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Sample records for kai semento gijutsu

  1. Circadian oscillations of KaiA-KaiC and KaiB-KaiC complex formations in an in vitro reconstituted KaiABC clock oscillator.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Reiko; Mutoh, Risa; Ishii, Ketaro; Ishiura, Masahiro

    2016-08-01

    The circadian clock is an endogenous biological mechanism that generates autonomous daily cycles in physiological activities. The phosphorylation levels of KaiC oscillated with a period of 24 h in an ATP-dependent clock oscillator reconstituted in vitro from KaiA, KaiB and KaiC. We examined the complex formations of KaiA and KaiB with KaiC in the KaiABC clock oscillator by fluorescence correlation spectrometry (FCS) analysis. The formation of KaiB-containing protein complex(es) oscillated in a circadian manner, with a single peak at 12 h and single trough at 24 h in the circadian cycle, whereas that of KaiA-containing protein complex(es) oscillated with two peaks at 12 and 24 h. FCS and surface plasmon resonance analyses showed that the binding affinity of KaiA for a mutant KaiC with Ala substitutions at the two phosphorylation sites considered to mimic the nonphosphorylated form of KaiC (np-KaiC) was higher than that for a mutant KaiC with Asp substitutions at the two phosphorylation sites considered to mimic the completely phosphorylated form of KaiC (cp-KaiC). The results from the study suggest that a KaiA-KaiB-cp-KaiC ternary complex and a KaiA-np-KaiC complex were formed at 12 and 24 h, respectively.

  2. Structural model of the circadian clock KaiB-KaiC complex and mechanism for modulation of KaiC phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Pattanayek, Rekha; Williams, Dewight R; Pattanayek, Sabuj; Mori, Tetsuya; Johnson, Carl H; Stewart, Phoebe L; Egli, Martin

    2010-03-08

    The circadian clock of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus can be reconstituted in vitro by the KaiA, KaiB and KaiC proteins in the presence of ATP. The principal clock component, KaiC, undergoes regular cycles between hyper- and hypo-phosphorylated states with a period of ca. 24 h that is temperature compensated. KaiA enhances KaiC phosphorylation and this enhancement is antagonized by KaiB. Throughout the cycle Kai proteins interact in a dynamic manner to form complexes of different composition. We present a three-dimensional model of the S. elongatus KaiB-KaiC complex based on X-ray crystallography, negative-stain and cryo-electron microscopy, native gel electrophoresis and modelling techniques. We provide experimental evidence that KaiB dimers interact with KaiC from the same side as KaiA and for a conformational rearrangement of the C-terminal regions of KaiC subunits. The enlarged central channel and thus KaiC subunit separation in the C-terminal ring of the hexamer is consistent with KaiC subunit exchange during the dephosphorylation phase. The proposed binding mode of KaiB explains the observation of simultaneous binding of KaiA and KaiB to KaiC, and provides insight into the mechanism of KaiB's antagonism of KaiA.

  3. CryoEM and Molecular Dynamics of the Circadian KaiB-KaiC Complex Indicates That KaiB Monomers Interact with KaiC and Block ATP Binding Clefts

    SciTech Connect

    Villarreal, Seth A.; Pattanayek, Rekha; Williams, Dewight R.; Mori, Tetsuya; Qin, Ximing; Johnson, Carl H.; Egli, Martin; Stewart, Phoebe L.

    2014-10-02

    The circadian control of cellular processes in cyanobacteria is regulated by a posttranslational oscillator formed by three Kai proteins. During the oscillator cycle, KaiA serves to promote autophosphorylation of KaiC while KaiB counteracts this effect. Here, we present a crystallographic structure of the wild-type Synechococcus elongatus KaiB and a cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) structure of a KaiBC complex. The crystal structure shows the expected dimer core structure and significant conformational variations of the KaiB C-terminal region, which is functionally important in maintaining rhythmicity. The KaiBC sample was formed with a C-terminally truncated form of KaiC, KaiC-Δ489, which is persistently phosphorylated. The KaiB–KaiC-Δ489 structure reveals that the KaiC hexamer can bind six monomers of KaiB, which form a continuous ring of density in the KaiBC complex. We performed cryoEM-guided molecular dynamics flexible fitting simulations with crystal structures of KaiB and KaiC to probe the KaiBC protein–protein interface. This analysis indicated a favorable binding mode for the KaiB monomer on the CII end of KaiC, involving two adjacent KaiC subunits and spanning an ATP binding cleft. A KaiC mutation, R468C, which has been shown to affect the affinity of KaiB for KaiC and lengthen the period in a bioluminescence rhythm assay, is found within the middle of the predicted KaiBC interface. The proposed KaiB binding mode blocks access to the ATP binding cleft in the CII ring of KaiC, which provides insight into how KaiB might influence the phosphorylation status of KaiC.

  4. Loop-Loop Interactions Regulate KaiA-Stimulated KaiC Phosphorylation in the Cyanobacterial KaiABC Circadian Clock

    SciTech Connect

    Egli, Martin; Pattanayek, Rekha; Sheehan, Jonathan H.; Xu, Yao; Mori, Tetsuya; Smith, Jarrod A.; Johnson, Carl H.

    2013-01-25

    We found that the Synechococcus elongatus KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC proteins in the presence of ATP generate a post-translational oscillator that runs in a temperature-compensated manner with a period of 24 h. KaiA dimer stimulates phosphorylation of KaiC hexamer at two sites per subunit, T432 and S431, and KaiB dimers antagonize KaiA action and induce KaiC subunit exchange. Neither the mechanism of KaiA-stimulated KaiC phosphorylation nor that of KaiB-mediated KaiC dephosphorylation is understood in detail at present. We demonstrate here that the A422V KaiC mutant sheds light on the former mechanism. It was previously reported that A422V is less sensitive to dark pulse-induced phase resetting and has a reduced amplitude of the KaiC phosphorylation rhythm in vivo. A422 maps to a loop (422-loop) that continues toward the phosphorylation sites. By pulling on the C-terminal peptide of KaiC (A-loop), KaiA removes restraints from the adjacent 422-loop whose increased flexibility indirectly promotes kinase activity. We found in the crystal structure that A422V KaiC lacks phosphorylation at S431 and exhibits a subtle, local conformational change relative to wild-type KaiC. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate higher mobility of the 422-loop in the absence of the A-loop and mobility differences in other areas associated with phosphorylation activity between wild-type and mutant KaiCs. Finally, the A-loop–422-loop relay that informs KaiC phosphorylation sites of KaiA dimer binding propagates to loops from neighboring KaiC subunits, thus providing support for a concerted allosteric mechanism of phosphorylation.

  5. A dynamic interaction process between KaiA and KaiC is critical to the cyanobacterial circadian oscillator

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Pei; Fan, Ying; Sun, Jianqiang; Lv, Mengting; Yi, Ming; Tan, Xiao; Liu, Sen

    2016-01-01

    The core circadian oscillator of cyanobacteria consists of three proteins, KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC. This circadian oscillator could be functionally reconstituted in vitro with these three proteins, and therefore has been a very important model in circadian rhythm research. KaiA can bind to KaiC and then stimulate its phosphorylation, but their interaction mechanism remains elusive. In this study, we followed the “second-site suppressor” strategy to investigate the interaction mechanism of KaiA and KaiC. Using protein sequence analyses, we showed that there exist co-varying residues in the binding interface of KaiA and KaiC. The followed mutagenesis study verified that these residues are important to the functions of KaiA and KaiC, but their roles could not be fully explained by the reported complex structures of KaiA and KaiC derived peptides. Combining our data with previous reports, we suggested a dynamic interaction mechanism in KaiA-KaiC interaction, in which both KaiA and the intrinsically disordered tail of KaiC undergo significant structural changes through conformational selection and induced fit during the binding process. At last, we presented a mathematic model to support this hypothesis and explained the importance of this interaction mechanism for the KaiABC circadian oscillator. PMID:27113386

  6. A dynamic interaction process between KaiA and KaiC is critical to the cyanobacterial circadian oscillator.

    PubMed

    Dong, Pei; Fan, Ying; Sun, Jianqiang; Lv, Mengting; Yi, Ming; Tan, Xiao; Liu, Sen

    2016-01-01

    The core circadian oscillator of cyanobacteria consists of three proteins, KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC. This circadian oscillator could be functionally reconstituted in vitro with these three proteins, and therefore has been a very important model in circadian rhythm research. KaiA can bind to KaiC and then stimulate its phosphorylation, but their interaction mechanism remains elusive. In this study, we followed the "second-site suppressor" strategy to investigate the interaction mechanism of KaiA and KaiC. Using protein sequence analyses, we showed that there exist co-varying residues in the binding interface of KaiA and KaiC. The followed mutagenesis study verified that these residues are important to the functions of KaiA and KaiC, but their roles could not be fully explained by the reported complex structures of KaiA and KaiC derived peptides. Combining our data with previous reports, we suggested a dynamic interaction mechanism in KaiA-KaiC interaction, in which both KaiA and the intrinsically disordered tail of KaiC undergo significant structural changes through conformational selection and induced fit during the binding process. At last, we presented a mathematic model to support this hypothesis and explained the importance of this interaction mechanism for the KaiABC circadian oscillator.

  7. An allosteric model of circadian KaiC phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    van Zon, Jeroen S.; Lubensky, David K.; Altena, Pim R. H.; ten Wolde, Pieter Rein

    2007-01-01

    In a recent series of ground-breaking experiments, Nakajima et al. [Nakajima M, Imai K, Ito H, Nishiwaki T, Murayama Y, Iwasaki H, Oyama T, Kondo T (2005) Science 308:414–415] showed that the three cyanobacterial clock proteins KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC are sufficient in vitro to generate circadian phosphorylation of KaiC. Here, we present a mathematical model of the Kai system. At its heart is the assumption that KaiC can exist in two conformational states, one favoring phosphorylation and the other dephosphorylation. Each individual KaiC hexamer then has a propensity to be phosphorylated in a cyclic manner. To generate macroscopic oscillations, however, the phosphorylation cycles of the different hexamers must be synchronized. We propose a novel synchronization mechanism based on differential affinity: KaiA stimulates KaiC phosphorylation, but the limited supply of KaiA dimers binds preferentially to those KaiC hexamers that are falling behind in the oscillation. KaiB sequesters KaiA and stabilizes the dephosphorylating KaiC state. We show that our model can reproduce a wide range of published data, including the observed insensitivity of the oscillation period to variations in temperature, and that it makes nontrivial predictions about the effects of varying the concentrations of the Kai proteins. PMID:17460047

  8. Crystal Structure of the Redox-Active Cofactor Dibromothymoquinone Bound to Circadian Clock Protein KaiA and Structural Basis for Dibromothymoquinone's Ability to Prevent Stimulation of KaiC Phosphorylation by KaiA

    SciTech Connect

    Pattanayek, Rekha; Sidiqi, Said K.; Egli, Martin

    2013-09-19

    KaiA protein that stimulates KaiC phosphorylation in the cyanobacterial circadian clock was recently shown to be destabilized by dibromothymoquinone (DBMIB), thus revealing KaiA as a sensor of the plastoquinone (PQ) redox state and suggesting an indirect control of the clock by light through PQ redox changes. Here we show using X-ray crystallography that several DBMIBs are bound to KaiA dimer. Some binding modes are consistent with oligomerization of N-terminal KaiA pseudoreceiver domains and/or reduced interdomain flexibility. DBMIB bound to the C-terminal KaiA (C-KaiA) domain and limited stimulation of KaiC kinase activity by C-KaiA in the presence of DBMIB demonstrate that the cofactor may weakly inhibit KaiA-KaiC binding.

  9. Structural characterization of the circadian clock protein complex composed of KaiB and KaiC by inverse contrast-matching small-angle neutron scattering

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Masaaki; Yagi, Hirokazu; Ishii, Kentaro; Porcar, Lionel; Martel, Anne; Oyama, Katsuaki; Noda, Masanori; Yunoki, Yasuhiro; Murakami, Reiko; Inoue, Rintaro; Sato, Nobuhiro; Oba, Yojiro; Terauchi, Kazuki; Uchiyama, Susumu; Kato, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    The molecular machinery of the cyanobacterial circadian clock consists of three proteins: KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC. Through interactions among the three Kai proteins, the phosphorylation states of KaiC generate circadian oscillations in vitro in the presence of ATP. Here, we characterized the complex formation between KaiB and KaiC using a phospho-mimicking mutant of KaiC, which had an aspartate substitution at the Ser431 phosphorylation site and exhibited optimal binding to KaiB. Mass-spectrometric titration data showed that the proteins formed a complex exclusively in a 6:6 stoichiometry, indicating that KaiB bound to the KaiC hexamer with strong positive cooperativity. The inverse contrast-matching technique of small-angle neutron scattering enabled selective observation of KaiB in complex with the KaiC mutant with partial deuteration. It revealed a disk-shaped arrangement of the KaiB subunits on the outer surface of the KaiC C1 ring, which also serves as the interaction site for SasA, a histidine kinase that operates as a clock-output protein in the regulation of circadian transcription. These data suggest that cooperatively binding KaiB competes with SasA with respect to interaction with KaiC, thereby promoting the synergistic release of this clock-output protein from the circadian oscillator complex. PMID:27752127

  10. The Legionella pneumophila kai operon is implicated in stress response and confers fitness in competitive environments

    PubMed Central

    Loza-Correa, Maria; Sahr, Tobias; Rolando, Monica; Daniels, Craig; Petit, Pierre; Skarina, Tania; Valero, Laura Gomez; Dervins-Ravault, Delphine; Honoré, Nadine; Savchenko, Aleksey; Buchrieser, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Summary Legionella pneumophila uses aquatic protozoa as replication niche and protection from harsh environments. Although L. pneumophila is not known to have a circadian clock, it encodes homologues of the KaiBC proteins of Cyanobacteria that regulate circadian gene expression. We show that L. pneumophila kaiB, kaiC and the downstream gene lpp1114, are transcribed as a unit under the control of the stress sigma factor RpoS. KaiC and KaiB of L. pneumophila do not interact as evidenced by yeast and bacterial two-hybrid analyses. Fusion of the C-terminal residues of cyanobacterial KaiB to Legionella KaiB restores their interaction. In contrast, KaiC of L. pneumophila conserved autophosphorylation activity, but KaiB does not trigger the dephosphorylation of KaiC like in Cyanobacteria. The crystal structure of L. pneumophila KaiB suggests that it is an oxidoreductase-like protein with a typical thioredoxin fold. Indeed, mutant analyses revealed that the kai operon-encoded proteins increase fitness of L. pneumophila in competitive environments, and confer higher resistance to oxidative and sodium stress. The phylogenetic analysis indicates that L. pneumophila KaiBC resemble Synechosystis KaiC2B2 and not circadian KaiB1C1. Thus, the L. pneumophila Kai proteins do not encode a circadian clock, but enhance stress resistance and adaption to changes in the environments. PMID:23957615

  11. Conversion between two conformational states of KaiC is induced by ATP hydrolysis as a trigger for cyanobacterial circadian oscillation.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Katsuaki; Azai, Chihiro; Nakamura, Kaori; Tanaka, Syun; Terauchi, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    The cyanobacterial circadian oscillator can be reconstituted in vitro by mixing three clock proteins, KaiA, KaiB and KaiC, with ATP. KaiC is the only protein with circadian rhythmic activities. In the present study, we tracked the complex formation of the three Kai proteins over time using blue native (BN) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), in which proteins are charged with the anionic dye Coomassie brilliant blue (CBB). KaiC was separated as three bands: the KaiABC complex, KaiC hexamer and KaiC monomer. However, no KaiC monomer was observed using gel filtration chromatography and CBB-free native PAGE. These data indicate two conformational states of KaiC hexamer and show that the ground-state KaiC (gs-KaiC) is stable and competent-state KaiC (cs-KaiC) is labile and degraded into monomers by the binding of CBB. Repeated conversions from gs-KaiC to cs-KaiC were observed over 24 h using an in vitro reconstitution system. Phosphorylation of KaiC promoted the conversion from gs-KaiC to cs-KaiC. KaiA sustained the gs-KaiC state, and KaiB bound only cs-KaiC. An E77Q/E78Q-KaiC variant that lacked N-terminal ATPase activity remained in the gs-KaiC state. Taken together, ATP hydrolysis induces the formation of cs-KaiC and promotes the binding of KaiB, which is a trigger for circadian oscillations. PMID:27580682

  12. Conversion between two conformational states of KaiC is induced by ATP hydrolysis as a trigger for cyanobacterial circadian oscillation

    PubMed Central

    Oyama, Katsuaki; Azai, Chihiro; Nakamura, Kaori; Tanaka, Syun; Terauchi, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    The cyanobacterial circadian oscillator can be reconstituted in vitro by mixing three clock proteins, KaiA, KaiB and KaiC, with ATP. KaiC is the only protein with circadian rhythmic activities. In the present study, we tracked the complex formation of the three Kai proteins over time using blue native (BN) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), in which proteins are charged with the anionic dye Coomassie brilliant blue (CBB). KaiC was separated as three bands: the KaiABC complex, KaiC hexamer and KaiC monomer. However, no KaiC monomer was observed using gel filtration chromatography and CBB-free native PAGE. These data indicate two conformational states of KaiC hexamer and show that the ground-state KaiC (gs-KaiC) is stable and competent-state KaiC (cs-KaiC) is labile and degraded into monomers by the binding of CBB. Repeated conversions from gs-KaiC to cs-KaiC were observed over 24 h using an in vitro reconstitution system. Phosphorylation of KaiC promoted the conversion from gs-KaiC to cs-KaiC. KaiA sustained the gs-KaiC state, and KaiB bound only cs-KaiC. An E77Q/E78Q-KaiC variant that lacked N-terminal ATPase activity remained in the gs-KaiC state. Taken together, ATP hydrolysis induces the formation of cs-KaiC and promotes the binding of KaiB, which is a trigger for circadian oscillations. PMID:27580682

  13. Structural basis of unique ligand specificity of KAI2-like protein from parasitic weed Striga hermonthica.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuqun; Miyakawa, Takuya; Nakamura, Hidemitsu; Nakamura, Akira; Imamura, Yusaku; Asami, Tadao; Tanokura, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    The perception of two plant germination inducers, karrikins and strigolactones, are mediated by the proteins KAI2 and D14. Recently, KAI2-type proteins from parasitic weeds, which are possibly related to seed germination induced by strigolactone, have been classified into three clades characterized by different responses to karrikin/strigolactone. Here we characterized a karrikin-binding protein in Striga (ShKAI2iB) that belongs to intermediate-evolving KAI2 and provided the structural bases for its karrikin-binding specificity. Binding assays showed that ShKAI2iB bound karrikins but not strigolactone, differing from other KAI2 and D14. The crystal structures of ShKAI2iB and ShKAI2iB-karrikin complex revealed obvious structural differences in a helix located at the entry of its ligand-binding cavity. This results in a smaller closed pocket, which is also the major cause of ShKAI2iB's specificity of binding karrikin. Our structural study also revealed that a few non-conserved amino acids led to the distinct ligand-binding profile of ShKAI2iB, suggesting that the evolution of KAI2 resulted in its diverse functions. PMID:27507097

  14. Structural basis of unique ligand specificity of KAI2-like protein from parasitic weed Striga hermonthica

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yuqun; Miyakawa, Takuya; Nakamura, Hidemitsu; Nakamura, Akira; Imamura, Yusaku; Asami, Tadao; Tanokura, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    The perception of two plant germination inducers, karrikins and strigolactones, are mediated by the proteins KAI2 and D14. Recently, KAI2-type proteins from parasitic weeds, which are possibly related to seed germination induced by strigolactone, have been classified into three clades characterized by different responses to karrikin/strigolactone. Here we characterized a karrikin-binding protein in Striga (ShKAI2iB) that belongs to intermediate-evolving KAI2 and provided the structural bases for its karrikin-binding specificity. Binding assays showed that ShKAI2iB bound karrikins but not strigolactone, differing from other KAI2 and D14. The crystal structures of ShKAI2iB and ShKAI2iB-karrikin complex revealed obvious structural differences in a helix located at the entry of its ligand-binding cavity. This results in a smaller closed pocket, which is also the major cause of ShKAI2iB’s specificity of binding karrikin. Our structural study also revealed that a few non-conserved amino acids led to the distinct ligand-binding profile of ShKAI2iB, suggesting that the evolution of KAI2 resulted in its diverse functions. PMID:27507097

  15. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: RADIO FREQUENCY HEATING - KAI TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radio frequency heating (RFH) is a process that uses electromagnetic energy in the radio frequency (RF) band to heat soil in situ, thereby potentially enhancing the performance of standard soil vapor extraction (SVE) technologies. An RFH system developed by KAI Technologies, I...

  16. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: KAI RADIO FREQUENCY HEATING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    KAI developed a patented, in situ RFH technology to enhance the removal of volatile and semi-volatile organics by soil vapor extraction (SVE). Electromagnetic energy heats the soil resulting in increased contaminant vapor pressures and soil permeability that may increase with dry...

  17. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: RADIO FREQUENCY HEATING, KAI TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A demonstration of KAI Technologies in-situ radio frequency heating system for soil treatment was conducted from January 1994 to July 1994 at Kelly Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas. This demonstration was conducted as a joint effort between the USEPA and the USAF. The technol...

  18. Dephosphorylation of the core clock protein KaiC in the cyanobacterial KaiABC circadian oscillator proceeds via an ATP synthase mechanism.

    PubMed

    Egli, Martin; Mori, Tetsuya; Pattanayek, Rekha; Xu, Yao; Qin, Ximing; Johnson, Carl H

    2012-02-28

    The circadian clock of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus can be reconstituted in vitro from three proteins, KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC in the presence of ATP, to tick in a temperature-compensated manner. KaiC, the central cog of this oscillator, forms a homohexamer with 12 ATP molecules bound between its N- and C-terminal domains and exhibits unusual properties. Both the N-terminal (CI) and C-terminal (CII) domains harbor ATPase activity, and the subunit interfaces between CII domains are the sites of autokinase and autophosphatase activities. Hydrolysis of ATP correlates with phosphorylation at threonine and serine sites across subunits in an orchestrated manner, such that first T432 and then S431 are phosphorylated, followed by dephosphorylation of these residues in the same order. Although structural work has provided insight into the mechanisms of ATPase and kinase, the location and mechanism of the phosphatase have remained enigmatic. From the available experimental data based on a range of approaches, including KaiC crystal structures and small-angle X-ray scattering models, metal ion dependence, site-directed mutagenesis (i.e., E318, the general base), and measurements of the associated clock periods, phosphorylation patterns, and dephosphorylation courses as well as a lack of sequence motifs in KaiC that are typically associated with known phosphatases, we hypothesized that KaiCII makes use of the same active site for phosphorylation and dephosphorlyation. We observed that wild-type KaiC (wt-KaiC) exhibits an ATP synthase activity that is significantly reduced in the T432A/S431A mutant. We interpret the first observation as evidence that KaiCII is a phosphotransferase instead of a phosphatase and the second that the enzyme is capable of generating ATP, both from ADP and P(i) (in a reversal of the ATPase reaction) and from ADP and P-T432/P-S431 (dephosphorylation). This new concept regarding the mechanism of dephosphorylation is also supported by the

  19. Dephosphorylation of the Core Clock Protein KaiC in the Cyanobacterial KaiABC Circadian Oscillator Proceeds via an ATP Synthase Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Egli, Martin; Mori, Tetsuya; Pattanayek, Rekha; Xu, Yao; Qin, Ximing; Johnson, Carl H.

    2014-10-02

    The circadian clock of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus can be reconstituted in vitro from three proteins, KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC in the presence of ATP, to tick in a temperature-compensated manner. KaiC, the central cog of this oscillator, forms a homohexamer with 12 ATP molecules bound between its N- and C-terminal domains and exhibits unusual properties. Both the N-terminal (CI) and C-terminal (CII) domains harbor ATPase activity, and the subunit interfaces between CII domains are the sites of autokinase and autophosphatase activities. Hydrolysis of ATP correlates with phosphorylation at threonine and serine sites across subunits in an orchestrated manner, such that first T432 and then S431 are phosphorylated, followed by dephosphorylation of these residues in the same order. Although structural work has provided insight into the mechanisms of ATPase and kinase, the location and mechanism of the phosphatase have remained enigmatic. From the available experimental data based on a range of approaches, including KaiC crystal structures and small-angle X-ray scattering models, metal ion dependence, site-directed mutagenesis (i.e., E318, the general base), and measurements of the associated clock periods, phosphorylation patterns, and dephosphorylation courses as well as a lack of sequence motifs in KaiC that are typically associated with known phosphatases, we hypothesized that KaiCII makes use of the same active site for phosphorylation and dephosphorlyation. We observed that wild-type KaiC (wt-KaiC) exhibits an ATP synthase activity that is significantly reduced in the T432A/S431A mutant. We interpret the first observation as evidence that KaiCII is a phosphotransferase instead of a phosphatase and the second that the enzyme is capable of generating ATP, both from ADP and P{sub i} (in a reversal of the ATPase reaction) and from ADP and P-T432/P-S431 (dephosphorylation). This new concept regarding the mechanism of dephosphorylation is also supported by the

  20. Evidence that KARRIKIN-INSENSITIVE2 (KAI2) Receptors may Perceive an Unknown Signal that is not Karrikin or Strigolactone

    PubMed Central

    Conn, Caitlin E.; Nelson, David C.

    2016-01-01

    The α/β-hydrolases KAI2 and D14 are paralogous receptors for karrikins and strigolactones, two classes of plant growth regulators with butenolide moieties. KAI2 and D14 act in parallel signaling pathways that share a requirement for the F-box protein MAX2, but produce distinct growth responses by regulating different members of the SMAX1-LIKE/D53 family. kai2 and max2 mutants share seed germination, seedling growth, leaf shape, and petiole orientation phenotypes that are not found in d14 or SL-deficient mutants. This implies that KAI2 recognizes an unknown, endogenous signal, herein termed KAI2 ligand (KL). Recent studies of ligand-specificity among KAI2 paralogs in basal land plants and root parasitic plants suggest that karrikin and strigolactone perception may be evolutionary adaptations of KL receptors. Here we demonstrate that evolutionarily conserved KAI2c genes from two parasite species rescue multiple phenotypes of the Arabidopsis kai2 mutant, unlike karrikin-, and strigolactone-specific KAI2 paralogs. We hypothesize that KAI2c proteins recognize KL, which could be an undiscovered hormone. PMID:26779242

  1. Detecting KaiC phosphorylation rhythms of the cyanobacterial circadian oscillator in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Ick; Boyd, Joseph S.; Espinosa, Javier; Golden, Susan S.

    2016-01-01

    The central oscillator of the cyanobacterial circadian clock is unique in the biochemical simplicity of its components and the robustness of the oscillation. The oscillator is composed of three cyanobacterial proteins, KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC. If very pure preparations of these three proteins are mixed in a test tube in the right proportions and with ATP and MgCl2, the phosphorylation states of KaiC will oscillate with a circadian period and these states can be analyzed simply by SDS-PAGE. The purity of the proteins is critical for obtaining robust oscillation. Contaminating proteases will destroy oscillation by degradation of Kai proteins, and ATPases will attenuate robustness by consumption of ATP. Here, we provide a detailed protocol to obtain pure recombinant proteins from Escherichia coli to construct a robust cyanobacterial circadian oscillator in vitro. In addition, we present a protocol that facilitates analysis of phosphoryation states of KaiC and other phosphorylated proteins from in vivo samples. PMID:25662456

  2. Tumor suppressor KAI1 affects integrin {alpha}v{beta}3-mediated ovarian cancer cell adhesion, motility, and proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Ruseva, Zlatna; Geiger, Pamina Xenia Charlotte; Hutzler, Peter; Kotzsch, Matthias; Luber, Birgit; Schmitt, Manfred; Gross, Eva; Reuning, Ute

    2009-06-10

    The tetraspanin KAI1 had been described as a metastasis suppressor in many different cancer types, a function for which associations of KAI1 with adhesion and signaling receptors of the integrin superfamily likely play a role. In ovarian cancer, integrin {alpha}v{beta}3 correlates with tumor progression and its elevation in vitro provoked enhanced cell adhesion accompanied by significant increases in cell motility and proliferation in the presence of its major ligand vitronectin. In the present study, we characterized integrin {alpha}v{beta}3-mediated tumor biological effects as a function of cellular KAI1 restoration and proved for the first time that KAI1, besides its already known physical crosstalk with {beta}1-integrins, also colocalizes with integrin {alpha}v{beta}3. Functionally, elevated KAI1 levels drastically increased integrin {alpha}v{beta}3/vitronectin-dependent ovarian cancer cell adhesion. Since an intermediate level of cell adhesive strength is required for optimal cell migration, we next studied ovarian cancer cell motility as a function of KAI1 restoration. By time lapse video microscopy, we found impaired integrin {alpha}v{beta}3/vitronectin-mediated cell migration most probably due to strongly enhanced cellular immobilization onto the adhesion-supporting matrix. Moreover, KAI1 reexpression significantly diminished cell proliferation. These data strongly indicate that KAI1 may suppress ovarian cancer progression by inhibiting integrin {alpha}v{beta}3/vitronectin-provoked tumor cell motility and proliferation as important hallmarks of the oncogenic process.

  3. Diversity of KaiC-based timing systems in marine Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Axmann, Ilka M; Hertel, Stefanie; Wiegard, Anika; Dörrich, Anja K; Wilde, Annegret

    2014-04-01

    The coordination of biological activities into daily cycles provides an important advantage for the fitness of diverse organisms. Most eukaryotes possess an internal clock ticking with a periodicity of about one day to anticipate sunrise and sunset. The 24-hour period of the free-running rhythm is highly robust against many changes in the natural environment. Among prokaryotes, only Cyanobacteria are known to harbor such a circadian clock. Its core oscillator consists of just three proteins, KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC that produce 24-hour oscillations of KaiC phosphorylation, even in vitro. This unique three-protein oscillator is well documented for the freshwater cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. Several physiological studies demonstrate a circadian clock also for other Cyanobacteria including marine species. Genes for the core clock components are present in nearly all marine cyanobacterial species, though there are large differences in the specific composition of these genes. In the first section of this review we summarize data on the model circadian clock from S. elongatus PCC 7942 and compare it to the reduced clock system of the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus marinus MED4. In the second part we discuss the diversity of timing mechanisms in other marine Cyanobacteria with regard to the presence or absence of different components of the clock.

  4. Structures of KaiC Circadian Clock Mutant Proteins: A New Phosphorylation Site at T426 and Mechanisms of Kinase, ATPase and Phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Pattanayek, Rekha; Mori, Tetsuya; Xu, Yao; Pattanayek, Sabuj; Johnson, Carl H.; Egli, Martin

    2010-09-02

    The circadian clock of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus can be reconstituted in vitro by three proteins, KaiA, KaiB and KaiC. Homo-hexameric KaiC displays kinase, phosphatase and ATPase activities; KaiA enhances KaiC phosphorylation and KaiB antagonizes KaiA. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of the two known sites in the C-terminal half of KaiC subunits, T432 and S431, follow a strict order (TS {yields} pTS {yields} pTpS {yields} TpS {yields} TS) over the daily cycle, the origin of which is not understood. To address this void and to analyze the roles of KaiC active site residues, in particular T426, we determined structures of single and double P-site mutants of S. elongatus KaiC. The conformations of the loop region harboring P-site residues T432 and S431 in the crystal structures of six KaiC mutant proteins exhibit subtle differences that result in various distances between Thr (or Ala/Asn/Glu) and Ser (or Ala/Asp) residues and the ATP {gamma}-phosphate. T432 is phosphorylated first because it lies consistently closer to P{gamma}. The structures of the S431A and T432E/S431A mutants reveal phosphorylation at T426. The environments of the latter residue in the structures and functional data for T426 mutants in vitro and in vivo imply a role in dephosphorylation. We provide evidence for a third phosphorylation site in KaiC at T426. T426 and S431 are closely spaced and a KaiC subunit cannot carry phosphates at both sites simultaneously. Fewer subunits are phosphorylated at T426 in the two KaiC mutants compared to phosphorylated T432 and/or S431 residues in the structures of wt and other mutant KaiCs, suggesting that T426 phosphorylation may be labile. The structures combined with functional data for a host of KaiC mutant proteins help rationalize why S431 trails T432 in the loss of its phosphate and shed light on the mechanisms of the KaiC kinase, ATPase and phosphatase activities.

  5. Structures of KaiC Circadian Clock Mutant Proteins: A New Phosphorylation Site at T426 and Mechanisms of Kinase, ATPase and Phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Pattanayek, Rekha; Mori, Tetsuya; Xu, Yao; Pattanayek, Sabuj; Johnson, Carl H.; Egli, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Background The circadian clock of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus can be reconstituted in vitro by three proteins, KaiA, KaiB and KaiC. Homo-hexameric KaiC displays kinase, phosphatase and ATPase activities; KaiA enhances KaiC phosphorylation and KaiB antagonizes KaiA. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of the two known sites in the C-terminal half of KaiC subunits, T432 and S431, follow a strict order (TS→pTS→pTpS→TpS→TS) over the daily cycle, the origin of which is not understood. To address this void and to analyze the roles of KaiC active site residues, in particular T426, we determined structures of single and double P-site mutants of S. elongatus KaiC. Methodology and Principal Findings The conformations of the loop region harboring P-site residues T432 and S431 in the crystal structures of six KaiC mutant proteins exhibit subtle differences that result in various distances between Thr (or Ala/Asn/Glu) and Ser (or Ala/Asp) residues and the ATP γ-phosphate. T432 is phosphorylated first because it lies consistently closer to Pγ. The structures of the S431A and T432E/S431A mutants reveal phosphorylation at T426. The environments of the latter residue in the structures and functional data for T426 mutants in vitro and in vivo imply a role in dephosphorylation. Conclusions and Significance We provide evidence for a third phosphorylation site in KaiC at T426. T426 and S431 are closely spaced and a KaiC subunit cannot carry phosphates at both sites simultaneously. Fewer subunits are phosphorylated at T426 in the two KaiC mutants compared to phosphorylated T432 and/or S431 residues in the structures of wt and other mutant KaiCs, suggesting that T426 phosphorylation may be labile. The structures combined with functional data for a host of KaiC mutant proteins help rationalize why S431 trails T432 in the loss of its phosphate and shed light on the mechanisms of the KaiC kinase, ATPase and phosphatase activities. PMID:19956664

  6. Overexpression of KAI1 induces autophagy and increases MiaPaCa-2 cell survival through the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Chun-Yan; Yan, Jun; Yang, Yue-Feng; Xiao, Feng-Jun; Li, Qing-Fang; Zhang, Qun-Wei; Wang, Li-Sheng; Guo, Xiao-Zhong; Wang, Hua

    2011-01-21

    Research highlights: {yields} We first investigate the effects of KAI1 on autophagy in MiaPaCa-2 cells. {yields} Our findings demonstrate that KAI1 induces autophagy, which in turn inhibits KAI1-induced apoptosis. {yields} This study also supplies a possible novel therapeutic method for the treatment of pancreatic cancer using autophagy inhibitors. -- Abstract: KAI1, a metastasis-suppressor gene belonging to the tetraspanin family, is known to inhibit cancer metastasis without affecting the primary tumorigenicity by inhibiting the epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling pathway. Recent studies have shown that hypoxic conditions of solid tumors induce high-level autophagy and KAI1 expression. However, the relationship between autophagy and KAI1 remains unclear. By using transmission electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and Western blotting, we found that KAI1 can induce autophagy in a dose- and time-dependent manner in the human pancreatic cell line MiaPaCa-2. KAI1-induced autophagy was confirmed by the expression of autophagy-related proteins LC3 and Beclin 1. KAI1 induces autophagy through phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinases rather than that of AKT. KAI1-induced autophagy protects MiaPaCa-2 cells from apoptosis and proliferation inhibition partially through the downregulation of poly [adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose] polymerase (PARP) cleavage and caspase-3 activation.

  7. KAI-1 and p53 expression in oral squamous cell carcinomas: Markers of significance in future diagnostics and possibly therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Namrata N; Wadhwan, Vijay; Chaudhary, Minal; Nayyar, Abhishek Singh

    2016-01-01

    Context: KAI-1/CD82 is a tumor suppressor gene with decreased gene expression being associated with increased invasive ability of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). p53 protein functions in the G1-S phase of the cell cycle to allow repair of damaged DNA. In the present study, p53 and KAI-1 expression was investigated using monoclonal antibodies in OSCC. Aims: The aim of this study was to detect KAI-1 and p53 expression in OSCCs and to assess the relation between both in OSCCs. Materials and Methods: The present study included histopathologically diagnosed thirty cases of well- and moderately differentiated OSCCs to study the expression of KAI-1 and p53 antibodies. Statistical Analysis: The results obtained were tabulated and statistically analyzed using descriptive statistical analysis; one-way ANOVA; least square difference method and independent t-test. Results: OSCCs exhibited 41.62% positivity for KAI-1 while p53 positive cells were recorded to an extent of 60.82%. A significant positive correlation was observed between KAI-1 and p53 expression in OSCCs. Conclusions: Although a significant amount of work is still required to uncover the mechanisms of action and regulation of KAI-1 and p53 expression, control of the complex metastatic processes would be of interest in controlling the tumor biology in OSCCs as well as other types of malignancies to enhance prognosis in the affected patients and to help protect against future metastasis in the going to be treated and treated patients. PMID:27721601

  8. Hui Malama O Ke Kai: A Positive Prevention-Based Youth Development Program Based on Native Hawaiian Values and Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hishinuma, Earl S.; Chang, Janice Y.; Sy, Angela; Greaney, Malia F.; Morris, Katherine A.; Scronce, Ami C.; Rehuher, Davis; Nishimura, Stephanie T.

    2009-01-01

    Evaluation of after-school programs that are culturally and place-based and promote positive youth development among minority and indigenous youths has not been widely published. The present evaluation is the first of its kind of an after-school, youth-risk prevention program called Hui Malama O Ke Kai (HMK), that emphasizes Native Hawaiian values…

  9. The Use of Rockets as Military Weapons at the Siege of Kai Fung Foo in 1232 A.D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    One of the earliest recorded instances of the use of rockets was as military weapons against the Mongols by the Chinese at the siege of Kai Fung Foo in 1232 A.D. An arrow with a tube of gunpowder produced an arrow of flying fire. The Mongol attackers fled in terror, even though the rockets were inaccurate and relatively harmless.

  10. The Academic Profession and University Governance Participation in Japan: Focusing on the Role of Kyoju-kai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonezawa, Akiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The dominant role of Kyoju-kai (the professoriate) in university governance in Japan is now facing a critical examination as part of university reforms in response to global competition. What are the determinants of the characteristics of participation in university governance by individual faculty members? In what way does the organizational…

  11. Evolution of KaiC-Dependent Timekeepers: A Proto-circadian Timing Mechanism Confers Adaptive Fitness in the Purple Bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Peijun; Mori, Tetsuya; Zhao, Chi; Thiel, Teresa; Johnson, Carl Hirschie

    2016-01-01

    Circadian (daily) rhythms are a fundamental and ubiquitous property of eukaryotic organisms. However, cyanobacteria are the only prokaryotic group for which bona fide circadian properties have been persuasively documented, even though homologs of the cyanobacterial kaiABC central clock genes are distributed widely among Eubacteria and Archaea. We report the purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris (that harbors homologs of kaiB and kaiC) only poorly sustains rhythmicity in constant conditions–a defining characteristic of circadian rhythms. Moreover, the biochemical characteristics of the Rhodopseudomonas homolog of the KaiC protein in vivo and in vitro are different from those of cyanobacterial KaiC. Nevertheless, R. palustris cells exhibit adaptive kaiC-dependent growth enhancement in 24-h cyclic environments, but not under non-natural constant conditions. Therefore, our data indicate that Rhodopseudomonas does not have a classical circadian rhythm, but a novel timekeeping mechanism that does not sustain itself in constant conditions. These results question the adaptive value of self-sustained oscillatory capability for daily timekeepers and establish new criteria for circadian-like systems that are based on adaptive properties (i.e., fitness enhancement in rhythmic environments), rather than upon observations of persisting rhythms in constant conditions. We propose that the Rhodopseudomonas system is a "proto" circadian timekeeper, as in an ancestral system that is based on KaiC and KaiB proteins and includes some, but not necessarily all, of the canonical properties of circadian clocks. These data indicate reasonable intermediate steps by which bona fide circadian systems evolved in simple organisms. PMID:26982486

  12. Spent mushroom waste as a media replacement for peat moss in Kai-Lan (Brassica oleracea var. Alboglabra) production.

    PubMed

    Sendi, H; Mohamed, M T M; Anwar, M P; Saud, H M

    2013-01-01

    Peat moss (PM) is the most widely used growing substrate for the pot culture. Due to diminishing availability and increasing price of PM, researchers are looking for viable alternatives for peat as a growth media component for potted plants. A pot study was conducted with a view to investigate the possibility of using spent mushroom waste (SMW) for Kai-lan (Brassica oleracea var. Alboglabra) production replacing peat moss (PM) in growth media. The treatments evaluated were 100% PM (control), 100% SMW, and mixtures of SMW and PM in different ratios like 1 : 1, 1 : 2, and 2 : 1 (v/v) with/without NPK amendment. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with five replications per treatment. Chemical properties like pH and salinity level (EC) of SMW were within the acceptable range of crop production but, nutrient content, especially nitrogen content was not enough to provide sufficient nutrition to plant for normal growth. Only PM (100%) and SMW and PM mixture in 1 : 1 ratio with NPK amendment performed equally in terms of Kai-lan growth. This study confirms the feasibility of replacing PM by SMW up to a maximum of 50% in the growth media and suggests that NPK supplementation from inorganic sources is to ensure a higher productivity of Kai-lan.

