analysis revealed delayed glycogen degradation, decreased sugar phosphates and organic acids in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and increased amino acids under dark conditions. The current results demonstrate that in this cyanobacterium, RpaA is a regulator of primary metabolism and involved in adaptation to changes in light conditions.

  12. The Impact of an Assurance System on the Quality of Teaching and Learning--Using the Example of a University in Russia and One of the Universities in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymenderski, Peggy; Yagudina, Liliya; Burenkova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the question of how quality assurance can have a real, positive impact on the quality of teaching and learning at universities, considering the realities of different systems--the system of control and the system of quality culture--in using the example of two universities: the KNITU-KAI in Russia and the TU Dresden in…

  13. ACUTE-TO-CHRONIC ESTIMATION (ACE V 2.0) WITH TIME-CONCENTRATION-EFFECT MODELS: USER MANUAL AND SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ellersieck, Mark R., Amha Asfaw, Foster L. Mayer, Gary F. Krause, Kai Sun and Gunhee Lee. 2003. Acute-to-Chronic Estimation (ACE v2.0) with Time-Concentration-Effect Models: User Manual and Software. EPA/600/R-03/107. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Envi...

  14. Markov Modeling of Component Fault Growth Over a Derived Domain of Feasible Output Control Effort Modifications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    of similar stochastic modeling techniques, are given in Banjevic and Jardine (2006). The state transition probabilities in a Markov process descrip...Technology, and Dr Kai Goebel, Director of the Prognostics Center of Excellence at NASA AMES. REFERENCES Banjevic, D., & Jardine , A. (2006). Calculation of

  15. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of RecA superfamily ATPase PH0284 from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3

    PubMed Central

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Kunishima, Naoki

    2006-01-01

    Circadian (daily) protein clocks are found in cyanobacteria, where a complex of the KaiA, KaiB and KaiC proteins generates circadian rhythms. The 28.09 kDa KaiC homologue PH0284 protein from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 was cloned and expressed and the purified protein was crystallized by the oil-microbatch method at 295 K. X-ray diffraction data from the crystal were collected to 2.0 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation at 100 K. The crystal belongs to the trigonal space group P3221, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 96.06, c = 298.90 Å. Assuming the presence of one hexamer in the asymmetric unit gives a V M value of 2.36 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 47.9%. A cocrystal with ATP was prepared and a diffraction data set was collected at 2.3 Å resolution. PMID:16582499

  16. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of RecA superfamily ATPase PH0284 from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3.

    PubMed

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Kunishima, Naoki

    2006-04-01

    Circadian (daily) protein clocks are found in cyanobacteria, where a complex of the KaiA, KaiB and KaiC proteins generates circadian rhythms. The 28.09 kDa KaiC homologue PH0284 protein from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 was cloned and expressed and the purified protein was crystallized by the oil-microbatch method at 295 K. X-ray diffraction data from the crystal were collected to 2.0 angstroms resolution using synchrotron radiation at 100 K. The crystal belongs to the trigonal space group P3(2)21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 96.06, c = 298.90 angstroms. Assuming the presence of one hexamer in the asymmetric unit gives a V(M) value of 2.36 angstroms3 Da(-1) and a solvent content of 47.9%. A cocrystal with ATP was prepared and a diffraction data set was collected at 2.3 angstroms resolution.

  17. Hydrology of the Leeward Aquifers of Southeast Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eyre, Paul R.; Ewart, Charles J.; Shade, Patricia J.

    1986-01-01

    The leeward southeast Oahu ground-water area includes the Waialae and Wailupe-Hawaii Kai aquifers. The Waialae aquifer is separated from the ground water of Kaimuki to the west by Palolo valley fill and the Kaau rift zone, and from the Wailupe-Hawaii Kai aquifer to the east by a line of northeast-trending volcanic dikes. The distinct ground-water head changes across these boundaries indicate that the aquifers are separate, with little or no leakage between them. A water budget of leeward southeast Oahu determined the quantity and spatial distribution of ground-water recharge. These estimates of recharge, 6 million gallons per day over the Waialae area and 9.1 million gallons per day over the Wailupe-Hawaii Kai area, were used as input to a finite-element two-dimensional ground-water flow model. Ground-water heads were simulated in the modeled aquifer for several pumping scenarios. Projected pumpage from the recently drilled wells int he area is predicted to draw the water table down about one foot from its present mean position. The existing ground-water development of 1.4 million gallons per day is small compared to the quantity of ground water that flows through the area and discharges to the sea. Because the Waialae and Wailupe-Hawaii Kai aquifers are isolated from adjacent ground-water bodies, they can be fully developed without affecting ground-water resources outside the area.

  18. ACUTE-TO-CHRONIC ESTIMATION (ACE V 2.0) WITH TIME-CONCENTRATION-EFFECT MODELS: USER MANUAL AND SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ellersieck, Mark R., Amha Asfaw, Foster L. Mayer, Gary F. Krause, Kai Sun and Gunhee Lee. 2003. Acute-to-Chronic Estimation (ACE v2.0) with Time-Concentration-Effect Models: User Manual and Software. EPA/600/R-03/107. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Envi...

  19. On a Quest for English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the potential of online role-playing games to be a powerful tool for English as a second language (ESL) learning. When Professor Edd Schneider and game designer Kai Zheng suggested to attendees gathered in San Francisco last spring for the annual Game Developers Conference that massively multiplayer online role-playing games,…

  20. On a Quest for English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the potential of online role-playing games to be a powerful tool for English as a second language (ESL) learning. When Professor Edd Schneider and game designer Kai Zheng suggested to attendees gathered in San Francisco last spring for the annual Game Developers Conference that massively multiplayer online role-playing games,…

  1. NCCR Chemical Biology: Interdisciplinary Research Excellence, Outreach, Education, and New Tools for Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Sturzenegger, Susi; Johnsson, Kai; Riezman, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation to promote cutting edge research as well as the advancement of young researchers and women, technology transfer, outreach and education, the NCCR (Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research) Chemical Biology is co-led by Howard Riezman, University of Geneva and Kai Johnsson, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL).

  2. Earth observations taken by the STS-9 crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1983-11-28

    STS009-33-1276 (28 Nov- 8 Dec 1983) --- The entire British Crown Colony of Hong Kong and a portion of Kwangtung Province of China are seen. The city of Victoria is on Hong Kong Island. The Colony?s airport (Kai Tak) is seen at the mainland city of Kowloon.

  3. Font Effects of Chinese Characters and Pseudo-Characters on the N400: Evidence for an Orthographic Processing View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lv, Caixia; Wang, Quanhong

    2012-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a Chinese character decision task to examine whether N400 amplitude is modulated by stimulus font. Results revealed large negative-going ERPs in an N400 time window of 300-500 ms to stimuli presented in degraded Xing Kai Ti (XKT) font compared with more intact Song Ti (ST) font regardless…

  4. A Research Program in Computer Technology. 1986 Annual Technical Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    Cohen Michael Fox Kirk Kandt Jay Myers Kai Yue 3.1 PROBLEM BEING SOLVED The Formalized System Development (FSD) project is working to extend the currently...group which Spivak has?> 5. System: Yes. <Yes.> 6. System: Do you want me to display the read status of the messages? <Do you want me to display the

  5. Increased expression of microRNA-503 and reduced expression of kangai-1 in B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    WU, JINGJING; LI, AIMIN; ZHANG, PENGYU; SUN, ZHENCHANG; HAN, LIJUAN; NAN, FEIFEI; GENG, LI

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the expression levels of microRNA-503 (miR-503) and the tumor suppressor gene, kangai-1 (KAI1), in B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL). A total of 45 patients with B-NHL (including 29 cases with stage III/IV disease and 16 cases with stage I/II disease) were enrolled in this study. In addition, 26 patients with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH) were enrolled as the control patients. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed in order to measure the expression levels of miR-503 in B-NHL and RLH tissues, and to detect the expression levels of miR-503 and KAI1 in peripheral blood samples. In addition, KAI1 expression levels in B-NHL and RLH tissues were detected using western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis. The expression levels of miR-503 were found to be significantly increased in the tissues and peripheral blood of B-NHL patients when compared with those in RLH patients (P<0.05). However, KAI1 was strongly expressed in RLH tissues and weakly expressed in B-NHL tissues. Furthermore, the expression levels of KAI1 were significantly decreased in the tissues and peripheral blood of B-NHL patients when compared with those in the tissues and peripheral blood of RLH patients (P<0.05). The expression levels of miR-503 in the tissues and peripheral blood of patients with stage III/IV B-NHL were significantly higher compared with those with stage I/II B-NHL (P<0.05). By contrast, the expression levels of KAI1 in stage III/IV B-NHL tissues were significantly higher compared with those in stage I/II B-NHL tissues (P<0.05). In conclusion, miR-503 was highly expressed, whereas KAI1 was poorly expressed, in the tissues and peripheral blood of B-NHL patients. Thus, miR-503 may have an application as a novel therapeutic and diagnostic marker in B-NHL patients. PMID:26998012

  6. Expression of human epileptic temporal lobe neurotransmitter receptors in Xenopus oocytes: An innovative approach to study epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Eleonora; Esposito, Vincenzo; Mileo, Anna Maria; Di Gennaro, Giancarlo; Quarato, Pierpaolo; Giangaspero, Felice; Scoppetta, Ciriaco; Onorati, Paolo; Trettel, Flavia; Miledi, Ricardo; Eusebi, Fabrizio

    2002-01-01

    Poly(A+) RNA was extracted from the temporal lobe (TL) of medically intractable epileptic patients which underwent surgical TL resection. Injection of this mRNA into Xenopus oocytes led to the expression of ionotropic receptors for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), kainate (KAI) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA). Membrane currents elicited by GABA inverted polarity at −15 mV, close to the oocyte's chloride equilibrium potential, were inhibited by bicuculline, and were potentiated by pentobarbital and flunitrazepam. These basic characteristics were also displayed by GABA currents elicited in oocytes injected with mRNAs isolated from human TL glioma (TLG) or from mouse TL. However, the GABA receptors expressed by the epileptic TL mRNA exhibited some unusual properties, consisting in a rapid current run-down after repetitive GABA applications and a large EC50 (125 μM). AMPA alone evoked very small or nil currents, whereas KAI induced larger currents. Nevertheless, upon cyclothiazide treatment, AMPA elicited substantial currents that, like the KAI currents, were inhibited by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX). Furthermore, the glutamate receptor 5 (GluR5) agonist, ATPA, failed to evoke an obvious current although both RT-PCR and Western blot analyses showed GluR5 expression in the epileptic TL. Oocytes injected with mouse TL or human TLG mRNAs generated KAI and AMPA currents similar to those evoked in oocytes injected with epileptic TL mRNA but, in contrast to these, the mouse TL and human TLG oocytes were also responsive to ATPA. Our findings are in accord with the concept that both a depression of GABA inhibition and a dysfunction of the KAI-receptor system maintain a high neuronal excitability that results in epileptic seizures. PMID:12409614

  7. Specialisation within the DWARF14 protein family confers distinct responses to karrikins and strigolactones in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Waters, Mark T; Nelson, David C; Scaffidi, Adrian; Flematti, Gavin R; Sun, Yueming K; Dixon, Kingsley W; Smith, Steven M

    2012-04-01

    Karrikins are butenolides derived from burnt vegetation that stimulate seed germination and enhance seedling responses to light. Strigolactones are endogenous butenolide hormones that regulate shoot and root architecture, and stimulate the branching of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Thus, karrikins and strigolactones are structurally similar but physiologically distinct plant growth regulators. In Arabidopsis thaliana, responses to both classes of butenolides require the F-box protein MAX2, but it remains unclear how discrete responses to karrikins and strigolactones are achieved. In rice, the DWARF14 protein is required for strigolactone-dependent inhibition of shoot branching. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis DWARF14 orthologue, AtD14, is also necessary for normal strigolactone responses in seedlings and adult plants. However, the AtD14 paralogue KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE 2 (KAI2) is specifically required for responses to karrikins, and not to strigolactones. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that KAI2 is ancestral and that AtD14 functional specialisation has evolved subsequently. Atd14 and kai2 mutants exhibit distinct subsets of max2 phenotypes, and expression patterns of AtD14 and KAI2 are consistent with the capacity to respond to either strigolactones or karrikins at different stages of plant development. We propose that AtD14 and KAI2 define a class of proteins that permit the separate regulation of karrikin and strigolactone signalling by MAX2. Our results support the existence of an endogenous, butenolide-based signalling mechanism that is distinct from the strigolactone pathway, providing a molecular basis for the adaptive response of plants to smoke.

  8. [Achievements and enlightenment of modern acupuncture therapy for stroke based on the neuroanatomy].

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Fang; Fang, Jian-Qiao; Chen, Lu-Ni; Wang, Chao

    2014-04-01

    Up to now, in the treatment of stroke patients by acupuncture therapy, three main representative achievements involving scalp acupuncture intervention, "Xing Nao Kai Qiao" (restoring consciousness and inducing resuscitation) acupuncture technique and nape acupuncture therapy have been got. Regarding their neurobiological mechanisms, the scalp acupuncture therapy is based on the functional localization of the cerebral cortex, "Xing Nao Kai Qiao" acupuncture therapy is closely related to nerve stem stimulation, and the nape acupuncture therapy is based on the nerve innervation of the regional neck-nape area in obtaining therapeutic effects. In fact, effects of these three acupuncture interventions are all closely associated with the modern neuroanatomy. In the treatment of post-stroke spastic paralysis, cognitive disorder and depression with acupuncture therapy, modern neuroanatomical knowledge should be one of the key theoretical basis and new therapeutic techniques should be explored and developed continuously.

  9. Slow polarization relaxation in non-uniform telluric acid ammonium phosphate crystals.

    PubMed

    Matyjasek, K; Rogowski, R Z

    2006-08-16

    The characteristic features of polarization and spontaneous depolarization kinetics in non-uniform telluric acid ammonium phosphate (TAAP) crystals are investigated by observation of the domain structure using a nematic liquid crystal method. We present experimental results showing the correlation between the internal bias field, responsible for the offset of the hysteresis loop and the backswitching process. The internal field caused by structural disorder accounts for a broad spectrum of energy barriers for domain nucleation. The switching kinetics was analysed in the framework of the nucleation and growth model based on Avrami statistical theory, using the modified Kolmogorov-Avrami-Ishibashi (KAI) model. It has been found that the switching kinetics in TAAP crystals can be approximated by averaging the KAI model over a broad distribution of characteristic domain growth times. The spectra of the distribution of the characteristic domain growth times are derived from the experimental data.

  10. Electrical control of spin in topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Kai

    2012-02-01

    by changing the gate voltage. It provides us a new way to control surface magnetism electrically. The gap opened by doped magnetic ions can lead to a short-range Bloembergen-Rowland interaction. The competition among the Heisenberg, Ising, and DM terms leads to rich spin configurations and an anomalous Hall effect on different lattices [4]. There are many proposals for quantum computation scheme are based on the spin in semiconductor quantum dots. Topological insulator quantum dots display a very different behavior with that of conventional semiconductor quantum dots [5]. In sharp contrast to conventional semiconductor quantum dots, the quantum states in the gap of the HgTe QD are fully spin-polarized and show ring-like density distributions near the boundary of the QD and optically dark. The persistent charge currents and magnetic moments, i.e., the Aharonov-Bohm effect, can be observed in such a QD structure. This feature offers us a practical way to detect these exotic ring-like edge states by using the SQUID technique. [0pt]Refs: [1] W. Yang, Kai Chang, and S. C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 056602 (2008); J. Li and Kai Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 222110 (2009). [2] L. B. Zhang, Kai Chang, X. C. Xie, H. Buhmann and L. W. Molenkamp, New J. Phys. 12, 083058 (2010). [3] L. B. Zhang, F. Cheng, F. Zhai and Kai Chang, Phys. Rev. B 83 081402(R) (2011); Z. H. Wu, F. Zhai, F. M. Peeters, H. Q. Xu and Kai Chang, Phys, Rev. Lett. 106, 176802 (2011). [4] J. J. Zhu, D. X. Yao, S. C. Zhang, and Kai Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 097201 (2011). [5] Kai Chang, and Wen-Kai Lou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 206802 (2011).

  11. Circadian rhythms. Atomic-scale origins of slowness in the cyanobacterial circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Abe, Jun; Hiyama, Takuya B; Mukaiyama, Atsushi; Son, Seyoung; Mori, Toshifumi; Saito, Shinji; Osako, Masato; Wolanin, Julie; Yamashita, Eiki; Kondo, Takao; Akiyama, Shuji

    2015-07-17

    Circadian clocks generate slow and ordered cellular dynamics but consist of fast-moving bio-macromolecules; consequently, the origins of the overall slowness remain unclear. We identified the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) catalytic region [adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase)] in the amino-terminal half of the clock protein KaiC as the minimal pacemaker that controls the in vivo frequency of the cyanobacterial clock. Crystal structures of the ATPase revealed that the slowness of this ATPase arises from sequestration of a lytic water molecule in an unfavorable position and coupling of ATP hydrolysis to a peptide isomerization with high activation energy. The slow ATPase is coupled with another ATPase catalyzing autodephosphorylation in the carboxyl-terminal half of KaiC, yielding the circadian response frequency of intermolecular interactions with other clock-related proteins that influences the transcription and translation cycle. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Multifunctional Antenna Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-25

    Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Multifunctional antennas, reconfigurable antennas, electromagnetics REPORT... Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications, (06 2013): 223. doi: 10.4236/jemaa.2013.55036 Teng-Kai Chen, Gregory H. Huff. Transmission line analysis...of the Archimedean spiral antenna in free space, Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, (04 2014): 1175. doi: 10.1080/09205071

  13. Effects of Chronic Alcohol Exposure on Kainate Receptor-Mediated Neurotransmission in the Hippocampus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    levels of glutamate- (VMF, GSM), Centro de Ciincias Biol6gicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florian6polis, Brazil . gated ion channel subunits...in Supported by US Army Grant DAMD17-00-1-0579 (CFV and DDS) and NR1 protein levels in brain synaptosomes (Chen et al., by CNPq, Brazil (VMF and GSM...D). The onset of this were first pharmacologically isolated using a blocker cocktail inhibition was rapid and persisted for the duration of the kai

  14. MSR 2.0: Language Definition and Programming Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    15, pages 175–190, Cape Breton , NS, Canada, 2002. IEEE Computer Society Press. [3] Frederic Butler, Iliano Cervesato, Aaron D. Jaggard, and Andre ...Bibliography [1] Michael Backes, Iliano Cervesato, Aaron D. Jaggard, Andre Scedrov, and Joe-Kai Tsay. Cryptographi- cally Sound Security Proofs for...Jaggard, and Andre Scedrov. A Formal Analysis of Some Properties of Kerberos 5 Using MSR. In Fifteenth Computer Security Foundations Workshop — CSFW

  15. Application of Satellite-Derived Wind Profiles to Joint Precision Airdrop System (JPADS) Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Stirling pulse tube cryocooler (BAE, 2010). A 31 schematic diagram of the AIRS instrument configuration is presented in Figure 13. Figure 14...Technology., March 2007. Hattis, Philip, Kai Angemueller, Thomas Fill, Robert Wright, Richard Benney, and David LeMoine. An In-flight Precision Airdrop...C. Holt, Timothy, J. Schmit, Robert M. Aune, Anthony J. Schreiner, Gary S. Wade and Donald G. Gray. Application of GOES-8/9 Soundings to Weather

  16. High-Throughput Nano-Biofilm Microarray for Antifungal Drug Discovery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-25

    High-Throughput Nano- Biofilm Microarray for Antifungal Drug Discovery Anand Srinivasan,a,c Kai P. Leung,d Jose L. Lopez-Ribot,b,c Anand K...albicans biofilms (“nano- biofilms ”) encapsulated in an inert alginate matrix. We demonstrate that these nano- biofilms are similar to conventional...macroscopic biofilms in their morphological, ar- chitectural, growth, and phenotypic characteristics. We also demonstrate that the nano- biofilm microarray

  17. Creative Thinking for Individuals and Teams. An Essay on Creative Thinking for Military Professionals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    MBTI or KAI, have implications for how individuals approach creativity. Introverts may have a hard time brainstorming in a group setting. SJs may...the future; creative) Serve as a catalyst for group action (inquisitive, extroverted ; like to build on the ideas of others) Be practical...problems. The MBTI Extrovert provides the spark that serves as the catalyst for team action. Von Oech’s Warrior is decisive and pushes the team to

  18. Conflict Resolution in Iraq: A Two-Track Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-03

    Conflict Resolution and Oxymoron: the Record, the Challenge,” in Searching for Peace, The Road to Transcend , eds. Johan Galtung , Carl G. Jacobsen and...Holistic Approaches to Peace-building and Peace Actor Empowerment.” In Searching for Peace, The Road to Transcend, eds. Johan Galtung , Carl G. Jacobsen...The Road to Transcend , eds. Johan Galtung , Carl G. Jacobsen and Kai Frithjof Brand- Jacobsen, 27-48. London: Pluto Press, 2000. Jehl, Douglas

  19. Susceptibility of Oral Bacteria to an Antimicrobial Decapeptide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    kai.leung@amedd.army.mil Received 14 April 2003 Accepted 24 August 2003 Susceptibility of oral bacteria to an antimicrobial decapeptide S. P. Concannon,1† T...resident saliva bacteria collected from human subjects. Cytotoxic activity of KSL against mammalian cells and the structural features of this...decapeptide were also investigated, the latter by using two-dimensional NMR in aqueous and DMSO solutions. MICs of KSL for the majority of oral bacteria

  20. Transformation: A Bold Case for Unconventional Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    government headed by Chiang Kai-shek for the popular support of the Chinese People. Thus, even though Mao was fighting an invading army much of the...advocate of unconventional warfare would assert that UW efforts could defeat the Russian or Chinese army in a conventional battle, and similarity...control of the population. • Redeployment of military/police assets around the capitol versus the countryside : This simple metric is useful to

  1. Evaluation of Streptomyces strains isolated from herbal vermicompost for their plant growth-promotion traits in rice.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam; Vadlamudi, Srinivas; Bandikinda, Prakash; Sathya, Arumugam; Vijayabharathi, Rajendran; Rupela, Om; Kudapa, Himabindu; Katta, Krishnamohan; Varshney, Rajeev Kumar

    2014-01-20

    Six actinomycetes, CAI-13, CAI-85, CAI-93, CAI-140, CAI-155 and KAI-180, isolated from six different herbal vermi-composts were characterized for in vitro plant growth-promoting (PGP) properties and further evaluated in the field for PGP activity in rice. Of the six actinomycetes, CAI-13, CAI-85, CAI-93, CAI-140 and CAI-155 produced siderophores; CAI-13, CAI-93, CAI-155 and KAI-180 produced chitinase; CAI-13, CAI-140, CAI-155 and KAI-180 produced lipase; CAI-13, CAI-93, CAI-155 and KAI-180 produced protease; and CAI-13, CAI-85, CAI-140 and CAI-155 produced ß-1-3-glucanase whereas all the six actinomycetes produced cellulase, hydrocyanic acid and indole acetic acid (IAA). The actinomycetes were able to grow in NaCl concentrations of up to 8%, at pH values between 7 and 11, temperatures between 20 and 40 °C and compatible with fungicide bavistin at field application levels. In the rice field, the actinomycetes significantly enhanced tiller numbers, panicle numbers, filled grain numbers and weight, stover yield, grain yield, total dry matter, root length, volume and dry weight over the un-inoculated control. In the rhizosphere, the actinomycetes also significantly enhanced total nitrogen, available phosphorous, % organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen and dehydrogenase activity over the un-inoculated control. Sequences of 16S rDNA gene of the actinomycetes matched with different Streptomyces species in BLAST analysis. Of the six actinomycetes, CAI-85 and CAI-93 were found superior over other actinomycetes in terms of PGP properties, root development and crop productivity. qRT-PCR analysis on selected plant growth promoting genes of actinomycetes revealed the up-regulation of IAA genes only in CAI-85 and CAI-93.

  2. JPRS Report Science & Technology Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-02

    KANTO SHIBU KENKYU HAPPYOKAI, 4-5 Aug 88/ 26 Irradiation Characteristics of Tritium Breeding Materials /Kenji Noda, Hitsohi Watanabe; NIPPON...Characteristics of Tritium Breeding Materials 43067612 Tokyo NIPPON SERAMIKKUSU KY0KAI KANT0 SHIBU KENKYU HAPPYOKAI in Japanese 4-5 Aug 88 p 6 [Article by...Kenji Noda and Hitsohi Watanabe, JAERI] [Text] 1. Introduction Atomic fusion reactor tritium breeding materials are used to produce tritium for

  3. Smart Defense: Significant Return Opportunity on U.S. SOF Investment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    this student academic research paper are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Army...student academic research paper are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Army, Department...Kai Schonfeld, a German naval officer, observed that, “Germany’s hesitance and procrastination in security and defence questions, such as the

  4. China’s Modus Operandi for the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    integral part of China’s modus operandi today. Sun died before realizing his dream; however, two of Sun’s most influential supporters, Chiang Kai ...PPC operates the Ports of Balboa and Cristobal located at each end of the Panama Canal. Serving as major hubs for the Atlantic and Pacific trade...financially motivated, rather than militarily or politically motivated, as their development of Balboa and Cristobal suggests. A more interesting factor

  5. Compass and gyroscope: Integrating science and politics for the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.N.

    1993-06-01

    Using the Columbia River Basin in the Pacific Northwest as a case study, Kai Lee describes the concept and practice of adaptive management, as he examines the successes and failures of past and present management experiences. Throughout the book, the author delves deeply into the theoretical framework behind the real-world experience, exploring how theories of science, politics, and cognitive psychology can be integrated into environmental management plans to increase their effectiveness.

  6. Enhanced Cyanate Ester Nanocomposites through Improved Nanoparticle Surface Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    Gorga, Russell. “Polymer-matrix Nanocomposites, Processing, Manufacturing, and Application: An Overview.” Journal of Composite Materials. 40 (2006...Absorption From Surface-Modified Silica.” Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 104 (2007): 4096- 4105. 5. Nelson, J.; MacCrone, R.; Schadler, L...Gao, Kai; Guo, Lin. “Preparation and Properties of Fumed Silica/Cyanate Ester Nanocomposites.” Chinese Journal of Polymer Science. 30 (2012): 530-536

  7. Typed Multiset Rewriting Specifications of Security Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    Cape Breton , NS, Canada, 24–26 June 2002. IEEE Computer Society Press. [12] Frederic Butler, Iliano Cervesato, Aaron D. Jaggard, and Andre Scedrov... andR an active role set. Let moreover ΣDY and PDY be the signature and protocol theory for the Dolev-Yao intruder. 1. If ` Σ, then ` Σ,ΣDY ; 2. If Σ...Computer Society Press. [4] Michael Backes, Iliano Cervesato, Aaron D. Jaggard, Andre Scedrov, and Joe-Kai Tsay. Cryptographically Sound Security

  8. The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2012: Rationale, Methods, Description of Participants, and Response Rates

    PubMed Central

    Waruiru, Wanjiru; Kim, Andrea A.; Kimanga, Davies O.; Ng’ang’a, James; Schwarcz, Sandra; Kimondo, Lucy; Ng’ang’a, Anne; Umuro, Mamo; Mwangi, Mary; Ojwang’, James K.; Maina, William K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional population-based surveys are essential surveillance tools for tracking changes in HIV epidemics. In 2007, Kenya implemented the first AIDS Indicator Survey [Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS) 2007)], a nationally representative, population-based survey that collected demographic and behavioral data and blood specimens from individuals aged 15–64 years. Kenya’s second AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2012) was conducted to monitor changes in the epidemic, evaluate HIV prevention, care, and treatment initiatives, and plan for an efficient and effective response to the HIV epidemic. Methods KAIS 2012 was a cross-sectional 2-stage cluster sampling design, household-based HIV serologic survey that collected information on households as well as demographic and behavioral data from Kenyans aged 18 months to 64 years. Participants also provided blood samples for HIV serology and other related tests at the National HIV Reference Laboratory. Results Among 9300 households sampled, 9189 (98.8%) were eligible for the survey. Of the eligible households, 8035 (87.4%) completed household-level questionnaires. Of 16,383 eligible individuals aged 15–64 years and emancipated minors aged less than 15 years in these households, 13,720 (83.7%) completed interviews; 11,626 (84.7%) of the interviewees provided a blood specimen. Of 6302 eligible children aged 18 months to 14 years, 4340 (68.9%) provided a blood specimen. Of the 2094 eligible children aged 10–14 years, 1661 (79.3%) completed interviews. Conclusions KAIS 2012 provided representative data to inform a strategic response to the HIV epidemic in the country. PMID:24732819

  9. The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2012: rationale, methods, description of participants, and response rates.

    PubMed

    Waruiru, Wanjiru; Kim, Andrea A; Kimanga, Davies O; Ng'ang'a, James; Schwarcz, Sandra; Kimondo, Lucy; Ng'ang'a, Anne; Umuro, Mamo; Mwangi, Mary; Ojwang', James K; Maina, William K

    2014-05-01

    Cross-sectional population-based surveys are essential surveillance tools for tracking changes in HIV epidemics. In 2007, Kenya implemented the first AIDS Indicator Survey [Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS) 2007)], a nationally representative, population-based survey that collected demographic and behavioral data and blood specimens from individuals aged 15-64 years. Kenya's second AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2012) was conducted to monitor changes in the epidemic, evaluate HIV prevention, care, and treatment initiatives, and plan for an efficient and effective response to the HIV epidemic. KAIS 2012 was a cross-sectional 2-stage cluster sampling design, household-based HIV serologic survey that collected information on households as well as demographic and behavioral data from Kenyans aged 18 months to 64 years. Participants also provided blood samples for HIV serology and other related tests at the National HIV Reference Laboratory. Among 9300 households sampled, 9189 (98.8%) were eligible for the survey. Of the eligible households, 8035 (87.4%) completed household-level questionnaires. Of 16,383 eligible individuals aged 15-64 years and emancipated minors aged less than 15 years in these households, 13,720 (83.7%) completed interviews; 11,626 (84.7%) of the interviewees provided a blood specimen. Of 6302 eligible children aged 18 months to 14 years, 4340 (68.9%) provided a blood specimen. Of the 2094 eligible children aged 10-14 years, 1661 (79.3%) completed interviews. KAIS 2012 provided representative data to inform a strategic response to the HIV epidemic in the country.

  10. Sustaining Competitive Advantage: Mental Models and Organizational Learning for Future Marines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Soft Systems Methodology : Other Voices.” Systemic Practice and Action Research. 13, no. 6, (2000): 773. Larsen, Kai R. T., Claire McInerney...30. Mingers, John. “An Idea Ahead of Its Time: The History and Development of Soft Systems Methodology .” Systemic Practice and Action...Soft System Dynamics Methodology (SSDM): Combinging Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) and System Dynamics (SD).” Systemic Practice and Action

  11. Dip Process Thermal Barrier Coating for Superalloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-02

    the Project Supervisor is Dr. David J. Rowcliffe, Program Manager, Ceramics . Dr. Kai-Hung Lau, Materials Chemist performed the thermogravimetric...ever increasing demand for higher turbine inlet temperature in gas turbines has created an extensive interest in using ceramic materials to protect...airfoil surfaces. During the past decade, a concentrated effort was devoted to developing ceramic thermal barrier coatings to improve turbine

  12. High-Energy Positron Ionization of Adsorbed Species in the Impulse Approximation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    and H. S . W. Massey, "The Theory of Atomic Collisions," 3rd ed. (Oxford, London, 1965), p. 56. 7. See, for example, A. Nordsieck, Phys. Rev. 93, 785...Of THIS PAGE (*%en Date Entered) REPORT DOCUMENTAYION PAGE BEFORE COPEIGFORM 1. REPORT NUMBER 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER S ...NUMBER A~UTNOR( s ) I. C , Nu IBE -- Kai-Shue La * Thomas eorge 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS /10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK

  13. Formal Methods for Privacy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    make assumptions about an adversary the way we might about hardware failures or extreme events like hurricanes . On the other hand, it often suffices to...include the adversary as part of the system’s environment, and assume the worst case (e.g., treating an adversary’s action as a Byzantine failure...Heiser, June Andronick, David Cock, Philip Der- rin, Dhammika Elkaduwe, Kai Engelhardt, Rafal Kolanski, Michael Norrish, Thomas Sewell, Harvey Tuch, and

  14. NFAT Signaling and the Tumorigenic Microenvironment of the Prostate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    827-37. PMID: 27294619 Status of publication: published; acknowledgement of federal support: Yes. (2) Song Cao, Michael C. Wendl, Matthew A...Wyczalkowski, Kristine Wylie, Kai Ye, Reyka Jayasinghe, Mingchao Xie, Song Wu, Beifang Niu, Robert Grubb III, Kimberly J. Johnson, Hiram Gay, Ken Chen...Lameijer, Joshua F. McMichael, Jie Ning, Michael D. McLellan, Mingchao Xie, Song Cao, Venkata Yellapantula, Kuan-lin Huang, Adam Scott, Steven

  15. Quantum Tomography via Compressed Sensing: Error Bounds, Sample Complexity and Efficient Estimators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-27

    REPORT Quantum tomography via compressed sensing : error bounds, sample complexity and efficient estimators 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS quantum tomography, compressed sensing Steven T Flammia, David Gross, Yi-Kai Liu... compressed sensing : error bounds, sample complexity and efficient estimators Report Title ABSTRACT Intuitively, if a density operator has small rank, then

  16. An Improved Medium for Growing Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-19

    Note An improved medium for growing Staphylococcus aureus biofilm Ping Chen, Johnathan J. Abercrombie, Nicole R. Jeffrey, Kai P. Leung ⁎ Microbiology...Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Human plasma Microfluidic A medium (Brain Heart Infusion plus 10% human plasma) was developed, tested, and...validated for growing Staphylococcus aureus biofilm in vitro. With this medium, S. aureus forms reproducible and robust biofilms in flow chambers under

  17. Biobutanol production in a Clostridium acetobutylicum biofilm reactor integrated with simultaneous product recovery by adsorption

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Clostridium acetobutylicum can propagate on fibrous matrices and form biofilms that have improved butanol tolerance and a high fermentation rate and can be repeatedly used. Previously, a novel macroporous resin, KA-I, was synthesized in our laboratory and was demonstrated to be a good adsorbent with high selectivity and capacity for butanol recovery from a model solution. Based on these results, we aimed to develop a process integrating a biofilm reactor with simultaneous product recovery using the KA-I resin to maximize the production efficiency of biobutanol. Results KA-I showed great affinity for butanol and butyrate and could selectively enhance acetoin production at the expense of acetone during the fermentation. The biofilm reactor exhibited high productivity with considerably low broth turbidity during repeated batch fermentations. By maintaining the butanol level above 6.5 g/L in the biofilm reactor, butyrate adsorption by the KA-I resin was effectively reduced. Co-adsorption of acetone by the resin improved the fermentation performance. By redox modulation with methyl viologen (MV), the butanol-acetone ratio and the total product yield increased. An equivalent solvent titer of 96.5 to 130.7 g/L was achieved with a productivity of 1.0 to 1.5 g · L-1 · h-1. The solvent concentration and productivity increased by 4 to 6-fold and 3 to 5-fold, respectively, compared to traditional batch fermentation using planktonic culture. Conclusions Compared to the conventional process, the integrated process dramatically improved the productivity and reduced the energy consumption as well as water usage in biobutanol production. While genetic engineering focuses on strain improvement to enhance butanol production, process development can fully exploit the productivity of a strain and maximize the production efficiency. PMID:24401161

  18. Differential expression patterns of metastasis suppressor proteins in basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bozdogan, Onder; Yulug, Isik G; Vargel, Ibrahim; Cavusoglu, Tarik; Karabulut, Ayse A; Karahan, Gurbet; Sayar, Nilufer

    2015-08-01

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are common malignant skin tumors. Despite having a significant invasion capacity, they metastasize only rarely. Our aim in this study was to detect the expression patterns of the NM23-H1, NDRG1, E-cadherin, RHOGDI2, CD82/KAI1, MKK4, and AKAP12 metastasis suppressor proteins in BCCs. A total of 96 BCC and 10 normal skin samples were included for the immunohistochemical study. Eleven frozen BCC samples were also studied by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to detect the gene expression profile. NM23-H1 was strongly and diffusely expressed in all types of BCC. Significant cytoplasmic expression of NDRG1 and E-cadherin was also detected. However, AKAP12 and CD82/KAI1 expression was significantly decreased. The expressions of the other proteins were somewhere between the two extremes. Similarly, qRT-PCR analysis showed down-regulation of AKAP12 and up-regulation of NM23-H1 and NDRG1 in BCC. Morphologically aggressive BCCs showed significantly higher cytoplasmic NDRG1 expression scores and lower CD82/KAI1 scores than non-aggressive BCCs. The relatively preserved levels of NM23-H1, NDRG1, and E-cadherin proteins may have a positive effect on the non-metastasizing features of these tumors. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  19. Theophylline-dependent riboswitch as a novel genetic tool for strict regulation of protein expression in Cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942.

    PubMed

    Nakahira, Yoichi; Ogawa, Atsushi; Asano, Hiroyuki; Oyama, Tokitaka; Tozawa, Yuzuru

    2013-10-01

    The cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 is a major model species for studies of photosynthesis. It is are also a potential cell factory for the production of renewable biofuels and valuable chemicals. We employed engineered riboswitches to control translational initiation of target genes in this cyanobacterium. A firefly luciferase reporter assay revealed that three theophylline riboswitches performed as expected in the cyanobacterium. Riboswitch-E* exhibited very low leaky expression of luciferase and superior and dose-dependent on/off regulation of protein expression by theophylline. The maximum magnitude of the induction vs. basal level was ∼190-fold. Furthermore, the induction level was responsive to a wide range of theophylline concentrations in the medium, from 0 to 2 mM, facilitating the fine-tuning of luciferase expression. We adapted this riboswitch to another gene regulation system, in which expression of the circadian clock kaiC gene product is controlled by the theophylline concentration in the culture medium. The results demonstrated that the adequately adjusted expression level of KaiC restored complete circadian rhythm in the kaiC-deficient arrhythmic mutant. This theophylline-dependent riboswitch system has potential for various applications as a useful genetic tool in cyanobacteria.

  20. Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Twelfth Topical Meeting (1997) Held in Orlando, Florida on January 27-29, 1997

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    sers, (p. 74) VI MONDAY JANUARY 27, 1997 2:15pm MD4 • 7-12 pm generation using a Cr,Er:YSGG pump laser and CdSe and ZnGeP2 OPOs, Toomas H...Rich- ard Utano, US Army CECOM. 2.79 pm Cr,Er:YSGG pumping of a CdSe OPO yielded a 59% slope efficiency (r|) and 1.2-2.4 mj idler output between 8.5...3 4 5 6 7 Average diode power (W) MD4-1/77 7 -12 ^irn generation using a Cr,Er:YSGG pump laser and CdSe and ZnGeP2 OPOs Toomas H. Allik

  1. Using information and communications technology in a national population-based survey: the Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2012.

    PubMed

    Ojwang', James K; Lee, Veronica C; Waruru, Anthony; Ssempijja, Victor; Ng'ang'a, John G; Wakhutu, Brian E; Kandege, Nicholas O; Koske, Danson K; Kamiru, Samuel M; Omondi, Kenneth O; Kakinyi, Mutua; Kim, Andrea A; Oluoch, Tom

    2014-05-01

    With improvements in technology, electronic data capture (EDC) for large surveys is feasible. EDC offers benefits over traditional paper-based data collection, including more accurate data, greater completeness of data, and decreased data cleaning burden. The second Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2012) was a population-based survey of persons aged 18 months to 64 years. A software application was designed to capture the interview, specimen collection, and home-based testing and counseling data. The application included: interview translations for local languages; options for single, multiple, and fill-in responses; and automated participant eligibility determination. Data quality checks were programmed to automate skip patterns and prohibit outlier responses. A data sharing architecture was developed to transmit the data in real-time from the field to a central server over a virtual private network. KAIS 2012 was conducted between October 2012 and February 2013. Overall, 68,202 records for the interviews, specimen collection, and home-based testing and counseling were entered into the application. Challenges arose during implementation, including poor connectivity and a systems malfunction that created duplicate records, which prevented timely data transmission to the central server. Data cleaning was minimal given the data quality control measures. KAIS 2012 demonstrated the feasibility of using EDC in a population-based survey. The benefits of EDC were apparent in data quality and minimal time needed for data cleaning. Several important lessons were learned, such as the time and monetary investment required before survey implementation, the importance of continuous application testing, and contingency plans for data transmission due to connectivity challenges.

