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Sample records for kaihatsu taiyoto module

  1. Module Configuration

    DOEpatents

    Oweis, Salah; D'Ussel, Louis; Chagnon, Guy; Zuhowski, Michael; Sack, Tim; Laucournet, Gaullume; Jackson, Edward J.

    2002-06-04

    A stand alone battery module including: (a) a mechanical configuration; (b) a thermal management configuration; (c) an electrical connection configuration; and (d) an electronics configuration. Such a module is fully interchangeable in a battery pack assembly, mechanically, from the thermal management point of view, and electrically. With the same hardware, the module can accommodate different cell sizes and, therefore, can easily have different capacities. The module structure is designed to accommodate the electronics monitoring, protection, and printed wiring assembly boards (PWAs), as well as to allow airflow through the module. A plurality of modules may easily be connected together to form a battery pack. The parts of the module are designed to facilitate their manufacture and assembly.

  2. ANTIGENIC MODULATION

    PubMed Central

    Old, Lloyd J.; Stockert, Elisabeth; Boyse, Edward A.; Kim, Jae Ho

    1968-01-01

    Antigenic modulation (the loss of TL antigens from TL+ cells exposed to TL antibody in the absence of lytic complement) has been demonstrated in vitro. An ascites leukemia, phenotype TL.1,2,3, which modulates rapidly and completely when incubated with TL antiserum in vitro, was selected for further study of the phenomenon. Over a wide range of TL antibody concentrations modulation at 37°C was detectable within 10 min and was complete within approximately 1 hr. The cells were initially sensitized to C' by their contact with antibody, thereafter losing this sensitivity to C' lysis together with their sensitivity to TL antibody and C' in the cytotoxic test. The capacity of the cells to undergo modulation was abolished by actinomycin D and by iodoacetamide, and by reducing the temperature of incubation to 0°C. Thus modulation apparently is an active cellular process. Antigens TL. 1,2, and 3 are all modulated by anti-TL.1,3 serum and by anti-TL.3 serum. This modulation affects all three TL components together, even when antibody to one or two of them is lacking. aAnti-TL.2 serum does not induce modulation and in fact impairs modulation by the other TL antibodies. The influence of the TL phenotype of cells upon the demonstrable content of H-2 (D region) isoantigen, first shown in cells modulated in vivo, has been observed with cells modulated in vitro. Cells undergoing modulation show a progressive increase in H-2 (D region) antigen over a period of 4 hr, with no change in H-2 antigens of the K region. Restoration of the TL+ phenotype of modulated cells after removal of antibody is less rapid than TL+ → TL- modulation and may require several cell divisions. PMID:5636556

  3. Delta modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schilling, D. L.

    1971-01-01

    The conclusions of the design research of the song adaptive delta modulator are presented for source encoding voice signals. The variation of output SNR vs input signal power/when 8, 9, and 10 bit internal arithmetic is employed. Voice intelligibility tapes to test the 10-bit system are used. An analysis of a delta modulator is also presented designed to minimize the in-band rms error. This is accomplished by frequency shaping the error signal in the modulator prior to hard limiting. The result is a significant increase in the output SNR measured after low pass filtering.

  4. Thermionic modules

    DOEpatents

    King, Donald B.; Sadwick, Laurence P.; Wernsman, Bernard R.

    2002-06-18

    Modules of assembled microminiature thermionic converters (MTCs) having high energy-conversion efficiencies and variable operating temperatures manufactured using MEMS manufacturing techniques including chemical vapor deposition. The MTCs incorporate cathode to anode spacing of about 1 micron or less and use cathode and anode materials having work functions ranging from about 1 eV to about 3 eV. The MTCs also exhibit maximum efficiencies of just under 30%, and thousands of the devices and modules can be fabricated at modest costs.

  5. JEM module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-06-06

    S124-E-006734 (6 June 2008) --- One of a series of digital still images documenting the Japanese Experiment Module, or JEM, also called Kibo, in its new home on the International Space Station, this view depicts Kibo's exterior, backdropped by solar array panels for the orbital outpost and one of its trusses.

  6. JEM module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-06-06

    S124-E-006729 (6 June 2008) --- One of a series of digital still images documenting the Japanese Experiment Module, or JEM, also called Kibo, in its new home on the International Space Station, this view depicts Kibo's exterior, backdropped by solar array panels for the orbital outpost.

  7. JEM module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-06-06

    S124-E-006735 (6 June 2008) --- One of a series of digital still images documenting the Japanese Experiment Module, or JEM, also called Kibo, in its new home on the International Space Station, this view depicts Kibo's exterior, backdropped by solar array panels for the orbital outpost and one of its trusses.

  8. Thermoelectric module

    DOEpatents

    Kortier, William E.; Mueller, John J.; Eggers, Philip E.

    1980-07-08

    A thermoelectric module containing lead telluride as the thermoelectric mrial is encapsulated as tightly as possible in a stainless steel canister to provide minimum void volume in the canister. The lead telluride thermoelectric elements are pressure-contacted to a tungsten hot strap and metallurgically bonded at the cold junction to iron shoes with a barrier layer of tin telluride between the iron shoe and the p-type lead telluride element.

  9. Linear modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A study of frequency division multiplexing (FDM) systems was made for the purpose of determining the system performance that can be obtained with available state of the art components. System performance was evaluated on the basis of past experience, system analysis, and component evaluation. The system study was specifically directed to the area of FDM systems using subcarrier channel frequencies from 4 kHz to 200 kHz and channel information bandwidths of dc to 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 kHz. The evaluation also assumes that the demodulation will be from a tape recorder which produces frequency modulation of + or - 1% on the signal due to the tape recorder wow and flutter. For the modulation system it is assumed that the pilot and carrier channel frequencies are stable to within + or - .005% and that the FM on the channel carriers is negligible. The modulator system was evaluated for the temperature range of -20 degree to +85 degree while the demodulator system was evaluated for operation at room temperature.

  10. Photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Lenox, Carl J. S.; Culligan, Matthew; Danning, Matt

    2013-08-27

    A photovoltaic (PV) module including a PV device and a frame, The PV device has a PV laminate defining a perimeter and a major plane. The frame is assembled to and encases the laminate perimeter, and includes leading, trailing, and side frame members, and an arm that forms a support face opposite the laminate. The support face is adapted for placement against a horizontal installation surface, to support and orient the laminate in a non-parallel or tilted arrangement. Upon final assembly, the laminate and the frame combine to define a unitary structure. The frame can orient the laminate at an angle in the range of 3.degree.-7.degree. from horizontal, and can be entirely formed of a polymeric material. Optionally, the arm incorporates integral feature(s) that facilitate interconnection with corresponding features of a second, identically formed PV module.

  11. Photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan [El Cerrito, CA; Graves, Simon [Berkeley, CA; Lenox, Carl J. S. [Oakland, CA; Culligan, Matthew [Berkeley, CA; Danning, Matt [Oakland, CA

    2012-07-17

    A photovoltaic (PV) module including a PV device and a frame. The PV device has a PV laminate defining a perimeter and a major plane. The frame is assembled to and encases the laminate perimeter, and includes leading, trailing, and side frame members, and an arm that forms a support face opposite the laminate. The support face is adapted for placement against a horizontal installation surface, to support and orient the laminate in a non-parallel or tilted arrangement. Upon final assembly, the laminate and the frame combine to define a unitary structure. The frame can orient the laminate at an angle in the range of 3.degree.-7.degree. from horizontal, and can be entirely formed of a polymeric material. Optionally, the arm incorporates integral feature(s) that facilitate interconnection with corresponding features of a second, identically formed PV module.

  12. MEMORY MODULATION

    PubMed Central

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive evidence from both animal and human research indicates that emotionally significant experiences activate hormonal and brain systems that regulate the consolidation of newly acquired memories. These effects are integrated through noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala which regulates memory consolidation via interactions with many other brain regions involved in consolidating memories of recent experiences. Modulatory systems not only influence neurobiological processes underlying the consolidation of new information, but also affect other mnemonic processes, including memory extinction, memory recall and working memory. In contrast to their enhancing effects on consolidation, adrenal stress hormones impair memory retrieval and working memory. Such effects, as with memory consolidation, require noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala and interactions with other brain regions. PMID:22122145

  13. Supported PV module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Mascolo, Gianluigi; Taggart, David F.; Botkin, Jonathan D.; Edgett, Christopher S.

    2013-10-15

    A supported PV assembly may include a PV module comprising a PV panel and PV module supports including module supports having a support surface supporting the module, a module registration member engaging the PV module to properly position the PV module on the module support, and a mounting element. In some embodiments the PV module registration members engage only the external surfaces of the PV modules at the corners. In some embodiments the assembly includes a wind deflector with ballast secured to a least one of the PV module supports and the wind deflector. An array of the assemblies can be secured to one another at their corners to prevent horizontal separation of the adjacent corners while permitting the PV modules to flex relative to one another so to permit the array of PV modules to follow a contour of the support surface.

  14. Ballasted photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan [El Cerrito, CA; Graves, Simon [Berkeley, CA; Danning, Matt [Oakland, CA

    2011-11-29

    A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module and a ballast tray. The PV module includes a PV device and a frame. A PV laminate is assembled to the frame, and the frame includes an arm. The ballast tray is adapted for containing ballast and is removably associated with the PV module in a ballasting state where the tray is vertically under the PV laminate and vertically over the arm to impede overt displacement of the PV module. The PV module assembly can be installed to a flat commercial rooftop, with the PV module and the ballast tray both resting upon the rooftop. In some embodiments, the ballasting state includes corresponding surfaces of the arm and the tray being spaced from one another under normal (low or no wind) conditions, such that the frame is not continuously subjected to a weight of the tray.

  15. Module utilization committee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volkmer, K.; Praver, G.

    1984-01-01

    Photovoltaic collector modules were declared surplus to the needs of the U.S. Dept. of Energy. The Module Utilization Committee was formed to make appropriate disposition of the surplus modules on a national basis and to act as a broker for requests for these modules originating outside of the National Photovoltaics Program.

  16. Electroabsorption optical modulator

    DOEpatents

    Skogen, Erik J.

    2017-11-21

    An electroabsorption modulator incorporates waveguiding regions along the length of the modulator that include quantum wells where at least two of the regions have quantum wells with different bandgaps. In one embodiment of the invention, the regions are arranged such that the quantum wells have bandgaps with decreasing bandgap energy along the length of the modulator from the modulator's input to its output. The bandgap energy of the quantum wells may be decreased in discrete steps or continuously. Advantageously, such an arrangement better distributes the optical absorption as well as the carrier density along the length of the modulator. Further advantageously, the modulator may handle increased optical power as compared with prior art modulators of similar dimensions, which allows for improved link gain when the optical modulator is used in an analog optical communication link.

  17. Orion Crew Module Adapter

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-11-12

    Offloading of the Orion Crew Module Adapter, CMA, at Plum Brook Station. The adapter will connect Orion’s crew module to a service module provided by ESA (European Space Agency). NASA is preparing for a series of tests that will check out the Orion European Service Module, a critical part of the spacecraft that will be launched on future missions to an asteroid and on toward Mars.

  18. Weakly Coretractable Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadi, Inaam M. A.; Al-aeashi, Shukur N.

    2018-05-01

    If R is a ring with identity and M is a unitary right R-module. Here we introduce the class of weakly coretractable module. Some basic properties are investigated and some relationships between these modules and other related one are introduced.

  19. Integrating Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Provides an overview of the complete National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) model, and includes brief descriptions of the modules with which the Integrating Module interacts. The emphasis and focus, however, is on the structure and function of the Integrating Module of NEMS.

  20. Rescue Manual. Module 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The fifth of 10 modules contains information on hazardous materials. Key points, an introduction, and conclusion accompany substantive material in this module. In addition, the module contains a Department of Transportation guide chart on…

  1. Modulating lignin in plants

    DOEpatents

    Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

    2013-01-29

    Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

  2. Amplitude modulation detection with concurrent frequency modulation.

    PubMed

    Nagaraj, Naveen K

    2016-09-01

    Human speech consists of concomitant temporal modulations in amplitude and frequency that are crucial for speech perception. In this study, amplitude modulation (AM) detection thresholds were measured for 550 and 5000 Hz carriers with and without concurrent frequency modulation (FM), at AM rates crucial for speech perception. Results indicate that adding 40 Hz FM interferes with AM detection, more so for 5000 Hz carrier and for frequency deviations exceeding the critical bandwidth of the carrier frequency. These findings suggest that future cochlear implant processors, encoding speech fine-structures may consider limiting the FM to narrow bandwidth and to low frequencies.

  3. Modulation indices for volumetric modulated arc therapy.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Min; Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Hyoungnyoun; Kim, Jin Ho; Carlson, Joel; Ye, Sung-Joon

    2014-12-07

    The aim of this study is to present a modulation index (MI) for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) based on the speed and acceleration analysis of modulating-parameters such as multi-leaf collimator (MLC) movements, gantry rotation and dose-rate, comprehensively. The performance of the presented MI (MIt) was evaluated with correlation analyses to the pre-treatment quality assurance (QA) results, differences in modulating-parameters between VMAT plans versus dynamic log files, and differences in dose-volumetric parameters between VMAT plans versus reconstructed plans using dynamic log files. For comparison, the same correlation analyses were performed for the previously suggested modulation complexity score (MCS(v)), leaf travel modulation complexity score (LTMCS) and MI by Li and Xing (MI Li&Xing). In the two-tailed unpaired parameter condition, p values were acquired. The Spearman's rho (r(s)) values of MIt, MCSv, LTMCS and MI Li&Xing to the local gamma passing rate with 2%/2 mm criterion were -0.658 (p < 0.001), 0.186 (p = 0.251), 0.312 (p = 0.05) and -0.455 (p = 0.003), respectively. The values of rs to the modulating-parameter (MLC positions) differences were 0.917, -0.635, -0.857 and 0.795, respectively (p < 0.001). For dose-volumetric parameters, MIt showed higher statistically significant correlations than the conventional MIs. The MIt showed good performance for the evaluation of the modulation-degree of VMAT plans.

  4. Japanese Experiment Module arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-29

    Several components for delivery to the International Space Station sit in test stands inside the Space Station Processing Facility highbay. To the right, from back to front, are the Japanese Experiment Module, the Raffaello multi-purpose logistics module, and the European Space Agency's Columbus scientific research module. To the left in front is the starboard truss segment S5. Behind it is the test stand that will hold the Experiment Logistics Module Pressurized Section for the Japanese Experiment Module. The logistics module is one of the components of the Japanese Experiment Module or JEM, also known as Kibo, which means "hope" in Japanese. Kibo comprises six components: two research facilities -- the Pressurized Module and Exposed Facility; a Logistics Module attached to each of them; a Remote Manipulator System; and an Inter-Orbit Communication System unit. Kibo also has a scientific airlock through which experiments are transferred and exposed to the external environment of space. Kibo is Japan's first human space facility and its primary contribution to the station. Kibo will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment in which astronauts can conduct science experiments. The various components of JEM will be assembled in space over the course of three Space Shuttle missions. The first of those three missions, STS-123, will carry the Experiment Logistics Module Pressurized Section aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, targeted for launch in 2007.

  5. Bracket for photovoltaic modules

    DOEpatents

    Ciasulli, John; Jones, Jason

    2014-06-24

    Brackets for photovoltaic ("PV") modules are described. In one embodiment, a saddle bracket has a mounting surface to support one or more PV modules over a tube, a gusset coupled to the mounting surface, and a mounting feature coupled to the gusset to couple to the tube. The gusset can have a first leg and a second leg extending at an angle relative to the mounting surface. Saddle brackets can be coupled to a torque tube at predetermined locations. PV modules can be coupled to the saddle brackets. The mounting feature can be coupled to the first gusset and configured to stand the one or more PV modules off the tube.

  6. Bubble memory module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohning, O. D.; Becker, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Design, fabrication and test of partially populated prototype recorder using 100 kilobit serial chips is described. Electrical interface, operating modes, and mechanical design of several module configurations are discussed. Fabrication and test of the module demonstrated the practicality of multiplexing resulting in lower power, weight, and volume. This effort resulted in the completion of a module consisting of a fully engineered printed circuit storage board populated with 5 of 8 possible cells and a wire wrapped electronics board. Interface of the module is 16 bits parallel at a maximum of 1.33 megabits per second data rate on either of two interface buses.

  7. Graphene optical modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Xiang

    2011-10-01

    Data communications have been growing at a speed even faster than Moore's Law, with a 44-fold increase expected within the next 10 years. Data Transfer on such scale would have to recruit optical communication technology and inspire new designs of light sources, modulators, and photodetectors. An ideal optical modulator will require high modulation speed, small device footprint and large operating bandwidth. Silicon modulators based on free carrier plasma dispersion effect and compound semiconductors utilizing direct bandgap transition have seen rapid improvement over the past decade. One of the key limitations for using silicon as modulator material is its weak refractive index change, which limits the footprint of silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometer modulators to millimeters. Other approaches such as silicon microring modulators reduce the operation wavelength range to around 100 pm and are highly sensitive to typical fabrication tolerances and temperature fluctuations. Growing large, high quality wafers of compound semiconductors, and integrating them on silicon or other substrates is expensive, which also restricts their commercialization. In this work, we demonstrate that graphene can be used as the active media for electroabsorption modulators. By tuning the Fermi energy level of the graphene layer, we induced changes in the absorption coefficient of graphene at communication wavelength and achieve a modulation depth above 3 dB. This integrated device also has the potential of working at high speed.

  8. Experiment module concepts study. Volume 3: Module and subsystem design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, J. R.; Chiarappa, D. J.

    1970-01-01

    The final common module set exhibiting wide commonality is described. The set consists of three types of modules: one free flying module and two modules that operate attached to the space station. The common module designs provide for the experiment program as defined. The feasibility, economy, and practicality of these modules hinges on factors that do not affect the approach or results of the commonality process, but are important to the validity of the common module concepts. Implementation of the total experiment program requires thirteen common modules: five CM-1, five CM-3, and three CM-4 modules.

  9. Complex modulation using tandem polarization modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Mehedi; Hall, Trevor

    2017-11-01

    A novel photonic technique for implementing frequency up-conversion or complex modulation is proposed. The proposed circuit consists of a sandwich of a quarter-wave plate between two polarization modulators, driven, respectively, by an in-phase and quadrature-phase signals. The operation of the circuit is modelled using a transmission matrix method. The theoretical prediction is then validated by simulation using an industry-standard software tool. The intrinsic conversion efficiency of the architecture is improved by 6 dB over a functionally equivalent design based on dual parallel Mach-Zehnder modulators. Non-ideal scenarios such as imperfect alignment of the optical components and power imbalances and phase errors in the electric drive signals are also analysed. As light travels, along one physical path, the proposed design can be implemented using discrete components with greater control of relative optical path length differences. The circuit can further be integrated in any material platform that offers electro-optic polarization modulators.

  10. Human Development Student Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This set of 61 student learning modules deals with various topics pertaining to human development. The modules, which are designed for use in performance-based vocational education programs, each contain the following components: an introduction for the student, a performance objective, a variety of learning activities, content information, a…

  11. Principles of Teaching. Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Joseph W.

    This module on principles of teaching is 1 in a series of 10 modules written for vocational education teacher education programs. It is designed to enable the teacher to do the following: (1) identify subject matter and integrate that subject matter with thought-provoking questions; (2) organize and demonstrate good questioning techniques; and (3)…

  12. Growth Modulation in Achondroplasia.

    PubMed

    McClure, Philip K; Kilinc, Eray; Birch, John G

    2017-09-01

    Achondroplasia is the most common skeletal dysplasia with a rate of nearly 1/10,000. The development of lower extremity deformity is well documented, and various modes of correction have been reported. There are no reports on the use of growth modulation to correct angular deformity in achondroplasia. Medical Records from 1985 to 2015 were reviewed for the diagnosis of achondroplasia and growth modulation procedures. Patients who had been treated for angular deformity of the legs by growth modulation were identified. A detailed analysis of their medical record and preoperative and final lower extremity radiographs was completed. Four patients underwent growth modulation procedures, all to correct existing varus deformity of the legs. Three of the 4 patients underwent bilateral distal femoral and proximal tibial growth modulation. The remaining patient underwent tibial correction only. Two of the 4 patients had a combined proximal fibular epiphysiodesis. All limbs had some improvement of alignment; however, 1 patient went on to bilateral osteotomies. Only 1 limb corrected to a neutral axis with growth modulation alone at last follow-up, initial implantation was done before 5 years of age. Growth modulation is an effective means for deformity correction in the setting of achondroplasia. However implantation may need to be done earlier than would be typical for patients without achondroplasia. Osteotomy may still be required after growth modulation for incomplete correction.

  13. Logs Perl Module

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, R. K.

    2007-04-04

    A perl module designed to read and parse the voluminous set of event or accounting log files produced by a Portable Batch System (PBS) server. This module can filter on date-time and/or record type. The data can be returned in a variety of formats.

  14. Cosmetology. Computerized Learning Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnerty, Kathy, Ed.

    Intended to help reading-limited students meet course objectives, these 11 modules are based on instructional materials in cosmetology that have a higher readability equivalent. Modules cover bacteriology, chemical waving, scalp and hair massage, chemistry, hair shaping, hairstyling, chemical hair relaxing, hair coloring, skin and scalp,…

  15. Membrane module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kaschemekat, Jurgen

    1994-01-01

    A membrane module assembly adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation.

  16. Lunar Module Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Apollo lunar module communications. It describes several changes in terminology from the Apollo era to more recent terms. It reviews: (1) Lunar Module Antennas and Functions (2). Earth Line of Sight Communications Links (3) No Earth Line of Sight Communications Links (4) Lunar Surface Communications Links (5) Signal-Processing Assembly (6) Instrumentation System (7) Some Communications Problems Encountered

  17. Airlock Battery Charge module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-06-06

    S124-E-006858 (6 June 2008) --- Astronauts Greg Chamitoff, Expedition 17 flight engineer, and Karen Nyberg, STS-124 mission specialist, use the controls of the International Space Station's robotic Canadarm2 in the Destiny laboratory to maneuver the Kibo Japanese logistics module from atop the Harmony node to the top of the Kibo Japanese Pressurized Module.

  18. Membrane module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kaschemekat, J.

    1994-03-15

    A membrane module assembly is described which is adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation. 2 figures.

  19. Japanese Experiment Module (JEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is removed from its shipping crate and moved across the floor of the Space Station Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named 'Kibo' (Hope) to arrive at KSC. Japan's primary contribution to the International Space Station, the module will enhance unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment in which astronauts will conduct experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility or platform for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  20. Solar energy modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, R. R. (Inventor); Mcdougal, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    A module is described with a receiver having a solar energy acceptance opening and supported by a mounting ring along the optic axis of a parabolic mirror in coaxial alignment for receiving solar energy from the mirror, and a solar flux modulator plate for varying the quantity of solar energy flux received by the acceptance opening of the module. The modulator plate is characterized by an annular, plate-like body, the internal diameter of which is equal to or slightly greater than the diameter of the solar energy acceptance opening of the receiver. Slave cylinders are connected to the modulator plate for supporting the plate for axial displacement along the axis of the mirror, therby shading the opening with respect to solar energy flux reflected from the surface of the mirror to the solar energy acceptance opening.

  1. Photovoltaic module and laminate

    SciTech Connect

    Bunea, Gabriela E.; Kim, Sung Dug; Kavulak, David F.J.

    A photovoltaic module is disclosed. The photovoltaic module has a first side directed toward the sun during normal operation and a second, lower side. The photovoltaic module comprises a perimeter frame and a photovoltaic laminate at least partially enclosed by and supported by the perimeter frame. The photovoltaic laminate comprises a transparent cover layer positioned toward the first side of the photovoltaic module, an upper encapsulant layer beneath and adhering to the cover layer, a plurality of photovoltaic solar cells beneath the upper encapsulant layer, the photovoltaic solar cells electrically interconnected, a lower encapsulant layer beneath the plurality of photovoltaicmore » solar cells, the upper and lower encapsulant layers enclosing the plurality of photovoltaic solar cells, and a homogenous rear environmental protection layer, the rear environmental protection layer adhering to the lower encapsulant layer, the rear environmental protection layer exposed to the ambient environment on the second side of the photovoltaic module.« less

  2. Modulation limit of semiconductor lasers by some parametric modulation schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iga, K.

    1985-07-01

    Using the simple rate equations and small signal analysis, the modulation speed limit of semiconductor lasers with modulation schemes such as gain switching, modulation of nonradiative recombination lifetime of minority carriers, and cavity Q modulation, is calculated and compared with the injection modulation scheme of Ikegami and Suematsu (1968). It is found that the maximum modulation frequency for the gain and Q modulation can exceed the resonance-like frequency by a factor equal to the coefficient of the time derivative of the modulation parameter, though the nonradiative lifetime modulation is not shown to be different from the injection modulation. A solution for the carrier lifetime modulation of LED is obtained, and the possibility of wideband modulation in this scheme is demonstrated.

  3. Optical modulator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, J.

    1972-01-01

    The fabrication, test, and delivery of an optical modulator system which will operate with a mode-locked Nd:YAG laser indicating at either 1.06 or 0.53 micrometers is discussed. The delivered hardware operates at data rates up to 400 Mbps and includes a 0.53 micrometer electrooptic modulator, a 1.06 micrometer electrooptic modulator with power supply and signal processing electronics with power supply. The modulators contain solid state drivers which accept digital signals with MECL logic levels, temperature controllers to maintain a stable thermal environment for the modulator crystals, and automatic electronic compensation to maximize the extinction ratio. The modulators use two lithium tantalate crystals cascaded in a double pass configuration. The signal processing electronics include encoding electronics which are capable of digitizing analog signals between the limit of + or - 0.75 volts at a maximum rate of 80 megasamples per second with 5 bit resolution. The digital samples are serialized and made available as a 400 Mbps serial NRZ data source for the modulators. A pseudorandom (PN) generator is also included in the signal processing electronics. This data source generates PN sequences with lengths between 31 bits and 32,767 bits in a serial NRZ format at rates up to 400 Mbps.

  4. Japanese Experiment Module arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-29

    The Experiment Logistics Module Pressurized Section for the Japanese Experiment Module arrives at the Space Station Processing Facility. The logistics module is one of the components of the Japanese Experiment Module or JEM, also known as Kibo, which means "hope" in Japanese. Kibo comprises six components: two research facilities -- the Pressurized Module and Exposed Facility; a Logistics Module attached to each of them; a Remote Manipulator System; and an Inter-Orbit Communication System unit. Kibo also has a scientific airlock through which experiments are transferred and exposed to the external environment of space. Kibo is Japan's first human space facility and its primary contribution to the station. Kibo will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment in which astronauts can conduct science experiments. The various components of JEM will be assembled in space over the course of three Space Shuttle missions. The first of those three missions, STS-123, will carry the Experiment Logistics Module Pressurized Section aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, targeted for launch in 2007.

  5. Japanese Experiment Module arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-29

    Inside the Space Station Processing Facility, workers monitor progress as a huge crane is used to remove the top of the crate carrying the Experiment Logistics Module Pressurized Section for the Japanese Experiment Module. The logistics module is one of the components of the Japanese Experiment Module or JEM, also known as Kibo, which means "hope" in Japanese. Kibo comprises six components: two research facilities -- the Pressurized Module and Exposed Facility; a Logistics Module attached to each of them; a Remote Manipulator System; and an Inter-Orbit Communication System unit. Kibo also has a scientific airlock through which experiments are transferred and exposed to the external environment of space. Kibo is Japan's first human space facility and its primary contribution to the station. Kibo will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment in which astronauts can conduct science experiments. The various components of JEM will be assembled in space over the course of three Space Shuttle missions. The first of those three missions, STS-123, will carry the Experiment Logistics Module Pressurized Section aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, targeted for launch in 2007.

  6. Japanese Experiment Module arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-29

    Inside the Space Station Processing Facility, the Experiment Logistics Module Pressurized Section for the Japanese Experiment Module is revealed after the top of the crate is removed. The logistics module is one of the components of the Japanese Experiment Module or JEM, also known as Kibo, which means "hope" in Japanese. Kibo comprises six components: two research facilities -- the Pressurized Module and Exposed Facility; a Logistics Module attached to each of them; a Remote Manipulator System; and an Inter-Orbit Communication System unit. Kibo also has a scientific airlock through which experiments are transferred and exposed to the external environment of space. Kibo is Japan's first human space facility and its primary contribution to the station. Kibo will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment in which astronauts can conduct science experiments. The various components of JEM will be assembled in space over the course of three Space Shuttle missions. The first of those three missions, STS-123, will carry the Experiment Logistics Module Pressurized Section aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, targeted for launch in 2007.

  7. Japanese Experiment Module arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-29

    The Experiment Logistics Module Pressurized Section for the Japanese Experiment Module arrives at the Space Station Processing Facility for uncrating. The logistics module is one of the components of the Japanese Experiment Module or JEM, also known as Kibo, which means "hope" in Japanese. Kibo comprises six components: two research facilities -- the Pressurized Module and Exposed Facility; a Logistics Module attached to each of them; a Remote Manipulator System; and an Inter-Orbit Communication System unit. Kibo also has a scientific airlock through which experiments are transferred and exposed to the external environment of space. Kibo is Japan's first human space facility and its primary contribution to the station. Kibo will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment in which astronauts can conduct science experiments. The various components of JEM will be assembled in space over the course of three Space Shuttle missions. The first of those three missions, STS-123, will carry the Experiment Logistics Module Pressurized Section aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, targeted for launch in 2007.

  8. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    DOEpatents

    Wares, Brian S.

    2014-09-02

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame. A plurality of individual male alignment features and a plurality of individual female alignment features are included on each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by multiple individual male alignment features on a first module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules fitting into and being surrounded by corresponding individual female alignment features on a second module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  9. Amplitude Modulator Chassis

    SciTech Connect

    Erbert, G

    2009-09-01

    The Amplitude Modulator Chassis (AMC) is the final component in the MOR system and connects directly to the PAM input through a 100-meter fiber. The 48 AMCs temporally shape the 48 outputs of the MOR using an arbitrary waveform generator coupled to an amplitude modulator. The amplitude modulation element is a two stage, Lithium Niobate waveguide device, where the intensity of the light passing through the device is a function of the electrical drive applied. The first stage of the modulator is connected to a programmable high performance Arbitrary Waveform Generator (AWG) consisting of 140 impulse generators space 250 psmore » apart. An arbitrary waveform is generated by independently varying the amplitude of each impulse generator and then summing the impulses together. In addition to the AWG a short pulse generator is also connected to the first stage of the modulator to provide a sub 100-ps pulse used for timing experiments. The second stage of the modulator is connect to a square pulse generator used to further attenuate any pre or post pulse light passing through the first stage of the modulator. The fast rise and fall time of the square pulse generator is also used to produce fast rise and fall times of the AWG by clipping the AWG pulse. For maximum extinction, a pulse bias voltage is applied to each stage of the modulator. A pulse voltage is applied as opposed to a DC voltage to prevent charge buildup on the modulator. Each bias voltage is adjustable to provide a minimum of 50-dB extinction. The AMC is controlled through ICCS to generate the desired temporal pulse shape. This process involves a closed-loop control algorithm, which compares the desired temporal waveform to the produced optical pulse, and iterates the programming of the AWG until the two waveforms agree within an allowable tolerance.« less

  10. Japanese experiment module (JEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kato, T.

    1986-01-01

    Japanese hardware elements studied during the definition phase of phase B are described. The hardware is called JEM (Japanese Experiment Module) and will be attached to the Space Station core. JEM consists of a pressurized module, an exposed facility, a scientific/equipment airlock, a local remote manipulator, and experimental logistic module. With all those hardware elements JEM will accommodate general scientific and technology development research (some of the elements are to utilize the advantage of the microgravity environment), and also accommodate control panels for the Space Station Mobile Remote Manipulator System and attached payloads.

  11. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  12. The ANTARES optical module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ANTARES Collaboration; Amram, P.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anvar, S.; Ardellier-Desages, F. E.; Aslanides, E.; Aubert, J.-J.; Azoulay, R.; Bailey, D.; Basa, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Bellotti, R.; Benhammou, Y.; Bernard, F.; Berthier, R.; Bertin, V.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; Bland, R. W.; Blondeau, F.; de Botton, N.; Boulesteix, J.; Brooks, C. B.; Brunner, J.; Cafagna, F.; Calzas, A.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Cârloganu, C.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Carton, P.-H.; Cartwright, S. L.; Cassol, F.; Cecchini, S.; Ciacio, F.; Circella, M.; Compère, C.; Cooper, S.; Coyle, P.; Croquette, J.; Cuneo, S.; Danilov, M.; van Dantzig, R.; De Marzo, C.; DeVita, R.; Deck, P.; Destelle, J.-J.; Dispau, G.; Drougou, J. F.; Druillole, F.; Engelen, J.; Feinstein, F.; Festy, D.; Fopma, J.; Gallone, J.-M.; Giacomelli, G.; Goret, P.; Gosset, L.; Gournay, J.-F.; Heijboer, A.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herrouin, G.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; de Jong, M.; Karolak, M.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Lachartre, D.; Lafoux, H.; Lamare, P.; Languillat, J.-C.; Laubier, L.; Laugier, J.-P.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; Le Van Suu, A.; Lemoine, L.; Lo Nigro, L.; Lo Presti, D.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Magnier, P.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Massol, A.; Masullo, R.; Mazéas, F.; Mazeau, B.; Mazure, A.; McMillan, J. E.; Michel, J. L.; Migneco, E.; Millot, C.; Mols, P.; Montanet, F.; Montaruli, T.; Morel, J. P.; Moscoso, L.; Musumeci, M.; Navas, S.; Nezri, E.; Nooren, G. J.; Oberski, J.; Olivetto, C.; Oppelt-Pohl, A.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Papaleo, R.; Payre, P.; Perrin, P.; Petruccetti, M.; Petta, C.; Piattelli, P.; Poinsignon, J.; Potheau, R.; Queinec, Y.; Racca, C.; Raia, G.; Randazzo, N.; Rethore, F.; Riccobene, G.; Ricol, J.-S.; Ripani, M.; Roca-Blay, V.; Rolin, J. F.; Rostovstev, A.; Russo, G. V.; Sacquin, Y.; Salusti, E.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schuster, W.; Soirat, J.-P.; Souvorova, O.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Stubert, D.; Taiuti, M.; Tao, C.; Tayalati, Y.; Thompson, L. F.; Tilav, S.; Triay, R.; Valente, V.; Varlamov, I.; Vaudaine, G.; Vernin, P.; de Witt Huberts, P.; de Wolf, E.; Zakharov, V.; Zavatarelli, S.; de D. Zornoza, J.; Zún~iga, J.

    2002-05-01

    The ANTARES collaboration is building a deep sea neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. This detector will cover a sensitive area of typically 0.1km2 and will be equipped with about 1000 optical modules. Each of these optical modules consists of a large area photomultiplier and its associated electronics housed in a pressure resistant glass sphere. The design of the ANTARES optical module, which is a key element of the detector, has been finalized following extensive R&D studies and is reviewed here in detail.

  13. Orion Crew Module Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-17

    Technicians assist as the Orion crew module for Exploration Mission-1 is moved toward the thermal chamber in the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The crew module will undergo a thermal cycle test to assess the workmanship of critical hardware and structural locations. The test also demonstrates crew module subsystem operations in a thermally stressing environment to confirm no damage or anomalous hardware conditions as a result of the test. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA's Space Launch System rocket on its first uncrewed integrated flight.

  14. Orion Crew Module Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-17

    A crane is being prepared for use during move operations of the Orion crew module for Exploration Mission-1 to the thermal chamber in the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The crew module will undergo a thermal cycle test to assess the workmanship of critical hardware and structural locations. The test also demonstrates crew module subsystem operations in a thermally stressing environment to confirm no damage or anomalous hardware conditions as a result of the test. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA's Space Launch System rocket on its first uncrewed integrated flight.

  15. Orion Crew Module Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-17

    Technicians check a crane that will be used during move operations of the Orion crew module for Exploration Mission-1 to the thermal chamber in the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The crew module will undergo a thermal cycle test to assess the workmanship of critical hardware and structural locations. The test also demonstrates crew module subsystem operations in a thermally stressing environment to confirm no damage or anomalous hardware conditions as a result of the test. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA's Space Launch System rocket on its first uncrewed integrated flight.

  16. Orion Crew Module Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-17

    The Orion crew module for Exploration Mission-1 was moved into the thermal chamber in the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The crew module will undergo a thermal cycle test to assess the workmanship of critical hardware and structural locations. The test also demonstrates crew module subsystem operations in a thermally stressing environment to confirm no damage or anomalous hardware conditions as a result of the test. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA's Space Launch System rocket on its first uncrewed integrated flight.

  17. Sonication standard laboratory module

    DOEpatents

    Beugelsdijk, Tony; Hollen, Robert M.; Erkkila, Tracy H.; Bronisz, Lawrence E.; Roybal, Jeffrey E.; Clark, Michael Leon

    1999-01-01

    A standard laboratory module for automatically producing a solution of cominants from a soil sample. A sonication tip agitates a solution containing the soil sample in a beaker while a stepper motor rotates the sample. An aspirator tube, connected to a vacuum, draws the upper layer of solution from the beaker through a filter and into another beaker. This beaker can thereafter be removed for analysis of the solution. The standard laboratory module encloses an embedded controller providing process control, status feedback information and maintenance procedures for the equipment and operations within the standard laboratory module.

  18. Orion Crew Module Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-17

    Technicians prepare a crane for use during move operations of the Orion crew module for Exploration Mission-1 to the thermal chamber in the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The crew module will undergo a thermal cycle test to assess the workmanship of critical hardware and structural locations. The test also demonstrates crew module subsystem operations in a thermally stressing environment to confirm no damage or anomalous hardware conditions as a result of the test. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA's Space Launch System rocket on its first uncrewed integrated flight.

  19. Water heater control module

    DOEpatents

    Hammerstrom, Donald J

    2013-11-26

    An advanced electric water heater control system that interfaces with a high temperature cut-off thermostat and an upper regulating thermostat. The system includes a control module that is electrically connected to the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module includes a switch to open or close the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module further includes circuitry configured to control said switch in response to a signal selected from the group of an autonomous signal, a communicated signal, and combinations thereof.

  20. EFG solar modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Six photovoltaic modules using solar cells fabricated from silicon ribbons were assembled and delivered to JPL. Each module was comprised of four separate submodules which were parallel connected. The submodules contained 45 EFG cells which were series interconnected by a shingle or overlapping design. The inherent rectangular shape of the cells allowed a high packing factor to be achieved. The average efficiency of the six modules, corrected to AM1 at 28 C was 8.7%, which indicates that the average encapsulated cell efficiency was 10.0%.

  1. Collins in Service Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-08-05

    S114-E-7138 (5 August 2005) --- Astronaut Eileen M. Collins, STS-114 commander, waves while floating in the Zvezda Service Module of the international space station while Space Shuttle Discovery was docked to the station.

  2. Lunar robotic maintenance module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayres, Michael L.

    1988-01-01

    A design for a robotic maintenance module that will assist a mobile 100-meter lunar drill is introduced. The design considers the following areas of interest: the atmospheric conditions, actuator systems, power supply, material selection, weight, cooling system and operation.

  3. Module encapsulation technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, P.

    1986-01-01

    The identification and development techniques for low-cost module encapsulation materials were reviewed. Test results were displayed for a variety of materials. The improved prospects for modeling encapsulation systems for life prediction were reported.

  4. Digital optical conversion module

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.

    1988-07-19

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer. 2 figs.

  5. Digital optical conversion module

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, Dale K.; Rankin, Richard A.

    1991-02-26

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer.

  6. Periodically modulated dark states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yingying; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Wenxian

    2018-04-01

    Phenomena of electromagnetically induced transparency (PEIT) may be interpreted by the Autler-Townes Splitting (ATS), where the coupled states are split by the coupling laser field, or by the quantum destructive interference (QDI), where the atomic phases caused by the coupling laser and the probe laser field cancel. We propose modulated experiments to explore the PEIT in an alternative way by periodically modulating the coupling and the probe fields in a Λ-type three-level system initially in a dark state. Our analytical and numerical results rule out the ATS interpretation and show that the QDI interpretation is more appropriate for the modulated experiments. Interestingly, dark state persists in the double-modulation situation where control and probe fields never occur simultaneously, which is significant difference from the traditional dark state condition. The proposed experiments are readily implemented in atomic gases, artificial atoms in superconducting quantum devices, or three-level meta-atoms in meta-materials.

