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Sample records for kaik jaanus lass

  1. The LASS (Larger Aperture Superconducting Solenoid) spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Aston, D.; Awaji, N.; Barnett, B.; Bienz, T.; Bierce, R.; Bird, F.; Bird, L.; Blockus, D.; Carnegie, R.K.; Chien, C.Y.

    1986-04-01

    LASS is the acronym for the Large Aperture Superconducting Solenoid spectrometer which is located in an rf-separated hadron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This spectrometer was constructed in order to perform high statistics studies of multiparticle final states produced in hadron reactions. Such reactions are frequently characterized by events having complicated topologies and/or relatively high particle multiplicity. Their detailed study requires a spectrometer which can provide good resolution in momentum and position over almost the entire solid angle subtended by the production point. In addition, good final state particle identification must be available so that separation of the many kinematically-overlapping final states can be achieved. Precise analyses of the individual reaction channels require high statistics, so that the spectrometer must be capable of high data-taking rates in order that such samples can be acquired in a reasonable running time. Finally, the spectrometer must be complemented by a sophisticated off-line analysis package which efficiently finds tracks, recognizes and fits event topologies and correctly associates the available particle identification information. This, together with complicated programs which perform specific analysis tasks such as partial wave analysis, requires a great deal of software effort allied to a very large computing capacity. This paper describes the construction and performance of the LASS spectrometer, which is an attempt to realize the features just discussed. The configuration of the spectrometer corresponds to the data-taking on K and K interactions in hydrogen at 11 GeV/c which took place in 1981 and 1982. This constitutes a major upgrade of the configuration used to acquire lower statistics data on 11 GeV/c K p interactions during 1977 and 1978, which is also described briefly.

  2. LASS5 Interacts with SDHB and Synergistically Represses p53 and p21 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Z.; Li, F.; Wan, Y.; Han, Z.; Yuan, W.; Cao, L.; Deng, Y.; Peng, X.; Chen, F.; Fan, X.; Liu, X.; Dai, G.; Wang, Y.; Zeng, Q.; Shi, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Chen, Y.; Xu, W.; Luo, S.; Chen, S.; Ye, X.; Mo, X.; Wu, X.; Li, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Longevity Assurance 5 (LASS5), a member of the LASS/Ceramide Synthases family, synthesizes C16-ceramide and is implicated in tumor biology. However, its precise role is not yet well understood. A yeast two-hybrid screen was performed using a human cDNA library to identify potential LASS5-interaction partners. One identified clone encodes succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB). Mammalian two-hybrid assays showed that LASS5 interacts with SDHB, and the result was also confirmed by GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays. The C-terminal fragment of SDHB was required for the interaction. LASS5 and SDHB were co-localized in COS-7 cells. LASS5 and SDHB expressions were found to be up-regulated in neuroglioma tissue. Transfection assays showed that LASS5 or SDHB expression repressed p53 or p21 reporter activity, respectively. Simultaneous LASS5 and SDHB expression resulted in stronger repression of p53 and p21 reporter activity, suggesting that LASS5 and SDHB interaction may synergistically affect transcriptional regulation of p53 and p21. Our data provide new molecular insights into potential roles of LASS5 and SDHB in tumor biology. PMID:27280497

  3. LASS2 inhibits growth and invasion of bladder cancer by regulating ATPase activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haifeng; Zuo, Yigang; Ding, Mingxia; Ke, Changxing; Yan, Ruping; Zhan, Hui; Liu, Jingyu; Wang, Wei; Li, Ning; Wang, Jiansong

    2017-01-01

    Homo sapiens longevity assurance homolog 2 of yeast LAG1 (LASS2) is a novel suppressor of human cancer metastasis, and downregulation of LASS2 has been associated with a poor prognosis in patients with bladder cancer (BC). However, the molecular mechanism underlying LASS2-mediated inhibition of tumor invasion and metastasis in BC remains unclear. LASS2 has been reported to directly bind to subunit C of vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) in various types of cancer, suggesting that LASS2 may inhibit cancer invasion and metastasis by regulating the function of V-ATPase. The present study investigated the effect of LASS2-specific small interfering (si)RNA on the invasion and metastasis of the RT4 human BC cell line, which has a low metastatic potential, and its functional interaction with V-ATPase. Silencing of LASS2 in RT4 cells was able to increase V-ATPase activity, the extracellular hydrogen ion concentration and, in turn, the activation of secreted matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, which occurred simultaneously with enhanced cell proliferation, cell survival and cell invasion in vitro, as well as acceleration of BC growth in vivo. In this process, it was found that siRNA-LASS2 treatment was able to suppress cell apoptosis induced by doxorubicin. These findings suggest that silencing of LASS2 may enhance the growth, invasion and metastasis of BC by regulating ATPase activity.

  4. The longevity assurance homologue of yeast lag1 (Lass) gene family (review).

    PubMed

    Teufel, Andreas; Maass, Thorsten; Galle, Peter R; Malik, Nasir

    2009-02-01

    The Lass gene family contains a group of highly conserved genes that are found in eukaryotic species. The founding member, lag1, was discovered in a screen for yeast longevity genes. Subsequently, lag1 homologs were discovered in other organisms including six mammalian paralogs. All Lass genes encode a highly conserved Lag1 domain and many also have an additional Hox domain. Lass proteins are ceramide synthases and therefore are critical for ceramide biosynthesis. Ceramide synthase is also a critical enzyme in the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway. As ceramide and sphingolipids are key intermediates in diverse cellular processes such as cell growth, apoptosis, and stress response and may also play a role in cancer development, the function of Lass proteins is of great interest. In this review, we summarize the state of knowledge regarding Lass protein structure, biological function, and their emerging role in cancer development.

  5. Laparoscopic Assisted Surgical Staging (LASS) for Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed

    Vidal; Garza-Leal; Iglesias; Salvidar; Garza

    1994-08-01

    We report the first four cases of LASS for endometrial cancer in Mexico. Four patients diagnosed with endometrial adenocarcinoma were selected. These patients underwent peritoneal washing, vaginally assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and pelvic biopsies. These biopsies included dissection of common iliac vessel, hypogastric and external vessels, and obturator nerve. An average of 10 nodes were obtained (8-11). In all patients both the nodes and the peritoneal washings were negative. The pathologic surgical staging was: three patients with IBG2 and one patient with IAG2. The patients were discharged on the sixth postoperative day, without complications. The follow-up is of 1 to 7 months and all are alive and without tumor activity. Patients with endometrial cancer often have associated obesity, diabetes and hypertension. For this reason the practice of minimally invasive surgery reduces morbidity. However, a full knowledge of anatomy, oncologic gynecology, and operative laparoscopy is imperative.

  6. Co-expression of LASS2 and TGF-β1 predicts poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Haoyu; Wang, Ting; Yang, Chen; Jin, Guangzhi; Gu, Dishui; Deng, Xuan; Wang, Cun; Qin, Wenxin; Jin, Haojie

    2016-01-01

    Longevity assurance homolog 2 of yeast LAG1 (LASS2) has been reported to act as an important tumor suppressor in the development of human cancers. However, little is known about the prognostic value of LASS2 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) . In the present study, we analyzed correlation between LASS2 and TGF-β1 levels, and evaluated their prognostic values in HCC patients. We first analyzed the expression of LASS2 and TGF-β1 in two independent cohorts (test cohort: 184 HCC patients; validation cohort: 118 HCC patients) using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analyses were executed to evaluate the prognosis of HCC. The results of IHC analysis revealed a positive correlation between the expression of LASS2 and TGF-β1. HCC Patients with low expression of LASS2 and TGF-β1 had shorter overall survival (OS) and time to recurrence (TTR) than patients with high expression of LASS2 and TGF-β1. Furthermore, combination of LASS2 and TGF-β1 was an independent and significant risk factor for OS and TTR. In conclusion, low expression of LASS2 and TGF-β1 contributes to the aggressiveness and poor prognosis of HCC, and may represent a novel prognostic biomarker for HCC patients. PMID:27581744

  7. LASS6, an additional member of the longevity assurance gene family.

    PubMed

    Weinmann, Arndt; Galle, Peter R; Teufel, Andreas

    2005-11-01

    Longevity assurance genes (LAGs) represent a subgroup of the homeobox gene family. Five mammalian homologs have been reported, and the corresponding proteins have previously been investigated with respect to their key role in ceramide synthesis. However, members of the LAG family have been shown to be involved in cell growth regulation and cancer differentiation. In an effort to characterize additional members of the LAG family, we have screened the latest releases of genomic databases and report on the bioinformatic characterization of yet another member, LAG1 longevity assurance homolog 6 (LASS6). Like other LAG family members, the LASS6 protein contained a homeodomain and LAG1 domain. In phylogenetic analyses, it displayed highest homology to LASS5. The corresponding gene was localized to human chromosome 2q24.3, spanning a rather large genomic region of 318 kb. Orthologous sequences in mouse and zebrafish suggested a conservation of LASS6 in vertebrates as the protein and corresponding genomic sequences were highly conserved. LASS6 expression was analyzed in silico, and the gene was shown to be broadly expressed in a wide range of tissues. Furthermore, available microarray data suggested a role in cancer differentiation and early embryonic development.

  8. Recent results on K(omega) and (pi)(pi) systems from LASS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aston, D.; Bienz, T.; Bird, F.; Dunwoodie, W.; Johnson, W. B.; Kunz, P.; Kwon, Y.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Levinson, L.; Ratcliff, B. N.

    1991-12-01

    Preliminary results from ongoing analyses of the K(exp minus) omega and the hypercharge exchange produced pi (exp -) pi (exp +) systems are presented. The data described are taken from a 4.1 event/nb exposure of the LASS spectrometer to an 11 GeV/cK(exp -) beam.

  9. Design and performance of the new cathode readout proportional chambers in LASS

    SciTech Connect

    Aiken, G.; Aston, D.; Dunwoodie, W.

    1980-10-01

    The design and construction of a new proportional chamber system for the LASS spectrometer are discussed. This system consists of planar and cylindrical chambers employing anode wire and cathode strip readout techniques. The good timing characteristics of anode readout combine with the excellent spatial resolution of cathode readout to provide powerful and compact detectors. Preliminary resolution data are presented along with operating characteristics of the various devices.

  10. Expression of a tumor-associated gene, LASS2, in the human bladder carcinoma cell lines BIU-87, T24, EJ and EJ-M3

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, QINGHUA; WANG, HAIFENG; YANG, MINGYING; YANG, DELIN; ZUO, YIGANG; WANG, JIANSONG

    2013-01-01

    Homo sapiens longevity assurance homolog 2 of yeast LAG1 (LASS2), a metastasis suppressor gene of human cancer, is the most abundantly expressed member of the ceramide synthase gene family. Expression of LASS2 has been reported in carcinomas of the prostate, liver and breast. However, there has been no report on the expression of LASS2 in human bladder cancer cell lines. In order to investigate the expression and potential role of this new tumor metastasis supressor gene in human bladder cancer, we compared the proliferation, metastasis and invasion among the BIU-87, T24, EJ and EJ-M3 human bladder cancer cell lines. The mRNA expression levels of the LASS2 gene were examined using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The expression levels of LASS1 and LASS3 mRNA were used as references. The protein expression level of the LASS2 gene was detected using western blotting. The most aggressive of these four human cancer cell lines was observed to be EJ-M3. The expression of LASS2 mRNA was significantly correlated with diverse proliferation, metastasis and invasion. The expression levels of LASS1 and LASS3 mRNA were not correlated with these parameters. At the protein level, we observed that the more aggressive the cancer cell line, the lower the LASS2 protein expression level. Therefore, LASS2 expression may be correlated with the development and progression of human bladder cancer and may be a prognostic indicator for this cancer. PMID:23407876

  11. HRAS1 and LASS1 with APOE are associated with human longevity and healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Jazwinski, S Michal; Kim, Sangkyu; Dai, Jianliang; Li, Li; Bi, Xiuhua; Jiang, James C; Arnold, Jonathan; Batzer, Mark A; Walker, Jerilyn A; Welsh, David A; Lefante, Christina M; Volaufova, Julia; Myers, Leann; Su, L Joseph; Hausman, Dorothy B; Miceli, Michael V; Ravussin, Eric; Poon, Leonard W; Cherry, Katie E; Welsch, Michael A

    2010-10-01

    The search for longevity-determining genes in human has largely neglected the operation of genetic interactions. We have identified a novel combination of common variants of three genes that has a marked association with human lifespan and healthy aging. Subjects were recruited and stratified according to their genetically inferred ethnic affiliation to account for population structure. Haplotype analysis was performed in three candidate genes, and the haplotype combinations were tested for association with exceptional longevity. An HRAS1 haplotype enhanced the effect of an APOE haplotype on exceptional survival, and a LASS1 haplotype further augmented its magnitude. These results were replicated in a second population. A profile of healthy aging was developed using a deficit accumulation index, which showed that this combination of gene variants is associated with healthy aging. The variation in LASS1 is functional, causing enhanced expression of the gene, and it contributes to healthy aging and greater survival in the tenth decade of life. Thus, rare gene variants need not be invoked to explain complex traits such as aging; instead rare congruence of common gene variants readily fulfills this role. The interaction between the three genes described here suggests new models for cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying exceptional survival and healthy aging that involve lipotoxicity.

  12. Recent results on S = /minus/3 baryon spectroscopy from the LASS (Large Aperture Superconducting Solenoid) spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Aston, D.; Awaji, N.; Bienz, T.; Bird, F.; D'Amore, J.; Dunwoodie, W.; Endorf, R.; Fujii, K.; Hayashiii, H.; Iwata, S.

    1989-02-01

    Data demonstrating the existence of two ..cap omega../sup */minus// resonances produced in K/sup /minus//p interactions at 11 GeV/c in the LASS spectrometer are presented. The first state is seen in the ..xi../sup */degree//minus// decay channel with mass 2253 +- 13 MeV/c/sup 2/ and width 81 +- 38 MeV/c/sup 2/, and the second in the ..cap omega../sup /minus//..pi../sup +/..pi../sup /minus// system with mass 2474 +- 12 and width 72 +- 33 MeV/c/sup 2/. Inclusive cross sections corresponding to these decays corrected for unseen charge modes are estimated to be respectively 630 +- 180 and 290 +- 90 nb, respectively. 10 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Refurbishment and Testing of the 1970's Era LASS Solenoid Coils for JLab's Hall D

    SciTech Connect

    Anumagalla, Ravi; Biallas, George; Brindza, Paul; Carstens, Thomas; Creel, Jonathan; Egiyan, Hovanes; Martin, Floyd; Qiang, Yi; Spiegel, Scot; Stevens, Mark; Wissmann, Mark; Wolin, Elliott

    2012-07-01

    JLab refurbished the LASS1, 1.85 m bore Solenoid, consisting of four superconducting coils to act as the principal analysis magnet for nuclear physics in the newly constructed, Hall D at Jefferson Lab. The coils, built in 1971 at Stanford Linier Accelerator Center and used a second time at the MEGA Experiment at Los Alamos, had electrical shorts and leaks to the insulating vacuum along with deteriorated superinsulation & instrumentation. Root cause diagnosis of the problems and the repair methods are described along with the measures used to qualify the vessels and piping within the Laboratory's Pressure Safety Program (mandated by 10CFR851). The extraordinary refrigerator operational methods used to utilize the obsolete cryogenic apparatus gathered for the off-line, single coil tests are described.

  14. Refurbishment and testing of the 1970's era LASS solenoid coils for Jlab's Hall D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, Joshua; Biallas, George Herman; Brindza, Paul; Carstens, Thomas; Creel, Jonathan; Egiyan, Hovanes; Martin, Floyd; Qiang, Yi; Spiegel, Scot; Stevens, Mark; Wissmann, Mark; Wolin, Elliott

    2012-06-01

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) refurbished the Large Aperture Solenoid Spectrometer (LASS) [1], 1.85 m bore solenoid, consisting of four superconducting coils to act as the principal analysis magnet for nuclear physics in the newly constructed, Hall D at JLab for the Glue Excitations Experiment (GlueX) [2]. The coils, built in 1971 at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) and used a second time for the Muon decays into Electron and GAmma ray (MEGA) Experiment [3] at Los Alamos, had electrical shorts and leaks to the insulating vacuum along with deteriorated superinsulation and instrumentation. Root cause diagnosis of the problems and the repair methods are described along with the measures used to qualify the vessels and piping within the Laboratory's Pressure Safety Program (mandated by 10CFR851). The extraordinary refrigerator operational methods used to utilize the obsolete cryogenic apparatus gathered for the off-line, single coil tests are described.

  15. Commissioning and Testing the 1970's Era LASS Solenoid Magnet in JLab's Hall D

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, Joshua T.; Biallas, George H.; Brown, G.; Butler, David E.; Carstens, Thomas J.; Chudakov, Eugene A.; Creel, Jonathan D.; Egiyan, Hovanes; Martin, F.; Qiang, Yi; Smith, Elton S.; Stevens, Mark A.; Spiegel, Scot L.; Whitlatch, Timothy E.; Wolin, Elliott J.; Ghoshal, Probir K.

    2015-06-01

    JLab refurbished and reconfigured the LASS1, 1.85m bore Solenoid and installed it as the principal analysis magnet for nuclear physics in the newly constructed, Hall D at Jefferson Lab. The magnet contains four superconducting coils within an iron yoke. The magnet was built in the early1970's at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center and used a second time at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The coils were extensively refurbished and individually tested by JLab. A new Cryogenic Distribution Box provides cryogens and their control valving, current distribution bus, and instrumentation pass-through. A repurposed CTI 2800 refrigerator system and new transfer line complete the system. We describe the re-configuration, the process and problems of re-commissioning the magnet and the results of testing the completed magnet.

  16. Mapping age and trace elements using laser ablation split-stream (LASS) ICPMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kylander-Clark, A. R.; Hacker, B. R.; Cottle, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    One of the biggest challenges in the determination of the timing and rates of metamorphic processes is tying the age of a particular mineral to the conditions (i.e., pressure, temperature, fluid composition) at which that phase grew. Conventional microbeam techniques increase our understanding of crustal evolution by enabling this linkage; e.g., x-ray maps of monazite allow us to pinpoint grain segments that grew under a different set of conditions, cathodoluminescence images of zircon reveal zoning patterns and hence targets for dating different metamorphic and/or igneous events, and rare-earth element (REE) transects across garnet reveal the budget of a variety of trace elements during a metamorphic episode, to name but a few. More recent advances in LA-ICPMS and SIMS have allowed the ability to produce age maps or trace element maps—thus further our understanding of crystallization processes—but not both. Here we employ laser ablation split-stream (LASS) to quantitatively image the age, and trace element signature of datable phases such as zircon, monazite, titanite, and rutile in metamorphic rocks on the micron scale. By mapping the age and TE signature of a metamorphic phase, we can better interpret the metamorphic stage at which all portions of that phase grew, and relate it to other phases/portions of phases within that rock, such as garnet. For example, zircons and monazites from from eclogites reveal complex zoning in REEs indicating growth prior to, during, and post eclogite-facies metamorphism; those zones correspond to distinct age domains. Metamorphosed titanite reveals differences in diffusivities of TEs in inherited portions of the grain; e.g., Pb-loss is more prominent than diffusion of REEs, which in turn diffuse faster than higher charged ions, such as Th.

  17. Campaign-Style Titanite LASS: Implications for Crustal Flow, Phase Transformations and Titanite Closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacker, Bradley R.; Garber, Joshua M.; Kylander-Clark, Andrew RC; Andersen, Torgeir B.

    2016-04-01

    LASS (laser-ablation split-stream ICP MS) U-Pb and trace-element data were measured in titanite from >250 samples of quartzofeldspathic gneiss and leucosomes across the ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) Western Gneiss Region of Norway to understand deformation and metamorphism of continental crust during subduction and exhumation. Titanite is unstable at pressures > 1.5 GPa, and, indeed, most yielded post-UHP dates, concommitant with titanite breakdown during subduction. A number of titanites sampled across large areas, however, have pre-UHP U-Pb dates, indicating that the titanites survived their excursion to and return from mantle depths metastably. Pre-UHP titanites have trace-element concentrations reflective of their host-rock composition and indicative of magmatic growth from an LREE-enriched melt. In contrast, re- and neocrystallized titanites that grew during exhumation have heterogeneous trace-element signatures and elevated fluorine concentrations, indicating that preservation of pre-UHP titanite was governed by reduced H2O activity. These U-Pb and trace-element data from titanite over a broad area have three important implications. Titanite grains can remain closed to complete Pb loss during regional metamorphism at temperatures as high as 750°C and pressures as high as 3 GPa, implying that thermally mediated volume diffusion was not the principal factor controlling resetting of the U-Pb system. Phase transformations in--and deformation of--quartzofeldspathic rocks can be inhibited at the same conditions; much of the WGR remained untransformed, drier, and stronger even as the rocks were subducted to and exhumed from mantle depths.

  18. Detrital zircon LASS-ICP-MS petrochronologic depth profiling for determining source-to-sink relationships in the Central Alps.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anfinson, O. A.; Stockli, D. F.; Stockli, L.; Malusa', M. G.

    2015-12-01

    Laser Ablation-Split Stream Depth Profiling (LASS-DP) ICP-MS petrochronology of detrital zircon (DZ) from Oligocene-Miocene strata in the Molasse and Northern Apennines showcases, in the light of the well-constrained depositional history of these successions, the advantages of this novel approach compared to traditional single and split-stream detrital zircon techniques in elucidating sediment provenance and source-to-sink relationships. While DZ U-Pb data from Oligocene-Miocene strata deposited in both the Molasse and Northern Apennines document shifts in the relative abundance of Cadomian, Caledonian, Variscan and Alpine aged detrital zircon, the source regions remain ambiguous due to non-diagnostic crystallization ages, leading to minimal zircon age variability. In contrast, DZ LASS-DP-ICP-MS petrochronology allows for the simultaneous recovery of multiple U-Pb ages and corresponding geochemical data, and thus dramatically increases our ability to resolve the petrogenetic history of individual DZ grains. The technique shows the immense power of determining the growth history of single DZ grains (rim to core relationships) and identifying/resolving the presence and age of thin magmatic/metamorphic overgrowths. Rupelian turbidites in the Apenninic foredeep exhibit a DZ population with consistent <5 mm Cretaceous metamorphic overgrowths that would likely not be resolved as a coherent population in polished sections. LASS-DP ICP-MS analysis of Caledonian and Variscan detrital zircon populations from the Molasse Basin show a distinct shift in rim-core age pairs in individual zircons that point to the erosion of different source during progressive Alpine unroofing. The geochemical data confirm a crustally derived magmatic source for the majority of the detrital zircon grains within the basin. While this technique, in comparison to traditional polished mounts, might underrepresent older core ages, this slight bias is clearly offset by the better definition and

  19. Laser-Ablation Split-Stream (LASS) Petrochronology of the Ultrahigh-Pressure Western Gneiss Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacker, B. R.; Kylander-Clark, A. R. C.

    2012-04-01

    Comprehensive geologic understanding of large-scale tectonic processes requires many detailed investigations at small scales distributed over large areas. Prior to the advent of LA-ICPMS, such collection of geochronologic data was impossible. We present a new laser-ablation split-stream (LASS) petrochronology dataset from the ultrahigh-pressure Western Gneiss Region (WGR) of Norway that now rivals structural and petrological datasets in richness and information content: >150 titanite samples, >50 zircon samples, >30 monazite samples, and >20 rutile samples. The half of the WGR that is close to the foreland shows weak Caledonian deformation and preserves Precambrian Sm-Nd garnet ages, Precambrian U-Pb zircon ages, partially reset U-Pb titanite ages, 398-397 Ma U/Th-Pb monazite ages, and muscovite 40Ar/39Ar ages that decrease monotonically away from the foreland from 400 to 390 Ma. The hinterland is variably deformed and preserves three distinct UHP domains that are marked by 420-400 Ma Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd eclogite ages, 418-407 Ma Sm-Nd garnet ages from HP gneiss, 425-402 Ma U-Pb zircon ages from eclogite, 425-405 Ma monazite U/Th-Pb ages from garnet-stable gneiss, 430-415 Ma U-Pb zircon ages from HP gneiss, 407-392 Ma U-Pb zircon ages from exhumation-related leucocratic intrusions, 405-394 Ma U/Th-Pb monazite ages from post-UHP gneiss, 400-398 Ma U-Pb zircon ages from post-UHP gneiss, 405-375 Ma titanite ages, 395-372 Ma U-Pb rutile ages, and 390-375 Ma muscovite 40Ar/39Ar ages. In general, coherence among the age gradients defined by the different isotopic systems indicates simple east-directed exhumation. In detail, however, differences among the ages within the three UHP domains indicate juxtaposition of the central and northern UHP domains against the southern UHP domain after titanite and rutile closure and prior to muscovite closure.

  20. Single-Shot Laser Ablation Split-Stream (SS-LASS) Analysis Depth Profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kylander-Clark, A. R.; Stearns, M. A.; Viete, D. R.; Cottle, J. M.; Hacker, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    Laser ablation depth profiling of geochronometers—such as zircon, monazite, titanite and rutile—has become popular in recent years as a tool to both determine date vs. depth or trace-element (TE) composition vs. depth; the former allows the dating of thin rims and, potentially, inversion of Pb-loss profiles for thermal histories, whereas the latter can yield insight into changes in PTX or mineral parageneses and inversion of trace-element profiles for thermal histories. In this study, we combine both techniques, enabling simultaneous acquisition of U-Th/Pb isotopic ratios and trace-element compositions, by joining a 193 nm excimer laser to a multi-collector ICP-MS and single-collector ICP-MS. The simultaneous acquisition allows direct shot-by-shot linkage between time and petrology, expanding our ability to understand the evolution of complex geologic systems. We construct each depth profile by capturing the analyte with a succession of individual laser pulses (each ~100 nm deep) . This has two main advantages over a typical time-dependent analysis of a multi-shot routine composed of tens to hundreds of shots and a several μm deep hole. 1) The reference material is analyzed between each shot for a more-accurate standardization of each aliquot of ablated material. 2) There is no mixing of material ablated from successive laser pulses during transmission to the ICP. The method is limited by count rate, which depends on spot size, excavation rate, instrument sensitivity, etc., and, for single-collector ICP, the switching time, which limits the number of elements that can be analyzed and their total counts. We explore the latter theoretically and experimentally to provide insight on both the ideal number of elements to measure and the dwell time in any given sample. Examples of the utility of SS-LASS include the comparison of apparent Pb loss to diffusion profiles of trace elements in rims of metamorphic rutile and titanite, as well as the determination of the

  1. Early Acadian exhumation history of garnet-kyanite schists from western Massachusetts determined by LASS analysis of metamorphic monazite (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterman, E. M.; Snoeyenbos, D. R.; Kylander-Clark, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    Assessing the mechanics of exhumation (e.g. steady vs. episodic processes) requires constraints on the timing and rates of metamorphism and deformation, which can be accomplished by directly dating minerals that formed along the exhumation path. This research focuses on metamorphic monazites contained in restitic high-pressure garnet-kyanite schists from the Goshen Dome in western Massachusetts that record exhumation during the early Acadian. We employ the laser ablation split stream (LASS) technique to simultaneously collect geochronological and geochemical information from the same volume of material. By measuring in situ, LASS analysis allows coordination of petrology, geochemistry and geochronology to reconstruct the timing of metamorphic mineral growth concomitant with exhumation. The gar + ky × crd schists analyzed in this study contain monazite in a variety of petrographic contexts, some of which are interpreted to represent prograde metamorphism. Because we are concerned with exhumation, this contribution focuses on matrix monazite. Matrix monazites are generally aligned with their long axes parallel to foliation. All grains have at least one metamorphic overgrowth, and many grains have multiple generations of overgrowths, thus presenting a detailed record of events. The majority of the matrix monazite cores are 378 to 374 Ma with variable Y concentrations and REE trends. From 375 to 371 Ma, monazite depleted in Y with steep HREE profiles and higher LREE concentrations overgrew pre-existing cores or formed as neoblasts. Dates from most of these monazite domains cluster around 374 to 373 Ma. Neoblasts are typically elongated parallel to the foliation. From 370 to 369 Ma, overgrowths have intermediate Y concentrations with shallower HREE trends and intermediate LREE concentrations, indicating growth during garnet breakdown; these domains are commonly overgrowths with a consistent thickness (ca. 10-15 um), but some domains are more rounded. A pulse of

  2. An improved study of the kappa resonance and the non-exotic s wave πK scatterings up to √{s}=2.1 GeV of LASS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z. Y.; Zheng, H. Q.

    2006-09-01

    We point out that the dispersion relation for the left-hand cut integral presented in one of our previous paper [H.Q. Zheng, et al., Nucl. Phys. A 733 (2004) 235] is actually free of subtraction constant, even for unequal mass elastic scatterings. A new fit to the LASS data [D. Aston, et al., LASS Collaboration, Nucl. Phys. B 296 (1988) 493] is performed and firm evidence for the existence of κ pole is found. The correct use of analyticity also put strong constraints on threshold parameters—which are found to be in good agreement with those obtained from chiral theories. We also determined the pole parameters of K0∗(1430) on the second sheet, and reconfirm the existence of K0∗(1950) on the third sheet. We stress that the LASS data do not require them to have the twin pole structure of a typical Breit-Wigner resonance.

  3. Spectroscopie Raman et Rayleigh stimulée des mélasses optiques unidimensionnelles (partie I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtois, Jean-Yves

    stimulated Raman lines are homogeneously broadened, and that a stimulated Rayleigh structure appears on the spectra because of the probe-induced time modulation of the cooling force, which induces a modulation of the atomic momentum distribution. In the latter situation, the Raman structures are inhomogeneously broadened, and a recoil-induced resonance is predicted in the center of the spectrum. Its shape corresponds to the derivative of a Gaussian curve and its width is directly proportional to the Doppler width of the molasses. Finally, Section 6 presents a short review about the recent developments in the field of nonlinear spectroscopy of optical molasses. Cet article s'inscrit dans le double contexte de la spectroscopie non linéaire des milieux atomiques et de la physique du refroidissement d'atomes neutres par laser. Il présente une étude détaillée des spectres de transmission d'une onde sonde interagissant avec une mélasse optique unidimensionnelle. Plus précisément, nous montrons que dans chacun des deux cas modèles des mélasses “linperp lin” et “σ^+-σ^-” (ainsi dénommées par référence à la configuration de polarisation des deux faisceaux lasers à l'origine du mécanisme de refroidissement), les spectres pompes-sonde présentent des structures résonnantes pouvant s'interpréter en termes de diffusion Raman ou Rayleigh stimulée, et apportant un grand nombre d'informations sur les propriétés physiques des mélasses optiques. Cet article s'articule autour de deux grandes parties. Destinée à faire ultérieurement ressortir la spécificité des processus de diffusion stimulée se produisant dans les mélasses optiques, la première est consacrée à une présentation générale des processus Raman et Rayleigh stimulés se produisant dans les milieux atomiques et moléculaires conventionnels. L'effet Raman stimulé, lié à l'existence de centres diffuseurs ayant des états d'énergies et de populations différentes, fait l'objet du

  4. New Techniques of LASS-ICPMS Depth Profiling Applied to Detrital Zircon from the Central Alps-Apennines System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anfinson, O. A.; Smye, A.; Stockli, D. F.