  2. Translating current dietary guidelines into a culturally tailored nutrition education program for Korean American immigrants with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Song, Hee-Jung; Han, Hae-Ra; Lee, Jong-Eun; Kim, Jiyun; Kim, Kim B; Nguyen, Tam; Kim, Miyong T

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the process of translating evidence-based dietary guidelines into a tailored nutrition education program for Korean American immigrants (KAI) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a research process involving researchers and communities to build a collaborative partnership. The study was conducted at a community-based organization. In a total of 79 KAI (intervention, n = 40; control, n = 39) with uncontrolled type 2 DM (A1C ≥ 7.5%), 44.3% were female and the mean age was 56. 5 ± 7.9 years. A culturally tailored nutrition education was developed by identifying community needs and evaluating research evidence. The efficacy and acceptability of the program was assessed. In translating dietary guidelines into a culturally relevant nutrition education, culturally tailored dietary recommendations and education instruments were used. While dietary guidelines from the American Diabetes Association (ADA) were used to frame nutrition recommendations, additional content was adopted from the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) guidelines. Culturally relevant intervention materials, such as Korean food models and an individually tailored serving table, were utilized to solidify nutritional concepts as well as to facilitate meal planning. Evaluation of the education revealed significantly increased DM-specific nutrition knowledge in the intervention group. The participants' satisfaction with the education was 9.7 on a 0 to 10-point scale. The systematic translation approach was useful for producing a culturally tailored nutrition education program for KAI. The program was effective in improving the participants' DM-specific nutrition knowledge and yielded a high level of satisfaction. Future research is warranted to determine the effect of a culturally tailored nutrition education on other clinical outcomes.

  3. Translating Current Dietary Guidelines Into a Culturally Tailored Nutrition Education Program for Korean American Immigrants With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hee-Jung; Han, Hae-Ra; Lee, Jong-Eun; Kim, Jiyun; Kim, Kim B.; Nguyen, Tam; Kim, Miyong T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to describe the process of translating evidence-based dietary guidelines into a tailored nutrition education program for Korean American immigrants (KAI) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a research process involving researchers and communities to build a collaborative partnership. The study was conducted at a community-based organization. In a total of 79 KAI (intervention, n = 40; control, n = 39) with uncontrolled type 2 DM (A1C ≥7.5%), 44.3% were female and the mean age was 56. 5 ± 7.9 years. A culturally tailored nutrition education was developed by identifying community needs and evaluating research evidence. The efficacy and acceptability of the program was assessed. Results In translating dietary guidelines into a culturally relevant nutrition education, culturally tailored dietary recommendations and education instruments were used. While dietary guidelines from the American Diabetes Association (ADA) were used to frame nutrition recommendations, additional content was adopted from the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) guidelines. Culturally relevant intervention materials, such as Korean food models and an individually tailored serving table, were utilized to solidify nutritional concepts as well as to facilitate meal planning. Evaluation of the education revealed significantly increased DM-specific nutrition knowledge in the intervention group. The participants' satisfaction with the education was 9.7 on a 0 to 10-point scale. Conclusion The systematic translation approach was useful for producing a culturally tailored nutrition education program for KAI. The program was effective in improving the participants' DM-specific nutrition knowledge and yielded a high level of satisfaction. Future research is warranted to determine the effect of a culturally tailored nutrition education on other clinical outcomes. PMID:20651099

  4. Using Information and Communications Technology in a National Population-Based Survey: The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2012

    PubMed Central

    Ojwang’, James K.; Lee, Veronica C.; Waruru, Anthony; Ssempijja, Victor; Ng’ang’a, John G.; Wakhutu, Brian E.; Kandege, Nicholas O.; Koske, Danson K.; Kamiru, Samuel M.; Omondi, Kenneth O.; Kakinyi, Mutua; Kim, Andrea A.; Oluoch, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Background With improvements in technology, electronic data capture (EDC) for large surveys is feasible. EDC offers benefits over traditional paper-based data collection, including more accurate data, greater completeness of data, and decreased data cleaning burden. Methods The second Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2012) was a population-based survey of persons aged 18 months to 64 years. A software application was designed to capture the interview, specimen collection, and home-based testing and counseling data. The application included: interview translations for local languages; options for single, multiple, and fill-in responses; and automated participant eligibility determination. Data quality checks were programmed to automate skip patterns and prohibit outlier responses. A data sharing architecture was developed to transmit the data in realtime from the field to a central server over a virtual private network. Results KAIS 2012 was conducted between October 2012 and February 2013. Overall, 68,202 records for the interviews, specimen collection, and home-based testing and counseling were entered into the application. Challenges arose during implementation, including poor connectivity and a systems malfunction that created duplicate records, which prevented timely data transmission to the central server. Data cleaning was minimal given the data quality control measures. Conclusions KAIS 2012 demonstrated the feasibility of using EDC in a population-based survey. The benefits of EDC were apparent in data quality and minimal time needed for data cleaning. Several important lessons were learned, such as the time and monetary investment required before survey implementation, the importance of continuous application testing, and contingency plans for data transmission due to connectivity challenges. PMID:24732816

  5. Design of multi-mode compatible image acquisition system for HD area array CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen; Sui, Xiubao

    2014-11-01

    Combining with the current development trend in video surveillance-digitization and high-definition, a multimode-compatible image acquisition system for HD area array CCD is designed. The hardware and software designs of the color video capture system of HD area array CCD KAI-02150 presented by Truesense Imaging company are analyzed, and the structure parameters of the HD area array CCD and the color video gathering principle of the acquisition system are introduced. Then, the CCD control sequence and the timing logic of the whole capture system are realized. The noises of the video signal (KTC noise and 1/f noise) are filtered by using the Correlated Double Sampling (CDS) technique to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of the system. The compatible designs in both software and hardware for the two other image sensors of the same series: KAI-04050 and KAI-08050 are put forward; the effective pixels of these two HD image sensors are respectively as many as four million and eight million. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is adopted as the key controller of the system to perform the modularization design from top to bottom, which realizes the hardware design by software and improves development efficiency. At last, the required time sequence driving is simulated accurately by the use of development platform of Quartus II 12.1 combining with VHDL. The result of the simulation indicates that the driving circuit is characterized by simple framework, low power consumption, and strong anti-interference ability, which meet the demand of miniaturization and high-definition for the current tendency.

  6. Seroprevalence of Infections with Dengue, Rift Valley Fever and Chikungunya Viruses in Kenya, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Ochieng, Caroline; Ahenda, Petronella; Vittor, Amy Y.; Nyoka, Raymond; Gikunju, Stella; Wachira, Cyrus; Waiboci, Lilian; Umuro, Mamo; Kim, Andrea A.; Nderitu, Leonard; Juma, Bonventure; Montgomery, Joel M.; Breiman, Robert F.; Fields, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses are a major constituent of emerging infectious diseases worldwide, but limited data are available on the prevalence, distribution, and risk factors for transmission in Kenya and East Africa. In this study, we used 1,091 HIV-negative blood specimens from the 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2007) to test for the presence of IgG antibodies to dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV).The KAIS 2007 was a national population-based survey conducted by the Government of Kenya to provide comprehensive information needed to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Antibody testing for arboviruses was performed on stored blood specimens from KAIS 2007 through a two-step sandwich IgG ELISA using either commercially available kits or CDC-developed assays. Out of the 1,091 samples tested, 210 (19.2%) were positive for IgG antibodies against at least one of the three arboviruses. DENV was the most common of the three viruses tested (12.5% positive), followed by RVFV and CHIKV (4.5% and 0.97%, respectively). For DENV and RVFV, the participant’s province of residence was significantly associated (P≤.01) with seropositivity. Seroprevalence of DENV and RVFV increased with age, while there was no correlation between province of residence/age and seropositivity for CHIKV. Females had twelve times higher odds of exposure to CHIK as opposed to DENV and RVFV where both males and females had the same odds of exposure. Lack of education was significantly associated with a higher odds of previous infection with either DENV or RVFV (p <0.01). These data show that a number of people are at risk of arbovirus infections depending on their geographic location in Kenya and transmission of these pathogens is greater than previously appreciated. This poses a public health risk, especially for DENV. PMID:26177451

  7. Effect of Antimicrobial Peptide KSL-W on Human Gingival Tissue and C. albicans Growth, Transition and Secreted Aspartyl Proteinase (SAPS) 2, 4, 5 and 6 Expressions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    Kai P and Rouabhia Mahmoud. Un nouveau peptide antimicrobien contrôle la virulence de Candida en réduisant sa viabilité via un processus d’apoptose...contrôle la virulence de Candida en réduisant sa viabilité via un processus d’apoptose et de nécrose. Journée de la recherche faculté de médecine – 30... Candida albicans et la formation de biofilm en diminuant l’expression de plusieurs gènes de virulence. 81e Congrès de l’Acfas, du 6 au 10 mai 2013

  8. Quantification of Forecasting and Change-Point Detection Methods for Predictive Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-19

    NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) NIHON NO SHORAIWO KANGAERU KAI, N.P.O. 2-7-17-10 Ikenohata, Taito-ku Tokyo 110-0008 Japan 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...34, submitted to the "E-Journal of Advanced Maintenance" of the Japan Society of Maintenology. "Study of the capability of detection of structural...abnormality in rotating machines with SST", submitted to the "Mechanical Engineering Journal" of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. 4 This

  9. Evaluation of Five Additional Enhancements to the Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST) Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF TEST/DEMONSTRATION U’ WORK UNIT NO./TITLE OF TEST: T3B, Blast Enhancements Evaluation PERFORMING LABORATORY: USACERL...gram, work unit EA-KAI, "Test New BLAST Enhancements," and project 4A162784AT45, "Energy and Energy Conservation," work unit XG2, "Energy Analysis...air economy cycle. 2. SZDT-DX. Single zone draw-through fan systems with a direct expansion condensing unit tor zones 1, 2, and 3. Zone I

  10. Detectable HIV Viral Load in Kenya: Data from a Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cherutich, Peter; Kim, Andrea A.; Kellogg, Timothy A.; Sherr, Kenneth; Waruru, Anthony; De Cock, Kevin M.; Rutherford, George W.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction At the individual level, there is clear evidence that Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) transmission can be substantially reduced by lowering viral load. However there are few data describing population-level HIV viremia especially in high-burden settings with substantial under-diagnosis of HIV infection. The 2nd Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2012) provided a unique opportunity to evaluate the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage on viremia and to examine the risks for failure to suppress viral replication. We report population-level HIV viral load suppression using data from KAIS 2012. Methods Between October 2012 to February 2013, KAIS 2012 surveyed household members, administered questionnaires and drew serum samples to test for HIV and, for those found to be infected with HIV, plasma viral load (PVL) was measured. Our principal outcome was unsuppressed HIV viremia, defined as a PVL ≥ 550 copies/mL. The exposure variables included current treatment with ART, prior history of an HIV diagnosis, and engagement in HIV care. All point estimates were adjusted to account for the KAIS 2012 cluster sampling design and survey non-response. Results Overall, 61·2% (95% CI: 56·4–66·1) of HIV-infected Kenyans aged 15–64 years had not achieved virological suppression. The base10 median (interquartile range [IQR]) and mean (95% CI) VL was 4,633 copies/mL (0–51,596) and 81,750 copies/mL (59,366–104,134), respectively. Among 266 persons taking ART, 26.1% (95% CI: 20.0–32.1) had detectable viremia. Non-ART use, younger age, and lack of awareness of HIV status were independently associated with significantly higher odds of detectable viral load. In multivariate analysis for the sub-sample of patients on ART, detectable viremia was independently associated with younger age and sub-optimal adherence to ART. Discussion This report adds to the limited data of nationally-representative surveys to report population- level virological

  11. Summary of Research, Academic Departments, 1983-1984.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    r’eal istic andt [lot -so-reaulistic willd and alt itudIe. thel( effect of altitude onl futel f’low teijtperat tire conittions were pertormledl...ICA 1, --. ’ .-- - - --..-.- N.-’.. -’-N Component Performance Analysis and Measurement Error Effects I~i1KAI( i 1B:ASS( cIl’IKl Pt1.IC"itSol ItH...known or1 susp~ected to have somew effect weight percent sulfur., parts ~Iei- million ill causing corrosioni ill the ship’s poweri (ppimf of sodium, p

  12. Enplanement and All Cargo Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    712,144 87 HI HILO HILO INTERNATIONAL ITO 703,736 66 MI GRAND RAPIDS KNIT COUNTY INTL GRR 699,669 89 PA HARRISBURG HARRISBURG INTERNATI NDT 663,462 90 ID...214 ND GRAND FORKS GRAND FORKS INTL GFK 99,429 215 AX KENAI KaI NMUI ENA 99,224 216 CO DURANGO DURANGO-LA PLATA COU DRO 98,012 217 WV HUNTINGTON TRI...716,927 66 COS CITY OF COLORADO SPR COLORADO SPRI,CO 712,144 14.1% 624,431 67 ITO HILO INTERNATIONAL HILO ,Hl 703,736 5.4% 667,647 66 ORR KENT COUNT

  13. Hit 'em where it hurts: The growing and structurally diverse family of peptides that target lipid-II.

    PubMed

    Oppedijk, Sabine F; Martin, Nathaniel I; Breukink, Eefjan

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the mode of action of antibiotics is becoming more and more important in the time that microorganisms start to develop resistance. One very well validated target of several classes of antibiotics is the peptidoglycan precursor lipid II. In this review different classes of lipid II targeting antibiotics will be discussed in detail, including the lantibiotics, human invertebrate defensins and the recently discovered teixobactin. By hitting bacteria where it hurts, at the level of lipid II, we expect to be able to develop efficient antibacterial agents in the future. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antimicrobial peptides edited by Karl Lohner and Kai Hilpert.

  14. Diagrams for the Battle of Savo Island August 9, 1942. Strategical and Tactical Analysis. Part 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1950-01-01

    PratllK •«•’ S4NT» ISABE1 I 8ELL0NA | SAN CRISTOBAL I ^ OUTH PACIFIC AR RENNELL I iiditpttisoU* R—ft 5* NUENI "^ S^NT A...position abreast the southern tip of San Cristobal Island (Cape Surrille), changed course to 2S00(T) to adjust position in order to reach morn- ing...changed course to lOOfTJ Commander Cruistr Fore* signaled ■ ’Enter by north entrance /" 0058 BLUE 00-» 5 / >** OBLUE / 0132 C HO KAI changed

  15. Millimeter-Wave Quasi-Optical and Spatial Power Combining Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-10

    Perot resonator. 4.1 35 GHz Rectifying Antenna A quasi- optical rectifying antenna ( rectenna ) converts the RF power into DC power. It could be used... Rectennas ," IEEE Trans, om Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 40, June 1992, pp. 1259-1266. 9. J.C. McCleary and K. Chang, "Low-Loss Quasi- Optical Open...AD-A255 781 Millimeter-Wave Quasi- Optical and Spatial Power Combining Techniques Final Report u IIC, by rr.Tr 𔃻*’ Kai Chang " . SEP 2 I

  16. [The Evolutionary Origin of Placodes and Neural Crest Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    The long-term goal of this NASA-supported research is to understand the evolutionary origin of placodes and neural crest cells, with particular reference to evolution of the inner ear, and their evolutionary and developmental relationships. The cephalochordcate amphioxus, the closest living invertebrate relative of the vertebrates is used as a stand-in for the ancestral vertebrate. The research, which has supported one graduate student, Jr-Kai Yu, has resulted in ten publications by the Holland laboratory in peer-reviewed journals.

  17. [The Evolutionary Origin of Placodes and Neural Crest Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    The long-term goal of this NASA-supported research is to understand the evolutionary origin of placodes and neural crest cells, with particular reference to evolution of the inner ear, and their evolutionary and developmental relationships. The cephalochordcate amphioxus, the closest living invertebrate relative of the vertebrates is used as a stand-in for the ancestral vertebrate. The research, which has supported one graduate student, Jr-Kai Yu, has resulted in ten publications by the Holland laboratory in peer-reviewed journals.

  18. What Should the United States Foreign Policy be Towards Taiwan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    immigration to Taiwan started as early as 500 A.D. with Chinese prefecture rule being established over the island by the Qing Dynasty from 1680- 1875...Mainland China and Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalist Chinese (Kuo Min Tang , or K.M.T.) established a provisional government on Taiwan.10 Taiwan was widely...Defense Minister Tang Yiau-ming to the U.S. -Taiwan 3 Business Council in March 2002 and by Vice Minister of Defense Kang Ning-hsiang to the Pentagon in

  19. Ektopinė (heterotopinė) kasa plonosios žarnos pasaite: klinikinio atvejo pristatymas ir literatūros apžvalga

    PubMed Central

    Navickas, Gediminas; Valančienė, Dileta

    2016-01-01

    Ektopinė kasa (EK) – reta įgimta anomalija, kai normalus kasos audinys yra už kasos ribų. Heterotopinis kasos audinys plonosios žarnos pasaite yra ypač retai sutinkamas EK tipas. EK dažniausiai aptinkama įvairiose virškinamojo trakto dalyse atsitiktinai. Paprastai EK yra simptomų nesukelianti anomalija, tačiau kliniškai gali pasireikšti atsiradus komplikacijoms, tokioms kaip uždegimas, kraujavimas, obstrukcija ar supiktybėjus. Simptomų išsivystymas priklauso nuo EK dydžio, lokalizacijos bei patologinių audinio pokyčių, kurie taip pat būdingi ir normaliam kasos audiniui. Operacinis gydymas nėra indikuotinas, nebent esant komplikacijoms, todėl labai svarbi tiksli priešoperacinė diagnozė siekiant išvengti nereikalingų intervencijų. Mes pristatome retą klinikinį atvejį, kada EK lokalizavosi plonosios žarnos pasaite. Pateikiame paciento kompiuterinės tomografijos tyrimo vaizdus. Šis klinikinis atvejis parodo, kad ektopinis kasos audinys visada turėtų būti įtrauktas į gastrointestinių navikų diferencinę diagnostiką. PMID:28356802

  20. Mechanisms by which interleukin-6 attenuates cell invasion and tumorigenesis in human bladder carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Ke-Hung; Wang, Shyi-Wu; Chung, Li-Chuan; Feng, Tsui-Hsia; Lee, Tzu-Yi; Chang, Phei-Lang; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-6, a multifunctional cytokine, contributes to tumor cell proliferation and differentiation. However, the biological mechanisms that are affected by the expression of interleukin-6 in bladder cancer cells remain unclear. We evaluated the effects of interleukin-6 expression in human bladder carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. The results of interleukin-6-knockdown experiments in T24 cells and interleukin-6-overexpression experiments in HT1376 cells revealed that interleukin-6 reduced cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. Xenograft animal studies indicated that the overexpression of interleukin-6 downregulated tumorigenesis of bladder cells and that interleukin-6 knockdown reversed this effect. The results of RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and reporter assays indicated that the overexpression of interleukin-6 upregulated the expression of the mammary serine protease inhibitor (MASPIN), N-myc downstream gene 1 (NDRG1), and KAI1 proteins in HT1376 cells and that interleukin-6 knockdown reduced the expression of these proteins in T24 cells. In addition, results of immunoblotting assays revealed that interleukin-6 modulated epithelial-mesenchymal transitions by upregulating the expression of the E-cadherin, while downregulation N-cadherin and vimentin proteins. Our results suggest that the effects of interleukin-6 on the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transitions and the expressions of the MASPIN, NDRG1, and KAI1 genes attribute to the modulation of tumorigenesis in human bladder carcinoma cells.

  1. Direct studies of domain switching dynamics in thin film ferroelectric capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruverman, A.; Rodriguez, B. J.; Dehoff, C.; Waldrep, J. D.; Kingon, A. I.; Nemanich, R. J.; Cross, J. S.

    2005-08-01

    An experimental approach for direct studies of the polarization reversal mechanism in thin film ferroelectric capacitors based on piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) in conjunction with pulse switching capabilities is presented. Instant domain configurations developing in a 3×3μm2 capacitor at different stages of the polarization reversal process have been registered using step-by-step switching and subsequent PFM imaging. The developed approach allows direct comparison of experimentally measured microscopic switching behavior with parameters used by phenomenological switching models. It has been found that in the low field regime (just above the threshold value) used in the present study, the mechanism of polarization reversal changes during the switching cycle from the initial nucleation-dominated process to the lateral domain expansion at the later stages. The classical nucleation model of Kolmogorov-Avrami-Ishibashi (KAI) provides reasonable approximation for the nucleation-dominated stage of switching but is inapplicable to the slow switching stage. It has been suggested that the switching dynamics can be approximated by averaging the KAI model over a broad distribution of switching times.

  2. Time and frequency-dependence of the electric field-induced phase transition in BaTiO3-BiZn1/2Ti1/2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iamsasri, Thanakorn; Esteves, Giovanni; Choe, Hyeokmin; Vogt, Marco; Prasertpalichat, Sasiporn; Cann, David P.; Gorfman, Semën; Jones, Jacob L.

    2017-08-01

    The time and frequency dependence of the electric field-induced phase transition in BaTiO3-BiZn1/2Ti1/2O3 was studied using in situ X-ray diffraction. The kinetics of the field-induced phase transition between cubic and tetragonal phases was described using a modified Kolmogorov-Avrami-Ishibashi (KAI) equation. Unlike previous works, for which some assumptions (e.g., unimodal and Gaussian) on the distribution of transition rates are needed, the present work utilized Bayesian inference and a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm to obtain the distribution of transition rates empirically without a priori assumption on the distribution. The results show that the transition rate coefficient increases as the frequency of applied field increases. The mean value of exponent n in the modified-KAI equation was close to 1, implying that the field-induced phase transition is site saturated and the growth of the induced phase occurred primarily from the surface.

  3. Sustained Circadian Rhythms in Continuous Light in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 Growing in a Well-Controlled Photobioreactor

    PubMed Central

    van Alphen, Pascal; Hellingwerf, Klaas J.

    2015-01-01

    The cyanobacterial circadian clock has been well-studied and shown to be both robust and a dominant factor in the control of gene expression in Synechococcus elongatus PCC7942. In Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, the circadian clock is assumed to function similarly, yet appears to control transcription to a far lesser extent and its circadian rhythm was reported to not be sustained, or at least rapidly damped, under continuous illumination. One of the feedback loops that governs the clock in S. elongatus in addition to the core oscillator, i.e., the transcriptional-translation regulation loop hinging on KaiC-dependent expression of kaiBC, appears to be missing in Synechocystis, which would account for this difference. Here, we show that the clock in Synechocystis fulfills all criteria of a circadian clock: 1) a free-running period of approximately 24 h, 2) temperature compensation, and 3) being able to be entrained. A remarkably stable rhythm is generated despite the fact that the organism grows with a doubling time of less than 24 h in a photobioreactor run in turbidostat mode. No damping of the free-running circadian oscillation was observed in 2 weeks, suggesting that the clock in individual cells stays synchronized within a culture despite the apparent lack of a transcriptional-translation regulation loop. Furthermore, the dependence of chlorophyll synthesis on the presence of O2 was demonstrated. PMID:26030367

  4. Aberration analysis and calculation in system of Gaussian beam illuminates lenslet array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhu; Hui, Mei; Zhou, Ping; Su, Tianquan; Feng, Yun; Zhao, Yuejin

    2014-09-01

    Low order aberration was founded when focused Gaussian beam imaging at Kodak KAI -16000 image detector, which is integrated with lenslet array. Effect of focused Gaussian beam and numerical simulation calculation of the aberration were presented in this paper. First, we set up a model of optical imaging system based on previous experiment. Focused Gaussian beam passed through a pinhole and was received by Kodak KAI -16000 image detector whose microlenses of lenslet array were exactly focused on sensor surface. Then, we illustrated the characteristics of focused Gaussian beam and the effect of relative space position relations between waist of Gaussian beam and front spherical surface of microlenses to the aberration. Finally, we analyzed the main element of low order aberration and calculated the spherical aberration caused by lenslet array according to the results of above two steps. Our theoretical calculations shown that , the numerical simulation had a good agreement with the experimental result. Our research results proved that spherical aberration was the main element and made up about 93.44% of the 48 nm error, which was demonstrated in previous experiment. The spherical aberration is inversely proportional to the value of divergence distance between microlens and waist, and directly proportional to the value of the Gaussian beam waist radius.

  5. Art, class and gender in Joseon dynasty Korea: representations of lower-class women by the scholar-painter Yun Duseo.

    PubMed

    Chung, Saehyang P

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines several pioneering genre paintings by the important scholar painter Yun Duseo (1668-1715), with its focus on their artistic sources which have not yet been explored so far. Painted on ramie, 'Women Picking Potherbs' is one of the most intriguing examples among Yun Duseo's oeuvre, which encompasses a broad variety of themes, including genre imagery, landscapes, portraits, dragons, and horses. Even among Yun Duseo's genre paintings, 'Women Picking Potherbs' is extraordinary, as recent scholarship regards it as the earliest independent representation of lower-class women in the history of Korean art. In particular, Yun Duseo painted two women who were working ourdoors to gather spring potherbs. In a conservative Confucian society, it was extraordinary women who were working outdoors. Hence, Yun Duseo occupies a highly important place in Korean painting. Furthermore, even though Yun Duseo came from the upper-class, he often painted images of lower class people working. It is possible that Yun Duseo was familiar with the book titled "Tian gong kai wu" (Exploitation of the Works of Nature) which was published in the 17th century. By identifying the probable body of his artistic sources in the book known as "Tian gong kai wu," it will be possible to assess the innovations and limitations found in 'Women Picking Potherbs'.

  6. Exploration of the factor structure of the Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory using bootstrapping estimation.

    PubMed

    Im, Subin; Min, Soonhong

    2013-04-01

    Exploratory factor analyses of the Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory (KAI), which serves to measure individual cognitive styles, generally indicate three factors: sufficiency of originality, efficiency, and rule/group conformity. In contrast, a 2005 study by Im and Hu using confirmatory factor analysis supported a four-factor structure, dividing the sufficiency of originality dimension into two subdimensions, idea generation and preference for change. This study extends Im and Hu's (2005) study of a derived version of the KAI by providing additional evidence of the four-factor structure. Specifically, the authors test the robustness of the parameter estimates to the violation of normality assumptions in the sample using bootstrap methods. A bias-corrected confidence interval bootstrapping procedure conducted among a sample of 356 participants--members of the Arkansas Household Research Panel, with middle SES and average age of 55.6 yr. (SD = 13.9)--showed that the four-factor model with two subdimensions of sufficiency of originality fits the data significantly better than the three-factor model in non-normality conditions.

  7. A model and treatment for autism at the convergence of Chinese medicine and Western science: first 130 cases.

    PubMed

    Silva, Louisa M T; Schalock, Mark; Ayres, Robert

    2011-06-01

    To present a model for autism showing that impairment of sensory and self-regulation is the core deficit that underlies delays in social/language skills and abnormal behavior in autism; and to demonstrate the efficacy of a treatment for autism based on Chinese medicine. Children with autism under 6 years of age were assigned to treatment or wait-list conditions. A total of 130 children were treated and the results compared with 45 wait-list controls. Treatment is a tuina methodology directed at sensory impairment--Kai Qiao Tuina. The treatment was a five-month protocol that was implemented daily by trained parents via trained support staff. The effects of treatment on the main symptoms, autistic behavior, social/language delay, sensory and self-regulatory impairment, as well as on parenting stress, were observed and compared. The treatment had a large effect size (P<0.0001) on measures of sensory and self-regulation. The evaluations done by pre-school teachers demonstrated improvement in the measures of autism (P<0.003), and were confirmed by evaluations done by parents (P<0.0001). There was a large decrease (P<0.0001) in parenting stress. Sensory and self-regulatory impairment is a main factor in the development and severity of autism. Treatment of young children with autism with Kai Qiao Tuina resulted in a decrease in sensory and self-regulatory impairment and a reduction in severity of measures of autism.

  8. Evaluation of Streptomyces spp. for their plant-growth-promotion traits in rice.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam; Vadlamudi, Srinivas; Apparla, Shravya; Bandikinda, Prakash; Vijayabharathi, Rajendran; Bhimineni, Ratna Kumari; Rupela, Om

    2013-08-01

    Five strains of Streptomyces (CAI-17, CAI-68, CAI-78, KAI-26, and KAI-27) were previously reported to have potential for charcoal rot control and plant growth promotion (PGP) in sorghum. In this study, those 5 Streptomyces strains were characterized for their enzymatic activities and evaluated for their PGP capabilities on rice. All the Streptomyces strains were able to produce lipase and β-1,3-glucanase; grew in NaCl (up to 8%), at pH 5-13, and at temperatures 20-40 °C; and were resistant to ampicillin, sensitive to nalidixic acid, and highly sensitive to chloramphenicol, kanamycin, streptomycin, and tetracycline. They were highly tolerant to the fungicide bavistin but were highly sensitive to benlate, benomyl, and radonil. When evaluated on rice in the field, Streptomyces significantly enhanced tiller and panicle numbers, stover and grain yields, dry matter, root length, volume and dry weight, compared with the control. In the rhizosphere at harvest, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, dehydrogenase activity, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and % organic carbon were also found significantly higher in Streptomyces-treated plots than in the control plots. This study further confirms that the selected Streptomyces have PGP activities.

  9. Effects of new non-N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists on synaptic transmission in the in vitro rat hippocampus.

    PubMed Central

    Andreasen, M; Lambert, J D; Jensen, M S

    1989-01-01

    1. The effects of new, potent non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists, 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX) and 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), have been examined using intra- and extracellular recordings in the hippocampal slice preparation. In terms of potency and selectivity, the action of the two blockers was similar and CNQX was used in most experiments. 2. CNQX reduced the responses to ionophoretic applications of the non-NMDA agonists kainate (KAI) and quisqualate (QUIS) with IC50 values of 1.2 and 4.8 microM, respectively. In Mg2+-free solutions responses to NMDA were generally not affected by concentrations of CNQX up to 25 microM. 3. The action of CNQX was only slowly and poorly reversible on washing. Responses to QUIS and KAI were also reversibly reduced by ionophoretic application of CNQX. 4. CNQX blocked the evoked EPSP in CA1 and CA3 neurones with an IC50 of around 2 microM, which is similar to the IC50 for responses to KAI. CNQX was without effect on the passive membrane properties, the afferent volley and paired pulse potentiation. 5. In the presence of CNQX (greater than 5 microM) a small EPSP remained which was largest in CA1 neurones. It was blocked by low concentrations of the NMDA receptor antagonist (+/-)-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV), was markedly enhanced on removing Mg2+ ions from the bathing medium and, in voltage-clamp experiments, showed a potential dependence which is characteristic of the NMDA ionophore. 6. The latency of the APV-sensitive EPSP in CA1 was the same as the CNQX-sensitive EPSP, indicating that NMDA receptors participate in monosynaptic excitation. 7. Feedback and feed-forward inhibition in both area CA1 and CA3 were sensitive to CNQX. There seemed to be two components of the inhibition, both of which appear to be GABAergic since they could be blocked by picrotoxin (PTX), but only one of which was blocked by CNQX. The CNQX-resistant IPSP was not affected by APV. 8. In conclusion

  10. Application of Barcoding to Reduce Error of Patient Identification and to Increase Patient's Information Confidentiality of Test Tube Labelling in a Psychiatric Teaching Hospital.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hsiu-Chu; Li, Hsing; Chang, Hsin-Fei; Lu, Mei-Rou; Chen, Feng-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Learning from the experience of another medical center in Taiwan, Kaohsiung Municipal Kai-Suan Psychiatric Hospital has changed the nursing informatics system step by step in the past year and a half . We considered ethics in the original idea of implementing barcodes on the test tube labels to process the identification of the psychiatric patients. The main aims of this project are to maintain the confidential information and to transport the sample effectively. The primary nurses had been using different work sheets for this project to ensure the acceptance of the new barcode system. In the past two years the errors in the blood testing process were as high as 11,000 in 14,000 events per year, resulting in wastage of resources. The actions taken by the nurses and the new barcode system implementation can improve the clinical nursing care quality, safety of the patients, and efficiency, while decreasing the cost due to the human error.

  11. Scalable Management of Enterprise and Data-Center Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    talks. I also thank Kai Li for giving me great advice on how to be a good researcher over the years . v I benefited a lot from my three summer...thus upper bounded by S ≤ T − x = 2 ∑1≤a≤b≤x ∏b i=a ki. We’ll use the symbol Sqp for ∑ p≤a≤b≤q ∏b i=a ki, i.e. the sum of products over each possible...the child node of Ti in the tree. Step 6 Goto Step 2 . The complete algorithm is shown in Algorithm 1, which consists of two key ideas: Use a decision

  12. Coherence of biochemical oscillations is bounded by driving force and network topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barato, Andre C.; Seifert, Udo

    2017-06-01

    Biochemical oscillations are prevalent in living organisms. Systems with a small number of constituents cannot sustain coherent oscillations for an indefinite time because of fluctuations in the period of oscillation. We show that the number of coherent oscillations that quantifies the precision of the oscillator is universally bounded by the thermodynamic force that drives the system out of equilibrium and by the topology of the underlying biochemical network of states. Our results are valid for arbitrary Markov processes, which are commonly used to model biochemical reactions. We apply our results to a model for a single KaiC protein and to an activator-inhibitor model that consists of several molecules. From a mathematical perspective, based on strong numerical evidence, we conjecture a universal constraint relating the imaginary and real parts of the first nontrivial eigenvalue of a stochastic matrix.

  13. ["Infectious disease" theory during the Japanese Shogunate: an analysis of "Ichikawa Hashimoto-Hakuju-cho Dandoku-ron Ikken"].

    PubMed

    Kozai, Toyoko

    2009-12-01

    Dandoku-ron (Treatise on Eliminating Poisons), written at the beginning of the 19th century by Hakuju Hashimoto, a doctor from Kai (Yamanashi Prefecture), is said to be the first book written by a Japanese author who "treated infectious diseases by means of modern concepts." Hashimoto acquired the ideas for his "infectious disease" theory through his own observations and experience. These ideas, suggesting that tangible poisons--not epidemics or congenital eczema--caused diseases such as smallpox, measles, syphilis, and scabies, were fresh and original at the time. The originality that Hashimoto demonstrated in Dandokuron sometimes conflicted, however, with the theories of the Ikeda group of the Igakkan (Tokugawa Shogunate medical school). This paper details information related to this conflict and explores the politicization caused by the "infectious disease" theory during the Japanese Shogunate.

  14. Hierarchy of models: From qualitative to quantitative analysis of circadian rhythms in cyanobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, M.; Preto, M.

    2013-06-01

    A hierarchy of models, ranging from high to lower levels of abstraction, is proposed to construct "minimal" but predictive and explanatory models of biological systems. Three hierarchical levels will be considered: Boolean networks, piecewise affine differential (PWA) equations, and a class of continuous, ordinary, differential equations' models derived from the PWA model. This hierarchy provides different levels of approximation of the biological system and, crucially, allows the use of theoretical tools to more exactly analyze and understand the mechanisms of the system. The Kai ABC oscillator, which is at the core of the cyanobacterial circadian rhythm, is analyzed as a case study, showing how several fundamental properties—order of oscillations, synchronization when mixing oscillating samples, structural robustness, and entrainment by external cues—can be obtained from basic mechanisms.

  15. Font effects of Chinese characters and pseudo-characters on the N400: evidence for an orthographic processing view.

    PubMed

    Lv, Caixia; Wang, Quanhong

    2012-10-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a Chinese character decision task to examine whether N400 amplitude is modulated by stimulus font. Results revealed large negative-going ERPs in an N400 time window of 300-500ms to stimuli presented in degraded Xing Kai Ti (XKT) font compared with more intact Song Ti (ST) font regardless of whether the stimuli were real or pseudo-characters. ERPs for the pseudo-characters were more negative than for the real characters with similar timing and scalp distribution. The N400-like font effect on amplitude is interpreted as analogous to an N400 stimulus degradation effect, an extension to Holcomb (1993); the degraded perceptual cues provided by XKT supposedly account for this degradation effect. This effect is further interpreted to reflect relative difficulty, which results from orthographic processing difficulty, in retrieving the meaning of XKT stimuli compared with ST stimuli. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Maternal and child health in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, A

    1993-12-01

    AIIKU-HAN activity was initiated by the Imperial Gift Foundation BOSHI-AIIKU-KAI in Japan in 1936 and has been introduced and accepted to community-based maternal and child health development in Indonesia through the international cooperation project conducted by Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) in order to encourage community health activities carried out by Indonesian women volunteers. As AIIKU-HAN activity in Japan and Dasa Wisma health activity in Indonesia have much in common, transferring concepts, methods and experiences met less obstacles when Indonesian community health volunteers learned AIIKU-HAN activity. Experience gained while developed countries were less developed can be transferred by shifting the time-scale of history in developed countries.

  17. Numerical forecasting of the time interval between successive M8 earthquakes along the Nankai Trough, southwest Japan, using ocean bottom cable network data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Takane; Hyodo, Mamoru; Miyazaki, Shin'ichi; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2014-09-01

    One possible approach to estimating the time interval between large-scale Tōnankai (Tōkai) and Nankai earthquakes on the Japan arc is sequential assimilation of crustal deformation data. We conducted numerical modeling of sequential assimilation using surface deformation calculated from earthquake generation cycle simulations along the Nankai Trough. To account for observation noise, we used measured ocean bottom pressure gauge data, excluding tidal modulation, from a station on the ocean bottom cable network Dense Oceanfloor Network System for Earthquakes and Tsunamis in the Kumano basin. We used sequential importance sampling as our data assimilation method. We found that as the amount of data increased, the estimated time interval between the Tōnankai and Nankai earthquakes approached the "true" observed interval. In addition, the noise in the pressure gauge data was sufficiently small that simulated crustal deformation patterns could be distinguished for different time intervals.

  18. Bibliography of In-House and Contract Reports. Supplement 14.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    ETL-8434 UNCLASSIFIED F/G 5/2IhEEEEElhlhiE EEIIEEEEIIIIEE llEEEEllllEllE ElEEllEEEE~lEK EIIIIIEEEEEEEE EIEEEEIIIIE IA l11 1.5 11111.5 II 1 Ht1.6...PAGE RFAD INSTRUCTIONSItI’FFORF C’OMll.V" I’Mil F0� 1 . REPORT NUMBER 2, GOVT ACCESSION NO. S. HELIVII N Tr k.AI ALOG NUMh4NR ETL-04 34 2 : 7 1 R P...SUPPLEMENT 14 1 Jan 85 - 31 Dec 85 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(e) B. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(&) E. James Books Margaret F. Fox Alice L

  19. Controlling bacterial infections by inhibiting proton-dependent processes.

    PubMed

    Kaneti, Galoz; Meir, Ohad; Mor, Amram

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is recognized as one of the greatest threats in modern healthcare, taking a staggering toll worldwide. New approaches for controlling bacterial infections must be designed, eventually combining multiple strategies for complimentary therapies. This review explores an old/new paradigm for multi-targeted antibacterial therapy, focused at disturbing bacterial cytoplasmic membrane functions at sub minimal inhibitory concentrations, namely through superficial physical alterations of the bilayer, thereby perturbing transmembrane signals transduction. Such a paradigm may have the advantage of fighting the infection while avoiding many of the known resistance mechanisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antimicrobial peptides edited by Karl Lohner and Kai Hilpert. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. KITENIN promotes glioma invasiveness and progression, associated with the induction of EMT and stemness markers

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Se-Jeong; Kim, Ok; Joo, Young-Eun; Bae, Jeong-A; Yoon, Somy; Ryu, Hyang-Hwa; Jung, Shin; Kim, Kyung-Keun; Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Moon, Kyung-Sub

    2015-01-01

    KITENIN (KAI1 COOH-terminal interacting tetraspanin) promotes tumor invasion and metastasis in various cancers. This study assessed the association between KITENIN expression and advanced glioma grade in patients. In vitro assays revealed that KITENIN knockdown inhibited the invasion and migration of glioma cells, whereas KITENIN overexpression promoted their invasion and migration. In orthotopic mouse tumor models, mice transplanted with KITENIN-transfected glioma cells had significantly shorter survival than mice transplanted with mock-transfected cells. Patients with low KITENIN expression showed a significantly longer progression-free survival than patients with high KITENIN expression. KITENIN induced the expression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers (N-cadherin, ZEB1, ZEB2, SNAIL and SLUG) as well as the glioma stemness markers (CD133, ALDH1 and EPH-B1). Taken together, these findings showed that high levels of KITENIN increased glioma invasiveness and progression, associated with the up-regulation of EMT and stemness markers. PMID:25605251

  1. Technical evaluation report for the demonstration of radio frequency soil decontamination at Site S-1

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, C.R.; Blanchard, C.F.; Whitt, L.H.

    1995-04-01

    The Air Force`s Armstrong Laboratory at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, has supported the research and development of Radio Frequency Soil Decontamination. Radio frequency soil decontamination is essentially a heat-assisted soil vapor extraction process. Site S-1 at Kelly Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas, was selected for the demonstration of two patented techniques. The site is a former sump that collected spills and surface run-off from a waste petroleum, oils, and lubricants and solvent storage and transfer area. In 1993, a technique developed by the IIT Research Institute using an array of electrodes placed in the soil was demonstrated. In 1994, a technique developed by KAI Technologies, Inc. using a single applicator placed in a vertical borehole was demonstrated. Approximately 120 tons of soil were heated during each demonstration to a temperature of about 150 degrees Celsius.