  7. Firefighting module development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    The firefighting module is a lightweight, compact, self contained, helicopter-transportable unit for fighting harbor and other specialty fires as well as for use in emergency water pumping applications. Units were fabricated and tested. A production type unit is undergoing an inservice evaluation and demonstration program at the port of St Louis. The primary purpose is to promote enhanced harbor fire protection at inland and coastal ports. The module and its development are described.

  8. Directed network modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palla, Gergely; Farkas, Illés J.; Pollner, Péter; Derényi, Imre; Vicsek, Tamás

    2007-06-01

    A search technique locating network modules, i.e. internally densely connected groups of nodes in directed networks is introduced by extending the clique percolation method originally proposed for undirected networks. After giving a suitable definition for directed modules we investigate their percolation transition in the Erdos-Rényi graph both analytically and numerically. We also analyse four real-world directed networks, including Google's own web-pages, an email network, a word association graph and the transcriptional regulatory network of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The obtained directed modules are validated by additional information available for the nodes. We find that directed modules of real-world graphs inherently overlap and the investigated networks can be classified into two major groups in terms of the overlaps between the modules. Accordingly, in the word-association network and Google's web-pages, overlaps are likely to contain in-hubs, whereas the modules in the email and transcriptional regulatory network tend to overlap via out-hubs.

  9. Apollo 9 Command/Service Modules photographed from Lunar Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 9 Command/Service Modules photographed from the Lunar Module, 'Spider', on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. Docking mechanism is visible in nose of the Command Module, 'Gumdrop'. Object jutting out from the Service Module aft bulkhead is the high-gain S-Band antenna.

  10. "Smart" Sensor Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahajan, Ajay

    2007-01-01

    An assembly that contains a sensor, sensor-signal-conditioning circuitry, a sensor-readout analog-to-digital converter (ADC), data-storage circuitry, and a microprocessor that runs special-purpose software and communicates with one or more external computer(s) has been developed as a prototype of "smart" sensor modules for monitoring the integrity and functionality (the "health") of engineering systems. Although these modules are now being designed specifically for use on rocket-engine test stands, it is anticipated that they could also readily be designed to be incorporated into health-monitoring subsystems of such diverse engineering systems as spacecraft, aircraft, land vehicles, bridges, buildings, power plants, oilrigs, and defense installations. The figure is a simplified block diagram of the "smart" sensor module. The analog sensor readout signal is processed by the ADC, the digital output of which is fed to the microprocessor. By means of a standard RS-232 cable, the microprocessor is connected to a local personal computer (PC), from which software is downloaded into a randomaccess memory in the microprocessor. The local PC is also used to debug the software. Once the software is running, the local PC is disconnected and the module is controlled by, and all output data from the module are collected by, a remote PC via an Ethernet bus. Several smart sensor modules like this one could be connected to the same Ethernet bus and controlled by the single remote PC. The software running in the microprocessor includes driver programs for operation of the sensor, programs that implement self-assessment algorithms, programs that implement protocols for communication with the external computer( s), and programs that implement evolutionary methodologies to enable the module to improve its performance over time. The design of the module and of the health-monitoring system of which it is a part reflects the understanding that the main purpose of a health

  11. Decoupled Modulation Control

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shaobu; Huang, Renke; Huang, Zhenyu

    The objective of this research work is to develop decoupled modulation control methods for damping inter-area oscillations with low frequencies, so the damping control can be more effective and easier to design with less interference among different oscillation modes in the power system. A signal-decoupling algorithm was developed that can enable separation of multiple oscillation frequency contents and extraction of a “pure” oscillation frequency mode that are fed into Power System Stabilizers (PSSs) as the modulation input signals. As a result, instead of introducing interferences between different oscillation modes from the traditional approaches, the output of the new PSS modulationmore » control signal mainly affects only one oscillation mode of interest. The new decoupled modulation damping control algorithm has been successfully developed and tested on the standard IEEE 4-machine 2-area test system and a minniWECC system. The results are compared against traditional modulation controls, which demonstrates the validity and effectiveness of the newly-developed decoupled modulation damping control algorithm.« less

  12. Integrated unaligned resonant modulator tuning

    SciTech Connect

    Zortman, William A.; Lentine, Anthony L.

    Methods and systems for tuning a resonant modulator are disclosed. One method includes receiving a carrier signal modulated by the resonant modulator with a stream of data having an approximately equal number of high and low bits, determining an average power of the modulated carrier signal, comparing the average power to a predetermined threshold, and operating a tuning device coupled to the resonant modulator based on the comparison of the average power and the predetermined threshold. One system includes an input structure, a plurality of processing elements, and a digital control element. The input structure is configured to receive, frommore » the resonant modulator, a modulated carrier signal. The plurality of processing elements are configured to determine an average power of the modulated carrier signal. The digital control element is configured to operate a tuning device coupled to the resonant modulator based on the average power of the modulated carrier signal.« less

  13. NREL module energy rating methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, C.; Newmiller, J.; Kroposki, B.

    1995-11-01

    The goals of this project were to develop a tool for: evaluating one module in different climates; comparing different modules; provide a Q&D method for estimating periodic energy production; provide an achievable module rating; provide an incentive for manufacturers to optimize modules to non-STC conditions; and to have a consensus-based, NREL-sponsored activity. The approach taken was to simulate module energy for five reference days of various weather conditions. A performance model was developed.

  14. Space Experiment Module (SEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodell, Charles L.

    1999-01-01

    The Space Experiment Module (SEM) Program is an education initiative sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Shuttle Small Payloads Project. The program provides nationwide educational access to space for Kindergarten through University level students. The SEM program focuses on the science of zero-gravity and microgravity. Within the program, NASA provides small containers or "modules" for students to fly experiments on the Space Shuttle. The experiments are created, designed, built, and implemented by students with teacher and/or mentor guidance. Student experiment modules are flown in a "carrier" which resides in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. The carrier supplies power to, and the means to control and collect data from each experiment.

  15. Simulations- ASTP Command Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1975-02-11

    S75-21599 (12 Feb. 1975) --- Six Apollo-Soyuz Test Project crewmen participate in joint crew training in Building 35 at the Johnson Space Center. They are (wearing flight suits), left to right, astronaut Thomas P. Stafford, commander of the American ASTP prime crew; astronaut Donald K. Slayton, docking module pilot on Stafford?s crew; cosmonaut Valeriy N. Kubasov, engineer on the Soviet ASTP first (prime) crew; astronaut Vance D. Brand, command module pilot on Stafford?s crew; cosmonaut Aleksey A. Leonov, commander of the Soviet ASTP first (prime) crew; and cosmonaut Vladimir A. Dzhanibekov, commander of the Soviet ASTP third (backup) crew. Brand is seated next to the hatch of the Apollo Command Module trainer. This picture was taken during a ?walk-through? of the first day?s activities in Earth orbit. The other men are interpreters and training personnel.

  16. Modulated infrared radiant source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, W. F.; Edwards, S. F.; Vann, D. S.; Mccormick, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    A modulated, infrared radiant energy source was developed to calibrate an airborne nadir-viewing pressure modulated radiometer to be used to detect from Earth orbit trace gases in the troposphere. The technique used an 8 cm long, 0.005 cm diameter platinum-iridium wire as an isothermal, thin line radiant energy source maintained at 1200 K. A + or - 20 K signal, oscillating at controllable frequencies from dc to 20 Hz, was superimposed on it. This periodic variation of the line source energy was used to verify the pressure modulated radiometer's capability to distinguish between the signal variations caused by the Earth's background surface and the signal from the atmospheric gases of interest.

  17. Orion Crew Module Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-17

    Technicians in clean-room suits attach a crane to the Orion crew module for Exploration Mission-1 for its move to the thermal chamber in the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Orion will be lifted out of a test stand and lowered onto another stand to for the move. The crew module will undergo a thermal cycle test to assess the workmanship of critical hardware and structural locations. The test also demonstrates crew module subsystem operations in a thermally stressing environment to confirm no damage or anomalous hardware conditions as a result of the test. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA's Space Launch System rocket on its first uncrewed integrated flight.

  18. GREET Pretreatment Module

    SciTech Connect

    Adom, Felix K.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo

    2014-09-01

    A wide range of biofuels and biochemicals can be produced from cellulosic biomass via different pretreatment technologies that yield sugars. Process simulations of dilute acid and ammonia fiber expansion pretreatment processes and subsequent hydrolysis were developed in Aspen Plus for four lignocellulosic feedstocks (corn stover, miscanthus, switchgrass, and poplar). This processing yields sugars that can be subsequently converted to biofuels or biochemical. Material and energy consumption data from Aspen Plus were then compiled in a new Greenhouses Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET TM) pretreatment module. The module estimates the cradle-to-gate fossil energy consumption (FEC) and greenhousemore » gas (GHG) emissions associated with producing fermentable sugars. This report documents the data and methodology used to develop this module and the cradle-to-gate FEC and GHG emissions that result from producing fermentable sugars.« less

  19. Deep frequency modulation interferometry.

    PubMed

    Gerberding, Oliver

    2015-06-01

    Laser interferometry with pm/Hz precision and multi-fringe dynamic range at low frequencies is a core technology to measure the motion of various objects (test masses) in space and ground based experiments for gravitational wave detection and geodesy. Even though available interferometer schemes are well understood, their construction remains complex, often involving, for example, the need to build quasi-monolithic optical benches with dozens of components. In recent years techniques have been investigated that aim to reduce this complexity by combining phase modulation techniques with sophisticated digital readout algorithms. This article presents a new scheme that uses strong laser frequency modulations in combination with the deep phase modulation readout algorithm to construct simpler and easily scalable interferometers.

  20. Thin film module development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jester, T.

    1985-01-01

    The design of ARCO Solar, Inc.'s Genesis G100 photovoltaic module was driven by several criteria, including environmental stability (both electrical and mechanical), consumer aesthetics, low materials costs, and manufacturing ease. The module circuitry is designed as a 12 volt battery charger, using monolithic patterning techniques on a glass superstrate. This patterning and interconnect method proves amenable to high volume, low cost production throughput, and the use of glass serves the dual role of handling ease and availability. The mechanical design of the module centers on environmental stability. Packaging of the glass superstrate circuit must provide good resistance to thermal and humidity exposure along with hi-pot insulation and hailstone impact resistance. The options considered are given. Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) is chosen as the pottant material for its excellent weatherability.

  1. Adaptive modulations of martensites.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, S; Rössler, U K; Heczko, O; Wuttig, M; Buschbeck, J; Schultz, L; Fähler, S

    2010-04-09

    Modulated phases occur in numerous functional materials like giant ferroelectrics and magnetic shape-memory alloys. To understand the origin of these phases, we employ and generalize the concept of adaptive martensite. As a starting point, we investigate the coexistence of austenite, adaptive 14M phase, and tetragonal martensite in Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape-memory alloy epitaxial films. We show that the modulated martensite can be constructed from nanotwinned variants of the tetragonal martensite phase. By combining the concept of adaptive martensite with branching of twin variants, we can explain key features of modulated phases from a microscopic view. This includes metastability, the sequence of 6M-10M-14M-NM intermartensitic transitions, and the magnetocrystalline anisotropy.

  2. Power module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Jeremy B [Torrance, CA; Newson, Steve [Redondo Beach, CA

    2011-11-15

    A power module assembly of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicular power inverter, wherein the power inverter has a grounded chassis, is provided. The power module assembly comprises a conductive base layer electrically coupled to the chassis, an insulating layer disposed on the conductive base layer, a first conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, a second conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, wherein the first and second conductive nodes are electrically isolated from each other. The power module assembly also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the first conductive node, and further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the second conductive node.

  3. Electro-Optic Modulator.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    An electro - optic modulator is used to modulate coherent light beams by the application of an electric potential. It combines a Fabry-Perot etalon and...a diffraction grating in a single unit. An etalon is constructed with an electro - optic material between reflecting surfaces. A voltage applied...between alternate, spaced-apart electrodes of a metal grid attached to one reflecting surface induces a diffraction grating in the electro optic material. Light entering the etalon is diffracted, reflected and efficiently coupled out.

  4. Bubble Memory Module.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    I AD-A093 642 ROCKWELL INTERNATIONAL ANAHEIM CA AUOEISSTAE-T F/S V/2 I BU13LE MEMORY MODULE. (U) DEC 80 0 0 BOHNING. F J BECKER NASI -14174...Cde under Contract NASI -14174 Dist’m/o National Aeronautics and Space Administration Scientific and Technical Information BranchA 1980 J Approvod ior...9/ BUBBLE M MORY MODULE.(U) DEC 80 0 BHNING, F J BECKER NASI -14174 NCLASSIFIED CB-569/201 NASA-CR-3380 ML22-fllfllf ll l ff mmlmmmmm.l®fmmM EEmmEI

  5. Flexible programmable logic module

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.

    2001-01-01

    The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.

  6. Thirst modulates a perception.

    PubMed

    Changizi, M A; Hall, W G

    2001-01-01

    Does thirst make you more likely to think you see water? Tales of thirsty desert travelers and oasis mirages are consistent with our intuitions that appetitive state can influence what we see in the world. Yet there has been surprisingly little scrutiny of this appetitive modulation of perception. We tested whether dehydrated subjects would be biased towards perceptions of transparency, a common property of water. We found that thirsty subjects have a greater tendency to perceive transparency in ambiguous stimuli, revealing an ecologically appropriate modulation of the visual system by a basic appetitive motive.

  7. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    DOEpatents

    Wares, Brian S.

    2012-09-04

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame having at least a top member and a bottom member. A plurality of alignment features are included on the top member of each frame, and a plurality of alignment features are included on the bottom member of each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by the alignment features on the top member of a lower module fitting together with the alignment features on the bottom member of an upper module. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  8. Collins in Service Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-08-05

    S114-E-7139 (5 August 2005) --- Astronaut Eileen M. Collins, STS-114 commander, floats in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station while Space Shuttle Discovery was docked to the Station. Astronaut John L. Phillips, Expedition 11 NASA Space Station science officer and flight engineer, is visible at bottom right.

  9. The Skylab Airlock Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This artist's concept is a cutaway illustration of the Skylab Airlock Module and its characteristics. The aft end of the Docking Adapter mated to the Airlock Module (AM), and served as the environmental, electrical, and communications control center. The docking adapter also contained the port through which the astronauts exited to perform extravehicular activity. The AM contained a turnel section through which Skylab crewmen could move between the workshop and the forward end of the airlock. It was encircled, for part of its length, at its aft end by the fixed Airlock Shroud (FAS), that had the same diameter as the workshop (22 feet) and was attached to the workshop's forward end. High pressure containers for oxygen and nitrogen providing Skylab's atmosphere, were mounted in the annular space between the outside of the tunnel and the inside of the shroud. The forward end of the FAS was the base on which the tubular structure supporting the solar observatory was mounted. Many of the supplies, and most of the control systems for Skylab were located in the AM; this module could well be the 'utility center' of the Skylab cluster. McDonnell Douglas fabricated the module with close Marshall Space Flight Center's involvement in design, development, and test activities.

  10. Rescue Manual. Module 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The eighth of 10 modules contains 6 chapters: (1) trench rescue; (2) shoring and tunneling techniques; (3) farm accident rescue; (4) wilderness search and rescue; (5) aircraft rescue; and (6) helicopter information. Key points, an…

  11. Nonlinear Focal Modulation Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guangyuan; Zheng, Cheng; Kuang, Cuifang; Zhou, Renjie; Kabir, Mohammad M.; Toussaint, Kimani C.; Wang, Wensheng; Xu, Liang; Li, Haifeng; Xiu, Peng; Liu, Xu

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate nonlinear focal modulation microscopy (NFOMM) to achieve superresolution imaging. Traditional approaches to superresolution that utilize point scanning often rely on spatially reducing the size of the emission pattern by directly narrowing (e.g., through minimizing the detection pinhole in Airyscan, Zeiss) or indirectly peeling its outer profiles [e.g., through depleting the outer emission region in stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy]. We show that an alternative conceptualization that focuses on maximizing the optical system's frequency shifting ability offers advantages in further improving resolution while reducing system complexity. In NFOMM, a spatial light modulator and a suitably intense laser illumination are used to implement nonlinear focal-field modulation to achieve a transverse spatial resolution of ˜60 nm (˜λ /10 ). We show that NFOMM is comparable with STED microscopy and suitable for fundamental biology studies, as evidenced in imaging nuclear pore complexes, tubulin and vimentin in Vero cells. Since NFOMM is readily implemented as an add-on module to a laser-scanning microscope, we anticipate wide utility of this new imaging technique.

  12. Crew Module Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redifer, Matthew E.

    2011-01-01

    The presentation presents an overview of the Crew Module development for the Pad Abort 1 flight test. The presentation describes the integration activity from the initial delivery of the primary structure through the installation of vehicle subsystems, then to flight test. A brief overview of flight test results is given.

  13. Rescue Manual. Module 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The sixth of 10 modules contains 4 chapters: (1) industrial rescue; (2) rescue from a confined space; (3) extrication from heavy equipment; and (4) rescue operations involving elevators. Key points, an introduction, and conclusion accompany…

  14. Rescue Manual. Module 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The second of 10 modules contains 5 chapters: (1) patient care and handling techniques; (2) rescue carries and drags; (3) emergency vehicle operations; (4) self-contained breathing apparatus; and (5) protective clothing. Key points, an…

  15. Scaling: An Items Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, Ye; Kolen, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    "Scaling" is the process of constructing a score scale that associates numbers or other ordered indicators with the performance of examinees. Scaling typically is conducted to aid users in interpreting test results. This module describes different types of raw scores and scale scores, illustrates how to incorporate various sources of…

  16. Formed photovoltaic module busbars

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Douglas; Daroczi, Shan; Phu, Thomas

    2015-11-10

    A cell connection piece for a photovoltaic module is disclosed herein. The cell connection piece includes an interconnect bus, a plurality of bus tabs unitarily formed with the interconnect bus, and a terminal bus coupled with the interconnect bus. The plurality of bus tabs extend from the interconnect bus. The terminal bus includes a non-linear portion.

  17. Academic Skills Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demery, Marie

    A module consisting of eight academic skills is presented to help students achieve success and graduate from Northwestern State University (Louisiana) and other institutions. The elective course is open to all students, and especially for entering freshmen who have a grade point average of 2.0 or who are enrolled in developmental education…

  18. Multiple trellis coded modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A technique for designing trellis codes to minimize bit error performance for a fading channel. The invention provides a criteria which may be used in the design of such codes which is significantly different from that used for average white Gaussian noise channels. The method of multiple trellis coded modulation of the present invention comprises the steps of: (a) coding b bits of input data into s intermediate outputs; (b) grouping said s intermediate outputs into k groups of s.sub.i intermediate outputs each where the summation of all s.sub.i,s is equal to s and k is equal to at least 2; (c) mapping each of said k groups of intermediate outputs into one of a plurality of symbols in accordance with a plurality of modulation schemes, one for each group such that the first group is mapped in accordance with a first modulation scheme and the second group is mapped in accordance with a second modulation scheme; and (d) outputting each of said symbols to provide k output symbols for each b bits of input data.

  19. Rescue Manual. Module 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The fourth of 10 modules contains 8 chapters: (1) construction and characteristics of rescue rope; (2) knots, bends, and hitches; (3) critical angles; (4) raising systems; (5) rigging; (6) using the brake-bar rack for rope rescue; (7) rope…

  20. An Integrated Teaching Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuel, Marie R.; Seiferth, Berniece B.

    This integrated teaching module provides elementary and junior high school teachers with a "hands-on" approach to studying the Anasazi Indian. Emphasis is on creative exploration that focuses on integrating art, music, poetry, writing, geography, dance, history, anthropology, sociology, and archaeology. Replicas of artifacts,…

  1. Paratransit: An Instructional Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalici, Anthony

    A concept-based introduction to paratransit is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of paratransit generally refers to modes of transportation other than mass transit and solo-driven automobiles. The…

  2. Evolutionary and Developmental Modules

    PubMed Central

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yuri P.; d’Avella, Andrea; Zelik, Karl E.; Zago, Myrka

    2013-01-01

    The identification of biological modules at the systems level often follows top-down decomposition of a task goal, or bottom-up decomposition of multidimensional data arrays into basic elements or patterns representing shared features. These approaches traditionally have been applied to mature, fully developed systems. Here we review some results from two other perspectives on modularity, namely the developmental and evolutionary perspective. There is growing evidence that modular units of development were highly preserved and recombined during evolution. We first consider a few examples of modules well identifiable from morphology. Next we consider the more difficult issue of identifying functional developmental modules. We dwell especially on modular control of locomotion to argue that the building blocks used to construct different locomotor behaviors are similar across several animal species, presumably related to ancestral neural networks of command. A recurrent theme from comparative studies is that the developmental addition of new premotor modules underlies the postnatal acquisition and refinement of several different motor behaviors in vertebrates. PMID:23730285

  3. SPACE: Intermediate Level Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Center for School Improvement and Performance.

    These modules were developed to assist teachers at the intermediate level to move away from extensive skill practice and toward more meaningful interdisciplinary learning. This packet, to be used by teachers in the summer Extended Learning Program, provides detailed thematic lesson plans matched to the Indiana Curriculum Proficiency Guide. The…

  4. Nonlinear Focal Modulation Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guangyuan; Zheng, Cheng; Kuang, Cuifang; Zhou, Renjie; Kabir, Mohammad M; Toussaint, Kimani C; Wang, Wensheng; Xu, Liang; Li, Haifeng; Xiu, Peng; Liu, Xu

    2018-05-11

    We demonstrate nonlinear focal modulation microscopy (NFOMM) to achieve superresolution imaging. Traditional approaches to superresolution that utilize point scanning often rely on spatially reducing the size of the emission pattern by directly narrowing (e.g., through minimizing the detection pinhole in Airyscan, Zeiss) or indirectly peeling its outer profiles [e.g., through depleting the outer emission region in stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy]. We show that an alternative conceptualization that focuses on maximizing the optical system's frequency shifting ability offers advantages in further improving resolution while reducing system complexity. In NFOMM, a spatial light modulator and a suitably intense laser illumination are used to implement nonlinear focal-field modulation to achieve a transverse spatial resolution of ∼60  nm (∼λ/10). We show that NFOMM is comparable with STED microscopy and suitable for fundamental biology studies, as evidenced in imaging nuclear pore complexes, tubulin and vimentin in Vero cells. Since NFOMM is readily implemented as an add-on module to a laser-scanning microscope, we anticipate wide utility of this new imaging technique.

  5. Evolutionary and developmental modules.

    PubMed

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yuri P; d'Avella, Andrea; Zelik, Karl E; Zago, Myrka

    2013-01-01

    The identification of biological modules at the systems level often follows top-down decomposition of a task goal, or bottom-up decomposition of multidimensional data arrays into basic elements or patterns representing shared features. These approaches traditionally have been applied to mature, fully developed systems. Here we review some results from two other perspectives on modularity, namely the developmental and evolutionary perspective. There is growing evidence that modular units of development were highly preserved and recombined during evolution. We first consider a few examples of modules well identifiable from morphology. Next we consider the more difficult issue of identifying functional developmental modules. We dwell especially on modular control of locomotion to argue that the building blocks used to construct different locomotor behaviors are similar across several animal species, presumably related to ancestral neural networks of command. A recurrent theme from comparative studies is that the developmental addition of new premotor modules underlies the postnatal acquisition and refinement of several different motor behaviors in vertebrates.

  6. Airlock Battery Charge module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-06-06

    S124-E-006865 (6 June 2008) --- One of a series of digital still images documenting the Japanese Experiment Module, or JEM, also called Kibo, in its new home on the International Space Station, this view features Kibo's exterior, Earth's horizon and a couple of "visiting" spacecraft. The Space Shuttle Discovery and a Russian Progress resupply craft are seen near foreground.

  7. Voss in Service Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-03-31

    ISS002-E-5084 (31 March 2001) --- Astronaut James S. Voss, Expedition Two flight engineer, floats in the Zvezda Service Module onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Voss, along with astronaut Susan J. Helms and cosmonaut Yury V. Usachev of Rosaviakosmos, recently replaced the initial three-member crew onboard the orbital outpost. The image was taken with a digital still camera.

  8. Packaging of electronic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzin, L.

    1966-01-01

    Study of design approaches that are taken toward optimizing the packaging of electronic modules with respect to size, shape, component orientation, interconnections, and structural support. The study does not present a solution to specific packaging problems, but rather the factors to be considered to achieve optimum packaging designs.

  9. Drupal Contributed Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Fries, Samuel B.; French, Shelane

    2014-10-01

    These Drupal Modules extend the functionality of Drupal by including specific styles for dates and tabs, publishing options for scheduled and immediate publication of content modes, field visibility in content forms, keyword block filters (taxonomy based), adding content nodes to a specified queue for display in views, and status display of workflow settings.

  10. Product Module Rig Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, James D. (Technical Monitor); Chiappetta, Louis, Jr.; Hautman, Donald J.; Ols, John T.; Padget, Frederick C., IV; Peschke, William O. T.; Shirley, John A.; Siskind, Kenneth S.

    2004-01-01

    The low emissions potential of a Rich-Quench-Lean (RQL) combustor for use in the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) application was evaluated as part of Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 1.0.2.7 of the NASA Critical Propulsion Components (CPC) Program under Contract NAS3-27235. Combustion testing was conducted in cell 1E of the Jet Burner Test Stand at United Technologies Research Center. Specifically, a Rich-Quench-Lean combustor, utilizing reduced scale quench technology implemented in a quench vane concept in a product-like configuration (Product Module Rig), demonstrated the capability of achieving an emissions index of nitrogen oxides (NOx EI) of 8.5 gm/Kg fuel at the supersonic flight condition (relative to the program goal of 5 gm/Kg fuel). Developmental parametric testing of various quench vane configurations in the more fundamental flametube, Single Module Rig Configuration, demonstrated NOx EI as low as 5.2. All configurations in both the Product Module Rig configuration and the Single Module Rig configuration demonstrated exceptional efficiencies, greater than 99.95 percent, relative to the program goal of 99.9 percent efficiency at supersonic cruise conditions. Sensitivity of emissions to quench orifice design parameters were determined during the parametric quench vane test series in support of the design of the Product Module Rig configuration. For the rectangular quench orifices investigated, an aspect ratio (length/width) of approximately 2 was found to be near optimum. An optimum for orifice spacing was found to exist at approximately 0.167 inches, resulting in 24 orifices per side of a quench vane, for the 0.435 inch quench zone channel height investigated in the Single Module Rig. Smaller quench zone channel heights appeared to be beneficial in reducing emissions. Measurements were also obtained in the Single Module Rig configuration on the sensitivity of emissions to the critical combustor parameters of fuel/air ratio, pressure drop, and residence

  11. Method of monolithic module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Gee, James M.; Garrett, Stephen E.; Morgan, William P.; Worobey, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Methods for "monolithic module assembly" which translate many of the advantages of monolithic module construction of thin-film PV modules to wafered c-Si PV modules. Methods employ using back-contact solar cells positioned atop electrically conductive circuit elements affixed to a planar support so that a circuit capable of generating electric power is created. The modules are encapsulated using encapsulant materials such as EVA which are commonly used in photovoltaic module manufacture. The methods of the invention allow multiple cells to be electrically connected in a single encapsulation step rather than by sequential soldering which characterizes the currently used commercial practices.

  12. Essentially semismall Quasi-Dedekind module relative to a module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Mukdad Q.

    2018-05-01

    Let R be associative ring with identity and M be a unitary R-module. In this paper study the direct summand of essentially semismall quasi-Dedekind module and prove that the direct sum of essentially semismall quasi-Dedekind modules need not be essentially semismall quasi-Dedekind and give the definition of essentially semismall quasi-Dedekind relative to a module with some examples, also give some of their basic properties and some examples that illustrate these properties.

  13. Lightweight Trauma Module - LTM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Current patient movement items (PMI) supporting the military's Critical Care Air Transport Team (CCATT) mission as well as the Crew Health Care System for space (CHeCS) have significant limitations: size, weight, battery duration, and dated clinical technology. The LTM is a small, 20 lb., system integrating diagnostic and therapeutic clinical capabilities along with onboard data management, communication services and automated care algorithms to meet new Aeromedical Evacuation requirements. The Lightweight Trauma Module is an Impact Instrumentation, Inc. project with strong Industry, DoD, NASA, and Academia partnerships aimed at developing the next generation of smart and rugged critical care tools for hazardous environments ranging from the battlefield to space exploration. The LTM is a combination ventilator/critical care monitor/therapeutic system with integrated automatic control systems. Additional capabilities are provided with small external modules.

  14. Vapor compression distillation module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuccio, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    A Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) module was developed and evaluated as part of a Space Station Prototype (SSP) environmental control and life support system. The VCD module includes the waste tankage, pumps, post-treatment cells, automatic controls and fault detection instrumentation. Development problems were encountered with two components: the liquid pumps, and the waste tank and quantity gauge. Peristaltic pumps were selected instead of gear pumps, and a sub-program of materials and design optimization was undertaken leading to a projected life greater than 10,000 hours of continuous operation. A bladder tank was designed and built to contain the waste liquids and deliver it to the processor. A detrimental pressure pattern imposed upon the bladder by a force-operated quantity gauge was corrected by rearranging the force application, and design goals were achieved. System testing has demonstrated that all performance goals have been fulfilled.

  15. Modulated Elliptical Slot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abou-Khousa, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    A novel modulated slot design has been proposed and tested. The proposed slot is aimed to replace the inefficient small dipoles used in conventional MST-based imaging systems. The developed slot is very attractive as MST array element due to its small size and high efficiency/modulation depth. In fact, the developed slot has been successfully used to implement the first prototype of a microwave camera operating at 24 GHZ. It is also being used in the design of the second generation of the camera. Finally, the designed elliptical slot can be used as an electronically controlled waveguide iris for many other purposes (for instance in constructing waveguide reflective phase shifters and multiplexers/switches).

  16. Glucocorticoid receptor modulators.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Onno C; Koorneef, Lisa L; Kroon, Jan

    2018-06-01

    The glucocorticoid hormone cortisol acts throughout the body to support circadian processes and adaptation to stress. The glucocorticoid receptor is the target of cortisol and of synthetic glucocorticoids, which are used widely in the clinic. Both agonism and antagonism of the glucocorticoid receptor may be beneficial in disease, but given the wide expression of the receptor and involvement in various processes, beneficial effects are often accompanied by unwanted side effects. Selective glucocorticoid receptor modulators are ligands that induce a receptor conformation that allows activation of only a subset of downstream signaling pathways. Such molecules thereby combine agonistic and antagonistic properties. Here we discuss the mechanisms underlying selective receptor modulation and their promise in treating diseases in several organ systems where cortisol signaling plays a role. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. VERDE Analytic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-15

    The Verde Analytic Modules permit the user to ingest openly available data feeds about phenomenology (storm tracks, wind, precipitation, earthquake, wildfires, and similar natural and manmade power grid disruptions and forecast power outages, restoration times, customers outaged, and key facilities that will lose power. Damage areas are predicted using historic damage criteria of the affected area. The modules use a cellular automata approach to estimating the distribution circuits assigned to geo-located substations. Population estimates served within the service areas are located within 1 km grid cells and converted to customer counts by conversion through demographic estimation of households and commercialmore » firms within the population cells. Restoration times are estimated by agent-based simulation of restoration crews working according to utility published prioritization calibrated by historic performance.« less

  18. Module isolation devices

    DOEpatents

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Cooke, John Albert; Buzinski, Michael David

    2010-04-27

    A gas flow isolation device includes a gas flow isolation valve movable from an opened condition to a closed condition. The module isolation valve in one embodiment includes a rupture disk in flow communication with a flow of gas when the module isolation valve is in an opened condition. The rupture disk ruptures when a predetermined pressure differential occurs across it causing the isolation valve to close. In one embodiment the valve is mechanically linked to the rupture disk to maintain the valve in an opened condition when the rupture disk is intact, and which permits the valve to move into a closed condition when the rupture disk ruptures. In another embodiment a crushable member maintains the valve in an open condition, and the flow of gas passed the valve upon rupturing of the rupture disk compresses the crushable member to close the isolation valve.

  19. 30% CPV Module Milestone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Robert; Kinsey, Geoff; Nayaak, Adi; Garboushian, Vahan

    2010-10-01

    Concentrating Photovoltaics has held out the promise of low cost solar electricity for now several decades. Steady progress towards this goal in the 80's and 90's gradually produced more efficient and reliable systems. System efficiency is regarded as the largest factor in lowering the electricity cost and the relatively recent advent of the terrestrial multi-junction solar cell has pressed this race forward dramatically. CPV systems are now exhibiting impressive AC field efficiencies of 25% and more, approximately twice that of the best flat plate systems available today. Amonix inc. has just tested their latest generation multi-junction module design, achieving over 31% DC efficiency at near PVUSA test conditions. Inculcating this design into their next MegaModule is forthcoming, but the expected AC system field efficiency should be significantly higher than current 25% levels.

  20. Thalamic modulation of aggression.

    PubMed

    Andy, O J; Giurintano, L; Giurintano, S; McDonald, T

    1975-01-01

    This experiment extends Pavlov's method of contrasts for 8 components of aggression were quantitatively evaluated in 11 freely moving adult cats. Aggression was elicited from the perifornix septohypothalamic areas by a series of progressively increasing and decreasing stimulation parameters. Three levels of thalamic stimulation (low, medium, and high) were combined with the perifornix stimulations. High level thalamic stimulation tended to facilitate the aggressive response elicited by low level perifornix stimulation. Thalamic lesions attenuated the aggression response, especially those elicited during high level perifornix stimulation. It was suggested that within the hypothalamic induced aggression circuitry the center median nucleus modulates the excitatory state of the system. The discussion concerns anatomic and physiologic pathways through which the center median nucleus may modulate the sensory, motor, and affective-autonomic subsystems into a well integrated aggressive state. These experimental findings are supported by the clinically established treatment of aggression by stereotaxic lesions placed in the center median nucleus.

  1. Modulation Characterization Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    34Advanced Communication Processing Techniques" was organized and held in Ruidoso , New Mexico, May 14-17, 1989. Dr. Charles Weber’s participation involved...to attend and deliver presentations at MILCOM 󈨜. • Dr. Charles Weber travelled to Ruidoso , NM, to chair the session on Modulation...Characterization at the CSI Workshop May 14-17, 1989. 26 r * Dr. Andreas Polydoros travelled to Ruidoso , NM, to attend the CSI Workshop "Advanced Communication

  2. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    DOEpatents

    Fritz, I.J.; Wendt, J.R.

    1994-09-06

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors. 8 figs.

  3. Chemical release module facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reasoner, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The chemical release module provides the capability to conduct: (1) thermite based metal vapor releases; (2) pressurized gas releases; (3) dispersed liquid releases; (4) shaped charge releases from ejected submodules; and (5) diagnostic measurements with pi supplied instruments. It also provides a basic R-F and electrical system for: (1) receiving and executing commands; (2) telemetering housekeeping data; (3) tracking; (4) monitoring housekeeping and control units; and (5) ultrasafe disarming and control monitoring.

  4. Yurchikhin in Service Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-15

    ISS036-E-008182 (15 June 2013) --- Expedition 36 Flight Engineer Fyodor Yurchikhin with Russia's Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) takes pictures of a highly anticipated event from a window in the Pirs module on the International Space Station. The European Space Agency's Automated Transfer Vehicle-4 (ATV-4) “Albert Einstein” was about to dock to the orbital outpost at 2:07 GMT, June 15, 2013, following a ten-day period of free-flight.

  5. Investigating Quantum Modulation States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    Coherent state quantum data encryption is highly interoperable with current classical optical infrastructure in both fiber and free space optical networks...hub’s field of regard has a transmit/receive module that are endpoints of the Lyot filter stage tree within the hub’s backend electro-optics control... mobile airborne and space-borne networking. Just like any laser communication technology, QC links are affected by several sources of distortions

  6. Generic Bluetooth Data Module

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    to Ref (1). 34 RS232.java Serial Coomunication port class To Bluetooth module HCI.java Host Control Interface class L2CAP.java Logical Link Control...standard protocol for transporting IP datagrams over point-to-point link . It is designed to run over RFCOMM to accomplish point-to-point connections...Control and Adaption Host Controller Interface Link Manager Baseband / Link Controller Radio Figure 2. Bluetooth layers (From Ref. [3].) C

  7. Airlock Battery Charge module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-06-06

    S124-E-006862 (6 June 2008) --- One of a series of digital still images documenting the Japanese Experiment Module, or JEM, also called Kibo, in its new home on the International Space Station, this view depicts Kibo's exterior in the distance, joined in the frame by some not so permanent hardware. The pictured components include the visiting Space Shuttle Discovery and a Russian Progress resupply vehicle.

  8. Thermal modulation for gas chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waite, J. Hunter (Inventor); Libardoni, Mark (Inventor); Stewart, Kristine (Inventor); Block, Bruce P. (Inventor); Sacks, Richard D. (Inventor); Hasselbrink, Ernest F. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A thermal modulator device for gas chromatography and associated methods. The thermal modulator device includes a recirculating fluid cooling member, an electrically conductive capillary in direct thermal contact with the cooling member, and a power supply electrically coupled to the capillary and operable for controlled resistive heating of the capillary. The capillary can include more than one separate thermally modulated sections.

  9. Headstart German Program. Module 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This is the fifth module of 10 in the German Headstart program. Each of the 3 units in the module contains objectives, exercises, and a self-evaluation quiz. In addition, there are several supplementary exercises and self-evaluations. The objective of this module is to enable the student to use and understand: (1) courtesy expressions; (2) time…

  10. Apollo 13 Service Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-04-17

    AS13-59-8500A (17 April 1970) --- This view of the severely damaged Apollo 13 Service Module (SM) was photographed from the Lunar Module/Command Module (LM/CM) following SM jettisoning. As seen in this cropped image, enlarged to provide a close-up view of the damaged area, an entire panel on the SM was blown away by the apparent explosion of oxygen tank number two located in Sector 4 of the SM. Two of the three fuel cells are visible just forward (above) the heavily damaged area. Three fuel cells, two oxygen tanks, and two hydrogen tanks are located in Sector 4. The damaged area is located above the S-Band high gain antenna. Nearest the camera is the Service Propulsion System (SPS) engine and nozzle. The damage to the SM caused the Apollo 13 crew members to use the LM as a "lifeboat". The LM was jettisoned just prior to Earth re-entry by the CM. Photo credit: NASA

  11. The Skylab Airlock Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    This illustration is a cutaway view of the external arrangement of the Airlock Module (AM). The aft end of the Docking Adapter mated to the AM, and served as the environmental, electrical, and communications control center. The docking adapter also contained the port through which the astronauts exited to perform extravehicular activity. The AM contained a turnel section through which Skylab crewmen could move between the workshop and the forward end of the airlock. It was encircled, for part of its length, at its aft end by the fixed Airlock Shroud (FAS), that had the same diameter as the workshop (22 feet) and was attached to the workshop's forward end. High pressure containers for oxygen and nitrogen providing Skylab's atmosphere, were mounted in the annular space between the outside of the tunnel and the inside of the shroud. The forward end of the FAS was the base on which the tubular structure supporting the solar observatory was mounted. Many of the supplies, and most of the control systems for Skylab were located in the AM; this module could well be the 'utility center' of the Skylab cluster. McDonnell Douglas fabricated the module with close Marshall Space Flight Center's involvement in design, development, and test activities.