  13. Spent Mushroom Waste as a Media Replacement for Peat Moss in Kai-Lan (Brassica oleracea var. Alboglabra) Production

    PubMed Central

    Sendi, H.; Mohamed, M. T. M.; Anwar, M. P.; Saud, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Peat moss (PM) is the most widely used growing substrate for the pot culture. Due to diminishing availability and increasing price of PM, researchers are looking for viable alternatives for peat as a growth media component for potted plants. A pot study was conducted with a view to investigate the possibility of using spent mushroom waste (SMW) for Kai-lan (Brassica oleracea var. Alboglabra) production replacing peat moss (PM) in growth media. The treatments evaluated were 100% PM (control), 100% SMW, and mixtures of SMW and PM in different ratios like 1 : 1, 1 : 2, and 2 : 1 (v/v) with/without NPK amendment. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with five replications per treatment. Chemical properties like pH and salinity level (EC) of SMW were within the acceptable range of crop production but, nutrient content, especially nitrogen content was not enough to provide sufficient nutrition to plant for normal growth. Only PM (100%) and SMW and PM mixture in 1 : 1 ratio with NPK amendment performed equally in terms of Kai-lan growth. This study confirms the feasibility of replacing PM by SMW up to a maximum of 50% in the growth media and suggests that NPK supplementation from inorganic sources is to ensure a higher productivity of Kai-lan. PMID:24106452

  14. Genetic diversity and population structure of ‘Khao Kai Noi’, a Lao rice (Oryza sativa L.) landrace, revealed by microsatellite DNA markers

    PubMed Central

    Vilayheuang, Koukham; Machida-Hirano, Ryoko; Bounphanousay, Chay; Watanabe, Kazuo N.

    2016-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the main food for people in Laos, where it has been grown and eaten since prehistory. Diverse landraces are grown in Laos. ‘Khao Kai Noi’, a landrace favored for its eating quality, is held in the nationwide collection of traditional landraces in the Lao national genebank. Genetic diversity is crucial for sustainable use of genetic resources and conservation. To investigate the genetic diversity of ‘Khao Kai Noi’ for conservation, we genotyped 70 accessions by using 23 polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers. The markers generated 2 to 17 alleles (132 in total), with an average of 5.7 per locus. The total expected heterozygosity over all ‘Khao Kai Noi’ accessions was 0.271. Genetic variation was largest among accessions and smallest within accessions. Khao Kai Noi accessions were classified into three different genetic backgrounds, but there was unclear association between the three inferred population and name subgroups and geographical distribution. Most of the accessions were clustered with temperate japonica and showed genetic relatedness to rice from neighboring provinces of Vietnam, suggesting a Vietnamese origin. The results of this study will contribute to the conservation, core collection and future breeding of the Khao Kai Noi population. PMID:27162492

  15. Deletion of the Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 kaiAB1C1 gene cluster causes impaired cell growth under light-dark conditions.

    PubMed

    Dörrich, Anja K; Mitschke, Jan; Siadat, Olga; Wilde, Annegret

    2014-11-01

    In contrast to Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, few data exist on the timing mechanism of the widely used cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The standard kaiAB1C1 operon present in this organism was shown to encode a functional KaiC protein that interacted with KaiA, similar to the S. elongatus PCC 7942 clock. Inactivation of this operon in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 resulted in a mutant with a strong growth defect when grown under light-dark cycles, which was even more pronounced when glucose was added to the growth medium. In addition, mutants showed a bleaching phenotype. No effects were detected in mutant cells grown under constant light. Microarray experiments performed with cells grown for 1 day under a light-dark cycle revealed many differentially regulated genes with known functions in the ΔkaiABC mutant in comparison with the WT. We identified the genes encoding the cyanobacterial phytochrome Cph1 and the light-repressed protein LrtA as well as several hypothetical ORFs with a complete inverse behaviour in the light cycle. These transcripts showed a stronger accumulation in the light but a weaker accumulation in the dark in ΔkaiABC cells in comparison with the WT. In general, we found a considerable overlap with microarray data obtained for hik31 and sigE mutants. These genes are known to be important regulators of cell metabolism in the dark. Strikingly, deletion of the ΔkaiABC operon led to a much stronger phenotype under light-dark cycles in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 than in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942.

  16. Phosphorus and iron cycles during early diagenesis of Lake Kai-ike sediments, Kami-koshiki Island, southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, H.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Oguri, K.

    2014-12-01

    A meromictic Lake Kai-ike is located on the northeastern margin of Kami-koshiki island, Japan. Permanent density stratification develops due to seawater infiltration through a gravel bar separating the lake from the ocean. The oxygenated surface water overlays a stagnant, saline, and anoxic deep water containing hydrogen sulfide. Purple sulfur bacteria (Chromatium sp.) inhabit the chemocline at 4.5m depth. At the lake bottom, green sulfur bacteria form microbial mat-like structures (Nakajima et al., 2003; Environ. Microbiol.). Such environment can be treated as a model for the past anoxic ocean, such as during Cretaceous OAEs (Oguri et al., 2003; Frontier Res. on Earth Evol.). A 25 cm-long KAI4 sediment core (Yamaguchi et al., 2010; Palaeo3) was used for two sequential extraction methods. SEDEX method (Ruttenberg, 1992; Limnol. Oceanogr.) was used for partitioning phosphorus-bearing species into Pabs (absorbed), PFe (Fe-bound), Pauth (authigenic), Pdet (detrital), and Porg (organic). Iron-bearing species were also divided into FeHCl (HCl-soluble), Fecarb (carbonate), Feox (oxide), Femag (magnetite), and Feresi (residue), following the method of Poulton et al. (2005; Chem. Geol.). At the uppermost part of KAI4 core, Porg was the most abundant P-bearing species (~90% of total P). The Porg content sharply decreased with increasing depth to 5cm. The second most abundant species was PFe; however, PFe and Feox contents remained constant throughout the whole depth. At sediment surface in present-day oxygenated ocean, Fe3+-(oxy)hydroxides trap phosphate diffusing from deeper-anoxic sediment, and the phosphate concentration in pore water becomes high enough to precipitate authigenic apatite (Slomp et al., 1996; J. Mar. Res.). In case of Lake Kai-ike, however, the amount of Fe3+-(oxy)hydroxides was small relative to that of Porg (PFe/Porg = ~0.1). We suggest that the excess phosphate not adsorbed on Fe3+-(oxy)hydroxides was diffused out to the overlying water mass, and the

  17. Early diagenetic processes of saline meromictic Lake Kai-ike, southwest Japan: III. Sulfur speciation and isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, N.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Oguri, K.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Kai-ike is a saline meromictic lake located along the coast of Kami-Koshiki Island. The lake is isolated from ocean by a gravel bar, through which seawater infiltrates by tidal pumping. The lake is permanently redox (density)-stratified with a mid-depth development of photic zone anoxia and a dense community of photosynthetic bacteria pinkish "bacterial plate". The early diagenesis of sulfur in sediments overlain by an anoxic water body was investigated using a sediment core (KAI4) from the lake. We determined abundance of various S-bearing species (i.e., Cr-reducible sulfide (= pyrite S: Spy), acid-volatile sulfide (AVS), sulfate sulfur (SSO4), elemental sulfur (S0), and organic sulfur) by an improved sequential extraction method. Here we focus on drastic and rapid changes on sulfur biogeochemistry found in the uppermost 5cm layer. With increasing depth, abundance of Spy increased but that of SSO4 and δ34S value of Spy (δ34Spy) decreased. These results suggest progressive formation of bacteriogenic pyrite. The δ34S values of SSO4 (δ34SSO4) ranged from 25.1 ‰ (at sediment surface) to 3.8 ‰ in the uppermost 5 cm layer. This δ34SSO4 decrease in the top 5 cm sediment suggests that SSO4 in the surface sediment inherits SO42- with elevated δ34S values (higher than typical seawater δ34S value of 21‰) in the water column, which is due to extensive bacterial sulfate reduction with preferential removal of low-δ34S sulfur as sulfide. In the lower part of the uppermost 5 cm layer, SO42- formed by oxidation of S0, AVS, and/or Spy with low-δ34S values by SO42--bearing seawater introduced by infiltration through the gravel bar. Increasing δ34Spy values with increasing depth suggest near complete consumption of SO42- by active bacterial sulfate reduction, and this process could be explained by Rayleigh distillation model. Early diagenesis of sulfur does occur in whole section of 25cm-long KAI4 core that accumulated for the last ~60 years (Yamaguchi et al

  18. Characterization of multiple constituents in Kai-Xin-San prescription and rat plasma after oral administration by liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaowen; Li, Qing; Lv, Chunxiao; Xu, Huarong; Liu, Xujia; Sui, Zhenyu; Bi, Kaishun

    2015-06-01

    A sensitive and reliable ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry method was established to separate and identify the chemical constituents of Kai-Xin-San prescription, a classic traditional Chinese medicine formula that plays an important role in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The detection was performed on an Agilent 6520 Accurate-Mass quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source in negative modes. With the optimized conditions, a total of 54 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized. Out of the 54 compounds, six compounds were identified by comparing the retention time and mass spectrometry data with reference standards, the rest were characterized by analyzing mass spectrometry data and retrieving the literature data. Results indicated ginsenosides, polygala saponins, terpenoids, and oligosaccharide esters were the major effective constituents in Kai-Xin-San prescription. There were 26 prototype ingredients that were assigned for identification in rat plasma. It is also concluded that the developed ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry method with high sensitivity and resolution is suitable for identifying and characterizing the chemical constituents of Kai-Xin-San prescription, and the analysis provides a helpful chemical basis for further research on Kai-Xin-San prescription and the clinical diagnostics of Alzheimer's disease.

  19. Hana kai ii: a 17-day dry saturation dive at 18.6 ATA. II. Energy balance.

    PubMed

    Webb, P; Troutman, S J; Frattali, V; Dressendorfer, R H; Dwyer, J; Moore, T O; Morlock, J F; Smith, R M; Ohta, Y; Hong, S K

    1977-09-01

    Since previous saturation dives have caused loss of body weight despite apparently adequate-to-high food intake, a complete study of energy balance was undertaken during the saturation dive Hana Kai II. Over a 30-day period in the hyperbaric chamber (3 days of predive control, 1 day of compression, 16 days at 18.6 ATA, 7 days of decompression, and 3 days of postdive control), all food, urine, and feces for five men were analyzed by bomb calorimetry; 24-h energy expenditure (M) was measured from continuous VO2, VCO2, and urine N. Body weight was taken daily; body composition was assessed from density, total body water, and skinfold thickness. Food intake was high throughout the 30 days (about 3500 kcal/day) while fecal and urinary losses were a normal 6-8% of intake. Energy expenditure was increased a little by the hyperbaric condition, but averaged only 2431 kcal/day for the 30 days and yet there was an average loss of adipose tissue of 0.8 kg for each man for the entire period. Nitrogen balance was positive. There was no evidence of heat gain or loss. The energy balance, total fuel compared with energy expenditure, required an additional 919 kcal/man-day for 30 days, an unidentified term which is not measured by conventional techniques. PMID:910315

  20. Field-programmable gate array-based hardware architecture for high-speed camera with KAI-0340 CCD image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Yan, Su; Zhou, Zuofeng; Cao, Jianzhong; Yan, Aqi; Tang, Linao; Lei, Yangjie

    2013-08-01

    We present a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based hardware architecture for high-speed camera which have fast auto-exposure control and colour filter array (CFA) demosaicing. The proposed hardware architecture includes the design of charge coupled devices (CCD) drive circuits, image processing circuits, and power supply circuits. CCD drive circuits transfer the TTL (Transistor-Transistor-Logic) level timing Sequences which is produced by image processing circuits to the timing Sequences under which CCD image sensor can output analog image signals. Image processing circuits convert the analog signals to digital signals which is processing subsequently, and the TTL timing, auto-exposure control, CFA demosaicing, and gamma correction is accomplished in this module. Power supply circuits provide the power for the whole system, which is very important for image quality. Power noises effect image quality directly, and we reduce power noises by hardware way, which is very effective. In this system, the CCD is KAI-0340 which is can output 210 full resolution frame-per-second, and our camera can work outstandingly in this mode. The speed of traditional auto-exposure control algorithms to reach a proper exposure level is so slow that it is necessary to develop a fast auto-exposure control method. We present a new auto-exposure algorithm which is fit high-speed camera. Color demosaicing is critical for digital cameras, because it converts a Bayer sensor mosaic output to a full color image, which determines the output image quality of the camera. Complexity algorithm can acquire high quality but cannot implement in hardware. An low-complexity demosaicing method is presented which can implement in hardware and satisfy the demand of quality. The experiment results are given in this paper in last.

  1. CD82/KAI1 Maintains the Dormancy of Long-Term Hematopoietic Stem Cells through Interaction with DARC-Expressing Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jin; Choi, Jae-Il; Lee, Hwan; Nham, Pniel; Kim, Tae-Won; Chae, Cheong-Whan; Yun, Ji-Yeon; Kang, Jin-A; Kang, Jeehoon; Lee, Sang Eun; Yoon, Chang-Hwan; Boo, Kyungjin; Ham, Seokjin; Roh, Tae-Young; Jun, Jong Kwan; Lee, Ho; Baek, Sung Hee; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2016-04-01

    Hematopoiesis is regulated by crosstalk between long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs) and supporting niche cells in the bone marrow (BM). Here, we examine the role of CD82/KAI1 in niche-mediated LT-HSC maintenance. We found that CD82/KAI1 is expressed predominantly on LT-HSCs and rarely on other hematopoietic stem-progenitor cells (HSPCs). In Cd82(-/-) mice, LT-HSCs were selectively lost as they exited from quiescence and differentiated. Mechanistically, CD82-based TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling leads to induction of CDK inhibitors and cell-cycle inhibition. The CD82 binding partner DARC/CD234 is expressed on macrophages and stabilizes CD82 on LT-HSCs, promoting their quiescence. When DARC(+) BM macrophages were ablated, the level of surface CD82 on LT-HSCs decreased, leading to cell-cycle entry, proliferation, and differentiation. A similar interaction appears to be relevant for human HSPCs. Thus, CD82 is a functional surface marker of LT-HSCs that maintains quiescence through interaction with DARC-expressing macrophages in the BM stem cell niche.

  2. A comitative source for object markers in Sinitic languages: 跟 kai55 in Waxiang and 共 kang7 in Southern Min

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, Hilary; Peyraube, Alain; Wu, Yunji

    2013-01-01

    This analysis sets out to specifically discuss the polyfunctionality of 跟 [kai55] in Waxiang (Sinitic), whose lexical source is the verb ‘to follow’. Amongst its various uses, we find a preposition ‘with, along’, a marker of adjuncts and a NP conjunction, thus superficially resembling its Mandarin cognate 跟 gēn ‘with’. Curiously, however, it has also evolved into a direct object marker in Waxiang, with a function similar to that of preposition 把 bă < ‘hold, take’ as found in the S–bă–O–VP or so-called ‘disposal’ form in standard Mandarin. The pathways of grammaticalization for 跟 [kai55] in Waxiang are thus discussed in order to determine how it has developed this unusual grammatical function in one of the linguistic zones of China where verbs of giving or taking are, in fact, the main source for grammaticalized object markers in ‘disposal’ constructions. On the basis of 16th and 17th century Southern Min literature (Sinitic), a comparison is also made with analogous developments for comitative 共 gòng ‘with’ to provide support for our hypothesis that the direct object marking use has evolved from the oblique function of a benefactive or dative, and is clearly separate from the crosslinguistically well-attested pathway that leads to its use as a conjunction. We would thus like to propose that these data contribute a new pattern to the stock of grammaticalization pathways, specifically, comitative > dative/benefactive > accusative (direct object marker). PMID:24273384

  3. A Chinese herbal decoction, reformulated from Kai-Xin-San, relieves the depression-like symptoms in stressed rats and induces neurogenesis in cultured neurons

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lu; Hu, Qinghua; Mak, Marvin S. H.; Lou, Jianshu; Xu, Sherry L.; Bi, Cathy W. C.; Zhu, Yue; Wang, Huaiyou; Dong, Tina T. X.; Tsim, Karl W. K.

    2016-01-01

    Kai-Xin-San (KXS), a Chinese herbal decoction for anti-depression, is a combination of paired-herbs, i.e. Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma (GR)-Polygalae Radix (PR) and Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma (ATR)-Poria (PO). The make-up of the paired-herbs has been commonly revised according to syndrome differentiation and treatment variation of individual. Currently, an optimized KXS (KXS2012) was prepared by functional screening different combination of GR-PR and ATR-PO. The aim of this study was to verify the effect and underlying mechanism of KXS2012 against depression in chronic mild stress (CMS)-induced depressive rats and in primary cultures of neurons and astrocytes. In rat model, the CMS-induced depressive symptoms were markedly alleviated by the treatment with KXS2012. The CMS-suppressed neurotransmitter amounts were restored in the presence of KXS2012. And the expressions of neurotropic factors and its corresponding receptors were increased under KXS2012 administration. In cultured neurons, application of KXS2012 could promote neurogenesis by inducing the expression of synaptotagmin and dendritic spine density. Moreover, application of KXS2012 in cultured astrocytes, or in H2O2-stressed astrocytes, induced the expressions of neurotrophic factors: the increase might be associated with the modification of Erk1/2 and CREB phosphorylation. Our current results fully support the therapeutic efficacy of KXS2012 against depression in cell and animal models. PMID:27444820

  4. Metabolomics approach to explore the effects of Kai-Xin-San on Alzheimer's disease using UPLC/ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hang; Zhang, Aihua; Han, Ying; Lu, Shengwen; Kong, Ling; Han, Jinwei; Liu, Zhidong; Sun, Hui; Wang, Xijun

    2016-03-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disease that influences elderly populations, with no effective method for its treatment so far. To improve its diagnosis and treatment, changes of small molecule metabolite during AD should be elucidated. Kai-Xin-San (KXS) is an herbal formulae that has been widely used to treat mental disorders, especially amnesia and depression in China. Experimental AD was induced in rats by an intraperitoneal injection of d-galactose (d-gal) and administered intragastrically with aluminum chloride (AlCl3) simultaneously for 105 days. Morris water maze task as a behavior test was used for testing the effects of KXS on AD model and pathological changes to the brain were assessed by hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry. The levels of Bcl-2 and ChAT in hippocampus were evaluated by western-blot. Furthermore, metabolite profiling of AD was performed through ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadruple time-of- flight-high-definition mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-Q-TOF/HDMS) combined with pattern recognition approaches and pathway analysis. d-gal and AlCl3-treated caused a decline in spatial learning and memory, hippocampal histopathological abnormalities and increased Aβ1-40 levels in the brain cortex and hippocampus along with decreased Bcl-2 and ChAT expression in the hippocampus. KXS significantly improved the cognitive impairment induced by d-gal and AlCl3, attenuated hippocampal histopathological abnormalities, reduced Aβ1-40 levels and increased Bcl-2 and ChAT expression in the hippocampus. A total of 48 metabolites were considered as potential biomarkers of AD, and 36 metabolites may correlate with the regulation of KXS treatment on AD. Changes in AD metabolic profiling were close to normal states through regulating multiple perturbed pathways after KXS treatment. This study has revealed the potential biomarkers and metabolic networks of AD, illuminated the biochemistry

  5. Simultaneous quantitation of polygalaxanthone III and four ginsenosides by ultra-fast liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in rat and beagle dog plasma after oral administration of Kai-Xin-San: application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Lv, Chunxiao; Li, Qing; Zhang, Xiaowen; He, Bosai; Xu, Huarong; Yin, Yidi; Liu, Ran; Liu, Jingjing; Chen, Xiaohui; Bi, Kaishun

    2014-05-01

    A fast, selective, and quantitative ultra-fast liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitation of polygalaxanthone III, ginsenoside Rb1, ginsenoside Rd, ginsenoside Re, and ginsenoside Rg1 in the plasma of rat and beagle dog after oral administration of Kai-Xin-San. After addition of the internal standard, salidroside, the plasma samples were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction and separated on a Venusil MP C18 column with methanol/0.01% acetic acid water as mobile phase. The tandem mass spectrometric detection was performed in the multiple reaction monitoring with turbo ion spray source in a switching ionization mode. The method was examined, and found to be precise and accurate with the linearity range of the compounds. The intra- and interday precision and accuracy of the analytes were well within acceptance criteria (±15%). The mean extraction recoveries of analytes and internal standard were all >75.0%. The validated method has been successfully applied to comparing pharmacokinetic profiles of analytes in rat and beagle dog plasma. The results indicated that no significant differences were observed in pharmacokinetic parameters of ginsenoside Rg1, while the others had significant differences, which may due to the different mechanisms of absorption and metabolism.

  6. 78 FR 70096 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel KOKUA KAI; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ...As authorized by 46 U.S.C. 12121, the Secretary of Transportation, as represented by the Maritime Administration (MARAD), is authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain circumstances. A request for such a waiver has been received by MARAD. The vessel, and a brief description of the proposed service, is listed...

  7. Epidemiology of ocean sports-related injuries in Hawaii: 'Akahele O Ke Kai'.

    PubMed

    Hartung, G H; Goebert, D A; Taniguchi, R M; Okamoto, G A

    1990-02-01

    Before attempting to prevent ocean activity injuries, as well as to improve treatment strategies, more information is needed regarding the numbers of injuries that are geographic and activity specific and the identification of persons at risk for such injury. Data on 276 injuries that occurred during ocean sports activities on the islands of Oahu and Hawaii over a 10-month period are presented. The injuries were mainly related to swimming and board-surfing, although serious injuries were found for almost all types of sports activities. The majority of those injured were young adult men who were local residents. Over 10% of the injuries required hospitalization, including 4 fatalities due to drowning and 5 spinal cord injuries due to trauma or to SCUBA-related, decompression incidents. Our study identifies the need for determining an estimate of the number of persons engaging in ocean sports, establishes the need for a single reporting system for injuries, determines potential risk factors, and suggests targets for prevention.

  8. Will Kai Become a Skinhead? Cultures of Hate in Germany and the New Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lhotzky, Stephan

    2001-01-01

    The rise of hate crimes and development of right-wing extremism among adolescents in Europe will require a response involving a multitude of measures in different areas and various levels. Combating this development will necessitate cooperation of experts in different fields. Individuals and groups will need to contribute knowledge in a way that…

  9. It Started in Hawai'i Kai: Reminiscences of 43 Years (and Counting) of Collaboration and Friendship.

    PubMed

    Popper, Arthur N; Fay, Richard R

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the 43+ year collaboration of Arthur Popper and Richard Fay. Over these years, we have co-authored over 30 papers and 55 books. The collaboration benefits from a strong friendship that includes our spouses and children. By any measure, our collaboration must be seen as being successful. The basis for this success is, we think, twofold. First, we have very complementary and overlapping research interests. This has enabled us to tackle issues, whether in research or in planning meetings or books, from different perspectives. Second, a hallmark of our successful collaboration has been our deep and close friendship and the extension of that friendship to our spouses and children. In this paper, we discuss some of the events that have shaped our collaboration, and some of the people who have impacted our lives.

  10. Combined SAXS/EM Based Models of the S. elongatus Post-Translational Circadian Oscillator and its Interactions with the Output His-Kinase SasA

    SciTech Connect

    Pattanayek, Rekha; Williams, Dewight R.; Rossi, Gian; Weigand, Steven; Mori, Tetsuya; Johnson, Carl H.; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Egli, Martin

    2012-03-15

    The circadian clock in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus is composed of a post-translational oscillator (PTO) that can be reconstituted in vitro from three different proteins in the presence of ATP and a transcription-translation feedback loop (TTFL). The homo-hexameric KaiC kinase, phosphatase and ATPase alternates between hypo- and hyper-phosphorylated states over the 24-h cycle, with KaiA enhancing phosphorylation, and KaiB antagonizing KaiA and promoting KaiC subunit exchange. SasA is a His kinase that relays output signals from the PTO formed by the three Kai proteins to the TTFL. Although the crystal structures for all three Kai proteins are known, atomic resolution structures of Kai and Kai/SasA protein complexes have remained elusive. Here, we present models of the KaiAC and KaiBC complexes derived from solution small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), which are consistent with previous EM based models. We also present a combined SAXS/EM model of the KaiC/SasA complex, which has two N-terminal SasA sensory domains occupying positions on the C-terminal KaiC ring reminiscent of the orientations adopted by KaiB dimers. Using EM we demonstrate that KaiB and SasA compete for similar binding sites on KaiC. We also propose an EM based model of the ternary KaiABC complex that is consistent with the sequestering of KaiA by KaiB on KaiC during the PTO dephosphorylation phase. This work provides the first 3D-catalogue of protein-protein interactions in the KaiABC PTO and the output pathway mediated by SasA.

  11. PLANT EVOLUTION. Convergent evolution of strigolactone perception enabled host detection in parasitic plants.

    PubMed

    Conn, Caitlin E; Bythell-Douglas, Rohan; Neumann, Drexel; Yoshida, Satoko; Whittington, Bryan; Westwood, James H; Shirasu, Ken; Bond, Charles S; Dyer, Kelly A; Nelson, David C

    2015-07-31

    Obligate parasitic plants in the Orobanchaceae germinate after sensing plant hormones, strigolactones, exuded from host roots. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the α/β-hydrolase D14 acts as a strigolactone receptor that controls shoot branching, whereas its ancestral paralog, KAI2, mediates karrikin-specific germination responses. We observed that KAI2, but not D14, is present at higher copy numbers in parasitic species than in nonparasitic relatives. KAI2 paralogs in parasites are distributed into three phylogenetic clades. The fastest-evolving clade, KAI2d, contains the majority of KAI2 paralogs. Homology models predict that the ligand-binding pockets of KAI2d resemble D14. KAI2d transgenes confer strigolactone-specific germination responses to Arabidopsis thaliana. Thus, the KAI2 paralogs D14 and KAI2d underwent convergent evolution of strigolactone recognition, respectively enabling developmental responses to strigolactones in angiosperms and host detection in parasites.

  12. Acetone-butanol-ethanol competitive sorption simulation from single, binary, and ternary systems in a fixed-bed of KA-I resin.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinglan; Zhuang, Wei; Ying, Hanjie; Jiao, Pengfei; Li, Renjie; Wen, Qingshi; Wang, Lili; Zhou, Jingwei; Yang, Pengpeng

    2015-01-01

    Separation of butanol based on sorption methodology from acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation broth has advantages in terms of biocompatibility and stability, as well as economy, and therefore gains much attention. In this work a chromatographic column model based on the solid film linear driving force approach and the competitive Langmuir isotherm equations was used to predict the competitive sorption behaviors of ABE single, binary, and ternary mixture. It was observed that the outlet concentration of weaker retained components exceeded the inlet concentration, which is an evidence of competitive adsorption. Butanol, the strongest retained component, could replace ethanol almost completely and also most of acetone. In the end of this work, the proposed model was validated by comparison of the experimental and predicted ABE ternary breakthrough curves using the real ABE fermentation broth as a feed solution.

  13. 75 FR 35513 - Application of Schuman Aviation Company Ltd. D/B/A Makani Kai Helicopters D/B/A Ko Olina...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... AGENCY: Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice of Order to Show Cause (Order 2010-6-17), Docket DOT... cause why it should not issue an order finding Schuman Aviation Company Ltd. d/b/a Makani...

  14. Rhythmic ring–ring stacking drives the circadian oscillator clockwise

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yong-Gang; Tseng, Roger; Kuo, Nai-Wei; LiWang, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The oscillator of the circadian clock of cyanobacteria is composed of three proteins, KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC, which together generate a self-sustained ∼24-h rhythm of phosphorylation of KaiC. The mechanism propelling this oscillator has remained elusive, however. We show that stacking interactions between the CI and CII rings of KaiC drive the transition from the phosphorylation-specific KaiC–KaiA interaction to the dephosphorylation-specific KaiC–KaiB interaction. We have identified the KaiB-binding site, which is on the CI domain. This site is hidden when CI domains are associated as a hexameric ring. However, stacking of the CI and CII rings exposes the KaiB-binding site. Because the clock output protein SasA also binds to CI and competes with KaiB for binding, ring stacking likely regulates clock output. We demonstrate that ADP can expose the KaiB-binding site in the absence of ring stacking, providing an explanation for how it can reset the clock. PMID:22967510

  15. Circadian rhythms. A protein fold switch joins the circadian oscillator to clock output in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yong-Gang; Cohen, Susan E; Phong, Connie; Myers, William K; Kim, Yong-Ick; Tseng, Roger; Lin, Jenny; Zhang, Li; Boyd, Joseph S; Lee, Yvonne; Kang, Shannon; Lee, David; Li, Sheng; Britt, R David; Rust, Michael J; Golden, Susan S; LiWang, Andy

    2015-07-17

    Organisms are adapted to the relentless cycles of day and night, because they evolved timekeeping systems called circadian clocks, which regulate biological activities with ~24-hour rhythms. The clock of cyanobacteria is driven by a three-protein oscillator composed of KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC, which together generate a circadian rhythm of KaiC phosphorylation. We show that KaiB flips between two distinct three-dimensional folds, and its rare transition to an active state provides a time delay that is required to match the timing of the oscillator to that of Earth's rotation. Once KaiB switches folds, it binds phosphorylated KaiC and captures KaiA, which initiates a phase transition of the circadian cycle, and it regulates components of the clock-output pathway, which provides the link that joins the timekeeping and signaling functions of the oscillator.

  16. A Selaginella moellendorffii Ortholog of KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE2 Functions in Arabidopsis Development but Cannot Mediate Responses to Karrikins or Strigolactones[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Mark T.; Scaffidi, Adrian; Moulin, Solène L.Y.; Sun, Yueming K.; Flematti, Gavin R.; Smith, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the α/β-fold hydrolase KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE2 (KAI2) is essential for normal seed germination, seedling development, and leaf morphogenesis, as well as for responses to karrikins. KAI2 is a paralog of DWARF14 (D14), the proposed strigolactone receptor, but the evolutionary timing of functional divergence between the KAI2 and D14 clades has not been established. By swapping gene promoters, we show that Arabidopsis KAI2 and D14 proteins are functionally distinct. We show that the catalytic serine of KAI2 is essential for function in plants and for biochemical activity in vitro. We identified two KAI2 homologs from Selaginella moellendorffii and two from Marchantia polymorpha. One from each species could hydrolyze the strigolactone analog GR24 in vitro, but when tested for their ability to complement Arabidopsis d14 and kai2 mutants, neither of these homologs was effective. However, the second KAI2 homolog from S. moellendorffii was able to complement the seedling and leaf development phenotypes of Arabidopsis kai2. This homolog could not transduce signals from exogenous karrikins, strigolactone analogs, or carlactone, but its activity did depend on the conserved catalytic serine. We conclude that KAI2, and most likely the endogenous signal to which it responds, has been conserved since the divergence of lycophytes and angiosperm lineages, despite their major developmental and morphogenic differences. PMID:26175507

  17. Elucidating the Ticking of an In Vitro Circadian Clockwork

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Ximing; Egli, Martin; Mchaourab, Hassane S; Stewart, Phoebe L; Johnson, Carl Hirschie

    2007-01-01

    A biochemical oscillator can be reconstituted in vitro with three purified proteins, that displays the salient properties of circadian (daily) rhythms, including self-sustained 24-h periodicity that is temperature compensated. We analyze the biochemical basis of this oscillator by quantifying the time-dependent interactions of the three proteins (KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC) by electron microscopy and native gel electrophoresis to elucidate the timing of the formation of complexes among the Kai proteins. The data are used to derive a dynamic model for the in vitro oscillator that accurately reproduces the rhythms of KaiABC complexes and of KaiC phosphorylation, and is consistent with biophysical observations of individual Kai protein interactions. We use fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to confirm that monomer exchange among KaiC hexamers occurs. The model demonstrates that the function of this monomer exchange may be to maintain synchrony among the KaiC hexamers in the reaction, thereby sustaining a high-amplitude oscillation. Finally, we apply the first perturbation analyses of an in vitro oscillator by using temperature pulses to reset the phase of the KaiABC oscillator, thereby testing the resetting characteristics of this unique circadian oscillator. This study analyzes a circadian clockwork to an unprecedented level of molecular detail. PMID:17388688

  18. A Selaginella moellendorffii Ortholog of KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE2 Functions in Arabidopsis Development but Cannot Mediate Responses to Karrikins or Strigolactones.

    PubMed

    Waters, Mark T; Scaffidi, Adrian; Moulin, Solène L Y; Sun, Yueming K; Flematti, Gavin R; Smith, Steven M

    2015-07-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the α/β-fold hydrolase KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE2 (KAI2) is essential for normal seed germination, seedling development, and leaf morphogenesis, as well as for responses to karrikins. KAI2 is a paralog of DWARF14 (D14), the proposed strigolactone receptor, but the evolutionary timing of functional divergence between the KAI2 and D14 clades has not been established. By swapping gene promoters, we show that Arabidopsis KAI2 and D14 proteins are functionally distinct. We show that the catalytic serine of KAI2 is essential for function in plants and for biochemical activity in vitro. We identified two KAI2 homologs from Selaginella moellendorffii and two from Marchantia polymorpha. One from each species could hydrolyze the strigolactone analog GR24 in vitro, but when tested for their ability to complement Arabidopsis d14 and kai2 mutants, neither of these homologs was effective. However, the second KAI2 homolog from S. moellendorffii was able to complement the seedling and leaf development phenotypes of Arabidopsis kai2. This homolog could not transduce signals from exogenous karrikins, strigolactone analogs, or carlactone, but its activity did depend on the conserved catalytic serine. We conclude that KAI2, and most likely the endogenous signal to which it responds, has been conserved since the divergence of lycophytes and angiosperm lineages, despite their major developmental and morphogenic differences. PMID:26175507

  19. Distinguishing Feedback Mechanisms in Clock Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, Alexander; Lubensky, David

    Biological oscillators are very diverse but can be classified based on dynamical motifs such as type of feedback. The S. Elongatus circadian oscillator is a novel circadian oscillator that can operate at constant protein number by modifying covalent states. It can be reproduced in vitro with only 3 different purified proteins: KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC. We use computational and analytic techniques to compare models of the S. Elongatus post-translational oscillator that rely on positive feedback with models that rely on negative feedback. We show that introducing a protein that binds competitively with KaiA to the KaiB-KaiC complex can distinguish between positive and negative feedback as the primary driver of the rhythm, which has so far been difficult to address experimentally. NSF Grant DMR-1056456.

  20. Tetraspanin CD82 Inhibits Protrusion and Retraction in Cell Movement by Attenuating the Plasma Membrane-Dependent Actin Organization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei M.; Zhang, Feng; Moshiach, Simon; Zhou, Bin; Huang, Chao; Srinivasan, Kamalakkannan; Khurana, Seema; Zheng, Yi; Lahti, Jill M.; Zhang, Xin A.

    2012-01-01

    To determine how tetraspanin KAI1/CD82, a tumor metastasis suppressor, inhibits cell migration, we assessed which cellular events critical for motility are altered by KAI1/CD82 and how KAI1/CD82 regulates these events. We found that KAI1/CD82-expressing cells typically exhibited elongated cellular tails and diminished lamellipodia. Live imaging demonstrated that the polarized protrusion and retraction of the plasma membrane became deficient upon KAI1/CD82 expression. The deficiency in developing these motility-related cellular events was caused by poor formations of actin cortical network and stress fiber and by aberrant dynamics in actin organization. Rac1 activity was reduced by KAI1/CD82, consistent with the diminution of lamellipodia and actin cortical network; while the growth factor-stimulated RhoA activity was blocked by KAI1/CD82, consistent with the loss of stress fiber and attenuation in cellular retraction. Upon KAI1/CD82 expression, Rac effector cofilin was not enriched at the cell periphery to facilitate lamellipodia formation while Rho kinase exhibited a significantly lower activity leading to less retraction. Phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-biphosphate, which initiates actin polymerization from the plasma membrane, became less detectable at the cell periphery in KAI1/CD82-expressing cells. Moreover, KAI1/CD82-induced phenotypes likely resulted from the suppression of multiple signaling pathways such as integrin and growth factor signaling. In summary, at the cellular level KAI1/CD82 inhibited polarized protrusion and retraction events by disrupting actin reorganization; at the molecular level, KAI1/CD82 deregulated Rac1, RhoA, and their effectors cofilin and Rho kinase by perturbing the plasma membrane lipids. PMID:23251627

  1. Construct Validity of Three Self-Report Measures of Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleenor, John W.; Taylor, Sylvester

    1994-01-01

    Relations were examined among the CPI Creativity Scale (CPI-CT), the MBTI Creativity Index (MBTI-CI), and the Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory (KAI; a style measure of behavioral preference) for samples of 431 to 12,115 managers. KAI scores were related to CPI-CT and MBTI-CI creativity levels. (SLD)

  2. Synchronized Cycles: An allosteric model of the cyanobacterial circadian oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubensky, David; van Zon, J. S.; Altena, P.; Ten Wolde, P. R.

    2007-03-01

    In a remarkable experiment, Nakajima et al. [Science, 2005] showed that the 3 cyanobacterial clock proteins KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC are sufficient to generate circadian phosphorylation of KaiC in vitro. This system is thus a rare example of a functioning biochemical circuit that can be reconstituted in the test tube. Theoretically, it presents the further challenge that the only reactions driven out of equilibrium are those associated with KaiC phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Here, we present a model of the Kai system. At its heart is the assumption, motivated by classical models of allostery, that each KaiC hexamer to tends to be phosphorylated in a cyclic manner. For macroscopic oscillations to be possible, however, the cycles of the different hexamers must be synchronized. We propose a novel synchronisation mechanism that allows us to reproduce a wide range of published data, including temperature compensation of the oscillation period, and to make nontrivial predictions about the effects of varying the concentrations of the Kai proteins.

  3. An allele of the crm gene blocks cyanobacterial circadian rhythms.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Joseph S; Bordowitz, Juliana R; Bree, Anna C; Golden, Susan S

    2013-08-20

    The SasA-RpaA two-component system constitutes a key output pathway of the cyanobacterial Kai circadian oscillator. To date, rhythm of phycobilisome associated (rpaA) is the only gene other than kaiA, kaiB, and kaiC, which encode the oscillator itself, whose mutation causes completely arrhythmic gene expression. Here we report a unique transposon insertion allele in a small ORF located immediately upstream of rpaA in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 termed crm (for circadian rhythmicity modulator), which results in arrhythmic promoter activity but does not affect steady-state levels of RpaA. The crm ORF complements the defect when expressed in trans, but only if it can be translated, suggesting that crm encodes a small protein. The crm1 insertion allele phenotypes are distinct from those of an rpaA null; crm1 mutants are able to grow in a light:dark cycle and have no detectable oscillations of KaiC phosphorylation, whereas low-amplitude KaiC phosphorylation rhythms persist in the absence of RpaA. Levels of phosphorylated RpaA in vivo measured over time are significantly altered compared with WT in the crm1 mutant as well as in the absence of KaiC. Taken together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that the Crm polypeptide modulates a circadian-specific activity of RpaA.

  4. Kenya AIDS Indicator Surveys 2007 and 2012: implications for public health policies for HIV prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Maina, William K; Kim, Andrea A; Rutherford, George W; Harper, Malayah; K'Oyugi, Boniface O; Sharif, Shahnaaz; Kichamu, George; Muraguri, Nicholas M; Akhwale, Willis; De Cock, Kevin M

    2014-05-01

    AIDS Indicator Surveys are standardized surveillance tools used by countries with generalized HIV epidemics to provide, in a timely fashion, indicators for effective monitoring of HIV. Such data should guide responses to the HIV epidemic, meet program reporting requirements, and ensure comparability of findings across countries and over time. Kenya has conducted 2 AIDS Indicator Surveys, in 2007 (KAIS 2007) and 2012-2013 (KAIS 2012). These nationally representative surveys have provided essential epidemiologic, sociodemographic, behavioral, and biologic data on HIV and related indicators to evaluate the national HIV response and inform policies for prevention and treatment of the disease. We present a summary of findings from KAIS 2007 and KAIS 2012 and the impact that these data have had on changing HIV policies and practice.