  2. Using adjuvants and environmental factors to modulate the activity of antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Walkenhorst, William F

    2016-05-01

    The increase in antibiotic resistant and multi-drug resistant bacterial infections has serious implications for the future of health care. The difficulty in finding both new microbial targets and new drugs against existing targets adds to the concern. The use of combination and adjuvant therapies are potential strategies to counter this threat. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a promising class of antibiotics (ABs), particularly for topical and surface applications. Efforts have been directed toward a number of strategies, including the use of conventional ABs combined with AMPs, and the use of potentiating agents to increase the performance of AMPs. This review focuses on combination strategies such as adjuvants and the manipulation of environmental variables to improve the efficacy of AMPs as potential therapeutic agents. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antimicrobial peptides edited by Karl Lohner and Kai Hilpert.

  3. Feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-01-01

    Shi Changxu, former vice-president of NSFC wins Top Prize of National Science and Technology Award of China Both China and the world materials community have greatly benefitted from his service, by RPH Chang Shi Changxu—a great teacher and mentor for materials scientists, by Gaoqing Max Lu A bright example for all of us—Professor Shi Changxu, by Wei Gao Professor Shi Changxu—The Giant Materials Scientist of China, by Wuzong Zhou Congratulations to Academician Changxu Shi on the Occasion of His Winning the 2010 Chinese Science & Technology Grand Prize, by Ju Li, Kai Chen, Zhiwei Shan, Guanjun Qiao, Jun Sun and Evan Ma Materials—the foundation for technology revolutions, by Zhong Lin Wang

  4. History of Amateur Variable Star Observations in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyota, S.

    2012-06-01

    (Abstract only) Japan has about 100 years of history of variable star observing since Naozo Ichinohe, professional astronomer in Tokyo Observatory, observed d Cep in 1906. The first amateur variable star observer is Yoshihiko Kasai, who began observing variable stars in 1918. I introduce a brief history of Japanese amateur variable star observation, including topics of variable star organizations, nova and supernova hunters, collaborations with the AAVSO and the world, PEP and CCD observations. I also introduce the most active variable star observer, Hiroaki Narumi, who made over 260,000 visual estimates since 1975. VSOLJ was established in 1987 in collaborations with the variable star sections of Nihon Tenmon Kenkyu-kai (NTK) and the Oriental Astronomical Association (OAA). VSOLJ maintains a database of Japanese variable star observations (http://vsolj.cetus-net.org) and publishes the Variable Star Bulletin in English.

  5. Noise in Nonlinear Dynamical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Frank; McClintock, P. V. E.

    2009-08-01

    List of contributors; Preface; Introduction to volume three; 1. The effects of coloured quadratic noise on a turbulent transition in liquid He II J. T. Tough; 2. Electrohydrodynamic instability of nematic liquid crystals: growth process and influence of noise S. Kai; 3. Suppression of electrohydrodynamic instabilities by external noise Helmut R. Brand; 4. Coloured noise in dye laser fluctuations R. Roy, A. W. Yu and S. Zhu; 5. Noisy dynamics in optically bistable systems E. Arimondo, D. Hennequin and P. Glorieux; 6. Use of an electronic model as a guideline in experiments on transient optical bistability W. Lange; 7. Computer experiments in nonlinear stochastic physics Riccardo Mannella; 8. Analogue simulations of stochastic processes by means of minimum component electronic devices Leone Fronzoni; 9. Analogue techniques for the study of problems in stochastic nonlinear dynamics P. V. E. McClintock and Frank Moss; Index.

  6. Lightweight Towed Howitzer Demonstrator. Phase 1 and Partial Phase 2. Volume C. Part 2. Dynamic Analysis Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    THIS REPORT ARE THOSE OF THE AUTHOR(S) AND SHOULD NOT BE CONSTRUED AS AN OFFICIAL DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY POSITION, POLICY OR DECISION, UNLESS SO... are also two counter-recoil accumulators and a reservoir accumulator. The two recoil cylinders and the energy storage cylinder have a 6 inch free...r O F ff 8AT -O Ar ,Y O5I70 IF %TF w&~ Q T /9 70 OOO 9~ ~Fz E u 00 U.U KAI’ LOLL Cj I, DL /3 M-I *CIIII I0 PeK= (’ S60e’ Ag v "II ",s - L A-r y,= 10

  7. Crabs of the families Palicidae and Crossotonotidae (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Palicoidea) from the Ogasawara Islands, Japan, with the description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Masatsune; Tachikawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-10

    Four species of palicoid crabs, Neopalicus jukesii (White, 1847) and Rectopalicus ampullatus Castro, 2000 of the family Palicidae, and Crossotonotus spinipes (De Man, 1888) and a new species of Pleurophricus A. Milne-Edwards, 1873 of the family Crossotonotidae, are recorded from the Ogasawara Islands, Japan. Diagnostics for the new species are the protruded bilobed front, six subacute lobate teeth at each lateral margin of the carapace, six rounded lobes at the posterior margin of the carapace, a crested armature of the cheliped carpus, and the strongly depressed ambulatory legs, which readily distinguish it from its two congeners, P. cristatipes A. Milne-Edwards, 1873 known by two males from Australia and the Kai Islands in Indonesia, and P. longirostris (Moosa & Serène, 1981) known by a female from the Sunda Strait, Indonesia.

  8. Coupled Oscillations and Circadian Rhythms in Molecular Replication Networks.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Nathaniel; Alasibi, Samaa; Peacock-Lopez, Enrique; Ashkenasy, Gonen

    2015-01-02

    Living organisms often display rhythmic and oscillatory behavior. We investigate here a challenge in contemporary Systems Chemistry, that is, to construct "bottom-up" molecular networks that display such complex behavior. We first describe oscillations during self-replication by applying kinetic parameters relevant to peptide replication in an open environment. Small networks of coupled oscillators are then constructed in silico, producing various functions such as logic gates, integrators, counters, triggers, and detectors. These networks are finally utilized to simulate the connectivity and network topology of the Kai proteins circadian clocks from the S. elongatus cyanobacteria, thus producing rhythms whose constant frequency is independent of the input intake rate and robust toward concentration fluctuations. We suggest that this study helps further reveal the underlying principles of biological clocks and may provide clues into their emergence in early molecular evolution.

  9. Hierarchy of models: from qualitative to quantitative analysis of circadian rhythms in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Chaves, M; Preto, M

    2013-06-01

    A hierarchy of models, ranging from high to lower levels of abstraction, is proposed to construct "minimal" but predictive and explanatory models of biological systems. Three hierarchical levels will be considered: Boolean networks, piecewise affine differential (PWA) equations, and a class of continuous, ordinary, differential equations' models derived from the PWA model. This hierarchy provides different levels of approximation of the biological system and, crucially, allows the use of theoretical tools to more exactly analyze and understand the mechanisms of the system. The Kai ABC oscillator, which is at the core of the cyanobacterial circadian rhythm, is analyzed as a case study, showing how several fundamental properties-order of oscillations, synchronization when mixing oscillating samples, structural robustness, and entrainment by external cues-can be obtained from basic mechanisms.

  10. Generic temperature compensation of biological clocks by autonomous regulation of catalyst concentration

    PubMed Central

    Hatakeyama, Tetsuhiro S.; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2012-01-01

    Circadian clocks—ubiquitous in life forms ranging from bacteria to multicellular organisms—often exhibit intrinsic temperature compensation; the period of circadian oscillators is maintained constant over a range of physiological temperatures, despite the expected Arrhenius form for the reaction coefficient. Observations have shown that the amplitude of the oscillation depends on the temperature but the period does not; this suggests that although not every reaction step is temperature independent, the total system comprising several reactions still exhibits compensation. Here we present a general mechanism for such temperature compensation. Consider a system with multiple activation energy barriers for reactions, with a common enzyme shared across several reaction steps. The steps with the highest activation energy rate-limit the cycle when the temperature is not high. If the total abundance of the enzyme is limited, the amount of free enzyme available to catalyze a specific reaction decreases as more substrates bind to the common enzyme. We show that this change in free enzyme abundance compensates for the Arrhenius-type temperature dependence of the reaction coefficient. Taking the example of circadian clocks with cyanobacterial proteins KaiABC, consisting of several phosphorylation sites, we show that this temperature compensation mechanism is indeed valid. Specifically, if the activation energy for phosphorylation is larger than that for dephosphorylation, competition for KaiA shared among the phosphorylation reactions leads to temperature compensation. Moreover, taking a simpler model, we demonstrate the generality of the proposed compensation mechanism, suggesting relevance not only to circadian clocks but to other (bio)chemical oscillators as well. PMID:22566655

  11. A spectroscopic study of phenylbutazone and aspirin bound to serum albumin in rheumatoid diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciążek-Jurczyk, M.; Sułkowska, A.; Bojko, B.; Równicka-Zubik, J.; Sułkowski, W. W.

    2011-11-01

    Interaction of phenylbutazone (PBZ) and aspirin (ASA), two drugs recommended in rheumatoid diseases (RDs), when binding to human (HSA) and bovine (BSA) serum albumins, has been studied by quenching of fluorescence and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1HNMR) techniques. On the basis of spectrofluorescence measurements high affinity binding sites of PBZ and ASA on albumin as well as their interaction within the binding sites were described. A low affinity binding site has been studied by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Using fluorescence spectroscopy the location of binding site in serum albumin (SA) for PBZ and ASA was found. Association constants Ka were determined for binary (i.e. PBZ-SA and ASA-SA) and ternary complexes (i.e. PBZ-[ASA]-SA and ASA-[PBZ]-SA). PBZ and ASA change the affinity of each other to the binding site in serum albumin (SA). The presence of ASA causes the increase of association constants KaI of PBZ-SA complex. Similarly, PBZ influences KaI of ASA-SA complex. This phenomenon shows that the strength of binding and the stability of the complexes increase in the presence of the second drug. The decrease of KaII values suggests that the competition between PBZ and ASA in binding to serum albumin in the second class of binding sites occurs. The analysis of 1HNMR spectral parameters i.e. changes of chemical shifts and relaxation times of the drug indicate that the presence of ASA weakens the interaction of PBZ with albumin. Similarly PBZ weakens the interaction of ASA with albumin. This conclusion points to the necessity of using a monitoring therapy owning to the possible increase of uncontrolled toxic effects.

  12. Generic temperature compensation of biological clocks by autonomous regulation of catalyst concentration.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Tetsuhiro S; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2012-05-22

    Circadian clocks--ubiquitous in life forms ranging from bacteria to multicellular organisms--often exhibit intrinsic temperature compensation; the period of circadian oscillators is maintained constant over a range of physiological temperatures, despite the expected Arrhenius form for the reaction coefficient. Observations have shown that the amplitude of the oscillation depends on the temperature but the period does not; this suggests that although not every reaction step is temperature independent, the total system comprising several reactions still exhibits compensation. Here we present a general mechanism for such temperature compensation. Consider a system with multiple activation energy barriers for reactions, with a common enzyme shared across several reaction steps. The steps with the highest activation energy rate-limit the cycle when the temperature is not high. If the total abundance of the enzyme is limited, the amount of free enzyme available to catalyze a specific reaction decreases as more substrates bind to the common enzyme. We show that this change in free enzyme abundance compensates for the Arrhenius-type temperature dependence of the reaction coefficient. Taking the example of circadian clocks with cyanobacterial proteins KaiABC, consisting of several phosphorylation sites, we show that this temperature compensation mechanism is indeed valid. Specifically, if the activation energy for phosphorylation is larger than that for dephosphorylation, competition for KaiA shared among the phosphorylation reactions leads to temperature compensation. Moreover, taking a simpler model, we demonstrate the generality of the proposed compensation mechanism, suggesting relevance not only to circadian clocks but to other (bio)chemical oscillators as well.

  13. Production of proinflammatory cytokines without invocation of cytotoxic effects by an Epstein-Barr virus-infected natural killer cell line established from a patient with hypersensitivity to mosquito bites.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Daisuke; Tsuji, Kazuhide; Yamamoto, Takenobu; Fujii, Kazuyasu; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2010-10-01

    Cumulative evidence supports that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected natural killer (NK) cells induce severe systemic and cutaneous inflammation in patients with hypersensitivity to mosquito bites (HMB). In order to understand the pathogenesis of HMB, we established an EBV-infected cell line and characterized the cytological profiles. A novel EBV-infected NK-cell line, designated NKED, was established from a patient with HMB and used for the present study along with two other NK-cell lines, KAI3 and KHYG-1. NKED expressed the latency II-related transcripts. NKED cells were positive for CD2 and CD161 antigens, and negative for CD3, CD16, CD34, CD56, and T-cell receptor α/β and γ/δ antigens. Although NKED cells contained several cytotoxic molecules, the cells had an extremely poor cytotoxic activity. The majority of NKED cells were negative for perforin, major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted NK-cell receptors, CD94 and KIR2D, and an activating receptor, NKG2D. NKED cells, however, secreted higher levels of tumor necrosis factor-α. Stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or tumor necrosis factor-α induced expression of BZLF1 messenger RNA in the NKED and KAI3 cells, indicating the transition from the latent- to the lytic-cycle infection. These data suggested that NKED cells revealed a very low cytotoxic effect probably because of the low expression levels of perforin, but had the ability to release proinflammatory cytokines. NKED cells did not reflect the characteristics of HMB, as they were different from pathogenic NK cells proliferating in the HMB patient, but the difference indicated that pathogenic NK cells could change their character in the presence of interleukin-2. Copyright © 2010 ISEH - Society for Hematology and Stem Cells. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Kenya: Results From a Nationally Representative Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Veronica C.; Muriithi, Patrick; Gilbert-Nandra, Ulrike; Kim, Andrea A.; Schmitz, Mary E.; Odek, James; Mokaya, Rose; Galbraith, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    Background In Kenya, it is estimated that there are approximately 3.6 million children aged <18 years who have been orphaned or who are vulnerable. We examined the data from the second Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2012) to determine the number and profile of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in Kenya who were aged <18 years. Methods KAIS 2012 was a nationally representative, population-based household survey. We analyzed the data for all the children from birth to age 17 years who resided in an eligible household so as to determine whether their parents were alive or had been very ill to define their OVC status. Results We estimated that there were 2.6 million OVC in Kenya in 2012, of whom 1.8 million were orphans and 750,000 were vulnerable. Among orphans, 15% were double orphans. Over one-third of all the OVC were aged between 10 and 14 years. Households with ≥1 OVC (12% of all households) were usually in the lowest 2 wealth quintiles, and 22% of OVC households had experienced moderate or severe hunger. Receipt of OVC support services was low for medical (3.7%), psychological (4.1%), social (1.3%), and material support (6.2%); educational support was slightly more common (11.5%). Orphanhood among children aged <15 years increased from 1993 to 2003 (P < 0.01) but declined from 2003 to 2012 (P < 0.01). Conclusions The 2.6 million OVC constitute a significant proportion of Kenya’s population aged <18 years. Special attention should be paid to OVC to prevent further vulnerability and ensure their well-being and development as they transition into adulthood. PMID:24732824

  15. A spectroscopic study of phenylbutazone and aspirin bound to serum albumin in rheumatoid diseases.

    PubMed

    Maciążek-Jurczyk, M; Sułkowska, A; Bojko, B; Równicka-Zubik, J; Sułkowski, W W

    2011-11-01

    Interaction of phenylbutazone (PBZ) and aspirin (ASA), two drugs recommended in rheumatoid diseases (RDs), when binding to human (HSA) and bovine (BSA) serum albumins, has been studied by quenching of fluorescence and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)HNMR) techniques. On the basis of spectrofluorescence measurements high affinity binding sites of PBZ and ASA on albumin as well as their interaction within the binding sites were described. A low affinity binding site has been studied by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Using fluorescence spectroscopy the location of binding site in serum albumin (SA) for PBZ and ASA was found. Association constants K(a) were determined for binary (i.e. PBZ-SA and ASA-SA) and ternary complexes (i.e. PBZ-[ASA]-SA and ASA-[PBZ]-SA). PBZ and ASA change the affinity of each other to the binding site in serum albumin (SA). The presence of ASA causes the increase of association constants K(aI) of PBZ-SA complex. Similarly, PBZ influences K(aI) of ASA-SA complex. This phenomenon shows that the strength of binding and the stability of the complexes increase in the presence of the second drug. The decrease of K(aII) values suggests that the competition between PBZ and ASA in binding to serum albumin in the second class of binding sites occurs. The analysis of (1)HNMR spectral parameters i.e. changes of chemical shifts and relaxation times of the drug indicate that the presence of ASA weakens the interaction of PBZ with albumin. Similarly PBZ weakens the interaction of ASA with albumin. This conclusion points to the necessity of using a monitoring therapy owning to the possible increase of uncontrolled toxic effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Burden of HIV infection among children aged 18 months to 14 years in Kenya: results from a nationally representative population-based cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Ng'eno, Bernadette; Mwangi, Ann; Ng'ang'a, Lucy; Kim, Andrea A; Waruru, Anthony; Mukui, Irene; Ngugi, Evelyn W; Rutherford, George W

    2014-05-01

    In Kenya, mathematical models estimate that there are approximately 220,000 children aged less than 15 years infected with HIV. We analyzed data from the second Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2012) to estimate the prevalence of HIV infection among children aged 18 months to 14 years. KAIS 2012 was a nationally representative 2-stage cluster sample household survey. We studied children aged 18 months to 14 years whose parents or guardians answered questions pertaining to their children by interview. Blood specimens were collected for HIV serology and viral load measurement. We identified 5162 children who were eligible for the study. Blood was obtained for 3681 (71.3%) children. Among child participants, 16.4% had been tested for HIV infection in the past, and among children with parents or guardians who self-reported HIV-positive status, 52.9% had been tested for HIV infection. Twenty-eight (0.9%) children tested HIV-positive in the survey. Of these, 11 had been previously diagnosed with HIV infection before the survey. All 11 children were in HIV care and receiving cotrimoxazole; 8 were on antiretorivral therapy (ART). Among those on ART, 4 were virologically suppressed. HIV causes a substantial burden of disease in the Kenyan pediatric population. Although most children who had been diagnosed with HIV before the survey were engaged in care and treatment, they represented less than half of HIV-infected children identified in the survey. Future efforts should focus on identifying infected children and getting them into care and on suppressive ART as early as possible.

  17. Status of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in Kenya: Findings From 2 Nationally Representative Surveys in Kenya, 2007 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Galbraith, Jennifer S.; Ochieng, Athanasius; Mwalili, Samuel; Emusu, Donath; Mwandi, Zebedee; Kim, Andrea A.; Rutherford, George; Maina, William K.; Kimanga, Davies O.; Chesang, Kipruto; Cherutich, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background The Kenyan Ministry of Health initiated a voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) program in 2008. We used data from 2 nationally representative surveys to estimate trends in the number, demographic characteristics, and sexual behaviors of recently circumcised and uncircumcised HIV-uninfected men in Kenya. Methods We compared the proportion of circumcised men between the first and second Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2007 and KAIS 2012) to assess the progress of Kenya’s VMMC program. We calculated the number of uncircumcised HIV-uninfected men. We conducted descriptive analyses and used multivariable methods to identify the variables independently associated with HIV-uninfected uncircumcised men aged 15–64 years in the VMMC priority region of Nyanza. Results The proportion of men who reported being circumcised increased significantly from 85.0% in 2007 to 91.2% in 2012. The proportions of circumcised men increased in all regions, with the highest increases of 18.1 and 9.0 percentage points in the VMMC priority regions of Nyanza and Nairobi, respectively. Half (52.5%) of HIV-uninfected and uncircumcised men had never been married, and 84.6% were not using condoms at all times with their last sexual partner. Conclusions VMMC prevalence has increased across Kenya demonstrating the success of the national program. Despite this accomplishment, the Nyanza region remains below the target to circumcise 80% of all eligible men aged 15–49 years between 2009 and 2013. As new cohorts of young men enter into adolescence, consistent focus is needed. To ensure sustainability of the VMMC program, financial resources and coordinated planning must continue. PMID:24732820

  18. Orphans and vulnerable children in Kenya: results from a nationally representative population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Veronica C; Muriithi, Patrick; Gilbert-Nandra, Ulrike; Kim, Andrea A; Schmitz, Mary E; Odek, James; Mokaya, Rose; Galbraith, Jennifer S

    2014-05-01

    In Kenya, it is estimated that there are approximately 3.6 million children aged <18 years who have been orphaned or who are vulnerable. We examined the data from the second Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2012) to determine the number and profile of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in Kenya who were aged <18 years. KAIS 2012 was a nationally representative, population-based household survey. We analyzed the data for all the children from birth to age 17 years who resided in an eligible household so as to determine whether their parents were alive or had been very ill to define their OVC status. We estimated that there were 2.6 million OVC in Kenya in 2012, of whom 1.8 million were orphans and 750,000 were vulnerable. Among orphans, 15% were double orphans. Over one-third of all the OVC were aged between 10 and 14 years. Households with ≥1 OVC (12% of all households) were usually in the lowest 2 wealth quintiles, and 22% of OVC households had experienced moderate or severe hunger. Receipt of OVC support services was low for medical (3.7%), psychological (4.1%), social (1.3%), and material support (6.2%); educational support was slightly more common (11.5%). Orphanhood among children aged <15 years increased from 1993 to 2003 (P < 0.01) but declined from 2003 to 2012 (P < 0.01). The 2.6 million OVC constitute a significant proportion of Kenya's population aged <18 years. Special attention should be paid to OVC to prevent further vulnerability and ensure their well-being and development as they transition into adulthood.

  19. Regulation of urokinase receptor proteolytic function by the tetraspanin CD82.

    PubMed

    Bass, Rosemary; Werner, Finn; Odintsova, Elena; Sugiura, Tsuyoshi; Berditchevski, Fedor; Ellis, Vincent

    2005-04-15

    The high affinity interaction between the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its glycolipid-anchored cellular receptor (uPAR) promotes plasminogen activation and the efficient generation of pericellular proteolytic activity. We demonstrate here that expression of the tetraspanin CD82/KAI1 (a tumor metastasis suppressor) leads to a profound effect on uPAR function. Pericellular plasminogen activation was reduced by approximately 50-fold in the presence of CD82, although levels of components of the plasminogen activation system were unchanged. uPAR was present on the cell surface and molecularly intact, but radioligand binding analysis with uPA and anti-uPAR antibodies revealed that it was in a previously undetected cryptic form unable to bind uPA. This was not due to direct interactions between uPAR and CD82, as they neither co-localized on the cell surface nor could be co-immunoprecipitated. However, expression of CD82 led to a redistribution of uPAR to focal adhesions, where it was shown by double immunofluorescence labeling to co-localize with the integrin alpha(5)beta(1), which was also redistributed in the presence of CD82. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that, in the presence of CD82, uPAR preferentially formed stable associations with alpha(5)beta(1), but not with a variety of other integrins, including alpha(3)beta(1). These data suggest that CD82 inhibits the proteolytic function of uPAR indirectly, directing uPAR and alpha(5)beta(1) to focal adhesions and promoting their association with a resultant loss of uPA binding. This represents a novel mechanism whereby tetraspanins, integrins, and uPAR, systems involved in cell adhesion and migration, cooperate to regulate pericellular proteolytic activity and may suggest a mechanism for the tumor-suppressive effects of CD82/KAI1.

  20. A Community-Based, Culturally Tailored Behavioral Intervention for Korean Americans With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Miyong T.; Han, Hae-Ra; Song, Hee-Jung; Lee, Jong-Eun; Kim, Jiyun; Ryu, Jai P.; Kim, Kim B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to test the efficacy of a culturally tailored comprehensive type 2 diabetes management intervention for Korean American immigrants (KAIs) with type 2 diabetes. Methods A randomized controlled pilot trial with 2 parallel arms (intervention vs control) with a delayed intervention design was used. A total of 79 KAIs, recruited from the Baltimore-Washington area, completed baseline, 18-week, and 30-week follow-ups (intervention, n = 40; control, n = 39). All participants had uncontrolled type 2 diabetes (hemoglobin A1C ≥7.5%) at baseline. The authors’ comprehensive, self-help intervention program for type 2 diabetes management (SHIP-DM) consisted of a 6-week structured psychobehavioral education, home glucose monitoring with teletransmission, and bilingual nurse telephone counseling for 24 weeks. The primary outcome of the study was A1C level, and secondary outcomes included an array of psychobehavioral variables. Results Using analysis of covariance, the findings support that the proposed intervention was effective in significantly lowering A1C and fasting glucose and also in improving psychosocial outcomes in the sample. Specifically, the amount of reduction in A1C among intervention group participants was 1.19% at 18 weeks and 1.31% at 30 weeks, with 10% and 15.5% of the participants achieving the suggested goal of A1C <7% at 18 and 30 weeks of follow-up, respectively. Conclusions The results highlight the clinical efficacy of the SHIP-DM intervention composed of a 6-week education program, self-monitoring, and follow-up counseling, in terms of maintaining the improved intervention effects obtained and in terms of glucose control. PMID:19934458

  1. Biomonitoring of heavy metals and trace organics using the intertidal mussel Perna viridis in Hong Kong coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Liu, J H; Kueh, C S W

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a 6-year (1998-2003) survey of trace toxics in the intertidal mussel Perna viridis conducted by the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department. Concentrations of heavy metals and trace organics were measured in the soft bodies of P. viridis collected from five sites in Hong Kong waters, i.e. Wu Kai Sha (Tolo Harbour), Ma Wan (Northwest), Tsim Sha Tsui (Victoria Harbour), Tai Tam (Hong Kong South) and Lamma Island (Southern Waters) in order to establish the spatial patterns of contaminants in mussels. Among the metals analysed, Cd showed a significant concentration gradient in Hong Kong waters. The levels of Cd in P. viridis were significantly higher at Ma Wan as compared to the other sites studied. Ma Wan also had relatively higher concentrations of Pb. Mn concentrations were particularly prominent at Wu Kai Sha. Significantly higher concentrations of Hg and Cu were recorded at Tai Tam and Tsim Sha Tsui. Tai Tam and Wu Kai Sha had higher levels of V; whereas higher Ni concentrations were recorded at Lamma Island and Tai Tam. No clear spatial patterns for Al, As, Cr, Fe and Zn were observed. Higher concentrations of PAHs in P. viridis were observed around urban centres impacted by sewage discharges (e.g. Tsim Sha Tsui); whereas higher PCB levels were found not only in Tsim Sha Tsui but also in less urbanised areas such as Lamma Island and Tai Tam, suggesting that these may be due to non-sewage related inputs. The study also shows that Northwest and Southern waters are subject to a higher degree of DDT pollution compared with other sites. Of the 17 dioxin compounds analysed, positive data were mostly recorded for two compounds which are of low toxicity (i.e. OCDD and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD) whereas the most toxic congeners (i.e. 2,3,7,8-TCDD and 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD) were not detected in the 6 years of monitoring. In general, the levels of OCDD in P. viridis were found to be higher in Tai Tam and Lamma Island in Southern Waters of Hong

  2. [Experiences in introducing and using a patient data management system (PDMS). in anesthesiology at the Clinic of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine of the University of Leipzig].

    PubMed

    Friese, St; Olthoff, D

    2003-01-01

    In the field of anaesthesia the demands on the quality and quantity of documentation are increasing constantly. Patient Data Management Systems (PDMS) have proved an effective means of handling the volume of data generated. The main reasons for introducing a PDMS vary greatly, nevertheless, it is possible to formulate general requirements such as those of the "Position Paper of the Study Group on Patient Data Management Systems (PDMS) of the University Departments of Anaesthesiology in Bavaria". Although these requirements are very broad, they provide a good basis for comparing different approaches to computer-assisted documentation in anaesthesiology. The stage currently reached at the Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (KAI) of the University of Leipzig is analysed in comparison with the position paper. The COPRA system was established at KAI Leipzig eight years ago. It was developed from an existing version for intensive care medicine. It meets the demands made on it when it was introduced and can be enlarged and adjusted to the special needs of anaesthesiology. One particular requirement was that it should be possible to handle computer-assisted documentation and conventional documentation on paper simultaneously. This requirement is met by making the printed forms and those shown on the VDU practically the same in appearance. The anaesthetist is able to recognize "his" record on the screen. This greatly reduces the time required for familiarization and training. If possible, the orientation and updating of the system should be in the hands of an anaesthetist, since this is the only way to ensure that it remains geared primarily to medical needs. Administrative aspects have to be taken into account, but they should not dominate the system. The anaesthetist managing the system should have some basic training in EDP, or at least take a special interest in it. This ensures that minor enlargements can be carried out easily, as soon as

  3. Geological evidence for historical and older earthquakes and tsunamis along the Nankai Trough, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Ed; De Batist, Marc; Heyvaert, Vanessa M. A.; Hubert-Ferrari, Aurélia; Fujiwara, Osamu; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Brückner, Helmut; Garrett, Philip

    2015-04-01

    In the wake of the devastating 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, the Central Disaster Management Council of the Japanese Cabinet Office issued new guidance for assessing seismic hazards in Japan. Before 2011, seismic hazard assessment relied on source models developed from knowledge of a small number of well-documented historical earthquakes. Less well-known historical earthquakes, including the AD 869 Jōgan Sanriku earthquake, were largely disregarded as their seismic intensities or tsunami heights could not be reconciled with the chosen seismic sources. Following the unexpectedly large size of the Tōhoku earthquake, the Cabinet Office advocated renewed investigation of earthquake and tsunami occurrence over historical and longer timescales, with a particular focus on defining the largest possible magnitudes. The new guidelines pay close attention to the Nankai Trough, the subduction zone where the Philippine Sea Plate dives beneath the Eurasian Plate. The Nankai Trough faces the densely populated and highly industrialised coastline of south central Japan and harbours a widely-known seismic gap along its eastern Tōkai segment. A full-length rupture of the Nankai Trough, including the Tōkai segment, could produce an earthquake with a magnitude approaching that of the 2011 event, with tsunami travel times to the closest shorelines of less than 30 minutes. We review geological evidence for historical and older earthquakes and tsunamis along the Nankai Trough. This evidence comes from a wide variety of sources, including uplifted marine terraces, subsided marshes, liquefaction features, turbidites and tsunami deposits in coastal lakes and lowlands. Examining papers published before and after 2011, we investigate the impact of the new Cabinet Office guidelines on attempts to understand the magnitude and recurrence of these events. Additionally, we introduce the Belgian Science Policy Office funded QuakeRecNankai project, a collaboration aiming to supplement

  4. The footprints of typhoons on seismic records and their implications on small-scale coupling mechanisms in South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, H.; Xue, M.; Yang, T.; Liu, C.; Hua, Q.; Xia, S.; Huang, H.; Le, B. M.; Huo, D.; Pan, M.; Li, L.

    2015-12-01

    By investigating the footprints of typhoons on seismic records, we can understand their contributions to seismic noises as well as to small-scale coupling mechanisms of typhoon-land and typhoon-ocean-land. We analyze the signatures of typhoon KAI-TAK and BOPHA using seismic data from the ocean-bottom seismometers (OBSs) deployed in the central basin of South China Sea by Tongji University in 2012 as well as seismic stations (IC.QIZ,HK.HKPS and RM.SZP) on lands.Our preliminary results show that typhoons mainly enhance microseisms at the frequency band of ~0.1-0.5 Hz, including both long period double frequency (LPDF) and short period double frequency (SPDF) microseisms. A positive correlation observed between the amplitude of microseisms and the height of local ocean waves. Because OBSs are deployed at the bottom of ocean, single frequency (SF) microseisms are not prominent on them due to their fast attenuation with depth. During the typhoon KAI-TAK, the increase of LPDF energy is very small in OBSs while that is very high on land stations, indicating that LPDF microseisms are generated at nearby shorelines and can propagate towards the sea through the solid earth. However, the increase of SPDF energy is almost the same level for both OBSs and land stations indicating that the generation of SPDF is probably local.However, we also observe a small amount of energy arrives before the increases of the wave heights at the land station HK.HKPS. We derive that this energy may from a source that is not local: while LPDF can be generated at nearby shorelines and SPDF can be generated everywhere locally, they can both transmit through the solid part of the Earth to a station some distance away, i.e. HK.HKPS. In addition, we find that typhoons enhance not only the microseisms as expected but also the seismic energy from higher frequency bands. The spectrum amplitude during Typhoon periods, normalized by that of no-storm periods, shows that land stations produce stronger higher

  5. Antiretroviral treatment scale-up among persons living with HIV in Kenya: results from a nationally representative survey.

    PubMed

    Odhiambo, Jacob O; Kellogg, Timothy A; Kim, Andrea A; Ng'ang'a, Lucy; Mukui, Irene; Umuro, Mamo; Mohammed, Ibrahim; De Cock, Kevin M; Kimanga, Davies O; Schwarcz, Sandra

    2014-05-01

    In 2007, 29% of HIV-infected Kenyans in need of antiretroviral therapy (ART), based on an immunologic criterion of CD4 ≤350 cells per microliter, were receiving ART. Since then, substantial treatment scale-up has occurred in the country. We analyzed data from the second Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2012) to assess progress of treatment scale-up in Kenya. KAIS 2012 was a nationally representative survey of persons aged 18 months to 64 years that collected information on HIV status, care, and treatment. ART eligibility was defined based on 2 standards: (1) 2011 Kenya eligibility criteria for ART initiation: CD4 ≤350 cells per microliter or co-infection with active tuberculosis and (2) 2013 World Health Organization (WHO) eligibility criteria for ART initiation: CD4 ≤500 cells per microliter, co-infection with active tuberculosis, currently pregnant or breastfeeding, and infected partners in serodiscordant relationships. Blood specimens were tested for HIV antibodies and HIV-positive specimens tested for CD4 cell counts. Among 13,720 adults and adolescents aged 15-64 years, 11,626 provided a blood sample, and 648 were HIV infected. Overall, 58.8% [95% confidence interval (CI): 52.0 to 65.5) were eligible for treatment using the 2011 Kenya eligibility criteria and 77.4% (95% CI: 72.4 to 82.4) using the 2013 WHO eligibility criteria. Coverage of ART was 60.5% (95% CI: 50.8 to 70.2) using the 2011 Kenya eligibility criteria and 45.9% (95% CI: 37.7 to 54.2) using the 2013 WHO eligibility criteria. ART coverage has increased from 29% in 2007 to 61% in 2012. If Kenya adopts the 2013 WHO guidelines for ART initiation, need for ART increases by an additional 19 percentage points and current coverage decreases by an additional 15 percentage points, representing an additional 214,000 persons who will need to be reached.

  6. Lack of Knowledge of HIV Status a Major Barrier to HIV Prevention, Care and Treatment Efforts in Kenya: Results from a Nationally Representative Study

    PubMed Central

    Cherutich, Peter; Kaiser, Reinhard; Galbraith, Jennifer; Williamson, John; Shiraishi, Ray W.; Ngare, Carol; Mermin, Jonathan; Marum, Elizabeth; Bunnell, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Background We analyzed HIV testing rates, prevalence of undiagnosed HIV, and predictors of testing in the Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS) 2007. Methods KAIS was a nationally representative sero-survey that included demographic and behavioral indicators and testing for HIV, HSV-2, syphilis, and CD4 cell counts in the population aged 15–64 years. We used gender-specific multivariable regression models to identify factors independently associated with HIV testing in sexually active persons. Results Of 19,840 eligible persons, 80% consented to interviews and blood specimen collection. National HIV prevalence was 7.1% (95% CI 6.5–7.7). Among ever sexually active persons, 27.4% (95% CI 25.6–29.2) of men and 44.2% (95% CI 42.5–46.0) of women reported previous HIV testing. Among HIV-infected persons, 83.6% (95% CI 76.2–91.0) were unaware of their HIV infection. Among sexually active women aged 15–49 years, 48.7% (95% CI 46.8–50.6) had their last HIV test during antenatal care (ANC). In multivariable analyses, the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for ever HIV testing in women ≥35 versus 15–19 years was 0.2 (95% CI: 0.1–0.3; p<0.0001). Other independent associations with ever HIV testing included urban residence (AOR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2–2.0; p = 0.0005, women only), highest wealth index versus the four lower quintiles combined (AOR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.3–2.5; p = 0.0006, men only), and an increasing testing trend with higher levels of education. Missed opportunities for testing were identified during general or pregnancy-specific contacts with health facilities; 89% of adults said they would participate in home-based HIV testing. Conclusions The vast majority of HIV-infected persons in Kenya are unaware of their HIV status, posing a major barrier to HIV prevention, care and treatment efforts. New approaches to HIV testing provision and education, including home-based testing, may increase coverage. Targeted interventions should involve sexually active men

  7. On Banach modules II. Pseudodeterminants and traces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaijser, S.

    1997-03-01

    1. In the paper [Kai] it was observed that if A is a Banach algebra (over R or C) then the dual space is not only an A-A-bimodule, but is also injective as a left (or right) A-module. Furthermore, if M is a left (or right) Banach module over the unital Banach algebra A, then there is a natural bilinear map, there denoted TrA, from M × M[prime prime or minute] to A[prime prime or minute], defined byformula here(or [left angle bracket]TrA(m, m[prime prime or minute]), a[right angle bracket] = [left angle bracket]m[prime prime or minute], ma[right angle bracket]). The map TrA can be extended to the projective tensor product M[multiply sign in circle, circumflex accent]M[prime prime or minute], which is also an A-A-bimodule. It is easy to see that the map TrA is a bimodule homomorphism, so that the image is an A-A-submodule of A[prime prime or minute]. This module was denoted EA (M) in [Kai] and is in general not closed as a subspace of M[prime prime or minute]. It does, however, have a natural norm (as a quotient space of M[multiply sign in circle, circumflex accent]M[prime prime or minute]) and the unit ball can be used to define a new norm [parallel R: parallel]a[parallel R: parallel]new = sup {|[left angle bracket]e, a[right angle bracket] | e[set membership] the unit ball of EA(M)} on A, and it is easy to see that this new norm is simply the operator norm of a as an operator on M. The conclusion is that if a[prime prime or minute][set membership]A[prime prime or minute] is not only continuous with respect to the norm [parallel R: parallel]a[parallel R: parallel]L(M) (which is of course in general smaller thatn the given norm on A) but also with respect to the weak topology on A given by the set of all functionals of the form (0·1), then a[prime prime or minute] has a representation of the formformula here.

