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Sample records for kaire torn jonne

  1. Torn Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Louis J.

    1975-01-01

    Colored construction paper was used to develop an interesting, creative experience for elementary and high school students, who learned to appreciate and to understand the torn paper innovation in art. Examples of this tearing technique are found in works by Picasso, Motherwell, Vincenti, and Matisse. (Author/RK)

  2. Torn Paper Birds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Carolyn Lang

    1998-01-01

    Describes a lesson for third-grade students that begins with an examination of bird prints done by John James Audubon and moves into the students creating their own torn paper birds. Introduces the students to the beauty of birds and focuses on the environmental issues that face birds and their habitats. (CMK)

  3. Torn Paper Birds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Carolyn Lang

    1998-01-01

    Describes a lesson for third-grade students that begins with an examination of bird prints done by John James Audubon and moves into the students creating their own torn paper birds. Introduces the students to the beauty of birds and focuses on the environmental issues that face birds and their habitats. (CMK)

  4. Numerical modelling of torn boudinage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowski, Marcin; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2017-04-01

    The seminal text book by J.G. Ramsay outlines the importance of the progressive development of torn boudinage structures because the shape of boudins may vary greatly and is mainly dependent on the viscosity contrast between the more competent layer and the enclosing material and the values of the principal extensions of the finite strain ellipsoid. In this work we demonstrate that another parameter, the initial boudin separation, has a significant influence on the progressive development of the finite boudin shape. We use finite element simulations to study the shape evolution of torn boudins under pure and simple shear. The boudins are initially rectangular and the gaps between them are prescribed. The boudin interfaces are resolved with high-resolution, body-fitting, unstructured computational meshes and a second-order ODE integrator is used to ensure the numerical accuracy of the results. Both the boudins and the host are treated as either linear or non-linear viscous fluids. We neglect any recrystallization processes and the boudin interfaces are considered as fully coherent. We were able to reproduce the typical shape of fish-mouth boudins for a wide range of viscosity ratios between the highly viscous boudins and the host. We have systematically studied the effects due to the boudin-host viscosity ratio and the fluid stress exponents. Our results show that the initial separation can have a profound effect on the final shape of the boudins and we document the formation of hitherto undescribed complex boudin shapes for an initially narrow gap width.

  5. Cartilage Delamination Flap Mimicking a Torn Medial Meniscus

    PubMed Central

    Bin Abd Razak, Hamid Rahmatullah; Amit Kanta, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a chondral delamination lesion due to medial parapatellar plica friction syndrome involving the medial femoral condyle. This mimicked a torn medial meniscus in clinical and radiological presentation. Arthroscopy revealed a chondral delamination flap, which was debrided. Diagnosis of chondral lesions in the knee can be challenging. Clinical examination and MRI have good accuracy for diagnosis and should be used in tandem. Early diagnosis and treatment of chondral lesions are important to prevent progression to early osteoarthritis. PMID:28070434

  6. Effects of lidocaine on torn rotator cuff tendons.

    PubMed

    Honda, Hirokazu; Gotoh, Masafumi; Kanazawa, Tomonoshin; Nakamura, Hidehiro; Ohta, Keisuke; Nakamura, Kei-Ichiro; Shiba, Naoto

    2016-09-01

    We determined lidocaine's action on torn rotator cuff tendons in vitro and in vivo. For in vitro experiments, cell proliferation and viability assays were performed using tenocytes derived from human torn rotator cuff tendons. For in vivo experiments, acute rotator cuff tears were made on the supraspinatus tendons in the rats' bilateral shoulders; before closure, lidocaine was injected into the shoulder and saline into the contralateral shoulder (control). After sacrifice, the specimens underwent biomechanical testing or histological analysis at 24 h and at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after surgery. The extent of collagen organization and apoptosis were semi-quantitatively evaluated using collagen picrosirius red staining. Apoptosis was examined using TUNEL staining and electron microscopy. Cell proliferation decreased dose-dependently. After exposure to 0.1% lidocaine for 24 h, cell viability decreased. Two and 4 weeks after surgery, the ultimate load to failure decreased more in the lidocaine group than in the control group, with significantly reduced stiffness in the lidocaine group 2 weeks after surgery. Collagen organization significantly decreased in the lidocaine group by 4 weeks after surgery but returned to baseline at 8 weeks. TUNEL staining detected numerous apoptotic tenocytes at the torn tendon edge exposed to lidocaine 24 h after surgery; electron microscopy confirmed the condensed cell nuclei. These changes were not observed in controls. Lidocaine caused cytotoxicity to tenocytes under both conditions, decreased biomechanical properties, and induced apoptosis and delay of collagen organization in this model. Subacromial lidocaine injections in patients with rotator cuff tears should be performed carefully. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1620-1627, 2016. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The METEOR trial: no rush to repair a torn meniscus.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yong Gil; Kwoh, C Kent

    2014-04-01

    It is uncertain whether arthroscopic partial meniscectomy is better than physical therapy in patients who have a symptomatic torn meniscus on top of osteoarthritis of the knee. The Meniscal Repair in Osteoarthritis Research (METEOR) trial concluded that physical therapy is acceptable at first, and that surgery is not routinely needed. In patients assigned to physical therapy who eventually needed surgery, the delay resulting from a trial of conservative management did not impair outcomes at 12 months from the initial presentation. Here, we analyze the background, design, findings, and clinical implications of the METEOR trial.

  8. TENOCYTE APOPTOSIS IN THE TORN ROTATOR CUFF: A PRIMARY OR SECONDARY PATHOLOGICAL EVENT?

    PubMed Central

    Lundgreen, K.; Lian, Ø.; Engebretsen, L.; Scott, A.

    2014-01-01

    Little information exists on the contribution of apoptosis to pathological tendon changes in rotator cuff tendinopathy. The purpose of this study was to quantitate the rate of tenocyte apoptosis in torn supraspinatus tendons and in the matched intact subscapularis and to examine the potential relation between apoptotic index and tendon pathology. In addition, we examined tenocyte density, proliferation rate and p53 gene expression patterns to gain further insight into relevant pathological mechanisms in the torn suprapinatus. 15 torn supraspinatus tendons with matched intact subscapularis tendon samples and 10 reference subscapularis samples were collected. Immunohistochemistry was used to define the apoptotic index (F7-26), proliferation rate (Ki67), and presence of p53 (M7001). Tendon degeneration was evaluated according to the Bonar scale. Expression of p53 and relevant genes (n=84) was examined on a subset of samples using microfluidic arrays. The apoptotic index was significantly increased in torn supraspinatus tendon and matched subscapularis tendon (R2=0.5742; p=0.0005). Cell density and proliferation rate were also elevated in torn supraspinatus compared to reference subscapularis tendons (p<0.05). A significant increase in p53 occurred specifically in torn supraspinatus tendon (p<0.05), and several genes encoding p53-inhibiting proteins were down-regulated in association, including HDAC1 (p<0.05), MDM4 (p<0.001) and PPM1D (p<0.05). Our results suggest that tenocyte apoptosis results from more than one mechanism in the injured rotator cuff, including both intrinsic factors related specifically to the torn suprapsinatus tendon, as well as a more generalized effect which also affects the adjacent subscapularis tendon. PMID:21482545

  9. Sit Down with Sabin: Margaret Torn: The Carbon Cycle Like You've Never Seen It (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Sabin; Torn, Margaret

    2011-07-06

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory soil scientist Margaret Torn appears July 6, 2011 on "Sit Down with Sabin," a weekly conversation in which former reporter Sabin Russell chats with Berkeley Lab staff about innovative science. Torn discusses how she travels the world to learn more about soil's huge role in the global carbon cycle. Brought to you by Berkeley Lab Public Affairs.

  10. Torn between Two Worlds: Overcoming Resistance to Second-Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariza, Eileen N.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses Steven, a classic example of an individual who was torn between two cultural worlds. His mother was Puerto Rican, but she was raised in upper New York State. She and his birth father divorced, she remarried, and the family moved to Puerto Rico, because the company for which Steven's Anglo stepfather worked was…

  11. Torn between Two Worlds: Overcoming Resistance to Second-Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariza, Eileen N.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses Steven, a classic example of an individual who was torn between two cultural worlds. His mother was Puerto Rican, but she was raised in upper New York State. She and his birth father divorced, she remarried, and the family moved to Puerto Rico, because the company for which Steven's Anglo stepfather worked was…

  12. Canalicular laceration repair using a viscoelastic injection to locate and dilate the proximal torn edge.

    PubMed

    Örge, Faruk H; Dar, Suhail A

    2015-06-01

    Canalicular lacerations are common complications of eyelid trauma in the pediatric population. Irrigating air, water, and colored or viscous agents through the intact canaliculus have been suggested to identify the torn proximal edge. We report our experience in repairing canalicular lacerations using a novel viscoelastic injection technique with a Monoka monocanalicular stent. The medical records of patients <18 years of age who underwent repair of a canalicular laceration with a monocanalicular stent using superficial viscoelastic deployment to locate the torn canaliculus were retrospectively reviewed. Demographics, cause of eyelid injury, surgical management using our novel viscoelastic injection technique, and outcome were analyzed. A total of 38 children with lid lacerations were identified, of whom the 17 with canalicular involvement were included (mean age, 6.27 years). Canalicular injury in these 17 was due to dog bite (9 patients) and shearing trauma (8 patients). In 11 patients, the injury was located in the lower lid; in 4, the upper lid; and in 2, combined upper and lower lids. All patients had good anatomic repair and on follow-up had negative dye disappearance tests and were free of tearing. Deploying viscoelastic superficially near, and injecting into the injured canaliculus can improve visualization of the operative field by retracting the surrounding tissue and tamponading any bleeding, which aids in location and dilation of the torn canaliculus initially and in subsequent steps, eases intubation into the lubricated torn canaliculus and nasolacrimal duct, and avoids iatrogenic injury to an uninjured canaliculus. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Anatomical discrimination of the differences between torn mesentery tissue and internal organ-surface primo-vessels.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sanghun; Ryu, Yeonhee; Yun, Yungju; Lee, Sungwon; Kwon, Ohsang; Kim, Jaehyo; Sohn, Inchul; Ahn, Seonghun

    2010-03-01

    The most difficult step in the morphological study of the internal organ-surface primo-vessel (Bong-Han duct) system is the correct identification of samples, due to similarities between torn mesentery and primo-vessel tissue. Without proper sample discernment, the subsequent parts of morphological studies cannot be trusted. Here, we present differences between torn mesentery and primo-vessel tissues as determined by minimal operation, using stereoscopic and microscopic observation. Stereoscopic observation revealed that torn mesentery is tightly connected to the organ surface and does not branch; the detached margin has a fan-shaped membrane without any swollen portions. Primo-vessels are slightly connected to the organ surface and branched, while detached margins lack a membrane and possess a swelling termed the primo-node (Bong-Han corpuscle). Microscopic observation shows bundle patterns in primo-vessel tissue, but irregular arrangement in torn mesentery tissue. These characteristics can be used to distinguish torn mesentery from primo-vessels.

  14. Knee extension and flexion: MR delineation of normal and torn anterior cruciate ligaments

    SciTech Connect

    Niitsu, Mamoru; Ikeda, Kotaroh; Fukubayashi, Tohru; Anno, Izumi; Itai, Yuji

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to assess the effect of joint position of semiflexed and extended knees in MR delineation of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). With a mobile knee brace and a flexible surface coil, the knee joint was either fully extended or bent to a semiflexed position (average 45{degrees} of flexion) within the magnet bore. Sets of oblique sagittal MR images were obtained for both extended and flexed knee positions. Thirty-two knees with intact ACLs and 43 knees with arthroscopically proven ACL tears were evaluated. Two observers compared paired MR images of both extended and flexed positions and rated them by a relative three point scale. Anatomic correlation in MR images was obtained by a cadaveric knee with incremental flexion. The MR images of flexed knees were more useful than of extended knees in 53% of the case reviews of femoral attachments and 36% of reviews of midportions of normal ACLs. Compared with knee extensions, the MR images for knee flexion provided better clarity in 48% of reviews of disrupted sites and 52% of residual bundles of torn ACLs. Normal ACL appeared taut in the knee extension and lax in semiflexion. Compared with MR images of knees in extension, MR images of knees in flexion more clearly delineate the femoral side of the ligament with wider space under the intercondylar roof and with decreased volume-averaging artifacts, providing superior visualization of normal and torn ACLs. 13 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Torn human rotator cuff tendons have reduced collagen thermal properties on differential scanning calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Salma; Holland, Christopher; Porter, David; Tirlapur, Uday K; Vollrath, Fritz; Carr, Andrew J

    2011-12-01

    The cause of the high failure rates often observed following rotator cuff tendon repairs, particularly massive tears, is not fully understood. Collagen structural changes have been shown to alter tendon thermal and mechanical properties. This study aimed to form a quantitative rather than qualitative assessment, of whether differences in collagen structure and integrity existed between small biopsies of normal, small, and massive rotator cuff tears using differential scanning calorimetry. Thermal properties were measured for 28 human biopsies taken intra-operatively from normal, small, and massive rotator cuff tendon tears in this powered study. Denaturation temperatures are represented by T(onset) (°C) and T(peak) (°C). The T(onset) is proposed to represent water-amide hydrogen bond breakage and resulting protein backbone mobility. T(peak) reportedly corresponds to the temperature at which the majority of proteins fall out of solution. Denaturation enthalpy (ΔH) should correlate with the amount of triple helical structure that is denatured. Fluorescence and confocal microscopy allowed quantitative validation. Small and massive rotator cuff tears had significantly higher T(onset), T(peak), and ΔH compared to controls. Polarized light microscopy of torn tendons confirmed greater collagen structural disruption compared to controls. These novel findings suggest greater quantifiable collagen structural disruption in rotator cuff tears, compared to controls. This study offers insight into possible mechanisms for the reduced strength of torn tendons and may explain why repaired tendons fail to heal.

  16. Facilitating mental health screening of war-torn populations using mobile applications.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Bahar; Ali, Sara; Awaad, Rania; Soudi, Laila; Housel, Lawrence; Sosebee, Stephen J

    2017-01-01

    War-torn populations are often hard to screen for mental health disorders. Classical data collection approaches, such as paper-based, online, or SMS-operated, are either infeasible or lack accuracy due to a variety of challenges associated with dynamics and consequences of war. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach for accurate and fast screening using free open-source software, Open Data Kit (ODK) mobile application. This approach was developed by the Palestine Children's Relief Fund (PCRF) to assess the mental health symptoms of 986 Palestinian children (age 6-18) in the aftermath of Israel's Operation Protective Edge (OPE) in 2014. The organization developed assessment questionnaires and trained local field workers on the use of the mobile application, and on recruiting and interviewing war victims. War-affected children were found to suffer from several alarming symptoms associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and somatic symptoms. Children with highest number of psychological symptoms were referred for further evaluation and treatment. The use of ODK mobile technologies facilitated efficient screening of affected children in war zones. The offline data collection capability was crucial for handling the difficult conditions associated with war-torn areas, enabling timely intervention for urgent cases. Further applications of the novel mobile technology are to be explored.

  17. Paediatric in-patient care in a conflict-torn region of Somalia: are hospital outcomes of acceptable quality?

    PubMed

    Ngoy, B B; Zachariah, R; Hinderaker, S G; Khogali, M; Manzi, M; van Griensven, J; Ayada, L; Jemmy, J P; Maalim, A; Amin, H

    2013-06-21

    A district hospital in conflict-torn Somalia. To report on in-patient paediatric morbidity, case fatality and exit outcomes as indicators of quality of care. Cross-sectional study. Of 6211 children, lower respiratory tract infections (48%) and severe acute malnutrition (16%) were the leading reasons for admission. The highest case-fatality rate was for meningitis (20%). Adverse outcomes occurred in 378 (6%) children, including 205 (3.3%) deaths; 173 (2.8%) absconded. Hospital exit outcomes are good even in conflict-torn Somalia, and should boost efforts to ensure that such populations are not left out in the quest to achieve universal health coverage.

  18. In Vivo Shoulder Function After Surgical Repair of a Torn Rotator Cuff

    PubMed Central

    Bey, Michael J.; Peltz, Cathryn D.; Ciarelli, Kristin; Kline, Stephanie K.; Divine, George W.; van Holsbeeck, Marnix; Muh, Stephanie; Kolowich, Patricia A.; Lock, Terrence R.; Moutzouros, Vasilios

    2015-01-01

    Background Surgical repair of a torn rotator cuff is based on the belief that repairing the tear is necessary to restore normal glenohumeral joint (GHJ) mechanics and achieve a satisfactory clinical outcome. Hypothesis Dynamic joint function is not completely restored by rotator cuff repair, thus compromising shoulder function and potentially leading to long-term disability. Study Design Controlled laboratory study and Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods Twenty-one rotator cuff patients and 35 control participants enrolled in the study. Biplane radiographic images were acquired bilaterally from each patient during coronal-plane abduction. Rotator cuff patients were tested at 3, 12, and 24 months after repair of a supraspinatus tendon tear. Control participants were tested once. Glenohumeral joint kinematics and joint contact patterns were accurately determined from the biplane radiographic images. Isometric shoulder strength and patient-reported outcomes were measured at each time point. Ultrasound imaging assessed rotator cuff integrity at 24 months after surgery. Results Twenty of 21 rotator cuff repairs appeared intact at 24 months after surgery. The humerus of the patients’ repaired shoulder was positioned more superiorly on the glenoid than both the patients’ contralateral shoulder and the dominant shoulder of control participants. Patient-reported outcomes improved significantly over time. Shoulder strength also increased over time, although strength deficits persisted at 24 months for most patients. Changes over time in GHJ mechanics were not detected for either the rotator cuff patients’ repaired or contralateral shoulders. Clinical outcome was associated with shoulder strength but not GHJ mechanics. Conclusion Surgical repair of an isolated supraspinatus tear may be sufficient to keep the torn rotator cuff intact and achieve satisfactory patient-reported outcomes, but GHJ mechanics and shoulder strength are not fully restored with current

  19. Rehabilitation of a partially torn distal triceps tendon after platelet rich plasma injection: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cheatham, Scott W; Kolber, Morey J; Salamh, Paul A; Hanney, William J

    2013-06-01

    Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) is an emerging non-surgical intervention used for the treatment of tendon and ligament pathology. Despite the growing popularity of PRP in musculoskeletal medicine, there is a paucity of research that describes appropriate rehabilitation procedures following this intervention. This case report presents the rehabilitation strategy used following a PRP injection for a patient with a partially torn distal triceps tendon who previously failed physical therapy interventions. The patient returned to light weight training and coaching activity after completing 15 visits over a 3 month period. One month after discharge, the patient reported pain-free activities of daily living and a return to previously performed gym activities. PRP presents a viable treatment option for individuals who are recalcitrant to conservative interventions yet elect to avoid more invasive surgical measures. Despite the growing popularity of PRP, a paucity of evidence exists to guide physical therapists in the rehabilitation process of these patients. The rehabilitation strategies used in a patient who had a PRP injection for a partial triceps tendon tear are outlined. Although this case report highlights a successful rehabilitation outcome, future research regarding the concomitant effects of PRP injection and rehabilitation for tendon pathology are needed. 4-Case Report.

  20. Metalloproteases and their inhibitors are altered in both torn and intact rotator cuff tendons.

    PubMed

    Castagna, A; Cesari, E; Gigante, A; Conti, M; Garofalo, R

    2013-06-01

    We evaluated the role of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) and their inhibitors which are involved in extracellular matrix remodeling and degradation, in the pathogenesis of chronic rotator cuff tears. Tendon samples were harvested from 13 patients who underwent arthroscopic repair of a rotator cuff tear. Supraspinatus biopsy specimens were harvested en bloc from the arthroscopically intact middle portion of the tendon more than 1 cm from the torn edge, from the lateral edge of the tear, and from the superior one third of the macroscopically intact subscapularis tendon used as control. Histological analysis and an evaluation of the activity of specific metalloproteases and the tissue inhibitors of metalloprotease (TIMP-1, TIMP-2) was done blindly by multiplex sandwich ELISA (Search-Light technology) in each specimen Histological evidence of tendinopathy was present in all patients with a tear of the rotator cuff, and not in the macroscopically intact subscapularis tendon. There was a significant increase in MMP 1, MMP 2, MMP 3 and in TIMP-1, TIMP-2 levels in all specimens examined, including the macroscopically intact portion of the supraspinatus tendon and in the control specimens The tissue in the ruptured area of the supraspinatus tendon undergoes marked rearrangement at molecular levels. This involves the activity of MMP 1, 2 and 3, and supports the critical role of MMPs in the tendon physiology. Seemingly intact parts of the injured supraspinatus tendon can present tendinopathic features, with altered cellular metabolism.

  1. Stock-outs, uncertainty and improvisation in access to healthcare in war-torn Northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Muyinda, Herbert; Mugisha, James

    2015-12-01

    Stock-outs, also known as shortages or complete absence of a particular inventory, in public health facilities have become a hallmark in Uganda's health system making the notions of persistent doubt in access to healthcare - uncertainty, and doing more with less - 'improvisation', very pronounced. The situation becomes more critical in post-conflict areas with an over whelming burden of preexisting and conflict-related ailments amidst weak health systems. Particularly in the war-torn Northern Uganda, the intersection between the effects of violent conflict and shortage of medications is striking. There are problems getting the right type of medications to the right people at the right time, causing persistent shortages and uncertainty in access to healthcare. With reference to patients on Antiretroviral Therapy (ART), we present temporal trends in access to healthcare in the context of medication shortages in conflict-affected areas. We examine uncertainties in access to care, and how patients, medical practitioners, and the state - the key actors in the domain of supplying and utilizing medicines, respond. Our observation is that, while improvisation is a feature of biomedicine and facilitates problem solving in daily life, it is largely contextual. Given the rapidly evolving contexts and social and professional sensitivities that characterize war affected areas, there is a need for deliberate healthcare programs tailored to the unique needs of people and to the shaping of appropriate policies in post-conflict settings, which call for more North-South collaboration on equal terms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Paediatric in-patient care in a conflict-torn region of Somalia: are hospital outcomes of acceptable quality?

    PubMed Central

    Zachariah, R.; Hinderaker, S. G.; Khogali, M.; Manzi, M.; van Griensven, J.; Ayada, L.; Jemmy, J. P.; Maalim, A.; Amin, H.

    2013-01-01

    Setting: A district hospital in conflict-torn Somalia. Objective: To report on in-patient paediatric morbidity, case fatality and exit outcomes as indicators of quality of care. Design: Cross-sectional study. Results: Of 6211 children, lower respiratory tract infections (48%) and severe acute malnutrition (16%) were the leading reasons for admission. The highest case-fatality rate was for meningitis (20%). Adverse outcomes occurred in 378 (6%) children, including 205 (3.3%) deaths; 173 (2.8%) absconded. Conclusion: Hospital exit outcomes are good even in conflict-torn Somalia, and should boost efforts to ensure that such populations are not left out in the quest to achieve universal health coverage. PMID:26393014

  3. Epidemiology and Clinical Burden of Malaria in the War-Torn Area, Orakzai Agency in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Karim, Asad Mustafa; Hussain, Irfan; Malik, Sumera Kausar; Lee, Jung Hun; Cho, Ill Hwan; Kim, Young Bae; Lee, Sang Hee

    2016-01-01

    Military conflict has been a major challenge in the detection and control of emerging infectious diseases such as malaria. It poses issues associated with enhancing emergence and transmission of infectious diseases by destroying infrastructure and collapsing healthcare systems. The Orakzai agency in Pakistan has witnessed a series of intense violence and destruction. Military conflicts and instability in Afghanistan have resulted in the migration of refugees into the area and possible introduction of many infectious disease epidemics. Due to the ongoing violence and Talibanization, it has been a challenge to conduct an epidemiological study. All patients were sampled within the transmission season. After a detailed clinical investigation of patients, data were recorded. Baseline venous blood samples were taken for microscopy and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) analysis. Plasmodium species were detected using nested PCR (nPCR) and amplification of the small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (ssrRNA) genes using the primer pairs. We report a clinical assessment of the epidemic situation of malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax (86.5%) and Plasmodium falciparum (11.79%) infections with analysis of complications in patients such as decompensated shock (41%), anemia (8.98%), hypoglycaemia (7.3%), multiple convulsions (6.7%), hyperpyrexia (6.17%), jaundice (5%), and hyperparasitaemia (4.49%). This overlooked distribution of P. vivax should be considered by malaria control strategy makers in the world and by the Government of Pakistan. In our study, children were the most susceptible population to malaria infection while they were the least expected to use satisfactory prevention strategies in such a war-torn deprived region. Local health authorities should initiate malaria awareness programs in schools and malaria-related education should be further promoted at the local level reaching out to both children and parents.

  4. Epidemiology and Clinical Burden of Malaria in the War-Torn Area, Orakzai Agency in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Asad Mustafa; Hussain, Irfan; Malik, Sumera Kausar; Lee, Jung Hun; Cho, Ill Hwan; Kim, Young Bae; Lee, Sang Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background Military conflict has been a major challenge in the detection and control of emerging infectious diseases such as malaria. It poses issues associated with enhancing emergence and transmission of infectious diseases by destroying infrastructure and collapsing healthcare systems. The Orakzai agency in Pakistan has witnessed a series of intense violence and destruction. Military conflicts and instability in Afghanistan have resulted in the migration of refugees into the area and possible introduction of many infectious disease epidemics. Due to the ongoing violence and Talibanization, it has been a challenge to conduct an epidemiological study. Methodology/Principal Findings All patients were sampled within the transmission season. After a detailed clinical investigation of patients, data were recorded. Baseline venous blood samples were taken for microscopy and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) analysis. Plasmodium species were detected using nested PCR (nPCR) and amplification of the small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (ssrRNA) genes using the primer pairs. We report a clinical assessment of the epidemic situation of malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax (86.5%) and Plasmodium falciparum (11.79%) infections with analysis of complications in patients such as decompensated shock (41%), anemia (8.98%), hypoglycaemia (7.3%), multiple convulsions (6.7%), hyperpyrexia (6.17%), jaundice (5%), and hyperparasitaemia (4.49%). Conclusions/Significance This overlooked distribution of P. vivax should be considered by malaria control strategy makers in the world and by the Government of Pakistan. In our study, children were the most susceptible population to malaria infection while they were the least expected to use satisfactory prevention strategies in such a war-torn deprived region. Local health authorities should initiate malaria awareness programs in schools and malaria-related education should be further promoted at the local level reaching out to both

  5. Changes in pennation angle in rotator cuff muscles with torn tendons.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Jianlin; Sano, Hirotaka; Itoi, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    Although several authors have reported on the pennation angles of intact rotator cuff muscles, the relationship between their alteration and rotator cuff tears has not been fully clarified. The purpose of this study was to measure the pennation angles of human cadaveric rotator cuff muscles with torn tendons. Twenty embalmed cadaveric shoulders were studied. Ten shoulders with various types of rotator cuff tears (tear group) were compared with ten shoulders that had intact rotator cuff tendons (control group). In seven shoulders with full-thickness tears, the area of the tear was determined by multiplying its length and width. After removing the muscles from the scapula, the superficial muscle fibers of each muscle were removed layer by layer until the entire intramuscular tendon was exposed. Photographs were taken and the pennation angles were then measured on digital images. The correlation between the size of the tear and the pennation angles of the supraspinatus and the infraspinatus muscles were determined statistically. The pennation angles of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles in the tear group were significantly greater than those in the control group (P = 0.027 and 0.007, respectively). In seven shoulders with full-thickness rotator cuff tears, a positive correlation was found between the pennation angle of the supraspinatus muscle and the tear length (r = 0.854, P = 0.014). Moreover, a positive correlation was found between the pennation angle of the infraspinatus muscle and the tear area (r = 0.759, P = 0.048). On the other hand, the pennation angle was not affected by the presence of the partial-thickness tears in the remaining three shoulders. In rotator cuff tears, the pennation angles of the involved rotator cuff muscles increased with increasing size of the tear.

  6. Physical examination tests for assessing a torn meniscus in the knee: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hegedus, Eric J; Cook, Chad; Hasselblad, Victor; Goode, Adam; McCrory, Douglas C

    2007-09-01

    Systematic review and meta-analysis. To identify, analyze, and synthesize the literature to determine which physical examination tests, if any, accurately diagnose a torn tibial meniscus. Knee pain has a lifetime prevalence of up to 45%, and as many as 31% of individuals with knee pain will consult a general practitioner. Roughly 5% of these individuals will undergo a tibial meniscectomy and many more will undergo partial meniscectomy or meniscus repair. Determining which of these individuals is appropriate for surgical consult depends on clinical examination findings. We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, and SPORTDiscus from1966 to August 2006 and extracted all English- and German-language studies that reported the diagnostic accuracy of individual physical examination tests for a torn meniscus. We retrieved data regarding true positives, false positives, true negatives, and false negatives to create 2-by-2 tables for each article and test. Like tests were then subjected to meta-analysis and subanalysis. Cochran Q test and the 12 statistic were used to examine for the presence of heterogeneity and the extent of the effect of heterogeneity, respectively. A qualitative analysis was also performed using the QUADAS tool. Eighteen studies qualified for the final analyses. Three physical examination tests (McMurray's, Apley's, and joint line tenderness) were examined in more than 7 studies and had enough data to consider meta-analysis. However, study results were heterogeneous. Pooled sensitivity and specificity were 70% and 71% for McMurray's, 60% and 70% for Apley's, and 63% and 77% for joint line tenderness. Large between-study differences could not be explained by prevalence, study quality, or how well an index test was described. No single physical examination test appears to accurately diagnose a torn tibial meniscus and the value of history plus physical examination is unknown. Differences between studies in diagnostic performance remain unexplained, presumably due to

  7. Characterization of progenitor cells derived from torn human rotator cuff tendons by gene expression patterns of chondrogenesis, osteogenesis, and adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nagura, Issei; Kokubu, Takeshi; Mifune, Yutaka; Inui, Atsuyuki; Takase, Fumiaki; Ueda, Yasuhiro; Kataoka, Takeshi; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2016-03-31

    It is important to regenerate the tendon-to-bone interface after rotator cuff repair to prevent re-tears. The cells from torn human rotator cuff were targeted, and their capacity for multilineage differentiation was investigated. The edges of the rotator cuff were harvested during arthroscopic rotator cuff repair from nine patients, minced into pieces, and cultured on dishes. Adherent cells were cultured, phenotypically characterized. Then expandability, differentiation potential and gene expression were analyzed. Flow cytometry revealed that the mesenchymal stem cells (MSC)-related markers CD29, CD44, CD105, and CD166 were positive. However, CD14, CD34, and CD45 were negative. On RT-PCR analyses, the cells showed osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic potential after 3 weeks of culture under the respective differentiation conditions. In addition, SOX9, type II collagen, and type X collagen expression patterns during chondrogenesis were similar to those of endochondral ossification at the enthesis. The cells derived from torn human rotator cuff are multipotent mesenchymal stem cells with the ability to undergo multilineage differentiation, suggesting that MSCs form this tissue could be regenerative capacity for potential self-repair.

  8. Developmental Biology and Regenerative Medicine: Addressing the Vexing Problem of Persistent Muscle Atrophy in the Chronically Torn Human Rotator Cuff.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gretchen A; Ward, Samuel R

    2016-05-01

    Persistent muscle atrophy in the chronically torn rotator cuff is a significant obstacle for treatment and recovery. Large atrophic changes are predictive of poor surgical and nonsurgical outcomes and frequently fail to resolve even following functional restoration of loading and rehabilitation. New insights into the processes of muscle atrophy and recovery gained through studies in developmental biology combined with the novel tools and strategies emerging in regenerative medicine provide new avenues to combat the vexing problem of muscle atrophy in the rotator cuff. Moving these treatment strategies forward likely will involve the combination of surgery, biologic/cellular agents, and physical interventions, as increasing experimental evidence points to the beneficial interaction between biologic therapies and physiologic stresses. Thus, the physical therapy profession is poised to play a significant role in defining the success of these combinatorial therapies. This perspective article will provide an overview of the developmental biology and regenerative medicine strategies currently under investigation to combat muscle atrophy and how they may integrate into the current and future practice of physical therapy. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  9. Developmental Biology and Regenerative Medicine: Addressing the Vexing Problem of Persistent Muscle Atrophy in the Chronically Torn Human Rotator Cuff

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Gretchen A.

    2016-01-01

    Persistent muscle atrophy in the chronically torn rotator cuff is a significant obstacle for treatment and recovery. Large atrophic changes are predictive of poor surgical and nonsurgical outcomes and frequently fail to resolve even following functional restoration of loading and rehabilitation. New insights into the processes of muscle atrophy and recovery gained through studies in developmental biology combined with the novel tools and strategies emerging in regenerative medicine provide new avenues to combat the vexing problem of muscle atrophy in the rotator cuff. Moving these treatment strategies forward likely will involve the combination of surgery, biologic/cellular agents, and physical interventions, as increasing experimental evidence points to the beneficial interaction between biologic therapies and physiologic stresses. Thus, the physical therapy profession is poised to play a significant role in defining the success of these combinatorial therapies. This perspective article will provide an overview of the developmental biology and regenerative medicine strategies currently under investigation to combat muscle atrophy and how they may integrate into the current and future practice of physical therapy. PMID:26847008

  10. A quantitative label-free analysis of the extracellular proteome of human supraspinatus tendon reveals damage to the pericellular and elastic fibre niches in torn and aged tissue.

    PubMed

    Hakimi, Osnat; Ternette, Nicola; Murphy, Richard; Kessler, Benedikt M; Carr, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Tears of the human supraspinatus tendon are common and often cause painful and debilitating loss of function. Progressive failure of the tendon leading to structural abnormality and tearing is accompanied by numerous cellular and extra-cellular matrix (ECM) changes in the tendon tissue. This proteomics study aimed to compare torn and aged rotator cuff tissue to young and healthy tissue, and provide the first ECM inventory of human supraspinatus tendon generated using label-free quantitative LC-MS/MS. Employing two digestion protocols (trypsin and elastase), we analysed grain-sized tendon supraspinatus biopsies from older patients with torn tendons and from healthy, young controls. Our findings confirm measurable degradation of collagen fibrils and associated proteins in old and torn tendons, suggesting a significant loss of tissue organisation. A particularly marked reduction of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) raises the possibility of using changes in levels of this glycoprotein as a marker of abnormal tissue, as previously suggested in horse models. Surprisingly, and despite using an elastase digestion for validation, elastin was not detected, suggesting that it is not highly abundant in human supraspinatus tendon as previously thought. Finally, we identified marked changes to the elastic fibre, fibrillin-rich niche and the pericellular matrix. Further investigation of these regions may yield other potential biomarkers and help to explain detrimental cellular processes associated with tendon ageing and tendinopathy.

  11. Feeling trapped and being torn: Physicians' narratives about ethical dilemmas in hemodialysis care that evoke a troubled conscience

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study is part of a major study about difficulties in communicating ethical problems within and among professional groups working in hemodialysis care. Describing experiences of ethically difficult situations that induce a troubled conscience may raise consciousness about ethical problems and thereby open the way to further reflection. The aim of this study was to illuminate the meanings of being in ethically difficult situations that led to the burden of a troubled conscience, as narrated by physicians working in dialysis care. Method A phenomenological hermeneutic method was used to analyze the transcribed narrative interviews with five physicians who had varying lengths of experience in nephrology. Results The analysis shows that physicians working in hemodialysis care suffered from a troubled conscience when they felt torn by conflicting demands and trapped in irresolution. They faced ethical dilemmas where they were forced to make crucial decisions about life or death, or to prioritize when squeezed between time restraints and professional and personal demands. In these ethical dilemmas the physicians avoided arousing conflicts, were afraid of using their authority, were burdened by moral responsibility and felt devalued and questioned about their way of handling the situation. The findings point to another way of encountering ethical dilemmas, being guided by their conscience. This mean sharing the agony of deciding how to act, being brave enough to bring up the crucial problem, feeling certain that better ways of acting have not been overlooked, being respected and confirmed regarding decisions made. Conclusion The meanings of being in ethically difficult situations that led to the burden of a troubled conscience in those working in hemodialysis care, indicate the importance of increasing the level of communication within and among various professional groups - to transform being burdened by a troubled conscience into using conscience as a

  12. Feeling trapped and being torn: physicians' narratives about ethical dilemmas in hemodialysis care that evoke a troubled conscience.

    PubMed

    Grönlund, Catarina E C Fischer; Dahlqvist, Vera; Söderberg, Anna I S

    2011-05-11

    This study is part of a major study about difficulties in communicating ethical problems within and among professional groups working in hemodialysis care. Describing experiences of ethically difficult situations that induce a troubled conscience may raise consciousness about ethical problems and thereby open the way to further reflection.The aim of this study was to illuminate the meanings of being in ethically difficult situations that led to the burden of a troubled conscience, as narrated by physicians working in dialysis care. A phenomenological hermeneutic method was used to analyze the transcribed narrative interviews with five physicians who had varying lengths of experience in nephrology. The analysis shows that physicians working in hemodialysis care suffered from a troubled conscience when they felt torn by conflicting demands and trapped in irresolution. They faced ethical dilemmas where they were forced to make crucial decisions about life or death, or to prioritize when squeezed between time restraints and professional and personal demands. In these ethical dilemmas the physicians avoided arousing conflicts, were afraid of using their authority, were burdened by moral responsibility and felt devalued and questioned about their way of handling the situation. The findings point to another way of encountering ethical dilemmas, being guided by their conscience. This mean sharing the agony of deciding how to act, being brave enough to bring up the crucial problem, feeling certain that better ways of acting have not been overlooked, being respected and confirmed regarding decisions made. The meanings of being in ethically difficult situations that led to the burden of a troubled conscience in those working in hemodialysis care, indicate the importance of increasing the level of communication within and among various professional groups--to transform being burdened by a troubled conscience into using conscience as a guide--in situations where no way of

  13. Torn in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-10-01

    The US presidential elections represent an important cornerstone for both US and global energy policies. The continuation of current policies aimed at the low carbon energy transition should not be taken for granted.

  14. Matrix metalloproteases and their inhibitors are altered in torn rotator cuff tendons, but also in the macroscopically and histologically intact portion of those tendons.

    PubMed

    Castagna, Alessandro; Cesari, Eugenio; Garofalo, Raffaele; Gigante, Antonio; Conti, Marco; Markopoulos, Nikolaos; Maffulli, Nicola

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated whether matrix metalloproteases and their inhibitors are involved in extracellular matrix remodelling and degradation of chronic rotator cuff tears. Tendon samples were harvested from 13 patients who underwent arthroscopic repair of a rotator cuff tear. Supraspinatus specimens were harvested en bloc from the arthroscopically intact middle portion of the tendon, more than 1 cm lateral to the torn edge, from the lateral edge of the tear, and from the superior margin of the macroscopically intact subscapularis tendon, used as control. The collagenases, the stromelysins, and the tissue inhibitors of metalloprotease arrays were analyzed blindly by multiplex sandwich ELISA in each specimen. Histological evidence of tendinopathy was present in all patients with a rotator cuff tear, but not in the macroscopically intact subscapularis tendon. There were significantly increased levels of MMP 1, MMP 2, MMP 3, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 in all specimens examined, including the macroscopically intact portion of the supraspinatus tendon and the subscapularis (control specimens). The levels of specific matrix metalloproteases and their inhibitors are altered in torn rotator cuff tendons, but also in the macroscopically and histologically intact tendons. These changes extended medially to the site of tendon tear, and to other tendons.

  15. Matrix metalloproteases and their inhibitors are altered in torn rotator cuff tendons, but also in the macroscopically and histologically intact portion of those tendons

    PubMed Central

    Castagna, Alessandro; Cesari, Eugenio; Garofalo, Raffaele; Gigante, Antonio; Conti, Marco; Markopoulos, Nikolaos; Maffulli, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Summary We evaluated whether matrix metalloproteases and their inhibitors are involved in extracellular matrix remodelling and degradation of chronic rotator cuff tears. Tendon samples were harvested from 13 patients who underwent arthroscopic repair of a rotator cuff tear. Supraspinatus specimens were harvested en bloc from the arthroscopically intact middle portion of the tendon, more than 1 cm lateral to the torn edge, from the lateral edge of the tear, and from the superior margin of the macroscopically intact subscapularis tendon, used as control. The collagenases, the stromelysins, and the tissue inhibitors of metalloprotease arrays were analyzed blindly by multiplex sandwich ELISA in each specimen. Histological evidence of tendinopathy was present in all patients with a rotator cuff tear, but not in the macroscopically intact subscapularis tendon. There were significantly increased levels of MMP 1, MMP 2, MMP 3, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 in all specimens examined, including the macroscopically intact portion of the supraspinatus tendon and the subscapularis (control specimens). The levels of specific matrix metalloproteases and their inhibitors are altered in torn rotator cuff tendons, but also in the macroscopically and histologically intact tendons. These changes extended medially to the site of tendon tear, and to other tendons. PMID:24367772

  16. In vivo shoulder function after surgical repair of a torn rotator cuff: glenohumeral joint mechanics, shoulder strength, clinical outcomes, and their interaction.

    PubMed

    Bey, Michael J; Peltz, Cathryn D; Ciarelli, Kristin; Kline, Stephanie K; Divine, George W; van Holsbeeck, Marnix; Muh, Stephanie; Kolowich, Patricia A; Lock, Terrence R; Moutzouros, Vasilios

    2011-10-01

    Surgical repair of a torn rotator cuff is based on the belief that repairing the tear is necessary to restore normal glenohumeral joint (GHJ) mechanics and achieve a satisfactory clinical outcome. Dynamic joint function is not completely restored by rotator cuff repair, thus compromising shoulder function and potentially leading to long-term disability. Controlled laboratory study and Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Twenty-one rotator cuff patients and 35 control participants enrolled in the study. Biplane radiographic images were acquired bilaterally from each patient during coronal-plane abduction. Rotator cuff patients were tested at 3, 12, and 24 months after repair of a supraspinatus tendon tear. Control participants were tested once. Glenohumeral joint kinematics and joint contact patterns were accurately determined from the biplane radiographic images. Isometric shoulder strength and patient-reported outcomes were measured at each time point. Ultrasound imaging assessed rotator cuff integrity at 24 months after surgery. Twenty of 21 rotator cuff repairs appeared intact at 24 months after surgery. The humerus of the patients' repaired shoulder was positioned more superiorly on the glenoid than both the patients' contralateral shoulder and the dominant shoulder of control participants. Patient-reported outcomes improved significantly over time. Shoulder strength also increased over time, although strength deficits persisted at 24 months for most patients. Changes over time in GHJ mechanics were not detected for either the rotator cuff patients' repaired or contralateral shoulders. Clinical outcome was associated with shoulder strength but not GHJ mechanics. Surgical repair of an isolated supraspinatus tear may be sufficient to keep the torn rotator cuff intact and achieve satisfactory patient-reported outcomes, but GHJ mechanics and shoulder strength are not fully restored with current repair techniques. The study suggests that current surgical repair

  17. Repair of Torn Avascular Meniscal Cartilage Using Undifferentiated Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells: From In Vitro Optimization to a First‐in‐Human Study

    PubMed Central

    Whitehouse, Michael R.; Howells, Nicholas R.; Parry, Michael C.; Austin, Eric; Kafienah, Wael; Brady, Kyla; Goodship, Allen E.; Eldridge, Jonathan D.; Blom, Ashley W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Meniscal cartilage tears are common and predispose to osteoarthritis (OA). Most occur in the avascular portion of the meniscus where current repair techniques usually fail. We described previously the use of undifferentiated autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) seeded onto a collagen scaffold (MSC/collagen‐scaffold) to integrate meniscal tissues in vitro. Our objective was to translate this method into a cell therapy for patients with torn meniscus, with the long‐term goal of delaying or preventing the onset of OA. After in vitro optimization, we tested an ovine‐MSC/collagen‐scaffold in a sheep meniscal cartilage tear model with promising results after 13 weeks, although repair was not sustained over 6 months. We then conducted a single center, prospective, open‐label first‐in‐human safety study of patients with an avascular meniscal tear. Autologous MSCs were isolated from an iliac crest bone marrow biopsy, expanded and seeded into the collagen scaffold. The resulting human‐MSC/collagen‐scaffold implant was placed into the meniscal tear prior to repair with vertical mattress sutures and the patients were followed for 2 years. Five patients were treated and there was significant clinical improvement on repeated measures analysis. Three were asymptomatic at 24 months with no magnetic resonance imaging evidence of recurrent tear and clinical improvement in knee function scores. Two required subsequent meniscectomy due to retear or nonhealing of the meniscal tear at approximately 15 months after implantation. No other adverse events occurred. We conclude that undifferentiated MSCs could provide a safe way to augment avascular meniscal repair in some patients. Registration: EU Clinical Trials Register, 2010‐024162‐22. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:1237–1248 PMID:28186682

  18. Teachers Torn over Religion, Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    When science teachers in a small Pennsylvania town were asked to read a statement to their classes that introduced students to the concept of "intelligent design," they refused, citing legal and professional obligations. This article discusses teacher's views on religion and evolution and how their opinions influenced religion's place in…

  19. Girl's Schooling in War-Torn Somalia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyi, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A civil war has raged in Somalia since 1991. The civil war was the final blow to an already collapsed education system. Somalia has received little research and policy attention yet children, especially girls, are very vulnerable during times of conflict. The different gender roles, activities, and status in society create gender differentiated…

  20. Girl's Schooling in War-Torn Somalia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyi, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A civil war has raged in Somalia since 1991. The civil war was the final blow to an already collapsed education system. Somalia has received little research and policy attention yet children, especially girls, are very vulnerable during times of conflict. The different gender roles, activities, and status in society create gender differentiated…

  1. Retinal Detachment: Torn or Detached Retina Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Test for Early Alzheimer’s Detection? Aug 08, 2016 Eye Exercises May Improve Vision Around Blind Spot Sep 29, 2015 Argus II: The ‘Bionic Eye’ An Incredible Breakthrough for People with Retinitis Pigmentosa ...

  2. Retinal Detachment: Torn or Detached Retina Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... is cataract surgery different for someone with high myopia? Oct 01, 2015 Can I Fly with Central ... for Early Alzheimer’s Detection? Aug 08, 2016 Eye Exercises May Improve Vision Around Blind Spot Sep 29, ...

  3. Retinal Detachment: Torn or Detached Retina Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... is cataract surgery different for someone with high myopia? Oct 01, 2015 Can I Fly with Central ... for Early Alzheimer’s Detection? Aug 08, 2016 Eye Exercises May Improve Vision Around Blind Spot Sep 29, ...

  4. Is resection of the tendon edge necessary to enhance the healing process? An evaluation of the expression of collagen type I, IL-1β, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-13 in the distal 1 cm of a torn supraspinatus tendon: part II.

    PubMed

    Fabiś, Jaroslaw; Szemraj, Janusz; Strek, Małgorzata; Fabiś, Anna; Dutkiewicz, Zbigniew; Zwierzchowski, Tomasz Jacek

    2014-12-01

    Type I collagen proin pro-in expression in a damaged supraspinatus tendon is thought to be dependent on the distance from the edge of the tear and the local expression of pro-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and pro-proliferative cytokines. The study evaluates the expression of type I collagen, pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL) 1β, anti-proliferative interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and pro-proliferative IL-4 and IL-13 cytokines along a 1-cm section taken from the edge of a torn supraspinatus tendon. Three sections were taken: 3 mm distal to the tear, 3 mm proximal to the tear, and the 4-mm middle section between them. Nine patients (average age, 58 years) were included in the study. All fulfilled strict inclusion criteria regarding tear morphology and reconstruction technique. Samples were taken from the ruptured supraspinatus tendon at the time of arthroscopic repair. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was used for analysis. The expression of type I collagen, IL-4, and IL-13 significantly increased and that of IL-1β and IFN-γ decreased from the distal to the proximal parts of the tendon edge (P < .05). The expression of type I collagen is dependent on the distance from the edge of the torn supraspinatus tendon, the balance between anti-proliferative IFN-γ and pro-proliferative IL-4 and IL-13, and the expression of pro-inflammatory IL-1β. Hence, whereas resection of the distal 3 mm of the torn supraspinatus tendon edge eliminates its least valuable part, resection between 4 and 7 mm may enhance the healing process by reaching a reasonable compromise between the mechanical features of the tendon characterized by collagen type I expression and the technical abilities of reconstruction. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Report on the KAIR Survey of Information Sharing Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppel, Sheree P.; Osborne, Jeanne S.

    The purpose of this study was to assess the need for information about transfer students of both "sending" institutions (schools from which students transfer) and "receiving" institutions (schools to which students transfer) and to assess also the institutions' capacity for and willingness to enter into data-sharing activities.…

  6. Teaching Career Skills in War-Torn Iraq

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliah, Elaine

    2006-01-01

    While western Iraq's Anbar province was making headlines with its voter turnout this past December 2005, a quieter turnout of its young men was making headway graduating from school. In Habbaniyah, a volatile city where rockets and mortars destroy buildings and lives all too suddenly and frequently, the Iraq Construction Apprentice Program (ICAP)…

  7. Muscle progenitor cell regenerative capacity in the torn rotator cuff.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gretchen A; Farris, Ashley L; Sato, Eugene; Gibbons, Michael; Lane, John G; Ward, Samuel R; Engler, Adam J

    2015-03-01

    Chronic rotator cuff (RC) tears affect a large portion of the population and result in substantial upper extremity impairment, shoulder weakness, pain, and limited range of motion. Regardless of surgical or conservative treatment, persistent atrophic muscle changes limit functional restoration and may contribute to surgical failure. We hypothesized that deficits in the skeletal muscle progenitor (SMP) cell pool could contribute to poor muscle recovery following tendon repair. Biopsies were obtained from patients undergoing arthroscopic RC surgery. The SMP population was quantified, isolated, and assayed in culture for its ability to proliferate and fuse in vitro and in vivo. The SMP population was larger in muscles from cuffs with partial tears compared with no tears or full thickness tears. However, SMPs from muscles in the partial tear group also exhibited reduced proliferative ability. Cells from all cuff states were able to fuse robustly in culture and engraft when injected into injured mouse muscle, suggesting that when given the correct signals, SMPs are capable of contributing to muscle hypertrophy and regeneration regardless of tear severity. The fact that this does not appear to happen in vivo helps focus future therapeutic targets for promoting muscle recovery following rotator cuff repairs and may help improve clinical outcomes.

  8. On Feeling Torn About One’s Sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Windsor-Shellard, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Three studies offer novel evidence addressing the consequences of explicit–implicit sexual orientation (SO) ambivalence. In Study 1, self-identified straight females completed explicit and implicit measures of SO. The results revealed that participants with greater SO ambivalence took longer responding to explicit questions about their sexual preferences, an effect moderated by the direction of ambivalence. Study 2 replicated this effect using a different paradigm. Study 3 included self-identified straight and gay female and male participants; participants completed explicit and implicit measures of SO, plus measures of self-esteem and affect regarding their SO. Among straight participants, the response time results replicated the findings of Studies 1 and 2. Among gay participants, trends suggested that SO ambivalence influenced time spent deliberating on explicit questions relevant to sexuality, but in a different way. Furthermore, the amount and direction of SO ambivalence was related to self-esteem. PMID:24972940

  9. Keeping Faith with our War-Torn: Rebuilding Broken Spirits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    Wounded Warrior units, their Marines are involved in several endeavors that help rebuild their damaged spirits. Adaptive sports programs focused on...abilities rather than disabilities,”20 horseback riding, surfing, cycling, art, music, writing, fishing, hunting, yoga , meditation, and church...activity. There is a growing body of evidence on the connection between physical activity and sound mental health.40 Adaptive sports programs have

  10. [A population torn between explosion and stagnation, youth and aging].