    2014-12-01

    Detrital zircon U-Pb age dating has become a widely used tool for determining sediment provenance in basins and orogenic systems. While traditional LA-ICPMS zircon geochronology is powerful, it has limitations when source regions are characterized by monotonous or non-diagnostic crystallization ages or by major sediment recycling and homogenization, leading to minimal zircon age variability. In the central Alps of Switzerland and Italy, for example, similar Cadomian, Caledonian, and Variscan zircons dominate with only minor Alpine ages. Samples collected from Oligocene-Miocene strata deposited in both the northern (Swiss Molasse) and southern (Apenninic foredeep) Alpine foreland basins document shifts in the relative abundance of Cadomian, Caledonian, Variscan and Alpine aged detrital zircon, but the exact source region and genesis of the grains remains poorly constrained based on zircon U-Pb age data alone. Laser Ablation Split Stream (LASS)-ICPMS depth profiling of detrital zircon allows for the simultaneous recovery of multiple ages and of chemical/petrogenetic data from single zircons, and has the potential to shed additional light on provenance. This study applies this approach to Oligocene-Miocene strata of the Swiss Molasse Basin and Apenninic foredeep. Recent advances in LA-ICPMS sample cell technology allow for reliable recovery of age and trace element data during progressive ablation into zircons. Decreased washout (<.3 sec) reduces vertical signal smearing during ablation and penetration into unpolished, tape-mounted grains. In contrast to traditional polished mount zircon spot-analysis, depth-profiling of unpolished grains minimizes zonal mixing given that ablation pits are commonly oriented perpendicular to growth zones. Split-stream analysis of U-Pb isotopic data and REE/trace element abundances during ablation improves petrochronologic resolution to the further elucidated the growth history and genesis of individual zircon grains. Results from the

  5. A 30 Myr record of retrograde metamorphism and multiple generations of monazite and garnet in western MA revealed by coordinated LASS and EPMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterman, E. M.; Burton, Z. F. M.; Rubel, J. N.; Snoeyenbos, D. R.; Kylander-Clark, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    Garnet-kyanite-cordierite pelitic schists with relict phosphatic garnets thought to record ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism (e.g., Snoeyenbos and Koziol, 2008) crop out along the western margin of the Goshen Dome in western Massachusetts. These schists contain monazite inclusions within Grt, Ky, Crd, Bt, Pl, Qz, and Chl. Compositional maps via EPMA-WDS show overgrowths on each monazite grain, indicating that each grain records multiple metamorphic events. We analyzed monazite in situ using laser-ablation split-stream (LASS) ICPMS to correlate the geochemical and age domains and to reconstruct the polyphase metamorphic history. We used WDS compositional maps of Y and Th, and ICPMS Gd/Yb ratios and U/Pb ages to define the timing of major garnet growth and breakdown processes, and melting and/or fluid-rich metamorphism. For example, decreasing Gd/Yb and high Y concentrations are consistent with garnet breakdown; highly variable Gd/Yb indicate melting and/or fluid-rich metamorphism (e.g., Stearns et al., 2013). The following cumulative histories are interpreted from two samples (B and G). In both samples, decreasing Gd/Yb in monazite suggest garnet breakdown from c. 398 to 387 Ma. Data from sample B (n = 644 analyses) indicate two additional phases of garnet growth: 382 to 377 Ma and 375 to 369 Ma (see figure). Data from sample G (n = 231 analyses) also indicate two additional phases of garnet growth: 387 to 381 Ma and 379 to 369 Ma. The final garnet growth event affecting both samples is marked by the most variable Gd/Yb ratios in monazite from all petrographic contexts and is consistent with melting or a fluid-rich metamorphic event. These data are most consistent with metamorphism during emplacement to crustal levels in the early Acadian, and a substantial overprint during the regional thermal maximum. This complex record can only be unraveled by collecting geochronologic and geochemical data in situ to preserve the petrographic context of each grain, thus

  6. Along-Strike Variations in the Timing of Melt Crystallization and Metamorphism Across Central and Eastern Bhutan: New Insights from LASS Monazite Geochronology and Trace-Element Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, S. M.; Kauffman, R.; Gonzales-Clayton, B.; Kylander-Clark, A. R.; Agustsson, K. S.; Long, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    Continent-continent collisional systems represent the largest orogens on Earth and provide locations to study processes that drive the transition from contraction and crustal thickening to extension and collapse. The Greater Himalayan Zone (GHZ) exposed along strike of the Himalayan orogen contains exhumed mid-crustal metasedimentary rocks. To better understand the history of burial, crustal flow, and partial melting during the early stages of Himalayan tectonics in the Eocene to ~40 Myr into its orogenic evolution, monazite was analyzed from five migmatitic gneisses and five host gneisses exposed across two transects within central and eastern Bhutan. Monazite was analyzed in situ by the split-stream laser-ablation (LASS) ICPMS technique, which allows simultaneous collection of U-Th-Pb isotopes and trace-element abundances. The migmatites from the eastern Bhutan transect yield monazite dates that record melt crystallization as young as ca. 15-13 Ma. The host gneisses yield similar to younger (down to ca. 11 Ma) dates, documenting coeval to continued metamorphism of the GHZ. In comparison, melt crystallization in the central Bhutan rocks ended by ca. 18 Ma, and metamorphic monazite from a metapelite record metamorphism until ca. 14 Ma. In the migmatite and host-rock samples from both transects, the trace-element data show an inverse correlation between date and the HREE concentration. This trend likely documents the breakdown of garnet, which probably coincides with the first stages of GHZ exhumation. Thus, the LASS data showed that garnet breakdown and GHZ exhumation occurred from ca. 18 to 14 Ma in eastern Bhutan and ca. 20 to 17 Ma in central Bhutan. The new monazite data suggest different histories for the melt crystallization, metamorphism, and exhumation of the GHZ rocks between central and eastern Bhutan, even though the present day rocks from the two transects are only exposed ~60 km apart. Moreover, in comparison to other parts of the eastern Himalaya, the

  7. Differential expression of (dihydro)ceramide synthases in mouse brain: oligodendrocyte-specific expression of CerS2/Lass2.

    PubMed

    Becker, Ivonne; Wang-Eckhardt, Lihua; Yaghootfam, Afshin; Gieselmann, Volkmar; Eckhardt, Matthias

    2008-02-01

    Synthesis of dihydroceramide is catalyzed by a family of (dihydro)ceramide synthases (CerS), first identified in yeast as longevity-assurance genes. Six members (CerS1-6; Lass1-6) of this gene family have been identified in mammals. We examined expression of CerS genes during postnatal development in mouse brain by means of Northern blot analysis, real-time RT-PCR, and in situ-hybridization. In situ-hybridization experiments showed that CerS1 was the predominant CerS in neurons throughout the brain. This observation is in line with the high levels of C18:0-ceramide in neurons and the substrate specificity of CerS1. A similar distribution, but lower expression levels, were found for CerS4 and CerS6. Only low or undetectable amounts of CerS1, CerS4 and CerS6 were, however, present in white matter. In contrast, CerS5 mRNA was detected in most cells within gray and white matter of all brain regions, suggesting ubiquitous expression of this palmitoyl-CoA specific CerS. Expression of CerS2 was transiently increased during the period of active myelination. Furthermore, expression of CerS2 was specifically localized to white matter tracts of the brain. Furthermore, CerS2 was the predominant CerS in Schwann cells of sciatic nerves. These data suggest that CerS2 is important for the synthesis of dihydroceramide used for synthesis of myelin sphingolipids.

  8. Laser Ablation Split Stream (LASS) U-Pb & Lu-Hf Isotope Analysis of Detrital Zircons from the Old Red Sandstone, NW Svalbard: Implications for Northern Caledonian Paleogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beranek, L. P.; Gee, D. G.; Fisher, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Svalbard archipelago consists of three Caledonian provinces that were assembled by thrusting and transcurrent faulting during the Silurian and Devonian in a location directly northeast of the Greenland Caledonides. Syn- to post-orogenic alluvial strata, referred to as the Old Red Sandstones, filled pull-apart basins adjacent to the transcurrent faults and comprise cover assemblages that help constrain the timing of the Caledonian orogeny. To further investigate the tectonic history and paleogeography of the Raudfjorden-Liefdefjorden-Woodfjorden area of Spitsbergen, NW Svalbard, we analyzed rock samples of the Old Red Sandstones and underlying Precambrian basement complexes for detrital zircon analysis. Laboratory studies of the Old Red Sandstones include the novel Laser Ablation Split Stream (LASS) technique, which allows for simultaneous U-Pb & Lu-Hf isotope analysis of zircon crystals. Lower Devonian Red Bay Group strata contain a range of early Neoproterozoic to Neoarchean detrital zircons with prominent age peaks c. 960, 1050, 1370, 1450, 1650, and 2700 Ma; subordinate Ordovician (c. 460-490 Ma) and Cryogenian (c. 650 Ma) detrital zircons occur in a subset of the samples. Underlying Precambrian metasedimentary rocks are composed of similar earliest Neoproterozoic to Neoarchean age populations, which argues for much of the Red Bay Group to be derived from local basement rocks during thrusting and other faulting. The U-Pb ages and Hf isotope compositions of Paleozoic to Neoarchean detrital zircons are consistent with Arctic crustal evolution, and support the hypothesis that northwestern and northeastern provinces of the Svalbard Caledonides are extruded fragments of the northeast Greenland allochthons. The new Hf isotope results further allow paleogeographic and stratigraphic comparisons with rock assemblages proximal to the North Atlantic Caledonides during the Silurian-Devonian, including the Pearya terrane of Ellesmere Island, Alexander terrane of NW

  9. Zircon U-Pb and trace element zoning characteristics in an anatectic granulite domain: Insights from LASS-ICP-MS depth profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, Jeffrey H.; Stockli, Daniel F.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the geochemical characteristics of metamorphic zircon, and how they may be modified by recrystallization processes, is fundamental to defining the timescales of tectonic processes affecting continental lithosphere. We utilize laser ablation split-stream (LASS)-ICP-MS depth-profiling analysis to obtain a continuous rim-to-core record of the U-Pb ages and trace-element composition preserved within variably recrystallized zircon from different rock types within a well-studied granulite domain in the western Grenville Province, Canada. Detailed analysis of the depth-resolved signal enables definition of chemically distinct (homogeneous) internal domains and heterogeneous intervening zones that can generally be correlated with textural features observed in CL. Three age populations have been distinguished within the ~ 35 μm deep profiles that correlate well with the established timing of protolith formation, granulite-facies metamorphism, and amphibolite-facies shearing, respectively. The U-Pb isotopic system and Th/U ratios in much of the crystal interiors have undergone considerable modification, as evidenced by a linear correlation between 207Pb/206Pb age and Th/U ratio. Interior and rim domains commonly contain blurred or faded oscillatory zoning patterns, suggesting that solid-state recrystallization is at least partially responsible for the modified U-Th-Pb composition. A number of systematic trends in trace element composition are also observed between interior domains and recrystallized rims, including 1) decreased Th/U (to ~ 0.1), 2) tighter clustering of Hf concentrations, 3) decreased total REE, 4) unchanged Eu anomalies, and 5) a widened spread of HREE enrichment values (YbN/GdN). Both YbN/GdN vs. Th/U and U/Ce vs. Th plots show increasing degree of compositional differentiation from protolith zircon as a function of metamorphic reworking processes (i.e. sample type). The transition zones between interior and rim domains exhibit textural

  10. LASS U-Th-Pb monazite and rutile geochronology of felsic high-pressure granulites (Rhodope, N Greece): Effects of fluid, deformation and metamorphic reactions in local subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawrzenitz, Nicole; Krohe, Alexander; Baziotis, Ioannis; Mposkos, Evripidis; Kylander-Clark, Andrew R. C.; Romer, Rolf L.

    2015-09-01

    The specific chemical composition of monazite in shear zones is controlled by the syndeformation dissolution-precipitation reactions of the rock-forming minerals. This relation can be used for dating deformation, even when microfabric characteristics like shape preferred orientation or intracrystalline deformation of monazite itself are missing. Monazite contemporaneously formed in and around the shear zones may have different compositions. These depend on the local chemical context rather than reflecting successive crystallization episodes of monazite. This is demonstrated in polymetamorphic, mylonitic high-pressure (HP) garnet-kyanite granulites of the Alpine Sidironero Complex (Rhodope UHP terrain, Northern Greece). The studied mylonitic rocks escaped from regional migmatization at 40-36 Ma and from subsequent shearing through cooling until 36 Ma. In-situ laser-ablation split-stream inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LASS) analyses have been carried out on monazite from micro-scale shear zones, from pre-mylonitic microlithons as well as of monazite inclusions in relictic minerals complimented by U-Pb data on rutile and Rb-Sr data of biotite. Two major metamorphic episodes, Mesozoic and Cenozoic, are constrained. Chemical compositions, isotopic characteristics and apparent ages systematically vary among monazite of four different microfabric domains (I-IV). Within three pre-mylonitic domains (inclusions in (I) pre-mylonitic kyanite and (II) garnet porphyroclasts, and (III) in pre-mylonitic microlithons) monazite yields ages of ca. 130-150 Ma for HP-granulite metamorphism, in line with previous geochronological results in the area. Patchy alteration of the pre-mylonitic monazite by intra-grain dissolution-precipitation processes variably increased negative Eu anomaly and reduced the HREE contents. The apparent age of this altered monazite is reduced. Monazite in the syn-mylonitic shear bands (IV) differs in chemical composition from unaltered and

  11. Complex multifault rupture during the 2016 Mw 7.8 Kaikōura earthquake, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Hamling, Ian J; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrun; Clark, Kate; Elliott, John; Liang, Cunren; Fielding, Eric; Litchfield, Nicola; Villamor, Pilar; Wallace, Laura; Wright, Tim J; D'Anastasio, Elisabetta; Bannister, Stephen; Burbidge, David; Denys, Paul; Gentle, Paula; Howarth, Jamie; Mueller, Christof; Palmer, Neville; Pearson, Chris; Power, William; Barnes, Philip; Barrell, David J A; Van Dissen, Russ; Langridge, Robert; Little, Tim; Nicol, Andrew; Pettinga, Jarg; Rowland, Julie; Stirling, Mark

    2017-03-23

    On 14th November 2016, the northeastern South Island of New Zealand was struck by a major Mw 7.8 earthquake. Field observations, in conjunction with InSAR, GPS, and seismology reveal this to be one of the most complex earthquakes ever recorded. The rupture propagated northward for more than 170 km along both mapped and unmapped faults, before continuing offshore at its northeastern extent. Geodetic and field observations reveal surface ruptures along at least 12 major faults, including possible slip along the southern Hikurangi subduction interface, extensive uplift along much of the coastline and widespread anelastic deformation including the ~8 m uplift of a fault-bounded block. This complex earthquake defies many conventional assumptions about the degree to which earthquake ruptures are controlled by fault segmentation, and should motivate re-thinking of these issues in seismic hazard models.

  12. Lass of inhomogeneously driven dyamical systems: General theory, regular and chaotic properties, applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damgov, Vladimir

    A generalized model of an oscillator, subjected to the influence of external waves is considered. It is shown that the systems of diverse physical background which this model encompasses by their nature should belong to the broader class of "kickexcited self-adaptive dynamical systems".

  13. Girl--Lass or Curl? Word Associations in Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norrby, Catrin; Hakansson, Gisela

    2007-01-01

    One of the ways to investigate the mental lexicon is to use word association tests. Empirical studies comparing associations by children and adults have indicated a tendency for children to give syntagmatic responses, whereas adults give paradigmatic responses. In order to investigate lexical development in L2 acquisition of Swedish we collected…

  14. Needs in Southwest English Dialectology or, Want a LASS? Thanks, but No Thanks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Gary N.

    What has been labelled mainstream dialectology has been criticized soundly on theoretical grounds, yet mainstream dialectologists have responded with the assertion that their critics have not been intimately familiar with dialect methodology and are therefore not qualified to criticize. Claiming that while theoretical issues are far from being…

  15. Large Advanced Space Systems (LASS) computer-aided design program additions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    The LSS preliminary and conceptual design requires extensive iteractive analysis because of the effects of structural, thermal, and control intercoupling. A computer aided design program that will permit integrating and interfacing of required large space system (LSS) analyses is discussed. The primary objective of this program is the implementation of modeling techniques and analysis algorithms that permit interactive design and tradeoff studies of LSS concepts. Eight software modules were added to the program. The existing rigid body controls module was modified to include solar pressure effects. The new model generator modules and appendage synthesizer module are integrated (interfaced) to permit interactive definition and generation of LSS concepts. The mass properties module permits interactive specification of discrete masses and their locations. The other modules permit interactive analysis of orbital transfer requirements, antenna primary beam n, and attitude control requirements.

  16. ρ''s in analyzing e+e- annihilation: Mark III, LASS, and ARGUS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achasov, N. N.; Kozhevnikov, A. A.

    1997-03-01

    The results of an analysis of some recent data on the reactions e+e--->π+π-π+π-, e+e--->π+π-π0π0 with the subtracted ωπ0 events, e+e--->ωπ0, e+e--->ηπ+π-, e+e--->π+π-, K-p-->π+π-Λ, the decays J/ψ-->π+π-π0, τ--->ντπ+π-π-π0, and τ--->ντωπ-, upon taking into account both the strong energy dependence of the partial widths on energy and the previously neglected mixing of the ρ-type resonances, are presented. The above effects are shown to exert an essential influence on the specific values of masses and coupling constants of heavy resonances and, hence, are necessary to be accounted for in establishing their true nature.

  17. Komm, Lass dir was erzahlen. Versuch einer Methodologie zum Geschichtenerzahlen fur Deutsch (A Methodology for Storytelling in the German Language Classroom).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicke, Rainer E.

    A methodology is presented for storytelling in the elementary school German language classroom. Intended for the instructor in Alberta, this guide is illustrated with examples of types of activities and techniques useful for teaching German to the elementary school student. (JC)

  18. Turbulence Variability in the Upper Layers of the Southern Adriatic Sea Under a Variety of Atmospheric Forcing Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    mixing, and generally track each other well (Peters et al., 1988). For examples of use of this type of microstructure profiler, see Lass et al...Kantha. L.H.. Lass . H., Prandke. H.. 2010. A note on stokes production of turbulence kinetic energy in the oceanic mixed layer: observations in the...ring’s near-inertial critical layer. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 25, 942-957. Lass , H.U.. Prandke. H, Liljebladh. B.. 2003. Dissipation in the Baltic proper

  19. No Slackers in Tourniquet Use to Stop Bleeding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    pressure applied to the skin by the tourniquet (mmHg), blood loss volume (ml), and the number of wind- lass turns executed (whole number). The user...plain, strong, and reliably reproduced. The amount of slack is associated positively with the wind- lass turn number, the time to stop bleeding, and... lass turning (and only in slack samples), tertiary twisting occurred as the inner strap twisted into pretzel-like loops while wrapping about

  20. Product Definition Data Interface (PDDI) Product Specification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    BSCTRSPR SCE LAB BLDARRAY BLDC LASS BLDDFTYP BLDE ITEM BLDENT BLDENUMR BLDFIELD BLDGBLFD BLD INT BLDLOG BLDPNTR BODREAL BL DS SCMA BLDSTRNG BLDSTRUC...MALNO MALRD MALREP MALRMV MAL RPL MALSIF MAUPDT Routine: Refers to: S CTRS PR SC ELAB BLDARRAY BLDC LASS B LDD FT YP BLDEITEM BLDENT BLDENUMR BLDFIELD

  1. A Critical Analysis and Assessment of High Power Switches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-01

    Triggered and Sustained Switches335 D. Solid Dielectric Switches .... .......... .341 E. Dielectric Surface Discharge Switches . . . . 354 F... Triggered Thyristors .... .......... .141 111-16. Laser Activated Semiconductor Switch (LASS) . 142 111-17. Reverse Conducting Thyristor, Antiparallel...Light Triggered Thyristors. 142 LASER LIGHT K p A Figure 111-16. Laser Activated Semiconductor Switch (LASS). 143 through openings in the

  2. Gender Differences in Computerised and Conventional Educational Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Research has demonstrated girls outperform boys on conventional literacy tests. The present studies concern gender differences on computerised educational tests. Seventy-one children were tested using LASS Secondary and a set of seven conventional measures. No significant gender differences were found on any of the LASS Secondary modules,…

  3. Emergency Tourniquet Effectiveness in Four Positions on the Proximal Thigh

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    U.S. military personnel, was whether medial or lateral place- ment was better. Another question was whether the wind- lass should be medial, lateral...One wind- lass turn is a 180º excursion arc, which is the limit of wrist supination in turning the windlass. The users by convention regrip the

  4. Development of Nonuniformities in Swirling, Rocket Injectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    24th LASS -Americas, San Antonio, Texas in May 2012. 14. ABSTRACT A high-performing, stable rocket engine requires injectors which produce...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 ! LASS Americas, 24’h Annual Conference on Liquid Atomi=ation and Spray Systems, San Antonio, TX

  5. 75 FR 73130 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree and Environmental Settlement under the Comprehensive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ...: The Mobile Pigment Complex, Mobile, AL The former Petroleum Terminal Site, Birmingham, AL The... Ambrosia Lake on and in the vicinity of Navajo Nation, NM, AZ The White King/Lucky Lass mine site,...

  6. Characterization of localized transverse structures in wide-aperture lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosanov, N. N.; Fedorov, A. V.; Fedorov, S. V.; Khodova, G. V.

    The problem of characterization of spatio-temporal patterns is discussed for the case of wide-aperture lasers with nonlinear losses where variety of such patterns is especially rich. Laser autosolitons (LASs)-localized transverse structures representing “islands of lasing” on a background of the nonlasing mode on the laser aperture-are studied. Existence of stable single LASs which are motionless or moving in the transverse direction with constant linear velocity is shown. Described are also LASs with regular wavefronts, those with screw dislocations (defects) of wavefronts with different topological indices, and those with axially symmetric and asymmetric intensity distributions rotating with constant angular velocity around the LAS center. An approach is given for qualitative and quantitative characterization of a single LAS by its linear and angular velocities and frequency shift, based on a combination of analytical methods and computer simulations. Results of investigations of weak and strong interactions among the LASs are presented.

  7. A Note on the Total Number of Double Eulerian Circuits in Multigraphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liskovets, Valery

    2002-12-01

    We formulate explicitly and discuss a simple new enumerative formula for double (directed) eulerian circuits in n-edged labeled multigraphs. The formula follows easily from a recent 2-parametric formula of B. Lass.

  8. Psychometric properties of a suicide screen for adjudicated youth in residential care.

    PubMed

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Hudson, Kenneth; Lamis, Dorian A; Carr, Nicole

    2012-04-01

    There is a need to efficiently and effectively screen adjudicated youth residing within the juvenile justice system for suicide proneness. Accordingly, in the current study, the psychometric properties of the Life Attitude Schedule: Short Form (LAS:S), a 24-item risk assessment for suicide proneness, were assessed using data from adjudicated youth residing in an alternative sentencing facility (n = 130). As predicted, statistically significant correlations were obtained between total LAS:S suicide proneness scores and reports of recent suicide ideation and hopelessness. Contrary to expectation, the previously reported 2-factor model for the LAS:S, with Factor 1 representing physical unhealthiness and Factor 2 representing psychological death, poorly fit the data. In adjudicated youth, we found that a single factor model derived from the 4 LAS:S subscales produced a better fit to the data than the 2-factor model. The death-related, self-related, injury-related, and negative health-related behaviors contained on the LAS:S shared common variance in these youth. A clinical implication is that practitioners can effectively use the total LAS:S score when screening adjudicated youth for suicide proneness.

  9. Where Does Evidence from New Trials for Schizophrenia Fit with the Existing Evidence: A Case of the Emperor's New Clothes?

    PubMed Central

    Jayaram, Mahesh; Rattehalli, Ranganath D.; Adams, Clive E.

    2012-01-01

    Advent of “atypical” antipsychotics has spawned new trials in the recent years and the number of such trial reports has been increasing exponentially. As clinicians we have been led to believe that “atypicals” are better than “typicals” despite the odd dissenting voice in academic and clinical circles. This has been largely ignored until the publication of two landmark, independent, pragmatic trials, Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) and Cost Utility of the Latest Antipsychotic Drugs in Schizophrenia Study (CUtLASS), which proved that thoughtfully chosen “typical” antipsychotics were as good as the newer “atypicals.” We pooled “leaving the study early data” from Cochrane Reviews that existed before CATIE and CUtLASS and added data from CATIE and CUtLASS to the pool for a “before and after” comparison. Addition of CATIE and CUtLASS data only led to narrowing of the already existing confidence intervals, merely increasing precision, and decreasing the risk of Type II error. Perhaps surprisingly, CATIE and CUtLASS when pooled with the already existing data showed us that we had chosen to turn a blind eye to findings that already existed. This leads clinicians to question as to whether, in future, we need to feel less guilty about crying out early on that the emperor has no clothes on. PMID:22966441

  10. Concepts in the integration of photoconductive systems with electro-optics and gain media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucker, Oved S. F.

    1995-03-01

    Light activated semiconductor switches (LASS), when operated in the linear regime, have demonstrated the highest power and fastest rise-time of any other solid state switch. This, in conjunction with their picosecond jitter, allows their integration with electro-optic and magneto-optic devices to serve as an optically controlled optical switches (OCOS). The combination of OCOS with various other optical elements and gain media allows the assembly of various optical circuits that are faster, smaller in size and operate at a higher power density. This paper will discuss the underlying principles of such optical circuits. In addition, experimental results of a microlaser which is Q- switched with an LASS driven Pockets cell with a rise-time of 70 ps will be described, and future laser development based on LASS technology will be presented.

  11. Night-Vision Goggle Visual Performance During 12 Hours at 10,000 ft Altitude at Night Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    lats and ta identify the va ri ab les that are invalved in the develapment .of NIHL . Methods. A tatal .of 232 healthy Calambian Air Farce pi lats...31.76 yrs., S.D.= 5.68, p= 0.01). There was a strang correlatian between NIHL and attendance ta discatheques (OR= 3.30, CI= 1.21-9.05). Knawledge .of...occupationa l hearing lass pragrams reduced the risk of hearing lass in 11% .of the pilats. The mast Important symptams .of NIHL identified by this

  12. Prediction of oscillating thick cambered aerofoil aerodynamics by a locally analytic method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, Hsiao-Wei D.; Fleeter, Sanford

    1988-01-01

    The effects of mean-flow incidence, airfoil camber, and airfoil thickness on the incompressible aerodynamics of an oscillating airfoil are investigated theoretically, developing and applying a first-order FEM based on locally analytical solutions (LASs). Laplace equations are used to describe the steady and unsteady harmonic velocity potentials; a body-fitted computational grid is employed; grid-element solutions for both potentials are determined using a numerical LAS method; and the LASs are then assembled to obtain a complete solution. Results for a series of flat-plate and Joukowski airfoils are presented in extensive graphs and discussed in detail.

  13. Electron channeling and EBIC studies of polycrystalline silicon sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuo, Y S; Matson, R J

    1984-05-01

    Electron channeling and EBIC studies have been performed on silicon sheets grown by the edge-supported pulling (ESP) and low-angle silicon sheet (LASS) processes. We have found that the dominant grain structure of the ESP sheets is long, narrow grains with surface normals oriented near (011); grains with this structure tend to have better electronic quality than random grains. We have also studied the twin-stabilized planar growth material of LASS sheets. This material, grown at 200 cm/sup 2//min, is essentially single-crystal.

  14. An Exponential Class of Model-Free Visual Servoing Controllers in the Presence of Uncertain Camera Calibration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    Chaumette, “Theoretical Improvements in the Stability Analysis of a New C lass of M odel-Free V isual Servoing M ethods,” IEEE Transactions on Robotics and...Malis, F . Chaumette, and S. Bodet, “2 1/2 D Visual Servoing,” IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation , Vol. 15 , No. 2 , pp. 238-250, (1999

  15. Strange meson spectroscopy in K[omega] and K[phi] at 11 GeV/c and Cherenkov ring imaging at SLD

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Youngjoon.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis consists of two independent parts; development of Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector (CRID) system and analysis of high-statistics data of strange meson reactions from the LASS spectrometer. Part 1: The CRID system is devoted to charged particle identification in the SLAC Large Detector (SLD) to study e[sup +]e[sup [minus

  16. Predictors of Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension in Patients with Asymptomatic Degenerative Mitral Regurgitation: Mechanistic Insights from 2D Speckle-Tracking Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Kamijima, Ryo; Suzuki, Kengo; Izumo, Masaki; Kuwata, Shingo; Mizukoshi, Kei; Takai, Manabu; Kou, Seisyou; Hayashi, Akio; Kida, Keisuke; Harada, Tomoo; Akashi, Yoshihiro J.

    2017-01-01

    Presence of exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension (EIPH) in asymptomatic degenerative mitral regurgitation (DMR) determines prognosis. This study aimed to elucidate the mechanism and predictors of EIPH in asymptomatic DMR. Ninety-one consecutive asymptomatic patients with DMR who underwent exercise stress echocardiography were prospectively included. We obtained various conventional echocardiographic parameters at rest and during peak exercise, as well as left atrial (LA) function at rest using 2-dimensional speckle-tracking analysis. The 25 patients (33.3%) with EIPH were significantly older and had a greater ratio of mitral peak velocity of early filling to early diastolic mitral annular velocity during peak exercise than those without EIPH. LA strain (LAS)-s and LAS-e, indices of LA reservoir and conduit function, respectively, were significantly lower in those with EIPH than in those without EIPH. Multivariate analysis indicated that LAS-s was the only resting echocardiographic parameter that independently predicted EIPH, with a cut-off value of 26.9%. Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier curve analysis showed that symptom-free survival was markedly lower among those with reduced LAS-s. In conclusion, decreased LA reservoir function contributes to EIPH, and LAS-s at rest is a useful indicator for predicting EIPH in asymptomatic patients with DMR. PMID:28071674

  17. Management Is Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Frank L.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the commitment of the learning assistance support system (LASS) at California State University, Long Beach, to the systematic use of management techniques, such as management by objectives, organizational development and renewal, and networking, in evaluating the management of instructional systems. (CMV)

  18. The Need for an Expanded Definition of Glistening Surface,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    maintenance alyim-Ithlns a ro empovedi. Monte Carlo techniquesa are used to calculate errors in canve and~ :.-ill Ic (’Ctim-ition or e~ach !arget a...parameters and severial values of -)w ple f xieltIr-t cii~tant charate rizieg diffe rent c lasses of terrairc. .6 I r. 0 * .. ~ 0 - r .. - I-. - 2 -’ * u

  19. Localized Ambient Solidity Separation Algorithm Based Computer User Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao; Zhang, Tongda; Chai, Yueting; Liu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Most of popular clustering methods typically have some strong assumptions of the dataset. For example, the k-means implicitly assumes that all clusters come from spherical Gaussian distributions which have different means but the same covariance. However, when dealing with datasets that have diverse distribution shapes or high dimensionality, these assumptions might not be valid anymore. In order to overcome this weakness, we proposed a new clustering algorithm named localized ambient solidity separation (LASS) algorithm, using a new isolation criterion called centroid distance. Compared with other density based isolation criteria, our proposed centroid distance isolation criterion addresses the problem caused by high dimensionality and varying density. The experiment on a designed two-dimensional benchmark dataset shows that our proposed LASS algorithm not only inherits the advantage of the original dissimilarity increments clustering method to separate naturally isolated clusters but also can identify the clusters which are adjacent, overlapping, and under background noise. Finally, we compared our LASS algorithm with the dissimilarity increments clustering method on a massive computer user dataset with over two million records that contains demographic and behaviors information. The results show that LASS algorithm works extremely well on this computer user dataset and can gain more knowledge from it.

  20. Labile aggregation stimulating substance, free fatty acids, and platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Gerrard, J M; White, J G; Krivit, W

    1976-01-01

    Labile aggregation stimulating substance (LASS), an intermediate produced during platelet biosynthesis of PGE2 and PGF2alpha, acts as a physiologic intercellular messenger to promote platelet aggregation and the release reaction. The activity is formed by intact cells after physiologic stimulation or can be generated from platelet membrane fractions after combination with arachidonate. In the present investigation, small amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids added to an incubation mixture of platelet microsomes and arachidonate were found to significantly inhibit subsequent platelet aggregation. Saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids in the same concentrations were without effect. However, in higher concentrations mono-unsaturated fatty acids were found to be inhibitory and stearic acid was found to enhance subsequent platelet aggregation. The inhibition caused by the polyunsaturated fatty acid, linoleate, was shown to be the result of an effect on the production of LASS through an interaction with the platelet enzyme responsible for conversion of arachidonate to LASS. In contrast, stearic acid was found to enhance platelet aggregation by acting on the platelets and not directly on LASS production. The results suggest that small changes in the fatty acid composition of platelet phospholipids could significantly influence platelet reactivity.

  1. Automation and Cataloging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furuta, Kenneth; And Others

    1990-01-01

    These three articles address issues in library cataloging that are affected by automation: (1) the impact of automation and bibliographic utilities on professional catalogers; (2) the effect of the LASS microcomputer software on the cost of authority work in cataloging at the University of Arizona; and (3) online subject heading and classification…

  2. Historical Linguistics and Language Change: Progress or Decay?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romaine, Suzanne

    1983-01-01

    A discussion of whether there has been any progress in the discipline of historical linguistics focuses on the theories and recent publications of David Lightfoot and Roger Lass. The author's approaches to language change and language study are examined and compared. (MSE)

  3. African American Student Athletes' Perceptions of Career Transition in Sport: A Qualitative and Visual Elicitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, C. Keith; Lawrence, Suzanne Malia

    2003-01-01

    This study focuses on 26 African American athletes and explores their perceptions of athletic career transition. Participants consisted of student athletes from a United States National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division IIA institution in the Southeastern region. Participants completed the Life After Sports Scale (LASS), a 58-item…

  4. Computer Controlled Resonator Measurements with a 12-Liter Pyrex Sphere and a 100-Liter Titanium Sphere.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-30

    AD-A102 705 CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIV CLEVELAND 09N CASE LASS FOR--ETC F/S 20/1 COMPUTER CONTROLLED RESONATOR MEASUREMENTS WITH A 12-LITER PYRE--ETC...California P.O. Box 808 Livermore, CAlifornia Q4SO Harry Diamond Laboratories I copy Technical Library 2800 Powder Mill Road Adelphi, Maryland 20783

  5. GPUs: An Emerging Platform for General-Purpose Computation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    Supercomputing Conference 2004, 47. 3. Owens, J.; Luebke, D.; Govindaraju, N.; Harris , M.; Kruger, J.; Lefohn, A.; Purcell, T. A. Survey of General...COORDINATOR & DIRECTOR DOD DISTRIBUTED CENTER NCCOSC RDTE DIV D3603 L PARNELL 49590 LASSING ROAD SAN DIEGO CA 92152-6148 1 ASSOCIATE DIR

  6. What Military Officers Need to Know About Civil-Military Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    meaning of professional military expertise has changed since Huntington’s time. Following Harold Lass - well, Huntington referred to the expertise of...Profession,” p. 271. 47. Harry Yarger, Strategy and the National Security Professional: Strategic Thinking and Strategy Formulation in the 21st

  7. Mstack: A Lightweight Cross-Platform Benchmark for Evaluating Co-Processing Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    1Owens, J. D.; Luebke, D.; Govindaraju, N.; Harris , M.; Krüger, J.; Lefohn, A. E.; Purcell, T. J. A... LASSING RD SAN DIEGO CA 92152-6148 1 UNIV OF TENNESSEE ASSOC DIR INNOVATIVE COMPUTING LAB CMPTR SCI DEPT S MOORE 1122 VOLUNTEER

  8. Preliminary Uncorrelated Encounter Model of the National Airspace System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-26

    Finally, the authors would also like to thank Vito D. Cavallo., Ann C. Drumm, Robert D. Grappel, J. Daniel Griffith, Garrett S. Harris , Jessica E...this ordering of the nodes is already topologically sorted: the first nod(e (airspace ( lass ) is connected to all other nodes. The second node

  9. Psychometric Properties of a Suicide Screen for Adjudicated Youth in Residential Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Hudson, Kenneth; Lamis, Dorian A.; Carr, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    There is a need to efficiently and effectively screen adjudicated youth residing within the juvenile justice system for suicide proneness. Accordingly, in the current study, the psychometric properties of the Life Attitude Schedule: Short Form (LAS:S), a 24-item risk assessment for suicide proneness, were assessed using data from adjudicated youth…

  10. Localized Ambient Solidity Separation Algorithm Based Computer User Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiao; Zhang, Tongda; Chai, Yueting; Liu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Most of popular clustering methods typically have some strong assumptions of the dataset. For example, the k-means implicitly assumes that all clusters come from spherical Gaussian distributions which have different means but the same covariance. However, when dealing with datasets that have diverse distribution shapes or high dimensionality, these assumptions might not be valid anymore. In order to overcome this weakness, we proposed a new clustering algorithm named localized ambient solidity separation (LASS) algorithm, using a new isolation criterion called centroid distance. Compared with other density based isolation criteria, our proposed centroid distance isolation criterion addresses the problem caused by high dimensionality and varying density. The experiment on a designed two-dimensional benchmark dataset shows that our proposed LASS algorithm not only inherits the advantage of the original dissimilarity increments clustering method to separate naturally isolated clusters but also can identify the clusters which are adjacent, overlapping, and under background noise. Finally, we compared our LASS algorithm with the dissimilarity increments clustering method on a massive computer user dataset with over two million records that contains demographic and behaviors information. The results show that LASS algorithm works extremely well on this computer user dataset and can gain more knowledge from it. PMID:26221133

  11. Accurate Hf isotope determinations of complex zircons using the "laser ablation split stream" method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Christopher M.; Vervoort, Jeffery D.; DuFrane, S. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The "laser ablation split stream" (LASS) technique is a powerful tool for mineral-scale isotope analyses and in particular, for concurrent determination of age and Hf isotope composition of zircon. Because LASS utilizes two independent mass spectrometers, a large range of masses can be measured during a single ablation, and thus, the same sample volume can be analyzed for multiple geochemical systems. This paper describes a simple analytical setup using a laser ablation system coupled to a single-collector (for U-Pb age determination) and a multicollector (for Hf isotope analyses) inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICPMS). The ability of the LASS for concurrent Hf + age technique to extract meaningful Hf isotope compositions in isotopically zoned zircon is demonstrated using zircons from two Proterozoic gneisses from northern Idaho, USA. These samples illustrate the potential problems associated with inadvertently sampling multiple age and Hf components in zircons, as well as the potential of LASS to recover meaningful Hf isotope compositions. We suggest that such inadvertent sampling of differing age and Hf components can be a significant cause of excess scatter in Hf isotope analyses and demonstrate that the LASS approach offers a robust solution to these issues. The veracity of the approach is demonstrated by accurate analyses of 10 reference zircons with well-characterized age and Hf isotopic composition, using laser spot diameters of 30 and 40 µm. In order to expand the database of high-precision Lu-Hf isotope analyses of reference zircons, we present 27 new isotope dilution-MC-ICPMS Lu-Hf isotope measurements of five U-Pb zircon standards: FC1, Temora, R33, QGNG, and 91500.