  5. [Development of analysis software package for the two kinds of Japanese fluoro-d-glucose-positron emission tomography guideline].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Keiichi; Endo, Keigo

    2013-06-01

    Two kinds of Japanese guidelines for the data acquisition protocol of oncology fluoro-D-glucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/computed tomography (CT) scans were created by the joint task force of the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine Technology (JSNMT) and the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine (JSNM), and published in Kakuigaku-Gijutsu 27(5): 425-456, 2007 and 29(2): 195-235, 2009. These guidelines aim to standardize PET image quality among facilities and different PET/CT scanner models. The objective of this study was to develop a personal computer-based performance measurement and image quality processor for the two kinds of Japanese guidelines for oncology (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans. We call this software package the "PET quality control tool" (PETquact). Microsoft Corporation's Windows(™) is used as the operating system for PETquact, which requires 1070×720 image resolution and includes 12 different applications. The accuracy was examined for numerous applications of PETquact. For example, in the sensitivity application, the system sensitivity measurement results were equivalent when comparing two PET sinograms obtained from the PETquact and the report. PETquact is suited for analysis of the two kinds of Japanese guideline, and it shows excellent spec to performance measurements and image quality analysis. PETquact can be used at any facility if the software package is installed on a laptop computer. PMID:23782777

  6. [Development of analysis software package for the two kinds of Japanese fluoro-d-glucose-positron emission tomography guideline].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Keiichi; Endo, Keigo

    2013-06-01

    Two kinds of Japanese guidelines for the data acquisition protocol of oncology fluoro-D-glucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/computed tomography (CT) scans were created by the joint task force of the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine Technology (JSNMT) and the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine (JSNM), and published in Kakuigaku-Gijutsu 27(5): 425-456, 2007 and 29(2): 195-235, 2009. These guidelines aim to standardize PET image quality among facilities and different PET/CT scanner models. The objective of this study was to develop a personal computer-based performance measurement and image quality processor for the two kinds of Japanese guidelines for oncology (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans. We call this software package the "PET quality control tool" (PETquact). Microsoft Corporation's Windows(™) is used as the operating system for PETquact, which requires 1070×720 image resolution and includes 12 different applications. The accuracy was examined for numerous applications of PETquact. For example, in the sensitivity application, the system sensitivity measurement results were equivalent when comparing two PET sinograms obtained from the PETquact and the report. PETquact is suited for analysis of the two kinds of Japanese guideline, and it shows excellent spec to performance measurements and image quality analysis. PETquact can be used at any facility if the software package is installed on a laptop computer.

  7. The circadian oscillator in Synechococcus elongatus controls metabolite partitioning during diurnal growth

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Spencer; Jun, Darae; Rubin, Benjamin E.; Golden, Susan S.

    2015-01-01

    Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 is a genetically tractable model cyanobacterium that has been engineered to produce industrially relevant biomolecules and is the best-studied model for a prokaryotic circadian clock. However, the organism is commonly grown in continuous light in the laboratory, and data on metabolic processes under diurnal conditions are lacking. Moreover, the influence of the circadian clock on diurnal metabolism has been investigated only briefly. Here, we demonstrate that the circadian oscillator influences rhythms of metabolism during diurnal growth, even though light–dark cycles can drive metabolic rhythms independently. Moreover, the phenotype associated with loss of the core oscillator protein, KaiC, is distinct from that caused by absence of the circadian output transcriptional regulator, RpaA (regulator of phycobilisome-associated A). Although RpaA activity is important for carbon degradation at night, KaiC is dispensable for those processes. Untargeted metabolomics analysis and glycogen kinetics suggest that functional KaiC is important for metabolite partitioning in the morning. Additionally, output from the oscillator functions to inhibit RpaA activity in the morning, and kaiC-null strains expressing a mutant KaiC phosphomimetic, KaiC-pST, in which the oscillator is locked in the most active output state, phenocopies a ΔrpaA strain. Inhibition of RpaA by the oscillator in the morning suppresses metabolic processes that normally are active at night, and kaiC-null strains show indications of oxidative pentose phosphate pathway activation as well as increased abundance of primary metabolites. Inhibitory clock output may serve to allow secondary metabolite biosynthesis in the morning, and some metabolites resulting from these processes may feed back to reinforce clock timing. PMID:25825710

  8. The circadian oscillator in Synechococcus elongatus controls metabolite partitioning during diurnal growth.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Spencer; Jun, Darae; Rubin, Benjamin E; Golden, Susan S

    2015-04-14

    Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 is a genetically tractable model cyanobacterium that has been engineered to produce industrially relevant biomolecules and is the best-studied model for a prokaryotic circadian clock. However, the organism is commonly grown in continuous light in the laboratory, and data on metabolic processes under diurnal conditions are lacking. Moreover, the influence of the circadian clock on diurnal metabolism has been investigated only briefly. Here, we demonstrate that the circadian oscillator influences rhythms of metabolism during diurnal growth, even though light-dark cycles can drive metabolic rhythms independently. Moreover, the phenotype associated with loss of the core oscillator protein, KaiC, is distinct from that caused by absence of the circadian output transcriptional regulator, RpaA (regulator of phycobilisome-associated A). Although RpaA activity is important for carbon degradation at night, KaiC is dispensable for those processes. Untargeted metabolomics analysis and glycogen kinetics suggest that functional KaiC is important for metabolite partitioning in the morning. Additionally, output from the oscillator functions to inhibit RpaA activity in the morning, and kaiC-null strains expressing a mutant KaiC phosphomimetic, KaiC-pST, in which the oscillator is locked in the most active output state, phenocopies a ΔrpaA strain. Inhibition of RpaA by the oscillator in the morning suppresses metabolic processes that normally are active at night, and kaiC-null strains show indications of oxidative pentose phosphate pathway activation as well as increased abundance of primary metabolites. Inhibitory clock output may serve to allow secondary metabolite biosynthesis in the morning, and some metabolites resulting from these processes may feed back to reinforce clock timing.

  9. The Cyanobacterial Circadian System: From Biophysics to Bioevolution

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Phoebe L.; Egli, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have unveiled the molecular machinery responsible for the biological clock in cyanobacteria and found that it exerts pervasive control over cellular processes including global gene expression. Indeed, the entire chromosome undergoes daily cycles of topology/compaction! The circadian system comprises both a posttranslational oscillator (PTO) and a transcriptional/translational feedback loop (TTFL). The PTO can be reconstituted in vitro with three purified proteins (KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC) and ATP. These are the only circadian proteins for which high-resolution structures are available. Phase in this nanoclockwork has been associated with key phosphorylations of KaiC. Structural considerations illuminate the mechanism by which the KaiABC oscillator ratchets unidirectionally. Models of the complete in vivo system have important implications for our understanding of circadian clocks in higher organisms, including mammals. The conjunction of structural, biophysical, and biochemical approaches to this system has brought our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of biological timekeeping to an unprecedented level. PMID:21332358

  10. Smoke and Hormone Mirrors: Action and Evolution of Karrikin and Strigolactone Signaling.

    PubMed

    Morffy, Nicholas; Faure, Lionel; Nelson, David C

    2016-03-01

    Karrikins and strigolactones are two classes of butenolide molecules that have diverse effects on plant growth. Karrikins are found in smoke and strigolactones are plant hormones, yet both molecules are likely recognized through highly similar signaling mechanisms. Here we review the most recent discoveries of karrikin and strigolactone perception and signal transduction. Two paralogous α/β hydrolases, KAI2 and D14, are respectively karrikin and strigolactone receptors. D14 acts with an F-box protein, MAX2, to target SMXL/D53 family proteins for proteasomal degradation, and genetic data suggest that KAI2 acts similarly. There are striking parallels in the signaling mechanisms of karrikins, strigolactones, and other plant hormones, including auxins, jasmonates, and gibberellins. Recent investigations of host perception in parasitic plants have demonstrated that strigolactone recognition can evolve following gene duplication of KAI2.

  11. Stir-baked Fructus gardeniae (L.) extracts inhibit matrix metalloproteinases and alter cell morphology.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-gang; Shen, Ye-hua; Hong, Yuan; Jin, Feng-hai; Zhao, Shu-hua; Wang, Ming-cui; Shi, Xiu-juan; Fang, Xue-xun

    2008-05-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play vital roles in many pathological conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, arthritis and inflammation. Modulating MMP activity may therefore be a useful therapeutic approach in treating these diseases. Qing-Kai-Ling is a popular Chinese anti-inflammatory formulation used to treat symptoms such as rheumatoid arthritis, acute hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage, hepatitis and upper respiratory tract infection. In this paper, we report that one of the components of Qing-Kai-Ling, Fructus gardeniae, strongly inhibits MMP activity. The IC50 values for the primary herbal extract and water extract against MMP-16 were 32 and 27 microg/ml, respectively. In addition, we show that the herbal extracts influence HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cell growth and morphology. These data may provide molecular mechanisms for the therapeutic effects of Qing-Kai-Ling and herbal medicinal Fructus gardeniae.

  12. Structural and biochemical characterization of a cyanobacterium circadian clock-modifier protein.

    PubMed

    Arita, Kyouhei; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Igari, Kumiko; Akaboshi, Mayuko; Kutsuna, Shinsuke; Sato, Mamoru; Shimizu, Toshiyuki

    2007-01-12

    Circadian clocks are self-sustained biochemical oscillators. The oscillator of cyanobacteria comprises the products of three kai genes (kaiA, kaiB, and kaiC). The autophosphorylation cycle of KaiC oscillates robustly in the cell with a 24-h period and is essential for the basic timing of the cyanobacterial circadian clock. Recently, period extender (pex), mutants of which show a short period phenotype, was classified as a resetting-related gene. In fact, pex mRNA and the pex protein (Pex) increase during the dark period, and a pex mutant subjected to diurnal light-dark cycles shows a 3-h advance in rhythm phase. Here, we report the x-ray crystallographic analysis and biochemical characterization of Pex from cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. The molecule has an (alpha+beta) structure with a winged-helix motif and is indicated to function as a dimer. The subunit arrangement in the dimer is unique and has not been seen in other winged-helix proteins. Electrophoresis mobility shift assay using a 25-base pair complementary oligonucleotide incorporating the kaiA upstream sequence demonstrates that Pex has an affinity for the double-stranded DNA. Furthermore, mutation analysis shows that Pex uses the wing region to recognize the DNA. The in vivo rhythm assay of Pex shows that the constitutive expression of the pex gene harboring the mutation that fails to bind to DNA lacks the period-prolongation activity in the pex-deficient Synechococcus, suggesting that Pex is a DNA-binding transcription factor.

  13. The (temporary?) queering of Japanese TV.

    PubMed

    Miller, S D

    2000-01-01

    One of the primary texts of the "out" queer cinema of Japan is the television serial D s kai, first aired in 1993. Unlike Western television shows positing queer characters, D s kai presents its gay characters without apology or excuses, and as leads rather than as colorful appendages. At the same time, however, the show filters gay eroticism through the (hetero)normative mode of serial melodrama, at once pushing the boundaries of national permissiveness while normalizing and homogenizing homosexuality by rendering it within a conventional form.

  14. Font Effects of Chinese Characters and Pseudo-Characters on the N400: Evidence for an Orthographic Processing View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lv, Caixia; Wang, Quanhong

    2012-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a Chinese character decision task to examine whether N400 amplitude is modulated by stimulus font. Results revealed large negative-going ERPs in an N400 time window of 300-500 ms to stimuli presented in degraded Xing Kai Ti (XKT) font compared with more intact Song Ti (ST) font regardless…

  15. NCCR Chemical Biology: Interdisciplinary Research Excellence, Outreach, Education, and New Tools for Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Sturzenegger, Susi; Johnsson, Kai; Riezman, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation to promote cutting edge research as well as the advancement of young researchers and women, technology transfer, outreach and education, the NCCR (Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research) Chemical Biology is co-led by Howard Riezman, University of Geneva and Kai Johnsson, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL).

  16. Hydrology of the Leeward Aquifers of Southeast Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eyre, Paul R.; Ewart, Charles J.; Shade, Patricia J.

    1986-01-01

    The leeward southeast Oahu ground-water area includes the Waialae and Wailupe-Hawaii Kai aquifers. The Waialae aquifer is separated from the ground water of Kaimuki to the west by Palolo valley fill and the Kaau rift zone, and from the Wailupe-Hawaii Kai aquifer to the east by a line of northeast-trending volcanic dikes. The distinct ground-water head changes across these boundaries indicate that the aquifers are separate, with little or no leakage between them. A water budget of leeward southeast Oahu determined the quantity and spatial distribution of ground-water recharge. These estimates of recharge, 6 million gallons per day over the Waialae area and 9.1 million gallons per day over the Wailupe-Hawaii Kai area, were used as input to a finite-element two-dimensional ground-water flow model. Ground-water heads were simulated in the modeled aquifer for several pumping scenarios. Projected pumpage from the recently drilled wells int he area is predicted to draw the water table down about one foot from its present mean position. The existing ground-water development of 1.4 million gallons per day is small compared to the quantity of ground water that flows through the area and discharges to the sea. Because the Waialae and Wailupe-Hawaii Kai aquifers are isolated from adjacent ground-water bodies, they can be fully developed without affecting ground-water resources outside the area.

  17. Influence of Creative Style and Gender on Students' Achievement in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mkpanang, John T.

    2016-01-01

    The research investigated the influence of creative style and gender on students' achievement in physics. The sample consisting one hundred (100) Senior Secondary II physics students, made up of 50 males and 50 females in Oruk Anam Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, were administered the Kirton Adaptor-Innovator Inventory (KAI),…

  18. Effects of Typographic Variables on Eye-Movement Measures in Reading Chinese from a Screen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Nai-Shing; Tsai, Jie-Li; Chen, Pei-Ling; Lin, Hsuan-Yu; Chen, Arbee L. P.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the most efficient way to represent text in reading Chinese on computer displays, three typographic variables, character size (41[feet] arc/24 pixels and 60[feet] arc/32 pixels), character spacing (1/4 and 1/8 character width) and font type (Kai and Ming), were manipulated. Results showed that the reading speed for Chinese…

  19. 75 FR 9869 - Initiation of Administrative Review of the Antidumping Duty Order on Wooden Bedroom Furniture...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ...: Sparklers from the People's Republic of China, 56 FR 20588 (May 6, 1991), as amplified by the Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Silicon Carbide from the People's Republic of China, 59 FR 22585... Company Limited,* Dongguan Haoshun Furniture Ltd.* Locke Furniture Factory,* Kai Chan Furniture Co.,...

  20. 78 FR 7485 - Designation of Seven Individuals and One Entity Pursuant to Executive Order 13581, “Blocking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    .... INAGAWA-KAI, 7-8-4 Roppongi, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan . Dated: January 23, 2013. Adam J. Szubin, Director...); DOB 1940; POB Japan (individual) . 3. UCHIBORI, Kazuo (a.k.a. UCHIBORI, Kazuya); DOB 1952; POB Kawasaki, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan (individual) . 4. ZAGARIA, Antonio; DOB 29 Jun 1962; POB San...

  1. On a Quest for English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the potential of online role-playing games to be a powerful tool for English as a second language (ESL) learning. When Professor Edd Schneider and game designer Kai Zheng suggested to attendees gathered in San Francisco last spring for the annual Game Developers Conference that massively multiplayer online role-playing games,…

  2. Chinese Lessons: Shanghai's Rise to the Top of the PISA League Tables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Marc S., Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Marc Tucker, President of the National Center on Education and the Economy, presents this compilation of interviews with top Chinese education leaders and international researchers exploring some of the policies and practices behind Shanghai's outstanding performance on PISA 2009 and PISA 2012. The interviews include perspectives from Kai-ming…

  3. ACUTE-TO-CHRONIC ESTIMATION (ACE V 2.0) WITH TIME-CONCENTRATION-EFFECT MODELS: USER MANUAL AND SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ellersieck, Mark R., Amha Asfaw, Foster L. Mayer, Gary F. Krause, Kai Sun and Gunhee Lee. 2003. Acute-to-Chronic Estimation (ACE v2.0) with Time-Concentration-Effect Models: User Manual and Software. EPA/600/R-03/107. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Envi...

  4. Collaborative Research: Neutrinos and Nucleosynthesis in Hot and Dense Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Alford, Mark

    2015-05-31

    The Topical Collaboration funded one of Prof. Alford's graduate students, Jun (Sophia) Han, by providing 75% of her support. The work reported here was wholly or partly supported by the Topical Collaboration. Additional support, e.g. for postdoc Kai Schwenzer, came from Nuclear Theory grant #DE-FG02-05ER41375.

  5. ICCE/ICCAI 2000 Full & Short Papers (Methodologies).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains the full text of the following full and short papers on methodologies from ICCE/ICCAI 2000 (International Conference on Computers in Education/International Conference on Computer-Assisted Instruction): (1) "A Methodology for Learning Pattern Analysis from Web Logs by Interpreting Web Page Contents" (Chih-Kai Chang and…

  6. The Impact of an Assurance System on the Quality of Teaching and Learning--Using the Example of a University in Russia and One of the Universities in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymenderski, Peggy; Yagudina, Liliya; Burenkova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the question of how quality assurance can have a real, positive impact on the quality of teaching and learning at universities, considering the realities of different systems--the system of control and the system of quality culture--in using the example of two universities: the KNITU-KAI in Russia and the TU Dresden in…

  7. Does access to care still affect health care utilization by immigrants? Testing of an empirical explanatory model of health care utilization by Korean American immigrants with high blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Song, Hee-Jung; Han, Hae-Ra; Lee, Jong-Eun; Kim, Ji-Yun; Kim, Kim B; Ryu, Jai Poong; Kim, Miyong

    2010-08-01

    Despite well-known benefits of health care utilization for the effective management of chronic diseases, the underlying mechanism of understanding health care utilization in ethnic minority population has not been systematically explored. The purpose of this paper is to examine the predictive ability of a health care utilization model by analyzing the interplay between predisposing, enabling, and need factors. The sample consisted of hypertensive Korean American immigrants (KAIs) 40-64 years of age who participated in a self-help intervention for high blood pressure care (SHIP-HBP). Using structured questionnaires, data were collected from 445 KAIs at baseline and analyzed with path analysis. Insurance status and relevant medical history were not just strong direct effects but also carried the most total effect on the health care utilization of these patients. Life priorities, years of residence in the US and perceived income level exerted indirect effects through the participants' insurance status. Our statistical analysis indicated a good fit for the proposed model (x (2) = 28.4, P = 0.29; NFI = 0.91; CFI = 0.99; RMSEA = 0.02). Overall, the model explained 18% of the variance in health care utilization of hypertensive KAIs. These findings strongly support a need to improve access to health care for KAIs by introducing a variety of community resources and building sustainable community infrastructures.

  8. Changes in primary metabolism under light and dark conditions in response to overproduction of a response regulator RpaA in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Iijima, Hiroko; Shirai, Tomokazu; Okamoto, Mami; Kondo, Akihiko; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Osanai, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The study of the primary metabolism of cyanobacteria in response to light conditions is important for environmental biology because cyanobacteria are widely distributed among various ecological niches. Cyanobacteria uniquely possess circadian rhythms, with central oscillators consisting from three proteins, KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC. The two-component histidine kinase SasA/Hik8 and response regulator RpaA transduce the circadian signal from KaiABC to control gene expression. Here, we generated a strain overexpressing rpaA in a unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The rpaA-overexpressing strain showed pleiotropic phenotypes, including slower growth, aberrant degradation of an RNA polymerase sigma factor SigE after the light-to-dark transition, and higher accumulation of sugar catabolic enzyme transcripts under dark conditions. Metabolome analysis revealed delayed glycogen degradation, decreased sugar phosphates and organic acids in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and increased amino acids under dark conditions. The current results demonstrate that in this cyanobacterium, RpaA is a regulator of primary metabolism and involved in adaptation to changes in light conditions. PMID:26379657

  9. Expression of human epileptic temporal lobe neurotransmitter receptors in Xenopus oocytes: An innovative approach to study epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Eleonora; Esposito, Vincenzo; Mileo, Anna Maria; Di Gennaro, Giancarlo; Quarato, Pierpaolo; Giangaspero, Felice; Scoppetta, Ciriaco; Onorati, Paolo; Trettel, Flavia; Miledi, Ricardo; Eusebi, Fabrizio

    2002-01-01

    Poly(A+) RNA was extracted from the temporal lobe (TL) of medically intractable epileptic patients which underwent surgical TL resection. Injection of this mRNA into Xenopus oocytes led to the expression of ionotropic receptors for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), kainate (KAI) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA). Membrane currents elicited by GABA inverted polarity at −15 mV, close to the oocyte's chloride equilibrium potential, were inhibited by bicuculline, and were potentiated by pentobarbital and flunitrazepam. These basic characteristics were also displayed by GABA currents elicited in oocytes injected with mRNAs isolated from human TL glioma (TLG) or from mouse TL. However, the GABA receptors expressed by the epileptic TL mRNA exhibited some unusual properties, consisting in a rapid current run-down after repetitive GABA applications and a large EC50 (125 μM). AMPA alone evoked very small or nil currents, whereas KAI induced larger currents. Nevertheless, upon cyclothiazide treatment, AMPA elicited substantial currents that, like the KAI currents, were inhibited by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX). Furthermore, the glutamate receptor 5 (GluR5) agonist, ATPA, failed to evoke an obvious current although both RT-PCR and Western blot analyses showed GluR5 expression in the epileptic TL. Oocytes injected with mouse TL or human TLG mRNAs generated KAI and AMPA currents similar to those evoked in oocytes injected with epileptic TL mRNA but, in contrast to these, the mouse TL and human TLG oocytes were also responsive to ATPA. Our findings are in accord with the concept that both a depression of GABA inhibition and a dysfunction of the KAI-receptor system maintain a high neuronal excitability that results in epileptic seizures. PMID:12409614

  10. [Achievements and enlightenment of modern acupuncture therapy for stroke based on the neuroanatomy].

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Fang; Fang, Jian-Qiao; Chen, Lu-Ni; Wang, Chao

    2014-04-01

    Up to now, in the treatment of stroke patients by acupuncture therapy, three main representative achievements involving scalp acupuncture intervention, "Xing Nao Kai Qiao" (restoring consciousness and inducing resuscitation) acupuncture technique and nape acupuncture therapy have been got. Regarding their neurobiological mechanisms, the scalp acupuncture therapy is based on the functional localization of the cerebral cortex, "Xing Nao Kai Qiao" acupuncture therapy is closely related to nerve stem stimulation, and the nape acupuncture therapy is based on the nerve innervation of the regional neck-nape area in obtaining therapeutic effects. In fact, effects of these three acupuncture interventions are all closely associated with the modern neuroanatomy. In the treatment of post-stroke spastic paralysis, cognitive disorder and depression with acupuncture therapy, modern neuroanatomical knowledge should be one of the key theoretical basis and new therapeutic techniques should be explored and developed continuously.

  11. Circadian rhythms. Atomic-scale origins of slowness in the cyanobacterial circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Abe, Jun; Hiyama, Takuya B; Mukaiyama, Atsushi; Son, Seyoung; Mori, Toshifumi; Saito, Shinji; Osako, Masato; Wolanin, Julie; Yamashita, Eiki; Kondo, Takao; Akiyama, Shuji

    2015-07-17

    Circadian clocks generate slow and ordered cellular dynamics but consist of fast-moving bio-macromolecules; consequently, the origins of the overall slowness remain unclear. We identified the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) catalytic region [adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase)] in the amino-terminal half of the clock protein KaiC as the minimal pacemaker that controls the in vivo frequency of the cyanobacterial clock. Crystal structures of the ATPase revealed that the slowness of this ATPase arises from sequestration of a lytic water molecule in an unfavorable position and coupling of ATP hydrolysis to a peptide isomerization with high activation energy. The slow ATPase is coupled with another ATPase catalyzing autodephosphorylation in the carboxyl-terminal half of KaiC, yielding the circadian response frequency of intermolecular interactions with other clock-related proteins that influences the transcription and translation cycle.

  12. [Effect of calcium cations on acid-base properties and free radical oxidation of dopamine and pyrocatechol].

    PubMed

    Lebedev, A V; Ivanova, M V; Timoshin, A A; Ruuge, E K

    2008-01-01

    Ca2+-induced increase in the rate of pyrocatechol and dopamine oxidation by dioxygen and Ca2+-dependent acid-base properties of the catechols were studied by potentiometric titration, UV/Vis-spectrophotometry, EPR-spectroscopy, and by measurement of oxygen consumption. The effect of Ca2+ on the chain reactions of oxidation can be explained by additional deprotonation (decrease in pKai) of the catechols that accelerates one electron transport to dioxygen and formation of calcium semiquinonate, undergoing further oxidation. The described Ca2+-dependent redox-conversion of ortho-phenols proposes that an additional function of calcium in the cell can be its involvement in free radical oxidoreductive reactions at pH > pKai.

  13. Circadian rhythms. Atomic-scale origins of slowness in the cyanobacterial circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Abe, Jun; Hiyama, Takuya B; Mukaiyama, Atsushi; Son, Seyoung; Mori, Toshifumi; Saito, Shinji; Osako, Masato; Wolanin, Julie; Yamashita, Eiki; Kondo, Takao; Akiyama, Shuji

    2015-07-17

    Circadian clocks generate slow and ordered cellular dynamics but consist of fast-moving bio-macromolecules; consequently, the origins of the overall slowness remain unclear. We identified the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) catalytic region [adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase)] in the amino-terminal half of the clock protein KaiC as the minimal pacemaker that controls the in vivo frequency of the cyanobacterial clock. Crystal structures of the ATPase revealed that the slowness of this ATPase arises from sequestration of a lytic water molecule in an unfavorable position and coupling of ATP hydrolysis to a peptide isomerization with high activation energy. The slow ATPase is coupled with another ATPase catalyzing autodephosphorylation in the carboxyl-terminal half of KaiC, yielding the circadian response frequency of intermolecular interactions with other clock-related proteins that influences the transcription and translation cycle. PMID:26113637

  14. Sleeping under Insecticide-treated Nets to Prevent Malaria in Nigeria: What Do We Know?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Malaria remains a public-health concern in Nigeria despite huge global investments in the production and distribution of insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) to protect people from Plasmodium falciparum parasite. Information on the use of ITNs is needed for designing strategies for its effective use. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in communities from 3 geopolitical zones of Nigeria. The people had poor knowledge of malaria and mosquito bites, which resulted in wrong perception and misuse of the nets as door and window blinds to “protect entire household” since only two nets were given per household. The use of community structures (traditional leaders/village heads, youths, churches, and mosques) was suggested to ensure effective distribution of nets, sensitize, and monitor net-use in the communities. Health education would dispel misconceptions that ITNs could kill, curtail human fertility, and that local gin (Kai-Kai) would induce sleep and make one oblivious of mosquito nuisance. PMID:23930343

  15. Electrical control of spin in topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Kai

    2012-02-01

    by changing the gate voltage. It provides us a new way to control surface magnetism electrically. The gap opened by doped magnetic ions can lead to a short-range Bloembergen-Rowland interaction. The competition among the Heisenberg, Ising, and DM terms leads to rich spin configurations and an anomalous Hall effect on different lattices [4]. There are many proposals for quantum computation scheme are based on the spin in semiconductor quantum dots. Topological insulator quantum dots display a very different behavior with that of conventional semiconductor quantum dots [5]. In sharp contrast to conventional semiconductor quantum dots, the quantum states in the gap of the HgTe QD are fully spin-polarized and show ring-like density distributions near the boundary of the QD and optically dark. The persistent charge currents and magnetic moments, i.e., the Aharonov-Bohm effect, can be observed in such a QD structure. This feature offers us a practical way to detect these exotic ring-like edge states by using the SQUID technique. [0pt]Refs: [1] W. Yang, Kai Chang, and S. C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 056602 (2008); J. Li and Kai Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 222110 (2009). [2] L. B. Zhang, Kai Chang, X. C. Xie, H. Buhmann and L. W. Molenkamp, New J. Phys. 12, 083058 (2010). [3] L. B. Zhang, F. Cheng, F. Zhai and Kai Chang, Phys. Rev. B 83 081402(R) (2011); Z. H. Wu, F. Zhai, F. M. Peeters, H. Q. Xu and Kai Chang, Phys, Rev. Lett. 106, 176802 (2011). [4] J. J. Zhu, D. X. Yao, S. C. Zhang, and Kai Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 097201 (2011). [5] Kai Chang, and Wen-Kai Lou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 206802 (2011).

  16. The cyanobacterial clock and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Pattanayak, Gopal; Rust, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    Cyanobacteria possess the simplest known circadian clock, which presents a unique opportunity to study how rhythms are generated and how input signals from the environment reset the clock time. The kaiABC locus forms the core of the oscillator, and the remarkable ability to reconstitute oscillations using purified KaiABC proteins has allowed researchers to study mechanism using the tools of quantitative biochemistry. Autotrophic cyanobacteria experience major shifts in metabolism following a light-dark transition, and recent work suggests that input mechanisms that couple the day-night cycle to the clock involve energy and redox metabolites acting directly on clock proteins. We offer a summary of the current state of knowledge in this system and present a perspective for future lines of investigation.

  17. Compass and gyroscope: Integrating science and politics for the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.N.

    1993-06-01

    Using the Columbia River Basin in the Pacific Northwest as a case study, Kai Lee describes the concept and practice of adaptive management, as he examines the successes and failures of past and present management experiences. Throughout the book, the author delves deeply into the theoretical framework behind the real-world experience, exploring how theories of science, politics, and cognitive psychology can be integrated into environmental management plans to increase their effectiveness.

  18. Biobutanol production in a Clostridium acetobutylicum biofilm reactor integrated with simultaneous product recovery by adsorption

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Clostridium acetobutylicum can propagate on fibrous matrices and form biofilms that have improved butanol tolerance and a high fermentation rate and can be repeatedly used. Previously, a novel macroporous resin, KA-I, was synthesized in our laboratory and was demonstrated to be a good adsorbent with high selectivity and capacity for butanol recovery from a model solution. Based on these results, we aimed to develop a process integrating a biofilm reactor with simultaneous product recovery using the KA-I resin to maximize the production efficiency of biobutanol. Results KA-I showed great affinity for butanol and butyrate and could selectively enhance acetoin production at the expense of acetone during the fermentation. The biofilm reactor exhibited high productivity with considerably low broth turbidity during repeated batch fermentations. By maintaining the butanol level above 6.5 g/L in the biofilm reactor, butyrate adsorption by the KA-I resin was effectively reduced. Co-adsorption of acetone by the resin improved the fermentation performance. By redox modulation with methyl viologen (MV), the butanol-acetone ratio and the total product yield increased. An equivalent solvent titer of 96.5 to 130.7 g/L was achieved with a productivity of 1.0 to 1.5 g · L-1 · h-1. The solvent concentration and productivity increased by 4 to 6-fold and 3 to 5-fold, respectively, compared to traditional batch fermentation using planktonic culture. Conclusions Compared to the conventional process, the integrated process dramatically improved the productivity and reduced the energy consumption as well as water usage in biobutanol production. While genetic engineering focuses on strain improvement to enhance butanol production, process development can fully exploit the productivity of a strain and maximize the production efficiency. PMID:24401161

  19. Evaluation of Streptomyces strains isolated from herbal vermicompost for their plant growth-promotion traits in rice.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam; Vadlamudi, Srinivas; Bandikinda, Prakash; Sathya, Arumugam; Vijayabharathi, Rajendran; Rupela, Om; Kudapa, Himabindu; Katta, Krishnamohan; Varshney, Rajeev Kumar

    2014-01-20

    Six actinomycetes, CAI-13, CAI-85, CAI-93, CAI-140, CAI-155 and KAI-180, isolated from six different herbal vermi-composts were characterized for in vitro plant growth-promoting (PGP) properties and further evaluated in the field for PGP activity in rice. Of the six actinomycetes, CAI-13, CAI-85, CAI-93, CAI-140 and CAI-155 produced siderophores; CAI-13, CAI-93, CAI-155 and KAI-180 produced chitinase; CAI-13, CAI-140, CAI-155 and KAI-180 produced lipase; CAI-13, CAI-93, CAI-155 and KAI-180 produced protease; and CAI-13, CAI-85, CAI-140 and CAI-155 produced ß-1-3-glucanase whereas all the six actinomycetes produced cellulase, hydrocyanic acid and indole acetic acid (IAA). The actinomycetes were able to grow in NaCl concentrations of up to 8%, at pH values between 7 and 11, temperatures between 20 and 40 °C and compatible with fungicide bavistin at field application levels. In the rice field, the actinomycetes significantly enhanced tiller numbers, panicle numbers, filled grain numbers and weight, stover yield, grain yield, total dry matter, root length, volume and dry weight over the un-inoculated control. In the rhizosphere, the actinomycetes also significantly enhanced total nitrogen, available phosphorous, % organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen and dehydrogenase activity over the un-inoculated control. Sequences of 16S rDNA gene of the actinomycetes matched with different Streptomyces species in BLAST analysis. Of the six actinomycetes, CAI-85 and CAI-93 were found superior over other actinomycetes in terms of PGP properties, root development and crop productivity. qRT-PCR analysis on selected plant growth promoting genes of actinomycetes revealed the up-regulation of IAA genes only in CAI-85 and CAI-93. PMID:24113511

  20. Evaluation of Streptomyces strains isolated from herbal vermicompost for their plant growth-promotion traits in rice.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam; Vadlamudi, Srinivas; Bandikinda, Prakash; Sathya, Arumugam; Vijayabharathi, Rajendran; Rupela, Om; Kudapa, Himabindu; Katta, Krishnamohan; Varshney, Rajeev Kumar

    2014-01-20

    Six actinomycetes, CAI-13, CAI-85, CAI-93, CAI-140, CAI-155 and KAI-180, isolated from six different herbal vermi-composts were characterized for in vitro plant growth-promoting (PGP) properties and further evaluated in the field for PGP activity in rice. Of the six actinomycetes, CAI-13, CAI-85, CAI-93, CAI-140 and CAI-155 produced siderophores; CAI-13, CAI-93, CAI-155 and KAI-180 produced chitinase; CAI-13, CAI-140, CAI-155 and KAI-180 produced lipase; CAI-13, CAI-93, CAI-155 and KAI-180 produced protease; and CAI-13, CAI-85, CAI-140 and CAI-155 produced ß-1-3-glucanase whereas all the six actinomycetes produced cellulase, hydrocyanic acid and indole acetic acid (IAA). The actinomycetes were able to grow in NaCl concentrations of up to 8%, at pH values between 7 and 11, temperatures between 20 and 40 °C and compatible with fungicide bavistin at field application levels. In the rice field, the actinomycetes significantly enhanced tiller numbers, panicle numbers, filled grain numbers and weight, stover yield, grain yield, total dry matter, root length, volume and dry weight over the un-inoculated control. In the rhizosphere, the actinomycetes also significantly enhanced total nitrogen, available phosphorous, % organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen and dehydrogenase activity over the un-inoculated control. Sequences of 16S rDNA gene of the actinomycetes matched with different Streptomyces species in BLAST analysis. Of the six actinomycetes, CAI-85 and CAI-93 were found superior over other actinomycetes in terms of PGP properties, root development and crop productivity. qRT-PCR analysis on selected plant growth promoting genes of actinomycetes revealed the up-regulation of IAA genes only in CAI-85 and CAI-93.

  1. Nucleation, growth, and control of ferroelectric-ferroelastic domains in thin polycrystalline films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivry, Yachin; Scott, James F.; Salje, Ekhard K. H.; Durkan, Colm

    2012-11-01

    The unique response of ferroic materials to external excitations facilitates them for diverse technologies, such as nonvolatile memory devices. The primary driving force behind this response is encoded in domain switching. In bulk ferroics, domains switch in a two-step process: nucleation and growth. For ferroelectrics, this can be explained by the Kolmogorov-Avrami-Ishibashi (KAI) model. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether domains remain correlated in finite geometries, as required by the KAI model. Moreover, although ferroelastic domains exist in many ferroelectrics, experimental limitations have hindered the study of their switching mechanisms. This uncertainty limits our understanding of domain switching and controllability, preventing thin-film and polycrystalline ferroelectrics from reaching their full technological potential. Here we used piezoresponse force microscopy to study the switching mechanisms of ferroelectric-ferroelastic domains in thin polycrystalline Pb0.7Zr0.3TiO3 films at the nanometer scale. We have found that switched biferroic domains can nucleate at multiple sites with a coherence length that may span several grains, and that nucleators merge to form mesoscale domains, in a manner consistent with that expected from the KAI model.

  2. Theophylline-dependent riboswitch as a novel genetic tool for strict regulation of protein expression in Cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942.

    PubMed

    Nakahira, Yoichi; Ogawa, Atsushi; Asano, Hiroyuki; Oyama, Tokitaka; Tozawa, Yuzuru

    2013-10-01

    The cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 is a major model species for studies of photosynthesis. It is are also a potential cell factory for the production of renewable biofuels and valuable chemicals. We employed engineered riboswitches to control translational initiation of target genes in this cyanobacterium. A firefly luciferase reporter assay revealed that three theophylline riboswitches performed as expected in the cyanobacterium. Riboswitch-E* exhibited very low leaky expression of luciferase and superior and dose-dependent on/off regulation of protein expression by theophylline. The maximum magnitude of the induction vs. basal level was ∼190-fold. Furthermore, the induction level was responsive to a wide range of theophylline concentrations in the medium, from 0 to 2 mM, facilitating the fine-tuning of luciferase expression. We adapted this riboswitch to another gene regulation system, in which expression of the circadian clock kaiC gene product is controlled by the theophylline concentration in the culture medium. The results demonstrated that the adequately adjusted expression level of KaiC restored complete circadian rhythm in the kaiC-deficient arrhythmic mutant. This theophylline-dependent riboswitch system has potential for various applications as a useful genetic tool in cyanobacteria. PMID:23969558

  3. Achieving universal access for human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis: potential prevention impact of an integrated multi-disease prevention campaign in kenya.

    PubMed

    Granich, Reuben; Muraguri, Nicolas; Doyen, Alexandre; Garg, Navneet; Williams, Brian G

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Government of Kenya with key stakeholders implemented an integrated multi-disease prevention campaign for water-borne diseases, malaria and HIV in Kisii District, Nyanza Province. The three day campaign, targeting 5000 people, included testing and counseling (HTC), condoms, long-lasting insecticide-treated bednets, and water filters. People with HIV were offered on-site CD4 cell counts, condoms, co-trimoxazole, and HIV clinic referral. We analysed the CD4 distributions from a district hospital cohort, campaign participants and from the 2007 Kenya Aids Indicator Survey (KAIS). Of the 5198 individuals participating in the campaign, all received HTC, 329 (6.3%) tested positive, and 255 (5%) were newly diagnosed (median CD4 cell count 536 cells/μL). The hospital cohort and KAIS results included 1,284 initial CD4 counts (median 348/L) and 306 initial CD4 counts (median 550/μL), respectively (campaign and KAIS CD4 distributions P = 0.346; hospital cohort distribution was lower P < 0.001 and P < 0.001). A Nyanza Province campaign strategy including ART <350 CD4 cell count could avert approximately 35,000 HIV infections and 1,240 TB cases annually. Community-based integrated public health campaigns could be a potential solution to reach universal access and Millennium Development Goals.

  4. Theophylline-dependent riboswitch as a novel genetic tool for strict regulation of protein expression in Cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942.

    PubMed

    Nakahira, Yoichi; Ogawa, Atsushi; Asano, Hiroyuki; Oyama, Tokitaka; Tozawa, Yuzuru

    2013-10-01

    The cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 is a major model species for studies of photosynthesis. It is are also a potential cell factory for the production of renewable biofuels and valuable chemicals. We employed engineered riboswitches to control translational initiation of target genes in this cyanobacterium. A firefly luciferase reporter assay revealed that three theophylline riboswitches performed as expected in the cyanobacterium. Riboswitch-E* exhibited very low leaky expression of luciferase and superior and dose-dependent on/off regulation of protein expression by theophylline. The maximum magnitude of the induction vs. basal level was ∼190-fold. Furthermore, the induction level was responsive to a wide range of theophylline concentrations in the medium, from 0 to 2 mM, facilitating the fine-tuning of luciferase expression. We adapted this riboswitch to another gene regulation system, in which expression of the circadian clock kaiC gene product is controlled by the theophylline concentration in the culture medium. The results demonstrated that the adequately adjusted expression level of KaiC restored complete circadian rhythm in the kaiC-deficient arrhythmic mutant. This theophylline-dependent riboswitch system has potential for various applications as a useful genetic tool in cyanobacteria.

  5. Estimate of transport properties of porous media by microfocus X-ray computed tomography and random walk simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Yoshito; Watanabe, Yoshinori

    2002-12-01

    The transport properties (porosity, surface-to-volume ratio of the pore space, diffusion coefficient, and permeability) of a porous medium were calculated by image analysis and random walk simulation using the digital image data on the pore structure of a bead pack (diameter 2.11 mm). A theory developed for laboratory experiments of nuclear magnetic resonance was applied to the random walk simulation. The three-dimensional data set (2563 voxels) of the bead pack was obtained by microfocus X-ray computed tomography at a spatial resolution of 0.053 mm. An original cluster labeling program, Kai3D.m, was used to estimate the porosity and surface-to-volume ratio. The surface-to-volume ratio and diffusion coefficient were calculated by an original random walk program, RW3D.m. The calculations were completed on a personal computer in reasonable time (≤13 hours). The permeability was estimated by substituting the results of Kai3D.m and RW3D.m into the Kozeny-Carman equation. The results for the porosity, surface-to-volume ratio, and diffusion coefficient were within 5-8% of measured values, whereas the calculated permeability involved an error of 35%. The promising results of the present study indicate that it is possible to estimate the permeability of porous media with reasonable accuracy by the diffusometry and random walk simulation. Because, in principle, the diffusometry could be performed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance logging, the method of estimating the transport properties presented here is applicable to the in situ measurement of strata. We open the original Mathematica® programs (Kai3D.m and RW3D.m) used to calculate the porosity, surface-to-volume ratio, and diffusion coefficient at the authors' home page to facilitate the personal-computer-based study of porous media using X-ray computed tomography.