    PubMed

    Thumerelle, P J

    1994-01-01

    Six articles appearing in this issue of the Bulletin of the Association of French Geographers, devoted to current demographic conditions, are introduced and placed in context. Although total world population growth is apparently beginning to slow, considerable differences remain between developed and developing countries. Different durations and intensities of mortality and fertility declines and different timing of the onset of transition have produced historically unprecedented diversity. The first article compares world population to national populations, while the second contrasts countries with high levels of growth and proportions of young people with countries having low fertility and aging populations. Population inertia and the determinants of population change are then examined. The third article analyzes the evolution of the economically active population in different countries, showing how they summarize the degree of modernization and development of a society as well as the place of women. The next article cites Quebec as an example of an individualist modern Western society with little likelihood of a sustained rise in fertility in the near future. The growing density of world population and the tendency for concentration in large urban areas are then discussed. The final article examines the effect of migration patterns in Western Europe, including influxes of refugees from all over the world and of Eastern Europeans before and after the breakup of the USSR.

  11. Teaching in War-Torn Belfast: Reading, Writing, Rioting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Arturo F., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    This article describes the educational situation in Belfast--the divided sympathies on the part of the students, the segregation, the possible hardening of the students. Also considered are the difficulties of teachers in this war situation. (JA)

  12. Teachers Using Learning Styles: Torn between Research and Accountability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Stewart

    2010-01-01

    The proliferation of instruments reporting learning/cognitive style with school pupils is of particular interest, because most research on them focuses on applications in higher education, training and the adult workplace, where criticisms of their integrity, reliability and validity have been significant. This study examines two such popular…

  13. Teaching in War-Torn Belfast: Reading, Writing, Rioting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Arturo F., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    This article describes the educational situation in Belfast--the divided sympathies on the part of the students, the segregation, the possible hardening of the students. Also considered are the difficulties of teachers in this war situation. (JA)

  14. Astronomers detect matter torn apart by black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    Astronomers have used two different telescopes simultaneously to study the violent flares from the supermassive black hole in the centre of the Milky Way. They have detected outbursts from this region, known as Sagittarius A*, which reveal material being stretched out as it orbits in the intense gravity close to the central black hole. Glowing Stellar Nurseries ESO PR Photo 41/08 Submillimetre and infrared view of the Galactic Centre The team of European and US astronomers used ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) telescope, both in Chile, to study light from Sagittarius A* at near-infrared wavelengths and the longer submillimetre wavelengths respectively. This is the first time that astronomers have caught a flare with these telescopes simultaneously. The telescopes' location in the southern hemisphere provides the best vantage point for studying the Galactic Centre. "Observations like this, over a range of wavelengths, are really the only way to understand what's going on close to the black hole," says Andreas Eckart of the University of Cologne, who led the team. Sagittarius A* is located at the centre of our own Milky Way Galaxy at a distance from Earth of about 26 000 light-years. It is a supermassive black hole with a mass of about four million times that of the Sun. Most, if not all, galaxies are thought to have a supermassive black hole in their centre. "Sagittarius A* is unique, because it is the nearest of these monster black holes, lying within our own galaxy," explains team member Frederick K. Baganoff of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, USA. "Only for this one object can our current telescopes detect these relatively faint flares from material orbiting just outside the event horizon." The emission from Sagittarius A* is thought to come from gas thrown off by stars, which then orbits and falls into the black hole. Making the simultaneous observations required careful planning between teams at the two telescopes. After several nights waiting at the two observatory sites, they struck lucky. "At the VLT, as soon as we pointed the telescope at Sagittarius A* we saw it was active, and getting brighter by the minute. We immediately picked up the phone and alerted our colleagues at the APEX telescope," says Gunther Witzel, a PhD student from the University of Cologne. Macarena García-Marín, also from Cologne, was waiting at APEX, where the observatory team had made a special effort to keep the instrument on standby. "As soon as we got the call we were very excited and had to work really fast so as not to lose crucial data from Sagittarius A*. We took over from the regular observations, and were in time to catch the flares," she explains. Over the next six hours, the team detected violently variable infrared emission, with four major flares from Sagittarius A* . The submillimetre-wavelength results also showed flares, but, crucially, this occurred about one and a half hours after the infrared flares. The researchers explain that this time delay is probably caused by the rapid expansion, at speeds of about 5 million km/h, of the clouds of gas that are emitting the flares. This expansion causes changes in the character of the emission over time, and hence the time delay between the infrared and submillimetre flares. Although speeds of 5 million km/h may seem fast, this is only 0.5% of the speed of light. To escape from the very strong gravity so close to the black hole, the gas would have to be travelling at half the speed of light - 100 times faster than detected - and so the researchers believe that the gas cannot be streaming out in a jet. Instead, they suspect that a blob of gas orbiting close to the black hole is being stretched out, like dough in a mixing bowl, and this is causing the expansion. The simultaneous combination of the VLT and APEX telescopes has proved to be a powerful way to study the flares at multiple wavelengths. The team hope that future observations will let them prove their proposed model, and discover more about this mysterious region at the centre of our Galaxy.

  15. [Therapy optimization studies torn between science and funding].

    PubMed

    Freund, M

    2002-01-01

    There is no doubt that clinical studies are valuable cornerstones in the development of rational diagnostics and therapy, for the patients' safety, for quality assurance as well as for the development of a body of evidence in medicine. Well recognized multicentric study groups are active in several medical disciplines in Germany. Public funding resources however are miserable as compared to other countries. For example in hematology and oncology funds are almost exclusively available by private foundations as the Deutsche Krebshilfe only. Additionally physicians and institutions who are actively promoting clinical studies have to pay charges for patients' insurance and for registration of studies by the authorities. Furthermore there are increasing difficulties obtaining reimbursement for patients' care in clinical studies. In this context outdated regulations of the German Sozialgesetzbuch V lawbook play an important role. In summary a pronounced reform deficit paired with bureocratic tendencies has become manifested. The most important demands are in this situation: a reliable and realistic regulatory basis for treatment-related clinical studies has to be created. Studies on treatment strategies with registered drugs have to be free from the obligatory patients' insurance which is required for study with non-registered drugs. It has to be clarified that in these studies some regulations of good clinical practice as obligatory external monitoring and source data verification are not feasible and will not be required. The Sozialgesetzbuch V has to be adapted and the actual ban of clinical studies in private practice has to be ended. Treatment related clinical studies have to be free from charges of ethical committees and regulatory authorities. Thereby the financial overload of clinical studies could be reduced and some motivation for further bureocratic proliferation is removed. Finally a longterm, reliable funding resource has to be created independently from the pharmaceutical industry. A possible model could be a foundation for treatment-related studies which is financed by public funds and by funds from the reimbursement companies.

  16. Oil flow resumes in war torn onshore Neutral Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-09

    Oil production has resumed in the war ravaged onshore fields of the Neutral Zone between Saudi Arabia and Kuwait 1 year after the end of Persian Gulf War. Initial production of about 40,000 b/d is expected to rise to 60,000 b/d by year end. This paper reports that prior to the January-February 1991 war to oust occupying Iraqi military forces from Kuwait, the Neutral Zone's Wafra, South Umm Gudair, and South Fuwaris onshore fields produced about 135,000 b/d.

  17. Muscle Progenitor Cell Regenerative Capacity in the Torn Rotator Cuff

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Gretchen A.; Farris, Ashley L.; Sato, Eugene; Gibbons, Michael; Lane, John G.; Ward, Samuel R.; Engler, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic rotator cuff (RC) tears affect a large portion of the population and result in substantial upper extremity impairment, shoulder weakness, pain and limited range of motion. Regardless of surgical or conservative treatment, persistent atrophic muscle changes limit functional restoration and may contribute to surgical failure. We hypothesized that deficits in the skeletal muscle progenitor (SMP) cell pool could contribute to poor muscle recovery following tendon repair. Biopsies were obtained from patients undergoing arthroscopic RC surgery. The SMP population was quantified, isolated and assayed in culture for its ability to proliferate and fuse in-vitro and in-vivo. The SMP population was larger in muscles from cuffs with partial tears compared with no tears or full thickness tears. However, SMPs from muscles in the partial tear group also exhibited reduced proliferative ability. Cells from all cuff states were able to fuse robustly in culture and engraft when injected into injured mouse muscle, suggesting that when given the correct signals, SMPs are capable of contributing to muscle hypertrophy and regeneration regardless of tear severity. The fact that this does not appear to happen in-vivo helps focus future therapeutic targets for promoting muscle recovery following rotator cuff repairs and may help improve clinical outcomes. PMID:25410765

  18. Feeding ecology of a nocturnal invasive alien lizard species, Hemidactylus mabouia Moreau de Jonnès, 1818 (Gekkonidae), living in an outcrop rocky area in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, C F D; Anjos, L A

    2007-08-01

    We studied in fieldwork, the feeding ecology of a Hemidactylus mabouia population from southeastern Brazil throughout one year in a region with marked climatic seasonality. A sampling of availability of arthropods in the environment was carried out, which evidenced that the availability of food resources influenced the composition of the diet of H. mabouia. There were no seasonal differences on diet composition, which may be due to the relatively constant availability on prey throughout the year. In general, this population can be classified as generalist and opportunistic regarding diet. There was a high food niche overlap among juveniles and adults, although juvenile lizards tend to eat higher number of prey (but in lower volume) when compared to adult lizards. The ability to exploit a wide array of prey in an efficient way, maintaining a positive energetic balance, may be a factor determining the efficiency of this exotic species to occupy invaded areas.

  19. Torn apart by Divorce: When a Family Is Shattered to Pieces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Gigi; Kamps, Brian; Lopez, Kate; McAlister, Christine; Wright, Cheri

    This brief handout set begins with a scenario that has a teacher discover that one of the best students in the class is facing the breakup of her parent's marriage. The student thinks it is "all my fault." A fact sheet on divorce and its effects on children follows. Psychological and economic effects of divorce on children are listed. Facts about…

  20. Rapid Deployment of International Tele-Intensive Care Unit Services in War-Torn Syria.

    PubMed

    Moughrabieh, Anas; Weinert, Craig

    2016-02-01

    The conflict in Syria has created the largest humanitarian emergency of the twenty-first century. The 4-year Syrian conflict has destroyed hospitals and severely reduced the capacity of intensive care units (ICUs) and on-site intensivists. The crisis has triggered attempts from abroad to support the medical care of severely injured and acutely ill civilians inside Syria, including application of telemedicine. Within the United States, tele-ICU programs have been operating for more than a decade, albeit with high start-up costs and generally long development times. With the benefit of lessons drawn from those domestic models, the Syria Tele-ICU program was launched in December 2012 to manage the care of ICU patients in parts of Syria by using inexpensive, off-the-shelf video cameras, free social media applications, and a volunteer network of Arabic-speaking intensivists in North America and Europe. Within 1 year, 90 patients per month in three ICUs were receiving tele-ICU services. At the end of 2015, a network of approximately 20 participating intensivists was providing clinical decision support 24 hours per day to five civilian ICUs in Syria. The volunteer clinicians manage patients at a distance of more than 6,000 miles, separated by seven or eight time zones between North America and Syria. The program is implementing a cloud-based electronic medical record for physician documentation and a medication administration record for nurses. There are virtual chat rooms for patient rounds, radiology review, and trainee teaching. The early success of the program shows how a small number of committed physicians can use inexpensive equipment spawned by the Internet revolution to support from afar civilian health care delivery in a high-conflict country.

  1. Determinants of Children's Mental Health in War-Torn Settings: Translating Research Into Action.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kenneth E; Jordans, Mark J D

    2016-06-01

    Research on the mental health and psychosocial wellbeing of children in conflict-affected settings has undergone a significant paradigm shift in recent years. Earlier studies based on a war exposure model primarily emphasized the effects of direct exposure to armed conflict; this has gradually given way to a broader understanding of the diverse pathways by which organized violence affects children. A robustly supported comprehensive model includes risk factors at multiple points in time (prior war exposure, ongoing daily stressors) and at all levels of the social ecology. In particular, findings suggest that material deprivation and a set of family variables, including harsh parenting, parental distress, and witnessing intimate partner violence, are important mediators of the relationship between armed conflict and children's wellbeing. To date, however, interventions aimed at supporting war-affected children's wellbeing, both preventive and treatment-focused, have focused primarily on direct work with children, while paying only modest attention to ongoing risk factors in their families and broader environments. Possible reasons for the ongoing prioritization of child-focused interventions are considered, and examples are provided of recent evidence-based interventions that have reduced toxic stressors (harsh parenting and the use of violent discipline by teachers) in conflict-affected communities.

  2. Torn between Two Worlds: Hybridity and In-Between Identity Recognition in Goli Taraqqi's "Two Worlds"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shabankare, Nasser Najafi; Mehrabi, Bahar

    2014-01-01

    As one of the contemporary Iranian women writers living in the U.S, Goli Taraqqi's fiction is mostly concerned with pains and difficulties of migrant Iranian women in other countries. Bearing a biographical resemblance, her sequence collection to "Scattered Memories," entitled "Two Worlds" retells interrelated short stories of…

  3. Human Integration through Olympism Education: A Pragmatic Engagement of Youths in a War-Torn Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nanayakkara, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    This paper delineates the findings of a mixed methods study that investigated how Olympism education could strengthen competencies of human integration through delivery of physical, social, and critical literacy and conflict resolution literacy. The study introduced a curriculum model integrating Olympism values and conflict resolution strategies…

  4. Shear wave elastographic characterization of normal and torn achilles tendons: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiang-Mei; Cui, Li-Gang; He, Ping; Shen, Wei-Wei; Qian, Ya-Jun; Wang, Jin-Rui

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using quantitative shear wave elastography for assessing the functional integrity of the Achilles tendon and to summarize the changes in elasticity of ruptured Achilles tendons in comparison with normal controls. Thirty-six normal and 14 ruptured Achilles tendons were examined with shear wave elastography coupled with a linear array transducer (4-15 MHz). The elasticity value of each Achilles tendon in a longitudinal view was measured. The mean elasticity value ± SD for the normal Achilles tendons was 291.91 ± 4.38 kPa (note that there are saturated measurement phenomena for the normal Achilles tendon, so the actual value will be >300 kPa), whereas the ruptured Achilles tendons had an elasticity value of 56.48 ± 68.59 kPa. A statistically significant difference was found in relation to the findings in healthy volunteers (P = .006). Our results suggest that shear wave elastography is a valuable tool that can provide complementary biomechanical information for evaluating the function of the Achilles tendon.

  5. Two war-torn soldiers: combat-related trauma through an intersubjective lens.

    PubMed

    Carr, Russell B

    2013-01-01

    The author, himself an Iraq war veteran, presents a contemporary psychodynamic understanding, known as intersubjective therapy, of combat-related Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). At the onset of this case example, the patient was highly suicidal and his PTSD symptoms had not responded to a first-line treatment: manualized cognitive processing therapy. Robert Stolorow's intersubjective, psychodynamic approach to traumatic emotional experiences was then selected for treatment, and illustrates how combat in Afghanistan shattered this soldier's world and self experience. Therapeutic action arises from this intersubjective perspective by providing a relational home so that unendurable emotions can be borne, processed, and integrated to achieve a more constant and individualized sense of self. Being a two-person model of therapy, the author also describes how his work with this traumatized soldier affected him, ultimately contributing to his own sense of authentic existing. The author discusses the need for therapists to recognize and acknowledge to traumatized patients their shared finitude and the ubiquity of trauma. In the Postscript, the patient describes what he felt was therapeutic and contrasts this to his previous experiences with manualized cognitive processing therapy.

  6. Torn: Social Expectations Concerning Forgiveness Among Women Who Have Experienced Intrafamilial Child Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Tener, Dafna; Eisikovits, Zvi

    2015-06-30

    The authors examine how women who experienced intrafamilial child sexual abuse (IFCSA) perceive social expectations of society toward forgiveness, how they incorporate IFCSA and reconstruct their life stories in relation to these expectations, and the costs and gains from such reconstructions. This is part of a larger study on the phenomenology of forgiveness for IFCSA among grown women. Twenty Jewish Israeli women who had experienced IFCSA were interviewed in depth. Interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data analyses lead to four types of social expectations: forgiveness by forgetting, avenging, family preservation through forgiveness, and satisfying the voyeuristic needs of society, which has limited interest in forgiveness. These contradictory expectations are discussed in light of the cultural context and the experience of the women interviewed. Implications for practice are suggested.

  7. Physical Therapy to Treat Torn Meniscus Comparable to Surgery for Many Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgeons. In the Meniscal Tear in Osteoarthritis Research (MeTeOR) trial, researchers at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in ... receive physical therapy. The researchers plan to monitor MeTeOR participants over five years to determine if long- ...

  8. The geyser sign and torn rotator cuff: clinical significance and pathomechanics.

    PubMed

    Craig, E V

    1984-12-01

    The geyser radiographic sign on shoulder arthrogram is characterized by leakage of dye from the glenohumeral joint into the subdeltoid bursa. The dye outlines the acromioclavicular joint. It is usually an indication of a full-thickness cuff tear of long duration. The clinical occurrence and pathomechanics of this finding indicate that repair is generally difficult.

  9. Torn in Two: An Examiniation of Elementary School Counselors' Perceptions on Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sesto, Casper

    2013-01-01

    The American School Counselor Association (ASCA; The ASCA National Model: A Framework for School Counseling Programs, 2005) developed the ASCA National Model to define the prescribed roles and functions of the professional school counselor. Although the national model initially defines school counselors' roles, counselors find it difficult to…

  10. Torn between Study and Leisure: How Motivational Conflicts Relate to Students' Academic and Social Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grund, Axel; Brassler, Nina K.; Fries, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Research on motivational conflicts indicates that students' difficulties during studying may result from tempting alternatives in the leisure domain. In the present set of studies, we addressed the question of whether academic motivation inversely has negative spillover effects on students' leisure-related functioning, too. In the first 2 studies…

  11. Sacrotuberous ligament: relationship to normal, torn, and retracted hamstring tendons on MR images.

    PubMed

    Bierry, Guillaume; Simeone, F Joseph; Borg-Stein, Joanne P; Clavert, Philippe; Palmer, William E

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate continuity of the sacrotuberous ligament (STL) in normal and abnormal hamstring (HS) tendons on magnetic resonance (MR) images and to test the hypothesis that greater degrees of HS retraction are correlated with STL discontinuity. The institutional review board approved this retrospective HIPAA-compliant study and waived informed consent. Control cohort comprised 33 patients (mean age, 54.1 years) without HS abnormalities at hip MR arthrography. Study cohort comprised 100 patients (mean age, 55.3 years) with HS abnormalities at pelvic or hip MR imaging. Two musculoskeletal radiologists independently assessed STL continuity with the ischium and semimembranosus (SM) and conjoined biceps femoris and semitendinosus (BF-ST) tendons and evaluated these tendons for tendinopathy, partial tear, or rupture. A third musculoskeletal radiologist measured retraction of ruptured tendons. Inter- and intraobserver agreement was calculated with weighted κ or intraclass correlation coefficients. HS abnormalities in the cohorts were compared with Mann-Whitney test. In patients with tendon rupture, relationships between qualitative (STL and HS attachments) and quantitative (tendon retraction measurements) data were analyzed with analysis of variance and linear regression with Bonferroni correction. STL was continuous with ischium in all patients. In control patients, STL was always continuous with BF-ST but never continuous with SM. In study patients, BF-ST tendon alone, SM tendon alone, and both BF-ST and SM tendons showed abnormalities in 17, six, and 77 patients, respectively. HS rupture occurred in 24 patients; it involved BF-ST tendon alone in 13 patients and both BF-ST and SM tendons in 11. STL was continuous with BF-ST tendon in 12 patients and discontinuous in 12 patients. Retraction of BF-ST tendon (mean, 33 mm; range, 5-81 mm) was independently correlated with STL continuity with BF-ST (P = .0001) and SM (P = .0004) tendon rupture. Retraction was significantly greater (P ≤ 0.01) when STL was discontinuous and SM tendon was ruptured. Inter- and intraobserver agreement was very good or excellent in categorization of HS abnormalities and measurement of retraction. STL showed continuity with both ischium and BF-ST tendon but not SM tendon. In HS rupture, tendon retraction was significantly less when STL remained attached to BF-ST tendon. RSNA, 2013

  12. Human Integration through Olympism Education: A Pragmatic Engagement of Youths in a War-Torn Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nanayakkara, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    This paper delineates the findings of a mixed methods study that investigated how Olympism education could strengthen competencies of human integration through delivery of physical, social, and critical literacy and conflict resolution literacy. The study introduced a curriculum model integrating Olympism values and conflict resolution strategies…

  13. Leukocyte-Reduced Platelet-Rich Plasma Normalizes Matrix Metabolism in Torn Human Rotator Cuff Tendons.

    PubMed

    Cross, Jessica A; Cole, Brian J; Spatny, Kaylan P; Sundman, Emily; Romeo, Anthony A; Nicholson, Greg P; Wagner, Bettina; Fortier, Lisa A

    2015-12-01

    The optimal platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for treatment of supraspinatus tendinopathy has not been determined. To evaluate the effect of low- versus high-leukocyte concentrated PRP products on catabolic and anabolic mediators of matrix metabolism in diseased rotator cuff tendons. Controlled laboratory study. Diseased supraspinatus tendons were treated with PRP made by use of 2 commercial systems: Arthrex Autologous Conditioned Plasma Double Syringe System (L(lo) PRP) and Biomet GPS III Mini Platelet Concentrate System (L(hi) PRP). Tendon explants were placed in 6-well plates and cultured in L(lo) PRP, L(hi) PRP, or control media (Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium + 10% fetal bovine serum) for 96 hours. Tendons were processed for hematoxylin-eosin histologic results and were scored with the modified Bonar scale. Group 1 tendons were defined as moderate tendinopathy (Bonar score <3); group 2 tendons were assessed as severely affected (Bonar score = 3). Transforming growth factor β-1 (TGFβ-1), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) concentrations in PRP media were measured by use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after 96 hours of culture with diseased tendon. Tendon messenger RNA expression of collagen type I (COL1A1), collagen type III (COL3A1), cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), MMP-9, MMP-13, and IL-1β was measured with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Leukocytes and platelets were significantly more concentrated in L(hi) PRP compared with L(lo) PRP. Increased IL-1β was present in L(hi) PRP after culture with group 1 tendons. IL-6 was increased in L(hi) PRP after culture with group 2 tendons. Both TGFβ-1 and MMP-9 were increased in L(hi) PRP after culture with either tendon group. In L(lo) PRP cultures, IL-1Ra:IL-1β in PRP used as media and COL1A1:COL3A1 gene expression were increased for group 1 tendon cultures. Gene expression of MMP-9 and IL-1β was increased in group 2 tendons cultured in L(lo) PRP. There was no significant difference in the expression of MMP-13 or COMP in either group of tendons cultured in L(lo) PRP or L(hi) PRP. L(lo) PRP promotes normal collagen matrix synthesis and decreases cytokines associated with matrix degradation and inflammation to a greater extent than does L(hi) PRP in moderately degenerative tendons. In severely degenerative tendons, neither PRP preparation enhanced matrix synthesis. L(lo) PRP may promote healing in moderately degenerative rotator cuff tendons. © 2015 The Author(s).

  14. Coming to Terms with the Past: Lessons from War-Torn Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Nina K.

    Countries are increasingly facing the question of transgenerational transmission of trauma from their previous acts of war, ethnic cleansing, and genocide. How countries choose to confront that past has significance on the future course of their society. Truth commissions have been used in many countries as a means to collect accounts of torture,…

  15. Sexual violence toward children and youth in war-torn eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Malemo Kalisya, Luc; Lussy Justin, Paluku; Kimona, Christophe; Nyavandu, Kavira; Mukekulu Eugenie, Kamabu; Jonathan, Kasereka Muhindo Lusi; Claude, Kasereka Masumbuko; Hawkes, Michael

    2011-01-18

    The epidemic of gender-based violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has garnered popular media attention, but is incompletely described in the medical literature to date. In particular, the relative importance of militarized compared to civilian rape and the impact on vulnerable populations merits further study. We describe a retrospective case series of sexual abuse among children and youth in eastern DRC. Medical records of patients treated for sexual assault at HEAL Africa Hospital, Goma, DRC between 2006 and 2008 were reviewed. Information extracted from the chart record was summarized using descriptive statistics, with comparative statistics to examine differences between pediatric (≤ 18 yrs) and adult patients. 440 pediatric and 54 adult sexual abuse cases were identified. Children and youth were more often assaulted by someone known to the family (74% vs 30%, OR 6.7 [95%CI 3.6-12], p<0.001), and less frequently by military personnel (13% vs 48%, OR 0.14 [95%CI 0.075-0.26], p<0.001). Delayed presentation for medical care (>72 hours after the assault) was more common in pediatric patients (53% vs 33%, OR 2.2 [95%CI 1.2-4.0], p = 0.007). Physical signs of sexual abuse, including lesions of the posterior fourchette, hymeneal tears, and anal lesions, were more commonly observed in children and youth (84% vs 69%, OR 2.3 [95%CI 1.3-4.4], p = 0.006). Nine (2.9%) pediatrics patients were HIV-positive at presentation, compared to 5.3% of adults (p = 0.34). World media attention has focused on violent rape as a weapon of war in the DRC. Our data highlight some neglected but important and distinct aspects of the ongoing epidemic of sexual violence: sexual abuse of children and youth.

  16. Perspective: A Pull in Two Directions--Mothers Torn between Work and Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Anne Pleshette

    2004-01-01

    This article was excerpted from the author's "The 7 Stages of Motherhood: Making the Most of Your Life as a Mom," published by Alfred A. Knopf in 2004. The author describes the experiences of several professional women, including herself, returning to work from maternity leave. The article examines the varied and sometimes ambivalent responses…

  17. Rapid Deployment of International Tele–Intensive Care Unit Services in War-Torn Syria

    PubMed Central

    Moughrabieh, Anas

    2016-01-01

    The conflict in Syria has created the largest humanitarian emergency of the twenty-first century. The 4-year Syrian conflict has destroyed hospitals and severely reduced the capacity of intensive care units (ICUs) and on-site intensivists. The crisis has triggered attempts from abroad to support the medical care of severely injured and acutely ill civilians inside Syria, including application of telemedicine. Within the United States, tele-ICU programs have been operating for more than a decade, albeit with high start-up costs and generally long development times. With the benefit of lessons drawn from those domestic models, the Syria Tele-ICU program was launched in December 2012 to manage the care of ICU patients in parts of Syria by using inexpensive, off-the-shelf video cameras, free social media applications, and a volunteer network of Arabic-speaking intensivists in North America and Europe. Within 1 year, 90 patients per month in three ICUs were receiving tele-ICU services. At the end of 2015, a network of approximately 20 participating intensivists was providing clinical decision support 24 hours per day to five civilian ICUs in Syria. The volunteer clinicians manage patients at a distance of more than 6,000 miles, separated by seven or eight time zones between North America and Syria. The program is implementing a cloud-based electronic medical record for physician documentation and a medication administration record for nurses. There are virtual chat rooms for patient rounds, radiology review, and trainee teaching. The early success of the program shows how a small number of committed physicians can use inexpensive equipment spawned by the Internet revolution to support from afar civilian health care delivery in a high-conflict country. PMID:26788827

  18. A 76-year old man with a torn Freedom SOLO bioprosthesis.

    PubMed

    Wollersheim, Laurens W; Li, Wilson W; van der Meulen, Jan; de Mol, Bas A

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of a 76-year old male who presented with progressive dyspnoea. He underwent an aortic valve replacement with a Freedom SOLO bioprosthesis 6 years ago. Transthoracic echocardiography showed a moderate-to-severe leakage of the Freedom SOLO bioprosthesis. During surgical reintervention, a partial tear of the left coronary cusp was seen from the commissure of the right coronary cusp to its base. After radiographic and microscopic examination, no clear cause was found for the failure of this Freedom SOLO bioprosthesis. To our knowledge, this is the third failure of a Freedom SOLO bioprosthesis reported in the literature. When the long-term follow-up of the Freedom SOLO bioprosthesis is available, it has to be compared with other bioprosthesis for long-term durability.

  19. Perspective: A Pull in Two Directions--Mothers Torn between Work and Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Anne Pleshette

    2004-01-01

    This article was excerpted from the author's "The 7 Stages of Motherhood: Making the Most of Your Life as a Mom," published by Alfred A. Knopf in 2004. The author describes the experiences of several professional women, including herself, returning to work from maternity leave. The article examines the varied and sometimes ambivalent responses…

  20. Effects of corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid on torn rotator cuff tendons in vitro and in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hidehiro; Gotoh, Masafumi; Kanazawa, Tomonoshin; Ohta, Keisuke; Nakamura, Keiichirou; Honda, Hirokazu; Ohzono, Hiroki; Shimokobe, Hisao; Mitsui, Yasuhiro; Shirachi, Isao; Okawa, Takahiro; Higuchi, Fujio; Shirahama, Masahiro; Shiba, Naoto; Matsueda, Satoko

    2015-10-01

    Corticosteroids (CS) or hyaluronic acid (HA) is used in subacromial injection for the conservative treatment of rotator cuff tears (RCT); this study addresses the question of how CS and HA affect the tendon tissue and fibroblasts in vitro and in rats. Cell proliferation assays were performed in human tendon fibroblasts from RCT. Rats underwent surgery to create RCT, and the surgical sites were injected with CS or HA. The rotator cuff tendons were subjected to biomechanical testing, microscopic and immunohistochemical analysis of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and ultrastructural analysis. Cell proliferation was significantly decreased with CS in vitro (p < 0.05). Maximal load of CS-treated tendons was significantly decreased compared with that of HA-treated tendons (p < 0.05), as well as PCNA(+) cells at 2 weeks (p < 0.05). Ultrastructural observations of the CS-treated rats detected apoptosis of tendon fibroblasts 24 h after surgery. Histological and biomechanical data 4 weeks after surgery were not significant among the three groups. Unlike HA, CS caused cell death, and inhibition of the proliferation of tendon fibroblasts, leading to a delay of tendon healing involved and a subsequent decrease of biomechanical strength at the surgical site.

  1. Torn between Two Worlds: Overcoming Resistance to Second-Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariza, Eileen N.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the author's experiences and eventual success of teaching Spanish as a Second Language in Puerto Rico. Notes one student's success in eradicating his self-imposed barriers to learning a second language. Discusses three key principles for building a safe learning climate for students. (SR)

  2. The Rapid Solution of the Laplace Equation on Regions with Fractal Boundaries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-21

    J. of Sci. and Stat. Comput., 12:79-94 (1991). [28] P. Henrici , Applied and Computational Complex Analysis, Vol. 1, Jonn Wiley & Sons, New York, 1974...29] P. Henrici , Applied and Computational Complex Analysis, Vol. 3, Jonn Wiley & Sons, New York, 1974. [30] H. G. Heuser, Functional Analysis, John

  3. Arthroscopic Meniscectomy and Meniscoplasty for a Torn Discoid Medial Meniscus: Case Report, Surgical Technique, and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Abhay, Gokhale Nikhil; Ashwin, Samant; Sunil, Shahane; Hardik, Kapopara

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Normal menisci of the knee are semilunar structures. Sometimes, a meniscus may be found to be thickened and disc like and is called a discoid meniscus. Such a discoid variant is usually found in the lateral meniscus. Its occurrence in the medial meniscus is extremely rare. Case Report: We report a case of an 18-year-old female, who presented to us with knee pain and was found to have a discoid medial meniscus with a tear. We operated on her arthroscopically and performed meniscectomy and meniscoplasty. Postoperatively, the patient was free of her knee pain. Conclusion: Discoid medial meniscus is a rare phenomenon which can present as a cause of knee pain. If discoid meniscus is symptomatic, the management includes arthroscopic meniscectomy and meniscoplasty. PMID:28164061

  4. Faith and Hope in a War-Torn Land: The US Army Chaplaincy in the Balkans, 1995-2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    accidents, aircraft crashes, and suicides . In these instances of death, grief, loss, frustration, and pain, there were Army chaplains to minister to...0) became predomi- nant. Tito was born in northwestern Croatia and left school as a teenager to work. He soon became aware of communist labor...Allied Commander in Europe from 1997 to 2000, called Milosevic “a supremely manipulative liar and a bully ,” and one who was full of “self-interest

  5. War is the Enemy of Health. Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine in War-Torn Syria.

    PubMed

    Sahloul, Mohammed Z; Monla-Hassan, Jaber; Sankari, Abdulghani; Kherallah, Mazen; Atassi, Bassel; Badr, Safwan; Abbara, Aula; Sparrow, Annie

    2016-02-01

    The Syrian crisis, now in its fifth year, has created an unprecedented strain on health services and systems due to the protracted nature of the warfare, the targeting of medics and health care infrastructure, the exodus of physicians and nurses, the shortage of medical supplies and medications, and the disruption of medical education and training. Within a few short years, the life expectancy of resident Syrians has declined by 20 years. Over the first 4 years of the conflict, more than 75,000 civilians died from injuries incurred in the violence. More than twice as many civilians, including many women and children, have died prematurely of infectious and noninfectious chronic diseases for want of adequate health care. Doctors, local administrators, and nongovernmental organizations are struggling to manage the consequences of the conflict under substandard conditions, often using unorthodox methods of health care delivery in field hospitals and remotely by telehealth communication. Much-needed medical supplies are channeled through dangerous routes across the borders from Lebanon, Jordan, and Turkey. Physicians in the United States and other western nations have helped Syrian physicians make the most of the situation by providing training on introducing innovations in technology and treatment. Portable ultrasound machines have been introduced and are being used extensively in the management of trauma and shock. This report, prepared by members of the Syrian American Medical Society, documents current needs for health care relief within Syria, focusing on pulmonary, critical care, and sleep medicine, and some of the efforts currently underway to meet those needs.

  6. Comparison of endoscopic and two-incision techniques for reconstructing a torn anterior cruciate ligament using hamstring tendons.

    PubMed

    Howell, S M; Deutsch, M L

    1999-09-01

    This study compared the differences in clinical outcome between an endoscopic (67 of 70) and two-incision (41 of 49) technique used to reconstruct tom anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) using a double-looped semitendinosus and gracilis (DLSTG) graft. In both techniques, the graft was placed without roof impingement, the looped end of the graft was fixed around a post with bone compaction, and the free ends were fixed with either double staples or a soft tissue washer(s). No graft required suture fixation. The postoperative treatment featured an aggressive rehabilitation protocol without a brace, and allowed unrestricted sports participation 4 months after reconstruction. Age, sex distribution, duration from injury to surgery, and preoperative laxity were not significantly different between treatment groups. The operative time for the endoscopic technique averaged 48 minutes less than the two-incision technique. There were no significant differences in thigh circumference, knee extension, stability, and the single leg hop test between the two treatment groups at 4 and 24 months. Ninety-one percent of the knees in the endoscopic group and 90% in the two-incision group had less than a 3 mm increase in anterior translation compared with the normal knee using the manual maximum test (KT-1000) and had either a normal or near normal knee (IKDC score) at 2 years. A second surgery for removal of painful, prominent hardware was required in 21% of the subjects in the endoscopic group and 12% of the subjects in the two-incision treatment group. Patients preferred the endoscopic technique because the result was more cosmetic and aggressive rehabilitation could be accomplished without the assistance of a physical therapist. Unfortunately, objective stability could not be restored in about 10% of knees with either technique. Reoperation for removal of prominent staples and washers continues to be the primary source of postoperative morbidity.

  7. Supporting 'medicine at a distance' for delivery of hospital services in war-torn Somalia: how well are we doing?

    PubMed

    Maalim, Abdisalan M; Zachariah, Rony; Khogali, Mohamed; Van Griensven, Johan; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Tayler-Smith, Katherine; Kizito, Walter; Baruani, Bienvenu; Osoble, Abdirahman; Abdirahman, Faiza; Ayada, Latifa; Mohamed, Abdinoor H

    2014-03-01

    We describe an innovative strategy implemented to support national staff at Istarlin Hospital in the conflict setting of Somalia; and report on inpatient morbidities, mortality and adverse hospital exit outcomes. This was a retrospective analysis of hospital data for 2011. Of 8584 admitted patients, the largest numbers were for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) (2114; 25%), normal deliveries (1355; 16%) and diarrhoeal diseases (715; 8%). The highest contributors to mortality were gunshot wounds in surgery (18/30; 60%), LRTIs in internal medicine (6/32; 19%) and malnutrition in paediatrics (30/81; 37%). Adverse hospital exit outcomes (deaths and absconded) were well within thresholds set by Médecins Sans Frontières. With a support package, satisfactory standards of care were met for hospital care in Somalia.

  8. Effect of glenohumeral abduction angle on the mechanical interaction between the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons for the intact, partial-thickness torn, and repaired supraspinatus tendon conditions.

    PubMed

    Andarawis-Puri, Nelly; Kuntz, Andrew F; Ramsey, Matthew L; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2010-07-01

    Rotator cuff tears are difficult to manage because of the structural and mechanical inhomogeneity of the supraspinatus tendon. Previously, we showed that with the arm at the side, the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons mechanically interact such that conditions that increase supraspinatus tendon strain, such as load or full-thickness tears, also increase infraspinatus tendon strain. This suggests that the infraspinatus tendon may shield the supraspinatus tendon from further injury while becoming at increased risk of injury itself. In this study, the effect of glenohumeral abduction angle on the interaction between the two tendons was evaluated for supraspinatus tendon partial-thickness tears and two repair techniques. Principal strains were quantified in both tendons for 0 degrees , 30 degrees , and 60 degrees of glenohumeral abduction. Results showed that interaction between the two tendons is interrupted by an increase in abduction angle for all supraspinatus tendon conditions evaluated. Infraspinatus tendon strain was lower at 30 degrees and 60 degrees than at 0 degrees abduction angle. In conclusion, interaction between the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons is interrupted with increase in abduction angle. Additionally, 30 degrees abduction should be further evaluated for management of rotator cuff tears and repairs as it is the angle at which both supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendon strain is decreased.

  9. Torn between dual roles: the experiences of nurse-family members when a loved one is hospitalised in a critical condition.

    PubMed

    Giles, Tracey M; Williamson, Victoria

    2015-11-01

    To understand and interpret the experiences of nurse-family members when a family member or loved one is hospitalised in a critical condition. Having a family member hospitalised with a critical illness is a traumatic stressor, often with long-term sequelae. Providing holistic care for family members who are also nurses makes the provision of care more complex because of their professional expertise; yet few studies have explored this issue. In this descriptive study, qualitative data were collected using a questionnaire and analysed using van Manen's (Researching Lived Experience: Human Science for an Action Sensitive Pedagogy, 1990, State University of New York Press, London, ON) six-step approach. Twenty nurse-family members completed an online questionnaire in June 2013. Qualitative findings from 19 participants were included in the analysis. The phenomenological analysis approach described by van Manen (Researching Lived Experience: Human Science for an Action Sensitive Pedagogy, 1990, State University of New York Press, London, ON) was used to describe and interpret nurse-family member experiences. Nurse-family members experience significant dual role conflicts between their personal and professional personas due to their specialised knowledge, need for watchfulness and competing expectations. Our findings describe how dual role conflicts developed and were managed, and reveal the resultant emotional toll and psychological distress as nurse-family members struggled to resolve these conflicts. Nurse-family members require a different type of care than general public family members, yet their unique needs are often unmet, leading to increased anxiety and distress that could potentially be minimised. An increased awareness and emphasis on the nurse-family member experience can ensure health care professionals are better placed to provide appropriate and targeted care to minimise distressing dual role conflicts. There is a need for targeted and specialised communication appropriate to each nurse-family members' needs and level of understanding, and to clarify expectations to ensure nurse-family members' professional knowledge and skills are recognised and respected without being exploited. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Analysis of Remote Trauma Transfers in South Central Texas with Comparison with Current US Combat Operations: Results of the RemTORN-I Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Shawn Salter, RN, BSN, LP, CCFP-C, Ronald Stewart, MD, Brian Eastridge, MD, Eric Epley, NREMT-P, and Lorne Blackbourne, MD, San Antonio, Texas BACKGROUND...combat wounded. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012;73:S38YS42. 6. Eastridge BJ, Hardin M, Cantrell J, et al. Died of wounds on the battlefield: causation

  11. Is maternal education a social vaccine for childhood malaria infection? A cross-sectional study from war-torn Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cary; Claude, Kasereka Masumbuko; Kibendelwa, Zacharie Tsongo; Brooks, Hannah; Zheng, Xiaonan; Hawkes, Michael

    2017-03-01

    In zones of violent conflict in the tropics, social disruption leads to elevated child mortality, of which malaria is the leading cause. Understanding the social determinants of malaria transmission may be helpful to optimize malaria control efforts. We conducted a cross-sectional study of healthy children aged 2 months to 5 years attending well-child and/or immunization visits in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Six hundred and forty-seven children were tested for malaria antigenemia by rapid diagnostic test and the accompanying parent or legal guardian simultaneously completed a survey questionnaire related to demographics, socioeconomic status, maternal education, as well as bednet use and recent febrile illness. We examined the associations between variables using multivariable logistic regression analysis, chi-squared statistic, Fisher's exact test, and Spearman's rank correlation, as appropriate. One hundred and twenty-three out of the 647 (19%) children in the study tested positive for malaria. Higher levels of maternal education were associated with a lower risk of malaria in their children. The prevalence of malaria in children of mothers with no education, primary school, and beyond primary was 41/138 (30%), 41/241 (17%), and 39/262 (15%), respectively (p = 0.001). In a multivariable logistic regression model adjusting for the effect of a child's age and study site, the following remained significant predictors of malaria antigenemia: maternal education, number of children under five per household, and HIV serostatus. Higher maternal education, through several putative causal pathways, was associated with lower malaria prevalence among children in the DRC. Our findings suggest that maternal education might be an effective 'social vaccine' against malaria in the DRC and globally.

  12. Simulation of High-Latitude Hydrological Processes in the Torne-Kalix Basin: PILPS Phase 2(e). 3; Equivalent Model Representation and Sensitivity Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowling, Laura C.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Nijssen, Bart; Polcher, Jan; Koster, Randal D.; Lohmann, Dag; Houser, Paul R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Project for Intercomparison of Land Surface Parameterization Schemes (PILPS) Phase 2(e) showed that in cold regions the annual runoff production in Land Surface Schemes (LSSs) is closely related to the maximum snow accumulation, which in turn is controlled in large part by winter sublimation. To help further explain the relationship between snow cover, turbulent exchanges and runoff production, a simple equivalent model-(SEM) was devised to reproduce the seasonal and annual fluxes simulated by 13 LSSs that participated in PILPS Phase 2(e). The design of the SEM relates the annual partitioning of precipitation and energy in the LSSs to three primary parameters: snow albedo, effective aerodynamic resistance and evaporation efficiency. Isolation of each of the parameters showed that the annual runoff production was most sensitive to the aerodynamic resistance. The SEM was somewhat successful in reproducing the observed LSS response to a decrease in shortwave radiation and changes in wind speed forcings. SEM parameters derived from the reduced shortwave forcings suggested that increased winter stability suppressed turbulent heat fluxes over snow. Because winter sensible heat fluxes were largely negative, reductions in winter shortwave radiation imply an increase in annual average sensible heat.

  13. New wearable walking-type continuous passive motion device for postsurgery walking rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong; Nakamura, Masahiro; Horiuchi, Tadahiro; Kohno, Hideki; Takahashi, Rei; Terada, Hidetsugu; Haro, Hirotaka

    2013-07-01

    While total knee arthroplasty is useful for treating osteoarthritis of the knee, the success of this treatment depends on effective rehabilitation. The goal of this study was to develop an assistive device for post-total knee arthroplasty patients for walking rehabilitation and for shortening the hospitalization period. We developed a brace electronic assist system termed the knee assistive instrument for walking rehabilitation (KAI-R) to illustrate the need for training during postoperative rehabilitation. Sixteen osteoarthritis patients (1 male and 15 females; average age 68.9 years) who underwent total knee arthroplasty were analyzed before operation and 2-4 weeks after operation, and 25 healthy individuals (14 males and 11 females; average age 26.2 years) formed the control group. Based on the pre- and postoperative data on peak knee flexion angle, foot height, and walking velocity, we developed the KAI-R, which consists of an assistive mechanism for the knee joint, a hip joint support system, and a foot pressure sensor system and is driven by a CPU board that generates the walking pattern. We then tested the walking gait in seven healthy volunteers with and without KAI-R assistance. KAI-R increased the peak flexion angle of the knee and foot height in all seven volunteers; their range of motion of the knee joint was increased. However, KAI-R also decreased the walking velocity of subjects, which was explained by reaction delay and slightly compromised physical balance, which was caused by wearing the KAI-R. KAI-R is useful for gait improvement. In future studies, KAI-R will be investigated in a clinical trial for its ability for walking rehabilitation in post-total knee arthroplasty patients.

  14. Knee Arthroscopy

    MedlinePlus

    ... an EKG (electrocardiogram). Surgery Arthroscopic picture of torn anterior cruciate ligament [yellow star]. Almost all arthroscopic knee surgery is ... of torn meniscal cartilage • Reconstruction of a torn anterior cruciate ligament • Trimming of torn pieces of articular cartilage • Removal ...

  15. [Intra-articular reinforcement of a partially torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) using newly developed UHMWPE biomaterial in combination with Hexalon ACL/PCL screws: ex-vivo mechanical testing of an animal knee model].

    PubMed

    Fedorová, P; Srnec, R; Pěnčík, J; Dvořák, M; Krbec, M; Nečas, A

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Recent trends in the experimental surgical management of a partial anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture in animals show repair of an ACL lesion using novel biomaterials both for biomechanical reinforcement of a partially unstable knee and as suitable scaffolds for bone marrow stem cell therapy in a partial ACL tear. The study deals with mechanical testing of the newly developed ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) biomaterial anchored to bone with Hexalon biodegradable ACL/PCL screws, as a new possibility of intra-articular reinforcement of a partial ACL tear. MATERIAL AND METHODS Two groups of ex vivo pig knee models were prepared and tested as follows: the model of an ACL tear stabilised with UHMWPE biomaterial using a Hexalon ACL/PCL screw (group 1; n = 10) and the model of an ACL tear stabilised with the traditional, and in veterinary medicine used, extracapsular technique involving a monofilament nylon fibre, a clamp and a Securos bone anchor (group 2; n = 11). The models were loaded at a standing angle of 100° and the maximum load (N) and shift (mm) values were recorded. RESULTS In group 1 the average maximal peak force was 167.6 ± 21.7 N and the shift was on average 19.0 ± 4.0 mm. In all 10 specimens, the maximum load made the UHMWPE implant break close to its fixation to the femur but the construct/fixation never failed at the site where the material was anchored to the bone. In group 2, the average maximal peak force was 207.3 ± 49.2 N and the shift was on average 24.1 ± 9.5 mm. The Securos stabilisation failed by pullout of the anchor from the femoral bone in nine out of 11 cases; the monofilament fibre ruptured in two cases. CONCLUSIONS It can be concluded that a UHMWPE substitute used in ex-vivo pig knee models has mechanical properties comparable with clinically used extracapsular Securos stabilisation and, because of its potential to carry stem cells and bioactive substances, it can meet the requirements for an implant appropriate to the unique technique of protecting a partial ACL tear. In addition, it has no critical point of ACL substitute failure at the site of its anchoring to the bone (compared to the previously used PET/PCL substitute). Key words: knee stabilisation, stifle surgery, ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene, UHMWPE, nylon monofilament thread, biodegradable screw, bone anchor.

  16. Shoulder arthroscopy

    MedlinePlus

    ... ball and socket joint) A torn or damaged biceps tendon A torn rotator cuff A bone spur ... repair. Using arthroscopy for rotator cuff repairs or tendinitis usually relieves the pain, but you may not ...

  17. Comparison of pediatric radiation dose and vessel visibility on angiographic systems using piglets as a surrogate: anti-scatter grid removal vs lower detector air kerma settings with a grid - a preclinical investigation.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Keith J; Racadio, John M; Abruzzo, Todd A; Johnson, Neil D; Patel, Manish N; Kukreja, Kamlesh U; den Hartog, Mark J H; Hoonaert, Bart P A; Nachabe, Rami A

    2015-09-08

    The purpose of this study was to reduce pediatric doses while maintaining or improv-ing image quality scores without removing the grid from X-ray beam. This study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Three piglets (5, 14, and 20 kg) were imaged using six different selectable detector air kerma (Kair) per frame values (100%, 70%, 50%, 35%, 25%, 17.5%) with and without the grid. Number of distal branches visualized with diagnostic confidence relative to the injected vessel defined image quality score. Five pediatric interventional radiologists evaluated all images. Image quality score and piglet Kair were statistically compared using analysis of variance and receiver operating curve analysis to define the preferred dose setting and use of grid for a visibility of 2nd and 3rd order vessel branches. Grid removal reduced both dose to subject and imaging quality by 26%. Third order branches could only be visualized with the grid present; 100% detector Kair was required for smallest pig, while 70% detector Kair was adequate for the two larger pigs. Second order branches could be visualized with grid at 17.5% detector Kair for all three pig sizes. Without the grid, 50%, 35%, and 35% detector Kair were required for smallest to largest pig, respectively. Grid removal reduces both dose and image quality score. Image quality scores can be maintained with less dose to subject with the grid in the beam as opposed to removed. Smaller anatomy requires more dose to the detector to achieve the same image quality score.

  18. 78 FR 8076 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Texas; Revisions to New Source Review (NSR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ...--Application Fees Subchapter K--Air Orders \\1\\ Section 35.801--Emergency Orders Because of Catastrophe Sec. Sec... equipment, or the repair or replacement of roads, bridges, and other infrastructure whenever a catastrophe... application review and order issuance to authorize proposed actions following catastrophes that often...

  19. Cultural Resources Investigation: Boscobel Flood Control Project along Sanders Creek, Grant County, Wisconsin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-19

    hickory, ash, elm, and maple <United States General Land Office Surveyor’s %) ____7 77:~ to - ’F U ____ - - .2 l /2 -5 ,_ _ I ;ia f - - .i __r. Pr f e... Hospital , I 24. 307 East Bluff Street - Residence 25. J. R. Muffley’s Furniture Factory and Jonn Duncan Woolen Mill 74 A " Figure 4. Stone-Arch Bridge...the LaBelle Street Bridge. (Note: The old Brookside Hospital at 306 East Oak Street is visitnle at left). i-wA Figue 7.SupriorStret F tbidgeove

  20. [The quarrel of 1843 on the "relationship between the physical and the moral" in the causes of insanity].

    PubMed

    Carbonel, Frederic

    2010-12-01

    Moreau de Jonnès, in his statistical Documents on France, published in 1835, and in his Statistics of the Insane, recorded "idiocy" and "epilepsy" among the physical causes of insanity. In contrast, Parchappe held that "epilepsy" and "idiocy "constituted" in no way, real causes" of insanity. They were singular diseases, different from "madness". Their "cause" was "an imperfection of organization, and this is an essential cause", he emphasized, that was purely organic and physiological. During this quarrel, which occurred in 1843, Dr Parchappe wanted to make a clean sweep of medical data which did not differentiate sufficiently between the "moral" and "physical" causes of insanity.

  1. The Bio-accessibility of Synthetic Fe-Organo Complexes in Subsurface Soil with Elevated Temperature: a Proxy for the Vulnerability of Mineral Associated Carbon to Warming Rachel C. Porras, Peter S. Nico, and Margaret Torn Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porras, R. C.; Hicks Pries, C.

    2015-12-01

    Globally, subsurface soils (>30 cm) represent an important reservoir of soil organic carbon (SOC). However, the vulnerability of this deep SOC and, in particular mineral-associated SOC, to warming, and its potential to amplify the effects of climate change is highly uncertain. To gain insight into the bio-accessibility and temperature sensitivity of mineral-associated organic C, we conducted a series of incubations using soils collected from three depths (0-10, 50-60, and 80-90 cm) under coniferous forest. The soils are moderately acidic (mean pH=6.5) sandy, mixed, mesic Ultic Haploxeralfs. To understand how mechanisms controlling SOC bio-accessibilty or temperature sensitivity differ with depth and with the properties of Fe-organo complexes (i.e.,degree of crystallinity, amount of reactive surface area, or surface saturation), we used a 13C labeled glucose substrate to prepare synthetic Fe-organo complexes spanning a range of crystallinity and mineral surface saturation. The synthetic Fe-organo complexes were then added to soil from three depths. The soils containing the 13C labeled Fe-organo adduct were incubated at two temperatures (ambient and +4°C) and respired 13CO2 was measured and used to estimate flux rates. Differences in measured 13CO2 fluxes as a function of depth, surface loading, and mineral properties are discussed in terms of their implications for the temperature sensitivity of mineral protected organic carbon in subsurface soils.