  12. The impact of western science and technology on 'ukiyo-e' prints and book illustrations in late eighteenth and nineteenth century Japan.

    PubMed

    Low, Morris

    2011-01-01

    In the Edo period (c. 1600-1868), exposure to Western art, science and technology encouraged Japanese 'ukiyo-e' (pictures of the floating world) artists to experiment with Western perspective in woodblock prints and book illustrations. We can see its early influence in the work of Utagawa Hiroshige (1787-1858), as well as Utagawa Kuniyoshi (1797-1861). Unlike Hiroshige, Kuniyoshi lived to see the opening of the port of Yokohama to trade with the West in 1859. A whole genre of Yokohama prints emerged and one of the key artists was Utagawa Sadahide (1807-1873). In his illustrated books entitled 'Yokohama kaikō kenbunshi' (A Record of Things Seen and Heard in the Open Port of Yokohama) (1862), Sadahide plays with perspective in an effort to represent the dynamic changes that Japan was undergoing in its encounter with the West at the time. In the work of later artists such as Hiroshige III (1843-1894), Kobayashi Kiyochika (1847-1915) and Inoue Yasuji (1864-1889), we can see growing efforts to depict light, shadow and depth, and a continuing fascination with the steam locomotive and the changes occurring in the Tokyo-Yokohama region as Japan entered the Meiji period (1868-1912).

  13. A multi-frequency study of an X ray selected sample of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossan, Bruce Alan

    1992-01-01

    The LASS (Large Area Sky Survey) experiment, which flew aboard the HEAO-1 spacecraft, carried out a 2-20 keV survey of the sky during 1977-1978. The X-ray sources from this survey make up the LASS catalog (Wood et al. 1979). Optical counterparts have been identified for greater than 86 percent of the LASS sources above a flux of approx. 0.95 microns (mu)Jy Q 5 keV (Remillard 1992b). The LASS error boxes, along with the more precise positions from the Modulation Collimator (MC) X-ray experiment (also aboard HEAO-1), subsequent X-ray imaging, and optical search techniques were all used to identify the LASS sources. From these identifications, a high-latitude (absolute value of b greater than 20 deg.), flux limited (greater than or equal to 0.95 (mu)Jy) sample of 96 emission line Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) have been selected for study. The sample is referred to as the LMA (for the LASS/MC identified sample of AGN). The objective of this work is to produce multi-frequency spectra of this sample of objects, in order to determine and interpret the statistical properties of the sample over nearly the full range of observable wavelengths. Data were obtained for as much of the radio through hard X-ray (less than 20 keV) spectrum as possible for each object in the LMA. Radio, near infrared, and other measurements were taken from the literature, far IR fluxes were extracted from co-added observations from IRAS, UV spectra were obtained from the IUE archives, and original observations were performed (with the help of collaborators) in the radio, near IR, optical, UV, and X-ray to fulfill this goal. Correlation studies of the continuum bands found poor correlations of X-ray and radio flux, good correlations for 12 and 26 micron flux with X-ray flux, excellent correlations for optical and near IR fluxes with X-rays, and poor correlations of UV and X-ray fluxes. Correlation studies of the line and X-ray continuum flux yield a good correlation between the flux of (OIII), the

  14. Development of an analytical procedure to study linear alkylbenzenesulphonate (LAS) degradation in sewage sludge-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Comellas, L; Portillo, J L; Vaquero, M T

    1993-12-24

    A procedure for determining linear alkylbenzenesulphonates (LASs) in sewage sludge and amended soils has been developed. Extraction by sample treatment with 0.5 M potassium hydroxide in methanol and reflux was compared with a previously described extraction procedure in Soxhlet with methanol and solid sodium hydroxide in the sample. Repeatability results were similar with savings in extraction time, solvents and evaporation time. A clean-up method involving a C18 cartridge has been developed. Analytes were quantified by a reversed-phase HPLC method with UV and fluorescence detectors. Recoveries obtained were higher than 84%. The standing procedure was applied to high doses of sewage sludge-amended soils (15%) with increasing quantities of added LASs. Degradation data for a 116-day period are presented.

  15. Modeling Applied to Problem Solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawl, Andrew; Barrantes, Analia; Pritchard, David E.

    2009-10-01

    Modeling Applied to Problem Solving (MAPS) is a pedagogy that helps students transfer instruction to problem solving in an expert-like manner. Declarative and Procedural syllabus content is organized and learned (not discovered) as a hierarchy of General Models. Students solve problems using an explicit Problem Modeling Rubric that begins with System, Interactions and Model (S.I.M.). System and Interactions are emphasized as the key to a strategic description of the system and the identification of the appropriate General Model to apply to the problem. We have employed the pedagogy in a three-week review course for students who received a D in mechanics. The course was assessed by a final exam retest as well as pre and post C-LASS surveys, yielding a one standard deviation improvement in the students' ability to solve final exam problems and a statistically significant positive shift in 7 of the 9 categories in the C-LASS.

  16. Silicon solar cell process development, fabrication, and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoo, H. I.; Iles, P. A.; Leung, D. C.

    1981-01-01

    Work has progressed in fabrication and characterization of solar cells from ubiquitous crystallization process (UCP) wafers and LASS ribbons. Gettering tests applied to UCP wafers made little change on their performance compared with corresponding baseline data. Advanced processes such as shallow junction (SJ), back surface field (BSF), and multilayer antireflection (MLAR) were also applied. While BSF by Al paste had shunting problems, cells with SJ and BSF by evaporated Al, and MLAR did achieve 14.1% AMI on UCP silicon. The study of LASS material was very preliminary. Only a few cells with SJ, BSR, (no BSF) and MLAR were completed due to mechanical yield problems after lapping the material. Average efficiency was 10.7% AMI with 13.4% AMI for CZ controls. Relatively high minority carrier diffusion lengths were obtained. The lower than expected Jsc could be partially explained by low active area due to irregular sizes.

  17. Mobile scintillometry to study heat advection over heterogeneous surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleissl, J.

    2007-12-01

    Large Aperture Scintillometer (LAS) receivers measure the structure parameter of the refractive index from intensity fluctuations of the transmitter beam. Due to the spatial averaging over 1-4 km employed by this emerging technique the constraints for long temporal averaging (15-30 min) and associated uncertainties that have to be met by other flux measurement techniques do not apply for LASs. In this paper the constraints for temporal averaging of LASs will be examined as a function of environmental conditions and transect geometry. Moreover, analysis of data from a mobile LAS measurement across a surface gradient from rough and dry to smoother and wet will be presented. In this experiment the LAS was mounted on a pickup truck, allowing for quick redeployment of the transect after meaurement. The potential for the use of LAS to study local advection of heat in riparian or irrigated areas in the semi-arid southwest will be evaluated.

  18. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Military Testing Association (19th), 17-21 October 1977, San Antonio, Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    occupations and skill-level combinations. 2 In the 1974 PATC Sur~ ey , 84 nccupation/skill level combinations comprised te sample used to estimate Federal...officer in chirge, or director of the Class "A," "C," or "J* school at the time of registration. 6. Related Instruction. The formal and/or classroom ...physical environment ( classroom temperature, dorm sleeping facilities) but have a more positive perception of their fellow students (lass pettyI quarrels

  19. Ceramide synthases and ceramide levels are increased in breast cancer tissue.

    PubMed

    Schiffmann, Susanne; Sandner, Jessica; Birod, Kerstin; Wobst, Ivonne; Angioni, Carlo; Ruckhäberle, Eugen; Kaufmann, Manfred; Ackermann, Hanns; Lötsch, Jörn; Schmidt, Helmut; Geisslinger, Gerd; Grösch, Sabine

    2009-05-01

    Several in vitro studies have correlated dysfunction of the sphingolipid-signaling pathway with promotion of tumor cell growth as well as progression and resistance of tumors to chemotherapeutic agents. As ceramides (Cer) constitute the structural backbones of all sphingolipids, we investigated the endogenous ceramide levels in 43 malignant breast tumors and 21 benign breast biopsies and compared them with those of normal tissues using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The total ceramide levels in malignant tumor tissue samples were statistically significantly elevated when compared with normal tissue samples. Upregulation of the total ceramide level averaged 12-fold and 4-fold higher than normal tissue samples, for malignant tumors and benign tissues, respectively. Specifically, the levels of C(16:0)-Cer, C(24:1)-Cer and C(24:0)-Cer were significantly raised in malignant tumors as compared with benign and normal tissue. The augmentation of the various ceramides could be assigned to an increase of the messenger RNA levels of ceramide synthases (CerS) LASS2 (longevity assurance), LASS4 and LASS6. Notably, elevated levels of C(16:0)-Cer were associated with a positive lymph node status, indicating a metastatic potential for this ceramide. Moreover, the levels of C(18:0)-Cer and C(20:0)-Cer were significantly higher in estrogen receptor (ER) positive tumor tissues as compared with ER negative tumor tissues. In conclusion, progression in breast cancer is associated with increased ceramide levels due to an upregulation of specific LASS genes.

  20. Advanced space system analysis software. Technical, user, and programmer guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, C. E.; Zimbelman, H. F.

    1981-01-01

    The LASS computer program provides a tool for interactive preliminary and conceptual design of LSS. Eight program modules were developed, including four automated model geometry generators, an associated mass properties module, an appendage synthesizer module, an rf analysis module, and an orbital transfer analysis module. The existing rigid body controls analysis module was modified to permit analysis of effects of solar pressure on orbital performance. A description of each module, user instructions, and programmer information are included.

  1. Inference for Distributions over the Permutation Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    studied distributions over permu-tations/rankings ( Mallows , 1957; Crit hlow, 1985; Fligner & Verdu i, 1986;Taylor et al., 2008; Lebanon & Mao, 2008...on distan e based models. For ex-ample, the Mallows model ( Mallows , 1957) denes a Gaussian-like distributionover permutations as: P (σ; c, σ0) ∝ exp...partially ranked) data based onpla ing weighted Mallows kernels on top of training examples, whi h, as theyshow, an realize a far ri her lass of

  2. Operational Handbook: Working Amongst Different Cultures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    three services have their own sub- cultures. 102 Culture is a complex entanglement of values , beliefs and assumptions, many of which are taken for...culture as the reference point for interpretation of other cultures and therefore misinterpret the values , beliefs, behaviours and norms of their...accept standards, values or expectations that are disconcerting (such as poverty, corruption or the poor treatment of women and children). Unc lass i

  3. Product Assurance. Operational Quality Assurance. Wideband Radio Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-20

    Worksheet ............ * .......... G. -30 B-3 Troposcatter Transmission Lass Worksheet ...... -31 B-4 Rough Earth Diffraction Worksheet ..... 4*06 B... Earth Diffraction Worksheet ................ B-51 3-11 Knife Edge Diffraction Worksheet ............. 0. B-53 B1-12 Optimum Noise Graph...Charles Volkland, Telephony Magazine, September 1972. James G. Biddle Co. "Getting Down To Earth ", Booklet 25T, 1970. Hewlett-Packard Co. "Noise Figure

  4. Simultaneous in situ determination of U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotopes in monazite by laser ablation ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudie, Dylan J.; Fisher, Christopher M.; Hanchar, John M.; Crowley, James L.; Ayers, John C.

    2014-06-01

    are presented for in situ simultaneous determination of U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotopes in monazite using the Laser Ablation Split-Stream (LASS) method. This method uses a laser ablation system coupled to a magnetic-sector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR) (ICP-MS) for measuring U-Pb isotopes and a multicollector (MC) ICP-MS for measuring Sm-Nd isotopes. Ablated material is split using a Y-connector and transported simultaneously to both mass spectrometers. In addition to Sm and Nd isotopes, the MC-ICP-MS is configured to also acquire Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, and Gd elemental abundances. This approach provides age, tracer isotope, and trace element data in the same ablation volume, reducing sampling problems associated with fine-scale zoning in accessory minerals and minimizing the material needed for ablation. Precision and accuracy of the U-Pb method (and the precision of the Sm-Nd method) is demonstrated with results from well-characterized monazite reference materials. The LASS results agree within uncertainty with the isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) U-Pb dates. The accuracy of the Sm-Nd method is assessed by comparing the LA-MC-ICP-MS results with ID-TIMS determinations on a well-characterized, in-house monazite reference material. The LASS method is then applied to monazite from the Birch Creek Pluton in the White Mountains of California as a case study to illustrate the utility of this method for solving geologic problems. The U-Pb ages and Sm-Nd isotopic data from the LASS method support the conclusions drawn from previous results that monazite can record timing and information about the source region(s) of hydrothermal fluids.

  5. The synthesis and thermochemical study of (Mg,Fe)3Si2O5(OH)4 nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogorodova, L. P.; Kiseleva, I. A.; Korytkova, E. N.; Maslennikova, T. P.; Gusarov, V. V.

    2010-01-01

    Nanotubular (Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)3Si2O5(OH)4 hydrosilicates with a chrysotile structure were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The phases prepared were studied thermochemically on a high-temperature Tian-Calvet microcalorimeter by solution calorimetry. The standard enthalpies of formation of magnesium-iron nanotubular hydrosilicates were determined. The formation of iron-containing nanotubes was shown to be lass favorable energetically than the formation of magnesium nanotubes.

  6. Interior Temperature Measurements on XM650E4 RA Projectiles at Yuma Proving Ground in June 1976

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-04-01

    by other aut~horized documnts. ?h* u** of" taub a~m* or xamfeftm me in thiu m~portr doe wt otiouue i,~embwn of my mvi pr*4w¢. I1 - -’ I UNC LASS IF IED...A. Hodapp, Jr. Albuquerque, NM 87115 Commander US Army Harry Diamond Labs 1 Arnold Research Organization,Inc. ATTN: DRXDO-TI ATTN: Aerodynamics

  7. JPRS Report, West Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    products by modern means. Many passers-by could not believe their eyes when they saw in the window of the bookstore among the Soviet books Lasse ...addition to the nonaligned and Swedish People’s Party members, there is one Conservative Party member, Prime Minister Harri Holkeri, as an ornament. No...instead of consist- ing of the leftwing and center parties, was formed under the leadership of Harri Holkeri and included the Con- servative Party

  8. High-Performance Synthetic Fibers for Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    required wastewater treatment . In short, this new process can easily produce the current standard high-quality precursor fiber, but it also has the...FMI Composites LTD); Formation of fibergLass\\preform for composite coupling shaft; Undulating ribbon structure of graphene layers for a PAN-based c...ongoing research and development in areas that are of general importance to fiber science and technology (surface properties and treatments , fiber-matrix

  9. Open cherry picker simulation results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathan, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    The simulation program associated with a key piece of support equipment to be used to service satellites directly from the Shuttle is assessed. The Open Cherry Picker (OCP) is a manned platform mounted at the end of the remote manipulator system (RMS) and is used to enhance extra vehicular activities (EVA). The results of simulations performed on the Grumman Large Amplitude Space Simulator (LASS) and at the JSC Water Immersion Facility are summarized.

  10. A Flight Investigation of Digital Control Using Microprocessor Technology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    DISPLAYS COTOSE IRF MOTIONS I I T EALATIONl PILOT FEPERIANTAL. Figure 3-2. Overview of the VRA/Micro- DFCS System. mechanical linkage connecting to the...April 1979 CELEC T E D 1 .... 3 OCT 23 1980 DISTRIBUTIOD Sor . D : - U Approved for public . Distribution Uniirnitcd - UNC LASS SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...CLASSIFICATION OF Ywl PAGE(IWhen Data Enterod) ABSTRACT A microprocessor-based digital flight control system (Micro- DFCS ) is implemented in Princeton’s

  11. fMRI evidence for word association and situated simulation in conceptual processing.

    PubMed

    Simmons, W Kyle; Hamann, Stephan B; Harenski, Carla L; Hu, Xiaoping P; Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2008-01-01

    The LASS theory proposes that Language and Situated Simulation both play central roles in conceptual processing. Depending on stimuli and task conditions, different mixtures of language and simulation occur. When a word is processed in a conceptual task, it first activates other linguistic forms, such as word associates. More slowly, the word activates a situated simulation to represent its meaning in neural systems for perception, action, and mental states. An fMRI experiment tested the LASS account. In a first scanning session, participants performed the property generation task to provide a measure of conceptual processing. In a second scanning session a week later, participants performed two localizer tasks measuring word association and situated simulation. Conjunction analyses supported predictions of the LASS theory. Activations early in conceptual processing overlapped with activations for word association. Activations late in conceptual processing overlapped with activations for situation generation. These results, along with others in the literature, indicate that conceptual processing uses multiple representations, not one. Furthermore, researchers must be careful drawing conclusions about conceptual processing, given that different paradigms are likely to produce different mixtures of language and simulation. Whereas some paradigms produce high levels of linguistic processing and low levels of simulation, other paradigms produce the opposite pattern.

  12. Mapping gray-scale image to 3D surface scanning data by ray tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Jones, Peter R. M.

    1997-03-01

    The extraction and location of feature points from range imaging is an important but difficult task in machine vision based measurement systems. There exist some feature points which are not able to be detected from pure geometric characteristics, particularly in those measurement tasks related to the human body. The Loughborough Anthropometric Shadow Scanner (LASS) is a whole body surface scanner based on structured light technique. Certain applications of LASS require accurate location of anthropometric landmarks from the scanned data. This is sometimes impossible from existing raw data because some landmarks do not appear in the scanned data. Identification of these landmarks has to resort to surface texture of the scanned object. Modifications to LASS were made to allow gray-scale images to be captured before or after the object was scanned. Two-dimensional gray-scale image must be mapped to the scanned data to acquire the 3D coordinates of a landmark. The method to map 2D images to the scanned data is based on the colinearity conditions and ray-tracing method. If the camera center and image coordinates are known, the corresponding object point must lie on a ray starting from the camera center and connecting to the image coordinate. By intersecting the ray with the scanned surface of the object, the 3D coordinates of a point can be solved. Experimentation has demonstrated the feasibility of the method.

  13. Programmed cell death genes are linked to elevated creatine kinase levels in unhealthy male nonagenarians

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangkyu; Simon, Eric; Myers, Leann; Hamm, L. Lee; Jazwinski, S. Michal

    2016-01-01

    Declining health in the oldest-old takes an energy toll for simple maintenance of body functions. The underlying mechanisms, however, differ in males and females. In females, the declines are explained by loss of muscle mass, but this is not the case in males in whom they are associated with increased levels of circulating creatine kinase. This relationship raises the possibility that muscle damage rather than muscle loss is the cause of the increased energy demands of unhealthy aging in males. We have now examined factors that contribute to the increase in creatine kinase. Much of it (60%) can be explained by a history of cardiac problems and lower kidney function, while being mitigated by moderate physical activity, reinforcing the notion that tissue damage is a likely source. In a search for genetic risk factors associated with elevated creatine kinase, the Ku70 gene XRCC6 and the ceramide synthase gene LASS1 were investigated because of their roles in telomere length and longevity and healthy aging, respectively. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in these two genes were independently associated with creatine kinase levels. The XRCC6 variant was epistatic to one of the LASS1 variants but not to the other. These gene variants have potential regulatory activity. Ku70 is an inhibitor of the pro-apoptotic Bax, while the product of Lass1, ceramide, operates in both caspase-dependent and independent pathways of programmed cell death, providing a potential cellular mechanism for the effects of these genes on tissue damage and circulating creatine kinase. PMID:26913518

  14. Comparing liquid-fuel costs: grain alcohol versus sunflower oil

    SciTech Connect

    Reining, R.C.; Tyner, W.E.

    1983-08-01

    This paper compares the technical and economic feasibility of small-scale production of fuel grade grain alcohol with sunflower oil. Three scales of ethanol and sunflower oil production are modeled, and sensitivity analysis is conducted for various operating conditions and costs. The general conclusion is that sunflower oil costs lass to produce than 'Lcohol. Government subsidies for alcohol, but not sunflower oil, could cause adoption of more expensive alcohol in place of cheaper sunflower oil. However, neither sunflower oil nor alcohol are competitive with diesel fuel. 7 references, 6 tables

  15. Dynamical Properties of Solar Current Loops with Line-Tied Footprints: Effects of Toroidal Forces.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-25

    this (lass nf equilibria properly satisfies the requirements of the Viria theo em (SIat I r l ’ I QI1 1 ). B. Dynamica I Inst abi lity In this soc t...W. and Burlaga, L. F. 1982, J. Geophys. Res., 87, 613. Landau, L. D. and Lifshitz, E. M. 1959, Fluid Mechanics,. Pergamon Pies Inc., New York, P. 331... Fluid Dynamics, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, P. 29. Van Tend, W. 1979, Solar Phys. , 61, 8’. Webb, D. F., Cheng, C.-C., Dulk, G. A., Edherg, S.J

  16. Analysis of Air Breathing Hall-Effect Thruster (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    for public release; dlistribution is unlimited 1 n; = ion number density npl = number density of plasma p electric power put. imo the discharge...thruster chamber. Since the third assumption of the model is that the plasma is quasineutral, in Eq. (18) in the expression for je we have used npl ...lo:ts lass 7t · Cro - ~’u ) · e · npl · V ,?,drift + e · ngus · Vo · ffJ = Ewall + Ejer + Ea,od~ , (22) where the left-hand side of Eq. (22) is the

  17. Short Pulse Nd: YAG Laser for Optical Fuze Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    guidance systems or optical communications links. The primary concern of this work was optical proximity fuze systems, so the Nd:YAG laser system has been...AD-A099 042 HARRY DIAMOND LASS AOELPMI MO F/6 19/1 SHORT PULSE NO: YAG LASER FOR OPTICAL FUZE APPLICATIONS.(U) FEB 81 R WELLMAN, 4 NEMARICH...Subtitle) S TYPE OF I IPoRT & PERIOD COVERED Short Pulse Nd:YAG Laser for Optical Fuze Applications& _Technical t .,-Itp -PERFORMING OR;5. REPO*T NIUBER

  18. Molecular Mechanisms of Cytopathogenicity of Primate Lymphotropic Retroviruses: Relevance to Treatment and Vaccine for AIDS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-28

    A-A191 992 MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF CYTOPATHGNIT OFPIMT LYMPHOTROPIC RETROVI (U) BIOTECH RESEARCH LASS INC :OCKVILLEMD M M MANAK ET AL 28 OCT 87...TREATMENT AND VACCINE FOR AIDS ~Annual Report ’ JCovering the Period 9/29/86 to 9/28/87 by4 SMark M . Manak and Linda L. Jagodzinski i! October 28, 1987...Treatment and Vaccine for AIDS 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Manak, Mark M . and Linda L. Jagodzinski 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 114. DATE OF REPORT

  19. Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) Environment Issues.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    unc lass if ied la SU- R TY CASSCiCATION AuVIHORTv I O’ST IUTION’AVAiLAI~iTY OF REPORT D(I.-%S)J CAfOPY DO*NILRAONG SCMIDULE Approved for public release...distribution is unl imited. 4 :1 QF0RVCN6 ORGAN ZA~iON REPORr N’MIRS) S MONITOING ORGANZATON R (PQ.Rt NUVOER(Sg 6a %AVE :5 PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 6o...E~rern F) environments are one solution being pursued. This thesisz attempts t,)calse from various efforts to date, some general princ:iples : r s7uch

  20. 100 Companies Receiving the Largest Dollar Volume of Prime Contract Awards, FY 1976

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-22

    Construction 4 r. +2 Petroleum 15 13 -2 Subsistence 1 1 - All Other 1 1 - -, During fiscal year 1976, seven companies. received prime contract awards...T R W INC 39. GENERAL TELEPHONE # ELECTRNCS CORP 2S. TELEDYNE INC 50o. GENERAL TIRE + RUBBER CO 13 . TENNECO INC 49. GOODYEAR TIRE + RUBBER CO 94...INTERNATIONAL CORP 965991 ADMIRAL CORP 13 TOTAL 965,99S4 2.30 31.46 it. HUJGHES AIRCRAFT CO 860,770 HUGH4ES RESEARCH LASS. 66’. SANTA BARBARA RESEARCH

  1. Large Space Structure Charging during Eclipse Passage.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-15

    ADDRESS(It different fron Controllng Olfc1 ) IS. SECURITY ::LASS (of In$. report) Unclassified IS.. DE’.LASSIFICATION ’DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE 16 ...as a Function of Vmax, the Eclipse Potential 15 10. Ohmic Power Loss in Solar Power Satellite as a Function of Resistivity 16 Tables 1. Space Plasma...total drop between the ends of the structure 6V. The high-resistance curve is nearly linear, owing to the fact 12 - pHo 4 X10- 6 A/M 2 DA1.0 16 800

  2. Construction of Experimental Roofing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    Asphalt Built-Up Roofing -- Initial Physical Properties 31 FIGURES 1 Building Selected for Test Roofing at Fort Lewis 16 2 Building Selected for EPDM and...Characteristics A. h : t A1 t ’ I tPnsthat t &t tAJoi. Asphalt Abl I’ IL’ lio,h tcs-,wn t , sablmh thatiP, ,, ¢lltr,.~ un, t t ’ " nrru (lass mat A!CtM p...surface over two courses of 1-1/4-in.- (32-mm)- thick wood fiberboard insulation set in an asphalt floodcoat on a sloping concrete roof deck. The

  3. Medical Device Recalls: Examination of Selected Cases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    accelerator Device class: 2 Medical specialty: Radiology Brand: Therac - 25 Linear Accelerator Use: Used in clinical (cancer) radiotherapy Premarketing...design recalls.- As wouldl Ne exp~ected, becaulse all (lass 8 (high-risk) dev.ices require prenmarket ap)1O1lmtSt PNMA-dCSigfl r-ecalls ( 25 , or 89...Table 11.4 PMA-Design Recalls by Device Class, Fiscal Years 1983-88 No. oi Device class recalls Percent 2 (medium risk) 3 1 100 3 (high risk) 25 89

  4. Evaluation of Military Field-Water Quality. Volume 7. Performance Evaluation of the 600-GPH Reverse Osmosis Water Purification Unit (ROWPU): reverse Osmosis (RO) Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    Data-for ASsessingHealthRISKS In Potential Theaters ~ of Operation forU,5. Mil-itary._orces. Jf-jr cLAss t:cAToN 9; r-.$ ’AGg UNCLASSIFIED Volume 7...Bypass, Potable-Water Disinfection,_ and Water-Quality Analysis Techniques; and Vol. 9, Data for Assessing Health Risks in Potential Theaters of Operation ...cleaning the RO elements, with objectives of improving solute rejection and reducing operating pressure. The most common method is to flush citric acid

  5. Resolution of a Rank-Deficient Adjustment Model Via an Isomorphic Geometrical Setup with Tensor Structure.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    AFGL,-TR-87-0102 4. TITLE (ad Subtile) S . TYPE Of REPORT & ERIOD COVERED RESOLUTION OF A RANK-DEFICIENT ADJUSTMENT MODEL Final Report. VIA AN...transformation of multiple integrals. i IVnc’lass it i cd e- S CURITY C1 AIrIC ATIOIN O f THIS PAG P .𔃻 ’ FnI.f* d) TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i...associated metric tensor is then given as g = krIs +jrs r ... + s + while the necessary associated metric tensor is -4 grs =ars jr s ’g = +jj 4 .... where

  6. Digital Screening and Halftone Techniques for Raster Processing,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-14

    I 7 A)-AO81 090 ARMY ENGINEER TOPOGRAPH4IC LASS FORT Bs.voiR VA 161/ OIGITAL SCREENING ANO HALFTONE TECNNIOUIES FOR RASTER PROCLPSINM-.TC(U) JAN GO R... HALFTONE TECHNIQUES 0FOR RASTER PROCESSING BY RICHARD L. ROSENTHAL DTIC FEB 𔃼 7 1980 W.A Approved for public release; distribution unlimited AU...creening and halftone techniques forlt -rastei’ processing ~ A 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTNOP-r- S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(*) c*t- Ri chard

  7. Spectroscopy of the D-wave qq¯ system; evidence for two JP=2- strange meson states decaying to K-ω*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratcliff, B. N.; Aston, D.; Awaji, N.; Bienz, T.; Bird, F.; D'Amore, J.; Dunwoodie, W.; Endorf, R.; Fujii, K.; Hayashii, H.; Iwata, S.; Johnson, W. B.; Kajikawa, R.; Kunz, P.; Kwon, Y.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Levinson, L.; Matsui, T.; Meadows, B. T.; Miyamoto, A.; Nussbaum, M.; Ozaki, H.; Pak, C. O.; Rensing, P.; Schultz, D.; Shapiro, S.; Shimomura, T.; Sinervo, P. K.; Sugiyama, A.; Suzuki, S.; Tauchi, T.; Toge, N.; Ukai, K.; Waite, A.; Williams, S.

    1992-02-01

    Evidence is presented for two JP=2- strange mesons; one at ˜1.77 and the other at ˜1.82 GeV/mathc2. These states have been observed in a partial wave analysis of the K-ω system in the reaction K-p→K-π+π-π0p where the strange mesons decay into K-ω and the ω then decays to π+π-π0. The data set contains ˜105 K-ωp events at 11 GeV/c taken with the LASS spectrometer at SLAC.

  8. The κ resonance in s wave πK scatterings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, H. Q.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Qin, G. Y.; Xiao, Z. G.; Wang, J. J.; Wu, N.

    2004-03-01

    A new unitarization approach incorporated with chiral symmetry is established and applied to study the πK elastic scatterings. We demonstrate that the κ resonance exists, if the scattering length parameter in the I=1/2, J=0 channel does not deviate much from its value predicted by chiral perturbation theory. The mass and width of the κ resonance is found to be Mκ=594±79 MeV, Γκ=724±332 MeV, obtained by fitting the LASS data up to 1430 MeV. Better determination to the pole parameters is possible if the chiral predictions on scattering lengths are taken into account.

  9. Systems design and analysis of the microwave radiometer spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, L. B.

    1981-01-01

    Systems design and analysis data were generated for microwave radiometer spacecraft concept using the Large Advanced Space Systems (LASS) computer aided design and analysis program. Parametric analyses were conducted for perturbations off the nominal-orbital-altitude/antenna-reflector-size and for control/propulsion system options. Optimized spacecraft mass, structural element design, and on-orbit loading data are presented. Propulsion and rigid-body control systems sensitivities to current and advanced technology are established. Spacecraft-induced and environmental effects on antenna performance (surface accuracy, defocus, and boresight off-set) are quantified and structured material frequencies and modal shapes are defined.

  10. Evidence for two JP = 2 - strange meson states in the K2 (1770) region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aston, D.; Bienz, T.; Bird, F.; Dunwoodie, W.; Johnson, W.; Kunz, P.; Kwon, Y.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Levinson, L.; Ratcliff, B.; Rensing, P.; Schultz, D.; Shapiro, S.; Sinervo, P.; Tarnopolsky, G.; Toge, N.; Waite, A.; Williams, S.; Awaji, N.; Fujii, K.; Hayashii, H.; Iwata, S.; Kajikawa, R.; Matsui, T.; Miyamoto, A.; Ozaki, H.; Pak, C.; Shimomura, T.; Sugiyama, A.; Suzuki, S.; Tauchi, T.; D'Amore, J.; Endorf, R.; Martinez, J.; Meadows, B.; Nussbaum, M.; Ukai, K.

    1993-06-01

    Evidence is presented for two JP=2 - strange mesons; one at ∼ 1.77 GeV/ c2 and the other at ∼ 1.82 GeV/ c2. These states have been observed in a partial wave analysis of the Kω system in the reaction K-p→ K-π+π-π0p where the strange mesons decay into K-ω and the ω then decays to π+π-π0. The data set contains ∼ 10 5Kωp events at 11 GeV/ c taken by the LASS spectrometer at SLAC.

  11. Lengthy Ultrahigh-Pressure Metamorphism demonstrated by laser ablation split-stream ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kylander-Clark, A. R.; Hacker, B. R.; Ginsburg, A. A.; Spencer, K.