  12. The Skylab Airlock Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    This illustration is a cutaway view of the internal arrangement of the Airlock Module (AM). The aft end of the Docking Adapter mated to the AM, and served as the environmental, electrical, and communications control center. The docking adapter also contained the port through which the astronauts exited to perform extravehicular activity. The AM contained a turnel section through which Skylab crewmen could move between the workshop and the forward end of the airlock. It was encircled, for part of its length, at its aft end by the fixed Airlock Shroud (FAS), that had the same diameter as the workshop (22 feet) and was attached to the workshop's forward end. High pressure containers for oxygen and nitrogen providing Skylab's atmosphere, were mounted in the annular space between the outside of the tunnel and the inside of the shroud. The forward end of the FAS was the base on which the tubular structure supporting the solar observatory was mounted. Many of the supplies, and most of the control systems for Skylab were located in the AM; this module could well be the 'utility center' of the Skylab cluster. McDonnell Douglas fabricated the module with close Marshall Space Flight Center's involvement in design, development, and test activities.

  13. Gradient-Modulated SWIFT

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinjin; Idiyatullin, Djaudat; Corum, Curtis A.; Kobayashi, Naoharu; Garwood, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Methods designed to image fast-relaxing spins, such as sweep imaging with Fourier transformation (SWIFT), often utilize high excitation bandwidth and duty cycle, and in some applications the optimal flip angle cannot be used without exceeding safe specific absorption rate (SAR) levels. The aim is to reduce SAR and increase the flexibility of SWIFT by applying time-varying gradient-modulation (GM). The modified sequence is called GM-SWIFT. Theory and Methods The method known as gradient-modulated offset independent adiabaticity was used to modulate the radiofrequency (RF) pulse and gradients. An expanded correlation algorithm was developed for GM-SWIFT to correct the phase and scale effects. Simulations and phantom and in vivo human experiments were performed to verify the correlation algorithm and to evaluate imaging performance. Results GM-SWIFT reduces SAR, RF amplitude, and acquisition time by up to 90%, 70%, and 45%, respectively, while maintaining image quality. The choice of GM parameter influences the lower limit of short T2* sensitivity, which can be exploited to suppress unwanted image haze from unresolvable ultrashort T2* signals originating from plastic materials in the coil housing and fixatives. Conclusions GM-SWIFT reduces peak and total RF power requirements and provides additional flexibility for optimizing SAR, RF amplitude, scan time, and image quality. PMID:25800547

  14. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  15. On staggered indecomposable Virasoro modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kytölä, Kalle; Ridout, David

    2009-12-01

    In this article, certain indecomposable Virasoro modules are studied. Specifically, the Virasoro mode L0 is assumed to be nondiagonalizable, possessing Jordan blocks of rank 2. Moreover, the module is further assumed to have a highest weight submodule, the "left module," and that the quotient by this submodule yields another highest weight module, the "right module." Such modules, which have been called staggered, have appeared repeatedly in the logarithmic conformal field theory literature, but their theory has not been explored in full generality. Here, such a theory is developed for the Virasoro algebra using rather elementary techniques. The focus centers on two different but related questions typically encountered in practical studies: How can one identify a given staggered module, and how can one demonstrate the existence of a proposed staggered module. Given just the values of the highest weights of the left and right modules, themselves subject to simple necessary conditions, invariants are defined which together with the knowledge of the left and right modules uniquely identify a staggered module. The possible values of these invariants form a vector space of dimension 0, 1, or 2, and the structures of the left and right modules limit the isomorphism classes of the corresponding staggered modules to an affine subspace (possibly empty). The number of invariants and affine restrictions is purely determined by the structures of the left and right modules. Moreover, in order to facilitate applications, the expressions for the invariants and restrictions are given by formulas as explicit as possible (they generally rely on expressions for Virasoro singular vectors). Finally, the text is liberally peppered throughout with examples illustrating the general concepts. These have been carefully chosen for their physical relevance or for the novel features they exhibit.

  16. Selfie in Cupola module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-24

    ISS043E241729 (05/24/2015) --- Expedition 43 commander and NASA astronaut Terry Virts is seen here inside of the station’s Cupola module. The Cupola is designed for the observation of operations outside the ISS such as robotic activities, the approach of vehicles, and spacewalks. It also provides spectacular views of Earth and celestial objects for use in astronaut observation experiments. It houses the robotic workstation that controls the space station’s robotic arm and can accommodate two crewmembers simultaneously.

  17. Modulation of whistlers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivokon', V. P.; Bogdanov, V. V.; Druzhin, G. I.; Cherneva, N. V.; Kubyshkin, A. V.; Sannikov, D. V.; Agranat, I. V.

    2014-11-01

    Analysis of the experimental data obtained at Paratunka observatory (53.02° N, 158.65° E; L = 2.3) has revealed a nonstandard form of whistlers involving spectral lines that are symmetric with respect to the whistler. We have shown that this form is most likely due to the amplitude modulation of whistlers by electromagnetic pulses with a length of around 1 s and carrier frequency of around 1.1 kHz. We have suggested that these pulses could be emitted by the auroral electrojet modified by heating radiation from the HAARP facility (62.30° N, 145.30° W; L > 4.2).

  18. Yurchikhin in Service Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-15

    ISS036-E-008165 (15 June 2013) --- Expedition 36 Flight Engineer Fyodor Yurchikhin with Russia's Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) takes pictures of a highly anticipated event from a window in the Pirs module on the International Space Station. His electronic still camera is equipped with a 400mm lens to capture distant images of the European Space Agency's Automated Transfer Vehicle-4 (ATV-4) “Albert Einstein.” The spacecraft eventually moved in much closer and successfully docked to the orbital outpost at 2:07 GMT, June 15, 2013, following a ten-day period of free-flight.

  19. Thomas in Spacehab module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-05-24

    S77-E-5089 (25 May 1996) --- Astronaut Andrew S. W. Thomas, mission specialist, interrupts a Spacehab task to pose for an Electronic Still Camera (ESC) snapshot inside the Spacehab Module onboard the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour. In upper left is the view port which crew members had used for viewing and photographing operations with the Spartan 207/Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE). Thomas has his hand on an aft-bulkhead-mounted locker. The Space Experiment Facility (SEF), designed and managed by the University of Alabama, is just behind his left shoulder.

  20. Processing module operating methods, processing modules, and communications systems

    DOEpatents

    McCown, Steven Harvey; Derr, Kurt W.; Moore, Troy

    2014-09-09

    A processing module operating method includes using a processing module physically connected to a wireless communications device, requesting that the wireless communications device retrieve encrypted code from a web site and receiving the encrypted code from the wireless communications device. The wireless communications device is unable to decrypt the encrypted code. The method further includes using the processing module, decrypting the encrypted code, executing the decrypted code, and preventing the wireless communications device from accessing the decrypted code. Another processing module operating method includes using a processing module physically connected to a host device, executing an application within the processing module, allowing the application to exchange user interaction data communicated using a user interface of the host device with the host device, and allowing the application to use the host device as a communications device for exchanging information with a remote device distinct from the host device.

  1. Phase modulation in RF tag

    DOEpatents

    Carrender, Curtis Lee; Gilbert, Ronald W.

    2007-02-20

    A radio frequency (RF) communication system employs phase-modulated backscatter signals for RF communication from an RF tag to an interrogator. The interrogator transmits a continuous wave interrogation signal to the RF tag, which based on an information code stored in a memory, phase-modulates the interrogation signal to produce a backscatter response signal that is transmitted back to the interrogator. A phase modulator structure in the RF tag may include a switch coupled between an antenna and a quarter-wavelength stub; and a driver coupled between the memory and a control terminal of the switch. The driver is structured to produce a modulating signal corresponding to the information code, the modulating signal alternately opening and closing the switch to respectively decrease and increase the transmission path taken by the interrogation signal and thereby modulate the phase of the response signal. Alternatively, the phase modulator may include a diode coupled between the antenna and driver. The modulating signal from the driver modulates the capacitance of the diode, which modulates the phase of the response signal reflected by the diode and antenna.

  2. Selective Glucocorticoid Receptor modulators.

    PubMed

    De Bosscher, Karolien

    2010-05-31

    The ancient two-faced Roman god Janus is often used as a metaphor to describe the characteristics of the Glucocorticoid Receptor (NR3C1), which exhibits both a beneficial side, that serves to halt inflammation, and a detrimental side responsible for undesirable effects. However, recent developments suggest that the Glucocorticoid Receptor has many more faces with the potential to express a range of different functionalities, depending on factors that include the tissue type, ligand type, receptor variants, cofactor surroundings and target gene promoters. This behavior of the receptor has made the development of safer ligands, that trigger the expression program of only a desirable subset of genes, a real challenge. Thus more knowledge-based fundamental research is needed to ensure the design and development of selective Glucocorticoid Receptor modulators capable of reaching the clinic. Recent advances in the characterization of novel selective Glucocorticoid Receptor modulators, specifically in the context of anti-inflammatory strategies, will be described in this review. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Photodynamic immune modulation (PIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, John R.; Hunt, David W. C.; Simkin, Guillermo O.; Ratkay, Leslie G.; Chan, Agnes H.; Lui, Harvey; Levy, Julia G.

    1999-09-01

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is accepted for treatment of superficial and lumen-occluding tumors in regions accessible to activating light and is now known to be effective in closure of choroidal neovasculature in Age Related Macular Degeneration. PDT utilizes light absorbing drugs (photosensitizers) that generate the localized formation of reactive oxygen species after light exposure. In a number of systems, PDT has immunomodulatory effects; Photodynamic Immune Modulation (PIM). Using low- intensity photodynamic regimens applied over a large body surface area, progression of mouse autoimmune disease could be inhibited. Further, this treatment strongly inhibited the immunologically- medicated contact hypersensitivity response to topically applied chemical haptens. Immune modulation appears to result from selective targeting of activated T lymphocytes and reduction in immunostimulation by antigen presenting cells. Psoriasis, an immune-mediated skin condition, exhibits heightened epidermal cell proliferation, epidermal layer thickening and plaque formation at different body sites. In a recent clinical trial, approximately one-third of patients with psoriasis and arthritis symptoms (psoriatic arthritis) displayed a significant clinical improvement in several psoriasis-related parameters after four weekly whole-body PIM treatments with verteporfin. The safety profile was favorable. The capacity of PIM to influence other human immune disorders including rheumatoid arthritis is under extensive evaluation.

  4. Whole Module Offgas Test Report: Space-Xl Dragon Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2012-01-01

    On September 26 and September 28,2012 a chemist from the JSC Toxicology Group acquired samples of air in 500 m1 evacuated canisters from the sealed Space-Xl Dragon Module. One sample was also acquired from Space-X Facility near the module at the start of the test. Samples of the module air were taken in triplicate once the module had been sealed, and then taken again in triplicate 1.98 days later. Ofthe triplicate samples, the first served as a line purge, and the last two were analyzed. The results of 5 samples are reported.

  5. Apparatuses to support photovoltaic modules

    DOEpatents

    Ciasulli, John; Jones, Jason

    2017-08-22

    Methods and apparatuses to support photovoltaic ("PV") modules are described. A saddle bracket has a mounting surface to support one or more PV modules over a tube, a gusset coupled to the mounting surface, and a mounting feature coupled to the gusset to couple to the tube. A grounding washer has a first portion to couple to a support; and a second portion coupled to the first portion to provide a ground path to a PV module. A PV system has a saddle bracket; a PV module over the saddle bracket; and a grounding washer coupled to the saddle bracket and the PV module. Saddle brackets can be coupled to a torque tube at predetermined locations. PV modules can be coupled to the saddle brackets.

  6. International Energy Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Summarizes the overall structure of the International Energy Model and its interface with other NEMS modules, mathematical specifications of behavioral relationships, and data sources and estimation methods.

  7. Adjustable extender for instrument module

    DOEpatents

    Sevec, J.B.; Stein, A.D.

    1975-11-01

    A blank extender module used to mount an instrument module in front of its console for repair or test purposes has been equipped with a rotatable mount and means for locking the mount at various angles of rotation for easy accessibility. The rotatable mount includes a horizontal conduit supported by bearings within the blank module. The conduit is spring-biased in a retracted position within the blank module and in this position a small gear mounted on the conduit periphery is locked by a fixed pawl. The conduit and instrument mount can be pulled into an extended position with the gear clearing the pawl to permit rotation and adjustment of the instrument.

  8. Light modulating device

    DOEpatents

    Rauh, R. David; Goldner, Ronald B.

    1989-01-01

    In a device for transmitting light, means for controlling the transmissivity of the device, including a ceramic, reversibly electrochromic, crystalline element having a highly reflective state when injected with electrons and charge compensating ions and a highly transmissive state when the electrons and ions are removed, the crystalline element being characterized as having a reflectivity of at least 50% in the reflective state and not greater than 10% in the transmissive state, and means for modulating the crystalline element between the reflective and transmissive states by injecting ions into the crystalline element in response to an applied electrical current of a first polarity and removing the ions in response to an applied electrical current of a second polarity.

  9. Light modulating device

    DOEpatents

    Rauh, R.D.; Goldner, R.B.

    1989-12-26

    In a device for transmitting light, means for controlling the transmissivity of the device, including a ceramic, reversibly electrochromic, crystalline element having a highly reflective state when injected with electrons and charge compensating ions and a highly transmissive state when the electrons and ions are removed, the crystalline element being characterized as having a reflectivity of at least 50% in the reflective state and not greater than 10% in the transmissive state, and means for modulating the crystalline element between the reflective and transmissive states by injecting ions into the crystalline element in response to an applied electrical current of a first polarity and removing the ions in response to an applied electrical current of a second polarity are disclosed. 1 fig.

  10. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    DOEpatents

    Miros, Robert H. J.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Seery, Martin N; Holland, Rodney H

    2012-09-18

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  11. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    DOEpatents

    Miros, Robert H. J. [Fairfax, CA; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham [Oakland, CA; Seery, Martin N [San Rafael, CA; Holland, Rodney H [Novato, CA

    2012-04-17

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  12. 12. VIEW OF THE INSPECTION MODULE (MODULE D). THE GLOVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF THE INSPECTION MODULE (MODULE D). THE GLOVE BOX IN THE FOREFRONT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH CONTAINS A DRILL PRESS; OTHER GLOVE BOXES ARE USED FOR PARTS INSPECTION. (5/70) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  13. Diffusion spectral imaging modules correlate with EEG LORETA neuroimaging modules.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Robert W; North, Duane M; Biver, Carl J

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the highest temporal correlations between 3-dimensional EEG current source density corresponds to anatomical Modules of high synaptic connectivity. Eyes closed and eyes open EEG was recorded from 19 scalp locations with a linked ears reference from 71 subjects age 13-42 years. LORETA was computed from 1 to 30 Hz in 2,394 cortical gray matter voxels that were grouped into six anatomical Modules corresponding to the ROIs in the Hagmann et al.'s [2008] diffusion spectral imaging (DSI) study. All possible cross-correlations between voxels within a DSI Module were compared with the correlations between Modules. The Hagmann et al. [ 2008] Module correlation structure was replicated in the correlation structure of EEG three-dimensional current source density. EEG Temporal correlation between brain regions is related to synaptic density as measured by diffusion spectral imaging. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Environmental Microbiology Modules. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walke, Raymond H.; Walke, Jayne G.

    This publication is the result of a project to develop microbiology instructional materials for vocational college students. These materials are a series of self-paced modules. Each module includes a pre-test, an introduction and historical packet, an organizational packet to set the framework for in-depth study, one or more in-depth packets, a…

  15. Thermal modulation for gas chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, Bruce P. (Inventor); Libardoni, Mark (Inventor); Stewart, Kristine (Inventor); Sacks, Richard D. (Inventor); Hasselbrink, Ernest F. (Inventor); Waite, J. Hunter (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A thermal modulator device for gas chromatography and associated methods. The thermal modulator device includes a cooling member, an electrically conductive capillary in direct thermal contact with the cooling member, and a power supply electrically coupled to the capillary and operable for controlled resistive heating of the capillary.

  16. Housing and Home Furnishings Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    These sixty-seven modules provide student materials for a home economics course in housing and home furnishings. (A companion instructor's guide is available separately--see note.) Each module contains an objective, student information, learning activities (and activity sheets as needed), student self-checks, student self-check answers, check-out…

  17. Argonne's SpEC Module

    ScienceCinema

    Harper, Jason

    2018-03-02

    Jason Harper, an electrical engineer in Argonne National Laboratory's EV-Smart Grid Interoperability Center, discusses his SpEC Module invention that will enable fast charging of electric vehicles in under 15 minutes. The module has been licensed to BTCPower.

  18. Macroeconomic Activity Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Macroeconomic Activity Module (MAM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook for 2016 (AEO2016). The report catalogues and describes the module assumptions, computations, methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and mainframe source code

  19. Acceleration Recorder and Playback Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is directed to methods and apparatus relating to an accelerometer electrical signal recorder and playback module. The recorder module may be manufactured in lightweight configuration and includes analog memory components to store data. Signal conditioning circuitry is incorporated into the module so that signals may be connected directly from the accelerometer to the recorder module. A battery pack may be included for powering both the module and the accelerometer. Timing circuitry is included to control the time duration within which data is recorded or played back so as to avoid overloading the analog memory components. Multiple accelerometer signal recordings may be taken simultaneously without analog to digital circuits, multiplexing circuitry or software to compensate for the effects of multiplexing the signals.

  20. Acceleration recorder and playback module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1994-11-01

    The present invention is directed to methods and apparatus relating to an accelerometer electrical signal recorder and playback module. The recorder module may be manufactured in lightweight configuration and includes analog memory components to store data. Signal conditioning circuitry is incorporated into the module so that signals may be connected directly from the accelerometer to the recorder module. A battery pack may be included for powering both the module and the accelerometer. Timing circuitry is included to control the time duration within which data is recorded or played back so as to avoid overloading the analog memory components. Multiple accelerometer signal recordings may be taken simultaneously without analog to digital circuits, multiplexing circuitry or software to compensate for the effects of multiplexing the signals.

  1. Acceleration recorder and playback module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1992-09-01

    The present invention is directed to methods and apparatus relating to an accelerometer electrical signal recorder and playback module. The recorder module may be manufactured in lightweight configuration and includes analog memory components to store data. Signal conditioning circuitry is incorporated into the module so that signals may be connected directly from the accelerometer to the recorder module. A battery pack may be included for powering both the module and the accelerometer. Timing circuitry is included to control the time duration within which data is recorded or played back so as to avoid overloading the analog memory components. Multiple accelerometer signal recordings may be taken simultaneously without analog to digital circuits, multiplexing circuitry or software to compensate for the effects of multiplexing the signals.

  2. Acceleration recorder and playback module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention is directed to methods and apparatus relating to an accelerometer electrical signal recorder and playback module. The recorder module may be manufactured in lightweight configuration and includes analog memory components to store data. Signal conditioning circuitry is incorporated into the module so that signals may be connected directly from the accelerometer to the recorder module. A battery pack may be included for powering both the module and the accelerometer. Timing circuitry is included to control the time duration within which data is recorded or played back so as to avoid overloading the analog memory components. Multiple accelerometer signal recordings may be taken simultaneously without analog to digital circuits, multiplexing circuitry or software to compensate for the effects of multiplexing the signals.

  3. Phase-Controlled Polarization Modulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, D. T.; Wollack, E. J.; Novak, G.; Moseley, S. H.; Pisano, G.; Krejny, M.; U-Yen, K.

    2012-01-01

    We report technology development of millimeter/submillimeter polarization modulators that operate by introducing a a variable, controlled phase delay between two orthogonal polarization states. The variable-delay polarization modulator (VPM) operates via the introduction of a variable phase delay between two linear orthogonal polarization states, resulting in a variable mapping of a single linear polarization into a combination of that Stokes parameter and circular (Stokes V) polarization. Characterization of a prototype VPM is presented at 350 and 3000 microns. We also describe a modulator in which a variable phase delay is introduced between right- and left- circular polarization states. In this architecture, linear polarization is fully modulated. Each of these devices consists of a polarization diplexer parallel to and in front of a movable mirror. Modulation involves sub-wavelength translations of the mirror that change the magnitude of the phase delay.

  4. Satellite Survivability Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehler, P.; Smith, J.

    The Satellite Survivability Module (SSM) is an end-to-end, physics-based, performance prediction model for directed energy engagement of orbiting spacecraft. SSM was created as an add-on module for the Satellite Tool Kit (STK). Two engagement types are currently supported: laser engagement of the focal plane array of an imaging spacecraft; and Radio Frequency (RF) engagement of spacecraft components. This paper will focus on the laser engagement scenario, the process by which it is defined, and how we use this tool to support a future laser threat detection system experiment. For a laser engagement, the user creates a spacecraft, defines its optical system, adds any protection techniques used by the optical system, introduces a laser threat, and then defines the atmosphere through which the laser will pass. SSM models the laser engagement and its impact on the spacecraft's optical system using four impact levels: degradation, saturation, damage, and destruction. Protection techniques, if employed, will mitigate engagement effects. SSM currently supports two laser protection techniques. SSM allows the user to create and implement a variety of "what if" scenarios. Satellites can be placed in a variety of orbits. Threats can be placed anywhere on the Earth or, for version 2.0, on other satellites. Satellites and threats can be mixed and matched to examine possibilities. Protection techniques for a particular spacecraft can be turned on or off individually; and can be arranged in any order to simulate more complicated protection schemes. Results can be displayed as 2-D or 3-D visualizations, or as textual reports. A new report feature available in version 2.0 will allow laser effects data to be displayed dynamically during scenario execution. In order to test SSM capabilities, the Ball team used SSM to model several engagement scenarios for our future laser threat detection system experiment. Actual test sites, along with actual laser, optics, and detector

  5. Electro-Optic Modulator and Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    An optical intensity modulator which uses a Sagnac interferometer having an electro - optic phase modulator therein. An electric modulation signal is...modulating the optical signals by the electrical signal, the electro - optic effect in the modulator phase shifts the optical signals with respect to one another

  6. 47 CFR 78.115 - Modulation limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modulation limits. 78.115 Section 78.115... SERVICE Technical Regulations § 78.115 Modulation limits. (a) If amplitude modulation is employed, negative modulation peaks shall not exceed 100 percent modulation. [37 FR 3292, Feb. 12, 1972, as amended...

  7. Modulated Source Interferometry with Combined Amplitude and Frequency Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An improved interferometer is produced by modifying a conventional interferometer to include amplitude and/or frequency modulation of a coherent light source at radio or higher frequencies. The phase of the modulation signal can be detected in an interfering beam from an interferometer and can be used to determine the actual optical phase of the beam. As such, this improvement can be adapted to virtually any two-beam interferometer, including: Michelson, Mach-Zehnder, and Sagnac interferometers. The use of an amplitude modulated coherent tight source results in an interferometer that combines the wide range advantages of coherent interferometry with the precise distance measurement advantages of white light interferometry.

  8. Programmable Thermostat Module Upgrade for the Multipurpose Logistics Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, D. W.; Glasgow, S. d.; Reagan, S. E.; Presson, K. H.; Howard, D. E.; Smith, D. A.

    2007-01-01

    The STS-121/ULF 1.1 mission was the maiden flight of the programmable thermostat module (PTM) system used to control the 28 V shell heaters on the multi-purpose logistics module (MPLM). These PTMs, in conjunction with a data recorder module (DRM), provide continuous closed loop temperature control and data recording of MPLM on-orbit heater operations. This Technical Memorandum discusses the hardware design, development, test, and verification (DDT&V) activities performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center as well as the operational implementation and mission performance.

  9. Tactical visualization module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachejian, Kerry C.; Vujcic, Doug

    1999-07-01

    The Tactical Visualization Module (TVM) research effort will develop and demonstrate a portable, tactical information system to enhance the situational awareness of individual warfighters and small military units by providing real-time access to manned and unmanned aircraft, tactically mobile robots, and unattended sensors. TVM consists of a family of portable and hand-held devices being advanced into a next- generation, embedded capability. It enables warfighters to visualize the tactical situation by providing real-time video, imagery, maps, floor plans, and 'fly-through' video on demand. When combined with unattended ground sensors, such as Combat- Q, TVM permits warfighters to validate and verify tactical targets. The use of TVM results in faster target engagement times, increased survivability, and reduction of the potential for fratricide. TVM technology can support both mounted and dismounted tactical forces involved in land, sea, and air warfighting operations. As a PCMCIA card, TVM can be embedded in portable, hand-held, and wearable PCs. Thus, it leverages emerging tactical displays including flat-panel, head-mounted displays. The end result of the program will be the demonstration of the system with U.S. Army and USMC personnel in an operational environment. Raytheon Systems Company, the U.S. Army Soldier Systems Command -- Natick RDE Center (SSCOM- NRDEC) and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) are partners in developing and demonstrating the TVM technology.

  10. Living Systems Energy Module

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    The Living Systems Energy Module, renamed Voyage from the Sun, is a twenty-lesson curriculum designed to introduce students to the major ways in which energy is important in living systems. Voyage from the Sun tells the story of energy, describing its solar origins, how it is incorporated into living terrestrial systems through photosynthesis, how it flows from plants to herbivorous animals, and from herbivores to carnivores. A significant part of the unit is devoted to examining how humans use energy, and how human impact on natural habitats affects ecosystems. As students proceed through the unit, they read chapters of Voyagemore » from the Sun, a comic book that describes the flow of energy in story form (Appendix A). During the course of the unit, an ``Energy Pyramid`` is erected in the classroom. This three-dimensional structure serves as a classroom exhibit, reminding students daily of the importance of energy and of the fragile nature of our living planet. Interactive activities teach students about adaptations that allow plants and animals to acquire, to use and to conserve energy. A complete list of curricular materials and copies of all activity sheets appear in Appendix B.« less

  11. Plug cluster module demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousar, D. C.

    1978-01-01

    The low pressure, film cooled rocket engine design concept developed during two previous ALRC programs was re-evaluated for application as a module for a plug cluster engine capable of performing space shuttle OTV missions. The nominal engine mixture ratio was 5.5 and the engine life requirements were 1200 thermal cycles and 10 hours total operating life. The program consisted of pretest analysis; engine tests, performed using residual components; and posttest analysis. The pretest analysis indicated that operation of the operation of the film cooled engine at O/F = 5.5 was feasible. During the engine tests, steady state wall temperature and performance measurement were obtained over a range of film cooling flow rates, and the durability of the engine was demonstrated by firing the test engine 1220 times at a nominal performance ranging from 430 - 432 seconds. The performance of the test engine was limited by film coolant sleeve damage which had occurred during previous testing. The post-test analyses indicated that the nominal performance level can be increased to 436 seconds.

  12. OCGen Module Mooring Project

    SciTech Connect

    McEntee, Jarlath

    Ocean Renewable Power Company's OCGen Module Mooring Project provided an extensive research, design, development, testing and data collection effort and analysis conducted with respect to a positively buoyant, submerged MHK device secured to the seabed using a tensioned mooring system. Different analytic tools were evaluated for their utility in the design of submerged systems and their moorings. Deployment and testing of a prototype OCGen® system provided significant data related to mooring line loads and system attitude and station keeping. Mooring line loads were measured in situ and reported against flow speeds. The Project made a significant step in the developmentmore » of designs, methodologies and practices related to floating and mooring of marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices. Importantly for Ocean Renewable Power Company, the Project provided a sound basis for advancing a technically and commercially viable OCGen® Power System. The OCGen® Power System is unique in the MHK industry and, in itself, offers distinct advantages of MHK devices that are secured to the seabed using fixed structural frames. Foremost among these advantages are capital and operating cost reductions and increased power extraction by allowing the device to be placed at the most energetic level of the water column.« less

  13. VIBRATING PERVAPORATION MODULES: EFFECT OF MODULE DESIGN ON PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A third commercial-scale vibrating pervaporation membrane module was fabricated and evaluated for the separation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from aqueous solutions. Experiments with surrogate solutions of four hydrophobic VOCs (1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA), trichloroethy...

  14. Intermediate load modules for test and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Photovoltaic modules were tested for qualification. Tests involved the following: (1) delivery of 20 solar cells for use as reference cells; (2) module documentation and inspection plans specifying the 10 Group I modules; (3) design review of module documentation from Group I modules; (4) revise module documentation to overcome any problems of deficiencies associated with the Group I modules; (5) delivery of 10 Group II modules built to revised specifications; (6) testing of Group II modules to the criteria as outlined in qualification specification. It is found that the solarvolt MSP43E40B satisfies the design criteria of qualification specification for intermediate load modules. Design changes were made in the Group I modules to overcome the deficiencies which allowed Group II modules to pass the qualification tests.

  15. Evaluation of LED vehicular and pedestrian modules.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-04-01

    This study was conducted to verify the compliance of vehicular and pedestrian LED traffic signal modules with the Institute : of Transportation Engineers specifications; and to assess drivers preferences of the LED modules. Four vehicular modules ...

  16. Improved ATIR concentrator photovoltaic module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriani, Paul M.; Mao, Erwang

    2013-09-01

    Novel aggregated total internal reflection (ATIR) concentrator photovoltaic module design comprises 2-D shaped primary and secondary optics that effectively combine optical efficiency, low profile, convenient range of acceptance angles, reliability, and manufacturability. This novel optical design builds upon previous investigations by improving the shapes of primary and secondary optics to enable improved long-term reliability and manufacturability. This low profile, low concentration (5x to 10x) design fits well with one-axis trackers that are often used for flat plate crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules in large scale ground mount installations. Standard mounting points, materials, and procedures apply without changes from flat plate modules.

  17. High-Efficiency Power Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N (Inventor); Wintucky, Edwin G (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    One or more embodiments of the present invention pertain to an all solid-state microwave power module. The module includes a plurality of solid-state amplifiers configured to amplify a signal using a low power stage, a medium power stage, and a high power stage. The module also includes a power conditioner configured to activate a voltage sequencer (e.g., bias controller) when power is received from a power source. The voltage sequencer is configured to sequentially apply voltage to a gate of each amplifier and sequentially apply voltage to a drain of each amplifier.

  18. High-Efficiency Power Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N. (Inventor); Wintucky, Edwin G. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    One or more embodiments of the present invention pertain to an all solid-state microwave power module. The module includes a plurality of solid-state amplifiers configured to amplify a signal using a low power stage, a medium power stage, and a high power stage. The module also includes a power conditioner configured to activate a voltage sequencer (e.g., bias controller) when power is received from a power source. The voltage sequencer is configured to sequentially apply voltage to a gate of each amplifier and sequentially apply voltage to a drain of each amplifier.

  19. Variable Coded Modulation software simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sielicki, Thomas A.; Hamkins, Jon; Thorsen, Denise

    This paper reports on the design and performance of a new Variable Coded Modulation (VCM) system. This VCM system comprises eight of NASA's recommended codes from the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) standards, including four turbo and four AR4JA/C2 low-density parity-check codes, together with six modulations types (BPSK, QPSK, 8-PSK, 16-APSK, 32-APSK, 64-APSK). The signaling protocol for the transmission mode is based on a CCSDS recommendation. The coded modulation may be dynamically chosen, block to block, to optimize throughput.

  20. Light intensity modulation in phototherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukyanovich, P. A.; Zon, B. A.; Kunin, A. A.; Pankova, S. N.

    2015-04-01

    A hypothesis that blocking ATP synthesis is one of the main causes of the stimulating effect is considered based on analysis of the primary photostimulation mechanisms. The light radiation intensity modulation is substantiated and the estimates of such modulation parameters are made. An explanation is offered to the stimulation efficiency decrease phenomenon at the increase of the radiation dose during the therapy. The results of clinical research of the medical treatment in preventive dentistry are presented depending on the spectrum and parameters of the light flux modulation.

  1. Photovoltaic module with adhesion promoter

    DOEpatents

    Xavier, Grace

    2013-10-08

    Photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters and methods for fabricating photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters are described. A photovoltaic module includes a solar cell including a first surface and a second surface, the second surface including a plurality of interspaced back-side contacts. A first glass layer is coupled to the first surface by a first encapsulating layer. A second glass layer is coupled to the second surface by a second encapsulating layer. At least a portion of the second encapsulating layer is bonded directly to the plurality of interspaced back-side contacts by an adhesion promoter.

  2. High Order Modulation Protograph Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Thuy V. (Inventor); Nosratinia, Aria (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Digital communication coding methods for designing protograph-based bit-interleaved code modulation that is general and applies to any modulation. The general coding framework can support not only multiple rates but also adaptive modulation. The method is a two stage lifting approach. In the first stage, an original protograph is lifted to a slightly larger intermediate protograph. The intermediate protograph is then lifted via a circulant matrix to the expected codeword length to form a protograph-based low-density parity-check code.

  3. Cosmic ray modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal Mishra, Rekha; Mishra, Rajesh Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Propagation of cosmic rays to and inside the heliosphere, encounter an outward moving solar wind with cyclic magnetic field fluctuation and turbulence, causing convection and diffusion in the heliosphere. Cosmic ray counts from the ground ground-based neutron monitors at different cut of rigidity show intensity changes, which are anti-correlated with sunspot numbers. They also lose energy as they propagate towards the Earth and experience various types of modulations due to different solar activity indices. In this work, we study the first three harmonics of cosmic ray intensity on geo-magnetically quiet days over the period 1965-2014 for Beijing, Moscow and Tokyo neutron monitoring stations located at different cut off rigidity. The amplitude of first harmonic remains high for low cutoff rigidity as compared to high cutoff rigidity on quiet days. The diurnal amplitude significantly decreases during solar activity minimum years. The diurnal time of maximum significantly shifts to an earlier time as compared to the corotational direction having different cutoff rigidities. The time of maximum for first harmonic significantly shifts towards later hours and for second harmonic it shifts towards earlier hours at low cutoff rigidity station as compared to the high cut off rigidity station on quiet days. The amplitude of second/third harmonics shows a good positive correlation with solar wind velocity, while the others (i.e. amplitude and phase) have no significant correlation on quiet days. The amplitude and direction of the anisotropy on quiet days does not show any significant dependence on high-speed solar wind streams for these neutron monitoring stations of different cutoff rigidity threshold. Keywords: cosmic ray, cut off rigidity, quiet days, harmonics, amplitude, phase.

  4. Reconfigurable Processing Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somervill, Kevin; Hodson, Robert; Jones, Robert; Williams, John

    2005-01-01

    To accommodate a wide spectrum of applications and technologies, NASA s Exploration System's Missions Directorate has called for reconfigurable and modular technologies to support future missions to the moon and Mars. In response, Langley Research Center is leading a program entitled Reconfigurable Scaleable Computing (RSC) that is centered on the development of FPGA-based computing resources in a stackable form factor. This paper details the architecture and implementation of the Reconfigurable Processing Module (RPM), which is the key element of the RSC system. The RPM is an FPGA-based, space-qualified printed circuit assembly leveraging terrestrial/commercial design standards into the space applications domain. The form factor is similar to, and backwards compatible with, the PCI-104 standard utilizing only the PCI interface. The size is expanded to accommodate the required functionality while still better than 30% smaller than a 3U CompactPCI(TradeMark)card and without the overhead of the backplane. The architecture is built around two FPGA devices, one hosting PCI and memory interfaces, and another hosting mission application resources; both of which are connected with a high-speed data bus. The PCI interface FPGA provides access via the PCI bus to onboard SDRAM, flash PROM, and the application resources; both configuration management as well as runtime interaction. The reconfigurable FPGA, referred to as the Application FPGA - or simply "the application" - is a radiation-tolerant Xilinx Virtex-4 FX60 hosting custom application specific logic or soft microprocessor IP. The RPM implements various SEE mitigation techniques including TMR, EDAC, and configuration scrubbing of the reconfigurable FPGA. Prototype hardware and formal modeling techniques are used to explore the performability trade space. These models provide a novel way to calculate quality-of-service performance measures while simultaneously considering fault-related behavior due to SEE soft errors.

  5. Miniature Intelligent Sensor Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beech, Russell S.

    2007-01-01

    An electronic unit denoted the Miniature Intelligent Sensor Module performs sensor-signal-conditioning functions and local processing of sensor data. The unit includes four channels of analog input/output circuitry, a processor, volatile and nonvolatile memory, and two Ethernet communication ports, all housed in a weathertight enclosure. The unit accepts AC or DC power. The analog inputs provide programmable gain, offset, and filtering as well as shunt calibration and auto-zeroing. Analog outputs include sine, square, and triangular waves having programmable frequencies and amplitudes, as well as programmable amplitude DC. One innovative aspect of the design of this unit is the integration of a relatively powerful processor and large amount of memory along with the sensor-signalconditioning circuitry so that sophisticated computer programs can be used to acquire and analyze sensor data and estimate and track the health of the overall sensor-data-acquisition system of which the unit is a part. The unit includes calibration, zeroing, and signalfeedback circuitry to facilitate health monitoring. The processor is also integrated with programmable logic circuitry in such a manner as to simplify and enhance acquisition of data and generation of analog outputs. A notable unique feature of the unit is a cold-junction compensation circuit in the back shell of a sensor connector. This circuit makes it possible to use Ktype thermocouples without compromising a housing seal. Replicas of this unit may prove useful in industrial and manufacturing settings - especially in such large outdoor facilities as refineries. Two features can be expected to simplify installation: the weathertight housings should make it possible to mount the units near sensors, and the Ethernet communication capability of the units should facilitate establishment of communication connections for the units.

  6. A-7E Software Module Guide.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-08

    o 14 A& B:2.1 Function Driver Module.. ..... .... 14’ ’: B:2.2 Shared Services Module . . . o o . 0 -15 M’ 5:3 Software Decision Module...2.1.13 Weapon Release Functions... ........24 C:2.l.14 Ground Test Functions .. ........... 24 C:2.2 Shared Services Module Decomposition. ........24 C...Driver (FD) Module supported by a Shared Services (SS) Module. B:2.1 FUNCTION DRIVER MODULE The Function Driver Module consists of a set of individual

  7. Tyurin in the Zvezda Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-11-03

    ISS014-E-07138 (3 Nov. 2006) --- Cosmonaut Mikhail Tyurin, Expedition 14 flight engineer representing Russia's Federal Space Agency, installs and connects onboard equipment control system cables in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station.

  8. Frequency-Modulation Correlation Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margolis, J. S.; Martonchik, J. V.

    1985-01-01

    New type of correlation spectrometer eliminates need to shift between two cells, one empty and one containing reference gas. Electrooptical phase modulator sinusoidally shift frequencies of sample transmission spectrum.

  9. Flip-Flop Digital Modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eno, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    Clock switched on and off in response to data signal. Flip-flop modulator generates square-wave carrier frequency that is half clock frequency and turns carrier on and off. Final demodulator output logical inverse of data input.

  10. Environmental Modeling 101: Training Module

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) uses a variety of models to inform decisions that support its missions, this module provides an introduction to environmental modeling with examples of various models and life-cycles.

  11. An Embedded Reconfigurable Logic Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Jerry H.; Klenke, Robert H.; Shams, Qamar A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A Miniature Embedded Reconfigurable Computer and Logic (MERCAL) module has been developed and verified. MERCAL was designed to be a general-purpose, universal module that that can provide significant hardware and software resources to meet the requirements of many of today's complex embedded applications. This is accomplished in the MERCAL module by combining a sub credit card size PC in a DIMM form factor with a XILINX Spartan I1 FPGA. The PC has the ability to download program files to the FPGA to configure it for different hardware functions and to transfer data to and from the FPGA via the PC's ISA bus during run time. The MERCAL module combines, in a compact package, the computational power of a 133 MHz PC with up to 150,000 gate equivalents of digital logic that can be reconfigured by software. The general architecture and functionality of the MERCAL hardware and system software are described.

  12. Edge Supports for Photovoltaic Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    Mounting strips patterned after glazing gaskets. Easy to install supports for rooftop solar modules consist of extruded rubber mullions with locking zippers. Supports cut to length with utility knife and installed without special tools. Adaptable to many different roof configurations.

  13. Gidzenko in Service Module WMC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-04-02

    ISS01-E-5166 (December 2000) --- Cosmonaut Yuri P. Gidzenko, Soyuz commander for Expedition One, performs some electrician's work just outside the waste management compartment in the Zvezda Service Module of the Earth-orbiting International Space Station (ISS).

  14. Renewable Fuels Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the Annual Energy Outlook forecasts.

  15. Residential Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    Model Documentation - Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code.

  16. Industrial Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  17. Graphene based terahertz phase modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakenov, N.; Ergoktas, M. S.; Balci, O.; Kocabas, C.