  6. Using Information and Communications Technology in a National Population-Based Survey: The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2012

    PubMed Central

    Ojwang’, James K.; Lee, Veronica C.; Waruru, Anthony; Ssempijja, Victor; Ng’ang’a, John G.; Wakhutu, Brian E.; Kandege, Nicholas O.; Koske, Danson K.; Kamiru, Samuel M.; Omondi, Kenneth O.; Kakinyi, Mutua; Kim, Andrea A.; Oluoch, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Background With improvements in technology, electronic data capture (EDC) for large surveys is feasible. EDC offers benefits over traditional paper-based data collection, including more accurate data, greater completeness of data, and decreased data cleaning burden. Methods The second Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2012) was a population-based survey of persons aged 18 months to 64 years. A software application was designed to capture the interview, specimen collection, and home-based testing and counseling data. The application included: interview translations for local languages; options for single, multiple, and fill-in responses; and automated participant eligibility determination. Data quality checks were programmed to automate skip patterns and prohibit outlier responses. A data sharing architecture was developed to transmit the data in realtime from the field to a central server over a virtual private network. Results KAIS 2012 was conducted between October 2012 and February 2013. Overall, 68,202 records for the interviews, specimen collection, and home-based testing and counseling were entered into the application. Challenges arose during implementation, including poor connectivity and a systems malfunction that created duplicate records, which prevented timely data transmission to the central server. Data cleaning was minimal given the data quality control measures. Conclusions KAIS 2012 demonstrated the feasibility of using EDC in a population-based survey. The benefits of EDC were apparent in data quality and minimal time needed for data cleaning. Several important lessons were learned, such as the time and monetary investment required before survey implementation, the importance of continuous application testing, and contingency plans for data transmission due to connectivity challenges. PMID:24732816

  7. Seroprevalence of Infections with Dengue, Rift Valley Fever and Chikungunya Viruses in Kenya, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Ochieng, Caroline; Ahenda, Petronella; Vittor, Amy Y.; Nyoka, Raymond; Gikunju, Stella; Wachira, Cyrus; Waiboci, Lilian; Umuro, Mamo; Kim, Andrea A.; Nderitu, Leonard; Juma, Bonventure; Montgomery, Joel M.; Breiman, Robert F.; Fields, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses are a major constituent of emerging infectious diseases worldwide, but limited data are available on the prevalence, distribution, and risk factors for transmission in Kenya and East Africa. In this study, we used 1,091 HIV-negative blood specimens from the 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2007) to test for the presence of IgG antibodies to dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV).The KAIS 2007 was a national population-based survey conducted by the Government of Kenya to provide comprehensive information needed to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Antibody testing for arboviruses was performed on stored blood specimens from KAIS 2007 through a two-step sandwich IgG ELISA using either commercially available kits or CDC-developed assays. Out of the 1,091 samples tested, 210 (19.2%) were positive for IgG antibodies against at least one of the three arboviruses. DENV was the most common of the three viruses tested (12.5% positive), followed by RVFV and CHIKV (4.5% and 0.97%, respectively). For DENV and RVFV, the participant’s province of residence was significantly associated (P≤.01) with seropositivity. Seroprevalence of DENV and RVFV increased with age, while there was no correlation between province of residence/age and seropositivity for CHIKV. Females had twelve times higher odds of exposure to CHIK as opposed to DENV and RVFV where both males and females had the same odds of exposure. Lack of education was significantly associated with a higher odds of previous infection with either DENV or RVFV (p <0.01). These data show that a number of people are at risk of arbovirus infections depending on their geographic location in Kenya and transmission of these pathogens is greater than previously appreciated. This poses a public health risk, especially for DENV. PMID:26177451

  8. Design of multi-mode compatible image acquisition system for HD area array CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen; Sui, Xiubao

    2014-11-01

    Combining with the current development trend in video surveillance-digitization and high-definition, a multimode-compatible image acquisition system for HD area array CCD is designed. The hardware and software designs of the color video capture system of HD area array CCD KAI-02150 presented by Truesense Imaging company are analyzed, and the structure parameters of the HD area array CCD and the color video gathering principle of the acquisition system are introduced. Then, the CCD control sequence and the timing logic of the whole capture system are realized. The noises of the video signal (KTC noise and 1/f noise) are filtered by using the Correlated Double Sampling (CDS) technique to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of the system. The compatible designs in both software and hardware for the two other image sensors of the same series: KAI-04050 and KAI-08050 are put forward; the effective pixels of these two HD image sensors are respectively as many as four million and eight million. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is adopted as the key controller of the system to perform the modularization design from top to bottom, which realizes the hardware design by software and improves development efficiency. At last, the required time sequence driving is simulated accurately by the use of development platform of Quartus II 12.1 combining with VHDL. The result of the simulation indicates that the driving circuit is characterized by simple framework, low power consumption, and strong anti-interference ability, which meet the demand of miniaturization and high-definition for the current tendency.

  9. Radio frequency heating for soil remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Price, S.L.; Kasevich, R.S.; Marley, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    Radio frequency heating (RFH) for soil remediation brings controlled heating to the subsurface, increasing the rate of removal of contaminants from the soil. RFH alone does not remove contaminants; it eases contaminant removal by enhancing the performance of other technologies such as Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE), Groundwater Venting (Air Sparging), Groundwater Pump and Treat, and Bioremediation. In general, heating soils and groundwater makes the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil, groundwater and contaminants more amenable to remediation efforts, reducing time on-site. RFH technology for environmental remediation by KAI Technologies Inc. (KAI) began in the early 1990s when an RFH system was deployed to an East Coast Naval Shipyard and tested on a {number_sign}2 fuel oil spill. RFH was then employed by KAI at the Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site (SRS) in 1993 and at Kelly Air Force Base in 1994. This paper discusses the spring 1996 RFH demonstration conducted with DAHL and Associates of St. Paul, Minnesota which employed SVE and Groundwater Venting at the site of a former gasoline station near St. Paul, Minnesota. Currently, RFH is assisting SVE at a jet fuel spill within Kirtland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This paper provides a general overview of RFH technology for soil remediation by reviewing the theory and computer modeling of RFH and presenting results on the efficacy of RFH with SVE for soil remediation from a bench-scale study and the field demonstration mentioned previously. The bench-scale study evaluated effectiveness of RFH for enhancing SVE removal of tetrachloroethylene from a Burlington, Massachusetts site. Data from Finite-Difference Time Domain (FDTD) computer modeling of the field demonstration provides insight into the shape of the subsurface heating pattern.

  10. Seroprevalence of Infections with Dengue, Rift Valley Fever and Chikungunya Viruses in Kenya, 2007.

    PubMed

    Ochieng, Caroline; Ahenda, Petronella; Vittor, Amy Y; Nyoka, Raymond; Gikunju, Stella; Wachira, Cyrus; Waiboci, Lilian; Umuro, Mamo; Kim, Andrea A; Nderitu, Leonard; Juma, Bonventure; Montgomery, Joel M; Breiman, Robert F; Fields, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses are a major constituent of emerging infectious diseases worldwide, but limited data are available on the prevalence, distribution, and risk factors for transmission in Kenya and East Africa. In this study, we used 1,091 HIV-negative blood specimens from the 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2007) to test for the presence of IgG antibodies to dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV).The KAIS 2007 was a national population-based survey conducted by the Government of Kenya to provide comprehensive information needed to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Antibody testing for arboviruses was performed on stored blood specimens from KAIS 2007 through a two-step sandwich IgG ELISA using either commercially available kits or CDC-developed assays. Out of the 1,091 samples tested, 210 (19.2%) were positive for IgG antibodies against at least one of the three arboviruses. DENV was the most common of the three viruses tested (12.5% positive), followed by RVFV and CHIKV (4.5% and 0.97%, respectively). For DENV and RVFV, the participant's province of residence was significantly associated (P≤.01) with seropositivity. Seroprevalence of DENV and RVFV increased with age, while there was no correlation between province of residence/age and seropositivity for CHIKV. Females had twelve times higher odds of exposure to CHIK as opposed to DENV and RVFV where both males and females had the same odds of exposure. Lack of education was significantly associated with a higher odds of previous infection with either DENV or RVFV (p <0.01). These data show that a number of people are at risk of arbovirus infections depending on their geographic location in Kenya and transmission of these pathogens is greater than previously appreciated. This poses a public health risk, especially for DENV.

  11. In-situ demonstration of radio-frequency enhanced chlorinated hydrocarbon remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Kasevich, R.S.; Price, S.L.; Faust, D.L.; Jarosch, T.R.

    1994-06-01

    This paper discusses the results of a successful demonstration of radio frequency (RF) heating for enhanced chlorinated hydrocarbon remediation at the M-Area Seepage Basin of the Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site. RF heating was integrated with soil vapor extraction (SVE) to enhance the release of residual volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons which are concentrated in low permeable clay lenses in the unsaturated zone. Participants in this effort consisted of the Westinghouse Savannah River Technology Center; the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center (Pittsburgh, PA); and KAI Technologies, Inc. which provided the RF technology. Additionally, a better understanding of RF heating technology is gained through a description of the RF heating system.

  12. A design of driving circuit for star sensor imaging camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Da-wei; Yang, Xiao-xu; Han, Jun-feng; Liu, Zhao-hui

    2016-01-01

    The star sensor is a high-precision attitude sensitive measuring instruments, which determine spacecraft attitude by detecting different positions on the celestial sphere. Imaging camera is an important portion of star sensor. The purpose of this study is to design a driving circuit based on Kodak CCD sensor. The design of driving circuit based on Kodak KAI-04022 is discussed, and the timing of this CCD sensor is analyzed. By the driving circuit testing laboratory and imaging experiments, it is found that the driving circuits can meet the requirements of Kodak CCD sensor.

  13. Present status of information centers (libraries)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Keigo; Adachi, Takashi; Kusumi, Yoshihisa; Nishiyama, Mieko; Hirata, Toshiichiro

    Documentation Kondan-Kai (gathering for discussing issues) has conducted the questionnaire which asks present status of information centers of companies. The purpose of this questionnaire was to obtain some tips which would be useful for companies to consider what their information centers should be in a highly informationalized society, and how they should be changing. The results were grouped into the following five sections and analyzed; (1) management system of information center, (2) use condition of information center, (3) management of books and journals, (4) external online information retrieval and (5) management of technical materials generated inside company.

  14. [The Evolutionary Origin of Placodes and Neural Crest Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    The long-term goal of this NASA-supported research is to understand the evolutionary origin of placodes and neural crest cells, with particular reference to evolution of the inner ear, and their evolutionary and developmental relationships. The cephalochordcate amphioxus, the closest living invertebrate relative of the vertebrates is used as a stand-in for the ancestral vertebrate. The research, which has supported one graduate student, Jr-Kai Yu, has resulted in ten publications by the Holland laboratory in peer-reviewed journals.

  15. Cloud Computing: Virtual Clusters, Data Security, and Disaster Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Kai

    Dr. Kai Hwang is a Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Director of Internet and Cloud Computing Lab at the Univ. of Southern California (USC). He received the Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science from the Univ. of California, Berkeley. Prior to joining USC, he has taught at Purdue Univ. for many years. He has also served as a visiting Chair Professor at Minnesota, Hong Kong Univ., Zhejiang Univ., and Tsinghua Univ. He has published 8 books and over 210 scientific papers in computer science/engineering.

  16. New models for circadian systems in microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Lakin-Thomas, Patricia L

    2006-06-01

    Microorganisms provide important model systems for studying circadian rhythms, and they are overturning established ideas about the molecular mechanisms of rhythmicity. The transcription/translation feedback model that has been accepted as the basis of circadian clock mechanisms in eukaryotes does not account for old data from the alga Acetabularia demonstrating that transcription is not required for rhythmicity. Moreover, new results showing in vitro rhythmicity of KaiC protein phosphorylation in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus, and rhythmicity in strains of the fungus Neurospora carrying clock gene null mutations, require new ways of looking at circadian systems.

  17. Lichen Secondary Metabolite, Physciosporin, Inhibits Lung Cancer Cell Motility.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Park, So-Yeon; Nguyen, Thanh Thi; Yu, Young Hyun; Nguyen, Tru Van; Sun, Eun Gene; Udeni, Jayalal; Jeong, Min-Hye; Pereira, Iris; Moon, Cheol; Ha, Hyung-Ho; Kim, Kyung Keun; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Kim, Hangun

    2015-01-01

    Lichens produce various unique chemicals that can be used for pharmaceutical purposes. To screen for novel lichen secondary metabolites showing inhibitory activity against lung cancer cell motility, we tested acetone extracts of 13 lichen samples collected in Chile. Physciosporin, isolated from Pseudocyphellaria coriacea (Hook f. & Taylor) D.J. Galloway & P. James, was identified as an effective compound and showed significant inhibitory activity in migration and invasion assays against human lung cancer cells. Physciosporin treatment reduced both protein and mRNA levels of N-cadherin with concomitant decreases in the levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers such as snail and twist. Physciosporin also suppressed KITENIN (KAI1 C-terminal interacting tetraspanin)-mediated AP-1 activity in both the absence and presence of epidermal growth factor stimulation. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of the metastasis suppressor gene, KAI1, was increased while that of the metastasis enhancer gene, KITENIN, was dramatically decreased by physciosporin. Particularly, the activity of 3'-untranslated region of KITENIN was decreased by physciosporin. Moreover, Cdc42 and Rac1 activities were decreased by physciosporin. These results demonstrated that the lichen secondary metabolite, physciosporin, inhibits lung cancer cell motility through novel mechanisms of action. PMID:26371759

  18. Exploration of the factor structure of the Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory using bootstrapping estimation.

    PubMed

    Im, Subin; Min, Soonhong

    2013-04-01

    Exploratory factor analyses of the Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory (KAI), which serves to measure individual cognitive styles, generally indicate three factors: sufficiency of originality, efficiency, and rule/group conformity. In contrast, a 2005 study by Im and Hu using confirmatory factor analysis supported a four-factor structure, dividing the sufficiency of originality dimension into two subdimensions, idea generation and preference for change. This study extends Im and Hu's (2005) study of a derived version of the KAI by providing additional evidence of the four-factor structure. Specifically, the authors test the robustness of the parameter estimates to the violation of normality assumptions in the sample using bootstrap methods. A bias-corrected confidence interval bootstrapping procedure conducted among a sample of 356 participants--members of the Arkansas Household Research Panel, with middle SES and average age of 55.6 yr. (SD = 13.9)--showed that the four-factor model with two subdimensions of sufficiency of originality fits the data significantly better than the three-factor model in non-normality conditions. PMID:23833873

  19. Art, class and gender in Joseon dynasty Korea: representations of lower-class women by the scholar-painter Yun Duseo.

    PubMed

    Chung, Saehyang P

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines several pioneering genre paintings by the important scholar painter Yun Duseo (1668-1715), with its focus on their artistic sources which have not yet been explored so far. Painted on ramie, 'Women Picking Potherbs' is one of the most intriguing examples among Yun Duseo's oeuvre, which encompasses a broad variety of themes, including genre imagery, landscapes, portraits, dragons, and horses. Even among Yun Duseo's genre paintings, 'Women Picking Potherbs' is extraordinary, as recent scholarship regards it as the earliest independent representation of lower-class women in the history of Korean art. In particular, Yun Duseo painted two women who were working ourdoors to gather spring potherbs. In a conservative Confucian society, it was extraordinary women who were working outdoors. Hence, Yun Duseo occupies a highly important place in Korean painting. Furthermore, even though Yun Duseo came from the upper-class, he often painted images of lower class people working. It is possible that Yun Duseo was familiar with the book titled "Tian gong kai wu" (Exploitation of the Works of Nature) which was published in the 17th century. By identifying the probable body of his artistic sources in the book known as "Tian gong kai wu," it will be possible to assess the innovations and limitations found in 'Women Picking Potherbs'. PMID:22171413

  20. Lichen Secondary Metabolite, Physciosporin, Inhibits Lung Cancer Cell Motility

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Park, So-Yeon; Nguyen, Thanh Thi; Yu, Young Hyun; Nguyen, Tru Van; Sun, Eun Gene; Udeni, Jayalal; Jeong, Min-Hye; Pereira, Iris; Moon, Cheol; Ha, Hyung-Ho; Kim, Kyung Keun; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Kim, Hangun

    2015-01-01

    Lichens produce various unique chemicals that can be used for pharmaceutical purposes. To screen for novel lichen secondary metabolites showing inhibitory activity against lung cancer cell motility, we tested acetone extracts of 13 lichen samples collected in Chile. Physciosporin, isolated from Pseudocyphellaria coriacea (Hook f. & Taylor) D.J. Galloway & P. James, was identified as an effective compound and showed significant inhibitory activity in migration and invasion assays against human lung cancer cells. Physciosporin treatment reduced both protein and mRNA levels of N-cadherin with concomitant decreases in the levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers such as snail and twist. Physciosporin also suppressed KITENIN (KAI1 C-terminal interacting tetraspanin)-mediated AP-1 activity in both the absence and presence of epidermal growth factor stimulation. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of the metastasis suppressor gene, KAI1, was increased while that of the metastasis enhancer gene, KITENIN, was dramatically decreased by physciosporin. Particularly, the activity of 3’-untranslated region of KITENIN was decreased by physciosporin. Moreover, Cdc42 and Rac1 activities were decreased by physciosporin. These results demonstrated that the lichen secondary metabolite, physciosporin, inhibits lung cancer cell motility through novel mechanisms of action. PMID:26371759

  1. Stability and Noise in the Cyanobacterial Circadian Clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihalcescu, Irina

    2008-03-01

    Accuracy in cellular function has to be achieved despite random fluctuations (noise) in the concentrations of different molecular constituents inside and outside the cell. Single cell in vivo monitoring reveals that individual cells generate autonomous circadian rhythms in protein abundance. In multi-cellular organisms, the individual cell rhythms appear to be noisy with drifting phases and frequencies. However, the whole organism is significantly more accurate, the temporal precision being achieved most probably via intercellular coupling of the individual noisy oscillators. In cyanobacteria, we have shown that single cell oscillators are impressively stable and a first estimation rules out strong intercellular coupling. Interestingly, these prokaryotes also have the simplest molecular mechanism at the heart of their circadian clock. In the absence of transcriptional activity in vivo, as well alone in vitro, the three clock proteins KaiA, KaiB and KaiC generate a self-sustained circadian oscillation of autophosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Recent chemical kinetics models provide a possible understanding of the three-protein oscillator, but the measured in vivo stability remains yet unexplained. Is the clock stability a built-in property for each bacterium or does a weak intercellular coupling, make them appear like that? To address this question we first theoretically designed our experiment to be able to distinguish coupling, even weak, from phase diffusion. As the precision of our evaluation increases with the length of the experiments, we continuously monitor, for a couple of weeks, mixtures of cell populations with different initial phases. The inherent experimental noise contribution, initially dominant, is reduced by enhanced statistics. In addition, in situ entrainment experiments confirm our ability to detect a coupling of the circadian oscillator to an external force and to describe explicitly the dynamic change of the mean phase. We report a value

  2. Feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-01-01

    Shi Changxu, former vice-president of NSFC wins Top Prize of National Science and Technology Award of China Both China and the world materials community have greatly benefitted from his service, by RPH Chang Shi Changxu—a great teacher and mentor for materials scientists, by Gaoqing Max Lu A bright example for all of us—Professor Shi Changxu, by Wei Gao Professor Shi Changxu—The Giant Materials Scientist of China, by Wuzong Zhou Congratulations to Academician Changxu Shi on the Occasion of His Winning the 2010 Chinese Science & Technology Grand Prize, by Ju Li, Kai Chen, Zhiwei Shan, Guanjun Qiao, Jun Sun and Evan Ma Materials—the foundation for technology revolutions, by Zhong Lin Wang

  3. Application of Barcoding to Reduce Error of Patient Identification and to Increase Patient's Information Confidentiality of Test Tube Labelling in a Psychiatric Teaching Hospital.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hsiu-Chu; Li, Hsing; Chang, Hsin-Fei; Lu, Mei-Rou; Chen, Feng-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Learning from the experience of another medical center in Taiwan, Kaohsiung Municipal Kai-Suan Psychiatric Hospital has changed the nursing informatics system step by step in the past year and a half . We considered ethics in the original idea of implementing barcodes on the test tube labels to process the identification of the psychiatric patients. The main aims of this project are to maintain the confidential information and to transport the sample effectively. The primary nurses had been using different work sheets for this project to ensure the acceptance of the new barcode system. In the past two years the errors in the blood testing process were as high as 11,000 in 14,000 events per year, resulting in wastage of resources. The actions taken by the nurses and the new barcode system implementation can improve the clinical nursing care quality, safety of the patients, and efficiency, while decreasing the cost due to the human error. PMID:26262221

  4. Using adjuvants and environmental factors to modulate the activity of antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Walkenhorst, William F

    2016-05-01

    The increase in antibiotic resistant and multi-drug resistant bacterial infections has serious implications for the future of health care. The difficulty in finding both new microbial targets and new drugs against existing targets adds to the concern. The use of combination and adjuvant therapies are potential strategies to counter this threat. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a promising class of antibiotics (ABs), particularly for topical and surface applications. Efforts have been directed toward a number of strategies, including the use of conventional ABs combined with AMPs, and the use of potentiating agents to increase the performance of AMPs. This review focuses on combination strategies such as adjuvants and the manipulation of environmental variables to improve the efficacy of AMPs as potential therapeutic agents. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antimicrobial peptides edited by Karl Lohner and Kai Hilpert.

  5. Using adjuvants and environmental factors to modulate the activity of antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Walkenhorst, William F

    2016-05-01

    The increase in antibiotic resistant and multi-drug resistant bacterial infections has serious implications for the future of health care. The difficulty in finding both new microbial targets and new drugs against existing targets adds to the concern. The use of combination and adjuvant therapies are potential strategies to counter this threat. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a promising class of antibiotics (ABs), particularly for topical and surface applications. Efforts have been directed toward a number of strategies, including the use of conventional ABs combined with AMPs, and the use of potentiating agents to increase the performance of AMPs. This review focuses on combination strategies such as adjuvants and the manipulation of environmental variables to improve the efficacy of AMPs as potential therapeutic agents. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antimicrobial peptides edited by Karl Lohner and Kai Hilpert. PMID:26751595

  6. Reptin and Pontin function antagonistically with PcG and TrxG complexes to mediate Hox gene control

    PubMed Central

    Diop, Soda Balla; Bertaux, Karine; Vasanthi, Dasari; Sarkeshik, Ali; Goirand, Benjamin; Aragnol, Denise; Tolwinski, Nicholas S; Cole, Michael D; Pradel, Jacques; Yates, John R; Mishra, Rakesh K; Graba, Yacine; Saurin, Andrew J

    2008-01-01

    Pontin (Pont) and Reptin (Rept) are paralogous ATPases that are evolutionarily conserved from yeast to human. They are recruited in multiprotein complexes that function in various aspects of DNA metabolism. They are essential for viability and have antagonistic roles in tissue growth, cell signalling and regulation of the tumour metastasis suppressor gene, KAI1, indicating that the balance of Pont and Rept regulates epigenetic programmes critical for development and cancer progression. Here, we describe Pont and Rept as antagonistic mediators of Drosophila Hox gene transcription, functioning with Polycomb group (PcG) and Trithorax group proteins to maintain correct patterns of expression. We show that Rept is a component of the PRC1 PcG complex, whereas Pont purifies with the Brahma complex. Furthermore, the enzymatic functions of Rept and Pont are indispensable for maintaining Hox gene expression states, highlighting the importance of these two antagonistic factors in transcriptional output. PMID:18259215

  7. Noise in Nonlinear Dynamical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Frank; McClintock, P. V. E.

    2009-08-01

    List of contributors; Preface; Introduction to volume three; 1. The effects of coloured quadratic noise on a turbulent transition in liquid He II J. T. Tough; 2. Electrohydrodynamic instability of nematic liquid crystals: growth process and influence of noise S. Kai; 3. Suppression of electrohydrodynamic instabilities by external noise Helmut R. Brand; 4. Coloured noise in dye laser fluctuations R. Roy, A. W. Yu and S. Zhu; 5. Noisy dynamics in optically bistable systems E. Arimondo, D. Hennequin and P. Glorieux; 6. Use of an electronic model as a guideline in experiments on transient optical bistability W. Lange; 7. Computer experiments in nonlinear stochastic physics Riccardo Mannella; 8. Analogue simulations of stochastic processes by means of minimum component electronic devices Leone Fronzoni; 9. Analogue techniques for the study of problems in stochastic nonlinear dynamics P. V. E. McClintock and Frank Moss; Index.

  8. Simulation of the Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor Instability Using Atomistic Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadau, Kai; Barber, John L.; Germann, Timothy C.; Lomdahl, Peter S.; Holian, Brad Lee; Alder, Berni J.

    2007-06-01

    We present large-scale atomistic simulations [molecular dynamics (MD) and direct simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC)] of fluid instabilities that occur when a fluid interface is subjected to shock loading or gravitation [Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor instability]. The atomistic methods reach the parameter range that is of importance for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules subjected to high energy lasers. The results are compared to existing theoretical and experimental work from which we have strong evidence for the importance of fluctuations in such instabilities. References: 1.) Kai Kadau, Timothy C. Germann , Nicolas G. Hadjiconstantinou , Peter S. Lomdahl *, Guy Dimonte , Brad Lee Holian *, and Berni J. Alder, PNAS 101, 5851 (2004). 2.)K. Kadau et al. submitted (2007).

  9. Filtration method efficiently desalts crude in commercial test

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-17

    During 3 months of industrial testing of a filtration crude oil desalting method, a total of 120,500 metric tons (mt), or 1,475 mt/d (almost 11,000 b/d) of crude was processed. Rongxi Du, Kai Peng, and Li Wang, engineers at Wuhan Petrochemical Works, Wuhan, China, in an unpublished report, indicate that they determined unit operating parameters and performed statistical analyses of desalting-efficiency data from the test run. The engineers also determined relationships between desalting efficiency and flow velocity, relative density, mixing pressure drop (MPD), filtration-tank pressure drop, and temperature. The desalting and dewatering level of single-stage filtrations desalting was found to be equal to that of two-stage electrostatic desalting with remarkable benefits resulting from reduced power, water, and demulsifier requirements. This paper describes the filtration desalting, test parameters, performance results, and filter revivification.

  10. Effective elastic thickness of the northern Australian continental lithosphere subducting beneath the Banda orogen (Indonesia): inelastic failure at the start of continental subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tandon, K.; Lorenzo, J. M.; O'Brien, G. W.

    2000-12-01

    Pliocene-Recent continent-island arc collision of the northern Australian continental lithosphere across the Banda orogen from Roti to the Kai Plateau (˜121-137°E longitude) has formed an underfilled foreland basin within the Timor-Tanimbar-Aru Trough. Continental collision on northern Australian lithosphere is most advanced near central Timor Island in terms of shortening and absorbing the forearc basin (Savu Basin) within the accretionary prism. Australian continental lithosphere north of area around central Timor Island is believed to be detached from the oceanic lithosphere. Effective Elastic Thickness (EET) of the northern Australian continental lithosphere from Roti to the Kai Plateau are derived using an elastic half-beam model. Modeled deflection is matched to the seafloor bathymetry and the marine complete 3D Bouguer gravity anomalies. The EET varies from 27 to 75 km across the northern Australian continental lithosphere from Roti to Kai Plateau when the thickness of the elastic half-beam is kept constant. The highest EET values lies near central Timor. From the shelf to beneath the Banda orogen, the EET of the northern Australian continental lithosphere is reduced from ˜90 to ˜30 km when the thickness of the elastic half-beam is allowed to vary down dip. Elastic half-beam modeling approximates the Banda orogen as a triangular load and hidden subsurface loads as end-point loads. Wider triangular loads modeling the load contribution from Banda orogen need higher values of EET. Such an observation highlights the role of high EET in thin-skinned collisional tectonics by promoting the support of wider accretionary prisms by parts of foreland basins with higher EET. Variations in EET may result from inelastic yielding in the northern Australian continental lithosphere. Oroclinal bending of the Australian continental lithosphere in the east, from Tanimbar to the Kai Plateau, may create additional yielding and further decrease the EET. Change in EET occurred

  11. Hierarchy of models: From qualitative to quantitative analysis of circadian rhythms in cyanobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, M.; Preto, M.

    2013-06-01

    A hierarchy of models, ranging from high to lower levels of abstraction, is proposed to construct "minimal" but predictive and explanatory models of biological systems. Three hierarchical levels will be considered: Boolean networks, piecewise affine differential (PWA) equations, and a class of continuous, ordinary, differential equations' models derived from the PWA model. This hierarchy provides different levels of approximation of the biological system and, crucially, allows the use of theoretical tools to more exactly analyze and understand the mechanisms of the system. The Kai ABC oscillator, which is at the core of the cyanobacterial circadian rhythm, is analyzed as a case study, showing how several fundamental properties—order of oscillations, synchronization when mixing oscillating samples, structural robustness, and entrainment by external cues—can be obtained from basic mechanisms.

  12. Synthetic antibiofilm peptides.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente-Núñez, César; Cardoso, Marlon Henrique; de Souza Cândido, Elizabete; Franco, Octavio Luiz; Hancock, Robert E W

    2016-05-01

    Bacteria predominantly exist as multicellular aggregates known as biofilms that are associated with at least two thirds of all infections and exhibit increased adaptive resistance to conventional antibiotic therapies. Therefore, biofilms are major contributors to the global health problem of antibiotic resistance, and novel approaches to counter them are urgently needed. Small molecules of the innate immune system called host defense peptides (HDPs) have emerged as promising templates for the design of potent, broad-spectrum antibiofilm agents. Here, we review recent developments in the new field of synthetic antibiofilm peptides, including mechanistic insights, synergistic interactions with available antibiotics, and their potential as novel antimicrobials against persistent infections caused by biofilms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antimicrobial peptides edited by Karl Lohner and Kai Hilpert. PMID:26724202

  13. Crabs of the families Palicidae and Crossotonotidae (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Palicoidea) from the Ogasawara Islands, Japan, with the description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Masatsune; Tachikawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-10

    Four species of palicoid crabs, Neopalicus jukesii (White, 1847) and Rectopalicus ampullatus Castro, 2000 of the family Palicidae, and Crossotonotus spinipes (De Man, 1888) and a new species of Pleurophricus A. Milne-Edwards, 1873 of the family Crossotonotidae, are recorded from the Ogasawara Islands, Japan. Diagnostics for the new species are the protruded bilobed front, six subacute lobate teeth at each lateral margin of the carapace, six rounded lobes at the posterior margin of the carapace, a crested armature of the cheliped carpus, and the strongly depressed ambulatory legs, which readily distinguish it from its two congeners, P. cristatipes A. Milne-Edwards, 1873 known by two males from Australia and the Kai Islands in Indonesia, and P. longirostris (Moosa & Serène, 1981) known by a female from the Sunda Strait, Indonesia.

  14. Inhibition of VEGF-dependent angiogenesis by the anti-CD82 monoclonal antibody 4F9 through regulation of lipid raft microdomains.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Sayaka; Iwata, Satoshi; Hatano, Ryo; Komiya, Eriko; Dang, Nam H; Iwao, Noriaki; Ohnuma, Kei; Morimoto, Chikao

    2016-05-20

    CD82 (also known as KAI1) belongs to the tetraspanin superfamily of type III transmembrane proteins, and is involved in regulating cell adhesion, migration and proliferation. In contrast to these well-established roles of CD82 in tumor biology, its function in endothelial cell (EC) activity and tumor angiogenesis is yet to be determined. In this study, we show that suppression of CD82 negatively regulates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis. Moreover, we demonstrate that the anti-CD82 mAb 4F9 effectively inhibits phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), which is the principal mediator of the VEGF-induced angiogenic signaling process in tumor angiogenesis, by regulating the organization of the lipid raft microdomain signaling platform in human EC. Our present work therefore suggests that CD82 on EC is a potential target for anti-angiogenic therapy in VEGFR2-dependent tumor angiogenesis.

  15. JICWELS' MCH training program in the Aiiku Institute: Asian MCH workshop.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, M; Oyama, O; Asano, M

    1993-12-01

    Taking a form of Official Development Aid (ODA), the Japan International Cooperation of Welfare Services (JICWELS) and Imperial Gift Foundation, Boshi-Aiiku-Kai (Aiiku Association for Maternal and Child Health and Welfare) have extended a study program on maternal and child health (MCH) since 1989 on the commission of the Ministry of Health and Welfare. 'Community participation' is the key to the first international study program focused solely on MCH. The purpose of the program is to help to improve the planning and administration in the field of MCH. Through this, the information and experience attained in Japanese MCH activities are introduced especially by participation in community-level activities of 'Aiiku-Han' in which local citizens play a major role. The operation system of the Asian MCH Workshop, contents of the workshop, evaluation and future prospects are discussed. PMID:8109245

  16. A Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET) System: Application to Interacting Circadian Clock Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yao; Piston, David W.; Hirschie Johnson, Carl

    1999-01-01

    We describe a method for assaying protein interactions that offers some attractive advantages over previous assays. This method, called bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET), uses a bioluminescent luciferase that is genetically fused to one candidate protein, and a green fluorescent protein mutant fused to another protein of interest. Interactions between the two fusion proteins can bring the luciferase and green fluorescent protein close enough for resonance energy transfer to occur, thus changing the color of the bioluminescent emission. By using proteins encoded by circadian (daily) clock genes from cyanobacteria, we use the BRET technique to demonstrate that the clock protein KaiB interacts to form homodimers. BRET should be particularly useful for testing protein interactions within native cells, especially with integral membrane proteins or proteins targeted to specific organelles.

  17. JICWELS' MCH training program in the Aiiku Institute: Asian MCH workshop.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, M; Oyama, O; Asano, M

    1993-12-01

    Taking a form of Official Development Aid (ODA), the Japan International Cooperation of Welfare Services (JICWELS) and Imperial Gift Foundation, Boshi-Aiiku-Kai (Aiiku Association for Maternal and Child Health and Welfare) have extended a study program on maternal and child health (MCH) since 1989 on the commission of the Ministry of Health and Welfare. 'Community participation' is the key to the first international study program focused solely on MCH. The purpose of the program is to help to improve the planning and administration in the field of MCH. Through this, the information and experience attained in Japanese MCH activities are introduced especially by participation in community-level activities of 'Aiiku-Han' in which local citizens play a major role. The operation system of the Asian MCH Workshop, contents of the workshop, evaluation and future prospects are discussed.

  18. ["Infectious disease" theory during the Japanese Shogunate: an analysis of "Ichikawa Hashimoto-Hakuju-cho Dandoku-ron Ikken"].

    PubMed

    Kozai, Toyoko

    2009-12-01

    Dandoku-ron (Treatise on Eliminating Poisons), written at the beginning of the 19th century by Hakuju Hashimoto, a doctor from Kai (Yamanashi Prefecture), is said to be the first book written by a Japanese author who "treated infectious diseases by means of modern concepts." Hashimoto acquired the ideas for his "infectious disease" theory through his own observations and experience. These ideas, suggesting that tangible poisons--not epidemics or congenital eczema--caused diseases such as smallpox, measles, syphilis, and scabies, were fresh and original at the time. The originality that Hashimoto demonstrated in Dandokuron sometimes conflicted, however, with the theories of the Ikeda group of the Igakkan (Tokugawa Shogunate medical school). This paper details information related to this conflict and explores the politicization caused by the "infectious disease" theory during the Japanese Shogunate.

  19. KITENIN promotes glioma invasiveness and progression, associated with the induction of EMT and stemness markers

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Se-Jeong; Kim, Ok; Joo, Young-Eun; Bae, Jeong-A; Yoon, Somy; Ryu, Hyang-Hwa; Jung, Shin; Kim, Kyung-Keun; Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Moon, Kyung-Sub

    2015-01-01

    KITENIN (KAI1 COOH-terminal interacting tetraspanin) promotes tumor invasion and metastasis in various cancers. This study assessed the association between KITENIN expression and advanced glioma grade in patients. In vitro assays revealed that KITENIN knockdown inhibited the invasion and migration of glioma cells, whereas KITENIN overexpression promoted their invasion and migration. In orthotopic mouse tumor models, mice transplanted with KITENIN-transfected glioma cells had significantly shorter survival than mice transplanted with mock-transfected cells. Patients with low KITENIN expression showed a significantly longer progression-free survival than patients with high KITENIN expression. KITENIN induced the expression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers (N-cadherin, ZEB1, ZEB2, SNAIL and SLUG) as well as the glioma stemness markers (CD133, ALDH1 and EPH-B1). Taken together, these findings showed that high levels of KITENIN increased glioma invasiveness and progression, associated with the up-regulation of EMT and stemness markers. PMID:25605251

  20. Generic temperature compensation of biological clocks by autonomous regulation of catalyst concentration

    PubMed Central

    Hatakeyama, Tetsuhiro S.; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2012-01-01

    Circadian clocks—ubiquitous in life forms ranging from bacteria to multicellular organisms—often exhibit intrinsic temperature compensation; the period of circadian oscillators is maintained constant over a range of physiological temperatures, despite the expected Arrhenius form for the reaction coefficient. Observations have shown that the amplitude of the oscillation depends on the temperature but the period does not; this suggests that although not every reaction step is temperature independent, the total system comprising several reactions still exhibits compensation. Here we present a general mechanism for such temperature compensation. Consider a system with multiple activation energy barriers for reactions, with a common enzyme shared across several reaction steps. The steps with the highest activation energy rate-limit the cycle when the temperature is not high. If the total abundance of the enzyme is limited, the amount of free enzyme available to catalyze a specific reaction decreases as more substrates bind to the common enzyme. We show that this change in free enzyme abundance compensates for the Arrhenius-type temperature dependence of the reaction coefficient. Taking the example of circadian clocks with cyanobacterial proteins KaiABC, consisting of several phosphorylation sites, we show that this temperature compensation mechanism is indeed valid. Specifically, if the activation energy for phosphorylation is larger than that for dephosphorylation, competition for KaiA shared among the phosphorylation reactions leads to temperature compensation. Moreover, taking a simpler model, we demonstrate the generality of the proposed compensation mechanism, suggesting relevance not only to circadian clocks but to other (bio)chemical oscillators as well. PMID:22566655

  1. Prostate-derived ets factor represses tumorigenesis and modulates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in bladder carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Ke-Hung; Lin, Yu-Hsiang; Chung, Li-Chuan; Chuang, Sung-Ting; Feng, Tsui-Hsia; Chiang, Kun-Chun; Chang, Phei-Lang; Yeh, Chi-Ju; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2016-05-28

    Prostate-derived Ets (E-twenty six) factor (PDEF), an epithelium-specific member of the Ets family of transcription factors, has been shown to play a role in suppressing the development of many epithelium-derived cancers such as prostate and breast cancer. It is not clear, however, whether PDEF is involved in the development or progression of bladder cancer. In a comparison between normal urothelium and bladder tumor tissue, we identified significant decreases of PDEF in the tumor tissue. Further, the immunohistochemistry assays indicated a significantly higher immunostaining of PDEF in low-grade bladder tumors. Additionally, the highly differentiated transitional-cell bladder carcinoma RT-4 cells expressed significantly more PDEF levels than the bladder carcinoma HT1376 and the T24 cells. Ectopic overexpression of PDEF attenuated proliferation, invasion, and tumorigenesis of bladder carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. PDEF enhanced the expression levels of mammary serine protease inhibitor (MASPIN), N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1), KAI1, and B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2). PDEF modulated epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) by upregulating E-cadherin expression and downregulating the expression of N-cadherin, SNAIL, SLUG, and vimentin, leading to lower migration and invasion abilities of bladder carcinoma cells. Filamentous actin (F-actin) polarization and remodeling were observed in PDEF-knockdown RT-4 cells. Our results suggest that PDEF gene expression is associated with the extent of bladder neoplasia and PDEF modulated the expressions of EMT-related genes. The induction of BTG2, NDRG1, MASPIN, and KAI1 gene expressions by PDEF may explain the inhibitory functions of PDEF on the proliferation, invasion, and tumorigenesis in bladder carcinoma cells.

  2. A spectroscopic study of phenylbutazone and aspirin bound to serum albumin in rheumatoid diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciążek-Jurczyk, M.; Sułkowska, A.; Bojko, B.; Równicka-Zubik, J.; Sułkowski, W. W.

    2011-11-01

    Interaction of phenylbutazone (PBZ) and aspirin (ASA), two drugs recommended in rheumatoid diseases (RDs), when binding to human (HSA) and bovine (BSA) serum albumins, has been studied by quenching of fluorescence and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1HNMR) techniques. On the basis of spectrofluorescence measurements high affinity binding sites of PBZ and ASA on albumin as well as their interaction within the binding sites were described. A low affinity binding site has been studied by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Using fluorescence spectroscopy the location of binding site in serum albumin (SA) for PBZ and ASA was found. Association constants Ka were determined for binary (i.e. PBZ-SA and ASA-SA) and ternary complexes (i.e. PBZ-[ASA]-SA and ASA-[PBZ]-SA). PBZ and ASA change the affinity of each other to the binding site in serum albumin (SA). The presence of ASA causes the increase of association constants KaI of PBZ-SA complex. Similarly, PBZ influences KaI of ASA-SA complex. This phenomenon shows that the strength of binding and the stability of the complexes increase in the presence of the second drug. The decrease of KaII values suggests that the competition between PBZ and ASA in binding to serum albumin in the second class of binding sites occurs. The analysis of 1HNMR spectral parameters i.e. changes of chemical shifts and relaxation times of the drug indicate that the presence of ASA weakens the interaction of PBZ with albumin. Similarly PBZ weakens the interaction of ASA with albumin. This conclusion points to the necessity of using a monitoring therapy owning to the possible increase of uncontrolled toxic effects.

  3. The footprints of typhoons on seismic records and their implications on small-scale coupling mechanisms in South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, H.; Xue, M.; Yang, T.; Liu, C.; Hua, Q.; Xia, S.; Huang, H.; Le, B. M.; Huo, D.; Pan, M.; Li, L.