  2. 7 CFR 29.3032 - Injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., insects, or weather conditions; insecticides, fungicides, or cell growth inhibitors; nutritional... dead, burnt, hail-cut, torn, broken, frostbitten, sunburned, sunscalded, scorched, fire-killed,...

  3. 7 CFR 29.3032 - Injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., insects, or weather conditions; insecticides, fungicides, or cell growth inhibitors; nutritional... dead, burnt, hail-cut, torn, broken, frostbitten, sunburned, sunscalded, scorched, fire-killed,...

  4. 7 CFR 29.3032 - Injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., insects, or weather conditions; insecticides, fungicides, or cell growth inhibitors; nutritional... dead, burnt, hail-cut, torn, broken, frostbitten, sunburned, sunscalded, scorched, fire-killed,...

  5. Hip flexor strain - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... flexor - aftercare; Hip flexor injury - aftercare; Hip flexor tear - aftercare; Iliopsoas strain - aftercare; Strained iliopsoas muscle - aftercare; Torn iliopsoas muscle - aftercare; Psoas strain - aftercare

  6. ACL reconstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... This increases the chance you may have a meniscus tear. ACL reconstruction may be used for these ... When other ligaments are also injured When your meniscus is torn Before surgery, talk to your health ...

  7. Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... can take many forms, including physical, emotional, and sexual abuse, financial exploitation, and neglect. Though as many as ... from activities they enjoy for no good reason Sexual Abuse : Unexplained anal or vaginal bleeding Torn or bloodied ...

  8. 40 CFR 763.88 - Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... damage). (ii) Severity of damage (e.g., major flaking, severely torn jackets, as opposed to occasional flaking, minor tears to jackets). (iii) Extent or spread of damage over large areas or large percentages...

  9. Knee arthroscopy - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... remove it. Torn or damaged anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) or posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) Inflamed or damaged ... surgery Knee pain Meniscal allograft transplantation Patient Instructions ACL reconstruction - discharge Getting your home ready - knee or ...

  10. What Are Bursitis and Tendinitis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... tendon during activities such as dancing, bicycling, or running, it may become stretched, torn, and swollen. Trying ... tendinitis of the knee may feel pain while running, jumping, or walking quickly. Knee tendinitis can increase ...

  11. Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Injuries KidsHealth > For Teens > Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Injuries ... Treatment Coping With an MCL Injury About MCL Injuries A torn medial collateral ligament (MCL) is a ...

  12. Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    MedlinePlus

    ... occurs when the tissue and muscles of the pelvic floor no longer support the pelvic organs resulting in ... organ prolapse. Supporting muscles and tissue of the pelvic floor may become torn or stretched because of labor ...

  13. Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    MedlinePlus

    ... and layers of connective tissue, which are called fascia, become weakened, stretched, or are torn the pelvic ... delivery) can cause injury to the muscles or fascia of the pelvic floor. The increased pressure of ...

  14. Shoulder Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... injured. Common problems include Sprains and strains Dislocations Separations Tendinitis Bursitis Torn rotator cuffs Frozen shoulder Fractures Arthritis Health care providers diagnose shoulder problems by using your medical history, a physical exam, and imaging tests. Often, the first treatment ...

  15. 124. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 CHAIR RAIL FOUND AS HOUSE WAS BEING TORN DOWN - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  16. Achilles tendon repair

    MedlinePlus

    Achilles tendon rupture-surgery; Percutaneous Achilles tendon rupture repair ... To fix your torn Achilles tendon, the surgeon will: Make a cut down the back of your heel Make several small cuts rather than one large cut ...

  17. Artist concept of Galileo encountering Io during its Jupiter approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-08-25

    Artist concept shows Galileo spacecraft while still approaching Jupiter having a satellite encounter. Galileo is flying about 600 miles above Io's volcano-torn surface, twenty times closer than the closest flyby altitude of Voyager in 1979.

  18. Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries KidsHealth > For Teens > Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) ... and Recovery Coping With an ACL Injury About ACL Injuries A torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is ...

  19. Art Experiences for Young Children with Severe Visual Imapairments: Report from the Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson, Anna M.

    1987-01-01

    Ten guidelines are offered for providing art experiences for blind young children include adding sound, smell, or taste whenever possible. Suggested activities include making styrofoam-toothpick sculptures, box sculptures, tape and feather collages, torn paper collages, and fingerpaintings. (DB)

  20. Stressed-out Enceladus 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-03-24

    This high-resolution stereo anaglyph captured by NASA Cassini spacecraft of Saturn moon Enceladus shows a region of craters softened by time and torn apart by tectonic stresses. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  1. Refugee scientists under the spotlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Extance, Andy

    2017-07-01

    Thousands of people are forced to flee war-torn regions every year, but the struggles of scientists who have to leave their homeland often goes under the radar. Andy Extance reports on initiatives to help

  2. 7 CFR 51.3064 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... appearance is materially affected; (b) Pulled stems when the exposed stem cavity is excessively deep, or when skin surrounding the stem cavity is more than slightly torn; (c) Russeting or similar...

  3. 7 CFR 51.3064 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... appearance is materially affected; (b) Pulled stems when the exposed stem cavity is excessively deep, or when skin surrounding the stem cavity is more than slightly torn; (c) Russeting or similar discoloration...

  4. 77 FR 34283 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... a torn out aspirator due to the aspirator interfering with the extrusion lip of the OWS enclosure... out aspirator due to the aspirator interfering with the extrusion lip of the OWS enclosure during...

  5. Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... torn MCL tend to play contact sports, like football and soccer. More severe injuries happen when the ... the things you love — like running or playing football, field hockey, or softball — can be frustrating. If ...

  6. Art Experiences for Young Children with Severe Visual Imapairments: Report from the Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson, Anna M.

    1987-01-01

    Ten guidelines are offered for providing art experiences for blind young children include adding sound, smell, or taste whenever possible. Suggested activities include making styrofoam-toothpick sculptures, box sculptures, tape and feather collages, torn paper collages, and fingerpaintings. (DB)

  7. Determination of Radiation Energy Response for Thermoluminescent Dosimeter TLD-100: Determination of Organ Dose in Diagnostic Radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Deda, Antoneta; Telhaj, Ervis

    2009-04-19

    TLD-100 (thermoluminescent dosimeter) cards (chips) were calibrated using X-rays with energies of 25-250 kV produced by a Cs-137 source. The energy responses of lithium fluoride crystals for different energies of X-rays were studied. QA/QC was then performed in the Albanian Ionizing Radiation Metrology Laboratory. Based on the QA/QC results, the chips were used to study the doses to different organs in diagnostic radiology. Organ dose was evaluated after calculation of e dose in air (Kair), using an ionizing chamber.

  8. First reports of ectoparasites collected from wild-caught exotic reptiles in Florida.

    PubMed

    Corn, Joseph L; Mertins, James W; Hanson, Britta; Snow, Skip

    2011-01-01

    We collected ectoparasites from 27 of 51 wild-caught, free-ranging exotic reptiles examined in Florida from 2003 to 2008. Sampled animals represented eight species, five of which yielded ectoparasites. Reported new parasite distribution records for the United States include the following: the first collection of the African tick Amblyomma latum (Koch) from a wild-caught animal [ball python, Python regius (Shaw)] in the United States; the first collection of the lizard scale mite Hirstiella stamii (Jack) from any wild-caught animal [green iguana, Iguana iguana (L.)]; and the first collection of the lizard scale mite Geckobia hemidactyli (Lawrence) in the continental United States from a wild-caught tropical house gecko, Hemidactylus mabouia (Moreau de Jonnès). We also report the first collections of the Neotropical ticks Amblyomma rotundatum (Koch) and Amblyomma dissimile (Koch) from wild-caught Burmese pythons, Python molurus bivittatus (Kuhl); the first collections of A. dissimile from a wild-caught African savannah monitor, Varanus exanthematicus (Bosc); and from wild-caught green iguanas in the United States; and the first collections of the native chiggers Eutrombicula splendens (Ewing) and Eutrombicula cinnabaris (Ewing) from wild-caught Burmese pythons. These reports may only suggest the diversity of reptile ectoparasites introduced and established in Florida and the new host-parasite relationships that have developed among exotic and native ectoparasites and established exotic reptiles.

  9. Hymen Tearing in the Treatment of Vaginal Agenesis: Implications on Women in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yaman, Şengül; Ayaz, Sultan

    2014-07-01

    Rupture of the hymen before marriage is a significant problem for a woman and her family. The purpose of this article is to present a case report where hymen membrane perforation was required for vaginal agenesis in a 13-year-old adolescent, identify psychosocial issues related to the torn hymen in the Turkish culture, discuss gender inequality affecting health care of women with a torn hymen, identify the impact of a torn hymen on a Turkish woman's social status, and discuss health care implications for the woman and her family. The girl could not understand the situation and experienced feelings of guilt. The parents displayed an intense reaction of shock and denial after being informed about the disorder and treatment process and felt a sense of hopelessness about the future of their daughter. Nurses are expected to fulfill their training, counseling, and advocacy roles about this issue. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Patterns of Age-Associated Degeneration Differ in Shoulder Muscles.

    PubMed

    Raz, Yotam; Henseler, Jan F; Kolk, Arjen; Riaz, Muhammad; van der Zwaal, Peer; Nagels, Jochem; Nelissen, Rob G H H; Raz, Vered

    2015-01-01

    Shoulder complaints are common in the elderly and hamper daily functioning. These complaints are often caused by tears in the muscle-tendon units of the rotator cuff (RC). The four RC muscles stabilize the shoulder joint. While some RC muscles are frequently torn in shoulder complaints others remain intact. The pathological changes in RC muscles are poorly understood. We investigated changes in RC muscle pathology combining radiological and histological procedures. We measured cross sectional area (CSA) and fatty infiltration from Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Arthrography (MRA) in subjects without (N = 294) and with (N = 109) RC-tears. Normalized muscle CSA of the four RC muscles and the deltoid shoulder muscle were compared and age-associated patterns of muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration were constructed. We identified two distinct age-associated patterns: in the supraspinatus and subscapularis RC muscles CSAs continuously declined throughout adulthood, whereas in the infraspinatus and deltoid reduced CSA was prominent from midlife onwards. In the teres minor, CSA was unchanged with age. Most importantly, age-associated patterns were highly similar between subjects without RC tear and those with RC-tears. This suggests that extensive RC muscle atrophy during aging could contribute to RC pathology. We compared muscle pathology between torn infraspinatus and non-torn teres minor and the deltoid in two patients with a massive RC-tear. In the torn infraspinatus we found pronounced fatty droplets, an increase in extracellular collagen-1, a loss of myosin heavy chain-1 expression in myofibers and an increase in Pax7-positive cells. However, the adjacent intact teres minor and deltoid exhibited healthy muscle features. This suggests that satellite cells and the extracellular matrix may contribute to extensive muscle fibrosis in torn RC. We suggest that torn RC muscles display hallmarks of muscle aging whereas the teres minor could represent an aging

  11. Visibility of Anterolateral Ligament Tears in Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Deficient Knees With Standard 1.5-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Hartigan, David E; Carroll, Kevin W; Kosarek, Frank J; Piasecki, Dana P; Fleischli, James F; D'Alessandro, Donald F

    2016-10-01

    To attempt to visualize the ligament with standard 1.5-tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-torn knee, and if it is visible, attempt to characterize it as torn or intact at its femoral, meniscal, and tibial attachment sites. This was a retrospective MRI study based on arthroscopic findings of a known ACL tear in 72 patients between the years 2006 and 2010. Patients all had hamstring ACL reconstructions, no concomitant lateral collateral ligament, or posterolateral corner injury based on imaging and physical examination, and had a preoperative 1.5-tesla MRI scan with standard sequences performed within 3 weeks of the injury. Two fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists retrospectively reviewed the preoperative MRI for visualization of the anterolateral ligament (ALL) for concomitant tears. Inter- and intraobserver reliability was calculated. Learning effect was analyzed to determine if radiologists' agreement improved as reads progressed. Both radiologists were able to visualize the ALL in 100% of the scans. Overall, ALL tears were noted in 26% by radiologist 1 and in 62% by radiologist 2. The agreement between the ligament being torn or not had a kappa of 0.54 between radiologists. The agreements in torn or not torn between radiologists in the femoral, meniscal, and tibial sites were 0.14, 0.15, and 0.31. The intraobserver reliability by radiologist 1 for femoral, meniscal, and tibial tears was 0.04, 0.57, and 0.54 respectively. For radiologist 2, they were 0.75, 0.61, and 0.55. There was no learning effect noted. ALL tears are currently unable to be reliably identified as torn or intact on standard 1.5-tesla MRI sequences. Proper imaging sequences are of crucial importance to reliably follow these tears to determine their clinical significance. Level IV, therapeutic case series study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Patterns of Age-Associated Degeneration Differ in Shoulder Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Raz, Yotam; Henseler, Jan F.; Kolk, Arjen; Riaz, Muhammad; van der Zwaal, Peer; Nagels, Jochem; Nelissen, Rob G. H. H.; Raz, Vered

    2015-01-01

    Shoulder complaints are common in the elderly and hamper daily functioning. These complaints are often caused by tears in the muscle-tendon units of the rotator cuff (RC). The four RC muscles stabilize the shoulder joint. While some RC muscles are frequently torn in shoulder complaints others remain intact. The pathological changes in RC muscles are poorly understood. We investigated changes in RC muscle pathology combining radiological and histological procedures. We measured cross sectional area (CSA) and fatty infiltration from Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Arthrography (MRA) in subjects without (N = 294) and with (N = 109) RC-tears. Normalized muscle CSA of the four RC muscles and the deltoid shoulder muscle were compared and age-associated patterns of muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration were constructed. We identified two distinct age-associated patterns: in the supraspinatus and subscapularis RC muscles CSAs continuously declined throughout adulthood, whereas in the infraspinatus and deltoid reduced CSA was prominent from midlife onwards. In the teres minor, CSA was unchanged with age. Most importantly, age-associated patterns were highly similar between subjects without RC tear and those with RC-tears. This suggests that extensive RC muscle atrophy during aging could contribute to RC pathology. We compared muscle pathology between torn infraspinatus and non-torn teres minor and the deltoid in two patients with a massive RC-tear. In the torn infraspinatus we found pronounced fatty droplets, an increase in extracellular collagen-1, a loss of myosin heavy chain-1 expression in myofibers and an increase in Pax7-positive cells. However, the adjacent intact teres minor and deltoid exhibited healthy muscle features. This suggests that satellite cells and the extracellular matrix may contribute to extensive muscle fibrosis in torn RC. We suggest that torn RC muscles display hallmarks of muscle aging whereas the teres minor could represent an aging

  13. The Kore complex: on a woman's inheritance of her mother's failed Oedipus complex.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Hellerau, Cordelia

    2010-10-01

    The Greek myth of Kore/Persephone captures a particular psychopathology of women who are torn between a deadened and often asexual husband (Hades) and an ongoing close relationship with a caretaking mother (Demeter). Psychoanalytic work often reveals that these women live in the shadow of their mothers' failed oedipal complex. Their identificatory preoccupation with maternal object preservation disrupted or distorted their oedipal development, and ever since continues to serve as a defense against sexual strivings. Thus, these women are trapped in a Kore complex: as maiden caretakers, they remain attached to and torn between a "grain mother" and a grandfather transference object.

  14. Editorial Commentary: Ligamentum Teres Tears and Femoroacetabular Impingement: Complex Coexistence of Impingement and Instability.

    PubMed

    Larson, Christopher M

    2016-07-01

    In a large Level IV case series of 2,213 hip arthroscopies with the diagnosis of femoroacetabular impingement, the intraoperative status of the ligamentum teres (LT) was recorded as normal in 11%, frayed and/or partially torn in 88%, and completely torn in 1.5% of hips. Although specific physical examination maneuvers for detecting LT tears were not available early in the study period, thus limiting a detailed assessment of such tests, the authors identified that female gender, a lower lateral center edge angle, a higher Tonnis angle, and capsular laxity were all associated with complete LT tears. This study further supports the complex coexistence of impingement and instability.

  15. Sonographic diagnosis of an acute Stener lesion: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mattox, Ross; Welk, Aaron B; Battaglia, Patrick J; Scali, Frank; Nunez, Mero; Kettner, Norman W

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes the use of diagnostic ultrasound to diagnose a Stener lesion in a patient who presented for conservative care of thumb pain following a fall on an outstretched hand. Conventional radiographic images demonstrated an avulsion fracture at the ulnar aspect of the base of the first proximal phalanx. Diagnostic ultrasound revealed a torn ulnar collateral ligament of the thumb that was displaced proximal to the adductor aponeurosis, consistent with a Stener lesion. Dynamic imaging with ultrasound confirmed displacement of the fully torn ligament. Surgical repair followed the diagnosis. Diagnostic ultrasound in this case provided an accurate diagnosis obviating further imaging. This allowed an optimal outcome due to early intervention.

  16. Children, Education and War: Reaching Education for All (EFA) Objectives in Countries Affected by Conflict. Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction Unit Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Marc

    Conflict's path of devastation and chaos has dramatically slowed the ability of war-torn countries to reach the Education for All (EFA) goals adopted in Dakar (April 2000). This paper describes the situation confronting children, their families, and governments in conflict countries and describes the challenges of reaching universal primary…

  17. 40 CFR 63.1187 - What do I need to know about operations, maintenance, and monitoring plans?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Pollutants for Mineral Wool Production Additional Monitoring Information § 63.1187 What do I need to know..., pilot assemblies, and pilot sensing devices for proper operation. Clean pilot sensor if necessary. (ii... include: (i) Inspecting the fabric filter for air leaks, torn or broken bags or filter media, or any other...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1187 - What do I need to know about operations, maintenance, and monitoring plans?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Pollutants for Mineral Wool Production Additional Monitoring Information § 63.1187 What do I need to know..., pilot assemblies, and pilot sensing devices for proper operation. Clean pilot sensor if necessary. (ii... include: (i) Inspecting the fabric filter for air leaks, torn or broken bags or filter media, or any other...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1187 - What do I need to know about operations, maintenance, and monitoring plans?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pollutants for Mineral Wool Production Additional Monitoring Information § 63.1187 What do I need to know..., pilot assemblies, and pilot sensing devices for proper operation. Clean pilot sensor if necessary. (ii... include: (i) Inspecting the fabric filter for air leaks, torn or broken bags or filter media, or any other...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1187 - What do I need to know about operations, maintenance, and monitoring plans?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Pollutants for Mineral Wool Production Additional Monitoring Information § 63.1187 What do I need to know..., pilot assemblies, and pilot sensing devices for proper operation. Clean pilot sensor if necessary. (ii... include: (i) Inspecting the fabric filter for air leaks, torn or broken bags or filter media, or any other...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1187 - What do I need to know about operations, maintenance, and monitoring plans?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Pollutants for Mineral Wool Production Additional Monitoring Information § 63.1187 What do I need to know..., pilot assemblies, and pilot sensing devices for proper operation. Clean pilot sensor if necessary. (ii... include: (i) Inspecting the fabric filter for air leaks, torn or broken bags or filter media, or any other...

  2. The War in Man; Media and Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelmsen, Frederick D.; Bret, Jane

    The authors present a picture of contemporary man torn by conflicting forces, caught in a psychic house divided against itself, a victim of war between media and machines. Machines, they state, represent the rationalistic tradition which has brought man to the brink of psychic and social disaster. The media they see as offering hope--true…

  3. Balfour's Mission to Palestine: Science, Strategy, and the Inauguration of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macleod, Roy

    2008-01-01

    In 1925, A.J. Balfour, first Earl Balfour and author of the famous "Balfour Declaration", attended the inauguration of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. His education and experience of foreign policy equipped him to take a prominent role. However, the conditions of strife-torn Palestine weighed heavily upon him, and raised wider…

  4. The Operational Narrative in Wars of Choice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-26

    barriers - which in a sense consist only in man’s ignorance of what is possible-are torn down, they are not so easily set up again.”3 As a result... barriers to achieve strategic objectives in wars of choice. This monograph posits that in wars of choice it is beneficial for the operational artist to...

  5. Sprains and Strains

    MedlinePlus

    ... happens. A strain is a stretched or torn muscle or tendon. Tendons are tissues that connect muscle to bone. Twisting or pulling these tissues can ... suddenly or develop over time. Back and hamstring muscle strains are common. Many people get strains playing ...

  6. Prophetic Pragmatism? Post-Conflict Educational Development in Aceh and Mindanao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milligan, Jeffrey Ayala

    2009-01-01

    This essay critically examines the relevance of Cornel West's (1989) conception of "prophetic pragmatism" as a theoretical framework for educational development in post-conflict settings torn by religious, socioeconomic, and cultural tensions. It examines the concept through the conflict and post-conflict experiences of the Indonesian…

  7. Curls of My Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Geri

    2001-01-01

    Describes an art activity in which students draw ribbons (thin watercolor paper that, when torn, will stand up in a curling fashion). Explains in detail the assignment in which students used pencil rendering or charcoal pencil depending on the type of paper used for the assignment. (CMK)

  8. It's a Wrap! A Study of Installations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project for junior and senior high school students called the wrapped chair project where students wrapped chairs using torn sheets in the style of artists, Christo Javacheff and Jeanne-Claude de-Guillebon. Explains that students created thumbnail sketches and drew their finished drawing in either charcoal or chalk. (CMK)

  9. 7 CFR 51.2657 - Serious damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades for Sweet Cherries 1 Definitions § 51.2657 Serious damage. Serious damage means any... healed; (d) Cracks which are not well healed; and, (e) Pulled stems with skin or flesh of cherry torn or which causes the cherry to leak. [36 FR 8502, May 5, 1971; 36 FR 9061, May 19, 1971. Redesignated at...

  10. Last Call

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Teresa

    2003-01-01

    From the bleached blond hair with black tips to the intentionally torn clothes to the tattoo on her arm, Annie looked and acted like a rebel from the first day she set foot in the author's literature classroom. In this article, the author describes how the journal for literature class had been instrumental in finding out about Annie's life and how…

  11. Hand-Me-Down Dreams: Integrating Family Perspectives into Career Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Mary H.

    Exploring family influences is particularly helpful for career counseling clients who are stuck pursuing goals they know they want; clients who feel torn between practical or realistic paths and their individual passions; clients who express guilt or fear about defying their family's or society's expectations; clients who perceive the barriers…

  12. Of people, particles and prejudice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Penny; Greene, Anne; Mears, Matt; Spacecadet1; Green, Christian; Hunt, Devin J.; Berglyd Olsen, Veronica K.; Ilya, Komarov; Pierpont, Elaine; Gillman, Matthew

    2016-05-01

    In reply to Louise Mayor's feature article “Where people and particles collide”, about the experiences of researchers at CERN who are lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT), efforts to make LGBT CERN an officially recognized club, and incidents where posters advertising the club have been torn down or defaced (March pp31-36, http://ow.ly/YVP2Z).

  13. "The Most Important Tool You Can Have in Your Work Is Wanting to Understand"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The policy of dispersing refugees and asylum seekers around the country found many agencies unprepared for the difficulties of supporting those who have been subjected to torture. A London-based foundation is setting up branches around the UK to help people whose lives have been torn apart by torture find a way to live with their experiences. This…

  14. Children, Education and War: Reaching Education for All (EFA) Objectives in Countries Affected by Conflict. Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction Unit Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Marc

    Conflict's path of devastation and chaos has dramatically slowed the ability of war-torn countries to reach the Education for All (EFA) goals adopted in Dakar (April 2000). This paper describes the situation confronting children, their families, and governments in conflict countries and describes the challenges of reaching universal primary…

  15. "Did We Learn English or What?": A Study Abroad Student in the UK Carrying and Crossing Boundaries in Out-of-Class Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badwan, Khawla M.

    2017-01-01

    Language educators in many parts of the world are torn between preparing language learners to pass language proficiency tests and trying to let their classrooms reflect the messiness of out-of-class communication. Because testing is "an activity which perhaps more than any other dictates what is taught" (Hall, 2014, p. 379), helping…

  16. 7 CFR 42.112 - Defects of containers: Tables IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, and X.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS STANDARDS FOR CONDITION OF FOOD CONTAINERS Procedures for... not usability 203 (b) Materially affecting usability 102 Moldy area 2 Crushed or torn area: (a... material: 1. Within 1/16-inch of food product edge of seal such that barrier layer is exposed 8 2. Greater...

  17. 7 CFR 42.112 - Defects of containers: Tables IV, V, VI, and VII.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS STANDARDS FOR CONDITION OF FOOD CONTAINERS Procedures for Stationary Lot... (b) Materially affecting usability 103 Moldy area 1 Crushed or torn area: (a) Materially affecting... 103 Moldy area 1 Individual packages sticking together or to shipping case (tear when separated) 104...

  18. Comet Bites the Dust Around Dead Star Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-01-11

    This artist concept illustrates a comet being torn to shreds around a dead star, or white dwarf, called G29-38. NASA Spitzer Space Telescope observed a cloud of dust around this white dwarf that may have been generated from comet disruption.

  19. Demanding Divestment from Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Bowing to student demands to "stop supporting genocide," the University of California regents voted earlier this year to divest millions of dollars from companies working in the war-torn African nation of Sudan, the first major public university in the nation to take such action. Since student protests on the subject began at Harvard…

  20. An American Montessori Teacher's Experience in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Irene

    2006-01-01

    What can Montessorians learn from teaching in a war-torn country, and what can they hope to share with others in the process? These questions were much on the author's mind when she went to Sri Lanka in the summer of 2003. This article contains excerpts from e-mails the author sent home, chronicling her experience teaching two high school English…

  1. Changing Stereotype of Jewish Women in the Popular Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Judith; Mirsky, Norman

    The stereotype of the Jewish woman as presented in the media--either a female who controls through guilt and is overly concerned with food, or a woman who is an exotic, seductive individual torn between devotion to family and pursuit of private romantic goals--is discussed in this paper. Books by Norman Mailer, John Updike, Erica Jong and Philip…

  2. Black Bodies, White Rural Spaces: Disturbing Practices of Unbelonging for "Refugee" Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgeworth, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    In global times, when the forced migration of refugees from war-torn countries like Sudan impacts the demography of once ethnically homogenous schooling spaces, I consider the need to better understand the geographical making of racism. This article explores the lived experience of two newly arrived Sudanese students studying at a rural high…

  3. A Community of Caring: Reaching Out to the Children of Kosovo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Linda

    2000-01-01

    Reports on an educator's mission to examine the status of young children and early childhood education in war-torn Kosovo. Relates the story of a 10-year-old girl and her family during and after the hostilities. Describes relief efforts of Americans and American organizations, particularly Mercy Corps International, Children's Resources…

  4. Rebuilding It Better: Greensburg, Kansas. Kiowa County Courthouse (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-04-01

    This document is one in a series of five that showcases the green, sustainable buildings in Greensburg, Kansas. The Kiowa County Courthouse was one of only two buildings left standing after the tornado, which allowed the building to be renovated and refurbished rather than torn down.

  5. Rebuilding It Better: Greensburg, Kansas. Kiowa County Courthouse

    SciTech Connect

    D. Egan

    2010-04-14

    This document is one in a series of five that showcases the green, sustainable buildings in Greensburg, Kansas. The Kiowa County Courthouse was one of only two buildings left standing after the tornado, which allowed the building to be renovated and refurbished rather than torn down.

  6. Beyond "Culture Clash" Understandings of Immigrant Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngo, Bic

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the ways in which the experiences of immigrant youth and families in U.S. schools and society have been conceptualized primarily as conflicts between immigrant cultures and dominant U.S. culture. Exemplified by the discourse of culture clash or of immigrants being torn between two worlds, this prevalent understanding…

  7. A Role for English Language Teachers in Trauma Healing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medley, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Because English language teachers should take into account the social-psychological situation of the students they teach, they must be sensitive to the effects of traumatic stress among learners. Refugee and immigrant children are frequently survivors of trauma, along with their peers in crisis-torn English as a foreign language settings around…

  8. Humanizing the Data Processor and His Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Jim

    The modern educator works in a society threatened by several potential revolutions and torn by the conflict between the philosophies of materialism and humanism. In this situation the data processor has a unique opportunity to contribute to educational efficiency and to human harmony, provided he adopts certain premises and procedures. Regarding…

  9. A Role for English Language Teachers in Trauma Healing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medley, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Because English language teachers should take into account the social-psychological situation of the students they teach, they must be sensitive to the effects of traumatic stress among learners. Refugee and immigrant children are frequently survivors of trauma, along with their peers in crisis-torn English as a foreign language settings around…

  10. Creative Expression Workshops for Immigrant and Refugee Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau, Cecile; Singh, Abha; Lacroix, Louise; Bagilishya, Deogratias; Measham, Toby

    2004-01-01

    The number of immigrant and refugee children coming from war-torn countries is increasing in North America. Over the past decades, creative expression activities have been increasingly recognized as a useful way to work with migrant and refugee children. These activities have been used to help them to construct meaning, to structure identity, and…

  11. 18. View from East Rock, c. 1920 Photocopied from a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. View from East Rock, c. 1920 Photocopied from a print from glass negative no. 6476 by Thomas S. Bronson, NHCHSL. An aerial view of the armory site evidently after the row of stone houses for married employees had been torn down. - Eli Whitney Armory, West of Whitney Avenue, Armory Street Vicinity, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  12. Other Causes of Leg Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the same position for a long time Injuries caused by: A torn or overstretched muscle (strain) Hairline crack in the bone (stress fracture) Inflamed tendon (tendinitis) Shin splints—pain in the front of your leg related to overuse or repetitive pounding Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) , which occurs when ...

  13. Other Causes of Leg Pain | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the same position for a long time Injuries caused by: A torn or overstretched muscle (strain) Hairline crack in the bone (stress fracture) Inflamed tendon (tendinitis) Shin splints—pain in the front of your leg related to overuse or repetitive pounding Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) , which occurs when ...

  14. A Developmental Model of Reading Acquisition Based upon Early Scaffolding Errors and Subsequent Vowel Inferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Robert; Stuart, Morag

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the processes that predict reading acquisition. Associations between (a) scaffolding errors (e.g., "torn" misread as "town" or "tarn"), other reading errors, and later reading and (b) vowel and rime inferences and later reading were explored. To assess both of these issues, 50 6-year-old children were shown a number of CVC…

  15. Last Call

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Teresa

    2003-01-01

    From the bleached blond hair with black tips to the intentionally torn clothes to the tattoo on her arm, Annie looked and acted like a rebel from the first day she set foot in the author's literature classroom. In this article, the author describes how the journal for literature class had been instrumental in finding out about Annie's life and how…

  16. Active Learning Methods and Technology: Strategies for Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coorey, Jillian

    2016-01-01

    The demands in higher education are on the rise. Charged with teaching more content, increased class sizes and engaging students, educators face numerous challenges. In design education, educators are often torn between the teaching of technology and the teaching of theory. Learning the formal concepts of hierarchy, contrast and space provide the…

  17. From Cambodians to Bosnians: Interventions for Refugee Families Suffering from War Trauma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Roger; Yuen, Francis K. O.

    2000-01-01

    Provides impressionistic reflection of how human service agencies in San Jose, California have helped refugee families from war-torn Cambodia and Bosnia. Summarizes some of the lessons learned from working with refugee families. Notes that the experiences have influenced the capacity- building, empowering, and mentoring aspects of a new…

  18. Congo: Elections and the Battle for Mineral Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Twenty million voters cast ballots July 30, 2006, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo's first free election since 1960. A runoff election three months later, between transitional president Joseph Kabila and transitional vice president Jean-Pierre Bemba, gave Kabila a mandate to lead the war-torn nation for five more years. The elections, in…

  19. One-Shot Library Instruction and Cambourne's Theory of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masuchika, Glenn Norio; Boldt, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Librarians who teach one-shot library instruction classes (one-time, one- to three-hour classes to students who are assumed to be novice researchers) are often torn between two pedagogic approaches: a "critical mass" pedagogy emphasizing a minimum amount of databases that must be introduced with little time for student searching, and a…

  20. Conflicts between On-Task and Off-Task Behaviors in the Classroom: The Influences of Parental Monitoring, Peer Value Orientations, Students' Goals, and Their Value Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilian, Britta; Hofer, Manfred; Kuhnle, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Students in class are sometimes torn between following the lesson and engaging in off-task behavior. In this paper, instead of classifying it as a form of deviant behavior, off-task behavior is reconstructed as a manifestation of students multiple motivations in the classroom. The study examines whether parental monitoring, peer value…

  1. Caring as a Value in Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Christine A.

    1990-01-01

    Nursing educators are torn between producing graduates who are employable in the health care marketplace and educating nurses who are capable of transforming the health care system. One way to resolve this conflict is to make caring a core value in the hidden curriculum--the way students are taught to think and feel as nurses. (Author)

  2. Rotator Cuff Damage: Reexamining the Causes and Treatments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Heyward L.

    1988-01-01

    Sports medicine specialists are beginning to reexamine the causes and treatments of rotator cuff problems, questioning the role of primary impingement in a deficient or torn cuff and trying new surgical procedures as alternatives to the traditional open acromioplasty. (Author/CB)

  3. The New Latin American Novel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Monegal, Emir

    1970-01-01

    Describes Latin American novelists as portraying the continent as torn by revolution and inflation, by anger and mounting expectations. Instead of denying the fictional qualities of this vision, the novelists transform this linguistic reality into the narrative itself. Only through fiction can the hidden realities of Latin American emerge. (DS)

  4. Preparing Pre-Service Teachers for Multicultural Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Premier, Jessica Aimee; Miller, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Cultural diversity is evident throughout schools in Victoria, Australia. Many students are new arrivals from war-torn countries including Sudan, Afghanistan and Iraq. To what extent do teacher training courses in Victoria prepare pre-service teachers to cater for the needs of culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) students? This paper…

  5. Demanding Divestment from Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Bowing to student demands to "stop supporting genocide," the University of California regents voted earlier this year to divest millions of dollars from companies working in the war-torn African nation of Sudan, the first major public university in the nation to take such action. Since student protests on the subject began at Harvard…

  6. Looking at Racial Segregation: An Exploratory Case Study of a Predominately Somali Charter School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    In 2005, a group of concerned parents who had arrived in the United States as refugees from war-torn Somalia received approval from their local school district to establish the Iftin Charter School (ICS). The K-8 school continues to engender hope and intellectual strength in its students and parents. ICS finds itself uniquely equipped to meet the…

  7. Philosophical Anthropology and Educational Change: Wilhelm Von Humbolt and the Prussian Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Carla R.

    1973-01-01

    After the defeat by Napoleon, Prussia endeavored to rebuild its war torn country by instituting sweeping social and educational reforms. This effort marked one of the few instances in which philosophical anthropology formed the explicit basis of a successful program of social change. (Author/KM)

  8. Philosophical Anthropology and Educational Change: Wilhelm Von Humbolt and the Prussian Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Carla R.

    1973-01-01

    After the defeat by Napoleon, Prussia endeavored to rebuild its war torn country by instituting sweeping social and educational reforms. This effort marked one of the few instances in which philosophical anthropology formed the explicit basis of a successful program of social change. (Author/KM)

  9. Who Cares about One Blood in This Global Society? A Qualitative Study of South Korea's Reunification Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Yoo Jin

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examined South Korean teenagers' views on North Korea and possible reunification. In-depth interviews conducted with fourteen (14) South Korean high school students reported that these teenagers were torn about whether or not they should support reunification. While students acknowledged the lack of dialogue and discussion…

  10. From Cambodians to Bosnians: Interventions for Refugee Families Suffering from War Trauma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Roger; Yuen, Francis K. O.

    2000-01-01

    Provides impressionistic reflection of how human service agencies in San Jose, California have helped refugee families from war-torn Cambodia and Bosnia. Summarizes some of the lessons learned from working with refugee families. Notes that the experiences have influenced the capacity- building, empowering, and mentoring aspects of a new…

  11. Achieving Synergies through Generic Skills: A Strength of Online Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, Barnard; Brook, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Educators are often torn between impositions of the institution in which they work and the imperatives of their individual courses or units and the impact this tension might have on student satisfaction with the learning experience. It is common to hear that students must graduate with multiple generic attributes or skills, yet these skills may…

  12. An Overview of the History and Culture of Indochina. New Faces of Liberty Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, William

    Teachers who have classes with many Southeast Asian American students face the dual challenge of their own lack of knowledge about the cultural backgrounds of their students and of the students' often fragmentary understandings of their own war-torn cultures. This overview briefly describes the history and culture of Indochina to provide knowledge…

  13. Life Situations and Lifestyles of Persons Who Attempt Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakinofsky, Isaac

    A Sample of 228 suicide attempters admitted in the emergency rooms of four general hospitals in an industrial city was studied as part of an ongoing follow-up investigation of the interaction of life situations and stresses and coping skills. Approximately 60% of the sample came from chaotic homes torn apart by family conflict. An assortative…

  14. Falling into Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Carolyn Lang

    2000-01-01

    Presents an activity that connects art, science, and nature in which elementary school students learn about deciduous trees. Explains that students create a torn-tissue collage, using fall colors for a background and drawing a silhouette of a tree without leaves on top of the background with black crayon. (CMK)

  15. A Community of Caring: Reaching Out to the Children of Kosovo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Linda

    2000-01-01

    Reports on an educator's mission to examine the status of young children and early childhood education in war-torn Kosovo. Relates the story of a 10-year-old girl and her family during and after the hostilities. Describes relief efforts of Americans and American organizations, particularly Mercy Corps International, Children's Resources…

  16. Teaching Dramas from Broadway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, John L.

    1970-01-01

    The plight of the playwright, torn between his desire to be fulfilled as a writer and his need to succeed at the box office, is described. It is speculated that Broadway may be losing its claim as the center of American theater. (CK)

  17. Contradictions in Girls' Education in a Post-Conflict Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharkey, Donna

    2008-01-01

    It is broadly assumed that following armed conflict, education is a crucial means to support the transformation of society from war-torn to reconstructed. In spite of this, it is often the case that girls face considerable in-school challenges. Using a social ecological framework, this article examines these challenges for a cohort of adolescent…

  18. Helping Immigrant and Refugee Students Succeed: It's Not Just What Happens in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kugler, Eileen Gale; Price, Olga Acosta

    2009-01-01

    A child who seems disinterested may actually be depressed, living with parents who themselves are disengaged and depressed as they struggle to adjust. A student with violent outbursts, who might just appear undisciplined, can be reliving the emotion of a turbulent event in a war-torn country, experiencing a heightened "flight or fight" response.…

  19. Creative Expression Workshops for Immigrant and Refugee Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau, Cecile; Singh, Abha; Lacroix, Louise; Bagilishya, Deogratias; Measham, Toby

    2004-01-01

    The number of immigrant and refugee children coming from war-torn countries is increasing in North America. Over the past decades, creative expression activities have been increasingly recognized as a useful way to work with migrant and refugee children. These activities have been used to help them to construct meaning, to structure identity, and…

  20. Parents Can Guide Children through the World of Two Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasi, Mary Jane

    2005-01-01

    Many parents in the United States who speak and value a language other than English feel torn-between wanting their children to develop age-appropriate fluency and literacy in the language of their heritage, and wanting their children to acquire English as quickly and flawlessly as possible. When parents support communication in and acquisition of…

  1. Funny Faces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Yvonne

    2000-01-01

    Presents a torn-paper and gadget-print activity for younger students, specifically pre-kindergarten to first grade, that can be done any time over the school year or at Halloween. Discusses how the students create their funny faces and lists the materials needed. (CMK)

  2. The Russian Federation Islamic Republic of Dagestan: Curricular Decentralization, Social Cohesion, and Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Jana Sackman

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on the curricular decentralization-sociopolitical stability nexus in the predominantly Muslim Russian Federation Republic of Dagestan, adjacent to war-torn Chechnya. Concomitant with the metamorphoses taking place in the economic and political sectors of society is the overhaul of institutionalized education. A major reform…

  3. A Structuration Theory Analysis of the Refugee Action Support Program in Greater Western Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Loshini

    2009-01-01

    This article uses Gidden's structuration theory to analyse the Refugee Action Support program in Greater Western Sydney. The study shows that many refugee students in Australian high schools experience difficulty with academic transition in mainstream classrooms due to their previous experiences in war-torn countries. As a result of the trauma…

  4. Active Learning Methods and Technology: Strategies for Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coorey, Jillian

    2016-01-01

    The demands in higher education are on the rise. Charged with teaching more content, increased class sizes and engaging students, educators face numerous challenges. In design education, educators are often torn between the teaching of technology and the teaching of theory. Learning the formal concepts of hierarchy, contrast and space provide the…

  5. Basal-plane metallography of deformed pyrolytic carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adkins, J. M.; Fischbach, D. B.

    1969-01-01

    Cleavage technique is recommended over the normal polishing technique in preparing pyrolytic carbon for metallographic examination of basal-plane surfaces. After careful removal of torn basal-plane fragments and other cleavage debris with cellulose tape, the true structure is clearly revealed.

  6. Prophetic Pragmatism? Post-Conflict Educational Development in Aceh and Mindanao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milligan, Jeffrey Ayala

    2009-01-01

    This essay critically examines the relevance of Cornel West's (1989) conception of "prophetic pragmatism" as a theoretical framework for educational development in post-conflict settings torn by religious, socioeconomic, and cultural tensions. It examines the concept through the conflict and post-conflict experiences of the Indonesian…

  7. Keeping the Bar Low: Why Russia's Nonresident Fathers Accept Narrow Fatherhood Ideals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utrata, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Although most Russian nonresident fathers feel torn between old and new ideals of fatherhood, they end up accepting older, narrow ideals. Fathers reproduce the dominant gender discourse, which deems men irresponsible and infantile and diminishes the importance of fathers. On the basis of extensive fieldwork, including in-depth interviews (N = 21)…

  8. Posttraumatic Psychological Distress and Resettlement: The Need for a Different Practice in Assisting Refugee Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacroix, Marie; Sabbah, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Social work practitioners are increasingly confronted with couples and families who have come from war-torn countries. Refugees may have experienced genocide, organized violence, ethnic wars, displacement, and losses of various kinds. Such experiences will often be carried through the post-migratory period and obscure legitimate individual and…

  9. The Russian Federation Islamic Republic of Dagestan: Curricular Decentralization, Social Cohesion, and Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Jana Sackman

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on the curricular decentralization-sociopolitical stability nexus in the predominantly Muslim Russian Federation Republic of Dagestan, adjacent to war-torn Chechnya. Concomitant with the metamorphoses taking place in the economic and political sectors of society is the overhaul of institutionalized education. A major reform…

  10. It's a Wrap! A Study of Installations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project for junior and senior high school students called the wrapped chair project where students wrapped chairs using torn sheets in the style of artists, Christo Javacheff and Jeanne-Claude de-Guillebon. Explains that students created thumbnail sketches and drew their finished drawing in either charcoal or chalk. (CMK)

  11. Curls of My Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Geri

    2001-01-01

    Describes an art activity in which students draw ribbons (thin watercolor paper that, when torn, will stand up in a curling fashion). Explains in detail the assignment in which students used pencil rendering or charcoal pencil depending on the type of paper used for the assignment. (CMK)

  12. Funny Faces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Yvonne

    2000-01-01

    Presents a torn-paper and gadget-print activity for younger students, specifically pre-kindergarten to first grade, that can be done any time over the school year or at Halloween. Discusses how the students create their funny faces and lists the materials needed. (CMK)

  13. Conflicts between On-Task and Off-Task Behaviors in the Classroom: The Influences of Parental Monitoring, Peer Value Orientations, Students' Goals, and Their Value Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilian, Britta; Hofer, Manfred; Kuhnle, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Students in class are sometimes torn between following the lesson and engaging in off-task behavior. In this paper, instead of classifying it as a form of deviant behavior, off-task behavior is reconstructed as a manifestation of students multiple motivations in the classroom. The study examines whether parental monitoring, peer value…

  14. Education in North Yemen: Problems and Hopes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saif, Philip S.

    The background of the educational system in North Yemen is reviewed and some of the problems facing the system are described. The findings from examining documents and on-site visitations are summarized as follows: (1) the view is confirmed that developing countries with long history and cultural heritage are torn between keeping their traditions…

  15. An American Montessori Teacher's Experience in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Irene

    2006-01-01

    What can Montessorians learn from teaching in a war-torn country, and what can they hope to share with others in the process? These questions were much on the author's mind when she went to Sri Lanka in the summer of 2003. This article contains excerpts from e-mails the author sent home, chronicling her experience teaching two high school English…

  16. A new way to study the changing Arctic ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Berkeley Lab scientists Susan Hubbard and Margaret Torn discuss the proposed Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment, which is designed to answer one of the most urgent questions facing researchers today: How will a changing climate impact the Arctic, and how will this in turn impact the planet's climate? More info: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2011/09/14/alaska-climate-change/

  17. Achieving Synergies through Generic Skills: A Strength of Online Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, Barnard; Brook, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Educators are often torn between impositions of the institution in which they work and the imperatives of their individual courses or units and the impact this tension might have on student satisfaction with the learning experience. It is common to hear that students must graduate with multiple generic attributes or skills, yet these skills may…

  18. Looking at Racial Segregation: An Exploratory Case Study of a Predominately Somali Charter School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    In 2005, a group of concerned parents who had arrived in the United States as refugees from war-torn Somalia received approval from their local school district to establish the Iftin Charter School (ICS). The K-8 school continues to engender hope and intellectual strength in its students and parents. ICS finds itself uniquely equipped to meet the…

  19. Closure of cerebrospinal fluid leakage after transsphenoidal surgery: technical note.

    PubMed

    Freidberg, S R; Hybels, R L; Bohigian, R K

    1994-07-01

    It is necessary to pack the sella turcica to prevent the leakage of cerebrospinal fluid after transsphenoidal surgery if the arachnoid has been torn. The packing is usually supported by nasal cartilage. If this is not available, we recommend the Synthes minifragment plate to support the intradural pack.

  20. Congo: Elections and the Battle for Mineral Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Twenty million voters cast ballots July 30, 2006, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo's first free election since 1960. A runoff election three months later, between transitional president Joseph Kabila and transitional vice president Jean-Pierre Bemba, gave Kabila a mandate to lead the war-torn nation for five more years. The elections, in…

  1. Rotator Cuff Damage: Reexamining the Causes and Treatments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Heyward L.

    1988-01-01

    Sports medicine specialists are beginning to reexamine the causes and treatments of rotator cuff problems, questioning the role of primary impingement in a deficient or torn cuff and trying new surgical procedures as alternatives to the traditional open acromioplasty. (Author/CB)

  2. Education in North Yemen: Problems and Hopes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saif, Philip S.

    The background of the educational system in North Yemen is reviewed and some of the problems facing the system are described. The findings from examining documents and on-site visitations are summarized as follows: (1) the view is confirmed that developing countries with long history and cultural heritage are torn between keeping their traditions…

  3. Central American Refugees and U.S. High Schools. A Psychosocial Study of Motivation and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez-Orozco, Marcelo M.

    This ethnographic study documents and interprets key school, work, and family life issues in the lives and experiences of a sampling of recent immigrants from the war-torn Central American nations; and suggests a psychocultural theory of achievement motivation. Information was gathered from observation in two urban high schools, interviews with 50…

  4. The War in Man; Media and Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelmsen, Frederick D.; Bret, Jane

    The authors present a picture of contemporary man torn by conflicting forces, caught in a psychic house divided against itself, a victim of war between media and machines. Machines, they state, represent the rationalistic tradition which has brought man to the brink of psychic and social disaster. The media they see as offering hope--true…

  5. 7 CFR 51.1532 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... stems where the skin is torn only slightly within the stem cavity. (Healed skin breaks shall be...-eighth inch in depth; (4) When more than three-eighths inch in length if within the stem cavity; or, (5) When more than one-fourth inch in length if outside of the stem cavity; (6) When extending from within...

  6. 7 CFR 51.1532 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...: (a) Broken skins which are unhealed except those caused by pulled stems where the skin is torn only slightly within the stem cavity. (Healed skin breaks shall be considered scars); (b) Heat injury, sprayburn... three-eighths inch in length if within the stem cavity; or, (5) When more than one-fourth inch in length...

  7. Who Cares about One Blood in This Global Society? A Qualitative Study of South Korea's Reunification Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Yoo Jin

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examined South Korean teenagers' views on North Korea and possible reunification. In-depth interviews conducted with fourteen (14) South Korean high school students reported that these teenagers were torn about whether or not they should support reunification. While students acknowledged the lack of dialogue and discussion…

  8. A Developmental Model of Reading Acquisition Based upon Early Scaffolding Errors and Subsequent Vowel Inferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Robert; Stuart, Morag

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the processes that predict reading acquisition. Associations between (a) scaffolding errors (e.g., "torn" misread as "town" or "tarn"), other reading errors, and later reading and (b) vowel and rime inferences and later reading were explored. To assess both of these issues, 50 6-year-old children were shown a number of CVC…

  9. Who Better to Employ the CAP Concept than Reconnaissance Units?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-07

    they are the most qualified, best equipped, and best fitted. 8 Robert B. Cialdini , ph.D...CSC 1996, Strategic Issues, pp 9- 20. Cialdini , Robert . B. Ph.D. Influence. New York: Quill, 1993, pp 167-208. Danner, Matthew, Captain...awareness. Being able to speak the language would allow cultural barriers to be torn down. According to Robert

  10. Somalia: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports on Conoco which completed its second well and prepared to drill a third on three blocks. Pecten and Mobil signed a joint venture agreement to explore a 14.9-million-ac block offshore. Most drilling plans were delayed following intensification of fighting in the civil war-torn country.

  11. Pesticides detected in surface waters and fish of the Red River of the North drainage basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brigham, Mark E.

    1994-01-01

    Pesticide data have been collected in the Red River Basin by various Federal, State, and local agencies. Tornes and Brigham (1994) recently summarized many of these historical data. This paper summarizes selected data collected as part of the NAWQA program during 1992-93, and briefly compares these data to historical data and to pesticide usage.

  12. Squirrel Damage to Pines

    Treesearch

    USDA Forest Service

    1981-01-01

    Flagging (dead branch tips) on jack pine and red pine may be caused by insects, diseases, or mechanical damage. In the Lake States, flagging is often the result of mechanical damage, sometimes girdling, caused when the cones are torn off by red squirrels.

  13. Steal These Ideas! Winning Activities from Real Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article presents several winning activities for students in the classroom. These activities include: (1) making Abraham Lincoln costumes; (2) creating frosty scenes from torn-paper collage for a grammar activity; (3) listening to Dr. Martin Luther King's "I have a Dream" speech; (4) hosting an architectural challenge for a kindergarten class;…

  14. The 1990s Father: Balancing Work & Family Concerns. BNA Special Report Series on Work & Family. Special Report #18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of National Affairs, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This report examines the issues surrounding working fathers and the changing expectations of fatherhood that are creating the necessity for changes in the workplace. Issues examined include the following: (1) fathers are torn between employers expecting super employees and mothers expecting super fathers; (2) a few companies are taking note of the…

  15. A new way to study the changing Arctic ecosystem

    ScienceCinema

    Hubbard, Susan

    2016-07-12

    Berkeley Lab scientists Susan Hubbard and Margaret Torn discuss the proposed Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment, which is designed to answer one of the most urgent questions facing researchers today: How will a changing climate impact the Arctic, and how will this in turn impact the planet's climate? More info: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2011/09/14/alaska-climate-change/

  16. Neighborhood Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benin, Shirley

    1984-01-01

    Because of concern about the preservation of the historic character of Stamford (Connecticut), children in a pilot program at an elementary school learned about neighborhood history, sketched houses, researched houses which had been torn down and drew and constructed replicas of them, and learned about renovation and period interior design. (IS)

  17. 7 CFR 42.112 - Defects of containers: Tables IV, V, VI, and VII.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS STANDARDS FOR CONDITION OF FOOD CONTAINERS Procedures for Stationary Lot... (b) Materially affecting usability 103 Moldy area 1 Crushed or torn area: (a) Materially affecting... 103 Moldy area 1 Individual packages sticking together or to shipping case (tear when separated) 104...