    2011-12-01

    There is much disagreement about the maximum duration of ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) events. Some have argued for >20 Myr timescales based on geochronology, whereas others have countered that such conclusions are unsound because of the likelihood of inherited age components or because the long reach of thermal conduction is likely to induce melting and assimilation of the UHP terrane into the mantle. To assess these two possibilities we analyzed accessory minerals from eclogites and HP gneisses in the Western Gneiss Region of Norway using laser ablation split-stream (LASS) ICP-MS. LASS allows concurrent collection of trace, rare-earth element (REE), and U-Th-Pb data to directly link metamorphic conditions with the age of each spot analysis. Zircons from eclogite yield garnet-stable U-Pb ages (as shown by depressed HREE signatures) from as early as ~450 Ma, to as late as ~400 Ma; the bulk of these ages span 425-402 Ma. Monazites from grt-ky gneisses yield U-Pb and Th-Pb ages from 425-386 Ma and HREE, Eu*, Y and Sr contents that imply garnet growth and feldspar breakdown from 425-405 Ma, similar to the data of eclogite zircons. Monazite ages younger than 400 Ma contain elevated HREE and lower Sr contents, implying garnet breakdown and feldspar growth. The age and element data of the youngest, retrograde monazites are consistent with zircon LASS data from late-stage leucosomes, dikes, and stocks, which have U-Pb ages of 407-392 Ma and elevated HREEs. Titanite data complement the late-stage, garnet-poor zircon and monazite ages (~400-380 Ma), indicating up to 20 Myr of exhumation from the most profound depths. In summary, these LASS data force the interpretation that subduction of the Baltica craton was well underway by 425 Ma and reached its maximum depth prior to the onset of exhumation and rise to amphibolite-facies depths at ~405 Ma. Exhumation, melting, and metamorphic growth continued through at least 386 Ma.

  12. Four-quark and hybrid mixing in the light-quark vector sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnachie, A.; Kalashnikova, Yu. S.

    1993-12-01

    The data on e + e - annihilation are shown to be incompatible with an interpretation of the observed vector mesons asqbar q excitations. It is necessary to consider mixing with somenon - qbar q system. Two specific models are considered: either four-quark states or hybrid states mixing with the conventional quark-antiquark excitations. Both models are compatible with the present e + e - annihilation data. It is possible to incorporate the 1.3 GeV J PC =1-- state seen by LASS in the ππ channel in the four-quark model, but this is not possible with the hybrid model.

  13. Instrumentation and Software for the Collection Analysis, and Interpretation of Eye Movement Data During Reading.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    comzoosed of both tetand aict-ures. Also des cribes a procedure -or collecting eve-movement: DD cjcNś 1473 EDITION OF I NOV 55 15 OBSOLETE Unc lass ifiec...ficerUniversity of California at San Diego Naval Research Laboratory La Jolla, CA 92093 Code 2627 Wahington, DC 20390 LT Steven 0. Harris , MSC, USN Code 5021...Medical Research Laborat Alexandria.VA 22333 Pensacola, FL 32508 1 DR. FRANK J. HARRIS U.S. ARMY RESEARCH 4ISTITUTE 1 Dr. Gary Poock 5001 EISENHOWER AVENUE

  14. Software Technology for Adaptable Reliable Systems (STARS) Joint Task Force Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-15

    34 NCASIFE 4 * ~~SIN 6162 -0618 -ŝ SCCUOUT? LASS8FlCAT@IO0 THIS PASShII . 0 am * SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY FOR ADAPTABLE, RELIABLE SYSTEMS (STARS) JOINT TASK...Following the workshop, the Task Force concentrated on producing the final set of documents (see Section 4 ! 0 for a complete list). Revisions were...Lafayette, LA. 7(504’ Jack C. Wileden Univ. of Mass. 115 Pelham Road Amherst, MA. 01002 9 4 ° /, * -.. r*• 4 0 DOCUMENTS PRODUCED The following documents are

  15. Severe Weather Guide - Mediterranean Ports - 24. Cartagena

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    number) This handbook for the port of Cartagena, one in a series of severe weather guides for Mediterranean ports, provides decision-making guidance for... handbook is organized in four sections for ready reference: general guidance on handbook content and use; a quick-look captain’s summary; a more...34 R - 8 8 - RC (20) Un c lass i -f i ed rep or t DE (23) *PORTS, (FACILITIES), *1A|EA! HER, HANDBOOKS , HAZARDS, riED I 1 ::;;.;■ :H.:i:;;.HN EiEA

  16. Icing of Aircraft and Means of Combatting It,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-05

    where the tuicfAess of ice achieved 25O mm, and also lateral glass of flight WdCK. FOut/leadling q;lass remained free fromr ice. Unheated leading wing...with ice with a thickness of 30-35 mm, the width cf cai~tuirc b~a 150-200 mm. on the frames ot four front/leading glass of COC~piV_ wa formad the layer...then the anti-icing liquid, which enters, for example, to frontal glass of cockpit, dt d sutticient rate of its supply, simply washes off the settling

  17. On the Feasibility of Creating a Comparable Database for Nonrecurring Cost Analysis under Dual Source Competition.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    cost drives were identified. li 20 TRd T ON/’ AVAILASILiTY OF AISTRACT 21 ABSTRACT SECuRIY’ (AiSi(.AION l".(LASS-41DiINLITED 0 SAVE AS PT Q T( ) SFRS ...database of nonrecurr- Ing costs for parametric analysis. OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT The objective of the project is to examine the nature of 1Dan C...COST ESTIMATION Cost estimation is a projection into the future from a database compiled from past experiences. Accuracy of the projection depends on

  18. There is no /κ(900)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, S. N.; Pennington, M. R.

    2001-06-01

    In the I=0 sector there are more scalar mesons than can fit in one q overlineq nonet. Consequently, many have claimed that there is in fact more than one multiplet, perhaps both q overlineq and qq overlineqq. Such proposals require the existence of at least two strange isodoublets (and their antiparticles). The current PDG tables list just one state, the K ∗0(1430) , while fits to data with Breit-Wigner forms and variable backgrounds can accommodate a κ(900), too. Whether a state exists in the spectrum of hadrons is not a matter of ability to fit data along the real energy axis, but is completely specified by the number of poles in the complex energy plane. Here we perform as model-independent an analytic continuation of the LASS πK scattering results between 825 MeV and 2 GeV as presently possible to determine the number and position of resonance poles. We find that there is a K ∗0(1430) , but noκ(900). The LASS data cannot rule out the possibility of a very low mass κ well below 825 MeV.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The HEAO A-1 X-Ray Source Catalog (Wood+, 1984)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, K. S.; Meekins, J. F.; Yentis, D. J.; Smathers, H. W.; McNutt, D. P.; Bleach, R. D.; Byram, E. T.; Chubb, T. A.; Friedman, H.; Meidav, M.

    1995-05-01

    The primary objective of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Large Area Sky Survey Experiment (LASS) flown aboard the HEAO 1 satellite was to conduct an all-sky survey for the brightest X-ray sources in the energy range 0.25 to 25 keV. The instrumentation consisted of an array of large proportional counter modules with collimators of varying fields of view and with sufficient sensitivity to detect sources as faint as 0.25 mu.Jy at 5 keV, assuming a Crab-like spectrum (1.1 muJy at 5 keV = 1 UFU for a Crab-like spectrum). Full sky coverage was achieved in the first 6 months of the mission by continuously scanning great circles perpendicular to the Earth-Sun line. The HEAO A-1 catalog results from the 6-month survey and, thus, covers the whole sky. For additional information concerning the NRL LASS instrument, the data analysis procedures, characteristics and limitations of the source data, and a discussion of X-ray source classes, the source publication should be consulted. (1 data file).

  20. Strange Meson Spectroscopy in Kaon Omega and Kaon Phi at 11 Gev/c and Cherenkov Ring Imaging at SLD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Youngjoon

    This thesis consists two independent parts; development of Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector (CRID) system and analysis of high-statistics data of strange meson reactions from the LASS spectrometer. The CRID system is devoted to charged particle identification in the SLAC Large Detector (SLD) to study e+e- collisions at m(z0). By measuring the angles of emission of the Cherenkov photons inside liquid and gaseous radiators, pi/K/p separation will be achieved up to 30 GeV/c. The results from the engineering run and initial physics run of the CRID in the SLD experiment show that the CRID hardware performs well and produces Cherenkov rings. The results from partial wave analysis of strange meson final states in the Komega and Kphi system are presented. The analyses are based on data from a 4.1 events/nb exposure of the LASS spectrometer in K^-p interactions at 11 GeV/c. Resonance structures of J^{rm P} = 2^-, 3^-, and 2^+ amplitudes are observed in the Kw system. An evidence for two J^ {rm P} = 2^- strange meson states is observed. The 3^ - signal is observed for the first time. The K phi system favors J^ {rm P} = 1^- and 2^+ states in the 1.9-2.0 GeV/c ^2 region.

  1. Progress in UWB generation with linear silicon switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardwell, Kendall W.; Giorgi, David M.; McIntyre, Iain A.; Solone, Paul J.; Stuurman, K.; Zucker, Oved S. F.

    1993-06-01

    The use of linear photoconductive switches rather than nonlinear switches for the generation of Ultra-Wide-Band (UWB) pulses provides advantages such as jitter-free operation, low losses, and a reduction of the electrical and mechanical stresses in the switch. These advantages lead to the operation of many switches in series and/or parallel, higher average powers and longer lifetimes. Energy Compression Research Corporation (ECR) has demonstrated an advanced UWB source based on light activated silicon switches (LASS). The UWB source consists of a single LASS device mounted on a low impedance (< 0.5 (Omega) ) microstrip transmission line and a high fidelity impedance transformer connected to a 50 (Omega) coaxial connection. The voltage was measured at low impedance and 50 (Omega) to verify the efficiency and fidelity of the impedance transformer. After a transformation of 110:1 in impedance, the measurement at the end of the transformer verified that pulse rise-time was less than 100 ps and the overall efficiency was 50%. The system was tested up to 10 kV into 50 (Omega) before connector breakdown limited further increase. Larger powers can be radiated if the transformer is directly connected to the antenna.

  2. Open control/display system for a telerobotics work station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keslowitz, Saul

    1987-01-01

    A working Advanced Space Cockpit was developed that integrated advanced control and display devices into a state-of-the-art multimicroprocessor hardware configuration, using window graphics and running under an object-oriented, multitasking real-time operating system environment. This Open Control/Display System supports the idea that the operator should be able to interactively monitor, select, control, and display information about many payloads aboard the Space Station using sets of I/O devices with a single, software-reconfigurable workstation. This is done while maintaining system consistency, yet the system is completely open to accept new additions and advances in hardware and software. The Advanced Space Cockpit, linked to Grumman's Hybrid Computing Facility and Large Amplitude Space Simulator (LASS), was used to test the Open Control/Display System via full-scale simulation of the following tasks: telerobotic truss assembly, RCS and thermal bus servicing, CMG changeout, RMS constrained motion and space constructible radiator assembly, HPA coordinated control, and OMV docking and tumbling satellite retrieval. The proposed man-machine interface standard discussed has evolved through many iterations of the tasks, and is based on feedback from NASA and Air Force personnel who performed those tasks in the LASS.

  3. Velocities of auroral coherent echoes at 12 and 144 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koustov, A. V.; Danskin, D. W.; Uspensky, M. V.; Ogawa, T.; Janhunen, P.; Nishitani, N.; Nozawa, S.; Lester, M.; Milan, S.

    2002-10-01

    Two Doppler coherent radar systems are currently working at Hankasalmi, Finland, the STARE and CUTLASS radars operating at ~144 MHz and ~12 MHz, respectively. The STARE beam 3 is nearly co-located with the CUTLASS beam 5, providing an opportunity for echo velocity comparison along the same direction but at significantly different radar frequencies. In this study we consider an event when STARE radar echoes are detected at the same ranges as CUT-LASS radar echoes. The observations are complemented by EISCAT measurements of the ionospheric electric field and electron density behaviour at one range of 900 km. Two separate situations are studied; for the first one, CUTLASS observed F-region echoes (including the range of the EIS-CAT measurements), while for the second one CUTLASS observed E-region echoes. In both cases STARE E-region measurements were available. We show that F-region CUT-LASS velocities agree well with the convection component along the CUTLASS radar beam, while STARE velocities are typically smaller by a factor of 2 3. For the second case, STARE velocities are found to be either smaller or larger than CUTLASS velocities, depending on the range. Plasma physics of E-and F-region irregularities is discussed in attempt to explain the inferred relationship between various velocities. Special attention is paid to ionospheric refraction that is important for the detection of 12-MHz echoes.

  4. Single Electron Detection for SLD Crid and Multi - Spectroscopy in Negative Kaon Proton Interactions at 11 Gev/c

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rensing, Paul Elliot

    This thesis consists of two independent parts: development of single electron detectors and a pulse finding algorithm for the Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector (CRID) for the SLD Detector at SLAC; and the analyses of unflavored, light quark meson systems using data from the LASS Spectrometer. The CRID sections describe the design, construction, and testing of the multi-wire-proportional chambers used to measure all three co-ordinates of the conversion of UV Cherenkov photons into single electrons in the CRID drift boxes. The detectors use charge division to measure one of the co-ordinates and were carefully designed and built to provide 1 mm resolution. The software algorithm used for CRID to determine the co-ordinates of signals in the digitized data is also described. The algorithm uses knowledge of the fixed pulse shape to deconvolve the amplifier shape from the data, providing good single pulse resolution and excellent double pulse separation. The spectroscopic analyses are based on data from a 4.1 (nb)^{-1} exposure of the LASS Spectrometer in K^-p interactions at 11 GeV/c. The channels Lambda pi^{+}pi^{-} and Lambdapi^{+ }pi^{-}pi^0 are studied in detail. Brief surveys of Lambda pi^{+}pi^{-} pi^{+}pi^{-} and Lambdapi^{+ }pi^{-}pi^{+ }pi^{-}pi^0 are presented. A partial wave analysis of the pi ^{+}pi^{-} system in the Lambdapi^{+ }pi^{-} channel provides evidence for a spin 1 resonance at about 1.3 GeV/c ^2. A fit of this new state, the rho(1300), gives a mass of 1290_sp {-30}{+20}MeV/c^2 and a width of 120_sp{-50} {+60}MeV/c^2. The elasticity of the rho(1300) is estimated as ~5%. Some evidence of rho(1690) production is seen in the pi^{+}pi^{-} system. A partial wave analysis of the pi ^{-}pi^{0} system produced against a backward-going Sigma ^+(1385) in Lambdapi ^{+}pi^{-}pi ^0 again shows evidence of rho (1300) production, with parameters consistent with the pi^{+}pi^ {-} analysis. The examinations of the 4 pion mass spectra in Lambdapi^{+}pi ^{-}pi

  5. High-spatial-resolution isotope geochemistry of monazite (U-Pb & Sm-Nd) and zircon (U-Pb & Lu-Hf) in the Old Woman and North Piute Mountains, Mojave Desert, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Stacy E.; Hanchar, John M.; Miller, Calvin F.; Fisher, Christopher M.; Lancaster, Penny J.; Darling, James R.

    2014-05-01

    Recent improvements in analytical capabilities allow us to reveal details of magmatic processes at an increasingly finer spatial and temporal scale. In situ analyses of the isotopic and trace element composition of accessory minerals at the sub-grain scale have proven to be effective tools for solving a wide range of geological problems. This study presents new data on accessory minerals including monazite & zircon, examined by in situ LA-ICP-MS and Laser Ablation Split Stream (LASS) techniques, analyzing multiple isotopic systems (U-Pb + Sm-Nd, and U-Pb + Lu-Hf in monazite and zircon, respectively) in order to track geochemical changes over time through a magmatic system. The late Cretaceous granitoids of the Old Woman Mountains in the Mojave Desert, California, provide an excellent opportunity to apply these analytical techniques. The peraluminous granites of the Sweetwater Wash, Painted Rock, and North Piute plutons represent different depths of the magmatic system, and are well understood in terms of field relations and whole-rock geochemistry. A preliminary study on the Sweetwater Wash monazites (Fisher et al., in preparation) has revealed significant inter-grain isotopic heterogeneity in the ɛNd composition of the source region (~1700 Ma); however, the U-Pb ages show an isotopic resetting during emplacement at ~75 Ma. This decoupling of U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotopic systems is suggested by Fisher et al. to be due to recrystallisation and/or dissolution-reprecipitation of monazite. If grain boundary diffusion of Pb overrides the more kinetically limited volume diffusion, then the U-Pb systematics will be reset while Sm and Nd remain immobile in the monazite structure as essential structural components of the lattice. This new data will allow the further investigation of these preliminary results, providing new insights into the observed isotopic disequilibrium, with the LASS technique accurately linking the multiple isotopic systems. This will provide important

  6. Second-order adjoint sensitivity analysis methodology (2nd-ASAM) for computing exactly and efficiently first- and second-order sensitivities in large-scale linear systems: II. Illustrative application to a paradigm particle diffusion problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacuci, Dan G.

    2015-03-01

    This work presents an illustrative application of the second-order adjoint sensitivity analysis methodology (2nd-ASAM) to a paradigm neutron diffusion problem, which is sufficiently simple to admit an exact solution, thereby making transparent the underlying mathematical derivations. The general theory underlying 2nd-ASAM indicates that, for a physical system comprising Nα parameters, the computation of all of the first- and second-order response sensitivities requires (per response) at most (2Nα + 1) "large-scale" computations using the first-level and, respectively, second-level adjoint sensitivity systems (1st-LASS and 2nd-LASS). Very importantly, however, the illustrative application presented in this work shows that the actual number of adjoint computations needed for computing all of the first- and second-order response sensitivities may be significantly less than (2Nα + 1) per response. For this illustrative problem, four "large-scale" adjoint computations sufficed for the complete and exact computations of all 4 first- and 10 distinct second-order derivatives. Furthermore, the construction and solution of the 2nd-LASS requires very little additional effort beyond the construction of the adjoint sensitivity system needed for computing the first-order sensitivities. Very significantly, only the sources on the right-sides of the diffusion (differential) operator needed to be modified; the left-side of the differential equations (and hence the "solver" in large-scale practical applications) remained unchanged. All of the first-order relative response sensitivities to the model parameters have significantly large values, of order unity. Also importantly, most of the second-order relative sensitivities are just as large, and some even up to twice as large as the first-order sensitivities. In the illustrative example presented in this work, the second-order sensitivities contribute little to the response variances and covariances. However, they have the

  7. System and Force Structure Cost Analysis Model (SAFSCAM) User’s Guide.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    FITUhl; 6LT 129 I N(I VLLI T A-17 COMMCN I LOG I TOIlu(,2), TUTC (4,2., 71, LENr ,j, TFCCC(I. OuCe PS z r L - N - A5 t STOI AIt. U4I TS Cy - t; : PI Or...13 XNfLPC 104 CALL WFXTMS i -. rOREC, LENR , 1. -1 1 INFLPI 125 V) CONTINtL 1hfLFC lib 38’. CALL W61TMS ( 4,. IkLC. LLNXLY. IXSS, -1 1 INFUPO 127 C...Nil, D INFUFC 15i] CALL WF1TMS 42. IOmtC, LENR , I, -j I r FU PC 1 1 4516 CONTINLE INFLFC 1E2 C INFLFOI 1s3 CALL R’AOMS 4 ,I4’C. LFN,.1?, lASS It NIUP

  8. Craniofacial bone abnormalities and malocclusion in individuals with sickle cell anemia: a critical review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Cyrene Piazera Silva; de Carvalho, Halinna Larissa Cruz Correia; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; Sousa, Soraia de Fátima Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to critically review the literature in respect to craniofacial bone abnormalities and malocclusion in sickle cell anemia individuals. The Bireme and Pubmed electronic databases were searched using the following keywords: malocclusion, maxillofacial abnormalities, and Angle Class I, Class II and lass III malocclusions combined with sickle cell anemia. The search was limited to publications in English, Spanish or Portuguese with review articles and clinical cases being excluded from this study. Ten scientific publications were identified, of which three were not included as they were review articles. There was a consistent observation of orthodontic and orthopedic variations associated with sickle cell anemia, especially maxillary protrusions. However, convenience sampling, sometimes without any control group, and the lack of estimates of association and hypotheses testing undermined the possibility of causal inferences. It was concluded that despite the high frequency of craniofacial bone abnormalities and malocclusion among patients with sickle cell anemia, there is insufficient scientific proof that this disease causes malocclusion PMID:23049386

  9. MSFC Three Point Docking Mechanism design review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Otto; Ambrosio, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    In the next few decades, we will be launching expensive satellites and space platforms that will require recovery for economic reasons, because of initial malfunction, servicing, repairs, or out of a concern for post lifetime debris removal. The planned availability of a Three Point Docking Mechanism (TPDM) is a positive step towards an operational satellite retrieval infrastructure. This study effort supports NASA/MSFC engineering work in developing an automated docking capability. The work was performed by the Grumman Space & Electronics Group as a concept evaluation/test for the Tumbling Satellite Retrieval Kit. Simulation of a TPDM capture was performed in Grumman's Large Amplitude Space Simulator (LASS) using mockups of both parts (the mechanism and payload). Similar TPDM simulation activities and more extensive hardware testing was performed at NASA/MSFC in the Flight Robotics Laboratory and Space Station/Space Operations Mechanism Test Bed (6-DOF Facility).

  10. The Design of Shape from Motion Constraints

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    HIV, kolifi I u~li ci e’. lie Ii uu’i . lilwul lleeli. iii-’ plI leI - il..iiiililI ic (.1-. 1/.eiuie (lie opi l le L!.iillf andiI’ a lIt- -1uLll lIii...all (class I ) so I hial oiil\\- lit’ tlt’sjrt’I p~at Ii Imsse IrI1oul11gl I It’I ft’et’d’er. 5. Remove other paths: If th l mnt’lailliug pathls...or. /niI all jug) ImIl lie! I lie 1hi1lt rlilill ed pat h. ) ’I’lis (tleftl~Sto at (lass 3~ fee( lei . (g~(~)lIIwtIX l’mi ’Fiii lli 1.2. (ii) Redirect

  11. Air Force Office of Scientific Research: Research Proposal Quarterly Status Report, July - September 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    USERS hinc lass fivd -4 T.RE MytfINDIVIDJAL 2bEL-o~ ,rlde Are, Coe) 22goJqtICE SYMBOL O Form 1473, JUN 86 8 Pre Ious editions a . e ubsite. 5,CURITY...CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE 00 0I., - I 4-0- D~ 0 a ~ _ ~ 4 .0 .- C .0 - V > C) nV~- ~ C -- -> V ) (u C) LM- I IV A - C/)) . OC) LL~0 N C) W a ) C)0 AV,. C...0 CC - = - O" vi1 LI 00 - C ~39 0 al <Ur C 0. C)3C- 0. .00C Li - -~ U w~~V a ~ C vi 0.C C b cc) VI 3- - ~ -. 4 W -)C 0Cu CM 0z ’ cu 0L A0 6 m 0 -.j Q

  12. K/sup -/p interactions at 11 GeV/c: new results on strange meson systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliff, B.N.

    1980-06-01

    The status of our programmatic study of states containing a strange quark is briefly reviewed. An 11 GeV/c K/sup -/p experiment run on the LASS spectrometer at SLAC is discussed and preliminary results presented for several inelastic channels based on approximately one half of the available data sample. In addition, new results utilizing the full statistics of the experiment are presented for the elastic K/sup -/..pi../sup +/ channel from the K/sup -/..pi../sup +/n final state. The well established leading K*(890), K*(1435), and K*(1780) resonances are observed, and clear evidence is presented for a new J/sup p/ = 4/sup +/ resonance at approx. 2070 MeV. Preliminary results from an energy independent partial wave analysis of these data are presented which display unambiguous evidence for resonant structure in the non-leading 0/sup +/ and 1/sup -/ waves.

  13. Lunar Base Life Support Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic simulation of the lunar outpost habitat life support was undertaken to investigate the impact of life support failures and to investigate responses. Some preparatory static analysis for the Lunar Outpost life support model, an earlier version of the model, and an investigation into the impact of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) were reported previously. (Jones, 2008-01-2184, 2008-01-2017) The earlier model was modified to include possible resupply delays, power failures, recycling system failures, and atmosphere and other material storage failures. Most failures impact the lunar outpost water balance and can be mitigated by reducing water usage. Food solids, nitrogen can be obtained only by resupply from Earth. The most time urgent failure is a lass of carbon dioxide removal capability. Life support failures might be survivable if effective operational solutions are provided in the system design.

  14. Analyticity constraints on the strangeness changing vector current and applications to τ→Kπντ and τ→Kππντ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussallam, B.

    2008-02-01

    We discuss matrix elements of the strangeness changing vector current using their relation, due to analyticity, with πK scattering in the P-wave. We take into account experimental phase-shift measurements in the elastic channel as well as results, obtained by the LASS collaboration, on the details of inelastic scattering, which show the dominance of two quasi-two-body channels at medium energies. The associated form factors are shown to be completely determined, up to one flavor symmetry breaking parameter, imposing boundary conditions at t=0 from chiral and flavor symmetries and at t→∞ from QCD. We apply the results to the τ→Kπντ and τ→Kππντ amplitudes and compare the former to recent high statistics results from B factories.

  15. The HEAO A-1 X-ray source catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, K. S.; Meekins, J. F.; Yentis, D. J.; Smathers, H. W.; Mcnutt, D. P.; Bleach, R. D.; Friedman, H.; Byram, E. T.; Chubb, T. A.; Meidav, M.

    1984-01-01

    The catalog of X-ray sources detected during the NRL Large Area Sky Survey (LASS) with the HEAO 1 satellite is presented. The catalog is derived from the first six months of data from HEAO 1 and includes sources detected during one full scan. Positions and intensities for a total of 842 different sources are included, with a limiting flux of 250 nJy at 5 keV. The catalog is more than 90 percent complete at a flux level equivalent to 1.5 microjoules at 5 keV for a Crab-like spectrum. Cross-references with published literature are provided and coincidental identifications are proposed for some of the sources which have been never studied before. A cross-sectional line drawing of the sensor module of HEAO I is also provided.

  16. Large Aperture Scintillometer Intercomparison Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleissl, J.; Gomez, J.; Hong, S.-H.; Hendrickx, J. M. H.; Rahn, T.; Defoor, W. L.

    2008-07-01

    Two field studies with six large aperture scintillometers (LASs) were performed using horizontal and slant paths. The accuracy of this novel and increasingly popular technique for measuring sensible heat fluxes was quantified by comparing measurements from different instruments over nearly identical transects. Random errors in LAS measurements were small, since correlation coefficients between adjacent measurements were greater than 0.995. However, for an ideal set-up differences in linear regression slopes of up to 21% were observed with typical inter-instrument differences of 6%. Differences of 10% are typical in more realistic measurement scenarios over homogeneous natural vegetation and different transect heights and locations. Inaccuracies in the optics, which affect the effective aperture diameter, are the most likely explanation for the observed differences.

  17. Comments on the σ and κ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugg, D. V.

    2004-08-01

    The determination of σ and κ poles is discussed. Elastic scattering and production processes may be fitted simultaneously by including the Adler zero into the Breit-Wigner width Γ(s). Data on ππ → ππ and Ke4 decays give a σ pole at (525 ± 40) - i(247 ± 25) MeV. A combined analysis with production data gives a better determination: (542 ± 25) - i(249 ± 25) MeV. The Fourier transform of the matrix element for σ → ππ reveals a compact interaction region with RMS radius ˜ 0.4 fm. The analysis of LASS data for Kπ elastic scattering, including the Adler zero, determines a κ pole at (722 ± 60) - i(386 ± 50) MeV, consistent with BES data for J/Ψ → K* κ.

  18. Nucleon Resonances at Low |t| Excited With p(K,K^')N^*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napolitano, J.; Witkowski, M.; Wright, A.; Cummings, J.; Weygand, D.; Aston, D.; Bienz, T.; Bird, F.; Dunwoodie, W.; Johnson, W.; Kunz, P.; Kwon, Y.; Leith, D.; Levinson, L.; Ratcliff, B.; Rensing, P.; Schultz, D.; Shapiro, S.; Sinervo, P.; Tarnopolsky, G.; Toge, N.; Waite, A.; Williams, S.; Awaji, N.; Fujii, K.; Hayashi, H.; Iwata, S.; Kajikawa, R.; Matsui, T.; Miyamoto, A.; Ozaki, H.; Pak, C.; Shimomura, T.; Sugiyama, A.; Suzuki, S.; Tauchi, T.; D'Amore, J.; Endorf, R.; Martinez, J.; Meadows, B.; Nussbaum, M.; Ukai, K.

    1996-10-01

    We have examined the production of nucleon states which decay to nπ^+ or pπ^+π^- in K^-p interactions at an incident beam momentum of 11 GeV/c. The data were obtained using the LASS facility at SLAC, and the exposure corresponds to 4 events/nb. In addition, the event trigger yielded very uniform acceptance over a solid angle ≈4π. Partial wave analyses of the nπ^+ and pπ^+π^- systems recoiling against a K^- are in progress. Preliminary results suggest the presence at low momentum transfer squared (|t|<=0.1 (GeV/c)^2) of an excited nucleon state with decay angular distribution consistent with quantum numbers P_11 and mass ≈1400 MeV. This state, which exhibits an extremely steep production angular distribution, would be most naturally interpreted as the first radial excitation of the nucleon.

  19. Ion acoustic HF radar echoes at high latitudes and far ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, P. J.; Moorcroft, D. R.

    2001-12-01

    Using data taken over 18 months with the Iceland East (CUT-LASS/Iceland) Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) HF radar we have made a statistical study of a class of echoes which occur at ranges typically associated with F region echoes, but which have Doppler speeds near the ion acoustic speed Cs typical of E region echoes [Milan et al., 1997]. Comparison of the seasonal, diurnal, and range distributions of these echoes with the predictions of propagation models show that these are, indeed, E region echoes, differing in morphology from similar echoes at nearer ranges mainly because of the propagation conditions which are required to observe them. For the particular radar geometry of this study, conventional theory predicts that the effects of ionospheric gradients will result in phase velocities (radar Doppler velocities) which differ significantly from Cs, in disagreement with these observations. However, the observations are consistent with a new nonlinear theory of St.-Maurice and Hamza [2001].

  20. Update on the kappa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugg, D. V.

    2010-01-01

    New FOCUS data on D+→K-π+π+ are fitted to the κ, together with earlier data from LASS, E791 and BES 2. There is a clear low mass Kπ peak due to the κ pole. Inclusion of the I=3/2Kπ amplitude gives only a marginal improvement to the fit and almost no change to the κ peak. An improved formula for the κ gives a better fit than that used earlier. The κ pole moves to 663±8(stat)±34(syst)-i[329±5(stat)±22(syst)]MeV. The K0(1430) pole is at 1427±4(stat)±13(stat)-i[135±5(stat)±20(syst)]MeV.

  1. Comparison of Turbulent Sensible Heat Flux Determined by Large-Aperture Scintillometer and Eddy Covariance over Urban and Suburban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, He; Zhang, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Field observations of the atmospheric boundary layer were made over urban and suburban areas in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Sensible heat fluxes were obtained by eddy-covariance (EC) systems and large-aperture scintillometers (LASs). The results indicated that (1) the sensible heat flux obtained by LAS was less noisy and slightly larger than that obtained by EC over both urban and suburban surfaces; (2) the values of were higher when the correlation coefficient of vertical wind speed and temperature () was smaller. Lower values of were due to low-frequency trends. The urban values of were smaller than suburban values at low values; (3) the sensible heat flux determined by LAS was improved by use of the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory of the temperature structure parameter over urban and suburban areas, and the improvement is more significant over urban surface areas.

  2. MSFC Three Point Docking Mechanism design review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Otto; Ambrosio, Anthony

    1992-12-01

    In the next few decades, we will be launching expensive satellites and space platforms that will require recovery for economic reasons, because of initial malfunction, servicing, repairs, or out of a concern for post lifetime debris removal. The planned availability of a Three Point Docking Mechanism (TPDM) is a positive step towards an operational satellite retrieval infrastructure. This study effort supports NASA/MSFC engineering work in developing an automated docking capability. The work was performed by the Grumman Space & Electronics Group as a concept evaluation/test for the Tumbling Satellite Retrieval Kit. Simulation of a TPDM capture was performed in Grumman's Large Amplitude Space Simulator (LASS) using mockups of both parts (the mechanism and payload). Similar TPDM simulation activities and more extensive hardware testing was performed at NASA/MSFC in the Flight Robotics Laboratory and Space Station/Space Operations Mechanism Test Bed (6-DOF Facility).

  3. The kappa in E791 data for D → Kππ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugg, D. V.

    2006-01-01

    A combined fit is made to E791 data on D → Kππ, LASS data on Kπ elastic scattering, and BES II data on J / Ψ →K∗ (890) Kπ. In all cases, the Kπ S-wave is fitted well with a κ pole and K0 (1430); the κ requires an s-dependent width with an Adler zero near threshold. The pole position of the κ is at M = (750-55+30) - i (342 ± 60) MeV. The E791 Collaboration fitted their data using a form factor for the production process D → κπ. It is shown that this form factor is not needed. The data require point-like production with an RMS radius < 0.38 fm with 95% confidence.

  4. FORSCOM Security Monitor (FSM) Computer Program Development Specification (Type B5),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    TLCF outnup ! user enters output cLass T121 Cl1000 FNFVUE 0 0 getcLs ! uzz T122 C11000 FNFVUE 0 0 getcLs ! ufo T123 C11000 FNFVUE 0 0 getcLs ! czz...T1Z4 C11000 FNFVUE 0 0 getcLs ! szz T125 C11000 FNFVUE 0 0 getcLs ! swp C990 C999 D990 SNVN TSS exit ! system accounting info T995 C999 VSNVSE 0 0 1...userid-prefix>/<fiLename> C11000 C999 011000 SNVN TLCF outnup ! announce teLeconferencing T11000 Cl1010 VSNVSE 0 0 ! "TELECONFERENCING AT ... Tl1001 C280

  5. The Hall D solenoid helium refrigeration system at JLab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laverdure, N.; Creel, J.; Dixon, K.; Ganni, V.; Martin, F.; Norton, R.; Radovic, S.

    2014-01-01

    Hall D, the new Jefferson Lab experimental facility built for the 12GeV upgrade, features a LASS 1.85 m bore solenoid magnet supported by a 4.5 K helium refrigerator system. This system consists of a CTI 2800 4.5 K refrigerator cold box, three 150 hp screw compressors, helium gas management and storage, and liquid helium and nitrogen storage for stand-alone operation. The magnet interfaces with the cryo refrigeration system through an LN2-shielded distribution box and transfer line system, both designed and fabricated by JLab. The distribution box uses a thermo siphon design to respectively cool four magnet coils and shields with liquid helium and nitrogen. We describe the salient design features of the cryo system and discuss our recent commissioning experience.