    2018-07-01

    Electrical control of amplitude and phase of terahertz radiation (THz) is the key technological challenge for high resolution and noninvasive THz imaging. The lack of active materials and devices hinders the realization of these imaging systems. Here, we demonstrate an efficient terahertz phase and amplitude modulation using electrically tunable graphene devices. Our device structure consists of electrolyte-gated graphene placed at quarter wavelength distance from a reflecting metallic surface. In this geometry, graphene operates as a tunable impedance surface which yields electrically controlled reflection phase. Terahertz time domain reflection spectroscopy reveals the voltage controlled phase modulation of π and the reflection modulation of 50 dB. To show the promises of our approach, we demonstrate a multipixel phase modulator array which operates as a gradient impedance surface.

  18. Compact magnetic energy storage module

    DOEpatents

    Prueitt, M.L.

    1994-12-20

    A superconducting compact magnetic energy storage module in which a plurality of superconducting toroids, each having a toroidally wound superconducting winding inside a poloidally wound superconducting winding, are stacked so that the flow of electricity in each toroidally wound superconducting winding is in a direction opposite from the direction of electrical flow in other contiguous superconducting toroids. This allows for minimal magnetic pollution outside of the module. 4 figures.

  19. Compact magnetic energy storage module

    DOEpatents

    Prueitt, Melvin L.

    1994-01-01

    A superconducting compact magnetic energy storage module in which a plurality of superconducting toroids, each having a toroidally wound superconducting winding inside a poloidally wound superconducting winding, are stacked so that the flow of electricity in each toroidally wound superconducting winding is in a direction opposite from the direction of electrical flow in other contiguous superconducting toroids. This allows for minimal magnetic pollution outside of the module.

  20. Electricity Market Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    Documents the Electricity Market Module as it was used for the Annual Energy Outlook. The Electricity Market Module (EMM) is the electricity supply component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). The EMM represents the generation, transmission, and pricing of electricity. It consists of four submodules: the Electricity Capacity Planning (ECP) Submodule, the Electricity Fuel Dispatch (EFD) Submodule, the Electricity Finance and Pricing (EFP) Submodule, and the Electricity Load and Demand (ELD) Submodule.

  1. Group Combustion Module (GCM) Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-27

    ISS049e011638 (09/27/2016) --- Expedition 49 crewmember Takuya Onishi of JAXA works on the setup of the Group Combustion Module (GCM) inside the Japanese Experiment Module. The GCM will be used to house the Group Combustion experiment from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) to test a theory that fuel sprays change from partial to group combustion as flames spread across a cloud of droplets.

  2. Laser modulator for LISA pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voland, C.; Lund, G.; Coppoolse, W.; Crosby, P.; Stadler, M.; Kudielka, K.; Özkan, C.

    2017-11-01

    LISA Pathfinder is an ESA experiment to demonstrate the key technologies needed for the LISA mission to detect gravitational waves in space. The LISA Pathfinder spacecraft represents one arm of the LISA interferometer, containing an optical metrology system and two proof masses as inertial references for the drag-free control system. The LISA Pathfinder payload consists of two drag-free floating test masses located in the inertial sensors with their control electronics and an optical metrology subsystem. The optical metrology subsystem monitors the movement of both test masses relative to each other and to the spacecraft with very high sensitivity and resolution. This is achieved with a heterodyne Mach- Zehnder interferometer. This interferometer requires as input two coherent laser beams with a heterodyne frequency difference of a few kHz. To generate the two laser beams with a heterodyne frequency difference a Nd:YAG laser is used together with the Laser Modulator. The Nd:YAG laser generates a single coherent laser signal at a wavelength of 1064nm which is fibre coupled to the Laser Modulator. The Laser Modulator then generates the two optical beams with the required heterodyne frequency offset. In addition, the Laser Modulator is required to perform laser amplitude stabilization and optical path difference control for the two optical signals. The Laser Modulator consists of an optical unit - the LMU - and RF synthesiser, power amplification and control electronics. These electronics are all housed in the Laser Modulator Electronics (LME). The LMU has four primary functions: • Splitting of the input laser beam into two paths for later superposition in the interferometer. • Applying different frequency shifts to each of the beams. • Providing amplitude modulation control to each of the beams. • Providing active control of the optical path length difference between the two optical paths. The present paper describes the design and performance of the LMU

  3. Solar cell module lamination process

    DOEpatents

    Carey, Paul G.; Thompson, Jesse B.; Aceves, Randy C.

    2002-01-01

    A solar cell module lamination process using fluoropolymers to provide protection from adverse environmental conditions and thus enable more extended use of solar cells, particularly in space applications. A laminate of fluoropolymer material provides a hermetically sealed solar cell module structure that is flexible and very durable. The laminate is virtually chemically inert, highly transmissive in the visible spectrum, dimensionally stable at temperatures up to about 200.degree. C. highly abrasion resistant, and exhibits very little ultra-violet degradation.

  4. Intelligent spacecraft module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oungrinis, Konstantinos-Alketas; Liapi, Marianthi; Kelesidi, Anna; Gargalis, Leonidas; Telo, Marinela; Ntzoufras, Sotiris; Paschidi, Mariana

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents the development of an on-going research project that focuses on a human-centered design approach to habitable spacecraft modules. It focuses on the technical requirements and proposes approaches on how to achieve a spatial arrangement of the interior that addresses sufficiently the functional, physiological and psychosocial needs of the people living and working in such confined spaces that entail long-term environmental threats to human health and performance. Since the research perspective examines the issue from a qualitative point of view, it is based on establishing specific relationships between the built environment and its users, targeting people's bodily and psychological comfort as a measure toward a successful mission. This research has two basic branches, one examining the context of the system's operation and behavior and the other in the direction of identifying, experimenting and formulating the environment that successfully performs according to the desired context. The latter aspect is researched upon the construction of a scaled-model on which we run series of tests to identify the materiality, the geometry and the electronic infrastructure required. Guided by the principles of sensponsive architecture, the ISM research project explores the application of the necessary spatial arrangement and behavior for a user-centered, functional interior where the appropriate intelligent systems are based upon the existing mechanical and chemical support ones featured on space today, and especially on the ISS. The problem is set according to the characteristics presented at the Mars500 project, regarding the living quarters of six crew-members, along with their hygiene, leisure and eating areas. Transformable design techniques introduce spatial economy, adjustable zoning and increased efficiency within the interior, securing at the same time precise spatial orientation and character at any given time. The sensponsive configuration is

  5. Russian Docking Module is lowered

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Russian-built Docking Module (DM) is lowered for installation into the payload bay of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis while the spaceplane is in Orbiter Processing Facility bay 2. The module will fly as a primary payload on the second Space Shuttle/Mir space station docking mission, STS-74, which is now scheduled for liftoff in the fall of 1995. During the mission, the module will first be attached with the orbiter's robot arm to the Orbiter Docking System (ODS) in the payload bay of the orbiter Atlantis and then be docked with the Mir. When Atlantis undocks from the Mir, it will leave the new docking module permanently attached to the space station for use during future Shuttle Mir docking missions. The new module will simplify future Shuttle linkups with Mir by improving orbiter clearances when it serves as a bridge between the two space vehicles. The white structures attached to the module's sides are solar panels that will be attached to the Mir after the conclusion of the STS-74 mission.

  6. Quick-release connector module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sedig, Albert R. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A multi-bay electrical connector is described, of the type that has a frame (12, FIG. 2 ) with cavities (14) that each holds a separate module 20, which enables quick withdrawal of a single module from the frame and its quick replacement. A lock arm (42) is slidable along a first side (50) of a first cavity, and has at least one lock lug (80). A first module has a barrier part (70) that lies inward of the lock lug, which prevents outward movement of the first module out of the frame cavity. The lock arm can be moved to an unlocked position wherein the barrier part on the module lies inward of a gap (84) in the lock arm to permit the module to be pulled out of the frame cavity and later inserted therein. A latch (54) is slidable on the frame in directions (A, B) perpendicular to the sliding movement of the lock arm, and has an abutment (112, FIG. 5 ) that abuts a shoulder (114) on the lock arm to keep the lock arm in its unlocked position until the latch is released.

  7. ITER Central Solenoid Module Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, John

    The fabrication of the modules for the ITER Central Solenoid (CS) has started in a dedicated production facility located in Poway, California, USA. The necessary tools have been designed, built, installed, and tested in the facility to enable the start of production. The current schedule has first module fabrication completed in 2017, followed by testing and subsequent shipment to ITER. The Central Solenoid is a key component of the ITER tokamak providing the inductive voltage to initiate and sustain the plasma current and to position and shape the plasma. The design of the CS has been a collaborative effort betweenmore » the US ITER Project Office (US ITER), the international ITER Organization (IO) and General Atomics (GA). GA’s responsibility includes: completing the fabrication design, developing and qualifying the fabrication processes and tools, and then completing the fabrication of the seven 110 tonne CS modules. The modules will be shipped separately to the ITER site, and then stacked and aligned in the Assembly Hall prior to insertion in the core of the ITER tokamak. A dedicated facility in Poway, California, USA has been established by GA to complete the fabrication of the seven modules. Infrastructure improvements included thick reinforced concrete floors, a diesel generator for backup power, along with, cranes for moving the tooling within the facility. The fabrication process for a single module requires approximately 22 months followed by five months of testing, which includes preliminary electrical testing followed by high current (48.5 kA) tests at 4.7K. The production of the seven modules is completed in a parallel fashion through ten process stations. The process stations have been designed and built with most stations having completed testing and qualification for carrying out the required fabrication processes. The final qualification step for each process station is achieved by the successful production of a prototype coil. Fabrication of

  8. Laser frequency modulator for modulating a laser cavity

    DOEpatents

    Erbert, Gaylen V.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates to a laser frequency modulator for modulating a laser cavity. It is known in the prior art to utilize a PZT (piezoelectric transducer) element in combination with a mirror to change the cavity length of a laser cavity (which changes the laser frequency). Using a PZT element to drive the mirror directly is adequate at frequencies below 10 kHz. However, in high frequency applications (100 kHz and higher) PZT elements alone do not provide a sufficient change in the cavity length. The present invention utilizes an ultrasonic concentrator with a PZT element and mirror to provide modulation of the laser cavity. With an ultrasonic concentrator, the mirror element at the end of a laser cavity can move at larger amplitudes and higher frequencies.

  9. 47 CFR 80.213 - Modulation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... must be maintained between 75 and 100 percent; (2) When phase or frequency modulation is used in the 156-162 MHz band the peak modulation must be maintained between 75 and 100 percent. A frequency... installed between the modulation limiter and the modulated radio frequency stage. At frequencies between 3 k...

  10. 47 CFR 74.463 - Modulation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., modulation shall not exceed 100 percent on negative peaks. (c) If frequency modulation is employed, emission... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modulation requirements. 74.463 Section 74.463....463 Modulation requirements. (a) Each new remote pickup broadcast station authorized to operate with a...

  11. 47 CFR 95.637 - Modulation standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... amplitude modulation and frequency or phase modulation of a transmitter are not permitted. (d) When emission... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modulation standards. 95.637 Section 95.637... SERVICES Technical Regulations Technical Standards § 95.637 Modulation standards. (a) A GMRS transmitter...

  12. Hotspot Endurance Of Solar-Cell Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, C. C.; Sugimura, R. S.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Procedure for evaluating modules for use with concentrators now available. Solar simulator illuminates photovoltaic cells through Fresnel lens of concentrator module. Module and test cells inspected visually at 24-h intervals during test and again when test completed. After test, electrical characteristics of module measured for comparison with pretest characteristics.

  13. Australia: round module handling and cotton classing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Round modules of seed cotton produced via on-board module building harvesters are the reality of the cotton industry, worldwide. Although round modules have been available to the industry for almost a decade, there is still no consensus on the best method to handle the modules, particularly when th...

  14. Medical Terminology: Suffixes. Health Occupations Education Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This module on medical terminology (suffixes) is one of 17 modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. This module consists of an introduction to the module topic, a list of resources needed, and three learning experiences. The first two learning…

  15. Whole Module Offgas Test Report: Space-X Dragon Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Between 7 April and 11 April 2012 a chemist from the JSC Toxicology Group acquired samples of air in 500 ml evacuated canisters from the sealed Dragon Module at the Space-X facility at KSC. Three samples were taken of facility air (two before the test and one after the test), and a total of 9 samples were taken from the sealed module in triplicate at the following times: 0 hours, 48 hours, and 96 hours. The module contained 470 kg, which was 100% of the mass to be launched. Analytical data contained in the Toxicology Group Report (attached) show that the ambient facility air was clean except for almost 9 milligrams per cubic meter of isopropanol (IPA) in the sample taken at the end of the test. Space-X must ensure that IPA is not introduced into the module before it is sealed for launch. Other minor contaminants in the ambient air included the following: perfluoro(2-methyl)pentane and hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane. The first-acquired samples of each triplicate from the module were not analyzed. Analyses of pairs of samples that were taken during the test show excellent agreement between the pairs and a linear increase in the T-values during the 4 days of the test (figure below). The rate of increase averaged 0.124 T units per day. If the time from last purge of the module on the ground to crew first entry on orbit is 10 days, then the T value at first entry should be less than 1.2 units, which is well below the criterion of 3.0 for consideration of additional protection of the crew from offgas products. The primary contributors were as follows: trimethylsilanol (0.057), fluorotrimethylsilane (0.047), acetaldehyde (0.004), hexamethylcyclopentasiloxane (0.003), and toluene (0.002).

  16. Photovoltaic cell module and method of forming

    DOEpatents

    Howell, Malinda; Juen, Donnie; Ketola, Barry; Tomalia, Mary Kay

    2017-12-12

    A photovoltaic cell module, a photovoltaic array including at least two modules, and a method of forming the module are provided. The module includes a first outermost layer and a photovoltaic cell disposed on the first outermost layer. The module also includes a second outermost layer disposed on the photovoltaic cell and sandwiching the photovoltaic cell between the second outermost layer and the first outermost layer. The method of forming the module includes the steps of disposing the photovoltaic cell on the first outermost layer, disposing a silicone composition on the photovoltaic cell, and compressing the first outermost layer, the photovoltaic cell, and the second layer to form the photovoltaic cell module.

  17. OA-7 Mate Service Module to Cargo Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-14

    In the Space Station Processing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, technicians and engineers mate a Cygnus spacecraft's pressurized cargo module to its service module. Cygnus is being prepared to deliver thousands of pounds of supplies, equipment and scientific research materials on the Orbital ATK CRS-7 mission to the International Space Station. Scheduled to launch on March 19, 2017, the commercial resupply services mission will lift off atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

  18. Central-Monitor Software Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachelder, Aaron; Foster, Conrad

    2005-01-01

    One of the software modules of the emergency-vehicle traffic-light-preemption system of the two preceding articles performs numerous functions for the central monitoring subsystem. This module monitors the states of all units (vehicle transponders and intersection controllers): It provides real-time access to the phases of traffic and pedestrian lights, and maps the positions and states of all emergency vehicles. Most of this module is used for installation and configuration of units as they are added to the system. The module logs all activity in the system, thereby providing information that can be analyzed to minimize response times and optimize response strategies. The module can be used from any location within communication range of the system; with proper configuration, it can also be used via the Internet. It can be integrated into call-response centers, where it can be used for alerting emergency vehicles and managing their responses to specific incidents. A variety of utility subprograms provide access to any or all units for purposes of monitoring, testing, and modification. Included are "sniffer" utility subprograms that monitor incoming and outgoing data for accuracy and timeliness, and that quickly and autonomously shut off malfunctioning vehicle or intersection units.

  19. Intersection-Controller Software Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachelder, Aaron; Foster, Conrad

    2005-01-01

    An important part of the emergency-vehicle traffic-light-preemption system summarized in the preceding article is a software module executed by a microcontroller in each intersection controller. This module monitors the broadcasts from all nearby participating emergency vehicles and intersections. It gathers the broadcast data pertaining to the positions and velocities of the vehicles and the timing of traffic and pedestrian lights and processes the data into predictions of the future positions of the vehicles. Analyzing the predictions by a combination of proximity tests, map-matching techniques, and statistical calculations designed to minimize the adverse effects of uncertainties in vehicle positions and headings, the module decides whether to preempt and issues the appropriate commands to the traffic lights, pedestrian lights, and electronic warning signs at the intersection. The module also broadcasts its state to all nearby vehicles and intersections. The module is designed to mitigate the effects of missing data and of unpredictable delays in the system. It has been intensively tested and refined so that it fails to warn in very few cases and issues very few false warnings.

  20. Joint Acoustic and Modulation Frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atlas, Les; Shamma, Shihab A.

    2003-12-01

    There is a considerable evidence that our perception of sound uses important features which is related to underlying signal modulations. This topic has been studied extensively via perceptual experiments, yet there are few, if any, well-developed signal processing methods which capitalize on or model these effects. We begin by summarizing evidence of the importance of modulation representations from psychophysical, physiological, and other sources. The concept of a two-dimensional joint acoustic and modulation frequency representation is proposed. A simple single sinusoidal amplitude modulator of a sinusoidal carrier is then used to illustrate properties of an unconstrained and ideal joint representation. Added constraints are required to remove or reduce undesired interference terms and to provide invertibility. It is then noted that the constraints would also apply to more general and complex cases of broader modulation and carriers. Applications in single-channel speaker separation and in audio coding are used to illustrate the applicability of this joint representation. Other applications in signal analysis and filtering are suggested.

  1. Automated solar module assembly line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bycer, M.

    1980-01-01

    The solar module assembly machine which Kulicke and Soffa delivered under this contract is a cell tabbing and stringing machine, and capable of handling a variety of cells and assembling strings up to 4 feet long which then can be placed into a module array up to 2 feet by 4 feet in a series of parallel arrangement, and in a straight or interdigitated array format. The machine cycle is 5 seconds per solar cell. This machine is primarily adapted to 3 inch diameter round cells with two tabs between cells. Pulsed heat is used as the bond technique for solar cell interconnects. The solar module assembly machine unloads solar cells from a cassette, automatically orients them, applies flux and solders interconnect ribbons onto the cells. It then inverts the tabbed cells, connects them into cell strings, and delivers them into a module array format using a track mounted vacuum lance, from which they are taken to test and cleaning benches prior to final encapsulation into finished solar modules. Throughout the machine the solar cell is handled very carefully, and any contact with the collector side of the cell is avoided or minimized.

  2. Printed interconnects for photovoltaic modules

    DOE PAGES

    Fields, J. D.; Pach, G.; Horowitz, K. A. W.; ...

    2016-10-21

    Film-based photovoltaic modules employ monolithic interconnects to minimize resistance loss and enhance module voltage via series connection. Conventional interconnect construction occurs sequentially, with a scribing step following deposition of the bottom electrode, a second scribe after deposition of absorber and intermediate layers, and a third following deposition of the top electrode. This method produces interconnect widths of about 300 µm, and the area comprised by interconnects within a module (generally about 3%) does not contribute to power generation. The present work reports on an increasingly popular strategy capable of reducing the interconnect width to less than 100 µm: printing interconnects.more » Cost modeling projects a savings of about $0.02/watt for CdTe module production through the use of printed interconnects, with savings coming from both reduced capital expense and increased module power output. Printed interconnect demonstrations with copper-indium-gallium-diselenide and cadmium-telluride solar cells show successful voltage addition and miniaturization down to 250 µm. As a result, material selection guidelines and considerations for commercialization are discussed.« less

  3. Apparatus for encapsulating a photovoltaic module

    DOEpatents

    Albright, Scot P.; Dugan, Larry M.

    1995-10-24

    The subject inventions concern various photovoltaic module designs to protect the module from horizontal and vertical impacts and degradation of solar cell efficiency caused by moisture. In one design, a plurality of panel supports that are positioned adjacent to the upper panel in a photovoltaic module absorb vertical forces exerted along an axis perpendicular to the upper panel. Other designs employ layers of glass and tempered glass, respectively, to protect the module from vertical impacts. A plurality of button-shaped channels is used around the edges of the photovoltaic module to absorb forces applied to the module along an axis parallel to the module and direct moisture away from the module that could otherwise penetrate the module and adversely affect the cells within the module. A spacer is employed between the upper and lower panels that has a coefficient of thermal expansion substantially equivalent to the coefficient of thermal expansion of at least one of the panels.

  4. APOLLO XII - ART CONCEPT - COMMAND MODULE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-11-10

    S69-58005 (10 Nov. 1969) --- An artist's concept of the Apollo 12 Command Module's (CM) interior, with the command module pilot at the controls. The Apollo 12 Lunar Module (LM) and a portion of the lunar surface are seen out of the window. Astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr. will maneuver the Apollo 12 Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit while astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., commander, and Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot, explore the moon.

  5. Allosteric Modulation of Chemoattractant Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Allegretti, Marcello; Cesta, Maria Candida; Locati, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Chemoattractants control selective leukocyte homing via interactions with a dedicated family of related G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Emerging evidence indicates that the signaling activity of these receptors, as for other GPCR, is influenced by allosteric modulators, which interact with the receptor in a binding site distinct from the binding site of the agonist and modulate the receptor signaling activity in response to the orthosteric ligand. Allosteric modulators have a number of potential advantages over orthosteric agonists/antagonists as therapeutic agents and offer unprecedented opportunities to identify extremely selective drug leads. Here, we resume evidence of allosterism in the context of chemoattractant receptors, discussing in particular its functional impact on functional selectivity and probe/concentration dependence of orthosteric ligands activities. PMID:27199992

  6. Reflective coherent spatial light modulator

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, John T.; Richards, Roger K.; Hutchinson, Donald P.; Simpson, Marcus L.

    2003-04-22

    A reflective coherent spatial light modulator (RCSLM) includes a subwavelength resonant grating structure (SWS), the SWS including at least one subwavelength resonant grating layer (SWL) have a plurality of areas defining a plurality of pixels. Each pixel represents an area capable of individual control of its reflective response. A structure for modulating the resonant reflective response of at least one pixel is provided. The structure for modulating can include at least one electro-optic layer in optical contact with the SWS. The RCSLM is scalable in both pixel size and wavelength. A method for forming a RCSLM includes the steps of selecting a waveguide material and forming a SWS in the waveguide material, the SWS formed from at least one SWL, the SWL having a plurality of areas defining a plurality of pixels.

  7. Command and Service Module Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation examines Command and Service Module (CSM) Communications. The communication system's capabilities are defined, including CSM-Earth, CSM-Lunar Module and CSM-Extravehicular crewman communications. An overview is provided for S-band communications, including data transmission and receiving rates, operating frequencies and major system components (pre-modulation processors, unified S-band electronics, S-band power amplifier and S-band antennas). Additionally, data transmission rates, operating frequencies and the capabilities of VHF communications are described. Major VHF components, including transmitters and receivers, and the VHF multiplexer and antennas are also highlighted. Finally, communications during pre-launch, ascent, in-flight and entry are discussed. Overall, the CSM communication system was rated highly by flight controllers and crew. The system was mostly autonomous for both crew and flight controllers and no major issues were encountered during flight.

  8. Progress of MICE RFCC Module

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D.; Bowring, D.; DeMello, A.

    2012-05-20

    Recent progress on the design and fabrication of the RFCC (RF and superconducting Coupling Coil) module for the international MICE (Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment) are reported. The MICE ionization cooling channel has two RFCC modules, each having four 201- MHz normal conducting RF cavities surrounded by one superconducting coupling coil (solenoid) magnet. The magnet is designed to be cooled by three cryocoolers. Fabrication of the RF cavities is complete; preparation for the cavity electro-polishing, low power RF measurements, and tuning are in progress at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Fabrication of the cold mass of the first coupling coil magnetmore » has been completed in China and the cold mass arrived at LBNL in late 2011. Preparations for testing the cold mass are currently under way at Fermilab. Plans for the RFCC module assembly and integration are being developed and are described.« less

  9. Unity connecting module in SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, is shown with Pressurized Mating Adapters 1 (left) and 2 (right) attached. Unity is scheduled to undergo testing of the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock. Unity is the primary payload on mission STS-88, targeted to launch Dec. 3, 1998. Other testing includes the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27. The Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time.

  10. Photovoltaic module bypass diode encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. J., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The design and processing techniques necessary to incorporate bypass diodes within the module encapsulant are presented. The Semicon PN junction diode cells were selected. Diode junction to heat spreader thermal resistance measurements, performed on a variety of mounted diode chip types and sizes, have yielded values which are consistently below 1 deg C per watt, but show some instability when thermally cycled over the temperature range from -40 to 150 deg C. Three representative experimental modules, each incorporating integral bypass diode/heat spreader assemblies of various sizes, were designed. Thermal testing of these modules enabled the formulation of a recommended heat spreader plate sizing relationship. The production cost of three encapsulated bypass diode/heat spreader assemblies were compared with similarly rated externally mounted packaged diodes. It is concluded that, when proper designed and installed, these bypass diode devices will improve the overall reliability of a terrestrial array over a 20 year design lifetime.

  11. Acoustic field modulation in regenerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, J. Y.; Wang, W.; Luo, E. C.; Chen, Y. Y.

    2016-12-01

    The regenerator is a key component that transfers energy between heat and work. The conversion efficiency is significantly influenced by the acoustic field in the regenerator. Much effort has been spent to quantitatively determine this influence, but few comprehensive experimental verifications have been performed because of difficulties in modulating and measuring the acoustic field. In this paper, a method requiring two compressors is introduced and theoretically investigated that achieves acoustic field modulation in the regenerator. One compressor outputs the acoustic power for the regenerator; the other acts as a phase shifter. A RC load dissipates the acoustic power out of both the regenerator and the latter compressor. The acoustic field can be modulated by adjusting the current in the two compressors and opening the RC load. The acoustic field is measured with pressure sensors instead of flow-field imaging equipment, thereby greatly simplifying the experiment.

  12. Timing module for MTCA MCH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumiński, M.; Kasprowicz, G.

    2016-09-01

    White Rabbit is an extension of Precise Time Protocol for synchronous Ethernet networks. Network created with dedicated WR switches enable synchronisation of WR capable devices with 1 ns precision. MicroTCA on the other hand is open standard defining cost efficient shelves capable of housing AMC modules used for data processing. Presented article give further introduction to WR and MTCA standard. The most important aspects of MTCA system are described, with focus on shelf controller and its functionality. Following part describes timing difficulties in MTCA systems and possible solutions. Main section describes extension module for MCH, capable of implementing White Rabbit node and distributing acquired timing to all modules connected to MTCA. Conclusions are given at the end of the article.

  13. Solid-state membrane module

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, John Howard [Salt Lake City, UT; Taylor, Dale M [Murray, UT

    2011-06-07

    Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

  14. Active combustion flow modulation valve

    DOEpatents

    Hensel, John Peter; Black, Nathaniel; Thorton, Jimmy Dean; Vipperman, Jeffrey Stuart; Lambeth, David N; Clark, William W

    2013-09-24

    A flow modulation valve has a slidably translating hollow armature with at least one energizable coil wound around and fixably attached to the hollow armature. The energizable coil or coils are influenced by at least one permanent magnet surrounding the hollow armature and supported by an outer casing. Lorentz forces on the energizable coils which are translated to the hollow armature, increase or decrease the flow area to provide flow throttling action. The extent of hollow armature translation depends on the value of current supplied and the direction of translation depends on the direction of current flow. The compact nature of the flow modulation valve combined with the high forces afforded by the actuator design provide a flow modulation valve which is highly responsive to high-rate input control signals.

  15. Advanced infrared laser modulator development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheo, P. K.; Wagner, R.; Gilden, M.

    1984-01-01

    A parametric study was conducted to develop an electrooptic waveguide modulator for generating continuous tunable sideband power from an infrared CO2 laser. Parameters included were the waveguide configurations, microstrip dimensions device impedance, and effective dielectric constants. An optimum infrared laser modulator was established and was fabricated. This modulator represents the state-of-the-art integrated optical device, which has a three-dimensional topology to accommodate three lambda/4 step transformers for microwave impedance matching at both the input and output terminals. A flat frequency response of the device over 20 HGz or = 3 dB) was achieved. Maximum single sideband to carrier power greater than 1.2% for 20 W microwave input power at optical carrier wavelength of 10.6 microns was obtained.

  16. Command module/service module reaction control subsystem assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weary, D. P.

    1971-01-01

    Detailed review of component failure histories, qualification adequacy, manufacturing flow, checkout requirements and flow, ground support equipment interfaces, subsystem interface verification, protective devices, and component design did not reveal major weaknesses in the command service module (CSM) reaction control system (RCS). No changes to the CSM RCS were recommended. The assessment reaffirmed the adequacy of the CSM RCS for future Apollo missions.

  17. Galois Module Structure of Lubin-Tate Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaskovic-Moore, Sebastian

    Let L/K be a finite, Galois extension of local or global fields. In the classical setting of additive Galois modules, the ring of integers OL of L is studied as a module for the group ring OKG, where G is the Galois group of L/K. When K is a p-adic field, we also find a structure of OKG module when we replace OL with the group of points in OL of a Lubin-Tate formal group defined over K. For this new Galois module we find an analogue of the normal basis theorem. When K is a proper unramified extension of Qp , we show that some eigenspaces for the Teichmuller character are not free. We also adapt certain cases of E. Noether's result on normal integral bases for tame extensions. Finally, for wild extensions we define a version of Leopoldt's associated order and demonstrate in a specific case that it is strictly larger than the integral group ring.

  18. Programmable Multi-Chip Module

    DOEpatents

    Kautz, David; Morgenstern, Howard; Blazek, Roy J.

    2005-05-24

    A multi-chip module comprising a low-temperature co-fired ceramic substrate having a first side on which are mounted active components and a second side on which are mounted passive components, wherein this segregation of components allows for hermetically sealing the active components with a cover while leaving accessible the passive components, and wherein the passive components are secured using a reflow soldering technique and are removable and replaceable so as to make the multi-chip module substantially programmable with regard to the passive components.

  19. Programmable Multi-Chip Module

    DOEpatents

    Kautz, David; Morgenstern, Howard; Blazek, Roy J.

    2004-11-16

    A multi-chip module comprising a low-temperature co-fired ceramic substrate having a first side on which are mounted active components and a second side on which are mounted passive components, wherein this segregation of components allows for hermetically sealing the active components with a cover while leaving accessible the passive components, and wherein the passive components are secured using a reflow soldering technique and are removable and replaceable so as to make the multi-chip module substantially programmable with regard to the passive components.

  20. Programmable multi-chip module

    DOEpatents

    Kautz, David; Morgenstern, Howard; Blazek, Roy J.

    2004-03-02

    A multi-chip module comprising a low-temperature co-fired ceramic substrate having a first side on which are mounted active components and a second side on which are mounted passive components, wherein this segregation of components allows for hermetically sealing the active components with a cover while leaving accessible the passive components, and wherein the passive components are secured using a reflow soldering technique and are removable and replaceable so as to make the multi-chip module substantially programmable with regard to the passive components.

  1. Static feed water electrolysis module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Jensen, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    An advanced static feed water electrolysis module (SFWEM) and associated instrumentation for generating breathable O2 was developed. The system also generates a H2 byproduct for use in an air revitalization system for O2 recovery from metabolic CO2. Special attention was given to: (1) eliminating water feed compartment degassing, (2) eliminating need for zero gravity condenser/separators, (3) increasing current density capability, and (4) providing a self contained module so that operation is independent of laboratory instrumentation and complicated startup/shutdown procedures.

  2. Lunar Module 4 moved for mating with Lunar Module Adapter at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Lunar Module 4 being moved for mating with the Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter in the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Manned Spacecraft Operations Building. Lunar module 4 will be flown on the Apollo 10 (Spacecraft 106/Saturn 505) lunar orbit mission.

  3. Environmental testing of block 3 solar cell modules. Part 1: Qualification testing of standard production modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, J. S.

    1979-01-01

    Qualification tests of solar cell modules are described. These modules continue to show improvement over earlier type modules tested. Cell cracking and delamination are less prevalent, and interconnect problems and electrical degradation from environmental testing are now rare.

  4. Adolescence Education: Physical Aspect, Module One; Social Aspects, Module Two; Sex Roles, Module Three; Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Module Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    Adolescence Education is a family life education training program designed to assist young people in their physical, social, emotional, and moral development as they prepare for adulthood, marriage, parenthood, aging, and social relationships in the context of family and society. This package consists of four individually bound modules: (1)…

  5. Tyurin in Zvezda Service module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-01

    ISS014-E-15711 (1 March 2007) --- Cosmonaut Mikhail Tyurin, Expedition 14 flight engineer representing Russia's Federal Space Agency, disconnects a SKV1 heat exchanger unit during in-flight maintenance (IFM) in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station.

  6. Rights & Responsibilities. Personnel Management Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Gale; And Others

    This module on rights and responsibilities is intended to introduce the hospitality manager or supervisor to sound personnel management practices that comply with the law. The material is presented in a self-instructional format in seven sections. At the beginning of each section is a statement of the objectives that will be achieved as a result…

  7. Transportation Brokerage: An Instructional Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Linda

    A concept-based introduction to transportation brokerage is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of transportation brokerage is defined as an assignment of the management of a specific element of a…

  8. Market Segmentation: An Instructional Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Peter H.

    A concept-based introduction to market segmentation is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses. The material can be used in many disciplines including engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of market segmentation is primarily a transportation planning technique by…

  9. Blazhko modulation in the infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurcsik, J.; Hajdu, G.; Dékány, I.; Nuspl, J.; Catelan, M.; Grebel, E. K.

    2018-04-01

    We present first direct evidence of modulation in the K band of Blazhko-type RR Lyrae stars that are identified by their secular modulations in the I-band data of Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment-IV. A method has been developed to decompose the K-band light variation into two parts originating from the temperature and the radius changes using synthetic data of atmosphere-model grids. The amplitudes of the temperature and the radius variations derived from the method for non-Blazhko RRab stars are in very good agreement with the results of the Baade-Wesselink analysis of RRab stars in the M3 globular cluster confirming the applicability and correctness of the method. It has been found that the Blazhko modulation is primarily driven by the change in the temperature variation. The radius variation plays a marginal part, moreover it has an opposite sign as if the Blazhko effect was caused by the radii variations. This result reinforces the previous finding based on the Baade-Wesselink analysis of M3 (NGC 5272) RR Lyrae, that significant modulation of the radius variations can only be detected in radial-velocity measurements, which relies on spectral lines that form in the uppermost atmospheric layers. Our result gives the first insight into the energetics and dynamics of the Blazhko phenomenon, hence it puts strong constraints on its possible physical explanations.

  10. Coal Market Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives and the conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the National Energy Modeling System's (NEMS) Coal Market Module (CMM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook 2014 (AEO2014). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of CMM's two submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS) and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS).

  11. Module/array interface study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Several aspects of module design are evaluated, including glass superstrate and metal substrate module configurations, the potential for hail damage, light absorption in glass superstrates, the economics of glass selection, and electrical design. Also, three alternate glass superstrate module configurations are evaluated by means of finite element computer analyses. Two panel sizes, 1.2 by 2.4 m (4 by 8 ft) and 2.4 by 4.8 m are used to support three module sizes, 0.6 by 1.2 m, 1.2 by 1.2 m, and 1.2 by 2.4 m, for design loadings of + or - 1.7 kPa, + or - 2.4 kPa, and + or - 3.6 kPa. Designs and cost estimates are presented for twenty panel types and nine array configurations at each of the three design loadings. Structural cost sensitivities of combined array configurations and panel cases are presented.

  12. Teenage Health Teaching Modules Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, James G.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Six articles describe the background, design, methods, findings, and implications of the 1986-89 Teenage Health Teaching Modules Evaluation study which (1) determined whether one comprehensive secondary school health education curriculum could positively affect student health knowledge, attitudes, practices, and self-reported behaviors; and (2)…

  13. Can Arousal Modulate Response Inhibition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinbach, Noam; Kalanthroff, Eyal; Avnit, Amir; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine if and how arousal can modulate response inhibition. Two competing hypotheses can be drawn from previous literature. One holds that alerting cues that elevate arousal should result in an impulsive response and therefore impair response inhibition. The other suggests that alerting enhances processing of…

  14. Attention modulates visual size adaptation.

    PubMed

    Kreutzer, Sylvia; Fink, Gereon R; Weidner, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The current study determined in healthy subjects (n = 16) whether size adaptation occurs at early, i.e., preattentive, levels of processing or whether higher cognitive processes such as attention can modulate the illusion. To investigate this issue, bottom-up stimulation was kept constant across conditions by using a single adaptation display containing both small and large adapter stimuli. Subjects' attention was directed to either the large or small adapter stimulus by means of a luminance detection task. When attention was directed toward the small as compared to the large adapter, the perceived size of the subsequent target was significantly increased. Data suggest that different size adaptation effects can be induced by one and the same stimulus depending on the current allocation of attention. This indicates that size adaptation is subject to attentional modulation. These findings are in line with previous research showing that transient as well as sustained attention modulates visual features, such as contrast sensitivity and spatial frequency, and influences adaptation in other contexts, such as motion adaptation (Alais & Blake, 1999; Lankheet & Verstraten, 1995). Based on a recently suggested model (Pooresmaeili, Arrighi, Biagi, & Morrone, 2013), according to which perceptual adaptation is based on local excitation and inhibition in V1, we conclude that guiding attention can boost these local processes in one or the other direction by increasing the weight of the attended adapter. In sum, perceptual adaptation, although reflected in changes of neural activity at early levels (as shown in the aforementioned study), is nevertheless subject to higher-order modulation.

  15. Reward Modulates Adaptations to Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braem, Senne; Verguts, Tom; Roggeman, Chantal; Notebaert, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Both cognitive conflict (e.g. Verguts & Notebaert, 2009) and reward signals (e.g. Waszak & Pholulamdeth, 2009) have been proposed to enhance task-relevant associations. Bringing these two notions together, we predicted that reward modulates conflict-based sequential adaptations in cognitive control. This was tested combining either a single…

  16. Christmas Tree in Cupola module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-25

    ISS046e002700 (12/25/2015) --- Happy Holiday in space. The crew of Expedition 46 decorated the International Space Station’s Cupola module, a 360-degree series of windows that provides a stunning view of Earth for observations, while also containing the primary controls for the Canadarm2 robotic arm.

  17. Project-Based Module Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meel, R. M. van

    A project management design for modularizing higher education at open universities was developed and tested. Literature in the fields of project management and development of modular curriculum materials was reviewed and used as a basis for developing a project-based approach to the process of developing modules for self-instruction. According to…

  18. The Knife Machine. Module 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the knife machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers one topic: performing special operations on the knife machine (a single needle or multi-needle machine which sews and cuts at the same time). These components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective,…

  19. Wavelength-modulated photocapacitance spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamieniecki, E.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1980-01-01

    Derivative deep-level spectroscopy was achieved with wavelength-modulated photocapacitance employing MOS structures and Schottky barriers. The energy position and photoionization characteristics of deep levels of melt-grown GaAs and the Cr level in high-resistivity GaAs were determined. The advantages of this method over existing methods for deep-level spectroscopy are discussed.

  20. Commercial Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Commercial Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components.