  18. 7 CFR 42.112 - Defects of containers: Tables IV, V, VI, and VII.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS STANDARDS FOR CONDITION OF FOOD CONTAINERS Procedures for Stationary Lot... (b) Materially affecting usability 103 Moldy area 1 Crushed or torn area: (a) Materially affecting... 103 Moldy area 1 Individual packages sticking together or to shipping case (tear when separated) 104...

  19. 7 CFR 42.112 - Defects of containers: Tables IV, V, VI, and VII.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS STANDARDS FOR CONDITION OF FOOD CONTAINERS Procedures for Stationary Lot... (b) Materially affecting usability 103 Moldy area 1 Crushed or torn area: (a) Materially affecting... 103 Moldy area 1 Individual packages sticking together or to shipping case (tear when separated) 104...

  20. Smashing Cosmopolitanism: The Neo-Liberal Destruction of Cosmopolitan Education in East-Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imre, Robert J.; Millei, Zsuzsa

    2009-01-01

    Critiques that seek to examine cosmopolitanism as a concept suffer from a severe popularity problem. Rather than engage in this pro/con debate, we are interested in demonstrating that cosmopolitanism can wax and wane, ebb and flow, and has appeared as a grounding ideology for educational programs before, only to be torn asunder by those seeking to…

  1. Balfour's Mission to Palestine: Science, Strategy, and the Inauguration of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macleod, Roy

    2008-01-01

    In 1925, A.J. Balfour, first Earl Balfour and author of the famous "Balfour Declaration", attended the inauguration of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. His education and experience of foreign policy equipped him to take a prominent role. However, the conditions of strife-torn Palestine weighed heavily upon him, and raised wider…

  2. Electrocardiogram, heart movement and heart rate in the awake gecko (Hemidactylus mabouia).

    PubMed

    Germer, Carina M; Tomaz, Juliana M; Carvalho, Ana F; Bassani, Rosana A; Bassani, José W M

    2015-01-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) is the simplest and most effective non-invasive method to assess the electrical activity of the heart and to obtain information on the heart rate (HR) and rhythm. Because information on the HR of very small reptiles (body mass <10 g) is still scarce in the literature, in the present work we describe a procedure for recording the ECG in non-anesthetized geckos (Hemidactylus mabouia, Moreau de Jonnès, 1818) under different conditions, namely manual restraint (MR), spontaneous tonic immobility (TI), and in the non-restrained condition (NR). In the gecko ECG, the P, QRS and T waves were clearly distinguishable. The HR was 2.83 ± 0.02 Hz under MR, which was significantly greater (p < 0.001) than the HR under the TI (1.65 ± 0.09 Hz) and NR (1.60 ± 0.10 Hz) conditions. Spontaneously beating isolated gecko hearts contracted at 0.84 ± 0.03 Hz. The in vitro beating rate was affected in a concentration-dependent fashion by adrenoceptor stimulation with noradrenaline, as well as by the muscarinic cholinergic agonist carbachol, which produced significant positive and negative chronotropic effects, respectively (p < 0.001). To our knowledge, this is the first report on the ECG morphology and HR values in geckos, particularly under TI. The methodology and instrumentation developed here are useful for non-invasive in vivo physiological and pharmacological studies in small reptiles without the need of physical restraint or anesthesia.

  3. Pulmonary embolism caused by a carbon dioxide blower during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Naoyuki; Kanaya, Noriaki; Yamazaki, Yutaka; Sonoda, Hajime; Namiki, Akiyoshi

    2010-02-01

    We report a rare case of pulmonary embolism (PE) caused by a carbon dioxide (CO2) blower during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB). When the anastomosis of the right internal thoracic artery to left anterior descending artery was performed, the operator tore the right ventricle outflow track (RVOT) that was adjacent to the left anterior descending artery. Immediately after the anastomosis and repair of the torn RVOT with CO2 blower, the systolic pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) increased from 28 to 64 mmHg, and end-tidal CO2 decreased from 32 to 12 mmHg. Because transesophageal echocardiograph (TEE) showed numerous gas bubbles in the main pulmonary artery, we diagnosed PE caused by invasion of CO2 gas bubbles via the torn RVOT. Although a CO2 blower is useful to enhance visualization of the anastomosis during OPCAB, it should not be used for the venous system because it may cause CO2 embolism.

  4. The path of ambivalence: tracing the pull of opposing evaluations using mouse trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Iris K.; van Harreveld, Frenk; Rotteveel, Mark; Topolinski, Sascha; van der Pligt, Joop; Schwarz, Norbert; Koole, Sander L.

    2015-01-01

    Ambivalence refers to a psychological conflict between opposing evaluations, often experienced as being torn between alternatives. This dynamic aspect of ambivalence is hard to capture with outcome-focused measures, such as response times or self-report. To gain more insight into ambivalence as it unfolds, the current work uses an embodied measure of pull, drawing on research in dynamic systems. In three studies, using different materials, we tracked people’s mouse movements as they chose between negative and positive evaluations of attitude objects. When participants evaluated ambivalent attitude objects, their mouse trajectories showed more pull of the non-chosen evaluative option than when they evaluated univalent attitude objects, revealing that participants were literally torn between the two opposing evaluations. We address the relationship of this dynamic measure to response time and self-reports of ambivalence and discuss implications and avenues for future research. PMID:26236267

  5. The potential for primary repair of the ACL

    PubMed Central

    Vavken, Patrick; Murray, Martha M

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to assess the feasibility of successfully repairing the torn ACL. Two major motivators for developing a new treatment for ACL injuries are the recently reported high rates of osteoarthritis after conventional ACL reconstruction as well as the problem of how to safely treat skeletally immature patients. A key factor in developing such a technique was the identification of the main inhibitor of intrinsic ACL healing – the lack of clot formation between the two torn ends of the ligament. A bioactive and biocompatible scaffold which could be placed in the wound site to enhance cellular proliferation and biosynthesis was developed. This biomaterial has shown promising functional outcomes in several large animal models of primary repair of partial and complete ACL transection over 4 to 14 weeks, suggesting potential for a successful, future clinical application. PMID:21293237

  6. Reconstruction of recurrent diaphragmatic eventration with an elongated polytetrafluoroethylene sheet

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Masaki; Sonobe, Makoto; Bando, Toru; Date, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a 31-year old woman with recurrence of left diaphragmatic eventration 3 years after a previous surgery for this condition. At the initial occurrence, she had experienced dyspnoea on exercise and subsequently underwent laparoscopic plication of the diaphragm with an endo-stapler at a local hospital. Immediately after the operation, the diaphragm was torn and the intestine entered the thorax. Therefore, plication involving sewing was performed. Then, 3 years later, the patient again experienced dyspnoea and was diagnosed as having recurrence of left diaphragmatic eventration. Observation under thoracoscopy revealed that the centre of the left diaphragm was thin but not torn. We reconstructed the left diaphragm with an elongated polytetrafluoroethylene sheet on the naïve diaphragm. The patient was discharged from our hospital 5 days after surgery. Her respiratory function improved and she has not experienced recurrence. PMID:23644727

  7. An axial representation of community mental health nursing diagnoses of a country at war: El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Coler, M S

    1993-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of a workshop on the formulation of community mental health diagnoses in El Salvador. The author taught the process of diagnosis from the NANDA framework and explored diagnostic decision making through Caplan's Crisis Model. An epidemiologic framework was also incorporated in the diagnostic process so that host, agent, and environment could be scrutinized. The workshop resulted in the formulation of three universal community mental health diagnoses for this (then) war-torn country: depression, aggression, and anxiety; the development of a proposal for the implementation of mental health services; and an invitation to explore implementation of community mental health care services in five rural communities in El Salvador. Although the politics of El Salvador have changed, this example is typical of many Third-World and war-torn countries.

  8. Anterior subluxation of the lateral tibial plateau. A new clinical test and the morbidity of this type of knee instability.

    PubMed

    Martens, M A; Mulier, J C

    1981-01-01

    A new clinical test is presented for the diagnosis of anterolateral knee instability. The advantages of the test are obviation of apprehension- and muscle spasm avoiding false negative results and also the recognition by the patient of his sensation of "collapsing at the knee". This allows for differentiation between "giving away" due to a torn meniscus alone and concomitant anterolateral knee instability. It implies important consequences for prognosis and treatment of the knee problem of the athlete. Underlying pathology consists of a torn anterior cruciate ligament and primary or secondary stretching of the soft tissues at the lateral and posterolateral capsule. These lesions and a positive test for anterolateral knee instability does not inevitably result in a disability for sports activity. The dynamic muscular control protects the knee in many instances from collapsing at cross over cutting.

  9. Simultaneous Osteoperiosteal Autologous Iliac Crest Graft and Lateral Meniscus Allograft Transplantation for Osteochondral Lesion with Bony Defect and Lateral Discoid Meniscus Tear

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dhong Won; Ha, Jeong Ku; Kim, Woo Jong

    2016-01-01

    The optimal treatment for combined osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) with considerable bony defect of the lateral femoral condyle (LFC) and torn discoid lateral meniscus is unclear. We present a case of a 15-year-old female who was a gymnast and had a large OCD lesion in the LFC combined with deficiency of the lateral meniscus. The patient underwent the "one-step" technique of osteoperiosteal autologous iliac crest graft and lateral meniscus allograft transplantation after a failure of meniscectomy with repair at another hospital. Twenty-four months postoperatively, clinical results were significantly improved. Follow-up imaging tests and second-look arthroscopy showed well incorporated structured bone graft and fibrous cartilage regeneration as well as stabilized lateral meniscus allograft. She could return to her sport without any pain or swelling. This "one-step" surgical technique is worth considering as a joint salvage procedure for massive OCD lesions with torn discoid lateral meniscus. PMID:27274475

  10. Neoinnervation in rotator cuff tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yinghua; Bonar, Fiona; Murrell, George A C

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there are more nerves in tendinopathic human tendon, and if so, where are they located. Tendon biopsies were collected from normal, tendinopathic, and torn human rotator cuff tendons and then analyzed using immunohistochemistry and antibodies against a general nerve marker (protein gene product 9.5, PGP9.5), a nerve regeneration marker (growth-associated protein 43, GAP43), and an endothelial cell marker (CD34). Nerve fibers exhibiting PGP9.5 or GAP43 immunoreactivity were often observed intimately in association with tiny blood vessels in the endotendineum of tendinopathic tendons. The expression of PGP9.5 and GAP43 were significantly higher in tendinopathic tendon compared with control tendon and torn tendon. These data support the hypothesis that early tendinopathy is associated with increases of newly grown nerve fibers and blood vessels inside and around tendinopathic tendon, and these may be the source of pain in tendinopathy.

  11. Mitral valve plasty for mitral regurgitation after blunt chest trauma.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, H; Hamanaka, Y; Hirai, S; Mitsui, N; Kobayashi, T

    2001-06-01

    A 21 year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of chest and back pain after blunt chest trauma. On admission, consciousness was clear and a physical examination showed labored breathing. Her vital signs were stable, but her breathing gradually worsened, and artificial respiration was started. The chest roentgenogram and a subsequent chest computed tomographic scans revealed contusions, hemothorax of the left lung and multiple rib fractures. A transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed normal left ventricular wall motion and mild mitral regurgitation (MR). TTE was carried out repeatedly, and revealed gradually progressive MR and prolapse of the posterior medial leaflet, although there was no congestive heart failure. After her general condition had recovered, surgery was performed. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) revealed torn chordae at the posterior medial leaflet. The leaflet where the chorda was torn was cut and plicated, and posterior mitral annuloplasty was performed using a prosthetic ring. One month later following discharge, the MR had disappeared on TTE.

  12. Reconstruction of recurrent diaphragmatic eventration with an elongated polytetrafluoroethylene sheet.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Masaki; Sonobe, Makoto; Bando, Toru; Date, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    We report the case of a 31-year old woman with recurrence of left diaphragmatic eventration 3 years after a previous surgery for this condition. At the initial occurrence, she had experienced dyspnoea on exercise and subsequently underwent laparoscopic plication of the diaphragm with an endo-stapler at a local hospital. Immediately after the operation, the diaphragm was torn and the intestine entered the thorax. Therefore, plication involving sewing was performed. Then, 3 years later, the patient again experienced dyspnoea and was diagnosed as having recurrence of left diaphragmatic eventration. Observation under thoracoscopy revealed that the centre of the left diaphragm was thin but not torn. We reconstructed the left diaphragm with an elongated polytetrafluoroethylene sheet on the naïve diaphragm. The patient was discharged from our hospital 5 days after surgery. Her respiratory function improved and she has not experienced recurrence.

  13. Blowing DNA bubbles.

    PubMed

    Severin, N; Zhuang, W; Ecker, C; Kalachev, A A; Sokolov, I M; Rabe, J P

    2006-11-01

    We report here experimental observations which indicate that topologically or covalently formed polymer loops embedded in an ultrathin liquid film on a solid substrate can be "blown" into circular "bubbles" during scanning force microscopy (SFM) imaging. In particular, supercoiled vector DNA has been unraveled, moved, stretched, and overstretched to two times its B-form length and then torn apart. We attribute the blowing of the DNA bubbles to the interaction of the tapping SFM tip with the ultrathin liquid film.

  14. China`s quest for security in the post cold war world. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.S.

    1996-07-29

    The author argues that despite all the estimates that the post-Tiananmen People`s Republic of China is about to take the stage as a world power, the reality is far different. He believes that China, in fact, is a weak nation torn by internal economic and environmental problems. The author asserts that its communist leadership is desperately trying to put the democracy genie back in its bottle even while supporting a Leninist-capitalist economic approach which, ultimately, cannot succeed.

  15. Metamaterial-Based Cylinders Used for Invisible Cloak Realization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    of the PSO. Imagine a swarm of bees in a field. Their goal is to find in the field the location with the highest density of flowers . Without any...Metamaterial-Based Cylinders Used for Invisible Cloak Realization 31 velocities looking for flowers . Each bee can remember the locations that it...found the most flowers , and somehow knows the locations where the other bees found an abundance of flowers . Torn between returning to the location where

  16. An emergency response team for membrane repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNeil, Paul L.; Kirchhausen, Tom

    2005-01-01

    On demand, rapid Ca(2+)-triggered homotypic and exocytic membrane-fusion events are required to repair a torn plasma membrane, and we propose that this emergency-based fusion differs fundamentally from other rapid, triggered fusion reactions. Emergency fusion might use a specialized protein and organelle emergency response team that can simultaneously promote impromptu homotypic fusion events between organelles and exocytic fusion events along the vertices between these fusion products and the plasma membrane.

  17. Procedural Text: Predictions of Importance Ratings and Recall by Models of Text Comprehension

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    limited. Perhaps the study most closely related to the present one was conducted by Graessel (1978). Graesser had people recall texts about common... crumbs --recipe taken from Gouret, November 1987, pp. 162 (recipe) Performing the torn and restored paper ribbon trick--how to do a magic trick taken from...figured out how to wind up a rubber band inside a spool and then make the rubber band unwind slowly to make the spool crawl across the floor. A modern

  18. Optimization of Skill Retention in the U. S. Army through Initial Training Analysis and Design: Skill Sustainment Exercises. Volume 3.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    SHOULDER PAD 8. Checks for loose grommets, loose buckles, rips, mildew , rotting, oil , grease, and dirt. 9. Removes mildew with a dry brush. 10. Removes...and M I waterproof bag. 3. Checks carrier for: dirt, mildew , rips, and torn straps. 4. Checks mask for: holes, tears, splits, and dry rot. 5. Checks...filters for: correct placement. 6. Checks eyelense outserts for: cleanliness, scratches, and discoloration. 7. Checks head harness for: dirt, mildew

  19. Has the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Outlived Its Usefulness?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    the image of the organization and placing it on a path to long - lasting success. Unfortunately, FEMA’s merger with DHS following the Sept. 11 attacks...www.nhc.noaa.gov/pdf/nws-nhc-6.pdf. 79 Frankovich, “Deadly Silence,” 11-14. 35 In the aftermath of the hurricane , the wind and rain torn...6. AUTHOR Christopher E. Hall 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8

  20. Egypt- Old Ally, New Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-04-06

    history , then discussion on traditional soft and hard power, then introduce the concept of smart power. Next, this essay will provide a description...Finally, this essay will summarize the recommendations in one holistic strategy. Brief Sinai History It is important to understand, at least at...the cursory level, the modern struggle for control of the Sinai. In recent modern history the area was torn by war between Egypt and Israel

  1. Isometric immersions, energy minimization and self-similar buckling in non-Euclidean elastic sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemmer, John; Sharon, Eran; Shearman, Toby; Venkataramani, Shankar C.

    2016-04-01

    The edges of torn plastic sheets and growing leaves often display hierarchical buckling patterns. We show that this complex morphology i) emerges even in zero strain configurations, and ii) is driven by a competition between the two principal curvatures, rather than between bending and stretching. We identify the key role of branch point (or “monkey saddle”) singularities in generating complex wrinkling patterns in isometric immersions, and show how they arise naturally from minimizing the elastic energy.

  2. A case of bilateral testicular calcifications in a bicycle motocross rider accompanied by bulbar urethral injury.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Kouji; Konaka, Hiroyuki; Seto, Chikashi; Komatsu, Kazuto; Yokoyama, Osamu; Namiki, Mikio

    2006-05-01

    A 21-year-old Japanese man who was a professional bicycle motocross rider injured his perineum during a competition. Chief complaints were gross hematuria, perineal pain, and subcutaneous ecchymosis of the scrotum. Urethrocystography revealed a torn bulbar urethra and extravasation in the same region. Scrotal ultrasonography revealed small calcifications in the bilateral testes. Here, we report a case of bilateral testicular calcifications caused by the continuous shock and vibration of the saddle in an off-road bicycle rider.

  3. Secrets of the Soil (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    SciTech Connect

    Brodie, Eoin; Northen, Trent; Jansson, Janet; Torn, Margaret

    2011-11-07

    Four Berkeley Lab scientists unveil the "Secrets of the Soil"at this Nov. 7, 2011 Science at the Theater event. Eoin Brodie, Janet Jansson, Margaret Torn and Trent Northen talk about their research and how soil could hold the key to our climate and energy future.The discussion was moderated by John Harte, who holds a joint professorship in the Energy and Resources Group and the Ecosystem Sciences Division of UC Berkeley's College of Natural Resources

  4. Intelligent Assistance without Artificial Intelligence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    Software Objects 4 Ponur 2: Expeftmntal and Pub~c Databases 9 If -𔄁-7~~,- 5 - bnitefignit Assisftanc without Artficial Intel~lgencO ’WIL Kaiseirl...production-qlualty software eng**"eeringevimnmen that provide seemin~gly Intelligent assistance without equirling new breakthoughs In Al research. Themre...8217.cance of SMILF as an example of Intelligent assistance without artificial intelligence . * 2 . ~2 Aichlbtscmr S 1BEi Utended for use by small torns

  5. Atlantic brant--human commensalism on eelgrass beds in New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, R.E.; Obrecht, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    Atlantic Brant Branta bernicla hrota in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, have established a commensal feeding relationship with man. Small flocks feed 3-5 m from clam fishermen on Zostera torn from the sea bottom by the fishing activities. Background material on the availability and digestibility of different brant foods is presented. This commensalism gives the Brant an efficient food gathering opportunity and permits them to exploit Zostera which might otherwise be unavailable to them.

  6. Horizontal and Vertical Stabilization of Acute Unstable Acromioclavicular Joint Injuries Arthroscopy-Assisted

    PubMed Central

    Cisneros, Luis Natera; Sarasquete Reiriz, Juan; Besalduch, Marina; Petrica, Alexandru; Escolà, Ana; Rodriguez, Joaquim; Fallone, Jan Carlo

    2015-01-01

    We describe the technical aspects of an arthroscopy-assisted procedure indicated for the management of acute unstable acromioclavicular joint injuries, consisting of a synthetic augmentation of both the coracoclavicular and acromioclavicular ligaments, that anatomically reproduces the coracoclavicular biomechanics and offers fixation that keeps the torn ends of the ligaments facing one another, thus allowing healing of the native structures without the need for a second surgical procedure for metal hardware removal. PMID:26870653

  7. Resistance of Coated and Uncoated IR Windows to Seawater Corrosion. Phase V. Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    competitive substrate materials, uncoated; single-layer AR coatings on germanium and zinc selenide; multiple-layer AR coatings on germanium; overcoatings on...testing) whose plastic coating has torn and peeled away from the substrate , leaving the substrate exposed to corrosion by seawater... 21 12. A coated...II examined two substrate materials (germanium and chalcogenide glass), and antifouling methods such as forced seawater circulation and electric

  8. PTSD in Limb Trauma and Recovery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    successful demonstration of the task, patients with a torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are now being recruited for assessment. This...following an anterior cruciate ligament . Over the course of the past year, many advances have been made in order to extend this project beyond testing...T.M., & Taylor, D.C. Incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury among active duty U.S. military servicemen and servicewomen. Military Medicine

  9. Aortic insufficiency. A result of intermittent migration of aortic valve prosthesis poppet.

    PubMed

    Kunstadt, D; Adeyemo, A; Clauss, R H

    1976-06-28

    A bizarre mechanism of aortic valve incompetence was observed when the occluder of a Braunwald-Cutter aortic valve prosthesis decreased in diameter, volume, and weight, and from time to time fell into the left ventricle. The patient's symptoms were palpitation, coughing, chocking sensations, and fright. An operation disclosed a small, smooth ball with disrupted cloth on all the struts. The residual torn mesh was removed, and the ball was replaced.

  10. An emergency response team for membrane repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNeil, Paul L.; Kirchhausen, Tom

    2005-01-01

    On demand, rapid Ca(2+)-triggered homotypic and exocytic membrane-fusion events are required to repair a torn plasma membrane, and we propose that this emergency-based fusion differs fundamentally from other rapid, triggered fusion reactions. Emergency fusion might use a specialized protein and organelle emergency response team that can simultaneously promote impromptu homotypic fusion events between organelles and exocytic fusion events along the vertices between these fusion products and the plasma membrane.

  11. Hurricane Irma Damage Assessment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-12

    A boat dock torn apart is seen during a survey of NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida on September 12, 2017. The survey was performed to identify structures and facilities that may have sustained damage from Hurricane Irma as the storm passed Kennedy on September 10, 2017. NASA closed the center ahead of the storm's onset and only a small team of specialists known as the Rideout Team was on the center as the storm approached and passed.

  12. Precambrian crustal evolution in relation to geodynamics and supercontinents: Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Alam, Tamer S.; Santosh, M.; Tsunogae, Toshiaki

    2016-10-01

    More than a century ago, Alfred Wegener explored the origin of continents in his work: "Die Entstehung der Kontinente" (Wegener, 1912, 1915) which provided the core idea of plate tectonics. However, significantly before this work, the idea of "continental drift" was hypothesized by Abraham Ortelius in 1596 with the suggestion that the Americas were torn away from Europe and Africa by earthquakes and floods, and that these continents were once united.

  13. Patients' observations of bioprosthetic valve failure: "my heart is honking, doctor".

    PubMed Central

    Errington, M; Bloomfield, P; Starkey, I R; Shaw, T R

    1990-01-01

    Audible cardiac murmurs are uncommon and may indicate severe native valve dysfunction. In six patients with bioprosthetic mitral valves audible honking systolic murmurs suddenly developed. Doppler echocardiography showed characteristic striated regurgitant signals. At operation each prosthesis had torn cusps. New audible murmurs and striated Doppler signals originating from mitral bioprosthetic valves are indicators of cusp tears. Recognition of this is important because early detection of prosthetic valve dysfunction may improve subsequent surgical outcome. Images p394-a PMID:2271348

  14. Light-trails: an optical solution for IP transport [Invited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumaste, Ashwin; Chlamtac, Imrich

    2004-05-01

    We present a solution for IP-centric communication at the optical layer through a combination of a hardware platform and algorithmic implementation. The presented approach, termed light-trails, is shown to yield a reconfigurable networking platform in which optical connections of arbitrary duration can be established and torn down flexibly in negligible time, accommodating the dynamic traffic requirements of the IP world. The hardware platform and protocol are evaluated with tractable mathematical models validated through detailed simulation.

  15. Confusion about a little observatory: the history of the first high school observatory (German Title: Verwirrung um eine kleine Sternwarte: Die Geschichte der ersten Chemnitzer Schulsternwarte )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfitzner, Elvira

    By means of a small watercolor, painted by a musicologist, the existence of the highschool observatory of Chemnitz was rediscovered. The small observatory was build in 1893 by means of funds and a donation: after WW I it was also used for popular education. During Nazi times, the observatory fell into neglect, and the mechanical damage made it impossible to put it back into operation after WW II The building was torn down in 1964 and forgotten.

  16. SU-E-T-462: Impact of the Radiochromic Film Energy Response On Dose Measurements of Low Energy Electronic Brachytherapy Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, L; Bekerat, H; Tomic, N; DeBlois, F; Devic, S; Morcos, M; Popovic, M; Watson, P; Seuntjens, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We investigated the effect of the EBT3 GafChromicTM film model absorbed dose energy response when used for percent depth dose (PDD) measurements in low-energy photon beams. Methods: We measured PDDs in water from a Xoft 50 kVp source using EBT3 film, and compared them to PDD measurements acquired with a PTW-TN34013 parallel-plate ionization chamber. For the x-ray source, we simulated spectra using the EGSnrc (BEAMnrc) Monte Carlo code, and calculated Half Value Layer (HVL) at different distances from the source in water. Pieces of EBT3 film were irradiated in air and calibration curves were created in terms of air-kerma in air ((Kair)air) for different beam qualities. Pieces of EBT3 film were positioned at distances of 2–6 cm from the Xoft source in a water phantom using a custom-made holder, and irradiated at the same time. As scatter is incorporated in the measured film signal in water, measured (Kair)wat was subsequently converted into absorbed dose to water by the ratio of mass energy absorption coefficients following the AAPM TG-61 dosimetry protocol. Results: Our results show that film calibration curves obtained at beam qualities near the effective energy of the Xoft 50 kVp source in water lead to variation in absorbed dose energy dependence of the response of around 3%. However, if the calibration curve was established at MV beam quality, the error in absorbed dose could be as large as 15%. We observed agreement within 1% between PDD measurements using EBT3 film model (using a calibration curve obtained at 80 kVp, HVL=2.18 mm Al, Eeff=29.5 keV) and the parallel-plate ionization chamber. Conclusion: Accurate dose measurements using radiochromic films at low photon energies require that the radiochromic film dosimetry system be calibrated at corresponding low energies, as large absorbed dose errors are expected for calibrations performed at MV beam qualities.

  17. Direct observations of ice seasonality reveal changes in climate over the past 320–570 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharma, Sapna; Magnuson, John J.; Batt, Ryan D; Winslow, Luke; Korhonen, Johanna; Yasuyuki Aono,

    2016-01-01

    Lake and river ice seasonality (dates of ice freeze and breakup) responds sensitively to climatic change and variability. We analyzed climate-related changes using direct human observations of ice freeze dates (1443–2014) for Lake Suwa, Japan, and of ice breakup dates (1693–2013) for Torne River, Finland. We found a rich array of changes in ice seasonality of two inland waters from geographically distant regions: namely a shift towards later ice formation for Suwa and earlier spring melt for Torne, increasing frequencies of years with warm extremes, changing inter-annual variability, waning of dominant inter-decadal quasi-periodic dynamics, and stronger correlations of ice seasonality with atmospheric CO2 concentration and air temperature after the start of the Industrial Revolution. Although local factors, including human population growth, land use change, and water management influence Suwa and Torne, the general patterns of ice seasonality are similar for both systems, suggesting that global processes including climate change and variability are driving the long-term changes in ice seasonality.

  18. Direct observations of ice seasonality reveal changes in climate over the past 320-570 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sapna; Magnuson, John J.; Batt, Ryan D.; Winslow, Luke A.; Korhonen, Johanna; Aono, Yasuyuki

    2016-04-01

    Lake and river ice seasonality (dates of ice freeze and breakup) responds sensitively to climatic change and variability. We analyzed climate-related changes using direct human observations of ice freeze dates (1443-2014) for Lake Suwa, Japan, and of ice breakup dates (1693-2013) for Torne River, Finland. We found a rich array of changes in ice seasonality of two inland waters from geographically distant regions: namely a shift towards later ice formation for Suwa and earlier spring melt for Torne, increasing frequencies of years with warm extremes, changing inter-annual variability, waning of dominant inter-decadal quasi-periodic dynamics, and stronger correlations of ice seasonality with atmospheric CO2 concentration and air temperature after the start of the Industrial Revolution. Although local factors, including human population growth, land use change, and water management influence Suwa and Torne, the general patterns of ice seasonality are similar for both systems, suggesting that global processes including climate change and variability are driving the long-term changes in ice seasonality.

  19. The potential of optical coherence tomography for diagnosing meniscal pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hang-Yin Ling, Carrie; Pozzi, Antonio; Thieman, Kelley M.; Tonks, Catherine A.; Guo, Shuguang; Xie, Huikai; Horodyski, MaryBeth

    2010-04-01

    Meniscal tears are often associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and may lead to pain and discomfort in humans. Maximal preservation of meniscal tissue is highly desirable to mitigate the progression of osteoarthritis. Guidelines of which meniscal tears are amenable to repair and what part of damaged tissues should be removed are elusive and lacking consensus. Images of microstructural changes in meniscus would potentially guide the surgeons to manage the meniscal tears better, but the resolution of current diagnostic techniques is limited for this application. In this study, we demonstrated the feasibility of using optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the diagnosis of meniscal pathology. Torn medial menisci were collected from dogs with ACL insufficiency. The torn meniscus was divided into three tissue samples and scanned by OCT and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). OCT and SEM images of torn menisci were compared. Each sample was evaluated for gross and microstructural abnormalities and reduction or loss of birefringence from the OCT images. The abnormalities detected with OCT were described for each type of tear. OCT holds promise in non-destructive and fast assessment of microstructural changes and tissue birefringence of meniscal tears. Future development of intraoperative OCT may help surgeons in the decision making of meniscal treatment.

  20. Direct observations of ice seasonality reveal changes in climate over the past 320–570 years

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sapna; Magnuson, John J.; Batt, Ryan D.; Winslow, Luke A.; Korhonen, Johanna; Aono, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Lake and river ice seasonality (dates of ice freeze and breakup) responds sensitively to climatic change and variability. We analyzed climate-related changes using direct human observations of ice freeze dates (1443–2014) for Lake Suwa, Japan, and of ice breakup dates (1693–2013) for Torne River, Finland. We found a rich array of changes in ice seasonality of two inland waters from geographically distant regions: namely a shift towards later ice formation for Suwa and earlier spring melt for Torne, increasing frequencies of years with warm extremes, changing inter-annual variability, waning of dominant inter-decadal quasi-periodic dynamics, and stronger correlations of ice seasonality with atmospheric CO2 concentration and air temperature after the start of the Industrial Revolution. Although local factors, including human population growth, land use change, and water management influence Suwa and Torne, the general patterns of ice seasonality are similar for both systems, suggesting that global processes including climate change and variability are driving the long-term changes in ice seasonality. PMID:27113125

  1. What's under the long line of heavy rocks? Waves can tell us. (Seismic tomography of the lithosphere below the Midcontinent Rift)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolin, E.

    2015-12-01

    A long long time ago, the middle of my home land started to tear. But it didn't tear all the way, and actually the torn part ended up getting pushed back together. This left a long line of heavy rocks in the top part of the ground. We don't know why the tearing stopped instead of forming a new big water place in the middle of the land. We also didn't know know if the deeper ground still looked like it was torn too, because we couldn't see it very well. We hoped by looking at the deep ground, we could figure out why the tearing stopped. I make pictures of the deep under ground places using waves that are made when the ground breaks quickly. I look at waves that go through the torn area and try to match them. I match the real waves by making my own pretend waves and changing how fast they move through the ground. After I match a lot of waves, I put them all together to make a picture that shows what's deep under ground.

  2. Novel Functional Properties of Drosophila CNS Glutamate Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yan; Dharkar, Poorva; Han, Tae-Hee; Serpe, Mihaela; Lee, Chi-Hon; Mayer, Mark L.

    2016-12-01

    Phylogenetic analysis reveals AMPA, kainate, and NMDA receptor families in insect genomes, suggesting conserved functional properties corresponding to their vertebrate counterparts. However, heterologous expression of the Drosophila kainate receptor DKaiR1D and the AMPA receptor DGluR1A revealed novel ligand selectivity at odds with the classification used for vertebrate glutamate receptor ion channels (iGluRs). DKaiR1D forms a rapidly activating and desensitizing receptor that is inhibited by both NMDA and the NMDA receptor antagonist AP5; crystallization of the KaiR1D ligand-binding domain reveals that these ligands stabilize open cleft conformations, explaining their action as antagonists. Surprisingly, the AMPA receptor DGluR1A shows weak activation by its namesake agonist AMPA and also by quisqualate. Crystallization of the DGluR1A ligand-binding domain reveals amino acid exchanges that interfere with binding of these ligands. The unexpected ligand-binding profiles of insect iGluRs allows classical tools to be used in novel approaches for the study of synaptic regulation.

  3. Grain refinement to improve impact toughness in 9Cr-1Mo steel through a double austenitization treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthikeyan, T.; Thomas Paul, V.; Saroja, S.; Moitra, A.; Sasikala, G.; Vijayalakshmi, M.

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation where an enhancement in Charpy impact toughness and decrease in DBTT was obtained through grain refinement in 9Cr-1Mo steel. The steel in the normalized and tempered condition (1323 K/air cool + 1023 K/2 h/air cool) had an average prior-austenite grain size of 26 μm. By designing a two-stage normalizing (1323 K/2 h/water quench + 1223 K/2 h/air cool) and tempering treatment (1023 K/2 h/air cool), a homogeneous tempered martensite microstructure with a lesser prior-austenite grain size of 12 μm could be obtained. An improvement trend in impact properties of standard sized Charpy specimens was obtained in fine-grained steel: upper shelf energy increased from 175 J to 210 J, and DBTT reduced from 243 K to 228 K. This heat treatment is unique since an attempt to carry out a single-stage low temperature normalizing treatment (1223 K/2 h/air cool) did not give a complete martensite structure, due to the incomplete dissolution of carbides during austenitization.

  4. Pen Rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1986 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Novotny, Jerry F.; Macy, Thomas L.; Gardenier, James T.; Beeman, John W.

    1986-12-01

    Pen rearing studies during 1986 completed the second of three years intended for rearing and releasing upriver bright fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from two study sites, a backwater and a pond, adjacent to the Columbia River; both areas are located in the Jonn Day Reservoir. Results of this study in 1984 and 1985 showed that fish could be successfully reared in net pens and that growth and physiological development of the off-station reared fish proceeded at a faster rate than in fish reared at a hatchery. Transfer of fish from the hatchery to off-station sites at Social Security Pond (pond) and Rock Creek (backwater) during early March increased the period of rearing in 1986 by about four weeks. The increased period of rearing allowed all treatments of fed fish to reach a minimum weight of YU fish/lb by release. Differences in growth of fed fish between regular density treatments and additional, high density treatments (double and triple the regular densities) were not significantly different (P > 0.05), but growth of all fed fish reared off-station was again significantly better than that of hatchery reared fish (P < 0.05), Mortalities in all groups of fed fish were low. Physiological development of fed fish was similar in all treatments. At release, development of fish at Social Security Pond appeared to be somewhat ahead of fish at Rock Creek on the same dates however, none of the groups of fed fish achieved a high state of smoltification by release. Unfed fish grew poorly over the redring period, and at release were significantly smaller than either fed groups at the off-station sites, or the control groups reared at the hatchery (P < 0.05). Development of unfed fish toward smoltification was much slower than of fed fish. Mortality of all groups of unfed fish, including the barrier net, was relatively low. Health of all fish reared off-station remained good over the rearing period, and no outbreaks of disease were noted. On-site marking and

  5. The adductor magnus "mini-hamstring": MRI appearance and potential pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Broski, Stephen M; Murthy, Naveen S; Krych, Aaron J; Obey, Mitchel R; Collins, Mark S

    2016-02-01

    To examine the anatomic MRI characteristics of the adductor magnus mini hamstring (AMMH) and explore its involvement in cases of hamstring avulsion. An IRB-approved retrospective review of patients undergoing "hamstring protocol" MRI between March 2009 and June 2014 was performed. Two musculoskeletal radiologists recorded multiple AMMH anatomic characteristics and involvement in cases of hamstring avulsion. Seventy-six AMMHs were analyzed in 66 patients [35 females and 31 males, mean age 49.3 ± 15.2 years (range 17-81)]. Eleven percent of AMMHs were poorly visualized, 51 % visualized, and 37 % well visualized. Seven percent demonstrated round, 73 % ovoid, and 21 % flat/lenticular tendon morphologies. Most (88 %) demonstrated typical origins. Average cross-sectional area (CSA) was 22.4 ± 10.6 mm² (range 6-56), diameter was 7.2 ± 2.5 mm (range 2.9-15), medial distance from the semimembranosus tendon was 7.5 ± 2.5 mm (range 3-14), and tendon length was 6.8 ± 3.3 cm (range 1.2-14.1). There was no gender difference in AMMH anatomic measurements or correlation between age and CSA or diameter. Of 17 complete hamstring avulsion cases, the AMMH was intact in 13, partially torn in 3, and completely torn in 1. The AMMH is a constant finding with variable anatomic characteristics. It is visualized or well visualized by MRI in 88 % of cases and is a sizable tendon located in close proximity to the semimembranosus tendon. Because it is uncommonly completely torn (6 %) in cases of complete hamstring avulsion, radiologists should be aware of its presence and appearance to avoid diagnostic confusion.

  6. History of Lung Diseases of Coal Miners in Great BritainPART III, 1920-1952*

    PubMed Central

    Meiklejohn, Andrew

    1952-01-01

    All sciences are connected; they lend each other material aid as parts of one great whole, each doing its own work not for itself alone but for the other parts, as the eye guides the whole body and the foot sustains it and leads it from place to place. As with an eye torn out or a foot cut off, so it is with the different departments of knowledge; none can attain its proper result separately, since all are parts of one and the same complete wisdom. ROGER BACON (1214-1294). PMID:14944741

  7. Lateral sided snapping elbow caused by a meniscus: two case reports and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kang, Shin-Taek; Kim, Tae-Ho

    2010-06-01

    Lateral sided snapping elbow is an unusual condition, and it is apt to be misdiagnosed as lateral epicondylitis. The causes of lateral sided snapping elbow have been attributed to intraarticular loose bodies, instability, synovial plicae and torn annular ligament. We report our experiences for treating lateral sided snapping elbow caused by a meniscus in the radio-humeral joint. In the present cases, the cause of snapping was detected using double contrast arthrogram under fluoroscopic control, and histology revealed that it was a meniscus. Complete removal of the meniscus allowed immediate relief of the symptom, and there was no recurrence in both cases.

  8. Skylab 2 Farewell View from the Departing Skylab Command/Service Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-22

    SL2-07-651 (22 June 1973) --- This overhead view of the Skylab Space Station was taken from the Departing Skylab Command/Service Module during the Skylab 2's final fly-around inspection. The single solar panel is quite evident as well as the parasol solar shield, rigged to replace the missing micrometeoroid shield. Both the second solar panel and the micrometeoroid shield were torn away during a mishap in the original Skylab 1 liftoff and orbital insertion. Photo credit: NASA

  9. Skylab 2 Farewell View from the Departing Skylab Command/Service Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-22

    SL2-07-667 (22 June 1973) --- This overhead view of the Skylab Space Station was taken from the Departing Skylab Command/Service Module during the Skylab 2's final fly-around inspection. The single solar panel is quite evident as well as the parasol solar shield, rigged to replace the missing micrometeoroid shield. Both the second solar panel and the micrometeoroid shield were torn away during a mishap in the original Skylab 1 liftoff and orbital insertion. Photo credit: NASA

  10. Clinical implementation of a scrubless chlorhexidine/ethanol pre-operative surgical hand rub.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Richard; Theoret, Sylvie; Dion, Danielle; Pellerin, Michel

    2008-06-01

    The objective of surgical scrubbing is to reduce the bioburden on the hands of the surgical team in hope that if gloves are punctured or torn, the number of bacteria released at the operation site will be minimal and therefore reduce the risk of site infection. Long procedures with scrubbing and soaping can, however, be counterproductive because with repetition they tend to cause skin abrasions, damages and injuries without further reducing the risk of bacterial release. Within a general review of OR processes, it was decided to substitute to the standard surgical scrub a "new" scrubless pre-op surgical hand rub procedure. This article summarizes the results.

  11. M2-F3 on lakebed

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-06-20

    The M2-F3 Lifting Body is seen here on the lakebed next to the NASA Flight Research Center (FRC--later Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California. The May 1967 crash of the M2-F2 had torn off the left fin and landing gear. It had also damaged the external skin and internal structure. Flight Research Center engineers worked with Ames Research Center and the Air Force in redesigning the vehicle with a center fin to provide greater stability. Then Northrop Corporation cooperated with the FRC in rebuilding the vehicle. The entire process took three years.

  12. Effects of Underwater Explosions on Fish Without Swimbladders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-02

    air bubbles trapped inside the bags used to restrain the fish. On these shots, fish were inserted into the foot sections of nylon stockings which...were then closed by tying a knotjust above the fish. As the fish were lowered into the water, the air inside the wet stockings was trapped as a bubble ...It seems likely that many of the bags were torn open by the radial oscillations of these air bubbles in response to the explosions. l)ata from Shots 2

  13. The sliding stop: a technique of fielding in cricket with a potential for serious knee injury.

    PubMed

    Von Hagen, K; Roach, R; Summers, B

    2000-10-01

    The sliding stop method of fielding in cricket is gaining popularity in schools and club cricket through its frequent exposure on television. The case history is reported of a cricketer who suffered a torn medial meniscus in his knee, a rare cricketing injury, while performing this technique incorrectly in a club game. The correct method of performing the technique is described in coaching manuals but is not commonly instructed at club or school level. The sliding stop should be discouraged in school and for club cricketers unless appropriately coached.

  14. The Tunguska comet or the great Siberian mystery explosion of 1908

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, H.

    1986-01-01

    The boat disintegrates, hurling men and animals into the freezing river. The farmer's shirt is scorched off his back; the tramp is blown off his feet, his ports and pans scattering like shrapnel. One of the trappers standing in the doorway of the trading post is knocked unconscious, overcome by the searing heat; the tents of the nomads are torn loose, the men and dogs inside being rolled over the ground like leaves in a gale. All that remain of the reindeer are charred carcasses. The forest has been turning into a crackling inferno, and a black fireball rises into the air. 

  15. Kurdistan Region, Asia as seen from STS-58

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Lake Urmia (Orumiyeh) in the high desert palteau of northwest Iran dominates the center of the northeast-looking view. The left edge of the view cuts Lake Van in eastern Turkey. The Caucasus mountains in war-torn Georgia appear just beyond. Mount Ararat is a major peak north of Lake Van. The Caspian Sea, an international body of water, stretches across the top right of the view. Countries bordering the Caspian are Iran in the south, Kazakhstan in the west, and Russia and Azerbaijan in the west. The shuttle stabilizer, OMS pods and open payload bay can also be seen just above the horizon.

  16. Realtors granted exemption for nondisclosure of AIDS.

    PubMed

    1998-05-15

    Idaho enacted legislation protecting real estate agents in situations where they are asked to violate an HIV patient's privacy. Would-be buyers often ask for a psychological impact statement, including whether the home has been a crime site or whether the owners have HIV, about a property in which they are interested. Senate Bill 1313 has guidelines for realtors, who in the past were torn between disclosure and privacy. If buyers request the information in writing, the agent must ask for the owner's consent to release the information. The buyers must be told if the owner declines. The law shields realtors from legal liability once the requirements are met.

  17. Tendon ruptures: mallet, flexor digitorum profundus.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Peter C; Shin, Steven S

    2012-08-01

    Mallet injuries are the most common closed tendon injury in the athlete. Flexor digitorum profundus ruptures are rare in baseball, but are common injuries in contact sports. The diagnosis for each condition is based on clinical examination, although radiographs should be evaluated for a possible bony component. Treatment for mallet injury depends on the athlete's goals of competition and understanding of the consequences of any treatment chosen. Gripping, throwing, and catching would be restricted or impossible with the injured finger immobilized. Treatment of FDP ruptures is almost always surgical and requires reattachment of the torn tendon to the distal phalanx.

  18. [Early thoracotomy and chest wall stabilization with elastic rib clamps (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Labitzke, R

    1981-01-01

    In patients with chest injuries, serial rib fractures and intrathoracic lacerations the indication for primary thoracotomy is usually limited to life-threatening organ ruptures. In our own experience with 18 patients primary thoracotomy offers the chance of immediate closure of lung lacerations, suture of pleural and pericardial tears, ligature of torn intercostal vessels and stabilization of the chest wall by elastic rib clamps "Essener Model". Postoperative respiration, freedom of pain, is restored immediately and therefore complications and duration of high-risk respirator treatment can be reduced.

  19. An Information Processing Approach to the Study of Data Entry Skills: The Effects of Representation Rules and Coordination Requirements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    for a discussion of the general approach; and Karis, Fabiani , & Donchin, 1984, for an illustration of an empirical test of a prediction regarding an...1973. Kantowitz, B.H. & Knight, J.L. On experimenter limited processes. Psychological Review, 1976, 83, 502-507. S * 71 Karis, D., Fabiani , M., & Donchin...Proceedings of the 21st Arnual Meeting of the Human Factors Society, Santa Monica , CTiTornTa,19T;7. I • i ,. . . , ;i _ L jl i ~73 Wickens, C.D., & Kessel

  20. Ply-tear webbing energy absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, G. W. H.

    1972-01-01

    Ply-tear webbing is essentially two plain webbings that are bound together by a portion of the warps and that can be torn apart and do work by breaking the binders. Nylon webbing were woven to range in tear force from 1 to 10 kilonewtons. This force is substantially independent of speed, which was as high as 100 m/sec in some cases. A specific energy absorption of 90 J/g was achieved in the dry state. However, lower rated webbings that absorb approximately 40 J/g are recommended for use in practice where it is acceptable.

  1. The Trifid Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image of the Trifid Nebula reveals a stellar nursery being torn apart by a nearby massive star. Embryonic stars are forming within an ill-fated cloud of dust and gas, which is destined to be eaten away by the glare from the massive neighbor. The cloud is about 8 light years away from the nebula' s central star. This stellar activity is a beautiful example of how the life cycle of stars like our Sun is intimately cornected with their more powerful siblings. Residing in the constellation Sagittarius, the Trifid Nebula is about 9,000 light years from Earth.

  2. Partial necrosis of the lunate after a translunate palmar perilunate fracture dislocation.

    PubMed

    Akane, Mao; Tatebe, Masahiro; Iyoda, Kazuhito; Ota, Kyotaro; Iwatsuki, Katsuyuki; Yamamoto, Michiro; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2014-02-01

    We present an extreme rare case of traumatic partial avascular necrosis of the lunate after palmar perilunate dislocation with lunate fracture. A 32-year-old female was injured by motorcycle accident with palmar perilunate fracture dislocation and lunate fracture. Scapholunate and lunotriquetrum dislocations were reduced and fixed temporarily. The torn dorsal ligament was repaired. Considering close observation with both arthroscopy and fluoroscopy, we decided not to conduct open reduction and internal fixation for the lunate. Partial avascular necrosis of the lunate appeared gradually in follow-up.

  3. PARTIAL NECROSIS OF THE LUNATE AFTER A TRANSLUNATE PALMAR PERILUNATE FRACTURE DISLOCATION

    PubMed Central

    AKANE, MAO; TATEBE, MASAHIRO; IYODA, KAZUHITO; OTA, KYOTARO; IWATSUKI, KATSUYUKI; YAMAMOTO, MICHIRO; HIRATA, HITOSHI

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present an extreme rare case of traumatic partial avascular necrosis of the lunate after palmar perilunate dislocation with lunate fracture. A 32-year-old female was injured by motorcycle accident with palmar perilunate fracture dislocation and lunate fracture. Scapholunate and lunotriquetrum dislocations were reduced and fixed temporarily. The torn dorsal ligament was repaired. Considering close observation with both arthroscopy and fluoroscopy, we decided not to conduct open reduction and internal fixation for the lunate. Partial avascular necrosis of the lunate appeared gradually in follow-up. PMID:25130008

  4. 53. VIEW OF THE W.J. MILLER SAWMILL IN DAWSON AFTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. VIEW OF THE W.J. MILLER SAWMILL IN DAWSON AFTER FIRE DESTROYED THE MILL 1936. PHOTOGRAPH SHOWS SOME REMAINING STRUCTURES LOOKING EAST TO WEST ON SITE. LOCOMOTIVE WAS USED TO DELIVER LOGS TO I.P. MILLER SAWMILL AT WEST END OF MILL POND. BELOW LARGE BUILDING ARE TWO BAYS WHERE HOG FUEL WAS LOADED ONTO RAILROAD CARS. ON RIGHT SIDE OF LARGE STORAGE AREA. CENTER BUILDING ALONG RAILROAD IS BLACKSMITH SHOP. STRUCTURES WERE LATER TORN DOWN. PHOTOGRAPHER: UNKNOWN. DATE: 1938. COURTESY OF RALPH HULL. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  5. Intra-abdominal bleeding in appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Thongprayoon, C; Pasa-Arj, S

    1991-08-01

    A 34-year-old woman, gravida 6 with 10 weeks of gestation was admitted because of abdominal pain and fainting. On physical examination she had hypotension, was pale with abdominal tenderness and guarding. Culdocentesis yielded unclotted blood. Immediate laparotomy was performed, because a diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy was made. About 2,500 ml of fresh blood was found in the abdominal cavity. Appendicular artery tear caused active arterial bleeding. The torn appendicular artery was observed to be the consequence of perforated appendicitis, which, in turn, was caused by a faecalith. Appendectomy was performed and she made a good recovery.

  6. Person-Locator System Based On Wristband Radio Transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Frederick W.; Blaes, Brent R.; Chandler, Charles W.

    1995-01-01

    Computerized system based on wristband radio frequency (RF), passive transponders is being developed for use in real-time tracking of individuals in custodial institutions like prisons and mental hospitals. Includes monitoring system that contains central computer connected to low-power, high-frequency central transceiver. Transceiver connected to miniature transceiver nodes mounted unobtrusively at known locations throughout the institution. Wristband transponders embedded in common hospital wristbands. Wristbands tamperproof: each contains embedded wire loop which, when broken or torn off and discarded, causes wristband to disappear from system, thus causing alarm. Individuals could be located in a timely fashion at relatively low cost.