  8. Factors Associated with HIV Infection in Married or Cohabitating Couples in Kenya: Results from a Nationally Representative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Reinhard; Bunnell, Rebecca; Hightower, Allen; Kim, Andrea A.; Cherutich, Peter; Mwangi, Mary; Oluoch, Tom; Dadabhai, Sufia; Mureithi, Patrick; Mugo, Nelly; Mermin, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Background In order to inform prevention programming, we analyzed HIV discordance and concordance within couples in the Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS) 2007. Methods KAIS was a nationally representative population-based sero-survey that examined demographic and behavioral indicators and serologic testing for HIV, HSV-2, syphilis, and CD4 cell counts in 15,853 consenting adults aged 15–64 years. We analyzed interview and blood testing data at the sexual partnership level from married or cohabitating couples. Multivariable regression models were used to identify factors independently associated with HIV discordant and concordant status. Results Of 3256 couples identified in the survey, 2748 (84.4%) had interview and blood testing data. Overall, 3.8% of couples were concordantly infected with HIV, and in 5.8% one partner was infected, translating to 338,000 discordant couples in Kenya. In 83.6% of HIV-infected Kenyans living in married or cohabitating couples neither partner knew their HIV status. Factors independently associated with HIV-discordance included young age in women (AOR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2–1.8; p<0.0001), increasing number of lifetime sexual partners in women (AOR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.3–1.8; p<0.0001), HSV-2 infection in either or both partners (AOR 4.1, 95% CI: 2.3–7.2; p<0.0001), and lack of male circumcision (AOR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0–2.5; p = 0.032). Independent factors for HIV-concordance included HSV-2 infection in both partners (AOR 6.5, 95% CI: 2.3–18.7; p = 0.001) and lack of male circumcision (AOR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.0–3.3; p = 0.043). Conclusions Couple prevention interventions should begin early in relationships and include mutual knowledge of HIV status, reduction of outside sexual partners, and promotion of male circumcision among HIV-uninfected men. Mechanisms for effective prevention or suppression of HSV-2 infection are also needed. PMID:21423615

  9. Organochlorines and heavy metals in wild caught food as a potential human health risk to the indigenous Māori population of South Canterbury, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Michael; Phillips, Ngaire R; Olsen, Greg; Hickey, Christopher W; Tipa, Gail

    2011-05-01

    Increasing concentrations of anthropogenic contaminants in wild kai (food) of cultural, recreational and economic importance to the indigenous Māori of New Zealand is a potential human health risk. Contaminants that are known to bioaccumulate through the food chain (e.g., organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), PCBs and selected heavy metals) were analysed in important kai species including eel (Anguilla sp.), brown trout (Salmo trutta), black flounder (Rhombosolea retiaria) and watercress (Nasturtium officinale) from important harvesting sites in the region of South Canterbury. Eels contained relatively high wet weight concentrations of p,p'-DDE (8.6-287ng/g), PCBs ((32)Σ(PCB); 0.53-58.3ng/g), dieldrin (<0.05-16.3ng/g) and Σchlordanes (0.03-10.6ng/g). Trout and flounder contained lower concentrations of organochlorines than eels, with p,p'-DDE wet weight concentrations ranging from 2.2 to 18.5ng/g for trout and 6.4 to 27.8ng/g for flounder. Total arsenic wet weight concentrations were below detection limits for eels but ranged from 0.27 to 0.89μg/g for trout and 0.12 to 0.56μg/g for flounder. Mercury concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 0.56μg/g, 0.11 to 0.50μg/g and 0.04 to 0.10μg/g (ww) for eel, trout and flounder respectively. Lifetime excess cancer risk was calculated through established risk assessment procedures, highlighting dieldrin, ΣPCBs and p,p'-DDE in eels and arsenic in trout and flounder as primary contaminants of concern. A second non-cancer chronic health risk assessment indicated that mercury and PCBs were a potential concern in eels and mercury in trout. A cumulative lifetime cancer risk assessment showed potential health risk for consumption of some species, even at low consumption rates and provided the basis for establishing recommended dietary consumption limits for harvest sites within the study region. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The cyanobacterial circadian clock follows midday in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Leypunskiy, Eugene; Lin, Jenny; Yoo, Haneul; Lee, UnJin; Dinner, Aaron R; Rust, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are biological oscillations that schedule daily changes in physiology. Outside the laboratory, circadian clocks do not generally free-run but are driven by daily cues whose timing varies with the seasons. The principles that determine how circadian clocks align to these external cycles are not well understood. Here, we report experimental platforms for driving the cyanobacterial circadian clock both in vivo and in vitro. We find that the phase of the circadian rhythm follows a simple scaling law in light-dark cycles, tracking midday across conditions with variable day length. The core biochemical oscillator comprised of the Kai proteins behaves similarly when driven by metabolic pulses in vitro, indicating that such dynamics are intrinsic to these proteins. We develop a general mathematical framework based on instantaneous transformation of the clock cycle by external cues, which successfully predicts clock behavior under many cycling environments. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23539.001 PMID:28686160

  11. "Healthy Eating - Healthy Action": evaluating New Zealand's obesity prevention strategy

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background New Zealand rates of obesity and overweight have increased since the 1980s, particularly among indigenous Māori people, Pacific people and those living in areas of high deprivation. New Zealand's response to the obesity epidemic has been The Healthy Eating-Healthy Action: Oranga Kai - Oranga Pumau (HEHA) Strategy ('the Strategy'), launched in 2003. Because the HEHA Strategy explicitly recognises the importance of evaluation and the need to create an evidence base to support future initiatives, the Ministry of Health has commissioned a Consortium of researchers to evaluate the Strategy as a whole. Methods This paper discusses the Consortium's approach to evaluating the HEHA Strategy. It includes an outline of the conceptual framework underpinning the evaluation, and describes the critical components of the evaluation which are: judging to what extent stakeholders were engaged in the process of the strategy implementation and to what extent their feedback was incorporated in to future iterations of the Strategy (continuous improvement), to what extent the programmes, policies, and initiatives implemented span the target populations and priority areas, whether there have been any population changes in nutrition and/or physical activity outcomes or behaviours relating to those outcomes, and to what extent HEHA Strategy and spending can be considered value for money. Discussion This paper outlines our approach to evaluating a complex national health promotion strategy. Not only does the Evaluation have the potential to identify interventions that could be adopted internationally, but also the development of the Evaluation design can inform other complex evaluations. PMID:19961625

  12. Impact of the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake on transplant renal function in Iwaki city, Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Shimmura, H; Kawaguchi, H; Tokiwa, M; Tanabe, K

    2014-01-01

    Tokiwa-kai group is a urologic and dialysis institution complex located in Iwaki city, Fukushima, Japan, and has performed renal transplantation since 1997. Although water is mandatory for renal transplant recipients, the water supply did not work for approximately a month after the earthquake in Iwaki city. Moreover, after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident struck Iwaki city, there was a critical shortage of food and medical supplies, including immunosuppressant drugs. Therefore, we investigated the impact of the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake on transplant renal function. We followed 30 patients who underwent renal transplantation before the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake. There were 19 males and 11 females with a mean age of 47 years. All recipients were not injured by the earthquake or the tsunami. Of the 30 recipients, 1 lost his renal graft at 12 months after the earthquake, and 1 has deterioration of graft function with a serum creatinine level of 5.5 mg/dL. Their creatinine levels before the earthquake were 2.79 mg/dL and 3.78 mg/dL, respectively. The other recipients have good graft function with a mean creatinine level of 1.5 mg/dL. All recipients did not experience any rejection episode after the earthquake. The shortage of water and food after the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake exacerbated the renal graft function, especially in the recipients with the lower graft function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection, human immunodeficiency virus/herpes simplex virus type 2 coinfection, and associated risk factors in a national, population-based survey in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mugo, Nelly; Dadabhai, Sufia S; Bunnell, Rebecca; Williamson, John; Bennett, Eddas; Baya, Isaack; Akinyi, Nelly; Mohamed, Ibrahim; Kaiser, Reinhard

    2011-11-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is a known biologic cofactor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission and acquisition. The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2007 provided Kenya's first nationally representative estimate of HSV-2 prevalence and risk factors. KAIS was a household serosurvey among women and men aged 15 to 64 years. The survey included a behavioral interview and serum testing for HSV-2, HIV, and syphilis infections. Results were weighted for sampling design and nonresponse. Of 19,840 eligible individuals, 90% completed an interview and 80% consented to testing. In all, 35% were infected with HSV-2, of which 42% were women and 26% were men. Between 15 and 24 years of age, HSV-2 prevalence increased from 7% to 34% in women and 3% to 14% in men. Among couples, 30% were HSV-2 concordant-positive, 21% were discordant, and 49% were concordant-negative. In all, 81% of HIV-infected persons were coinfected with HSV-2. HIV prevalence was 16% among those with HSV-2 and 2% among those without HSV-2. Women with circumcised partners had an HSV-2 prevalence of 39% compared to 77% of women with uncircumcised partners. One-third of Kenyans were HSV-2 infected. HIV-1 infection, age, female sex, and lack of male circumcision were population-level predictors for HSV-2 infection. Targeted prevention interventions are needed, including an effective vaccine.

  14. Global Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals the Mechanism of Phelipanche aegyptiaca Seed Germination

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Zhaoqun; Tian, Fang; Cao, Xiaolei; Xu, Ying; Chen, Meixiu; Xiang, Benchun; Zhao, Sifeng

    2016-01-01

    Phelipanche aegyptiaca is one of the most destructive root parasitic plants of Orobanchaceae. This plant has significant impacts on crop yields worldwide. Conditioned and host root stimulants, in particular, strigolactones, are needed for unique seed germination. However, no extensive study on this phenomenon has been conducted because of insufficient genomic information. Deep RNA sequencing, including de novo assembly and functional annotation was performed on P. aegyptiaca germinating seeds. The assembled transcriptome was used to analyze transcriptional dynamics during seed germination. Key gene categories involved were identified. A total of 274,964 transcripts were determined, and 53,921 unigenes were annotated according to the NR, GO, COG, KOG, and KEGG databases. Overall, 5324 differentially expressed genes among dormant, conditioned, and GR24-treated seeds were identified. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses demonstrated numerous DEGs related to DNA, RNA, and protein repair and biosynthesis, as well as carbohydrate and energy metabolism. Moreover, ABA and ethylene were found to play important roles in this process. GR24 application resulted in dramatic changes in ABA and ethylene-associated genes. Fluridone, a carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitor, alone could induce P. aegyptiaca seed germination. In addition, conditioning was probably not the indispensable stage for P. aegyptiaca, because the transcript level variation of MAX2 and KAI2 genes (relate to strigolactone signaling) was not up-regulated by conditioning treatment. PMID:27428962

  15. [A historical study of coffee in Japanese and Asian countries: focusing the medicinal uses in Asian traditional medicines].

    PubMed

    Namba, Tsuneo; Matsuse, Tomoco

    2002-01-01

    The medicinal properties of coffee, making it a diuretic and stimulant, because of the effects of caffeine, have been known since ancient times, and coffee is today a popular beverage worldwide. In Japan it was introduced at the end of the eighteenth century through overseas trading with the Netherlands. During this period, various Western cultures flowed into Japan, and coffee was one of the subjects introduced through the translations of Dutch medical books. The pharmacological effects of coffee have been presented by Yamamoto in "Kōmō Honzou, (--, 1783)"; by K. Takahashi, G. Ohtsuki, and Y. Udagawa et al. in "Kōsei Shimpen (--, 1811)"; and by Kai Hirokawa in "Nagasaki Bunkenroku (--, 1795)." In the Chinese and Arabic traditional systems of medicine, the uses of coffee were based on its diuretic and central nervous system stimulant properties, attributed in general to caffeine. This study dealt with the uses of coffee in the traditional medicines of Asian countries and with some biological activities related to aging, infectious diseases, and cardioprotective effects. In various biological tests, the water extract of coffee showed no notable effect on myocardial cell beating; however, it did show superoxide anion-scavenging effects, inhibitory activity of lipid peroxidation, and suppression of hepatitis B virus surface antigen. These biological activities are closely related to the presence of caffeic acid derivatives, especially chlorogenic acid. The findings suggest that besides its stimulant effect, coffee has properties to prevent the deleterious actions of free radicals and viral infections.

  16. Gram-positive bacterial cell envelopes: The impact on the activity of antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Malanovic, Nermina; Lohner, Karl

    2016-05-01

    A number of cationic antimicrobial peptides, effectors of innate immunity, are supposed to act at the cytoplasmic membrane leading to permeabilization and eventually membrane disruption. Thereby, interaction of antimicrobial peptides with anionic membrane phospholipids is considered to be a key factor in killing of bacteria. Recently, evidence was provided that killing takes place only when bacterial cell membranes are completely saturated with peptides. This adds to an ongoing debate, which role cell wall components such as peptidoglycan, lipoteichoic acid and lipopolysaccharide may play in the killing event, i.e. if they rather entrap or facilitate antimicrobial peptides access to the cytoplasmic membrane. Therefore, in this review we focused on the impact of Gram-positive cell wall components for the mode of action and activity of antimicrobial peptides as well as in innate immunity. This led us to conclude that interaction of antimicrobial peptides with peptidoglycan may not contribute to a reduction of their antimicrobial activity, whereas interaction with anionic lipoteichoic acids may reduce the local concentration of antimicrobial peptides on the cytoplasmic membrane necessary for sufficient destabilization of the membranes and bacterial killing. Further affinity studies of antimicrobial peptides toward the different cell wall as well as membrane components will be needed to address this problem on a quantitative level. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antimicrobial peptides edited by Karl Lohner and Kai Hilpert.

  17. TIMP-1 and CD82, a promising combined evaluation marker for PDAC

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Shanshan; Qiao, Nan; Zhang, Xu; Zhu, Yunxia; Yang, Nan; Sun, Yujie; Zhang, Xin A; Bleich, David; Han, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) is a widely secreted protein that regulates cell motility, proliferation, and apoptosis. Although it is recognized that TIMP-1–tetraspanin CD63 regulates epithelial cell apoptosis and proliferation, how TIMP-1 controls cell motility is not well understood. In this study, we identify tetraspanin CD82 (also called KAI1) as a component of the promiscuous TIMP-1 interacting protein complex on cell surface of human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. CD82 directly binds to TIMP-1 N-terminal region through its large extracellular loop and co-localizes with TIMP-1 in both cancer cell lines and clinical samples. Moreover, CD82 facilitates membrane-bound TIMP-1 endocytosis, which significantly contributes to the anti-migration effect of TIMP-1. CD82 silencing partially eliminates these functions. TIMP-1 and CD82 expression status in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) might demonstrate future usefulness as a differentiation marker and give us new insight into tumorigenic metastatic potential. PMID:28030805

  18. Research on radiometric calibration of interline transfer CCD camera based on TDI working mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xing-xing; Liu, Jin-guo

    2010-10-01

    Interline transfer CCD camera can be designed to work in time delay and integration mode similar to TDI CCD to obtain higher responsivity and spatial resolution under poor illumination condition. However it was found that outputs of some pixels were much lower than others' as interline transfer CCD camera work in TDI mode in laboratory radiometric calibration experiments. As a result photo response non-uniformity(PRNU) and signal noise ratio(SNR) of the system turned for the worse. This phenomenon's mechanism was analyzed and improved PRNU and SNR algorithms of interline transfer CCD camera were advanced to solve this problem. In this way TDI stage was used as a variant in PRNU and SNR algorithms and system performance was improved observably with few influences on use. In validation experiments the improved algorithms was applied in radiometric calibration of a camera with KAI-0340s as detector. Results of validation experiments proved that the improved algorithms could effectively improve SNR and lower PRNU of the system. At the same time characteristic of the system could be reflected better. As working in 16 TDI stages, PRUN was reduced from 2.25% to 0.82% and SNR was improved about 2%.

  19. Electromagnetic mixed-waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The first phase of a program to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective, integrated process for remediation of asbestos-containing material that is contaminated with organics, heavy metals, and radioactive compounds was successfully completed. Laboratory scale tests were performed to demonstrate initial process viability for asbestos conversion, organics removal, and radionuclide and heavy metal removal. All success criteria for the laboratory tests were met. (1) Ohio DSI demonstrated greater than 99% asbestos conversion to amorphous solids using their commercial process. (2) KAI demonstrated 90% removal of organics from the asbestos suspension. (3) Westinghouse STC achieved the required metals removal criteria on a laboratory scale (e.g., 92% removal of uranium from solution, resin loadings of 0.6 equivalents per liter, and greater than 50% regeneration of resin in a batch test.) Using the information gained in the laboratory tests, the process was reconfigured to provide the basis for the mixed waste remediation system. An integrated process is conceptually developed, and a Phase 2 program plan is proposed to provide the bench-scale development needed in order to refine the design basis for a pilot processing system.

  20. Advancing Cancer Survivorship in a Country with 1.35 Billion People: The China Lymphoma Project.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Steven; Reno, Jamie

    Rates of lymphoma are rising rapidly and lymphoma is now the ninth most common cancer among Chinese males. The China Lymphoma Project was founded to increase awareness of lymphoma in China, including the survivability of the disease and the availability of potentially life-saving treatments, and to provide social support for men, women, and children in China who are living with the disease. The project is working with China government officials, several of the top cancer hospitals in China and the U.S., internationally known oncologists and cancer researchers, pharmaceutical and biotech companies in China and the U.S., healthcare and environmental companies, the Confucius Institute at San Diego State University, and the Asian Heritage Society. Advances in e-Health are being utilized to provide patient education and social support. The project will provide free e-books that profile lymphoma survivors (e.g., Kai-Fu Lee, creator of Google China), new videos, websites, pamphlets, blogs, video logs (vlogs), peer-to-peer counseling and support, and information about the latest treatments and oncology clinical trials.

  1. Teleportation with two-dimensional electron gas formed at the interface of a GaAs heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adepoju, Adenike Grace; Falaye, Babatunde James; Sun, Guo-Hua; Camacho-Nieto, Oscar; Dong, Shi-Hai

    2017-03-01

    Inspired by the scenario proposed by Bennett et al, a teleportation protocol of qubits formed in a two-dimensional electron gas formed at the interface of a GaAs heterostructure is presented. The teleportation is carried out using three GaAs quantum dots (say P{{P}\\prime} , Q{{Q}\\prime} , R{{R}\\prime} ) and three electrons. The electron spin on GaAs quantum dots P{{P}\\prime} is used to encode the unknown qubit. The GaAs quantum dot Q{{Q}\\prime} and R{{R}\\prime} combine to form an entangled state. Alice (the sender) performs a Bell measurement on pairs (P,Q ) and ({{P}\\prime},{{Q}\\prime} ). Depending on the outcome of the measurement, a suitable Hamiltonian for the quantum gate can be used by Bob (the receiver) to transform the information based on spin to charge-based information. This work offers relevant corrections to the misconception in Weng and Kais (2006 Chem. Phys. Lett. 421 338).

  2. Advancing Cancer Survivorship in a Country with 1.35 Billion People: The China Lymphoma Project

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven; Reno, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Rates of lymphoma are rising rapidly and lymphoma is now the ninth most common cancer among Chinese males. The China Lymphoma Project was founded to increase awareness of lymphoma in China, including the survivability of the disease and the availability of potentially life-saving treatments, and to provide social support for men, women, and children in China who are living with the disease. The project is working with China government officials, several of the top cancer hospitals in China and the U.S., internationally known oncologists and cancer researchers, pharmaceutical and biotech companies in China and the U.S., healthcare and environmental companies, the Confucius Institute at San Diego State University, and the Asian Heritage Society. Advances in e-Health are being utilized to provide patient education and social support. The project will provide free e-books that profile lymphoma survivors (e.g., Kai-Fu Lee, creator of Google China), new videos, websites, pamphlets, blogs, video logs (vlogs), peer-to-peer counseling and support, and information about the latest treatments and oncology clinical trials. PMID:27570834

  3. Night airglow in RGB mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhalev, Aleksandr; Podlesny, Stepan; Stoeva, Penka

    2016-09-01

    To study dynamics of the upper atmosphere, we consider results of the night sky photometry, using a color CCD camera and taking into account the night airglow and features of its spectral composition. We use night airglow observations for 2010-2015, which have been obtained at the ISTP SB RAS Geophysical Observatory (52° N, 103° E) by the camera with KODAK KAI-11002 CCD sensor. We estimate the average brightness of the night sky in R, G, B channels of the color camera for eastern Siberia with typical values ranging from ~0.008 to 0.01 erg*cm-2*s-1. Besides, we determine seasonal variations in the night sky luminosities in R, G, B channels of the color camera. In these channels, luminosities decrease in spring, increase in autumn, and have a pronounced summer maximum, which can be explained by scattered light and is associated with the location of the Geophysical Observatory. We consider geophysical phenomena with their optical effects in R, G, B channels of the color camera. For some geophysical phenomena (geomagnetic storms, sudden stratospheric warmings), we demonstrate the possibility of the quantitative relationship between enhanced signals in R and G channels and increases in intensities of discrete 557.7 and 630 nm emissions, which are predominant in the airglow spectrum.

  4. Global Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals the Mechanism of Phelipanche aegyptiaca Seed Germination.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhaoqun; Tian, Fang; Cao, Xiaolei; Xu, Ying; Chen, Meixiu; Xiang, Benchun; Zhao, Sifeng

    2016-07-15

    Phelipanche aegyptiaca is one of the most destructive root parasitic plants of Orobanchaceae. This plant has significant impacts on crop yields worldwide. Conditioned and host root stimulants, in particular, strigolactones, are needed for unique seed germination. However, no extensive study on this phenomenon has been conducted because of insufficient genomic information. Deep RNA sequencing, including de novo assembly and functional annotation was performed on P. aegyptiaca germinating seeds. The assembled transcriptome was used to analyze transcriptional dynamics during seed germination. Key gene categories involved were identified. A total of 274,964 transcripts were determined, and 53,921 unigenes were annotated according to the NR, GO, COG, KOG, and KEGG databases. Overall, 5324 differentially expressed genes among dormant, conditioned, and GR24-treated seeds were identified. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses demonstrated numerous DEGs related to DNA, RNA, and protein repair and biosynthesis, as well as carbohydrate and energy metabolism. Moreover, ABA and ethylene were found to play important roles in this process. GR24 application resulted in dramatic changes in ABA and ethylene-associated genes. Fluridone, a carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitor, alone could induce P. aegyptiaca seed germination. In addition, conditioning was probably not the indispensable stage for P. aegyptiaca, because the transcript level variation of MAX2 and KAI2 genes (relate to strigolactone signaling) was not up-regulated by conditioning treatment.

  5. Dynamic Influence Networks for Rule-based Models.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Angus G; Burks, Andrew; Lee, Kristine; Li, Xing; Boutillier, Pierre; Krivine, Jean; Fontana, Walter

    2017-08-29

    We introduce the Dynamic Influence Network (DIN), a novel visual analytics technique for representing and analyzing rulebased models of protein-protein interaction networks. Rule-based modeling has proved instrumental in developing biological models that are concise, comprehensible, easily extensible, and that mitigate the combinatorial complexity of multi-state and multi-component biological molecules. Our technique visualizes the dynamics of these rules as they evolve over time. Using the data produced by KaSim, an open source stochastic simulator of rule-based models written in the Kappa language, DINs provide a node-link diagram that represents the influence that each rule has on the other rules. That is, rather than representing individual biological components or types, we instead represent the rules about them (as nodes) and the current influence of these rules (as links). Using our interactive DIN-Viz software tool, researchers are able to query this dynamic network to find meaningful patterns about biological processes, and to identify salient aspects of complex rule-based models. To evaluate the effectiveness of our approach, we investigate a simulation of a circadian clock model that illustrates the oscillatory behavior of the KaiC protein phosphorylation cycle.

  6. Novel Functional Properties of Drosophila CNS Glutamate Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yan; Dharkar, Poorva; Han, Tae-Hee; Serpe, Mihaela; Lee, Chi-Hon; Mayer, Mark L.

    2016-12-01

    Phylogenetic analysis reveals AMPA, kainate, and NMDA receptor families in insect genomes, suggesting conserved functional properties corresponding to their vertebrate counterparts. However, heterologous expression of the Drosophila kainate receptor DKaiR1D and the AMPA receptor DGluR1A revealed novel ligand selectivity at odds with the classification used for vertebrate glutamate receptor ion channels (iGluRs). DKaiR1D forms a rapidly activating and desensitizing receptor that is inhibited by both NMDA and the NMDA receptor antagonist AP5; crystallization of the KaiR1D ligand-binding domain reveals that these ligands stabilize open cleft conformations, explaining their action as antagonists. Surprisingly, the AMPA receptor DGluR1A shows weak activation by its namesake agonist AMPA and also by quisqualate. Crystallization of the DGluR1A ligand-binding domain reveals amino acid exchanges that interfere with binding of these ligands. The unexpected ligand-binding profiles of insect iGluRs allows classical tools to be used in novel approaches for the study of synaptic regulation.

  7. Revealing the Atomic Site-Dependent g Factor within a Single Magnetic Molecule via the Extended Kondo Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Shixuan

    Control over charge and spin states at the single molecule level is crucial not only for a fundamental understanding of charge and spin interactions but also represents a prerequisite for development of molecular electronics and spintronics. In this talk, I will talk about the extended spin distribution in space beyond the central Mn ion, and onto the non-magnetic constituent atoms of the MnPc molecule. This extended spin distribution results in an extended Kondo effect, which can be explained by spin polarization induced by symmetry breaking of the molecular framework, as confirmed by DFT calculations. Measuring the evolution of the Kondo splitting with applied magnetic fields at different atomic sites, we find a spatial variation of the g-factor within a single molecule for the first time. The existence of atomic site-dependent g-factors can be attributed to specific molecular orbitals distributed over the entire molecule. This work not only open up a new opportunity for quantum information recording, but also provide a new route to explore the internal electronic and spin structure of complex molecules, hard to achieve otherwise. (L. W. Liu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 2015, 114, 126601. In collaboration with Liwei Liu, Kai Yang, Yuhang Jiang, Li Gao, Qi Liu, Boqun Song, Wende Xiao, Haitao Zhou, Hongjun Gao in CAS, Min Ouyang in MU, and A.H. Castro Neto in SNU.) Revealing the Atomic Site-Dependent g Factor within a Single Magnetic Molecule via the Extended Kondo Effect.

  8. Molecular mechanisms of membrane targeting antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Epand, Richard M; Walker, Chelsea; Epand, Raquel F; Magarvey, Nathan A

    2016-05-01

    The bacterial membrane provides a target for antimicrobial peptides. There are two groups of bacteria that have characteristically different surface membranes. One is the Gram-negative bacteria that have an outer membrane rich in lipopolysaccharide. Several antimicrobials have been found to inhibit the synthesis of this lipid, and it is expected that more will be developed. In addition, antimicrobial peptides can bind to the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and block passage of solutes between the periplasm and the cell exterior, resulting in bacterial toxicity. In Gram-positive bacteria, the major bacterial lipid component, phosphatidylglycerol can be chemically modified by bacterial enzymes to convert the lipid from anionic to cationic or zwitterionic form. This process leads to increased levels of resistance of the bacteria against polycationic antimicrobial agents. Inhibitors of this enzyme would provide protection against the development of bacterial resistance. There are antimicrobial agents that directly target a component of bacterial cytoplasmic membranes that can act on both Gram-negative as well as Gram-positive bacteria. Many of these are cyclic peptides with a rigid binding site capable of binding a lipid component. This binding targets antimicrobial agents to bacteria, rather than being toxic to host cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antimicrobial peptides edited by Karl Lohner and Kai Hilpert.

  9. Battlefield triage life signs detection techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boric-Lubecke, Olga; Lin, Jenshan; Park, Byung-Kwon; Li, Changzhi; Massagram, Wansuree; Lubecke, Victor M.; Host-Madsen, Anders

    2008-04-01

    Getting to wounded soldiers on the battlefield is a precarious task, and medics have a very high casualty rate. It is therefore a vital importance to prioritize which soldiers to attend to first. The first step is to detect life signs - if a soldier is dead or alive, and prioritize recovery of live soldiers. The second step is to obtain vital signs from live soldiers, and use this to prioritize which are in most urgent need of attention. Our team at Kai Sensors, University of Hawaii and University of Florida is developing Doppler radar heart sensing technology that provides the means to detect life signs, respiration and/or heart beat, at a distance, even for subjects lying motionless, e.g., unconscious subjects, wearing body armor, and hidden from direct view. Since this technology can deliver heart rate information with high accuracy, it may also enable the assessment of a subject's physiological and psychological state based on heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. Thus, the degree of a subject's injury may also be determined. The software and hardware developments and challenges for life signs detection and monitoring for battlefield triage will be discussed, including heart signal detection from all four sides of the human body, detection in the presence of body armor, and the feasibility of HRV parameter extraction.

  10. A Family of Intracardiac Ultrasound Imaging Devices Designed for Guidance of Electrophysiology Ablation Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Sahn, David J.; Stephens, Douglas N.; Cannata, Jonathan M.; Shung, K. Kirk; Oralkan, Ömer; Nikoozadeh, Amin; (Pierre) Khuri-Yakub, B. T.; Nguyen, Hien; Chen, Peter; Dentinger, Aaron M.; Wildes, Douglas; Thomenius, Kai E.; Mahajan, Aman; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; O’Donnell, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Our Bioengineering Research Partnership grant, “High Frequency Ultrasound Arrays for Cardiac Imaging”, including the individuals cited at the end of this paper - Douglas N. Stephens (UC Davis), Matthew O’Donnell (UW Seattle), Kai Thomenius (GE Global Research), Aaron M. Dentinger (GE Global Research), Douglas Wildes (GE Global Research), Peter Chen (St. Jude Medical), K. Kirk Shung (University of Southern California), Jonathan M. Cannata (University of Southern California), Butrus (Pierre) T. Khuri-Yakub (Stanford University), Omer Oralkan (Stanford University), Aman Mahajan (UCLA School of Medicine), Kalyanam Shivkumar (UCLA School of Medicine) and David J. Sahn (Oregon Health & Science University) – is in its sixth year of NIH funding, having proposed to develop a family of high frequency miniaturized forward and side-looking ultrasound imaging devices equipped with electrophysiology mapping and localization sensors and eventually to include a family of capactive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (cMUT) devices – a forward-looking cMUT MicroLinear array and a ring array capable of 3-dimensional imaging and a 5Fr lumen large enough to admit an electrode and ablation devices. PMID:19963529

  11. Strigolactones inhibit caulonema elongation and cell division in the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Beate; Proust, Hélène; Belcram, Katia; Labrune, Cécile; Boyer, François-Didier; Rameau, Catherine; Bonhomme, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    In vascular plants, strigolactones (SLs) are known for their hormonal role and for their role as signal molecules in the rhizosphere. SLs are also produced by the moss Physcomitrella patens, in which they act as signaling factors for controlling filament extension and possibly interaction with neighboring individuals. To gain a better understanding of SL action at the cellular level, we investigated the effect of exogenously added molecules (SLs or analogs) in moss growth media. We used the previously characterized Ppccd8 mutant that is deficient in SL synthesis and showed that SLs affect moss protonema extension by reducing caulonema cell elongation and mainly cell division rate, both in light and dark conditions. Based on this effect, we set up bioassays to examine chemical structure requirements for SL activity in moss. The results suggest that compounds GR24, GR5, and 5-deoxystrigol are active in moss (as in pea), while other analogs that are highly active in the control of pea branching show little activity in moss. Interestingly, the karrikinolide KAR1, which shares molecular features with SLs, did not have any effect on filament growth, even though the moss genome contains several genes homologous to KAI2 (encoding the KAR1 receptor) and no canonical homologue to D14 (encoding the SL receptor). Further studies should investigate whether SL signaling pathways have been conserved during land plant evolution.

  12. Ancient lenses in art and sculpture and the objects viewed through them, dating back 4500 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enoch, Jay M.

    1998-07-01

    The early history of lenses is controversial. The author has sought to address the problem by identifying lens elements (mainly convex/plano) which remain associated with objects intended to be viewed through them (i.e., in their original context). These are found in museums in sculptures, rings, pendants, etc. A number of outstanding examples will be illustrated in the talk; these sophisticated pieces of art are certainly not first constructs. Most are of rock crystal, rose quartz, or glass. Lenses have origin among artisans rather than scientists. Clearly, skills were often lost and rediscovered. Early lens-like objects have been found broadly in the eastern Mediterranean area/Middle East, in France, in Italy (Rome), and possibly in Peru and Scandinavia, etc. To date, the earliest lenses identified in context are from the IV/V Dynasties of Egypt, dating back to about 4500 years ago (e.g., the superb `Le Scribe Accroupi' and `the Kai' in the Louvre; added fine examples are located in the Cairo Museum). Latter examples have been found in Knossos (Minoan [Herakleion Museum]; ca. 3500 years ago); others had origin in Greece (examples in the Athens National Archeological Museum and the British Museum equals BM), in Rome (Metropolitan Museum, NY; BM; Vatican Museums; Bologna Archeological Museum), etc. Also. of great interest is the study of possible lens applications. This is a fascinating scientific, artistic and intellectual project.

  13. Non-contiguous finished genome sequence and description of Sulfurimonas hongkongensis sp. nov., a strictly anaerobic denitrifying, hydrogen- and sulfur-oxidizing chemolithoautotroph isolated from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lin; Shao, Ming-Fei; Zhang, Tong

    2014-06-15

    Here, we report a type strain AST-10 representing a novel species Sulfurimonas hongkongensis within Epsilonproteobacteria, which is involved in marine sedimentary sulfur oxidation and denitrification. Strain AST-10(T) (= DSM 22096(T) = JCM 18418(T)) was isolated from the coastal sediment at the Kai Tak Approach Channel connected to Victoria Harbour in Hong Kong. It grew chemolithoautotrophically using thiosulfate, sulfide or hydrogen as the sole electron donor and nitrate as the electron acceptor under anoxic conditions. It was rod-shaped and grew at 15-35°C (optimum at 30°C), pH 6.5-8.5 (optimum at 7.0-7.5), and 10-60 g L(-1) NaCl (optimum at 30 g L(-1)). Genome sequencing and annotation of strain AST-10(T) showed a 2,302,023 bp genome size, with 34.9% GC content, 2,290 protein-coding genes, and 42 RNA genes, including 3 rRNA genes.

  14. Areal Feature Matching Based on Similarity Using Critic Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Yu, K.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we propose an areal feature matching method that can be applied for many-to-many matching, which involves matching a simple entity with an aggregate of several polygons or two aggregates of several polygons with fewer user intervention. To this end, an affine transformation is applied to two datasets by using polygon pairs for which the building name is the same. Then, two datasets are overlaid with intersected polygon pairs that are selected as candidate matching pairs. If many polygons intersect at this time, we calculate the inclusion function between such polygons. When the value is more than 0.4, many of the polygons are aggregated as single polygons by using a convex hull. Finally, the shape similarity is calculated between the candidate pairs according to the linear sum of the weights computed in CRITIC method and the position similarity, shape ratio similarity, and overlap similarity. The candidate pairs for which the value of the shape similarity is more than 0.7 are determined as matching pairs. We applied the method to two geospatial datasets: the digital topographic map and the KAIS map in South Korea. As a result, the visual evaluation showed two polygons that had been well detected by using the proposed method. The statistical evaluation indicates that the proposed method is accurate when using our test dataset with a high F-measure of 0.91.

  15. Quantifying the robustness of circadian oscillations at the single-cell level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Guillaume; Rust, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Cyanobacteria are light-harvesting microorganisms that contribute to 30% of the photosynthetic activity on Earth and contain one of the simplest circadian systems in the animal kingdom. In Synechococcus elongatus , a species of freshwater cyanobacterium, circadian oscillations are regulated by the KaiABC system, a trio of interacting proteins that act as a biomolecular pacemaker of the circadian system. While the core oscillator precisely anticipates Earth's 24h light/dark cycle, it is unclear how much individual cells benefit from the expression and maintenance of a circadian clock. By studying the growth dynamics of individual S . elongatus cells under sudden light variations, we show that several aspects of cellular growth, such as a cell's division probability and its elongation rate, are tightly coupled to the circadian clock. We propose that the evolution and maintenance of a circadian clock increases the fitness of cells by allowing them to take advantage of cyclical light/dark environments by alternating between two phenotypes: expansionary, where cells grow and divide at a fast pace during the first part of the day, and conservative, where cells enter a more quiescent state to better prepare to the stresses associated with the night's prolonged darkness.

  16. Importance of active tectonics during karst formation. A Middle Eocene to Pleistocene example of the Lina Moutains (Irian Jaya, Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thery, J.-M.; Pubellier, M.; Thery, B.; Butterlin, J.; Blondeau, A.; Adams, C. G.

    1999-05-01

    The Lina Moutains show a typical example of karst formation associated to recent and active tectonics. The limestone samples were collected from giant potholes present beneath the heavy rainforest, during speleological expeditions to the Bird's Head of Irian-Jaya. Micropalaeontological data allow us to give a Middle Pleistocene age for the most recent karst formation. A detailed stratigraphy between the Upper Lutetian and the Middle Pleistocene was recorded, with tectonic events during the Oligocene and Pleistocene. The edge of the resurgence layer was also dated. We also conclude the probable existence of a subterraneous network downhill of the karst within the most recent levels of the Kais Limestone formation. We replace this formation within the tectonic evolution of this area between the Eocene and the Middle Pleistocene, in conjunction with the oblique convergence of the Pacific plate carrying volcanic arc fragments and the Australian margin, which resulted in folding, normal faulting associated with local extension, and wrench motion, which are settings capable of creating uplift of the carbonated platform.

  17. Determination of acrylamide in Thai-conventional snacks from Nong Mon market, Chonburi using GC-MS technique.

    PubMed

    Komthong, P; Suriyaphan, O; Charoenpanich, J

    2012-01-01

    Acrylamide in Thai-conventional snacks was analysed by GC/MS with a linear response ranged of 5-50 µg and r² > 0.99. The limit of detection (s/n = 3) and limit of quantification (s/n = 10) were 4 and 15 µg kg⁻¹, respectively, and RSD < 2%. Acrylamide in 19 food samples ranged from <15 µg kg⁻¹ to 1.26 mg kg⁻¹ with highest concentrations in Kanom Jak. Moderate levels (150-500 µg kg⁻¹) were detected mostly in deep-fried products, especially sweet potato and taro crisps, Kanom Kai Hong, banana fritters, durian chips and spring rolls. Thai-conventional snacks possessed low concentrations (<150 µg kg⁻¹) including Khao Larm, Pa Tong Koo, sweet banana crisps and deep-fried Chinese wonton. Acrylamide was lowest (<15 µg kg⁻¹) in fish strips, rice crackers, Hoi Jor and fried fish balls. Dietary habits by 400 tourists indicate a daily intake of acrylamide <150 ng, well below a toxic dose.

  18. Functional relevance of human adh polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, C J; Fukunaga, T; Sarkola, T; Chen, W J; Chen, C C; Ju, J M; Cheng, A T; Yamamoto, H; Kohlenberg-Müller, K; Kimura, M; Murayama, M; Matsushita, S; Kashima, H; Higuchi, S; Carr, L; Viljoen, D; Brooke, L; Stewart, T; Foroud, T; Su, J; Li, T K; Whitfield, J B

    2001-05-01

    This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2000 ISBRA Meeting in Yokohama, Japan. The chairs were C. J. Peter Eriksson and Tatsushige Fukunaga. The presentations were (1) 4-Methylpyrazole as a tool in the investigation of the role of ADH in the actions of alcohol in humans, by Taisto Sarkola and C. J. Peter Eriksson; (2) ADH2 polymorphism and flushing in Asian populations, by Wei J. Chen, C. C. Chen, J. M. Ju, and Andrew T. A. Cheng; (3) Role of ADH3 genotypes in the acute effects of alcohol in a Finnish population, by Hidetaka Yamamoto, Kathrin Kohlenberg-Müller, and C. J. Peter Eriksson; (4) Clinical characteristics and disease course of alcoholics with different ADH2 genotypes, by Mitsuru Kimura, Masanobu Murayama, Sachio Matsushita, Haruo Kashima, and Susumu Higuchi; (5) ADH2 polymorphism, alcohol drinking, and birth defects, by Lucinda Carr, D. Viljoen, L. Brooke, T. Stewart, T. Foroud, J. Su, and Ting-Kai Li; and (6) ADH genotypes and alcohol use in Europeans, by John B. Whitfield.

  19. An intimate link between antimicrobial peptide sequence diversity and binding to essential components of bacterial membranes.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Paulina; Rosa, Rafael D; Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine

    2016-05-01

    Antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs) are widespread in the living kingdom. They are key effectors of defense reactions and mediators of competitions between organisms. They are often cationic and amphiphilic, which favors their interactions with the anionic membranes of microorganisms. Several AMP families do not directly alter membrane integrity but rather target conserved components of the bacterial membranes in a process that provides them with potent and specific antimicrobial activities. Thus, lipopolysaccharides (LPS), lipoteichoic acids (LTA) and the peptidoglycan precursor Lipid II are targeted by a broad series of AMPs. Studying the functional diversity of immune effectors tells us about the essential residues involved in AMP mechanism of action. Marine invertebrates have been found to produce a remarkable diversity of AMPs. Molluscan defensins and crustacean anti-LPS factors (ALF) are diverse in terms of amino acid sequence and show contrasted phenotypes in terms of antimicrobial activity. Their activity is directed essentially against Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria due to their specific interactions with Lipid II or Lipid A, respectively. Through those interesting examples, we discuss here how sequence diversity generated throughout evolution informs us on residues required for essential molecular interaction at the bacterial membranes and subsequent antibacterial activity. Through the analysis of molecular variants having lost antibacterial activity or shaped novel functions, we also discuss the molecular bases of functional divergence in AMPs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antimicrobial peptides edited by Karl Lohner and Kai Hilpert.