  1. Apollo 11 Command Service Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    A close-up view of the Apollo 11 command service module ready to be mated with the spacecraft LEM adapter of the third stage. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  2. Clothing and Textile Student Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    Forty-seven performance-based instructional modules on six major topics are provided for the home economics content area of clothing and textiles. The six topics are (1) planning basics (psychological, physical, social, and behavioral aspects of clothing; elements of design; principles of design; and style and fashion in clothing), (2) buyership…

  3. Universal sensor interface module (USIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Don; Torres, A.; Wynn, John

    1999-01-01

    A universal sensor interface model (USIM) is being developed by the Raytheon-TI Systems Company for use with fields of unattended distributed sensors. In its production configuration, the USIM will be a multichip module consisting of a set of common modules. The common module USIM set consists of (1) a sensor adapter interface (SAI) module, (2) digital signal processor (DSP) and associated memory module, and (3) a RF transceiver model. The multispectral sensor interface is designed around a low-power A/D converted, whose input/output interface consists of: -8 buffered, sampled inputs from various devices including environmental, acoustic seismic and magnetic sensors. The eight sensor inputs are each high-impedance, low- capacitance, differential amplifiers. The inputs are ideally suited for interface with discrete or MEMS sensors, since the differential input will allow direct connection with high-impedance bridge sensors and capacitance voltage sources. Each amplifier is connected to a 22-bit (Delta) (Sigma) A/D converter to enable simultaneous samples. The low power (Delta) (Sigma) converter provides 22-bit resolution at sample frequencies up to 142 hertz (used for magnetic sensors) and 16-bit resolution at frequencies up to 1168 hertz (used for acoustic and seismic sensors). The video interface module is based around the TMS320C5410 DSP. It can provide sensor array addressing, video data input, data calibration and correction. The processor module is based upon a MPC555. It will be used for mode control, synchronization of complex sensors, sensor signal processing, array processing, target classification and tracking. Many functions of the A/D, DSP and transceiver can be powered down by using variable clock speeds under software command or chip power switches. They can be returned to intermediate or full operation by DSP command. Power management may be based on the USIM's internal timer, command from the USIM transceiver, or by sleep mode processing management

  4. Perl Modules for Constructing Iterators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2009-01-01

    The Iterator Perl Module provides a general-purpose framework for constructing iterator objects within Perl, and a standard API for interacting with those objects. Iterators are an object-oriented design pattern where a description of a series of values is used in a constructor. Subsequent queries can request values in that series. These Perl modules build on the standard Iterator framework and provide iterators for some other types of values. Iterator::DateTime constructs iterators from DateTime objects or Date::Parse descriptions and ICal/RFC 2445 style re-currence descriptions. It supports a variety of input parameters, including a start to the sequence, an end to the sequence, an Ical/RFC 2445 recurrence describing the frequency of the values in the series, and a format description that can refine the presentation manner of the DateTime. Iterator::String constructs iterators from string representations. This module is useful in contexts where the API consists of supplying a string and getting back an iterator where the specific iteration desired is opaque to the caller. It is of particular value to the Iterator::Hash module which provides nested iterations. Iterator::Hash constructs iterators from Perl hashes that can include multiple iterators. The constructed iterators will return all the permutations of the iterations of the hash by nested iteration of embedded iterators. A hash simply includes a set of keys mapped to values. It is a very common data structure used throughout Perl programming. The Iterator:: Hash module allows a hash to include strings defining iterators (parsed and dispatched with Iterator::String) that are used to construct an overall series of hash values.

  5. MINE: Module Identification in Networks

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Graphical models of network associations are useful for both visualizing and integrating multiple types of association data. Identifying modules, or groups of functionally related gene products, is an important challenge in analyzing biological networks. However, existing tools to identify modules are insufficient when applied to dense networks of experimentally derived interaction data. To address this problem, we have developed an agglomerative clustering method that is able to identify highly modular sets of gene products within highly interconnected molecular interaction networks. Results MINE outperforms MCODE, CFinder, NEMO, SPICi, and MCL in identifying non-exclusive, high modularity clusters when applied to the C. elegans protein-protein interaction network. The algorithm generally achieves superior geometric accuracy and modularity for annotated functional categories. In comparison with the most closely related algorithm, MCODE, the top clusters identified by MINE are consistently of higher density and MINE is less likely to designate overlapping modules as a single unit. MINE offers a high level of granularity with a small number of adjustable parameters, enabling users to fine-tune cluster results for input networks with differing topological properties. Conclusions MINE was created in response to the challenge of discovering high quality modules of gene products within highly interconnected biological networks. The algorithm allows a high degree of flexibility and user-customisation of results with few adjustable parameters. MINE outperforms several popular clustering algorithms in identifying modules with high modularity and obtains good overall recall and precision of functional annotations in protein-protein interaction networks from both S. cerevisiae and C. elegans. PMID:21605434

  6. Understanding network concepts in modules

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Background Network concepts are increasingly used in biology and genetics. For example, the clustering coefficient has been used to understand network architecture; the connectivity (also known as degree) has been used to screen for cancer targets; and the topological overlap matrix has been used to define modules and to annotate genes. Dozens of potentially useful network concepts are known from graph theory. Results Here we study network concepts in special types of networks, which we refer to as approximately factorizable networks. In these networks, the pairwise connection strength (adjacency) between 2 network nodes can be factored into node specific contributions, named node 'conformity'. The node conformity turns out to be highly related to the connectivity. To provide a formalism for relating network concepts to each other, we define three types of network concepts: fundamental-, conformity-based-, and approximate conformity-based concepts. Fundamental concepts include the standard definitions of connectivity, density, centralization, heterogeneity, clustering coefficient, and topological overlap. The approximate conformity-based analogs of fundamental network concepts have several theoretical advantages. First, they allow one to derive simple relationships between seemingly disparate networks concepts. For example, we derive simple relationships between the clustering coefficient, the heterogeneity, the density, the centralization, and the topological overlap. The second advantage of approximate conformity-based network concepts is that they allow one to show that fundamental network concepts can be approximated by simple functions of the connectivity in module networks. Conclusion Using protein-protein interaction, gene co-expression, and simulated data, we show that a) many networks comprised of module nodes are approximately factorizable and b) in these types of networks, simple relationships exist between seemingly disparate network concepts. Our

  7. ODIN system technology module library, 1972 - 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hague, D. S.; Watson, D. A.; Glatt, C. R.; Jones, R. T.; Galipeau, J.; Phoa, Y. T.; White, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    ODIN/RLV is a digital computing system for the synthesis and optimization of reusable launch vehicle preliminary designs. The system consists of a library of technology modules in the form of independent computer programs and an executive program, ODINEX, which operates on the technology modules. The technology module library contains programs for estimating all major military flight vehicle system characteristics, for example, geometry, aerodynamics, economics, propulsion, inertia and volumetric properties, trajectories and missions, steady state aeroelasticity and flutter, and stability and control. A general system optimization module, a computer graphics module, and a program precompiler are available as user aids in the ODIN/RLV program technology module library.

  8. Earth System Science Education Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, C.; Kaufman, C.; Humphreys, R. R.; Colgan, M. W.

    2009-12-01

    The College of Charleston is developing several new geoscience-based education modules for integration into the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA). These three new modules provide opportunities for science and pre-service education students to participate in inquiry-based, data-driven experiences. The three new modules will be discussed in this session. Coastal Crisis is a module that analyzes rapidly changing coastlines and uses technology - remotely sensed data and geographic information systems (GIS) to delineate, understand and monitor changes in coastal environments. The beaches near Charleston, SC are undergoing erosion and therefore are used as examples of rapidly changing coastlines. Students will use real data from NASA, NOAA and other federal agencies in the classroom to study coastal change. Through this case study, learners will acquire remotely sensed images and GIS data sets from online sources, utilize those data sets within Google Earth or other visualization programs, and understand what the data is telling them. Analyzing the data will allow learners to contemplate and make predictions on the impact associated with changing environmental conditions, within the context of a coastal setting. To Drill or Not To Drill is a multidisciplinary problem based module to increase students’ knowledge of problems associated with nonrenewable resource extraction. The controversial topic of drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) examines whether the economic benefit of the oil extracted from ANWR is worth the social cost of the environmental damage that such extraction may inflict. By attempting to answer this question, learners must balance the interests of preservation with the economic need for oil. The learners are exposed to the difficulties associated with a real world problem that requires trade-off between environmental trust and economic well-being. The Citizen Science module challenges students to translate scientific

  9. Modulation bandwidth of spin torque oscillators under current modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Quinsat, M.; CEA, INAC-SPINTEC, F-38054 Grenoble; CNRS, SPINTEC, F-38054 Grenoble

    2014-10-13

    For practical applications of spin torque nano-oscillators (STNO), one of the most critical characteristics is the speed at which an STNO responds to variations of external control parameters, such as current or/and field. Theory predicts that this speed is limited by the amplitude relaxation rate Γ{sub p} that determines the timescale over which the amplitude fluctuations are damped out. In this study, this limit is verified experimentally by analyzing the amplitude and frequency noise spectra of the output voltage signal when modulating an STNO by a microwave current. In particular, it is shown that due to the non-isochronous nature ofmore » the STNO the amplitude relaxation rate Γ{sub p} determines not only the bandwidth of an amplitude modulation, but also the bandwidth of a frequency modulation. The presented experimental technique will be important for the optimisation of the STNO characteristics for applications in telecommunications or/and data storage and is applicable even in the case when the STNO output signal is only several times higher than noise.« less

  10. Interface module for transverse energy input to dye laser modules

    DOEpatents

    English, R.E. Jr.; Johnson, S.A.

    1994-10-11

    An interface module for transverse energy input to dye laser modules is provided particularly for the purpose of delivering enhancing transverse energy beams in the form of illumination bar to the lasing zone of a dye laser device, in particular to a dye laser amplifier. The preferred interface module includes an optical fiber array having a plurality of optical fibers arrayed in a co-planar fashion with their distal ends receiving coherent laser energy from an enhancing laser source, and their proximal ends delivered into a relay structure. The proximal ends of the optical fibers are arrayed so as to be coplanar and to be aimed generally at a common point. The transverse energy beam array delivered from the optical fiber array is acted upon by an optical element array to produce an illumination bar which has a cross section in the form of a elongated rectangle at the position of the lasing window. The illumination bar is selected to have substantially uniform intensity throughout. 5 figs.

  11. Interface module for transverse energy input to dye laser modules

    DOEpatents

    English, Jr., Ronald E.; Johnson, Steve A.

    1994-01-01

    An interface module (10) for transverse energy input to dye laser modules is provided particularly for the purpose of delivering enhancing transverse energy beams (36) in the form of illumination bar (54) to the lasing zone (18) of a dye laser device, in particular to a dye laser amplifier (12). The preferred interface module (10) includes an optical fiber array (30) having a plurality of optical fibers (38) arrayed in a co-planar fashion with their distal ends (44) receiving coherent laser energy from an enhancing laser source (46), and their proximal ends (4) delivered into a relay structure (3). The proximal ends (42) of the optical fibers (38) are arrayed so as to be coplanar and to be aimed generally at a common point. The transverse energy beam array (36) delivered from the optical fiber array (30) is acted upon by an optical element array (34) to produce an illumination bar (54) which has a cross section in the form of a elongated rectangle at the position of the lasing window (18). The illumination bar (54) is selected to have substantially uniform intensity throughout.

  12. Mounting support for a photovoltaic module

    DOEpatents

    Brandt, Gregory Michael; Barsun, Stephan K.; Coleman, Nathaniel T.; Zhou, Yin

    2013-03-26

    A mounting support for a photovoltaic module is described. The mounting support includes a foundation having an integrated wire-way ledge portion. A photovoltaic module support mechanism is coupled with the foundation.

  13. Laser frequency modulation with electron plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgess, T. J.; Latorre, V. R.

    1972-01-01

    When laser beam passes through electron plasma its frequency shifts by amount proportional to plasma density. This density varies with modulating signal resulting in corresponding modulation of laser beam frequency. Necessary apparatus is relatively inexpensive since crystals are not required.

  14. Multichip module technology for automotive application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. Wayne; Evans, John L.; Bosley, Larry

    1995-01-01

    Advancements in multichip module technology are creating design freedoms previously unavailable to design engineers. These advancements are opening new markets for laminate based multichip module products. In particular, material improvements in laminate printed wiring boards are allowing multichip module technology to meet more stringent environmental conditions. In addition, improvements in encapsulants and adhesives are enhancing the capabilities of multichip module technology to meet harsh environment. Furthermore, improvements in manufacturing techniques are providing the reliability improvements necessary for use in high quality electronic systems. These advances are making multichip module technology viable for high volume, harsh environment applications like under-the-hood automotive electronics. This paper will provide a brief review of multichip module technology, a discussion of specific research activities with Chrysler for use of multichip modules in automotive engine controllers and finally a discussion of prototype multichip modules fabricated and tested.

  15. Block 5 documentation and solar modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Design and fabrication of Spire Corporation's Block 5 photovoltaic flat plate module is reviewed. These modules exhibited power of about 70 watts under standard test conditions. Results of performance and environmental testing are provided.

  16. PV module mounting method and mounting assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lenox, Carl J.S.; Johnson, Kurt M.

    2013-04-23

    A method for mounting PV modules to a deck includes selecting PV module layout pattern so that adjacent PV module edges are spaced apart. PV mounting and support assemblies are secured to the deck according to the layout pattern using fasteners extending into the deck. The PV modules are placed on the PV mounting and support assemblies. Retaining elements are located over and secured against the upper peripheral edge surfaces of the PV modules so to secure them to the deck with the peripheral edges of the PV modules spaced apart from the deck. In some examples a PV module mounting assembly, for use on a shingled deck, comprises flashing, a base mountable on the flashing, a deck-penetrating fastener engageable with the base and securable to the deck so to secure the flashing and the base to the shingled deck, and PV module mounting hardware securable to the base.

  17. Liquid crystal television spatial light modulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    1989-01-01

    The spatial light modulation characteristics and capabilities of the liquid crystal television (LCTV) spatial light modulators (SLMs) are discussed. A comparison of Radio Shack, Epson, and Citizen LCTV SLMs is made.

  18. OA-7 Service Module Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-01

    The Orbital ATK OA-7 Cygnus spacecraft's service module arrives inside the Space Station Processing Facility of NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The service module is sealed in an environmentally controlled shipping container, pulled in by truck on a low-boy flatbed trailer. Scheduled to launch on March 19, 2017, the Orbital ATK OA-7 mission will lift off atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The commercial resupply services mission to the International Space Station will deliver thousands of pounds of supplies, equipment and scientific research materials that improve life on Earth and drive progress toward future space exploration.

  19. CARS module for multimodal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadoyan, Ruben; Baldacchini, Tommaso; Carter, John; Kuo, Chun-Hung; Ocepek, David

    2011-03-01

    We describe a stand alone CARS module allowing upgrade of a two-photon microscope with CARS modality. The Stokes beam is generated in a commercially available photonic crystal fiber (PCF) using fraction of the power of femtosecond excitation laser. The output of the fiber is optimized for broadband CARS at Stokes shifts in 2900cm-1 region. The spectral resolution in CARS signal is 50 cm-1. It is achieved by introducing a bandpass filter in the pump beam. The timing between the pump and Stokes pulses is preset inside the module and can be varied. We demonstrate utility of the device on examples of second harmonic, two-photon fluorescence and CARS images of several biological and non-biological samples. We also present results of studies where we used CARS modality to monitor in real time the process of fabrication of microstructures by two-photon polymerization.

  20. Development of ATHENA mirror modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collon, Maximilien J.; Vacanti, Giuseppe; Barrière, Nicolas M.; Landgraf, Boris; Günther, Ramses; Vervest, Mark; van der Hoeven, Roy; Dekker, Danielle; Chatbi, Abdel; Girou, David; Sforzini, Jessica; Beijersbergen, Marco W.; Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric; Fransen, Sebastiaan; Shortt, Brian; Haneveld, Jeroen; Koelewijn, Arenda; Booysen, Karin; Wijnperle, Maurice; van Baren, Coen; Eigenraam, Alexander; Müller, Peter; Krumrey, Michael; Burwitz, Vadim; Pareschi, Giovanni; Massahi, Sonny; Christensen, Finn E.; Della Monica Ferreira, Desirée.; Valsecchi, Giuseppe; Oliver, Paul; Checquer, Ian; Ball, Kevin; Zuknik, Karl-Heinz

    2017-08-01

    Silicon Pore Optics (SPO), developed at cosine with the European Space Agency (ESA) and several academic and industrial partners, provides lightweight, yet stiff, high-resolution x-ray optics. This technology enables ATHENA to reach an unprecedentedly large effective area in the 0.2 - 12 keV band with an angular resolution better than 5''. After developing the technology for 50 m and 20 m focal length, this year has witnessed the first 12 m focal length mirror modules being produced. The technology development is also gaining momentum with three different radii under study: mirror modules for the inner radii (Rmin = 250 mm), outer radii (Rmax = 1500 mm) and middle radii (Rmid = 737 mm) are being developed in parallel.

  1. Composite Crew Module: Primary Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirsch, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    In January 2007, the NASA Administrator and Associate Administrator for the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate chartered the NASA Engineering and Safety Center to design, build, and test a full-scale crew module primary structure, using carbon fiber reinforced epoxy based composite materials. The overall goal of the Composite Crew Module project was to develop a team from the NASA family with hands-on experience in composite design, manufacturing, and testing in anticipation of future space exploration systems being made of composite materials. The CCM project was planned to run concurrently with the Orion project's baseline metallic design within the Constellation Program so that features could be compared and discussed without inducing risk to the overall Program. This report discusses the project management aspects of the project including team organization, decision making, independent technical reviews, and cost and schedule management approach.

  2. The Decision Module Working Paper

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-12-01

    and goal change has received very little attention In the litera- ture on the analysis of choice situations. It has generally been the case that the...Decision Making: Approach and Prototype" (197:0, done In context of the Mesarovlc - Pestel World Model Projet’ The Issues dealing with «-he cho ce...Nelson, Winder, and Schuette (1973) on evolutionary economic growth models. The discussion of the two components of the decision module that follows

  3. Pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorometer

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias; Wu, Jie

    2015-12-29

    Chlorophyll fluorometry may be used for detecting toxins in a sample because of changes in micro algae. A portable lab on a chip ("LOAC") based chlorophyll fluorometer may be used for toxin detection and environmental monitoring. In particular, the system may include a microfluidic pulse amplitude modulated ("PAM") chlorophyll fluorometer. The LOAC PAM chlorophyll fluorometer may analyze microalgae and cyanobacteria that grow naturally in source drinking water.

  4. Solid-state membrane module

    DOEpatents

    Hinklin, Thomas Ray; Lewinsohn, Charles Arthur

    2015-06-30

    A module for separating oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture comprising planar solid-state membrane units, each membrane unit comprising planar dense mixed conducting oxides layers, planar channel-free porous support layers, and one or more planar intermediate support layers comprising at least one channeled porous support layer. The porosity of the planar channeled porous support layers is less than the porosity of the planar channel-free porous support layers.

  5. OA-7 Cargo Module Loading

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-07

    In the Space Station Processing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, thousands of pounds of supplies, equipment and scientific research materials are prepared for loading aboard a Cygnus spacecraft's pressurized cargo module (PCM) for the Orbital ATK CRS-7 mission to the International Space Station. Scheduled to launch on March 19, 2017, the commercial resupply services mission will lift off atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

  6. Gas separation membrane module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Wynn, Nicholas P [Palo Alto, CA; Fulton, Donald A [Fairfield, CA

    2009-03-31

    A gas-separation membrane module assembly and a gas-separation process using the assembly. The assembly includes a set of tubes, each containing gas-separation membranes, arranged within a housing. The housing contains a tube sheet that divides the space within the housing into two gas-tight spaces. A permeate collection system within the housing gathers permeate gas from the tubes for discharge from the housing.

  7. Radar based autonomous sensor module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styles, Tim

    2016-10-01

    Most surveillance systems combine camera sensors with other detection sensors that trigger an alert to a human operator when an object is detected. The detection sensors typically require careful installation and configuration for each application and there is a significant burden on the operator to react to each alert by viewing camera video feeds. A demonstration system known as Sensing for Asset Protection with Integrated Electronic Networked Technology (SAPIENT) has been developed to address these issues using Autonomous Sensor Modules (ASM) and a central High Level Decision Making Module (HLDMM) that can fuse the detections from multiple sensors. This paper describes the 24 GHz radar based ASM, which provides an all-weather, low power and license exempt solution to the problem of wide area surveillance. The radar module autonomously configures itself in response to tasks provided by the HLDMM, steering the transmit beam and setting range resolution and power levels for optimum performance. The results show the detection and classification performance for pedestrians and vehicles in an area of interest, which can be modified by the HLDMM without physical adjustment. The module uses range-Doppler processing for reliable detection of moving objects and combines Radar Cross Section and micro-Doppler characteristics for object classification. Objects are classified as pedestrian or vehicle, with vehicle sub classes based on size. Detections are reported only if the object is detected in a task coverage area and it is classified as an object of interest. The system was shown in a perimeter protection scenario using multiple radar ASMs, laser scanners, thermal cameras and visible band cameras. This combination of sensors enabled the HLDMM to generate reliable alerts with improved discrimination of objects and behaviours of interest.

  8. Development of GREET Catalyst Module

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhichao; Benavides, Pahola T.; Dunn, Jennifer B.

    2015-09-01

    In this report, we develop energy and material flows for the production of five different catalysts (tar reforming, alcohol synthesis, Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 [ZSM-5], Mo/Co/ γ-Al 2O3, and Pt/ γ-Al 2O 3) and two chemicals (olivine, dimethyl ether of polyethylene glycol [DEPG]). These compounds and catalysts are now included in the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET™) catalyst module.

  9. Ultra-Linear Polymer Modulator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Experimental Setup and Data 3.1 Erbium fiber laser ( EFL ) spectrum The EFL spectrum is measured using an HP 70950A optical spectrum analyzer (OSA...the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188), Washington, DC 20503 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE...Boulder SFDR Test bed; Early results were limited by the optical loss of the polymer modulator and fiber coupling mechanisms used during the SFDR

  10. PV modules for ground testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The main objective was to design and build a minimum of three photovoltaic test panels for plasma interaction experiments. These experiments are intended to provide data on the interactions between high-voltage solar arrays and the space plasma environment. Data gathered will significantly contribute to the development of design criteria for the space station solar arrays. Electrical isolation between the solar cell strings and the module mounting plate is required for high-voltage bias.

  11. Factors Modulating Estrogen Receptor Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-07-01

    public release; distribution unlimited The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author( s ) and should not be...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Activity Factors Modulating Estrogen Receptor 6. AUTHOR( S ) Michael J. Garabedian, Ph.D. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND...ADDRESS(ES) New York University Medical Center New York, New York 10016 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Commander U.S

  12. LANDSAT D instrument module study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Spacecraft instrument module configurations which support an earth resource data gathering mission using a thematic mapper sensor were examined. The differences in size of these two experiments necessitated the development of two different spacecraft configurations. Following the selection of the best-suited configurations, a validation phase of design, analysis and modelling was conducted to verify feasibility. The chosen designs were then used to formulate definition for a systems weight, a cost range for fabrication and interface requirements for the thematic mapper (TM).

  13. Modulation for terrestrial broadcasting of digital HDTV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohn, Elliott S.

    1991-01-01

    The digital modulation methods used by the DigiCipher, DSC-HDTV, ADTV, and ATVA-P digital high-definition television (HDTV) systems are discussed. Three of the systems use a quadrature amplitude modulation method, and the fourth uses a vestigial sideband modulation method. The channel equalization and spectrum sharing of the digital HDTV systems is discussed.

  14. Optical Electronics. Electronics Module 9. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franken, Bill

    This module is the ninth of 10 modules in the competency-based electronics series. Introductory materials include a listing of competencies addressed in the module, a parts/equipment list, and a cross reference table of instructional materials. Five instructional units cover: fiber optic cable; optical coupler; lasers and masers; optical displays;…

  15. 47 CFR 101.811 - Modulation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... signaling on frequencies below 500 MHz is not authorized. (b) When amplitude modulation is used, the... frequency modulation is used for single channel radiotelephony on frequencies below 500 MHz, the deviation... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modulation requirements. 101.811 Section 101...

  16. Applying Economics Using Interactive Learning Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goma, Ophelia D.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the use of web-based, interactive learning modules in the principles of economics course. The learning modules introduce students to important, historical economic events while providing real-world application of the economic theory presented in class. Each module is designed to supplement and complement the economic theory…

  17. New Technologies for Managing Cotton Modules

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of RFID transponders in the module tags on round modules formed by John Deere harvesters has opened up new possibilities for managing modules and harvest data. Tools are needed to help integrate this new technology and provide additional value to growers and ginners. A mobile application w...

  18. PV Module Reliability Workshop | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    -year old PV system in Quebec, Canada-Alex Bradley, Tanya Dhir, Yves Poissant Solar panel design factors PV Module Reliability Workshop PV Module Reliability Workshop Tuesday, February 24, 2015 Chair : Michael Kempe The 2015 PV Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) continued in the tradition of this annual

  19. Unified Technical Concepts. Module 10: Transducers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This concept module on transducers is one of thirteen modules that provide a flexible, laboratory-based physics instructional package designed to meet the specialized needs of students in two-year, postsecondary technical schools. Each of the thirteen concept modules discusses a single physics concept and how it is applied to each energy system.…

  20. Automatic Layout Design for Power Module

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, Puqi; Wang, Fei; Ngo, Khai

    The layout of power modules is one of the key points in power module design, especially for high power densities, where couplings are increased. In this paper, along with the design example, an automatic design processes by using a genetic algorithm are presented. Some practical considerations and implementations are introduced in the optimization of module layout design.

  1. Charging a Capacitor with a Photovoltaic Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Horacio Munguía; Maldonado, Rigoberto Franco; Navarro, Luis Barba

    2017-01-01

    Charging a capacitor with a photovoltaic module is an experiment which reveals a lot about the modules characteristics. It is customary to represent these characteristics with an equivalent circuit whose elements represent its physical parameters. The behavior of a photovoltaic module is very similar to that of a single cell but the electric…

  2. Unified Technical Concepts. Module 8: Force Transformers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This concept module on force transformers is one of thirteen modules that provide a flexible, laboratory-based physics instructional package designed to meet the specialized needs of students in two-year, postsecondary technical schools. Each of the thirteen concept modules discusses a single physics concept and how it is applied to each energy…

  3. Using Modules in Teaching Complex Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, William M.

    2017-01-01

    Educational modules can play an important part in revitalizing the teaching and learning of complex analysis. At the Westmont College workshop on the subject in June 2014, time was spent generating ideas and creating structures for module proposals. Sharing some of those ideas and giving a few example modules is the main purpose of this paper. The…

  4. Handling Stress. Teenage Health Teaching Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    The Teenage Health Teaching Modules (THTM) program is a health education curriculum for adolescents. Each THTM module frames an adolescent health task emphasizing development of self-assessment, communication, decision making, health advocacy, and self-management. This module attempts to help adolescents understand the meaning of stress in their…

  5. Electronics Troubleshooting. High-Technology Training Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodahl, Dan

    This learning module for a postsecondary electronics course in solid state circuits is designed to help teachers lead students through electronics troubleshooting. The module is intended to be used for a second-semester technical college course for electromechanical technology majors. The module introduces students to semiconductor devices and…

  6. Locating Health Resources. Teenage Health Teaching Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    The Teenage Health Teaching Modules (THTM) program is a health education curriculum for adolescents. Each THTM module frames an adolescent health task emphasizing development of self-assessment, communication, decision making, health advocacy, and self-management. This module offers information on how young people may avail themselves of community…

  7. Unified Technical Concepts. Module 13: Radiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This concept module on radiation is one of thirteen modules that provide a flexible, laboratory-based physics instructional package designed to meet the specialized needs of students in two-year, postsecondary technical schools. Each of the thirteen concept modules discusses a single physics concept and how it is applied to each energy system.…

  8. New technologies for managing cotton modules

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of RFID transponders in the module tags on round modules formed by John Deere harvesters has opened up new possibilities for managing modules and harvest data. Tools are needed to help integrate this new technology and provide additional value to growers and ginners. A mobile application w...

  9. Unified Technical Concepts. Module 1: Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This concept module on force is one of thirteen modules that provide a flexible, laboratory-based physics instructional package designed to meet the specialized needs of students in two-year, postsecondary technical schools. Each of the thirteen concept modules discusses a single physics concept and how it is applied to each energy system. This…

  10. Complex Burn Region Module (CBRM) update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Carl L.; Jenkins, Billy

    1991-01-01

    Presented here is a Complex Burn Region Module (CBRM) update for the Solid Rocket Internal Ballistics Module (SRIBM) Program for the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) design/performance assessments. The goal was to develop an improved version of the solid rocket internal ballistics module program that contains a diversified complex region model for motor grain design, performance prediction, and evaluation.

  11. Modules in Agricultural Education for Forestry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    Each of the seven curriculum modules in this packet for forestry instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major divisions or units, the overall objectives, objectives by unit, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. Module titles are Forest Fire…

  12. Unified Technical Concepts. Module 12: Time Constants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This concept module on time constants is one of thirteen modules that provide a flexible, laboratory-based physics instructional package designed to meet the specialized needs of students in two-year, postsecondary technical schools. Each of the thirteen concept modules discusses a single physics concept and how it is applied to each energy…

  13. Unified Technical Concepts. Module 5: Resistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This concept module on resistance is one of thirteen modules that provide a flexible, laboratory-based physics instructional package designed to meet the specialized needs of students in two-year, postsecondary technical schools. Each of the thirteen concept modules discusses a single physics concept and how it is applied to each energy system.…

  14. Unified Technical Concepts. Module 6: Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This concept module on power is one of thirteen modules that provide a flexible, laboratory-based physics instructional package designed to meet the specialized needs of students in two-year, postsecondary technical schools. Each of the thirteen concept modules discusses a single physics concept and how it is applied to each energy system. In this…

  15. Unified Technical Concepts. Module 9: Energy Convertors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This concept module on energy convertors is one of thirteen modules that provide a flexible, laboratory-based physics instructional package designed to meet the specialized needs of students in two-year, postsecondary technical schools. Each of the thirteen concept modules discusses a single physics concept and how it is applied to each energy…

  16. Electronic modules easily separated from heat sink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Metal heat sink and electronic modules bonded to a thermal bridge can be easily cleaved for removal of the modules for replacement or repair. A thin film of grease between a fluorocarbon polymer film on the metal heat sink and an adhesive film on the modules acts as the cleavage plane.

  17. Unified Technical Concepts. Module 3: Rate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This concept module on rate is one of thirteen modules that provide a flexible, laboratory-based physics instructional package designed to meet the specialized needs of students in two-year, postsecondary technical schools. Each of the thirteen concept modules discusses a single physics concept and how it is applied to each energy system. This…

  18. Unified Technical Concepts. Module 2: Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This concept module on work is one of thirteen modules that provide a flexible, laboratory-based physics instructional package designed to meet the specialized needs of students in two-year, postsecondary technical schools. Each of the thirteen concept modules discusses a single physics concept and how it is applied to each energy system. In this…

  19. Medical Terminology: Prefixes. Health Occupations Education Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This module on medical terminology (prefixes) is one of 17 modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. This module consists of an introduction to prefixes, a list of resources needed, and three learning experiences. Each learning experience contains an…

  20. Hermetic diode laser transmitter module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollila, Jyrki; Kautio, Kari; Vahakangas, Jouko; Hannula, Tapio; Kopola, Harri K.; Oikarinen, Jorma; Sivonen, Matti

    1999-04-01

    In very demanding optoelectronic sensor applications it is necessary to encapsulate semiconductor components hermetically in metal housings to ensure reliable operation of the sensor. In this paper we report on the development work to package a laser diode transmitter module for a time- off-light distance sensor application. The module consists of a lens, laser diode, electronic circuit and optomechanics. Specifications include high acceleration, -40....+75 degree(s)C temperature range, very low gas leakage and mass-production capability. We have applied solder glasses for sealing optical lenses and electrical leads hermetically into a metal case. The lens-metal case sealing has been made by using a special soldering glass preform preserving the optical quality of the lens. The metal housings are finally sealed in an inert atmosphere by welding. The assembly concept to retain excellent optical power and tight optical axis alignment specifications is described. The reliability of the laser modules manufactured has been extensively tested using different aging and environmental test procedures. Sealed packages achieve MIL- 883 standard requirements for gas leakage.

  1. Postdictive modulation of visual orientation.

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated how visual orientation is modulated by subsequent orientation inputs. Observers were presented a near-vertical Gabor patch as a target, followed by a left- or right-tilted second Gabor patch as a distracter in the spatial vicinity of the target. The task of the observers was to judge whether the target was right- or left-tilted (Experiment 1) or whether the target was vertical or not (Supplementary experiment). The judgment was biased toward the orientation of the distracter (the postdictive modulation of visual orientation). The judgment bias peaked when the target and distracter were temporally separated by 100 ms, indicating a specific temporal mechanism for this phenomenon. However, when the visibility of the distracter was reduced via backward masking, the judgment bias disappeared. On the other hand, the low-visibility distracter could still cause a simultaneous orientation contrast, indicating that the distracter orientation is still processed in the visual system (Experiment 2). Our results suggest that the postdictive modulation of visual orientation stems from spatiotemporal integration of visual orientation on the basis of a slow feature matching process.

  2. Cross-Modulation Interference with Lateralization of Mixed-Modulated Waveforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, I-Hui; Petrosyan, Agavni; Goncalves, Oscar F.; Hickok, Gregory; Saberi, Kourosh

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the ability to use spatial information in mixed-modulated (MM) sounds containing concurrent frequency-modulated (FM) and amplitude-modulated (AM) sounds by exploring patterns of interference when different modulation types originated from different loci as may occur in a multisource acoustic field. Method:…

  3. Model Development of Degradation of PV Modules Backsheet with Locating Place of Module

    SciTech Connect

    Kempe, Michael D; Wang, Yu; Fairbrother, Andrew

    Performance of a photovoltaic (PV) module is related to the micro-environment around the module. The position of photovoltaic modules in an array row have a large effect on the yellowing and gloss of PV module backsheet exposed in Dfa climatic zone (Gaithersburg, MD) with a polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) outer layer. Stress/Response models of yellowing and gloss-losing as function of location parameters of module, including the shed, row, measurement position in a same module and the distance of module location to the row center, are under development. The module installation height had the greatest influence on degradation of PEN PV backsheetmore » in the Dfa climatic zone. The module backsheets at the end of an array have higher degradation rate (edge effect). The edge effect decreases with increasing of module installation heights.« less

  4. Apollo experience report: Lunar module communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, R. H.; Rhoades, D. E.; Davidson, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    The development of the lunar module communications system is traced from the initial concept to the operational system used on manned lunar missions. The problems encountered during the development, the corrective actions taken, and recommendations for similar equipment in future programs are included. The system was designed to provide communications between the lunar module and the manned space flight network, between the lunar module and the command and service module, and between the lunar module and the extravehicular crewmen. The system provided the equipment necessary for voice, telemetry, and television communications; ranging information; and various communications links.

  5. Lunar Module 4 moved for mating with Lunar Module Adapter at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Lunar Module 4 in the Kennedy Space Center's Manned Spacecraft Operations Bldg being moved into position for mating with Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA) 13 (17809);Lunar Module 4 being moved for mating with the Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter in the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Manned Spacecraft Operations Building. Lunar module 4 will be flown on the Apollo 10 (Spacecraft 106/Saturn 505) lunar orbit mission (17810).

  6. The National Transport Code Collaboration Module Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kritz, A. H.; Bateman, G.; Kinsey, J.; Pankin, A.; Onjun, T.; Redd, A.; McCune, D.; Ludescher, C.; Pletzer, A.; Andre, R.; Zakharov, L.; Lodestro, L.; Pearlstein, L. D.; Jong, R.; Houlberg, W.; Strand, P.; Wiley, J.; Valanju, P.; John, H. St.; Waltz, R.; Mandrekas, J.; Mau, T. K.; Carlsson, J.; Braams, B.

    2004-12-01

    This paper reports on the progress in developing a library of code modules under the auspices of the National Transport Code Collaboration (NTCC). Code modules are high quality, fully documented software packages with a clearly defined interface. The modules provide a variety of functions, such as implementing numerical physics models; performing ancillary functions such as I/O or graphics; or providing tools for dealing with common issues in scientific programming such as portability of Fortran codes. Researchers in the plasma community submit code modules, and a review procedure is followed to insure adherence to programming and documentation standards. The review process is designed to provide added confidence with regard to the use of the modules and to allow users and independent reviews to validate the claims of the modules' authors. All modules include source code; clear instructions for compilation of binaries on a variety of target architectures; and test cases with well-documented input and output. All the NTCC modules and ancillary information, such as current standards and documentation, are available from the NTCC Module Library Website http://w3.pppl.gov/NTCC. The goal of the project is to develop a resource of value to builders of integrated modeling codes and to plasma physics researchers generally. Currently, there are more than 40 modules in the module library.

  7. Plasma optical modulators for intense lasers

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lu-Le; Zhao, Yao; Qian, Lie-Jia; Chen, Min; Weng, Su-Ming; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Jaroszynski, D. A.; Mori, W. B.; Zhang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Optical modulators can have high modulation speed and broad bandwidth, while being compact. However, these optical modulators usually work for low-intensity light beams. Here we present an ultrafast, plasma-based optical modulator, which can directly modulate high-power lasers with intensity up to 1016 W cm−2 to produce an extremely broad spectrum with a fractional bandwidth over 100%, extending to the mid-infrared regime in the low-frequency side. This concept relies on two co-propagating laser pulses in a sub-millimetre-scale underdense plasma, where a drive laser pulse first excites an electron plasma wave in its wake while a following carrier laser pulse is modulated by the plasma wave. The laser and plasma parameters suitable for the modulator to work are based on numerical simulations. PMID:27283369

  8. APOLLO 10 ASTRONAUT ENTERS LUNAR MODULE SIMULATOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 10 lunar module pilot Eugene A. Cernan prepares to enter the lunar module simulator at the Flight Crew Training Building at the NASA Spaceport. Cernan, Apollo 10 commander Thomas P. Stafford and John W. Young, command module pilot, are to be launched May 18 on the Apollo 10 mission, a dress rehearsal for a lunar landing later this summer. Cernan and Stafford are to detach the lunar module and drop to within 10 miles of the moon's surface before rejoining Young in the command/service module. Looking on as Cernan puts on his soft helmet is Snoopy, the lovable cartoon mutt whose name will be the lunar module code name during the Apollo 10 flight. The command/service module is to bear the code name Charlie Brown.

  9. Laser space communication experiment: Modulator technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, F. E.

    1973-01-01

    Results are presented of a contractual program to develop the modulator technology necessary for a 10.6 micron laser communication system using cadmium telluride as the modulator material. The program consisted of the following tasks: (1) The growth of cadmium telluride crystals of sufficient size and purity and with the necessary optical properties for use as laser modulator rods. (2) Develop a low loss antireflection coating for the cadmium telluride rods. (3) Design and build a modulator capable of 300 MHz modulation. (4) Develop a modulator driver capable of a data rate of 300 MBits/sec, 12 W rms output power, and 40 percent efficiency. (5) Assemble and test the modulator system. All design goals were met and the system was built and tested.

  10. G2 Flywheel Module Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Ralph H.; Dever, Timothy P.

    2006-01-01

    Design of a flywheel module, designated the G2 module, is described. The G2 flywheel is a 60,000 RPM, 525 W-hr, 1 kW system designed for a laboratory environment; it will be used for component testing and system demonstrations, with the goal of applying flywheels to aerospace energy storage and integrated power and attitude control (IPACS) applications. G2 has a modular design, which allows for new motors, magnetic bearings, touchdown bearings, and rotors to be installed without a complete redesign of the system. This design process involves several engineering disciplines, and requirements are developed for the speed, energy storage, power level, and operating environment. The G2 rotor system consists of a multilayer carbon fiber rim with a titanium hub on which the other components mount, and rotordynamics analysis is conducted to ensure rigid and flexible rotor modes are controllable or outside of the operating speed range. Magnetic bearings are sized using 1-D magnetic circuit analysis and refined using 3-D finite element analysis. The G2 magnetic bearing system was designed by Texas A&M and has redundancy which allows derated operation after the loss of some components, and an existing liquid cooled two pole permanent magnet motor/generator is used. The touchdown bearing system is designed with a squeeze film damper system allowing spin down from full operating speed in case of a magnetic bearing failure. The G2 flywheel will enable module level demonstrations of component technology, and will be a key building block in system level attitude control and IPACS demonstrations.

  11. Flexible packaging for PV modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2008-08-01

    Economic, flexible packages that provide needed level of protection to organic and some other PV cells over >25-years have not yet been developed. However, flexible packaging is essential in niche large-scale applications. Typical configuration used in flexible photovoltaic (PV) module packaging is transparent frontsheet/encapsulant/PV cells/flexible substrate. Besides flexibility of various components, the solder bonds should also be flexible and resistant to fatigue due to cyclic loading. Flexible front sheets should provide optical transparency, mechanical protection, scratch resistance, dielectric isolation, water resistance, UV stability and adhesion to encapsulant. Examples are Tefzel, Tedlar and Silicone. Dirt can get embedded in soft layers such as silicone and obscure light. Water vapor transmittance rate (WVTR) of polymer films used in the food packaging industry as moisture barriers are ~0.05 g/(m2.day) under ambient conditions. In comparison, light emitting diodes employ packaging components that have WVTR of ~10-6 g/(m2.day). WVTR of polymer sheets can be improved by coating them with dense inorganic/organic multilayers. Ethylene vinyl acetate, an amorphous copolymer used predominantly by the PV industry has very high O2 and H2O diffusivity. Quaternary carbon chains (such as acetate) in a polymer lead to cleavage and loss of adhesional strength at relatively low exposures. Reactivity of PV module components increases in presence of O2 and H2O. Adhesional strength degrades due to the breakdown of structure of polymer by reactive, free radicals formed by high-energy radiation. Free radical formation in polymers is reduced when the aromatic rings are attached at regular intervals. This paper will review flexible packaging for PV modules.