    2015-12-01

    By investigating the footprints of typhoons on seismic records, we can understand their contributions to seismic noises as well as to small-scale coupling mechanisms of typhoon-land and typhoon-ocean-land. We analyze the signatures of typhoon KAI-TAK and BOPHA using seismic data from the ocean-bottom seismometers (OBSs) deployed in the central basin of South China Sea by Tongji University in 2012 as well as seismic stations (IC.QIZ,HK.HKPS and RM.SZP) on lands.Our preliminary results show that typhoons mainly enhance microseisms at the frequency band of ~0.1-0.5 Hz, including both long period double frequency (LPDF) and short period double frequency (SPDF) microseisms. A positive correlation observed between the amplitude of microseisms and the height of local ocean waves. Because OBSs are deployed at the bottom of ocean, single frequency (SF) microseisms are not prominent on them due to their fast attenuation with depth. During the typhoon KAI-TAK, the increase of LPDF energy is very small in OBSs while that is very high on land stations, indicating that LPDF microseisms are generated at nearby shorelines and can propagate towards the sea through the solid earth. However, the increase of SPDF energy is almost the same level for both OBSs and land stations indicating that the generation of SPDF is probably local.However, we also observe a small amount of energy arrives before the increases of the wave heights at the land station HK.HKPS. We derive that this energy may from a source that is not local: while LPDF can be generated at nearby shorelines and SPDF can be generated everywhere locally, they can both transmit through the solid part of the Earth to a station some distance away, i.e. HK.HKPS. In addition, we find that typhoons enhance not only the microseisms as expected but also the seismic energy from higher frequency bands. The spectrum amplitude during Typhoon periods, normalized by that of no-storm periods, shows that land stations produce stronger higher

  4. Geological evidence for historical and older earthquakes and tsunamis along the Nankai Trough, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Ed; De Batist, Marc; Heyvaert, Vanessa M. A.; Hubert-Ferrari, Aurélia; Fujiwara, Osamu; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Brückner, Helmut; Garrett, Philip

    2015-04-01

    In the wake of the devastating 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, the Central Disaster Management Council of the Japanese Cabinet Office issued new guidance for assessing seismic hazards in Japan. Before 2011, seismic hazard assessment relied on source models developed from knowledge of a small number of well-documented historical earthquakes. Less well-known historical earthquakes, including the AD 869 Jōgan Sanriku earthquake, were largely disregarded as their seismic intensities or tsunami heights could not be reconciled with the chosen seismic sources. Following the unexpectedly large size of the Tōhoku earthquake, the Cabinet Office advocated renewed investigation of earthquake and tsunami occurrence over historical and longer timescales, with a particular focus on defining the largest possible magnitudes. The new guidelines pay close attention to the Nankai Trough, the subduction zone where the Philippine Sea Plate dives beneath the Eurasian Plate. The Nankai Trough faces the densely populated and highly industrialised coastline of south central Japan and harbours a widely-known seismic gap along its eastern Tōkai segment. A full-length rupture of the Nankai Trough, including the Tōkai segment, could produce an earthquake with a magnitude approaching that of the 2011 event, with tsunami travel times to the closest shorelines of less than 30 minutes. We review geological evidence for historical and older earthquakes and tsunamis along the Nankai Trough. This evidence comes from a wide variety of sources, including uplifted marine terraces, subsided marshes, liquefaction features, turbidites and tsunami deposits in coastal lakes and lowlands. Examining papers published before and after 2011, we investigate the impact of the new Cabinet Office guidelines on attempts to understand the magnitude and recurrence of these events. Additionally, we introduce the Belgian Science Policy Office funded QuakeRecNankai project, a collaboration aiming to supplement

  5. Organochlorines and heavy metals in wild caught food as a potential human health risk to the indigenous Māori population of South Canterbury, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Michael; Phillips, Ngaire R; Olsen, Greg; Hickey, Christopher W; Tipa, Gail

    2011-05-01

    Increasing concentrations of anthropogenic contaminants in wild kai (food) of cultural, recreational and economic importance to the indigenous Māori of New Zealand is a potential human health risk. Contaminants that are known to bioaccumulate through the food chain (e.g., organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), PCBs and selected heavy metals) were analysed in important kai species including eel (Anguilla sp.), brown trout (Salmo trutta), black flounder (Rhombosolea retiaria) and watercress (Nasturtium officinale) from important harvesting sites in the region of South Canterbury. Eels contained relatively high wet weight concentrations of p,p'-DDE (8.6-287ng/g), PCBs ((32)Σ(PCB); 0.53-58.3ng/g), dieldrin (<0.05-16.3ng/g) and Σchlordanes (0.03-10.6ng/g). Trout and flounder contained lower concentrations of organochlorines than eels, with p,p'-DDE wet weight concentrations ranging from 2.2 to 18.5ng/g for trout and 6.4 to 27.8ng/g for flounder. Total arsenic wet weight concentrations were below detection limits for eels but ranged from 0.27 to 0.89μg/g for trout and 0.12 to 0.56μg/g for flounder. Mercury concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 0.56μg/g, 0.11 to 0.50μg/g and 0.04 to 0.10μg/g (ww) for eel, trout and flounder respectively. Lifetime excess cancer risk was calculated through established risk assessment procedures, highlighting dieldrin, ΣPCBs and p,p'-DDE in eels and arsenic in trout and flounder as primary contaminants of concern. A second non-cancer chronic health risk assessment indicated that mercury and PCBs were a potential concern in eels and mercury in trout. A cumulative lifetime cancer risk assessment showed potential health risk for consumption of some species, even at low consumption rates and provided the basis for establishing recommended dietary consumption limits for harvest sites within the study region.

  6. Neotectonic activity at the Giant Gjallar Vent (Norwegian Sea) indicates a future phase of active fluid venting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumke, Ines; Berndt, Christian; Crutchley, Gareth; Couillard, Mélanie; Gay, Aurélien

    2013-04-01

    The Giant Gjallar Vent (GGV) is a hydrothermal vent complex that formed during the opening of the North Atlantic at about 55 Ma. Sill intrusions into Cretaceous organic-rich sediments led to the production and subsequent vigorous seafloor venting of methane. A later phase of fluid escape occurred in mid-Oligocene times. The GGV is characterised by two pipes of 440 m and 480 m in diameter that reach up to the Base Late Pliocene Unconformity (BLPU) between the Kai and Naust formations. The unconformity is strongly deformed over an area of c. 18,000 km² across the vent, with a positive relief of up to 38 m above the surrounding paleo-seafloor. The overlying sediments of the Naust Formation conformally drape this deformation, smoothing its relief to a maximum of 15 m at the modern seafloor. The sediment drape indicates present inactivity of the vent system, as does the absence of indicators of active fluid escape in the water column during RV METEOR cruise M87-2 in 2012. However, high-resolution 2D seismic and Parasound data from the same cruise, and exploration-type 3D seismic data acquired by Norsk Hydro, show several indications for recent to ongoing activity at the GGV. Beneath the BLPU, strong frequency attenuation and chaotic reflections indicate the presence of free gas. At the edges of the extent of chaotic reflections, subvertical faults cut the unconformity as well as horizons of the lower and middle Naust Formation, suggesting tectonic activity after deposition of these horizons. Neotectonic activity is further indicated by the extensive occurrence of shallow faults apparent in Parasound records in the immediate vicinity of the vent and up to 16 km away. Some of these faults reach the seafloor. The observed deformation and faults may be the result of fluids accumulating beneath the BLPU due to increased loading of the oozy Kai Formation by denser glacigenic Naust sediments. Because of the lower permeability of the Naust Formation, the unconformity acts as a

  7. Application of preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography for separation and purification of arctiin from Fructus Arctii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Li, Fuwei; Sun, Qinglei; Yuan, Jingpeng; Jiang, Ting; Zheng, Chengchao

    2005-01-21

    Following an initial clean-up step on the AB-8 resin (polystyrene resin, 0.3-1.25 mm: NanKai Chemical Factory, Tianjin, China), high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was used to purify an arctiin from an extract of the fruits of the Arctium lappa L. Arctiin is a major lignan compound in the traditional Chinese medicinal herb A. lappa L. The two-phase solvent system used was composed of ethyl acetate-n-butanol-ethanol-water at an optimized volume ratio of 5:0.5:1:5 (v/v/v/v). The upper phase was used as the mobile phase in the head to tail elution mode. A total amount of 159 mg of arctiin at 98% purity was obtained from 350 mg of the crude extract (containing 49% arctiin) with 91% recovery. The preparative isolation and purification of arctiin by HSCCC was completed in 5 h in a separation. Identification of the target compound was performed by LC-electrospray ionization MS and 13C-NMR. The structure of the product was further confirmed by comparison with authentic sample (National Institute of the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products, Beijing, China).

  8. Cold Atmospheric Plasma for Medicine: State of Research and Clinical Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Woedtke, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Basic research in plasma medicine has made excellent progress and resulted in the fundamental insights that biological effects of cold atmospheric plasmas (CAP) are significantly caused by changes of the liquid environment of cells, and are dominated by redox-active species. First CAP sources are CE-certified as medical devices. Main focus of plasma application is on wound healing and treatment of infective skin diseases. Clinical applications in this field confirm the supportive effect of cold plasma treatment in acceleration of healing of chronic wounds above all in cases where conventional treatment fails. Cancer treatment is another actual and emerging field of CAP application. The ability of CAP to kill cancer cells by induction of apoptosis has been proved in vitro. First clinical applications of CAP in palliative care of cancer are realized. In collaboration with Hans-Robert Metelmann, University Medicine Greifswald; Helmut Uhlemann, Klinikum Altenburger Land GmbH Altenburg; Anke Schmidt and Kai Masur, Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (INP Greifswald); Renate Schönebeck, Neoplas Tools GmbH Greifswald; and Klaus-Dieter Weltmann, Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (INP Greifswald).

  9. Advancing Cancer Survivorship in a Country with 1.35 Billion People: The China Lymphoma Project

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven; Reno, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Rates of lymphoma are rising rapidly and lymphoma is now the ninth most common cancer among Chinese males. The China Lymphoma Project was founded to increase awareness of lymphoma in China, including the survivability of the disease and the availability of potentially life-saving treatments, and to provide social support for men, women, and children in China who are living with the disease. The project is working with China government officials, several of the top cancer hospitals in China and the U.S., internationally known oncologists and cancer researchers, pharmaceutical and biotech companies in China and the U.S., healthcare and environmental companies, the Confucius Institute at San Diego State University, and the Asian Heritage Society. Advances in e-Health are being utilized to provide patient education and social support. The project will provide free e-books that profile lymphoma survivors (e.g., Kai-Fu Lee, creator of Google China), new videos, websites, pamphlets, blogs, video logs (vlogs), peer-to-peer counseling and support, and information about the latest treatments and oncology clinical trials. PMID:27570834

  10. An intimate link between antimicrobial peptide sequence diversity and binding to essential components of bacterial membranes.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Paulina; Rosa, Rafael D; Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine

    2016-05-01

    Antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs) are widespread in the living kingdom. They are key effectors of defense reactions and mediators of competitions between organisms. They are often cationic and amphiphilic, which favors their interactions with the anionic membranes of microorganisms. Several AMP families do not directly alter membrane integrity but rather target conserved components of the bacterial membranes in a process that provides them with potent and specific antimicrobial activities. Thus, lipopolysaccharides (LPS), lipoteichoic acids (LTA) and the peptidoglycan precursor Lipid II are targeted by a broad series of AMPs. Studying the functional diversity of immune effectors tells us about the essential residues involved in AMP mechanism of action. Marine invertebrates have been found to produce a remarkable diversity of AMPs. Molluscan defensins and crustacean anti-LPS factors (ALF) are diverse in terms of amino acid sequence and show contrasted phenotypes in terms of antimicrobial activity. Their activity is directed essentially against Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria due to their specific interactions with Lipid II or Lipid A, respectively. Through those interesting examples, we discuss here how sequence diversity generated throughout evolution informs us on residues required for essential molecular interaction at the bacterial membranes and subsequent antibacterial activity. Through the analysis of molecular variants having lost antibacterial activity or shaped novel functions, we also discuss the molecular bases of functional divergence in AMPs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antimicrobial peptides edited by Karl Lohner and Kai Hilpert. PMID:26498397

  11. Colonial modernity and networks in the Japanese empire: the role of Gotō Shinpei.

    PubMed

    Low, Morris

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how Gotō Shinpei (1857-1929) sought to develop imperial networks emanating out of Tokyo in the fields of public health, railways, and communications. These areas helped define colonial modernity in the Japanese empire. In public health, Gotō's friendship with the bacteriologist Kitasato Shibasaburō led to the establishment of an Institute of Infectious Diseases in Tokyo. Key scientists from the institute took up positions in colonial medical colleges, creating a public health network that serviced the empire. Much of the empire itself was linked by a network of railways. Gotō was the first president of the South Manchuria Railway company (SMR). Communication technologies, especially radio, helped to bring the empire closer. By 1925, the Tokyo Broadcasting Station had begun its public radio broadcasts. Broadcasting soon came under the umbrella of the new organization, the Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai (NHK). Gotō was NHK's first president. The empire would soon be linked by radio, and it was by radio that Emperor Hirohito announced to the nation in 1945 that the empire had been lost.

  12. Impact of the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake on transplant renal function in Iwaki city, Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Shimmura, H; Kawaguchi, H; Tokiwa, M; Tanabe, K

    2014-01-01

    Tokiwa-kai group is a urologic and dialysis institution complex located in Iwaki city, Fukushima, Japan, and has performed renal transplantation since 1997. Although water is mandatory for renal transplant recipients, the water supply did not work for approximately a month after the earthquake in Iwaki city. Moreover, after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident struck Iwaki city, there was a critical shortage of food and medical supplies, including immunosuppressant drugs. Therefore, we investigated the impact of the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake on transplant renal function. We followed 30 patients who underwent renal transplantation before the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake. There were 19 males and 11 females with a mean age of 47 years. All recipients were not injured by the earthquake or the tsunami. Of the 30 recipients, 1 lost his renal graft at 12 months after the earthquake, and 1 has deterioration of graft function with a serum creatinine level of 5.5 mg/dL. Their creatinine levels before the earthquake were 2.79 mg/dL and 3.78 mg/dL, respectively. The other recipients have good graft function with a mean creatinine level of 1.5 mg/dL. All recipients did not experience any rejection episode after the earthquake. The shortage of water and food after the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake exacerbated the renal graft function, especially in the recipients with the lower graft function.

  13. [A historical study of coffee in Japanese and Asian countries: focusing the medicinal uses in Asian traditional medicines].

    PubMed

    Namba, Tsuneo; Matsuse, Tomoco

    2002-01-01

    The medicinal properties of coffee, making it a diuretic and stimulant, because of the effects of caffeine, have been known since ancient times, and coffee is today a popular beverage worldwide. In Japan it was introduced at the end of the eighteenth century through overseas trading with the Netherlands. During this period, various Western cultures flowed into Japan, and coffee was one of the subjects introduced through the translations of Dutch medical books. The pharmacological effects of coffee have been presented by Yamamoto in "Kōmō Honzou, (--, 1783)"; by K. Takahashi, G. Ohtsuki, and Y. Udagawa et al. in "Kōsei Shimpen (--, 1811)"; and by Kai Hirokawa in "Nagasaki Bunkenroku (--, 1795)." In the Chinese and Arabic traditional systems of medicine, the uses of coffee were based on its diuretic and central nervous system stimulant properties, attributed in general to caffeine. This study dealt with the uses of coffee in the traditional medicines of Asian countries and with some biological activities related to aging, infectious diseases, and cardioprotective effects. In various biological tests, the water extract of coffee showed no notable effect on myocardial cell beating; however, it did show superoxide anion-scavenging effects, inhibitory activity of lipid peroxidation, and suppression of hepatitis B virus surface antigen. These biological activities are closely related to the presence of caffeic acid derivatives, especially chlorogenic acid. The findings suggest that besides its stimulant effect, coffee has properties to prevent the deleterious actions of free radicals and viral infections.

  14. Peptides with dual mode of action: Killing bacteria and preventing endotoxin-induced sepsis.

    PubMed

    Brandenburg, Klaus; Heinbockel, Lena; Correa, Wilmar; Lohner, Karl

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial infections, with the most severe form being sepsis, can often not be treated adequately leading to high morbidity and lethality of infected patients in critical care units. In particular, the increase in resistant bacterial strains and the lack of new antibiotics are main reasons for the worsening of the current situation, As a new approach, the use of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) seems to be promising, combining the ability of broad-spectrum bactericidal activity and low potential of induction of resistance. Peptides based on natural defense proteins or polypeptides such as lactoferrin, Limulus anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (LALF), cathelicidins, and granulysins are candidates due to their high affinity to bacteria and to their pathogenicity factors, in first line lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) of Gram-negative origin. In this review, we discuss literature with the focus on the use of AMPs from natural sources and their variants as antibacterial as well as anti-endotoxin (anti-inflammatory) drugs. Considerable progress has been made by the design of new AMPs for acting efficiently against the LPS-induced inflammation reaction in vitro as well as in vivo (mouse) models of sepsis. Furthermore, the data indicate that efficient antibacterial compounds are not necessarily equally efficient as anti-endotoxin drugs and vice versa. The most important reason for this may be the different molecular geometry of LPS in bacteria and in free form. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antimicrobial peptides edited by Karl Lohner and Kai Hilpert. PMID:26801369

  15. Strigolactones inhibit caulonema elongation and cell division in the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Beate; Proust, Hélène; Belcram, Katia; Labrune, Cécile; Boyer, François-Didier; Rameau, Catherine; Bonhomme, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    In vascular plants, strigolactones (SLs) are known for their hormonal role and for their role as signal molecules in the rhizosphere. SLs are also produced by the moss Physcomitrella patens, in which they act as signaling factors for controlling filament extension and possibly interaction with neighboring individuals. To gain a better understanding of SL action at the cellular level, we investigated the effect of exogenously added molecules (SLs or analogs) in moss growth media. We used the previously characterized Ppccd8 mutant that is deficient in SL synthesis and showed that SLs affect moss protonema extension by reducing caulonema cell elongation and mainly cell division rate, both in light and dark conditions. Based on this effect, we set up bioassays to examine chemical structure requirements for SL activity in moss. The results suggest that compounds GR24, GR5, and 5-deoxystrigol are active in moss (as in pea), while other analogs that are highly active in the control of pea branching show little activity in moss. Interestingly, the karrikinolide KAR1, which shares molecular features with SLs, did not have any effect on filament growth, even though the moss genome contains several genes homologous to KAI2 (encoding the KAR1 receptor) and no canonical homologue to D14 (encoding the SL receptor). Further studies should investigate whether SL signaling pathways have been conserved during land plant evolution.

  16. Antimicrobial peptides and their interaction with biofilms of medically relevant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Batoni, Giovanna; Maisetta, Giuseppantonio; Esin, Semih

    2016-05-01

    Biofilm-associated infections represent one of the major threats of modern medicine. Biofilm-forming bacteria are encased in a complex mixture of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and acquire properties that render them highly tolerant to conventional antibiotics and host immune response. Therefore, there is a pressing demand of new drugs active against microbial biofilms. In this regard, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent an option taken increasingly in consideration. After dissecting the peculiar biofilm features that may greatly affect the development of new antibiofilm drugs, the present article provides a general overview of the rationale behind the use of AMPs against biofilms of medically relevant bacteria and on the possible mechanisms of AMP-antibiofilm activity. An analysis of the interactions of AMPs with biofilm components, especially those constituting the EPS, and the obstacles and/or opportunities that may arise from such interactions in the development of new AMP-based antibiofilm strategies is also presented and discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antimicrobial Peptides edited by Karl Lohner and Kai Hilpert.

  17. Integrating network structure and dynamic information for better routing strategy on scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiao-Gai; Wong, Eric W. M.; Wu, Zhi-Xi

    2009-06-01

    We study information packet routing processes on scale-free networks by mimicking the Internet traffic delivery strategies. We incorporate both the global network structure information and local queuing information in the dynamic processes. We propose several new routing strategies to guide the packet routing. The performance of the routing strategies is measured by the average transit time of the packets as well as their dependence on the traffic amount. We find that the routing strategies which integrate both global network structure information and local dynamic information perform much better than the traditional shortest-path routing protocol which takes into account only the global topological information. Moreover, from comparative studies of these routing strategies, we observe that some of our proposed methods can decrease the average transit time of packets but the performance is closely dependent on the total amount of traffic while some other proposed methods can have good performance independent of the total amount of traffic with hyper-excellent average transit time of packets. Also, numerical results show that our proposed methods integrating network structure information and local dynamic information can work much better than the methods recently proposed in [S. Sreenivasan, R. Cohen, E. López, Z. Toroczkai, H.E. Stanley, Phys. Rev. E 75 (2007) 036105, Zhi-Xi Wu, Gang Peng, Eric W.M. Wong, Kai-Hau Yeung, J. Stat. Mech. (2008) P11002.], which only considered network structure information.

  18. Influence of pressure and silane depletion on microcrystalline silicon material quality and solar cell performance

    SciTech Connect

    Bugnon, G.; Feltrin, A.; Meillaud, F.; Ballif, C.; Bailat, J.

    2009-03-15

    Hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon growth by very high frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is investigated in an industrial-type parallel plate R and D KAI reactor to study the influence of pressure and silane depletion on material quality. Single junction solar cells with intrinsic layers prepared at high pressures and in high silane depletion conditions exhibit remarkable improvements, reaching 8.2% efficiency. Further analyses show that better cell performances are linked to a significant reduction of the bulk defect density in intrinsic layers. These results can be partly attributed to lower ion bombardment energies due to higher pressures and silane depletion conditions, improving the microcrystalline material quality. Layer amorphization with increasing power density is observed at low pressure and in low silane depletion conditions. A simple model for the average ion energy shows that ion energy estimates are consistent with the amorphization process observed experimentally. Finally, the material quality of a novel regime for high rate deposition is reviewed on the basis of these findings.

  19. Electromagnetic mixed-waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The first phase of a program to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective, integrated process for remediation of asbestos-containing material that is contaminated with organics, heavy metals, and radioactive compounds was successfully completed. Laboratory scale tests were performed to demonstrate initial process viability for asbestos conversion, organics removal, and radionuclide and heavy metal removal. All success criteria for the laboratory tests were met. (1) Ohio DSI demonstrated greater than 99% asbestos conversion to amorphous solids using their commercial process. (2) KAI demonstrated 90% removal of organics from the asbestos suspension. (3) Westinghouse STC achieved the required metals removal criteria on a laboratory scale (e.g., 92% removal of uranium from solution, resin loadings of 0.6 equivalents per liter, and greater than 50% regeneration of resin in a batch test.) Using the information gained in the laboratory tests, the process was reconfigured to provide the basis for the mixed waste remediation system. An integrated process is conceptually developed, and a Phase 2 program plan is proposed to provide the bench-scale development needed in order to refine the design basis for a pilot processing system.

  20. Factors affecting time to rehospitalization in Han Chinese patients with schizophrenic disorder in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chieh-Hsin; Chen, Cheng-Chung; Wang, Shing-Yaw; Lin, Shih-Chi; Chen, Ming-Chao; Lin, Ching-Hua

    2008-08-01

    Schizophrenic disorder is a lifelong illness. Hospitalization is a major event for the patient and his/her family, often indicating that the clinical symptoms have reached an intolerable level. The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors affecting the time to rehospitalization. Rehospitalization status was monitored for all schizophrenic patients discharged from Kai-Suan Psychiatric Hospital from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2002. Patients were followed-up regarding rehospitalization until December 31, 2003. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the mean time to rehospitalization. Risk factors associated with rehospitalization were examined by Cox proportional hazards regression model. Three hundred and thirty-six patients were recruited for this study. The mean time to rehospitalization was 239 +/- 7 days, with a rehospitalization rate of 54.5%. The mean time to discontinuation was 329 +/- 5 days. Age at onset (hazard ratio = 0.978, 95% CI = 0.959-0.998, p = 0.031) and the number of previous hospitalizations (hazard ratio = 1.108, 95% CI = 1.058-1.161, p < 0.001) were found to be risk factors of shorter time to rehospitalization within 1 year after discharge. Further research should be carried out to test risk factors in a prospective study, and to assess the cost-effectiveness of interventions to prevent rehospitalization. PMID:18926954

  1. Quantifying the robustness of circadian oscillations at the single-cell level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Guillaume; Rust, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Cyanobacteria are light-harvesting microorganisms that contribute to 30% of the photosynthetic activity on Earth and contain one of the simplest circadian systems in the animal kingdom. In Synechococcus elongatus , a species of freshwater cyanobacterium, circadian oscillations are regulated by the KaiABC system, a trio of interacting proteins that act as a biomolecular pacemaker of the circadian system. While the core oscillator precisely anticipates Earth's 24h light/dark cycle, it is unclear how much individual cells benefit from the expression and maintenance of a circadian clock. By studying the growth dynamics of individual S . elongatus cells under sudden light variations, we show that several aspects of cellular growth, such as a cell's division probability and its elongation rate, are tightly coupled to the circadian clock. We propose that the evolution and maintenance of a circadian clock increases the fitness of cells by allowing them to take advantage of cyclical light/dark environments by alternating between two phenotypes: expansionary, where cells grow and divide at a fast pace during the first part of the day, and conservative, where cells enter a more quiescent state to better prepare to the stresses associated with the night's prolonged darkness.

  2. A role of Anabaena sensory rhodopsin transducer (ASRT) in photosensory transduction.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Young; Yoon, Sa Ryong; Han, SongI; Yun, Yuna; Jung, Kwang-Hwan

    2014-08-01

    In 2003, Anabaena sensory rhodopsin (ASR), a membrane-bound light sensor protein, was discovered in cyanobacteria. Since then, a large number of functions have been described for ASR, based on protein biochemical and biophysical studies. However, no study has determined the in vivo mechanism of photosensory transduction for ASR and its transducer protein (ASRT). Here, we aimed to determine the role of ASRT in physiological photo-regulation. ASRT is known to be related to photochromism, because it regulates the expression of phycocyanin (cpc-gene) and phycoerythrocyanin (pec gene), two major proteins of the phycobilisome in cyanobacteria. By examining wild type and knockout mutant Anabaena cells, we showed that ASRT repressed the expression of these two genes. We also demonstrated physical interactions between ASRT, ASR, and the promoter regions of cpc, pec, kaiABC (circadian clock gene) and the asr operon, both in vitro and in vivo. Binding assays indicated that ASRT had different sites of interaction for binding to ASR and DNA promoter regions. ASRT also influenced the retinal re-isomerization rate in dark through a physical interaction with ASR, and it regulated reporter gene expression in vivo. These results suggested that ASRT relayed the photosignal from ASR and directly regulated gene expression.

  3. [Research on Sha zheng quan shu (A complete book for Sha disease) and its main circulating editions].

    PubMed

    Ji, Zheng-han

    2008-07-01

    Sha zheng quan shu (A Complete Book for Sha Disease), the famous books on sha diseases in the early Qing dynasty, did exert influence on the classification and names of the sha disease ever since. During its circulation, deletions and supplementations with frequent changes in its form and contents made its versions so diversified and lead to difficulties in both its cataloguing, inheriting and searching for its origin and development. By comparing more than dozens of its editions, four main groups of version can be recognized, among which Zhang Zhong--xin's edition was the earliest one, published four years after Wang Kai's original version completed, which could reflect the authentic appearance of Wang's original version. Shen Jin-ao re--compiled and modified Zhang's version which has several separate editions with substantial changes in its contents, book title and author's names, while He Fen revised and reprinted Zhang's version, and his version was often misunderstood as the primitive one of Wang's version due to its extensive circulation. Hu Jie made a little abridgement based on He's version with another book Sha yi lun (Treatise on Pestilent Sha Disease) included and attached.

  4. Determination of Vitamin C, b-carotene and Riboflavin Contents in Five Green Vegetables Organically and Conventionally Grown.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Amin; Cheah, Sook Fun

    2003-03-01

    As consumer interest in organically grown vegetables is increasing in Malaysia, there is a need to answer whether the vegetables are more nutritious than those conventionally grown. This study investigates commercially available vegetables grown organically and conventionally, purchased from retailers to analyse β-carotene, vitamin C and riboflavin contents. Five types of green vegetables were selected, namely Chinese mustard (sawi) (Brassica juncea), Chinese kale (kai-lan) (Brassica alboglabra), lettuce (daun salad) (Lactuca sativa), spinach (bayam putih) (Amaranthus viridis) and swamp cabbage (kangkung) (Ipomoea aquatica). For vitamin analysis, a reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography was used to identify and quantify β -carotene, vitamin C and riboflavin. The findings showed that not all of the organically grown vegetables were higher in vitamins than that conventionally grown. This study found that only swamp cabbage grown organically was highest in β -carotene, vitamin C and riboflavin contents among the entire samples studied. The various nutrients in organically grown vegetables need to be analysed for the generation of a database on nutritional value which is important for future research. PMID:22692530

  5. Antimicrobial peptides and their interaction with biofilms of medically relevant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Batoni, Giovanna; Maisetta, Giuseppantonio; Esin, Semih

    2016-05-01

    Biofilm-associated infections represent one of the major threats of modern medicine. Biofilm-forming bacteria are encased in a complex mixture of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and acquire properties that render them highly tolerant to conventional antibiotics and host immune response. Therefore, there is a pressing demand of new drugs active against microbial biofilms. In this regard, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent an option taken increasingly in consideration. After dissecting the peculiar biofilm features that may greatly affect the development of new antibiofilm drugs, the present article provides a general overview of the rationale behind the use of AMPs against biofilms of medically relevant bacteria and on the possible mechanisms of AMP-antibiofilm activity. An analysis of the interactions of AMPs with biofilm components, especially those constituting the EPS, and the obstacles and/or opportunities that may arise from such interactions in the development of new AMP-based antibiofilm strategies is also presented and discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antimicrobial Peptides edited by Karl Lohner and Kai Hilpert. PMID:26525663

  6. Pharmacological targeting of the β-amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain

    PubMed Central

    Branca, Caterina; Sarnico, Ilenia; Ruotolo, Roberta; Lanzillotta, Annamaria; Viscomi, Arturo Roberto; Benarese, Marina; Porrini, Vanessa; Lorenzini, Luca; Calzà, Laura; Imbimbo, Bruno Pietro; Ottonello, Simone; Pizzi, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) intracellular domain (AICD) is a product of APP processing with transcriptional modulation activity, whose overexpression causes various Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related dysfunctions. Here we report that 1-(3′,4′-dichloro-2-fluoro[1,1′-biphenyl]-4-yl)-cyclopropanecarboxylic acid) (CHF5074), a compound that favorably affects neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation and memory deficit in transgenic mouse models of AD, interacts with the AICD and impairs its nuclear activity. In neuroglioma-APPswe cells, CHF5074 shifted APP cleavage from Aβ42 to the less toxic Aβ38 peptide without affecting APP-C-terminal fragment, nor APP levels. As revealed by photoaffinity labeling, CHF5074 does not interact with γ-secretase, but binds to the AICD and lowers its nuclear translocation. In vivo treatment with CHF5074 reduced AICD occupancy as well as histone H3 acetylation levels and transcriptional output of the AICD-target gene KAI1. The data provide new mechanistic insights on this compound, which is under clinical investigation for AD treatment/prevention, as well as on the contribution of the AICD to AD pathology. PMID:24714650

  7. Colonial modernity and networks in the Japanese empire: the role of Gotō Shinpei.

    PubMed

    Low, Morris

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how Gotō Shinpei (1857-1929) sought to develop imperial networks emanating out of Tokyo in the fields of public health, railways, and communications. These areas helped define colonial modernity in the Japanese empire. In public health, Gotō's friendship with the bacteriologist Kitasato Shibasaburō led to the establishment of an Institute of Infectious Diseases in Tokyo. Key scientists from the institute took up positions in colonial medical colleges, creating a public health network that serviced the empire. Much of the empire itself was linked by a network of railways. Gotō was the first president of the South Manchuria Railway company (SMR). Communication technologies, especially radio, helped to bring the empire closer. By 1925, the Tokyo Broadcasting Station had begun its public radio broadcasts. Broadcasting soon came under the umbrella of the new organization, the Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai (NHK). Gotō was NHK's first president. The empire would soon be linked by radio, and it was by radio that Emperor Hirohito announced to the nation in 1945 that the empire had been lost. PMID:20549877

  8. Gram-positive bacterial cell envelopes: The impact on the activity of antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Malanovic, Nermina; Lohner, Karl

    2016-05-01

    A number of cationic antimicrobial peptides, effectors of innate immunity, are supposed to act at the cytoplasmic membrane leading to permeabilization and eventually membrane disruption. Thereby, interaction of antimicrobial peptides with anionic membrane phospholipids is considered to be a key factor in killing of bacteria. Recently, evidence was provided that killing takes place only when bacterial cell membranes are completely saturated with peptides. This adds to an ongoing debate, which role cell wall components such as peptidoglycan, lipoteichoic acid and lipopolysaccharide may play in the killing event, i.e. if they rather entrap or facilitate antimicrobial peptides access to the cytoplasmic membrane. Therefore, in this review we focused on the impact of Gram-positive cell wall components for the mode of action and activity of antimicrobial peptides as well as in innate immunity. This led us to conclude that interaction of antimicrobial peptides with peptidoglycan may not contribute to a reduction of their antimicrobial activity, whereas interaction with anionic lipoteichoic acids may reduce the local concentration of antimicrobial peptides on the cytoplasmic membrane necessary for sufficient destabilization of the membranes and bacterial killing. Further affinity studies of antimicrobial peptides toward the different cell wall as well as membrane components will be needed to address this problem on a quantitative level. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antimicrobial peptides edited by Karl Lohner and Kai Hilpert.

  9. Simulations of impact features on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, as imaged by OSIRIS/ROSETTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremonese, G.; Lucchetti, A.; Marchi, S.; Martellato, E.; Massironi, M.; Oklay, N.; Sierks, H.; Vincent, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    The images obtained by OSIRIS on board the ESA Rosetta mission during the approaching phase and during the orbit around the nucleus of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko allowed to map the cometary surface with the very high resolution of the Narrow Angle Camera (NAC). Further important products have been realized with the nucleus images as the shape model and the Digital Terrain Model allowing to derive the profile of some features possibly identified as impact craters. Impact craters have been simulated with the iSALE hydrocode, one of the multi-rheology and multi-material extension of the SALE hydrocode (Amsden et al., 1980, Collins et al., 2004; Wünnemann et al., 2006), specifically developed to model impact crater formation. The structure and composition of the projectile was simplified to spherical and homogeneous dunite impacting at an angle of 90°, while we have assumed different target composition from dunite to water ice changing the porosity and the strength. A further important parameter to take into account is the temperature of the region where the crater is formed and we will adopt an updated thermal model of the nucleus in order to better define it. We will show the preliminary results of the impact simulations performed in 2D, including some insights on the nucleus structure. AcknowledgementsWe gratefully acknowledge the developers of iSALE-2D, including Gareth Collins, Kai Wünnemann, Dirk Elbeshausen, Boris Ivanov and Jay Melosh (see www.iSALE-code.de).

  10. Revealing the Atomic Site-Dependent g Factor within a Single Magnetic Molecule via the Extended Kondo Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Shixuan

    Control over charge and spin states at the single molecule level is crucial not only for a fundamental understanding of charge and spin interactions but also represents a prerequisite for development of molecular electronics and spintronics. In this talk, I will talk about the extended spin distribution in space beyond the central Mn ion, and onto the non-magnetic constituent atoms of the MnPc molecule. This extended spin distribution results in an extended Kondo effect, which can be explained by spin polarization induced by symmetry breaking of the molecular framework, as confirmed by DFT calculations. Measuring the evolution of the Kondo splitting with applied magnetic fields at different atomic sites, we find a spatial variation of the g-factor within a single molecule for the first time. The existence of atomic site-dependent g-factors can be attributed to specific molecular orbitals distributed over the entire molecule. This work not only open up a new opportunity for quantum information recording, but also provide a new route to explore the internal electronic and spin structure of complex molecules, hard to achieve otherwise. (L. W. Liu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 2015, 114, 126601. In collaboration with Liwei Liu, Kai Yang, Yuhang Jiang, Li Gao, Qi Liu, Boqun Song, Wende Xiao, Haitao Zhou, Hongjun Gao in CAS, Min Ouyang in MU, and A.H. Castro Neto in SNU.) Revealing the Atomic Site-Dependent g Factor within a Single Magnetic Molecule via the Extended Kondo Effect.

  11. Molecular mechanisms of membrane targeting antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Epand, Richard M; Walker, Chelsea; Epand, Raquel F; Magarvey, Nathan A

    2016-05-01

    The bacterial membrane provides a target for antimicrobial peptides. There are two groups of bacteria that have characteristically different surface membranes. One is the Gram-negative bacteria that have an outer membrane rich in lipopolysaccharide. Several antimicrobials have been found to inhibit the synthesis of this lipid, and it is expected that more will be developed. In addition, antimicrobial peptides can bind to the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and block passage of solutes between the periplasm and the cell exterior, resulting in bacterial toxicity. In Gram-positive bacteria, the major bacterial lipid component, phosphatidylglycerol can be chemically modified by bacterial enzymes to convert the lipid from anionic to cationic or zwitterionic form. This process leads to increased levels of resistance of the bacteria against polycationic antimicrobial agents. Inhibitors of this enzyme would provide protection against the development of bacterial resistance. There are antimicrobial agents that directly target a component of bacterial cytoplasmic membranes that can act on both Gram-negative as well as Gram-positive bacteria. Many of these are cyclic peptides with a rigid binding site capable of binding a lipid component. This binding targets antimicrobial agents to bacteria, rather than being toxic to host cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antimicrobial peptides edited by Karl Lohner and Kai Hilpert.

  12. Nuclear waste`s human dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Erikson, K.; Colglazier, E.W.; White, G.F.

    1994-12-31

    The United States has pinned its hopes for a permanent underground repository for its high-level nuclear wastes on Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Nevertheless, the Department of Energy`s (DOE) site research efforts have failed {open_quotes}to adequately consider human behavior and emotions,{close_quotes} write Kai Erikson of Yale University, E. William Colglazier of the National Academy of Sciences, and Gilbert F. White of the University of Colorado. The authors maintain that it is impossible to predict changes in geology, seismology, and hydrology that may affect the Yucca Mountain area over the next 1,000 years. Predicting human behavior in that time frame remains even more daunting, they insist. They admit that {open_quotes}DOE...has been given the impossible assignment to take tens of thousands of metric tons of the most hazardous materials ever created and, in the face of growing opposition, entomb them so that they will do little harm for thousands of years.{close_quotes} The researchers suggest that the government seek a secure, retrievable storage arrangement while it continues its search for safer long-term options.

  13. Global Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals the Mechanism of Phelipanche aegyptiaca Seed Germination

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Zhaoqun; Tian, Fang; Cao, Xiaolei; Xu, Ying; Chen, Meixiu; Xiang, Benchun; Zhao, Sifeng

    2016-01-01

    Phelipanche aegyptiaca is one of the most destructive root parasitic plants of Orobanchaceae. This plant has significant impacts on crop yields worldwide. Conditioned and host root stimulants, in particular, strigolactones, are needed for unique seed germination. However, no extensive study on this phenomenon has been conducted because of insufficient genomic information. Deep RNA sequencing, including de novo assembly and functional annotation was performed on P. aegyptiaca germinating seeds. The assembled transcriptome was used to analyze transcriptional dynamics during seed germination. Key gene categories involved were identified. A total of 274,964 transcripts were determined, and 53,921 unigenes were annotated according to the NR, GO, COG, KOG, and KEGG databases. Overall, 5324 differentially expressed genes among dormant, conditioned, and GR24-treated seeds were identified. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses demonstrated numerous DEGs related to DNA, RNA, and protein repair and biosynthesis, as well as carbohydrate and energy metabolism. Moreover, ABA and ethylene were found to play important roles in this process. GR24 application resulted in dramatic changes in ABA and ethylene-associated genes. Fluridone, a carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitor, alone could induce P. aegyptiaca seed germination. In addition, conditioning was probably not the indispensable stage for P. aegyptiaca, because the transcript level variation of MAX2 and KAI2 genes (relate to strigolactone signaling) was not up-regulated by conditioning treatment. PMID:27428962

  14. The positive effects of typhoons on the fish CPUE in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jie; Tang, Danling; Chen, Guobao; Li, Yongzhen; Huang, Zirong; Wang, Sufen

    2014-08-01

    Due to the logistical difficulties associated with fish data sampling after typhoons, short-term effects of typhoons on fishery in the South China Sea (SCS) have not been well-understood. The present study is to evaluate the impacts on the fish catch per unit effort (CPUE) owing to the three typhoons Chanthu, Vicente, and Kai-tak in the northwestern SCS, using long-term fish catch data and satellite data. The results show that the CPUE of total catch and some sorted catches have been changing because of the typhoons. On total catch, firstly, the CPUE has increased approximately 0.32 kg h-1 kw-1, 0.20 kg h-1 kw-1, and 0.25 kg h-1 kw-1 during the three typhoon periods. Then, the CPUEs decreased to the pre-typhoon level in about three weeks. Thirdly, among the three typhoons, the slow-moving Chanthu has caused a larger increase in CPUE. The typhoons impact was two-pronged, depending on fish species. One is the positive effects on meso-demersal fishes, cephalopoda and pelagic fishes. The other is the increase in CPUE of low trophic level carnivorous fishes after the three typhoons. This research provided the first evidence of CPUE increase after typhoons in the open sea.