  7. Biomechanical analysis of articular-sided partial-thickness rotator cuff tear and repair.

    PubMed

    Mihata, Teruhisa; McGarry, Michelle H; Ishihara, Yoko; Bui, Christopher N H; Alavekios, Damon; Neo, Masashi; Lee, Thay Q

    2015-02-01

    Articular-sided partial-thickness rotator cuff tears are common injuries in throwing athletes. The superior shoulder capsule beneath the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons works as a stabilizer of the glenohumeral joint. To assess the effect of articular-sided partial-thickness rotator cuff tear and repair on shoulder biomechanics. The hypothesis was that shoulder laxity might be changed because of superior capsular plication in transtendon repair of articular-sided partial-thickness rotator cuff tears. Controlled laboratory study. Nine fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders were tested by using a custom shoulder-testing system at the simulated late-cocking phase and acceleration phase of throwing motion. Maximum glenohumeral external rotation angle, anterior translation, position of the humeral head apex with respect to the glenoid, internal impingement area, and glenohumeral and subacromial contact pressures were measured. Each specimen underwent 3 stages of testing: stage 1, with the intact shoulder; stage 2, after creation of articular-sided partial-thickness tears of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons; and stage 3, after transtendon repair of the torn tendons by using 2 suture anchors. Articular-sided partial-thickness tears did not significantly change any of the shoulder biomechanical measurements. In the simulated late-cocking phase, transtendon rotator cuff repair resulted in decreased maximum external rotation angle by 4.2° (P = .03), posterior shift of the humeral head (1.1-mm shift; P = .02), decreased glenohumeral contact pressure by 1.7 MPa (56%; P = .004), and decreased internal impingement area by 26.4 mm(2) (65%; P < .001) compared with values in the torn shoulder. In the acceleration phase, the humeral head shifted inferiorly (1.2-mm shift; P = .03 vs torn shoulder), and glenohumeral anterior translation (1.5-mm decrease; P = .03 vs torn shoulder) and subacromial contact pressure (32% decrease; P = .004 vs intact shoulder) decreased

  8. The Importance of the Intercondylar Notch in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Jaén, Tomás; López-Alcorocho, Juan Manuel; Rodriguez-Iñigo, Elena; Castellán, Fabián; Hernández, Juan Carlos; Guillén-García, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Background The factors associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are not completely clear. Some studies have shown that patients with a narrow intercondylar notch have a predisposition for ACL tears. Purpose To determine the relationship between the α angle and intercondylar notch width measurements and ACL tears. Study Design Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods A total of 530 patients (308 with ACL rupture, 222 with healthy ACLs) were included in this study. The α angle and intercondylar width were measured from magnetic resonance images (MRIs). Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the influence of the variables on ACL status (normal or torn). Odds ratios (ORs) and their respective 95% CIs were also calculated. Results No significant differences in patient age and the affected knee were found between patients with normal or torn ACLs. The mean α angle was higher in patients with a torn ACL than in those with an intact one (57.5° ± 5.5° vs 56.2° ± 4.5°; P = .009). Intercondylar width was significantly lower in patients with a torn ACL than in those with an intact one (18.2 ± 3.1 vs 19.5 ± 3.6 mm; P < .001). A highly significant difference between men and women was found for mean intercondylar notch width (19.3 ± 3.3 vs 17.4 ± 3.1 mm; P < .001). In a logistic regression model, sex, intercondylar width, and α angle were statistically significant when adjusted for age. Conclusion Study results suggest that the ACL tears are associated with a narrow intercondylar notch and a high α angle, and that tears occur more frequently in men than in women. Clinical Relevance The model proposed in this study could be used by the physician in the medical office as a tool to identify the risk factors that may predispose a patient for a potential ACL tear. PMID:26535388

  9. China's struggle for practical regulations in medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Döring, Ole

    2003-03-01

    The introduction of ethical regulations in medicine in China might seem at odds with the country's social and moral reality. Chinese bioethicists find themselves torn between the necessity to re-create a fully-fledged modern health-care system and aspirations to become global players in the biomedical sciences. The result is a top-down approach in medical ethics, created on behalf of the people. Despite its introduction, there are concerns about whether China is prepared to embrace the standards it claims to have adopted.

  10. Kurdistan Region, Asia as seen from STS-58

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-10-30

    STS058-95-028 (18 Oct-1Nov 1993) --- Lake Urmia (Orumiyeh) in the high desert plateau of northwest Iran dominates the center of this northeast-looking view. The left edge of the view cuts Lake Van in eastern Turkey. The Caucasus Mountains in war-torn Georgia appear just beyond. Mount Ararat, of biblical fame, is a major peak north of Lake Van. The Caspian Sea, an international body of water, stretches across the top right of the view. Countries bordering the Caspian are Iran in the south, Kazakhstan in the west, and Russia and Azerbaijan in the west.

  11. History of Hubble Space Telescope (HST)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-09-08

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image of the Trifid Nebula reveals a stellar nursery being torn apart by a nearby massive star. Embryonic stars are forming within an ill-fated cloud of dust and gas, which is destined to be eaten away by the glare from the massive neighbor. The cloud is about 8 light years away from the nebula' s central star. This stellar activity is a beautiful example of how the life cycle of stars like our Sun is intimately cornected with their more powerful siblings. Residing in the constellation Sagittarius, the Trifid Nebula is about 9,000 light years from Earth.

  12. Application of X-ray Refraction-Contrast to Medical Joint Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Shimao, Daisuke; Mori, Koichi; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Ando, Masami

    2004-05-12

    The refraction-contrast X-ray imaging technique using synchrotron X-ray has been applied to an 8 mm sliced distal end of a human femur involving ligament and articular cartilage at 15 keV. It was shown that this technique can clearly depict the fine structures of the ligament, its torn surface and substantial articular cartilage at near the just Bragg angular position. The entrance surface dose necessary for each image was approximately 4 mGy by using an imaging plate. This imaging technique may become a powerful tool for depicting abnormalities of the ligament and articular cartilage.

  13. Thermocouple tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. D. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A thermocouple which may be rolled as a tape until needed and a method of making it are described. Thermoelectrically different metals are applied to a strip of electrically nonconductive material in longitudinally overlapping relationship. Apertures may be provided along the tape in overlapping region at predetermined intervals. An adhesive material is applied to the side of the tape opposite the thermoelectric metals either before or after the thermoelectric metals are deposited. The tape may be cut or torn to form a thermocouple device which is ready for application to a body whose temperature is to be monitored or measured.

  14. Pilot Hartsfield reviews TAGS teleprinter printout of instructions on middeck

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1982-07-04

    STS004-26-243 (27 June 1982) --- Astronaut Henry W. Hartsfield Jr., STS-4 pilot, has just torn off a rather prolific gathering of hard copy print-outs from the teleprinter aboard the Earth-orbiting space shuttle Columbia during NASA?s fourth orbital flight test. The teleprinter is located in the middeck area of the reusable spacecraft. The photograph was made by astronaut Thomas K. Mattingly II, STS-4 commander. The two shared a little more than seven days of duties aboard the space shuttle Columbia. Photo credit: NASA

  15. The Tow Channel

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-27

    This archival image was released as part of a gallery comparing JPL's past and present, commemorating the 80th anniversary of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory on Oct. 31, 2016. During World War II, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory had a contract with the U.S. Army to develop rocket torpedoes. This picture from August 1944 shows the test facility, known as the "Tow Channel." It was used for storage for many years before being torn out to make space for the Earth and Space Science Laboratory (Building 300) and the Microdevices Laboratory (Building 302). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21124

  16. MMPI performance of central American refugees and Mexican immigrants.

    PubMed

    Clark, S; Callahan, W J; Lichtszajn, J; Velasquez, R J

    1996-12-01

    This study compared the MMPI scores of Central American refugees from Guatemala and El Salvador to those of Mexican immigrants. It was expected that subjects from Guatemala and El Salvador would obtain higher scores on the F, D, Pa, and Sc scales because these subjects came from "war-torn" countries. A multivariate analysis of variance yielded no significant differences between the three groups on any of the validity and clinical scales including F, D, Pa, and Sc. Recommendations for cross-national research are noted especially in light of the new version, or MMPI-2.

  17. A new day: Challenger and space flight thereafter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonputtkamer, Jesco

    1986-01-01

    On January 28, 1986, at an altitude of 14 kilometers, the Space Shuttle Challenger was torn apart by an explosion of the external tank. The effects of the accident are undoubtedly far-reaching; they have broad repercussions that affect NASA's international partner organizations. The effects of the postponed shuttle flights on European space programs are discussed. A review of the German participation in the American space program is presented. The need to continue the future projects such as the space station is examined in light of its importance as a springboard for further exploration.

  18. Person-Locator System Based On Wristband Radio Transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Frederick W.; Blaes, Brent R.; Chandler, Charles W.

    1995-01-01

    Computerized system based on wristband radio frequency (RF), passive transponders is being developed for use in real-time tracking of individuals in custodial institutions like prisons and mental hospitals. Includes monitoring system that contains central computer connected to low-power, high-frequency central transceiver. Transceiver connected to miniature transceiver nodes mounted unobtrusively at known locations throughout the institution. Wristband transponders embedded in common hospital wristbands. Wristbands tamperproof: each contains embedded wire loop which, when broken or torn off and discarded, causes wristband to disappear from system, thus causing alarm. Individuals could be located in a timely fashion at relatively low cost.

  19. Environmental toxicological fate prediction of diverse organic chemicals based on steady-state compartmental chemical mass ratio using quantitative structure-fate relationship (QSFR) models.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Subrata; Roy, Kunal

    2013-07-01

    Four quantitative prediction models for steady-state compartmental chemical mass concentrations (Wn,g) were obtained from structural information, physiochemical properties, degradation rate and transport coefficients of 455 diverse organic chemicals using chemometric tools in a quantitative structure-fate relationship (QSFR) study. The mass ratio assessment of environmentally prevalent organic chemicals may be helpful to predict their toxicological fate in the ecosystems. Four sets of mass ratios [(1) log(Wair) from water emissions (water to air compartment), (2) log(Wair) from air emissions (within different zones of the air compartment), (3) log(Wwater) from water emissions (within different zones of the water compartment) and (4) log(Wwater) from air emissions (air to water compartment)] have been used. The developed models using genetic function approximation followed by multiple linear regression (GFA-MLR) and subsequent partial least squares (PLS) treatment identify only four descriptors for log(Wair) from water emission, six descriptors for log(Wair) from air emission, five descriptors for log(Wwater) from water emission and seven descriptors for log(Wwater) from air emission for predicting efficiently a large number of test set chemicals (ntest=182). The conclusive models suggest that descriptors such as partition coefficients (Kaw, Kow and Ksw), degradation parameters (Ksoil,Kwater and Kair), vapor pressure (Pv), diffusivity (Dwater), spatial descriptors (Jurs-WNSA-1, Jurs-WNSA-2, Jurs-WPSA-3, Jurs-FNSA-3 and Density), thermodynamic descriptors (MolRef and AlogP98), electrotopological state indices (S_dsN, S_ssNH and S_dsCH) are important for predicting the chemical mass ratios. The developed models may be applicable in toxicological fate prediction of diverse chemicals in the ecosystems.

  20. Quantification of Petrophysical Properties and Their Correlations with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Spectral Induced Polarization Responses in Carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F.; Zhang, C.

    2016-12-01

    Carbonate rocks are well known for their highly complex petrophysical behaviors due to their intrinsically heterogeneous pore geometry. This laboratory study focuses on integrating two geophysical methods: nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and spectral induced polarization (SIP) to determine porosity, pore size distribution, and permeability of various carbonate rock samples. Carbonate samples from Pennsylvanian and Mississippian reservoir are selected from four classes (mudstones, packstones, wackstones and grainstones), with distinct depositional fabrics and pore system. NMR measures the relaxation of hydrogen nuclei at pore scale, and SIP determines dielectric property of a sample and is sensitive to the interfacial properties at mineral-fluid. Samples were fully saturated for T2 relaxation and complex conductivity measurements. The permeability and porosity were also obtained from Klinkenberg K-air tests. Additionally, the results from thin section, mercury intrusion, and gas adsorption will be used to calibrate NMR and SIP datasets and further analyze the control of porosity, pore size distribution, and specific surface on NMR and SIP signals. Comparing T2 relaxation and complex conductivity with petrographic and analytical data on pore attributes, our results elucidate how porosity, pore size distribution, and permeability correlate in carbonate pore system. Porosity (phi)-permeability (K)-T2,ML plots illustrate the general distribution of samples' petrophysical properties. Clusters of four rock classes, as well as linear correlations between phi-K, and phi-T2 can be identified from these plots. Furthermore, variations of peak frequencies of phase changes in samples indicate that pore size distribution has the critical impact on SIP responses. As the first attempt to characterize carbonates with integrated NMR and SIP method, these results would help establish correlations among pore attributes, permeability and NMR/SIP responses, and provide reasonable

  1. Comparison of conversion coefficients for equivalent dose in terms of air kerma for photons using a male adult voxel simulator in sitting and standing posture with geometry of irradiation antero-posterior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeano, D. C.; Cavalcante, F. R.; Carvalho, A. B.; Hunt, J.

    2014-02-01

    The dose conversion coefficient (DCC) is important to quantify and assess effective doses associated with medical, professional and public exposures. The calculation of DCCs using anthropomorphic simulators and radiation transport codes is justified since in-vivo measurement of effective dose is extremely difficult and not practical for occupational dosimetry. DCCs have been published by the ICRP using simulators in a standing posture, which is not always applicable to all exposure scenarios, providing an inaccurate dose estimation. The aim of this work was to calculate DCCs for equivalent dose in terms of air kerma (H/Kair) using the Visual Monte Carlo (VMC) code and the VOXTISS8 adult male voxel simulator in sitting and standing postures. In both postures, the simulator was irradiated by a plane source of monoenergetic photons in antero-posterior (AP) geometry. The photon energy ranged from 15 keV to 2 MeV. The DCCs for both postures were compared and the DCCs for the standing simulator were higher. For certain organs, the difference of DCCs were more significant, as in gonads (48% higher), bladder (16% higher) and colon (11% higher). As these organs are positioned in the abdominal region, the posture of the anthropomorphic simulator modifies the form in which the radiation is transported and how the energy is deposited. It was also noted that the average percentage difference of conversion coefficients was 33% for the bone marrow, 11% for the skin, 13% for the bone surface and 31% for the muscle. For other organs, the percentage difference of the DCCs for both postures was not relevant (less than 5%) due to no anatomical changes in the organs of the head, chest and upper abdomen. We can conclude that is important to obtain DCCs using different postures from those present in the scientific literature.

  2. The effect of a compression paddle on energy response, calibration and measurement with mammographic dosimeters using ionization chambers and solid-state detectors.

    PubMed

    Hourdakis, C J; Boziari, A; Koumbouli, E

    2009-02-21

    A compression paddle is always used in mammography x-ray examinations, in order to improve image quality and reduce patient doses. Although clinical dose measurements should be performed with the paddle to interfere with the x-ray beam, calibration of mammography dosimeters is performed free in air without the presence of the paddle. The paddle hardens the x-ray beam, which has an impact on a dosimeter performance, particularly on high-energy-dependent detectors. Due to the paddle, clinical mammography x-ray systems may exhibit beams with HVL values exceeding those of the IEC 61267 RQR-M series qualities at which dosimeters are usually calibrated. In this study, the influence of the paddle in mammography dosimetry is examined, in Mo/Mo anode/filter x-ray qualities. PMMA slabs of 1, 2 and 3 mm thickness and Al foils of 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 mm thicknesses were used to simulate the paddles, producing beams with HVL values from 0.28 up to 0.43 mmAl. In these qualities, four solid-state (ST) detectors and three ionizations chambers (IC) were calibrated in terms of Kair and N(K) and k(Q) were deduced. The results showed that all IC and two modern-type ST dosimeters have a flat energy response in the above HVL range (less than 3%), so their calibration factor at RQR-M2 quality could be safely used for clinical measurements. Two other ST dosimeters exhibit up to 20% energy response, so differences up to 15% in dose measurement may be observed if the effect of paddle on their performance is ignored. Finally, the need of additional mammographic calibration qualities to the existing IEC 61267 RQR-M series is examined and discussed.

  3. Comparison of conversion coefficients for equivalent dose in terms of air kerma using a sitting and standing female adult voxel simulators exposure to photons in antero-posterior irradiation geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcante, F. R.; Galeano, D. C.; Carvalho Júnior, A. B.; Hunt, J.

    2014-02-01

    Due to the difficulty in implementing invasive techniques for calculations of dose for some exposure scenarios, computational simulators have been created to represent as realistically as possible the structures of the human body and through radiation transport simulations to obtain conversion coefficients (CCs) to estimate dose. In most published papers simulators are implemented in the standing posture and this may not describe a real scenario of exposure. In this work we developed exposure scenarios in the Visual Monte Carlo (VMC) code using a female simulator in standing and sitting postures. The simulator was irradiated in the antero-posterior (AP) geometry by a plane source of monoenergetic photons with energy from 10 keV to 2 MeV. The conversion coefficients for equivalent dose in terms of air kerma (HT/Kair) were calculated for both scenarios and compared. The results show that the percentage difference of CCs for the organs of the head and thorax was not significant (less than 5%) since the anatomic position of the organs is the same in both postures. The percentage difference is more significant to the ovaries (71% for photon energy of 20 keV), to the bladder (39% at 60 keV) and to the uterus (37% at 100 keV) due to different processes of radiation interactions in the legs of the simulator when its posture is changed. For organs and tissues that are distributed throughout the entire body, such as bone (21% at 100 keV) and muscle (30% at 80 keV) the percentage difference of CCs reflects a reduction of interaction of photons with the legs of the simulator. Therefore, the calculation of conversion coefficients using simulators in the sitting posture is relevant for a more accurate dose estimation in real exposures to radiation.

  4. Surgical revirgination: Four vaginal mucosal flaps for reconstruction of a hymen.

    PubMed

    Saraiya, Hemant A

    2015-01-01

    Over centuries, virginity has been given social, religious and moral importance. It is widely believed as a state of a female who has never engaged in sexual intercourse, and her hymen is intact. Hymenoplasty for torn hymen is carried out not only for the sake of cultural and religious traditions but also for the social status and interpersonal relationships. 2.5 cm long and 1 cm wide four vaginal mucosal flaps were raised from the anterior vaginal wall just behind labia minora. Two flaps were based proximally, and their two opposing flaps were based distally. These flaps were overlapped in a crisscross fashion and were sutured with 5/0 Polyglactin (Vicryl(®)) sutures leaving no area raw. The donor area was closed primarily. When some remains of a torn hymen were found, one to three vaginal mucosal flaps were added to its remains as per the need for reconstruction. We operated upon 11 patients. In nine cases, the hymen was reconstructed with four flaps. In remaining two, it was reconstructed from the remains using vaginal mucosal flaps. All flaps healed without any infection or disruption. Sutures got absorbed in 25-35 days. In all cases, this newly constructed barrier broke with only moderate pressure at the time of penetrative sex serving the purpose of the surgery completely. Erasing evidence of the sexual history simply by 'Surgical Revirgination' is extremely important to women contemplating marriage in cultures where a high value is placed on virginity.

  5. Comma Sign–Directed Repair of Anterosuperior Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Dilisio, Matthew F.; Neyton, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    The comma sign was described as an arthroscopic landmark to identify the torn subscapularis stump to mobilize and repair the tendon in anterosuperior rotator cuff tears. It was hypothesized that it is composed of the humeral attachments of the superior glenohumeral and coracohumeral ligaments. This arthroscopic finding has since become accepted orthopaedic nomenclature pathognomonic for subscapularis tears and a key component of subscapularis tear classification. We propose an alternative theory of the pathoanatomy of the comma sign in anterosuperior rotator cuff tears and present the technique of comma sign–directed repairs of combined subscapularis and supraspinatus lesions. After appropriate releases, tendon-to-tendon repair of the distal-superior aspect of the comma sign to the upper border of the remnant subscapularis results in anatomic re-creation of the intra-articular portion of the torn subscapularis with concomitant reduction of the anterior leading edge of the supraspinatus and reconstitution of the rotator cable complex. A tension-free, single-anchor subscapularis repair is then performed to secure the tendon to the lesser tuberosity. After subscapularis repair, the supraspinatus that was previously retracted to the glenoid rim takes the appearance of a crescent-type tear that is easily approximated to its anatomic insertion. PMID:25685676

  6. Accuracy of clinical diagnosis in knee arthroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Stuart; Morgan, Mamdouh

    2002-01-01

    A prospective study of 238 patients was performed in a district general hospital to assess current diagnostic accuracy rates and to ascertain the use and the effectiveness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning in reducing the number of negative arthroscopies. The pre-operative diagnosis of patients listed for knee arthroscopy was medial meniscus tear 94 (40%) and osteoarthritis 59 (25%). MRI scans were requested in 57 patients (24%) with medial meniscus tear representing 65% (37 patients). The correlation study was done between pre-operative diagnosis, MRI and arthroscopic diagnosis. Clinical diagnosis was as accurate as the MRI with 79% agreement between the preoperative diagnosis and arthroscopy compared to 77% agreement between MRI scan and arthroscopy. There was no evidence, in this study, that MRI scan can reduce the number of negative arthroscopies. Four normal MRI scans had positive arthroscopic diagnosis (two torn medial meniscus, one torn lateral meniscus and one chondromalacia patella). Out of 240 arthroscopies, there were only 10 normal knees (negative arthroscopy) representing 4% of the total number of knee arthroscopies; one patient of those 10 cases had MRI scan with ACL rupture diagnosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:12215031

  7. Tomographic search for missing link between the ancient Farallon subduction and the present Cocos subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbatov, Alexei; Fukao, Yoshio

    2005-03-01

    A striking feature of the tomographic images of the Earth's mid-mantle is the long, high-velocity belt extending in a north-south direction under the North and South American continents, which is believed to be the remnant subduction of the Farallon Plate. In the Oligocene epoch the North Farallon Plate subduction terminated off Baja California and the South Farallon Plate broke into the Cocos and Nazca plates. This important period of the Farallon subduction history is not clearly understood, due in part to the lack of high-resolution tomographic images. Our P-wave tomographic image of the mantle below Mexico indicates that the currently subducting slab of the Cocos Plate is torn apart from the already subducted slab of the ancient Farallon Plate in a region behind the slab window or slab gap off Baja California. We suggest that the southeastward advance of this slab tearing was synchronous with the counter-clockwise rotation of the Cocos Plate against the eastward to northeastward subduction of the ancient Farallon Plate. The Cocos slab torn apart from the deeper Farallon slab dips to the north to northeast with its strike oblique to the trench axis. This slab configuration delineates well with the intermediate-depth earthquake activity and the volcanic activity known as the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt. Further to the south of the slab tearing of the subducted slab continues from the deeper Farallon part to the shallower Cocos part but with considerable distortion in the shallower part.

  8. The use of an intra-articular depth guide in the measurement of partial thickness rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Michael J; More, Kristie D; Sohmer, Stephen; Nelson, Atiba A; Sciore, Paul; Boorman, Richard; Hollinshead, Robert; Lo, Ian K Y

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of the conventional method for determining the percentage of partial thickness rotator cuff tears to a method using an intra-articular depth guide. The clinical utility of the intra-articular depth guide was also examined. Methods. Partial rotator cuff tears were created in cadaveric shoulders. Exposed footprint, total tendon thickness, and percentage of tendon thickness torn were determined using both techniques. The results from the conventional and intra-articular depth guide methods were correlated with the true anatomic measurements. Thirty-two patients were evaluated in the clinical study. Results. Estimates of total tendon thickness (r = 0.41, P = 0.31) or percentage of thickness tears (r = 0.67, P = 0.07) using the conventional method did not correlate well with true tendon thickness. Using the intra-articular depth guide, estimates of exposed footprint (r = 0.92, P = 0.001), total tendon thickness (r = 0.96, P = 0.0001), and percentage of tendon thickness torn (r = 0.88, P = 0.004) correlated with true anatomic measurements. Seven of 32 patients had their treatment plan altered based on the measurements made by the intra-articular depth guide. Conclusions. The intra-articular depth guide appeared to better correlate with true anatomic measurements. It may be useful during the evaluation and development of treatment plans for partial thickness articular surface rotator cuff tears.

  9. Partial tearing of the anterior cruciate ligament: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Temponi, Eduardo Frois; de Carvalho Júnior, Lúcio Honório; Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Chambat, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Partial tears of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are common and represent 10-27% of the total. The main reasons for attending to cases of non-torn bundles are biomechanical, vascular and proprioceptive. Continued presence of the bundle also serves as protection during the healing process. There is controversy regarding the definition of these injuries, which is based on anatomy, clinical examination, translation measurements, imaging examinations and arthroscopy. The way in which it is treated will depend on the existing laxity and instability. Conservative treatment is optional for cases without instability, with a focus on motor rehabilitation. Surgical treatment is a challenge, since it requires correct positioning of the bone tunnels and conservation of the remnants of the torn bundle. The pivot shift test under anesthesia, the magnetic resonance findings, the previous level and type of sports activity and the arthroscopic appearance and mechanical properties of the remnants will aid the orthopedist in the decision-making process between conservative treatment, surgical treatment with strengthening of the native ACL (selective reconstruction) and classical (anatomical) reconstruction.

  10. Partial tearing of the anterior cruciate ligament: diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Temponi, Eduardo Frois; de Carvalho Júnior, Lúcio Honório; Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Chambat, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Partial tears of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are common and represent 10–27% of the total. The main reasons for attending to cases of non-torn bundles are biomechanical, vascular and proprioceptive. Continued presence of the bundle also serves as protection during the healing process. There is controversy regarding the definition of these injuries, which is based on anatomy, clinical examination, translation measurements, imaging examinations and arthroscopy. The way in which it is treated will depend on the existing laxity and instability. Conservative treatment is optional for cases without instability, with a focus on motor rehabilitation. Surgical treatment is a challenge, since it requires correct positioning of the bone tunnels and conservation of the remnants of the torn bundle. The pivot shift test under anesthesia, the magnetic resonance findings, the previous level and type of sports activity and the arthroscopic appearance and mechanical properties of the remnants will aid the orthopedist in the decision-making process between conservative treatment, surgical treatment with strengthening of the native ACL (selective reconstruction) and classical (anatomical) reconstruction. PMID:26229890

  11. A New Mechanism of Sediment Attachment to Oil in Turbulent Flows: Projectile Particles.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lin; Boufadel, Michel C; Katz, Joseph; Haspel, Gal; Lee, Kenneth; King, Thomas; Robinson, Brian

    2017-09-20

    The interaction of oil and sediment in the environment determines, to a large extent, the trajectory and fate of oil. Using confocal microscope imaging techniques to obtain detailed 3D structures of oil-particle aggregates (OPAs) formed in turbulent flows, we elucidated a new mechanism of particle attachment, whereby the particles behave as projectiles penetrating the oil droplets to depths varying from ∼2 to 10 μm due to the hydrodynamic forces in the water. This mechanism results in a higher attachment of particles on oil in comparison with adsorption, as commonly assumed. The projectile hypothesis also explains the fragmentation of oil droplets with time, which occurred after long hours of mixing, leading to the formation of massive OPA clusters. Various lines of inquiry strongly suggested that protruding particles get torn from oil droplets and carry oil with them, causing the torn particles to be amphiphillic so that they contribute to the formation of massive OPAs of smaller oil droplets (<∼5-10 μm). Low particle concentration resulted in large, irregularly shaped oil blobs over time, the deformation of which without fragmentation could be due to partial coverage of the oil droplet surface by particles. The findings herein revealed a new pathway for the fate of oil in environments containing non-negligible sediment concentrations.

  12. Parental care protects traumatized Sri Lankan children from internalizing behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Sriskandarajah, Vathsalan; Neuner, Frank; Catani, Claudia

    2015-08-25

    Research in war-torn regions has mainly focused on the impact of traumatic experiences on individual mental health and has found high prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in affected adults and children. However, little is known about the possible protective factors occurring in children's environments in the aftermath of mass trauma. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study with families in Northern Sri Lanka, a region that had been shattered by a long-lasting civil war and devastated by the Asian tsunami in 2004. Schoolchildren aged 7 to 11 (N = 359) were interviewed on the basis of standardized measures to assess children's exposure to traumatic events, mental health symptoms, and parenting behavior as perceived by children. All interviews were carried out by local senior counselors. Linear regression analyses identified exposure to mass trauma and family violence as significant risk factors of child mental health whereas parental care emerged as a significant factor associated with fewer behavior problems. In addition, parental care significantly moderated the relationship between mass trauma and internalizing behavior problems. Family characteristics seem to be strongly associated with children's mental health even in regions severely affected by mass trauma. This finding is particularly relevant for the development of targeted psychosocial interventions for children and families living in war torn areas.

  13. Management of acute unstable acromioclavicular joint injuries.

    PubMed

    Cisneros, Luis Natera; Reiriz, Juan Sarasquete

    2016-12-01

    Surgical management of acute unstable acromioclavicular joint injuries should be focused on realigning the torn ends of the ligaments to allow for healing potential. The most widely utilized treatment methods incorporate the use of metal hardware, which can alter the biomechanics of the acromioclavicular joint. This leads to a second surgical procedure for hardware removal once the ligaments have healed. Patients with unstable acromioclavicular joint injuries managed with arthroscopy-assisted procedures have shown good and excellent clinical outcomes, without the need for a second operation. These procedures incorporate a coracoclavicular suspension device aimed to function as an internal brace, narrowing the coracoclavicular space thus allowing for healing of the torn coracoclavicular ligaments. The lesser morbidity of a minimally invasive approach and the possibility to diagnose and treat concomitant intraarticular injuries; no obligatory implant removal, and the possibility of having a straight visualization of the inferior aspect of the base of the coracoid (convenient when placing coracoclavicular fixation systems) are the main advantages of the arthroscopic approach over classic open procedures. This article consists on a narrative review of the literature in regard to the management of acute acromioclavicular joint instability.

  14. Anterolateral ligament abnormalities in patients with acute anterior cruciate ligament rupture are associated with lateral meniscal and osseous injuries.

    PubMed

    Van Dyck, Pieter; Clockaerts, Stefan; Vanhoenacker, Filip M; Lambrecht, Valérie; Wouters, Kristien; De Smet, Eline; Gielen, Jan L; Parizel, Paul M

    2016-10-01

    To determine the frequency of anterolateral ligament (ALL) injury in patients with acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture and to analyse its associated injury patterns. Ninety patients with acute ACL rupture for which MRI was obtained within 8 weeks after the initial trauma were retrospectively identified. Two radiologists assessed the status of the ALL on MRI by consensus. The presence or absence of an ALL abnormality was compared with the existence of medial and lateral meniscal tears diagnosed during arthroscopy. Associated collateral ligament and osseous injuries were documented with MRI. Forty-one of 90 knees (46 %) demonstrated ALL abnormalities on MRI. Of 49 knees with intact ALL, 15 (31 %) had a torn lateral meniscus as compared to 25 torn lateral menisci in 41 knees (61 %) with abnormal ALL (p = 0.008). Collateral ligament (p ≤ 0.05) and osseous injuries (p = 0.0037) were more frequent and severe in ALL-injured as compared with ALL-intact knees. ALL injuries are fairly common in patients with acute ACL rupture and are statistically significantly associated with lateral meniscal, collateral ligament and osseous injuries. • ALL injuries are fairly common in patients with acute ACL rupture. • ALL injuries are highly associated with lateral meniscal and osseous injuries. • MRI assessment of ACL-injured knees should include evaluation of the ALL.

  15. Causes of and risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder: the beliefs of Iraqi and Afghan refugees resettled in Australia.

    PubMed

    Slewa-Younan, Shameran; Guajardo, Maria Gabriela Uribe; Yaser, Anisa; Mond, Jonathan; Smith, Mitchell; Milosevic, Diana; Smith, Caroline; Lujic, Sanja; Jorm, Anthony Francis

    2017-01-01

    Resettled refugees are a vulnerable group for mental health problems and in particular, trauma-related disorders. Evidence suggests that poor 'mental health literacy' (MHL) is a major factor in low or inappropriate treatment-seeking among individuals with mental health problems. This study sought to determine the beliefs regarding the causes of and risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) amongst two resettled refugee groups in Australia. Utilising a culturally adapted MHL survey method, 225 Iraqis and 150 Afghans of refugee background were surveyed. Approximately 52% of the Iraqi participants selected 'experiencing a traumatic event' as the 'most likely' cause for the clinical vignette, whereas 31.3% of the Afghan sample selected 'coming from a war torn country' as their top cause. While both groups identified being 'born in war torn country' as the most likely risk, at 34.4 and 48% of the Iraqis and Afghans respectively, differences regarding other risk factors selected were noted. The results of this study indicate the need for culturally sensitive health promotion and early intervention programs seeking to improve MHL relating to PTSD in resettled refugee populations. There is also a need for mental health services to recognise that variation in MHL may be a function of both the cultural origin of a refugee population and their resettlement experiences. Such recognition is needed in order to bridge the gap between Western, biomedical models for mental health care and the knowledge and beliefs of resettled refugee populations.

  16. Esophagectomy without thoracotomy: is there a risk of intramediastinal bleeding? A study on blood supply of the esophagus.

    PubMed Central

    Liebermann-Meffert, D M; Luescher, U; Neff, U; Rüedi, T P; Allgöwer, M

    1987-01-01

    In transhiatal blunt esophagectomy there is surprisingly little bleeding if no adjacent great vessels are torn. This prompted an investigation by new injection techniques and corrosion on the human esophageal vasculature three-dimensionally. The three main arterial sources were confirmed: the superior thyroid artery, bronchial arteries at the level of the carina, and the left gastric and splenic artery. Two facts became obvious that were not appreciated hitherto. All major vascular trees divide into minute branches at some distance from the esophagus. Those branches go on to form a dense submucosal interconnected network. It appears that such small extraesophageal branches, when torn, will have the benefit of contractile hemostasis. Previous claims made that essential nutritional vessels arise from intercostal phrenic arteries or the aorta directly could not be confirmed. These findings would confirm blunt esophagectomy for tumors within the wall of the organ as a relatively safe procedure in terms of bleeding hazards. Images Figs. 3A and B. Fig. 4. Figs. 5A-D. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 11. PMID:3606244

  17. Effects of shoulder arthroplasty and exercise in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Mengshoel, Anne Marit; Slungaard, Bente

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine pain and shoulder function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) before and after shoulder arthroplasty and postoperative exercise. Twenty-four patients (26 shoulders) were consecutively included in a multicentre study. Before surgery, at discharge from hospital and after 3 and 6 months, perceived shoulder function and shoulder pain were assessed by visual analogue scales, activities of daily living by the Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (M-HAQ) and shoulder range of motion (ROM) by a goniometer. All patients showed considerable pain reduction at discharge from hospital (p<0.001). In those with intact rotator cuff and biceps tendon (n=13) improvements were found after 6 months in active and passive abduction and flexion ROMs (p<0.01) and in M-HAQ (p<0.001). Such improvements were not found in those with torn soft tissue (n=12). Preoperatively, abduction and flexion motor deficits (passive ROM >active ROM) were found for the total group (p=0.001). Less flexion motor deficit was found in the intact soft tissue than in the torn soft tissue group after 3 (p=0.002) and 6 months (p<0.001). No group difference was found with respect to abduction motor deficit. In conclusion, pain relief was obtained by all patients. Improvements in ROMs and activities of daily living were influenced by the state of the soft tissue.

  18. Load limiting energy absorbing lightweight debris catcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Jon B. (Inventor); Schneider, William C. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    In the representative embodiment of the invention disclosed, a load limiting, energy absorbing net is arranged to overlay a normally-covered vent opening in the rear bulkhead of the space orbiter vehicle. Spatially-disposed flexible retainer straps are extended from the net and respectively secured to bulkhead brackets spaced around the vent opening. The intermediate portions of the straps are doubled over and stitched together in a pattern enabling the doubled-over portions to progressively separate at a predicable load designed to be well below the tensile capability of the straps as the stitches are successively torn apart by the forces imposed on the retainer members whenever the cover plate is explosively separated from the bulkhead and propelled into the net. By arranging these stitches to be successively torn away at a load below the strap strength in response to forces acting on the retainers that are less than the combined strength of the retainers, this tearing action serves as a predictable compact energy absorber for safely halting the cover plate as the retainers are extended as the net is deployed. The invention further includes a block of an energy-absorbing material positioned in the net for receiving loose debris produced by the explosive release of the cover plate.

  19. Formation of molecular gas in the tidal debris of violent galaxy-galaxy interactions.

    PubMed

    Braine, J; Lisenfeld, U; Duc, P A; Leon, S; Due, P A

    2000-02-24

    In many gravitational interactions between galaxies, gas and stars that have been torn from the precursor galaxies can collect in tidal 'tails'. Star formation begins anew in some of these regions, producing tidal dwarf galaxies. Observations of these new galaxies provides insight into processes relevant to galaxy formation more generally, because the timescale of the interaction is well defined. But tracking the star formation process has hitherto been difficult because the tidal dwarf galaxies with young stars showed no evidence of the molecular gas out of which those young stars formed. Here we report the discovery of molecular hydrogen (traced by carbon monoxide emission) in two tidal dwarf galaxies. In both cases, the concentration of molecular gas peaks at the same location as the maximum in atomic-hydrogen density, unlike the situation in most gas-rich galaxies. We infer from this that the molecular gas formed from the atomic hydrogen, rather than being torn in molecular form from the interacting galaxies. Star formation in the tidal dwarf galaxies therefore appears to mimic the process in normal spiral galaxies like our own.

  20. The histological structure of the malleolar groove of the fibula in man: its direct bearing on the displacement of peroneal tendons and their surgical repair

    PubMed Central

    Kumai, T; Benjamin, M

    2003-01-01

    The peroneal (fibularis) tendons are held in place within the malleolar groove by the superior peroneal retinaculum. If this is torn, the tendons can subluxate or dislocate. Understanding the anatomy of the region is important for treating these injuries when it becomes necessary to reconstruct the malleolar groove surgically. Serial transverse sections of the groove were cut from 10 dissecting room cadavers after routine histology processing. The structure of the malleolar groove differed significantly in its proximal and distal parts. Distally, the bone is convex and the shape of the groove is determined by a thick periosteal cushion of fibrocartilage that covers the bone surface. Proximally, the groove shape is determined by the bone itself, and the periosteum is thin and fibrous. The restriction of a periosteal fibrocartilage to the distal end suggests that it serves to adapt the shape of the malleolar groove to that of the tendons within it and thus promotes stress dissipation. Paradoxically, however, it increases the risk of damage to subluxated tendons, because these can be sliced longitudinally by a sharp ridge created from periosteal fibrocartilage when the retinaculum is torn. Our results suggest that if bone-block surgical procedures are used to reconstruct the malleolar groove, they are best restricted to its proximal part. PMID:12924825

  1. The role of arthroscopy in treating osteoarthritis of the knee in the older patient.

    PubMed

    Howell, Stephen M

    2010-09-07

    Arthroscopy of the osteoarthritic knee is a common and costly practice with limited and specific indications. The extent of osteoarthritis (OA) is determined by joint space narrowing, which is best measured on a weight-bearing radiograph of the knee in 30° or 45° of flexion. The patient older than 40 years with a normal joint space should have a magnetic resonance image taken to rule out focal cartilage wear and avascular necrosis before recommending arthroscopy. Randomized controlled trials of patients with joint space narrowing have shown that outcomes after arthroscopic lavage or debridement are no better than those after a sham procedure (placebo effect), and that arthroscopic surgery provides no additional benefit to physical and medical therapy. The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons guideline on the Treatment of Osteoarthritis of the Knee (2008) recommended against performing arthroscopy with a primary diagnosis of OA of the knee, with the caveat that partial meniscectomy or loose body removal is an option in patients with OA that have primary mechanical signs and symptoms of a torn meniscus and/or loose body. There is no evidence that removal of loose debris, cartilage flaps, torn meniscal fragments, and inflammatory enzymes have any pain relief or functional benefit in patients that have joint space narrowing on standing radiographs. Many patients with joint space narrowing are older with multiple medical comorbidities. Consider the complications and consequences when recommending arthroscopy to treat the painful osteoarthritic knee without mechanical symptoms, as there is no proven clinical benefit.

  2. Ditching Investigation of a 1/18-Scale Model of the North American B-45 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Lloyd J.; Thompson, William C.

    1949-01-01

    An investigation of a 1/18-scale dynamically similar model of the North American B-45 airplane was made to observe the ditching behavior and determine the proper landing technique to be used in an emergency water landing. Various conditions of damage were simulated to determine the behavior which probably would occur in a full-scale ditching. The behavior of the model was determined from high-speed motion-picture records, time-history acceleration records, and visual observations. It was concluded that the airplane should be ditched at the maximum nose-high attitude with the landing flaps full down for minimum landing speed. During the ditching, the nose-wheel and bomb-bay doors probably will be torn away and the rear of the fuselage flooded. A violent dive will very likely occur. Longitudinal decelerations of approximately 5g and vertical accelerations of approximately -6g (including gravity) will be experienced near the pilots' compartment. Ditching braces installed in the bomb bay will tend to improve the behavior slightly but will be torn away along with the bomb-bay doors. A hydroflap installed ahead of the nose-wheel doors will eliminate the dive and failure of the nose-wheel doors, and substantially reduce the motions and accelerations.

  3. Utilities are doing too much breaker maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Heising, C. )

    1994-12-01

    Many breaker failures occur after the breaker has been torn down for maintenance because some error was made in reassembling it. Utilities now can get a better understanding of circuit breaker reliability as the result of a worldwide survey conducted by the International Conference on Large High-Voltage Electric Systems (Cigre) of the reliability of circuit breakers 63 kV and above. The most significant finding is that the rate of major failures have dropped drastically with the introduction of modern SF[sub 6] breakers (from 1.58 to 0.67 per 100 breaker-years). But the rate of minor failures - such as gas leaks, which require maintenance and add to the operating cost - has increased by 30%. Incorrect maintenance causes far fewer failures in modern breakers, simply because they have to be torn down less frequently. Only 15% as many major failures and 77% as many minor failures can be attributed to incorrect maintenance. The failure to open or close on command are still the dominant major-failure modes of circuit breakers. 4 tabs.

  4. The response of supraalveolar gingival collagen to orthodontic rotation movement in dogs.

    PubMed

    Redlich, M; Rahamim, E; Gaft, A; Shoshan, S

    1996-09-01

    An orthodontically rotated tooth relapses toward its pretreatment position. Explanations for this phenomenon have been given after light microscopic studies, according to which it had been assumed that stretched supraalveolar gingival fibers pulled back the tooth and brought about relaxation of the stretched fibers. The rotational relapse, however, can be prevented by supraalveolar fiberotomy of the gingiva around the tooth. This investigation was initiated to reevaluate the validity of the hitherto assumed causes for the relapse, by obtaining ultrastructural data on the response of collagen fibers after orthodontic intervention. Lateral maxillary incisors in the dog were rotated with bonded fixed appliances. The teeth were divided into groups according to different orthodontic procedures. Scanning and transmission electron microscopic analyses were performed on gingival samples after proper processing. Analyses of the untreated control samples showed well-organized, parallel, and densely packed thick bundles of collagen fibers, interconnected with thin fibers. After rotation-followed-by-retention, the gingival fibers were torn, ripped, disorganized, and laterally spaced and of increased diameter. Thus it was concluded that all these patterns are incompatible with stretching. Also, an increased number of elastic fibers were seen in proximity to the torn collagen fibers. After gingival fiberotomy, most fibers resumed the appearance of the organized pattern of large fiber bundles similar to those seen in the controls.

  5. Amputation of finger by horse bite with complete avulsion of both flexor tendons.

    PubMed

    Koren, Lior; Stahl, Shalom; Rovitsky, Alexey; Peled, Eli

    2011-08-08

    Amputation of fingers with tendon avulsion occurs through a traction injury, and most occur through a ring avulsion mechanism. Usually the flexor digitorum profundus is torn out with the amputated finger. Replantation usually is recommended only when the amputation is distal to the flexor digitorum superficialis insertion. Animal bites are relatively common, with a decreasing order of frequency of dogs, cats, and humans. Horse bites are relatively infrequent but are associated with crush injuries and tissue loss when they occur. This article describes a 23-year-old man with amputation of his middle finger at the level of the proximal phalanx after being bitten by a horse. The amputated stump was avulsed with the middle finger flexor digitorum profundus and flexor digitorum superficialis torn from the muscle-tendon junction from approximately the middle of the forearm. The patient had no other injuries, and he was able to move his other 4 fingers with only mild pain. As the amputated digit was not suitable for replantation, the wound was irrigated and debrided. The edges of the phalanx were trimmed, and the edges of the wound were sutured. Tetanus toxoid and rabies vaccine were administered, along with intravenous amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. The patient was discharged from the hospital 2 days later, with no sign of infection of the wound or compartment syndrome of the forearm. This case demonstrates the weakest point in the myotendinous junction and emphasizes the importance of a careful physical examination in patients with a traumatic amputation. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Document reconstruction by layout analysis of snippets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleber, Florian; Diem, Markus; Sablatnig, Robert

    2010-02-01

    Document analysis is done to analyze entire forms (e.g. intelligent form analysis, table detection) or to describe the layout/structure of a document. Also skew detection of scanned documents is performed to support OCR algorithms that are sensitive to skew. In this paper document analysis is applied to snippets of torn documents to calculate features for the reconstruction. Documents can either be destroyed by the intention to make the printed content unavailable (e.g. tax fraud investigation, business crime) or due to time induced degeneration of ancient documents (e.g. bad storage conditions). Current reconstruction methods for manually torn documents deal with the shape, inpainting and texture synthesis techniques. In this paper the possibility of document analysis techniques of snippets to support the matching algorithm by considering additional features are shown. This implies a rotational analysis, a color analysis and a line detection. As a future work it is planned to extend the feature set with the paper type (blank, checked, lined), the type of the writing (handwritten vs. machine printed) and the text layout of a snippet (text size, line spacing). Preliminary results show that these pre-processing steps can be performed reliably on a real dataset consisting of 690 snippets.

  7. Reconstruction versus conservative treatment after rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament: cost effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The decision whether to treat conservatively or reconstruct surgically a torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is an ongoing subject of debate. The high prevalence and associated public health burden of torn ACL has led to continuous efforts to determine the best therapeutic approach. A critical evaluation of benefits and expenditures of both treatment options as in a cost effectiveness analysis seems well-suited to provide valuable information for treating physicians and healthcare policymakers. Methods A literature review identified four of 7410 searched articles providing sufficient outcome probabilities for the two treatment options for modeling. A transformation key based on the expert opinions of 25 orthopedic surgeons was used to derive utilities from available evidence. The cost data for both treatment strategies were based on average figures compiled by Orthopaedic University Hospital Balgrist and reinforced by Swiss national statistics. A decision tree was constructed to derive the cost-effectiveness of each strategy, which was then tested for robustness using Monte Carlo simulation. Results Decision tree analysis revealed a cost effectiveness of 16,038 USD/0.78 QALY for ACL reconstruction and 15,466 USD/0.66 QALY for conservative treatment, implying an incremental cost effectiveness of 4,890 USD/QALY for ACL reconstruction. Sensitivity analysis of utilities did not change the trend. Conclusion ACL reconstruction for reestablishment of knee stability seems cost effective in the Swiss setting based on currently available evidence. This, however, should be reinforced with randomized controlled trials comparing the two treatment strategies. PMID:22098703

  8. Anatomical Knee Variants in Discoid Lateral Meniscal Tears

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xu-Xu; Li, Jian; Wang, Tao; Zhao, Yang; Kang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Background: Discoid lateral meniscus was a common meniscal dysplasia and was predisposed to tear. There were some anatomical knee variants in patients with discoid lateral meniscus. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between anatomical knee variants and discoid lateral meniscal tears. Methods: There were totally 125 cases of discoid lateral meniscus enrolled in this study from February 2008 to December 2013. Eighty-seven patients who underwent arthroscopic surgery for right torn discoid lateral meniscus were enrolled in the torn group. An additional 38 patients who were incidentally identified as having intact discoid lateral menisci on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were included in the control group. All patients were evaluated for anatomical knee variants on plain radiographs, including lateral joint space distance, height of the lateral tibial spine, height of the fibular head, obliquity of the lateral tibial plateau, squaring of the lateral femoral condyle, cupping of the lateral tibial plateau, lateral femoral condylar notch, and condylar cutoff sign. The relationship between anatomical variants and meniscal tear was evaluated. These anatomical variants in cases with complete discoid meniscus were also compared with those in cases with incomplete discoid meniscus. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in lateral joint space distance (P = 0.528), height of the lateral tibial spine (P = 0.927), height of the fibular head (P = 0.684), obliquity of the lateral tibial plateau (P = 0.672), and the positive rates of squaring of the lateral femoral condyle (P = 0.665), cupping of the lateral tibial plateau (P = 0.239), and lateral femoral condylar notch (P = 0.624). The condylar cutoff sign was significantly different between the two groups, with the prominence ratio in the torn group being smaller than that in the control group (0.74 ± 0.11 vs. 0.81 ± 0.04, P = 0.049). With the decision value of the

  9. The Bridge-Enhanced Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair (BEAR) Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Martha M.; Flutie, Brett M.; Kalish, Leslie A.; Ecklund, Kirsten; Fleming, Braden C.; Proffen, Benedikt L.; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the safety of the newly developed bridge-enhanced anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair (BEAR), which involves suture repair of the ligament combined with a bioactive scaffold to bridge the gap between the torn ligament ends. As the intra-articular environment is complex in its response to implanted materials, this study was designed to determine whether there would be a significant rate of adverse reaction to the implanted scaffold. Hypothesis: The primary hypothesis was that the implanted scaffold would not result in a deep joint infection (arthrocentesis with positive culture) or significant inflammation (clinical symptoms justifying arthrocentesis but negative culture). The secondary hypotheses were that patients treated with BEAR would have early postoperative outcomes that were similar to patients treated with ACL reconstruction with an autologous hamstring graft. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: A total of 20 patients were enrolled in this nonrandomized, first-in-human study. Ten patients received BEAR treatment and 10 received a hamstring autograft ACL reconstruction. The BEAR procedure was performed by augmenting a suture repair with a proprietary scaffold, the BEAR scaffold, placed in between the torn ends of the ACL at the time of suture repair. The BEAR scaffold is to our knowledge the only device that fills the gap between the torn ligament ends to have current Investigational Device Exemption approval from the Food and Drug Administration. Ten milliliters of autologous whole blood were added to the scaffold prior to wound closure. Outcomes were assessed at 3 months postoperatively. The outcomes measures included postoperative pain, muscle atrophy, loss of joint range of motion, and implant failure (designated by an International Knee Documentation Committee grade C or D Lachman test and/or an absence of continuous ACL tissue on magnetic resonance images). Results: There were no joint

  10. The anatomy and vascularity of the lunate: considerations applied to Kienböck's disease.

    PubMed

    Lamas, C; Carrera, A; Proubasta, I; Llusà, M; Majó, J; Mir, X

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the anatomy and vascularity of the lunate. The genesis of lunatomalacia requires some combination of vascular risk and mechanical predisposition. The findings will be correlated with the major existing theories of the cause of Kienböck's disease. We studied 27 cadaver upper limbs using latex injection and the Spalteholz technique. We investigated the blood supply to the lunate. In 24 wrists we evaluated the incidence and distribution of anatomic features, arthrosis, and soft tissue lesions. We correlated the lunate morphology and ligaments disruptions with the arthritic changes. The lunate morphology results as classified by Antuña-Zapico were five type I (20.8%), 18 type II (75%) and one type III (4.2%). The lunate was found to have a separate facet for the hamate in 11 cases (45.8%). The most common size of the facet was found to be 3 mm (range, 3-6 mm). Arthrosis was identified with most frequency in the radius (88.2%) and lunate (94.1%). The triangular fibrocartilage complex was found torn in 58.3%, the lunotriquetral interosseous ligament was torn in 20.8% and the scapholunate interosseous ligament (SLIL) was torn in 54.2% of the wrists. There was a correlation between the presence of arthrosis at the hamate and the presence of a lunate facet (P=0.027) and a correlation between the presence of a tear in the SLIL and arthrosis in the scaphoid (P=0.002). The nutrient vessels entered the lunate through the dorsal and volar poles in all the specimens. The dorsal intercarpal and radiocarpal arches supply blood to the lunate from a plexus of vessels located directly over the lunate's dorsal pole. Vessels entered the dorsal aspect of the lunate through one to three foramina. One to five nutrient vessels were observed entering the volar pole through various ligament insertions, including the ligament of Testut-Kuentz (radio-scapho-lunate (RSL) ligament) and the radiolunate triquetrum ligament (or dorsoradial carpal ligament

  11. The Bridge-Enhanced Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair (BEAR) Procedure: An Early Feasibility Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Murray, Martha M; Flutie, Brett M; Kalish, Leslie A; Ecklund, Kirsten; Fleming, Braden C; Proffen, Benedikt L; Micheli, Lyle J

    2016-11-01

    This study assessed the safety of the newly developed bridge-enhanced anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair (BEAR), which involves suture repair of the ligament combined with a bioactive scaffold to bridge the gap between the torn ligament ends. As the intra-articular environment is complex in its response to implanted materials, this study was designed to determine whether there would be a significant rate of adverse reaction to the implanted scaffold. The primary hypothesis was that the implanted scaffold would not result in a deep joint infection (arthrocentesis with positive culture) or significant inflammation (clinical symptoms justifying arthrocentesis but negative culture). The secondary hypotheses were that patients treated with BEAR would have early postoperative outcomes that were similar to patients treated with ACL reconstruction with an autologous hamstring graft. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. A total of 20 patients were enrolled in this nonrandomized, first-in-human study. Ten patients received BEAR treatment and 10 received a hamstring autograft ACL reconstruction. The BEAR procedure was performed by augmenting a suture repair with a proprietary scaffold, the BEAR scaffold, placed in between the torn ends of the ACL at the time of suture repair. The BEAR scaffold is to our knowledge the only device that fills the gap between the torn ligament ends to have current Investigational Device Exemption approval from the Food and Drug Administration. Ten milliliters of autologous whole blood were added to the scaffold prior to wound closure. Outcomes were assessed at 3 months postoperatively. The outcomes measures included postoperative pain, muscle atrophy, loss of joint range of motion, and implant failure (designated by an International Knee Documentation Committee grade C or D Lachman test and/or an absence of continuous ACL tissue on magnetic resonance images). There were no joint infections or signs of significant inflammation in either group

  12. A cross-sectional study assessing the residual bio-efficacy and durability of field-distributed long-lasting insecticidal nets in malaria endemic ethnic communities of Assam, Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Dev, Vas; Barman, Keshab; Khound, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are being promoted for malaria vector control in the northeastern Indian state of Assam. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the current residual bio-efficacy and durability of both the Olyset(®) and PermaNet(®)2.0 LLINs that were distributed earlier in 2009, 2011 and 2013 to help formulate informed policy regarding net procurement, supplies and replacement. The study was undertaken in three different malaria endemic blocks of Assam during the period of June to October of 2014. The residual bio-efficacies were ascertained using the WHO cone-bioassay method for mosquito mortality post-exposure and corroborated with the ring-net assay for the median knockdown times of both types of LLINs in use by these communities. Cross-sectional community surveys were distributed to assess net ownership, utilization, community practices and the physical conditions of the nets in terms of being torn and the numbers of holes per position. Both the Olyset(®) and PermaNet(®)2.0 LLINs that were distributed in 2009 (i.e., nearly after five years of community usage) were completely torn, worn out and obsolete. However, the LLINs distributed in 2011 (i.e., three years of community usage) retained their residual bio-efficacies in susceptibility ranges that varied from 57% to 79%. However, for the LLINs that were distributed in 2013, the observed residual efficacy was adequate and resulted in a mosquito mortality rate >80 percent. Of the two types of LLINs inspected, the Olyset(®)nets were more durable and robust in terms of being torn less frequently (37.1%, 39/105) compared with the PermaNet(®)2.0 nets (51.8%, 204/394). Regarding the LLINs that were distributed in 2013, all were physically intact and in good condition. The majority of the distributed LLINs (99.2%, 639/644) were still in the possession of the householders of the surveyed populations. This study revealed that the serviceable life of the nets was slightly less than

  13. Do holes in long-lasting insecticidal nets compromise their efficacy against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus? Results from a release-recapture study in experimental huts.