  12. Head position modulates optokinetic nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Pettorossi, V E; Ferraresi, A; Botti, F M; Panichi, R; Barmack, N H

    2011-08-01

    Orientation and movement relies on both visual and vestibular information mapped in separate coordinate systems. Here, we examine how coordinate systems interact to guide eye movements of rabbits. We exposed rabbits to continuous horizontal optokinetic stimulation (HOKS) at 5°/s to evoke horizontal eye movements, while they were statically or dynamically roll-tilted about the longitudinal axis. During monocular or binocular HOKS, when the rabbit was roll-tilted 30° onto the side of the eye stimulated in the posterior → anterior (P → A) direction, slow phase eye velocity (SPEV) increased by 3.5-5°/s. When the rabbit was roll-tilted 30° onto the side of the eye stimulated in the A → P direction, SPEV decreased to ~2.5°/s. We also tested the effect of roll-tilt after prolonged optokinetic stimulation had induced a negative optokinetic afternystagmus (OKAN II). In this condition, the SPEV occurred in the dark, "open loop." Modulation of SPEV of OKAN II depended on the direction of the nystagmus and was consistent with that observed during "closed loop" HOKS. Dynamic roll-tilt influenced SPEV evoked by HOKS in a similar way. The amplitude and the phase of SPEV depended on the frequency of vestibular oscillation and on HOKS velocity. We conclude that the change in the linear acceleration of the gravity vector with respect to the head during roll-tilt modulates the gain of SPEV depending on its direction. This modulation improves gaze stability at different image retinal slip velocities caused by head roll-tilt during centric or eccentric head movement.

  13. Head position modulates optokinetic nystagmus

    PubMed Central

    Ferraresi, A.; Botti, F. M.; Panichi, R.; Barmack, N. H.

    2011-01-01

    Orientation and movement relies on both visual and vestibular information mapped in separate coordinate systems. Here, we examine how coordinate systems interact to guide eye movements of rabbits. We exposed rabbits to continuous horizontal optokinetic stimulation (HOKS) at 5°/s to evoke horizontal eye movements, while they were statically or dynamically roll-tilted about the longitudinal axis. During monocular or binocular HOKS, when the rabbit was roll-tilted 30° onto the side of the eye stimulated in the posterior → anterior (P → A) direction, slow phase eye velocity (SPEV) increased by 3.5–5°/s. When the rabbit was roll-tilted 30° onto the side of the eye stimulated in the A → P direction, SPEV decreased to ~2.5°/s. We also tested the effect of roll-tilt after prolonged optokinetic stimulation had induced a negative optokinetic afternystagmus (OKAN II). In this condition, the SPEV occurred in the dark, “open loop.” Modulation of SPEV of OKAN II depended on the direction of the nystagmus and was consistent with that observed during “closed loop” HOKS. Dynamic roll-tilt influenced SPEV evoked by HOKS in a similar way. The amplitude and the phase of SPEV depended on the frequency of vestibular oscillation and on HOKS velocity. We conclude that the change in the linear acceleration of the gravity vector with respect to the head during roll-tilt modulates the gain of SPEV depending on its direction. This modulation improves gaze stability at different image retinal slip velocities caused by head roll-tilt during centric or eccentric head movement. PMID:21735244

  14. The Lunar CELSS Test Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehn, Alexander; Gomez, Shawn; Luttges, Marvin W.

    1992-01-01

    The evolutionarily-developed Lunar Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Test Module presented can address questions concerning long-term human presence-related issues both at LEO and in the lunar environment. By achieving well-defined research goals at each of numerous developmental stages (each economically modest), easily justifiable operations can be undertaken. Attention is given to the possibility of maximizing non-NASA involvement in these CELSS developmental efforts via the careful definability and modest risk of each developmental stage.

  15. Redundant operation of counter modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagano, S. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A technique for the redundant operation of counter modules is described. Redundant operation is maintained by detecting the zero state of each counter and clearing the other to that state, thus periodically resynchronizing the counters, and obtaining an output from both counters through AC coupled diode-OR gates. Redundant operation of counter flip flops is maintained in a similar manner, and synchronous operation of redundant squarewave clock generators of the feedback type is effected by connecting together the feedback inputs of the squarewave generators through a coupling resistor, and obtaining an output from both generators through AC coupled diode-OR gates.

  16. Power module control moment gyro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The directed design modifications to the Skylab/ATM CMG for application to the Power Module include new rotors of a different material with high resistance to stress corrosion cracking. The spin bearing retainer fix which was determined during the post Skylab mission was incorporated, and the speed pickoff was improved through the use of pickoff thermal cycling screening tests. The unlimited gimbal freedom on box axes was incorporated using slip ring assemblies. The on-orbit replacement capability was also incorporated for the CMG assembly and the inverter assembly.

  17. Epigenetic modulators of thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodero, Sandra; Delgado-Álvarez, Elías; Díaz-Naya, Lucía; Martín Nieto, Alicia; Menéndez Torre, Edelmiro

    2017-01-01

    There are some well known factors involved in the etiology of thyroid cancer, including iodine deficiency, radiation exposure at early ages, or some genetic changes. However, epigenetic modulators that may contribute to development of these tumors and be helpful to for both their diagnosis and treatment have recently been discovered. The currently known changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs in each type of thyroid carcinoma are reviewed here. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Electrostatically actuatable light modulating device

    DOEpatents

    Koehler, Dale R.

    1991-01-01

    The electrostatically actuatable light modulator utilizes an opaque substrate plate patterned with an array of aperture cells, the cells comprised of physically positionable dielectric shutters and electrostatic actuators. With incorporation of a light source and a viewing screen, a projection display system is effected. Inclusion of a color filter array aligned with the aperture cells accomplishes a color display. The system is realized in terms of a silicon based manufacturing technology allowing fabrication of a high resolution capability in a physically small device which with the utilization of included magnification optics allows both large and small projection displays.

  19. The Background, Philosophy and Purposes of Team Teaching. Module I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, L. Jean

    This is the first of seven modules designed to help teachers gain the knowledge and skills needed for successful team teaching. The user may choose one, several or all of the modules, in any sequence, with module 1 recommended as a prerequisite to all the others, and module 5 as a prerequisite to module 6. The pattern of each module is: 1) study…

  20. Highly Sensitive Electro-Optic Modulators

    SciTech Connect

    DeVore, Peter S

    2015-10-26

    There are very important diagnostic and communication applications that receive faint electrical signals to be transmitted over long distances for capture. Optical links reduce bandwidth and distance restrictions of metal transmission lines; however, such signals are only weakly imprinted onto the optical carrier, resulting in low fidelity transmission. Increasing signal fidelity often necessitates insertion of radio-frequency (RF) amplifiers before the electro-optic modulator, but (especially at high frequencies) RF amplification results in large irreversible distortions. We have investigated the feasibility of a Sensitive and Linear Modulation by Optical Nonlinearity (SALMON) modulator to supersede RF-amplified modulators. SALMON uses cross-phase modulation, a manifestationmore » of the Kerr effect, to enhance the modulation depth of an RF-modulated optical wave. This ultrafast process has the potential to result in less irreversible distortions as compared to a RF-amplified modulator due to the broadband nature of the Kerr effect. Here, we prove that a SALMON modulator is a feasible alternative to an RFamplified modulator, by demonstrating a sensitivity enhancement factor greater than 20 and significantly reduced distortion.« less

  1. Linearized electrooptic polymeric directional coupler modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Yu-Chueh

    External linearized modulators are required in high-performance analog optical communication systems since the performance of conventional modulators, such as Mach-Zehnder modulators, are degraded by distortions by the nonlinearity of their transfer functions. Various linearization schemes have been proposed to increase the dynamic range of an analog optical link. Most of the optical schemes involve multiple Mach-Zehnder modulators, either in parallel or series configuration, incorporated with strict balance of RF and bias control. This is a significant challenge when it comes to practical implementation. In this dissertation, a linearized two-section directional coupler modulator made from electrooptic polymer is presented. The coupling coefficient of each section is tailored by properly tuning the refractive index contrast, which can be easily employed using the photobleaching technique in polymer technology. A two-tone test was performed to evaluate the linearity of the modulator and the spur-free dynamic range shows a 7.5 dB improvement compared to a conventional Mach-Zehnder modulator. This scheme avoids multiple modulators or complicated modulation synchronization and demonstrates a compact design in real implementation. Most of the linearization schemes up to date consider only the direct detection mode of operation. However, the RF output characteristics at the detection side are determined differently by various system parameters if a coherent link is implemented instead. Therefore, different considerations of linearization have to be examined for this kind of application. In the second part of this dissertation, the impact of various modulation scenarios on the system performance of an analog coherent optical link will be addressed. It will be shown that a directional coupler modulator is better suited at increasing the dynamic range in coherent optical links. Specific designs of a directional coupler modulator shows an SFDR improvement of 20 dB compared

  2. Nutritional Modulation of Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Weickert, Martin O.

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance has been proposed as the strongest single predictor for the development of Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM). Chronic oversupply of energy from food, together with inadequate physical activity, have been recognized as the most relevant factors leading to overweight, abdominal adiposity, insulin resistance, and finally T2DM. Conversely, energy reduced diets almost invariably to facilitate weight loss and reduce abdominal fat mass and insulin resistance. However, sustained weight loss is generally difficult to achieve, and distinct metabolic characteristics in patients with T2DM further compromise success. Therefore, investigating the effects of modulating the macronutrient composition of isoenergetic diets is an interesting concept that may lead to additional important insights. Metabolic effects of various different dietary concepts and strategies have been claimed, but results from randomized controlled studies and particularly from longer-term-controlled interventions in humans are often lacking. However, some of these concepts are supported by recent research, at least in animal models and short-term studies in humans. This paper provides an update of the current literature regarding the role of nutrition in the modulation of insulin resistance, which includes the discussion of weight-loss-independent metabolic effects of commonly used dietary concepts. PMID:24278690

  3. Generic Hypersonic Inlet Module Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, Chares E., Jr.; Huebner, Lawrence D.

    2004-01-01

    A computational study associated with an internal inlet drag analysis was performed for a generic hypersonic inlet module. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of computing the internal drag force for a generic scramjet engine module using computational methods. The computational study consisted of obtaining two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions using the Euler and parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) equations. The solution accuracy was assessed by comparisons with experimental pitot pressure data. The CFD analysis indicates that the 3D PNS solutions show the best agreement with experimental pitot pressure data. The internal inlet drag analysis consisted of obtaining drag force predictions based on experimental data and 3D CFD solutions. A comparative assessment of each of the drag prediction methods is made and the sensitivity of CFD drag values to computational procedures is documented. The analysis indicates that the CFD drag predictions are highly sensitive to the computational procedure used.

  4. Modulation of pain by estrogens.

    PubMed

    Craft, Rebecca M

    2007-11-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that women suffer a disproportionate amount of pain during their lifetime compared to men. Over the past 15 years, a growing number of studies have suggested a variety of causes for this sex difference, from cellular to psychosocial levels of analysis. From a biological perspective, sexual differentiation of pain appears to occur similarly to sexual differentiation of other phenomena: it results in large part from organizational and activational effects of gonadal steroid hormones. The focus of this review is the activational effects of a single group of ovarian hormones, the estrogens, on pain in humans and animals. The effects of estrogens (estradiol being the most commonly examined) on experimentally induced acute pain vs. clinical pain are summarized. For clinical pain, the review is limited to a few syndromes for which there is considerable evidence for estrogenic involvement: migraine, temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and arthritis. Because estrogens can modulate the function of the nervous, immune, skeletal, and cardiovascular systems, estrogenic modulation of pain is an exceedingly complex, multi-faceted phenomenon, with estrogens producing both pro- and antinociceptive effects that depend on the extent to which each of these systems of the body is involved in a particular type of pain. Forging a more complete understanding of the myriad ways that estrogens can ameliorate vs. facilitate pain will enable us to better prevent and treat pain in both women and men.

  5. All-integrated terahertz modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degl'Innocenti, Riccardo; Kindness, Stephen J.; Beere, Harvey E.; Ritchie, David A.

    2018-01-01

    Terahertz (0.1-10 THz corresponding to vacuum wavelengths between 30 μm and 3 mm) research has experienced impressive progress in the last few decades. The importance of this frequency range stems from unique applications in several fields, including spectroscopy, communications, and imaging. THz emitters have experienced great development recently with the advent of the quantum cascade laser, the improvement in the frequency range covered by electronic-based sources, and the increased performance and versatility of time domain spectroscopic systems based on full-spectrum lasers. However, the lack of suitable active optoelectronic devices has hindered the ability of THz technologies to fulfill their potential. The high demand for fast, efficient integrated optical components, such as amplitude, frequency, and polarization modulators, is driving one of the most challenging research areas in photonics. This is partly due to the inherent difficulties in using conventional integrated modulation techniques. This article aims to provide an overview of the different approaches and techniques recently employed in order to overcome this bottleneck.

  6. Probiotics as an Immune Modulator.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hye-Ji; Im, Sin-Hyeog

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are nonpathogenic live microorganism that can provide a diverse health benefits on the host when consumed in adequate amounts. Probiotics are consumed in diverse ways including dairy product, food supplements and functional foods with specific health claims. Recently, many reports suggest that certain probiotic strains or multi strain mixture have potent immunomodulatory activity in diverse disorders including allergic asthma, atopic dermatitis and rheumatoid arthritis. However, underlying mechanism of action is still unclear and efficacy of probiotic administration is quite different depending on the type of strains and the amounts of doses. We and others have suggested that live probiotics or their metabolites could interact with diverse immune cells (antigen presenting cells and T cells) and confer them to have immunoregulatory functions. Through this interaction, probiotics could contribute to maintaining immune homeostasis by balancing pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory immune responses. However, the effect of probiotics in prevention or modulation of ongoing disease is quite diverse even within a same species. Therefore, identification of functional probiotics with specific immune regulatory property is a certainly important issue. Herein, we briefly review selection methods for immunomodulatory probiotic strains and the mechanism of action of probiotics in immune modulation.

  7. Bioelectric modulation of macrophage polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunmei; Levin, Michael; Kaplan, David L.

    2016-02-01

    Macrophages play a critical role in regulating wound healing and tissue regeneration by changing their polarization state in response to local microenvironmental stimuli. The native roles of polarized macrophages encompass biomaterials and tissue remodeling needs, yet harnessing or directing the polarization response has been largely absent as a potential strategy to exploit in regenerative medicine to date. Recent data have revealed that specific alteration of cells’ resting potential (Vmem) is a powerful tool to direct proliferation and differentiation in a number of complex tissues, such as limb regeneration, craniofacial patterning and tumorigenesis. In this study, we explored the bioelectric modulation of macrophage polarization by targeting ATP sensitive potassium channels (KATP). Glibenclamide (KATP blocker) and pinacidil (KATP opener) treatment not only affect macrophage polarization, but also influence the phenotype of prepolarized macrophages. Furthermore, modulation of cell membrane electrical properties can fine-tune macrophage plasticity. Glibenclamide decreased the secretion and gene expression of selected M1 markers, while pinacidil augmented M1 markers. More interestingly, glibencalmide promoted macrophage alternative activation by enhancing certain M2 markers during M2 polarization. These findings suggest that control of bioelectric properties of macrophages could offer a promising approach to regulate macrophage phenotype as a useful tool in regenerative medicine.

  8. In-line thermoelectric module

    DOEpatents

    Pento, Robert; Marks, James E.; Staffanson, Clifford D.

    2000-01-01

    A thermoelectric module with a plurality of electricity generating units each having a first end and a second end, the units being arranged first end to second end along an in-line axis. Each unit includes first and second elements each made of a thermoelectric material, an electrically conductive hot member arranged to heat one side of the first element, and an electrically conductive cold member arranged to cool another side of the first element and to cool one side of the second element. The hot member, the first element, the cold member and the second element are supported in a fixture, are electrically connected respectively to provide an electricity generating unit, and are arranged respectively in positions along the in-line axis. The individual components of each generating unit and the respective generating units are clamped in their in-line positions by a loading bolt at one end of the fixture and a stop wall at the other end of the fixture. The hot members may have a T-shape and the cold members an hourglass shape to facilitate heat transfer. The direction of heat transfer through the hot members may be perpendicular to the direction of heat transfer through the cold members, and both of these heat transfer directions may be perpendicular to the direction of current flow through the module.

  9. Pharmacological modulation of spreading depolarizations.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Porras, Renán; Zheng, Zelong; Sakowitz, Oliver W

    2015-01-01

    Spreading depolarization (SD) is a wave of almost complete depolarization of the neuronal and glial cells. Nowadays there is sufficient evidence demonstrating its pathophysiological effect in migraine with aura, transient global amnesia, stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, and traumatic brain injury. In these cases, occurrence of SD has been associated with functional neuronal damage, neuronal necrosis, neurological degeneration, and poor clinical outcome. Animal models show that SD can be modulated by drugs that interfere with its initiation and propagation. There are many pharmacological targets that may help to suppress SD occurrence, such as Na⁺, K⁺, Cl⁻, and Ca²⁺ channels; Na⁺/K⁺ -ATPase; gap junctions; and ligand-based receptors, for example, adrenergic, serotonin, sigma-1, calcitonin gene-related peptide, GABAA, and glutamate receptors. In this regard, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blockers, in particular, ketamine, have shown promising results. Therefore, theoretically pharmacologic modulation of SD could help diminish its pathological effects.

  10. Blindsight modulation of motion perception.

    PubMed

    Intriligator, James M; Xie, Ruiman; Barton, Jason J S

    2002-11-15

    Monkey data suggest that of all perceptual abilities, motion perception is the most likely to survive striate damage. The results of studies on motion blindsight in humans, though, are mixed. We used an indirect strategy to examine how responses to visible stimuli were modulated by blind-field stimuli. In a 26-year-old man with focal striate lesions, discrimination of visible optic flow was enhanced about 7% by blind-field flow, even though discrimination of optic flow in the blind field alone (the direct strategy) was at chance. Pursuit of an imagined target using peripheral cues showed reduced variance but not increased gain with blind-field cues. Preceding blind-field prompts shortened reaction times to visible targets by about 10 msec, but there was no attentional crowding of visible stimuli by blind-field distractors. A similar efficacy of indirect blind-field optic flow modulation was found in a second patient with residual vision after focal striate damage, but not in a third with more extensive medial occipito-temporal damage. We conclude that indirect modulatory strategies are more effective than direct forced-choice methods at revealing residual motion perception after focal striate lesions.

  11. Modulation of visualized electrical field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Chin-Jung; Wu, Chi-Chung; Wang, Yi-Ting; Huang, Shiuan-Hau

    2015-10-01

    Polarization is an important concept of electromagnetism, and polarizers were traditionally applied to demonstrate this concept in a laboratory. We set up a optical system with the optical component "axis finder" to visualize the polarization direction immediately. The light phenomena, such as birefringence, circular polarization, and Brewster's angle, can be examined polarization visually. In addition, the principle of different waveplate and optical axis can be presented in a straightforward approach. By means of image analysis, the great precision of polarizing direction can be measured up to 0.01 degree. Modulated polarized light is applied to a few optical devices, like Liquid-crystal display. It is marvelous to trace the light polarization between the backlight module, polarizer, and panel. As seeing is believing, the visualized electrical field allows educators to teach polarization in a smooth and strikingly manifest manner. Without any polarizer and analyzer, we examine the rotary power of different concentration syrup, presenting the relationship with polarization change. We also demonstrate the wide application of polarization light in modern life, and examine the principle through this visualized electrical field system.

  12. Smart Fan Modules And System

    DOEpatents

    Cipolla, Thomas M.; Kaufman, Richard I.; Mok, Lawrence S.

    2003-07-15

    A fan module including: two or more individual fans, each fan having an air movement means and a motor engaged with the air movement means for accelerating air entering each of the two or more individual fans; a temperature sensor for sensing a temperature associated with the two or more fans and for outputting a first signal corresponding to the temperature; rotational speed sensor for outputting a second signal corresponding to a rotational speed of each of the two or more fans; and a processor for receiving the first and second signals and controlling the two or more individual fans based on the first and second signals. A fan module including: two or more individual fans, each fan having an air movement means and a motor engaged with the air movement means for accelerating air entering each of the two or more individual fans; a temperature sensor for sensing a temperature associated with the two or more fans and for outputting a first signal corresponding to the temperature; rotational speed sensor for outputting a second signal corresponding to a rotational speed of each of the two or more fans; and a processor for receiving the first and second signals and controlling the two or more individual fans based on the first and second signals.

  13. GAIA payload module mechanical development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touzeau, S.; Sein, E.; Lebranchu, C.

    2017-11-01

    Gaia is the European Space Agency's cornerstone mission for global space astrometry. Its goal is to make the largest, most precise three-dimensional map of our Galaxy by surveying an unprecedented number of stars. This paper gives an overview of the mechanical system engineering and verification of the payload module. This development includes several technical challenges. First of all, the very high stability performance as required for the mission is a key driver for the design, which incurs a high degree of stability. This is achieved through the extensive use of Silicon Carbide (Boostec® SiC) for both structures and mirrors, a high mechanical and thermal decoupling between payload and service modules, and the use of high-performance engineering tools. Compliance of payload mass and volume with launcher capability is another key challenge, as well as the development and manufacturing of the 3.2-meter diameter toroidal primary structure. The spacecraft mechanical verification follows an innovative approach, with direct testing on the flight model, without any dedicated structural model.

  14. Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) - ISS Inflatable Module Technology Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasgupta, Rajib; Munday, Steve; Valle, Gerard D.

    2014-01-01

    INNOVATION: BEAM is a pathway project demonstrating the design, fabrication, test, certification, integration, operation, on-orbit performance, and disposal of the first ever man-rated space inflatable structure. The groundwork laid through the BEAM project will support developing and launching a larger inflatable space structure with even greater mass per volume (M/V) advantages need for longer space missions. OVERVIEW: Inflatable structures have been shown to have much lower mass per volume ratios (M/V) when compared with conventional space structures. BEAM is an expandable structure, launched in a packed state, and then expanded once on orbit. It is a temporary experimental module to be used for gathering structural, thermal, and radiation data while on orbit. BEAM will be launched on Space X-8, be extracted from the dragon trunk, and will attach to ISS at Node 3- Aft. BEAM performance will be monitored over a two-year period and then BEAM will be jettison using the SSRMS.

  15. An auto-bias control scheme for IQ-modulator with various modulation formats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenqi; Yuan, Xueguang; Zhang, Yang'an

    2016-10-01

    We propose and demonstrate an auto-bias control scheme for the IQ-modulator of a flexible optical PSK or QAM or other modulation formats transmitter in this paper. Due to IQ-modulators usually producing higher-order modulation format, these modulation formats involve phase mostly. It is based on that the bias drift will change the operating point and result in varying the output optical phase. This technology has no restrictions on modulation formats, so it has good flexibility. The experimental result show the three biases can be stabilized when the proposed scheme is implemented.

  16. Residential photovoltaic module and array requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nearhoof, S. L.; Oster, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Design requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays used in residential applications were identified. Building codes and referenced standards were reviewed for their applicability to residential photovoltaic array installations. Four installation types were identified - integral (replaces roofing), direct (mounted on top of roofing), stand-off (mounted away from roofing), and rack (for flat or low slope roofs, or ground mounted). Installation costs were developed for these mounting types as a function of panel/module size. Studies were performed to identify optimum module shapes and sizes and operating voltage cost drivers. It is concluded that there are no perceived major obstacles to the use of photovoltaic modules in residential arrays. However, there is no applicable building code category for residential photovoltaic modules and arrays and additional work with standards writing organizations is needed to develop residential module and array requirements.

  17. Power module assemblies with staggered coolant channels

    DOEpatents

    Herron, Nicholas Hayden; Mann, Brooks S; Korich, Mark D

    2013-07-16

    A manifold is provided for supporting a power module assembly with a plurality of power modules. The manifold includes a first manifold section. The first face of the first manifold section is configured to receive the first power module, and the second face of the first manifold section defines a first cavity with a first baseplate thermally coupled to the first power module. The first face of the second manifold section is configured to receive the second power module, and the second face of the second manifold section defines a second cavity with a second baseplate thermally coupled to the second power module. The second face of the first manifold section and the second face of the second manifold section are coupled together such that the first cavity and the second cavity form a coolant channel. The first cavity is at least partially staggered with respect to second cavity.

  18. Apollo 9 Mission image - Command Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-03-03

    The Apollo 9 Command/Service Modules photographed through the window from the Lunar Module,"Spider",on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. Docking mechanism is visible in nose of the Command Module,"Gumdrop". Film magazine was F, film type was SO-368 Ektachrome with 0.460 - 0.710 micrometers film / filter transmittance response and haze filter,80mm lens

  19. V-band integrated quadriphase modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grote, A.; Chang, K.

    1983-01-01

    A V-band integrated circuit quadriphase shift keyed modulator/exciter for space communications systems was developed. Intersatellite communications systems require direct modulation at 60 GHz to enhance signal processing capability. For most systems, particularly space applications, small and lightweight components are essential to alleviate severe system design constraints. Thus to achieve wideband, high data rate systems, direct modulation techniques at millimeter waves using solid state integrated circuit technology are an integral part of the overall technology developments.

  20. Stable Optical Phase Modulation With Micromirrors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-27

    Stable optical phase modulation with micromirrors Caleb Knoernschild, Taehyun Kim, Peter Maunz, Stephen G. Crain, and Jungsang Kim∗ Fitzpatrick...position stability of the micromirror is dominated by the thermal mechanical noise of the structure. With this level of stability, we utilize the... micromirror to realize an optical phase modulator by simply reflecting light off the mirror and modulating its position. The resonant frequency of the

  1. Dense module enumeration in biological networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Koji; Georgii, Elisabeth

    2009-12-01

    Analysis of large networks is a central topic in various research fields including biology, sociology, and web mining. Detection of dense modules (a.k.a. clusters) is an important step to analyze the networks. Though numerous methods have been proposed to this aim, they often lack mathematical rigorousness. Namely, there is no guarantee that all dense modules are detected. Here, we present a novel reverse-search-based method for enumerating all dense modules. Furthermore, constraints from additional data sources such as gene expression profiles or customer profiles can be integrated, so that we can systematically detect dense modules with interesting profiles. We report successful applications in human protein interaction network analyses.

  2. Integrated Performance Testing Workshop, Modules 6 - 11

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, Janice; Torres, Teresa M.

    These modules cover performance testing of: Interior Detection Systems; Access Controls; Exterior Detection Systems; Video Assessment Systems; SNM / Contraband Detection Systems; Access Delay Elements

  3. Amplitude Modulations of Acoustic Communication Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turesson, Hjalmar K.

    2011-12-01

    In human speech, amplitude modulations at 3 -- 8 Hz are important for discrimination and detection. Two different neurophysiological theories have been proposed to explain this effect. The first theory proposes that, as a consequence of neocortical synaptic dynamics, signals that are amplitude modulated at 3 -- 8 Hz are propagated better than un-modulated signals, or signals modulated above 8 Hz. This suggests that neural activity elicited by vocalizations modulated at 3 -- 8 Hz is optimally transmitted, and the vocalizations better discriminated and detected. The second theory proposes that 3 -- 8 Hz amplitude modulations interact with spontaneous neocortical oscillations. Specifically, vocalizations modulated at 3 -- 8 Hz entrain local populations of neurons, which in turn, modulate the amplitude of high frequency gamma oscillations. This suggests that vocalizations modulated at 3 -- 8 Hz should induce stronger cross-frequency coupling. Similar to human speech, we found that macaque monkey vocalizations also are amplitude modulated between 3 and 8 Hz. Humans and macaque monkeys share similarities in vocal production, implying that the auditory systems subserving perception of acoustic communication signals also share similarities. Based on the similarities between human speech and macaque monkey vocalizations, we addressed how amplitude modulated vocalizations are processed in the auditory cortex of macaque monkeys, and what behavioral relevance modulations may have. Recording single neuron activity, as well as, the activity of local populations of neurons allowed us to test both of the neurophysiological theories presented above. We found that single neuron responses to vocalizations amplitude modulated at 3 -- 8 Hz resulted in better stimulus discrimination than vocalizations lacking 3 -- 8 Hz modulations, and that the effect most likely was mediated by synaptic dynamics. In contrast, we failed to find support for the oscillation-based model proposing a

  4. Apollo 9 Mission image - Command Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-03-03

    High Oblique photograph (taken over New Mexico) of the Apollo 9 Command/Service Modules taken from the Lunar Module,"Spider",on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. Docking mechanism is visible in nose of the Command Module,"Gumdrop". Object jutting out from the Service Module aft bulkhead is the high-gain S-Band antenna. Film magazine was F, film type was SO-368 Ektachrome with 0.460 - 0.710 micrometers film / filter transmittance response and haze filter,80mm lens. Cloud cover over the Earth is 70%.

  5. Apollo 9 Mission image - Command Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-03-03

    The Apollo 9 Command/Service Modules photographed from the Lunar Module,"Spider",on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. Docking mechanism is visible in nose of the Command Module,"Gumdrop". Object jutting out from the Service Module aft bulkhead is the high-gain S-Band antenna. Film magazine was F, film type was SO-368 Ektachrome with 0.460 - 0.710 micrometers film / filter transmittance response and haze filter,80mm lens.

  6. Solar Cell Modules with Parallel Oriented Interconnections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Twenty-four solar modules, half of which were 48 cells in an all-series electrical configuration and half of a six parallel cells by eight series cells were provided. Upon delivery of environmentally tested modules, low power outputs were discovered. These low power modules were determined to have cracked cells which were thought to cause the low output power. The cracks tended to be linear or circular which were caused by different stressing mechanisms. These stressing mechanisms were fully explored. Efforts were undertaken to determine the causes of cell fracture. This resulted in module design and process modifications. The design and process changes were subsequently implemented in production.

  7. Frequency-Diversity Reception for Phase Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockman, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    Signal-to-noise ratio improved. System receives phase modulation transmitted simultaneously on different carrier frequencies. Used for carriers received through different antennas or through same antenna.

  8. Cascaded Amplitude Modulations in Sound Texture Perception

    PubMed Central

    McWalter, Richard; Dau, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    Sound textures, such as crackling fire or chirping crickets, represent a broad class of sounds defined by their homogeneous temporal structure. It has been suggested that the perception of texture is mediated by time-averaged summary statistics measured from early auditory representations. In this study, we investigated the perception of sound textures that contain rhythmic structure, specifically second-order amplitude modulations that arise from the interaction of different modulation rates, previously described as “beating” in the envelope-frequency domain. We developed an auditory texture model that utilizes a cascade of modulation filterbanks that capture the structure of simple rhythmic patterns. The model was examined in a series of psychophysical listening experiments using synthetic sound textures—stimuli generated using time-averaged statistics measured from real-world textures. In a texture identification task, our results indicated that second-order amplitude modulation sensitivity enhanced recognition. Next, we examined the contribution of the second-order modulation analysis in a preference task, where the proposed auditory texture model was preferred over a range of model deviants that lacked second-order modulation rate sensitivity. Lastly, the discriminability of textures that included second-order amplitude modulations appeared to be perceived using a time-averaging process. Overall, our results demonstrate that the inclusion of second-order modulation analysis generates improvements in the perceived quality of synthetic textures compared to the first-order modulation analysis considered in previous approaches. PMID:28955191

  9. Long term thermoelectric module testing system.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Jonathan; Hogan, Timothy

    2009-10-01

    Thermoelectric generators can be used for converting waste heat into electric power. Significant interest in developing new materials in recent years has led to the discovery of several promising thermoelectrics, however, there can be considerable challenges in developing the materials into working devices. Testing and feedback is needed at each step to gain valuable information for identification of difficulties, quality of the materials and modules, repeatability in fabrication, and longevity of the devices. This paper describes a long-term module testing system for monitoring the output power of a module over extended testing times. To evaluate the system, we have tested commercially available thermoelectric modules over a one month time period.

  10. Design and fabrication of solar cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaughnessy, T. P.

    1978-01-01

    A program conducted for design, fabrication and evaluation of twelve silicon solar cell modules is described. The purpose of the program was to develop a module design consistent with the requirements and objectives of JPL specification and to also incorporate elements of new technologies under development to meet LSSA Project goals. Module development emphasized preparation of a technically and economically competitive design based upon utilization of ion implanted solar cells and a glass encapsulation system. The modules fabricated, tested and delivered were of nominal 2 X 2 foot dimensions and 20 watt minimum rating. Basic design, design rationale, performance and results of environmental testing are described.

  11. Cascaded Amplitude Modulations in Sound Texture Perception.

    PubMed

    McWalter, Richard; Dau, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    Sound textures, such as crackling fire or chirping crickets, represent a broad class of sounds defined by their homogeneous temporal structure. It has been suggested that the perception of texture is mediated by time-averaged summary statistics measured from early auditory representations. In this study, we investigated the perception of sound textures that contain rhythmic structure, specifically second-order amplitude modulations that arise from the interaction of different modulation rates, previously described as "beating" in the envelope-frequency domain. We developed an auditory texture model that utilizes a cascade of modulation filterbanks that capture the structure of simple rhythmic patterns. The model was examined in a series of psychophysical listening experiments using synthetic sound textures-stimuli generated using time-averaged statistics measured from real-world textures. In a texture identification task, our results indicated that second-order amplitude modulation sensitivity enhanced recognition. Next, we examined the contribution of the second-order modulation analysis in a preference task, where the proposed auditory texture model was preferred over a range of model deviants that lacked second-order modulation rate sensitivity. Lastly, the discriminability of textures that included second-order amplitude modulations appeared to be perceived using a time-averaging process. Overall, our results demonstrate that the inclusion of second-order modulation analysis generates improvements in the perceived quality of synthetic textures compared to the first-order modulation analysis considered in previous approaches.

  12. SLAC modulator system improvements and reliability results

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, A.R.

    1998-06-01

    In 1995, an improvement project was completed on the 244 klystron modulators in the linear accelerator. The modulator system has been previously described. This article offers project details and their resulting effect on modulator and component reliability. Prior to the project, the authors had collected four operating cycles (1991 through 1995) of MTTF data. In this discussion, the '91 data will be excluded since the modulators operated at 60 Hz. The five periods following the '91 run were reviewed due to the common repetition rate at 120 Hz.

  13. SSD with generalized phase modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Rothenberg, J.

    1996-01-09

    Smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) with standard frequency modulation (FM), although simple to implement, has the disadvantage that low spatial frequencies present in the spectrum of the target illumination are not smoothed as effectively as with a more general smoothing method (eg, induced spatial incoherence method). The reduced smoothing performance of standard FM-SSD can result in spectral power of the speckle noise at these low spatial frequencies as much as one order of magnitude larger than that achieved with a more general method. In fact, at small integration times FM-SSD has no smoothing effect at all for a broad bandmore » of low spatial frequencies. This effect may have important implications for both direct and indirect drive ICF.« less

  14. OA-7 Cargo Module Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-09

    The Orbital ATK OA-7 Cygnus spacecraft's pressurized cargo module (PCM) arrives at the Space Station Processing Facility of NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The PCM is sealed in an environmentally controlled shipping container, pulled in by truck on a low-boy flatbed trailer. Scheduled to launch in March 2017, the Orbital ATK OA-7 mission will lift off atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The commercial resupply services mission to the International Space Station will deliver thousands of pounds of supplies, equipment and scientific research materials that improve life on Earth and drive progress toward future space exploration.

  15. Efficiency Measurement of VANDLE Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, William; Matei, C.; Cizewski, J. A.; O'Malley, P. D.; Spassova, I.; Bardayan, D.; Blackmon, J. C.; Brune, C.; Massey, T.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Madurga, M.; Sarazin, F.; Raiola, F.

    2010-02-01

    The Versatile Array of Neutron Detectors at Low Energy (VANDLE) is a new array of plastic scintillator bars being developed at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The modular design enables optimization of different configurations for particular experiments, such as (d,n) and beta-delayed neutron-decay experiments, with rare ion beams. Two prototype modules were moved to the Edwards Accelerator Laboratory at Ohio University to measure their efficiency using a calibrated ^27Al(d,n) reaction as a neutron source. Results show that one bar with a cross section of 3x3 cm^2 is over 25% efficient to neutrons around 1 MeV with sensitivity down to 100 keV neutrons. Other design features such as wrapping and coupling will be presented, as well as results from resolution tests. )

  16. OA-7 Cargo Module Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-09

    Still sealed in its environmentally controlled shipping container, the Orbital ATK OA-7 Cygnus spacecraft's pressurized cargo module (PCM) has arrived inside the Space Station Processing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Once the Cygnus spacecraft is removed from its shipping container, engineers and technicians will begin preparing for launch scheduled for March 2017. Orbital ATK CRS-7 will lift off atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The commercial resupply services mission to the International Space Station will deliver thousands of pounds of supplies, equipment and scientific research materials that improve life on Earth and drive progress toward future space exploration.

  17. Magical ideation modulates spatial behavior.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Christine; Bracha, H Stefan; Brugger, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Previous research has found that animals as well as persons with psychotic disorders preferentially orient away from the cerebral hemisphere with the more active dopamine system. This study investigated the modulation of spatial behavior by a mode of thinking reminiscent of the positive symptoms of psychosis. In a non-treatment-seeking sample of healthy volunteers (20 women and 16 men), the authors assessed the lateral biases in turning and veering behavior and in line bisection as a function of their magical ideation, that is, a mild form of schizotypy. Across tasks, pronounced magical ideation was associated with reduced right-sided orientation preferences. This finding suggests a relative hyperdopaminergia of the right hemisphere as the biological basis of magical ideation.

  18. RF Jitter Modulation Alignment Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, L. F.; Fulda, P.; Diaz-Ortiz, M.; Perez Sanchez, G.; Ciani, G.; Voss, D.; Mueller, G.; Tanner, D. B.

    2017-01-01

    We will present the numerical and experimental results of a new alignment sensing scheme which can reduce the complexity of alignment sensing systems currently used, while maintaining the same shot noise limited sensitivity. This scheme relies on the ability of electro-optic beam deflectors to create angular modulation sidebands in radio frequency, and needs only a single-element photodiode and IQ demodulation to generate error signals for tilt and translation degrees of freedom in one dimension. It distances itself from current techniques by eliminating the need for beam centering servo systems, quadrant photodetectors and Gouy phase telescopes. RF Jitter alignment sensing can be used to reduce the complexity in the alignment systems of many laser optical experiments, including LIGO and the ALPS experiment.

  19. Solar dynamic power module design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, Richard R.; Labus, Thomas L.; Lovely, Ronald G.

    1989-01-01

    Studies have shown that use of solar dynamic (SD) power for the growth eras of the Space Station Freedom program will result in life cycle cost savings when compared to power supplied by photovoltaic sources. In the SD power module, a concentrator collects and focuses solar energy into a heat receiver which has integral thermal energy storage. A power conversion unit (PCU) based on the closed Brayton thermodynamic cycle removes thermal energy from the receiver and converts that energy to electrical energy. Since the closed Brayton cycle is a single phase gas cycle, the conversion hardware (heat exchangers, turbine, compressor, etc.) can be designed for operation in low earth orbit, and tested with confidence in test facilities on earth before launch into space. The concentrator subassemblies will be aligned and the receiver/PCU/radiator combination completely assembled and charged with gas and cooling liquid on earth before launch to, and assembly on orbit.

  20. Development of GREET Catalyst Module

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhichao; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Cronauer, Donald C.