  20. SFMBT2 (Scm-like with four mbt domains 2) negatively regulates cell migration and invasion in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Gwak, Jungsug; Shin, Jee Yoon; Lee, Kwanghyun; Hong, Soon Ki; Oh, Sangtaek; Goh, Sung-Ho; Kim, Won Sun; Ju, Bong Gun

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in men. In this study, we found that expression level of SFMBT2 is altered during prostate cancer progression and has been associated with the migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells. The expression level of SFMBT2 is high in poorly metastatic prostate cancer cells compared to highly metastatic prostate cancer cells. We also found that SFMBT2 knockdown elevates MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, and MMP-26 expression, leading to increased cell migration and invasion in LNCaP and VCaP cells. SFMBT2 interacts with YY1, RNF2, N-CoR and HDAC1/3, as well as repressive histone marks such as H3K9me2, H4K20me2, and H2AK119Ub which are associated with transcriptional repression. In addition, SFMBT2 knockdown decreased KAI1 gene expression through up-regulation of N-CoR gene expression. Expression of SFMBT2 in prostate cancer was strongly associated with clinicopathological features. Patients having higher Gleason score (≥ 8) had substantially lower SFMBT2 expression than patients with lower Gleason score. Moreover, tail vein or intraprostatic injection of SFMBT2 knockdown LNCaP cells induced metastasis. Taken together, our findings suggest that regulation of SFMBT2 may provide a new therapeutic strategy to control prostate cancer metastasis as well as being a potential biomarker of metastatic prostate cancer. PMID:27340776

  1. 'Glocal' robustness analysis and model discrimination for circadian oscillators.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Marc; Koeppl, Heinz; Hasler, Martin; Wagner, Andreas

    2009-10-01

    To characterize the behavior and robustness of cellular circuits with many unknown parameters is a major challenge for systems biology. Its difficulty rises exponentially with the number of circuit components. We here propose a novel analysis method to meet this challenge. Our method identifies the region of a high-dimensional parameter space where a circuit displays an experimentally observed behavior. It does so via a Monte Carlo approach guided by principal component analysis, in order to allow efficient sampling of this space. This 'global' analysis is then supplemented by a 'local' analysis, in which circuit robustness is determined for each of the thousands of parameter sets sampled in the global analysis. We apply this method to two prominent, recent models of the cyanobacterial circadian oscillator, an autocatalytic model, and a model centered on consecutive phosphorylation at two sites of the KaiC protein, a key circadian regulator. For these models, we find that the two-sites architecture is much more robust than the autocatalytic one, both globally and locally, based on five different quantifiers of robustness, including robustness to parameter perturbations and to molecular noise. Our 'glocal' combination of global and local analyses can also identify key causes of high or low robustness. In doing so, our approach helps to unravel the architectural origin of robust circuit behavior. Complementarily, identifying fragile aspects of system behavior can aid in designing perturbation experiments that may discriminate between competing mechanisms and different parameter sets.

  2. ‘Glocal’ Robustness Analysis and Model Discrimination for Circadian Oscillators

    PubMed Central

    Hafner, Marc; Koeppl, Heinz; Hasler, Martin; Wagner, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    To characterize the behavior and robustness of cellular circuits with many unknown parameters is a major challenge for systems biology. Its difficulty rises exponentially with the number of circuit components. We here propose a novel analysis method to meet this challenge. Our method identifies the region of a high-dimensional parameter space where a circuit displays an experimentally observed behavior. It does so via a Monte Carlo approach guided by principal component analysis, in order to allow efficient sampling of this space. This ‘global’ analysis is then supplemented by a ‘local’ analysis, in which circuit robustness is determined for each of the thousands of parameter sets sampled in the global analysis. We apply this method to two prominent, recent models of the cyanobacterial circadian oscillator, an autocatalytic model, and a model centered on consecutive phosphorylation at two sites of the KaiC protein, a key circadian regulator. For these models, we find that the two-sites architecture is much more robust than the autocatalytic one, both globally and locally, based on five different quantifiers of robustness, including robustness to parameter perturbations and to molecular noise. Our ‘glocal’ combination of global and local analyses can also identify key causes of high or low robustness. In doing so, our approach helps to unravel the architectural origin of robust circuit behavior. Complementarily, identifying fragile aspects of system behavior can aid in designing perturbation experiments that may discriminate between competing mechanisms and different parameter sets. PMID:19834597

  3. Inhibition of VEGF-dependent angiogenesis by the anti-CD82 monoclonal antibody 4F9 through regulation of lipid raft microdomains

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Sayaka; Iwata, Satoshi; Hatano, Ryo; Komiya, Eriko; Dang, Nam H.; Ohnuma, Kei; Morimoto, Chikao

    2016-05-20

    CD82 (also known as KAI1) belongs to the tetraspanin superfamily of type III transmembrane proteins, and is involved in regulating cell adhesion, migration and proliferation. In contrast to these well-established roles of CD82 in tumor biology, its function in endothelial cell (EC) activity and tumor angiogenesis is yet to be determined. In this study, we show that suppression of CD82 negatively regulates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis. Moreover, we demonstrate that the anti-CD82 mAb 4F9 effectively inhibits phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), which is the principal mediator of the VEGF-induced angiogenic signaling process in tumor angiogenesis, by regulating the organization of the lipid raft microdomain signaling platform in human EC. Our present work therefore suggests that CD82 on EC is a potential target for anti-angiogenic therapy in VEGFR2-dependent tumor angiogenesis. -- Highlights: •Knockdown of CD82 decreases EC migration, proliferation and angiogenesis. •Anti-CD82 mAb 4F9 inhibits EC migration, proliferation and angiogenesis. •4F9 inhibits VEGFR2 phosphorylation via control of CD82 distribution in lipid rafts.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: M67 variable stars photometry (Nardiello+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardiello, D.; Libralato, M.; Bedin, L. R.; Piotto, G.; Ochner, P.; Cunial, A.; Borsato, L.; Granata, V.

    2016-07-01

    All images of the OC M 67 [(RA,DE)=(08:51:18,+11:48:00)] were collected with the Asiago 67/92cm Schmidt Telescope located on Mount Ekar (longitude 11.5710°E, latitude 45.8430°N, altitude 1370m), that belongs to the Astronomical Observatory of Padova (OAPD), which is part of the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF). At the focus of the Schmidt telescope there is a SBIG STL-11000M camera, equipped with a Kodak KAI-11000M detector (4050x2672 pixel, field of view: 58x38-arcmin2, pixel scale: 862.5mas/pixel). In the first observing season (2012) M 67 data were collected in white light (hereafter indicated with filter N, where N stands for 'None'), with exposure time of 120s, and 60s (during the almost-full moon nights); during the second (2013) and the third season (2014) we collected 180s+15s R-filter and 180s B-filter images. Finally, during the fourth season (2015), the observations were carried out in I band (240s+15s) and V band (240s). A catalogue for variable stars in M 67 field is presented. (1 data file).

  5. Cold Atmospheric Plasma for Medicine: State of Research and Clinical Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Woedtke, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Basic research in plasma medicine has made excellent progress and resulted in the fundamental insights that biological effects of cold atmospheric plasmas (CAP) are significantly caused by changes of the liquid environment of cells, and are dominated by redox-active species. First CAP sources are CE-certified as medical devices. Main focus of plasma application is on wound healing and treatment of infective skin diseases. Clinical applications in this field confirm the supportive effect of cold plasma treatment in acceleration of healing of chronic wounds above all in cases where conventional treatment fails. Cancer treatment is another actual and emerging field of CAP application. The ability of CAP to kill cancer cells by induction of apoptosis has been proved in vitro. First clinical applications of CAP in palliative care of cancer are realized. In collaboration with Hans-Robert Metelmann, University Medicine Greifswald; Helmut Uhlemann, Klinikum Altenburger Land GmbH Altenburg; Anke Schmidt and Kai Masur, Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (INP Greifswald); Renate Schönebeck, Neoplas Tools GmbH Greifswald; and Klaus-Dieter Weltmann, Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (INP Greifswald).

  6. Culture heritage and identity - some cases in Taiwan on the protection of cultural heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, R. W.-C.

    2015-09-01

    The protection of cultural heritage relates to an issue of identity. How a nation or a state tries to face to its history is often revealed on the protection of cultural heritage. Taiwan is as a country with complex history, especially the period after World War II. This article will work on some significant cases, regarded as ideological representation of identity. This article works on the cultural identity by observing and analyzing different cases of classified Historic Monuments. In different political periods, we see how the government tries to fabricate on the identity issue by working on Historic Monuments preservation. During the presidency of Chiang Kai-shek and his son Chiang Ching-kuo, the classification of Historic Monuments tried to focus on those make by former Chinese migrants. They tried hard to establish and reaffirm the ever existing "fact" of people in Taiwan. Whereas after the late 1980s and 1990s, after Chiang's reign, local conscience has been awaken. Political ambience turned to a new era. This freedom of speech of post-Chiang's reign encourages people to seek on their identity. The complex political situation of Taiwan makes this seeking cultural identity related to the seeking of independence of Taiwan. The respect to the aboriginal people also reoriented to include the preservation of their tribes and villages.

  7. Integrating network structure and dynamic information for better routing strategy on scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiao-Gai; Wong, Eric W. M.; Wu, Zhi-Xi

    2009-06-01

    We study information packet routing processes on scale-free networks by mimicking the Internet traffic delivery strategies. We incorporate both the global network structure information and local queuing information in the dynamic processes. We propose several new routing strategies to guide the packet routing. The performance of the routing strategies is measured by the average transit time of the packets as well as their dependence on the traffic amount. We find that the routing strategies which integrate both global network structure information and local dynamic information perform much better than the traditional shortest-path routing protocol which takes into account only the global topological information. Moreover, from comparative studies of these routing strategies, we observe that some of our proposed methods can decrease the average transit time of packets but the performance is closely dependent on the total amount of traffic while some other proposed methods can have good performance independent of the total amount of traffic with hyper-excellent average transit time of packets. Also, numerical results show that our proposed methods integrating network structure information and local dynamic information can work much better than the methods recently proposed in [S. Sreenivasan, R. Cohen, E. López, Z. Toroczkai, H.E. Stanley, Phys. Rev. E 75 (2007) 036105, Zhi-Xi Wu, Gang Peng, Eric W.M. Wong, Kai-Hau Yeung, J. Stat. Mech. (2008) P11002.], which only considered network structure information.

  8. Geological controls on the Storegga gas-hydrate system of the mid-Norwegian continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bünz, Stefan; Mienert, Jürgen; Berndt, Christian

    2003-04-01

    The geologic setting of the formerly glaciated mid-Norwegian continental margin exerts specific controls on the formation of a bottom-simulating reflector (BSR) and the inferred distribution of gas hydrates. On the continental slope the lithology of glacigenic debris flow deposits and pre-glacial basin deposits of the Kai Formation prevent gas-hydrate formation, because of reduced pore size, reduced water content and fine-grained sediment composition. Towards the continental shelf, the shoaling and pinch-out of the gas-hydrate stability zone terminates the area of gas-hydrate growth. These geological controls confine the occurrence of gas hydrates and ensuing formation of a BSR to a small zone along the northern flank of the Storegga submarine slide and the slide area itself. A BSR inside the slide area indicates a dynamically adjusting gas-hydrate system to post-slide pressure-temperature equilibrium conditions. These observations, together with widespread evidence for fluid flow and deep-seated hydrocarbon reservoirs, suggest that the formation of BSR and gas hydrates on the mid-Norwegian continental margin is dominated by an advection of gas from the strata distinctly beneath the gas-hydrate stability zone. Fluids migrate upward within the Naust Formation and are deflected laterally by hydrated sediments and less permeable layers. Gases continually accumulate at the top of the slope, where overpressure eventually results in the formation of blow-out pipes and consequent pockmark development on the seabed.

  9. SFMBT2 (Scm-like with four mbt domains 2) negatively regulates cell migration and invasion in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gwak, Jungsug; Shin, Jee Yoon; Lee, Kwanghyun; Hong, Soon Ki; Oh, Sangtaek; Goh, Sung-Ho; Kim, Won Sun; Ju, Bong Gun

    2016-07-26

    Metastatic prostate cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in men. In this study, we found that expression level of SFMBT2 is altered during prostate cancer progression and has been associated with the migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells. The expression level of SFMBT2 is high in poorly metastatic prostate cancer cells compared to highly metastatic prostate cancer cells. We also found that SFMBT2 knockdown elevates MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, and MMP-26 expression, leading to increased cell migration and invasion in LNCaP and VCaP cells. SFMBT2 interacts with YY1, RNF2, N-CoR and HDAC1/3, as well as repressive histone marks such as H3K9me2, H4K20me2, and H2AK119Ub which are associated with transcriptional repression. In addition, SFMBT2 knockdown decreased KAI1 gene expression through up-regulation of N-CoR gene expression. Expression of SFMBT2 in prostate cancer was strongly associated with clinicopathological features. Patients having higher Gleason score (≥ 8) had substantially lower SFMBT2 expression than patients with lower Gleason score. Moreover, tail vein or intraprostatic injection of SFMBT2 knockdown LNCaP cells induced metastasis. Taken together, our findings suggest that regulation of SFMBT2 may provide a new therapeutic strategy to control prostate cancer metastasis as well as being a potential biomarker of metastatic prostate cancer.

  10. [Treatment of trichiasis and distichiasis with a biopsy punch -- an effective and practical method for eyelash follicle excision].

    PubMed

    Handzel, D M; Feretos, C; Aral, H

    2013-01-01

    Localised distichiasis and trichiasis with resulting keratopathy leads to considerable impairment for the patient. We present a new technique which enables the surgeon to excise the lash with its follicle to prevent regrowth in a single movement. The procedure does not need any preparation, leaving the lid with minimal concomitant trauma which prevents recurrence of trichiasis. The excision is done with a dermatological biopsy punch (Kai Europe GmbH, Solingen, Germany). The punch is placed on the appropriate place perpendicular to the lid margin where the punch is driven 3-4 mm parallel to the lash. Histopathological diagnosis should be obtained not only to prove the principle of this technique: the entire biopsy material should be handed over to the pathologist as distichiasis and trichiasis can be the first sign of lid tumours. The presented technique of hair follicle excision with a biopsy punch is extremely effective. Success can be proven by the results of histological work-up of the biopsy material. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Colonial modernity and networks in the Japanese empire: the role of Gotō Shinpei.

    PubMed

    Low, Morris

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how Gotō Shinpei (1857-1929) sought to develop imperial networks emanating out of Tokyo in the fields of public health, railways, and communications. These areas helped define colonial modernity in the Japanese empire. In public health, Gotō's friendship with the bacteriologist Kitasato Shibasaburō led to the establishment of an Institute of Infectious Diseases in Tokyo. Key scientists from the institute took up positions in colonial medical colleges, creating a public health network that serviced the empire. Much of the empire itself was linked by a network of railways. Gotō was the first president of the South Manchuria Railway company (SMR). Communication technologies, especially radio, helped to bring the empire closer. By 1925, the Tokyo Broadcasting Station had begun its public radio broadcasts. Broadcasting soon came under the umbrella of the new organization, the Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai (NHK). Gotō was NHK's first president. The empire would soon be linked by radio, and it was by radio that Emperor Hirohito announced to the nation in 1945 that the empire had been lost.

  12. Increased AICD generation does not result in increased nuclear translocation or activation of target gene transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Waldron, Elaine; Isbert, Simone; Kern, Andreas; Jaeger, Sebastian; Martin, Anne M.; Hebert, Sebastien S.; Behl, Christian; Weggen, Sascha; De Strooper, Bart; Pietrzik, Claus U.

    2008-08-01

    A sequence of amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleavages culminates in the sequential release of the APP intracellular domain (AICD) and the amyloid {beta} peptide (A{beta}) and/or p3 fragment. One of the environmental factors favouring the accumulation of AICD appears to be a rise in intracellular pH. Here we further identified the metabolism and subcellular localization of artificially expressed constructs under such conditions. We also co-examined the mechanistic lead up to the AICD accumulation and explored possible significances for its increased expression. We found that most of the AICD generated under pH neutralized conditions is likely cleaved from C83. While the AICD surplus was unable to further activate transcription of a luciferase reporter via a Gal4-DNA-binding domain, it failed entirely via the endogenous promoter regions of proposed target genes, APP and KAI1. The lack of a specific transactivation potential was also demonstrated by the unchanged levels of target gene mRNA. However, rather than translocating to the nucleus, the AICD surplus remains membrane tethered or free in the cytosol where it interacts with Fe65. Therefore we provide strong evidence that an increase in AICD generation does not directly promote gene activation of previously proposed target 0011gen.

  13. Mono- and bis-tolylterpyridine iridium(III) complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkle, Lindsay M.; Young, Jr., Victor G.; Mann, Kent R.

    2012-01-20

    The first structure report of trichlorido[4'-(p-tolyl)-2,2':6',2{double_prime}-terpyridine]iridium(III) dimethyl sulfoxide solvate, [IrCl{sub 3}(C{sub 22}H{sub 17}N{sub 3})] {center_dot} C{sub 2}H{sub 6}OS, (I), is presented, along with a higher-symmetry setting of previously reported bis[4'-(p-tolyl)-2,2':6',2{double_prime}-terpyridine]iridium(III) tris(hexafluoridophosphate) acetonitrile disolvate, [Ir(C{sub 22}H{sub 17}N{sub 3})2](PF{sub 6}){sub 3} {center_dot} 2C{sub 2}H{sub 3}N, (II) [Yoshikawa, Yamabe, Kanehisa, Kai, Takashima & Tsukahara (2007). Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. pp. 1911-1919]. For (I), the data were collected with synchrotron radiation and the dimethyl sulfoxide solvent molecule is disordered over three positions, one of which is an inversion center. The previously reported structure of (II) is presented in the more appropriate C2/c space group. The iridium complex and one PF{sub 6}{sup -} anion lie on twofold axes in this structure, making half of the molecule unique.

  14. Electric Field-Induced Phase Transitions in Ferroelectrics at Polymorphic Phase Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iamsasri, Thanakorn

    was studied using in situ XRD under electric fields. For the first time, an equation to quantify domain reorientation in orthorhombic lattice was developed and applied to LNKN. In prior studies, equations had only been developed to quantify the degree of domain reorientation for tetragonal and rhombohedral lattices. The results from this work show that the degree of domain reorientation increases as the composition approaches the orthorhombic-tetragonal phase boundary. Moreover, the time and frequency dependence of field-induced phase transition in BTBZT was studied using time-resolved XRD. The field-induced phase transition in BT-BZT strongly depends on the frequency of the applied fields, which corresponds with the relaxor behaviors observed in the macroscopic properties such as polarization and strain as a function of electric field. The kinetics of the field-induced phase transition in BT-BZT were modeled by a modified Kolmogorov-Avrami-Ishibashi (KAI) equation. In contrast to prior works, this study utilized a Bayesian inference method to obtain the distribution of parameters in the modified KAI equation without additional assumptions on the distribution. Bayesian inference allows for more variety in distributions (e.g. asymmetry and multimodality), whereas prior works usually assumed the distribution to be Gaussian. In summary, the results from this research improve the current understanding of fieldinduced phase transition in ferroelectrics and relaxors. Specifically, it explores the structural evolution of ferroelectrics during the application of high electric fields - field amplitudes that are typically seen during the poling process. Since the poling process directly affects the piezoelectric properties, the study of field-induced phase transitions is essential for understanding the origins of enhanced properties at phase boundaries, which are important for engineering devices with desired properties.

  15. Gravimetric and Spectroscopic Studies of Reversible Hydrogen Sorption on Nanoporous Clinoptilolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesnicenoks, P.; Grinberga, L.; Kleperis, J.

    2014-06-01

    Large surface aluminosilicate compounds such as zeolites are not the best option for hydrogen storage due to their low hydrogen sorption capacity above cryogenic temperatures. However, the known crystal structure and easy ion exchange allows considering zeolites as easily tuneable media that with a little effort can be changed to suitable porous media for hydrogen sorption. Metal (Li, Mg) and ammonia ion exchange is performed in natural clinoptilolite samples with the aim to increase the amount of adsorbed hydrogen. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the prepared samples is used to study sorption of hydrogen molecules in the vicinity of light metal ions. An original thermogravimetric method is applied to characterise the amount of sorbed hydrogen. Our experiments show that the highest hydrogen uptake (~ 6.2 wt%) is for a clinoptilolite sample treated in acid. The cation exchange did not provide the expected hydrogen sorption capability; however, the amount of sorbed hydrogen exceeded that for the initial material. Lielas virsmas alumosilikāta savienojumi, piemēram, ceolīti, nav labākais risinājums ūdeņraža uzglabāšanai, ņemot vērā to niecīgo sorbētā ūdeņraža daudzumu temperatūrā, kas augstāka par kriogēno. Tomēr zināmā kristāla struktūra un vieglā jonu apmaiņas iespēja paver iespēju izmantot ceolītus kā viegli pielāgojamu materiālu, kuru ar nelielām modifikācijām var pārveidot par piemērotu vidi ūdeņraža sorbcijai. Darbā metālu (Li, Mg) un amonjaka jonu apmaiņa tiek veikta dabīgā klinoptilolīta paraugos ar mērķi palielināt sorbētā ūdeņraža daudzumu materiālā. Furjē infrasarkanā spektroskopija tiek izmantota, lai pētītu ūdeņraža molekulas sorbciju vieglo metālu jonu tuvumā. Oriģināla termogravimetrijas metode tiek pielietota, lai raksturotu uzkrātā ūdeņraža daudzumu paraugos. Eksperimentālie rezultāti liecina, ka vislielākais uzkrātā ūdeņraža daudzums (~6,2 masas%) ir ar

  16. Education of Sustainability Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleschko, K.; Perrier, E.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    It's not the same to educate the sustainable engineers as to prepare the engineers of Sustainability. In the latter case all existing methods of inventive creativity (Altshuller, 1988) should be introduced in the teaching and research processes in order to create a culture of innovation at a group. The Theory of Inventing Problem Solving (TRIZ) is based on the pioneer works of Genrich Altshuller (1988) and his associated. Altshuller reviewed over 2 million patents beginning in 1946 (Orlov, 2006) and developed the Laws of Evolution of Technological Systems; An Algorithm for Inventive Problem Solving (ARIZ); forty typical Techniques for Overcoming System Conflicts (TOSC); a system of 76 Standard Approaches to Inventive Problems (Standards) etc. (Fey and Rivin, 1997). Nowadays, "a theory and constructive instrument package for the controlled synthesis of ideas and the focused transformation of the object to be improved" (Orlov, 2006) are used with high efficacy as the teaching and thinking inventive problem-solving methods in some high schools (Barak and Mesika, 2006; Sokoi et al., 2008) as well as a framework for research (Moehrle, 2005) in construction industry (Zhang et al., 2009); chemical engineering (Cortes Robles et al., 2008) etc. In 2005 US Congress passed the innovation act with the intent of increasing research investment (Gupta, 2007), while China had included inventive principles of TRIZ in strategy and decision making structure design (Kai Yang, 2010). The integrating of TRIZ into eco-innovation diminishes the common conflicts between technology and environment (Chang and Chen, 2004). In our presentation we show discuss some examples of future patents elaborated by the master degree students of Queretaro University, Faculty of Engineering, Mexico using TRIZ methods. References 1. Altshuller, G., 1988. Creativity as an Exact Science. Gordon and Breach, New York. 2. Chang, Hsiang-Tang and Chen, Jahau Lewis, 2004. The conflict-problem-solving CAD software

  17. Nanoscale studies of switching behavior of ferroelectric thin films by using piezoresponse force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Dong

    will affect the characteristic switching behavior. It is found from these studies that for the polycrystalline PZT thin film capacitors there is a significant capacitor-size effect. In both the time-dependent and bias-dependent studies for larger-size polycrystalline PZT capacitors the switching is dominated by nucleation. For smaller-size PZT capacitors the switching is dominated by domain-wall motion. These experimental data have been fitted with two different theoretical models: the Nucleation-Limited-Switching model (NLS model) with a Lorentz distribution of the characteristic nucleation time and Kolmogorov-Avrami-Ishibashi model (KAI model). For studies of epitaxial PZT capacitors, the time-dependent switching kinetic behavior both for larger square-shape and for smaller circular-shape capacitors is also investigated. The epitaxial-capacitor-experimental data has been interpreted as due to a theoretical model based on the Kolmogorov-Avrami-Ishibashi model (KAI model). Finally a series of ultra-thin BaTiO3 films have been investigated by using PFM and conducting-AFM to study polarization-dependent resistance. In addition, several new ideas are discussed for future experiments to further extend our knowledge in this area.

  18. Forgotten research from 19th century: science should not follow fashion.

    PubMed

    Galler, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    The fine structure of cross-striated muscle and its changes during contraction were known already in considerable detail in the 19th century. This knowledge was the result of studying birefringence properties of muscle fibres under the polarization microscope, a method mainly established by Brücke (Denk Kais Akad Wiss Math Naturwiss Cl 15:69-84, 1858) in Vienna, Austria. The knowledge was seemingly forgotten in the first half of the 20th century before it was rediscovered in 1954. This rediscovery was essential for the formulation of the sliding filament theory which represents the commonly accepted concept of muscle contraction (A.F. Huxley and Niedergerke, Nature 173:971-973, 1954; H.E. Huxley and Hanson, Nature 173:973-976, 1954). The loss of knowledge was the result of prevailing views within the scientific community which could be attributed to "fashion": it was thought that the changes of cross-striations, which were observed under the microscope, were inconsequential for contraction since other types of movements like cell crawling and smooth muscle contraction were not associated with similar changes of the fine structure. The basis for this assumption was the view that all types of movements associated with life must be caused by the same mechanisms. Furthermore, it was assumed that the light microscopy was of little use, because the individual molecules that carry out life functions cannot be seen under the light microscope. This unfortunate episode of science history teaches us that the progress of science can severely be retarded by fashion.

  19. Nuclear translocation uncovers the amyloid peptide Aβ42 as a regulator of gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Barucker, Christian; Harmeier, Anja; Weiske, Joerg; Fauler, Beatrix; Albring, Kai Frederik; Prokop, Stefan; Hildebrand, Peter; Lurz, Rudi; Heppner, Frank L; Huber, Otmar; Multhaup, Gerhard

    2014-07-18

    Although soluble species of the amyloid-β peptide Aβ42 correlate with disease symptoms in Alzheimer disease, little is known about the biological activities of amyloid-β (Aβ). Here, we show that Aβ peptides varying in lengths from 38 to 43 amino acids are internalized by cultured neuroblastoma cells and can be found in the nucleus. By three independent methods, we demonstrate direct detection of nuclear Aβ42 as follows: (i) biochemical analysis of nuclear fractions; (ii) detection of biotin-labeled Aβ in living cells by confocal laser scanning microscopy; and (iii) transmission electron microscopy of Aβ in cultured cells, as well as brain tissue of wild-type and transgenic APPPS1 mice (overexpression of amyloid precursor protein and presenilin 1 with Swedish and L166P mutations, respectively). Also, this study details a novel role for Aβ42 in nuclear signaling, distinct from the amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that Aβ42 specifically interacts as a repressor of gene transcription with LRP1 and KAI1 promoters. By quantitative RT-PCR, we confirmed that mRNA levels of the examined candidate genes were exclusively decreased by the potentially neurotoxic Aβ42 wild-type peptide. Shorter peptides (Aβ38 or Aβ40) and other longer peptides (nontoxic Aβ42 G33A substitution or Aβ43) did not affect mRNA levels. Overall, our data indicate that the nuclear translocation of Aβ42 impacts gene regulation, and deleterious effects of Aβ42 in Alzheimer disease pathogenesis may be influenced by altering the expression profiles of disease-modifying genes.

  20. Late cenozoic vertical movements of non-volcanic islands in the Banda Arc area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Smet, M. E. M.; Fortuin, A. R.; Tjokrosapoetro, S.; Van Hinte, J. E.

    During onshore campaigns of the Snellius-II Expedition late Cenozoic sections were recorded and systematically sampled on the non-volcanic outer Banda Arc Islands of Timor, Buton, Buru, Seram and Kai. Microfaunal studies provided age and palaeobathymetric data to construct geohistory diagrams. Geohistory analysis of field and laboratory data allows to calculate rates of vertical movements of the island basements. The vertical movements were intermittent and differed widely from place to place in the arc; short periods of uplift alternated with longer periods of tectonic rest or subsidence and lateral variations in timing and magnitude seem to be more the rule than the exception. Movements affected larger segments of the arc at about the same time, especially since the late Pliocene, when widespread vertical movements started, which led to the present configuration of the arc. Rates of uplift or subsidence differed within each segment. On an intermediate scale, deformation has the character of tilting or doming of whole islands or parts of islands. On a local scale, various types of deformation occur. Calculated duration of uplift pulses is in the order of a million years where less than 50 cm·ka -1 of vertical movements are involved. Sections, however, with a high time stratigraphic resolutions show pulses of uplift with a duration of only some hundreds of thousands of years and rates of more than 500 cm·ka -1. The duration of such pulses therefore is comparable to that of eustatic third order sea level changes. But because their amplitude is an order of magnitude larger, this implies that in tectonically active areas eustatic signals, preserved in the sedimentary record, will be overprinted by tectonics, i.e. will be difficult to disentangle from the tectonic signal.

  1. Measuring the style of innovative thinking among engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passig, David; Cohen, Lizi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many tools have been developed to measure the ability of workers to innovate. However, all of them are based on self-reporting questionnaires, which raises questions about their validity Purpose: The aim was to develop and validate a tool, called Ideas Generation Implementation (IGI), to objectively measure the style and potential of engineering students in generating innovative technological ideas. The cognitive framework of IGI is based on the Architectural Innovation Model (AIM). Tool description: The IGI tool was designed to measure the level of innovation in generating technological ideas and their potential to be implemented. These variables rely on the definition of innovation as 'creativity, implemented in a high degree of success'. The levels of innovative thinking are based on the AIM and consist of four levels: incremental innovation, modular innovation, architectural innovation and radical innovation. Sample: Sixty experts in technological innovation developed the tool. We checked its face validity and calculated its reliability in a pilot study (kappa = 0.73). Then, 145 undergraduate students were sampled at random from the seven Israeli universities offering engineering programs and asked to complete the questionnaire. Design and methods: We examined the construct validity of the tool by conducting a variance analysis and measuring the correlations between the innovator's style of each student, as suggested by the AIM, and the three subscale factors of creative styles (efficient, conformist and original), as suggested by the Kirton Adaptors and Innovators (KAI) questionnaire. Results: Students with a radical innovator's style inclined more than those with an incremental innovator's style towards the three creative cognitive styles. Students with an architectural innovator's style inclined moderately, but not significantly, towards the three creative styles. Conclusions: The IGI tool objectively measures innovative thinking among students

  2. Prices of Healthy and Unhealthy Beverages in High and Low Per Capita Income Areas

    PubMed Central

    Corrado, Rachel S; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2013-01-01

    To better understand availability and price of beverages in Hawai‘i, the prices of healthy (milk, orange juice, unsweetened tea, unsweetened coffee, diet soda) and unhealthy beverages (regular soda, fruit drink, sports drink, sweetened tea, flavored water) were collected and the beverage prices in lower per capita income areas and higher per capita income areas were compared. Cross-sectional data on prices of healthy and unhealthy beverages were collected from supermarkets, convenience stores, and quick serve restaurants from two lower per capita income areas (Waimanalo and Wai‘anae) and two higher per capita income areas (Hawai‘i Kai and Manoa) on O‘ahu, Hawai‘i from May 15 to June 10, 2012. Using composite data from across all areas, there was a significant difference of $0.58 (95% CI 0.46, 0.70) between the healthy beverages' mean price per 20 ounces ($1.76 ± $0.86) and the unhealthy beverages' mean price per 20 ounces ($1.18 ± $0.38) (P <.001). Although there was no statistically significant difference between per capita income areas, the lower per capita income areas' mean price per 20 ounces of healthy beverages was slightly higher and mean price per 20 ounces of unhealthy beverages was slightly lower than the higher per capita income areas. Pricing strategies that enable healthy beverages to be less expensive than unhealthy beverages is one method to increase consumption of healthy beverages and decrease consumption of unhealthy beverages. Reduction in unhealthy beverage consumption is needed to help reduce obesity, especially in the lower per capita income areas that have higher obesity prevalence. PMID:23520564

  3. Teenage-onset non-syndromic deafness associated with a mutation and a polymorphism in the mitochondrial 12S ribsomal RNA gene in a large Zairese pedigree

    SciTech Connect

    Matthijs, G.; Claes, S.; Cassiman, J.J.

    1994-09-01

    Non-syndromic deafness has been described as both an autosomal dominant and a recessive trait. Recently, Prezant et al. have identified a 1555 A to G substitution in the mitcohondrial 12S rRNA gene associated with deafness, either in an early-onset form with a postulated recessive nuclear defect for phenotypic expression, or after treatment with aminoglycosides. We have analyzed samples from a large pedigree originating from the village KAI SINGINI in Bas-Zaire. Patients have a maternally inherited, sudden-onset and bilateral sensineuronal deafness before the age of 20. To the best of our knowledge, no aminoglycosides have been given to these individuals. Sequencing of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene revealed the presence of a homoplasmic 1555 A-G mutation in 8 patients tested. This mutation is invariably associated with a newly described T-C transition at 1420 in the same gene. The 1420 mutation was also found in 1 of 30 unrelated black individuals. It is phylogenetically less conserved than its neighboring bases and than the 1555 mutation. It has been speculated that the 1555 mutation results in greater susceptibility to the effects of aminoglycosides on translational fidelity in the mitochondrial ribosome. It remains to be investigated whether the substitution at 1420 contributes to the ribosomal malfunction and the disease phenotype. Our results add to previous evidence for the 1555 mutation as a pathogenic mutation in non-syndromic deafness. We are currently collecting further family data and samples. The analysis of the entire pedigree will shed light on the possible contribution of nuclear defects in the cochlear-specific damage by impairment of mitochondrial translation.

  4. Metabolic Environments and Genomic Features Associated with Pathogenic and Mutualistic Interactions between Bacteria and Plants is accepted for publication in MPMI

    SciTech Connect

    Karpinets, Tatiana V; Park, Byung H; Syed, Mustafa H; Klotz, Martin G; Uberbacher, Edward C

    2014-01-01

    protein belongs to the same clan of thioredoxins as the circadian clock protein kaiB found in many mutualistic symbionts and highly abundant in blood cells colonized by a human pathogen, Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi, the cause of typhoid fever.

  5. [Experience of using injectable formulation of buprenorphine for the detoxification treatment of heroin dependence patients].

    PubMed

    Aso, Katsuro

    2009-06-01

    Forty-four heroin dependence patients took detoxification treatment in Fukko-kai Tarumi Hospital from October 1998 to April 2008 (total of 80 admissions). Injectable formulation of buprenorphine (0.2 mg) was used intramuscularly to relieve withdrawal symptoms from October 2002. In the initial phase, small dosage of buprenorphine (0.4 mg per day) was dispensed but obvious effects were not confirmed. Therefore, the dosage was increased to 0.6 mg (3 ampoules), possibly more for 27 patients (total of 53 admissions) from October 2005. While treatment was interrupted by various reasons in 6 patients (total of 10 admissions), the rest completed detoxification. Dosage of buprenorphine given to the patients varied from 0.6 mg (3 ampoules) to 1.6 mg (8 ampoules) per day, and only 4 patients required over 1.0 mg. While duration of administration ranged from 5 days to 15 days, it was between 7 days and 10 days in over the half cases. When sufficient amount of buprenorphine was administered, severity and duration of heroin withdrawal symptoms was distinctly reduced. Since the introduction of heroin detoxification with buprenorphine, number of patients who request the treatment voluntarily increased including those who relapsed, but the length of hospital stay was shortened. One patient rejected buprenorphine injection for unknown reason and one patient left the hospital because of insufficient effect due to insufficient amount of buprenorphine dose, serious adverse effect was not observed. Detoxification treatment with buprenorphine cannot ensure sustained abstinence but can motivate heroin-using patients to receive treatment and strive for abstinence.

  6. Human aflatoxin exposure in Kenya, 2007: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yard, Ellen E; Daniel, Johnni H; Lewis, Lauren S; Rybak, Michael E; Paliakov, Ekaterina M; Kim, Andrea A; Montgomery, Joel M; Bunnell, Rebecca; Abudo, Mamo Umuro; Akhwale, Willis; Breiman, Robert F; Sharif, Shahnaaz K

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxins contaminate approximately 25% of agricultural products worldwide. They can cause liver failure and liver cancer. Kenya has experienced multiple aflatoxicosis outbreaks in recent years, often resulting in fatalities. However, the full extent of aflatoxin exposure in Kenya has been unknown. Our objective was to quantify aflatoxin exposure across Kenya. We analysed aflatoxin levels in serum specimens from the 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey - a nationally representative, cross-sectional serosurvey. KAIS collected 15,853 blood specimens. Of the 3180 human immunodeficiency virus-negative specimens with ≥1 mL sera, we randomly selected 600 specimens stratified by province and sex. We analysed serum specimens for aflatoxin albumin adducts by using isotope dilution MS/MS to quantify aflatoxin B1-lysine, and normalised with serum albumin. Aflatoxin concentrations were then compared by demographic, socioeconomic and geographic characteristics. We detected serum aflatoxin B1-lysine in 78% of serum specimens (range =

  7. The Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover Mastcam instruments: Preflight and in-flight calibration, validation, and data archiving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, J. F.; Godber, A.; McNair, S.; Caplinger, M. A.; Maki, J. N.; Lemmon, M. T.; Van Beek, J.; Malin, M. C.; Wellington, D.; Kinch, K. M.; Madsen, M. B.; Hardgrove, C.; Ravine, M. A.; Jensen, E.; Harker, D.; Anderson, R. B.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Morris, R. V.; Cisneros, E.; Deen, R. G.

    2017-07-01

    The NASA Curiosity rover Mast Camera (Mastcam) system is a pair of fixed-focal length, multispectral, color CCD imagers mounted 2 m above the surface on the rover's remote sensing mast, along with associated electronics and an onboard calibration target. The left Mastcam (M-34) has a 34 mm focal length, an instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of 0.22 mrad, and a FOV of 20° × 15° over the full 1648 × 1200 pixel span of its Kodak KAI-2020 CCD. The right Mastcam (M-100) has a 100 mm focal length, an IFOV of 0.074 mrad, and a FOV of 6.8° × 5.1° using the same detector. The cameras are separated by 24.2 cm on the mast, allowing stereo images to be obtained at the resolution of the M-34 camera. Each camera has an eight-position filter wheel, enabling it to take Bayer pattern red, green, and blue (RGB) "true color" images, multispectral images in nine additional bands spanning 400-1100 nm, and images of the Sun in two colors through neutral density-coated filters. An associated Digital Electronics Assembly provides command and data interfaces to the rover, 8 Gb of image storage per camera, 11 bit to 8 bit companding, JPEG compression, and acquisition of high-definition video. Here we describe the preflight and in-flight calibration of Mastcam images, the ways that they are being archived in the NASA Planetary Data System, and the ways that calibration refinements are being developed as the investigation progresses on Mars. We also provide some examples of data sets and analyses that help to validate the accuracy and precision of the calibration.

  8. Enhanced nonlinear optics and other applications of resonant plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Hans D.

    2011-10-01

    A surface plasmon polariton is the result of a photon coupling to a collective charge excitation in an electron gas. It is the optical equivalent of ordinary electrical currents at lower frequencies. By this analogy, just as regular electronic circuits can have resonances at discrete frequencies, metal nanostructures can exhibit plasmonic resonances in the optical frequency regime. These resonances tend to concentrate the electromagnetic field intensity by several orders of magnitude within nanometer scale hotspots located at sharp corners or inside narrow gaps in the structure. This phenomenon can be used to enhance a number of different effects, such as Raman scattering, fluorescence efficiency and photochemical reactions. This talk will give an overview of some of our recent work in this area, focusing on using plasmons to enhance the second harmonic generation (SHG) from nonlinear optical films. In particular, we have shown that the addition of plasmonic nanoparticles to such a film can increase the SHG emission as much as 2000 times. We have applied this idea to SHG generation in tapered optical fiber, where we obtain quasi-phase matching by patterning the deposition of metal nanoparticles onto the otherwise uniform nonlinear film that coats the fiber. I will also discuss our recent work on plasmonically enhanced nonlinear microscopy and plasmon enhanced photovotaics. [4pt] In collaboration with Kai Chen, Chih-Yu Jao, Chalongrat Daengngam, Jeong-Ah Lee, and J. Randall Heflin, VirginiaTech, Department of Physics; Sungsool Wi, VirginiaTech, Department of Chemistry; Lauren Neely, Vladimir Kochergin, MicroXact, Inc.; and Yong Xu, Virginia Tech, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering.

  9. Long-term Decline of Global Atmospheric Ethane Concentrations and Implications for Methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, D. R.; Simpson, I. J.; Sulbaek Andersen, M.; Meinardi, S.; Bruhwiler, L.; Blake, N. J.; Helmig, D.

    2012-12-01

    Methane (CH4) and ethane (C2H6) are the most abundant hydrocarbons in the remote atmosphere. Both are precursors to tropospheric ozone (O3) and methane is a potent greenhouse gas. Here we present the longest continuous record of global atmospheric ethane levels. We show that global ethane emission rates decreased from 14.3 to 11.3 Tg yr-1, or 21% from 1984-2010. Based on simulations using the TM5 atmospheric tracer transport model, ethane's long-term global decline is attributed to decreasing fugitive emissions from ethane's fossil fuel source—most likely reduced venting and flaring of natural gas in oil fields—rather than declines in its other major sources, biofuel use and biomass burning. In addition, our calculated top-down estimates of ethane's global emission rates agree well with recent bottom-up estimates from the literature, which suggests that the ethane budget is quite well balanced and unlikely to have any additional major sources. Ethane's major emission sources are shared with methane, and recent studies have disagreed on whether reduced fossil fuel or microbial emissions have caused methane's growth rate to slow (Aydin et al., 2011; Kai et al., 2011). Because methane and ethane are emitted from fossil fuel sources with characteristic emission ratios, our long-term ethane record can be used to quantitatively investigate methane's slowing growth rate. We show that reduced fugitive fossil fuel emissions account for at least 10-21 Tg yr-1 (30-70%) of the decrease in methane's global emissions, significantly contributing to methane's slowing growth rate since the mid-1980s.