  6. Saturated- and n-6 polyunsaturated-fat diets each induce ceramide accumulation in mouse skeletal muscle: reversal and improvement of glucose tolerance by lipid metabolism inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Frangioudakis, G; Garrard, J; Raddatz, K; Nadler, J L; Mitchell, T W; Schmitz-Peiffer, C

    2010-09-01

    Lipid-induced insulin resistance is associated with intracellular accumulation of inhibitory intermediates depending on the prevalent fatty acid (FA) species. In cultured myotubes, ceramide and phosphatidic acid (PA) mediate the effects of the saturated FA palmitate and the unsaturated FA linoleate, respectively. We hypothesized that myriocin (MYR), an inhibitor of de novo ceramide synthesis, would protect against glucose intolerance in saturated fat-fed mice, while lisofylline (LSF), a functional inhibitor of PA synthesis, would protect unsaturated fat-fed mice. Mice were fed diets enriched in saturated fat, n-6 polyunsaturated fat, or chow for 6 wk. Saline, LSF (25 mg/kg x d), or MYR (0.3 mg/kg x d) were administered by mini-pumps in the final 4 wk. Glucose homeostasis was examined by glucose tolerance test. Muscle ceramide and PA were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Expression of LASS isoforms (ceramide synthases) was evaluated by immunoblotting. Both saturated and polyunsaturated fat diets increased muscle ceramide and induced glucose intolerance. MYR and LSF reduced ceramide levels in saturated and unsaturated fat-fed mice. Both inhibitors also improved glucose tolerance in unsaturated fat-fed mice, but only LSF was effective in saturated fat-fed mice. The discrepancy between ceramide and glucose tolerance suggests these improvements may not be related directly to changes in muscle ceramide and may involve other insulin-responsive tissues. Changes in the expression of LASS1 were, however, inversely correlated with alterations in glucose tolerance. The demonstration that LSF can ameliorate glucose intolerance in vivo independent of the dietary FA type indicates it may be a novel intervention for the treatment of insulin resistance.

  7. Geochronology of Zircon in Eclogite Reveals Imbrication of the Ultrahigh-Pressure Western Gneiss Region of Norway.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D. J.; Kylander-Clark, A. R.; Root, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    Eclogite provides the only record of kinematic events at the deepest levels of orogens. Integrating the U-Pb geochronology and trace element chemistry of zircon in eclogite reveals the most complete view of the PTt history, yet low concentrations of uranium and zirconium and drier compositions that hinder zircon growth at peak conditions render it a challenging rocktype for this approach. The iconic Western Gneiss Region (WGR) in Norway is one of the largest terranes of deeply subducted continental rocks in the world, and contains many indicators of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic conditions (P>2.8 GPa) that developed during the Siluro-Devonian Caledonian Orogeny. A metamorphic transition from amphibolite-facies to ultrahigh-pressure eclogite facies broadly coincides with a km-scale shear zone that underlies the majority of the WGR. A critical unknown is the timing of movement on this feature, which emplaced allochthonous units above the Baltica basement, but might also have accommodated late-orogenic exhumation of the WGR from mantle depths. We carried out laser ablation split-stream ICPMS (LASS) and selected multigrain TIMS analyses of zircons from eleven eclogites across the southern WGR, of which eight are located within or above the shear zone. LASS spots on polished grains mostly yield weakly discordant Proterozoic intrusive ages, and often minimal indication of a Caledonian (U)HP metamorphic overprint. Direct ablation into unpolished zircon reveals thin rims of Caledonian age in some cases. Overall, the dataset shows that all samples began zircon growth at approximately the same time (ca. 430-420 Ma). Eclogite from lower levels of the shear zone does not contain any dates younger than ca. 410 Ma, however, while eclogite from higher levels continued growth until ca. 400 Ma. We interpret this to result from thrusting of the WGR above cooler basement after 410 Ma, terminating new zircon crystallization within the shear zone but allowing limited further growth in

  8. Intercomparison of surface energy flux measurement systems used during the HiWATER-MUSOEXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ziwei; Liu, Shaomin; Li, Xin; Shi, Shengjin; Wang, Jiemin; Zhu, Zhongli; Xu, Tongren; Wang, Weizhen; Ma, Mingguo

    2013-12-01

    among instruments is very important for the Multi-Scale Observation Experiment on Evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces of The Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER-MUSOEXE), particularly in regard to radiation and turbulent flux measurements. Before HiWATER-MUSOEXE was conducted, 20 eddy covariance (EC) system sets, 18 radiometer sets, and seven large aperture scintillometers (LASs) sets were intercompared over the Gobi desert between 14 and 24 May 2012. For radiometers, the four-component radiation measurements exhibited good agreement—the average root-mean-square error (RMSE) and mean relative error (MRE) for the net radiation were 10.38 W m-2 and 1.24%, respectively. With regard to the EC systems, the best consistency for sensible heat fluxes was found among CSAT3 sonic anemometers and Li7500A/Li7500/EC150 combinations (average RMSE, 12.30 W m-2 and MRE, -1.36%), followed by Gill sonic anemometers and Li7500A/Li7500 combinations when a proper angle of attack correction method was applied (average RMSE, 16.75 W m-2 and MRE, -5.52%). The sensible heat flux measured using different LASs agreed well with high correlation coefficients—the average RMSE and MRE values were 10.26 W m-2 and 5.48% for boundary layer scintillometer (BLS) 900, 16.32 W m-2 and 10.47% for BLS450, and 14.38 W m-2 and -3.72% for ZZLAS, respectively. The EC and LAS measurements were compared and agreed well over homogeneous underlying surfaces, which also indicated that the EC and LAS measurements would be comparable in the follow-up experiment. The intercomparison results can be used to determine instrument placement and are very helpful for subsequent data analysis.

  9. Strange meson spectroscopy in K{omega} and K{phi} at 11 GeV/c and Cherenkov ring imaging at SLD

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Youngjoon

    1993-01-01

    This thesis consists of two independent parts; development of Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector (CRID) system and analysis of high-statistics data of strange meson reactions from the LASS spectrometer. Part 1: The CRID system is devoted to charged particle identification in the SLAC Large Detector (SLD) to study e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collisions at {radical}s = m{sub Z{sup 0}}. By measuring the angles of emission of the Cherenkov photons inside liquid and gaseous radiators, {pi}/K/p separation will be achieved up to {approximately}30 GeV/c. The signals from CRID are read in three coordinates, one of which is measured by charge-division technique. To obtain a {approximately}1% spatial resolution in the charge-division, low-noise CRID preamplifier prototypes were developed and tested resulting in <1000 electrons noise for an average photoelectron signal with 2 {times} 10{sup 5} gain. To help ensure the long-term stability of CRID operation at high efficiency, a comprehensive monitoring and control system was developed. Part 2: Results from the partial wave analysis of strange meson final states in the reactions K{sup {minus}}p {yields} K{sup {minus}}{omega}p and K{sup {minus}}p {yields} {bar K}{sup 0}{phi}n are presented. The analyses are based on data from a 4.1 event/nb exposure of the LASS spectrometer in K{sup {minus}}p interactions at 11 GeV/c. The data sample of K{sup {minus}}{omega}p final state contains {approximately}10{sup 5} events. From the partial wave analysis, resonance structures of J{sup P} = 2{sup {minus}}, 3{sup {minus}} and 2{sup +} amplitudes are observed in the K{omega} system. The analysis of 2{sup {minus}} amplitudes provides an evidence for two strange meson states in the mass region around 1.75 GeV/c{sup 2}. The appropriate branching fractions are calculated and compared with the SU(3) predictions. The partial wave analysis of {bar K}{sup 0}{phi} system favors J{sup P} = 1{sup {minus}} and 2{sup +} states in the 1.9--2.0 GeV/c{sup 2} region.

  10. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Novel Loci Associated with Circulating Phospho- and Sphingolipid Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Kirichenko, Anatoly V.; Janssens, A. Cecile J. W.; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Gnewuch, Carsten; Domingues, Francisco S.; Pattaro, Cristian; Wild, Sarah H.; Jonasson, Inger; Polasek, Ozren; Zorkoltseva, Irina V.; Hofman, Albert; Karssen, Lennart C.; Struchalin, Maksim; Floyd, James; Igl, Wilmar; Biloglav, Zrinka; Broer, Linda; Pfeufer, Arne; Pichler, Irene; Campbell, Susan; Zaboli, Ghazal; Kolcic, Ivana; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Huffman, Jennifer; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Uitterlinden, Andre; Franke, Lude; Franklin, Christopher S.; Vitart, Veronique; Nelson, Christopher P.; Preuss, Michael; Bis, Joshua C.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Franceschini, Nora; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Axenovich, Tatiana; Oostra, Ben A.; Meitinger, Thomas; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hayward, Caroline; Wright, Alan F.; Gyllensten, Ulf; Campbell, Harry; Schmitz, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Phospho- and sphingolipids are crucial cellular and intracellular compounds. These lipids are required for active transport, a number of enzymatic processes, membrane formation, and cell signalling. Disruption of their metabolism leads to several diseases, with diverse neurological, psychiatric, and metabolic consequences. A large number of phospholipid and sphingolipid species can be detected and measured in human plasma. We conducted a meta-analysis of five European family-based genome-wide association studies (N = 4034) on plasma levels of 24 sphingomyelins (SPM), 9 ceramides (CER), 57 phosphatidylcholines (PC), 20 lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC), 27 phosphatidylethanolamines (PE), and 16 PE-based plasmalogens (PLPE), as well as their proportions in each major class. This effort yielded 25 genome-wide significant loci for phospholipids (smallest P-value = 9.88×10−204) and 10 loci for sphingolipids (smallest P-value = 3.10×10−57). After a correction for multiple comparisons (P-value<2.2×10−9), we observed four novel loci significantly associated with phospholipids (PAQR9, AGPAT1, PKD2L1, PDXDC1) and two with sphingolipids (PLD2 and APOE) explaining up to 3.1% of the variance. Further analysis of the top findings with respect to within class molar proportions uncovered three additional loci for phospholipids (PNLIPRP2, PCDH20, and ABDH3) suggesting their involvement in either fatty acid elongation/saturation processes or fatty acid specific turnover mechanisms. Among those, 14 loci (KCNH7, AGPAT1, PNLIPRP2, SYT9, FADS1-2-3, DLG2, APOA1, ELOVL2, CDK17, LIPC, PDXDC1, PLD2, LASS4, and APOE) mapped into the glycerophospholipid and 12 loci (ILKAP, ITGA9, AGPAT1, FADS1-2-3, APOA1, PCDH20, LIPC, PDXDC1, SGPP1, APOE, LASS4, and PLD2) to the sphingolipid pathways. In large meta-analyses, associations between FADS1-2-3 and carotid intima media thickness, AGPAT1 and type 2 diabetes, and APOA1 and coronary artery disease were observed. In conclusion, our

  11. Estimating Evapotranspiration over Heterogeneously Vegetated Surfaces using Large Aperture Scintillometer, LiDAR, and Airborne Multispectral Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geli, H. M.; Neale, C. M.; Pack, R. T.; Watts, D. R.; Osterberg, J.

    2011-12-01

    Estimates of evapotranspiration (ET) over heterogeneous areas is challenging especially in water-limited sparsely vegetated environments. New techniques such as airborne full-waveform LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) and high resolution multispectral and thermal imagery can provide enough detail of sparse canopies to improve energy balance model estimations as well as footprint analysis of scintillometer data. The objectives of this study were to estimate ET over such areas and develop methodologies for the use of these airborne data technologies. Because of the associated heterogeneity, this study was conducted over the Cibola National wildlife refuge, southern California on an area dominated with tamarisk (salt cedar) forest (90%) interspersed with arrowweed and bare soil (10%). A set of two large aperture scintillometers (LASs) were deployed over the area to provide estimates of sensible heat flux (HLAS). The LASs were distributed over the area in a way that allowed capturing different surface spatial heterogeneity. Bowen ratio systems were used to provide hydrometeorological variables and surface energy balance fluxes (SEBF) (i.e. Rn, G, H, and LE) measurements. Scintillometer-based estimates of HLAS were improved by considering the effect of the corresponding 3D footprint and the associated displacement height (d) and the roughness length (z0) following Geli et al. (2011). The LiDAR data were acquired using the LASSI Lidar developed at Utah State University (USU). The data was used to obtain 1-m spatial resolution DEM's and vegetation canopy height to improve the HLAS estimates. The BR measurements of Rn and G were combined with LAS estimates, HLAS, to provide estimates of LELASas a residual of the energy balance equation. A thermal remote sensing model namely the two source energy balance (TSEB) of Norman et al. (1995) was applied to provide spatial estimates of SEBF. Four airborne images at 1-4 meter spatial resolution acquired using the USU airborne

  12. Strange meson spectroscopy in K(omega) and K(phi) at 11 GeV/c and Cherenkov ring imaging at SLD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Youngjoon

    1993-01-01

    This thesis consists of two independent parts: development of a Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector (CRID) system; and analysis of high-statistics data of strange meson reactions from the LASS spectrometer. The CRID system is devoted to charged particle identification in the SLAC Large Detector (SLD) to study e(+)e(-) collisions at radical s = m(sub Z(exp 0)). By measuring the angles of emission of the Cherenkov photons inside liquid and gaseous radiators, pi/K/p separation will be achieved up to approximately 30 GeV/c. The signals from CRID are read in three coordinates, one of which is measured by charge-division technique. To obtain an approximately 1% spatial resolution in the charge-division, low-noise CRID preamplifier prototypes were developed and tested resulting in less than 1000 electrons noise for an average photoelectron signal with 2(10)(exp 5) gain. To help ensure the long-term stability of CRID operation at high efficiency, a comprehensive monitoring and control system was developed. Results from the partial wave analysis of strange meson final states in the reactions K(-)p yields K(-)(omega)p and K(-)p yields (K-bar)(exp 0)(phi)n are presented. The analyses are based on data from a 4.1 event/nb exposure of the LASS spectrometer in K(-)p interactions at 11 GeV/c. The data sample of K(-)(omega)p final state contains approximately 10(exp 5) events. From the partial wave analysis, resonance structures of J(exp P) = 2(-), 3(-), and 2(+) amplitudes are observed in the K(omega) system. The analysis of 2(-) amplitudes provides an evidence for two strange meson states in the mass region around 1.75 GeV/sq c. The appropriate branching fractions are calculated and compared with the SU(3) predictions. The partial wave analysis of (K-bar)(exp 0)(phi) system favors J(exp P) = 1(-) and 2(+) states in the 1.9-2.0 GeV/sq c region.

  13. Influence of soil moisture on linear alkylbenzene sulfonate-induced toxicity in ammonia-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Klaus B; Brandt, Kristian K; Jacobsen, Anne-Marie; Mortensen, Gerda K; Sørensen, Jan

    2004-02-01

    Moisture affects bioavailability and fate of pollutants in soil, but very little is known about moisture-induced effects on pollutant toxicity. We here report on a modifying effect of moisture on degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LASs) and on their toxicity towards ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in agricultural soil. In soil spiked with two LAS levels (250 or 1,000 mg/kg) and incubated at four different moisture levels (9-100% of water-holding capacity), degradation was strongly affected by both soil moisture and initial LAS concentration, resulting in degradation half-lives ranging from 13 to more than 160 d. Toxicity towards AOB assessed by a novel Nitrosomonas europaea luxAB-reporter assay was correlated to total LAS concentration, indicating that LAS remained bioavailable over time without accumulation of toxic intermediates. Toxicity towards indigenous AOB increased with increasing soil moisture. The results indicate that dry soil conditions inhibit LAS degradation and provide protection against toxicity within the indigenous AOB, thus allowing for a rapid recovery of this population when LAS degradation is resumed and completed after rewetting. We propose that the protection of microbial populations against toxicity in dry soil may be a general phenomenon caused primarily by limited diffusion and thus a low bioavailability of the toxicant.

  14. Impact properties of vanadium-base alloys irradiated at < 430 C

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.M.; Smith, D.L.

    1998-03-01

    Recent attention to vanadium-base alloys has focused on the effect of low-temperature (<430 C) neutron irradiation on the mechanical properties, especially the phenomena of loss of work-hardening capability under tensile loading and loss of dynamic toughness manifested by low impact energy and high ductile-brittle-transition temperature (DBTT). This paper summarizes results of an investigation of the low-temperature impact properties of V-5Ti, V-4Cr-4Ti, and V-3Ti-Si that were irradiated in several fission reactor experiments, i.e., FFTF-MOTA, EBR-II X-530, and ATR-A1. Irradiation performance of one production-scale and one laboratory heat of V-4C-4Ti and one laboratory heat of V-3Ti-Si was the focus of the investigation. Even among the same lass of alloy, strong heat-to-heat variation was observed in low-temperature impact properties. A laboratory heat of V-4Cr-4Ti and V-3Ti-1Si exhibited good impact properties whereas a 500-kg heat of V-4Cr-4Ti exhibited unacceptably high DBTT. The strong heat-to-heat variation in impact properties of V-4Cr-4Ti indicates that fabrication procedures and minor impurities play important roles in the low-temperature irradiation performance of the alloys.

  15. Multiple New Loci Associated with Kidney Function and Chronic Kidney Disease: The CKDGen consortium

    PubMed Central

    Köttgen, Anna; Pattaro, Cristian; Böger, Carsten A.; Fuchsberger, Christian; Olden, Matthias; Glazer, Nicole L.; Parsa, Afshin; Gao, Xiaoyi; Yang, Qiong; Smith, Albert V.; O’Connell, Jeffrey R.; Li, Man; Schmidt, Helena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Isaacs, Aaron; Ketkar, Shamika; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Johnson, Andrew D.; Dehghan, Abbas; Teumer, Alexander; Paré, Guillaume; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Zeller, Tanja; Lohman, Kurt; Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.; Kronenberg, Florian; Tönjes, Anke; Hayward, Caroline; Aspelund, Thor; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Launer, Lenore; Harris, Tamara B.; Rapmersaud, Evadnie; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Struchalin, Maksim; Cavalieri, Margherita; Singleton, Andrew; Giallauria, Francesco; Metter, Jeffery; de Boer, Ian; Haritunians, Talin; Lumley, Thomas; Siscovick, David; Psaty, Bruce M.; Zillikens, M. Carola; Oostra, Ben A.; Feitosa, Mary; Province, Michael; Levy, Daniel; de Andrade, Mariza; Turner, Stephen T.; Schillert, Arne; Ziegler, Andreas; Wild, Philipp S.; Schnabel, Renate B.; Wilde, Sandra; Muenzel, Thomas F.; Leak, Tennille S; Illig, Thomas; Klopp, Norman; Meisinger, Christa; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Koenig, Wolfgang; Zgaga, Lina; Zemunik, Tatijana; Kolcic, Ivana; Minelli, Cosetta; Hu, Frank B.; Johansson, Åsa; Igl, Wilmar; Zaboli, Ghazal; Wild, Sarah H; Wright, Alan F; Campbell, Harry; Ellinghaus, David; Schreiber, Stefan; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hofman, Albert; Imboden, Medea; Nitsch, Dorothea; Brandstätter, Anita; Kollerits, Barbara; Kedenko, Lyudmyla; Mägi, Reedik; Stumvoll, Michael; Kovacs, Peter; Boban, Mladen; Campbell, Susan; Endlich, Karlhans; Völzke, Henry; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Nauck, Matthias; Völker, Uwe; Polasek, Ozren; Vitart, Veronique; Badola, Sunita; Parker, Alexander N.; Ridker, Paul M.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Blankenberg, Stefan; Liu, Yongmei; Curhan, Gary C.; Franke, Andre; Rochat, Thierry; Paulweber, Bernhard; Prokopenko, Inga; Wang, Wei; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Coresh, Josef; Schmidt, Reinhold; Ferrucci, Luigi; Shlipak, Michael G.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Borecki, Ingrid; Krämer, Bernhard K.; Rudan, Igor; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wilson, James F.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Rettig, Rainer; Hastie, Nick; Chasman, Daniel I.; Kao, W. H.; Heid, Iris M.; Fox, Caroline S.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant public health problem, and recent genetic studies have identified common CKD susceptibility variants. The CKDGen consortium performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data in 67,093 Caucasian individuals from 20 population-based studies to identify new susceptibility loci for reduced renal function, estimated by serum creatinine (eGFRcrea), cystatin C (eGFRcys), and CKD (eGFRcrea <60 ml/min/1.73m2; n = 5,807 CKD cases). Follow-up of the 23 genome-wide significant loci (p<5×10−8) in 22,982 replication samples identified 13 novel loci for renal function and CKD (in or near LASS2, GCKR, ALMS1, TFDP2, DAB2, SLC34A1, VEGFA, PRKAG2, PIP5K1B, ATXN2, DACH1, UBE2Q2, and SLC7A9) and 7 creatinine production and secretion loci (CPS1, SLC22A2, TMEM60, WDR37, SLC6A13, WDR72, BCAS3). These results further our understanding of biologic mechanisms of kidney function by identifying loci potentially influencing nephrogenesis, podocyte function, angiogenesis, solute transport, and metabolic functions of the kidney. PMID:20383146

  16. Testing Strategies and Methodologies for the Max Launch Abort System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaible, Dawn M.; Yuchnovicz, Daniel E.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was tasked to develop an alternate, tower-less launch abort system (LAS) as risk mitigation for the Orion Project. The successful pad abort flight demonstration test in July 2009 of the "Max" launch abort system (MLAS) provided data critical to the design of future LASs, while demonstrating the Agency s ability to rapidly design, build and fly full-scale hardware at minimal cost in a "virtual" work environment. Limited funding and an aggressive schedule presented a challenge for testing of the complex MLAS system. The successful pad abort flight demonstration test was attributed to the project s systems engineering and integration process, which included: a concise definition of, and an adherence to, flight test objectives; a solid operational concept; well defined performance requirements, and a test program tailored to reducing the highest flight test risks. The testing ranged from wind tunnel validation of computational fluid dynamic simulations to component ground tests of the highest risk subsystems. This paper provides an overview of the testing/risk management approach and methodologies used to understand and reduce the areas of highest risk - resulting in a successful flight demonstration test.

  17. New results on mesons containing strange quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Aston, D.; Awaji, N.; Bienz, T.; Bird, F.; D'Amore, J.; Dunwoodie, W.; Endorf, R.; Fujii, K.; Hayashii, H.; Iwata, S.

    1987-01-01

    Recent results of strange and strangeonium mesons are presented. The data come from a high sensitivity study (4.1 ev/nb) of K/sup -/p interactions at 11 GeV/c using the LASS spectrometer at SLAC. The complete leading orbitally-excited K* series up through J/sup P/ = 5/sup -/ and a substantial number of the expected underlying states are observed decaying into K/sup -/..pi../sup +/, anti K/sub 3//sup 0/..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/, and K eta final states, and new measurements are made of their masses, widths, and branching ratios. Production of strangeonium states via hypercharge exchange is observed into K/sub 3//sup 0/K/sub 3//sup 0/, K/sup -/K/sup +/, and K/sub 3//sup 0/K/sup + -/..pi../sup - +/ final states. The leading orbitally-excited phi series through J/sup P/ = 3/sup -/ is clearly seen and evidence is presented for additional high spin structure in the 2.2 GeV/c/sup 2/ region. No f/sub 2/(1720) is observed. The K/sub 3//sup 0/K/sup + -/..pi../sup - +/ spectrum is dominated by 1/sup +/(K* anti K + anti K* K) production in the region below 1.6 GeV/c/sup 2/. These results are compared with data on the same systems produced by different production mechanisms. 12 refs., 28 figs.

  18. Comparative effectiveness of atypical antipsychotics in schizophrenia: what have real-world trials taught us?

    PubMed

    Attard, Azizah; Taylor, David M

    2012-06-01

    Real-world, effectiveness studies add an important new dimension to the evaluation of the benefits of individual antipsychotics. Efficacy studies have already shown the unique effectiveness of clozapine, and suggested improved outcomes for olanzapine compared with some atypical antipsychotics and a reduced tendency to produce acute and chronic movement disorders for atypical compared with typical drugs. Recent effectiveness studies largely confirm these prior observations. The CATIE (Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness), CUtLASS (Cost Utility of the Latest Antipsychotic Drugs in Schizophrenia Study) and SOHO (Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes) programmes confirmed the superiority of clozapine over other antipsychotics; CATIE and SOHO also confirmed olanzapine as probably the second most effective antipsychotic. Effectiveness studies have confirmed the high incidence of adverse metabolic effects with clozapine, olanzapine and (with less certainty) quetiapine but the ZODIAC (Ziprasidone Observational Study of Cardiac Outcomes) study found no excess cardiovascular events or deaths for olanzapine compared with ziprasidone. Prior observations on reduced frequency of movement disorders for second-generation versus first-generation antipsychotics were also largely (but not uniformly) supported. Overall, recent real-world studies have done much to confirm prior observations from efficacy-based randomized, controlled trials.

  19. Usefulness of ventricular endocardial electric reconstruction from body surface potential maps to noninvasively localize ventricular ectopic activity in patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Dakun; Sun, Jian; Li, Yigang; He, Bin

    2013-06-01

    As radio frequency (RF) catheter ablation becomes increasingly prevalent in the management of ventricular arrhythmia in patients, an accurate and rapid determination of the arrhythmogenic site is of important clinical interest. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the inversely reconstructed ventricular endocardial current density distribution from body surface potential maps (BSPMs) can localize the regions critical for maintenance of a ventricular ectopic activity. Patients with isolated and monomorphic premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) were investigated by noninvasive BSPMs and subsequent invasive catheter mapping and ablation. Equivalent current density (CD) reconstruction (CDR) during symptomatic PVCs was obtained on the endocardial ventricular surface in six patients (four men, two women, years 23-77), and the origin of the spontaneous ectopic activity was localized at the location of the maximum CD value. Compared with the last (successful) ablation site (LAS), the mean and standard deviation of localization error of the CDR approach were 13.8 and 1.3 mm, respectively. In comparison, the distance between the LASs and the estimated locations of an equivalent single moving dipole in the heart was 25.5 ± 5.5 mm. The obtained CD distribution of activated sources extending from the catheter ablation site also showed a high consistency with the invasively recorded electroanatomical maps. The noninvasively reconstructed endocardial CD distribution is suitable to predict a region of interest containing or close to arrhythmia source, which may have the potential to guide RF catheter ablation.

  20. Further Test Results for Prototype GPS Rubidium Clocks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    i l i t y ( 2 x 10-10 cc (STP)/sec/cm /mm/cm Hg a t -t70°C). A s i m i l a r b o r o s i l i c a t e g l ass , Corn ing No. 7056 , has a he l...improve- ment i n d r i f t . The o r i g i n a l P ro to t ype No. 1 a b s o r p t i o n c e l l , SIN 663, had an envelope made from Corn ing...No. 7056 g lass . The h i g h e r l o s s (0.15%) o f t h i s m a t e r i a l i s n o t a problem. I t s h i g h e r d i e l e c t r i c

  1. Liquid Engine Design: Effect of Chamber Dimensions on Specific Impulse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoggard, Lindsay; Leahy, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Which assumption of combustion chemistry - frozen or equilibrium - should be used in the prediction of liquid rocket engine performance calculations? Can a correlation be developed for this? A literature search using the LaSSe tool, an online repository of old rocket data and reports, was completed. Test results of NTO/Aerozine-50 and Lox/LH2 subscale and full-scale injector and combustion chamber test results were found and studied for this task. NASA code, Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA) was used to predict engine performance using both chemistry assumptions, defined here. Frozen- composition remains frozen during expansion through the nozzle. Equilibrium- instantaneous chemical equilibrium during nozzle expansion. Chamber parameters were varied to understand what dimensions drive chamber C* and Isp. Contraction Ratio is the ratio of the nozzle throat area to the area of the chamber. L is the length of the chamber. Characteristic chamber length, L*, is the length that the chamber would be if it were a straight tube and had no converging nozzle. Goal: Develop a qualitative and quantitative correlation for performance parameters - Specific Impulse (Isp) and Characteristic Velocity (C*) - as a function of one or more chamber dimensions - Contraction Ratio (CR), Chamber Length (L ) and/or Characteristic Chamber Length (L*). Determine if chamber dimensions can be correlated to frozen or equilibrium chemistry.

  2. Summary of the activities of the subgroup on data acquisition and processing

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, P.L.; Doughty, D.C.; Elias, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    A data acquisition and handling subgroup consisting of approximately 20 members met during the 1981 ISABELLE summer study. Discussions were led by members of the BNL ISABELLE Data Acquisition Group (DAG) with lively participation from outside users. Particularly large contributions were made by representatives of BNL experiments 734, 735, and the MPS, as well as the Fermilab Colliding Detector Facility and the SLAC LASS Facility. In contrast to the 1978 study, the subgroup did not divide its activities into investigations of various individual detectors, but instead attempted to review the current state-of-the-art in the data acquisition, trigger processing, and data handling fields. A series of meetings first reviewed individual pieces of the problem, including status of the Fastbus Project, the Nevis trigger processor, the SLAC 168/E and 3081/E emulators, and efforts within DAG. Additional meetings dealt with the question involving specifying and building complete data acquisition systems. For any given problem, a series of possible solutions was proposed by the members of the subgroup. In general, any given solution had both advantages and disadvantages, and there was never any consensus on which approach was best. However, there was agreement that certain problems could only be handled by systems of a given power or greater. what will be given here is a review of various solutions with associated powers, costs, advantages, and disadvantages.

  3. Comments on the σ and κ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugg, D. V.

    2003-10-01

    Evidence for the σ pole has been reported in production processes such as D+→π+π-π+; likewise evidence for the κ pole appears in D+→K-π+π+. Their effects in ππ and Kπ elastic scattering are much less conspicuous. However, consistent fits to both production data and elastic scattering may be obtained by including the Adler zero into an s-dependent width for each resonance. These zeros suppress strongly the effects of the σ and κ poles in elastic scattering; the zeros are absent from amplitudes for production data. With this prescription, data from ππ→ππ, Ke4 decays and CP violation in K0 decays give a σ pole position of (525±40)-i(247±25) MeV. A combined analysis with production data gives a better determination of (533±25)-i(249±25) MeV. The analysis of LASS data for Kπ elastic scattering, including the Adler zero, determines a κ pole at (722±60)-i(386±50) MeV. The Fourier transform of the matrix element for σ→ππ reveals a compact interaction region with RMS radius ∼0.4 fm.

  4. Studying Kπ S-wave scattering in the K-matrix formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Long; Zou, Bing-Song; Li, Guang-Lie

    2003-02-01

    We generalize our previous work on ππ scattering to Kπ scattering, and reanalyze the experiment data for Kπ scattering below 1.6 GeV. Without any free parameter, we explain the Kπ I=3/2 S-wave phase shift very well by using t-channel ρ and u-channel K* meson exchange. With the t-channel and u-channel meson exchange fixed as the background term, we fit the Kπ I=1/2 S-wave data of the LASS experiment quite well by introducing one or two s-channel resonances. It is found that there is only one s-channel resonance between the Kπ threshold and 1.6 GeV, i.e., K*0(1430) with a mass around 1438 1486 MeV and a width of about 346 MeV, while the t-channel ρ exchange gives a pole at (450 480i) MeV for the amplitude, rather uncertain due to the limitations of the approach used.

  5. Reconnaissance geologic map and mineral resource potential of the Gearhart Mountain Wilderness and Roadless Area (6225), Lake and Klamath counties, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, George W.; Ridenour, James

    1982-01-01

    The Gearhart Mountain Wilderness, Lake and Klamath Counties, Oreg., is devoid of mines and mineral prospects and there are no known mining claims within the area. Furthermore, the results of this mineral appraisal indicate that there is little likelihood that commercial deposits of metallic minerals will be found in the area. Commercial uranium deposits, like those at the White King and Lucky Lass mines about 16 mi (~25 km) to the southeast of the wilderness, and deposits of mercury, like those south-southeast of the wilderness, are not likely to be found within the wilderness, even though all of these areas are characterized by middle and late Cenozoic intrusive and extrusive volcanic rocks. Rock of low commercial value for construction purposes is present, but better and more accessible deposits are present in adjacent regions. There is no evidence to indicate that mineral fuels are present in the area. Higher than normal heat floe characterizes the region containing Gerheart Mountain, indicating that it may have some, as yet undefined, potential for the development of geothermal energy. Data are not available to determine whether this higher than normal heat flow is meaningful in terms of a potential energy source or as a guide to possible future exploration; lack of thermal springs or other evidence of localized geothermal anomalies within the Gerhart Mountain suggest, however, that the potential for the development of geothermal energy is probably low.

  6. Using multiple chemical systems in zircon to unravel the evolution of high-grade terranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Chris; Taylor, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Since the turn of the century the rare earth element (REE) partitioning between zircon and garnet has facilitated the coupling of U-Pb ages to metamorphism, particularly in the granulite facies. The combination of in situ analysis and rapid data acquisition, particularly through combined techniques such as Laser Ablation Split Stream (LASS), means that complex terranes can be interrogated with increasing detail. However this detail provided by large datasets must also be combined with an understanding of the processes involved, for example the relative mobility of the REE and U-Pb systems with zircon grains that have withstood intense P-T conditions to varying degrees. For example, some high-temperature metapelites that seem to have all the right ingredients for the "equilibrium" to be achieved (e.g. they contain garnet, zircon, monazite and rutile, they've melted and experienced temperatures in excess of 900 °C) display variations in the REE partitioning between zircon and garnet that varies over the length-scale of a single thin section. This presentation seeks to highlight some complexities in the application of these undoublty useful techniques to high-temperature metamorphic rocks from a number of terranes and hopefully provide some useful comments on developing more efficient strategies to characterise the P-T-t evolution of high-grade terranes.