  15. TADtool: visual parameter identification for TAD-calling algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Kai; Hug, Clemens B.; Hernández-Rodríguez, Benjamín; Vaquerizas, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Eukaryotic genomes are hierarchically organized into topologically associating domains (TADs). The computational identification of these domains and their associated properties critically depends on the choice of suitable parameters of TAD-calling algorithms. To reduce the element of trial-and-error in parameter selection, we have developed TADtool: an interactive plot to find robust TAD-calling parameters with immediate visual feedback. TADtool allows the direct export of TADs called with a chosen set of parameters for two of the most common TAD calling algorithms: directionality and insulation index. It can be used as an intuitive, standalone application or as a Python package for maximum flexibility. Availability and implementation: TADtool is available as a Python package from GitHub (https://github.com/vaquerizaslab/tadtool) or can be installed directly via PyPI, the Python package index (tadtool). Contact: kai.kruse@mpi-muenster.mpg.de, jmv@mpi-muenster.mpg.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27318199

  16. Ancient lenses in art and sculpture and the objects viewed through them, dating back 4500 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enoch, Jay M.

    1998-07-01

    The early history of lenses is controversial. The author has sought to address the problem by identifying lens elements (mainly convex/plano) which remain associated with objects intended to be viewed through them (i.e., in their original context). These are found in museums in sculptures, rings, pendants, etc. A number of outstanding examples will be illustrated in the talk; these sophisticated pieces of art are certainly not first constructs. Most are of rock crystal, rose quartz, or glass. Lenses have origin among artisans rather than scientists. Clearly, skills were often lost and rediscovered. Early lens-like objects have been found broadly in the eastern Mediterranean area/Middle East, in France, in Italy (Rome), and possibly in Peru and Scandinavia, etc. To date, the earliest lenses identified in context are from the IV/V Dynasties of Egypt, dating back to about 4500 years ago (e.g., the superb `Le Scribe Accroupi' and `the Kai' in the Louvre; added fine examples are located in the Cairo Museum). Latter examples have been found in Knossos (Minoan [Herakleion Museum]; ca. 3500 years ago); others had origin in Greece (examples in the Athens National Archeological Museum and the British Museum equals BM), in Rome (Metropolitan Museum, NY; BM; Vatican Museums; Bologna Archeological Museum), etc. Also. of great interest is the study of possible lens applications. This is a fascinating scientific, artistic and intellectual project.

  17. Global Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals the Mechanism of Phelipanche aegyptiaca Seed Germination.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhaoqun; Tian, Fang; Cao, Xiaolei; Xu, Ying; Chen, Meixiu; Xiang, Benchun; Zhao, Sifeng

    2016-01-01

    Phelipanche aegyptiaca is one of the most destructive root parasitic plants of Orobanchaceae. This plant has significant impacts on crop yields worldwide. Conditioned and host root stimulants, in particular, strigolactones, are needed for unique seed germination. However, no extensive study on this phenomenon has been conducted because of insufficient genomic information. Deep RNA sequencing, including de novo assembly and functional annotation was performed on P. aegyptiaca germinating seeds. The assembled transcriptome was used to analyze transcriptional dynamics during seed germination. Key gene categories involved were identified. A total of 274,964 transcripts were determined, and 53,921 unigenes were annotated according to the NR, GO, COG, KOG, and KEGG databases. Overall, 5324 differentially expressed genes among dormant, conditioned, and GR24-treated seeds were identified. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses demonstrated numerous DEGs related to DNA, RNA, and protein repair and biosynthesis, as well as carbohydrate and energy metabolism. Moreover, ABA and ethylene were found to play important roles in this process. GR24 application resulted in dramatic changes in ABA and ethylene-associated genes. Fluridone, a carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitor, alone could induce P. aegyptiaca seed germination. In addition, conditioning was probably not the indispensable stage for P. aegyptiaca, because the transcript level variation of MAX2 and KAI2 genes (relate to strigolactone signaling) was not up-regulated by conditioning treatment.

  18. Culture heritage and identity - some cases in Taiwan on the protection of cultural heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, R. W.-C.

    2015-09-01

    The protection of cultural heritage relates to an issue of identity. How a nation or a state tries to face to its history is often revealed on the protection of cultural heritage. Taiwan is as a country with complex history, especially the period after World War II. This article will work on some significant cases, regarded as ideological representation of identity. This article works on the cultural identity by observing and analyzing different cases of classified Historic Monuments. In different political periods, we see how the government tries to fabricate on the identity issue by working on Historic Monuments preservation. During the presidency of Chiang Kai-shek and his son Chiang Ching-kuo, the classification of Historic Monuments tried to focus on those make by former Chinese migrants. They tried hard to establish and reaffirm the ever existing "fact" of people in Taiwan. Whereas after the late 1980s and 1990s, after Chiang's reign, local conscience has been awaken. Political ambience turned to a new era. This freedom of speech of post-Chiang's reign encourages people to seek on their identity. The complex political situation of Taiwan makes this seeking cultural identity related to the seeking of independence of Taiwan. The respect to the aboriginal people also reoriented to include the preservation of their tribes and villages.

  19. Discover regulatory DNA elements using chromatin signatures and artificial neural network

    PubMed Central

    Firpi, Hiram A.; Ucar, Duygu; Tan, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Recent large-scale chromatin states mapping efforts have revealed characteristic chromatin modification signatures for various types of functional DNA elements. Given the important influence of chromatin states on gene regulation and the rapid accumulation of genome-wide chromatin modification data, there is a pressing need for computational methods to analyze these data in order to identify functional DNA elements. However, existing computational tools do not exploit data transformation and feature extraction as a means to achieve a more accurate prediction. Results: We introduce a new computational framework for identifying functional DNA elements using chromatin signatures. The framework consists of a data transformation and a feature extraction step followed by a classification step using time-delay neural network. We implemented our framework in a software tool CSI-ANN (chromatin signature identification by artificial neural network). When applied to predict transcriptional enhancers in the ENCODE region, CSI-ANN achieved a 65.5% sensitivity and 66.3% positive predictive value, a 5.9% and 11.6% improvement, respectively, over the previously best approach. Availability and Implementation: CSI-ANN is implemented in Matlab. The source code is freely available at http://www.medicine.uiowa.edu/Labs/tan/CSIANNsoft.zip Contact: kai-tan@uiowa.edu Supplementary Information: Supplementary Materials are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:20453004

  20. Centroid shift analysis of microlens array detector in interference imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhu; Hui, Mei; Liu, Ming; Dong, Liquan; Liu, Xiaohua; Zhao, Yuejin

    2015-11-01

    Most CCD imaging detectors integrated microlens arrays (MLAs) to increase fill factor and sensitivity. However, they also introduce spot calibration issues with the inconsistency of spot geometry center and intensity distribution center. We setup theoretical and experimental models to research the problem of centroid shifting. According to the Seidel and Zernike coefficients of the optical model, we analyze main aberrations of microlens. In "Chief Ray" and "Centroid" reference frames, centroid shift numerical value is calculated with Geometric Ensquared Energy (GEE). Based on pentaprism test for 8.4 m mirror segment, we conduct spot imaging experiment in interference system. Spots images are obtained, and two-dimensional centroid algorithm processing is performed on them to get the analog experiment values of centroid movements. The results show that the MLA placed in KAI-16000 imaging detector causes the spot centroid to move. When there is a 14° (or -14°) angle of incident ray, the shifting values are about 1.46 μm in simulation and 2.18 μm in experiment. Our research makes a contribution to the compensation of calibrated error in metrology technology. We also prove that a significant portion of the shift comes from the low order aberration of microlens.

  1. On the controllers of prime ideals of group algebras of Abelian torsion-free groups of finite rank over a field of positive characteristic

    SciTech Connect

    Tushev, A V

    2006-10-31

    In the present paper certain methods are developed that enable one to study the properties of the controller of a prime faithful ideal I of the group algebra kA of an Abelian torsion-free group A of finite rank over a field k. The main idea is that the quotient ring kA/I by the given ideal I can be embedded as an integral domain k[A] into some field F and the group A becomes a subgroup of the multiplicative group of the field F. This allows one to apply certain results of field theory, such as Kummer's theory and the properties of the multiplicative groups of fields, to the study of the integral domain k[A]. In turn, the properties of the integral domain k[A]{approx_equal}kA/I depend essentially on the properties of the ideal I. In particular, by using these methods, an independent proof of the new version of Brookes's theorem on the controllers of prime ideals of the group algebra kA of an Abelian torsion-free group A of finite rank is obtained in the case where the field k has positive characteristic.

  2. Education of Sustainability Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleschko, K.; Perrier, E.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    It's not the same to educate the sustainable engineers as to prepare the engineers of Sustainability. In the latter case all existing methods of inventive creativity (Altshuller, 1988) should be introduced in the teaching and research processes in order to create a culture of innovation at a group. The Theory of Inventing Problem Solving (TRIZ) is based on the pioneer works of Genrich Altshuller (1988) and his associated. Altshuller reviewed over 2 million patents beginning in 1946 (Orlov, 2006) and developed the Laws of Evolution of Technological Systems; An Algorithm for Inventive Problem Solving (ARIZ); forty typical Techniques for Overcoming System Conflicts (TOSC); a system of 76 Standard Approaches to Inventive Problems (Standards) etc. (Fey and Rivin, 1997). Nowadays, "a theory and constructive instrument package for the controlled synthesis of ideas and the focused transformation of the object to be improved" (Orlov, 2006) are used with high efficacy as the teaching and thinking inventive problem-solving methods in some high schools (Barak and Mesika, 2006; Sokoi et al., 2008) as well as a framework for research (Moehrle, 2005) in construction industry (Zhang et al., 2009); chemical engineering (Cortes Robles et al., 2008) etc. In 2005 US Congress passed the innovation act with the intent of increasing research investment (Gupta, 2007), while China had included inventive principles of TRIZ in strategy and decision making structure design (Kai Yang, 2010). The integrating of TRIZ into eco-innovation diminishes the common conflicts between technology and environment (Chang and Chen, 2004). In our presentation we show discuss some examples of future patents elaborated by the master degree students of Queretaro University, Faculty of Engineering, Mexico using TRIZ methods. References 1. Altshuller, G., 1988. Creativity as an Exact Science. Gordon and Breach, New York. 2. Chang, Hsiang-Tang and Chen, Jahau Lewis, 2004. The conflict-problem-solving CAD software

  3. Fine Motor Activities Program to Promote Fine Motor Skills in a Case Study of Down's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lersilp, Suchitporn; Putthinoi, Supawadee; Panyo, Kewalin

    2016-01-01

    Children with Down's syndrome have developmental delays, particularly regarding cognitive and motor development. Fine motor skill problems are related to motor development. They have impact on occupational performances in school-age children with Down's syndrome because they relate to participation in school activities, such as grasping, writing, and carrying out self-care duties. This study aimed to develop a fine motor activities program and to examine the efficiency of the program that promoted fine motor skills in a case study of Down's syndrome. The case study subject was an 8 -year-old male called Kai, who had Down's syndrome. He was a first grader in a regular school that provided classrooms for students with special needs. This study used the fine motor activities program with assessment tools, which included 3 subtests of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, second edition (BOT-2) that applied to Upper-limb coordination, Fine motor precision and Manual dexterity; as well as the In-hand Manipulation Checklist, and Jamar Hand Dynamometer Grip Test. The fine motor activities program was implemented separately and consisted of 3 sessions of 45 activities per week for 5 weeks, with each session taking 45 minutes. The results showed obvious improvement of fine motor skills, including bilateral hand coordination, hand prehension, manual dexterity, in-hand manipulation, and hand muscle strength. This positive result was an example of a fine motor intervention program designed and developed for therapists and related service providers in choosing activities that enhance fine motor skills in children with Down's syndrome. PMID:27357876

  4. Prices of Healthy and Unhealthy Beverages in High and Low Per Capita Income Areas

    PubMed Central

    Corrado, Rachel S; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2013-01-01

    To better understand availability and price of beverages in Hawai‘i, the prices of healthy (milk, orange juice, unsweetened tea, unsweetened coffee, diet soda) and unhealthy beverages (regular soda, fruit drink, sports drink, sweetened tea, flavored water) were collected and the beverage prices in lower per capita income areas and higher per capita income areas were compared. Cross-sectional data on prices of healthy and unhealthy beverages were collected from supermarkets, convenience stores, and quick serve restaurants from two lower per capita income areas (Waimanalo and Wai‘anae) and two higher per capita income areas (Hawai‘i Kai and Manoa) on O‘ahu, Hawai‘i from May 15 to June 10, 2012. Using composite data from across all areas, there was a significant difference of $0.58 (95% CI 0.46, 0.70) between the healthy beverages' mean price per 20 ounces ($1.76 ± $0.86) and the unhealthy beverages' mean price per 20 ounces ($1.18 ± $0.38) (P <.001). Although there was no statistically significant difference between per capita income areas, the lower per capita income areas' mean price per 20 ounces of healthy beverages was slightly higher and mean price per 20 ounces of unhealthy beverages was slightly lower than the higher per capita income areas. Pricing strategies that enable healthy beverages to be less expensive than unhealthy beverages is one method to increase consumption of healthy beverages and decrease consumption of unhealthy beverages. Reduction in unhealthy beverage consumption is needed to help reduce obesity, especially in the lower per capita income areas that have higher obesity prevalence. PMID:23520564

  5. An Efficient Method for Adventitious Root Induction from Stem Segments of Brassica Species

    PubMed Central

    Srikanth, Sandhya; Choong, Tsui Wei; Yan, An; He, Jie; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Plant propagation via in vitro culture is a very laborious and time-consuming process. The growth cycle of some of the crop species is slow even in the field and the consistent commercial production is hard to maintain. Enhanced methods of reduced cost, materials and labor significantly impact the research and commercial production of field crops. In our studies, stem-segment explants of Brassica species were found to generate adventitious roots (AR) in aeroponic systems in less than a week. As such, the efficiency of rooting from stem explants of six cultivar varieties of Brassica spp was tested without using any plant hormones. New roots and shoots were developed from Brassica alboglabra (Kai Lan), B. oleracea var. acephala (purple kale), B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis L (Pai Tsai, Nai Bai C, and Nai Bai T) explants after 3 to 5 days of growing under 20 ± 2°C cool root zone temperature (C-RZT) and 4 to 7 days in 30 ± 2°C ambient root zone temperature (A-RZT). At the base of cut end, anticlinal and periclinal divisions of the cambial cells resulted in secondary xylem toward pith and secondary phloem toward cortex. The continuing mitotic activity of phloem parenchyma cells led to a ring of conspicuous white callus. Root initials formed from the callus which in turn developed into ARs. However, B. rapa var. nipposinica (Mizuna) explants were only able to root in C-RZT. All rooted explants were able to develop into whole plants, with higher biomass obtained from plants that grown in C-RZT. Moreover, explants from both RZTs produced higher biomass than plants grown from seeds (control plants). Rooting efficiency was affected by RZTs and explant cuttings of donor plants. Photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rate (Asat) and stomatal conductance (gssat) were significantly differentiated between plants derived from seeds and explants at both RZTs. All plants in A-RZT had highest transpiration rates. PMID:27446170

  6. Prices of healthy and unhealthy beverages in high and low per capita income areas.

    PubMed

    Watters, Corilee A; Corrado, Rachel S; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2013-03-01

    To better understand availability and price of beverages in Hawai'i, the prices of healthy (milk, orange juice, unsweetened tea, unsweetened coffee, diet soda) and unhealthy beverages (regular soda, fruit drink, sports drink, sweetened tea, flavored water) were collected and the beverage prices in lower per capita income areas and higher per capita income areas were compared. Cross-sectional data on prices of healthy and unhealthy beverages were collected from supermarkets, convenience stores, and quick serve restaurants from two lower per capita income areas (Waimanalo and Wai'anae) and two higher per capita income areas (Hawai'i Kai and Manoa) on O'ahu, Hawai'i from May 15 to June 10, 2012. Using composite data from across all areas, there was a significant difference of $0.58 (95% CI 0.46, 0.70) between the healthy beverages' mean price per 20 ounces ($1.76 ± $0.86) and the unhealthy beverages' mean price per 20 ounces ($1.18 ± $0.38) (P <.001). Although there was no statistically significant difference between per capita income areas, the lower per capita income areas' mean price per 20 ounces of healthy beverages was slightly higher and mean price per 20 ounces of unhealthy beverages was slightly lower than the higher per capita income areas. Pricing strategies that enable healthy beverages to be less expensive than unhealthy beverages is one method to increase consumption of healthy beverages and decrease consumption of unhealthy beverages. Reduction in unhealthy beverage consumption is needed to help reduce obesity, especially in the lower per capita income areas that have higher obesity prevalence.

  7. An Efficient Method for Adventitious Root Induction from Stem Segments of Brassica Species.

    PubMed

    Srikanth, Sandhya; Choong, Tsui Wei; Yan, An; He, Jie; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Plant propagation via in vitro culture is a very laborious and time-consuming process. The growth cycle of some of the crop species is slow even in the field and the consistent commercial production is hard to maintain. Enhanced methods of reduced cost, materials and labor significantly impact the research and commercial production of field crops. In our studies, stem-segment explants of Brassica species were found to generate adventitious roots (AR) in aeroponic systems in less than a week. As such, the efficiency of rooting from stem explants of six cultivar varieties of Brassica spp was tested without using any plant hormones. New roots and shoots were developed from Brassica alboglabra (Kai Lan), B. oleracea var. acephala (purple kale), B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis L (Pai Tsai, Nai Bai C, and Nai Bai T) explants after 3 to 5 days of growing under 20 ± 2°C cool root zone temperature (C-RZT) and 4 to 7 days in 30 ± 2°C ambient root zone temperature (A-RZT). At the base of cut end, anticlinal and periclinal divisions of the cambial cells resulted in secondary xylem toward pith and secondary phloem toward cortex. The continuing mitotic activity of phloem parenchyma cells led to a ring of conspicuous white callus. Root initials formed from the callus which in turn developed into ARs. However, B. rapa var. nipposinica (Mizuna) explants were only able to root in C-RZT. All rooted explants were able to develop into whole plants, with higher biomass obtained from plants that grown in C-RZT. Moreover, explants from both RZTs produced higher biomass than plants grown from seeds (control plants). Rooting efficiency was affected by RZTs and explant cuttings of donor plants. Photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rate (Asat ) and stomatal conductance (gssat ) were significantly differentiated between plants derived from seeds and explants at both RZTs. All plants in A-RZT had highest transpiration rates.

  8. Human aflatoxin exposure in Kenya, 2007: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yard, Ellen E; Daniel, Johnni H; Lewis, Lauren S; Rybak, Michael E; Paliakov, Ekaterina M; Kim, Andrea A; Montgomery, Joel M; Bunnell, Rebecca; Abudo, Mamo Umuro; Akhwale, Willis; Breiman, Robert F; Sharif, Shahnaaz K

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxins contaminate approximately 25% of agricultural products worldwide. They can cause liver failure and liver cancer. Kenya has experienced multiple aflatoxicosis outbreaks in recent years, often resulting in fatalities. However, the full extent of aflatoxin exposure in Kenya has been unknown. Our objective was to quantify aflatoxin exposure across Kenya. We analysed aflatoxin levels in serum specimens from the 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey - a nationally representative, cross-sectional serosurvey. KAIS collected 15,853 blood specimens. Of the 3180 human immunodeficiency virus-negative specimens with ≥1 mL sera, we randomly selected 600 specimens stratified by province and sex. We analysed serum specimens for aflatoxin albumin adducts by using isotope dilution MS/MS to quantify aflatoxin B1-lysine, and normalised with serum albumin. Aflatoxin concentrations were then compared by demographic, socioeconomic and geographic characteristics. We detected serum aflatoxin B1-lysine in 78% of serum specimens (range =

  9. An Efficient Method for Adventitious Root Induction from Stem Segments of Brassica Species.

    PubMed

    Srikanth, Sandhya; Choong, Tsui Wei; Yan, An; He, Jie; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Plant propagation via in vitro culture is a very laborious and time-consuming process. The growth cycle of some of the crop species is slow even in the field and the consistent commercial production is hard to maintain. Enhanced methods of reduced cost, materials and labor significantly impact the research and commercial production of field crops. In our studies, stem-segment explants of Brassica species were found to generate adventitious roots (AR) in aeroponic systems in less than a week. As such, the efficiency of rooting from stem explants of six cultivar varieties of Brassica spp was tested without using any plant hormones. New roots and shoots were developed from Brassica alboglabra (Kai Lan), B. oleracea var. acephala (purple kale), B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis L (Pai Tsai, Nai Bai C, and Nai Bai T) explants after 3 to 5 days of growing under 20 ± 2°C cool root zone temperature (C-RZT) and 4 to 7 days in 30 ± 2°C ambient root zone temperature (A-RZT). At the base of cut end, anticlinal and periclinal divisions of the cambial cells resulted in secondary xylem toward pith and secondary phloem toward cortex. The continuing mitotic activity of phloem parenchyma cells led to a ring of conspicuous white callus. Root initials formed from the callus which in turn developed into ARs. However, B. rapa var. nipposinica (Mizuna) explants were only able to root in C-RZT. All rooted explants were able to develop into whole plants, with higher biomass obtained from plants that grown in C-RZT. Moreover, explants from both RZTs produced higher biomass than plants grown from seeds (control plants). Rooting efficiency was affected by RZTs and explant cuttings of donor plants. Photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rate (Asat ) and stomatal conductance (gssat ) were significantly differentiated between plants derived from seeds and explants at both RZTs. All plants in A-RZT had highest transpiration rates. PMID:27446170

  10. The bioinformatics of nucleotide sequence coding for proteins requiring metal coenzymes and proteins embedded with metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremberger, G.; Dehipawala, Sunil; Cheung, E.; Holden, T.; Sullivan, R.; Nguyen, A.; Lieberman, D.; Cheung, T.

    2015-09-01

    All metallo-proteins need post-translation metal incorporation. In fact, the isotope ratio of Fe, Cu, and Zn in physiology and oncology have emerged as an important tool. The nickel containing F430 is the prosthetic group of the enzyme methyl coenzyme M reductase which catalyzes the release of methane in the final step of methano-genesis, a prime energy metabolism candidate for life exploration space mission in the solar system. The 3.5 Gyr early life sulfite reductase as a life switch energy metabolism had Fe-Mo clusters. The nitrogenase for nitrogen fixation 3 billion years ago had Mo. The early life arsenite oxidase needed for anoxygenic photosynthesis energy metabolism 2.8 billion years ago had Mo and Fe. The selection pressure in metal incorporation inside a protein would be quantifiable in terms of the related nucleotide sequence complexity with fractal dimension and entropy values. Simulation model showed that the studied metal-required energy metabolism sequences had at least ten times more selection pressure relatively in comparison to the horizontal transferred sequences in Mealybug, guided by the outcome histogram of the correlation R-sq values. The metal energy metabolism sequence group was compared to the circadian clock KaiC sequence group using magnesium atomic level bond shifting mechanism in the protein, and the simulation model would suggest a much higher selection pressure for the energy life switch sequence group. The possibility of using Kepler 444 as an example of ancient life in Galaxy with the associated exoplanets has been proposed and is further discussed in this report. Examples of arsenic metal bonding shift probed by Synchrotron-based X-ray spectroscopy data and Zn controlled FOXP2 regulated pathways in human and chimp brain studied tissue samples are studied in relationship to the sequence bioinformatics. The analysis results suggest that relatively large metal bonding shift amount is associated with low probability correlation R

  11. Traditional Knowledge Strengthens NOAA's Environmental Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stovall, W. K.; McBride, M. A.; Lewinski, S.; Bennett, S.

    2010-12-01

    Environmental education efforts are increasingly recognizing the value of traditional knowledge, or indigenous science, as a basis to teach the importance of stewardship. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Pacific Services Center incorporates Polynesian indigenous science into formal and informal education components of its environmental literacy program. By presenting indigenous science side by side with NOAA science, it becomes clear that the scientific results are the same, although the methods may differ. The platforms for these tools span a vast spectrum, utilizing media from 3-D visualizations to storytelling and lecture. Navigating the Pacific Islands is a Second Life project in which users navigate a virtual Polynesian voyaging canoe between two islands, one featuring native Hawaiian practices and the other where users learn about NOAA research and ships. In partnership with the University of Hawai‘i Waikiki Aquarium, the Nana I Ke Kai (Look to the Sea) series focuses on connecting culture and science during cross-discipline, publicly held discussions between cultural practitioners and research scientists. The Indigenous Science Video Series is a multi-use, animated collection of short films that showcase the efforts of NOAA fisheries management and ship navigation in combination with the accompanying Polynesian perspectives. Formal education resources and lesson plans for grades 3-5 focusing on marine science have also been developed and incorporate indigenous science practices as examples of conservation success. By merging traditional knowledge and stewardship practices with NOAA science in educational tools and resources, NOAA's Pacific Services Center is helping to build and increase environmental literacy through the development of educational tools and resources that are applicable to place-based understanding and approaches.

  12. Measuring the style of innovative thinking among engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passig, David; Cohen, Lizi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many tools have been developed to measure the ability of workers to innovate. However, all of them are based on self-reporting questionnaires, which raises questions about their validity Purpose: The aim was to develop and validate a tool, called Ideas Generation Implementation (IGI), to objectively measure the style and potential of engineering students in generating innovative technological ideas. The cognitive framework of IGI is based on the Architectural Innovation Model (AIM). Tool description: The IGI tool was designed to measure the level of innovation in generating technological ideas and their potential to be implemented. These variables rely on the definition of innovation as 'creativity, implemented in a high degree of success'. The levels of innovative thinking are based on the AIM and consist of four levels: incremental innovation, modular innovation, architectural innovation and radical innovation. Sample: Sixty experts in technological innovation developed the tool. We checked its face validity and calculated its reliability in a pilot study (kappa = 0.73). Then, 145 undergraduate students were sampled at random from the seven Israeli universities offering engineering programs and asked to complete the questionnaire. Design and methods: We examined the construct validity of the tool by conducting a variance analysis and measuring the correlations between the innovator's style of each student, as suggested by the AIM, and the three subscale factors of creative styles (efficient, conformist and original), as suggested by the Kirton Adaptors and Innovators (KAI) questionnaire. Results: Students with a radical innovator's style inclined more than those with an incremental innovator's style towards the three creative cognitive styles. Students with an architectural innovator's style inclined moderately, but not significantly, towards the three creative styles. Conclusions: The IGI tool objectively measures innovative thinking among students

  13. 4DGenome: a comprehensive database of chromatin interactions

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Li; He, Bing; Wang, Jiahui; Tan, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: The 3D structure of the genome plays a critical role in regulating gene expression. Recent progress in mapping technologies for chromatin interactions has led to a rapid increase in this kind of interaction data. This trend will continue as research in this burgeoning field intensifies. Results: We describe the 4DGenome database that stores chromatin interaction data compiled through comprehensive literature curation. The database currently covers both low- and high-throughput assays, including 3C, 4C-Seq, 5C, Hi-C, ChIA-PET and Capture-C. To complement the set of interactions detected by experimental assays, we also include interactions predicted by a recently developed computational method with demonstrated high accuracy. The database currently contains ∼8 million records, covering 102 cell/tissue types in five organisms. Records in the database are described using a standardized file format, facilitating data exchange. The vast major of the interactions were assigned a confidence score. Using the web interface, users can query and download database records via a number of annotation dimensions. Query results can be visualized along with other genomics datasets via links to the UCSC genome browser. We anticipate that 4DGenome will be a valuable resource for investigating the spatial structure-and-function relationship of genomes. Availability and Implementation: 4Dgenome is freely accessible at http://4dgenome.int-med.uiowa.edu. The database and web interface are implemented in MySQL, Apache and JavaScript with all major browsers supported. Contact: kai-tan@uiowa.edu Supplementary Information: Supplementary Materials are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25788621

  14. G x E: a NIAAA workshop on gene-environment interactions.

    PubMed

    Gunzerath, Lorraine; Goldman, David

    2003-03-01

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) sponsored a May 2002 workshop on gene-environment interaction (G x E) research to identify potential roadblocks to further research and to propose solutions to those roadblocks, to optimize investigative opportunities and multidisciplinary or multi-institution collaborations, and to explore ways that NIAAA can facilitate G x E studies. Sessions included panels on animal models; phenotypes; genetic findings in humans; study designs and analytical methods; and assessment of environmental risk. Key among the identified challenges to progress in G x E research were issues of study design and sampling strategies; logistic and methodological costs and constraints; availability and understanding of data analysis techniques; potential stigmatization of study populations; and organizational/bureaucratic structures that are inadequate to address the unique needs of large-scale, multicenter, longitudinal projects. Participants proposed a series of recommendations to address these issues. Session coordinators included: Gayle Boyd, Kendall Bryant, Page Chiapella, Vivian Faden, David Goldman, and Antonio Noronha. Session participants included: Laura Almasy, Henri Begleiter, Raul Caetano, Bruce Dudek, Mary Dufour, Cindy Ehlers, Mary-Anne Enoch, Joel Gelernter, David Goldman, Bridget Grant, Lorraine Gunzerath, Deborah Hasin, Andrew Heath, Victor Hesselbrock, J. Dee Higley, Shirley Hill, Kerry Jang, Raynard S. Kington, Rick Kittles, George Koob, Kenneth Leonard, Ting-Kai Li, Jeffrey Long, William McBride, Matthew McGue, Kathleen Merikangas, Tamara Phillips, Bernice Porjesz, Carol Prescott, Theodore Reich, John Rice, Richard Rose, Charmaine Royal, Arnold Sameroff, Marc Schuckit, Kenneth Sher, Renee Sieving, Robert Taylor, Michael Windle, and Robert Zucker. PMID:12658122

  15. Metabolic Environments and Genomic Features Associated with Pathogenic and Mutualistic Interactions between Bacteria and Plants is accepted for publication in MPMI

    SciTech Connect

    Karpinets, Tatiana V; Park, Byung H; Syed, Mustafa H; Klotz, Martin G; Uberbacher, Edward C

    2014-01-01

    protein belongs to the same clan of thioredoxins as the circadian clock protein kaiB found in many mutualistic symbionts and highly abundant in blood cells colonized by a human pathogen, Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi, the cause of typhoid fever.

  16. Comparative genomics on Vangl1 and Vangl2 genes.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Yuriko; Katoh, Masaru

    2005-05-01

    WNT signals are transduced to the beta-catenin pathway or the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway. WNT - beta-catenin pathway is implicated in carcinogenesis, while WNT-PCP pathway is implicated in cell motility and metastasis. Drosophila Van Gogh (Vang), Frizzled (Fz), Starry night (Stan), Prickle (Pk) and Diego (Dgo) are PCP signaling molecules. Vangl1 (Strabismus 2) and Vangl2 (Strabismus 1 or Ltap) are mammalian homologs of Drosophila Vang interacting with PRICKLE1, PRICKLE2, ANKRD6, DVL1, DVL2, DVL3, KAI1 and MAGI3. Here we identified and characterized rat Vangl1 and Vangl2 genes by using bioinformatics. Rat Vangl1 gene, consisting of eight exons, was located within AC098913.7 and AC108524.6 genome sequences. Rat Vangl2 gene, consisting of eight exons, was located within AC118856.3 and AC115243.5 genome sequences. Exon-intron structure of mammalian Vangl1 and Vangl2 orthologs was well conserved. E47 and double ELK1-binding sites were conserved among promoters of mammalian Vangl1 orthologs. PAX4, NFkappaB, HNF4, SOX9, RFX1, and POU2F1 (OCT1)-binding sites were conserved among promoters of mammalian Vangl2 orthologs. Rat Vangl1 (526 aa) and Vangl2 (521 aa) were four-transmembrane proteins with 71.5% total-amino-acid identity. Ser cluster motif (SxxSxxSxxSxxSxxS) in the N-terminal cytoplasmic region and PDZ-binding motif in the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail were evolutionarily conserved among vertebrate Vangl1 and Vangl2 orthologs. This is the first report on rat Vangl1 and Vangl2 genes as well as on comparative genomics for Vangl1 and Vangl2 orthologs.

  17. G x E: a NIAAA workshop on gene-environment interactions.

    PubMed

    Gunzerath, Lorraine; Goldman, David

    2003-03-01

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) sponsored a May 2002 workshop on gene-environment interaction (G x E) research to identify potential roadblocks to further research and to propose solutions to those roadblocks, to optimize investigative opportunities and multidisciplinary or multi-institution collaborations, and to explore ways that NIAAA can facilitate G x E studies. Sessions included panels on animal models; phenotypes; genetic findings in humans; study designs and analytical methods; and assessment of environmental risk. Key among the identified challenges to progress in G x E research were issues of study design and sampling strategies; logistic and methodological costs and constraints; availability and understanding of data analysis techniques; potential stigmatization of study populations; and organizational/bureaucratic structures that are inadequate to address the unique needs of large-scale, multicenter, longitudinal projects. Participants proposed a series of recommendations to address these issues. Session coordinators included: Gayle Boyd, Kendall Bryant, Page Chiapella, Vivian Faden, David Goldman, and Antonio Noronha. Session participants included: Laura Almasy, Henri Begleiter, Raul Caetano, Bruce Dudek, Mary Dufour, Cindy Ehlers, Mary-Anne Enoch, Joel Gelernter, David Goldman, Bridget Grant, Lorraine Gunzerath, Deborah Hasin, Andrew Heath, Victor Hesselbrock, J. Dee Higley, Shirley Hill, Kerry Jang, Raynard S. Kington, Rick Kittles, George Koob, Kenneth Leonard, Ting-Kai Li, Jeffrey Long, William McBride, Matthew McGue, Kathleen Merikangas, Tamara Phillips, Bernice Porjesz, Carol Prescott, Theodore Reich, John Rice, Richard Rose, Charmaine Royal, Arnold Sameroff, Marc Schuckit, Kenneth Sher, Renee Sieving, Robert Taylor, Michael Windle, and Robert Zucker.

  18. Recombinant expression, antimicrobial activity and mechanism of action of tritrpticin analogs containing fluoro-tryptophan residues.

    PubMed

    Arias, Mauricio; Hoffarth, Elesha R; Ishida, Hiroaki; Aramini, James M; Vogel, Hans J

    2016-05-01

    The increase in antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections has prompted significant academic research into new therapeutic agents targeted against these pathogens. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) appear as promising candidates, due their potent antimicrobial activity and their ubiquitous presence in almost all organisms. Tritrpticin is a member of this family of peptides and has been shown to exert a strong antimicrobial activity against several bacterial strains. Tritrpticin's main structural characteristic is the presence of three consecutive Trp residues at the center of the peptide. These residues play an important role in the activity of tritrpticin against Escherichia coli. In this work, a recombinant version of tritrpticin was produced in E. coli using calmodulin as a fusion protein expression tag to overcome the toxicity of the peptide. When used in combination with glyphosate, an inhibitor of the endogenous synthesis of aromatic amino acids, this expression system allowed for the incorporation of fluorinated Trp analogs at very high levels (>90%). The antimicrobial activity of the 4-, 5- and 6-fluoro-Trp-containing tritrpticins against E. coli was as strong as the activity of the native peptide. Similarly, the tritrpticin analogs exhibited comparable abilities to perturb and permeabilize synthetic lipid bilayers as well as the outer and inner membrane of E. coli. Furthermore, the use of 19F NMR spectroscopy established that each individual fluoro-Trp residue interacts differently with SDS micelles, supporting the idea that each Trp in the original tritrpticin plays a different role in the perturbing/permeabilizing activity of the peptide. Moreover, our work demonstrates that the use of fluoro-Trp in solvent perturbation 19F NMR experiments provides detailed site-specific information on the insertion of the Trp residues in biological membrane mimetics. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antimicrobial peptides edited by Karl Lohner and Kai

  19. RELAP5-3D Architectural Developments in 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. George L. Mesina

    2004-08-01

    Currently, RELAP5 is undergoing a transformation that will replace much of its coding with equivalent structured Fortran 90 coding. Four efforts are underway to modernize the code architecture of RELAP5-3D. These are parallelization, vectorization, code restructuring, and conversion to Fortran 90. The first two improve code run speed via on computer platforms of certain architectures. These code modifications have little effect on normal code performance on non-vector and non-parallel computers because they are mostly done with compiler directives. The third and fourth efforts involve considerable rewriting of the source code. The third code improvement effort addresses code readability and maintainability. These are being greatly enhanced by application of a Fortran code-restructuring tool. The fourth effort is conversion to Fortran 90. The bulk of the coding is being rewritten in Fortran 90. This is a ground up reworking of the coding that begins with completely reorganizing the underlying database and continues with the source code. It will reach every part of RELAP5-3D. Each of these efforts is discussed in detail in a different section. Section 1 relates background information. Section 2 covers the parallelization effort. Section 3 covers the efforts to vectorize the code. Section 4 covers the code restructuring. Section 5 covers the Fortran 90 effort. Outline Background: longevity, maintenance & development, reliability, speed Parallelization: KAI to OpenMP, previous work & current, domain decomposition, done. Vectorization: Speed - Fed init, vectors in PCs, INL Cray SV1, R5 Phant, EXV, results. Code Restructuring: Reason to restructure, study of restruct, For Study: what it does, Fortran 90: Modernization -

  20. Analysis of the Fine-Tuning of Cyanobacterial Circadian Phase by Monochromatic Light and Long-Day Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takayuki; Obana, Yuji; Kuboi, Naoyuki; Kitayama, Yohko; Hayashi, Shingo; Oka, Masataka; Wada, Naomichi; Arita, Kyouhei; Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Sato, Mamoru; Kanaly, Robert A; Kutsuna, Shinsuke

    2016-01-01

    The cyanobacterial circadian-related protein, Pex, accumulates in the dark period of the diurnal light-dark cycle. After the diurnal cycle, an approximately 3 h advance in the phase of the circadian bioluminescence rhythm is observed in pex-deficient mutants, as compared with the wild type. However, it is unclear what type of photosensing mechanism regulates the accumulation and the phase change. In monochromatic light irradiation experiments, Pex accumulation was strongly repressed under blue light conditions; however, only small reductions in Pex accumulation were observed under red or green light conditions. After the diurnal cycle of 12 h of white fluorescent light and 12 h of blue light, the phase advance was repressed more than that of the cycle of 12 h red (or green) light. The phase advance also occurred after 16 h light/8 h dark cycles (long-day cycles) but did not occur after 8 h light/16 h dark cycles (short-day cycles). While Pex is a unique winged helix transcription factor harboring secondary structures (α0 and α4 helices), the importance of the structures is not understood. In in vivo experiments with site-directed mutations in the α0 helix, the obtained mutants, in which Pex was missing the hydrophobic side chain at the 28th or 32nd amino acid residue, exhibited no phase delay after the light/dark cycle. In in vitro DNA binding assays, the mutant proteins showed no binding to the promoter region of the clock gene kaiA. From these results, we propose a molecular model which describes the phase delay in cyanobacteria. PMID:26578695

  1. Antitumor activities of valproic acid on Epstein-Barr virus-associated T and natural killer lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Seiko; Saito, Takashi; Ito, Yoshinori; Kamakura, Maki; Gotoh, Kensei; Kawada, Jun-Ichi; Nishiyama, Yukihiro; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2012-02-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which infects B cells, T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells, is associated with multiple lymphoid malignancies. Recently, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been reported to have anticancer effects against various tumor cells. In the present study, we evaluated the killing effect of valproic acid (VPA), which acts as an HDAC inhibitor, on EBV-positive and -negative T and NK lymphoma cells. Treatment of multiple T and NK cell lines (SNT13, SNT16, Jurkat, SNK6, KAI3 and KHYG1) with 0.1-5 mM of VPA inhibited HDAC, increased acetylated histone levels and reduced cell viability. No significant differences were seen between EBV-positive and -negative cell lines. Although VPA induced apoptosis in some T and NK cell lines (SNT16, Jurkat and KHYG1) and cell cycle arrest, it did not induce lytic infection in EBV-positive T or NK cell lines. Because the killing effect of VPA was modest (1 mM VPA reduced cell viability by between 22% and 56%), we tested the effects of the combination of 1 mM of VPA and 0.01 μM of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. The combined treated of cells with VPA and bortezomib had an additive killing effect. Finally, we administered VPA to peripheral blood mononuclear cells from three patients with EBV-associated T or NK lymphoproliferative diseases. In these studies, VPA had a greater killing effect against EBV-infected cells than uninfected cells, and the effect was increased when VPA was combined with bortezomib. These results indicate that VPA has antitumor effects on T and NK lymphoma cells and that VPA and bortezomib may have synergistic effects, irrespective of the presence of EBV. PMID:22017376

  2. Interactions between phytochemicals from traditional Chinese medicines and human cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing-Jing; Ai, Chun-Zhi; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Jiang, Miao; Fan, Xu-Ran; Lv, Ai-Ping; Yang, Ling

    2012-06-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulas with fixed combinations rely on "sovereign, minister, assistant and guide" and fuzzy mathematical quantitative law, leading to greater challenges for the identification of active ingredients. Transformation and metabolic studies involving the Phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 (CYP) might potentially solve some of these challenges. The pharmacological effects can not be attributed to one active ingredient in TCMs, but integrated effects resulting from the combined actions of multiple ingredients. However, it is only after long-term administration that most ingredients exert their actions, which can result in prolonged exposure to herbs in vivo. Therefore, interactions between herbal compounds and CYPs appear to be inevitable. Yet unlike Western drugs, experimental determination of the absorption and disposition properties is not commonly carried out for TCMs. Moreover, the use of TCM as injections is an innovation aimed to improve efficiency in extensive clinical use in Mainland China. Therefore, in recent years, cases of adverse drug reactions (ADR) mainly concerning allergic reactions involving TCMs such as ShenMai injection and QingKaiLing injection have been reported, which have attracted attention with regard to the legal responsibilities for TCM approval. The lack of information on the ADME characteristics, especially the metabolic stability and interaction potential between CYPs and herbs, increases ADR occurrence due to TCMs. In this article, we review the most common herbs used in TCM prescriptions and fixed combinations of their usable frequency, and summarize the current understanding of the ability of phytochemical ingredients to act as substrates, inhibitors or inducers of human CYP enzymes, through which the key role of CYP enzymes on the herb disposition and toxicity is highlighted. The potential interaction between herbal phytochemicals and CYP enzymes dominates the target exposure, which

  3. Interactions between phytochemicals from traditional Chinese medicines and human cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing-Jing; Ai, Chun-Zhi; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Jiang, Miao; Fan, Xu-Ran; Lv, Ai-Ping; Yang, Ling

    2012-06-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulas with fixed combinations rely on "sovereign, minister, assistant and guide" and fuzzy mathematical quantitative law, leading to greater challenges for the identification of active ingredients. Transformation and metabolic studies involving the Phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 (CYP) might potentially solve some of these challenges. The pharmacological effects can not be attributed to one active ingredient in TCMs, but integrated effects resulting from the combined actions of multiple ingredients. However, it is only after long-term administration that most ingredients exert their actions, which can result in prolonged exposure to herbs in vivo. Therefore, interactions between herbal compounds and CYPs appear to be inevitable. Yet unlike Western drugs, experimental determination of the absorption and disposition properties is not commonly carried out for TCMs. Moreover, the use of TCM as injections is an innovation aimed to improve efficiency in extensive clinical use in Mainland China. Therefore, in recent years, cases of adverse drug reactions (ADR) mainly concerning allergic reactions involving TCMs such as ShenMai injection and QingKaiLing injection have been reported, which have attracted attention with regard to the legal responsibilities for TCM approval. The lack of information on the ADME characteristics, especially the metabolic stability and interaction potential between CYPs and herbs, increases ADR occurrence due to TCMs. In this article, we review the most common herbs used in TCM prescriptions and fixed combinations of their usable frequency, and summarize the current understanding of the ability of phytochemical ingredients to act as substrates, inhibitors or inducers of human CYP enzymes, through which the key role of CYP enzymes on the herb disposition and toxicity is highlighted. The potential interaction between herbal phytochemicals and CYP enzymes dominates the target exposure, which

  4. Nuclear translocation uncovers the amyloid peptide Aβ42 as a regulator of gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Barucker, Christian; Harmeier, Anja; Weiske, Joerg; Fauler, Beatrix; Albring, Kai Frederik; Prokop, Stefan; Hildebrand, Peter; Lurz, Rudi; Heppner, Frank L; Huber, Otmar; Multhaup, Gerhard

    2014-07-18

    Although soluble species of the amyloid-β peptide Aβ42 correlate with disease symptoms in Alzheimer disease, little is known about the biological activities of amyloid-β (Aβ). Here, we show that Aβ peptides varying in lengths from 38 to 43 amino acids are internalized by cultured neuroblastoma cells and can be found in the nucleus. By three independent methods, we demonstrate direct detection of nuclear Aβ42 as follows: (i) biochemical analysis of nuclear fractions; (ii) detection of biotin-labeled Aβ in living cells by confocal laser scanning microscopy; and (iii) transmission electron microscopy of Aβ in cultured cells, as well as brain tissue of wild-type and transgenic APPPS1 mice (overexpression of amyloid precursor protein and presenilin 1 with Swedish and L166P mutations, respectively). Also, this study details a novel role for Aβ42 in nuclear signaling, distinct from the amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that Aβ42 specifically interacts as a repressor of gene transcription with LRP1 and KAI1 promoters. By quantitative RT-PCR, we confirmed that mRNA levels of the examined candidate genes were exclusively decreased by the potentially neurotoxic Aβ42 wild-type peptide. Shorter peptides (Aβ38 or Aβ40) and other longer peptides (nontoxic Aβ42 G33A substitution or Aβ43) did not affect mRNA levels. Overall, our data indicate that the nuclear translocation of Aβ42 impacts gene regulation, and deleterious effects of Aβ42 in Alzheimer disease pathogenesis may be influenced by altering the expression profiles of disease-modifying genes.