  10. Integrin-mediated traction force enhances paxillin molecular associations and adhesion dynamics that increase the invasiveness of tumor cells into a three-dimensional extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Mekhdjian, Armen H; Kai, FuiBoon; Rubashkin, Matthew G; Prahl, Louis S; Przybyla, Laralynne M; McGregor, Alexandra L; Bell, Emily S; Barnes, J Matthew; DuFort, Christopher C; Ou, Guanqing; Chang, Alice C; Cassereau, Luke; Tan, Steven J; Pickup, Michael W; Lakins, Jonathan N; Ye, Xin; Davidson, Michael W; Lammerding, Jan; Odde, David J; Dunn, Alexander R; Weaver, Valerie M

    2017-06-01

    Metastasis requires tumor cells to navigate through a stiff stroma and squeeze through confined microenvironments. Whether tumors exploit unique biophysical properties to metastasize remains unclear. Data show that invading mammary tumor cells, when cultured in a stiffened three-dimensional extracellular matrix that recapitulates the primary tumor stroma, adopt a basal-like phenotype. Metastatic tumor cells and basal-like tumor cells exert higher integrin-mediated traction forces at the bulk and molecular levels, consistent with a motor-clutch model in which motors and clutches are both increased. Basal-like nonmalignant mammary epithelial cells also display an altered integrin adhesion molecular organization at the nanoscale and recruit a suite of paxillin-associated proteins implicated in invasion and metastasis. Phosphorylation of paxillin by Src family kinases, which regulates adhesion turnover, is similarly enhanced in the metastatic and basal-like tumor cells, fostered by a stiff matrix, and critical for tumor cell invasion in our assays. Bioinformatics reveals an unappreciated relationship between Src kinases, paxillin, and survival of breast cancer patients. Thus adoption of the basal-like adhesion phenotype may favor the recruitment of molecules that facilitate tumor metastasis to integrin-based adhesions. Analysis of the physical properties of tumor cells and integrin adhesion composition in biopsies may be predictive of patient outcome. © 2017 Mekhdjian, Kai, Rubashkin, et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  11. An Efficient Method for Adventitious Root Induction from Stem Segments of Brassica Species.

    PubMed

    Srikanth, Sandhya; Choong, Tsui Wei; Yan, An; He, Jie; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Plant propagation via in vitro culture is a very laborious and time-consuming process. The growth cycle of some of the crop species is slow even in the field and the consistent commercial production is hard to maintain. Enhanced methods of reduced cost, materials and labor significantly impact the research and commercial production of field crops. In our studies, stem-segment explants of Brassica species were found to generate adventitious roots (AR) in aeroponic systems in less than a week. As such, the efficiency of rooting from stem explants of six cultivar varieties of Brassica spp was tested without using any plant hormones. New roots and shoots were developed from Brassica alboglabra (Kai Lan), B. oleracea var. acephala (purple kale), B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis L (Pai Tsai, Nai Bai C, and Nai Bai T) explants after 3 to 5 days of growing under 20 ± 2°C cool root zone temperature (C-RZT) and 4 to 7 days in 30 ± 2°C ambient root zone temperature (A-RZT). At the base of cut end, anticlinal and periclinal divisions of the cambial cells resulted in secondary xylem toward pith and secondary phloem toward cortex. The continuing mitotic activity of phloem parenchyma cells led to a ring of conspicuous white callus. Root initials formed from the callus which in turn developed into ARs. However, B. rapa var. nipposinica (Mizuna) explants were only able to root in C-RZT. All rooted explants were able to develop into whole plants, with higher biomass obtained from plants that grown in C-RZT. Moreover, explants from both RZTs produced higher biomass than plants grown from seeds (control plants). Rooting efficiency was affected by RZTs and explant cuttings of donor plants. Photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rate (Asat ) and stomatal conductance (gssat ) were significantly differentiated between plants derived from seeds and explants at both RZTs. All plants in A-RZT had highest transpiration rates.

  12. Prices of healthy and unhealthy beverages in high and low per capita income areas.

    PubMed

    Watters, Corilee A; Corrado, Rachel S; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2013-03-01

    To better understand availability and price of beverages in Hawai'i, the prices of healthy (milk, orange juice, unsweetened tea, unsweetened coffee, diet soda) and unhealthy beverages (regular soda, fruit drink, sports drink, sweetened tea, flavored water) were collected and the beverage prices in lower per capita income areas and higher per capita income areas were compared. Cross-sectional data on prices of healthy and unhealthy beverages were collected from supermarkets, convenience stores, and quick serve restaurants from two lower per capita income areas (Waimanalo and Wai'anae) and two higher per capita income areas (Hawai'i Kai and Manoa) on O'ahu, Hawai'i from May 15 to June 10, 2012. Using composite data from across all areas, there was a significant difference of $0.58 (95% CI 0.46, 0.70) between the healthy beverages' mean price per 20 ounces ($1.76 ± $0.86) and the unhealthy beverages' mean price per 20 ounces ($1.18 ± $0.38) (P <.001). Although there was no statistically significant difference between per capita income areas, the lower per capita income areas' mean price per 20 ounces of healthy beverages was slightly higher and mean price per 20 ounces of unhealthy beverages was slightly lower than the higher per capita income areas. Pricing strategies that enable healthy beverages to be less expensive than unhealthy beverages is one method to increase consumption of healthy beverages and decrease consumption of unhealthy beverages. Reduction in unhealthy beverage consumption is needed to help reduce obesity, especially in the lower per capita income areas that have higher obesity prevalence.

  13. RELAP5-3D Architectural Developments in 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. George L. Mesina

    2004-08-01

    Currently, RELAP5 is undergoing a transformation that will replace much of its coding with equivalent structured Fortran 90 coding. Four efforts are underway to modernize the code architecture of RELAP5-3D. These are parallelization, vectorization, code restructuring, and conversion to Fortran 90. The first two improve code run speed via on computer platforms of certain architectures. These code modifications have little effect on normal code performance on non-vector and non-parallel computers because they are mostly done with compiler directives. The third and fourth efforts involve considerable rewriting of the source code. The third code improvement effort addresses code readability and maintainability. These are being greatly enhanced by application of a Fortran code-restructuring tool. The fourth effort is conversion to Fortran 90. The bulk of the coding is being rewritten in Fortran 90. This is a ground up reworking of the coding that begins with completely reorganizing the underlying database and continues with the source code. It will reach every part of RELAP5-3D. Each of these efforts is discussed in detail in a different section. Section 1 relates background information. Section 2 covers the parallelization effort. Section 3 covers the efforts to vectorize the code. Section 4 covers the code restructuring. Section 5 covers the Fortran 90 effort. Outline Background: longevity, maintenance & development, reliability, speed Parallelization: KAI to OpenMP, previous work & current, domain decomposition, done. Vectorization: Speed - Fed init, vectors in PCs, INL Cray SV1, R5 Phant, EXV, results. Code Restructuring: Reason to restructure, study of restruct, For Study: what it does, Fortran 90: Modernization -

  14. G x E: a NIAAA workshop on gene-environment interactions.

    PubMed

    Gunzerath, Lorraine; Goldman, David

    2003-03-01

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) sponsored a May 2002 workshop on gene-environment interaction (G x E) research to identify potential roadblocks to further research and to propose solutions to those roadblocks, to optimize investigative opportunities and multidisciplinary or multi-institution collaborations, and to explore ways that NIAAA can facilitate G x E studies. Sessions included panels on animal models; phenotypes; genetic findings in humans; study designs and analytical methods; and assessment of environmental risk. Key among the identified challenges to progress in G x E research were issues of study design and sampling strategies; logistic and methodological costs and constraints; availability and understanding of data analysis techniques; potential stigmatization of study populations; and organizational/bureaucratic structures that are inadequate to address the unique needs of large-scale, multicenter, longitudinal projects. Participants proposed a series of recommendations to address these issues. Session coordinators included: Gayle Boyd, Kendall Bryant, Page Chiapella, Vivian Faden, David Goldman, and Antonio Noronha. Session participants included: Laura Almasy, Henri Begleiter, Raul Caetano, Bruce Dudek, Mary Dufour, Cindy Ehlers, Mary-Anne Enoch, Joel Gelernter, David Goldman, Bridget Grant, Lorraine Gunzerath, Deborah Hasin, Andrew Heath, Victor Hesselbrock, J. Dee Higley, Shirley Hill, Kerry Jang, Raynard S. Kington, Rick Kittles, George Koob, Kenneth Leonard, Ting-Kai Li, Jeffrey Long, William McBride, Matthew McGue, Kathleen Merikangas, Tamara Phillips, Bernice Porjesz, Carol Prescott, Theodore Reich, John Rice, Richard Rose, Charmaine Royal, Arnold Sameroff, Marc Schuckit, Kenneth Sher, Renee Sieving, Robert Taylor, Michael Windle, and Robert Zucker.

  15. An Efficient Method for Adventitious Root Induction from Stem Segments of Brassica Species

    PubMed Central

    Srikanth, Sandhya; Choong, Tsui Wei; Yan, An; He, Jie; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Plant propagation via in vitro culture is a very laborious and time-consuming process. The growth cycle of some of the crop species is slow even in the field and the consistent commercial production is hard to maintain. Enhanced methods of reduced cost, materials and labor significantly impact the research and commercial production of field crops. In our studies, stem-segment explants of Brassica species were found to generate adventitious roots (AR) in aeroponic systems in less than a week. As such, the efficiency of rooting from stem explants of six cultivar varieties of Brassica spp was tested without using any plant hormones. New roots and shoots were developed from Brassica alboglabra (Kai Lan), B. oleracea var. acephala (purple kale), B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis L (Pai Tsai, Nai Bai C, and Nai Bai T) explants after 3 to 5 days of growing under 20 ± 2°C cool root zone temperature (C-RZT) and 4 to 7 days in 30 ± 2°C ambient root zone temperature (A-RZT). At the base of cut end, anticlinal and periclinal divisions of the cambial cells resulted in secondary xylem toward pith and secondary phloem toward cortex. The continuing mitotic activity of phloem parenchyma cells led to a ring of conspicuous white callus. Root initials formed from the callus which in turn developed into ARs. However, B. rapa var. nipposinica (Mizuna) explants were only able to root in C-RZT. All rooted explants were able to develop into whole plants, with higher biomass obtained from plants that grown in C-RZT. Moreover, explants from both RZTs produced higher biomass than plants grown from seeds (control plants). Rooting efficiency was affected by RZTs and explant cuttings of donor plants. Photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rate (Asat) and stomatal conductance (gssat) were significantly differentiated between plants derived from seeds and explants at both RZTs. All plants in A-RZT had highest transpiration rates. PMID:27446170

  16. Striving for best practice: standardising New Zealand nursing procedures, 1930-1960.

    PubMed

    Wood, Pamela J; Nelson, Katherine

    2013-11-01

    To identify how nurses in the past determined best practice, using the context of New Zealand, 1930-1960. In the current context of evidence-based practice, nurses strive to provide the best care, based on clinical research. We cannot assume that nurses in the past, prior to the evidence-based practice movement, did not also have a deliberate process for pursuing best practice. Discovering historical approaches to determining best practice will enrich our understanding of how nurses' current efforts are part of a continuing commitment to ensuring quality care. Historical research. The records of the Nursing Education Committee of the New Zealand Registered Nurses' Association, 1940-1959, and the 309 issues of New Zealand's nursing journal, Kai Tiaki, 1930-1960, were analysed to identify the profession's approach to ensuring best practice. This approach was then interpreted within the international context, particularly Canada and the USA. For nearly 30 years, nurse leaders collaborated in undertaking national surveys of training hospitals requesting information on different nursing practices. They subsequently distributed instructions for a range of procedures and other aspects of nursing care to standardise practice. Standardising nursing care was an effective way to ensure quality nursing at a time when hospital care was delivered mostly by nurses in training. The reasons for and timing of standardisation of nursing care in New Zealand differed from the international move towards standardisation, particularly in the USA. Historically, nurses also pursued best practice, based on standardising nursing procedures. Examining the antecedents of the present evidence-based approach to care reminds us that the process and reasons for determining best practice change through time. As knowledge and practice continually change, current confident assertions of best practice should and will continue to be challenged in future. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Managing boundaries between professional and lay nursing following the influenza pandemic, 1918-1919: insights for professional resilience today?

    PubMed

    Wood, Pamela J

    2017-03-01

    To examine lay-professional nursing boundaries, using challenges to the New Zealand nursing profession following the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic as the example. The influenza pandemic of 1918-1919 had an overwhelming international impact on communities and the nursing profession. After the pandemic, the expectation for communities to be able to nurse the sick reflects today's increasing reliance on families to care for people at home. It similarly raised questions about the profession's role and professional boundaries in relation to volunteer or lay nursing. In New Zealand, the postpandemic challenge to build community lay nursing capacity tested these boundaries. Historical research. Analysis of historical primary sources of official reports, newspaper accounts, articles in New Zealand's professional nursing journal Kai Tiaki and the memoir of Hester Maclean, the country's chief nurse. Interpretation of findings in relation to secondary sources examining similar historical tensions between professional and lay nursing, and to the more recent notion of professional resilience. Maclean guarded nursing's professional boundaries by maintaining considerable control over community instruction in nursing and by strenuously resisting the suggestion that this should be done in hospitals where professional nurses trained. This historical example shows how the nursing profession faced the perceived threat to its professional boundaries. It also shows how competing goals of building community lay nursing capacity and protecting professional boundaries can be effectively managed. In the context of a global nursing shortage, limited healthcare budgets and a consequently increasing reliance on households to provide care for family members, this historical research shows nurses today that similar issues have been faced and effectively managed in the past. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A period-extender gene, pex, that extends the period of the circadian clock in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942.

    PubMed

    Kutsuna, S; Kondo, T; Aoki, S; Ishiura, M

    1998-04-01

    We cloned the pS1K1 plasmid in the process of apparently "complementing" a circadian clock mutant of cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942, SP22, which has a 22-h period (T. Kondo, N. F. Tsinoremas, S. S. Golden, C. H. Johnson, S. Kutsuna, and M. Ishiura, Science 266:1233-1236, 1994). Sequence analysis revealed that SP22 did not have a mutation in the genomic DNA segment carried on pS1K1, and the sp22 mutation was later found in a recently cloned new clock gene, kaiC. Therefore, the period-extender gene pex that was carried on pS1K1 was a suppressor gene for the sp22 mutation. The pex gene encoded a protein of 148 amino acid residues. No meaningful homologs were found in DNA or protein databases including the Synechocystis genome database. The pex gene was transcribed from 129 and 164 bp upstream of the translation initiation codon as 0.6-kb transcripts. The Pex protein was detected as a fusion protein with a molecular mass of 15 kDa by the epitope tag fusion method using a c-Myc epitope tag. Disruption of the pex gene in wild-type cells shortened the period of the rhythms by 1 h, although it did not affect other properties of the rhythms, whereas its overexpression extended the period by 3 h with a concomitant reduction in the amplitude of the rhythms. In various clock mutants examined, overexpression caused arrhythmicity. Thus, Pex is likely to function as a modifier of the circadian clock in Synechococcus.

  19. The bioinformatics of nucleotide sequence coding for proteins requiring metal coenzymes and proteins embedded with metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremberger, G.; Dehipawala, Sunil; Cheung, E.; Holden, T.; Sullivan, R.; Nguyen, A.; Lieberman, D.; Cheung, T.

    2015-09-01

    All metallo-proteins need post-translation metal incorporation. In fact, the isotope ratio of Fe, Cu, and Zn in physiology and oncology have emerged as an important tool. The nickel containing F430 is the prosthetic group of the enzyme methyl coenzyme M reductase which catalyzes the release of methane in the final step of methano-genesis, a prime energy metabolism candidate for life exploration space mission in the solar system. The 3.5 Gyr early life sulfite reductase as a life switch energy metabolism had Fe-Mo clusters. The nitrogenase for nitrogen fixation 3 billion years ago had Mo. The early life arsenite oxidase needed for anoxygenic photosynthesis energy metabolism 2.8 billion years ago had Mo and Fe. The selection pressure in metal incorporation inside a protein would be quantifiable in terms of the related nucleotide sequence complexity with fractal dimension and entropy values. Simulation model showed that the studied metal-required energy metabolism sequences had at least ten times more selection pressure relatively in comparison to the horizontal transferred sequences in Mealybug, guided by the outcome histogram of the correlation R-sq values. The metal energy metabolism sequence group was compared to the circadian clock KaiC sequence group using magnesium atomic level bond shifting mechanism in the protein, and the simulation model would suggest a much higher selection pressure for the energy life switch sequence group. The possibility of using Kepler 444 as an example of ancient life in Galaxy with the associated exoplanets has been proposed and is further discussed in this report. Examples of arsenic metal bonding shift probed by Synchrotron-based X-ray spectroscopy data and Zn controlled FOXP2 regulated pathways in human and chimp brain studied tissue samples are studied in relationship to the sequence bioinformatics. The analysis results suggest that relatively large metal bonding shift amount is associated with low probability correlation R

  20. Allotigenic and allotigenic accessory trace element contents in different age soil of glaciolacustrine basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinkutė, Rimantė; Radzevičius, Alfredas; Kazakauskas, Vaidotas

    2010-12-01

    The distribution of allotigenic elements (AE) (Li, B, Ga, Sc, Ni, Cr, Co, V, Rb) and allotigenic accessory elements (AAE) (Y, Yb, La, Ti, Zr, Nb) in sandy, sandy loamy or loamy-clayey soil of five glaciolacustrine basins was studied to recognise differences in total contents of these trace elements mainly as a result of the different duration of weathering and composition of parent material. Weathering in the Simnas-Balbieri\\vskis basin of the South Lithuanian phase was the longest, in the Venta, Jūra-Šešupė and Kaunas-Kaišiadorys basins of the Middle Lithuanian phase was shorter, and in the Mūša basin of the North Lithuanian phase the shortest. The difference in the duration of weathering is well reflected in sandy soil; it explains most of the significant differences in the content of trace elements and indicates the tendency of a decrease of most AEs and an increase of most AAEs with soil age, while sandy loamy or loamy-clayey soils do not show any significant dependence on weathering duration; the tendencies of variation of most AEs as soil age increases, are opposite compared to sandy soil, and the variation of the contents of AAEs is less expressed, except an increase of Nb. This is predetermined by a more difficult infiltration through these types of soil. Most of the significant differences in AE contents in sandy loamy or loamy-clayey soil of different basins can be explained by the lithological influence of the prevailing type of surface glaciolacustrine sediments (clay or coarser sediments) and the mineralogical influence of the main minerals of surface glaciolacustrine clay (illite and kaolinite), which depend on the material brought by different glacier lobes.

  1. The Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover Mastcam instruments: Preflight and in-flight calibration, validation, and data archiving

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, James F.; Godber, A.; McNair, S.; Caplinger, M.A.; Maki, J.N.; Lemmon, M.T.; Van Beek, J.; Malin, M.C.; Wellington, D.; Kinch, K.M.; Madsen, M.B.; Hardgrove, C.; Ravine, M.A.; Jensen, E.; Harker, D.; Anderson, Ryan; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Morris, R.V.; Cisneros, E.; Deen, R.G.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Curiosity rover Mast Camera (Mastcam) system is a pair of fixed-focal length, multispectral, color CCD imagers mounted ~2 m above the surface on the rover's remote sensing mast, along with associated electronics and an onboard calibration target. The left Mastcam (M-34) has a 34 mm focal length, an instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of 0.22 mrad, and a FOV of 20° × 15° over the full 1648 × 1200 pixel span of its Kodak KAI-2020 CCD. The right Mastcam (M-100) has a 100 mm focal length, an IFOV of 0.074 mrad, and a FOV of 6.8° × 5.1° using the same detector. The cameras are separated by 24.2 cm on the mast, allowing stereo images to be obtained at the resolution of the M-34 camera. Each camera has an eight-position filter wheel, enabling it to take Bayer pattern red, green, and blue (RGB) “true color” images, multispectral images in nine additional bands spanning ~400–1100 nm, and images of the Sun in two colors through neutral density-coated filters. An associated Digital Electronics Assembly provides command and data interfaces to the rover, 8 Gb of image storage per camera, 11 bit to 8 bit companding, JPEG compression, and acquisition of high-definition video. Here we describe the preflight and in-flight calibration of Mastcam images, the ways that they are being archived in the NASA Planetary Data System, and the ways that calibration refinements are being developed as the investigation progresses on Mars. We also provide some examples of data sets and analyses that help to validate the accuracy and precision of the calibration

  2. Constitutive activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β correlates with better prognosis and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in human gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Aberrant regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) has been implicated in several human cancers; however, it has not been reported in the gastric cancer tissues to date. The present study was performed to determine the expression status of active form of GSK-3β phosphorylated at Tyr216 (pGSK-3β) and its relationship with other tumor-associated proteins in human gastric cancers. Methods Immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue array slides containing 281 human gastric carcinoma specimens. In addition, gastric cancer cells were cultured and treated with a GSK-3β inhibitor lithium chloride (LiCl) for immunoblot analysis. Results We found that pGSK-3β was expressed in 129 (46%) of 281 cases examined, and was higher in the early-stages of pathologic tumor-node-metastasis (P < 0.001). The expression of pGSK-3β inversely correlated with lymphatic invasion (P < 0.001) and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001) and correlated with a longer patient survival (P < 0.001). In addition, pGSK-3β expression positively correlated with that of p16, p21, p27, p53, APC, PTEN, MGMT, SMAD4, or KAI1 (P < 0.05), but not with that of cyclin D1. This was confirmed by immunoblot analysis using SNU-668 gastric cancer cells treated with LiCl. Conclusions GSK-3β activation was frequently observed in early-stage gastric carcinoma and was significantly correlated with better prognosis. Thus, these findings suggest that GSK-3β activation is a useful prognostic marker for the early-stage gastric cancer. PMID:20704706

  3. Interactions between phytochemicals from traditional Chinese medicines and human cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing-Jing; Ai, Chun-Zhi; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Jiang, Miao; Fan, Xu-Ran; Lv, Ai-Ping; Yang, Ling

    2012-06-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulas with fixed combinations rely on "sovereign, minister, assistant and guide" and fuzzy mathematical quantitative law, leading to greater challenges for the identification of active ingredients. Transformation and metabolic studies involving the Phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 (CYP) might potentially solve some of these challenges. The pharmacological effects can not be attributed to one active ingredient in TCMs, but integrated effects resulting from the combined actions of multiple ingredients. However, it is only after long-term administration that most ingredients exert their actions, which can result in prolonged exposure to herbs in vivo. Therefore, interactions between herbal compounds and CYPs appear to be inevitable. Yet unlike Western drugs, experimental determination of the absorption and disposition properties is not commonly carried out for TCMs. Moreover, the use of TCM as injections is an innovation aimed to improve efficiency in extensive clinical use in Mainland China. Therefore, in recent years, cases of adverse drug reactions (ADR) mainly concerning allergic reactions involving TCMs such as ShenMai injection and QingKaiLing injection have been reported, which have attracted attention with regard to the legal responsibilities for TCM approval. The lack of information on the ADME characteristics, especially the metabolic stability and interaction potential between CYPs and herbs, increases ADR occurrence due to TCMs. In this article, we review the most common herbs used in TCM prescriptions and fixed combinations of their usable frequency, and summarize the current understanding of the ability of phytochemical ingredients to act as substrates, inhibitors or inducers of human CYP enzymes, through which the key role of CYP enzymes on the herb disposition and toxicity is highlighted. The potential interaction between herbal phytochemicals and CYP enzymes dominates the target exposure, which

  4. Time evolution of vertical displacement during Holocene: case of kikai Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, T.; Furumoto, M.; Matsuhiro, K.; Okuda, T.; Sagiya, T.; Horikawa, S.; Ito, K.

    2016-12-01

    KiKai island is a part of the Ryukyu Islands of southwest Japan. It is raised coral reef, where is the closest island to the Ryukyu Trench, and the marine terraces in this island record the fastest uplift rate in Japan. Uplift rate is 1.8 mm/yr since the last interglacial period. In Holocene, four marine terraces in Kikai island were generated by coseismic uplift by geological studies (i.e., Ota et. (2000)). On the other hand, in Kikai Island, GPS data of GEONET are observed steady uplift of several mm/yr, which is interpreted as the collision of the Amami Plateau, subducting northwestward beneath the Ryukyu Islands at Kikai Island, though GPS data cannot be simply extended to the past. So we try to understand history of vertical displacement during Holocene. Here, we assume that the marine terraces are mostly caused by steady uplift and small stepwise uplift. In this study, we focus on shape of plate interface, which is considering the collision of the Amami Plateau. So we realized the collision of the Amami Plateau and marine terraces using finite element method. We make subduction zone model considering bump on the plate interface due to the subducting Amami platau. We simulate history of vertical displacement in Holocene and marine terraces in Kikai island. Estimated time evolution of vertical displacement in Holocene do not constant rate and are large change in time. Viscoelastic response of upper mantle due to earthquake cycle is large effect for vertical displacement. Although, vertical displacement at Kiki Island was subsidence at just after earthquake, vertical displacement at Kikai Island is uplift at several hundred years after earthquake. The history of vertical deformation is not constant, it's very unstable through holocene. And also, we try to estimate viscosity in upper mantle by fitting marine terrace at Kikai Island. We obtain that viscosity of upper mantle is 10^20 Pas. As result, we can extract rheology information of upper mantle from marine

  5. Nuclear Translocation Uncovers the Amyloid Peptide Aβ42 as a Regulator of Gene Transcription*♦

    PubMed Central

    Barucker, Christian; Harmeier, Anja; Weiske, Joerg; Fauler, Beatrix; Albring, Kai Frederik; Prokop, Stefan; Hildebrand, Peter; Lurz, Rudi; Heppner, Frank L.; Huber, Otmar; Multhaup, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Although soluble species of the amyloid-β peptide Aβ42 correlate with disease symptoms in Alzheimer disease, little is known about the biological activities of amyloid-β (Aβ). Here, we show that Aβ peptides varying in lengths from 38 to 43 amino acids are internalized by cultured neuroblastoma cells and can be found in the nucleus. By three independent methods, we demonstrate direct detection of nuclear Aβ42 as follows: (i) biochemical analysis of nuclear fractions; (ii) detection of biotin-labeled Aβ in living cells by confocal laser scanning microscopy; and (iii) transmission electron microscopy of Aβ in cultured cells, as well as brain tissue of wild-type and transgenic APPPS1 mice (overexpression of amyloid precursor protein and presenilin 1 with Swedish and L166P mutations, respectively). Also, this study details a novel role for Aβ42 in nuclear signaling, distinct from the amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that Aβ42 specifically interacts as a repressor of gene transcription with LRP1 and KAI1 promoters. By quantitative RT-PCR, we confirmed that mRNA levels of the examined candidate genes were exclusively decreased by the potentially neurotoxic Aβ42 wild-type peptide. Shorter peptides (Aβ38 or Aβ40) and other longer peptides (nontoxic Aβ42 G33A substitution or Aβ43) did not affect mRNA levels. Overall, our data indicate that the nuclear translocation of Aβ42 impacts gene regulation, and deleterious effects of Aβ42 in Alzheimer disease pathogenesis may be influenced by altering the expression profiles of disease-modifying genes. PMID:24878959

  6. Homology modeling and virtual screening for inhibitors of lipid kinase PI(4)K from Plasmodium.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ji-Xia; Gao, Na-Na; Cao, Xue-Song; Hu, Quan-An; Xie, Yong

    2016-10-01

    Malaria parasite strains have emerged to tolerate the therapeutic effects of the prophylactics and drugs presently available. Recent studies have shown that KAI715 and its analogs inhibit malaria parasites growth by binding to lipid kinase PI(4)K (phosphatidylinositol-4-OH kinase) of the parasites. Therefore, targeting PI(4)K may open up new avenues of target-based drug discovery to identify novel anti-malaria drugs. In this investigation, we describe the discovery of novel potent PfPI(4)K (PI(4)K from P. falciparum) inhibitors by employing a proposed hybrid virtual screening (VS) method, including pharmacophore model, drug-likeness prediction and molecular docking approach. 3D structure of PfPI(4)K has been established by homology modeling. Pharmacophore model HypoA of PfPI(4)K inhibitors has been developed based on the ligand complexed with its corresponding receptor. 174 compounds with good ADMET properties were carefully selected by a hybrid virtual screening method. Finally, the 174 hits were further validated by using a new pharmacophore model HypoB built based on the docking pose of BQR685, and 95 compounds passed the last filter. These compounds would be further evaluated by biological activity assays. The molecular interactions of the top two potential inhibitors with the active site residues are discussed in detail. These identified hits can be further used for designing the more potent inhibitors against PfPI(4)K by scaffold hopping, and deserve consideration for further structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies.

  7. Downregulated long non-coding RNA MEG3 in breast cancer regulates proliferation, migration and invasion by depending on p53’s transcriptional activity

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Lin; Li, Yu; Yang, Bangxiang

    2016-09-09

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) was found to play critical roles in tumorigenesis, hence, screen of tumor-related lncRNAs, identification of their biological roles is important for understanding the processes of tumorigenesis. In this study, we identified the expressing difference of several tumor-related lncRNAs in breast cancer samples and found that, MEG3, which is downregulated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumor tissues, is also downregulated in breast cancer samples compared with adjacent tissues. For figuring out the effect of MEG3 in breast cancer cells MCF7 and MB231, we overexpressed MEG3 in these cells, and found that it resulted the inhibition of proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion capacities by enhancing p53’s transcriptional activity on its target genes, including p21, Maspin and KAI1. MEG3 presented similar effects in MB157, which is a p53-null breast cancer cell line, when functional p53 but not p53R273H mutant, which lacks transcriptional activity, was introduced. Surprisingly, overexpression of MEG3 activates p53’s transcriptional activity by decreasing MDM2’s transcription level, and thus stabilizes and accumulates P53. Taken together, our findings indicate that MEG3 is downregulated in breast cancer tissues and affects breast cancer cells’ malignant behaviors, which indicate MEG3 a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer. - Highlights: • MEG3 RNA is widely downregulated in breast tumor tissue. • MEG3 regulates P53 indirectly through transcriptional regulation of MDM2. • Under unstressed condition, MEG3-related P53 accumulation transcriptionally activates p53’s target genes. • MEG3 expression level tightly regulates proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion in breast tumor cells.

  8. Effect of High Altitude Exposure on Intraocular Pressure Using Goldmann Applanation Tonometry.

    PubMed

    Willmann, Gabriel; Schommer, Kai; Schultheiss, Maximilian; Fischer, M Dominik; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl-Ulrich; Gekeler, Florian; Schatz, Andreas

    2017-06-01

    Willmann, Gabriel, Kai Schommer, Maximilian Schultheiss, M. Dominik Fischer, Karl-Ulrich Bartz-Schmidt, Florian Gekeler, and Andreas Schatz. Effect of high altitude exposure on intraocular pressure using Goldmann applanation tonometry. High Alt Med Biol. 18:114-120, 2017. The aim of the study was to quantify changes of intraocular pressure (IOP) during exposure to 4559 m using the state-of-the-art method of Goldmann applanation tonometry for IOP measurement and to detect correlations between IOP and acute mountain sickness (AMS) in a prospective manner. IOP was measured using a Goldmann applanation tonometer AT 900(®) (Haag-Streit, Switzerland) and central corneal thickness (CCT) with the anterior segment module of a Spectralis™ HRA+OCT(®) device (Heidelberg Engineering, Germany) at baseline and high altitude. Assessment of AMS was performed using the Lake Louise and AMS-C questionnaires, and Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated for association between IOP and AMS. Raw IOP values at high altitude were not significantly changed compared to baseline. IOP adjusted to the increase in CCT at high altitude, which is known to alter IOP levels, showed a significant reduction for corrected IOP values on day 3 of exposure (morning -2.1 ± 1.2 mmHg; evening -2.3 ± 1.1 mmHg; p < 0.05). No correlation of IOP with AMS or clinical parameters (heart rate and SpO2) at high altitude was noted. IOP showed a significant reduction of IOP levels when corrected for increased CCT values at high altitude. Furthermore, the prospective measurement of IOP is not useful in diagnosing AMS or for the prediction of more severe high altitude related illnesses as the decrease in IOP and symptoms of AMS do not correlate during altitude exposure.

  9. Shimoda 1854: Historical Consequences of a Natural Disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, A.

    2012-04-01

    At the end of 1854 - beginning of 1855 Japan was struck by a series of powerful earthquakes known as the Ansei Great Earthquakes. The first one, Ansei-Tōkai Quake, occurred on 23 December, 1854. It had a magnitude of 8.4; the epicenter ranged from the centre of Suruga Bay to the south-east into the ocean. It was followed by the Ansei-Nankai Quake on 24 December. The earthquakes with the following tsunami caused a huge damage in several regions of Japan: more than 20,000 buildings were destroyed, about 30,000 casualties caused. This natural disaster was witnessed by a Russian diplomatic mission led by admiral Yevfimy Putyatin. His flagship, frigate Diana, stayed at Shimoda, and Putyatin was conducting long and difficult negotiations trying to convince Japan of signing a commercial treaty with Russia, when Shimoda was hit by the tsunami. Several members of the mission described their impressions in their memoirs. The city was almost completely destroyed (only 16 houses survived the disaster). Diana was also badly damaged and sank in a storm while sailing to Heda for repairs. It was decided to build a new ship for the Russian mission. Works were carried out in Heda with the help of plans salvaged from the Diana, and required a cooperation of Russian sailors and Japanese carpenters. In about two months a two-masted schooner was built, which was christened Heda in honour of the city that helped with its construction. The Heda was the first western-style ship built in Japan, and thus can be called a "grandfather" of a Japanese oceanic navy. On 26 January, 1855 the Russian-Japanese negotiations were successfully concluded, and the Treaty of Shimoda was signed, marking the start of official relations between Russia and Japan. Thus a terrible natural disaster framed one of the most vivid pages in history of the Japanese-Russian relationship.

  10. Microwave Spectrum of Hydrogen Bonded HEXAFLUOROISOPROPANOL•••WATER Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahi, Abhishek; Arunan, Elangannan

    2014-06-01

    Stabilizing α-helical structure of protein and dissolving a hard to dissolve polymer, polythene terphthalete, are some of the unique properties of the organic solvent Hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP). After determining the complete microwave spectrum of HFIP monomer, we have recorded the spectrum of HFIP***H_2O complex. Ab initio calculations were used to optimize three different possible structures. The global minimum, structure 1, had HFIP as proton donor. Another promising structure, Structure 2, has been obtained from a molecular dynamic study. A total of 46 observed lines have been fitted well for obtaining the rotational and distortion constants within experimental uncertainty. The observed rotational constants are A = 1134.53898(77) MHz, B = 989.67594(44) MHz and C = 705.26602(20) MHz. Interestingly, the rotational constants of structure 1, structure 2 and experiments were very close. Experimentally observed distortion constants were close to structure 1. b-type transitions were stronger than c-type which is also consistent with the calculated dipole moment components of structure 1. Calculations predict a non-zero a-dipole moment but experimentally a-type transitions were absent. Microwave spectra of two of the deuterium isotopologues of this complex i.e. HFIP***D_2O (30 transitions) and HFIP***HOD (33 transitions) have been also observed. Search for other isotopologues are in progress. To characterize the nature of hydrogen bonding, Atoms in Molecules and Natural Bond Orbital theoretical analysis have been done. Experimental structure and these theoretical analyses indicate that the hydrogen bonding in HFIP***H_2O complex is stronger than that in water dimer. A. Shahi and E. Arunan, Talk number RK16, 68th International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy 2013, Ohio, USA. Yamaguchi, T.; Imura, S.; Kai, T.; Yoshida, K. Zeitschrift für Naturforsch. A 2013, 68a, 145.

  11. Diversity and Evolution of Type IV pili Systems in Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Makarova, Kira S.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Albers, Sonja-Verena

    2016-01-01

    Many surface structures in archaea including various types of pili and the archaellum (archaeal flagellum) are homologous to bacterial type IV pili systems (T4P). The T4P consist of multiple proteins, often with poorly conserved sequences, complicating their identification in sequenced genomes. Here we report a comprehensive census of T4P encoded in archaeal genomes using sensitive methods for protein sequence comparison. This analysis confidently identifies as T4P components about 5000 archaeal gene products, 56% of which are currently annotated as hypothetical in public databases. Combining results of this analysis with a comprehensive comparison of genomic neighborhoods of the T4P, we present models of organization of 10 most abundant variants of archaeal T4P. In addition to the differentiation between major and minor pilins, these models include extra components, such as S-layer proteins, adhesins and other membrane and intracellular proteins. For most of these systems, dedicated major pilin families are identified including numerous stand alone major pilin genes of the PilA family. Evidence is presented that secretion ATPases of the T4P and cognate TadC proteins can interact with different pilin sets. Modular evolution of T4P results in combinatorial variability of these systems. Potential regulatory or modulating proteins for the T4P are identified including KaiC family ATPases, vWA domain-containing proteins and the associated MoxR/GvpN ATPase, TFIIB homologs and multiple unrelated transcription regulators some of which are associated specific T4P. Phylogenomic analysis suggests that at least one T4P system was present in the last common ancestor of the extant archaea. Multiple cases of horizontal transfer and lineage-specific duplication of T4P loci were detected. Generally, the T4P of the archaeal TACK superphylum are more diverse and evolve notably faster than those of euryarchaea. The abundance and enormous diversity of T4P in hyperthermophilic archaea

  12. Vortex State in Sub-100 nm Magnetic Nanodots.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshchin, Igor V.

    2006-03-01

    Magnetism of nanostructured magnets, which size is comparable to or smaller than ferromagnetic domain size, offers a great potential for new physics. Detailed knowledge of magnetization reversal and possible magnetic configurations in magnetic nanostructures is essential for high-density magnetic memory. Many theoretical and experimental studies are focused on a magnetic vortex which in addition to a circular in-plane configuration of spins has a core, - the region with out-of-plane magnetization. We present a quantitative study of the magnetic vortex state and the vortex core in sub-100 nm magnetic dots. Arrays of single-layer and bilayer nanodots covering over 1 cm^2 are fabricated using self-assembled nanopores in anodized alumina. This method allows good control over the dot size and periodicity. Magnetization measurements performed using SQUID, VSM, and MOKE indicate a transition from a vortex to a single domain state for the Fe dots. This transition is studied as a function of the magnetic field and dots size. Micromagnetic and Monte Carlo simulations confirm the experimental observations. Thermal activation and exchange bias strongly affect the vortex nucleation field and have a much weaker effect on the vortex annihilation field. Direct imaging of magnetic moments in sub-100 nm dots is extremely difficult and has not been reported yet. Polarized grazing incidence small angle neutron scattering measurements allow dot imaging in reciprocal space. Quantitative analysis of such measurements performed on 65 nm Fe dots yields the vortex core size of ˜15 nm, in good agreement with the 14 nm obtained from the simulations. This work is done in collaboration with Chang-Peng Li, Zhi-Pan Li, S. Roy, S. K. Sinha, (UCSD), Xavier Batlle (U. Barcelona), R. K. Dumas, Kai Liu, (UC Davis), S. Park, R. Pynn, M. R. Fitzsimmons (LANL), J. Mejia Lopez (Pontificia U. Catolica de Chile), D. Altbir, (U. de Santiago de Chile), A. H. Romero (Cinvestav-Unidad Queretaro), and Ivan K

  13. An Acoustic Charge Transport Imager for High Definition Television

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, William D.; Brennan, Kevin; May, Gary; Glenn, William E.; Richardson, Mike; Solomon, Richard

    1999-01-01

    This project, over its term, included funding to a variety of companies and organizations. In addition to Georgia Tech these included Florida Atlantic University with Dr. William E. Glenn as the P.I., Kodak with Mr. Mike Richardson as the P.I. and M.I.T./Polaroid with Dr. Richard Solomon as the P.I. The focus of the work conducted by these organizations was the development of camera hardware for High Definition Television (HDTV). The focus of the research at Georgia Tech was the development of new semiconductor technology to achieve a next generation solid state imager chip that would operate at a high frame rate (I 70 frames per second), operate at low light levels (via the use of avalanche photodiodes as the detector element) and contain 2 million pixels. The actual cost required to create this new semiconductor technology was probably at least 5 or 6 times the investment made under this program and hence we fell short of achieving this rather grand goal. We did, however, produce a number of spin-off technologies as a result of our efforts. These include, among others, improved avalanche photodiode structures, significant advancement of the state of understanding of ZnO/GaAs structures and significant contributions to the analysis of general GaAs semiconductor devices and the design of Surface Acoustic Wave resonator filters for wireless communication. More of these will be described in the report. The work conducted at the partner sites resulted in the development of 4 prototype HDTV cameras. The HDTV camera developed by Kodak uses the Kodak KAI-2091M high- definition monochrome image sensor. This progressively-scanned charge-coupled device (CCD) can operate at video frame rates and has 9 gm square pixels. The photosensitive area has a 16:9 aspect ratio and is consistent with the "Common Image Format" (CIF). It features an active image area of 1928 horizontal by 1084 vertical pixels and has a 55% fill factor. The camera is designed to operate in continuous mode

  14. Volatile transfer and recycling at UHP metamorphism; constraint from CCSD (Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling) eclogites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, K.; Iizuka, Y.; Jahn, B.; Tzeng-Fu, Y.; Xu, Z.