    PubMed

    Randriamaherijaona, Sanjiarizaha; Briët, Olivier J T; Boyer, Sébastien; Bouraima, Aziz; N'Guessan, Raphael; Rogier, Christophe; Corbel, Vincent

    2015-08-28

    Resistance of malaria vectors to pyrethroids threatens the effectiveness of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) as a tool for malaria control. Recent experimental hut and observational studies in Benin show that pyrethroid resistance reduces the insecticidal effect and personal protection of LLINs especially when they become torn. The World Health Organization has proposed a threshold for when nets are "too torn" at 1,000 cm(2) for rectangular holes and 790 cm(2) for round holes. This study examines whether there is a threshold above which LLINs no longer reduce malaria transmission. Intact and artificially-holed LLINs under three months old and untreated nets were tested by releasing mosquitoes from a susceptible Anopheles gambiae colony, a pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae population and a resistant Culex quinquefasciatus population in closed experimental huts in Southern Benin, West Africa. The efficacy of LLINs and untreated nets was evaluated in terms of protection against blood feeding, insecticidal effect and potential effect on malaria transmission. Personal protection by both LLINs and untreated nets decreased exponentially with increasing holed surface area, without evidence for a specific threshold beyond which LLINs could be considered as ineffective. The insecticidal effect of LLINs was lower in resistant mosquitoes than in susceptible mosquitoes, but holed surface area had little or no impact on the insecticidal effect of LLINs. LLINs with 22,500 cm(2) holed surface area and target insecticide content provided a personal protection of 0.60 (95 % CI 0.44-0.73) and a low insecticidal effect of 0.20 (95 % CI 0.12-0.30) against resistant An. gambiae. Nevertheless, mathematical models suggested that if 80 % of the population uses such nets, they could still prevent 94 % (95 % CI 89-97 %) of transmission by pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae. Even though personal protection by LLINs against feeding mosquitoes is strongly reduced by holes, the

  14. Lesions of the biceps pulley.

    PubMed

    Braun, Sepp; Horan, Marilee P; Elser, Florian; Millett, Peter J

    2011-04-01

    Lesions of the biceps pulley and instability of the long head of the biceps tendon are common diagnoses in patients with anterior shoulder pain. To analyze the pathoanatomy of the biceps reflection pulley ("pulley") in consecutive patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy. Cohort study (prevalence); Level of evidence, 2. Prospective data were collected on 229 shoulders in consecutive patients (155 male,74 female) who underwent shoulder arthroscopy (121 rotator cuff pathology, 50 instability, 43 osteoarthritis, 15 miscellaneous). The average age was 48.5 years (range, 18-76 years). Sixty-eight shoulders had underwent a previous surgery. The long head of the biceps tendon was absent in 21 shoulders (9.2%); 1 was excluded for incomplete data. In 207 shoulders, the mean width of the long head of the biceps tendon was 6.0 mm (range, 3-10 mm), and the pulley complex, 7.2 mm (range, 4-15 mm). Sixty-seven patients (32.4%) had a pulley tear: 48 shoulders had anteromedial pulley tears, 32 posterolateral, with 13 combined anteromedial-posterolateral lesions. Patients with pulley tears were significantly older than those without (57 vs 44 years, P < .001). For anteromedial pulley tears, the mean width of the long head of the biceps tendon was significantly larger in the torn group (6.4 vs 5.8 mm, P = .012). The anteromedial or posterolateral pulley tears were significantly associated with subluxation or dislocation of the long head of the biceps tendon (P = .001), with a pulley torn in all 27 cases of biceps dislocation. In 173 shoulders with a centered long head of the biceps tendon, the pulley was torn in 36 (23 anteromedial, 18 posterolateral [with 5 being combined]). Pulley tears and rotator cuff injury showed a significant association (P < .001). Superior labral anterior posterior lesions were significantly associated with anteromedial (P < .008) and posterolateral pulley tears (P < .021). Pulley lesions are fairly common in patients undergoing arthroscopic surgery and

  15. Hymen care for unmarried Muslim females: role of the forensic consultant in gynaecology interventions.

    PubMed

    Abder-Rahman, H A

    2009-01-01

    This case series illustrates the role of the forensic consultant in hymen care for unmarried Muslim females exposed to gynaecology interventions. The age range of the 12 females attending University of Jordan Hospital in Amman was 35 days to 28 years. Gynaecology interventions included the use of a vaginoscope, circular resection of the hymen in cases of congenital imperforate hymen, evacuation of perineal abscess and evaluation of a torn hymen. The forensic consultant provides a valuable role in reassuring patients and parents about procedures used to avoid rupturing the hymen, and in protecting the gynaecologist's and patients' rights by providing reports of the status of the hymen before and after intervention in cases where damage is unavoidable.

  16. Ultrasound of ankle and foot: overuse and sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Viviane; Guillin, Raphaël; Dhanju, Jag; Cardinal, Etienne

    2007-06-01

    Sports and overuse injuries of the ankle and foot are commonly encountered in clinical practice. Ultrasound (US) has been established as an excellent diagnostic modality for foot and ankle injuries, providing a rapid noninvasive, economical, and readily available tool that is well tolerated by the patient with acute or chronic pain. The opportunity for dynamic examination is another advantage of US in evaluating ankle and foot pathology, where maneuvers such as muscle contraction and stressing of the joint may be particularly helpful. In many cases, US can be used as a first-line and only imaging modality for diagnosis. This article focuses on ankle disorders related to sports or overuse that affect tendons, including tendinosis, tenosynovitis, paratendinitis, rupture, dislocation, and ligaments that are commonly torn. The sonographic features of certain common foot disorders related to physical activity and overuse are also discussed, including plantar fasciitis, Morton's neuroma, stress fractures, and plantar plate injury.

  17. Observational Progress in Identifying and Characterizing Tidal Disruption Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenko, S. Bradley

    I present an overview of observational efforts across the electromagnetic spectrum to identify and study tidal disruption flares (TDFs), when a star wanders too close to a super-massive black hole and is torn apart by tidal forces. In particular I will focus on four unexpected surprises that challenge the most basic analytic picture of these events: 1) large inferred radii for the optical/UV-emitting material; 2) the ubiquity of outflows, detected at radio, X-ray, and UV wavelengths, ranging from speeds of 100 km/s to near the speed of light; 3) the peculiar atomic abundances observed in the UV and optical spectra of these objects; and, 4) the preference for these events to occur in post-starburst galaxies.

  18. Essentials of anterior cruciate ligament rupture management.

    PubMed

    Klinge, Stephen A; Sawyer, Gregory A; Hulstyn, Michael J

    2013-05-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is a common knee injury and an understanding of current medical knowledge regarding its management is essential. Accurate and prompt diagnosis requires an awareness of injury mechanisms and risk factors, common symptoms and physical/radiologic findings. Early mobilization and physical therapy improves outcomes regardless of treatment modality. Many older patients regain sufficient stability and function after non-operative rehabilitation. Early ACL reconstruction is appropriate for younger patients and those who engage in activities requiring frequent pivoting and rapid direction changes. ACL surgery involves reconstruction of the torn ligament tissue with various replacement graft options, each with advantages and disadvantages. The guidance of a knowledgeable and experienced therapist is required throughout an intensive and prolonged rehabilitation course. Generally excellent outcomes and low complication rates are expected, but treatment does not prevent late osteoarthritis.

  19. Modern management of patellar instability.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Shin-Jae; Pavlou, George; Oakley, Jeremy; Barlow, David; Haddad, Farres

    2012-12-01

    Recurrent patellofemoral instability is a disabling condition, attributed to a variety of anatomical aetiologies. Trochlear dysplasia, patella alta, an increased tibial tubercle trochlear groove distance of greater than 20 mm and soft tissue abnormalities such as a torn medial patellofemoral ligament and inadequate vastus medialis obliquus are all factors to be considered. Management of this condition remains difficult and controversial and knowledge of the functional anatomy and biomechanics of the patellofemoral joint, a detailed history and clinical examination, and an accurate patient assessment are all imperative to formulate an appropriate management plan. Surgical treatment is based on the underlying anatomical pathology with an aim to restore normal patellofemoral kinematics. We summarise aspects of assessment, treatment and outcome of patellofemoral instability and propose an algorithm of treatment.

  20. Research of selected properties of two types of high manganese steel wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaszewska, A.; Jabłońska, M.; Hadasik, E.; Niewielski, G.; Kawalla, R.

    2011-05-01

    The article presents results of tests that aimed at establishing the impact of deformation on properties of wires made of two types of high manganese steels. The deformation process was carried out with the use of a draw bench machine at a speed of 0.5 m min-1. Mechanical properties and structure of strengthened and annealed wires for both steels at different levels of relative reduction in cross-section were determined. Strength of the tested materials was determined in the tensile test, while its hardness was measured with the Vickers hardness test method. Fractographic tests were performed using a scanning electron microscope. It was shown that at the beginning of tensile test, the investigated high manganese steels were characterized by very high plasticity and become stronger as the degree of deformation grows. Surfaces of fractures that were created in the areas where the sample was torn were analyzed. These fractures indicate the presence of transcrystalline ductile fractures.

  1. LIPOMA ARBORESCENS: RARE CASE OF ROTATOR CUFF TEAR ASSOCIATED WITH THE PRESENCE OF LIPOMA ARBORESCENS IN THE SUBACROMIAL-SUBDELTOID AND GLENOHUMERAL BURSA

    PubMed Central

    Benegas, Eduardo; Neto, Arnaldo Amado Ferreiro; Teodoro, Daniel Sabatini; da Silva, Marcos Vinícius Muriano; de Oliveira, Augusto Medaglia; Filippi, Renée Zon; de Santis Prada, Flávia

    2015-01-01

    Lipoma arborescens is a rare intra-articular disease that is usually monoarticular and is characterized by extensive proliferation of the synovial villi and hyperplasia of the subsynovial fat. The synovial tissue is progressively replaced by mature fat cells in the synovial membrane. The present study reports a case of a rare condition of lipoma arborescens that was simultaneously intra-articular (glenohumeral joint) and in the subacromial-subdeltoid bursa, in association with a torn supraspinatus tendon. The clinical, histological and radiographic presentations and treatment are discussed here. The description of this case includes radiographic and magnetic resonance evaluations and pathological examination. Although lipoma arborescens is a rare condition, it should be taken into consideration in cases presenting synovial hyperproliferation and synovial fat replacement. PMID:27047861

  2. Virtual reality simulation of arthroscopy of the knee.

    PubMed

    Mabrey, Jay D; Gillogly, Scott D; Kasser, James R; Sweeney, Howard J; Zarins, Bertram; Mevis, Howard; Garrett, William E; Poss, Robert; Cannon, W Dilworth

    2002-01-01

    The virtual reality arthroscopic knee simulator (VR-AKS) consists of a computer platform, a video display, and two force-feedback (haptic) interfaces known as "PHANToMs" that also monitor the position of the instruments in the user's hands. The forces that the user would normally apply to the lower limb during arthroscopy are directed through an instrumented surrogate leg. Proprietary software provides the mathematical representation of the physical world and replicates the visual, mechanical, and behavioral aspects of the knee. This includes moderating the haptic interface and simultaneously executing a collision-detection algorithm that prevents the instruments from moving through "solid" surfaces. Modeling software interacts with this algorithm to send the appropriate images to the video display, including knee pathology such as meniscal tears and chondral defects as well as normal anatomy. Task-oriented programs monitor specific performance such as executing a proper examination of the knee or shaving a torn meniscus.

  3. Gloves against mineral oils and mechanical hazards: composites of carboxylated acrylonitrile–butadiene rubber latex

    PubMed Central

    Krzemińska, Sylwia; Rzymski, Władysław M.; Malesa, Monika; Borkowska, Urszula; Oleksy, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to permeation of noxious chemical substances should be accompanied by resistance to mechanical factors because the glove material may be torn, cut or punctured in the workplace. This study reports on glove materials, protecting against mineral oils and mechanical hazards, made of carboxylated acrylonitrile–butadiene rubber (XNBR) latex. The obtained materials were characterized by a very high resistance of the produced materials to oil permeation (breakthrough time > 480 min). The mechanical properties, and especially tear resistance, of the studied materials were improved after the addition of modified bentonite (nanofiller) to the XNBR latex mixture. The nanocomposite meets the requirements in terms of parameters characterizing tear, abrasion, cut and puncture resistance. Therefore, the developed material may be used for the production of multifunctional protective gloves. PMID:26757889

  4. Measuring Ejecta from Inspiralling Binary Neutron Stars using Smoothed-particle Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Monica; O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Faber, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Gravitational waves, detectable perturbations in spacetime, can arise from astrophysical systems such as inspiralling binary neutron stars, the remnants of the core collapse of massive stars. In the inspiral process, neutron stars, composed of highly dense nuclear matter, are torn apart by each others gravity and eject matter. Using both gravitational waves and direct observations of ejected matter, we may gain valuable new information about the composition of neutron stars. Using several previously studied test cases, we seek to determine how the amount of ejected matter depends on the physical parameters of these systems. To do this, we use a particle-based hydrodynamics code which can accurately simulate binary neutron star systems with variable equation of state, spin, mass ratio, and eccentricity, and includes the lowest-order effects from gravitational wave emission. I would like to thank RIT's College of Science as well as the Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation for support and funding.

  5. Differentiating between genuine damage and falsified damage to a garment following an alleged sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Williams, Graham; Haider, Imran

    2012-11-01

    An allegation of sexual assault was made in which a bra was torn off by the assailant causing extensive damage; however, it was observed that the hook and eye fastening was still intact. It was felt that it was not possible for a garment to receive such damage without damage to the hook and eye fastening, thus indicating that the complainant caused the damage to the bra herself to support a false allegation. Reconstruction experiments were conducted in which the conditions of the allegation were simulated utilizing a range of similar bras. Following the infliction of damage, the hook and eye fastenings were examined. In eight of nine experiments, the hook and eye fastening were intact, despite the application of enough force to cause separation of the bra cups in five of the experiments. This shows that bras may suffer extensive damage without damage to the hook and eye fastening. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Ultrasound of the pectoralis major muscle after reverse shoulder arthroplasty: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mascarinas, Angelie L; Newman, Joel S; Warner, Jon J P; Jain, Nitin B

    2014-12-01

    Only a few reports exist in the literature for sonographic assessment of the pectoralis major muscle. Presented is a case of pectoralis major muscle atrophy as a cause of persistent internal rotation weakness diagnosed via ultrasound in a patient with multiple previous surgeries and contraindication to magnetic resonance imaging because of a shoulder implant. This patient's physical examination suggested an abnormal contour of the pectoralis major muscle on contraction, so he was referred for diagnostic ultrasound. The ultrasound was key to guiding the management of this patient because surgical repair of a torn pectoralis major muscle was planned if this was found. No pectoralis major tear or rupture was seen on ultrasound, but there was evidence of pectoralis major muscle atrophy. Accordingly, surgery was avoided and the patient was able to continue with his physical therapy program.

  7. CT in aortic trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Heiberg, E.; Wolverson, M.K.; Sundaram, M.; Shields, J.B.

    1983-06-01

    A diagnosis of aortic transection was made at computed tomography (CT) in four of 10 patients with acute multiple trauma suspected of having thoracic aortic injuries. There were no false-negative or false-positive examinations. The CT findings of an injured aorta were (1) false aneurysm, (2) linear lucency within the opacified aortic lumen caused by the torn edge of the aortic wall, (3) marginal irregularity of the opacified aortic lumen, (4) periaortic or intramural aortic hematoma, and (5) dissection. The extent of associated mediastinal hemorrhage and the amount of blood in the pleural space were not useful as indicators of aortic injury. Similarly, shift of the trachea and esophagus or absence thereof was found in patients with or without aortic tear.

  8. Pediatric canalicular tear repairs--revisiting the pigtail probe.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Brian J; Katowitz, William R; Binenbaum, Gil

    2008-10-01

    Repairing canalicular lacerations can be complicated by difficulty in identifying and intubating the proximal injured system, retrieving stents in the nose, and repairing canalicular epithelium. We describe a hybrid method of repair that alleviates these challenges by the use of an eyelet-type pediatric pigtail probe and a self-threading monocanalicular stent. The pigtail probe is inserted through the intact punctum and canaliculus on the injured eyelid and rotated to identify the medial edge of the torn canaliculus. The stent is threaded through the injured punctum and pigtail probe, drawn back out the intact puncta, and cut flush. The eyelid is repaired without direct suturing of the canaliculus. When we applying this technique to 10 children, we successfully intubated the injured system without complication, and all children had good anatomic and clinical results, with negative dye disappearance tests.

  9. Stranski, Krastanov, and Kaischew, and their influence on the founding of crystal growth theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassev, Vladimir L.; Bliss, David F.

    2008-08-01

    A reconsideration of the events and people associated with the birth of modern crystal growth theory is presented. The foundation of the new theory was enabled by validation of Gibbs and Volmer's thermodynamic theory with the new molecular-kinetic theory. For the first time it became possible to rigorously explain crystal growth at the atomic level. The new two-dimensional growth model opened the door to understanding the mechanisms of self-assembly, crystal defect formation, and nano-structures. Molecular-kinetic theory eventually embraced a second major tenet based on the model of spiral growth at dislocations. All of these initial discoveries occurred between 1927 and 1949, a time when the world was being torn apart by war. This article recounts some thoughts and actions of three of the most illustrious founders of crystal growth theory.

  10. The struggle of giving up personal goals: affective, physiological, and cognitive consequences of an action crisis.

    PubMed

    Brandstätter, Veronika; Herrmann, Marcel; Schüler, Julia

    2013-12-01

    A critical phase in goal striving occurs when setbacks accumulate and goal disengagement becomes an issue. This critical phase is conceptualized as an action crisis and assumed to be characterized by an intrapsychic conflict in which the individual becomes torn between further goal pursuit and goal disengagement. Our theorizing converges with Klinger's conceptualization of goal disengagement as a process, rather than a discrete event. Two longitudinal field studies tested and found support for the hypothesis that an action crisis not only compromises an individual's psychological and physiological well-being, but also dampens the cognitive evaluation of the respective goal. In Study 3, marathon runners experiencing an action crisis in their goal of running marathons showed a stronger cortisol secretion and a lower performance in the race 2 weeks later. Results are interpreted in terms of action-phase-specific mindsets with a focus on self-regulatory processes in goal disengagement.

  11. ESO 255-IG 07, a compact group of interacting galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergvall, N.; Ekman, A.; Lauberts, A.

    1981-03-01

    Photographic, photometric, and spectroscopic properties are studied for the galaxy system ESO 255-IG 07 = 0626-471. The system is composed of four main galaxies of normal sizes and luminosities in what looks like a common halo. It is suggested that the halo consists of stars being torn out from the individual galaxies as a consequence of the interaction. Although the galaxies morphologically seem to be of early Hubble types, ionized gas is found to extend over a significant part of all four galaxies and also in a bridge connecting the two northernmost galaxies. Indications of enhanced nuclear activity are found in the northernmost galaxy; it is suggested that cloud-cloud collisions are frequent and could trigger the star formation and enhanced nuclear activity observed.

  12. Peroxidasin Forms Sulfilimine Chemical Bonds Using Hypohalous Acids In Tissue Genesis

    PubMed Central

    Bhave, G.; Cummings, C.F.; Vanacore, R.M.; Kumagai-Cresse, C.; Ero-Tolliver, I.A.; Rafi, M.; Kang, J.-S.; Pedchenko, V.P.; Fessler, L.I.; Fessler, J.H.; Hudson, B.G.

    2014-01-01

    Collagen IV is the predominant protein network of basement membranes, a specialized extracellular matrix, which underlie epithelia and endothelia. These networks assemble through oligomerization and covalent cross-linking to endow mechanical strength and shape cell behavior through interactions with cell surface receptors. A novel sulfilimine (S=N) bond between a methionine sulfur and hydroxylysine nitrogen reinforces the collagen IV network. We demonstrate that peroxidasin, an enzyme found in basement membranes, catalyzes formation of the sulfilimine bond. Drosophila peroxidasin mutants exhibit disorganized collagen IV networks and torn visceral muscle basement membranes pointing to a critical role for the enzyme in tissue biogenesis. Peroxidasin generates hypohalous acids as reaction intermediates suggesting a paradoxically anabolic role for these usually destructive oxidants. This work highlights sulfilimine bond formation as the first known physiologic function for peroxidasin, a role for hypohalous oxidants in tissue biogenesis, and a possible role for peroxidasin in inflammatory diseases. PMID:22842973

  13. [A case of hemorrhagic cholecystitis associated with Churg-Strauss syndrome].

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Satomi; Kamisawa, Terumi; Kuruma, Sawako; Chiba, Kazuro; Tabata, Taku; Koizumi, Koichi; Kurata, Masanao; Horiguchi, Shinichiro; Hishima, Tsunekazu

    2016-01-01

    A woman in her 70s with Churg-Strauss syndrome presented with epigastric pain. She was being treated with steroids at the time of admission. Computed tomography showed swelling of the gallbladder, and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography revealed bloody secretion. On duodenoscopy, bleeding was observed from the orifice of the major duodenal papilla. Emergency cholecystectomy was performed under a diagnosis of hemorrhagic cholecystitis;intraoperatively, extensive hematoma was detected in the thickened wall of the gallbladder. Subsequent histopathological examination revealed mucosal ulceration with infiltration of inflammatory cells, torn small vessels, and extensive transmural bleeding and abscess formation in the thickened wall of the gallbladder. We considered that the hemorrhagic cholecystitis was induced by either vasculitis or corticosteroid therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of hemorrhagic cholecystitis associated with Churg-Strauss syndrome.

  14. A Numerical Study on the Streams of Star Debris after Tidal Disruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho Olachea, Priscila; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Law-Smith, Jamie

    2017-01-01

    Lurking at the centers of most galaxies are gigantic star and gas devouring monsters. These monsters are supermassive black holes (SMBHs), some of which are larger than our solar system and ten billion times as massive as our own Sun. The vast majority of stars in the universe live for tens of billions of years, eventually dying from old age as the nuclearreactions that power them become progressively less effective. But for every ten thousand stars that die peacefully, one star will be brutally torn apart by the extreme tidal forces present as it passes near a SMBH. My recent work has been to develop computational tools necessary to study the fates of stars disrupted by SMBHs. In this research project I presentthe results of my numerical study aimed at understanding the streams of star debris that result after disruption.

  15. Mesenchymal stem cell applications to tendon healing

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhury, Salma

    2012-01-01

    Summary Tendons are often subject to age related degenerative changes that coincide with a diminished regenerative capacity. Torn tendons often heal by forming scar tissue that is structurally weaker than healthy native tendon tissue, predisposing to mechanical failure. There is increasing interest in providing biological stimuli to increase the tendon reparative response. Stem cells in particular are an exciting and promising prospect as they have the potential to provide appropriate cellular signals to encourage neotendon formation during repair rather than scar tissue. Currently, a number of issues need to be investigated further before it can be determined whether stem cells are an effective and safe therapeutic option for encouraging tendon repair. This review explores the in-vitro and invivo evidence assessing the effect of stem cells on tendon healing, as well as the potential clinical applications. PMID:23738300

  16. HIV/AIDS, childhood and governance: sundering the bonds of human society.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Tony

    2005-12-01

    There is a disharmonious resonance between the length of HIV infection in the individual human host and the length of a human generation. In brief, an infected person may have children, these may be orphaned and grow up to become infected, and afterwards they themselves may have children, who can be orphaned in turn. Hence, a basic unit of social structure in most human societies, the three-generation bond between grandparents, parents and the current generation - and on into the future - is repeatedly torn apart in the absence of treatment, a vaccine or behaviour change. This situation should be read against the threat of growing viral resistance. Certain implications of these processes for the future are outlined and discussed. The paper notes the uncertain future confronting societies that already have a relatively high number of orphans, and considers some otherwise unexpected possibilities, as well as the dangers of assuming that large-scale orphaning necessarily leads to social unrest and disorder.

  17. Benefits of an inclusive US education system.

    PubMed

    Gantt, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Presented is a historical perspective of one scientist's journey from war-torn Europe to the opportunities presented by a flexible US educational system. It celebrates the opening of the science establishment that began in the 1950s and its fostering of basic research, and recognizes individuals who were instrumental in guiding the author's education as well as those with whom she later participated in collaborative algal plant research. The initial discovery and later elucidation of phycobilisome structure are elaborated, including the structural connection with photosystem II. Furthermore, she summarizes some of her laboratory's results on carotenoids and its exploration of the isoprenoid pathway in cyanobacteria. Finally, she comments on the gender gap and how her generation benefited when opportunities for women scientists were enlarged.

  18. Tularemia Outbreak Investigation in Kosovo: Case Control and Environmental Studies

    PubMed Central

    Dedushaj, Isuf; Gjini, Ardiana; Jorgensen, Tine Rikke; Cotter, Benvon; Lieftucht, Alfons; D’Ancona, Fortunato; Dennis, David T.; Kosoy, Michael A.; Mulliqi-Osmani, Gjyle; Grunow, Roland; Kalaveshi, Ariana; Gashi, Luljeta; Humolli, Isme

    2002-01-01

    A large outbreak of tularemia occurred in Kosovo in the early postwar period, 1999-2000. Epidemiologic and environmental investigations were conducted to identify sources of infection, modes of transmission, and household risk factors. Case and control status was verified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, and microagglutination assay. A total of 327 serologically confirmed cases of tularemia pharyngitis and cervical lymphadenitis were identified in 21 of 29 Kosovo municipalities. Matched analysis of 46 case households and 76 control households suggested that infection was transmitted through contaminated food or water and that the source of infection was rodents. Environmental circumstances in war-torn Kosovo led to epizootic rodent tularemia and its spread to resettled rural populations living under circumstances of substandard housing, hygiene, and sanitation. PMID:11749751

  19. Ultrahigh interlayer friction in multiwalled boron nitride nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niguès, A.; Siria, A.; Vincent, P.; Poncharal, P.; Bocquet, L.

    2014-07-01

    Friction at the nanoscale has revealed a wealth of behaviours that depart strongly from the long-standing macroscopic laws of Amontons-Coulomb. Here, by using a ‘Christmas cracker’-type of system in which a multiwalled nanotube is torn apart between a quartz-tuning-fork-based atomic force microscope (TF-AFM) and a nanomanipulator, we compare the mechanical response of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and multiwalled boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) during the fracture and telescopic sliding of the layers. We found that the interlayer friction for insulating BNNTs results in ultrahigh viscous-like dissipation that is proportional to the contact area, whereas for the semimetallic CNTs the sliding friction vanishes within experimental uncertainty. We ascribe this difference to the ionic character of the BN, which allows charge localization. The interlayer viscous friction of BNNTs suggests that BNNT membranes could serve as extremely efficient shock-absorbing surfaces.

  20. Dynamic forces on agglomerated particles caused by high-intensity ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Knoop, Claas; Fritsching, Udo

    2014-03-01

    In this paper the acoustic forces on particles and agglomerates caused by high-intensity ultrasound in gaseous atmosphere are derived by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Sound induced forces cause an oscillating stress scenario where the primary particles of an agglomerate are alternatingly pressed together and torn apart with the frequency of the applied wave. A comparison of the calculated acoustic forces with respect to the inter particle adhesion forces from Van-der-Waals and liquid bridge interactions reveals that the separation forces may reach the same order of magnitude for 80 μm sized SiO2-particles. Hence, with finite probability acoustically agitated gases may de-agglomerate/disperse solid agglomerate structures. This effect is confirmed by dispersion experiments in an acoustic particle levitation setup. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ultrahigh interlayer friction in multiwalled boron nitride nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Niguès, A; Siria, A; Vincent, P; Poncharal, P; Bocquet, L

    2014-07-01

    Friction at the nanoscale has revealed a wealth of behaviours that depart strongly from the long-standing macroscopic laws of Amontons-Coulomb. Here, by using a 'Christmas cracker'-type of system in which a multiwalled nanotube is torn apart between a quartz-tuning-fork-based atomic force microscope (TF-AFM) and a nanomanipulator, we compare the mechanical response of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and multiwalled boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) during the fracture and telescopic sliding of the layers. We found that the interlayer friction for insulating BNNTs results in ultrahigh viscous-like dissipation that is proportional to the contact area, whereas for the semimetallic CNTs the sliding friction vanishes within experimental uncertainty. We ascribe this difference to the ionic character of the BN, which allows charge localization. The interlayer viscous friction of BNNTs suggests that BNNT membranes could serve as extremely efficient shock-absorbing surfaces.

  2. Complete transection of the trunk of passengers in car accidents.

    PubMed

    Nadjem, H; Ropohl, D

    1996-06-01

    Traumatic amputation of extremities and complete severance of the trunk have been reported in extra-urban collisions between passenger cars and pedestrians at collision speeds of > 80-100 km/h (50-62 mi/h). In car passengers, such extreme types of injuries are very rare. Two cases are presented in which the cars had a lateral collision with road trees near the right B column (column between front and back door), as a result of which the car was torn into two parts just in front of the rear axle near the back seats. Under these circumstances, the trunk of the back passenger on the side of the collision was completely severed. Both accidents happened in left-hand bends and the speed of collisions amounted to 120 and 180 km/h (74 and 111 mi/h), respectively. All passengers were flung out of the cars.

  3. Georg Friedrich Kordenbusch and astronomy in Nuremberg in the second half of the 18th century. (German Title: Georg Friedrich Kordenbusch und die Astronomie in Nürnberg in der zweiten Hälfte des 18. Jahrhunderts)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaab, Hans

    In the second half of the 18th century, Georg Friedrich Kordenbusch (1731 - 1802) was the best-known living mathematician and astronomer in Nuremberg. Being a physician by training, he obtained, in 1769, the post of lecturer in mathematics and physics at the Egidien secondary school. Subsequently, he tried in vain to re-erect the observatory, torn down in 1751. In the early 1770s, he became famous for preparing the second edition of Johann Leonhard Rost's Astronomisches Handbuch that was, in its first edition of 1718, the first compendium of astronomy written in German, and which had a wide circulation. In 1790, Kordenbusch was raised to the nobility for his achievements.

  4. Cerebral contusions: re-evaluation of the mechanism of their development.

    PubMed

    Gurdjian, E S

    1976-01-01

    At the present writing, the biomechanics of "coup-contrecoup" contusions may be summarized as follows: 1) "Coup" contusions are caused by the slapping effect of discrete areas of inbeding bone during impact. "Contrecoup" contusions are caused by the movements of the brain against irregular and rough bony enviornment. 2) When the head is relatively fixed, a blunt discrete impact causes a "coup" lesion with no "contrecoup" effect. 3) When the head is free to move, a blunt impact will cause a contrecoup lesion or lesions and no "coup" effect. 4) "Fracture contusion" is caused by the slapping effect of the fracture site on the outbending cerebral surface. In such cases, occassionally the dura may be torn. 5) Deeper contusions in the substance of the brain are due to inertial stresses from relative movements and pressure gradients. 6) Contusions of the cerebral tonsils are due to their relative movements at the posterior fossa-foramen magnum junction.

  5. 7. View of interior of Lock No. 2 on George ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View of interior of Lock No. 2 on George washington 'Potowmack' Canal at Great Falls, Virginia. This lock is about 15 ft. in depth and possibly 70 or 60 ft. in length. Some 15 or 20 years ago, when a restoration was crudely attempted, the old oaken flooring, which was invariably placed at the bottom of canal locks, was roughly torn up and destroyed. The trunks and stumps of gigantic trees still remain from this restorative effort, and their girth indicates again the antiquity of this evidence of George Washington's work as an engineer. The stones are of the red Seneca type and were evidently ferried from the Maryland side above the dam and then brought by sled or rollers to this location. These stones were beautifully hand-cut and fitted with ... - Potowmack Company: Great Falls Canal, Lock No. 2, Great Falls, Fairfax County, VA

  6. Anesthesia for trauma during wartime.

    PubMed

    Barton, C R; Beeson, M

    1997-02-01

    Trauma during wartime has been the scourge of the ages. Conventional anesthesia with ether has been available since 1846 when it was demonstrated in Boston by a dentist named William Morton. Subsequently, ether was used during the Mexican-American War in 1847, and chloroform was used during the Crimean War from 1854 to 1856. Nurse anesthetists have made substantial contributions to care of the war-injured by initiating acute airway management and resuscitation efforts and by the administration of anesthesia care for critically injured war casualties undergoing surgical procedures. They have further contributed to goodwill in war-torn areas by providing anesthesia care to many civilian children and adults living in these areas of conflict. The evolution of nurse anesthesia contributions to the treatment of traumatized war casualties is the central focus of this article.

  7. Centaur Standard Shroud (CSS) cryogenic unlatch tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Cryogenic tanking and partial jettison (unlatch) tests were performed on a full scale Centaur vehicle and Centaur Standard Shroud (CSS) to develop and qualify the CSS insulation system, the CSS and Centaur ground-hold purge systems, and the Centaur hydrogen tank flight vent system. Operation of the shroud/Centaur pyrotechnic systems, seals, and the shroud jettison springs, hinges, and other separation systems was demonstrated by a partial jettison of the shroud into catch nets. The Centaur tanks were filled with liquid hydrogen and liquid nitrogen. Prelaunch operations were performed, and data taken to establish system performances. Results from the initial tests showed a higher than expected heat transfer rate to the Centaur hydrogen tank. In addition, the release mechanism for the forward seal between the Centaur and the CSS did not function properly, and the seal was torn during jettison of the shroud.

  8. [Injuries of the medial collateral ligament and anterior cruciate ligament of the knee joint and Lemaire surgical functional treatment. Long-term outcome].

    PubMed

    Schmid, F

    1996-06-01

    The present paper reports the results of 112 extraarticular ligamento-plasties performed on the knee with the procedure proposed by Lemaire. The series includes isolated tears of the anterior cruciate and medical collateral ligament as well as combined tears of both ligaments. The clinical and radiological results with a mean follow-up time of 11.5 years are compared with the results obtained in a first assessment 8 years ago. Good clinical results are in contrast with increasing osteoarthrosis in 1/3 of the knees radiologically assessed. The operation for a torn anterior cruciate ligament should be performed as soon as possible to avoid secondary meniscal lesions with subsequent severe osteoarthrosis. Presence or absence of arthrotic signs in the X-rays mainly determine the long-term result after ligamento-plasties of the knee. The Lemaire plasties are well tolerated even by elderly still active people and need little postoperative care.

  9. [The DIALYSIS AMICA project].

    PubMed

    Marchionni, B

    2000-01-01

    The denominated Plan "DIALYSIS FRIEND" organized in the region March in the 1998, has seen involved almost all the centers of Dialysis of the region. He has the purpose of furnish the sanitary operators the tools for face the varied strife-torn situations in first person and emotional that they present themselves in an U.O. to "high tension" like result be the Dialysis and the "particularity" personality of whom affection from chronic uraemia comes subjected to dialysis. Besides through the identification of a "profile of fitness" furnishes data on the compliance of the person dialyzed or in pre-dialysis to the different techniques of dialysis. The share of the doctor, of a chief ward, and of any nurses of the U.O. of Nefro/Dialysis of Fano to such plan has resulted to be a very significance experience. The participants to the course tell their experience.

  10. KSC-04pd1776

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-09-14

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - United Space Alliance workers Dallas Lewis (left) and Damon Petty clean up hurricane debris inside the Thermal Protection System Facility (TPSF). Much of the roof was torn off by Hurricane Frances as it passed over Central Florida during the Labor Day weekend. Undamaged equipment has been moved to the RLV hangar at KSC. The TPSF, which creates the TPS tiles, blankets and all the internal thermal control systems for the Space Shuttles, is almost totally unserviceable at this time after losing approximately 35 percent of its roof. The maximum wind at the surface from Hurricane Frances was 94 mph from the northeast at 6:40 a.m. on Sunday, September 5. It was recorded at a weather tower located on the east shore of the Mosquito Lagoon near the Cape Canaveral National Seashore. The highest sustained wind at KSC was 68 mph.

  11. THE THREAD OF DEPRESSION THROUGHOUT THE LIFE AND WORKS OF LEO TOLSTOY.

    PubMed

    Anargyros-Klinger, Annie

    2002-04-01

    Tolstoy, the author of two masterpieces, War and Peace and Anna Karenina, remains a writer of genius. Yet, after writing War and Peace, his existence had been torn apart by a serious depression. This depression, which was melancholic in character, almost destroyed him and, once he had finished Anna Karenina, led him to want to renounce not only sexuality but also literary creation and material possessions. Through examining Tolstoy's life and work, the author tries to uncover the underground paths of this depression, which emerged brutally in the middle of his life, and to understand why his creative genius dried up. Like Leonardo da Vinci, Tolstoy turned away from his artistic work, declaring that 'art is not only useless but even harmful', and thereafter devoted himself to philosophical, political and religious writings. These new sublimations would help him to recover his health.

  12. The thread of depression throughout the life and works of Leo Tolstoy.

    PubMed

    Anargyros-Klinger, Annie

    2002-04-01

    Tolstoy, the author of two masterpieces, War and Peace and Anna Karenina, remains a writer of genius. Yet, after writing War and Peace, his existence had been torn apart by a serious depression. This depression, which was melancholic in character, almost destroyed him and, once he had finished Anna Karenina, led him to want to renounce not only sexuality but also literary creation and material possessions. Through examining Tolstoy's life and work, the author tries to uncover the underground paths of this depression, which emerged brutally in the middle of his life, and to understand why his creative genius dried up. Like Leonardo da Vinci, Tolstoy turned away from his artistic work, declaring that 'art is not only useless but even harmful', and thereafter devoted himself to philosophical, political and religious writings. These new sublimations would help him to recover his health.

  13. Unusual injuries on the right hand and forearm caused by unidentified wild animals.

    PubMed

    Kiuchi, Takayuki; Matoba, Kotaro; Terazawa, Koichi

    2008-11-01

    An old man was found dead in a rice paddy with his face down in the water. His right forearm and hand were severely injured and the shapes of injuries were unusual. It was initially suspected that the injuries had been caused by a cultivator placed at the site. However, they proved to be postmortem injuries because vital reactions were not observed. The skin was widely torn away. Some edges of the injuries looked like a bite mark and other parts looked like scratches. There were many parallel injuries on the right forearm and hand and footmark-like injuries on the right hand. They were probably caused by wild animals. Judging from the sizes and shapes of the footprint, bite marks and scratches, we estimated that the animal which caused the injuries was weasels.

  14. Review: Modelling of meniscus of knee joint during soccer kicking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azrul Hisham Mohd Adib, Mohd; Firdaus Jaafar, Mohd

    2013-12-01

    Knee is a part of the body that located between thigh and shank is one of the most complicated and largest joints in the human body. The common injuries that occur are ligaments, meniscus or bone fracture. During soccer games, the knee is the most critical part that will easily injure due to the shock from an external impact. Torn meniscus is one of the effects. This study will investigate the effect towards the meniscus within the knee joint during soccer ball kicking. We conduct a literary review of 14 journals that discuss the general view of meniscus and also soccer kicking. The selected topics for this review paper are meniscal function, meniscal movement, meniscal tears and also instep kick. As a finding, statistics show that most meniscal tears (73%) occurred in athletes who were soccer players, basketball players or skiers. The tear is frequently happening at the medial side rather than lateral side with a percentage of 70%.

  15. Knee ligament injury during lateral impact.

    PubMed

    Hearon, B F; Brinkley, J W; Raddin, J H; Fleming, B W

    1985-01-01

    A volunteer woman subject incurred injury to her right knee consisting of a torn anterior cruciate ligament and stretched medial collateral ligament during a lateral (+Gy) impact test. Similar injury has not been reported in the English-language literature an accidental sideward automotive crashes or lateral impact experimentation involving humans. The primary mechanism which produced this injury was external tibial rotation on the femur with the knee flexed. The factors contributing to the injury included extraordinarily forceful leg bracing by the subject, her knee joint laxity or hypermobility, and the absence of side supports to limit lower extremity flailing during the impact response. In future lateral impact tests, women subjects should be used with caution and any subject with abnormal joint mobility should be excluded from participation.

  16. Significance of lamellar tearing in structural steels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, J.L.; Cipolla, R.C.

    1984-06-01

    Lamellar tearing is a commonly occurring fabrication-related defect. As a result, there exists a need to determine the significance of lamellar tears on structural integrity. This report reviews the phenomenon of lamellar tearing in an attempt to determine the strength of a welded joint that contains lamellar tears. Design considerations useful in preventing the occurrence of lamellar tearing are also reviewed. Predictive models are developed and compared with experimental data of weldments containing lamellar tears. None of the predictive models was able to describe adequately the failure behavior of the lamellar-torn joints. However, a modified limit-load criterion was developed that can be used to assess conservatively the structural integrity of a joint containing lamellar tears.

  17. Management of chronic unstable acromioclavicular joint injuries.

    PubMed

    Cisneros, Luis Natera; Reiriz, Juan Sarasquete

    2017-03-08

    The acromioclavicular joint represents the link between the clavicle and the scapula, which is responsible for the synchronized dynamic of the shoulder girdle. Chronic acromioclavicular joint instability involves changes in the orientation of the scapula, which provokes cinematic alterations that might result in chronic pain. Several surgical strategies for the management of patients with chronic and symptomatic acromioclavicular joint instability have been described. The range of possibilities includes anatomical and non-anatomical techniques, open and arthroscopy-assisted procedures, and biological and synthetic grafts. Surgical management of chronic acromioclavicular joint instability should involve the reconstruction of the torn ligaments because it is accepted that from three weeks after the injury, these structures may lack healing potential. Here, we provide a review of the literature regarding the management of chronic acromioclavicular joint instability. Expert opinion, Level V.

  18. A Training Feedback System for Brigade Command Groups

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-01

    unlimited. ISoca UPLE enTARY NOTES I )AE Al01Exa endria, VAv2231, foradra Syte Devlopen Copoaio7 udr7ubotrc 146-3277TORN PrGENCo NtA ct ADAHCIfdffrntfo 1...Doc hki Ud Q UNAfNhu6c JUSTIFICATION ................................. BY .................. ., . ...... . 9WSTnIgUTIOl/AIAILABILITY SE Dist. AVAIL...93.0. 00 .0 -H r. 0i () Ha H O Q )j p$4 1 -J) 4-4 -H .0 $ 0 H Q.J E0 4.40 0 4 -i 4 0 1 00 w$40 0 4-0Q H- > 0 -H 0u 0 4-’ OHu 4-) 0 u 0 $4p""H 0 1 * r4 CU

  19. Pediatric canalicular tear repairs—revisiting the pigtail probe

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Brian J.; Katowitz, William R.; Binenbaum, Gil

    2008-01-01

    Repairing canalicular lacerations can be complicated by difficulty identifying and intubating the proximal injured system, retrieving stents in the nose, and repairing canalicular epithelium. We describe a hybrid method of repair that alleviates these challenges by using an eyelet-type pediatric pigtail probe and a self-threading monocanalicular stent. The pigtail probe is inserted through the intact punctum and canaliculus on the injured eyelid and rotated to identify the medial edge of the torn canaliculus. The stent is threaded through the injured punctum and pigtail probe, drawn back out the intact puncta, and cut flush. The eyelid is repaired without direct suturing of the canaliculus. Applying this technique to 10 children, the injured system was successfully intubated without complication, and all children had good anatomic and clinical results, with negative dye disappearance tests. PMID:18620879

  20. [Caring for persons at the end of life in a curative care unit: privileges and heartbreaks].

    PubMed

    Fortin, Marie-Laurence; Bouchard, Louise

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the experience of caring for individuals at the end of life by five nurses working in curative care units. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to gain a better understanding of the meaning nurses give to this experience. The analysis of results, based on Giorgi's phenomenological method (1997), highlighted a central meaning: it is a human experience fraught with paradoxes where the bedside nurse feels both privileged to be accompanying these individuals at the end of their lives and torn between the medical priority given to curative care and the lesser priority given to palliative care. This study offers relevant options for nurse managers wanting to improve these nurses' work environment and the quality of care for individuals at the end of life.

  1. Pathognomonic symptom associated with lightning strike: Lichtenberg figure.

    PubMed

    Yigit, Mehmet; Tanrikulu, Nazmiye; Turkdogan, Kenan Ahmet; Yigit, Eda

    2015-02-01

    Lightning strikes especially occur during spring and summer months in the afternoons when there is heavy rain. In deaths resulting from lightning strike, there may either be no evidence on the dead person's clothes or body, or there may be burnt or torn patches on their clothes and lichtenberg figures specific to lightning strikes on their bodies. In such cases that also have a comorbid of cognitive dysfunction, since there is generally amnesia, having these figures during the physical examination has a valuable place in early diagnosis and quick treatment. This paper presents a case of lightning strike that was found to have Lichtenberg figures on the back and right leg after secondary examination.

  2. Mathematical modeling of a VSCF aircraft generating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadher, V. V.; Smith, I. R.; Williams, S.

    1986-09-01

    DC-link converters having a variable input frequency but a constant output frequency now provide a viable alternative to the constant-speed mechanical drive as a means of providing a constant-frequency power supply from an aircraft generator. The ease of replacement and repair, the reduction in servicing needs, and the ability to locate the components of the electrical system throughout the aircraft all combine to bring about a considerable reduction in the maintenance time which is required. A computationally efficient technique for the mathematical modeling of a typical electrical system, in which the overall power network is torn initially into a set of convenient subnetworks, is described. Connection matrices are employed to combine the equations computed for the various subnetworks with the equations for the overall network. Typical results are presented for the overall system. The performance detail enables many important design considerations to be investigated prior to manufacture.

  3. Material Removes Heavy Metal Ions From Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipp, Warren H., Jr.; Street, Kenneth W.; Hill, Carol; Savino, Joseph M.

    1995-01-01

    New high capacity ion-exchange polymer material removes toxic metal cations from contaminated water. Offers several advantages. High sensitivities for such heavy metals as lead, cadmium, and copper and capable of reducing concentrations in aqueous solutions to parts-per-billion range. Removes cations even when calcium present. Material made into variety of forms, such as thin films, coatings, pellets, and fibers. As result, adapted to many applications to purify contaminated water, usually hard wherever found, whether in wastewater-treatment systems, lakes, ponds, industrial plants, or homes. Another important feature that adsorbed metals easily reclaimed by either destructive or nondestructive process. Other tests show ion-exchange polymer made inexpensively; easy to use; strong, flexible, not easily torn; and chemically stable in storage, in aqueous solutions, and in acidic or basic solution.

  4. Prioritizing Healthcare Delivery in a Conflict Zone Comment on "TB/HIV Co-Infection Care in Conflict-Affected Settings: A Mapping of Health Facilities in the Goma Area, Democratic Republic of Congo".

    PubMed

    Wood, Robin; Richardson, Eugene T

    2013-09-01

    Nowhere are the barriers to a functional health infrastructure more clearly on display than in the Goma region of Democratic Republic of Congo. Kaboru et al. report poorly integrated services for HIV and TB in this war-torn region. Priorities in conflict zones include provision of security, shelter, food, clean water and prevention of sexual violence. In Goma, immediate health priorities include emergency treatment of cholera, malaria, respiratory illnesses, provision of maternal care, millions of measles vaccinations, and management of an ongoing rabies epidemic. It is a daunting task to determine an essential package of medical services in a setting where there are so many competing priorities, where opportunity costs are limited and epidemiologic information is scarce. Non-governmental agencies sometimes add to the challenge via an insidious reduction of state sovereignty and the creation of new levels of income inequality. Kaboru et al. have successfully highlighted many of the complexities of rebuilding and prioritizing healthcare in a conflict zone.

  5. Complete uterine prolapse without uterine mucosal eversion in a queen.

    PubMed

    Bigliardi, E; Di Ianni, F; Parmigiani, E; Cantoni, A M; Bresciani, C

    2014-04-01

    A five-year-old female cat weighing 3 kg was presented by the owner after noticing a large pink, bilobed mass protruding through the vulva during labour. The cat was in good condition, with appropriate lactation, and the newborn kittens were nursing normally. The uterus was not reverted or invaginated at examination, and there was rupture of the mesovarium, mesometrium and uterine-vaginal connection around the cervix. Manual reduction of the prolapsed uterus was not possible because of torn ligaments. A coeliotomy was performed to remove the ovaries, and the apex of the uterine horns was passed by the vaginal route. The remaining part of the mesometrium was disconnected, and the prolapsed uterus was removed. The queen and kittens were discharged from the hospital on the second day after surgery. An unusual feature of this case is that the prolapse was complete, without eversion of any part of the uterus through a vaginal tear.