  5. Forgotten research from 19th century: science should not follow fashion.

    PubMed

    Galler, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    The fine structure of cross-striated muscle and its changes during contraction were known already in considerable detail in the 19th century. This knowledge was the result of studying birefringence properties of muscle fibres under the polarization microscope, a method mainly established by Brücke (Denk Kais Akad Wiss Math Naturwiss Cl 15:69-84, 1858) in Vienna, Austria. The knowledge was seemingly forgotten in the first half of the 20th century before it was rediscovered in 1954. This rediscovery was essential for the formulation of the sliding filament theory which represents the commonly accepted concept of muscle contraction (A.F. Huxley and Niedergerke, Nature 173:971-973, 1954; H.E. Huxley and Hanson, Nature 173:973-976, 1954). The loss of knowledge was the result of prevailing views within the scientific community which could be attributed to "fashion": it was thought that the changes of cross-striations, which were observed under the microscope, were inconsequential for contraction since other types of movements like cell crawling and smooth muscle contraction were not associated with similar changes of the fine structure. The basis for this assumption was the view that all types of movements associated with life must be caused by the same mechanisms. Furthermore, it was assumed that the light microscopy was of little use, because the individual molecules that carry out life functions cannot be seen under the light microscope. This unfortunate episode of science history teaches us that the progress of science can severely be retarded by fashion. PMID:25432331

  6. Shimoda 1854: Historical Consequences of a Natural Disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, A.

    2012-04-01

    At the end of 1854 - beginning of 1855 Japan was struck by a series of powerful earthquakes known as the Ansei Great Earthquakes. The first one, Ansei-Tōkai Quake, occurred on 23 December, 1854. It had a magnitude of 8.4; the epicenter ranged from the centre of Suruga Bay to the south-east into the ocean. It was followed by the Ansei-Nankai Quake on 24 December. The earthquakes with the following tsunami caused a huge damage in several regions of Japan: more than 20,000 buildings were destroyed, about 30,000 casualties caused. This natural disaster was witnessed by a Russian diplomatic mission led by admiral Yevfimy Putyatin. His flagship, frigate Diana, stayed at Shimoda, and Putyatin was conducting long and difficult negotiations trying to convince Japan of signing a commercial treaty with Russia, when Shimoda was hit by the tsunami. Several members of the mission described their impressions in their memoirs. The city was almost completely destroyed (only 16 houses survived the disaster). Diana was also badly damaged and sank in a storm while sailing to Heda for repairs. It was decided to build a new ship for the Russian mission. Works were carried out in Heda with the help of plans salvaged from the Diana, and required a cooperation of Russian sailors and Japanese carpenters. In about two months a two-masted schooner was built, which was christened Heda in honour of the city that helped with its construction. The Heda was the first western-style ship built in Japan, and thus can be called a "grandfather" of a Japanese oceanic navy. On 26 January, 1855 the Russian-Japanese negotiations were successfully concluded, and the Treaty of Shimoda was signed, marking the start of official relations between Russia and Japan. Thus a terrible natural disaster framed one of the most vivid pages in history of the Japanese-Russian relationship.

  7. Expression profiling of sodium butyrate (NaB)-treated cells: identification of regulation of genes related to cytokine signaling and cancer metastasis by NaB.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jeena; Mudduluru, Giridhar; Antony, Sini; Vashistha, Surabhi; Ajitkumar, Parthasarathi; Somasundaram, Kumaravel

    2004-08-19

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors induce growth arrest and apoptosis in a variety of human cancer cells. Sodium butyrate (NaB), a short chain fatty acid, is a HDAC inhibitor and is produced in the colonic lumen as a consequence of microbial degradation of dietary fibers. In order to dissect out the mechanism of NaB-induced growth inhibition of cancer cells, we carried out expression profiling of a human lung carcinoma cell line (H460) treated with NaB using a cDNA microarray. Of the total 1728 genes analysed, there were 32 genes with a mean expression value of 2.0-fold and higher and 66 genes with a mean expression value 3.0-fold and lower in NaB-treated cells. For a few selected genes, we demonstrate that their expression pattern by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis is matching with the results obtained by microarray analysis. Closer view at the expression profile of NaB-treated cells revealed the downregulation of a total of 16 genes associated with cytokine signaling, in particular, interferon gamma (IFNgamma) pathway. In good correlation, NaB-pretreated cells failed to induce interferon regulatory factor 1, an INFgamma target gene, efficiently upon IFNgamma addition. These results suggest that NaB inhibits proinflammatory cytokine signaling pathway, thus providing proof of mechanism for its anti-inflammatory activity. We also found that NaB induced three genes, which are known metastatic suppressors, and downregulated 11 genes, which have been shown to promote metastasis. Upregulation of metastatic suppressor Kangai 1 (KAI1) by NaB in a time-dependent manner was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis. The differential regulation of metastasis-associated genes by NaB provides explanation for the anti-invasive properties of NaB. Therefore, our study presents new evidence for pathways regulated by NaB, thus providing evidence for the mechanism behind anti-inflammatory and antimetastatic activities of NaB.

  8. Discovery of Weyl fermion semimetal and topological Fermi arc quasiparticles in TaAs, NbAs, NbP, TaP and related materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, M. Zahid

    .online (2014)). This work is in collaboration with Su-Yang Xu, Ilya Belopolski, Nasser Alidoust, Madhab Neupane, Chenglong Zhang, Raman Sankar, Shin-Ming Huang, Chi-Cheng Lee, Guoqing Chang, BaoKai Wang, Guang Bian, Hao Zheng, Daniel S. Sanchez, Fangcheng Chou, Hsin Lin, Shuang Jia, Titus Neupert. This work is supported by GBMF and U.S. DOE. In collaboration with Su-Yang Xu, I. Belopolski, N. Alidoust, M. Neupane, C. Zhang, R. Sankar, S.-M. Huang, C.-C. Lee, G. Chang, B. Wang, G. Bian, H. Zheng, D. Sanchez, F.-C. Chou, T. Neupert, Hsin Lin, Shuang Jia. Work supported by GBMF(Moore) & DOE.

  9. X-ray diffraction from shocked materials: investigating solid-solid phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wark, Justin

    2008-04-01

    X-ray diffraction on nanosecond and sub-nanosecond time-scales has proven to be a useful tool in investigating the transient response of shocked crystals. Perhaps the most notable success in this area has been the direct observation of the α- ɛ transition in laser-shocked single crystals of [001] iron. [1,2] The information extracted from the diffraction patterns has been shown to be in remarkable agreement with multi-million atom molecular dynamics calculations. [3] Having successfully observed the transition in single crystals shocked along the principal axis, several further challenges remain. Amongst these are the exploration of the response of single crystals to shocks propagating along other crystallographic directions (where significantly different response is predicted [4]) the role of pre-existing defects in the time-scale of the elastic/plastic response of the material, and any differences that may occur in polycrystalline compared with single crystal samples.[5] A further challenge will be the development of rapid compression techniques that take samples to off-Hugoniot states (for example so-called quasi-isentropic compression). If such states can be produced in a controlled way, much could potentially be learnt about the state of certain planetary cores, including our own. [1] D.H. Kalantar, J.F. Belak, G.W. Collins, J.D. Colvin, H.M. Davies, J.H. Eggert, T.C. Germann, J. Hawreliak, B.L. Holian, K. Kadau, P.S. Lomdahl, H.E. Lorenzana, M.A. Meyers, K. Rosolankova, M.S. Schneider, J. Sheppard, J.S. Stolken and J.S. Wark, Phys. Rev. Lett., 95 075502, 2005 [2] J. Hawreliak, J.D. Colvin, J.H.Eggert, D. Kalantar, H.E. Lorenzana, J.S. Stölken, H.M. Davies, T.C. Germann, B.L. Holian, K. Kadau, P.S. Lomdahl, A. Higginbotham, K. Rosolankova, J. Sheppard, and J.S. Wark, Phys. Rev. B, 74, 184107, 2006 [3] K. Kadau, Timothy C. Germann, Peter S. Lomdahl, and Brad Lee Holian, Science, 296, 1681, 2002 [4] Kai Kadau, Timothy C. Germann, Peter S. Lomdahl, and Brad

  10. Readout of the UFFO Slewing Mirror Telescope to detect UV/optical photons from Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. E.; Lim, H.; Nam, J. W.; Brandt, S.; Budtz-Jørgensen, C.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Chen, P.; Choi, H. S.; Grossan, B.; Huang, M. A.; Jeong, S.; Jung, A.; Kim, M. B.; Kim, S.-W.; Lee, J.; Linder, E. V.; Liu, T.-C.; Na, G. W.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Park, I. H.; Ripa, J.; Reglero, V.; Smoot, G. F.; Svertilov, S.; Vedenkin, N.; Yashin, I.

    2013-07-01

    The Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) was proposed for rapid response to prompt UV/optical photons from Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). The SMT is a key component of the Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO)-pathfinder, which will be launched aboard the Lomonosov spacecraft at the end of 2013. The SMT utilizes a motorized mirror that slews rapidly forward to its target within a second after triggering by an X-ray coded mask camera, which makes unnecessary a reorientation of the entire spacecraft. Subsequent measurement of the UV/optical is accomplished by a 10 cm aperture Ritchey-Chrètien telescope and the focal plane detector of Intensified Charge-Coupled Device (ICCD). The ICCD is sensitive to UV/optical photons of 200-650 nm in wavelength by using a UV-enhanced S20 photocathode and amplifies photoelectrons at a gain of 104-106 in double Micro-Channel Plates. These photons are read out by a Kodak KAI-0340 interline CCD sensor and a CCD Signal Processor with 10-bit Analog-to-Digital Converter. Various control clocks for CCD readout are implemented using a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The SMT readout is in charge of not only data acquisition, storage and transfer, but also control of the slewing mirror, the ICCD high voltage adjustments, power distribution, and system monitoring by interfacing to the UFFO-pathfinder. These functions are realized in the FPGA to minimize power consumption and to enhance processing time. The SMT readout electronics are designed and built to meet the spacecraft's constraints of power consumption, mass, and volume. The entire system is integrated with the SMT optics, as is the UFFO-pathfinder. The system has been tested and satisfies the conditions of launch and those of operation in space: those associated with shock and vibration and those associated with thermal and vacuum, respectively. In this paper, we present the SMT readout electronics: the design, construction, and performance, as well as the results of space environment test.

  11. The interactions of the bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 with basalt rock, on Earth and in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byloos, Bo; Van Houdt, Rob; Leys, Natalie; Ilyin, Vyacheslav; Nicholson, Natasha; Childers, Delma; Cockell, Charles; Boon, Nico

    2016-07-01

    Microbe-mineral interactions have become of interest for space exploration as microorganisms can biomine elements from extra-terrestrial materials, which could be used as nutrients in a life support system. This research is aimed at identifying the molecular mechanisms behind the interaction of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 with basalt, a lunar-type rock, and determining the influence of space flight conditions on this interaction. Survival and physiology of CH34 was monitored, with and without basalt, in mineral water over several months by flow cytometry, plate counts, ICP-MS, microscopy and proteomics. To study the influence of space conditions, a flight experiment on board the Russian FOTON-M4 capsule was performed. The results obtained from from water survival experiments on ground showed that CH34 was able to survive in mineral water, in the absence and presence of basalt, for several months. The total cell concentration remained stable but the cultivable fraction dropped to 10%, indicating a transition to a more dormant state. In the presence of basalt, this transition was less pronounced and cultivability was enhanced. In addition, with basalt, CH34 attached to the rock surface and formed a biofilm. The space flight experiment indicated more viable and cultivable cells compared to the ground experiment, both in the absence and presence of basalt, indicating a positive effect of space flight on survival. Chemical analysis indicated that basalt leaches out elements which may contribute to a positive effect of basalt on survival. Basalt may thus enhance survival and viability of CH34 both in ground and space flight experimental conditions. This study hopefully can contribute to a better understanding of microbe-mineral interactions, opening the door to future applications, in space, and on Earth. Acknowledgments: This work is supported by the European Space Agency (ESA-PRODEX) and the Belgian Science Policy (Belspo) through the BIOROCK project. We thank Kai

  12. Diversity and Evolution of Type IV pili Systems in Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Makarova, Kira S.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Albers, Sonja-Verena

    2016-01-01

    Many surface structures in archaea including various types of pili and the archaellum (archaeal flagellum) are homologous to bacterial type IV pili systems (T4P). The T4P consist of multiple proteins, often with poorly conserved sequences, complicating their identification in sequenced genomes. Here we report a comprehensive census of T4P encoded in archaeal genomes using sensitive methods for protein sequence comparison. This analysis confidently identifies as T4P components about 5000 archaeal gene products, 56% of which are currently annotated as hypothetical in public databases. Combining results of this analysis with a comprehensive comparison of genomic neighborhoods of the T4P, we present models of organization of 10 most abundant variants of archaeal T4P. In addition to the differentiation between major and minor pilins, these models include extra components, such as S-layer proteins, adhesins and other membrane and intracellular proteins. For most of these systems, dedicated major pilin families are identified including numerous stand alone major pilin genes of the PilA family. Evidence is presented that secretion ATPases of the T4P and cognate TadC proteins can interact with different pilin sets. Modular evolution of T4P results in combinatorial variability of these systems. Potential regulatory or modulating proteins for the T4P are identified including KaiC family ATPases, vWA domain-containing proteins and the associated MoxR/GvpN ATPase, TFIIB homologs and multiple unrelated transcription regulators some of which are associated specific T4P. Phylogenomic analysis suggests that at least one T4P system was present in the last common ancestor of the extant archaea. Multiple cases of horizontal transfer and lineage-specific duplication of T4P loci were detected. Generally, the T4P of the archaeal TACK superphylum are more diverse and evolve notably faster than those of euryarchaea. The abundance and enormous diversity of T4P in hyperthermophilic archaea

  13. An Acoustic Charge Transport Imager for High Definition Television

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, William D.; Brennan, Kevin; May, Gary; Glenn, William E.; Richardson, Mike; Solomon, Richard

    1999-01-01

    This project, over its term, included funding to a variety of companies and organizations. In addition to Georgia Tech these included Florida Atlantic University with Dr. William E. Glenn as the P.I., Kodak with Mr. Mike Richardson as the P.I. and M.I.T./Polaroid with Dr. Richard Solomon as the P.I. The focus of the work conducted by these organizations was the development of camera hardware for High Definition Television (HDTV). The focus of the research at Georgia Tech was the development of new semiconductor technology to achieve a next generation solid state imager chip that would operate at a high frame rate (I 70 frames per second), operate at low light levels (via the use of avalanche photodiodes as the detector element) and contain 2 million pixels. The actual cost required to create this new semiconductor technology was probably at least 5 or 6 times the investment made under this program and hence we fell short of achieving this rather grand goal. We did, however, produce a number of spin-off technologies as a result of our efforts. These include, among others, improved avalanche photodiode structures, significant advancement of the state of understanding of ZnO/GaAs structures and significant contributions to the analysis of general GaAs semiconductor devices and the design of Surface Acoustic Wave resonator filters for wireless communication. More of these will be described in the report. The work conducted at the partner sites resulted in the development of 4 prototype HDTV cameras. The HDTV camera developed by Kodak uses the Kodak KAI-2091M high- definition monochrome image sensor. This progressively-scanned charge-coupled device (CCD) can operate at video frame rates and has 9 gm square pixels. The photosensitive area has a 16:9 aspect ratio and is consistent with the "Common Image Format" (CIF). It features an active image area of 1928 horizontal by 1084 vertical pixels and has a 55% fill factor. The camera is designed to operate in continuous mode

  14. CD82 suppresses CD44 alternative splicing-dependent melanoma metastasis by mediating U2AF2 ubiquitination and degradation

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Ailing; Zhu, Huifeng; Ren, Qiao; Wang, Bochu; Xu, Xingran; Bai, Huiyuan; Dong, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the most lethal forms of skin cancer due to its early metastatic spread. The variant form of CD44 (CD44v), a cell surface glycoprotein, is highly expressed on metastatic melanoma. The mechanisms of regulation of CD44 alternative splicing in melanoma and its pathogenic contributions are so far poorly understood. Here, we investigated the expression level of CD44 in a large set of melanocytic lesions at different stages. We found that the expression of CD44v8-10 and a splicing factor, U2AF2, is significantly increased during melanoma progression, while CD82/KAI1, a tetraspanin family of tumor suppressor, is reduced in metastatic melanoma. CD44v8-10 and U2AF2 expressions which are negatively correlated with CD82 levels are dramatically elevated in primary melanoma compared with dysplastic nevi and further increased in metastatic melanoma. We also showed that patients with higher CD44v8-10 and U2AF2 expression levels tended to have shorter survival. By using both in vivo and in vitro assays, we demonstrated that CD82 inhibits the production of CD44v8-10 on melanoma. Mechanistically, U2AF2 is a downstream target of CD82 and in malignant melanoma facilitates CD44v8-10 alternative splicing. U2AF2-mediated CD44 isoform switch is required for melanoma migration in vitro and lung and liver metastasis in vivo. Notably, overexpression of CD82 suppresses U2AF2 activity by inducing U2AF2 ubiquitination. In addition, our data suggested that enhancement of melanoma migration by U2AF2-dependent CD44v8-10 splicing is mediated by Src/FAK/RhoA activation and formation of stress fibers as well as CD44-E-selectin binding reinforcement. These findings uncovered a hitherto unappreciated function of CD82 in severing the linkage between U2AF2-mediated CD44 alternative splicing and cancer aggressiveness, with potential prognostic and therapeutic implications in melanoma. PMID:27041584

  15. Mesoscale Dongsha Cyclonic Eddy in the northern South China Sea by drifter and satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Chun-Hoe; Hu, Jian-Hwa; Centurioni, Luca R.; Niiler, Pearn P.

    2008-04-01

    Near the center of the northern South China Sea (NSCS), the Dongsha atoll is situated on the continental slope that runs from Taiwan to Hainan. A mesoscale cyclonic eddy, south or southwest of Dongsha, seems to appear annually and has been identified as the Dongsha Cyclonic Eddy (DCE). Historical drifter (1988-2005) and satellite altimeter (2000-2005) data were adopted to study the variations to, and characteristics of, the DCE. Some typical features were derived such as mean tangential speed of ˜20 cm/s, moving speed of ˜8 km/d (i.e., 9 cm/s), eddy size of ˜22 × 103 km2, center sea surface lowering (height difference, DIF) of ˜6 cm, and angular velocity of ˜9°/d. Mean tangential speeds of 12-16 cm/s in late spring and summer are slower than those of 16-31 cm/s in winter and early spring. Moving speeds are of the order of the Rossby wave at NSCS latitudes. Variations in the time series of eddy size and DIF are generally similar and show a positive linear relation between them. The DCE starts near Dongsha and moves southwestward along the continental slope at a depth of 1000-2000 m. The eddy peaks with maximum eddy size and DIF when reaching 114°E, and then diminishes south of Hainan because of trapping of the underwater bay formed by the continental slope. The DCE typically exists 1-2 times per year and lasts 1-3 months. Roughly 90% of observed DCEs formed in winter or spring. A unique DCE was identified in the summer of 2000 and lasted for over 4 months. Its birth was associated with typhoon Kai-Tak. The positive linear relationship between eddy size and DIF in this case was unique before reaching 114°E and then returned to the typical relationship of other DCEs. The DIF of this unique DCE attained the highest of 24 cm right at the climax longitude. According to AVHHR and SeaWIFs images, such a DCE is associated with a core of which sea surface temperature is ˜2°C lower and chlorophyll-a concentration is ˜0.1 mg/m3 higher than those of surrounding seas

  16. Interaction of taurine on baclofen intestinal absorption: a nonlinear mathematical treatment using differential equations to describe kinetic inhibition models.

    PubMed

    Moll-Navarro, M J; Merino, M; Casabó, V G; Nácher, A; Polache, A

    1996-11-01

    Previous studies showed that the in situ absorption of baclofen in rat jejunum was inhibited by beta-alanine, a nonessential amino acid, and therefore mediated, at least in part, by some beta-amino acid carrier. In this paper a similar study was undertaken using taurine, a sulfonic beta-amino acid, in order to evaluate its effect and to establish a general inhibition model. To achieve this goal, remaining concentrations of inhibitor were also measured and incorporated into the model. Previously, kinetic absorption in situ parameters for taurine in free solution were obtained: Vm = 27.73 +/- 9.99 mM h-1, K(m) = 8.06 +/- 2.82 mM, Ka (passive difussion component) = 0.40 +/- 0.28 h-1. Isotonic solutions containing 0.5 mM baclofen with starting taurine concentrations ranging from 0 to 100 mM were perfused in rat jejunum, and the remaining concentrations of both compounds were measured. The apparent rate pseudoconstant of the drug clearly decreased as the remaining taurine concentration increased. The interaction can be described as a complete competitive inhibition plus a second component, K, noninhibited, K = 0.58 (+/- 0.03) h-1, Ki = 20.62 (+/- 4.04) mM, Vmi = 28.12 (+/- 6.12) mM h-1, Kmi = 11.71 (+/- 2.53) mM, Kai = 0.47 (+/- 0.10) h-1. A residual absorption of baclofen in the presence of high taurine concentrations was observed, which should be attributed to another transport system not associated with the taurine carrier. In order to elucidate whether or not taurine and beta-alanine carriers are two separate entities that baclofen can use for absorption, further experiments using beta-alanine and taurine together as inhibitors (baclofen, 0.5 mM; beta-alanine, 50 mM, and taurine, 50 mM) were developed. Results indicated that baclofen and both amino acids share the same carrier in the intestinal absorption process. We have completed studies using leucine, taurine, and GABA together as inhibitors of drug absorption. An isotonic perfusion solution of 0.5 mM baclofen in

  17. Small angle X-ray scattering as a high-throughput method to classify antimicrobial modes of action.

    PubMed

    von Gundlach, A R; Garamus, V M; Gorniak, T; Davies, H A; Reischl, M; Mikut, R; Hilpert, K; Rosenhahn, A

    2016-05-01

    days or weeks per single substance. The antimicrobial peptide showed a different mode of action as all tested antibiotics including polymyxin B and is therefore a good candidate for further drug development. We envision SAXS to become a useful tool within the high-throughput screening pipeline of modern drug discovery. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antimicrobial peptides edited by Karl Lohner and Kai Hilpert. PMID:26730877

  18. Spatiotemporal chaos in electroconvection of a homeotropically aligned nematic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sheng-Qi; Ahlers, Guenter

    2006-10-01

    We present patterns of electroconvection (EC) for the homeotropically aligned nematic liquid crystal MBBA. A voltage V = square root of 2V0 sin(2pift) was applied. With increasing V0, the bend Freedericksz transition at VF was followed by the onset of EC at Vc > VF. We found four distinct pattern types. First, a primary supercritical Hopf bifurcation to traveling waves (TW's) of convection rolls occurred. The structure factor S(k) of this state reflected the azimuthal anisotropy of the underlying Freedericksz state. For f < fL approximately 75 Hz there was a superposition of two oblique-roll modes (pattern I). These patterns were chaotic in space and time. For larger f the patterns consisted of chaotic TW normal rolls (pattern II). Here the chaos was attributable to the motion of dislocations and domain walls between left- and right-traveling waves. A secondary bifurcation yielded pattern III; it had no dominant TW frequency but had broadband chaotic dynamics dominated by the motion of dislocations. This pattern type had been referred to by others as a "chevron pattern;" its structure factor still revealed azimuthal anisotropy. Finally, at somewhat larger identical with epsilon = V2/Vc2 -1 a highly disordered pattern IV with defect dynamics was found. This state had been studied before by Kai and co-workers and was referred to by them as "phase turbulence." It had a structure factor that was (within our resolution) invariant under rotation. For patterns I, II, and III, S(k) contained crescent-shaped peaks. The peak shape was qualitatively different from the case of planar EC where the structure factor has an elliptical cross section. We present measurements of the widths 1/xik and 1/xitheta in the radial (k) and the azimuthal (theta) directions. For small epsilon (patterns I and II) we found that xik was consistent with the usual Ginzburg-Landau scaling xik approximately epsilon(-nuk) with nuk approximately 1/2. However, for xitheta we found xitheta approximately

  19. PREFACE: International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Simon C.; Shen, Stella; Neufeld, Niko; Gutsche, Oliver; Cattaneo, Marco; Fisk, Ian; Panzer-Steindel, Bernd; Di Meglio, Alberto; Lokajicek, Milos

    2011-12-01

    , as well as two banquets held at the Grand Hotel and Grand Formosa Regent in Taipei. The next CHEP conference will be held in New York, the United States on 21-25 May 2012. We would like to thank the National Science Council of Taiwan, the EU ACEOLE project, commercial sponsors, and the International Advisory Committee and the Programme Committee members for all their support and help. Special thanks to the Programme Committee members for their careful choice of conference contributions and enormous effort in reviewing and editing about 340 post conference proceedings papers. Simon C Lin CHEP 2010 Conference Chair and Proceedings Editor Taipei, Taiwan November 2011 Track Editors/ Programme Committee Chair Simon C Lin, Academia Sinica, Taiwan Online Computing Track Y H Chang, National Central University, Taiwan Harry Cheung, Fermilab, USA Niko Neufeld, CERN, Switzerland Event Processing Track Fabio Cossutti, INFN Trieste, Italy Oliver Gutsche, Fermilab, USA Ryosuke Itoh, KEK, Japan Software Engineering, Data Stores, and Databases Track Marco Cattaneo, CERN, Switzerland Gang Chen, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China Stefan Roiser, CERN, Switzerland Distributed Processing and Analysis Track Kai-Feng Chen, National Taiwan University, Taiwan Ulrik Egede, Imperial College London, UK Ian Fisk, Fermilab, USA Fons Rademakers, CERN, Switzerland Torre Wenaus, BNL, USA Computing Fabrics and Networking Technologies Track Harvey Newman, Caltech, USA Bernd Panzer-Steindel, CERN, Switzerland Antonio Wong, BNL, USA Ian Fisk, Fermilab, USA Niko Neufeld, CERN, Switzerland Grid and Cloud Middleware Track Alberto Di Meglio, CERN, Switzerland Markus Schulz, CERN, Switzerland Collaborative Tools Track Joao Correia Fernandes, CERN, Switzerland Philippe Galvez, Caltech, USA Milos Lokajicek, FZU Prague, Czech Republic International Advisory Committee Chair: Simon C. Lin , Academia Sinica, Taiwan Members: Mohammad Al-Turany , FAIR, Germany Sunanda Banerjee, Fermilab, USA Dario Barberis, CERN

  20. PREFACE: 17th International Conference on Recent Progress in Many-Body Theories (MBT17)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinholz, Heidi; Boronat, Jordi

    2014-08-01

    imaginative use and development of the Monte-Carlo approach and for his ground-breaking contributions to superconductivity. The Kümmel Award went to Max Metlitski (UC Santa Barbara) for remarkable advances in the theory of quantum criticality in metals. The nominations for the Kümmel Award were of such high standard that the Committee announced Honourable Mentions to Martin Eckstein (MPDS/U Hamburg, Germany) for his leading contributions in the development of non-equilibrium dynamical mean field theory, Emanuel Gull (U Michigan, USA) for the development of the Continuous-Time Auxiliary-Field Quantum Monte Carlo Method and for its use in understanding the interplay of the pseudogap and superconductivity in the Hubbard model and Kai Sun (U Michigan, USA) for seminal contributions to the theory of topological effects in strongly correlated electron systems. The Conference continues the series of conferences held before in Trieste, Italy (1979); Oaxtapec, Mexico (1981); Odenthal-Altenberg, Germany (1983); San Francisco, USA (1985); Oulu, Finland (1987); Arad, Israel (1989); Minneapolis, USA (1991); Schloé Segau, Austria (1994); Sydney, Australia (1997); Seattle, USA (1999); Manchester, UK (2001); Santa Fe, USA (2004); Buenos Aires, Argentina (2005); Barcelona, Spain (2007); Columbus, USA (2009) and Bariloche, Argentina (2011). It has been a great pleasure to prepare for the conference. We thank the IAC and in particular Susana Hernandez and David Neilson as well as the International Programme Committee for their great support and advice. Many more people have been involved locally in organizing this international meeting and thanks goes to them, in particular to the members of the LOC Sonja Lorenzen, Dieter Bauer, Niels-Uwe Bastian, Marina Hertzfeldt, Volker Mosert and Gerd Röpke. The next meeting will take place in Buffalo, USA in 2015 and we look forward to yet another exciting exchange on Recent Progress in Many-Body Theories. Heidi Reinholz and Jordi Boronat Guest editors

  1. Earthquake prediction in Japan and natural time analysis of seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uyeda, S.; Varotsos, P.

    2011-12-01

    M9 super-giant earthquake with huge tsunami devastated East Japan on 11 March, causing more than 20,000 casualties and serious damage of Fukushima nuclear plant. This earthquake was predicted neither short-term nor long-term. Seismologists were shocked because it was not even considered possible to happen at the East Japan subduction zone. However, it was not the only un-predicted earthquake. In fact, throughout several decades of the National Earthquake Prediction Project, not even a single earthquake was predicted. In reality, practically no effective research has been conducted for the most important short-term prediction. This happened because the Japanese National Project was devoted for construction of elaborate seismic networks, which was not the best way for short-term prediction. After the Kobe disaster, in order to parry the mounting criticism on their no success history, they defiantly changed their policy to "stop aiming at short-term prediction because it is impossible and concentrate resources on fundamental research", that meant to obtain "more funding for no prediction research". The public were and are not informed about this change. Obviously earthquake prediction would be possible only when reliable precursory phenomena are caught and we have insisted this would be done most likely through non-seismic means such as geochemical/hydrological and electromagnetic monitoring. Admittedly, the lack of convincing precursors for the M9 super-giant earthquake has adverse effect for us, although its epicenter was far out off shore of the range of operating monitoring systems. In this presentation, we show a new possibility of finding remarkable precursory signals, ironically, from ordinary seismological catalogs. In the frame of the new time domain termed natural time, an order parameter of seismicity, κ1, has been introduced. This is the variance of natural time kai weighted by normalised energy release at χ. In the case that Seismic Electric Signals

  2. Determination for regional differences of agriculture using satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, G.

    2006-12-01

    Remote Sensing Laboratory, Field Science Center, Graduate School of Agriculture Science, Tohoku University starts at April 2004. For studies and education at the laboratory we are now developing the system of remote sensing and GIS. Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC) made the Home Pages of Terra/ASTER Image Web Library 3 "The Major Airport of the World." http://www.Ersdac.or.jp/ASTERimage3/library_E.html. First, we check the Airport Data to use agricultural understanding for the world. Almost major airport is located in rural area and surrounded with agriculture field. To survey the agriculture field adjacent to the major airport has almost the same condition of human activities. The images are same size and display about 18km X 14km. We can easily understand field size and surrounding conditions. We study seven airports as follows, 1. Tokyo Narita Airport (NRT), Japan, 2. Taipei Chiang kai Shek International Airport (TPE), Taiwan, 3. Bangkok International Airport (BKK), Thailand, 4. Riyadh King Khalid International Airport (RUH), Saudi Arabia, 5. Charles de Gaulle Airport (CDG), Paris, France, 6. Vienna International Airport (VIE), Austria, 7. Denver International Airport (DEN), CO, USA. At the area of Tokyo Narita Airport, there are many golf courses, big urban area and small size of agricultural fields. At Taipei Airport area are almost same as Tokyo Narita Airport area and there are many ponds for irrigations. Bangkok Airport area also has golf courses and many ponds for irrigation water. Riyadh Airport area is quite different from others, and there are large bare soils and small agriculture fields with irrigation and circle shape. Paris Airport area and Vienna Airport area are almost agricultural fields and there are vegetated field and bare soil fields because of crop rotation. Denver Airport area consists of almost agriculture fields and each field size is very large. The advantages of ASTER data are as follows, 1. High-resolution and large

  3. Morphology and Chemical composition of Atmospheric Particles over Semi-Arid region (Jaipur, Rajasthan) of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S. K.; Agnihotri, R.; Yadav, P.; Singh, S.; Tawale, J. S.; Rashmi, R.; Prasad, M.; Arya, B. C.; Mishra, N.

    2012-12-01

    %), i.e. a key element (in form of hematite; Fe2O3) for solar (visible) energy absorption and thus heating the atmosphere. The retrieved morphological parameters help to construct particle shape and number size distribution that are highly useful to reduce the uncertainty in radiative forcing of dust particles appreciably when combined with particle chemical composition as suggested by Kalashnikova and Sokolik (2004). References : Mishra, S. K., and S. N. Tripathi (2008), Modeling optical properties of mineral dust over the Indian Desert, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D23201, 19 PP., doi:10.1029/2008JD010048. Okada, K., J. Heintzenberg, K. Kai, and Y. Qin (2001), Shape of atmospheric mineral particles collected in three Chinese arid-regions, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 3123-3126 Kalashnikova OV, Sokolik IN. (2004) Modeling the radiative properties of nonspherical soil-derived mineral aerosols, J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer, 87, 137-66.

  4. Noise in Nonlinear Dynamical Systems 3 Volume Paperback Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Frank; McClintock, P. V. E.

    2011-11-01

    ring-laser gyroscope K. Vogel, H. Risken and W. Schleich; 12. Control of noise and applications to optical systems L. A. Lugiato, G. Broggi, M. Merri and M. A. Pernigo; 13. Transition probabilities and spectral density of fluctuations of noise driven bistable systems M. I. Dykman, M. A. Krivoglaz and S. M. Soskin; Index. Volume 3: List of contributors; Preface; Introduction to volume three; 1. The effects of coloured quadratic noise on a turbulent transition in liquid He II J. T. Tough; 2. Electrohydrodynamic instability of nematic liquid crystals: growth process and influence of noise S. Kai; 3. Suppression of electrohydrodynamic instabilities by external noise Helmut R. Brand; 4. Coloured noise in dye laser fluctuations R. Roy, A. W. Yu and S. Zhu; 5. Noisy dynamics in optically bistable systems E. Arimondo, D. Hennequin and P. Glorieux; 6. Use of an electronic model as a guideline in experiments on transient optical bistability W. Lange; 7. Computer experiments in nonlinear stochastic physics Riccardo Mannella; 8. Analogue simulations of stochastic processes by means of minimum component electronic devices Leone Fronzoni; 9. Analogue techniques for the study of problems in stochastic nonlinear dynamics P. V. E. McClintock and Frank Moss; Index.

  5. Investigation Into the Accuracy of 3D Surface Roughness Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumermanis, M.; Rudzitis, J.; Mozga, N.; Ancans, A.; Grislis, A.

    2014-04-01

    ārt pārāk liels punktu skaits nedod būtisku informācijas pieaugumu, bet palielina mērījumam nepieciešamo laiku. Līdz ar to, mums ir jāatrod optimālākais datu punktu skaits katrai virsmas apstrādes metodei vai to grupai.

  6. The relationship between shellbed type and sequence architecture: examples from Japan and New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Yasuo; Abbott, Stephen T.; Kitamura, Akihisa; Kamp, Peter J. J.; Naish, Tim R.; Kamataki, Takanobu; Saul, Gordon S.

    1998-12-01

    Examples of lithology, fossil content and taphonomic features of shellbeds and intervening less fossiliferous intervals are presented from four Plio-Pleistocene successions (Shimosa Group, Boso Peninsula, Omma Formation, Hokuriku area, Japan, and Okehu, Kai-iwi, and Shakespeare groups in Wanganui, and the Rangitikei Group along the Rangitikei River in New Zealand). As for pre-Pliocene 3rd- and 4th-order depositional sequences, Plio-Pleistocene 5th- to 7th-order depositional sequences contain a variety of shellbeds which are often associated with surfaces or intervals that are characterized by sedimentary condensation, omission or erosion (e.g. sequence boundaries, ravinement surfaces, downlap surfaces and condensed sections). Stratigraphic patterns of shellbed type tend to be similar and repetitive within a basin and a locality. This demonstrates that a specific palaeogeography played an important role in determining the nature of shellbeds. For example, shellbeds formed in the context of toplap are common only in the Shimosa Group, which was deposited in a moderately sheltered sea, the palaeo-Tokyo Bay. Toplap shellbeds are rare in other sequences formed in more open conditions. Despite the variability resulting from such basin characteristics, common styles of shellbeds can be recognized that formed under conditions of marine onlap, backlap, downlap and toplap. Each type of shellbed has a characteristic fossil composition and taphonomy. Onlap and toplap shellbeds contain low-diversity macrobenthic associations including Glycymeris, Mercenaria, Paphies or other bivalves having robust shells, which are often abraded or fragmented. Backlap shellbeds, which are equivalent to the condensed section formed at the maximum transgression, are characterized by dominance of epifaunal macrobenthos such as bryozoa, brachiopoda, pectinid and ostreid bivalves, preserved in a slightly cemented, glauconitic muddy matrix. In contrast to fossils in such condensed sections, the shell

  7. Monitoring of near surface CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, E.; Möller, I.; Teschner, M.; Poggenburg, J.; Spickenbom, K.; Schulz, H. J.