    2005-12-01

    Study of dehydration and decarbonation processes of subducting oceanic crust is important to understand the island arc volcanism and recycling of water and carbon to deep mantle. Recent UHP experiments in C-O-H fluid-bearing MORB system have revealed that phase change and fluid composition depend on oxygen fugacity (e.g. Molina and Poli, 2002; Crottini and Poli, 2004). If oxygen fugacities represented by the equilibrium NNO (Ni-NiO) or FMQ (fayalie-magnesite-quartz) are assumed to be the average condition of UHP metamorphism, then the phase assemblages of UHP rocks are expected to have graphite/diamond only, graphite/diamond +carbonates, or carbonates only depending on the bulk compositions (Poli and Fumagalli, 2004, EMU notes in miner. vol. 5). C-species are well described in Chinese UHP eclogites (e.g. Zhang and Kai, 1996). However, carbonates can be easily leached from outcrop. Therefore in the worst case, only graphite could be recognized from surface exposures although drilled core samples represent carbonates with graphite (e.g. Sanbagawa schist in Japan, Goto et al., 2000, Ann. Meet. Japan. Petrol. Miner. Mining Geol. Assoc.). From this point of view, CCSD (Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling) samples are probably the best for identification of C-species in UHP rocks. We investigated nine eclogites from various depths (170 to 2000 m). Two types of eclogite can be distinguished; dry- and phengite-eclogite. The phengite eclogite is associated with orthogneiss. Under the microscope, the dry eclogites contain relative coarse-grained (> 500 microns across) garnet, clinopyroxene and rutile with or without graphite, quartz, apatite, zircon, and pyrite. The phengite eclogites exhibit garnet, clinopyroxene, rutile, quartz, and phengite with or without graphite, pyrite, talc, apatite, zircon, and K-feldspar. Graphite is always recognized with pyrite, suggesting oxygen fugacity was low (NNO) at UHP stage. Estimated P, T conditions based on the assemblage garnet

  15. Premature deaths among individuals with severe mental illness after discharge from long-term hospitalisation in Japan: a naturalistic observation during a 24-year period.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Shinsuke; Kumakura, Yousuke; Kanehara, Akiko; Nagato, Daisuke; Ueda, Taro; Matsuoka, Tsuneo; Tao, Yukiko; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2017-07-01

    Premature death in individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) in countries without nationally collected data, including Japan, is structurally underreported. To elucidate excess mortality among individuals with SMI in Japan. We retrospectively investigated all deaths among users of a non-clinical community-based mental health service provider in suburban Tokyo from 1992 to 2015. During the study period, 45 individuals died among 254 qualified registrants. Deaths were by natural causes in 33 cases (73.3%). The mean years of life lost was 22.2 years and the overall standard mortality ratio (SMR) was 3.28 (95% CI 2.40-4.39). The cause-specific SMR was 5.09 (95% CI 2.33-9.66) for cardiovascular disease and 7.38 (95% CI 2.40-17.22) for suicide. Although Japan leads the world in longevity, individuals with SMI suffer premature death and excess mortality due to physical conditions as well as suicide. Revealing this underreported disparity of life is the first step to improving physical care for individuals with SMI. S.K. received personal fees from Pfizer and Dainippon-Sumitomo, outside the submitted work, and was a medical adviser to Sudachi-kai. Y.K. received grants from Japan Foundation for Neuroscience and Mental Health (JFNMH), during the conduct of the study, and personal fees from Dainippon-Sumitomo, outside the submitted work. K.K. received grants from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) and Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED), during the conduct of the study; personal fees from Daiichi-Sankyo, Otsuka, Meiji-Seika Pharma, Yoshitomi, Mochida and Fuji-Film RI Pharma; grants and personal fees from MSD, Astellas, Dainippon-Sumitomo and Eisai; and grants from Lily, Takeda and Tanabe-Mitsubishi, outside the submitted work. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license.

  16. Spatiotemporal PET Imaging of Dynamic Metabolic Changes After Therapeutic Approaches of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, Neuronal Stem Cells, and a Chinese Patent Medicine in Stroke.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Song, Fahuan; Xu, Caiyun; Liu, Hao; Wang, Zefeng; Li, Jinhui; Wu, Shuang; YehuaShen; Chen, Yao; Zhu, Yunqi; Du, Ruili; Tian, Mei

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to use spatiotemporal PET imaging to investigate the dynamic metabolic changes after a combined therapeutic approach of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), neuronal stem cells (NSCs), and Chinese patent medicine in a rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Cerebral ischemia was established by the middle cerebral artery occlusion approach. Thirty-six male rats were randomly assigned to 1 of the 6 groups: control phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), Chinese patent medicine (Qing-kai-ling [QKL]), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), combination of iPSCs and QKL, neuronal stem cells (NSCs), and combination of NSCs and QKL. Serial (18)F-FDG small-animal PET imaging and neurofunctional tests were performed weekly. Autoradiographic imaging and immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent analyses were performed at 4 wk after stem cell transplantation. Compared with the PBS control group, significantly higher (18)F-FDG accumulations in the ipsilateral cerebral infarction were observed in 5 treatment groups from weeks 1-4. Interestingly, the most intensive (18)F-FDG accumulation was found in the NSCs + QKL group at week 1 but in the iPSCs + QKL group at week 4. The neurofunctional scores in the 5 treatment groups were significantly higher than that of the PBS group from week 3 to 4. In addition, there was a significant correlation between the PET imaging findings and neurofunctional recovery (P < 0.05) or glucose transporter-1 expression (P < 0.01). Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence studies found that transplanted iPSCs survived and migrated to the ischemic region and expressed protein markers for cells of interest. Spatiotemporal PET imaging with (18)F-FDG demonstrated dynamic metabolic and functional recovery after iPSCs or NSCs combined with QKL in a rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. iPSCs or NSCs combined with Chinese medicine QKL seemed to be a better therapeutic approach than these stem cells used individually.

  17. A study of models and controls for basin formation during continental collision: (1) Australian lithosphere along Banda orogen (Indonesia) and (2) Alboran Sea basin (western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tandon, Kush

    Mechanisms for the formation of a foreland basin at the beginning of continental collision (Pliocene-Recent Australian continental foreland along the Banda orogen) and a post-orogenic, continental, Miocene extensional basin (Alboran Sea) are studied. Such a study investigates the controls on the basin formation during the start of the Wilson cycle and later during the break up of a thickened continent in a collisional environment. Effective Elastic Thickness (EET) of the Australian continental lithosphere from Roti to the Kai Plateau ({˜}121sp°{-}137sp°E longitude) are estimated using an elastic-half beam model to match the sea floor bathymetry and the Bouguer gravity anomalies. Range of constant EET values from 27-75 km across the shelf of Australian lithosphere shows a variation of 64% with the highest value in the vicinity of central Timor where the collision is most advanced. Downdip on the Australian continental lithosphere from shelf to beneath the Banda orogen, the reduction in EET is from ˜90 km-˜30 km (66%). Variations in EET can be explained by inelastic yielding (brittle and plastic failure, crust-mantle decoupling in the lower crust and brittle-ductile decoupling in the upper-middle crust) in the Australian lithosphere. Change in EET occurred at the start of continental subduction due to change in curvature, both in map and cross-sectional view. Oroclinal bending of the continental Australian lithosphere increased the inelastic failure in the eastern end. Different mechanisms of basin formation at a site of post-orogenic collapse are studied by constraining the timing of rifting in the western, eastern, and northern parts of the Alboran Sea basin on seismic reflectors via synthetic seismograms using ODP Leg 161 and Andalucia A-1 data. Regions of adjacent coeval compression and extension are found in the Alboran Sea basin. Normal faulting continues in parts of the eastern Alboran Sea basin later than in the western Alboran Sea basin. The development

  18. Synergistic inhibition of cell migration by tetraspanin CD82 and gangliosides occurs via the EGFR or cMet-activated Pl3K/Akt signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Huang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Jianing; Li, Yuzhong; Ma, Keli

    2013-11-01

    The metastasis suppressor CD82/KAI-1, which is a member of the tetraspanin superfamily, has been proposed to exert its activity together with glycosphingolipids. However, the mechanism of CD82 inhibition has not been fully elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the synergistic inhibition of cell migration by the tetraspanin CD82 and gangliosides and to correlate this inhibition with activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR/cMet) in Hepa1-6 cell lines, whose motility and migration is stimulated by epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in vitro. We found that Hepa1-6 cells transfected with the CD82 gene exhibited decreased migration in response to EGF and HGF. EGF-stimulated phosphorylation of EGFR at Tyr1173 was inhibited in these cells, which contributed to the attenuation of EGFR. Ectopic expression of CD82 in Hepa1-6 cells inhibited HGF-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of cMet at Tyr1313 and Tyr1365 without affecting the expression of cMet. These inhibitory effects were enhanced when CD82 was introduced with Ganglioside GM3 alone or GM2/GM3. Reduction of CD82 expression by RNA interference together with depletion of glycosphingolipids with P4 significantly enhanced cell motility and increased the expression of EGFR and its phosphorylation at Tyr1173 in response to EGF. Increased cell motility and HGF-dependent activation of cMet at Tyr1313 and Tyr1365 resulted from decreased CD82 levels and increased GM3. Furthermore, CD82 expression selectively attenuated EGFR and cMet signalling via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt but had no affect on the activity of the MAPK signalling pathway. These results suggest that the synergistic effects of CD82 and GM3 or GM2/GM3 on EGFR expression and phosphorylation and cMet activation are responsible for CD82 inhibition of EGF- and HGF-dependent cell motility and migration of Hepa1-6 cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  19. Small angle X-ray scattering as a high-throughput method to classify antimicrobial modes of action.

    PubMed

    von Gundlach, A R; Garamus, V M; Gorniak, T; Davies, H A; Reischl, M; Mikut, R; Hilpert, K; Rosenhahn, A

    2016-05-01

    days or weeks per single substance. The antimicrobial peptide showed a different mode of action as all tested antibiotics including polymyxin B and is therefore a good candidate for further drug development. We envision SAXS to become a useful tool within the high-throughput screening pipeline of modern drug discovery. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antimicrobial peptides edited by Karl Lohner and Kai Hilpert.

  20. The interactions of the bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 with basalt rock, on Earth and in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byloos, Bo; Van Houdt, Rob; Leys, Natalie; Ilyin, Vyacheslav; Nicholson, Natasha; Childers, Delma; Cockell, Charles; Boon, Nico

    2016-07-01

    Microbe-mineral interactions have become of interest for space exploration as microorganisms can biomine elements from extra-terrestrial materials, which could be used as nutrients in a life support system. This research is aimed at identifying the molecular mechanisms behind the interaction of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 with basalt, a lunar-type rock, and determining the influence of space flight conditions on this interaction. Survival and physiology of CH34 was monitored, with and without basalt, in mineral water over several months by flow cytometry, plate counts, ICP-MS, microscopy and proteomics. To study the influence of space conditions, a flight experiment on board the Russian FOTON-M4 capsule was performed. The results obtained from from water survival experiments on ground showed that CH34 was able to survive in mineral water, in the absence and presence of basalt, for several months. The total cell concentration remained stable but the cultivable fraction dropped to 10%, indicating a transition to a more dormant state. In the presence of basalt, this transition was less pronounced and cultivability was enhanced. In addition, with basalt, CH34 attached to the rock surface and formed a biofilm. The space flight experiment indicated more viable and cultivable cells compared to the ground experiment, both in the absence and presence of basalt, indicating a positive effect of space flight on survival. Chemical analysis indicated that basalt leaches out elements which may contribute to a positive effect of basalt on survival. Basalt may thus enhance survival and viability of CH34 both in ground and space flight experimental conditions. This study hopefully can contribute to a better understanding of microbe-mineral interactions, opening the door to future applications, in space, and on Earth. Acknowledgments: This work is supported by the European Space Agency (ESA-PRODEX) and the Belgian Science Policy (Belspo) through the BIOROCK project. We thank Kai

  1. Discovery of Weyl fermion semimetal and topological Fermi arc quasiparticles in TaAs, NbAs, NbP, TaP and related materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, M. Zahid

    .online (2014)). This work is in collaboration with Su-Yang Xu, Ilya Belopolski, Nasser Alidoust, Madhab Neupane, Chenglong Zhang, Raman Sankar, Shin-Ming Huang, Chi-Cheng Lee, Guoqing Chang, BaoKai Wang, Guang Bian, Hao Zheng, Daniel S. Sanchez, Fangcheng Chou, Hsin Lin, Shuang Jia, Titus Neupert. This work is supported by GBMF and U.S. DOE. In collaboration with Su-Yang Xu, I. Belopolski, N. Alidoust, M. Neupane, C. Zhang, R. Sankar, S.-M. Huang, C.-C. Lee, G. Chang, B. Wang, G. Bian, H. Zheng, D. Sanchez, F.-C. Chou, T. Neupert, Hsin Lin, Shuang Jia. Work supported by GBMF(Moore) & DOE.

  2. X-ray diffraction from shocked materials: investigating solid-solid phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wark, Justin

    2008-04-01

    X-ray diffraction on nanosecond and sub-nanosecond time-scales has proven to be a useful tool in investigating the transient response of shocked crystals. Perhaps the most notable success in this area has been the direct observation of the α- ɛ transition in laser-shocked single crystals of [001] iron. [1,2] The information extracted from the diffraction patterns has been shown to be in remarkable agreement with multi-million atom molecular dynamics calculations. [3] Having successfully observed the transition in single crystals shocked along the principal axis, several further challenges remain. Amongst these are the exploration of the response of single crystals to shocks propagating along other crystallographic directions (where significantly different response is predicted [4]) the role of pre-existing defects in the time-scale of the elastic/plastic response of the material, and any differences that may occur in polycrystalline compared with single crystal samples.[5] A further challenge will be the development of rapid compression techniques that take samples to off-Hugoniot states (for example so-called quasi-isentropic compression). If such states can be produced in a controlled way, much could potentially be learnt about the state of certain planetary cores, including our own. [1] D.H. Kalantar, J.F. Belak, G.W. Collins, J.D. Colvin, H.M. Davies, J.H. Eggert, T.C. Germann, J. Hawreliak, B.L. Holian, K. Kadau, P.S. Lomdahl, H.E. Lorenzana, M.A. Meyers, K. Rosolankova, M.S. Schneider, J. Sheppard, J.S. Stolken and J.S. Wark, Phys. Rev. Lett., 95 075502, 2005 [2] J. Hawreliak, J.D. Colvin, J.H.Eggert, D. Kalantar, H.E. Lorenzana, J.S. Stölken, H.M. Davies, T.C. Germann, B.L. Holian, K. Kadau, P.S. Lomdahl, A. Higginbotham, K. Rosolankova, J. Sheppard, and J.S. Wark, Phys. Rev. B, 74, 184107, 2006 [3] K. Kadau, Timothy C. Germann, Peter S. Lomdahl, and Brad Lee Holian, Science, 296, 1681, 2002 [4] Kai Kadau, Timothy C. Germann, Peter S. Lomdahl, and Brad

  3. Ultrafast soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at liquid water microjets.

    PubMed

    Faubel, M; Siefermann, K R; Liu, Y; Abel, B

    2012-01-17

    Since the pioneering work of Kai Siegbahn, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) has been developed into an indispensable analytical technique for surface science. The value of this powerful method of photoelectron spectroscopy (PES, also termed photoemission spectroscopy) and Siegbahn's contributions were recognized in the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physics. The need for high vacuum, however, originally prohibited PES of volatile liquids, and only allowed for investigation of low-vapor-pressure molecules attached to a surface (or close to a surface) or liquid films of low volatility. Only with the invention of liquid beams of volatile liquids compatible with high-vacuum conditions was PES from liquid surfaces under vacuum made feasible. Because of the ubiquity of water interfaces in nature, the liquid water-vacuum interface became a most attractive research topic, particularly over the past 10 years. PES studies of these important aqueous interfaces remained significantly challenging because of the need to develop high-pressure PES methods. For decades, ESCA or PES (termed XPS, for X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, in the case of soft X-ray photons) was restricted to conventional laboratory X-ray sources or beamlines in synchrotron facilities. This approach enabled frequency domain measurements, but with poor time resolution. Indirect access to time-resolved processes in the condensed phase was only achieved if line-widths could be analyzed or if processes could be related to a fast clock, that is, reference processes that are fast enough and are also well understood in the condensed phase. Just recently, the emergence of high harmonic light sources, providing short-wavelength radiation in ultrashort light pulses, added the dimension of time to the classical ESCA or XPS technique and opened the door to (soft) X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with ultrahigh time resolution. The combination of high harmonic light sources (providing radiation with laserlike

  4. Readout of the UFFO Slewing Mirror Telescope to detect UV/optical photons from Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. E.; Lim, H.; Nam, J. W.; Brandt, S.; Budtz-Jørgensen, C.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Chen, P.; Choi, H. S.; Grossan, B.; Huang, M. A.; Jeong, S.; Jung, A.; Kim, M. B.; Kim, S.-W.; Lee, J.; Linder, E. V.; Liu, T.-C.; Na, G. W.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Park, I. H.; Ripa, J.; Reglero, V.; Smoot, G. F.; Svertilov, S.; Vedenkin, N.; Yashin, I.

    2013-07-01

    The Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) was proposed for rapid response to prompt UV/optical photons from Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). The SMT is a key component of the Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO)-pathfinder, which will be launched aboard the Lomonosov spacecraft at the end of 2013. The SMT utilizes a motorized mirror that slews rapidly forward to its target within a second after triggering by an X-ray coded mask camera, which makes unnecessary a reorientation of the entire spacecraft. Subsequent measurement of the UV/optical is accomplished by a 10 cm aperture Ritchey-Chrètien telescope and the focal plane detector of Intensified Charge-Coupled Device (ICCD). The ICCD is sensitive to UV/optical photons of 200-650 nm in wavelength by using a UV-enhanced S20 photocathode and amplifies photoelectrons at a gain of 104-106 in double Micro-Channel Plates. These photons are read out by a Kodak KAI-0340 interline CCD sensor and a CCD Signal Processor with 10-bit Analog-to-Digital Converter. Various control clocks for CCD readout are implemented using a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The SMT readout is in charge of not only data acquisition, storage and transfer, but also control of the slewing mirror, the ICCD high voltage adjustments, power distribution, and system monitoring by interfacing to the UFFO-pathfinder. These functions are realized in the FPGA to minimize power consumption and to enhance processing time. The SMT readout electronics are designed and built to meet the spacecraft's constraints of power consumption, mass, and volume. The entire system is integrated with the SMT optics, as is the UFFO-pathfinder. The system has been tested and satisfies the conditions of launch and those of operation in space: those associated with shock and vibration and those associated with thermal and vacuum, respectively. In this paper, we present the SMT readout electronics: the design, construction, and performance, as well as the results of space environment test.

  5. Demarkuota Valstybės Siena su Baltarusijos Respublika

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sližienė, Gražina

    2008-06-01

    Valstybės siena tarp Lietuvos Respublikos ir Baltarusijos Respublikos yra išorinės Europos Sąjungos sienos dalis, todėl jos demarkavimas yra itin svarbus žingsnis, leidžiantis tinkamai taikyti išorinės sienos apsaugos režimą. Šios sienos demarkavimas truko dešimtį metų - nuo Sutarties dėl valstybės sienos tarp Lietuvos Respublikos ir Baltarusijos Respublikos demarkavimo, kurią pasirašė Lietuvos Respublikos ir Baltarusijos Respublikos Prezidentai, o Lietuvos Respublikos Seimas 1996 m. ratifikavo, iki 2006 metų, kai Mišri demarkacijos komisija pasirašė galutinius šios valstybių sienos demarkacijos dokumentus. Vykstant demarkavimo darbams šalys tarpusavyje derino įvairius juridinius, techninius, praktinius klausimus, susijusius su valstybės sienos ženklinimu, geodeziniais-kartografiniais darbais, pasienio juostos įrengimu, tarpvalstybine darbų kontrole, galutinių sienos demarkacijos dokumentų sudarymu ir kt. Iki šiol Lietuvos rytinė siena niekada nebuvo demarkuota, todėl atliekant delimitavimo darbus sienai nustatyti buvo panaudota nelygiavertė ar nekokybi\\vska kartografinė medžiaga, valstybės siena buvo tapdinama su neai\\vskiais arba nery\\vskiais vietovės kontūrais, kartais ji ėjo vingiuotais lauko ar mi\\vsko keliukais. Žymint valstybės sieną vietovėje kilo korektūros būtinybė. Pakoregavus sumažėjo sienos ženklų statymo ir pasienio juostos įrengimo išlaidų, išvengta nesisteminių sienos linijos vingių, išlinkių, įtraukta natūralios ribos (upės, kanalai, proskynos ir pan.), buvo išsaugoti inžineriniai-techniniai statiniai ir komunikacinė infrastruktūra bei jos priežiūros statiniai, siena sutrumpėjo, tačiau išliko perskirstomų plotų balansas. Pagal šalių suderintą valstybės sienos ženklų išdėstymo projektą vietovėje siena buvo paženklinta laikinaisiais sienos ženklais, vėliau jie pakeisti patvirtintos konstrukcijos nuostoviaisiais ženklais: centriniu (poligonometriniu

  6. Earthquake prediction in Japan and natural time analysis of seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uyeda, S.; Varotsos, P.

    2011-12-01

    M9 super-giant earthquake with huge tsunami devastated East Japan on 11 March, causing more than 20,000 casualties and serious damage of Fukushima nuclear plant. This earthquake was predicted neither short-term nor long-term. Seismologists were shocked because it was not even considered possible to happen at the East Japan subduction zone. However, it was not the only un-predicted earthquake. In fact, throughout several decades of the National Earthquake Prediction Project, not even a single earthquake was predicted. In reality, practically no effective research has been conducted for the most important short-term prediction. This happened because the Japanese National Project was devoted for construction of elaborate seismic networks, which was not the best way for short-term prediction. After the Kobe disaster, in order to parry the mounting criticism on their no success history, they defiantly changed their policy to "stop aiming at short-term prediction because it is impossible and concentrate resources on fundamental research", that meant to obtain "more funding for no prediction research". The public were and are not informed about this change. Obviously earthquake prediction would be possible only when reliable precursory phenomena are caught and we have insisted this would be done most likely through non-seismic means such as geochemical/hydrological and electromagnetic monitoring. Admittedly, the lack of convincing precursors for the M9 super-giant earthquake has adverse effect for us, although its epicenter was far out off shore of the range of operating monitoring systems. In this presentation, we show a new possibility of finding remarkable precursory signals, ironically, from ordinary seismological catalogs. In the frame of the new time domain termed natural time, an order parameter of seismicity, κ1, has been introduced. This is the variance of natural time kai weighted by normalised energy release at χ. In the case that Seismic Electric Signals

  7. Pattern Recognition in Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jessica; Williamson, Sheri; Borne, Kirk D.; DeBarr, David

    2012-03-01

    Perhaps the most commonly encountered data types are time series, touching almost every aspect of human life, including astronomy. One obvious problem of handling time-series databases concerns with its typically massive size—gigabytes or even terabytes are common, with more and more databases reaching the petabyte scale. For example, in telecommunication, large companies like AT&T produce several hundred millions long-distance records per day [Cort00]. In astronomy, time-domain surveys are relatively new—these are surveys that cover a significant fraction of the sky with many repeat observations, thereby producing time series for millions or billions of objects. Several such time-domain sky surveys are now completed, such as the MACHO [Alco01],OGLE [Szym05], SDSS Stripe 82 [Bram08], SuperMACHO [Garg08], and Berkeley’s Transients Classification Pipeline (TCP) [Star08] projects. The Pan-STARRS project is an active sky survey—it began in 2010, a 3-year survey covering three-fourths of the sky with ˜60 observations of each field [Kais04]. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) project proposes to survey 50% of the visible sky repeatedly approximately 1000 times over a 10-year period, creating a 100-petabyte image archive and a 20-petabyte science database (http://www.lsst.org/). The LSST science database will include time series of over 100 scientific parameters for each of approximately 50 billion astronomical sources—this will be the largest data collection (and certainly the largest time series database) ever assembled in astronomy, and it rivals any other discipline’s massive data collections for sheer size and complexity. More common in astronomy are time series of flux measurements. As a consequence of many decades of observations (and in some cases, hundreds of years), a large variety of flux variations have been detected in astronomical objects, including periodic variations (e.g., pulsating stars, rotators, pulsars, eclipsing binaries

  8. The relationship between shellbed type and sequence architecture: examples from Japan and New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Yasuo; Abbott, Stephen T.; Kitamura, Akihisa; Kamp, Peter J. J.; Naish, Tim R.; Kamataki, Takanobu; Saul, Gordon S.

    1998-12-01

    Examples of lithology, fossil content and taphonomic features of shellbeds and intervening less fossiliferous intervals are presented from four Plio-Pleistocene successions (Shimosa Group, Boso Peninsula, Omma Formation, Hokuriku area, Japan, and Okehu, Kai-iwi, and Shakespeare groups in Wanganui, and the Rangitikei Group along the Rangitikei River in New Zealand). As for pre-Pliocene 3rd- and 4th-order depositional sequences, Plio-Pleistocene 5th- to 7th-order depositional sequences contain a variety of shellbeds which are often associated with surfaces or intervals that are characterized by sedimentary condensation, omission or erosion (e.g. sequence boundaries, ravinement surfaces, downlap surfaces and condensed sections). Stratigraphic patterns of shellbed type tend to be similar and repetitive within a basin and a locality. This demonstrates that a specific palaeogeography played an important role in determining the nature of shellbeds. For example, shellbeds formed in the context of toplap are common only in the Shimosa Group, which was deposited in a moderately sheltered sea, the palaeo-Tokyo Bay. Toplap shellbeds are rare in other sequences formed in more open conditions. Despite the variability resulting from such basin characteristics, common styles of shellbeds can be recognized that formed under conditions of marine onlap, backlap, downlap and toplap. Each type of shellbed has a characteristic fossil composition and taphonomy. Onlap and toplap shellbeds contain low-diversity macrobenthic associations including Glycymeris, Mercenaria, Paphies or other bivalves having robust shells, which are often abraded or fragmented. Backlap shellbeds, which are equivalent to the condensed section formed at the maximum transgression, are characterized by dominance of epifaunal macrobenthos such as bryozoa, brachiopoda, pectinid and ostreid bivalves, preserved in a slightly cemented, glauconitic muddy matrix. In contrast to fossils in such condensed sections, the shell

  9. Summary of the Oahu, Hawaii, Regional Aquifer-System Analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, William D.; Shade, Patricia J.; Hunt, Charles D.

    1996-01-01

    island. A regional aquifer system composed of the Waianae aquifer in the Waianae Volcanics and the Koolau aquifer in the Koolau Basalt is subdivided into well-defined areas by geohydrologic barriers. The aquifers are separated by the Waianae confining unit formed by weathering along the Waianae-Koolau unconformity. In some coastal areas, a caprock of sedimentary deposits overlies and confines the aquifers. The island of Oahu has been divided into seven major ground-water areas delineated by deep-seated structural geohydrologic barriers; these areas are further subdivided by shallower internal barriers to ground-water flow. The Koolau rift zone along the eastern (windward) side of the island and the Waianae rift zone to the west (Waianae area) constitute two of the major ground-water areas. North-central Oahu is divided into three smaller ground-water areas, Mokuleia, Waialua, and Kawailoa. The Schofield ground-water area encompasses much of the Schofield Plateau of central Oahu. Southern Oahu is divided into six areas, Ewa, Pearl Harbor, Moanalua, Kalihi, Beretania, and Kaimuki. Southeastern Oahu is divided into the Waialae and Wailupe-Hawaii Kai areas. Along the northeast coast of windward Oahu is the Kahuku ground-water area. The aquifers of Oahu contain shallow freshwater and deeper saltwater flow systems. There are five fresh ground-water flow systems: meteoric freshwater flow diverges from ground-water divides that lie somewhere within the Waianae and Koolau rift zones, forming an interior flow system in central Oahu (which is divided into the northern and southern Oahu flow systems) and exterior flow systems in western (Waianae area) Oahu, eastern (windward) Oahu, and southeastern Oahu. Development of the ground-water resources on Oahu began when the first well was drilled near Honouliuli in the summer of 1879. By 1890, 86 wells had been drilled on the island. From about 1891 to about 1910, development increased rapidly with the drilling of a

  10. PREFACE: 17th International Conference on Recent Progress in Many-Body Theories (MBT17)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinholz, Heidi; Boronat, Jordi

    2014-08-01

    imaginative use and development of the Monte-Carlo approach and for his ground-breaking contributions to superconductivity. The Kümmel Award went to Max Metlitski (UC Santa Barbara) for remarkable advances in the theory of quantum criticality in metals. The nominations for the Kümmel Award were of such high standard that the Committee announced Honourable Mentions to Martin Eckstein (MPDS/U Hamburg, Germany) for his leading contributions in the development of non-equilibrium dynamical mean field theory, Emanuel Gull (U Michigan, USA) for the development of the Continuous-Time Auxiliary-Field Quantum Monte Carlo Method and for its use in understanding the interplay of the pseudogap and superconductivity in the Hubbard model and Kai Sun (U Michigan, USA) for seminal contributions to the theory of topological effects in strongly correlated electron systems. The Conference continues the series of conferences held before in Trieste, Italy (1979); Oaxtapec, Mexico (1981); Odenthal-Altenberg, Germany (1983); San Francisco, USA (1985); Oulu, Finland (1987); Arad, Israel (1989); Minneapolis, USA (1991); Schloé Segau, Austria (1994); Sydney, Australia (1997); Seattle, USA (1999); Manchester, UK (2001); Santa Fe, USA (2004); Buenos Aires, Argentina (2005); Barcelona, Spain (2007); Columbus, USA (2009) and Bariloche, Argentina (2011). It has been a great pleasure to prepare for the conference. We thank the IAC and in particular Susana Hernandez and David Neilson as well as the International Programme Committee for their great support and advice. Many more people have been involved locally in organizing this international meeting and thanks goes to them, in particular to the members of the LOC Sonja Lorenzen, Dieter Bauer, Niels-Uwe Bastian, Marina Hertzfeldt, Volker Mosert and Gerd Röpke. The next meeting will take place in Buffalo, USA in 2015 and we look forward to yet another exciting exchange on Recent Progress in Many-Body Theories. Heidi Reinholz and Jordi Boronat Guest editors

  11. The Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) aboard the Mars rover, Curiosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgett, K. S.; Ravine, M. A.; Caplinger, M. A.; Ghaemi, F. T.; Schaffner, J. A.; Malin, M. C.; Baker, J. M.; Dibiase, D. R.; Laramee, J.; Maki, J. N.; Willson, R. G.; Bell, J. F., III; Cameron, J. F.; Dietrich, W. E.; Edwards, L. J.; Hallet, B.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Heydari, E.; Kah, L. C.; Lemmon, M. T.; Minitti, M. E.; Olson, T. S.; Parker, T. J.; Rowland, S. K.; Schieber, J.; Sullivan, R. J.; Sumner, D. Y.; Thomas, P. C.; Yingst, R. A.

    2009-08-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity, is expected to land on Mars in 2012. The Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) will be used to document martian rocks and regolith with a 2-megapixel RGB color CCD camera with a focusable macro lens mounted on an instrument-bearing turret on the end of Curiosity's robotic arm. The flight MAHLI can focus on targets at working distances of 20.4 mm to infinity. At 20.4 mm, images have a pixel scale of 13.9 μm/pixel. The pixel scale at 66 mm working distance is about the same (31 μm/pixel) as that of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Microscopic Imager (MI). MAHLI camera head placement is dependent on the capabilities of the MSL robotic arm, the design for which presently has a placement uncertainty of ~20 mm in 3 dimensions; hence, acquisition of images at the minimum working distance may be challenging. The MAHLI consists of 3 parts: a camera head, a Digital Electronics Assembly (DEA), and a calibration target. The camera head and DEA are connected by a JPL-provided cable which transmits data, commands, and power. JPL is also providing a contact sensor. The camera head will be mounted on the rover's robotic arm turret, the DEA will be inside the rover body, and the calibration target will be mounted on the robotic arm azimuth motor housing. Camera Head. MAHLI uses a Kodak KAI-2020CM interline transfer CCD (1600 x 1200 active 7.4 μm square pixels with RGB filtered microlenses arranged in a Bayer pattern). The optics consist of a group of 6 fixed lens elements, a movable group of 3 elements, and a fixed sapphire window front element. Undesired near-infrared radiation is blocked using a coating deposited on the inside surface of the sapphire window. The lens is protected by a dust cover with a Lexan window through which imaging can be ac-complished if necessary, and targets can be illuminated by sunlight or two banks of two white light LEDs. Two 365 nm UV LEDs are included to search for fluores-cent materials at night. DEA

  12. A new phase of matter in Oakland

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Spencer; Nystrand, Joakim

    2004-03-18

    Recent results from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the phase diagram of matter at very high energies were the focal points of Quark Matter 2004, held January 10-17, 2004 in the Oakland, California convention center. About 700 participants, including 125 students, from 28 countries gathered for 5 days of plenary and parallel sessions. Besides the scientific discussions, participants enjoyed an afternoon of excursions; choices included visits to San Francisco, the Muir woods, and, of course, a chance to sample Napa Valley wines. There was also a day of introductory lectures for graduate students and a separate afternoon program for 50 local high school teachers. The ''Quark Matter'' conference series has evolved into the premier venue for relativistic heavy ion collisions, and QM2004 was no exception. The 44 plenary and 92 parallel session talks featured a veritable flood of data from STAR (Kai Schweda, LBNL), PHENIX (Tony Frawley, Florida State), PHOBOS (Peter Steinberg, BNL) and BRAHMS (Michael Murray, Kansas), at RHIC. This was accompanied by contributions from HERMES ( Pasquale DiNezza, Frascati) and HERA-B (Joakim Spengler, Heidelberg) and continuing analyses from NA-49 (Marek Gazdzicki, Frankfurt) and NA-57 (Giuseppe Bruno, Bari) at the CERN SPS. The theoretical contributions presented a broad range of models and calculations, from microscopic particle-by-particle simulations to hydrodynamic models that model the bulk behavior using an equation of state. A focus of much discussion was the question ''Have we found the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP)?'' This search was the prime motivation to build RHIC. Although the RHIC experiments made no formal statement, most conference attendees seemed to feel that the answer was yes. No single measurement makes the case, but the variety of data featured at QM2004 seems most easily explained in the context of a QGP. Some of the signatures included the suppression of high transverse momentum (pT) particles and

  13. Monitoring of near surface CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, E.; Möller, I.; Teschner, M.; Poggenburg, J.; Spickenbom, K.; Schulz, H. J.

    2009-04-01

    Monitoring of near surface CO2 ECKHARD FABER1, INGO MÖLLER1, MANFRED TESCHNER1, JÜRGEN POGGENBURG1, KAI SPICKENBOM1, HANS-MARTIN SCHULZ1,2 1Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Stilleweg 2, D-30655 Hannover, e.faber@bgr.de 2present adress: GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), Telegrafenberg, D-14473 Potsdam Underground gas storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide is one of the methods to reduce the input of antropogenic CO2 into the atmosphere and its greenhouse effect. Storage of CO2 is planned in depleted reservoirs, in aquifers and in salt caverns. Storage sites must have very small leakage rates to safely store the CO2 for centuries. Thus, a careful investigation and site selection is crucial. However, any leakage of CO2 to the surface is potentially dangerous for humans and environment. Therefore, instruments and systems for the detection of any CO2 escaping the storage sites and reaching the atmosphere have to be developed. Systems to monitor gases in deep wells, groundwater and surface sediments for leaking CO2 are developed, tested and are contnuously improved. Our group is mainly analysing CO2 in shallow (down to 3 m) soil samples using automatically operating monitoring systems. The systems are equipped with sensors to measure CO2 (and other gases) concentrations and other environmental parameters (atmospheric pressure, ambient and soil temperatures, etc.). Data are measured in short intervals (minute to subminute), are stored locally and are transferred by telemetrical systems into the BGR laboratory (Weinlich et al., 2006). In addition to soil gases monitoring systems technical equipment is available for continuous underwater gas flow measurements. Several of those monitoring systems are installed in different areas like Czech Republic, Austria, Italy and Germany. To detect any leaking gas from a sequestration site after CO2 injection, the naturally existing CO2 concentration (before injection) must be known. Thus, the natural

  14. Determination of the gradient of curvature of the plumblines of the normal gravity field and a initial study of its isocurvature lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoussakis, G.; Delikaraoglou, D.

    2009-04-01

    The curvature k of a plumbline of the Earth's normal gravity field U passing through a point P is a function which contains the first and second order partial derivatives of the normal potential U (referring to a Cartesian system). To determine the gradient of curvature at P the third order partial derivatives of the normal potential are also needed. However the determination of these high order partial derivatives demands too many complicated and tedious calculations. Here we describe a method to determine the gradient of curvature without using the third order partial derivatives of U. As a first step we express the partial derivatives of normal potential U in a global Cartesian system (X, Y , Z) such that the Z-axis is the Earth's mean axis of rotation, the X-axis is the intersection of the equator's plane and the plane of the Greenwich meridian and the Y -axis makes the system right-handed. For the problem at hand, we first introduce a local Cartesian (x, y, h) system such that a) the x - axis is tangent to the parallel circle at φ = φP , b) the y - axis is tangent to the meridian λ = λP and c) the h - axis is the vertical to the ellipsoid passing through the point P . Subsequently we introduce a local Cartesian system (x1, y1, h1) whose center is the point P and the transformation equations are x1 = x, y1 = y, and h1 = hP - h. Now in the interior of a circle of radius δ (δ is less than a meter) which has as a center the pointP and lies on the meridian plane of P we assume that the coordinates of the gradU change linearly and the second order partial derivatives of U practically do not change. In the interior of the circle - we name it D -- we construct a function ka = ka(y1, h1) with the use of which we determine the curvature of a plumbline at a specific point in the set D. The function kais a quotient of polynomial functions and it is a good approximation of the function k in the set D. Hence it is easy to determine the gradka in terms of the (x1, y1

  15. Investigation Into the Accuracy of 3D Surface Roughness Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumermanis, M.; Rudzitis, J.; Mozga, N.; Ancans, A.; Grislis, A.

    2014-04-01

    ārt pārāk liels punktu skaits nedod būtisku informācijas pieaugumu, bet palielina mērījumam nepieciešamo laiku. Līdz ar to, mums ir jāatrod optimālākais datu punktu skaits katrai virsmas apstrādes metodei vai to grupai.

  16. Morphology and Chemical composition of Atmospheric Particles over Semi-Arid region (Jaipur, Rajasthan) of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S. K.; Agnihotri, R.; Yadav, P.; Singh, S.; Tawale, J. S.; Rashmi, R.; Prasad, M.; Arya, B. C.; Mishra, N.

    2012-12-01

    %), i.e. a key element (in form of hematite; Fe2O3) for solar (visible) energy absorption and thus heating the atmosphere. The retrieved morphological parameters help to construct particle shape and number size distribution that are highly useful to reduce the uncertainty in radiative forcing of dust particles appreciably when combined with particle chemical composition as suggested by Kalashnikova and Sokolik (2004). References : Mishra, S. K., and S. N. Tripathi (2008), Modeling optical properties of mineral dust over the Indian Desert, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D23201, 19 PP., doi:10.1029/2008JD010048. Okada, K., J. Heintzenberg, K. Kai, and Y. Qin (2001), Shape of atmospheric mineral particles collected in three Chinese arid-regions, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 3123-3126 Kalashnikova OV, Sokolik IN. (2004) Modeling the radiative properties of nonspherical soil-derived mineral aerosols, J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer, 87, 137-66.

  17. Constraints on the Moho depth beneath the Australian continent with teleseismic converted and reflected waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, C.; van der Hilst, R.; Shang, X.