  6. Dynamic Mechanical Properties and Fracture Surface Morphologies of Core-Shell Rubber (CSR) Toughened Epoxy at Liquid Nitrogen (Ln2) Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J.; Magee, D.; Schneider, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    The dynamic mechanical properties and fracture surface morphologies were evaluated for a commercial epoxy resin toughened with two types of core-shell rubber (CSR) toughening agents (Kane Ace(Registered TradeMark) MX130 and MX960). The impact resistance (R) was evaluated by the resulting breaking energy measured in Charpy impact tests conducted on an instrumented drop tower. The resulting fracture surface morphologies were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Fractographic observations of the CSR toughened epoxy tested at ambient temperature, showed a fracture as characterized by slender dendrite textures with large voids. The increasing number of dendrites and decreasing size of scale-like texture with more CSR particles corresponded with increased R. As the temperature decreased to Liquid Nitrogen (LN 2), the fracture surfaces showed a fracture characterized by a rough, torn texture containing many river markings and deep furrows.

  7. An evaluation of the side effects of garlic as an antihypertensive agent.

    PubMed

    Ruffin, J; Hunter, S A

    1983-01-01

    Eight spontaneously hypertensive rats representative of a diverse group with regard to age and sex were used to observe possible side effects from the use of garlic as an antihypertensive agent. Doses were administered at 6 h intervals daily for 28 days. Blood pressure, pulse rate and ECG were monitored once every 7 days for 28 days and then again 6 days after the day that the last dose was administered. All of the animals had erratic pulse rates and abnormal ECG. Weight loss occurred in all of the animals receiving the extract two and three times a day. All of the animals tested became lethargic and weak, had soft faeces and showed signs of dehydration. Also, the skin on the hindlimbs and forelimbs became very tender and could be easily torn. These effects were more pronounced in the animals receiving the extract two and three times a day.

  8. Installation Restoration Program. Site Investigation Report. Revision 4. Volume 2: Appendix B through Appendix E. 155th Air Refueling Group, Nebraska Air National Guard, Lincoln Municipal Airport, Lincoln, Nebraska.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-04-01

    Geological Description No. IDcpth (ft)l Type Counts ~-- CL Ut torn bin mottled silty CLAY. dry. 5-6-7 SAA, w horizontal limonite -stained fractures, sl moist...5-4 Changes at 4.5’ to It gray bin CLAY w sm silt, 3-3-3 5 -- sm Ilmonite staining, moist. 2-2-2 M bin clay w sm v In to v ers sand, less limonite . 2...ft) Type Counts TIP =Bkgrnd[Reading (ppm) 2-1-2 C L Green-brn, m plastic CLAY, w sm silt, moist. TIP 1.5’-3’: 0.4/2.7 -SAA 1.5-3’, tr limonite . 2-2

  9. Synthesis and characterization of cBN/WCCo composites obtained by the pulse plasma sintering (PPS) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalski, A.; Rosiński, M.; Płocińska, M.; Szawłowski, J.

    2011-10-01

    The cBN/cemented carbide containing 30vol% of cBN particles was produced using a mixture of a 6wt% Co added-WC powder, with a WC grain size of 0.4 μm and a cBN powder with a grain size ranging from 4 to 40 μm. The mixture was sintered to produce a plate, 20 mm in diameter, 3 mm thick. The sintering processes were conducted at temperature of 1100°C under a load of 100 MPa. The phase composition, density, hardness and micro structure of the sintered parts thus obtained were examined. The fractures through the WCCo/cBN composite showed the cBN particles torn out from the cemented carbide matrix were only few, whereas most of them have cleaved along the fracture plane. This gives evidence that the bond at the WCCo/cBN interface is mechanically strong.

  10. The First Air-Temperature Measurements for the Purposes of Battlefield Operations?.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgré, S.; Neumann, J.

    1986-03-01

    Close to the end of the severe winter 1808/09, a Russian force crossed the ice-bound Gulf of Bothnia from Finland to Sweden with the purpose of forcing Sweden to desist from taking sides with Great Britain against Napoléon. General major von Berg, one of the commanders of the force, took meteorological observations, including air-temperature measurements, during the crossing, a record of which he left behind in a journal. These air-temperature measurements appear to be the first of their kind in the history of land-based military forces.In the discussion of the meteorological conditions of the above-mentioned harsh winter, use is made of unpublished meteorological measurements at Umcaå, Sweden, and at Ylitomio (Över-Torneå), Finland. The latter were conducted by Johan Portin, a pioneer of meteorological observations near the Arctic Circle.

  11. Accura balloon rupture during percutaneous trans-septal mitral commissurotomy: a rare and potentially fatal complication

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Vivek; Patra, Soumya; Patil, Shivanand; Ramalingam, Rangaraj

    2013-01-01

    Percutaneous transseptal mitral commissurotomy (PTMC) is the treatment of choice in rheumatic mitral stenosis. The reuse of sterilised PTMC balloon catheters is widely practised to bring down the procedure cost and have proven safety and efficacy. The reused balloons may deform and are prone to rupture causing fatal complications like embolism either of the torn balloon material or air. We report a first case of Accura balloon rupture during PTMC to the best of our knowledge. Fortunately, there was no complication in our patient. Thus, during the balloon preparation it should be examined for any deformity or tear and air should be removed completely to prevent fatal outcome. The repeated use of the hardware should be limited and an informed consent regarding the possible complications of the reused hardware should be taken. PMID:23704459

  12. Material Removes Heavy Metal Ions From Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipp, Warren H., Jr.; Street, Kenneth W.; Hill, Carol; Savino, Joseph M.

    1995-01-01

    New high capacity ion-exchange polymer material removes toxic metal cations from contaminated water. Offers several advantages. High sensitivities for such heavy metals as lead, cadmium, and copper and capable of reducing concentrations in aqueous solutions to parts-per-billion range. Removes cations even when calcium present. Material made into variety of forms, such as thin films, coatings, pellets, and fibers. As result, adapted to many applications to purify contaminated water, usually hard wherever found, whether in wastewater-treatment systems, lakes, ponds, industrial plants, or homes. Another important feature that adsorbed metals easily reclaimed by either destructive or nondestructive process. Other tests show ion-exchange polymer made inexpensively; easy to use; strong, flexible, not easily torn; and chemically stable in storage, in aqueous solutions, and in acidic or basic solution.

  13. A possible relativistic jetted outburst from a massive black hole fed by a tidally disrupted star.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Joshua S; Giannios, Dimitrios; Metzger, Brian D; Cenko, S Bradley; Perley, Daniel A; Butler, Nathaniel R; Tanvir, Nial R; Levan, Andrew J; O'Brien, Paul T; Strubbe, Linda E; De Colle, Fabio; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Lee, William H; Nayakshin, Sergei; Quataert, Eliot; King, Andrew R; Cucchiara, Antonino; Guillochon, James; Bower, Geoffrey C; Fruchter, Andrew S; Morgan, Adam N; van der Horst, Alexander J

    2011-07-08

    Gas accretion onto some massive black holes (MBHs) at the centers of galaxies actively powers luminous emission, but most MBHs are considered dormant. Occasionally, a star passing too near an MBH is torn apart by gravitational forces, leading to a bright tidal disruption flare (TDF). Although the high-energy transient Sw 1644+57 initially displayed none of the theoretically anticipated (nor previously observed) TDF characteristics, we show that observations suggest a sudden accretion event onto a central MBH of mass about 10(6) to 10(7) solar masses. There is evidence for a mildly relativistic outflow, jet collimation, and a spectrum characterized by synchrotron and inverse Compton processes; this leads to a natural analogy of Sw 1644+57 to a temporary smaller-scale blazar.

  14. Uncommon Indications for Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Yoon Suk; Huri, Gazi; Garbis, Nickolas G.

    2013-01-01

    Total shoulder arthroplasty and shoulder hemiarthroplasty have been the traditional method for treating a variety of shoulder conditions, including arthritis, cuff tear arthropathy, and some fracture types. However, these procedures did not provide consistently good results for patients with torn rotator cuffs. The development of the reverse prosthesis by Grammont in the late 20th century revolutionized the treatment of the rotator-cuff-deficient shoulder with arthritis. The main indication for the reverse prosthesis remains the patient with cuff tear arthropathy who has pain and loss of motion. Because the reverse total shoulder arthroplasty produced such good results in these patients, the indications for the reverse prosthesis have expanded to include other shoulder conditions that have previously been difficult to treat successfully and predictably. This review discusses and critically reviews these newer indications for the reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. PMID:24340143

  15. KSC-04PD-1776

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. United Space Alliance workers Dallas Lewis (left) and Damon Petty clean up hurricane debris inside the Thermal Protection System Facility (TPSF). Much of the roof was torn off by Hurricane Frances as it passed over Central Florida during the Labor Day weekend. Undamaged equipment has been moved to the RLV hangar at KSC. The TPSF, which creates the TPS tiles, blankets and all the internal thermal control systems for the Space Shuttles, is almost totally unserviceable at this time after losing approximately 35 percent of its roof. The maximum wind at the surface from Hurricane Frances was 94 mph from the northeast at 6:40 a.m. on Sunday, September 5. It was recorded at a weather tower located on the east shore of the Mosquito Lagoon near the Cape Canaveral National Seashore. The highest sustained wind at KSC was 68 mph.

  16. Nurses' work: balancing personal and professional caregiving careers.

    PubMed

    Ross, M M; Rideout, E; Carson, M

    1994-01-01

    Forty full-time nurses who were also responsible for providing care to individuals in their private lives volunteered for a qualitative study of combined caregiving careers. Each respondent kept a diary of caregiving activities during two representative 24-hour periods, and was interviewed prior to, and after diary-recording. Most nurses experienced high levels of stress associated with caregiving in both their professional and private lives. In general, they were relatively satisfied with their lives in both spheres, and felt a slightly greater sense of control in their work lives than in their home lives. Regarding the tensions/conflicts they alluded to, the following themes emerged: an ethic of high expectation, feeling torn between two worlds, a sense of working in isolation, and working in overdrive. The rewards/benefits included remuneration, recognition and self-esteem, opportunities for personal growth, and opportunities for family growth.

  17. Dragonfly: an implementation of the expand–maximize–compress algorithm for single-particle imaging1

    PubMed Central

    Ayyer, Kartik; Lan, Ti-Yen; Elser, Veit; Loh, N. Duane

    2016-01-01

    Single-particle imaging (SPI) with X-ray free-electron lasers has the potential to change fundamentally how biomacromolecules are imaged. The structure would be derived from millions of diffraction patterns, each from a different copy of the macromolecule before it is torn apart by radiation damage. The challenges posed by the resultant data stream are staggering: millions of incomplete, noisy and un-oriented patterns have to be computationally assembled into a three-dimensional intensity map and then phase reconstructed. In this paper, the Dragonfly software package is described, based on a parallel implementation of the expand–maximize–compress reconstruction algorithm that is well suited for this task. Auxiliary modules to simulate SPI data streams are also included to assess the feasibility of proposed SPI experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source, Stanford, California, USA. PMID:27504078

  18. Dragonfly: an implementation of the expand-maximize-compress algorithm for single-particle imaging.

    PubMed

    Ayyer, Kartik; Lan, Ti-Yen; Elser, Veit; Loh, N Duane

    2016-08-01

    Single-particle imaging (SPI) with X-ray free-electron lasers has the potential to change fundamentally how biomacromolecules are imaged. The structure would be derived from millions of diffraction patterns, each from a different copy of the macromolecule before it is torn apart by radiation damage. The challenges posed by the resultant data stream are staggering: millions of incomplete, noisy and un-oriented patterns have to be computationally assembled into a three-dimensional intensity map and then phase reconstructed. In this paper, the Dragonfly software package is described, based on a parallel implementation of the expand-maximize-compress reconstruction algorithm that is well suited for this task. Auxiliary modules to simulate SPI data streams are also included to assess the feasibility of proposed SPI experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source, Stanford, California, USA.

  19. Dynamic time and spectrum fragmentation-aware service provisioning in elastic optical networks with multi-path routing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ruijie; Zhao, Yongli; Yang, Hui; Yu, Xiaosong; Zhang, Jie; Yousefpour, Ashkan; Wang, Nannan; Jue, Jason P.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a multi-path fragmentation-aware routing, modulation and spectrum assignment algorithm (RMSA) for advance reservation (AR) and immediate reservation (IR) requests in elastic optical networks. Immediate reservation requests should be provided with service immediately, while advance reservation requests have specific starting times and holding times. As lightpaths are set up and torn down, fragmentation may occur in both spectrum and time domains. To decrease the two-dimensional fragmentation and to solve the problem of resource scarcity, we propose splitting requests into different parts and transferring these parts along one or more paths utilizing sliceable bandwidth variable transponders. We first introduce a model to solve the problem and propose a two-dimensional fragmentation occurrence measurement in spectrum and time domains. Then we propose a multi-path fragmentation-aware RMSA algorithm (MPFA). Simulation results show that MPFA can achieve better performance than existing algorithms in terms of blocking probability and spectrum utilization.

  20. Plastic deformation and wear process at a surface during unlubricated sliding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, T.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    The plastic deformation and wear of a 304 stainless steel surface sliding against an aluminum oxide rider with a spherical surface (the radius of curvature: 1.3 cm) were observed by using scanning electron and optical microscopes. Experiments were conducted in a vacuum of one million Pa and in an environment of fifty thousandth Pa of chlorine gas at 25 C. The load was 500 grams and the sliding velocity was 0.5 centimeter per second. The deformed surface layer which accumulates and develops successively is left behind the rider, and step shaped proturbances are developed even after single pass sliding under both environmental conditions. A fully developed surface layer is gradually torn off leaving a characteristic pattern. The mechanism for tearing away of the surface layer from the contact area and sliding track contour is explained assuming the simplified process of material removal based on the adhesion theory for the wear of materials.

  1. Ventilation-induced massive lethal air embolism and subcutaneous emphysema in a patient with a lung cavern.

    PubMed

    Verelst, Wim; Verbrugghe, Walter; Lammens, Martin; Snoeckx, Annemie; Jorens, Philippe G

    2015-01-01

    The simultaneous occurrence of subcutaneous emphysema and intravascular air due to an air embolism is a rare condition. Here, we report a patient with COPD who developed a severe episode of hemoptysis due to rupture of a previously undiagnosed lung cavern. Intubation and ventilation led to the development of both massive subcutaneous emphysema and a massive air embolism, resulting from aspiration of air through a torn pulmonary vessel in the cavern. The dramatic amount of intravenous air and subsequent conduction along the venous system to the right heart and pulmonary trunk caused major hemodynamic compromise and ultimately death. The degree of subcutaneous emphysema, especially the massive venous air embolism, was unprecedented. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  2. High velocity clouds in nearby disk galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulman, Eric; Bregman, Joel N.; Roberts, Morton S.; Brinks, Elias

    1993-01-01

    Clouds of neutral hydrogen in our galaxy with the absolute value of v greater than 100 km/s cover approximately 10 percent of the sky to a limiting column density of 1 x 10(exp 18) cm(exp -2). These high velocity clouds (HVCs) may dominate the kinetic energy of neutral hydrogen in non-circular motion, and are an important though poorly understood component of galactic gas. It has been suggested that the HVCs can be reproduced by a combination of three phenomena: a galactic fountain driven by disk supernovae which would account for most of the HVCs, material tidally torn from the Magellanic Clouds, and an outer arm complex which is associated with the large scale structure of the warped galactic disk. We sought to detect HVCs in external galaxies in order to test the galactic fountain model.

  3. Uncommon indications for reverse total shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Yoon Suk; Huri, Gazi; Garbis, Nickolas G; McFarland, Edward G

    2013-12-01

    Total shoulder arthroplasty and shoulder hemiarthroplasty have been the traditional method for treating a variety of shoulder conditions, including arthritis, cuff tear arthropathy, and some fracture types. However, these procedures did not provide consistently good results for patients with torn rotator cuffs. The development of the reverse prosthesis by Grammont in the late 20th century revolutionized the treatment of the rotator-cuff-deficient shoulder with arthritis. The main indication for the reverse prosthesis remains the patient with cuff tear arthropathy who has pain and loss of motion. Because the reverse total shoulder arthroplasty produced such good results in these patients, the indications for the reverse prosthesis have expanded to include other shoulder conditions that have previously been difficult to treat successfully and predictably. This review discusses and critically reviews these newer indications for the reverse total shoulder arthroplasty.

  4. First do no harm? Female hysteria, trauma, and the (bio)logic of violence in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Keeler, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    In Iraq, women are frequently rushed to the hospital in severe anxiety, diagnosed by medical professionals in local hospitals as "hysterical." The treatments proffered are often disturbingly violent in their own right, indicating the normalization of violence in the conflict zone and the rationalizing discourses of biomedicine to this end. Based on fieldwork in the northern Kurdish region, held to be a prosperous beacon of "postconflict" stability in an otherwise war-torn country, I consider the ways in which neoliberal interventionist agendas, medical technologies in the aftermath of war, and gendered narratives of the Kurdish nation coalesce to valorize particular forms of suffering while devaluing others as both inherently "feminine" and devoid of either agency or recuperative value. I argue that the violence of such biomedical beliefs forms a "natural" rationalized corollary of wider logics of violence in the war zone, and that both inscribe non-normative expressions of trauma in gendered terms.

  5. On the effect of sea spray on the aerodynamic surface drag under severe winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Ezhova, Ekaterina; Soustova, Irina; Zilitinkevich, Sergej

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the effect of the sea spray on the air-sea momentum exchange during the entire "life cycle" of a droplet, torn off the crest of a steep surface wave, and its fall down to the water, in the framework of a model covering the following aspects of the phenomenon: (1) motion of heavy particle in the driving air flow (equations of motion); (2) structure of the wind field (wind velocity, wave-induced disturbances, turbulent fluctuations); (3) generation of the sea spray; and (4) statistics of droplets (size distribution, wind speed dependence). It is demonstrated that the sea spray in strong winds leads to an increase in the surface drag up to 40 % on the assumption that the velocity profile is neutral.

  6. The Thermodynamic and Kinetic Aspects of Power Ultrasound Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Hao

    Most high intensity or power ultrasound applications involve a special transmission mode of sound waves in a medium that is composed of consecutive compressions and rarefactions. Since the propagation of such longitudinal waves is normally associated with a liquid medium, the use of power ultrasound is often termed as sonication. When the negative pressure in the rarefaction phase surpasses the tensile stress of the liquid, the liquid will be torn apart and cavities will be formed (Leighton, 1994). The inception of cavitation and the subsequent mechanical and chemical effects rising from the cavitation activity enable interactions between the acoustic energy and food and biological systems being processed. Such interactions take place at microscopic levels as the average diameters of cavitation bubbles are at 150-170 μm, for bubbles generated in water by 20 kHz ultrasound transducers (Awad, 1996; Vago, 1992).

  7. [The power of the notion of resistance in the mental health field: a case study on the life of rural communities whitin the Colombian armed conflict].

    PubMed

    Arias López, Beatriz Elena

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study is to identify individual, family and/or community responses of resistance within protracted armed conflict. We conducted a case study with members of rural communities in the municipality of San Francisco, in the eastern area of Antioquia, Colombia, combining biographical and ethnographical approaches. The primary results show that, along with the suffering generated by the experience of armed conflict, rural community members also display a repertoire of multiple and diverse resistance strategies. Resistance is for them an active response and a way to re-weave the fabric torn by the experience. As a type of affirmative opposition, resistance is a powerful category for the entire mental health field, in that it highlights the creativity and capacity for transformation of individuals. In this way, the category allows for overcoming the limits of the conventional biomedical view that tends to pathologize individual and social responses in scenarios of severe distress.

  8. Modern management and pathophysiology of ranula: literature review.

    PubMed

    Harrison, John D

    2010-10-01

    There is a lack of consensus about the appropriate treatment of ranula. The objective of the present investigation was to produce a scientific basis for treatment. A review of the relevant literature is interpreted in the light of improved knowledge about the local anatomy and the pathophysiology of the salivary glands. The oral and plunging ranulas are cystic extravasation mucoceles that arise from the sublingual gland and usually from a torn duct of Rivinus. The sublingual gland is a spontaneous secretor and the salivary flow is resistant to obstruction, which is caused by fibrosis induced by the extravasation. The submandibular gland is not a spontaneous secretor, is less resistant, and does not give rise to ranulas. Effective treatment is removal of the involved unit of the sublingual gland or inducing sufficient fibrosis to seal the leak through which the mucus extravasates. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Flow studies in a wet steam turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. H.; Pouchot, W. D.

    1974-01-01

    The design and test results of a four stage wet vapor turbine operating with slightly superheated inlet steam and expanding to 10% exit moisture are presented. High speed movies at 3000 frames per second of liquid movement on the pressure side and along the trailing edge of the last stator blade are discussed along with back lighted photographs of moisture drops as they were torn from the stator blade trailing edge. Movies at lower framing rates were also taken of the exit of the last rotating blade and the casing moisture removal slot located in line with the rotor blade shroud. Also moisture removal data are presented of casing slot removal at the exit of the third and fourth rotor blades and for slots located in the trailing edge of the last stator blade. Finally, the degradation of turbine thermodynamic performance due to condensation formation and movement is discussed.

  10. The choices we make as teachers.

    PubMed

    Sheriff, D S

    2016-01-01

    "She wasn't like you...wasn't like any politician I've ever known." Ethan Kanin, Secretary of State about US president Allison Taylor in the US serial, 24. When an ethical dilemma arises, the choices we make decide our ethical concerns and moral position in a given situation. In the TV serial, 24, the US president faces such an ethical dilemma when she has to either cover up for her daughter's crime or get her arrested. She is torn between the role of a mother and that of a President. She chooses her sworn duty to protect the country and has her daughter arrested. She gives precedence to her duty as the President of a country over her mother's role.

  11. 37. GARRET, SOUTH HALF, LOOKING WEST. The trusses and joists ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. GARRET, SOUTH HALF, LOOKING WEST. The trusses and joists date from the 1755 Greater Meeting House. When this building was being torn down in 1812, these trusses were incorporated into the new Twelfth Street Meeting House. The trusses and joists were all pit sawn. The lower strut of the truss center posts were added in 1812 with iron strapping tieing them into the older members. Many of the joist tenons broke off in the transfer for reuse, so ledgers were provided to support the joists in 1812. At the Greater Meeting House the space between the queen posts was the Monthly Meeting Room. Evidence still exists for its plaster walls and ceiling. The suspended wood air duct dates from 1852. - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. Kidnapping and Mental Health in Iraqi Refugees: The Role of Resilience.

    PubMed

    Wright, A Michelle; Talia, Yousif R; Aldhalimi, Abir; Broadbridge, Carissa L; Jamil, Hikmet; Lumley, Mark A; Pole, Nnamdi; Arnetz, Bengt B; Arnetz, Judith E

    2017-02-01

    Although kidnapping is common in war-torn countries, there is little research examining its psychological effects. Iraqi refugees (N = 298) were assessed upon arrival to the U.S. and 1 year later. At arrival, refugees were asked about prior trauma exposure, including kidnapping. One year later refugees were assessed for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression disorder (MDD) using the SCID-I. Individual resilience and narratives of the kidnapping were also assessed. Twenty-six refugees (9 %) reported being kidnapped. Compared to those not kidnapped, those who were had a higher prevalence of PTSD, but not MDD, diagnoses. Analyses examining kidnapping victims revealed that higher resilience was associated with lower rates of PTSD. Narratives of the kidnapping were also discussed. This study suggests kidnapping is associated with PTSD, but not MDD. Additionally, kidnapping victims without PTSD reported higher individual resilience. Future studies should further elucidate risk and resilience mechanisms.

  13. Memory distortion and false memory creation.

    PubMed

    Loftus, E F

    1996-01-01

    The 1990s have brought to public attention thousands of cases that began when a grown-up daughter or son walked into a therapist's office seeking help for depression, low self-esteem, or any of a number of life's problems. Many of these cases grew to involve memories of childhood sexual abuse recovered while in therapy--memories that did not exist, or at least were not remembered, before therapy began. Many of these cases also involved families torn violently apart. What should we make of these new-found memories? Are they true memories that were successfully revived in therapy? Are they false memories that were unwittingly planted? Are they symbolic expressions--historically false but representing some deep underlying truth? Insights from cognitive psychology may shed some light. Much of the litigation that has resulted from the emergence of "repressed memories" has been hazardous to the patients, and their families, as well as to the therapists who treat them.

  14. Investigating the Pulse Mode Laser Joining of Overlapped Plastic and Metal Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauernhuber, Andor; Markovits, Tamás; Takács, János

    The growing utilization of plastic materials in our devices calls for joining them with traditional, often applied structural materials, like metals. Laser assisted metal plastic joining can be used to solve the problem mentioned above, however, relatively few materials have been investigated which could be used to create this special joint. In the course of this research, authors used pulse mode Nd:YAG laser source, structural steel and poly(methyl methacrylate) to create joining between rarely examined material pairs so far, and to explore the effects of technological settings like laser pulse shape, laser spot size, welding speed and joint strength. Material surfaces were also modified (sand blasting,) to enhance joint properties. In plastic material during joining and torn surfaces were investigated. Joints with good strength results were prepared to enable further research on transparent-absorbent metal plastic joining.

  15. Payload bay doors and radiator panels familiarization handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godbold, John A.

    1992-01-01

    The structure and mechanisms associated with the Payload Bay Doors (PLBDs) and the radiator panels are detailed. The PLBDs allow the radiator panels to be exposed to space, protect payloads from contamination, and provide an aerodynamic fairing over the payload bay. The radiator panels dissipate heat from the orbiter and regulate hydraulic fluid temperature. Contamination in the payload bay can hinder the success of missions. Therefore, the contamination control barrier which the PLBDs provide must be efficient in keeping the bay free from contaminants. The aerodynamic fairing the PLBDs provide prevents the orbiter from being torn apart by aerodynamic forces. These facts make the PLBDs and radiator panels mission critical elements of the Space Shuttle.

  16. Conservative treatment of rotator cuff injuries.

    PubMed

    Bytomski, Jeffrey R; Black, Douglass

    2006-01-01

    Across all ages and activity levels, rotator cuff injuries are one of the most common causes of shoulder pain. The anatomy and biomechanics of the shoulder guide the history and physical exam toward the appropriate treatment of rotator cuff injuries. Rotator cuff tears are rare under the age of 40 unless accompanied by acute trauma. Throwing athletes are prone to rotator cuff injury from various causes of impingement (subacromial, internal, or secondary) and flexibility deficits, strength deficits, or both along the kinetic chain. Most rotator cuff injuries may be treated conservatively by using regimens of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroid injections, and functional rehabilitation therapy. Injury prevention programs are essential for the long-term care of patients with rotator cuff disease, for primary prevention, and for prevention of recurrent injuries, unless a traumatically torn rotator cuff is present. Surgical management is reserved for refractory cases that have exhausted conservative measures.

  17. [Memisa in Afganistan: reconstruction of primary health care in a country during civil war and with restricted freedom of movement for women].

    PubMed

    Liem, L

    1999-01-30

    Afghanistan has the number five position in the world with regard to child mortality and ranks number two with regard to child mortality and ranks number two with regard to maternal death. Towards the end of 1994 Memisa agreed to assist IbnSina, an Afghan non-governmental organization which had been asked to rehabilitate basic health services in 4 regions via their existing immunization programme. After the withdrawal of the Russian army, the country is being torn apart by fighting bands of extremists. The rapid and successful rise of the Taliban, a movement of armed islamic fundamentalist students, puts severe restrictions on public life and on the rights of women, and makes it even more difficult to set up a health care system which is equally accessible to men and women. IbnSina-Memisa strives to revive health care in 4 regions and to cope with the logistic and cultural constraints which have to be faced.

  18. Bridge-Enhanced ACL Repair: A Review of the Science and the Pathway through FDA Investigational Device Approval

    PubMed Central

    Proffen, Benedikt L.; Perrone, Gabriel S.; Roberts, Gordon; Murray, Martha M.

    2016-01-01

    Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are currently treated with replacement of the torn ligament with a graft of tendon harvested from elsewhere in the knee. This procedure, called "ACL reconstruction," is excellent for restoring gross stability to the knee; however, there are relatively high graft failure rates in adolescent patients,4, 12, 60 and the ACL reconstruction procedure does not prevent the premature osteoarthritis seen in patients after an ACL injury.1, 46, 52 Thus, new solutions are needed for ACL injuries. Researchers have been investigating the use of scaffolds, growth factors and cells to supplement a suture repair of the ACL (bio-enhanced repair). In this paper, we will review the varied approaches, which have been investigated for stimulating ACL healing and repair in preclinical models and how one of these technologies was able to move from promising preclinical results to FDA acceptance of an Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) application for a first-in-human study. PMID:25631206

  19. Thermal modeling of subducted plates: tear and hotspot at the Kamchatka corner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davaille, Anne; Lees, Jonathan M.

    2004-10-01

    Pacific plate subduction at the Aleutian-Kamchatka juncture, or corner, could be accommodated by either a large bend or a tear in the oceanic lithosphere. In this paper, we describe a number of observations which suggest that the Pacific plate terminates abruptly at the Bering transform zone (TZ). Seismicity shoals along the subduction zone from Southern Kamchatka (600 km) to relatively shallow depths near the Kamchatka-Bering Fault intersection (100-200 km). This seismicity shoaling is accompanied by an increase in the heat flow values measured on the Pacific plate. Moreover, unusual volcanic products related to adakites are erupted on Kamchatka peninsula at the juncture. Simple thermal modeling shows that a slab torn and thinner along the northern edge of the Pacific plate would be compatible with the observations. Delayed thickening of the lithosphere due to the Meiji-Hawaiian hotspot may be responsible for the required thinning.

  20. Tartan Turf on trial. A comparison of intercollegiate football injuries occurring on natural grass and Tartan Turf.

    PubMed

    Keene, J S; Narechania, R G; Sachtjen, K M; Clancy, W G

    1980-01-01

    We retro- and prospectively compared collegiate football injuries that occurred on the grass and Tartan Turf (3M Company, St. Paul, Minnesota) fields at the University of Wisconsin. Retrospective injury data were obtained from questionnaires returned by 235 of 450 athletes that competed from 1960 to 1973. Prospective injury data were obtained by examination of athletes injured from 1975 through 1977. Although the number of injuries occurring on each playing surface were not significantly different, the type and severity of injuries were significantly different. We found that significantly more serious sprains and torn ligaments occurred on grass than occurred on Tartan Turf. There were significantly more scrapes (minor injuries) on the Tartan Turf than on the grass. We conclude that we may be prematurely returning to natural grass playing surfaces, and--to the detriment of the athlete--ending production of one synthetic turf that helped reduce major injuries.

  1. Posterior dislocation of a discoid meniscus in a child: a case report.

    PubMed

    Al-Taki, Muhyeddine M; Nahle, Imad S; Al-Kutoubi, Aghiad; Haidar, Rachid K

    2014-07-01

    Discoid meniscus of the knee is a well-known anatomic and congenital variant of the lateral meniscus. It is often asymptomatic, but can be associated with knee pain and other symptoms. Posterior dislocation of the discoid meniscus is an extremely rare finding; to the best of our knowledge, only one case has been reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of 10-year-old girl who presented with right knee pain with no history of trauma. The radiograph of her right knee was negative but MRI showed bilateral lateral discoid menisci with posterior dislocation in the right knee and some subluxation in the left. She underwent right knee arthroscopic lateral meniscoplasty with excellent outcome. This case demonstrates the possibility of torn and dislocated discoid lateral menisci management through arthroscopic reduction and repair.

  2. Performance of a 16.6 Meter Diameter Modified Ringsail Parachute in a Simulated Martian Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, Charles H.; Henning, Allen B.; Coltrane, Lucille C.

    1968-01-01

    Inflation, drag, and stability characteristics of a 54.5 -foot nominal-diameter (16.6-meter) modified ringsail parachute deployed in the wake of a 15-foot-diameter (4.6-meter) spacecraft traveling at a Mach number of 1.6 and a dynamic pressure equal to 11.6 psf (555 N/m(exp 2)) were obtained from the third balloon-launched flight test of the Planetary Entry Parachute Program. After deployment, the parachute inflated rapidly to a full condition, partially collapsed, and reinflated to a stable configuration. After reinflation, an average drag coefficient near 0.6 based on nominal surface area was obtained. During descent, an aerodynamic trim angle was observed in a plane near several torn sails. Amplitude of the trim was approximately 15 degrees and oscillation about trim was less than 11 degrees.

  3. New HI Features of the Magellanic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putman, M. E.; Gibson, B. K.; Staveley-Smith, L.

    The first results from the HI Parkes All-Sky Survey (HIPASS) provide a new and spectacular view of the global HI distribution in the vicinity of the Magellanic Clouds and the southern Milky Way. A 2600 square degree mosaic of the South Celestial Pole (SCP) reveals the existence of a narrow, continuous counter-stream which "leads" the direction of motion of the Clouds, i.e. opposite in direction to the Stream. This strongly supports the gravitational model for the Stream in which the leading and trailing streams are tidally torn from the body of the Magellanic Clouds. We also reveal additional tidal features in the Bridge region which appear to emanate from the LMC, and a distinct spiral structure within the LMC itself.

  4. Evidence for the Magellanic Stream's Tidal Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putman, Mary E.; Gibson, Brad K.; Staveley-Smith, Lister

    The complete spatial coverage and unique blind nature of the HI Parkes All-Sky Survey (HIPASS) has allowed us to identify new HI features which have implications for the origin of the Magellanic Stream. The data presented here include a 2400 deg^2 mosaic of the HI distribution about the South Celestial Pole, revealing a counter-stream which leads the direction of motion of the Clouds, i.e. opposite in direction to the Stream. This strongly supports the gravitational model for the Stream in which the leading and trailing streams are tidally torn from the body of the Magellanic Clouds. This Leading Arm, as well as other recent results which support a tidal scenario, will be discussed.

  5. The Ideological and Political Dimensions of the Anti-Smoking and Anti-Drinking Video Advertisements in the Republic of Moldova.

    PubMed

    Stanchevici, Dmitri

    2017-06-01

    Based on the critical approach in health communication, along with Habermas's theory of legitimation and Ellul's theory of propaganda, this qualitative study analyzes the political and ideological dimensions of the video advertisements used in the 2012 anti-smoking and 2014 anti-drinking campaigns in the Republic of Moldova. This analysis shows that these health videos support male domination and exclusion of the poor and legitimate the current political leadership with its declared pro-European orientation. This study uniquely contributes to the critical approach in health communication by focusing on the post-Soviet context in which statehood and national identity are unstable and societies are torn between the Russian and (post-)Soviet influences on one hand and European aspirations on the other. Drawing on critical scholarship in global health communication, this article calls for greater respect and recognition of Moldova's local culture and definition of health.

  6. Effect of security threats on primary care access in Logar province, Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Masahiro J

    2008-01-01

    Security threats are a major concern for access to health care in many war-torn communities; however, there is little quantified data on actual access to care in rural communities during war. Kinderberg International e.V. provided primary care in rural Logar province, Afghanistan, for these three years in eight districts until they were integrated into the new health care structure led by the Ministry of Health in early 2005. We examined the number of patients visiting our clinic before and during the security threats related to the parliamentary election and subsequent national assembly in 2004. The number of patients declined in remote clinics while the number increased in central locations. This finding has an important practical implication: the monitoring of access to care should include remote clinics, otherwise it may potentially underestimate compromised access to health care due to security threats.

  7. Land subsidence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, T.L.

    1986-01-01

    In November 1966, sixty percent of Venice, Italy, is inundated by a storm surge that causes waters in the Venetian lagoon to rise more than 6 feet. On December 28, 1971, a janitor at the Washington Elementary School in Johnston City, Illinois, discovers sever cracking of the school. In January 1972, the school is abandoned and subsequently razed. In the 1970's, five homes in New Orleans, Louisiana, are destroyed by gas explosins. In May 198, a 350 feet diameter sink-hole forms in a business area in Winter Park, Florida, and swallows a home and parts of several businesses. In August 1983, Hurricane Alicia slams into the texas Gulf Coast near Houston, Texas, and devastates the 500 home Brownwood subdivision on the north end of Galveston Bay. Homes are torn from their foundations and reduced to rubble. 

  8. Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Attansi, E.D.; DeYoung, J.H. Jr. )

    1991-05-01

    This paper reports that the outlook for exploration depends on the economic health of the mining industry and, in turn, general economic conditions. It is too early to determine the overall impact of the cessation of hostilities in the Persian Gulf War. Its conclusion would allow funds to be redirected to individual country's economies. The rebuilding of the war-damaged countries will probably translate into net increases in demand for the minerals industry. A return to stability in energy costs will also benefit the mining industry. Alternatively, the capital requirements to rebuild war-torn countries could put some strain on capital markets and affect the funds available for private commercial investment. Along with increasing the cost of capital to mining operations, a capital shortage could stall recovery of western industrialized economies that are currently in recession.

  9. Semitendinosus and gracilis free muscle-tendon graft for repair of massive rotator cuff tears: surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Gigante, Antonio; Bottegoni, Carlo; Milano, Giuseppe; Riccio, Michele; Dei Giudici, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Massive rotator cuff tears are difficult to treat surgically due to retraction, degeneration and fraying of the ends of torn tendons, severe fatty infiltration and atrophy of the respective muscles. Procedures developed to close the gap between the rotator cuff and the greater tuberosity of the humerus, such as soft tissue release may be inadequate for large tears. Human or porcine dermal allografts still have uncertain benefits, and tendon transfers seem to be associated with poor outcomes, donor site morbidity and altered mechanics. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty has limited durability and is not indicated in young patients with high functional demands. We developed a new technique for repairing massive rotator cuff tears by semitendinosus and gracilis myotendinous grafting. This novel therapeutic option allows massive rotator cuff tears to be repaired using autologous material that is adequate and adaptable, making it possible to cover any width of defect. The technique is low-invasive and not technically demanding, with minimal donor site morbidity.

  10. Rogerian science-based nursing theories.

    PubMed

    Malinski, Violet M

    2006-01-01

    In this column, the author provides a general overview of selected theories derived from Rogerian nursing science. After a brief discussion of the Rogerian perspective, she highlights representative theories. She suggests that ongoing development of proposed theories has been relatively slow for two main reasons. First, scholars still use the 1970 book as a major reference. Unfortunately, despite her promise to do so, Rogers never updated the 1970 book and admitted on many occasions that it would more accurately reflect her refinement of her science if a major portion of the pages were torn out. Second, theories were often proposed by doctoral candidates who changed focus in their careers postdoctorate. Despite this, there is a fascinating body of theories in various stages of development for Rogerian scholars to pursue.

  11. A case of Descemet’s membrane detachments and tears during phacoemulsification

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Guan, Huaijin

    2015-01-01

    Descemet’s membrane detachment is an important reason for corneal endothelial decompensation after intraocular surgery. During cataract surgery, it is an unusual complication. We report a case of Descemet’s membrane detachment in which approximately 60% of Descemet’s membrane (DM) involving approximately the upper two-thirds of the cornea was torn out during a routine phacoemulsification. It caused diffuse corneal edema and blurred vision in the 2 months following the surgery. Topical prednisolone acetate (1%) and sodium chloride (5%) had been used for treatment, with slow improvement in the patient’s symptoms and vision. Interestingly, the cornea regained clarity 2 months after surgery without further surgical treatment. PMID:26640381

  12. KSC-04PD-1776

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. United Space Alliance workers Dallas Lewis (left) and Damon Petty clean up hurricane debris inside the Thermal Protection System Facility (TPSF). Much of the roof was torn off by Hurricane Frances as it passed over Central Florida during the Labor Day weekend. Undamaged equipment has been moved to the RLV hangar at KSC. The TPSF, which creates the TPS tiles, blankets and all the internal thermal control systems for the Space Shuttles, is almost totally unserviceable at this time after losing approximately 35 percent of its roof. The maximum wind at the surface from Hurricane Frances was 94 mph from the northeast at 6:40 a.m. on Sunday, September 5. It was recorded at a weather tower located on the east shore of the Mosquito Lagoon near the Cape Canaveral National Seashore. The highest sustained wind at KSC was 68 mph.

  13. Surgical revirgination: Four vaginal mucosal flaps for reconstruction of a hymen

    PubMed Central

    Saraiya, Hemant A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Over centuries, virginity has been given social, religious and moral importance. It is widely believed as a state of a female who has never engaged in sexual intercourse, and her hymen is intact. Hymenoplasty for torn hymen is carried out not only for the sake of cultural and religious traditions but also for the social status and interpersonal relationships. Materials and Methods: 2.5 cm long and 1 cm wide four vaginal mucosal flaps were raised from the anterior vaginal wall just behind labia minora. Two flaps were based proximally, and their two opposing flaps were based distally. These flaps were overlapped in a crisscross fashion and were sutured with 5/0 Polyglactin (Vicryl®) sutures leaving no area raw. The donor area was closed primarily. When some remains of a torn hymen were found, one to three vaginal mucosal flaps were added to its remains as per the need for reconstruction. Results: We operated upon 11 patients. In nine cases, the hymen was reconstructed with four flaps. In remaining two, it was reconstructed from the remains using vaginal mucosal flaps. All flaps healed without any infection or disruption. Sutures got absorbed in 25-35 days. In all cases, this newly constructed barrier broke with only moderate pressure at the time of penetrative sex serving the purpose of the surgery completely. Conclusion: Erasing evidence of the sexual history simply by ‘Surgical Revirgination’ is extremely important to women contemplating marriage in cultures where a high value is placed on virginity. PMID:26424986

  14. Diary of an astronaut: examination of the remains of the late Israeli astronaut Colonel Ilan Ramon's Crew Notebook recovered after the loss of NASA's space shuttle Columbia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sharon; Sin-David, Laser

    2007-05-01

    Two months after the fatal re-entering into the Earth's atmosphere of Columbia flight STS-107, the remains of Israeli astronaut Colonel Ilan Ramon's Crew Notebook were found strewn in a field in San Augustine County, TX. The random pile of papers was found to have survived the calamity of the Shuttle's disintegration remarkably well. Most of the papers recovered were torn and/or washed out to varying degrees but only mildly charred around the edges. The sheets of paper could be categorized into four groups: Group I: eight sides of paper written while in space in black ink and in pencil--Ramon's personal diary; the writing on these eight sides of paper survived well and is only missing where the pages were torn. Small fragments found in the field were physically matched to holes in the pages thus locating their original positions in the text. Group II: six sides of technical preparation notes written by Ramon before the mission. The writing on these pages was washed out entirely, but much of it was visualized using infrared luminescence. Group III: eight sides of personal notes prepared by Ramon before the mission written in blue ink. The writing on these pages was barely visible to the naked eye and not visualized by infrared luminescence, but was made largely legible by digital enhancement imaging. Group IV: a few sides of printed technical information. These pages were mostly intact and were not examined at length as they contained standard printed material. After completion of examinations at the Questioned Document Laboratory of the Israel Police, the diary was transferred to the Paper Conservation Department of the Israel Museum for preservation and strengthening treatments.

  15. Degeneration of the long biceps tendon: comparison of MRI with gross anatomy and histology.

    PubMed

    Buck, Florian M; Grehn, Holger; Hilbe, Monika; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Manzanell, Silvana; Hodler, Jürg

    2009-11-01

    The objective of our study was to relate alterations in biceps tendon diameter and signal on MR images to gross anatomy and histology. T1-weighted, T2-weighted fat-saturated, and proton density-weighted fat-saturated spin-echo sequences were acquired in 15 cadaveric shoulders. Biceps tendon diameter (normal, flattened, thickened, and partially or completely torn) and signal intensity (compared with bone, fat, muscle, and joint fluid) were graded by two readers independently and in a blinded fashion. The distance of tendon abnormalities from the attachment at the glenoid were noted in millimeters. MRI findings were related to gross anatomic and histologic findings. On the basis of gross anatomy, there were six normal, five flattened, two thickened, and two partially torn tendons. Reader 1 graded nine diameter changes correctly, missed two, and incorrectly graded four. The corresponding values for reader 2 were seven, one, and five, respectively, with kappa = 0.75. Histology showed mucoid degeneration (n = 13), lipoid degeneration (n = 7), and fatty infiltration (n = 6). At least one type of abnormality was found in each single tendon. Mucoid degeneration was hyperintense compared with fatty infiltration on T2-weighted fat-saturated images and hyperintense compared with magic-angle artifacts on proton density-weighted fat-saturated images. MRI-based localization of degeneration agreed well with histologic findings. Diameter changes are specific but not sensitive in diagnosing tendinopathy of the biceps tendon. Increased tendon signal is most typical for mucoid degeneration but should be used with care as a sign of tendon degeneration.

  16. Population stochastic modelling (PSM)--an R package for mixed-effects models based on stochastic differential equations.

    PubMed

    Klim, Søren; Mortensen, Stig Bousgaard; Kristensen, Niels Rode; Overgaard, Rune Viig; Madsen, Henrik

    2009-06-01

    The extension from ordinary to stochastic differential equations (SDEs) in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling is an emerging field and has been motivated in a number of articles [N.R. Kristensen, H. Madsen, S.H. Ingwersen, Using stochastic differential equations for PK/PD model development, J. Pharmacokinet. Pharmacodyn. 32 (February(1)) (2005) 109-141; C.W. Tornøe, R.V. Overgaard, H. Agersø, H.A. Nielsen, H. Madsen, E.N. Jonsson, Stochastic differential equations in NONMEM: implementation, application, and comparison with ordinary differential equations, Pharm. Res. 22 (August(8)) (2005) 1247-1258; R.V. Overgaard, N. Jonsson, C.W. Tornøe, H. Madsen, Non-linear mixed-effects models with stochastic differential equations: implementation of an estimation algorithm, J. Pharmacokinet. Pharmacodyn. 32 (February(1)) (2005) 85-107; U. Picchini, S. Ditlevsen, A. De Gaetano, Maximum likelihood estimation of a time-inhomogeneous stochastic differential model of glucose dynamics, Math. Med. Biol. 25 (June(2)) (2008) 141-155]. PK/PD models are traditionally based ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with an observation link that incorporates noise. This state-space formulation only allows for observation noise and not for system noise. Extending to SDEs allows for a Wiener noise component in the system equations. This additional noise component enables handling of autocorrelated residuals originating from natural variation or systematic model error. Autocorrelated residuals are often partly ignored in PK/PD modelling although violating the hypothesis for many standard statistical tests. This article presents a package for the statistical program R that is able to handle SDEs in a mixed-effects setting. The estimation method implemented is the FOCE(1) approximation to the population likelihood which is generated from the individual likelihoods that are approximated using the Extended Kalman Filter's one-step predictions.

  17. Role of the superior labrum after biceps tenodesis in glenohumeral stability.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Eric J; Salata, Michael J; Sershon, Robert A; Garbis, Nickolas; Provencher, Matthew T; Wang, Vincent M; McGill, Kevin C; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Nicholson, Gregory P; Cole, Brian J; Romeo, Anthony A; Verma, Nikhil N

    2014-04-01

    Little is known about the role that a torn superior labrum (SLAP) plays in glenohumeral stability after biceps tenodesis. This biomechanical study evaluated the contribution of a type II SLAP lesion to glenohumeral translation in the presence of biceps tenodesis. The authors hypothesize that subsequent to biceps tenodesis, a torn superior labrum does not affect glenohumeral stability and therefore does not require anatomic repair in an overhead throwing athlete. Baseline anterior, posterior, and abduction and maximal external rotation glenohumeral translation data were collected from 20 cadaveric shoulders. Translation testing was repeated after the creation of anterior (n = 10) and posterior (n = 10) type II SLAP lesions. Translation re-evaluation after biceps tenodesis was performed for each specimen. Finally, anatomic SLAP lesion repair and testing were performed. Anterior and posterior SLAP lesions led to significant increases in glenohumeral translation in all directions (P < .0125). Biceps tenodesis showed no significance in stability compared with SLAP alone (P > .0125). Arthroscopic repair of anterior SLAP lesions did not restore anterior translation compared with the baseline state (P = .0011) but did restore posterior (P = .823) and abduction and maximal external rotation (P = .806) translations. Repair of posterior SLAP lesions demonstrated no statistical difference compared with the baseline state (P > .0125). With no detrimental effect on glenohumeral stability in the presence of a SLAP lesion, biceps tenodesis may be considered a valid primary or revision surgery for patients suffering from symptomatic type II SLAP tears. However, biceps tenodesis should be considered with caution as the primary treatment of SLAP lesions in overhead throwing athletes secondary to its inability to completely restore translational stability. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. All rights reserved.

  18. Warping and tearing of misaligned circumbinary disks around eccentric supermassive black hole binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Hayasaki, K.; Sohn, B.W.; Jung, T.; Zhao, G.; Okazaki, A.T.; Naito, T. E-mail: bwsohn@kasi.re.kr E-mail: thjung@kasi.re.kr E-mail: tsuguya@ygu.ac.jp

    2015-07-01

    We study the warping and tearing of a geometrically thin, non-self-gravitating disk surrounding binary supermassive black holes on an eccentric orbit. The circumbinary disk is significantly misaligned with the binary orbital plane, and is subject to the time-dependent tidal torques. In principle, such a disk is warped and precesses, and is torn into mutually misaligned rings in the region, where the tidal precession torques are stronger than the local viscous torques. We derive the tidal-warp and tearing radii of the misaligned circumbinary disks around eccentric SMBH binaries. We find that in disks with the viscosity parameter α larger than a critical value depending on the disk aspect ratio, the disk warping appears outside the tearing radius. This condition is expressed for small amplitude warps as α > √H/(3r) for H/r∼<0.1, where H is the disk scale height. If α < √H/(3r), only the disk tearing occurs because the tidal warp radius is inside the tearing radius, where most of disk material is likely to rapidly accrete onto SMBHs. In warped and torn disks, both the tidal-warp and the tearing radii most strongly depend on the binary semi-major axis, although they also mildly depend on the other orbital and disk parameters. This strong dependence enables us to estimate the semi-major axis, once the tidal warp or tearing radius is determined observationally: for the tidal warp radius of 0.1 pc, the semi-major axis is estimated to be ∼10{sup −2} pc for 10{sup 7} M{sub ⊙} black hole with typical orbital and disk parameters. We also briefly discuss the possibility that central objects of observed warped maser disks in active galactic nuclei are supermassive black hole binaries.

  19. Factors Determining Availability, Utilization and Retention of Child Health Card in Western Nepal.

    PubMed

    Paudel, K P; Bajracharya, D C; Karki, K; K C, A

    2016-05-01

    The immunization card is revised with addition of general information about child health and is later called as child health card. This card is a tool used by Health Management Information System in Nepal. It is important for tracking the records of immunization. Aim is to identify the factors determining the availability, utilization and retention of the child health card in Western Nepal. A cross sectional study was conducted among mothers having children < 24 months old from Gorkha (Western Hill) and Nawalparasi (Western Terai) districts. The sample size for the study was 600 and systematic random sampling was used to select the mothers having less than 24 months old children. Data entry and analysis was done by using SPSS. Qualitative data was analyzed by making matrix. The average age of respondents was 24 years. The majority of respondents have gained higher level education. Retention of the card was found to be 82.2%. 90.3% retention was seen among 0-12 months children age group whereas it was 74 % among12 to 24 months age group. The reasons for less retention were torn by the child/played by child (54.6%) followed by lack of proper place,unaware about importance and poor quality of card.The new child health cards were insufficient, compelling use of both new and old cards which created problem in consistency. Regarding utilization of child health card, it was found to be used for birth registration and for further studies in abroad. The areas of utilization of child health card should be broadened so that the retention of card can be increased. The main reasons for less retention of the card are torn by children and lack of the proper place.

  20. Soft X-Ray Exposure Testing of FEP Teflon for the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim K.

    1998-01-01

    The FEP Teflon (DuPont) multilayer insulation (MLI) thermal-control blanket material on the Hubble Space Telescope is degrading in the space environment. During the first Hubble servicing mission in 1993, after 3.6 years in low Earth orbit, aluminized and silvered FEP Teflon MLI thermal-control blanket materials were retrieved. These materials have been jointly analyzed by the NASA Lewis Research Center and the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for degradation induced in the space environment (ref. 1). Solar-facing blanket materials were found to be embrittled with through-the-thickness cracking in the 5-mil FEP. During the second Hubble servicing mission in 1997, astronauts noticed that several blankets had large areas with tears. The torn FEP was curled up in some areas, exposing the underlying materials to the space environment. This tearing problem, and the associated curling up of torn areas, could lead to over-heating of the telescope and to particulate contamination. A Hubble Space Telescope MLI Failure Review Board was assembled by Goddard to investigate and identify the degradation mechanism of the FEP, to identify and characterize replacement materials, and to estimate the extent of damage at the time of the third servicing mission in 1999. A small piece of FEP retrieved during the second servicing mission is being evaluated by this failure review board along with materials from the first servicing mission. Since the first servicing mission, and as part of the failure review board, Lewis has been exposing FEP to soft x-rays to help determine the damage mechanisms of FEP in the space environment. Soft x-rays, which can penetrate into the bulk of FEP, are generated during solar flares and appear to be contributing to the degradation of the Hubble MLI.