    2014-09-01

    Catalysts are critical inputs for many pathways that convert biomass into biofuels. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during the production of catalysts and chemical inputs influence the life-cycle energy consumption, and GHG emissions of biofuels and need to be considered in biofuel life-cycle analysis (LCA). In this report, we develop energy and material flows for the production of three different catalysts (tar reforming, alcohol synthesis, Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 [ZSM-5]) and two chemicals (olivine, dimethyl ether of polyethylene glycol [DEPG]). These compounds and catalysts are now included in the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET™)more » catalyst module. They were selected because they are consumed in existing U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) analyses of biofuel processes. For example, a thermochemical ethanol production pathway (indirect gasification and mixed alcohol synthesis) developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) uses olivine, DEPG, and tar reforming and alcohol synthesis catalysts (Dutta et al., 2011). ZSM-5 can be used in biofuel production pathways such as catalytic upgrading of sugars into hydrocarbons (Biddy and Jones, 2013). Other uses for these compounds and catalysts are certainly possible. In this report, we document the data sources and methodology we used to develop material and energy flows for the catalysts and compounds in the GREET catalyst module. In Section 2 we focus on compounds used in the model Dutta et al. (2011) developed. In Section 3, we report material and energy flows associated with ZSM-5 production. Finally, in Section 4, we report results.« less

  1. Design, fabrication and test of block 4 design solar cell modules. Part 2: Residential module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jester, T. L.

    1982-01-01

    Design, fabrication and test of the Block IV residential load module are reported. Design changes from the proposed module design through three iterations to the discontinuance of testing are outlined.

  2. Modulating macrophage response to biomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaveri, Toral

    Macrophages recruited to the site of biomaterial implantation are the primary mediators of the chronic foreign body response to implanted materials. Since foreign body response limits performance and functional life of numerous implanted biomaterials/medical devices, various approaches have been investigated to modulate macrophage interactions with biomaterial surfaces to mitigate this response. In this work we have explored two independent approaches to modulate the macrophage inflammatory response to biomaterials. The first approach targets surface integrins, cell surface receptors that mediate cell adhesion to biomaterials through adhesive proteins spontaneously adsorbed on biomaterial surfaces. The second approach involves surface modification of biomaterials using nanotopographic features since nanotopography has been reported to modulate cell adhesion and viability in a cell type-dependent manner. More specifically, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanorod surface was investigated for its role in modulating macrophage adhesion and survival in vitro and foreign body response in vivo. For the first approach, we have investigated the role of integrin Mac-1 and RGD-binding integrins in the in-vivo osteolysis response and macrophage inflammatory processes of phagocytosis as well as inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to particulate biomaterials. We have also investigated the in vivo foreign body response (FBR) to subcutaneously implanted biomaterials by evaluating the thickness of fibrous capsule formed around the implants after 2 weeks of implantation. The role of Mac-1 integrin was isolated using a Mac-1 KO mouse and comparing it to a WT control. The role of RGD binding integrins in FBR was investigated by coating the implanted biomaterial with ELVAX(TM) polymer loaded with Echistatin which contains the RGD sequence. For the in-vivo osteolysis study and to study the in-vitro macrophage response to particulate biomaterials, we used the RGD peptide encapsulated in ELVAX

  3. Surface modulation of dental hard tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tantbirojn, Daranee

    Tooth surfaces play a central role in the equilibrium of dental hard tissues, in which contrasting processes lead to loss or deposition of materials. The central interest of this Thesis was the modulation of tooth surfaces to control such equilibrium. Four specific studies were carried out to investigate different classes of surface modulating agents. These are: (1) Ionic modulation of the enamel surface to enhance stain removal . Dental stain is the most apparent form of tooth surface deposit. The nature of extrinsic stain in terms of spatial chemical composition was studied by using electron probe microanalysis. An ionic surface modulating agent, sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), was evaluated. Image analysis methodologies were developed and the ability of STPP in stain removal was proved. (2) Thin film modulation with substantive polymeric coating and the effect on in vitro enamel de/re-mineralization . A novel polymeric coating that formed a thin film on the tooth surface was investigated for its inhibitory effect on artificial enamel caries, without interfering with the remineralization process. The preventive effect was distinct, but the mineral redeposition was questionable. (3) Thick film modulation with fluoride containing sealants and the effect on in vitro enamel and root caries development. Fluoride incorporated into resin material is an example of combining different classes of surface modulating agents to achieve an optimal outcome. A proper combination, such as in resin modified glass ionomer, showed in vitro caries inhibitory effect beyond the material boundary in both enamel and dentin. (4) Thick film modulation with dental adhesives and the determination of adhesion to dentin. Dentin adhesives modulate intracoronal tooth surfaces by enhancing adhesion to restorative materials. Conventional nominal bond tests were inadequate to determine the performance of current high strength adhesives. It was shown that interfacial fracture toughness test was more

  4. Teller Training Module: Off-Line Banking System. High-Technology Training Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Candyce J.

    This teller training module on offline banking systems is intended to be part of a postsecondary financial applications course. The module contains the following sections: module objective; specific objective; content--electronic audit machine key functions, practice packet--sample bank transactions and practicing procedures, and…

  5. Modulation Index Adjustment for Recovery of Pure Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy Second Harmonic Signal Waveforms

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Chang, Jun; Wang, Qiang; Qin, Zengguang

    2017-01-01

    A new technique of modulation index adjustment for pure wavelength modulation spectroscopy second harmonic signal waveforms recovery is presented. As the modulation index is a key parameter in determining the exact form of the signals generated by the technique of wavelength modulation spectroscopy, the method of modulation index adjustment is applied to recover the second harmonic signal with wavelength modulation spectroscopy. By comparing the measured profile with the theoretical profile by calculation, the relationship between the modulation index and average quantities of the scanning wavelength can be obtained. Furthermore, when the relationship is applied in the experimental setup by point-by-point modulation index modification for gas detection, the results show good agreement with the theoretical profile and signal waveform distortion (such as the amplitude modulation effect caused by diode laser) can be suppressed. Besides, the method of modulation index adjustment can be used in many other aspects which involve profile improvement. In practical applications, when the amplitude modulation effect can be neglected and the stability of the detection system is limited by the sampling rate of analog-to-digital, modulation index adjustment can be used to improve detection into softer inflection points and solve the insufficient sampling problem. As a result, measurement stability is improved by 40%. PMID:28098842

  6. Modulation Index Adjustment for Recovery of Pure Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy Second Harmonic Signal Waveforms.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Chang, Jun; Wang, Qiang; Qin, Zengguang

    2017-01-15

    A new technique of modulation index adjustment for pure wavelength modulation spectroscopy second harmonic signal waveforms recovery is presented. As the modulation index is a key parameter in determining the exact form of the signals generated by the technique of wavelength modulation spectroscopy, the method of modulation index adjustment is applied to recover the second harmonic signal with wavelength modulation spectroscopy. By comparing the measured profile with the theoretical profile by calculation, the relationship between the modulation index and average quantities of the scanning wavelength can be obtained. Furthermore, when the relationship is applied in the experimental setup by point-by-point modulation index modification for gas detection, the results show good agreement with the theoretical profile and signal waveform distortion (such as the amplitude modulation effect caused by diode laser) can be suppressed. Besides, the method of modulation index adjustment can be used in many other aspects which involve profile improvement. In practical applications, when the amplitude modulation effect can be neglected and the stability of the detection system is limited by the sampling rate of analog-to-digital, modulation index adjustment can be used to improve detection into softer inflection points and solve the insufficient sampling problem. As a result, measurement stability is improved by 40%.

  7. Spectro-temporal modulation masking patterns reveal frequency selectivity.

    PubMed

    Oetjen, Arne; Verhey, Jesko L

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated the possibility that the human auditory system demonstrates frequency selectivity to spectro-temporal amplitude modulations. Threshold modulation depth for detecting sinusoidal spectro-temporal modulations was measured using a generalized masked threshold pattern paradigm with narrowband masker modulations. Four target spectro-temporal modulations were examined, differing in their temporal and spectral modulation frequencies: a temporal modulation of -8, 8, or 16 Hz combined with a spectral modulation of 1 cycle/octave and a temporal modulation of 4 Hz combined with a spectral modulation of 0.5 cycles/octave. The temporal center frequencies of the masker modulation ranged from 0.25 to 4 times the target temporal modulation. The spectral masker-modulation center-frequencies were 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 times the target spectral modulation. For all target modulations, the pattern of average thresholds for the eight normal-hearing listeners was consistent with the hypothesis of a spectro-temporal modulation filter. Such a pattern of modulation-frequency sensitivity was predicted on the basis of psychoacoustical data for purely temporal amplitude modulations and purely spectral amplitude modulations. An analysis of separability indicates that, for the present data set, selectivity in the spectro-temporal modulation domain can be described by a combination of a purely spectral and a purely temporal modulation filter function.

  8. Auditory sensitivity to spectral modulation phase reversal as a function of modulation depth

    PubMed Central

    Grose, John

    2018-01-01

    The present study evaluated auditory sensitivity to spectral modulation by determining the modulation depth required to detect modulation phase reversal. This approach may be preferable to spectral modulation detection with a spectrally flat standard, since listeners appear unable to perform the task based on the detection of temporal modulation. While phase reversal thresholds are often evaluated by holding modulation depth constant and adjusting modulation rate, holding rate constant and adjusting modulation depth supports rate-specific assessment of modulation processing. Stimuli were pink noise samples, filtered into seven octave-wide bands (0.125–8 kHz) and spectrally modulated in dB. Experiment 1 measured performance as a function of modulation depth to determine appropriate units for adaptive threshold estimation. Experiment 2 compared thresholds in dB for modulation detection with a flat standard and modulation phase reversal; results supported the idea that temporal cues were available at high rates for the former but not the latter. Experiment 3 evaluated spectral modulation phase reversal thresholds for modulation that was restricted to either one or two neighboring bands. Flanking bands of unmodulated noise had a larger detrimental effect on one-band than two-band targets. Thresholds for high-rate modulation improved with increasing carrier frequency up to 2 kHz, whereas low-rate modulation appeared more consistent across frequency, particularly in the two-band condition. Experiment 4 measured spectral weights for spectral modulation phase reversal detection and found higher weights for bands in the spectral center of the stimulus than for the lowest (0.125 kHz) or highest (8 kHz) band. Experiment 5 compared performance for highly practiced and relatively naïve listeners, and found weak evidence of a larger practice effect at high than low spectral modulation rates. These results provide preliminary data for a task that may provide a better estimate

  9. A nanoparticle-based epigenetic modulator for efficient gene modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongkulapa, Thanapat

    Modulation of gene expression through chromatin remodeling involves epigenetic mechanisms, such as histone acetylation. Acetylation is tightly regulated by two classes of enzymes, histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). Molecules that can regulate these enzymes by altering (activating or inhibiting) their functions have become a valuable tool for understanding cell development and diseases. HAT activators, i.e. N-(4-Chloro-(3-trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-2-ethoxybenzamide (CTB), have shown a therapeutic potential for many diseases, including cancer and neurodegeneration. However, these compounds encounter a solubility and a membrane permeability issue, which restricts their full potential for practical usage, especially for in vivo applications. To address this issue, in this work, we developed a nanoparticle-based HAT activator CTB, named Au-CTB, by incorporating a new CTB analogue onto gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) along with a poly(ethylene glycol) moiety and a nuclear localization signal (NLS) peptide to assist with solubility and membrane permeability. We found that our new CTB analogue and Au-CTB could activate HAT activity. Significantly, an increase in potency to activate HAT activity by Au-CTB proved the effectiveness of using the nanoparticle delivery platform. In addition, the versatility of Au-CTB platform permits the attachment of multiple ligands with tunable ratios on the nanoparticle surface via facile surface functionalization of gold nanoparticles. Due to its high delivery efficiency and versatility, Au-CTB can be a powerful platform for applications in epigenetic regulation of gene expression.

  10. Family Life and Worker Productivity. Learning Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Vocational Education Services.

    This manual includes eight learning modules about family life and worker productivity. Each module begins with the rationale and a list of objectives. Each objective is then taken up in turn, with an introductory statement and classroom activities given for each objective. Main ideas are presented in boldface type, and correlated with the learning…

  11. Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    Each of the 61 modules in this packet contains a brief description of the module contents, a list of the major division of units, the overall objectives, objectives by units, content outline, and suggested teaching method, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A list of resource materials is also included for each. Some of the…

  12. Instructor's Guide for Human Development Student Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This instructor's guide is designed for use with an accompanying set of 61 student learning modules on human development. Included among the topics covered in the individual modules are the following: consumer and homemaking education (health and nutrition, personal appearance and grooming, puberty, menstruation, the human reproductive system,…

  13. Tractor Mechanic Check Sheets for Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Forms for student self-checks and the instructor's final checklist (student evaluation) are provided for use with thirty-three learning modules on maintaining and servicing fuel and electrical systems in tractor mechanics. The student self-check asks the students questions about their understanding of the modules' content. The instructor's…

  14. Voice Modulations in German Ironic Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharrer, Lisa; Christmann, Ursula; Knoll, Monja

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that in different languages ironic speech is acoustically modulated compared to literal speech, and these modulations are assumed to aid the listener in the comprehension process by acting as cues that mark utterances as ironic. The present study was conducted to identify paraverbal features of German "ironic…

  15. Typewriting Syllabus: Part II: Modules. 1976 Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    The document is the second of a two-part set on typewriting and focuses on the nine modules of instruction. The nine modules are: (1) keyboard mastery and skill development, (2) basic typewriting competencies, (2a) personal use typewriting, (3) introduction to office typewriting I, (4) introduction to office typewriting II, (5) intermediate office…

  16. Career Education for Adults: Consumer Economics Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auburn Univ., AL. Dept. of Vocational and Adult Education.

    An outgrowth of State-sponsored institutes conducted by Auburn University, Alabama, to produce career education teaching modules for adults, the consumer economics module is one of five field-tested curriculum guides adopted from findings of the nationally oriented Adult Performance Level Study conducted at the University of Texas. The primary…

  17. Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    Each of the 31 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural resources instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major division or units, the overall objective, objectives by units, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A list of resource…

  18. Electromechanical Componentry. High-Technology Training Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindemann, Don

    This training module on electromechanical components contains 10 units for a two-year vocational program packaging system equipment control course at Wisconsin Indianhead Technical College. This module describes the functions of electromechanical devices essential for understanding input/output devices for Programmable Logic Control (PLC)…

  19. Slotline fed microstrip antenna array modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Y. T.; Oberhart, M. L.; Brenneman, J. S.; Aoyagi, P.; Moore, J.; Lee, R. Q. H.

    1988-01-01

    A feed network comprised of a combination of coplanar waveguide and slot transmission line is described for use in an array module of four microstrip elements. Examples of the module incorporating such networks are presented as well as experimentally obtained impedance and radiation characteristics.

  20. Electro-optic resonant phase modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Chien-Chung (Inventor); Hemmati, Hamid (Inventor); Robinson, Deborah L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An electro-optic resonant cavity is used to achieve phase modulation with lower driving voltages. Laser damage thresholds are inherently higher than with previously used integrated optics due to the utilization of bulk optics. Phase modulation is achieved at higher speeds with lower driving voltages than previously obtained with non-resonant electro-optic phase modulators. The instant scheme uses a data locking dither approach as opposed to the conventional sinusoidal locking schemes. In accordance with a disclosed embodiment, a resonant cavity modulator has been designed to operate at a data rate in excess of 100 megabits per sec. By carefully choosing the cavity finesse and its dimension, it is possible to control the pulse switching time to within 4 nano-sec. and to limit the required switching voltage to within 10 V. This cavity locking scheme can be applied by using only the random data sequence, and without the need of dithering of the cavity. Compared to waveguide modulators, the resonant cavity has a comparable modulating voltage requirement. Because of its bulk geometry, the resonant cavity modulator has the potential of accommodating higher throughput power. Mode matching into the bulk device is easier and typically can be achieved with higher efficiency. An additional control loop is incorporated into the modulator to maintain the cavity on resonance.

  1. Teacher Aide Individually Prescribed Instructional Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston Univ., AL. Coll. of Education.

    This document contains 59 individually prescribed instructional modules for use in teacher aide education programs. Each module has six sections: 1) Behavioral objectives, 2) purpose, 3) performance criteria, 4) experiences, 5) resources, and 6) taxonomy. The subjects covered include the use of instructional equipment such as language master,…

  2. Identification coding schemes for modulated reflectance systems

    DOEpatents

    Coates, Don M [Santa Fe, NM; Briles, Scott D [Los Alamos, NM; Neagley, Daniel L [Albuquerque, NM; Platts, David [Santa Fe, NM; Clark, David D [Santa Fe, NM

    2006-08-22

    An identifying coding apparatus employing modulated reflectance technology involving a base station emitting a RF signal, with a tag, located remotely from the base station, and containing at least one antenna and predetermined other passive circuit components, receiving the RF signal and reflecting back to the base station a modulated signal indicative of characteristics related to the tag.

  3. Budgeting in Higher Education (Teaching Module).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Rebecca A.

    A teaching module or student-oriented learning outline on budgeting in higher education is presented. The module is designed for either group or individual student use and is specifically for the study of higher education. Objectives of the unit are as follows: define "budget," list and describe several types of budgets, cite the three phases of…

  4. Transparent superstrate terrestrial solar cell module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The design, development, fabrication, and testing of the transparent solar cell module were examined. Cell performance and material process characteristics were determined by extensive tests and design modifications were made prior to preproduction fabrication. These tests included three cell submodules and two full size engineering modules. Along with hardware and test activity, engineering documentation was prepared and submitted.

  5. Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    Each of the 38 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural mechanics instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major divisions or units, the overall objectives, objectives by unit, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A listing of…

  6. Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Silvanna Rabbi, MPLM Program Manager, Italian Space Agency, gives an overview of the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) in a prelaunch press conference. She describes the objectives, construction, specifications, and purpose of the three Italian-built modules, Leonardo, Rafaello, and Donatello. Ms. Rabbi then answers questions from the press.

  7. Assembly jig assures reliable solar cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ofarrell, H. O.

    1966-01-01

    Assembly jig holds the components for a solar cell module in place as the assembly is soldered and bonded by the even heat of an oven. The jig is designed to the configuration of the planned module. It eliminates uneven thermal conditions caused by hand soldering methods.

  8. Apollo experience report: Lunar module instrumentation subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, D. E., III; Woodfill, J. R., IV

    1972-01-01

    The design concepts and philosophies of the lunar module instrumentation subsystem are discussed along with manufacturing and systems integration. The experience gained from the program is discussed, and recommendations are made for making the subsystem more compatible and flexible in system usage. Characteristics of lunar module caution and warning circuits are presented.

  9. Modulating the level of components within plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bobzin, Steven Craig; Apuya, Nestor; Chiang, Karen

    Materials and Methods for identifying lignin regulatory region-regulatory protein associations are disclosed. Materials and methods for modulating lignin accumulation are also disclosed. In addition, methods and materials for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) the level of a component (e.g., protein, oil, lignin, carbon, a carotenoid, or a triterpenoid) in plants are disclosed.

  10. Integrating Oracle Human Resources with Other Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, Karl; Shope, Shawn

    1998-01-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of implementing an enterprise-wide business system is achieving integration of the different modules to the satisfaction of diverse customers. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) implementation of the Oracle application suite demonstrates the need to coordinate Oracle Human Resources Management System (HRMS) decision across the Oracle modules.

  11. Career Education for Adults: Occupational Information Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auburn Univ., AL. Dept. of Vocational and Adult Education.

    An outgrowth of State-sponsored institutes conducted by Auburn University, Alabama, to produce career education teaching modules for adults, the occupational knowledge module is one of five field-tested curriculum guides adopted from findings of the nationally oriented Adult Performance Level Study conducted at the University of Texas. (Basic to…

  12. Career Education for Adults: Community Resources Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auburn Univ., AL. Dept. of Vocational and Adult Education.

    An outgrowth of State-sponsored institutes conducted by Auburn University, Alabama, to produce career education teaching modules for adults, the community resources module is one of five field-tested curriculum guides adopted from findings of the nationally oriented Adult Performance Level Study conducted at the University of Texas. (Basic to the…

  13. Career Education for Adults: Health Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auburn Univ., AL. Dept. of Vocational and Adult Education.

    An outgrowth of State-sponsored institutes conducted by Auburn University, Alabama, to produce career education teaching modules for adults, the health module is one of five field-tested curriculum guides adopted from findings of the nationally oriented Adult Performance Level Study conducted at the University of Texas. (Basic to the Texas study…

  14. The Colloqution Module: Remedy for Somnifacient Lectures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pultorak, Robert W.

    1985-01-01

    A "colloqution module" (an instructional unit/strategy used in a conversation) consists of a reading assignment and a series of questions/activities. The strategy is suggested as an alternative to the lecture method. A sample module on insecticides (together with design information and advantages/disadvantages) is included. (DH)

  15. Maintenance on the Advanced Colloids Experiment Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-04-16

    iss055e035366 (April 16, 2018) --- NASA astronaut Ricky Arnold performs maintenance on the Advanced Colloids Experiment Module located inside the Light Microscopy Module which is a modified commercial, highly flexible, state-of-the-art light imaging microscope facility that provides researchers with powerful diagnostic hardware and software in microgravity.

  16. New technologies for managing cotton modules

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    New cotton harvesters with the ability to form seed cotton modules have changed the way that cotton is stored and handled before ginning. Cylindrical or “round” modules formed by John Deere cotton pickers and strippers are wrapped in three layers of plastic material to protect the cotton and mainta...

  17. 2016 NREL Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, Sarah

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology - both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  18. 2015 NREL Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshops

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, Sarah

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  19. Direct Current Series Circuits: An Educational Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgess, Keith

    This module was developed as remedial material for physics students who have difficulty understanding concepts of circuits and calculating resistances, and voltage drops and currents. Lists of prerequisite skills and instructional objectives are followed by a pretest (with answers). Students are directed to the subject matter in the module based…

  20. 47 CFR 101.811 - Modulation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Modulation requirements. 101.811 Section 101.811 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Local Television Transmission Service § 101.811 Modulation requirements. (a...

  1. 47 CFR 101.141 - Microwave modulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Microwave modulation. 101.141 Section 101.141 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.141 Microwave modulation. (a) Microwave transmitters employing digital...

  2. 47 CFR 101.811 - Modulation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Modulation requirements. 101.811 Section 101.811 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Local Television Transmission Service § 101.811 Modulation requirements. (a...

  3. 47 CFR 101.811 - Modulation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Modulation requirements. 101.811 Section 101.811 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Local Television Transmission Service § 101.811 Modulation requirements. (a...

  4. 47 CFR 101.141 - Microwave modulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Microwave modulation. 101.141 Section 101.141 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.141 Microwave modulation. (a) Microwave transmitters employing digital...

  5. 47 CFR 101.811 - Modulation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Modulation requirements. 101.811 Section 101.811 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Local Television Transmission Service § 101.811 Modulation requirements. (a...

  6. Offgassing Characterization of the Columbus Laboratory Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampini, riccardo; Lobascio, Cesare; Perry, Jay L.; Hinderer, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    Trace gaseous contamination in the cabin environment is a major concern for manned spacecraft, especially those designed for long duration missions, such as the International Space Station (ISS). During the design phase, predicting the European-built Columbus laboratory module s contribution to the ISS s overall trace contaminant load relied on "trace gas budgeting" based on material level and assembled article tests data. In support of the Qualification Review, a final offgassing test has been performed on the complete Columbus module to gain cumulative system offgassing data. Comparison between the results of the predicted offgassing load based on the budgeted material/assembled article-level offgassing rates and the module-level offgassing test is presented. The Columbus module offgassing test results are also compared to results from similar tests conducted for Node 1, U.S. Laboratory, and Airlock modules.

  7. Carrier Modulation Via Waveform Probability Density Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L.

    2006-01-01

    Beyond the classic modes of carrier modulation by varying amplitude (AM), phase (PM), or frequency (FM), we extend the modulation domain of an analog carrier signal to include a class of general modulations which are distinguished by their probability density function histogram. Separate waveform states are easily created by varying the pdf of the transmitted waveform. Individual waveform states are assignable as proxies for digital one's or zero's. At the receiver, these states are easily detected by accumulating sampled waveform statistics and performing periodic pattern matching, correlation, or statistical filtering. No fundamental physical laws are broken in the detection process. We show how a typical modulation scheme would work in the digital domain and suggest how to build an analog version. We propose that clever variations of the modulating waveform (and thus the histogram) can provide simple steganographic encoding.

  8. Carrier Modulation Via Waveform Probability Density Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L.

    2004-01-01

    Beyond the classic modes of carrier modulation by varying amplitude (AM), phase (PM), or frequency (FM), we extend the modulation domain of an analog carrier signal to include a class of general modulations which are distinguished by their probability density function histogram. Separate waveform states are easily created by varying the pdf of the transmitted waveform. Individual waveform states are assignable as proxies for digital ONEs or ZEROs. At the receiver, these states are easily detected by accumulating sampled waveform statistics and performing periodic pattern matching, correlation, or statistical filtering. No fundamental natural laws are broken in the detection process. We show how a typical modulation scheme would work in the digital domain and suggest how to build an analog version. We propose that clever variations of the modulating waveform (and thus the histogram) can provide simple steganographic encoding.

  9. Improvements in Cz silicon PV module manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Richard R.; Mitchell, Kim W.; Jester, Theresa L.

    1997-02-01

    Work focused on reducing the cost per watt of Cz Si photovoltaic modules under Phase I of Siemens Solar Industries' DOE/NREL PVMaT 4A subcontract is described. Module cost components are analyzed and solutions to high-cost items are discussed in terms of specific module designs. The approaches of using larger cells and modules to reduce per-part processing cost, and of minimizing yield loss are particularly leveraging. Yield components for various parts of the fabrication process and various types of defects are shown, and measurements of the force required to break wafers throughout the cell fabrication sequence are given. The most significant type of yield loss is mechanical breakage. The implementation of statistical process control on key manufacturing processes at Siemens Solar Industries is described. Module configurations prototyped during Phase I of this project and scheduled to begin production in Phase II have a projected cost per watt reduction of 19%.

  10. Long-term leaching of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nover, Jessica; Zapf-Gottwick, Renate; Feifel, Carolin; Koch, Michael; Metzger, Jörg W.; Werner, Jürgen H.

    2017-08-01

    Some photovoltaic module technologies use toxic materials. We report long-term leaching on photovoltaic module pieces of 5 × 5 cm2 size. The pieces are cut out from modules of the four major commercial photovoltaic technologies: crystalline and amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride as well as from copper indium gallium diselenide. To simulate different environmental conditions, leaching occurs at room temperature in three different water-based solutions with pH 3, 7, and 11. No agitation is performed to simulate more representative field conditions. After 360 days, about 1.4% of lead from crystalline silicon module pieces and 62% of cadmium from cadmium telluride module pieces are leached out in acidic solutions. The leaching depends heavily on the pH and the redox potential of the aqueous solutions and it increases with time. The leaching behavior is predictable by thermodynamic stability considerations. These predictions are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  11. ULF Generation by Modulated Ionospheric Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C.; Labenski, J.; Wallace, T.; Papadopoulos, K.

    2013-12-01

    Modulated ionospheric heating experiments designed to generate ULF waves using the HAARP heater have been conducted since 2007. Artificial ULF waves in the Pc1 frequency range were observed from space and by ground induction magnetometers located in the vicinity of the heater as well as at long distances. Two distinct generation mechanisms of artificial ULF waves were identified. The first was electroject modulation under geomagnetically disturbed conditions. The second was pressure modulation in the E and F regions of the ionosphere under quiet conditions. Ground detections of ULF waves near the heater included both Shear Alfven waves and Magnetosonic waves generated by electrojet and/or pressure modulations. Distant ULF detections involved Magnetosonic wave propagation in the Alfvenic duct with pressure modulation as the most likely source. Summary of our observations and theoretical interpretations will be presented at the meeting. We would like to acknowledge the support provided by the staff at the HAARP facility during our ULF experiments.

  12. Amorphous-silicon module intercell corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mon, G. R.; Ross, R. G.

    1987-06-01

    Three non-electrochemical, moisture-induced a-Si module degradation modes have been observed and their mechanisms studied: (1) the formation and growth of pinholes in the thin-film layers; (2) the directional interfusion of pinholes along process scribe lines to form metallization-free regions that tend to open-circuit the module; and (3) worm-like filiform corrosion in the aluminum layer. The dependency on time-of-exposure to moist environments of the amount of material erosion in the module intercell zone has been quantified by two methods—directly by EDS analysis, and indirectly by sheet resistivity measurements on fully aluminized back surface modules. In addition, changes in maximum power output, series resistance, and open circuit voltage have been documented. Consequences for fielded modules are discussed.

  13. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOEpatents

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2007-02-20

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  14. Optical imaging module for astigmatic detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei-Min; Cheng, Chung-Hsiang; Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, an optical imaging module design for an astigmatic detection system (ADS) is presented. The module is based on a commercial optical pickup unit (OPU) and it contains a coaxial illuminant for illuminating a specimen. Furthermore, the imaging module facilitates viewing the specimen and the detection laser spot of the ADS with a lateral resolution of approximately 1 μm without requiring the removal of an element of the OPU. Two polarizers and one infrared filter are used to eliminate stray laser light in the OPU and stray light produced by the illuminant. Imaging modules designed for digital versatilemore » disks (DVDs) and Blu-ray DVDs were demonstrated. Furthermore, the module can be used for imaging a small cantilever with approximate dimensions of 2 μm (width) × 5 μm (length), and therefore, it has the potential to be used in high-speed atomic force microscopy.« less

  15. Bunch modulation in LWFA blowout regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyskočil, Jiří; Klimo, Ondřej; Vieira, Jorge; Korn, Georg

    2015-05-01

    Laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) is able to produce high quality electron bunches interesting for many applications ranging from coherent light sources to high energy physics. The blow-out regime of LWFA provides excellent accelerating structure able to maintain small transverse emittance and energy spread of the accelerating electron beam if combined with localised injection. A modulation of the back of a self-injected electron bunch in the blowout regime of Laser Wakefield Acceleration appears 3D Particle-in-Cell simulations with the code OSIRIS. The shape of the modulation is connected to the polarization of the driving laser pulse, although the wavelength of the modulation is longer than that of the pulse. Nevertheless a circularly polarized laser pulse leads to a corkscrew-like modulation, while in the case of linear polarization, the modulation lies in the polarization plane.

  16. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOEpatents

    Stein, VanEric Edward [Allentown, PA; Carolan, Michael Francis [Allentown, PA; Chen, Christopher M [Allentown, PA; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew [Orefield, PA; Wahle, Harold W [North Canton, OH; Ohrn, Theodore R [Alliance, OH; Kneidel, Kurt E [Alliance, OH; Rackers, Keith Gerard [Louisville, OH; Blake, James Erik [Uniontown, OH; Nataraj, Shankar [Allentown, PA; Van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson [West Jordan, UT

    2012-02-14

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  17. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOEpatents

    Stein, VanEric Edward [Allentown, PA; Carolan, Michael Francis [Allentown, PA; Chen, Christopher M [Allentown, PA; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew [Orefield, PA; Wahle, Harold W [North Canton, OH; Ohrn, Theodore R [Alliance, OH; Kneidel, Kurt E [Alliance, OH; Rackers, Keith Gerard [Louisville, OH; Blake, James Erik [Uniontown, OH; Nataraj, Shankar [Allentown, PA; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson [West Jordan, UT

    2008-02-26

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel.The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  18. The AC photovoltaic module is here!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strong, Steven J.; Wohlgemuth, John H.; Wills, Robert H.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes the design, development, and performance results of a large-area photovoltaic module whose electrical output is ac power suitable for direct connection to the utility grid. The large-area ac PV module features a dedicated, integrally mounted, high-efficiency dc-to-ac power inverter with a nominal output of 250 watts (STC) at 120 Vac, 60 H, that is fully compatible with utility power. The module's output is connected directly to the building's conventional ac distribution system without need for any dc wiring, string combiners, dc ground-fault protection or additional power-conditioning equipment. With its advantages, the ac photovoltaic module promises to become a universal building block for use in all utility-interactive PV systems. This paper discusses AC Module design aspects and utility interface issues (including islanding).

  19. Submillimeter Confocal Imaging Active Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, John; Mehdi, Imran; Siegel, Peter; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Cwik, Thomas; Rowell, Mark; Hacker, John

    2009-01-01

    The term submillimeter confocal imaging active module (SCIAM) denotes a proposed airborne coherent imaging radar system that would be suitable for use in reconnaissance, surveillance, and navigation. The development of the SCIAM would include utilization and extension of recent achievements in monolithic microwave integrated circuits capable of operating at frequencies up to and beyond a nominal radio frequency of 340 GHz. Because the SCIAM would be primarily down-looking (in contradistinction to primarily side-looking), it could be useful for imaging shorter objects located between taller ones (for example, objects on streets between buildings). The SCIAM would utilize a confocal geometry to obtain high cross-track resolution, and would be amenable to synthetic-aperture processing of its output to obtain high along-track resolution. The SCIAM (see figure) would include multiple (two in the initial version) antenna apertures, separated from each other by a cross-track baseline of suitable length (e.g., 1.6 m). These apertures would both transmit the illuminating radar pulses and receive the returns. A common reference oscillator would generate a signal at a controllable frequency of (340 GHz + (Delta)f)/N, where (Delta)f is an instantaneous swept frequency difference and N is an integer. The output of this oscillator would be fed to a frequency- multiplier-and-power-amplifier module to obtain a signal, at 340 GHz + (Delta)f, that would serve as both the carrier signal for generating the transmitted pulses and a local-oscillator (LO) signal for a receiver associated with each antenna aperture. Because duplexers in the form of circulators or transmit/receive (T/R) switches would be lossy and extremely difficult to implement, the antenna apertures would be designed according to a spatial-diplexing scheme, in which signals would be coupled in and out via separate, adjacent transmitting and receiving feed horns. This scheme would cause the transmitted and received beams

  20. Electric-optic resonant phase modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Chien-Chung (Inventor); Robinson, Deborah L. (Inventor); Hemmati, Hamid (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An electro-optic resonant cavity is used to achieve phase modulation with lower driving voltages. Laser damage thresholds are inherently higher than with previously used integrated optics due to the utilization of bulk optics. Phase modulation is achieved at higher speeds with lower driving voltages than previously obtained with non-resonant electro-optic phase modulators. The instant scheme uses a data locking dither approach as opposed to the conventional sinusoidal locking schemes. In accordance with a disclosed embodiment, a resonant cavity modulator has been designed to operate at a data rate in excess of 100 Mbps. By carefully choosing the cavity finesse and its dimension, it is possible to control the pulse switching time to within 4 ns and to limit the required switching voltage to within 10 V. Experimentally, the resonant cavity can be maintained on resonance with respect to the input laser signal by monitoring the fluctuation of output intensity as the cavity is switched. This cavity locking scheme can be applied by using only the random data sequence, and without the need of additional dithering of the cavity. Compared to waveguide modulators, the resonant cavity has a comparable modulating voltage requirement. Because of its bulk geometry, resonant cavity modulator has the potential of accommodating higher throughput power. Furthermore, mode matching into a bulk device is easier and typically can be achieved with higher efficiency. On the other hand, unlike waveguide modulators which are essentially traveling wave devices, the resonant cavity modulator requires that the cavity be maintained in resonance with respect to the incoming laser signal. An additional control loop is incorporated into the modulator to maintain the cavity on resonance.

  1. View of docked Apollo 9 Command/Service Module and Lunar Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-03-06

    AS09-20-3064 (6 March 1969) --- Excellent view of the docked Apollo 9 Command and Service Modules (CSM) and Lunar Module (LM), with Earth in the background, during astronaut David R. Scott's stand-up extravehicular activity (EVA), on the fourth day of the Apollo 9 Earth-orbital mission. Scott, command module pilot, is standing in the open hatch of the Command Module (CM). Astronaut Russell L. Schweickart, lunar module pilot, took this photograph of Scott from the porch of the LM. Inside the LM was astronaut James A. McDivitt, Apollo 9 commander.

  2. Functional specification of the Performance Measurement (PM) module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berliner, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    The design of the Performance Measurement Module is described with emphasis on what the PM Module would do, and what it would look like to the user. The PM Module as described could take several man-years to develop. An evolutionary approach to the implementation of the PM Module is presented which would provide an operational baseline PM Module within a few months.

  3. Membrane Cholesterol Modulates Superwarfarin Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Marangoni, M. Natalia; Martynowycz, Michael W.; Kuzmenko, Ivan

    Superwarfarins are modified analogs of warfarin with additional lipophilic aromatic rings, up to 100-fold greater potency, and longer biological half-lives. We hypothesized that increased hydrophobicity allowed interactions with amphiphilic membranes and modulation of biological responses. We find that superwarfarins brodifacoum and difenacoum increase lactate production and cell death in neuroblastoma cells. In contrast, neither causes changes in glioma cells that have higher cholesterol content. After choleterol depletion, lactate production was increased and cell viability was reduced. Drug-membrane interactions were examined by surface X-ray scattering using Langmuir monolayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and/or cholesterol. Specular X-ray reflectivity data revealed that superwarfarins, but notmore » warfarin, intercalate between dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine molecules, whereas grazing incidence X-ray diffraction demonstrated changes in lateral crystalline order of the film. Neither agent showed significant interactions with monolayers containing >20% cholesterol. These findings demonstrate an affinity of superwarfarins to biomembranes and suggest that cellular responses to these agents are regulated by cholesterol content.« less

  4. Orion Crew Module Aerodynamic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Bibb, Karen L.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Rhode, Matthew N.; Owens, Bruce; Chan, David T.; Walker, Eric L.; Bell, James H.; Wilson, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    The Apollo-derived Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), part of NASA s now-cancelled Constellation Program, has become the reference design for the new Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The MPCV will serve as the exploration vehicle for all near-term human space missions. A strategic wind-tunnel test program has been executed at numerous facilities throughout the country to support several phases of aerodynamic database development for the Orion spacecraft. This paper presents a summary of the experimental static aerodynamic data collected to-date for the Orion Crew Module (CM) capsule. The test program described herein involved personnel and resources from NASA Langley Research Center, NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Johnson Space Flight Center, Arnold Engineering and Development Center, Lockheed Martin Space Sciences, and Orbital Sciences. Data has been compiled from eight different wind tunnel tests in the CEV Aerosciences Program. Comparisons are made as appropriate to highlight effects of angle of attack, Mach number, Reynolds number, and model support system effects.

  5. Nanosecond liquid crystalline optical modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Borshch, Volodymyr; Shiyanovskii, Sergij V.; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.

    2016-07-26

    An optical modulator includes a liquid crystal cell containing liquid crystal material having liquid crystal molecules oriented along a quiescent director direction in the unbiased state, and a voltage source configured to apply an electric field to the liquid crystal material wherein the direction of the applied electric field does not cause the quiescent director direction to change. An optical source is arranged to transmit light through or reflect light off the liquid crystal cell with the light passing through the liquid crystal material at an angle effective to undergo phase retardation in response to the voltage source applying themore » electric field. The liquid crystal material may have negative dielectric anisotropy, and the voltage source configured to apply an electric field to the liquid crystal material whose electric field vector is transverse to the quiescent director direction. Alternatively, the liquid crystal material may have positive dielectric anisotropy and the voltage source configured to apply an electric field to the liquid crystal material whose electric field vector is parallel with the quiescent director direction.« less

  6. Body posture modulates action perception.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Marius; Toni, Ivan; de Lange, Floris P

    2013-04-03

    Recent studies have highlighted cognitive and neural similarities between planning and perceiving actions. Given that action planning involves a simulation of potential action plans that depends on the actor's body posture, we reasoned that perceiving actions may also be influenced by one's body posture. Here, we test whether and how this influence occurs by measuring behavioral and cerebral (fMRI) responses in human participants predicting goals of observed actions, while manipulating postural congruency between their own body posture and postures of the observed agents. Behaviorally, predicting action goals is facilitated when the body posture of the observer matches the posture achieved by the observed agent at the end of his action (action's goal posture). Cerebrally, this perceptual postural congruency effect modulates activity in a portion of the left intraparietal sulcus that has previously been shown to be involved in updating neural representations of one's own limb posture during action planning. This intraparietal area showed stronger responses when the goal posture of the observed action did not match the current body posture of the observer. These results add two novel elements to the notion that perceiving actions relies on the same predictive mechanism as planning actions. First, the predictions implemented by this mechanism are based on the current physical configuration of the body. Second, during both action planning and action observation, these predictions pertain to the goal state of the action.