    2012-12-01

    lateral variations in Moho geometry. In the Northern Australia, for example, the Moho beneath the Warramunga seismic array offsets ~10 km in depth within less than 50 km laterally. Gradual Moho is detected from RF in the southeastern Australia, and the large amplitude of SsPmp phase of VDSS gives an average crustal thickness. We also show that even for stations underlain by thick sediments, such as FORT in the Eucla Basin where RF fails to detect the Moho, VDSS is still a powerful tool to estimate the Moho depth. Reference: Tseng, T.-L., Chen, W.-P., Nowack, R.L., 2009. Northward thinning of Tibetan crust revealed by virtual seismic profiles. Geophys. Res. Lett. 36(24), L24304 Yu Chun-Quan, Wang-Ping Chen, Jie-Yuan Ning, Kai Tao, Tai-Lin Tseng, Xin-Ding Fang, Yong-Shun Chen, and Robert D. van der Hilst, 2012. Thick Crust beneath the Ordos Plateau: Implications for Instability of the North China Craton. (manuscript under review at Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.).

  18. In situ soil moisture and matrix potential - what do we measure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackisch, Conrad; Durner, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    poses quite some concern about deriving field parameters from lab measurements. We will present some insights from the comparison study and highlight the conceptual concerns arising from it. Through this we hope to stimulate a discussion towards more critical revision of measurement assumptions and towards the development of alternative techniques to monitor subsurface states. The sensor comparison study consortium is a cooperation of Wolfgang Durner2, Ines Andrä2, Kai Germer2, Katrin Schulz2, Marcus Schiedung2, Jaqueline Haller-Jans2, Jonas Schneider2, Julia Jaquemotte2, Philipp Helmer2, Leander Lotz2, Thomas Graeff3, Andreas Bauer3, Irene Hahn3, Conrad Jackisch1, Martin Sanda4, Monika Kumpan5, Johann Dorner5, Gerrit de Rooij6, Stephan Wessel-Bothe7, Lorenz Kottmann8, and Siegfried Schittenhelm8. The great support by the team and the Thünen Institute Braunschweig is gratefully acknowledged. 1 Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 2 Technical University of Braunschweig, 3 University of Potsdam, 4 Technical University of Prague, 5 Federal Department for Water Management Petzenkirchen, 6 Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Halle, 7 ecoTech GmbH Bonn, 8 Julius Kühn Institute Braunschweig

  19. Noise in Nonlinear Dynamical Systems 3 Volume Paperback Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Frank; McClintock, P. V. E.

    2011-11-01

    ring-laser gyroscope K. Vogel, H. Risken and W. Schleich; 12. Control of noise and applications to optical systems L. A. Lugiato, G. Broggi, M. Merri and M. A. Pernigo; 13. Transition probabilities and spectral density of fluctuations of noise driven bistable systems M. I. Dykman, M. A. Krivoglaz and S. M. Soskin; Index. Volume 3: List of contributors; Preface; Introduction to volume three; 1. The effects of coloured quadratic noise on a turbulent transition in liquid He II J. T. Tough; 2. Electrohydrodynamic instability of nematic liquid crystals: growth process and influence of noise S. Kai; 3. Suppression of electrohydrodynamic instabilities by external noise Helmut R. Brand; 4. Coloured noise in dye laser fluctuations R. Roy, A. W. Yu and S. Zhu; 5. Noisy dynamics in optically bistable systems E. Arimondo, D. Hennequin and P. Glorieux; 6. Use of an electronic model as a guideline in experiments on transient optical bistability W. Lange; 7. Computer experiments in nonlinear stochastic physics Riccardo Mannella; 8. Analogue simulations of stochastic processes by means of minimum component electronic devices Leone Fronzoni; 9. Analogue techniques for the study of problems in stochastic nonlinear dynamics P. V. E. McClintock and Frank Moss; Index.

  20. Determination for regional differences of agriculture using satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, G.

    2006-12-01

    Remote Sensing Laboratory, Field Science Center, Graduate School of Agriculture Science, Tohoku University starts at April 2004. For studies and education at the laboratory we are now developing the system of remote sensing and GIS. Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC) made the Home Pages of Terra/ASTER Image Web Library 3 "The Major Airport of the World." http://www.Ersdac.or.jp/ASTERimage3/library_E.html. First, we check the Airport Data to use agricultural understanding for the world. Almost major airport is located in rural area and surrounded with agriculture field. To survey the agriculture field adjacent to the major airport has almost the same condition of human activities. The images are same size and display about 18km X 14km. We can easily understand field size and surrounding conditions. We study seven airports as follows, 1. Tokyo Narita Airport (NRT), Japan, 2. Taipei Chiang kai Shek International Airport (TPE), Taiwan, 3. Bangkok International Airport (BKK), Thailand, 4. Riyadh King Khalid International Airport (RUH), Saudi Arabia, 5. Charles de Gaulle Airport (CDG), Paris, France, 6. Vienna International Airport (VIE), Austria, 7. Denver International Airport (DEN), CO, USA. At the area of Tokyo Narita Airport, there are many golf courses, big urban area and small size of agricultural fields. At Taipei Airport area are almost same as Tokyo Narita Airport area and there are many ponds for irrigations. Bangkok Airport area also has golf courses and many ponds for irrigation water. Riyadh Airport area is quite different from others, and there are large bare soils and small agriculture fields with irrigation and circle shape. Paris Airport area and Vienna Airport area are almost agricultural fields and there are vegetated field and bare soil fields because of crop rotation. Denver Airport area consists of almost agriculture fields and each field size is very large. The advantages of ASTER data are as follows, 1. High-resolution and large

  1. [Tuberculosis care and new horizon of Japanese society].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Nobukatsu; Nagayama, Naohiro

    2012-04-01

    SAWADA (Services for Health in Asian & African Regions (SHARE)). In 2006, Tokyo Metropolitan Government started to dispatch interpreters for foreigners to strengthen DOTS program. Collaboration with NGOs made it possible to train 37 volunteer interpreters, and to provide services in 13 languages, as of 2010. In Japan, the treatment defaulter rate among non-Japanese tuberculosis patients had been remarkably high. But with having the assistance of interpreters, the treatment completion rate has become higher than 80%. It is recommended to expand a similar system to other part of Japan, as the proportion of foreigners among total tuberculosis cases keeps on increasing nationwide. 3. Tuberculosis problems in Japan from the view point of homelessness-through the activities of a NPO supporting the homeless in collaboration with a public health center: Sadako KANAZAWA (Volunteer, NPO Medical Care Team of Shinjuku Renraku-Kai). It has been 20 years since the issue of homelessness emerged in Japanese society. The people with a history of both tuberculosis and experience of homelessness tend to show a poor prognosis. Our team has played an active role, working with Shinjuku Public Health Center for conducting a screening for tuberculosis every year. It seems that the screening service itself does not make a fundamental solution for homeless people with tuberculosis. Developing a more basic system of 'from street to apartment' is more essential. We believe that understanding the importance of the system is most essential to the people who are involved in health and medical care. 4. What we have learned from DOTS--Toward care by cuddling the patient's mind: Kazuyo ARIMA (PHN, Osaka City Public Health Center). Osaka City has achieved the goals of DOTS set up by the City's TB Control Guidelines since 2001 such as 80% DOTS implementation rate, halving the defaulter rate and incidence rate. It was shown by analysis that the treatment success depends on 'patient's awareness of the

  2. PREFACE: International Conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies 2013 (FM&NT2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nõmmiste, Ergo; Kirm, Marco; Plank, Toomas

    2013-12-01

    oral, and 5 commercial talks were delivered and more than 200 posters were presented. In the framework of conference more than 20 papers were submitted to a topical issue of Physica Scripta. Based on the work presented at the conference, 62 articles are included in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. Additional information about FM&NT-2013 is available at its homepage http://fmnt.ut.ee/. The Organizing Committee would like to thank all the speakers, contributors, session chairs, referees and other involved staff for their efforts in making FM&NT-2013 successful. Special thanks for their hard work dealing with the conference papers goes to the Guest Editors: Professor Mikhail Brik, Dr Svetlana Zazubovits, Dr Arvo Kikas, Dr Rainer Pärna. The Organizing Committee hopes that Conference gave participants good insight into recent developments in nanotechnology, sustainable energetics, processing and modelling of multifunctional materials and research done using synchrotron radiation or other novel light sources. We sincerely hope that conference has provided support for the sharing of information and has brought together many young and experienced scientists from different fields, leading to fruitful discussions. We hope that all participants had good and memorable time in Tartu. On the behalf of organising committee Professor Ergo Nõmmiste Dr Marco Kirm Dr Toomas Plank The PDF also contains lists of the committees, the conference photograph and the sponsor's logos.

  3. Nėščiųjų ir jaunų negimdžiusių moterų krūtų tūrio, kūno dydžio ir pasyviosios masės lyginamasis tyrimas

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, Drąsutis; Arūnas, Barkus; Elena, Kairienė; Gražina, Drąsutienė; Kristina, Norvilaitė; Janina, Tutkuvienė

    2016-01-01

    Tikslas. Palyginti nėščiųjų ir jaunų negimdžiusių moterų kūno ir krūtų dydžio rodiklius. Medžiaga ir metodika. 2008–2009 m. (I tyrimas) ištirti 82 jaunų negimdžiusių devyniolikos metų amžiaus merginų krūtų ir kūno dydžio rodikliai, jie palyginti su 2013–2015 m. (II tyrimas) Vilniuje tirtų nėščiųjų (pirmuoju nėštumo trečdaliu) tais pačiais kūno stambumo ir krūtų parametrais – ūgiu, svoriu, įvairių kūno dalių apimtimis, odos klostėmis, pasyviąja kūno mase ir krūtų tūriu. Kūno dydžio rodikliams palyginti visos tiriamosios buvo skirstomos į grupes pagal krūtų dydį ir kūno stambumą (procentiliniu metodu). Nėščiosios suskirstytos į gimdančias pirmą kartą ir pakartotinai. Abiejuose tyrimuose naudota standartinė antropometrinė metodika. Krūties tūris apskaičiuotas pagal R. Kramerio ir G. Dexlerio (1981) formulę. Pasyviosios kūno masės (riebalinio audinio) kiekis procentais – pagal odos ir poodžio riebalines klostes naudojant W. E. Sirio (1961), J. H. Wilmorės ir A. R. Behnkės (1970) formules. Rezultatai, nustatyti visų parametrų aprašomosios statistikos, įvairovės ir pasiskirstymo rodikliais, apdoroti naudojant SPSS 22.0 programą. Skirtumai tarp tiriamųjų grupių vertinti pagal Stjudento t kriterijų. Pasirinktas patikimumo lygmuo p < 0,05. Rezultatai. Statistiškai reikšmingai didesni nei jaunų negimdžiusių nėščiųjų grupės moterų rodikliai buvo šie: krūtinės, juosmens, klubų apimties, krūties tūrio ir juosmens klubų indeksas. Nėščių moterų riebalinis audinys kaupėsi daugiau viršutinėje kūno dalyje, nors santykinė ir absoliuti pasyvioji kūno masė tarp grupių skyrėsi nereikšmingai. Lyginant pirmą kartą ir pakartotinai gimdančių su jaunų negimdžiusių moterų rodmenimis paaiškėjo, kad pakartotinai gimdančios moterys turėjo didesnį riebalinio audinio kiekį, o pirmąkart ir jaunų negimdžiusių merginų rodikliai reikšmingai nesiskyrė. Ma

  4. Health systems and long-term care for older people in Europe. Modelling the interfaces between prevention, rehabilitation, quality of services and informal care—an action research project

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Lis; Campbell, Lorna; van der Veen, Roelf; Leichsenring, Kai

    2011-01-01

    highlighted visually in posters. In a second phase, national and European overview papers were compiled, focusing on ‘Informal Care’, ‘Prevention and Rehabilitation’, ‘Quality Management and Quality Assurance’ as well as on ‘Governance and Financing’. Model These elements informed and influenced the ongoing development of the evolving INTERLINKS model which is currently being validated by National Expert Panels and a European Sounding Board. During the final cyclical phase of the project the web-based model will cover all themes and key-issues necessary to describe and analyse LTC systems, including practice examples. From these examples interested stakeholders should be able to gather and reflect upon issues that relate to their own national context and find answers from how other countries have solved similar challenges at different developmental stages. While developing solutions to above-mentioned issues the model will also emphasise links, gaps and interfaces addressed by the practice examples. An interactive database for all EU countries will thus be available to which interested stakeholders may refer to, but to which they may also add pertinent examples from their national experiences and/or use them to generate ideas for improving future LTC practice for older people. Results Selected results of this process, such as highlighted findings from specific research foci and the draft web-based model to describe, analyse and improve LTC, will be presented at the conference. Kai Leichsenring will introduce the project and some key findings from emerging LTC systems in Europe concerning links and interfaces between health and social care with a view on informal care, quality management and governance and financing. Lis Wagner will show examples for embedding prevention and rehabilitation also in the context of LTC for older people, with a specific focus on Danish experiences. Lorna Campbell will show how interested stakeholders can navigate through the

  5. Structure and surface correlations to the optical properties of nonthermal plasma-produced silicon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, Rebecca Joy

    amorphous silicon nanoparticles, and high power yields crystalline nanoparticles. Even more important, the crystallinity of a nanoparticle ensemble relates directly to the photoluminescence (PL) efficiency, or quantum yield, from the ensemble: crystalline silicon nanoparticle samples, after alkyl functionalization, exhibit PL efficiencies of 40% or greater, while amorphous samples emit light with very poor efficiency (<2%). Additional studies of the plasma reactor revealed the importance of injecting a flow of hydrogen gas into the afterglow of the plasma, which turns out to have dramatic implications for the ultimate PL quantum yields of the nanocrystals. This injection scheme was systematically studied by varying the injected gas and its position. Hydrogen injected directly into the plasma afterglow was found to be vital for achieving high quantum-yield silicon nanocrystals, likely due to a reduction in surface trap states due to additional hydrogen passivation at the nanocrystal surface. Further investigations into the nanocrystal surface and how it relates to PL quantum yield showed that the photoluminescence from silicon nanocrystals is not only dependent on synthesis parameters, but also on processing temperatures and procedures following synthesis. While the highest PL efficiencies are found for silicon nanocrystals capped with alkyl chains, the PL efficiency of a nanocrystal ensemble can also be improved simply by heating the sample to temperatures between 150-200° C. This heating step also leads to a change in the hydride structure at the nanocrystal surface, which appears to be brought about by the effusion of silyl (or disilane) groups. Finally, details of the construction of a silicon-nanocrystal-based LED will be discussed. The LED project is part of a collaboration, and while the majority of device-specific aspects of the project were carried out in the lab of Professor R. Holmes by his Ph.D. student Kai-Yuan Cheng, the processing and alterations made to the

  6. ESA presents INTEGRAL, its space observatory for Gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-09-01

    Baikonur is actually scheduled for 2001. ESA pioneered gamma-ray astronomy in space with its COS-B satellite (1975). Russia's Granat (1989) and NASA's Compton GRO (1991) followed. But INTEGRAL will be better still. With this mission ESA will further strengthen its lead in gamma-astronomy. Principal Investigators : Imager : Pietro Ubertini (IAS, Frascati, Italy) Spectrometer : Gilbert Vedrenne (CESR, Toulouse/France) Volker Schoenfelder (MPE, Garching/.Germany) X-Ray monitor : Niels Lund (DSRI, Copenhagen/Denmark) Optical Monitoring Camera : Alvaro Gimenez (INTA, Madrid/Spain) Integral Science Data Center : Thierry Courvoisier (Genova Observatory, Switzerland) For further information, please contact : ESA Public Relations Division Tel: +33(0)1.53.69.71.55 Fax: +33(0)1.53.69.76.90 INTEGRAL MEDIA DAY Tuesday 22 September 1998 Newton Conference Centre ESTEC, Noordwijk, Keplerlaan 1 (The Netherlands) Programme 10:30 . Arrival and Registration in the Newton Conference Centre 10:45. Welcome and introduction by David Dale, Director of ESTEC 10:50 The Scientific Challenge : the mission of INTEGRAL, by Chistoph Winkler, INTEGRAL Project Scientist 11:10 The Technical Challenge : the INTEGRAL spacecraft, by Kai Clausen, INTEGRAL Project Manager 11:30 The Industrial Challenge by A. Simeone, Programme Director at Aleniaspazio 11:45 Question/Answer session 12:00 Visit to INTEGRAL spacecraft ; photo and film opportunities, incl. Interview opportunities with speakers 13:00 Informal buffet lunch in Foyer of Conference Centre Newton 14:30 End of event

  7. Exclusive Reactions at High Momentum Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radyushkin, Anatoly; Stoler, Paul

    2008-03-01

    . P. Szczepaniak and J. T. Londergan -- High energy break-up of few-nucleon systems / M. Sargsian -- Photodisintegration of the deuteron, and [symbol]He / R. Gilman -- A review of the few-body form factors / G. G. Petratos -- Nucleon form factor measurements and interpretation / C. F. Perdrisat -- Implications of G[symbol](Q[symbol])/G[symbol](Q[symbol]) / S. Dubnicka and A. Z. Dubnickova -- High Q[symbol] large acceptance G[symbol]/G[symbol] measurements using polarization transfer / L. Pentchev, C. F. Perdrisat and B. Wojtsekhowski -- A precise measurement of the neutron magnetic form factor G[symbol] in the few-GeV[symbol] region / G. P. Gilfoyle et al. (the CLAS collaboration) -- Magnetic form factor of the neutron up to 8 (GeV/c)[symbol] / B. Quinn -- Timelike form factors / K. K. Seth -- Polarization phenomena in e[symbol]e[symbol] [symbol] pp¯ revisited / A. Z. Dubnickova and S. Dubnicka -- Light-cone sum rules for form factors of the N[symbol] transition at Q[symbol] = 0 / J. Rohrwild -- Exclusive electroproduction of [symbol] mesons / A. N. Villano (for the JLab E01-002 collaboration) -- Exclusive electroproduction of [symbol] mesons in the S[symbol](1535) resonance region at high momentum transfer / M. M. Dalton (for the JLab E01-002 collaboration) -- Two-photon exchange in electron-proton elastic scattering: theory update / A. V. Afanasev -- Two-photon exchange contributions to elastic ep scattering in the non-local field formalism / P. Jain, S. D. Joglekar and S. Mitra -- Beyond the born approximation: a precise comparison of positron-proton and electron-proton elastic scattering in CLAS / J. Lachniet et al. -- Meson form factors in the space-like region / D. Gaskell -- Pion-nucleon distribution amplitudes / A. Peters -- [symbol] scattering in the 1/N[symbol] expansion / H. J. Kwee -- [symbol] annihilations into quasi-two-body final states at 10.58 GeV / Kai Yi -- Transition distribution amplitudes / J. P. Lansberg, B. Pire and L. Szymanowski -- Novel QCD

  8. Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Due to Improvement of Biodegradable Waste Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendere, R.; Teibe, I.; Arina, D.; Lapsa, J.

    2014-12-01

    ārdāmo atkritumu apsaimniekošanas statistikas datu novērtējums atbilstoši likumdošanas prasībām. Izmantojot matemātisko modelēšanas programmu WAMPS, analizēti trīs dažādi bioloģisko noārdāmo atkritumu apsaimniekošanas scenāriji, kuriem veikts vides ietekmes novērtējums, kas izteikts klimata pārmaiņu potenciālā - tonnas CO2 ekv. Darbā secināts, ka lielākais siltumnīcefektu (SEG) avots atkritumu apsaimniekošanas ir atkritumu poligoni (Bāzes scenārijs), ko galvenokārt ietekmē CH4 rašanās, organiskajiem atkritumiem sadaloties anaerobos apstākļos. Būtisku pozitīvo efektu SEG emisiju samazināšanā dod atkritumu pārstrāde otrreizējās izejvielās un sadedzināšana cementa ražotnē, kas ļauj samazināt dabīgo izejmateriālu un fosilo enerģijas resursu patēriņu. Attīstot pārtikas atkritumu pārstrādi biogāzē, lietderīgi veidot alternatīvās vai izmantot esošās sistēmas, kas nodrošina iegūtās enerģijas un digestāta patēriņu, t.i lauksaimniecība, transports vai komunālie pakalpojumi. Lai no zaļajiem dārza atkritumiem iegūtu augstvērtīgu kompostu, valstī jārada tam nepieciešami likumdošanas un ekonomiskie instrumenti, kas veicina komposta tirgus attīstību.

  9. PREFACE: International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Simon C.; Shen, Stella; Neufeld, Niko; Gutsche, Oliver; Cattaneo, Marco; Fisk, Ian; Panzer-Steindel, Bernd; Di Meglio, Alberto; Lokajicek, Milos

    2011-12-01

    , as well as two banquets held at the Grand Hotel and Grand Formosa Regent in Taipei. The next CHEP conference will be held in New York, the United States on 21-25 May 2012. We would like to thank the National Science Council of Taiwan, the EU ACEOLE project, commercial sponsors, and the International Advisory Committee and the Programme Committee members for all their support and help. Special thanks to the Programme Committee members for their careful choice of conference contributions and enormous effort in reviewing and editing about 340 post conference proceedings papers. Simon C Lin CHEP 2010 Conference Chair and Proceedings Editor Taipei, Taiwan November 2011 Track Editors/ Programme Committee Chair Simon C Lin, Academia Sinica, Taiwan Online Computing Track Y H Chang, National Central University, Taiwan Harry Cheung, Fermilab, USA Niko Neufeld, CERN, Switzerland Event Processing Track Fabio Cossutti, INFN Trieste, Italy Oliver Gutsche, Fermilab, USA Ryosuke Itoh, KEK, Japan Software Engineering, Data Stores, and Databases Track Marco Cattaneo, CERN, Switzerland Gang Chen, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China Stefan Roiser, CERN, Switzerland Distributed Processing and Analysis Track Kai-Feng Chen, National Taiwan University, Taiwan Ulrik Egede, Imperial College London, UK Ian Fisk, Fermilab, USA Fons Rademakers, CERN, Switzerland Torre Wenaus, BNL, USA Computing Fabrics and Networking Technologies Track Harvey Newman, Caltech, USA Bernd Panzer-Steindel, CERN, Switzerland Antonio Wong, BNL, USA Ian Fisk, Fermilab, USA Niko Neufeld, CERN, Switzerland Grid and Cloud Middleware Track Alberto Di Meglio, CERN, Switzerland Markus Schulz, CERN, Switzerland Collaborative Tools Track Joao Correia Fernandes, CERN, Switzerland Philippe Galvez, Caltech, USA Milos Lokajicek, FZU Prague, Czech Republic International Advisory Committee Chair: Simon C. Lin , Academia Sinica, Taiwan Members: Mohammad Al-Turany , FAIR, Germany Sunanda Banerjee, Fermilab, USA Dario Barberis, CERN

  10. Bright and dynamic, constantly updated and enhanced online.?

    PubMed

    Hunt

    2000-01-01

    Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology Nature Publishing Group (2000). ISSN 1471-0072. Monthly First there was Annual Reviews, then came the monthly Elsevier Trends Journals, both of which try to identify hot topics in their chosen fields. The Current Opinion journals followed several years later, and Current Opinion in Cell Biology is presently one of the highest 'impact factor' review journals, with a distinguished board of editors and advisors and a systematic approach to regular coverage of the major fields of cell biology. Important topics are visited once a year, whether or not something specially exciting happened in the last 12 months. Add to this list Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology, the FASEB journal and the countless minireviews in 'real' journals, and you begin to wonder how anyone finds any time for doing experiments, or indeed reading the primary literature. So, into this already crowded field arrive three important newcomers: Nature Reviews in Molecular Cell Biology, Genetics, and Neurosciences, of which the first two will probably interest readers of Journal of Cell Science the most. Backed by the name and money of Nature and edited by experienced Nature staff, it is hard to see how these publications can possibly do other than succeed with writers and readers alike. What's inside the first issue? The cover of Nature Reviews in Molecular Cell Biology presents a 3-colour montage of a blue cell nucleus surrounded by splotches of green GPI-anchored GFP overlaid by orange actin stress fibres that seem to come from somewhere else. This image trails a comprehensive review from Kai Simons and Derek Toomre about Lipid Rafts. There are another five major review articles: calcium puffs and sparks, rings around DNA, HIV inhibitors, kinesin and the circadian clock provide a rich and varied mix of topics from authors who know what they're talking about. Surrounding this core is an entertaining mixture of 'highlights' at the front: news and views about

  11. Nature's loss, Immunologists gain?

    PubMed

    Aluvihare

    2000-01-01

    Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology Nature Publishing Group (2000). ISSN 1471-0072. Monthly First there was Annual Reviews, then came the monthly Elsevier Trends Journals, both of which try to identify hot topics in their chosen fields. The Current Opinion journals followed several years later, and Current Opinion in Cell Biology is presently one of the highest 'impact factor' review journals, with a distinguished board of editors and advisors and a systematic approach to regular coverage of the major fields of cell biology. Important topics are visited once a year, whether or not something specially exciting happened in the last 12 months. Add to this list Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology, the FASEB journal and the countless minireviews in 'real' journals, and you begin to wonder how anyone finds any time for doing experiments, or indeed reading the primary literature. So, into this already crowded field arrive three important newcomers: Nature Reviews in Molecular Cell Biology, Genetics, and Neurosciences, of which the first two will probably interest readers of Journal of Cell Science the most. Backed by the name and money of Nature and edited by experienced Nature staff, it is hard to see how these publications can possibly do other than succeed with writers and readers alike. What's inside the first issue? The cover of Nature Reviews in Molecular Cell Biology presents a 3-colour montage of a blue cell nucleus surrounded by splotches of green GPI-anchored GFP overlaid by orange actin stress fibres that seem to come from somewhere else. This image trails a comprehensive review from Kai Simons and Derek Toomre about Lipid Rafts. There are another five major review articles: calcium puffs and sparks, rings around DNA, HIV inhibitors, kinesin and the circadian clock provide a rich and varied mix of topics from authors who know what they're talking about. Surrounding this core is an entertaining mixture of 'highlights' at the front: news and views about

  12. ESA presents INTEGRAL, its space observatory for Gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-09-01

    Baikonur is actually scheduled for 2001. ESA pioneered gamma-ray astronomy in space with its COS-B satellite (1975). Russia's Granat (1989) and NASA's Compton GRO (1991) followed. But INTEGRAL will be better still. With this mission ESA will further strengthen its lead in gamma-astronomy. Principal Investigators : Imager : Pietro Ubertini (IAS, Frascati, Italy) Spectrometer : Gilbert Vedrenne (CESR, Toulouse/France) Volker Schoenfelder (MPE, Garching/.Germany) X-Ray monitor : Niels Lund (DSRI, Copenhagen/Denmark) Optical Monitoring Camera : Alvaro Gimenez (INTA, Madrid/Spain) Integral Science Data Center : Thierry Courvoisier (Genova Observatory, Switzerland) For further information, please contact : ESA Public Relations Division Tel: +33(0)1.53.69.71.55 Fax: +33(0)1.53.69.76.90 INTEGRAL MEDIA DAY Tuesday 22 September 1998 Newton Conference Centre ESTEC, Noordwijk, Keplerlaan 1 (The Netherlands) Programme 10:30 . Arrival and Registration in the Newton Conference Centre 10:45. Welcome and introduction by David Dale, Director of ESTEC 10:50 The Scientific Challenge : the mission of INTEGRAL, by Chistoph Winkler, INTEGRAL Project Scientist 11:10 The Technical Challenge : the INTEGRAL spacecraft, by Kai Clausen, INTEGRAL Project Manager 11:30 The Industrial Challenge by A. Simeone, Programme Director at Aleniaspazio 11:45 Question/Answer session 12:00 Visit to INTEGRAL spacecraft ; photo and film opportunities, incl. Interview opportunities with speakers 13:00 Informal buffet lunch in Foyer of Conference Centre Newton 14:30 End of event

  13. ESA and NASA agree new mission scenario for Cassini-Huygens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    may arise,” said John Credland, Head of ESA’s Space Science Projects Department. “The measure of an organisation is the manner in which it recovers.” The new mission scenario will have some impact on Cassini’s propellant supply, consuming about a quarter of the Orbiter’s reserve fuel by the end of the four-year mission. It also involves several modifications to ensure maximum efficiency of the Huygens communications system. These include pre-heating the Probe to improve tuning of the transmitted signal, continuous commanding by the Orbiter to force the receiver into non-Doppler mode, and changes in the Probe’s on-board software. "I am very happy that we have found a good engineering solution,” said Kai Clausen, ESA’s Integral Project Manager and co-chairman of the HRTF. “But a lot more work still needs to be done. Now we need to complete the detailed design, implementation, validation and testing over the next few years." “There are still some uncertainties, for example the exact definition of the landing site, but these are minor problems,” said Jean-Pierre Lebreton, ESA’s Huygens Project Scientist. “What is important is that we have found the solution. It is now time for fine tuning.” The ESA Director of Science, David Southwood, and the NASA Associate Director for Space Science, Edward Weiler, have jointly agreed to the new mission approach and have asked the HRTF to hand over to the project teams in July for implementation of the joint recommendations. (**) The Doppler shift is a measure of the difference in tone between an emitted and a received wave (e.g. radio) when the transmitting source and the receiver move one with respect to the other. Note to editors Cassini-Huygens is a joint NASA/ESA mission with the participation of the Italian Space Agency (ASI) launched by a Titan IVB/Centaur launch vehicle on 15 October 1997, that will reach Saturn in 2004. It consists of NASA's orbiter Cassini and ESA's probe Huygens. While Cassini

  14. EDITORIAL: Focus on Micro- and Nanofluidics FOCUS ON MICRO- AND NANOFLUIDICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajdari, Armand; Stone, Howard A.

    2009-07-01

    , simulation and theory, in this rapidly developing field. Focus on Micro- and Nanofluidics Contents The anti-lotus leaf effect in nanohydrodynamic bump arrays Keith Morton, Ophelia K C Tsui, Chih-Kuan Tung, James C Sturm, Stephen Y Chou and Robert Austin Transport in nanofluidic systems: a review of theory and applications W Sparreboom, A van den Berg and J C T Eijkel The effects of polymer molecular weight on filament thinning and drop breakup in microchannels P E Arratia, L-A Cramer, J P Gollub and D J Durian Mass transfer and interfacial properties in two-phase microchannel flows Jeffrey D Martin and Steven D Hudson Temporal response of an initially deflected PDMS channel Priyadarshi Panda, Kai P Yuet, Dhananjay Dendukuri, T Alan Hatton and Patrick S Doyle Gas-liquid two-phase flow patterns in rectangular polymeric microchannels: effect of surface wetting properties D Huh, C-H Kuo, J B Grotberg and S Takayama Mixing via thermocapillary generation of flow patterns inside a microfluidic drop María Luisa Cordero, Hans Olav Rolfsnes, Daniel R Burnham, Paul A Campbell, David McGloin and Charles N Baroud Pressure-driven DNA transport across an artificial nanotopography J T Del Bonis-O'Donnell, W Reisner and D Stein Eulerian indicators for predicting and optimizing mixing quality Rob Sturman and Stephen Wiggins Asymmetric flows over symmetric surfaces: capacitive coupling in induced-charge electro-osmosis T S Mansuripur, A J Pascall and T M Squires High-viscosity fluid threads in weakly diffusive microfluidic systems T Cubaud and T G Mason Interfacial mass transport in steady three-dimensional flows in microchannels Joseph D Kirtland, Corey R Siegel and Abraham D Stroock Active connectors for microfluidic drops on demand Jean-Christophe Galas, Denis Bartolo and Vincent Studer Electrokinetic control of sample splitting at a channel bifurcation using isotachophoresis Alexandre Persat and Juan G Santiago Differential inertial focusing of particles in curved low

  15. EDITORIAL: Focus on Superconductors with Exotic Symmetries FOCUS ON SUPERCONDUCTORS WITH EXOTIC SYMMETRIES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, T. Maurice; Sigrist, Manfred; Maeno, Yoshiteru

    2009-05-01

    overdoped Tl2Ba2CuO6+δ above 100 K M M J French, J G Analytis, A Carrington, L Balicas and N E Hussey The disordered Fulde-Ferrel-Larkin-Ovchinnikov state in d-wave superconductors Youichi Yanase The chiral superconductor-ferromagnet-chiral superconductor Josephson junction P M R Brydon, C Iniotakis and Dirk Manske Unusual behaviours and impurity effects in the noncentrosymmetric superconductor CePt3Si I Bonalde, R L Ribeiro, W Brämer-Escamilla, C Rojas, E Bauer, A Prokofiev, Y Haga, T Yasuda and Y Onuki Nature of stripes in the generalized t-J model applied to the cuprate superconductors Kai-Yu Yang, Wei Qiang Chen, T M Rice, M Sigrist and Fu-Chun Zhang

  16. Development and Experimental Study of Phantoms for Mapping Skin Chromophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silapetere, A.; Spigulis, J.; Saknite, I.

    2014-06-01

    šanu veicinošu serumu (FBS). Šūnu kultivēšanai nepieciešamas vismaz divas nedēļas. Šajā slāņainajā struktūrā ir iespējams pievienot ādas hromoforu simulējošus iekļāvumus. Optiskajā diapazonā no 450-900 nm ādas hromoforas, kurām ir visizteiktākais spektrs, ir bilirubīns, melanīns un hemoglobīns. Lai simulētu ādas hromoforu spektrālās īpašības, tika izmantots sintezēts bilirubīns, eritrocītu masa un nigrozīns. Lai izpētītu šī maketa iekārtu kalibrēšanas potenciālu, tika izveidoti 76 paraugi, kur katros 24 paraugos bija pievienots viens no absorbentiem ar dažādām koncentrācijām. Pilna ādas maketa audzēšanai nepieciešamas divas nedēļas, lai ātrāk tiktu iegūti pirmie rezultāti tika veidoti maketi bez dermālo un epidermālo šūnu piejaukuma. Fibrīna matricas un ādas imitējošā maketa absorbcijas spējas ir mazas salīdzinājumā ar hromoforu absorbcijas spējām. Lai novērtētu maketu, kas paredzēti konkrētu hromoforu spektrālo īpašību imitēšanai, iespējams veikt eksperimentus ar fibrīna matricu, kuras izveidošanai ir nepieciešama viena diena. Sintezētā bilirubīna koncentrācijas tika mainītas robežās no 0,01-2,00 mg/ml, melanīna optisko īpašību simulējošās vielas nigrozīna koncentrācija tika mainīta no 1,5 - 312,8 μg/ml, eritrocītu masas koncentrācija mainījās no 0,2 - 42,4 mg/ml.Mērījumi tika veikti, izmantojot multispektrālās attēlošanas iekārtu Cri Nuance 2.4. (Cambridge Research & Instrumentation, Inc., Amerikas Savienotās Valstis). Absorbcijas spektrs tika apstrādāts, izmantojot Microsoft Office Excel 2007. Iegūtajos rezultātos ir iespējams redzēt, ka piedāvātais ādas makets spēj simulēt ādas optiskās īpašības. Izmantotie absorbenti - sintezētais bilirubīns, nigrozīns un eritrocītu masa - spēj simulēt ādas hromoforu spektrālās īpašības. Palielinot absorbentu koncentrāciju paraugā, palielinās absorbcijas spektra maksimālā intensit

  17. Advanced Materials and Processing 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Su, Chun Wei; Xia, Hui; Xiao, Pengfei

    2011-06-01

    EuFe[symbol] materials / Huen Kan ... [et al.] -- Synthesis and characterization of Ni(OH)[symbol] nanosheets by a simple route at low temperature / Qian Li ... [et al.] -- The prediction of laser clad parameters based on neural network / Jichang Liu and Libin Ni -- The effects of Y[symbol] doping on the phase structure and photoluminescence properties of (Gd[symbol]) red phosphors / Qi Zhu ... [et al.] -- Design of an in situ detection system for laser hardened width / Caixia Yang and Jichang Liu -- Numerical simulation microstructure morphology evolution and solute microsegregation of Al-Si-Cu ternary alloys during solidification process / Shuisheng Xie ... [et al.].A shear-lag model for carbon nonotube-reinforced magnesium matrix composites / Wei-Xue Li ... [et al.] -- Corrosion behavior of the Alumina Coated Al6061 Alloy by Plasma electrolytic oxidation / Kai Wang ... [et al.] -- A simple route for synthesis of tin dioxide nanorods based on improved solid-state reactions / Yuehua Li ... [et al.] -- Comparative study on microstructure and magnetic properties of amorphous wires with different diameters / Jing-Shun Liu ... [et al.] -- Chemical-Vapor-Depositing (CVD) aluminium film on steel surface with the disproportionation reaction of Al[symbol]S / Wu Guoyuan and Dai Yongnian -- The microstructure and properties of super martensitic stainless steel microalloyed with tungsten and copper / Dong Ye ... [et al.] -- Design of low elastic modulus Ti-Nb-Zr alloys for implant materials / Xiping Song ... [et al.] -- In situ monitoring molten pool parameters for detecting visible defects in laser cladding / Liusha Yang ... [et al.].

  18. Effects of Potassium Mineral Fertilization on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield on a Chernozem Soil in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    varieties, estimated at 85-100 t/ha for potato, 75-85 t/ha for beet and 12-15 t/ha for wheat (Evans 1977). These are far higher than the yields commonly obtained in practice. World average yields were only 1/6th of the potential for potato, 1/6th for wheat and 2/5th for sugar beet in 1995. Utilization of the crop The major part of potato production is usually used for human consumption. Human consumption of potatoes however has declined in the industrialised countries as the standard of living has increased. In these countries an increasing proportion of the crop is used for manufacturing products such as crisp, oven-ready chips, dehydrated potato powder. Thus, in Hungary the consumption of potatoes per person decreased from 110 kg in 1951/1960 to 60 kg in 1995, whereas the consumption of processed potatoes increased from 1 to 15 kg/person during this period. Uptake of potassium Potassium is the nutrient taken up by potato in the greatest quantity, it also takes up much nitrogen and appreciable amounts of phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and sulphur (Perrenoud 1993). Maximum uptakes by different varieties in Japan range between 140 and 267 K2O (Kali Kenkyu Kai 1980). In England, potatoes grown on the " blueprint" system and giving the very high yield of 77.7 t/ha took up 450 kg/ha K2O (Anderson and Hewgill 1978). Brazílian experiments with 6 varieties showed the following uptakes (kg/ha): potassium 207-367 (Motta 1976). Removal of potassium by tubers 23 experimental crops in France (Loué 1977), -with a mean yield of 37.3 t/ha tubers removed: 196 kg K2O, respectively. It is equal to 5.3 kg K2O per 1 tonne tuber. Motta Macedo (1976) reports the following removals in kg/ha for 6 varieties grown in Brazíl: K2O: 118-192. In 14 experiments in India (Grewal and Singh 1979) a mean yield of 28.8 t/ha tuber was obtained which removed an average of 91 kg/ha K2O. At very high yield level, nutrient removal in tuber is very high. Anderson and Hewgill (1978) report a yield of 90 t

  19. Sharper and Deeper Views with MACAO-VLTI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-05-01

    this, indicating that guide stars of this magnitude are feasible during future observations. ESO PR Photo 12g/03 ESO PR Photo 12g/03 [Preview - JPEG: 528 x 400 pix - 48k [Normal - JPEG: 1055 x 800 pix - 542k] Captions : PR Photo 12g/03 shows some of the MACAO-VLTI commissioning team members in the VLT Control Room at the moment of "First Light" during the night between April 18-19, 2003. Sitting: Markus Kasper, Enrico Fedrigo - Standing: Robin Arsenault, Sebastien Tordo, Christophe Dupuy, Toomas Erm, Jason Spyromilio, Rob Donaldson (all from ESO). PR Photos 12b-c/03 show the first image in the infrared K-band (wavelength 2.2 µm) of a star (visual magnitude 10) obtained without and with image corrections by means of adaptive optics. PR Photo 12d/03 displays one of the best images obtained with MACAO-VLTI during the early tests. It shows a Strehl ratio (measure of light concentration) that fulfills the specifications according to which MACAO-VLTI was built. This enormous improvement when using AO techniques is clearly demonstrated in PR Photo 12e/03 , with the uncorrected image profile (left) hardly visible when compared to the corrected profile (right). PR Photo 11f/03 demonstrates the correction capabilities of MACAO-VLTI when using a faint guide star. Tests using different spectral types showed that the limiting visual magnitude varies between 16 for early-type B-stars and about 18 for late-type M-stars. Astronomical Objects seen at the Diffraction Limit The following examples of MACAO-VLTI observations of two well-known astronomical objects were obtained in order to provisionally evaluate the research opportunities now opening with MACAO-VLTI. They may well be compared with space-based images. The Galactic Center ESO PR Photo 12h/03 ESO PR Photo 12h/03 [Preview - JPEG: 693 x 400 pix - 46k [Normal - JPEG: 1386 x 800 pix - 403k] Caption : PR Photo 12h/03 shows a 90-second K-band exposure of the central 6 x 13 arcsec 2 around the Galactic Center obtained by MACAO