  7. Super Dual Auroral Radar Network observations of fluctuations in the spectral distribution of near range meteor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upper Mesosphere, Echoes In The; Thermosphere , Lower

    2001-04-01

    The Doppler shifts of meteor echoes measured by the SuperDARN HF radar network have been used in several studies to observe neutral winds in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere region. In the absence of accurate height information for individual meteors, it has been necessary to assume a statistical mean meteor layer where the variations in altitude were not correlated to changes in the horizontal winds. Observations of spectral width distribution variations made by the radars allow an independent determination of the systematic error in the height. We have investigated the dependence of this distribution on a number of factors including the radar geometry, diurnal and seasonal cycles, variations in solar UV irradiance and geomagnetic activity. Changes in the altitude of the mean meteor layer observed at different radar ranges provide us with some insight into the structure of the upper mesosphere and the lower thermosphere within which the meteors are being ablated. An examination of the spectral widths, as measured by the CUT-LASS Finland radar, in the days preceding and following a Storm Sudden Commencement in April 1997, illustrates how the spectral properties of the observed region can be affected. The variations in the widths were consistent with model calculations of the changes to the temperature profile over this interval. Further refinements in the determination of the spectral width are outlined for future experiments.

  8. What do Seniors Remember from Freshman Physics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrantes, Analia; Pawl, Andrew; Pritchard, David E.

    2009-11-01

    We have given a group of 56 MIT seniors who took mechanics as freshmen a written test similar to the final exam they took in their freshman course, plus the Mechanics Baseline Test (MBT) and Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (C-LASS) standard instruments. Students in majors unrelated to physics scored 60% lower on the written analytic part of the final than they did as freshmen. The mean score of all students on conceptual multiple choice questions included on the final also declined by about 60% relative to the scores of freshmen. The mean score of all participants on the MBT was insignificantly changed from the posttest taken as freshmen. More specifically, however, the students' performance on 9 of the 26 MBT items (with 6 of the 9 involving graphical kinematics) represents a gain over their freshman pretest score (a normalized gain of about 70%, double the gain achieved in the freshman course alone), while their performance on the remaining 17 questions is best characterized as a loss of approximately 50% of the material learned in the freshman course. Attitudinal survey results indicate that almost half the seniors feel the specific mechanics course content is unlikely to be useful to them, a significant majority (75-85%) feel that physics does teach valuable skills, and an overwhelming majority believe that mechanics should remain a required course at MIT.

  9. Evolutionary Tracks for Betelgeuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, Michelle; Mathews, Grant; Dearborn, David

    2008-04-01

    We have constructed a series of quasi-hydrostatic evolutionary models for the M2 Iab supergiant Betelgeuse (Õrionis). Our models are constrained by the observed temperature, luminosity, surface composition and mass loss for this star, along with recent parallax measurements and high resolution imagery which directly determine its radius. The surface convective zone obtained in our model naturally accounts for observed variations in surface luminosity and the size of detected surface bright spots. In our models these result from upflowing convective material from regions of high temperature in a surface convective zone. We also account for the observed periodic variability as the result of the effective equation of state in a simple linear pulsation model. Based upon a comparison between the accumulated mass loss in the observed circumstellar shell, and the lower limit on luminosity we suggest that this star most likely has a mass of either 16 ±2 M if a Reimers lass loss rate applies or 20 ±2 for the de Jager mass loss rate. For any mass loss rate the star must be close to the tip of the first ascent up the giant branch.

  10. Super Dual Auroral Radar Network observations of fluctuations in the spectral distribution of near range meteor echoes in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, N. F.; Robinson, T. R.; Lester, M.; Byrne, P. B.; Chapman, P. J.

    2001-04-01

    The Doppler shifts of meteor echoes measured by the SuperDARN HF radar network have been used in several studies to observe neutral winds in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere region. In the absence of accurate height information for individual meteors, it has been necessary to assume a statistical mean meteor layer where the variations in altitude were not correlated to changes in the horizontal winds. Observations of spectral width distribution variations made by the radars allow an independent determination of the systematic error in the height. We have investigated the dependence of this distribution on a number of factors including the radar geometry, diurnal and seasonal cycles, variations in solar UV irradiance and geomagnetic activity. Changes in the altitude of the mean meteor layer observed at different radar ranges provide us with some insight into the structure of the upper mesosphere and the lower thermosphere within which the meteors are being ablated. An examination of the spectral widths, as measured by the CUT-LASS Finland radar, in the days preceding and following a Storm Sudden Commencement in April 1997, illustrates how the spectral properties of the observed region can be affected. The variations in the widths were consistent with model calculations of the changes to the temperature profile over this interval. Further refinements in the determination of the spectral width are outlined for future experiments.Key words. Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; thermospheric dynamics; instruments and techniques)

  11. Analysis of the Kπ hadronic state interaction using D→Kπμν semileptonic decays from the FOCUS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massafferri, A.; Focus Collaboration

    2007-02-01

    We present a four-body semileptonic charm decay D→Kπμν analysis in the range of 0.65 GeV/cLASS elastic scattering experiment. For the K(892 resonance, we obtain a mass of 895.41±0.32-0.43+0.35 MeV/c, a width of 47.79±0.86-1.06+1.32 MeV/c, and a Blatt-Weisskopf damping factor parameter of 3.96±0.54-0.90+1.31 GeV. We also report 90% CL upper limits of 4% and 0.64% for the branching ratios {Γ(D→K(1680μν)}/{Γ(D→Kπμν)} and {Γ(D→K¯0∗(1680μν)}/{Γ(D→Kπμν)}, respectively.

  12. Soft versus hard X-ray emission in active galactic nuclei: partial-covering and warm-plus-cold absorber models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceballos, M. T.; Barcons, X.

    1996-09-01

    We analyse the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) hardness ratio and the 0.5-2-keV to 2-10-keV flux ratio of 65 active galactic nuclei (AGN) for which there are both ROSAT archival observations available and 2-10-keV fluxes, mostly from the HEAO-1 MC-LASS survey. We conclude that the simplest spectral model for the AGN that can accommodate the variety of X-ray colours obtained is a standard power law (with energy spectral index alpha~0.9) plus a ~0.1-keV blackbody, both of which are partially absorbed. In our sample, type 1 AGN require an absorbing column around 10^22 cm^-2 with covering fractions between 20 and 100 per cent, while type 2 AGN display larger columns and ~100 per cent coverage. This simple model also provides a good link between soft and hard AGN X-ray luminosity functions and source counts. We also consider a warm absorber as an alternative model to partial covering and find that the presence of gas in two phases (ionized and neutral) is required.

  13. The rate of mass loss and variations in the wind from the Be star delta Centauri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, T. P., Jr.; Oegerle, W. R.; Polidan, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    Copernicus ultraviolet scans of the Be star delta Centauri obtained in 1976 and 1979, show a significant variation in the Si III lambda 1206 profile, The strong asymmetry that was present in 1976 had disappeared by 1979. The Si IV lambda 1400 doublet was also asymmetric in 1976, but was not observed in 1979. A quantitative fit of the line shapes to theoretical wind profiles shows that the mass-loss rate in 1976 was 2 x 10 to the minus 8th power/yr, and that the rate of mass loss in Si III was at least one order of magnitude less in 1979. It is not possible to determine whether the variation represented an overall change in the lass-loss rate, or whether it was due to a change in the ionization balance. The profile fitting procedure resulted in the adoption of assumed underlying photospheric Si III and Si IV profiles, and the equivalent widths measured from these profiles are most consistent with T sub eff between 30,000 and 35,000 K, somewhat hotter than implied by the spectral classification normally assigned to this star. The ultraviolet photospheric line widths, coupled wit published theoretical analyses of rotational gravitational darkening, imply an intrinsic equatorial velocity of about 310 km/sec and an angle of inclination of the rotational axis to the line of sight of i is less than or equal to 44 deg.

  14. Phthalocyanine based Schottky solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwong, Chung Yin; Djurisic, Aleksandra B.; Lam, Lillian S. M.; Chan, Wai Kin

    2003-02-01

    Phthalocyanine (Pc) materials are commonly used in organic solar cells. Four different phthalocyanines, nickel phthalocyanine (NiPc), copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), iron phthalocyanine (FePc), and cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) have been investigated for organic solar cell applications. The devices consisted of indium tin oxide (ITO) coated lass substrate, Pc layer, and aluminum (al) electrode. It has been found that ITO/CuPc/Al Schottky cell exhibits the best performance. To investigate the influence of the active layer thickness on the cell performance, cells with several different thicknesses were fabricated and optimal value was found. Schottky cell exhibits optimal performance with one ohmic and one barrier contact. However, it is suspected that ITO/CuPc contact is not ohmic. Therefore, we have investigated various ITO surface treatments for improving the performance of CuPc based Schottky solar cell. We have found that cell on ITO treated with HCl and UV-ozone exhibits the best performance. AM1 power conversion efficiency can be improved by 30% compared to cell made with untreated ITO substrate. To improve power conversion efficiency, double or multiplayer structure are required, and it is expected that suitable ITO treatments for those devices will further improve their performance by improving the contact between ITO and phthalocyanine layer.

  15. Some essential techniques for developing efficient petascale applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalé, L. V.

    2008-07-01

    Multiple petaflops-lass machines will appear during the coming year, and many multipetaflops machines are on the anvil. It will be a substantial challenge to make existing parallel CSE applications run efficiently on them, and even more challenging to design new applications that can effectively leverage the large computational power of these machines. Multicore chips and SMP nodes are becoming popular and pose challenges of their own. Further, a new set of challenges in productivity arise, especially if we wish to have a broader set of applications and people to use these machines. Reviewed here is a set of techniques that have proved useful in multiple parallel applications that have scaled to tens of thousands of processors, on machines such as the Blue Gene/L, Blue Gene/P, Cray XT3, and XT4. New challenges and potential solutions for the performance issues are identified. Issues presented by multicore chips and SMP nodes also rre addressed. Also reviewed are some new and old ideas for increasing productivity in parallel programming substantially.

  16. First determination of f +(0)| V us | from a combined analysis of τ → Kπν τ decay and πK scattering with constraints from K ℓ3 decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Véronique

    2014-06-01

    We perform a combined analysis of τ → Kπν τ decay and πK scattering with constraints from K ℓ3 data using a N/ D approach that fulfills requirements from unitarity and analyticity. We obtain a good fit of the I = 1/2 πK amplitude in the P wave using the LASS data above the elastic region while in this region data are generated via Monte Carlo using the FOCUS results based on D ℓ4 decay. The spectrum and branching ratio of τ → Kπν τ constrained by K ℓ3 decays are also well reproduced leading to f +(0)| V us | = 0 .2163±0 .0014. Furthermore, we obtain the slope of the vector form factor λ + = (25 .56 ± 0 .40) × 10-3 while the value of the scalar form factor at the Callan-Treiman point is ln C = 0 .2062 ± 0 .0089. Given the experimental precision our results are compatible with the Standard Model.

  17. Signal to Noise Ratio in Digital Lock-in Detection for Multiple Intensity-Modulated Signals in CO2 Laser Absorption Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHEN, S.; Lin, B.; Harrison, F. W.; Nehrir, A. R.; Campbell, J. F.; Refaat, T.; Abedin, N. M.; Obland, M. D.; Ismail, S.; Meadows, B. L.

    2013-12-01

    NASA Langley Research Center is investigating Intensity-Modulated, Continuous-Wave Laser Absorption Spectrometers (LASs) for the measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) column mixing ratio from both air- and space-borne platforms. The LAS system uses high-power fiber lasers/amplifiers in the 1.57-um CO2 absorption band and the 1.26-um O2 absorption band in the transmitters and simultaneous digital lock-in detection for the multiple intensity-modulated signals with different modulation waveforms , such as simple sinusoidal waves at different frequencies, associated with different wavelengths in the receivers. The Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of the simultaneous digital lock-in detection in the system is of interest for the system designs and the performance prediction of airborne and space-borne implementations in the future. This paper will discuss the properties of the signals and various noises in the LAS system, especially for the simultaneous digital lock-in detection with a single detector for the multiple intensity-modulated signals at different frequencies. The numerical simulation of the SNR for the simultaneous digital lock-in detection in terms of relative intensity of the multiple modulated signals and the integration time, and an initial experimental verification will be presented.

  18. Test of Scintillometer Saturation Correction Methods Using Field Experimental Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleissl, J.; Hartogensis, O. K.; Gomez, J. D.

    2010-12-01

    Saturation of large aperture scintillometer (LAS) signals can result in sensible heat flux measurements that are biased low. A field study with LASs of different aperture sizes and path lengths was performed to investigate the onset of, and corrections for, signal saturation. Saturation already occurs at {C_n^2 ≈ 0.074 D^{5/3} λ^{1/3} L^{-8/3}}, where {C_n^2} is the structure parameter of the refractive index, D is the aperture size, λ is the wavelength, L is the transect length, which is smaller than theoretically derived saturation limits. At a transect length of 1 km, a height of 2.5 m, and aperture ≈0.15 m the correction factor exceeds 5% already at {C_n^2=2× 10^{-12}m^{-2/3}}, which will affect many practical applications of scintillometry. The Clifford correction method, which only depends on {C_n^2} and the transect geometry, provides good saturation corrections over the range of conditions observed in our study. The saturation correction proposed by Ochs and Hill results in correction factors that are too small in large saturation regimes. An inner length scale dependence of the saturation correction factor was not observed. Thus for practical applications the Clifford correction method should be applied.

  19. Monazite trace-element and isotopic signatures of high-pressure metamorphism: examples from the Western Gneiss region, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holder, R. M.; Hacker, B. R.; Kylander-Clark, A. R.; Cottle, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Monazite U-Pb and trace-element data were gathered using LASS (laser-ablation split-stream ICP-MS) from the Western Gneiss region, Norway, to investigate how trace-element composition can be used to differentiate (ultra)high-pressure monazite from low-pressure monazite. Monazite from six samples contains up to 3 % common Pb, despite high U and Th concentrations. These high common-Pb monazites are characterized by high Sr, weak Eu anomalies, and low Y+HREE. The high common-Pb and Sr abundances and the weak Eu/Eu* are interpreted to reflect the absence of feldspar at (U)HP, and the low Y+HREE content is attributed to fractionation of those elements into garnet. Sr and common Pb in monazite provide a tool for constraining the timing and duration of (U)HP metamorphism. More generally, Sr in monazite is a potential indicator of feldspar instability and may be applicable in other geologic settings, such as igneous systems in which the abundance of feldspar changes due to melting and crystallization. Sr is expected to be more reliable than Eu and Eu/Eu* as a tracer of feldspar stability, because Sr partitioning is less strongly influenced by oxidation state.

  20. Time-scales of crustal anatexis in the Himalaya revealed by petrochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederer, G. W.; Cottle, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Accessory phases, such as monazite, xenotime, and zircon, record a wealth of information regarding the timing, duration, and sources of crustal melting. Combined U-Th/Pb and REE analysis of these petrochronometers by Laser Ablation Split Stream (LASS-) ICPMS reveals complex spatiotemporal relationships on a range of scales, from distinct chemical domains within a single crystal, to cross-cutting dikes within heterogeneous plutons composed of multiple melt batches. The anatectic core of the Himalaya exposes mid-crustal rocks well suited for investigations of the time-scales involved in melt processes, such as generation, segregation, amalgamation, mobilization, and emplacement. Three examples from different settings within the Himalayan orogen, including 1) the Leo Pargil leucogranite injection complex exposed in a gneiss dome in the hinterland, 2) the Manaslu pluton at the interface between the anatectic core and overlying metasediments, and 3) Everest region and Mahabharat granites from the anatectic core to the outermost crystalline thrust sheet of the foreland, illustrate the value of inherited monazite, xenotime, and zircon for deciphering crystallization in the source rock and/or earlier melt batches in addition to determining the age of granite emplacement.

  1. Slab vs. Slivers: U-Pb Geochronologic Constraints on the Exhumation of the Western Gneiss Region, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsburg, A. A.; Hacker, B. R.; Kylander-Clark, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    Ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) and high-pressure (HP) terranes, such as those exposed in the Western Gneiss Region (WGR), Norway, provide an excellent natural laboratory for studying collisional orogenesis and its subsequent effects on Earth processes. UHP terranes are thought to be a variety of thicknesses, ranging from small, thin (<10 km), poorly insulated, rapidly exhumed slabs to large, thick (>30 km), well insulated, slowly exhumed slabs. Resolving the true thickness, size, and timing of such terranes quantifies the amount of potentially recycled crustal material. Using the new LASS-ICP-MS method, a decreasing east to west gradient (~425 - 398 Ma) was established for U-Pb zircon (re)crystallization ages in eclogites, implying the persistence of one, coherent slab during exhumation. Additionally, the absence of old (> 425 Ma) U-Pb eclogite ages from western UHP domains in the data raises two questions: 1) Have prograde zircons in eclogite experienced lead loss at peak PT conditions? 2) Assuming no lead loss was experienced, why was zircon confined to (re)crystallizing during exhumation?

  2. An 80 day X-ray light curve of 3C 371

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. A.; Wood, K. S.; Yentis, D. J.; Meekins, J. F.; Smathers, H. W.; Byram, E. T.; Chubb, T. A.; Friedman, H.

    1982-01-01

    The Large Area Sky Survey (LASS) experiment on HEAO 1 that monitored the N galaxy/BL Lacertae object 3C 371 from August 19 to November 7, 1977 is discussed, noting that statistically significant threefold or larger intensity variations were observed in the flux range 0.5-20 keV. It is found that the degree of variability depends on the time of observation, with the source sometimes appearing constant and sometimes changing on time scales of 1 to 2 weeks. Also observed was an X-ray flare that lasted approximately 25 days. The total 80-day X-ray light curve is seen as suggesting either a superposition of X-ray flares or a variable injection rate that changes on weekly time scales. The observed X-ray flux is found to be consistent with that expected by extrapolating the nonthermal optical spectrum, suggesting that the optical to X-ray flux could be synchrotron radiation, provided that it is possible to account for the patterns of variability seen at optical and X-ray wavelengths and to dispose of inverse Compton difficulties.

  3. Morphology of QSOs-the gridpoints of the Gaia Celestial Reference Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrei, Alexandre Humberto; Souchay, Jean; Martins, Roberto Vieira; Anton, Sonia; Taris, Francois; Bouquillon, Sebastien; Assafin, Marcelo; Barache, Christophe; Camargo, Julio Ignacio Bueno; Coelho, Bruno; da Silva Neto, Dario Nepomuceno

    2012-08-01

    The acronym QSO refers to the particular time in the life of giant galaxies, often elliptic ones, when the nucleus becomes extremely active fueled by matter infalling onto the accretion disk feeding the massive central black hole. But the duration and intensity of such a phase make QSOs to be treated as a class of objects, and indeed a c lass of enhanced cosmologic, astrophysical and astrometric bearings. As a consequence, even in the optical domain, the morphology of a quasar can be understood as comprehending the domineering central source, the immediate surrounding regions, the jet basis and features along the jet, and a bright host galaxy which is likely to be intensely star forming and generally speaking a lively place in itself. Morphology, and its color dependent aspects, can thus inform on the physical processes at work on a given Q SO, for example what is likeness to exhibit different time scales of variability. The ESA Gaia mission will have its fundamental reference frame formed by quasars, which are desired to be as point like as can be gathered for the sake of ensuring maximum astrometric precision and accuracy. We will present how the morphology characteristic is indicated in the Gaia Initial QSO Catalog and the related investigations. We will also outline t he Gaia extended sources methods that will be applied to all QSOs observe d, and the vast amount of information that will be made available from the mission outcomes.

  4. Towards three-body unitarity in D+→K-π+π+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalhães, P. C.; Robilotta, M. R.; Guimarães, K. S. F. F.; Frederico, T.; de Paula, W.; Bediaga, I.; Dos Reis, A. C.; Maekawa, C. M.; Zarnauskas, G. R. S.

    2011-11-01

    We assess the importance of final state interactions in D+→K-π+π+, stressing the consistency between two- and three-body interactions. The basic building block in the calculation is a Kπ amplitude based on unitarized chiral perturbation theory and with parameters determined by a fit to elastic LASS data. Its analytic extension to the second sheet allows the determination of two poles, associated with the κ and the K*(1430), and a representation of the amplitude based on them is constructed. The problem of unitarity in the three-body system is formulated in terms of an integral equation, inspired in the Faddeev formalism, which implements a convolution between the weak vertex and the final state hadronic interaction. Three different topologies are considered for the former and, subsequently, the decay amplitude is expressed as a perturbation series. Each term in this series is systematically related to the previous one and a resummation was performed. Remaining effects owing to single and double rescattering processes were then added and results compared to FOCUS data. We found that proper three-body effects are important at threshold and fade away rapidly at higher energies. Our model, based on a vector-weak vertex, can describe qualitative features of the modulus of the decay amplitude and agrees well with its phase in the elastic region.

  5. What do Seniors Remember from Freshman Physics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrantes, Analia; Pawl, Andrew; Pritchard, David E.

    2009-10-01

    We have given a group of 56 MIT seniors who took mechanics as freshmen a written test similar to the final exam they took in their freshman course, plus the MBT and C-LASS standard instruments. Students in majors unrelated to physics scored 60% lower on the written analytic part of the final than they did as freshmen. The mean score of all students on conceptual multiple choice questions included on the final declined by approximately 50% relative to the scores of freshmen. The mean score of all participants on the MBT was insignificantly changed from the posttest taken as freshmen. More specifically, however, the students' performance on 9 of the 26 MBT items (with 6 of the 9 involving graphical kinematics) represents a gain over their freshman pretest score (a normalized gain of about 70%, double the gain achieved in the freshman course alone), while their performance on the remaining 17 questions is best characterized as a loss of approximately 50% of the material learned in the freshman course. Attitudinal survey results indicate that almost half the seniors feel the specific mechanics course content is unlikely to be useful to them, a significant majority (75-85%) feel that physics does teach valuable skills, and an overwhelming majority believe that mechanics should remain a required course at MIT.

  6. A Pilot Study on the Potential of RNA-Associated to Urinary Vesicles as a Suitable Non-Invasive Source for Diagnostic Purposes in Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Amparo; Loizaga, Ana; Arceo, Raquel; Lacasa, Isabel; Rabade, Ainara; Zorroza, Kerman; Mosen-Ansorena, David; Gonzalez, Esperanza; Aransay, Ana M.; Falcon-Perez, Juan M.; Unda-Urzaiz, Miguel; Royo, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers and, together with prostate carcinoma, accounts for the majority of the malignancies of the genitourinary tract. Since prognosis ameliorates with early detection, it will be beneficial to have a repertoire of diagnostic markers that could complement the current diagnosis protocols. Recently, cell-secreted extracellular vesicles have received great interest as a source of low invasive disease biomarkers because they are found in many body fluids, including urine. The current work describes a pilot study to generate an array-based catalogue of mRNA associated to urinary vesicles, and also a comparison with samples obtained from bladder cancer patients. After an analysis of presence/absence of transcripts in bladder cancer EVs, a list of genes was selected for further validation using PCR technique. We found four genes differentially expressed in cancer samples. LASS2 and GALNT1 were present in cancer patients, while ARHGEF39 and FOXO3 were found only in non-cancer urinary vesicles. Previous studies have pointed to the involvement of those genes in tumour progression and metastasis. PMID:24458310

  7. Genome-wide association study identifies novel loci predisposing to cutaneous melanoma†

    PubMed Central

    Amos, Christopher I.; Wang, Li-E; Lee, Jeffrey E.; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Chen, Wei V.; Fang, Shenying; Kosoy, Roman; Zhang, Mingfeng; Qureshi, Abrar A.; Vattathil, Selina; Schacherer, Christopher W.; Gardner, Julie M.; Wang, Yuling; Tim Bishop, D.; Barrett, Jennifer H.; MacGregor, Stuart; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Duffy, David L.; Mann, Graham J.; Cust, Anne; Hopper, John; Brown, Kevin M.; Grimm, Elizabeth A.; Xu, Yaji; Han, Younghun; Jing, Kaiyan; McHugh, Caitlin; Laurie, Cathy C.; Doheny, Kim F.; Pugh, Elizabeth W.; Seldin, Michael F.; Han, Jiali; Wei, Qingyi

    2011-01-01

    We performed a multistage genome-wide association study of melanoma. In a discovery cohort of 1804 melanoma cases and 1026 controls, we identified loci at chromosomes 15q13.1 (HERC2/OCA2 region) and 16q24.3 (MC1R) regions that reached genome-wide significance within this study and also found strong evidence for genetic effects on susceptibility to melanoma from markers on chromosome 9p21.3 in the p16/ARF region and on chromosome 1q21.3 (ARNT/LASS2/ANXA9 region). The most significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 15q13.1 locus (rs1129038 and rs12913832) lie within a genomic region that has profound effects on eye and skin color; notably, 50% of variability in eye color is associated with variation in the SNP rs12913832. Because eye and skin colors vary across European populations, we further evaluated the associations of the significant SNPs after carefully adjusting for European substructure. We also evaluated the top 10 most significant SNPs by using data from three other genome-wide scans. Additional in silico data provided replication of the findings from the most significant region on chromosome 1q21.3 rs7412746 (P = 6 × 10−10). Together, these data identified several candidate genes for additional studies to identify causal variants predisposing to increased risk for developing melanoma. PMID:21926416

  8. Patient satisfaction with out-patient rehabilitation therapy: validity and reliability

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Park, Se-Yeon; Ha, Ji Sun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of present study were to develop an out-patient satisfaction questionnaire to be used in health care system, from which the underlying dimensions could be derived and individual patient scores calculated, and to evaluate some of the questionnaire’s psychometric properties. [Subjects and Methods] Forty out-patient of local hospital reply both the questionnaire used in previous study and newly designed questionnaire. To identifying validity, the statistical linear relationship between the total score of the primary questionnaire and newly designed questionnaire, which were analyzed. The test-retest reliability has been investigated by using a single measure intra class correlation. [Results] The average satisfaction of the previous questionnaire were significantly correlated with newly designed questionnaire. The intra-lass correlation coefficient of the each items of newly designed questionnaire were strong. Total score of the previous questionnaire had the lowest test-retest reliability, Cronbach’ s alpha coefficient for the newly designed questionnaire score showed acceptable inter-item reliability. [Conclusion] The out-patients’ satisfaction questionnaire developed in present study, which had appropriate validity, reliability, and acceptability. PMID:28174450

  9. Direct electron pair production in. pi. /sup -/p interactions at 16 GeV/c and a model for direct lepton and photon production at low P/sub T/

    SciTech Connect

    Blockus, D.; Dunwoodie, W.; Leith, D.W.G.S.

    1981-07-01

    The production of prompt electron-positron pairs in 16 GeV/c ..pi../sup -/p collisions has been measured using the LASS spectrometer at SLAC. An excess of events is observed above the estimated contributions of direct and Dalitz decay of known resonances in the kinematic range defined by 0.1 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 0.45, 0 less than or equal to P/sub T/ less than or equal to 0.8 GeV/c and 0.2 less than or equal to M(e/sup +/e/sup -/) less than or equal to 0.7 GeV/c/sup 2/. The excess signal decreases slowly with increasing M, but exhibits very steep x and P/sub T//sup 2/ dependence. The contribution of this signal to the e/sup +/e/sup -//..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/ and ..gamma../..pi.. ratios is discussed. Detailed comparisons are made between e/sup +/e/sup -/ distributions and the corresponding low mass ..mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/ distributions, and a simple production mechanism is proposed which describes the 16 GeV/c data well. The implications for direct photon production are presented, and it is shown that the model provides simultaneously a good description of the experimental data on the (e/..pi..) and (..mu../..pi..) ratios for p/sub T/ < 1 GeV/c.

  10. On the Discrepancy in Simultaneous Observations of the Structure Parameter of Temperature Using Scintillometers and Unmanned Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braam, Miranda; Beyrich, Frank; Bange, Jens; Platis, Andreas; Martin, Sabrina; Maronga, Björn; Moene, Arnold F.

    2016-02-01

    We elaborate on the preliminary results presented in Beyrich et al. (in Boundary-Layer Meteorol 144:83-112, 2012), who compared the structure parameter of temperature ({CT^2}_{}) obtained with the unmanned meteorological mini aerial vehicle (M2 AV) versus {CT^2}_{} obtained with two large-aperture scintillometers (LASs) for a limited dataset from one single experiment (LITFASS-2009). They found that {CT^2}_{} obtained from the M2 AV data is significantly larger than that obtained from the LAS data. We investigate if similar differences can be found for the flights on the other six days during LITFASS-2009 and LITFASS-2010, and whether these differences can be reduced or explained through a more elaborate processing of both the LAS data and the M2 AV data. This processing includes different corrections and measures to reduce the differences between the spatial and temporal averaging of the datasets. We conclude that the differences reported in Beyrich et al. can be found for other days as well. For the LAS-derived values the additional processing steps that have the largest effect are the saturation correction and the humidity correction. For the M2 AV -derived values the most important step is the application of the scintillometer path-weighting function. Using the true air speed of the M2 AV to convert from a temporal to a spatial structure function rather than the ground speed (as in Beyrich et al.) does not change the mean discrepancy, but it does affect {CT^2}_{} values for individual flights. To investigate whether {CT^2}_{} derived from the M2 AV data depends on the fact that the underlying temperature dataset combines spatial and temporal sampling, we used large-eddy simulation data to analyze {CT^2}_{} from virtual flights with different mean ground speeds. This analysis shows that {CT^2}_{} does only slightly depends on the true air speed when averaged over many flights.

  11. Coupled zircon Lu-Hf and U-Pb isotopic analyses of the oldest terrestrial crust, the >4.03 Ga Acasta Gneiss Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Ann M.; Fisher, Christopher M.; Vervoort, Jeffrey D.; Bowring, Samuel A.

    2017-01-01

    The Acasta Gneiss Complex of the Northwest Territories, Canada, contains some of the earliest terrestrial continental crust and thus provides a critical sample set for characterization of crust-forming processes on the early Earth. Here we report the results of a combined Lu-Hf and U-Pb isotopic study of zircons from predominantly felsic orthogneisses from the Acasta Gneiss Complex that crystallized between ∼4.0 and 2.9 Ga, many of which contain complex zoning and therefore require an analytical treatment suited to distinguish amongst compositionally distinct age and Hf isotopic domains. To ensure the reliability of the analyses and of subsequent geologic interpretations, we employed the laser ablation split-stream (LASS) technique to concurrently measure the Lu-Hf and U-Pb isotopic systems in zircon. Our results confirm prior findings of precursor Hadean crust (>4.0 Ga) in the source of these rocks and the continued involvement of this reservoir until ∼3.6 Ga. We present evidence for the input of relatively more juvenile material at ∼3.6 Ga, which we suggest corresponds to a fundamental change in the source of the magmas. This study extends the lower bound of the published Acasta Hf isotopic record from 3.6 Ga to 2.9 Ga and demonstrates that the ∼3.6 Ga-2.9 Ga interval is largely represented by reworking of relatively juvenile ∼3.6 Ga crust and the diminution of the >4.0 Ga crustal signal. Significantly, there is no evidence that rocks within the Acasta Gneiss Complex were derived from a strongly depleted mantle.

  12. Study of leading strange meson resonances and spin-orbit splittings in K/sup -/p. -->. K/sup -/. pi. /sup +/n at 11 GeV/c

    SciTech Connect

    Honma, A.K.

    1980-11-01

    The results from a high-statistics study of K..pi.. elastic scattering in the reaction K/sup -/p ..-->.. K/sup -/..pi../sup +/n are presented. The data for this analysis are taken from an 11-GeV/c K/sup -/p experiment performed on the Large Aperture Solenoidal Spectrometer (LASS) facility at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). By selecting the very forward produced K/sup -/..pi../sup +/ events, a sample consisting of data for the K..pi.. ..-->.. K..pi.. elastic scattering reaction was extracted. The angular distribution for this meson-meson scattering is studied by use of both a spherical harmonic moments analysis and a partial-wave analysis (PWA). The previously established leading natural spin-parity strange meson resonances (the J/sup P/ = 1/sup -/ K*(895), the 2/sup +/ K*(1430), and the 3/sup -/ K*(1780)) are observed in the results from both the moments analysis and the PWA. In addition, evidence for a new spin 4/sup -/ K* resonance with a mass of 2080 MeV and a width of about 225 MeV is presented. The results from the PWA confirm the existence of a 0/sup +/ kappa (1490) and propose the existence of a second scalar meson resonance, the 0/sup +/ kappa' (1900). Structure in the P-wave amplitude indicates resonance behavior in the mass region near 1700 MeV. In two of the four ambiguous solutions for the mass region above 1800 MeV, there is strong evidence for another P-wave resonant structure near 2100 MeV. The observed strange meson resonances are found to have a natural interpretation in terms of states predicted by the quark model. In particular, the mass splittings of the leading trajectory natural spin-parity strange meson states and the mass splittings between the spin-orbit triplet states are discussed. 59 figures, 17 tables.

  13. Adult ceramide synthase 2 (CERS2)-deficient mice exhibit myelin sheath defects, cerebellar degeneration, and hepatocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Imgrund, Silke; Hartmann, Dieter; Farwanah, Hany; Eckhardt, Matthias; Sandhoff, Roger; Degen, Joachim; Gieselmann, Volkmar; Sandhoff, Konrad; Willecke, Klaus

    2009-11-27

    (Dihydro)ceramide synthase 2 (cers2, formerly called lass2) is the most abundantly expressed member of the ceramide synthase gene family, which includes six isoforms in mice. CERS2 activity has been reported to be specific toward very long fatty acid residues (C22-C24). In order to study the biological role of CERS2, we have inactivated its coding region in transgenic mice using gene-trapped embryonic stem cells that express lacZ reporter DNA under control of the cers2 promoter. The resulting mice lack ceramide synthase activity toward C24:1 in the brain as well as the liver and show only very low activity toward C18:0-C22:0 in liver and reduced activity toward C22:0 residues in the brain. In addition, these mice exhibit strongly reduced levels of ceramide species with very long fatty acid residues (>or=C22) in the liver, kidney, and brain. From early adulthood on, myelin stainability is progressively lost, biochemically accompanied by about 50% loss of compacted myelin and 80% loss of myelin basic protein. Starting around 9 months, both the medullary tree and the internal granular layer of the cerebellum show significant signs of degeneration associated with the formation of microcysts. Predominantly in the peripheral nervous system, we observed vesiculation and multifocal detachment of the inner myelin lamellae in about 20% of the axons. Beyond 7 months, the CERS2-deficient mice developed hepatocarcinomas with local destruction of tissue architecture and discrete gaps in renal parenchyma. Our results indicate that CERS2 activity supports different biological functions: maintenance of myelin, stabilization of the cerebellar as well as renal histological architecture, and protection against hepatocarcinomas.