    2009-04-01

    Monitoring of near surface CO2 ECKHARD FABER1, INGO MÖLLER1, MANFRED TESCHNER1, JÜRGEN POGGENBURG1, KAI SPICKENBOM1, HANS-MARTIN SCHULZ1,2 1Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Stilleweg 2, D-30655 Hannover, e.faber@bgr.de 2present adress: GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), Telegrafenberg, D-14473 Potsdam Underground gas storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide is one of the methods to reduce the input of antropogenic CO2 into the atmosphere and its greenhouse effect. Storage of CO2 is planned in depleted reservoirs, in aquifers and in salt caverns. Storage sites must have very small leakage rates to safely store the CO2 for centuries. Thus, a careful investigation and site selection is crucial. However, any leakage of CO2 to the surface is potentially dangerous for humans and environment. Therefore, instruments and systems for the detection of any CO2 escaping the storage sites and reaching the atmosphere have to be developed. Systems to monitor gases in deep wells, groundwater and surface sediments for leaking CO2 are developed, tested and are contnuously improved. Our group is mainly analysing CO2 in shallow (down to 3 m) soil samples using automatically operating monitoring systems. The systems are equipped with sensors to measure CO2 (and other gases) concentrations and other environmental parameters (atmospheric pressure, ambient and soil temperatures, etc.). Data are measured in short intervals (minute to subminute), are stored locally and are transferred by telemetrical systems into the BGR laboratory (Weinlich et al., 2006). In addition to soil gases monitoring systems technical equipment is available for continuous underwater gas flow measurements. Several of those monitoring systems are installed in different areas like Czech Republic, Austria, Italy and Germany. To detect any leaking gas from a sequestration site after CO2 injection, the naturally existing CO2 concentration (before injection) must be known. Thus, the natural

  8. The Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) aboard the Mars rover, Curiosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgett, K. S.; Ravine, M. A.; Caplinger, M. A.; Ghaemi, F. T.; Schaffner, J. A.; Malin, M. C.; Baker, J. M.; Dibiase, D. R.; Laramee, J.; Maki, J. N.; Willson, R. G.; Bell, J. F., III; Cameron, J. F.; Dietrich, W. E.; Edwards, L. J.; Hallet, B.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Heydari, E.; Kah, L. C.; Lemmon, M. T.; Minitti, M. E.; Olson, T. S.; Parker, T. J.; Rowland, S. K.; Schieber, J.; Sullivan, R. J.; Sumner, D. Y.; Thomas, P. C.; Yingst, R. A.

    2009-08-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity, is expected to land on Mars in 2012. The Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) will be used to document martian rocks and regolith with a 2-megapixel RGB color CCD camera with a focusable macro lens mounted on an instrument-bearing turret on the end of Curiosity's robotic arm. The flight MAHLI can focus on targets at working distances of 20.4 mm to infinity. At 20.4 mm, images have a pixel scale of 13.9 μm/pixel. The pixel scale at 66 mm working distance is about the same (31 μm/pixel) as that of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Microscopic Imager (MI). MAHLI camera head placement is dependent on the capabilities of the MSL robotic arm, the design for which presently has a placement uncertainty of ~20 mm in 3 dimensions; hence, acquisition of images at the minimum working distance may be challenging. The MAHLI consists of 3 parts: a camera head, a Digital Electronics Assembly (DEA), and a calibration target. The camera head and DEA are connected by a JPL-provided cable which transmits data, commands, and power. JPL is also providing a contact sensor. The camera head will be mounted on the rover's robotic arm turret, the DEA will be inside the rover body, and the calibration target will be mounted on the robotic arm azimuth motor housing. Camera Head. MAHLI uses a Kodak KAI-2020CM interline transfer CCD (1600 x 1200 active 7.4 μm square pixels with RGB filtered microlenses arranged in a Bayer pattern). The optics consist of a group of 6 fixed lens elements, a movable group of 3 elements, and a fixed sapphire window front element. Undesired near-infrared radiation is blocked using a coating deposited on the inside surface of the sapphire window. The lens is protected by a dust cover with a Lexan window through which imaging can be ac-complished if necessary, and targets can be illuminated by sunlight or two banks of two white light LEDs. Two 365 nm UV LEDs are included to search for fluores-cent materials at night. DEA

  9. Summary of the Oahu, Hawaii, Regional Aquifer-System Analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, William D.; Shade, Patricia J.; Hunt, Charles D.

    1996-01-01

    island. A regional aquifer system composed of the Waianae aquifer in the Waianae Volcanics and the Koolau aquifer in the Koolau Basalt is subdivided into well-defined areas by geohydrologic barriers. The aquifers are separated by the Waianae confining unit formed by weathering along the Waianae-Koolau unconformity. In some coastal areas, a caprock of sedimentary deposits overlies and confines the aquifers. The island of Oahu has been divided into seven major ground-water areas delineated by deep-seated structural geohydrologic barriers; these areas are further subdivided by shallower internal barriers to ground-water flow. The Koolau rift zone along the eastern (windward) side of the island and the Waianae rift zone to the west (Waianae area) constitute two of the major ground-water areas. North-central Oahu is divided into three smaller ground-water areas, Mokuleia, Waialua, and Kawailoa. The Schofield ground-water area encompasses much of the Schofield Plateau of central Oahu. Southern Oahu is divided into six areas, Ewa, Pearl Harbor, Moanalua, Kalihi, Beretania, and Kaimuki. Southeastern Oahu is divided into the Waialae and Wailupe-Hawaii Kai areas. Along the northeast coast of windward Oahu is the Kahuku ground-water area. The aquifers of Oahu contain shallow freshwater and deeper saltwater flow systems. There are five fresh ground-water flow systems: meteoric freshwater flow diverges from ground-water divides that lie somewhere within the Waianae and Koolau rift zones, forming an interior flow system in central Oahu (which is divided into the northern and southern Oahu flow systems) and exterior flow systems in western (Waianae area) Oahu, eastern (windward) Oahu, and southeastern Oahu. Development of the ground-water resources on Oahu began when the first well was drilled near Honouliuli in the summer of 1879. By 1890, 86 wells had been drilled on the island. From about 1891 to about 1910, development increased rapidly with the drilling of a

  10. A new phase of matter in Oakland

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Spencer; Nystrand, Joakim

    2004-03-18

    Recent results from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the phase diagram of matter at very high energies were the focal points of Quark Matter 2004, held January 10-17, 2004 in the Oakland, California convention center. About 700 participants, including 125 students, from 28 countries gathered for 5 days of plenary and parallel sessions. Besides the scientific discussions, participants enjoyed an afternoon of excursions; choices included visits to San Francisco, the Muir woods, and, of course, a chance to sample Napa Valley wines. There was also a day of introductory lectures for graduate students and a separate afternoon program for 50 local high school teachers. The ''Quark Matter'' conference series has evolved into the premier venue for relativistic heavy ion collisions, and QM2004 was no exception. The 44 plenary and 92 parallel session talks featured a veritable flood of data from STAR (Kai Schweda, LBNL), PHENIX (Tony Frawley, Florida State), PHOBOS (Peter Steinberg, BNL) and BRAHMS (Michael Murray, Kansas), at RHIC. This was accompanied by contributions from HERMES ( Pasquale DiNezza, Frascati) and HERA-B (Joakim Spengler, Heidelberg) and continuing analyses from NA-49 (Marek Gazdzicki, Frankfurt) and NA-57 (Giuseppe Bruno, Bari) at the CERN SPS. The theoretical contributions presented a broad range of models and calculations, from microscopic particle-by-particle simulations to hydrodynamic models that model the bulk behavior using an equation of state. A focus of much discussion was the question ''Have we found the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP)?'' This search was the prime motivation to build RHIC. Although the RHIC experiments made no formal statement, most conference attendees seemed to feel that the answer was yes. No single measurement makes the case, but the variety of data featured at QM2004 seems most easily explained in the context of a QGP. Some of the signatures included the suppression of high transverse momentum (pT) particles and

  11. [Tuberculosis care and new horizon of Japanese society].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Nobukatsu; Nagayama, Naohiro

    2012-04-01

    SAWADA (Services for Health in Asian & African Regions (SHARE)). In 2006, Tokyo Metropolitan Government started to dispatch interpreters for foreigners to strengthen DOTS program. Collaboration with NGOs made it possible to train 37 volunteer interpreters, and to provide services in 13 languages, as of 2010. In Japan, the treatment defaulter rate among non-Japanese tuberculosis patients had been remarkably high. But with having the assistance of interpreters, the treatment completion rate has become higher than 80%. It is recommended to expand a similar system to other part of Japan, as the proportion of foreigners among total tuberculosis cases keeps on increasing nationwide. 3. Tuberculosis problems in Japan from the view point of homelessness-through the activities of a NPO supporting the homeless in collaboration with a public health center: Sadako KANAZAWA (Volunteer, NPO Medical Care Team of Shinjuku Renraku-Kai). It has been 20 years since the issue of homelessness emerged in Japanese society. The people with a history of both tuberculosis and experience of homelessness tend to show a poor prognosis. Our team has played an active role, working with Shinjuku Public Health Center for conducting a screening for tuberculosis every year. It seems that the screening service itself does not make a fundamental solution for homeless people with tuberculosis. Developing a more basic system of 'from street to apartment' is more essential. We believe that understanding the importance of the system is most essential to the people who are involved in health and medical care. 4. What we have learned from DOTS--Toward care by cuddling the patient's mind: Kazuyo ARIMA (PHN, Osaka City Public Health Center). Osaka City has achieved the goals of DOTS set up by the City's TB Control Guidelines since 2001 such as 80% DOTS implementation rate, halving the defaulter rate and incidence rate. It was shown by analysis that the treatment success depends on 'patient's awareness of the

  12. [Tuberculosis care and new horizon of Japanese society].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Nobukatsu; Nagayama, Naohiro

    2012-04-01

    SAWADA (Services for Health in Asian & African Regions (SHARE)). In 2006, Tokyo Metropolitan Government started to dispatch interpreters for foreigners to strengthen DOTS program. Collaboration with NGOs made it possible to train 37 volunteer interpreters, and to provide services in 13 languages, as of 2010. In Japan, the treatment defaulter rate among non-Japanese tuberculosis patients had been remarkably high. But with having the assistance of interpreters, the treatment completion rate has become higher than 80%. It is recommended to expand a similar system to other part of Japan, as the proportion of foreigners among total tuberculosis cases keeps on increasing nationwide. 3. Tuberculosis problems in Japan from the view point of homelessness-through the activities of a NPO supporting the homeless in collaboration with a public health center: Sadako KANAZAWA (Volunteer, NPO Medical Care Team of Shinjuku Renraku-Kai). It has been 20 years since the issue of homelessness emerged in Japanese society. The people with a history of both tuberculosis and experience of homelessness tend to show a poor prognosis. Our team has played an active role, working with Shinjuku Public Health Center for conducting a screening for tuberculosis every year. It seems that the screening service itself does not make a fundamental solution for homeless people with tuberculosis. Developing a more basic system of 'from street to apartment' is more essential. We believe that understanding the importance of the system is most essential to the people who are involved in health and medical care. 4. What we have learned from DOTS--Toward care by cuddling the patient's mind: Kazuyo ARIMA (PHN, Osaka City Public Health Center). Osaka City has achieved the goals of DOTS set up by the City's TB Control Guidelines since 2001 such as 80% DOTS implementation rate, halving the defaulter rate and incidence rate. It was shown by analysis that the treatment success depends on 'patient's awareness of the

  13. ESA and NASA agree new mission scenario for Cassini-Huygens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    may arise,” said John Credland, Head of ESA’s Space Science Projects Department. “The measure of an organisation is the manner in which it recovers.” The new mission scenario will have some impact on Cassini’s propellant supply, consuming about a quarter of the Orbiter’s reserve fuel by the end of the four-year mission. It also involves several modifications to ensure maximum efficiency of the Huygens communications system. These include pre-heating the Probe to improve tuning of the transmitted signal, continuous commanding by the Orbiter to force the receiver into non-Doppler mode, and changes in the Probe’s on-board software. "I am very happy that we have found a good engineering solution,” said Kai Clausen, ESA’s Integral Project Manager and co-chairman of the HRTF. “But a lot more work still needs to be done. Now we need to complete the detailed design, implementation, validation and testing over the next few years." “There are still some uncertainties, for example the exact definition of the landing site, but these are minor problems,” said Jean-Pierre Lebreton, ESA’s Huygens Project Scientist. “What is important is that we have found the solution. It is now time for fine tuning.” The ESA Director of Science, David Southwood, and the NASA Associate Director for Space Science, Edward Weiler, have jointly agreed to the new mission approach and have asked the HRTF to hand over to the project teams in July for implementation of the joint recommendations. (**) The Doppler shift is a measure of the difference in tone between an emitted and a received wave (e.g. radio) when the transmitting source and the receiver move one with respect to the other. Note to editors Cassini-Huygens is a joint NASA/ESA mission with the participation of the Italian Space Agency (ASI) launched by a Titan IVB/Centaur launch vehicle on 15 October 1997, that will reach Saturn in 2004. It consists of NASA's orbiter Cassini and ESA's probe Huygens. While Cassini

  14. Bright and dynamic, constantly updated and enhanced online.?

    PubMed

    Hunt

    2000-01-01

    Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology Nature Publishing Group (2000). ISSN 1471-0072. Monthly First there was Annual Reviews, then came the monthly Elsevier Trends Journals, both of which try to identify hot topics in their chosen fields. The Current Opinion journals followed several years later, and Current Opinion in Cell Biology is presently one of the highest 'impact factor' review journals, with a distinguished board of editors and advisors and a systematic approach to regular coverage of the major fields of cell biology. Important topics are visited once a year, whether or not something specially exciting happened in the last 12 months. Add to this list Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology, the FASEB journal and the countless minireviews in 'real' journals, and you begin to wonder how anyone finds any time for doing experiments, or indeed reading the primary literature. So, into this already crowded field arrive three important newcomers: Nature Reviews in Molecular Cell Biology, Genetics, and Neurosciences, of which the first two will probably interest readers of Journal of Cell Science the most. Backed by the name and money of Nature and edited by experienced Nature staff, it is hard to see how these publications can possibly do other than succeed with writers and readers alike. What's inside the first issue? The cover of Nature Reviews in Molecular Cell Biology presents a 3-colour montage of a blue cell nucleus surrounded by splotches of green GPI-anchored GFP overlaid by orange actin stress fibres that seem to come from somewhere else. This image trails a comprehensive review from Kai Simons and Derek Toomre about Lipid Rafts. There are another five major review articles: calcium puffs and sparks, rings around DNA, HIV inhibitors, kinesin and the circadian clock provide a rich and varied mix of topics from authors who know what they're talking about. Surrounding this core is an entertaining mixture of 'highlights' at the front: news and views about

  15. Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Due to Improvement of Biodegradable Waste Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendere, R.; Teibe, I.; Arina, D.; Lapsa, J.

    2014-12-01

    ārdāmo atkritumu apsaimniekošanas statistikas datu novērtējums atbilstoši likumdošanas prasībām. Izmantojot matemātisko modelēšanas programmu WAMPS, analizēti trīs dažādi bioloģisko noārdāmo atkritumu apsaimniekošanas scenāriji, kuriem veikts vides ietekmes novērtējums, kas izteikts klimata pārmaiņu potenciālā - tonnas CO2 ekv. Darbā secināts, ka lielākais siltumnīcefektu (SEG) avots atkritumu apsaimniekošanas ir atkritumu poligoni (Bāzes scenārijs), ko galvenokārt ietekmē CH4 rašanās, organiskajiem atkritumiem sadaloties anaerobos apstākļos. Būtisku pozitīvo efektu SEG emisiju samazināšanā dod atkritumu pārstrāde otrreizējās izejvielās un sadedzināšana cementa ražotnē, kas ļauj samazināt dabīgo izejmateriālu un fosilo enerģijas resursu patēriņu. Attīstot pārtikas atkritumu pārstrādi biogāzē, lietderīgi veidot alternatīvās vai izmantot esošās sistēmas, kas nodrošina iegūtās enerģijas un digestāta patēriņu, t.i lauksaimniecība, transports vai komunālie pakalpojumi. Lai no zaļajiem dārza atkritumiem iegūtu augstvērtīgu kompostu, valstī jārada tam nepieciešami likumdošanas un ekonomiskie instrumenti, kas veicina komposta tirgus attīstību.

  16. Exclusive Reactions at High Momentum Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radyushkin, Anatoly; Stoler, Paul

    2008-03-01

    . P. Szczepaniak and J. T. Londergan -- High energy break-up of few-nucleon systems / M. Sargsian -- Photodisintegration of the deuteron, and [symbol]He / R. Gilman -- A review of the few-body form factors / G. G. Petratos -- Nucleon form factor measurements and interpretation / C. F. Perdrisat -- Implications of G[symbol](Q[symbol])/G[symbol](Q[symbol]) / S. Dubnicka and A. Z. Dubnickova -- High Q[symbol] large acceptance G[symbol]/G[symbol] measurements using polarization transfer / L. Pentchev, C. F. Perdrisat and B. Wojtsekhowski -- A precise measurement of the neutron magnetic form factor G[symbol] in the few-GeV[symbol] region / G. P. Gilfoyle et al. (the CLAS collaboration) -- Magnetic form factor of the neutron up to 8 (GeV/c)[symbol] / B. Quinn -- Timelike form factors / K. K. Seth -- Polarization phenomena in e[symbol]e[symbol] [symbol] pp¯ revisited / A. Z. Dubnickova and S. Dubnicka -- Light-cone sum rules for form factors of the N[symbol] transition at Q[symbol] = 0 / J. Rohrwild -- Exclusive electroproduction of [symbol] mesons / A. N. Villano (for the JLab E01-002 collaboration) -- Exclusive electroproduction of [symbol] mesons in the S[symbol](1535) resonance region at high momentum transfer / M. M. Dalton (for the JLab E01-002 collaboration) -- Two-photon exchange in electron-proton elastic scattering: theory update / A. V. Afanasev -- Two-photon exchange contributions to elastic ep scattering in the non-local field formalism / P. Jain, S. D. Joglekar and S. Mitra -- Beyond the born approximation: a precise comparison of positron-proton and electron-proton elastic scattering in CLAS / J. Lachniet et al. -- Meson form factors in the space-like region / D. Gaskell -- Pion-nucleon distribution amplitudes / A. Peters -- [symbol] scattering in the 1/N[symbol] expansion / H. J. Kwee -- [symbol] annihilations into quasi-two-body final states at 10.58 GeV / Kai Yi -- Transition distribution amplitudes / J. P. Lansberg, B. Pire and L. Szymanowski -- Novel QCD

  17. Exclusive Reactions at High Momentum Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radyushkin, Anatoly; Stoler, Paul

    2008-03-01

    . P. Szczepaniak and J. T. Londergan -- High energy break-up of few-nucleon systems / M. Sargsian -- Photodisintegration of the deuteron, and [symbol]He / R. Gilman -- A review of the few-body form factors / G. G. Petratos -- Nucleon form factor measurements and interpretation / C. F. Perdrisat -- Implications of G[symbol](Q[symbol])/G[symbol](Q[symbol]) / S. Dubnicka and A. Z. Dubnickova -- High Q[symbol] large acceptance G[symbol]/G[symbol] measurements using polarization transfer / L. Pentchev, C. F. Perdrisat and B. Wojtsekhowski -- A precise measurement of the neutron magnetic form factor G[symbol] in the few-GeV[symbol] region / G. P. Gilfoyle et al. (the CLAS collaboration) -- Magnetic form factor of the neutron up to 8 (GeV/c)[symbol] / B. Quinn -- Timelike form factors / K. K. Seth -- Polarization phenomena in e[symbol]e[symbol] [symbol] pp¯ revisited / A. Z. Dubnickova and S. Dubnicka -- Light-cone sum rules for form factors of the N[symbol] transition at Q[symbol] = 0 / J. Rohrwild -- Exclusive electroproduction of [symbol] mesons / A. N. Villano (for the JLab E01-002 collaboration) -- Exclusive electroproduction of [symbol] mesons in the S[symbol](1535) resonance region at high momentum transfer / M. M. Dalton (for the JLab E01-002 collaboration) -- Two-photon exchange in electron-proton elastic scattering: theory update / A. V. Afanasev -- Two-photon exchange contributions to elastic ep scattering in the non-local field formalism / P. Jain, S. D. Joglekar and S. Mitra -- Beyond the born approximation: a precise comparison of positron-proton and electron-proton elastic scattering in CLAS / J. Lachniet et al. -- Meson form factors in the space-like region / D. Gaskell -- Pion-nucleon distribution amplitudes / A. Peters -- [symbol] scattering in the 1/N[symbol] expansion / H. J. Kwee -- [symbol] annihilations into quasi-two-body final states at 10.58 GeV / Kai Yi -- Transition distribution amplitudes / J. P. Lansberg, B. Pire and L. Szymanowski -- Novel QCD

  18. ESA presents INTEGRAL, its space observatory for Gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-09-01

    Baikonur is actually scheduled for 2001. ESA pioneered gamma-ray astronomy in space with its COS-B satellite (1975). Russia's Granat (1989) and NASA's Compton GRO (1991) followed. But INTEGRAL will be better still. With this mission ESA will further strengthen its lead in gamma-astronomy. Principal Investigators : Imager : Pietro Ubertini (IAS, Frascati, Italy) Spectrometer : Gilbert Vedrenne (CESR, Toulouse/France) Volker Schoenfelder (MPE, Garching/.Germany) X-Ray monitor : Niels Lund (DSRI, Copenhagen/Denmark) Optical Monitoring Camera : Alvaro Gimenez (INTA, Madrid/Spain) Integral Science Data Center : Thierry Courvoisier (Genova Observatory, Switzerland) For further information, please contact : ESA Public Relations Division Tel: +33(0)1.53.69.71.55 Fax: +33(0)1.53.69.76.90 INTEGRAL MEDIA DAY Tuesday 22 September 1998 Newton Conference Centre ESTEC, Noordwijk, Keplerlaan 1 (The Netherlands) Programme 10:30 . Arrival and Registration in the Newton Conference Centre 10:45. Welcome and introduction by David Dale, Director of ESTEC 10:50 The Scientific Challenge : the mission of INTEGRAL, by Chistoph Winkler, INTEGRAL Project Scientist 11:10 The Technical Challenge : the INTEGRAL spacecraft, by Kai Clausen, INTEGRAL Project Manager 11:30 The Industrial Challenge by A. Simeone, Programme Director at Aleniaspazio 11:45 Question/Answer session 12:00 Visit to INTEGRAL spacecraft ; photo and film opportunities, incl. Interview opportunities with speakers 13:00 Informal buffet lunch in Foyer of Conference Centre Newton 14:30 End of event

  19. PREFACE: International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Simon C.; Shen, Stella; Neufeld, Niko; Gutsche, Oliver; Cattaneo, Marco; Fisk, Ian; Panzer-Steindel, Bernd; Di Meglio, Alberto; Lokajicek, Milos

    2011-12-01

    , as well as two banquets held at the Grand Hotel and Grand Formosa Regent in Taipei. The next CHEP conference will be held in New York, the United States on 21-25 May 2012. We would like to thank the National Science Council of Taiwan, the EU ACEOLE project, commercial sponsors, and the International Advisory Committee and the Programme Committee members for all their support and help. Special thanks to the Programme Committee members for their careful choice of conference contributions and enormous effort in reviewing and editing about 340 post conference proceedings papers. Simon C Lin CHEP 2010 Conference Chair and Proceedings Editor Taipei, Taiwan November 2011 Track Editors/ Programme Committee Chair Simon C Lin, Academia Sinica, Taiwan Online Computing Track Y H Chang, National Central University, Taiwan Harry Cheung, Fermilab, USA Niko Neufeld, CERN, Switzerland Event Processing Track Fabio Cossutti, INFN Trieste, Italy Oliver Gutsche, Fermilab, USA Ryosuke Itoh, KEK, Japan Software Engineering, Data Stores, and Databases Track Marco Cattaneo, CERN, Switzerland Gang Chen, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China Stefan Roiser, CERN, Switzerland Distributed Processing and Analysis Track Kai-Feng Chen, National Taiwan University, Taiwan Ulrik Egede, Imperial College London, UK Ian Fisk, Fermilab, USA Fons Rademakers, CERN, Switzerland Torre Wenaus, BNL, USA Computing Fabrics and Networking Technologies Track Harvey Newman, Caltech, USA Bernd Panzer-Steindel, CERN, Switzerland Antonio Wong, BNL, USA Ian Fisk, Fermilab, USA Niko Neufeld, CERN, Switzerland Grid and Cloud Middleware Track Alberto Di Meglio, CERN, Switzerland Markus Schulz, CERN, Switzerland Collaborative Tools Track Joao Correia Fernandes, CERN, Switzerland Philippe Galvez, Caltech, USA Milos Lokajicek, FZU Prague, Czech Republic International Advisory Committee Chair: Simon C. Lin , Academia Sinica, Taiwan Members: Mohammad Al-Turany , FAIR, Germany Sunanda Banerjee, Fermilab, USA Dario Barberis, CERN

  20. Nature's loss, Immunologists gain?

    PubMed

    Aluvihare

    2000-01-01

    Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology Nature Publishing Group (2000). ISSN 1471-0072. Monthly First there was Annual Reviews, then came the monthly Elsevier Trends Journals, both of which try to identify hot topics in their chosen fields. The Current Opinion journals followed several years later, and Current Opinion in Cell Biology is presently one of the highest 'impact factor' review journals, with a distinguished board of editors and advisors and a systematic approach to regular coverage of the major fields of cell biology. Important topics are visited once a year, whether or not something specially exciting happened in the last 12 months. Add to this list Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology, the FASEB journal and the countless minireviews in 'real' journals, and you begin to wonder how anyone finds any time for doing experiments, or indeed reading the primary literature. So, into this already crowded field arrive three important newcomers: Nature Reviews in Molecular Cell Biology, Genetics, and Neurosciences, of which the first two will probably interest readers of Journal of Cell Science the most. Backed by the name and money of Nature and edited by experienced Nature staff, it is hard to see how these publications can possibly do other than succeed with writers and readers alike. What's inside the first issue? The cover of Nature Reviews in Molecular Cell Biology presents a 3-colour montage of a blue cell nucleus surrounded by splotches of green GPI-anchored GFP overlaid by orange actin stress fibres that seem to come from somewhere else. This image trails a comprehensive review from Kai Simons and Derek Toomre about Lipid Rafts. There are another five major review articles: calcium puffs and sparks, rings around DNA, HIV inhibitors, kinesin and the circadian clock provide a rich and varied mix of topics from authors who know what they're talking about. Surrounding this core is an entertaining mixture of 'highlights' at the front: news and views about

  1. Bright and dynamic, constantly updated and enhanced online.?

    PubMed

    Hunt

    2000-01-01

    Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology Nature Publishing Group (2000). ISSN 1471-0072. Monthly First there was Annual Reviews, then came the monthly Elsevier Trends Journals, both of which try to identify hot topics in their chosen fields. The Current Opinion journals followed several years later, and Current Opinion in Cell Biology is presently one of the highest 'impact factor' review journals, with a distinguished board of editors and advisors and a systematic approach to regular coverage of the major fields of cell biology. Important topics are visited once a year, whether or not something specially exciting happened in the last 12 months. Add to this list Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology, the FASEB journal and the countless minireviews in 'real' journals, and you begin to wonder how anyone finds any time for doing experiments, or indeed reading the primary literature. So, into this already crowded field arrive three important newcomers: Nature Reviews in Molecular Cell Biology, Genetics, and Neurosciences, of which the first two will probably interest readers of Journal of Cell Science the most. Backed by the name and money of Nature and edited by experienced Nature staff, it is hard to see how these publications can possibly do other than succeed with writers and readers alike. What's inside the first issue? The cover of Nature Reviews in Molecular Cell Biology presents a 3-colour montage of a blue cell nucleus surrounded by splotches of green GPI-anchored GFP overlaid by orange actin stress fibres that seem to come from somewhere else. This image trails a comprehensive review from Kai Simons and Derek Toomre about Lipid Rafts. There are another five major review articles: calcium puffs and sparks, rings around DNA, HIV inhibitors, kinesin and the circadian clock provide a rich and varied mix of topics from authors who know what they're talking about. Surrounding this core is an entertaining mixture of 'highlights' at the front: news and views about

  2. Nature's loss, Immunologists gain?

    PubMed

    Aluvihare

    2000-01-01

    Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology Nature Publishing Group (2000). ISSN 1471-0072. Monthly First there was Annual Reviews, then came the monthly Elsevier Trends Journals, both of which try to identify hot topics in their chosen fields. The Current Opinion journals followed several years later, and Current Opinion in Cell Biology is presently one of the highest 'impact factor' review journals, with a distinguished board of editors and advisors and a systematic approach to regular coverage of the major fields of cell biology. Important topics are visited once a year, whether or not something specially exciting happened in the last 12 months. Add to this list Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology, the FASEB journal and the countless minireviews in 'real' journals, and you begin to wonder how anyone finds any time for doing experiments, or indeed reading the primary literature. So, into this already crowded field arrive three important newcomers: Nature Reviews in Molecular Cell Biology, Genetics, and Neurosciences, of which the first two will probably interest readers of Journal of Cell Science the most. Backed by the name and money of Nature and edited by experienced Nature staff, it is hard to see how these publications can possibly do other than succeed with writers and readers alike. What's inside the first issue? The cover of Nature Reviews in Molecular Cell Biology presents a 3-colour montage of a blue cell nucleus surrounded by splotches of green GPI-anchored GFP overlaid by orange actin stress fibres that seem to come from somewhere else. This image trails a comprehensive review from Kai Simons and Derek Toomre about Lipid Rafts. There are another five major review articles: calcium puffs and sparks, rings around DNA, HIV inhibitors, kinesin and the circadian clock provide a rich and varied mix of topics from authors who know what they're talking about. Surrounding this core is an entertaining mixture of 'highlights' at the front: news and views about

  3. EDITORIAL: Focus on Superconductors with Exotic Symmetries FOCUS ON SUPERCONDUCTORS WITH EXOTIC SYMMETRIES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, T. Maurice; Sigrist, Manfred; Maeno, Yoshiteru

    2009-05-01

    overdoped Tl2Ba2CuO6+δ above 100 K M M J French, J G Analytis, A Carrington, L Balicas and N E Hussey The disordered Fulde-Ferrel-Larkin-Ovchinnikov state in d-wave superconductors Youichi Yanase The chiral superconductor-ferromagnet-chiral superconductor Josephson junction P M R Brydon, C Iniotakis and Dirk Manske Unusual behaviours and impurity effects in the noncentrosymmetric superconductor CePt3Si I Bonalde, R L Ribeiro, W Brämer-Escamilla, C Rojas, E Bauer, A Prokofiev, Y Haga, T Yasuda and Y Onuki Nature of stripes in the generalized t-J model applied to the cuprate superconductors Kai-Yu Yang, Wei Qiang Chen, T M Rice, M Sigrist and Fu-Chun Zhang

  4. Development and Experimental Study of Phantoms for Mapping Skin Chromophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silapetere, A.; Spigulis, J.; Saknite, I.

    2014-06-01

    šanu veicinošu serumu (FBS). Šūnu kultivēšanai nepieciešamas vismaz divas nedēļas. Šajā slāņainajā struktūrā ir iespējams pievienot ādas hromoforu simulējošus iekļāvumus. Optiskajā diapazonā no 450-900 nm ādas hromoforas, kurām ir visizteiktākais spektrs, ir bilirubīns, melanīns un hemoglobīns. Lai simulētu ādas hromoforu spektrālās īpašības, tika izmantots sintezēts bilirubīns, eritrocītu masa un nigrozīns. Lai izpētītu šī maketa iekārtu kalibrēšanas potenciālu, tika izveidoti 76 paraugi, kur katros 24 paraugos bija pievienots viens no absorbentiem ar dažādām koncentrācijām. Pilna ādas maketa audzēšanai nepieciešamas divas nedēļas, lai ātrāk tiktu iegūti pirmie rezultāti tika veidoti maketi bez dermālo un epidermālo šūnu piejaukuma. Fibrīna matricas un ādas imitējošā maketa absorbcijas spējas ir mazas salīdzinājumā ar hromoforu absorbcijas spējām. Lai novērtētu maketu, kas paredzēti konkrētu hromoforu spektrālo īpašību imitēšanai, iespējams veikt eksperimentus ar fibrīna matricu, kuras izveidošanai ir nepieciešama viena diena. Sintezētā bilirubīna koncentrācijas tika mainītas robežās no 0,01-2,00 mg/ml, melanīna optisko īpašību simulējošās vielas nigrozīna koncentrācija tika mainīta no 1,5 - 312,8 μg/ml, eritrocītu masas koncentrācija mainījās no 0,2 - 42,4 mg/ml.Mērījumi tika veikti, izmantojot multispektrālās attēlošanas iekārtu Cri Nuance 2.4. (Cambridge Research & Instrumentation, Inc., Amerikas Savienotās Valstis). Absorbcijas spektrs tika apstrādāts, izmantojot Microsoft Office Excel 2007. Iegūtajos rezultātos ir iespējams redzēt, ka piedāvātais ādas makets spēj simulēt ādas optiskās īpašības. Izmantotie absorbenti - sintezētais bilirubīns, nigrozīns un eritrocītu masa - spēj simulēt ādas hromoforu spektrālās īpašības. Palielinot absorbentu koncentrāciju paraugā, palielinās absorbcijas spektra maksimālā intensit

  5. EDITORIAL: Focus on Micro- and Nanofluidics FOCUS ON MICRO- AND NANOFLUIDICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajdari, Armand; Stone, Howard A.

    2009-07-01

    , simulation and theory, in this rapidly developing field. Focus on Micro- and Nanofluidics Contents The anti-lotus leaf effect in nanohydrodynamic bump arrays Keith Morton, Ophelia K C Tsui, Chih-Kuan Tung, James C Sturm, Stephen Y Chou and Robert Austin Transport in nanofluidic systems: a review of theory and applications W Sparreboom, A van den Berg and J C T Eijkel The effects of polymer molecular weight on filament thinning and drop breakup in microchannels P E Arratia, L-A Cramer, J P Gollub and D J Durian Mass transfer and interfacial properties in two-phase microchannel flows Jeffrey D Martin and Steven D Hudson Temporal response of an initially deflected PDMS channel Priyadarshi Panda, Kai P Yuet, Dhananjay Dendukuri, T Alan Hatton and Patrick S Doyle Gas-liquid two-phase flow patterns in rectangular polymeric microchannels: effect of surface wetting properties D Huh, C-H Kuo, J B Grotberg and S Takayama Mixing via thermocapillary generation of flow patterns inside a microfluidic drop María Luisa Cordero, Hans Olav Rolfsnes, Daniel R Burnham, Paul A Campbell, David McGloin and Charles N Baroud Pressure-driven DNA transport across an artificial nanotopography J T Del Bonis-O'Donnell, W Reisner and D Stein Eulerian indicators for predicting and optimizing mixing quality Rob Sturman and Stephen Wiggins Asymmetric flows over symmetric surfaces: capacitive coupling in induced-charge electro-osmosis T S Mansuripur, A J Pascall and T M Squires High-viscosity fluid threads in weakly diffusive microfluidic systems T Cubaud and T G Mason Interfacial mass transport in steady three-dimensional flows in microchannels Joseph D Kirtland, Corey R Siegel and Abraham D Stroock Active connectors for microfluidic drops on demand Jean-Christophe Galas, Denis Bartolo and Vincent Studer Electrokinetic control of sample splitting at a channel bifurcation using isotachophoresis Alexandre Persat and Juan G Santiago Differential inertial focusing of particles in curved low

  6. Advanced Materials and Processing 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Su, Chun Wei; Xia, Hui; Xiao, Pengfei

    2011-06-01

    EuFe[symbol] materials / Huen Kan ... [et al.] -- Synthesis and characterization of Ni(OH)[symbol] nanosheets by a simple route at low temperature / Qian Li ... [et al.] -- The prediction of laser clad parameters based on neural network / Jichang Liu and Libin Ni -- The effects of Y[symbol] doping on the phase structure and photoluminescence properties of (Gd[symbol]) red phosphors / Qi Zhu ... [et al.] -- Design of an in situ detection system for laser hardened width / Caixia Yang and Jichang Liu -- Numerical simulation microstructure morphology evolution and solute microsegregation of Al-Si-Cu ternary alloys during solidification process / Shuisheng Xie ... [et al.].A shear-lag model for carbon nonotube-reinforced magnesium matrix composites / Wei-Xue Li ... [et al.] -- Corrosion behavior of the Alumina Coated Al6061 Alloy by Plasma electrolytic oxidation / Kai Wang ... [et al.] -- A simple route for synthesis of tin dioxide nanorods based on improved solid-state reactions / Yuehua Li ... [et al.] -- Comparative study on microstructure and magnetic properties of amorphous wires with different diameters / Jing-Shun Liu ... [et al.] -- Chemical-Vapor-Depositing (CVD) aluminium film on steel surface with the disproportionation reaction of Al[symbol]S / Wu Guoyuan and Dai Yongnian -- The microstructure and properties of super martensitic stainless steel microalloyed with tungsten and copper / Dong Ye ... [et al.] -- Design of low elastic modulus Ti-Nb-Zr alloys for implant materials / Xiping Song ... [et al.] -- In situ monitoring molten pool parameters for detecting visible defects in laser cladding / Liusha Yang ... [et al.].

  7. Wrench tectonics control on Neogene-Quaternary sedimentation along the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogacsas, Gyorgy; Juhász, Györgyi; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit; Simon, Szilvia; Lukács, Szilveszter; Csizmeg, János

    2010-05-01

    Africa-Europe convergence vector. Pliocene-Quaternary was characterised by 1-5 km left lateral wrenching along the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt. Based on high resolution seismic measurements on the Danube river Toth (2003) supposed an even more recent activity along the Paks-Szolnok wrench fault zone. The supposed late Quaternary activity of the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt is supported by recent hydrogeologic investigations. According to Mádl-Szőnyi et al (2005) and Simon et al (in press) from the Pre-Neogene basement originates an ascending overpressured highly saline water flow regime. Deep ascending water rises near to the surface, intercepting the aquifer and aquitard layers along conductive strike slipe faults of the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt and mixing with shallower groundwater. Acknowledgements The research work was supported by the Hungarian National Research Fund (OTKA 035168, T 047159). References Detzky Lőrinc K. (1997) Detailed tectonic study of the Western edge of the Szolnok flysch zone using seismic and well data. Thesis Candidate of Science. Hungarian Academy of Science. p. 121. Grow J. A., R. E. Mattick, A. Bérczi-Makk, Cs. Péró, D. Hajdú, Gy. Pogácsás, P. Várnai, E. Varga, (1994) Structure of the Békés basin inferred from seismic reflection, well and gravity data. in Teleki P., J. Kókai, R.E. Mattick eds. Basin analysis in petroleum exploration, a case study from the Békés basin, Hungary. Kluwer Academic Publisher, Dordrecht, Netherlands, p. 1-38. Juhász, Gy., Pogácsás Gy., Magyar I. (2007) A giant canyon system incised into the Late-Neogene (pannonian s.l.) sediments? (in Hungarian Óriáskanyon-rendszer szeli át a pannóniai üledékeket? Földtani Közlöny (Bulletin of the Geological Society of Hungary)137/3. 307-326. Mádlné Szőnyi J. Simon Sz. Tóth J. Pogácsás Gy. (2005) Interrelationship between surface and subsurface waters at the Kelemen-szék and Kolon lakes, Duna-Tisza Interfluve, Hungary (in Hungarian Felszíni és felsz

  8. Effects of Potassium Mineral Fertilization on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield on a Chernozem Soil in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    varieties, estimated at 85-100 t/ha for potato, 75-85 t/ha for beet and 12-15 t/ha for wheat (Evans 1977). These are far higher than the yields commonly obtained in practice. World average yields were only 1/6th of the potential for potato, 1/6th for wheat and 2/5th for sugar beet in 1995. Utilization of the crop The major part of potato production is usually used for human consumption. Human consumption of potatoes however has declined in the industrialised countries as the standard of living has increased. In these countries an increasing proportion of the crop is used for manufacturing products such as crisp, oven-ready chips, dehydrated potato powder. Thus, in Hungary the consumption of potatoes per person decreased from 110 kg in 1951/1960 to 60 kg in 1995, whereas the consumption of processed potatoes increased from 1 to 15 kg/person during this period. Uptake of potassium Potassium is the nutrient taken up by potato in the greatest quantity, it also takes up much nitrogen and appreciable amounts of phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and sulphur (Perrenoud 1993). Maximum uptakes by different varieties in Japan range between 140 and 267 K2O (Kali Kenkyu Kai 1980). In England, potatoes grown on the " blueprint" system and giving the very high yield of 77.7 t/ha took up 450 kg/ha K2O (Anderson and Hewgill 1978). Brazílian experiments with 6 varieties showed the following uptakes (kg/ha): potassium 207-367 (Motta 1976). Removal of potassium by tubers 23 experimental crops in France (Loué 1977), -with a mean yield of 37.3 t/ha tubers removed: 196 kg K2O, respectively. It is equal to 5.3 kg K2O per 1 tonne tuber. Motta Macedo (1976) reports the following removals in kg/ha for 6 varieties grown in Brazíl: K2O: 118-192. In 14 experiments in India (Grewal and Singh 1979) a mean yield of 28.8 t/ha tuber was obtained which removed an average of 91 kg/ha K2O. At very high yield level, nutrient removal in tuber is very high. Anderson and Hewgill (1978) report a yield of 90 t