  7. Space Charge Modulated Electrical Breakdown

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shengtao; Zhu, Yuanwei; Min, Daomin; Chen, George

    2016-01-01

    Electrical breakdown is one of the most important physical phenomena in electrical and electronic engineering. Since the early 20th century, many theories and models of electrical breakdown have been proposed, but the origin of one key issue, that the explanation for dc breakdown strength being twice or higher than ac breakdown strength in insulating materials, remains unclear. Here, by employing a bipolar charge transport model, we investigate the space charge dynamics in both dc and ac breakdown processes. We demonstrate the differences in charge accumulations under both dc and ac stresses and estimate the breakdown strength, which is modulated by the electric field distortion induced by space charge. It is concluded that dc breakdown initializes in the bulk whereas ac breakdown initializes in the vicinity of the sample-electrode interface. Compared with dc breakdown, the lower breakdown strength under ac stress and the decreasing breakdown strength with an increase in applied frequency, are both attributed to the electric field distortion induced by space charges located in the vicinity of the electrodes. PMID:27599577

  8. Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Clement J.

    1992-01-01

    A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor.

  9. Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, C.J.

    1992-12-01

    A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor. 5 figs.

  10. Vibrational molecular modulation in hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shu Wei; Chen, Wei-Jan; Kung, A. H.

    2006-12-01

    Detailed numerical modeling of using the vibrational coherence of H2 for molecular modulation is presented. The focus of the calculation is on a strongly driven system aimed at producing many sidebands in the presence of Doppler broadening and the effects of collisions at room temperature. It is shown that Dicke narrowing that reduces the Doppler width plays a critical role in high order sideband generation in room temperature H2 . In addition, the calculation shows that generation of many sidebands favors the phased state as has been reported in all gas phase experiments and is primarily a consequence of the Stark shifts that result from the applied high intensities. The influence of self-focusing in the gas medium that has been conjectured in previous studies is only secondary. The numerical results agree with experimental data obtained in our laboratory, where we have succeeded in generating collinearly propagating Raman sidebands with wavelengths that range from 2216nm in the infrared to 133nm in the vacuum ultraviolet. The frequencies covered by these sidebands span over four octaves for a total of more than 70600cm-1 in the optical region of the spectrum.

  11. Intracellular signal modulation by nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Salik; Garantziotis, Stavros; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle; Boland, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the interactions of nanomaterials with biological systems and the resulting activation of signal transduction pathways is essential for the development of safe and consumer friendly nanotechnology. Here we present an overview of signaling pathways induced by nanomaterial exposures and describe the possible correlation of their physicochemical characteristics with biological outcomes. In addition to the hierarchical oxidative stress model and a review of the intrinsic and cell-mediated mechanisms of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating capacities of nanomaterials, we also discuss other oxidative stress dependent and independent cellular signaling pathways. Induction of the inflammasome, calcium signaling, and endoplasmic reticulum stress are reviewed. Furthermore, the uptake mechanisms can be of crucial importance for the cytotoxicity of nanomaterials and membrane-dependent signaling pathways have also been shown to be responsible for cellular effects of nanomaterials. Epigenetic regulation by nanomaterials, effects of nanoparticle-protein interactions on cell signaling pathways, and the induction of various cell death modalities by nanomaterials are described. We describe the common trigger mechanisms shared by various nanomaterials to induce cell death pathways and describe the interplay of different modalities in orchestrating the final outcome after nanomaterial exposures. A better understanding of signal modulations induced by nanomaterials is not only essential for the synthesis and design of safer nanomaterials but will also help to discover potential nanomedical applications of these materials. Several biomedical applications based on the different signaling pathways induced by nanomaterials are already proposed and will certainly gain a great deal of attraction in the near future.

  12. Intracellular Signal Modulation by Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Salik; Garantziotis, Stavros; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle; Boland, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the interactions of nanomaterials with biological systems and the resulting activation of signal transduction pathways is essential for the development of safe and consumer friendly nanotechnology. Here we present an overview of signaling pathways induced by nanomaterial exposures and describe the possible correlation of their physicochemical characteristics with biological outcomes. In addition to the hierarchical oxidative stress model and a review of the intrinsic and cell-mediated mechanisms of reactive Oxygen species (ROS) generating capacities of nanomaterials, we also discuss other oxidative stress dependent and independent cellular signaling pathways. Induction of the inflammasome, calcium signaling, and endoplasmic reticulum stress are reviewed. Furthermore, the uptake mechanisms can crucially affect the cytotoxicity of nanomaterials and membrane-dependent signaling pathways can be responsible for cellular effects of nanomaterials. Epigenetic regulation by nanomaterials effects of nanoparticle-protein interactions on cell signaling pathways, and the induction of various cell death modalities by nanomaterials are described. We describe the common trigger mechanisms shared by various nanomaterials to induce cell death pathways and describe the interplay of different modalities in orchestrating the final outcome after nanomaterial exposures. A better understanding of signal modulations induced by nanomaterials is not only essential for the synthesis and design of safer nanomaterials but will also help to discover potential nanomedical applications of these materials. Several biomedical applications based on the different signaling pathways induced by nanomaterials are already proposed and will certainly gain a great deal of attraction in the near future. PMID:24683030

  13. Development and performance of pulse-width-modulated static inverter and converter modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pittman, P. F.; Gourash, F.; Birchenough, A. G.; Pittman, P. F.; Ravas, R. J.; Hall, W. G.

    1971-01-01

    Pulse-width-modulated inverter and converter modules are being developed for modular aerospace electrical power systems. The modules, rate 2.5 kilowatts per module and 10-minute - 150-percent overload, operate from 56 volts dc. The converter module provides two output voltages: a nominal link voltage of 200 volts dc when used with the inverter, and 150 volts dc to a load bus when used separately. The inverter module output is 400-hertz, sinusoidal, three-phase, 120/208 volts. Tests of breadboard models with standard parts and integrated circuits show rated power efficiencies of 71.4 and 85.1 percent and voltage regulation of 5 and 3.1 percent for inverter and converter modules, respectively. Sine-wave output distortion is 0.74 percent.

  14. Polyimide based amorphous silicon solar modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffrey, Frank R.; Grimmer, Derrick P.; Martens, Steven A.; Abudagga, Khaled; Thomas, Michael L.; Noak, Max

    1993-01-01

    Requirements for space power are increasingly emphasizing lower costs and higher specific powers. This results from new fiscal constraints, higher power requirements for larger applications, and the evolution toward longer distance missions such as a Lunar or Mars base. The polyimide based a-Si modules described are being developed to meet these needs. The modules consist of tandem a-Si solar cell material deposited directly on a roll of polyimide. A laser scribing/printing process subdivides the deposition into discrete cell strips which are series connected to produce the required voltage without cutting the polymer backing. The result is a large, monolithic, blanket type module approximately 30 cm wide and variable in length depending on demand. Current production modules have a specific power slightly over 500 W/Kg with room for significant improvement. Costs for the full blanket modules range from $30/Watt to $150/Watt depending on quantity and engineering requirements. Work to date focused on the modules themselves and adjusting them for the AMO spectrum. Work is needed yet to insure that the modules are suitable for the space environment.

  15. Apollo 9 Mission image - Lunar Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-03-07

    AS09-21-3183 (7 March 1969) --- A view of the Apollo 9 Lunar Module (LM) "Spider" in a lunar landing configuration, as photographed from the Command and Service Modules (CSM) on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 Earth-orbital mission. The landing gear on the "Spider" has been deployed. Lunar surface probes (sensors) extend out from the landing gear foot pads. Inside the "Spider" were astronauts James A. McDivitt, Apollo 9 commander; and Russell L. Schweickart, lunar module pilot. Astronaut David R. Scott, command module pilot, remained at the controls in the Command Module (CM), "Gumdrop," while the other two astronauts checked out the LM. Schweickart, lunar module pilot, is photographed from the CM "Gumdrop" during his extravehicular activity (EVA) on the fourth day of the Apollo 9 Earth-orbital mission. The CSM is docked with the LM. Astronaut James A. McDivitt, Apollo 9 commander, was inside the LM "Spider." Astronaut David R. Scott, command module pilot, remained at the controls in the CM.

  16. Apollo 9 Mission image - Lunar Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-03-07

    AS09-21-3197 (7 March 1969) --- A view of the Apollo 9 Lunar Module (LM) "Spider" in a lunar landing configuration, as photographed from the Command and Service Modules (CSM) on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 Earth-orbital mission. The landing gear on the "Spider" has been deployed. Lunar surface probes (sensors) extend out from the landing gear foot pads. Inside the "Spider" were astronauts James A. McDivitt, Apollo 9 commander; and Russell L. Schweickart, lunar module pilot. Astronaut David R. Scott, command module pilot, remained at the controls in the Command Module (CM), "Gumdrop," while the other two astronauts checked out the LM. Schweickart, lunar module pilot, is photographed from the CM "Gumdrop" during his extravehicular activity (EVA) on the fourth day of the Apollo 9 Earth-orbital mission. The CSM is docked with the LM. Astronaut James A. McDivitt, Apollo 9 commander, was inside the LM "Spider." Astronaut David R. Scott, command module pilot, remained at the controls in the CM.

  17. JEM Experiment Logistics Module Pressurized Section

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-02

    The JEM Experiment Logistics Module Pressurized Section is lifted from its shipping crate in the Space Station Processing Facility. The module will be moved to a scale for weight and center-of-gravity measurements and then to a work stand. The logistics module is one of the components of the Japanese Experiment Module or JEM, also known as Kibo, which means "hope" in Japanese. Kibo comprises six components: two research facilities -- the Pressurized Module and Exposed Facility; a Logistics Module attached to each of them; a Remote Manipulator System; and an Inter-Orbit Communication System unit. Kibo also has a scientific airlock through which experiments are transferred and exposed to the external environment of space. Kibo is Japan's first human space facility and its primary contribution to the station. Kibo will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment in which astronauts can conduct science experiments. The various components of JEM will be assembled in space over the course of three Space Shuttle missions. The first of those three missions, STS-123, will carry the Experiment Logistics Module Pressurized Section aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, targeted for launch in 2007.

  18. JEM Experiment Logistics Module Pressurized Section

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-02

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, an overhead crane lifts the JEM Experiment Logistics Module Pressurized Section from its shipping container and moves it toward a scale for weight and center-of-gravity measurements. The module will then be moved to a work stand. The logistics module is one of the components of the Japanese Experiment Module or JEM, also known as Kibo, which means "hope" in Japanese. Kibo comprises six components: two research facilities -- the Pressurized Module and Exposed Facility; a Logistics Module attached to each of them; a Remote Manipulator System; and an Inter-Orbit Communication System unit. Kibo also has a scientific airlock through which experiments are transferred and exposed to the external environment of space. Kibo is Japan's first human space facility and its primary contribution to the station. Kibo will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment in which astronauts can conduct science experiments. The various components of JEM will be assembled in space over the course of three Space Shuttle missions. The first of those three missions, STS-123, will carry the Experiment Logistics Module Pressurized Section aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, targeted for launch in 2007.

  19. JEM Experiment Logistics Module Pressurized Section

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-02

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, the JEM Experiment Logistics Module Pressurized Section is lowered onto a scale for weight and center-of-gravity measurements. The module will then be moved to a work stand. The logistics module is one of the components of the Japanese Experiment Module or JEM, also known as Kibo, which means "hope" in Japanese. Kibo comprises six components: two research facilities -- the Pressurized Module and Exposed Facility; a Logistics Module attached to each of them; a Remote Manipulator System; and an Inter-Orbit Communication System unit. Kibo also has a scientific airlock through which experiments are transferred and exposed to the external environment of space. Kibo is Japan's first human space facility and its primary contribution to the station. Kibo will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment in which astronauts can conduct science experiments. The various components of JEM will be assembled in space over the course of three Space Shuttle missions. The first of those three missions, STS-123, will carry the Experiment Logistics Module Pressurized Section aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, targeted for launch in 2007.

  20. Temporal modulations in speech and music.

    PubMed

    Ding, Nai; Patel, Aniruddh D; Chen, Lin; Butler, Henry; Luo, Cheng; Poeppel, David

    2017-10-01

    Speech and music have structured rhythms. Here we discuss a major acoustic correlate of spoken and musical rhythms, the slow (0.25-32Hz) temporal modulations in sound intensity and compare the modulation properties of speech and music. We analyze these modulations using over 25h of speech and over 39h of recordings of Western music. We show that the speech modulation spectrum is highly consistent across 9 languages (including languages with typologically different rhythmic characteristics). A different, but similarly consistent modulation spectrum is observed for music, including classical music played by single instruments of different types, symphonic, jazz, and rock. The temporal modulations of speech and music show broad but well-separated peaks around 5 and 2Hz, respectively. These acoustically dominant time scales may be intrinsic features of speech and music, a possibility which should be investigated using more culturally diverse samples in each domain. Distinct modulation timescales for speech and music could facilitate their perceptual analysis and its neural processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. JEM Experiment Logistics Module Pressurized Section

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-02

    An overhead crane moves the JEM Experiment Logistics Module Pressurized Section above the floor of the Space Station Processing Facility to a scale for weight and center-of-gravity measurements. The module will then be moved to a work stand. The logistics module is one of the components of the Japanese Experiment Module or JEM, also known as Kibo, which means "hope" in Japanese. Kibo comprises six components: two research facilities -- the Pressurized Module and Exposed Facility; a Logistics Module attached to each of them; a Remote Manipulator System; and an Inter-Orbit Communication System unit. Kibo also has a scientific airlock through which experiments are transferred and exposed to the external environment of space. Kibo is Japan's first human space facility and its primary contribution to the station. Kibo will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment in which astronauts can conduct science experiments. The various components of JEM will be assembled in space over the course of three Space Shuttle missions. The first of those three missions, STS-123, will carry the Experiment Logistics Module Pressurized Section aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, targeted for launch in 2007.

  2. JEM Experiment Logistics Module Pressurized Section

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-02

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, an overhead crane moves the JEM Experiment Logistics Module Pressurized Section toward a scale (at left) for weight and center-of-gravity measurements. The module will then be moved to a work stand. The logistics module is one of the components of the Japanese Experiment Module or JEM, also known as Kibo, which means "hope" in Japanese. Kibo comprises six components: two research facilities -- the Pressurized Module and Exposed Facility; a Logistics Module attached to each of them; a Remote Manipulator System; and an Inter-Orbit Communication System unit. Kibo also has a scientific airlock through which experiments are transferred and exposed to the external environment of space. Kibo is Japan's first human space facility and its primary contribution to the station. Kibo will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment in which astronauts can conduct science experiments. The various components of JEM will be assembled in space over the course of three Space Shuttle missions. The first of those three missions, STS-123, will carry the Experiment Logistics Module Pressurized Section aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, targeted for launch in 2007.

  3. Polarimetric Imaging using Two Photoelastic Modulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yu; Cunningham, Thomas; Diner, David; Davis, Edgar; Sun, Chao; Hancock, Bruce; Gutt, Gary; Zan, Jason; Raouf, Nasrat

    2009-01-01

    A method of polarimetric imaging, now undergoing development, involves the use of two photoelastic modulators in series, driven at equal amplitude but at different frequencies. The net effect on a beam of light is to cause (1) the direction of its polarization to rotate at the average of two excitation frequencies and (2) the amplitude of its polarization to be modulated at the beat frequency (the difference between the two excitation frequencies). The resulting modulated optical light beam is made to pass through a polarizing filter and is detected at the beat frequency, which can be chosen to equal the frame rate of an electronic camera or the rate of sampling the outputs of photodetectors in an array. The method was conceived to satisfy a need to perform highly accurate polarimetric imaging, without cross-talk between polarization channels, at frame rates of the order of tens of hertz. The use of electro-optical modulators is necessitated by a need to obtain accuracy greater than that attainable by use of static polarizing filters over separate fixed detectors. For imaging, photoelastic modulators are preferable to such other electrio-optical modulators as Kerr cells and Pockels cells in that photoelastic modulators operate at lower voltages, have greater angular acceptances, and are easier to use. Prior to the conception of the present method, polarimetric imaging at frame rates of tens of hertz using photoelastic modulators was not possible because the resonance frequencies of photoelastic modulators usually lie in the range from about 20 to about 100 kHz.

  4. Is My Network Module Preserved and Reproducible?

    PubMed Central

    Langfelder, Peter; Luo, Rui; Oldham, Michael C.; Horvath, Steve

    2011-01-01

    In many applications, one is interested in determining which of the properties of a network module change across conditions. For example, to validate the existence of a module, it is desirable to show that it is reproducible (or preserved) in an independent test network. Here we study several types of network preservation statistics that do not require a module assignment in the test network. We distinguish network preservation statistics by the type of the underlying network. Some preservation statistics are defined for a general network (defined by an adjacency matrix) while others are only defined for a correlation network (constructed on the basis of pairwise correlations between numeric variables). Our applications show that the correlation structure facilitates the definition of particularly powerful module preservation statistics. We illustrate that evaluating module preservation is in general different from evaluating cluster preservation. We find that it is advantageous to aggregate multiple preservation statistics into summary preservation statistics. We illustrate the use of these methods in six gene co-expression network applications including 1) preservation of cholesterol biosynthesis pathway in mouse tissues, 2) comparison of human and chimpanzee brain networks, 3) preservation of selected KEGG pathways between human and chimpanzee brain networks, 4) sex differences in human cortical networks, 5) sex differences in mouse liver networks. While we find no evidence for sex specific modules in human cortical networks, we find that several human cortical modules are less preserved in chimpanzees. In particular, apoptosis genes are differentially co-expressed between humans and chimpanzees. Our simulation studies and applications show that module preservation statistics are useful for studying differences between the modular structure of networks. Data, R software and accompanying tutorials can be downloaded from the following webpage: http://www.genetics.ucla.edu/labs/horvath/CoexpressionNetwork/Module

  5. Astronaut John Young in Command Module Simulator during Apollo Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, command module pilot, inside the Command Module Simulator in bldg 5 during an Apollo Simulation. Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, commander and Eugene A. Cernan, lunar module pilot are out of the view.

  6. Three astronauts inside Command Module Simulator during Apollo Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Three astronauts inside the Command Module Simulator in bldg 5 during an Apollo Simulation. Left to right are Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, commander; John W. Young, command module pilot; and Eugene A. Cernan, lunar module pilot.

  7. Electro-optic modulator with ultra-low residual amplitude modulation for frequency modulation and laser stabilization.

    PubMed

    Tai, Zhaoyang; Yan, Lulu; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Xiaofei; Guo, Wenge; Zhang, Shougang; Jiang, Haifeng

    2016-12-01

    The reduction of the residual amplitude modulation (RAM) induced by electro-optic modulation is essential for many applications of frequency modulation spectroscopy requiring a lower system noise floor. Here, we demonstrate a simple passive approach employing an electro-optic modulator (EOM) cut at Brewster's angle. The proposed EOM exhibits a RAM of a few parts per million, which is comparable with that achieved by a common EOM under critical active temperature and bias voltage controls. The frequency instability of a 10 cm cavity-stabilized laser induced by the RAM effect of the proposed EOM is below 3×10-17 for integration times from 1 to 1000 s, and below 4×10-16 for comprehensive noise contributions for integration times from 1 to 100 s.

  8. Convolutional coding combined with continuous phase modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizzi, S. V.; Wilson, S. G.

    1985-01-01

    Background theory and specific coding designs for combined coding/modulation schemes utilizing convolutional codes and continuous-phase modulation (CPM) are presented. In this paper the case of r = 1/2 coding onto a 4-ary CPM is emphasized, with short-constraint length codes presented for continuous-phase FSK, double-raised-cosine, and triple-raised-cosine modulation. Coding buys several decibels of coding gain over the Gaussian channel, with an attendant increase of bandwidth. Performance comparisons in the power-bandwidth tradeoff with other approaches are made.

  9. Coherent optical modulation for antenna remoting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzmartin, D. J.; Gels, R. G.; Balboni, E. J.

    1991-01-01

    A coherent fiber optic link employing wideband frequency modulation (FM) of the optical carrier is used to transfer radio frequency (RF) or microwave signals. This system is used to link a remotely located antenna to a conveniently located electronics processing site. The advantages of coherent analog fiber optic systems over non-coherent intensity modulated fiber optic analog transmission systems are described. An optical FM link employing an indirect transmitter to frequency modulate the optical carrier and a microwave delay line discriminator receiver is described. Measured performance data for a video signal centered at 60 MHz is presented showing the use of wideband FM in the link.

  10. Space station group activities habitability module study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, David

    1986-01-01

    This study explores and analyzes architectural design approaches for the interior of the Space Station Habitability Module (originally defined as Habitability Module 1 in Space Station Reference Configuration Decription, JSC-19989, August 1984). In the Research Phase, architectural program and habitability design guidelines are specified. In the Schematic Design Phase, a range of alternative concepts is described and illustrated with drawings, scale-model photographs and design analysis evaluations. Recommendations are presented on the internal architectural, configuration of the Space Station Habitability Module for such functions as the wardroom, galley, exercise facility, library and station control work station. The models show full design configurations for on-orbit performance.

  11. Microscale autonomous sensor and communications module

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N

    2014-03-25

    Various technologies pertaining to a microscale autonomous sensor and communications module are described herein. Such a module includes a sensor that generates a sensor signal that is indicative of an environmental parameter. An integrated circuit receives the sensor signal and generates an output signal based at least in part upon the sensor signal. An optical emitter receives the output signal and generates an optical signal as a function of the output signal. An energy storage device is configured to provide power to at least the integrated circuit and the optical emitter, and wherein the module has a relatively small diameter and thickness.

  12. Environmental testing of CIS based modules

    SciTech Connect

    Willett, D.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes environmental testing of Siemen`s CIS modules. Charts and diagrams are presented on data concerning: temporary power loss of laminated mini-modules; the 50 thermal cycle test; the 10 humidity freeze cycle test; results after 1000 hours of exposure to damp heat; and interconnect test structures in damp heat testing. It is concluded that moisture ingress causes permanent increases in the series resistance of modules, and that improved packaging is needed for better high humidity reliability. Also, dry dark heat caused temporary power losses which were recovered in sunlight.

  13. Infrared-Proximity-Sensor Modules For Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parton, William; Wegerif, Daniel; Rosinski, Douglas

    1995-01-01

    Collision-avoidance system for articulated robot manipulators uses infrared proximity sensors grouped together in array of sensor modules. Sensor modules, called "sensorCells," distributed processing board-level products for acquiring data from proximity-sensors strategically mounted on robot manipulators. Each sensorCell self-contained and consists of multiple sensing elements, discrete electronics, microcontroller and communications components. Modules connected to central control computer by redundant serial digital communication subsystem including both serial and a multi-drop bus. Detects objects made of various materials at distance of up to 50 cm. For some materials, such as thermal protection system tiles, detection range reduced to approximately 20 cm.

  14. The 5000 GPM firefighting module evaluation test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Ralph A.

    1986-01-01

    The 5000 GPM Firefighting Module development was sponsored and shared by the Navy Facilities Engineering Command. It is a lightweight, compact, self-contained, helicopter-transportable unit for fighting harbor and other specialty fires as well as for use in emergency and shipboard water pumping applications. This unit is a more advanced model of the original 1500 GPM module developed for the U.S. Coast Guard. The module and an evaluation test program conducted at the North Island Naval Air Station, San Diego, California, by NASA and the U.S. Navy, are described.

  15. Development of Land Analysis System display modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Douglas; Hollaren, Douglas; Huewe, Laurie

    1986-01-01

    The Land Analysis System (LAS) display modules were developed to allow a user to interactively display, manipulate, and store image and image related data. To help accomplish this task, these modules utilize the Transportable Applications Executive and the Display Management System software to interact with the user and the display device. The basic characteristics of a display are outlined and some of the major modifications and additions made to the display management software are discussed. Finally, all available LAS display modules are listed along with a short description of each.

  16. Module Hipot and ground continuity test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Hipot (high voltage potential) and module frame continuity tests of solar energy conversion modules intended for deployment into large arrays are discussed. The purpose of the tests is to reveal potentially hazardous voltage conditions in installed modules, and leakage currents that may result in loss of power or cause ground fault system problems, i.e., current leakage potential and leakage voltage distribution. The tests show a combined failure rate of 36% (69% when environmental testing is included). These failure rates are believed easily corrected by greater care in fabrication.

  17. Field failure mechanisms for photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumas, L. N.; Shumka, A.

    1981-01-01

    Beginning in 1976, Department of Energy field centers have installed and monitored a number of field tests and application experiments using current state-of-the-art photovoltaic modules. On-site observations of module physical and electrical degradation, together with in-depth laboratory analysis of failed modules, permits an overall assessment of the nature and causes of early field failures. Data on failure rates are presented, and key failure mechanisms are analyzed with respect to origin, effect, and prospects for correction. It is concluded that all failure modes identified to date are avoidable or controllable through sound design and production practices.

  18. Demonstration of transparent solar array module design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pack, G. J.

    1984-01-01

    This report discusses the design, development, fabrication and testing of IR transparent solar array modules. Three modules, consisting of a baseline design using back surface reflector cells, and two modules using gridded back contact, IR transparent cells, were subjected to vacuum thermal balance testing to verify analytical predictions of lower operating emperature and increased efficiency. As a result of this test program, LMSC has verified that a significant degree of IR transparency can be designed into a flexible solar array. Test data correlates with both steady state and transient thermal analysis.

  19. Module theoretic zero structures for system matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyman, Bostwick F.; Sain, Michael K.

    1987-01-01

    The coordinate-free module-theoretic treatment of transmission zeros for MIMO transfer functions developed by Wyman and Sain (1981) is generalized to include noncontrollable and nonobservable linear dynamical systems. Rational, finitely-generated-modular, and torsion-divisible interpretations of the Rosenbrock system matrix are presented; Gamma-zero and Omega-zero modules are defined and shown to contain the output-decoupling and input-decoupling zero modules, respectively, as submodules; and the cases of left and right invertible transfer functions are considered.

  20. Skew chicane based betatron eigenmode exchange module

    DOEpatents

    Douglas, David

    2010-12-28

    A skewed chicane eigenmode exchange module (SCEEM) that combines in a single beamline segment the separate functionalities of a skew quad eigenmode exchange module and a magnetic chicane. This module allows the exchange of independent betatron eigenmodes, alters electron beam orbit geometry, and provides longitudinal parameter control with dispersion management in a single beamline segment with stable betatron behavior. It thus reduces the spatial requirements for multiple beam dynamic functions, reduces required component counts and thus reduces costs, and allows the use of more compact accelerator configurations than prior art design methods.

  1. Integrating Software Modules For Robot Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volpe, Richard A.; Khosla, Pradeep; Stewart, David B.

    1993-01-01

    Reconfigurable, sensor-based control system uses state variables in systematic integration of reusable control modules. Designed for open-architecture hardware including many general-purpose microprocessors, each having own local memory plus access to global shared memory. Implemented in software as extension of Chimera II real-time operating system. Provides transparent computing mechanism for intertask communication between control modules and generic process-module architecture for multiprocessor realtime computation. Used to control robot arm. Proves useful in variety of other control and robotic applications.

  2. Phase-Change Heat-Storage Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulligan, James C.

    1989-01-01

    Heat-storage module accommodates momentary heating or cooling overload in pumped-liquid heat-transfer system. Large heat-storage capacity of module provided by heat of fusion of material that freezes at or near temperature desired to maintain object to be heated or cooled. Module involves relatively small penalties in weight, cost, and size and more than compensates by enabling design of rest of system to handle only average load. Latent heat of fusion of phase-change material provides large heat-storage capacity in small volume.

  3. Stacked vapor fed amtec modules

    DOEpatents

    Sievers, Robert K.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention pertains to a stacked AMTEC module. The invention includes a tubular member which has an interior. The member is comprised of a ion conductor that substantially conducts ions relative to electrons, preferably a beta"-alumina solid electrolyte, positioned about the interior. A porous electrode for conducting electrons and allowing sodium ions to pass therethrough, and wherein electrons and sodium ions recombine to form sodium is positioned about the beta"-alumina solid electrolyte. The electrode is operated at a temperature and a pressure that allows the recombined sodium to vaporize. Additionally, an outer current collector grid for distributing electrons throughout the porous electrode is positioned about and contacts the porous electrode. Also included in the invention is transporting means for transporting liquid sodium to the beta"-alumina solid electrolyte of the tubular member. A transition piece is positioned about the interior of the member and contacts the transporting means. The transition piece divides the member into a first cell and a second cell such that each first and second cell has a beta"-alumina solid electrolyte, a first and second porous electrode and a grid. The transition piece conducts electrons from the interior of the tubular member. There is supply means for supplying sodium to the transporting means. Preferably the supply means is a shell which surrounds the tubular member and is operated at a temperature such that the vaporized sodium condenses thereon. Returning means for returning the condensed sodium from the shell to the transporting means provides a continuous supply of liquid sodium to the transporting means. Also, there are first conducting means for conducting electric current from the transition piece which extends through the shell, and second conducting means for conducting electric current to the grid of the first cell which extends through the shell.

  4. Monetary rewards modulate inhibitory control

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Paula M.; Speranza, Mario; Hampshire, Adam; Bekinschtein, Tristán A.

    2014-01-01

    protocol. These results demonstrate a dynamical behavioral inhibition capacity in humans, as illustrated by the reward magnitude modulation and initial reward history effects. PMID:24860469

  5. Macromolecular Crowding Modulates Actomyosin Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jinghua; Bouriyaphone, Sherry D; Serebrennikova, Tamara A; Astashkin, Andrei V; Nesmelov, Yuri E

    2016-07-12

    Actomyosin kinetics is usually studied in dilute solutions, which do not reflect conditions in the cytoplasm. In cells, myosin and actin work in a dense macromolecular environment. High concentrations of macromolecules dramatically reduce the amount of free space available for all solutes, which results in an effective increase of the solutes' chemical potential and protein stabilization. Moreover, in a crowded solution, the chemical potential depends on the size of the solute, with larger molecules experiencing a larger excluded volume than smaller ones. Therefore, since myosin interacts with two ligands of different sizes (actin and ATP), macromolecular crowding can modulate the kinetics of individual steps of the actomyosin ATPase cycle. To emulate the effect of crowding in cells, we studied actomyosin cycle reactions in the presence of a high-molecular-weight polymer, Ficoll70. We observed an increase in the maximum velocity of the actomyosin ATPase cycle, and our transient-kinetics experiments showed that virtually all individual steps of the actomyosin cycle were affected by the addition of Ficoll70. The observed effects of macromolecular crowding on the myosin-ligand interaction cannot be explained by the increase of a solute's chemical potential. A time-resolved Förster resonance energy transfer experiment confirmed that the myosin head assumes a more compact conformation in the presence of Ficoll70 than in a dilute solution. We conclude that the crowding-induced myosin conformational change plays a major role in the changed kinetics of actomyosin ATPase. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A note on elongations of summable QTAG-modules.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Alveera; Sikander, Fahad; Naji, Sabah A R K

    2013-01-01

    A right module M over an associative ring with unity is a QTAG-module if every finitely generated submodule of any homomorphic image of M is a direct sum of uniserial modules. In this paper we find a suitable condition under which a special ω-elongation of a summable QTAG-module by a ( ω +k)-projective QTAG-module is also a summable QTAG-module.

  7. A Note on Elongations of Summable QTAG-Modules

    PubMed Central

    Mehdi, Alveera; Naji, Sabah A. R. K.

    2013-01-01

    A right module M over an associative ring with unity is a QTAG-module if every finitely generated submodule of any homomorphic image of M is a direct sum of uniserial modules. In this paper we find a suitable condition under which a special ω-elongation of a summable QTAG-module by a (ω+k)-projective QTAG-module is also a summable QTAG-module. PMID:24459429

  8. Characterization of a low concentrator photovoltaics module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, B. A.; van Dyk, E. E.; Vorster, F. J.; Okullo, W.; Munji, M. K.; Booysen, P.

    2012-05-01

    Low concentration photovoltaic (LCPV) systems have the potential to reduce the cost per kWh of electricity compared to conventional flat-plate photovoltaics (PV) by up to 50%. The cost-savings are realised by replacing expensive PV cells with relatively cheaper optical components to concentrate incident solar irradiance onto a receiver and by tracking the sun along either 1 axis or 2 axes. A LCPV module consists of three interrelated subsystems, viz., the optical, electrical and the thermal subsystems, which must be considered for optimal module design and performance. Successful integration of these subsystems requires the balancing of cost, performance and reliability. In this study LCPV experimental prototype modules were designed, built and evaluated with respect to optimisation of the three subsystems and overall performance. This paper reports on the optical and electrical evaluation of a prototype LCPV module.

  9. Parmitano with checklist in Service module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-08

    ISS037-E-028305 (8 Nov. 2013) --- European Space Agency astronaut Luca Parmitano, Expedition 37 flight engineer, reads a procedures checklist in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station.

  10. Solar powered hybrid sensor module program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. M.; Holmes, H. K.

    1985-01-01

    Geo-orbital systems of the near future will require more sophisticated electronic and electromechanical monitoring and control systems than current satellite systems with an emphasis in the design on the electronic density and autonomy of the subsystem components. Results of a project to develop, design, and implement a proof-of-concept sensor system for space applications, with hybrids forming the active subsystem components are described. The design of the solar power hybrid sensor modules is discussed. Module construction and function are described. These modules combined low power CMOS electronics, GaAs solar cells, a crystal oscillatory standard UART data formatting, and a bidirectional optical data link into a single 1.25 x 1.25 x 0.25 inch hybrid package which has no need for electrical input or output. Several modules were built and tested. Applications of such a system for future space missions are also discussed.

  11. Usachev tests Vozdukh in Service module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-05-11

    ISS002-E-6111 (11 May 2001) --- Yury V. Usachev of Rosaviakosmos, Expedition Two mission commander, tests the Vozdukh Air Purification System in the Zvezda Service Module. The image was taken with a digital still camera.

  12. Magnus Food Prep in Service Module (SM)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-01-07

    ISS018-E-018423 (7 Jan. 2009) --- Astronaut Sandra Magnus, Expedition 18 flight engineer, poses for a photo while holding food pouches near the galley in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station.

  13. Photovoltaic module with removable wind deflector

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan [El Cerrito, CA; Graves, Simon [Berkeley, CA; Danning, Matt [Oakland, CA; Culligan, Matthew [Berkeley, CA

    2012-08-07

    A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module, a deflector, and a clip. The PV module includes a PV device and a frame. A PV laminate is assembled to the frame, and the frame includes a support arm forming a seat. The deflector defines a front face and a rear face, with the clip extending from either the trailing frame member or the rear face of the deflector. In a mounted state, the deflector is nested within the seat and is releasably mounted to the trailing frame member via the clip. In some embodiments, the support arm forms a second seat, with the PV module assembly providing a second mounted state in which the deflector is in a differing orientation/slope, nested within the second seat and releasably mounted to the trailing frame member via the clip.

  14. Photovoltaic module with removable wind deflector

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Danning, Matt; Culligan, Matthew

    2014-02-18

    A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module, a deflector, and a clip. The PV module includes a PV device and a frame. A PV laminate is assembled to the frame, and the frame includes a support arm forming a seat. The deflector defines a front face and a rear face, with the clip extending from either the trailing frame member or the rear face of the deflector. In a mounted state, the deflector is nested within the seat and is releasably mounted to the trailing frame member via the clip. In some embodiments, the support arm forms a second seat, with the PV module assembly providing a second mounted state in which the deflector is in a differing orientation/slope, nested within the second seat and releasably mounted to the trailing frame member via the clip.

  15. Historical Analysis of Champion Photovoltaic Module Efficiencies

    DOE PAGES

    Kurtz, Sarah; Repins, Ingrid; Metzger, Wyatt K.; ...

    2018-02-14

    Champion photovoltaic (PV) cell and module efficiencies have been reported in Progress in PV since 1993. Following the evolution of these efficiencies enables researchers to track the progress of various technologies. National Renewable Energy Laboratory has maintained a historical chart of the champion cell efficiencies, but has not published a similar chart of champion module efficiencies. Here, we analyze champion module efficiencies and compare them to champion cell efficiencies to better understand technology trends over the last three decades, highlighting that, in some cases, module efficiencies exceed 90% of cell efficiencies. Recommendations are provided on how to change the datamore » collection and reporting for champion efficiencies to increase the value of these records.« less

  16. Histaminergic Mechanisms for Modulation of Memory Systems

    PubMed Central

    Köhler, Cristiano André; da Silva, Weber Cláudio; Benetti, Fernando; Bonini, Juliana Sartori

    2011-01-01

    Encoding for several memory types requires neural changes and the activity of distinct regions across the brain. These areas receive broad projections originating in nuclei located in the brainstem which are capable of modulating the activity of a particular area. The histaminergic system is one of the major modulatory systems, and it regulates basic homeostatic and higher functions including arousal, circadian, and feeding rhythms, and cognition. There is now evidence that histamine can modulate learning in different types of behavioral tasks, but the exact course of modulation and its mechanisms are controversial. In the present paper we review the involvement of the histaminergic system and the effects histaminergic receptor agonists/antagonists have on the performance of tasks associated with the main memory types as well as evidence provided by studies with knockout models. Thus, we aim to summarize the possible effects histamine has on modulation of circuits involved in memory formation. PMID:21876818

  17. Usachev takes notes in Service Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-03-26

    ISS002-E-5773 (28 March 2001) --- Yury V. Usachev of Rosaviakosmos, Expedtion Two mission commander, scribbles down some notes at the computer workstation in the Zvezda Service Module. The image was taken with a digital still camera.

  18. Diffusion modulation of DNA by toehold exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodjanapanyakul, Thanapop; Takabatake, Fumi; Abe, Keita; Kawamata, Ibuki; Nomura, Shinichiro M.; Murata, Satoshi

    2018-05-01

    We propose a method to control the diffusion speed of DNA molecules with a target sequence in a polymer solution. The interaction between solute DNA and diffusion-suppressing DNA that has been anchored to a polymer matrix is modulated by the concentration of the third DNA molecule called the competitor by a mechanism called toehold exchange. Experimental results show that the sequence-specific modulation of the diffusion coefficient is successfully achieved. The diffusion coefficient can be modulated up to sixfold by changing the concentration of the competitor. The specificity of the modulation is also verified under the coexistence of a set of DNA with noninteracting base sequences. With this mechanism, we are able to control the diffusion coefficient of individual DNA species by the concentration of another DNA species. This methodology introduces a programmability to a DNA-based reaction-diffusion system.

  19. Scannerless laser range imaging using loss modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Sandusky, John V

    2011-08-09

    A scannerless 3-D imaging apparatus is disclosed which utilizes an amplitude modulated cw light source to illuminate a field of view containing a target of interest. Backscattered light from the target is passed through one or more loss modulators which are modulated at the same frequency as the light source, but with a phase delay .delta. which can be fixed or variable. The backscattered light is demodulated by the loss modulator and detected with a CCD, CMOS or focal plane array (FPA) detector to construct a 3-D image of the target. The scannerless 3-D imaging apparatus, which can operate inmore » the eye-safe wavelength region 1.4-1.7 .mu.m and which can be constructed as a flash LADAR, has applications for vehicle collision avoidance, autonomous rendezvous and docking, robotic vision, industrial inspection and measurement, 3-D cameras, and facial recognition.« less

  20. Automatic Layout Design for Power Module

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, Puqi; Wang, Fei; Ngo, Khai

    The layout of power modules is one of the most important elements in power module design, especially for high power densities, where couplings are increased. In this paper, an automatic design process using a genetic algorithm is presented. Some practical considerations are introduced in the optimization of the layout design of the module. This paper presents a process for automatic layout design for high power density modules. Detailed GA implementations are introduced both for outer loop and inner loop. As verified by a design example, the results of the automatic design process presented here are better than those from manualmore » design and also better than the results from a popular design software. This automatic design procedure could be a major step toward improving the overall performance of future layout design.« less