  14. Heat Transfar Properties of Flat-Panel Evacuated Porous Insrlators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneno, Hirosyi; Yamamoto, Ryoichi

    Flat Panel evacuated porous insulators have been produced by filling powder or fiber (such as perlite powder, diatomaceous earth powder, silica aerogel powder, g lass fiber and ceramic fiber) in film-like laminated plastic container and by evacuating to form vacuum in it is interior. Heat transfer properties of these evacuated insulators have been studied under various conditions (such as particle diameter, surface area, packing density, solid volume fraction and void dimension). The apparent mean thermal conductivity has been measured for the boundary surface temperature at cold face temperature 13°C and hot face temperature 35°. The effect of air pressure ranging from 1 Pa to one atomosphere (105 Pa) was examined. The results were as follows. (1) For each powder the apparent mean thermal conductivity decreases with decreasing residual air pressure, and at very low pressure bellow 1 -103 Pa the conductivity becomes indeqendent of pressure. The thermal conductivity at 1.3Pa is 0.0053 W/mK for perlite powder, 0.0048W/mK for diatomaceous earth powder, 0.0043 W/mK for silica aerogel powder and 0.0029W/mK for glass fiber. (2) With decreasing particle size, the apparent mean thermal conductivity is constant independent of residual air pressure in higher pressure region. It is that void dimension continues to decrease with particle size and the mean free path of air becomes comparable with void dimension. (3) In the range of minor solid volume fraction, the apparent mean thermal conductivity at very low precreases with decreasing particle size. This shows the thermal contact resistance of the solid particle increases with decreasing particle size.

  15. Adenosine A2A receptor agonist prevents cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive male rats after myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Jaqueline S; Gabriel-Costa, Daniele; Sudo, Roberto T; Wang, Hao; Groban, Leanne; Ferraz, Emanuele B; Nascimento, José Hamilton M; Fraga, Carlos Alberto M; Barreiro, Eliezer J; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele

    2017-01-01

    Background This work evaluated the hypothesis that 3,4-methylenedioxybenzoyl-2-thienylhydrazone (LASSBio-294), an agonist of adenosine A2A receptor, could be beneficial for preventing cardiac dysfunction due to hypertension associated with myocardial infarction (MI). Methods Male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were randomly divided into four groups (six animals per group): sham-operation (SHR-Sham), and myocardial infarction rats (SHR-MI) were treated orally either with vehicle or LASSBio-294 (10 and 20 mg.kg−1.d−1) for 4 weeks. Echocardiography and in vivo hemodynamic parameters measured left ventricle (LV) structure and function. Exercise tolerance was evaluated using a treadmill test. Cardiac remodeling was accessed by LV collagen deposition and tumor necrosis factor α expression. Results Early mitral inflow velocity was significantly reduced in the SHR-MI group, and there was significant recovery in a dose-dependent manner after treatment with LASSBio-294. Exercise intolerance observed in the SHR-MI group was prevented by 10 mg.kg−1.d−1 of LASS-Bio-294, and exercise tolerance exceeded that of the SHR-Sham group at 20 mg.kg−1.d−1. LV end-diastolic pressure increased after MI, and this was prevented by 10 and 20 mg.kg−1.d−1 of LASSBio-294. Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase levels were restored in a dose-dependent manner after treatment with LASSBio-294. Fibrosis and inflammatory processes were also counteracted by LASSBio-294, with reductions in LV collagen deposition and tumor necrosis factor α expression. Conclusion In summary, oral administration of LASSBio-294 after MI in a dose-dependent manner prevented the development of cardiac dysfunction, demonstrating this compound’s potential as an alternative treatment for heart failure in the setting of ischemic heart disease with superimposed chronic hypertension. PMID:28293100

  16. Neurodevelopmental Animal Models of Schizophrenia: Role in Novel Drug Discovery and Development

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Christina; Terry, Alvin V.

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating mental illness that is associated with a lifetime of disability. For patients to successfully function in society, the amelioration of disease symptoms is imperative. The recently published results of two large antipsychotic clinical trials (e.g., CATIE, CUtLASS) clearly exemplified the limitations of currently available treatment options for schizophrenia, and further highlighted the critical need for novel drug discovery and development in this field. One of the biggest challenges in schizophrenia-related drug discovery is to find an appropriate animal model of the illness so that novel hypotheses can be tested at the basic science level. A number of pharmacological, genetic, and neurodevelopmental models have been introduced; however, none of these models has been rigorously evaluated for translational relevance or to satisfy requirements of “face,” “construct” and “predictive” validity. Given the apparent polygenic nature of schizophrenia and the limited translational significance of pharmacological models, neurodevelopmental models may offer the best chance of success. The purpose of this review is to provide a general overview of the various neurodevelopmental models of schizophrenia that have been introduced to date, and to summarize their behavioral and neurochemical phenotypes that may be useful from a drug discovery and development standpoint. While it may be that, in the final analysis, no single animal model will satisfy all the requirements necessary for drug discovery purposes, several of the models may be useful for modeling various phenomenological and pathophysiological components of schizophrenia that could be targeted independently with separate molecules or multi-target drugs. PMID:20643635

  17. Vom Urknall zum Durchknall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unzicker, Alexander

    Lautstarker Applaus erhob sich im Salon III/IV des Marriott-Hotels von Crystal City im amerikanischen Bundesstaat Virginia. In dem überfüllten Konferenzraum starrten alle wie gebannt auf die Leinwand, wo nicht mehr zu sehen war als ein nüchternes Diagramm aus zahlreichen Punkten und einer geschwungenen Kurve. Nureine eigenartige Personengruppe konnte sich davon zu Emotionen hinreißen lassen - Physiker auf der Jahrestagung der Astronomischen Gesellschaft, die ihren Begeisterungssturm noch minutenlang fortsetzten. Was war geschehen? Die im Diagramm aufgetragenen Daten bestätigten mit einer nie da gewesenen Genauigkeit ein fundamentales Naturgesetz zur Wärmeabstrahlung von heißen Körpern. 1900 von Max Planck entdeckt, leuchtete es nun in geradezu mathematischer Reinheit auf. Noch sensationeller war der Ursprung der Daten - Mikrowellensignale verschiedener Frequenzen, die nicht aus einem irdischen Labor stammten, sondern von einem heißen Urzustand des Universums! Ein Feuerball aus Wasserstoff und Helium, noch ohne jegliche Strukturen, die irgendwann Leben ermöglichen sollten, ließ damals seinem Licht freien Lauf. Mehr als zehn Milliarden Jahre war es bis zu den Detektoren des vom Menschen gebauten Satelliten COBE unterwegs, der wenige Tage zuvor die Daten übertragen hatte. Wenn ich das alles wie einen Film in meiner Vorstellung ablaufen lasse, bekomme ich immer eine Gänsehaut, als würde ich die inzwischen extrem abgekühlte Strahlung tatsächlich spüren. Ihre Gleichverteilung im Raum macht uns auch deutlich, dass wir uns nicht einbilden dürfen, an einem besonderen Ort im Universum zu leben - intelligente Aliens könnten sich seitdem überall entwickelt haben! Sollten sie - was nicht wahrscheinlich ist - uns wirklich von Zeit zu Zeit über die Schulter schauen, dann hätten sie an jenem Nachmittag des 13. Januar 1990, als der Vortrag stattfand, bestimmt anerkennend mit ihrem großen Kopf genickt.

  18. Choice of antipsychotic treatment by European psychiatry trainees: are decisions based on evidence?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the factors influencing treatment choice in psychosis, the majority of this work being conducted with specialists (consultant) in psychiatry. We sought to examine trainees' choices of treatment for psychosis if they had to prescribe it for themselves, their patients, and factors influencing decision-making. Methods Cross-sectional, semi-structured questionnaire-based study. Results Of the 726 respondents (response rate = 66%), the majority chose second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) if they had to prescribe it for themselves (n = 530, 93%) or for their patients (n = 546, 94%). The main factor influencing choice was perceived efficacy, 84.8% (n = 475) of trainees stating this was the most important factor for the patient, and 77.8% (n = 404) stating this was the most important factor for their own treatment. Trainees with knowledge of trials questioning use of SGAs (CATIE, CUtLASS, TEOSS) were more likely to choose second-generation antipsychotics than those without knowledge of these trials (χ2 = 3.943; p = 0.047; O.R. = 2.11; 95% C.I. = 1.0-4.48). Regarding psychotherapy, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) was the most popular choice for self (33.1%; n = 240) and patient (30.9%; n = 224). Trainees were significantly more likely to prefer some form of psychotherapy for themselves rather than patients (χ2 = 9.98; p < 0,002; O.R. = 1.54; 95% CIs = 1.18-2.0). Conclusions Trainees are more likely to choose second-generation antipsychotic medication for patients and themselves. Despite being aware of evidence that suggests otherwise, they predominantly base these choices on perceived efficacy. PMID:22463055

  19. Two Types of Renovascular Lesions in Lupus Nephritis with Clinical Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Akinari; Hasegawa, Eiko; Hiramatsu, Rikako; Mise, Koki; Sumida, Keiichi; Ueno, Toshiharu; Yamanouchi, Masayuki; Hayami, Noriko; Suwabe, Tatsuya; Hoshino, Junichi; Sawa, Naoki; Takaichi, Kenmei; Ohashi, Kenichi; Fujii, Takeshi; Ubara, Yoshifumi

    2015-01-01

    Renovascular lesions of lupus nephritis (LN) were classified into five categories by D'Agati in Heptinstall's Pathology of the Kidney, with thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) and clinical thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) being combined. We encountered 2 cases with histological LN (class III and lass V), and they presented with clinical features of TTP, such as acute renal failure, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, fever, and central neurologic symptoms. Immunosuppressive therapy with plasmapheresis was performed in both patients. Case 1 progressed to end-stage renal failure requiring dialysis and died, while case 2 responded to treatment. In case 1, small renal arteries showed positive mural staining for IgG and C3, while intraluminal material was negative for IgG and C3 [although it was positive for phosphotungstic acid-hematoxylin (PTAH), indicating fibrin deposition]. In case 2, small renal arteries showed mural staining for IgG, C1q, and C3, with the intraluminal material also being positive for these immunoglobulins, but negative for PTAH. These cases suggest that immunosuppressive therapy with plasmapheresis can control LN when intravascular thrombosis is related to immune complexes associated with activation of the early complement components C1q and C3. In contrast, immunosuppressive therapy with plasmapheresis may not be effective when intravascular thrombosis is unrelated to these factors and involves fibrin deposition. Accordingly, in LN patients with clinical features of TTP, we report two types of renovascular lesions, in addition to typical vascular change of TMA with no immune deposits seen in nonlupus patients.

  20. Sonographic evaluation of the temporomandibular joints in juvenile idiopathic arthritis().

    PubMed

    Melchiorre, D; Falcini, F; Kaloudi, O; Bandinelli, F; Nacci, F; Matucci Cerinic, M

    2010-03-01

    Sommario INTRODUZIONE: L'artrite Idiopatica giovanile (AIG) determina alterazioni a carico della testa condilare dell'articolazione temporomandibolare (ATM). Nell'esordio oligo-articolare (OA) l'interessamento dell'ATM viene spesso trascurato perchè può essere asintomatico. Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di valutare la presenza di versamento intrarticolare (V) dell'ATM, mediante esame ecografico (US), nelle fasi precoci di malattia. MATERIALE E METODI: Sono stati studiati 68 bambini (57 bambine e 11 bambini, di età compresa tra 9,1 e 16, anni, età media: 11,02 ± 4,2 mesi) con AIG ad esordio OA. I pazienti (pz) erano sintomatici quando uno dei quattro sintomi seguenti era presente: 1) dolore ricorrente (a riposo o durante il movimento di apertura della bocca); 2) presenza di scrosci articolari; 3) presenza di limitazione nell'apertura della bocca; 4) locking intermittente. US è stato eseguito su entrambe le ATM sia in fase statica che dinamica, mediante ecografo General Electric (LOGIQ7) con sonda lineare (8,5 MHz) posizionata lungo l'asse maggiore del ramo condilare. Il V era presente quando lo spessore della capsula articolare era ≥1,5 mm. RISULTATI: 46/68 (68%) hanno presentato V a carico delle ATM; in 16 (35%) il V era bilaterale. 2/46 con V erano sintomatici, mentre in 44 non erano presenti sintomi. CONCLUSIONI: Questi dati suggeriscono che un'alta percentuale di bambini e giovani adulti con AIG ad esordio OA, nella fase iniziale della malattia, presenta un interessamento flogistico delle ATM anche in assenza di sintomi. L'US, non invasivo e facilmente ripetibile, ci offre importanti informazioni sul coinvolgimento articolare delle ATM ed è risultato utile nella diagnosi all'esordio.

  1. A New Model for Chemical Evolution of the Galactic Halo: Formulation and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimoto, Takuji; Shigeyama, Toshikazu; Yoshii, Yuzuru

    A model for Galactic chemical evolution, driven by supernova-induced star formation, is formulated and used to examine the nature of the Galactic halo at early epochs. In this model, new stars are formed following each supernova event, thus their abundance pattern is determined by the combination of heavy elements ejected from the supernova itself and those elements which are already present in the interstellar gas swept up by the supernova remnant. The end result is a prediction of large scatter in the abundance ratios among low-metallicity stars, reflecting a different nucleosynthesis yield for each Type II supernova (SN II) with a different progenitor mass. Formation of new stars is terminated when supernova remnants sweep up too little gas to form shells. We show from calculations based on the above scenario that (i) the observed [Fe/H] distribution for the Galactic halo field stars can be reproduced without effectively decreasing the heavy-element yields from SNe II by some manipulation required by previous models (e.g., via mass lass from the early Galaxy, or later mixing with "pristine" hydrogen clouds), (ii) the large observed scatter in the abundante ratio [Eu/Fe] for the most metal-poor stars can also be reproduced, and (iii) the frequency distribution of stars in the [Eu/Fe]-[Fe/H] plane can be predicted. Our model suggests that the probability of identifying essentially metal-free stars (Population III) in the local halo is around one in 103-4, provided that star formation in the halo is confined to individual gas clouds with mass of 10 ^{6-7} M_⊙ and that the initial mass function of metal-free stars is not significantly different from the Salpeter mass function.

  2. Radiogenic heating to ultrahigh temperature: Geochronology and 4+ thermometry across southern Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, F.; Hacker, B. R.; Kylander-Clark, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    As zones of focused metamorphism, melting, and ductile deformation, hot crustal sections are especially important for understanding the evolution of the lower crust in convergent orogens, such as Tibet. One of the best exposed crustal sections that reached ultrahigh-temperature (UHT: >900° C) is in southern Madagascar. There, the association of UHT mineral assemblages with exceptionally high concentrations of radioactive heat-producing elements begs the question of whether radiogenic heating caused UHT. Partial melting, retrogression and rapid elemental diffusion at high temperature, however, have left a complex record of radiometric dates that span 150 Myr (~650-500 Ma), making it difficult to address this question. We apply laser-ablation split-stream ICPMS (LASS) petrochronology and 4+ cation thermometry to better constrain the lengthscales and timescales over which high temperatures were sustained in southern Madagascar. By deciphering complex intragrain (re)crystallization textures of zircon and monazite from a broad geographical area, we deduce that orogenesis lasted >60 Myr. Specifically, 600-540 Ma zircon and monazite with HREE depletion suggest (re)crystallization in the presence of garnet. All monazite show negative Eu anomalies (compatible with the presence of plagioclase), but ~570 to ~530 Ma monazite has more-pronounced anomalies. Ti-in-zircon and Zr-in-rutile thermometry confirm ultrahigh temperatures within a restricted area of ~100 x 200 km. These thermal and chronologic constraints allow us to evaluate the potential causes of heating. Measured K, Th, and U contents of rocks within the UHT domain indicate an average heat-production rate of >4 μW/m3, sufficient to produce UHT metamorphism in 60-km thick crust within 60 Myr. We conclude that high concentrations of heat-producing elements caused focused heat production in young metasedimentary rocks that were sandwiched between older crustal domains. We speculate that ultrahigh temperatures caused by

  3. Rare Earth Element Partition Coefficients During High-Grade Metamorphism: Experiments, Realities, And Large Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, R.; Clark, C.; Kylander-Clark, A. R.; Hacker, B. R.

    2015-12-01

    For 15 years rare earth element (REE) partitioning between zircon and garnet has facilitated the coupling of U-Pb ages to metamorphism, particularly in the granulite facies. The combination of in situ analysis and rapid data acquisition, particularly through combined techniques such as laser ablation split stream (LASS), means that complex terranes can be interrogated with increasing detail. However this detail provided by large datasets must also be combined with an understanding of the processes involved, for example the relative mobility of the REE, Ti, U and Pb within zircon grains that have withstood intense P-T conditions to varying degrees. Care must also be taken in identifying open system conditions, for example the presence or passage of partial melts that result in non-equilibrium, or very localised equilibrium, between the phases of interest. Visualisation of REE partition coefficients (DREE) becomes more complex with large datasets particularly when dealing with variably recrystallised zircon grains or multiple generations of garnet. Simple methods of visualising the important partitioning parameters identify temperature trends in experimental datasets [1, 2]. These trends can be used as clear indicators of zircon growing or recrystallizing in the presence of stable garnet and may be used as thermometers for zircon growth and for the identification of thermal peaks. Investigation of zircon-garnet DREE values in both long-lived high grade terranes (e.g. S. India), and complex polymetamorphic terranes (e.g. Enderby Land, E. Antarctica) provides insight into how partitioning information can be carefully interrogated, by looking at systematic or erratic variations from experimental data, even when dealing with issues such as variably recrystallised zircon and melt migration. Rubatto and Hermann, (2007). Chemical Geology. Taylor et al., (2015). Journal Metamorphic Geology.

  4. Hazardous organic compounds in biogas plant end products--soil burden and risk to food safety.

    PubMed

    Suominen, K; Verta, M; Marttinen, S

    2014-09-01

    The end products (digestate, solid fraction of the digestate, liquid fraction of the digestate) of ten biogas production lines in Finland were analyzed for ten hazardous organic compounds or compound groups: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB(7)), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH(16)), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), perfluorinated alkyl compounds (PFCs), linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LASs), nonylphenols and nonylphenol ethoxylates (NP+NPEOs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Biogas plant feedstocks were divided into six groups: municipal sewage sludge, municipal biowaste, fat, food industry by-products, animal manure and others (consisting of milling by-products (husk) and raw former foodstuffs of animal origin from the retail trade). There was no clear connection between the origin of the feedstocks of a plant and the concentrations of hazardous organic compounds in the digestate. For PCDD/Fs and for DEHP, the median soil burden of the compound after a single addition of digestate was similar to the annual atmospheric deposition of the compound or compound group in Finland or other Nordic countries. For PFCs, the median soil burden was somewhat lower than the atmospheric deposition in Finland or Sweden. For NP+NPEOs, the soil burden was somewhat higher than the atmospheric deposition in Denmark. The median soil burden of PBDEs was 400 to 1000 times higher than the PBDE air deposition in Finland or in Sweden. With PBDEs, PFCs and HBCD, the impact of the use of end products should be a focus of further research. Highly persistent compounds, such as PBDE- and PFC-compounds may accumulate in agricultural soil after repeated use of organic fertilizers containing these compounds. For other compounds included in this study, agricultural use of biogas plant end products is unlikely to cause risk to food safety in Finland.

  5. Limited Flow of Continental Crust at UHP Depths: Coupled Age and Trace-Element Analyses of Titanite in the Western Gneiss Region, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garber, J. M.; Hacker, B. R.; Kylander-Clark, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Coupled age and trace-element data from titanites in the Western Gneiss Region (WGR) of Norway suggest that continental crust underwent limited recrystallization and ductile flow through ~40 My of deep subduction and subsequent exhumation. Precambrian igneous titanites in granitic to tonalitic orthogneisses from the WGR were metastably preserved though Caledonian ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphism and variably recrystallized through subsequent amphibolite-facies metamorphism from ~420-385 Ma. The inherited Precambrian titanites are not present everywhere but rather cluster primarily in a cooler "southern domain" (peak T ~650oC) and a hotter "northern domain" (peak T ~750-800oC).Titanite data were collected using LASS (laser-ablation split stream inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry) at UCSB, and a principal component analysis (PCA) was used to define age and trace-element populations. These data indicate that inherited titanites are LREE-enriched, HFSE-enriched, and have higher Th/U, consistent with Precambrian neocrystallization from a granitic melt. In contrast, the recrystallized titanites have generally lower Th/U and flat, LREE-depleted, or hump-shaped trace-element patterns. These data suggest that (1) Caledonian titanite recrystallization occurred in the presence of LREE-depleted melts or fluids, or that (2) recrystallization was accompanied by a "typical" granitic melt, but that titanite/bulk-rock distribution coefficients are different for neo- and recrystallization; on-going whole-rock analyses will clarify these hypotheses. Critically, the geochemical signature of recrystallized titanite in felsic orthogneisses is comparable across the entire WGR - emphasizing that the petrologic process of titanite recrystallization was similar orogen-wide, but was less extensive in the domains where inherited titanite was preserved. In this case, large volumes of crust outside of the "old domains" may also have retained metastable titanite during subduction

  6. Cerenkov ring imaging and spectroscopy of charged KSTAR interactions at 11 GeV/c

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, P.F.

    1988-11-01

    The physics and technology of this new Cerenkov detector are discussed, including materials studies, construction techniques, and resolution measurements. Sources of resolution error are individually identified and measured where possible. The results of all studied indicate that the measurement resolution is understood. This work has led to the adoption of a large scale ring imaging detector as part of a new high energy physics spectrometer, the SLD, at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Results from an amplitude analysis of strange meson final states in K/sup /minus//p ..-->.. /ovr K/sub 0//..pi../sup /minus//p interactions are presented. The data derive from a 4 event/nb exposure of the LASS (large Aperture Superconducting Solenoid) spectrometer to an 11 GeV/c K/sup /minus// beam. The data sample consists of /approximately/100,000 vents distributed over the Dalitz plot of the channel. The process is observed to be dominated by the production and decay of natural spin-parity (J/sup P/ = 1/sup /minus//,2/sup +/,3/sup /minus//,/hor ellipsis/) strange meson states. The data can be understood in terms of a simple model in which the resonant /ovr K*/sup -// are produced predominantly via natural parity exchange in the t channel. The leading K*(890), K/sub 2/*(1430), and K*(1780) resonances are clearly observed and measured, and the underlying spectroscopy is also extracted. Indications of higher mass resonance production are also shown. The observed properties of these states are used to confront current models of quark spectroscopy in strange meson systems. 94 refs., 96 figs., 23 tabs.

  7. Petrochronological and structural arguments for upper plate thickening and relamination of the lower plate buoyant material in the Variscan Bohemian Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peřestý, Vít; Holder, Robert; Lexa, Ondrej; Racek, Martin; Jeřábek, Petr

    2014-05-01

    Recent tectonic models for the Variscan evolution of the Bohemian Massif emphasize the role of Rayleigh-Taylor instability for the 355-340 Ma evolution of the Moldanubian domain. This model is based on the presence of weak, low-density felsic material tectonically underplating a high-density mafic layer and its subsequent gravity-driven overturn. However, earlier phases of the Variscan orogeny concerning the emplacement of felsic low-density material to the base of the upper plate are so far poorly documented. We contribute to this problem by deciphering of polyphase early-Variscan (~375 Ma) deformation and metamorphism close to the main Variscan suture. Detailed structural, pseudosection and microstructural analyses combined with LASS monazite dating were carried out in metapelites along the western margin of the upper plate represented by the Teplá Crystalline Complex (TCC). This region is represented by a ~25 km wide deformation zone with E-W metamorphic gradients associated with two distinct early-Variscan events (~380-375 and ~375-370 Ma). The first compressional event produced a vertical NNE-SSW trending fabric and a continuous and prograde Barrovian metamorphic sequence ranging from biotite to kyanite zones at a field geotherm of 20 to 25 °C/km. Subsequently, a gently SE dipping normal shear-zone associated with retrogression develops along the base of the TCC. This sub-horizontal fabric shows normal metamorphic zonation ranging from sillimanite, biotite to chlorite zones and indicates vertical shortening related to unroofing of high pressure metabasites of the underlying Mariánské-Lázně Complex. The first metamorphic fabric is interpreted to result from early thickening of the upper plate during continental underthrusting of Saxothuringian continent (380 to 375 Ma) while the second deformation and metamorphism (~370 Ma) reflects vertical shortening produced by buoyant uplift of accreted Saxothuringian felsic crust. This event is the unique yet

  8. Study of natural spin-parity strange meson radial excitations in K/sup -/p. -->. K/sup -/. pi. /sup +/n at 11 GeV/c

    SciTech Connect

    Durkin, L.S.

    1980-12-01

    Results are presented from a high statistics study of the reaction K/sup -/p ..-->.. K/sup -/..pi../sup +/n at 11 GeV/c. This data was selected offline from an approx. 1000 event/..mu..b K/sup -/p experiment run on the Large Aperture Solenoid Spectrometer (LASS) at SLAC which triggered on essentially the total inelastic cross section. This K/sup -/..pi../sup +/n sample, after cuts, contained approx. 42,000 events in the K..pi.. invariant mass region from 0.65 GeV to 2.30 GeV, and absolute value t' < 0.2 GeV/sup 2/. A spherical harmonic angular moments analysis of this data is presented, as well as an energy independent partial wave analysis (PWA) of these angular moments. The nearly uniform acceptance characteristics of this data allowed a detailed analysis, which yielded information on natural spin-parity strange meson resonances in the K..pi.. invariant mass range from 0.65 GeV to 2.30 GeV. The well established K*(895), K*(1430), and K*(1780) are observed, and clear evidence is presented for a J/sup P/ = 4/sup +/ strange meson state at a mass of 2.08 GeV. The K/sup -/..pi../sup +/ elastic scattering partial waves extracted in this PWA show unambiguous evidence for a relatively narrow S wave resonance near 1.42 GeV in the K..pi.. invariant mass. This state is a confirmation of the 0/sup +/ K(1500) seen in previous PWA's. A new higher S wave resonance is clearly seen unambiguously near 1.90 GeV. Unambiguous evidence is presented for a relatively wide P wave resonance in the 1.70 GeV region.A second new P wave resonance also is seen in two of four ambiguous partial wave solutions in the 2.10 GeV region. These resonance states are discussed within the framework of a simple harmonic oscillator quark model. In particular three of the underlying resonances are discussed as possible natural spin-parity strange meson radial excitations.

  9. Lost in Translation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lass, Wiebke; Reusswig, Fritz

    2014-05-01

    Lost in Translation? Introducing Planetary Boundaries into Social Systems. Fritz Reusswig, Wiebke Lass Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany Identifying and quantifying planetary boundaries by interdisciplinary science efforts is a challenging task—and a risky one, as the 1972 Limits to Growth publication has shown. Even if we may be assured that scientific understanding of underlying processes of the Earth system has significantly improved since then, the challenge of translating these findings into the social systems of the planet remains crucial for any kind of action, and in many respects far more challenging. We would like to conceptualize what could also be termed a problem of coupling social and natural systems as a nested set of social translation processes, well aware of the limited applicability of the language-related translation metaphor. Societies must, first, perceive these boundaries, and they have to understand their relevance. This includes, among many other things, the organization of transdisciplinary scientific cooperation. They will then have to translate this understood perception into possible actions, i.e. strategies for different local bodies, actors, and institutional settings. This implies a lot of 'internal' translation processes, e.g. from the scientific subsystem to the mass media, the political and the economic subsystem. And it implies to develop subsystem-specific schemes of evaluation for these alternatives, e.g. convincing narratives, cost-benefit analyses, or ethical legitimacy considerations. And, finally, societies do have to translate chosen action alternatives into monitoring and evaluation schemes, e.g. for agricultural production or renewable energies. This process includes the continuation of observing and re-analyzing the planetary boundary concept itself, as a re-adjustment of these boundaries in the light of new scientific insights cannot be excluded. Taken all together, societies may well

  10. Developmentally regulated ceramide synthase 6 increases mitochondrial Ca2+ loading capacity and promotes apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Novgorodov, Sergei A; Chudakova, Daria A; Wheeler, Brian W; Bielawski, Jacek; Kindy, Mark S; Obeid, Lina M; Gudz, Tatyana I

    2011-02-11

    Ceramides, which are membrane sphingolipids and key mediators of cell-stress responses, are generated by a family of (dihydro) ceramide synthases (Lass1-6/CerS1-6). Here, we report that brain development features significant increases in sphingomyelin, sphingosine, and most ceramide species. In contrast, C(16:0)-ceramide was gradually reduced and CerS6 was down-regulated in mitochondria, thereby implicating CerS6 as a primary ceramide synthase generating C(16:0)-ceramide. Investigations into the role of CerS6 in mitochondria revealed that ceramide synthase down-regulation is associated with dramatically decreased mitochondrial Ca(2+)-loading capacity, which could be rescued by addition of ceramide. Selective CerS6 complexing with the inner membrane component of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore was detected by immunoprecipitation. This suggests that CerS6-generated ceramide could prevent mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening, leading to increased Ca(2+) accumulation in the mitochondrial matrix. We examined the effect of high CerS6 expression on cell survival in primary oligodendrocyte (OL) precursor cells, which undergo apoptotic cell death during early postnatal brain development. Exposure of OLs to glutamate resulted in apoptosis that was prevented by inhibitors of de novo ceramide biosynthesis, myriocin and fumonisin B1. Knockdown of CerS6 with siRNA reduced glutamate-triggered OL apoptosis, whereas knockdown of CerS5 had no effect: the pro-apoptotic role of CerS6 was not stimulus-specific. Knockdown of CerS6 with siRNA improved cell survival in response to nerve growth factor-induced OL apoptosis. Also, blocking mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake or decreasing Ca(2+)-dependent protease calpain activity with specific inhibitors prevented OL apoptosis. Finally, knocking down CerS6 decreased calpain activation. Thus, our data suggest a novel role for CerS6 in the regulation of both mitochondrial Ca(2+) homeostasis and calpain, which appears to

  11. Whole Genome Expression Analysis in a Mouse Model of Tauopathy Identifies MECP2 as a Possible Regulator of Tau Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Maphis, Nicole M.; Jiang, Shanya; Binder, Jessica; Wright, Carrie; Gopalan, Banu; Lamb, Bruce T.; Bhaskar, Kiran

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT or tau) correlates with the development of cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and related tauopathies. While numerous attempts have been made to model AD-relevant tau pathology in various animal models, there has been very limited success for these models to fully recapitulate the progression of disease as seen in human tauopathies. Here, we performed whole genome gene expression in a genomic mouse model of tauopathy that expressed human MAPT gene under the control of endogenous human MAPT promoter and also were complete knockout for endogenous mouse tau [referred to as ‘hTauMaptKO(Duke)′ mice]. First, whole genome expression analysis revealed 64 genes, which were differentially expressed (32 up-regulated and 32 down-regulated) in the hippocampus of 6-month-old hTauMaptKO(Duke) mice compared to age-matched non-transgenic controls. Genes relevant to neuronal function or neurological disease include up-regulated genes: PKC-alpha (Prkca), MECP2 (Mecp2), STRN4 (Strn4), SLC40a1 (Slc40a1), POLD2 (Pold2), PCSK2 (Pcsk2), and down-regulated genes: KRT12 (Krt12), LASS1 (Cers1), PLAT (Plat), and NRXN1 (Nrxn1). Second, network analysis suggested anatomical structure development, cellular metabolic process, cell death, signal transduction, and stress response were significantly altered biological processes in the hTauMaptKO(Duke) mice as compared to age-matched non-transgenic controls. Further characterization of a sub-group of significantly altered genes revealed elevated phosphorylation of MECP2 (methyl-CpG-binding protein-2), which binds to methylated CpGs and associates with chromatin, in hTauMaptKO(Duke) mice compared to age-matched controls. Third, phoshpho-MECP2 was elevated in autopsy brain samples from human AD compared to healthy controls. Finally, siRNA-mediated knockdown of MECP2 in human tau expressing N2a cells resulted in a

  12. Engineering and Scientific Applications: Using MatLab(Registered Trademark) for Data Processing and Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, Syamal K.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2011-01-01

    MatLab(R) (MATrix LABoratory) is a numerical computation and simulation tool that is used by thousands Scientists and Engineers in many cou ntries. MatLab does purely numerical calculations, which can be used as a glorified calculator or interpreter programming language; its re al strength is in matrix manipulations. Computer algebra functionalities are achieved within the MatLab environment using "symbolic" toolbo x. This feature is similar to computer algebra programs, provided by Maple or Mathematica to calculate with mathematical equations using s ymbolic operations. MatLab in its interpreter programming language fo rm (command interface) is similar with well known programming languag es such as C/C++, support data structures and cell arrays to define c lasses in object oriented programming. As such, MatLab is equipped with most ofthe essential constructs of a higher programming language. M atLab is packaged with an editor and debugging functionality useful t o perform analysis of large MatLab programs and find errors. We belie ve there are many ways to approach real-world problems; prescribed methods to ensure foregoing solutions are incorporated in design and ana lysis of data processing and visualization can benefit engineers and scientist in gaining wider insight in actual implementation of their perspective experiments. This presentation will focus on data processing and visualizations aspects of engineering and scientific applicati ons. Specifically, it will discuss methods and techniques to perform intermediate-level data processing covering engineering and scientifi c problems. MatLab programming techniques including reading various data files formats to produce customized publication-quality graphics, importing engineering and/or scientific data, organizing data in tabu lar format, exporting data to be used by other software programs such as Microsoft Excel, data presentation and visualization will be discussed. The presentation will emphasize creating

  13. Accessory Mineral Depth-Profiling Applied to the Corsican Lower Crust: A Continuous Thermal History of Mesozoic Continental Rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seymour, N. M.; Stockli, D. F.; Beltrando, M.; Smye, A.

    2015-12-01

    Despite advances in understanding the structural development of hyperextended magma-poor rift margins, the temporal and thermal evolution of lithospheric hyperextension during rifting remains only poorly understood. In contrast to classic pure-shear models, multi-stage rift models that include depth-dependent thinning predict significant lower-crustal reheating during the necking phase due to buoyant rise of the asthenosphere. The Santa Lucia nappe of NE Corsica is an ideal laboratory to test for lower-crustal reheating as it preserves Permian lower crust exhumed from granulitic conditions during Mesozoic Tethyan rifting. This study presents the first use of apatite U-Pb depth-profile thermochronology in conjunction with novel rutile U-Pb and zircon U-Pb thermo- and geochronology to reconstruct a continuous t-T path to constrain the syn-rift thermal evolution of this exposed lower-crustal section. LASS-ICP-MS depth-profile analyses of zircon reveal thin (<10 μm) ~210-180 Ma overgrowths on 300-270 Ma cores in lower-crustal lithologies, indicative of renewed thermal activity during Mesozoic rifting. Cooling due to rapid rift margin exhumation is recorded by the topology of rutile and apatite depth profiles caused by thermally-activated volume diffusion at T >400°C. Lower-crustal rutile reveal a rounded progression from core plateaus at ~170 Ma to 150-145 Ma at the outer 8-10 μm of grains while middle-crustal apatite records 170 Ma cores grading to 140-135 Ma rims. Inverse modeling of rutile profiles suggests the lower crust cooled from 700°C at 200 Ma to 425°C at 140 Ma. Middle-crustal apatite yield a two-stage history, with rapid cooling from 500°C at 200 Ma to 420°C at ~180 Ma followed by slow cooling to 400°C by 160 Ma. Combined with zircon overgrowth ages, these data indicate the Santa Lucia nappe underwent a thermal pulse in the late Triassic-early Jurassic associated with depth-dependent thinning and hyperextension of the Corsican margin.

  14. Search for the Z(4430)- at BABAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Tico, J. Garra; Grauges, E.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Cahn, R. N.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I. L.; Ronan, M. T.; Tackmann, K.; Tanabe, T.; Hawkes, C. M.; Soni, N.; Watson, A. T.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Walker, D.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Fulsom, B. G.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Barrett, M.; Khan, A.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Bondioli, M.; Curry, S.; Eschrich, I.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Lund, P.; Mandelkern, M.; Martin, E. C.; Stoker, D. P.; Abachi, S.; Buchanan, C.; Atmacan, H.; Gary, J. W.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Vitug, G. M.; Yasin, Z.; Zhang, L.; Sharma, V.; Campagnari, C.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Beck, T. W.; Eisner, A. M.; Flacco, C. J.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Schalk, T.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Wilson, M. G.; Winstrom, L. O.; Cheng, C. H.; Doll, D. A.; Echenard, B.; Fang, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Narsky, I.; Piatenko, T.; Porter, F. C.; Andreassen, R.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Mishra, K.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Bloom, P. C.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Hirschauer, J. F.; Nagel, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Soffer, A.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Feltresi, E.; Hauke, A.; Jasper, H.; Karbach, M.; Merkel, J.; Petzold, A.; Spaan, B.; Wacker, K.; Kobel, M. J.; Nogowski, R.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Volk, A.; Bernard, D.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Latour, E.; Verderi, M.; Clark, P. J.; Playfer, S.; Watson, J. E.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Franchini, P.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Buzzo, A.; Contri, R.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macri, M. M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Santroni, A.; Tosi, S.; Chaisanguanthum, K. S.; Morii, M.; Adametz, A.; Marks, J.; Schenk, S.; Uwer, U.; Klose, V.; Lacker, H. M.; Bard, D. J.; Dauncey, P. D.; Nash, J. A.; Tibbetts, M.; Behera, P. K.; Chai, X.; Charles, M. J.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Dong, L.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rubin, A. E.; Gao, Y. Y.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Lae, C. K.; Arnaud, N.; Béquilleux, J.; D'Orazio, A.; Davier, M.; da Costa, J. Firmino; Grosdidier, G.; Le Diberder, F.; Lepeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.; Pruvot, S.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Serrano, J.; Sordini, V.; Stocchi, A.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Bingham, I.; Burke, J. P.; Chavez, C. A.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; Clarke, C. K.; George, K. A.; di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Sigamani, M.; Cowan, G.; Flaecher, H. U.; Hopkins, D. A.; Paramesvaran, S.; Salvatore, F.; Wren, A. C.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Alwyn, K. E.; Bailey, D.; Barlow, R. J.; Chia, Y. M.; Edgar, C. L.; Jackson, G.; Lafferty, G. D.; West, T. J.; Yi, J. I.; Anderson, J.; Chen, C.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Simi, G.; Tuggle, J. M.; Dallapiccola, C.; Li, X.; Salvati, E.; Saremi, S.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Fisher, P. H.; Henderson, S. W.; Sciolla, G.; Spitznagel, M.; Taylor, F.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Zhao, M.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Palombo, F.; Bauer, J. M.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Sanders, D. A.; Summers, D. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; Viaud, F. B.; Nicholson, H.; de Nardo, G.; Lista, L.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Raven, G.; Snoek, H. L.; Jessop, C. P.; Knoepfel, K. J.; Losecco, J. M.; Wang, W. F.; Benelli, G.; Corwin, L. A.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Morris, J. P.; Rahimi, A. M.; Regensburger, J. J.; Sekula, S. J.; Wong, Q. K.; Blount, N. L.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Igonkina, O.; Kolb, J. A.; Lu, M.; Rahmat, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Strube, J.; Torrence, E.; Castelli, G.; Gagliardi, N.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Voci, C.; Del Amo Sanchez, P.; Ben-Haim, E.; Briand, H.; Calderini, G.; Chauveau, J.; David, P.; Del Buono, L.; Hamon, O.; Leruste, Ph.; Ocariz, J.; Perez, A.; Prendki, J.; Sitt, S.; Gladney, L.; Biasini, M.; Covarelli, R.; Manoni, E.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Morganti, M.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Pegna, D. Lopes; Lu, C.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Anulli, F.; Baracchini, E.; Cavoto, G.; Del Re, D.; di Marco, E.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Jackson, P. D.; Li Gioi, L.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Morganti, S.; Piredda, G.; Polci, F.; Renga, F.; Voena, C.; Ebert, M.; Hartmann, T.; Schröder, H.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Franek, B.; Olaiya, E. O.; Wilson, F. F.; Emery, S.; Escalier, M.; Esteve, L.; Ganzhur, S. F.; de Monchenault, G. Hamel; Kozanecki, W.; Vasseur, G.; Yèche, Ch.; Zito, M.; Chen, X. R.; Liu, H.; Park, W.; Purohit, M. V.; White, R. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Allen, M. T.; Aston, D.; Bartoldus, R.; Bechtle, P.; Benitez, J. F.; Cenci, R.; Coleman, J. P.; Convery, M. R.; Dingfelder, J. C.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Field, R. C.; Gabareen, A. M.; Gowdy, S. J.; Graham, M. T.; Grenier, P.; Hast, C.; Innes, W. R.; Kaminski, J.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, H.; Kim, P.; Kocian, M. L.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Li, S.; Lindquist, B.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Marsiske, H.; Messner, R.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Nelson, S.; O'Grady, C. P.; Ofte, I.; Perazzo, A.; Perl, M.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schindler, R. H.; Schwiening, J.; Snyder, A.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Suzuki, K.; Swain, S. K.; Thompson, J. M.; Va'Vra, J.; Wagner, A. P.; Weaver, M.; West, C. A.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wright, D. H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Yarritu, A. K.; Yi, K.; Young, C. C.; Ziegler, V.; Burchat, P. R.; Edwards, A. J.; Majewski, S. A.; Miyashita, T. S.; Petersen, B. A.; Wilden, L.; Ahmed, S.; Alam, M. S.; Ernst, J. A.; Pan, B.; Saeed, M. A.; Zain, S. B.; Spanier, S. M.; Wogsland, B. J.; Eckmann, R.; Ritchie, J. L.; Ruland, A. M.; Schilling, C. J.; Schwitters, R. F.; Drummond, B. W.; Izen, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Bianchi, F.; Gamba, D.; Pelliccioni, M.; Bomben, M.; Bosisio, L.; Cartaro, C.; Della Ricca, G.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Azzolini, V.; Lopez-March, N.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Milanes, D. A.; Oyanguren, A.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bhuyan, B.; Choi, H. H. F.; Hamano, K.; Kowalewski, R.; Lewczuk, M. J.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Gershon, T. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Ilic, J.; Latham, T. E.; Mohanty, G. B.; Band, H. R.; Chen, X.; Dasu, S.; Flood, K. T.; Pan, Y.; Pierini, M.; Prepost, R.; Vuosalo, C. O.; Wu, S. L.

    2009-06-01

    We report the results of a search for Z(4430)- decay to J/ψπ- or ψ(2S)π- in B-,0→J/ψπ-K0,+ and B-,0→ψ(2S)π-K0,+ decays. The data were collected with the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric-energy e+e- collider operating at center-of-mass energy 10.58 GeV, and the sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 413fb-1. Each Kπ- mass distribution exhibits clear K*(892) and K2*(1430) signals, and the efficiency-corrected spectrum is well described by a superposition of the associated Breit-Wigner intensity distributions, together with an S-wave contribution obtained from the LASS I=1/2 Kπ- scattering amplitude measurements. Each Kπ- angular distribution varies significantly in structure with Kπ- mass, and is represented in terms of low-order Legendre polynomial moments. We find that each J/ψπ- or ψ(2S)π- mass distribution is well described by the reflection of the measured Kπ- mass and angular distribution structures. We see no significant evidence for a Z(4430)- signal for any of the processes investigated, neither in the total J/ψπ- or ψ(2S)π- mass distribution, nor in the corresponding distributions for the regions of Kπ- mass for which observation of the Z(4430)- signal was reported. We obtain branching-fraction upper limits B(B-→Z- Kmacr 0,Z-→J/ψπ-)<1.5×10-5, B(B0→Z-K+,Z-→J/ψπ-)<0.4×10-5, B(B-→Z- Kmacr 0,Z-→ψ(2S)π-)<4.7×10-5, and B(B0→Z-K+,Z-→ψ(2S)π-)<3.1×10-5 at 95% confidence level, where the Z(4430)- mass and width have been fixed to the reported central values.

  15. Nd Isotope and U-Th-Pb Age Mapping of Single Monazite Grains by Laser Ablation Split Stream Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, C. M.; Hanchar, J. M.; Miller, C. F.; Phillips, S.; Vervoort, J. D.; Martin, W.

    2015-12-01

    Monazite is a common accessory mineral that occurs in medium to high grade metamorphic and Ca-poor felsic igneous rocks, and often controls the LREE budget (including Sm and Nd) of the host rock in which it crystallizes. Moreover, it contains appreciable U and Th, making it an ideal mineral for determining U-Th-Pb ages and Sm-Nd isotopic compositions, both of which are readily determined using in situ techniques with very high spatial resolution like LA-MC-ICPMS. Here, we present the results of laser ablation split stream analyses (LASS), which allows for simultaneous determination of the age and initial Nd isotopic composition in a single analysis. Analyses were done using a 20mm laser spot that allowed for detailed Nd isotope mapping of monazite grains (~30 analyses per ~250mm sized grain). Combined with LREE ratios (e.g., Sm/Nd, Ce/Gd, and Eu anomalies) these results yield important petrogenetic constraints on the evolution of peraluminous granites from the Old Woman-Piute batholith in southeastern California. Our findings also allow an improved understanding of the causes of isotope heterogeneity in granitic rocks. U-Th-Pb age mapping across the crystals reveals a single Cretaceous age for all grains with precision and accuracy typical of laser ablation analyses (~2%). In contrast, the concurrent Nd isotope mapping yields homogeneous initial Nd isotope compositions for some grains and large initial intra-grain variations of up to 8 epsilon units in others. The grains that yield homogeneous Nd isotope compositions have REE ratios suggesting that they crystallized in a fractionally crystallizing magma. Conversely, other grains, which also record fractional crystallization of both feldspar and LREE rich minerals, demonstrate a change in the Nd isotope composition of the magma during crystallization of monazite. Comparison of inter- and intra-grain Nd isotope compositions reveals further details on the potential mechanisms responsible for isotope heterogeneity

  16. A Multi-Frequency Study of an X-ray Selected Sample of AGN II: Line Emission Studies and the X-ray Luminosity Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossan, B.; Remillard, R.; Bradt, H.

    1992-12-01

    We carried out a multi-frequency study of a flux-limited (0.95 mu Jy @ 5 keV) sample of 96 emission-line AGN taken from the HEAO-1 LASS/MC survey. Preliminary results of this study were presented at the Jan. 1992 meeting. Here we present new results from line emission and continuum studies and more details regarding the AGN X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs). We find that narrow [OIII] flux correlates well with X-ray flux. This result is consistent with a simple picture where the photoionizing continuum is distributed over a large solid angle in the narrow line region, and is closely related to the X-ray continuum. Broad Balmer lines do not demonstrate a strong correlation with X-ray flux. The UV continuum ( ~ 1400 Angstroms) does not correlate with any optical line emission we measured, but UV variability could have affected this result. In contrast, we find very strong correlations of high-ionization UV broad line fluxes and the simultaneously measured UV continuum. The geometry and/or obscuration effects in the broad line region may therefore be different than those in the narrow line region. A very large spread in the value of broad line Balmer decrements (Hβ /Hα = 0.13 - 0.40) was observed among objects determined to be un-reddened by the lack of an absorption feature at 2175 Angstroms. If there were an intrinsic Balmer decrement for the broad line regions in AGN, the smallest Hβ /Hα values would correspond to extreme values of reddening (E(B-V) > 1 mag). Therefore, we conclude that the broad line Balmer decrement cannot be used in determining continuum reddening in most AGN. We find that the AGN 2-10 keV XLF is roughly a power law, but steepens with increasing luminosity, and turns over below 10(42) erg s(-1) . The XLF of Seyfert 2's resembles a power law from 10(42) - 10(43.5) erg s(-1) , but at higher luminosity, the XLF steepens. In this sample, the cumulative fraction of Seyfert 2's falls rapidly with luminosity, and the overall fraction of Seyfert 2's

  17. Micromechanics of Spray-On Foam Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Aboudi, Jacob; Arnold, Steven M.; Sullivan, Roy M.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the thermo-mechanical response of the Space Shuttle External Tank spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) material is critical, to NASA's Return to Flight effort. This closed-cell rigid polymeric foam is used to insulate the metallic Space Shuttle External Tank, which is at cryogenic temperatures immediately prior to and during lift off. The shedding of the SOFI during ascent led to the loss of the Columbia, and eliminating/minimizing foam lass from the tank has become a priority for NASA as it seeks to resume scheduled space shuttle missions. Determining the nature of the SOFI material behavior in response to both thermal and mechanical loading plays an important role as any structural modeling of the shedding phenomenon k predicated on knowledge of the constitutive behavior of the foam. In this paper, the SOFI material has been analyzed using the High-Fidelity Generalized Method of Cells (HFGMC) micromechanics model, which has recently been extended to admit a triply-periodic 3-D repeating unit cell (RUC). Additional theoretical extensions that mere made in order to enable modeling of the closed-cell-foam material include the ability to represent internal boundaries within the RUC (to simulated internal pores) and the ability to impose an internal pressure within the simulated pores. This latter extension is crucial as two sources contribute to significant internal pressure changes within the SOFI pores. First, gas trapped in the pores during the spray process will expand or contract due to temperature changes. Second, the pore pressure will increase due to outgassing of water and other species present in the foam skeleton polymer material. With HFGMC's new pore pressure modeling capabilities, a nonlinear pressure change within the simulated pore can be imposed that accounts for both of these sources, in addition to stmdar&-thermal and mechanical loading; The triply-periodic HFGMC micromechanics model described above was implemented within NASA GRC's MAC

  18. Insights on the dynamical history of the Fomalhaut system - Investigating the Fom c hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faramaz, V.; Beust, H.; Augereau, J.-C.; Kalas, P.; Graham, J.

    2014-09-01

    Detailed modeling of the structure of debris disks can help predicting the existence of hidden planets that may be discovered a posteriori. This was in particular the case the case for the Beta Pictoris and Fomalhaut systems. The eccentric shape of the debris disk observed around Fomalhaut was first attributed to an unknown sherpherding planet. Then, a planetary companion (furthermore termed Fom b) was indeed imaged near the belt inner-edge. Recent constraints on its orbit however revealed that Fom b is highly eccentric (e ˜0.7-0.9), and therefore belt-crossing. Dynamical investigations showed that it can thus hardly account for the observed, low eccentricity shape of the dust belt. A plausible scenario to explain this paradox is that there must be another, more massive planet in this system (termed Fom c), which controls the debris disk shape. We investigate here the dynamics of this system, involving a moderately eccentric massive Fom c perturbing the dust belt and the low lass, eccentric Fom b. This system turns out to be in any case unstable, Fom b being potentially easily ejected by close encouter with Fom c after a few 10M Myrs. This implies that Fom b formerly orbited Fomalhaut on a very different orbit and was more or less recently put on its present orbit by a scattering event, potentially due to the putative Fom c. We present here a dynamical scenario exploring how Fom b has most probably been driven from the inner parts of the system to its current orbit by the unseen moderately eccentric Fom c, and also why it has happened recently. This scenario implies that Fom b was formerly trapped in a inner mean-motion resonance with Fom c, and that it underwent a gradual eccentricity increase and a subsequent scattering event. The robustness of this mechanism suggests it should commonly occur in systems containing eccentric perturbers like Fom c. It may be linked with the presence of warm and hot inner dusty belts, as is the case in the Fomalhaut system.

  19. Early Miocene extension within the Pamir plateau: constructing Temperature- time -Deformation paths with U-Pb titanite geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stearns, M. A.; Hacker, B. R.; Ratschbacher, L.; Kylander-Clark, A. R.; Minaev, V.

    2012-12-01

    The initiation of crustal extension within the Tibetan plateau is widely debated and has broad implications for crustal rheology, subduction dynamics, and exhumation during collisional orogens. The Central and Southern Pamir, which correlate to the Qiantang and Lhasa terranes of Tibet, contain several domes that expose mid-lower crustal rocks. Dome cores consist of upper amphibolite grade para- and orthogneisses and schists, with the characteristic peak mineral assemblage of biotite + garnet + kyanite ± staurolite. Thermobarometry indicates peak conditions of 600-750°C and 6-10 kbar, representing burial and subsequent exhumation from depths of 20-40 km (Schmidt et al., 2011). Titanite grains in orthogneisses are typically dynamically recrystallized and form broken clusters that help define the foliation related to exhumation. Those textures, in concert with age and temperature information, allow construction of temperature-time-deformation (T-t-D) paths. In-situ ages were obtained using laser-ablation split-stream inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LASS-ICP-MS) after acquisition of backscattered electron maps to characterize intra-crystal zoning and guide spot placement. Isotopic ratios are not corrected for common Pb, and in Tera-Wasserburg space either define single-population arrays (binary mixing) or are mixed between a range of ages and common Pb (tertiary mixing). Titanite ages range from ~45-15 Ma in the Central Pamir and ~25-5 Ma in the Southern Pamir. We interpret the range within each population to reflect mixing between primary crystallization and the youngest high-T deformation, or a range of deformation-induced recrystallization. Ages interpreted to record high-T deformation range from 23-12 Ma in the Central Pamir and 25-5 Ma in the Southern Pamir. These data suggest that high-T deformation related to middle-crustal extension began at ~25 Ma and continued to at least ~5 Ma. The age of this transition is consistent with the end of crustal

  20. Monazite petrochronology from the UHP Western Gneiss Region, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holder, R. M.; Hacker, B. R.; Kylander-Clark, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    To understand the significance of U/Th-Pb chronology, dates from accessory minerals need to be tied to petrological conditions such as pressure, temperature, and mineral assemblage. This work examines monazite composition, petrologic texture, and U/Th-Pb dates acquired via LASS (laser ablation split stream) geochronology from pelites across the ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) Western Gneiss Region, Norway (WGR), to evaluate the range in monazite compositions preserved in UHP terranes and determine the petrologic reasons for the observed compositions. Proterozoic monazites (1600 & 1100-900 Ma) occur in amphibolite- to granulite-facies rocks across the WGR and as garnet inclusions in eclogite- and amphibolite-facies rocks. The oldest Paleozoic monazites have dates of 460 Ma (1 sample), sector zoning, and show typical HREE profiles (Gd/Yb <1000). Four samples have dates of 430-420 Ma, and a decrease in HREE with time (up to Gd/Yb >10000), but no trend in Eu/Eu*, compatible with garnet + plagioclase stable conditions during prograde metamorphism. Three samples from the Sørøyane UHP domain have dates of 410-405 Ma, depleted HREE (Gd/Yb >1000), weaker Eu anomalies, 2-3% common Pb, and, in one sample, high Sr contents relative to younger monazites in the same rock (0.6 vs <0.1 wt%). High Gd/Yb ratios, weak Eu/Eu*, and relatively high Sr concentrations are compatible with garnet-stable, plagioclase-absent conditions during (U)HP metamorphism. Except for the samples listed above, most monazites measured from the WGR have concordant dates from 400-390 Ma with increasing HREE concentrations over time, compatible with garnet resorbtion during the decompression that followed the (U)HP metamorphism. Two of the 430-420 Ma and most of the 400-390 Ma monazites have rims that vary laterally in width and composition, in the form of finger- to scallop-shaped embayments. These rims have large variation in U/Th, U/Pb and Th/Pb ratios, suggesting that alteration, by a fluid or other mechanism

  1. Application of geochronology/geochemistry of zircon in understanding the construction of the Peninsular Range Batholith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kylander-Clark, A. R.; Johnston, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Trace-element signatures of zircon are becoming increasingly used as a tool to infer the petrologic history of the rock from which that zircon crystallized. In this study, we sampled 11 igneous rocks from west to east across the northern Peninsular Ranges Batholith (PRB) to test how well REE patterns in zircon reflect those of the whole rock in arc magmas (granodiorite-tonalite). Previous studies of the PRB show two transitions from west to east, with respect to their REE patterns; transition 1) a decrease in HREE, from the west to the central PRB, and 2) an increase in LREE from the central to the eastern PRB. Whole rock samples in this study, analyzed by XRF and ICPMS, reproduce this pattern and thus provide a variety of REE signatures with which to test whether zircon can be used as a proxy for whole-rock data. Zircon from the 11 samples was analyzed by LASS (Laser Ablation Split Stream) ICP-MS, to measure both the age of the zircons and their trace-element compositions. In general, as expected, ages young from west (ca. 104 Ma) to east (ca. 90 Ma). Patterns of HREE in zircon correlate well with those of the whole rock, whereas the LREE correlation is weak. The distribution coefficient for HREE between zircon and whole rock, however, decreases with increasing HREE. Possibilities for this negative relation include: 1) minor changes in whole-rock chemistry, as samples become slightly more felsic from west to east, 2) changes in crystallization temperature from west to east, and 3) sampling bias of HREE-poor zircon rims with HREE fractionated in zircon cores. Other trace element data measured in zircon and whole rock include P, Ti, Y, Nb, Hf, Ta, Th, and U and provide interesting results. Nb and Ta show a moderate correlation between zircon and whole rock, but the Nb/Ta ratio does not. Also, though U correlates well between whole rock and zircon and Th/U correlates well between zircon and age, the Th/U ratio of the zircon is negatively correlated with the whole

  2. [The quality of life in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Lecardeur, L

    2015-09-01

    to change and to treatments and negatively correlated with symptoms (PANSS) and with clinical state (CGI). Two of the recent major antipsychotic efficacy trials, CATIE and CUtLASS, both adopted the Quality of Life Scale as a measure of quality of life.

  3. Acquiring Comprehensive Observations using an Integrated Sensorweb for Early Warning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid; Ambrose, Steve

    2006-01-01

    As an integrated observing strategy, the concept of sensorweb for Earth observations is appealing in many aspects. For instance, by increasing the spatial and temporal coverage of observations from space and other vantage points, one can eventually aid in increasing the accuracy of the atmospheric models which are precursor to hurricane track prediction, volcanic eruption forecast, and trajectory path of transcontinental transport of dust, harmful nuclear and chemical plumes. In reality, there is little analysis'available in terms of benefits, costs and optimized set of sensors needed to make these necessary observations. This is a complex problem that must be carefully studied and balanced over many boundaries such as science, defense, early warning security, and surveillance. Simplistically, the sensorweb concept from the technological point of view alone has a great appeal in the defense, early warning and security applications. In fact, it can be relatively less expensive in per unit cost as opposed to building and deploying it for the scientific use. However, overall observing approach should not be singled out and aligned somewhat . orthogonally to serve a particular need. On the other hand, the sensorweb should be designed and deployed to serve multiple subject areas and customers simultaneously; and can behave as directed measuring systems for both science and operational entities. Sensorweb can be designed to act as expert systems, and/or also provide a dedicated integrated surveillance network. Today, there is no system in the world that is fully integrated in terms of reporting timely multiple hazards warnings, computing the lass of life and property damage estimates, and is also designed to cater to everyone's needs. It is not an easier problem to undertake and more so is not practically solvable. At this time due to some recent events in the world, the scientific community, social scientists, and operational agencies are more cognizant and getting

  4. Two modes of orogenic collapse of the Pamir plateau recorded by titanite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stearns, M. A.; Hacker, B. R.; Ratschbacher, L.; Rutte, D.; Kylander-Clark, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    Processes that operate in the mid- to lower crust during and following continent-continent collision are important for understanding how orogenic plateaux transition from thickening to collapse. In the central and southern Pamir, mid- to lower crustal rocks crop out in two belts of extensional domes. The central Pamir domes were exhumed by symmetrical N-S extension. In contrast, the southern Pamir domes were exhumed by asymmetrical top to the south (NNW-SSE) extension via a rolling-hinge detachment. To investigate the high-temperature exhumation history, titanites were dated using LASS (laser ablation split stream-ICP-MS). A multi-collector ICP was used to collect U-Pb isotopic ratios and a single collector ICP-MS was used to measure trace-element abundances. The data indicate that the central Pamir domes began exhumation synchronously at ~17 Ma. Titanite from the southern Pamir record two periods of protracted (re)crystallization: older metamorphic dates ranging from ~35-18 Ma and younger igneous and metamorphic dates from ~15-7 Ma. Samples with single populations of titanite dates are present throughout both groups. Samples with more-complex date populations typically have distinct trace-element (e.g., Sr, Y, Zr, and Nb) groups that can be used to distinguish different date populations (e.g., older dates may have higher Zr and younger dates lower Zr). The distinct early exhumation histories of the north and south Pamir require either a diachronous single process or two semi-independent processes. The N to S sequence of exhumation, ranges of dates, and overall extension directions may be related to two important plate-tectonic events inferred from seismic data: 1) breakoff of the northward subducting Indian slab around ~20 Ma, and 2) southward subduction and northwestward rollback of the Asian lithosphere between ~15-10 Ma based on geodetic convergence rates and Benioff zone length. We interpret these two lithospheric-detachment events to have driven the

  5. EDITORIAL: The 24th Nordic Semiconductor Meeting The 24th Nordic Semiconductor Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Páll Gunnlaugsson, Haraldur; Nylandsted Larsen, Arne; Uhrenfeldt, Christian

    2012-03-01

    AndersenAalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark Pia BomholtAarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark Hafliði P GíslasonUniversity of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland Haraldur Páll GunnlaugssonAarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark John HansenAarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark Britta JohansenAarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark Volodymyr KhranovskyyLinköping University, Linköping, Sweden Arne Nylandsted LarsenAarhus University, Denmark Helge MalmbekkUniversity of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Erik Stensrud MarsteinInstitute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway Antonio MartiUniversidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain Torben MølholtUniversity of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland Sveinn ÓlafssonUniversity of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland Thomas PedersenTechnical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark Thomas Garm PedersenAalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark Dirch Hjorth PetersenTechnical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark Vincent QuemenerUniversity of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Henry RadamsonKTH Royal Institute of Technology, Kista, Sweden Bahman RaeissiUniversity of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Jonatan SlotteAalto University, Aalto, Finland Xin SongUniversity of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Einar Örn SveinbjörnssonUniversity of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland Mikael SyväjärviLinköping University, Linköping, Sweden Chi Kwong TangUniversity of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Erik V ThomsenTechnical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark Christian UhrenfeldtAarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark Hans Ulrik UlriksenAalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark Muhammad UsmanKTH Royal Institute of Technology, Kista, Sweden Lasse VinesUniversity of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Ulrich WahlUnidade de Física e Aceleradores, Sacavém, Portugal Helge WemanNTNU, Trondheim, Norway Gerd WeyerAarhus University, Denmark

  6. Hydrologic budget of the late Oligocene Lake Creede and the evolution of the upper Rio Grande drainage system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Paul B.; Steven, Thomas A.; Hayba, Daniel O.

    2000-01-01

    The filling history, hydrologic budget, and geomorphic development of ancient Lake Creede and its tributary basin are evaluated to determine the factors that controlled its character. The lake filled the Creede caldera that formed in the late Oligocene as a consequence of the eruption of the Snowshoe Mountain Tuff. The caldera's sedimentary fill accumlated to a depth of about 1.26 km and had a volume of about 89 km3. The highest lake level was ~3300 m (10,800 ft) present altitude before it drained eastward across a broad volcanic plateau as the ancestral Rio Grande. A tributary canyon several hundred meters deep was cut into hard rhyolite in the north wall of the caldera before the lake was more than half full; its presence demonstrates that ancient Lake Creede filled slowly and thus occupied a long-lived, closed basin. The slow filling rate is incompatible with the present water flux through the Creede caldera basin, because such a flow would fill the basin geologically instantaneously. This mismatch, together with the recognition that the Oligocene climate was similar to that of today, forces the reexamination of the hydrologic and geomorphic history of the caldera. That appraisal shows that the caldera cannot have resurged rapidly immediately after caldera collapse, and that ancient watershed must have been lass than half as large as the present upper Rio Grande basin. The ancient lake had a more or less constant surface area of about 200 km2 that approximated a steady-state condition between inflow and evaporation. Although the lake level fluctuated with climatic variations, its surface elevation steadily climbed as sediment accumulated, accelerating as resurgance and dome growth usurped spacewithin the basin. It could have had one playa stage early in its development and another after the basin had nearly filled with sediment, but there is no direct evidence for either. At least the lower half of the sedimentary column (the part sampled by the scientific

  7. Minimum reporting standards for copers in chronic ankle instability research.

    PubMed

    Wikstrom, Erik A; Brown, Cathleen N

    2014-02-01

    Lateral ankle sprains (LASs) are among the most common sports-related injuries and a high percentage of individuals who sprain their ankle go on to develop chronic ankle instability (CAI). The condition of CAI is often classified as having pain, loss of function, and a restriction of, or failure to, return to levels of previous activity. Historically, uninjured healthy controls are used as a comparison group to study the biomechanical and neuromuscular consequences of CAI. However, this model is not ideal to determine why a portion of the population experiencing an ankle sprain does not recover. A more appropriate comparison may be individuals who had an ankle sprain, and thus the exposure, but did not go on to develop CAI (i.e., copers). Thus, the purpose of this review was to determine the existing discrepancies and common standards in definitions of, terminology used for, and the inclusionary/exclusionary criteria used to describe copers within the CAI literature. Multiple databases were searched by keywords and specific authors. Potential studies were screened independently by both authors. Inclusion criteria consisted of an explicit definition of copers and explicit inclusionary/exclusionary criteria. A total of 21 studies were included in the current study and had four outcomes extracted: (1) the definition of copers; (2) the terminology used; (3) specific inclusionary/exclusionary criteria; and (4) injury characteristics of the copers. Based on the included operational definitions, it is recommend that future operational definitions of copers include three key components: (1) an initial LAS; (2) subsequent lack of CAI symptoms (i.e., no complaints of disability or giving way); and (3) a time since injury component. The term coper was overwhelming used within the existing literature (n = 15) and is thus recommended to be used in future studies when describing individuals who have suffered an LAS but failed to develop CAI. Minimal inclusionary criteria should

  8. Archaeological Geophysics in Israel: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, L. V.

    2009-04-01

    et al., 1999; Reeder et al., 2004; Reinhardt et al., 2006; Reich et al., 2003; Ron et al., 2003; Segal et al., 2003; Sternberg and Lass, 2007; Sternberg et al., 1999; Verri et al., 2004; Weiner et al., 1993; Weinstein-Evron et al., 1991, 2003; Weiss et al., 2007; Witten et al., 1994), and (3) future [2010 -]. The past stage with several archaeoseismic reviews and very limited application of geophysical methods was replaced by the present stage with the violent employment of numerous geophysical techniques (first of all, high-precise magnetic survey and GPR). It is supposed that the future stage will be characterized by extensive development of multidiscipline physical-archaeological databases (Eppelbaum et al., 2009b), utilization of supercomputers for 4D monitoring and ancient sites reconstruction (Foster et al., 2001; Pelfer et al., 2004) as well as wide application of geophysical surveys using remote operated vehicles at low altitudes (Eppelbaum, 2008a). REFERENCES Batey, R.A., 1987. Subsurface Interface Radar at Sepphoris, Israel 1985. Journal of Field Archaeology, 14 (1), 1-8. Bauman, P., Parker, D., Coren, A., Freund, R., and Reeder, P., 2005. Archaeological Reconnaissance at Tel Yavne, Israel: 2-D Electrical Imaging and Low Altitude Aerial Photography. CSEG Recorder, No. 6, 28-33. Ben-Dor, E., Portugali, J., Kochavi, M., Shimoni, M., and Vinitzky, L., 1999. Airborne thermal video radiometry and excavation planning at Tel Leviah, Golan Heights, Israel. Journal of Field Archaeology, 26 (2), 117-127. Ben-Menahem, A., 1979. Earthquake catalogue for the Middle East (92 B.C. - 1980 A.D.). Bollettino di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata, 21 (84), 245-310. Ben-Yosef, E., Tauxe, L., Ronb, H., Agnon, A., Avner, U., Najjar, M., and Levy, T.E., 2008. A new approach for geomagnetic archaeointensity research: insights on ancient metallurgy in the Southern Levant. Journal of Archaeological Science, 25, 2863-2879. Berkovitch, A.L., Eppelbaum, L.V., and Basson, U., 2000