  1. Hypoxia: a critical regulator of early human tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Millar, Neal L; Reilly, James H; Kerr, Shauna C; Campbell, Abigail L; Little, Kevin J; Leach, William J; Rooney, Brian P; Murrell, George A C; McInnes, Iain B

    2012-02-01

    To seek evidence for the role of hypoxia in early human tendinopathy, and thereafter to explore mechanisms whereby tissue hypoxia may regulate apoptosis, inflammatory mediator expression and matrix regulation in human tenocytes. Fifteen torn supraspinatus tendon (established pathology) and matched intact subscapularis tendon (representing 'early pathology') biopsies were collected from patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Control samples of the subscapularis tendon were collected from 10 patients undergoing arthroscopic stabilisation surgery. Markers of hypoxia were quantified by immunohistochemical methods. Human tendon-derived primary cells were derived from hamstring tendon tissue obtained during hamstring tendon anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The impact of hypoxia upon tenocyte biology ex vivo was measured using quantitative real-time PCR, multiplex cytokine assays, apoptotic proteomic profiling, immunohistochemistry and annexin V fluorescence-activated cell sorter staining. Increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, Bcl-2 and clusterin was detected in subscapularis tendon samples compared with both matched torn samples and non-matched control samples (p<0.01). Hypoxic tenocytes exhibited increased production of proinflammatory cytokines (p<0.001), altered matrix regulation (p<0.01) with increased production of collagen type III operating through a mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway. Finally, hypoxia increased the expression of several mediators of apoptosis and thereby promoted tenocyte apoptosis. Hypoxia promotes the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, key apoptotic mediators and drives matrix component synthesis towards a collagen type III profile by human tenocytes. The authors propose hypoxic cell injury as a critical pathophysiological mechanism in early tendinopathy offering novel therapeutic opportunities in the management of tendon disorders.

  2. Pushing the Frontier of Data-Oriented Geodynamic Modeling: from Qualitative to Quantitative to Predictive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Hu, J.; Zhou, Q.

    2016-12-01

    The rapid accumulation of geophysical and geological data sets poses an increasing demand for the development of geodynamic models to better understand the evolution of the solid Earth. Consequently, the earlier qualitative physical models are no long satisfying. Recent efforts are focusing on more quantitative simulations and more efficient numerical algorithms. Among these, a particular line of research is on the implementation of data-oriented geodynamic modeling, with the purpose of building an observationally consistent and physically correct geodynamic framework. Such models could often catalyze new insights into the functioning mechanisms of the various aspects of plate tectonics, and their predictive nature could also guide future research in a deterministic fashion. Over the years, we have been working on constructing large-scale geodynamic models with both sequential and variational data assimilation techniques. These models act as a bridge between different observational records, and the superposition of the constraining power from different data sets help reveal unknown processes and mechanisms of the dynamics of the mantle and lithosphere. We simulate the post-Cretaceous subduction history in South America using a forward (sequential) approach. The model is constrained using past subduction history, seafloor age evolution, tectonic architecture of continents, and the present day geophysical observations. Our results quantify the various driving forces shaping the present South American flat slabs, which we found are all internally torn. The 3-D geometry of these torn slabs further explains the abnormal seismicity pattern and enigmatic volcanic history. An inverse (variational) model simulating the late Cenozoic western U.S. mantle dynamics with similar constraints reveals a different mechanism for the formation of Yellowstone-related volcanism from traditional understanding. Furthermore, important insights on the mantle density and viscosity structures

  3. Gene expression profiles of changes underlying different-sized human rotator cuff tendon tears.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Salma; Xia, Zhidao; Thakkar, Dipti; Hakimi, Osnat; Carr, Andrew J

    2016-10-01

    Progressive cellular and extracellular matrix (ECM) changes related to age and disease severity have been demonstrated in rotator cuff tendon tears. Larger rotator cuff tears demonstrate structural abnormalities that potentially adversely influence healing potential. This study aimed to gain greater insight into the relationship of pathologic changes to tear size by analyzing gene expression profiles from normal rotator cuff tendons, small rotator cuff tears, and large rotator cuff tears. We analyzed gene expression profiles of 28 human rotator cuff tendons using microarrays representing the entire genome; 11 large and 5 small torn rotator cuff tendon specimens were obtained intraoperatively from tear edges, which we compared with 12 age-matched normal controls. We performed real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry for validation. Torn rotator cuff tendons demonstrated upregulation of a number of key genes, such as matrix metalloproteinase 3, 10, 12, 13, 15, 21, and 25; a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) 12, 15, and 22; and aggrecan. Amyloid was downregulated in all tears. Small tears displayed upregulation of bone morphogenetic protein 5. Chemokines and cytokines that may play a role in chemotaxis were altered; interleukins 3, 10, 13, and 15 were upregulated in tears, whereas interleukins 1, 8, 11, 18, and 27 were downregulated. The gene expression profiles of normal controls and small and large rotator cuff tear groups differ significantly. Extracellular matrix remodeling genes were found to contribute to rotator cuff tear pathogenesis. Rotator cuff tears displayed upregulation of a number of matrix metalloproteinase (3, 10, 12, 13, 15, 21, and 25), a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM 12, 15, and 22) genes, and downregulation of some interleukins (1, 8, and 27), which play important roles in chemotaxis. These gene products may potentially have a role as biomarkers of failure of healing or therapeutic targets to improve tendon

  4. Skeletal ligament healing using the recombinant human amelogenin protein.

    PubMed

    Hanhan, Salem; Ejzenberg, Ayala; Goren, Koby; Saba, Faris; Suki, Yarden; Sharon, Shay; Shilo, Dekel; Waxman, Jacob; Spitzer, Elad; Shahar, Ron; Atkins, Ayelet; Liebergall, Meir; Blumenfeld, Anat; Deutsch, Dan; Haze, Amir

    2016-05-01

    Injuries to ligaments are common, painful and debilitating, causing joint instability and impaired protective proprioception sensation around the joint. Healing of torn ligaments usually fails to take place, and surgical replacement or reconstruction is required. Previously, we showed that in vivo application of the recombinant human amelogenin protein (rHAM(+)) resulted in enhanced healing of the tooth-supporting tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether amelogenin might also enhance repair of skeletal ligaments. The rat knee medial collateral ligament (MCL) was chosen to prove the concept. Full thickness tear was created and various concentrations of rHAM(+), dissolved in propylene glycol alginate (PGA) carrier, were applied to the transected MCL. 12 weeks after transection, the mechanical properties, structure and composition of transected ligaments treated with 0.5 μg/μl rHAM(+) were similar to the normal un-transected ligaments, and were much stronger, stiffer and organized than control ligaments, treated with PGA only. Furthermore, the proprioceptive free nerve endings, in the 0.5 μg/μl rHAM(+) treated group, were parallel to the collagen fibres similar to their arrangement in normal ligament, while in the control ligaments the free nerve endings were entrapped in the scar tissue at different directions, not parallel to the axis of the force. Four days after transection, treatment with 0.5 μg/μl rHAM(+) increased the amount of cells expressing mesenchymal stem cell markers at the injured site. In conclusion application of rHAM(+) dose dependently induced mechanical, structural and sensory healing of torn skeletal ligament. Initially the process involved recruitment and proliferation of cells expressing mesenchymal stem cell markers.

  5. Tendon retraction with rotator cuff tear causes a decrease in cross-sectional area of the supraspinatus muscle on magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Fukuta, Shoji; Tsutsui, Takahiko; Amari, Rui; Wada, Keizo; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-07-01

    Muscle atrophy and fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles have been reported as negative prognostic indicators after rotator cuff repair. Although the Y-shaped view is widely used for measuring the cross-sectional area of the supraspinatus muscle, the contribution of retraction of the torn tendon as well as muscle atrophy must be considered. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between cross-sectional area and tendon retraction or size of the tear. This study included 76 shoulders that were evaluated arthroscopically for the presence and size of tears. Cross-sectional areas of rotator cuff muscles were measured from the Y-shaped view to 3 more medial slices. The occupation ratio and tangent sign were evaluated on the Y-shaped view. The retraction of torn tendon was also measured on the oblique coronal images. On the Y-shaped view, the cross-sectional area of the supraspinatus and the occupation ratio decreased in conjunction with the increase in tear size. A significant decrease in cross-sectional area was noted only in large and massive tears on more medial slices from the Y-shaped view. Significant decreases in the cross-sectional area of the infraspinatus were observed in large and massive tears on all images. A negative correlation was found between tendon retraction and cross-sectional area, which was strongest on the Y-shaped view. To avoid the influence of retraction of the supraspinatus tendon, sufficient medial slices from the musculotendinous junction should be used for evaluation of muscle atrophy. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Reduced muscle fiber force production and disrupted myofibril architecture in patients with chronic rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Mendias, Christopher L; Roche, Stuart M; Harning, Julie A; Davis, Max E; Lynch, Evan B; Sibilsky Enselman, Elizabeth R; Jacobson, Jon A; Claflin, Dennis R; Calve, Sarah; Bedi, Asheesh

    2015-01-01

    A persistent atrophy of muscle fibers and an accumulation of fat, collectively referred to as fatty degeneration, commonly occur in patients with chronic rotator cuff tears. The etiology of fatty degeneration and function of the residual rotator cuff musculature have not been well characterized in humans. We hypothesized that muscles from patients with chronic rotator cuff tears have reduced muscle fiber force production, disordered myofibrils, and an accumulation of fat vacuoles. The contractility of muscle fibers from biopsy specimens of supraspinatus muscles of 13 patients with chronic full-thickness posterosuperior rotator cuff tears was measured and compared with data from healthy vastus lateralis muscle fibers. Correlations between muscle fiber contractility, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores, and tear size were analyzed. Histology and electron microscopy were also performed. Torn supraspinatus muscles had a 30% reduction in maximum isometric force production and a 29% reduction in normalized force compared with controls. Normalized supraspinatus fiber force positively correlated with ASES score and negatively correlated with tear size. Disordered sarcomeres were noted, along with an accumulation of lipid-laden macrophages in the extracellular matrix surrounding supraspinatus muscle fibers. Patients with chronic supraspinatus tears have significant reductions in muscle fiber force production. Force production also correlates with ASES scores and tear size. The structural and functional muscle dysfunction of the residual muscle fibers is independent of the additional area taken up by fibrotic tissue. This work may help establish future therapies to restore muscle function after the repair of chronically torn rotator cuff muscles. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A call for international soil experiment networks for studying, predicting, and managing global change impacts

    DOE PAGES

    Torn, M. S.; Chabbi, A.; Crill, P.; ...

    2015-08-24

    The soil profile encompasses a remarkably large range of biogeochemical conditions, processes, and fluxes. For example, in most soils the turnover time of soil organic carbon (SOC) varies more between the soil surface and 1m deep than between surface soils in the tropics vs. the Arctic (Torn et al., 2009). Moreover, radiocarbon observations in different soil types show that SOC decomposition rates decrease with depth, with residence times of years to decades at the soil surface to over 10 000 years at 1m deep (e.g., Torn et al., 2002). There are many competing hypotheses for this steep decline in SOCmore » turnover with depth. They can be grouped loosely into physical–chemical accessibility, energetic limits to microbial activity, microclimate and pH, and physical disconnect between decomposers and substrate. While all of these mechanisms control deep SOC cycling, data are lacking for unraveling their relative importance in different soils under different environmental conditions. However, critical knowledge for predicting soil responses to global change, because fairly rapid loss (or gain) of old and/or deep SOC stocks is possible and more than 80% of the world’s SOC is found below 20 cm depth (Jobbágy and Jackson, 2000). Currently, the soil modules within Earth system models are parameterized for surface soil and lack mechanisms important for stabilization and losses of deep SOC. We, therefore, suggest that a critical challenge is to achieve process-level understanding at the global level and the ability to predict whether, and how, the large stores of deep, old SOC are stabilized and lost under global change scenarios.« less

  8. Sloping fan travertine, Belen, New Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Megan; Chafetz, Henry S.

    2017-05-01

    Pliocene to Quaternary age travertines are very well-exposed in quarries near Belen, New Mexico, U.S.A., on the western edge of the Rio Grande Rift system. A series of hillside springs produced travertine tongues tens of meters thick and hundreds of meters long. The accumulations represent deposits from individual springs as well as the amalgamation of deposits. The overall architecture is predominantly composed of sloping fans with a smaller component of terrace mounds. The sloping fan deposits commonly have a dip of < 10°, however, they range from horizontal to near vertical. Individual strata display significant changes in depositional dip, beds pinch and swell, and some are completely truncated. Centimeter to meter scale terrace mounds exhibit the common stair-step morphology. As a consequence of vertical accretion in the pools, terrace mounds morphed into sloping fans. The travertine is composed of a variety of commonly reported constituents, i.e., centimeter thick laminae of bacterial shrubs and oncoids, foam rock, sheets and rafts, and finely crystalline crusts that occur throughout the sloping fan and terrace mound accumulations. Sheets and rafts formed as precipitates in pools on the surfaces of the fans and terraces as well as spelean deposits on the water surfaces of pools within cavities in the overall accumulation. Thus, the spelean rafts provide valuable indicators of original horizontality in the sloping fan strata. In addition, intraformational breccias, composed of locally torn-up travertine intraclastic boulders and deposited in with other travertine, and extraformational breccias, composed of torn-up travertine intraclasts mixed with siliciclastic fines and sand and Paleozoic limestone clasts transported downslope from higher on the hillside, are a common constituent in the sloping fan accumulation. The Belen travertines provide a very well-exposed example of sloping fan travertines and may provide relevant data with regard to the subsurface

  9. The potential of optical coherence tomography in meniscal tear characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Hang-yin; Guo, Shuguang; Thieman, Kelley M.; Wise, Brent T.; Pozzi, Antonio; Xie, Huikai; Horodyski, MaryBeth

    2009-02-01

    Meniscal tear is one of the most common knee injuries leading to pain and discomfort. Partial and total meniscectomies have been widely used to treat the avascular meniscal injuries in which tears do not heal spontaneously. However, the meniscectomies would cause an alteration of the tibiofemoral contact mechanics resulting in progressive osteoarthritis (OA). To mitigate the progression of OA, maximal preservation of meniscal tissue is recommended. The clinical challenge is deciding which meniscal tears are amenable to repair and which part of damaged tissues should be removed. Current diagnosis techniques such as arthroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging can provide macrostructural information of menisci, but the microstructural changes that occur prior to the observable meniscal tears cannot be identified by these techniques. Serving as a nondestructive optical biopsy, optical coherence tomography (OCT), a newly developed imaging modality, can provide high resolution, cross-sectional images of tissues and has been shown its capabilty in arthroscopic evaulation of articular cartilage. Our research was to demonstrate the potential of using OCT for nondestructive characterization of the histopathology of different types of meniscal tears from clinical cases in dogs, providing a fundamental understanding of the failure mechanism of meniscal tears. First, cross-sectional images of torn canine menisci obtained from the OCT and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) were be compared. By studying the organization of collegan fibrils in torn menisci from the SEM images, the feasibility of using OCT to characterize the organization of collegan fibrils was elucidated. Moreover, the crack size of meniscal tears was quantatitively measured from the OCT images. Changes in the crack size of the tear may be useful for understanding the failure mechanism of meniscal tears.

  10. Mechanized and natural soil-to-air transfer of trifluralin and prometryn from a cotton field in Las Cruces, New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Holmén, Britt A; Kasumba, John; Hiscox, April; Wang, Junming; Miller, David

    2013-10-16

    Two pre-emergence herbicides (trifluralin and prometryn) were applied on a cotton field in Las Cruces, New Mexico, and their atmospheric particle and gas-phase concentrations were measured during mechanized soil preparation and natural wind erosion sampling events before and after herbicide application. Air sampling was conducted using samplers mounted at various heights from the ground and at various locations on the field. During mechanized soil management with a disk harrow, sampling occurred at two distances from the tractor ("near-source", 4 m downwind and "far-source", 20-100 m from the disking tractor). Natural background (no disking) sampling events occurred during daytime and at night. Both herbicides were quantifiable for all postapplication sampling events, including background sampling that occurred 8, 38, and 40 days after herbicide application. Average concentrations in both the gas and particle phases ranged from about 10 to 350 ng/m(3). Averaging by event type, mean total prometryn concentrations were 2 (night background) to 8 (near-source) times higher than the corresponding trifluralin concentrations. Prometryn/trifluralin ratios were higher in airborne samples than in soil, indicative of trifluralin losses during daytime sampling, possibly via atmospheric reactions. Prometryn particle phase mass fractions were generally higher than those for trifluralin for all sampling events, consistent with Kair/soil-oc partition coefficients, and particle-phase mass fractions were higher for near-source disking and daytime background sampling compared to far-source and nighttime. Daytime natural background prometryn concentrations could be as high as those measured during disking, and background samples showed significant relationships to meteorological parameters (air temperature, relative humidity, and dewpoint). Mechanical disturbance by tilling operations reduced the ability to predict airborne herbicide concentrations on the basis of meteorological

  11. Andic soils : mineralogical effect onto organic matter dynamics, organic matter effect onto mineral dynamics, or both?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basile-Doelsch, Isabelle; Amundson, Ronald; Balesdent, Jérome; Borschneck, Daniel; Bottero, Jean-Yves; Colin, Fabrice; de Junet, Alexis; Doelsch, Emmanuel; Legros, Samuel; Levard, Clément; Masion, Armand; Meunier, Jean-Dominique; Rose, Jérôme

    2014-05-01

    From a strictly mineralogical point of view, weathering of volcanic glass produces secondary phases that are short range ordered alumino-silicates (SRO-AlSi). These are imogolite tubes (2 to 3 nm of diameter) and allophane supposedly spheres (3.5 to 5 nm). Their local structure is composed of a curved gibbsite Al layer and Si tetrahedra in the vacancies (Q0). Proto-imogolites have the same local structure but are roof-shape nanoparticles likely representing the precursors of imogolite and allophanes (Levard et al. 2010). These structures and sizes give to the SRO-AlSi large specific surfaces and high reactivities. In some natural sites, imogolites and allophanes are formed in large quantities. Aging of these phases may lead to the formation of more stable minerals (halloysite, kaolinite and gibbsite) (Torn et al 1997). In natural environments, when the weathering of volcanic glass is associated with the establishment of vegetation, the soils formed are generally andosols. These soils are particularly rich in organic matter (OM), which is explained by the high ability of SRO-AlSi mineral phases to form bonds with organic compounds. In a first order "bulk" approach, it is considered that these bonds strongly stabilize the organic compounds as their mean age can reach more than 10 kyrs in some studied sites (Basile-Doelsch et al. 2005; Torn et al. 1997). However, the structure of the mineral phases present in andosols deserves more attention. Traditionally, the presence in the SRO-AlSi andosols was shown by selective dissolution approaches by oxalate and pyrophosphate. Using spectroscopic methods, mineralogical analysis of SRO-AlSi in andosols samples showed that these mineral phases were neither imogolites nor allophanes as originally supposed, but only less organized structures remained in a state of proto-imogolites (Basile-Doelsch al. 2005 ; Levard et al., 2012). The presence of OM would have an inhibitory effect on the formation of secondary mineral phases, by

  12. Anterior cruciate ligament replacement: comparison of bone-patellar tendon-bone grafts with two-strand hamstring grafts. A prospective, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Beynnon, Bruce D; Johnson, Robert J; Fleming, Braden C; Kannus, Pekka; Kaplan, Michael; Samani, John; Renström, Per

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate replacement of a torn anterior cruciate ligament with either a bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft or a two-strand semitendinosus-gracilis autograft to compare the results of clinical testing, patient satisfaction, activity level, functional status, and muscle strength. Fifty-six patients with a torn anterior cruciate ligament were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, controlled study. Twenty-eight underwent reconstruction with a bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft, and twenty-eight were treated with a two-strand semitendinosus-gracilis autograft. Patients were followed for an average of thirty-nine months (range, thirty-six to fifty-seven months). At the time of final follow-up, twenty-two patients in each group were evaluated in terms of clinical test findings, patient satisfaction, activity level, functional status, and isokinetic muscle strength. The objective outcome of replacement of the torn anterior cruciate ligament with a bone-patellar tendon-bone graft was superior to that obtained with a two-strand semitendinosus-gracilis graft. At the three-year follow-up interval, the patients in whom a hamstring graft had been used had an average of 4.4 mm of increased anterior knee laxity compared with the laxity of the contralateral, normal knee, whereas the patients in whom a bone-patellar tendon-bone graft had been used had an average of 1.1 mm of increased knee laxity. Fourteen percent (three) of the twenty-two patients with a hamstring graft had a mild pivot shift, and 27% (six) had a moderate pivot shift. Only 14% (three) of the twenty-two patients with a bone-patellar tendon-bone graft had a mild pivot shift, and none had a moderate pivot shift. At the same follow-up interval, the patients in whom a hamstring graft had been used had significantly lower peak knee-flexion strength than those who had a bone-patellar tendon-bone graft (p = 0.039). In contrast, the two treatments produced similar outcomes in

  13. Human β-NGF gene transferred to cat corneal endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wen-Juan; Liu, Min; Zhao, Gui-Qiu; Wang, Chuan-Fu; Hu, Li-Ting; Liu, Xiang-Ping

    2016-01-01

    To transfect the cat corneal endothelial cells (CECs) with recombinant human β-nerve growth factor gene adeno-associated virus (AAV-β-NGF) and to observe the effect of the expressed β-NGF protein on the proliferation activity of cat CECs. The endothelium of cat cornea was torn under the microscope and rapidly cultivated in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) to form single layer CECs and the passage 2 endothelial cells were used in this experiment. The recombinant human AAV-β-NGF was constructed. The recombinant human AAV-β-NGF was transferred into cat CECs directly. Three groups were as following: normal CEC control group, CEC-AAV control group and recombinant CEC-AAV-β-NGF group. Forty-eight hours after transfection, the total RNA was extracted from the CEC by Trizol. The expression of the β-NGF target gene detected by fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction; proliferation activity of the transfected CEC detected at 48h by MTT assay; the percentage of G1 cells among CECs after transfect was detected by flow cytometry method (FCM); cell morphology was observed under inverted phase contrast microscope. The torn endothelium culture technique rapidly cultivated single layer cat corneal endothelial cells. The self-designed primers for the target gene and reference gene were efficient and special confirmed through electrophoresis analysis and DNA sequencing. Forty-eight hours after transfect, the human β-NGF gene mRNA detected by fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that there was no significant difference between normal CEC control group and CEC-AAV control group (P>0.05); there was significant difference between two control groups and recombinant CEC-AAV-β-NGF group (P<0.05). MTT assay showed that transfect of recombinant AAV-β-NGF promoted the proliferation activity of cat CEC, while there was no significant difference between normal CEC control group and CEC-AAV control group (P>0.05). FCM result showed that the

  14. Factors associated with meniscus repair in patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Ronald W B; Inacio, Maria C S; Liddle, Kate D; Maletis, Gregory B

    2013-12-01

    Meniscus injuries are common in patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. Patient demographics, surgeon characteristics, and concurrent diagnostic factors affecting the prevalence of meniscus repairs in patients undergoing ACL reconstruction (ACLR) by community-based orthopaedic surgeons have not been fully studied. Patient (age, sex, race, and body mass index [BMI]), surgeon (sports medicine fellowship training status and case volume), and injury characteristics (1 or both menisci injured, injury location, and concurrent cartilage injury) and surgical venue (case volume) are associated with a higher likelihood of meniscus repair. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A cross-sectional study using data from a large community-based ACLR registry was performed. Patients with a meniscus injury and primary ACLR between February 2005 and June 2010 were included in the study. Meniscus repair rates by patient, surgeon, and injury characteristics were described. Associations were evaluated using generalized linear models. During the study period, 5712 primary ACLRs with a meniscus tear diagnosis were registered. There was 1 torn meniscus in 4248 (74.4%) patients, and both menisci were torn in 1464 (25.6%) patients. Medial meniscus tears were repaired in 1192 (31.2%) of 3818 cases; the remaining 2626 (68.8%) tears were not repaired, underwent alternative treatment (meniscectomy, trephination, rasped), or were left in situ. Lateral meniscus tears were repaired in 893 (26.6%) of 3358 cases; the remaining 2465 (73.4%) tears underwent alternative treatment or were left in situ. Adjusted models showed that younger patient age (P < .001), lower patient BMI (P < .001), surgeon's sports medicine fellowship training (P < .001), higher surgeon case volume (P < .001), higher surgical venue volume (P = .019), and medial meniscus tears (P < .001) were all associated with a higher likelihood of a meniscus repair. Younger patient age, lower patient BMI, surgeon's sports

  15. Modified suture-bridge technique to prevent a marginal dog-ear deformity improves structural integrity after rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Keun Jung; Kim, Bang Hyun; Lee, Yohan; Lee, Yoon Seok; Kim, Jae Hwa

    2015-03-01

    The arthroscopic suture-bridge technique has proved to provide biomechanically firm fixation of the torn rotator cuff to the tuberosity by increasing the footprint contact area and pressure. However, a marginal dog-ear deformity is encountered not infrequently when this technique is used, impeding full restoration of the torn cuff. To evaluate the structural and functional outcomes of the use of a modified suture-bridge technique to prevent a marginal dog-ear deformity compared with a conventional suture-bridge method in rotator cuff repair. Cohort study; Level of evidence 2. A consecutive series of 71 patients aged 50 to 65 years who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for full-thickness medium-sized to massive tears was evaluated. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to repair technique: a conventional suture-bridge technique (34 patients; group A) versus a modified suture-bridge technique to prevent a marginal dog-ear deformity (37 patients; group B). Radiographic evaluations included postoperative cuff integrity using MRI. Functional evaluations included pre- and postoperative range of motion (ROM), pain visual analog scale (VAS), the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder rating scale, the Constant score, and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score. All patients were followed up clinically at a minimum of 1 year. When the 2 surgical techniques were compared, postoperative structural integrity by Sugaya classification showed the distribution of types I:II:III:IV:V to be 4:20:2:4:4 in group A and 20:12:4:0:1 in group B. More subjects in group B had a favorable Sugaya type compared with group A (P < .001). The postoperative healed:retear rate was 26:8 in group A and 36:1 in group B, with a significantly lower retear rate in group B (P = .011). However, there were no significant differences in ROM and all functional outcome scores between the 2 groups postoperatively. When surgical techniques were compared across healed

  16. Failed healing of rotator cuff repair correlates with altered collagenase and gelatinase in supraspinatus and subscapularis tendons.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Catherine M; Chen, Christopher T; Shindle, Michael K; Cordasco, Frank A; Rodeo, Scott A; Warren, Russell F

    2012-09-01

    histological examination. From a general linear model, the upregulation of MMP-1 and MMP-9 was highly correlated with failed healing of the rotator cuff (R(2) = .656). The upregulation of tissue remodeling genes in the torn rotator cuff at the time of surgery provides a snapshot of the biological environment surrounding the torn rotator cuff that is closely related to the healing of repaired rotator cuffs.

  17. Acromioclavicular joint instability: anatomy, biomechanics and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Saccomanno, Maristella F; DE Ieso, Carmine; Milano, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Acromioclavicular (AC) joint instability is a common source of pain and disability. The injury is most commonly a result of a direct impact to the AC joint. The AC joint is surrounded by a capsule and has an intra-articular synovium and an articular cartilage interface. An articular disc is usually present in the joint, but this varies in size and shape. The AC joint capsule is quite thin, but has considerable ligamentous support; there are four AC ligaments: superior, inferior, anterior and posterior. The coracoclavicular (CC) ligament complex consists of the conoid and trapezoid ligaments. They insert on the posteromedial and anterolateral region of the undersurface of the distal clavicle, respectively. The coracoid origin of the trapezoid covers the posterior half of the coracoid dorsum; the conoid origin is more posterior on the base of the coracoid. Several biomechanical studies showed that horizontal stability of the AC joint is mediated by the AC ligaments while vertical stability is mediated by the CC ligaments. The radiographic classification of AC joint injuries described by Rockwood includes six types: in type I injuries the AC ligaments are sprained, but the joint is intact; in type II injuries, the AC ligaments are torn, but the CC ligaments are intact; in type III injuries both the AC and the CC ligaments are torn; type IV injuries are characterized by complete dislocation with posterior displacement of the distal clavicle into or through the fascia of the trapezius; type V injuries are characterized by a greater degree of soft tissue damage; type VI injuries are inferior AC joint dislocations into a subacromial or subcoracoid position. The diagnosis of AC joint instability can be based on historical data, physical examination and imaging studies. The cross body adduction stress test has the greatest sensitivity, followed by the AC resisted extension test and the O'Brien test. Proper radiographic evaluation of the AC joint is necessary. The Zanca view

  18. Human β-NGF gene transferred to cat corneal endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wen-Juan; Liu, Min; Zhao, Gui-Qiu; Wang, Chuan-Fu; Hu, Li-Ting; Liu, Xiang-Ping

    2016-01-01

    AIM To transfect the cat corneal endothelial cells (CECs) with recombinant human β-nerve growth factor gene adeno-associated virus (AAV-β-NGF) and to observe the effect of the expressed β-NGF protein on the proliferation activity of cat CECs. METHODS The endothelium of cat cornea was torn under the microscope and rapidly cultivated in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) to form single layer CECs and the passage 2 endothelial cells were used in this experiment. The recombinant human AAV-β-NGF was constructed. The recombinant human AAV-β-NGF was transferred into cat CECs directly. Three groups were as following: normal CEC control group, CEC-AAV control group and recombinant CEC-AAV-β-NGF group. Forty-eight hours after transfection, the total RNA was extracted from the CEC by Trizol. The expression of the β-NGF target gene detected by fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction; proliferation activity of the transfected CEC detected at 48h by MTT assay; the percentage of G1 cells among CECs after transfect was detected by flow cytometry method (FCM); cell morphology was observed under inverted phase contrast microscope. RESULTS The torn endothelium culture technique rapidly cultivated single layer cat corneal endothelial cells. The self-designed primers for the target gene and reference gene were efficient and special confirmed through electrophoresis analysis and DNA sequencing. Forty-eight hours after transfect, the human β-NGF gene mRNA detected by fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that there was no significant difference between normal CEC control group and CEC-AAV control group (P>0.05); there was significant difference between two control groups and recombinant CEC-AAV-β-NGF group (P<0.05). MTT assay showed that transfect of recombinant AAV-β-NGF promoted the proliferation activity of cat CEC, while there was no significant difference between normal CEC control group and CEC-AAV control group (P>0.05). FCM result

  19. Spin Complicates Eccentric BH-NS Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-08-01

    When a neutron star (NS) has a glancing encounter with a black hole (BH), its spin has a significant effect on the outcome, according to new simulations run by William East of Stanford University and his collaborators. Spotting an Eccentric Merger. In a traditional BH-NS merger, the two objects orbit each other quasi-circularly as they spiral in. But there's another kind of merger that's possible in high-density environments like galactic nuclei or globular clusters: a dynamical capture merger, in which a NS and BH pass each other just close enough that the gravity of the black hole "catches" the NS, leading the two objects to merge with very eccentric orbits. During an eccentric merger, the NS can be torn apart -- at which point some fraction of the tidally-disrupted material will escape the system, while some fraction instead accretes back onto the BH. Knowing these fractions is important for being able to model the expected electromagnetic signatures for the merger: the unbound material can power transients like kilonovae, whereas the accreting material may be the cause of short gamma-ray bursts. The amount of material available for events like these would change their observable strengths. Testing the Effects of Spin. To see whether NS spin has an impact on the behavior of the merger, East and collaborators use a general-relativistic hydrodynamic code to simulate the glancing encounter of a BH and a NS with dimensionless spin between a=0 (non-spinning) and a=0.756 (rotation period of 1 ms). They also vary the separation of the first encounter. The group finds that changing the NS's spin can change a number of outcomes of the merger. To start with, it can affect whether the NS is captured by the BH, or if the encounter is glancing and then both objects carry on their merry way. And if the NS is trapped by the BH and torn apart, then the higher the NS's spin, the more matter outside of the BH ends up unbound, instead of getting trapped into an accretion disk

  20. Assessing soil hydrological variability at the cm- to dm-scale using air permeameter measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beerten, K.; Vandersmissen, N.; Rogiers, B.; Mallants, D.

    2012-04-01

    Soils and surficial sediments are crucial elements in the hydrological cycle since they are the medium through which infiltrating precipitation percolates to the aquifer. At the same time, soil horizons and shallow stratigraphy may act as hydraulic barriers that can promote runoff or interflow and hamper deep infiltration. For most catchments little is known about the small-scale horizontal and vertical variability of soil hydrological properties. Such information is however required to calculate detailed soil water flow paths and estimate small scale spatial variability in recharge and run-off. We present the results from field air permeameter measurements to assess the small-scale variability of saturated hydraulic conductivity in heterogeneous 2-D soil profiles. To this end, several outcrops in the unsaturated zone (sandy soils with podzolisation) of an interfluve in the Kleine Nete river catchment (Campine area, Northern Belgium) were investigated using a hand-held permeameter. Measurements were done each 10 cm on ~ 2 x 1 m or ~ 2 x 0.5 m grids. The initial results of the measurements (air permeability Kair; millidarcy) are recalculated to saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks; m/s) using specific transfer functions (Loll et al., 1999; Iversen et al., 2003). Validation of the results is done with independent lab-based constant head Ks measurements. The results show that field based Ks values generally range between 10-3 m/s and 10-7 m/s within one profile, but extremely high values (up to 10-1 m/s) have been measured as well. The lowest values are found in the organic- and silt-rich Bh horizon of podzol soils observed within the profiles (~ 10-6-10-7m/s), while the highest values are observed in overlying dune sands less than 40 cm deep (up to 10-3 m/s with outliers to 10-1 m/s). Comparison of field and laboratory based Ks data reveals there is fair agreement between both methods, apart from several outliers. Scatter plots indicate that almost all points

  1. Corals from a dismembered late Paleozoic paleo-Pacific plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Calvin H.

    1983-10-01

    A coral belonging to the rare Late Mississippian Early Pennsylvanian Family Pseudopavonidae and a specimen of the Permian waagenophyllid coral genus Parawentzelella have been recovered from the Cache Creek assemblage in northern British Columbia and from a small limestone block in southern British Columbia, Canada, respectively. Both of these fossils are closely related to corals known from eastern Japan and western Sze-chuan, China; Parawentzelella also occurs in Indochina. These corals apparently occur in shallow-water carbonates that overlie pieces of oceanic volcanic ridges or plateaus. In both Asia and North America these corals now lie geographically close to coeval, but completely different, coral faunas that lived on shallow carbonate platforms built on continental shelves. This suggests that the circum-Pacific terranes bearing these unusual corals were displaced from a single, shallow-water oceanic region that in late Paleozoic time lay in the paleo-Pacific Ocean far from any continental margin. In Late Permian or early Mesozoic time the region colonized by these fossils was torn apart; the rock masses bearing these fossils were then carried on oceanic plates to subduction zones at continental margins on opposite sides of the Pacific Ocean, where they became lodged.

  2. Historic Manhattan Project Sites at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    McGehee, Ellen

    2014-05-22

    The Manhattan Project laboratory constructed at Los Alamos, New Mexico, beginning in 1943, was intended from the start to be temporary and to go up with amazing speed. Because most of those WWII-era facilities were built with minimal materials and so quickly, much of the original infrastructure was torn down in the late '40s and early '50s and replaced by more permanent facilities. However, a few key facilities remained, and are being preserved and maintained for historic significance. Four such sites are visited briefly in this video, taking viewers to V-Site, the buildings where the first nuclear explosive device was pre-assembled in preparation for the Trinity Test in Southern New Mexico. Included is another WWII area, Gun Site. So named because it was the area where scientists and engineers tested the so-called "gun method" of assembling nuclear materials -- the fundamental design of the Little Boy weapon that was eventually dropped on Hiroshima. The video also goes to Pajarito Site, home of the "Slotin Building" and "Pond Cabin." The Slotin Building is the place where scientist Louis Slotin conducted a criticality experiment that went awry in early 1946, leading to his unfortunate death, and the Pond Cabin served the team of eminent scientist Emilio Segre who did early chemistry work on plutonium that ultimately led to the Fat Man weapon.

  3. The kinematics of falling maple seeds and the initial transition to a helical motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varshney, Kapil; Chang, Song; Wang, Z. Jane

    2012-01-01

    A maple seed falls in a characteristic helical motion. A crude analogy with autorotation of a wind turbine suggests that the torque due to the aerodynamic force would initiate the gyration of the seed. We were therefore surprised that a seed with a torn wing gyrates in a similar manner as a full-winged seed. In fact, a seed with only a sliver of leading edge can still gyrate. Thus the gyrating motion appears not to fully depend on the aerodynamic force. If, on the other hand, the aerodynamic force is completely absent, a seed would fall from rest like a rock in a vacuum. To investigate how the seed reaches its steady helical motion, we use a high-speed digital camera to film the intact and cut seeds at 1000 Hz. With a mirror, the camera records two views simultaneously so that we can extract the 3D kinematics of the wing. We tracked the centre of mass and quantified the descending speed, the azimuthal rotation, and the cone angle for seeds with wings of different shapes. We found that the initial transition from rest to a steady gyration occurs in three steps: a tumble about the span-wise direction, followed by a tilt towards the vertical axis, leading to the gyration about the vertical axis and an opening of the cone angle before settling into a steady state. We offer a new explanation for the cause of the auto-gyration that accounts for these three stages.

  4. Natural Dissemination of Bacillus anthracis Spores in Northern Canada

    PubMed Central

    Dragon, D. C.; Bader, D. E.; Mitchell, J.; Woollen, N.

    2005-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from around fresh and year-old bison carcasses and areas not associated with known carcasses in Wood Buffalo National Park during an active anthrax outbreak in the summer of 2001. Sample selection with a grid provided the most complete coverage of a site. Soil samples were screened for viable Bacillus anthracis spores via selective culture, phenotypic analysis, and PCR. Bacillus anthracis spores were isolated from 28.4% of the samples. The highest concentrations of B. anthracis spores were found directly adjacent to fresh carcasses and invariably corresponded to locations where the soil had been saturated with body fluids escaping the carcass through either natural body orifices or holes torn by scavengers. The majority of positive samples were found within 2 m of both year-old and fresh carcasses and probably originated from scavengers churning up and spreading the body fluid-saturated soil as they fed. Trails of lesser contamination radiating from the carcasses probably resulted from spore dissemination through adhesion to scavengers and through larger scavengers dragging away disarticulated limbs. Comparison of samples from minimally scavenged and fully necropsied carcass sites revealed no statistically significant difference in the level of B. anthracis spore contamination. Therefore, the immediate area around a suspected anthrax carcass should be considered substantially contaminated regardless of the condition of the carcass. PMID:15746366

  5. Two stages fault detection method based on error, applied in EBM facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, Abu Bakar; Hasan, Abu Bakar

    2017-01-01

    Data driven technique is a well-known method in fault detection and it is suitable for large industrial systems. In this article, this technique is applied in an electron beam (EB) facility to assist the technology available in that facility so that the number and cost of equipment/ component failures can be reduced. An example is on EB scanning, if not properly monitored and in case of beam scanning unit fails, it will damage EB accelerator tube which is one of the main components in EBM facility. For these two stages fault detection, the current data for both x- & y- coils are monitored and compared with the normal outputs that obtained from such as an ANFIS model. If either or both errors are larger than their threshold limits and it happened for a certain period of time then the beam current source shall be terminated and the high voltage power supply across the tube shall be quickly reduce to 0 kV in order to avoid heat developed on the 25 µm titanium foil window that due to electron beam penetration and will soon torn the window. Delays for three cases (x-, y- and both x&y coils) are pre-determined by the specialist and these will eliminate uncertainty of error signals.

  6. Influence of meniscus shape in the cross sectional plane on the knee contact mechanics.

    PubMed

    Łuczkiewicz, Piotr; Daszkiewicz, Karol; Witkowski, Wojciech; Chróścielewski, Jacek; Zarzycki, Witold

    2015-06-01

    We present a three dimensional finite element analysis of stress distribution and menisci deformation in the human knee joint. The study is based on the Open Knee model with the geometry of the lateral meniscus which shows some degenerative disorders. The nonlinear analysis of the knee joint under compressive axial load is performed. We present results for intact knee, knee with complete radial posterior meniscus root tear and knee with total meniscectomy of medial or lateral meniscus. We investigate how the meniscus shape in the cross sectional plane influences knee-joint mechanics by comparing the results for flat (degenerated) lateral and normal medial meniscus. Specifically, the deformation of the menisci in the coronal plane and the corresponding stress values in cartilages are studied. By analysing contact resultant force acting on the menisci in axial plane we have shown that restricted extrusion of the torn lateral meniscus can be attributed to small slope of its cross section in the coronal plane. Additionally, the change of the contact area and the resultant force acting on the menisci as the function of compressive load are investigated.

  7. Biomechanical Effect of Margin Convergence Techniques: Quantitative Assessment of Supraspinatus Muscle Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Hatta, Taku; Giambini, Hugo; Zhao, Chunfeng; Sperling, John W.; Steinmann, Scott P.; Itoi, Eiji; An, Kai-Nan

    2016-01-01

    Although the margin convergence (MC) technique has been recognized as an option for rotator cuff repair, little is known about the biomechanical effect on repaired rotator cuff muscle, especially after supplemented footprint repair. The purpose of this study was to assess the passive stiffness changes of the supraspinatus (SSP) muscle after MC techniques using shear wave elastography (SWE). A 30 × 40-mm U-shaped rotator cuff tear was created in 8 cadaveric shoulders. Each specimen was repaired with 6 types of MC technique (1-, 2-, 3-suture MC with/without footprint repair, in a random order) at 30° glenohumeral abduction. Passive stiffness of four anatomical regions in the SSP muscle was measured based on an established SWE method. Data were obtained from the SSP muscle at 0° abduction under 8 different conditions: intact (before making a tear), torn, and postoperative conditions with 6 techniques. MC techniques using 1-, or 2-suture combined with footprint repair showed significantly higher stiffness values than the intact condition. Passive stiffness of the SSP muscle was highest after a 1-suture MC with footprint repair for all regions when compared among all repair procedures. There was no significant difference between the intact condition and a 3-suture MC with footprint repair. MC techniques with single stitch and subsequent footprint repair may have adverse effects on muscle properties and tensile loading on repair, increasing the risk of retear of repairs. Adding more MC stitches could reverse these adverse effects. PMID:27583402

  8. Muscle dystrophy single point mutation in the 2B segment of lamin A does not affect the mechanical properties at the dimer level.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huanan; Ackbarow, Theodor; Buehler, Markus J

    2008-01-01

    Lamin intermediate filaments at the inner nuclear membrane play a key role in mechanosensation and gene regulation processes, and further guarantee the mechanical stability of the cell's nucleus. The rod-like dimers are the elementary building blocks within the dense lamina meshwork, mainly consisting of four alpha-helical coiled-coil segments as fundamental building blocks. Several mutations in the 2B segment of the rod domain of lamin A have been linked to the disease muscle dystrophy. In these diseases, the cell nuclei have been shown to feature abnormalities in the shape and its mechanical properties, leading to torn nuclear envelopes or bleb formation. However, up to now the origin of these mechanical changes remains unknown, in particular whether or not the mutations in the rod domain influence the mechanical properties of individual dimers, or if the changes are due to effects at larger hierarchical scales. Here we report a series of large-scale molecular dynamics studies of lamin A dimer segments, systematically comparing the mechanical behavior of the wild-type protein structure and a missense mutated protein structure with the point mutation p.Glu358Lys. Our results show that the nanomechanical tensile behavior of the dimer segment does not vary under presence of this mutation, suggesting that this single point mutation in muscle dystrophy does not affect the mechanical properties of lamin at the dimer level, but probably influences higher hierarchical scales.

  9. The effects of September 11 on traumatized refugees: reactivation of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Kinzie, J David; Boehnlein, Jame K; Riley, Crystal; Sparr, Landy

    2002-07-01

    Secondary traumatization from the tragic events of September 11, 2001 was studied among an ethnically diverse group of refugees who had been previously traumatized in their native war torn countries. A brief clinically oriented questionnaire was developed and administered to a clinic population of Vietnamese, Cambodian, Laotian, Bosnian and Somalian refugees in the Intercultural Psychiatric Program at Oregon Health & Science University. Traumatic symptoms and responses to the widely televised images from September 11 were assessed among the five ethnic groups, and the differential responses among patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and schizophrenia also were assessed. The strongest responses were among Bosnian and Somalian patients with PTSD, and the Somalis had the greatest deterioration in their subjective sense of safety and security. Regardless of ethnic group, PTSD patients reacted most intensely, and patients with schizophrenia the least. Although patients largely returned to their baseline clinical status after two to three months, this study shows that cross-cultural reactivation of trauma has a significant clinical impact. It is essential that clinicians anticipate PTSD symptom reactivation among refugees when they are reexposed to significant traumatic stimuli.

  10. Dynamic-Tensile-Extrusion of Polyurea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furmanski, Jevan; Cady, Carl; Rae, Philip; Trujillo, Carl; Gray, G. T., III; Brown, Eric

    2011-06-01

    Polyurea was investigated under Dynamic-Tensile-Extrusion (Dyn-Ten-Ext) loading where spherical projectiles were propelled at 440-509 m/s through an extrusion die with an area reduction of 87%. Momentum of the leading edge imposes a rapid tensile deformation on the extruding material. Polyurea is an elastomer with outstanding high-rate tensile performance of interest in the shock regime. Previous Dyn-Ten-Ext work on semi-crystalline polymers (PTFE, PCTFE) resulted in small-scale fragmentation of the polymer, and did not provide clear information on the evolution of tensile damage in those materials. The polyurea behaved very differently; the polymer first extruded a jet of apparently intact material, which then broke down via void formation and coalescence, followed by fibrillation and tearing of the material. Most of the material in the jet elastically retracted back into the die, and only a few fragments of torn material were liberated from the sample. The surface texture of all failed surfaces was rough indicating a considerable amount of energy was absorbed by sub-critical failure mechanisms. It is interesting to note that while damage nucleation appeared pervasive in the extruded jet, the samples were nevertheless recovered largely intact, with limited fragmentation.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging and incidental findings of lateral ankle pathologic features with asymptomatic ankles.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Amol; Luhadiya, Amit; Ewen, Brynn; Goumas, Chris

    2011-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated 102 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations in 100 patients with asymptomatic lateral ankles. The patients were undergoing MRI for other ankle pathologic features, including medial ankle, posterior ankle, soft tissue masses, or Achilles tendon pain. No patient had had a recent lateral ankle injury or any surgery. Whether the anterior talofibular ligament, calcaneofibular ligament, and peroneal tendons were intact, torn, or absent was recorded. The average patient age was 46.4 years. Of the 100 patients, 67 (66%) had no history of a lateral ankle sprain, and 35 (34%) had sustained 1 or more sprains in the remote past. Also, 72 had an intact anterior talofibular ligament (71%), 90 had an intact calcaneofibular ligament (89%), 67 had intact peroneus brevis tendons (66%), and 68 (67%) had intact peroneus longus tendons. One accessory peroneal tendon was noted. Approximately 30% of asymptomatic patients undergoing MRI had abnormal anterior talofibular ligaments and peronei. Because the published data show that functional rehabilitation is successful for 90% of symptomatic lateral ankle patients, caution is warranted if choosing surgical treatment on the basis of the MRI findings alone. Copyright © 2011 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanical injury and repair of cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyake, Katsuya; McNeil, Paul L.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To concisely review the field of cell plasma membrane disruption (torn cell surface) and repair. MAIN POINTS: Plasma membrane disruption is a common form of cell injury under physiologic conditions, after trauma, in certain muscular dystrophies, and during certain forms of clinical intervention. Rapid repair of a disruption is essential to cell survival and involves a complex and active cell response that includes membrane fusion and cytoskeletal activation. Tissues, such as cardiac and skeletal muscle, adapt to a disruption injury by hypertrophying. Cells adapt by increasing the efficiency of their resealing response. CONCLUSION: Plasma membrane disruption is an important cellular event in both health and disease. The disruption repair mechanism is now well understood at the cellular level, but much remains to be learned at the molecular level. Cell and tissue level adaptational responses to the disruption either prevent its further occurrence or facilitate future repairs. Therapeutically useful drugs might result if, using this accumulating knowledge, chemical agents can be developed that can enhance repair or adaptive responses.

  13. [Progressive myoclonic epilepsy: clinical characteristics of 18 patients].

    PubMed

    Vistorte, A; Sardiñas, N; Esteban, E M; Vargas-Díaz, J; Novoa-López, L; Rojas-Massippe, E; Pestana, E M

    The term progressive myoclonic epilepsy (PME) includes a groups of heterogeneous conditions, with genetic causes, characterized by having different types of seizures, basically myoclonic, and other neurological findings due to a progressive lesion of the central nervous system. To demonstrate the aetiology and clinico-encephalographic changes seen in patients with PME. A retrospective, descriptive study was done of patients attended for PME in the Instituto de Neurología y Neurocirugía de Cuba between 1990 and 1995. Eighteen patients were included. All were interviewed and had a physical examination, EEG and the specific complementary tests for each aetiology. There was a predominance of neural ceroid lipofuschinosis in 10 patients (55.5%), and in 9 of these the illness started before the age of 9 years. The second most frequent condition was myoclonic epilepsy with red-torn fibres (16.6%) and Unverricht-Lundborg disease (16.6%). The latter began in late childhood or adolescence. The most marked clinical characteristics were epilepsy, which was difficult to control and intellectual deterioration in 100%, followed by cerebellar signs in 88.8%. Myoclonias were the commonest type of seizures (94.4%) and many children presented with prior tonic-clonic seizures (88.8%). Response to treatment was poor but the best results were obtained using valproate either alone or associated with benzodiazepines.

  14. On the Symmetry of Ionospheric Polar Cap Patch Exits Around Magnetic Midnight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moen, J. I.; Hosokawa, K.; Gulbrandsen, N.; Clausen, L.

    2014-12-01

    We present continuous observations of polar cap patches exiting the polar cap ionosphere into the night time auoral oval. Satellite images of the auroral oval and all-sky camera observations of 630.0 nm airglow patches superimposed onto SuperDARN convection maps, reveals a detailed picture on how patches exiting the polar cap and return to the dayside at night, on both the dusk convection cell and the dawn convection cell. We also present eight years of statistics demonstrating that the MLT distribution of patch exits are marginally affected by the IMF BY polarity 3-4 hours around midnight. Synthesizing our observations with previous results there are two, possibly related, explanations to why patches populate both convection cells almost symmetrically. i) Intake of patch material occur on both convection cells for both IMF BY polarities. ii) According to the patch formation model by Lockwood and Carlson et al. [1992] the excitation of flow associated with transient dayside reconnection produces cigar-shaped patches stretching across both the morning and the evening convection cells. Applying the dynamic polar cap flow model by Cowley and Lockwood [1992], we suggest that dawn-dusk elongated patches may be torn apart at night when they are grabbed by transient tail reconnection. The associated twin cell flow disturbance expanding from the reconnection region will divert plasma towards dawn and dusk. This may explain the observed exits on both convection cells.

  15. Complete structure of the bacterial flagellar hook reveals extensive set of stabilizing interactions

    PubMed Central

    Matsunami, Hideyuki; Barker, Clive S.; Yoon, Young-Ho; Wolf, Matthias; Samatey, Fadel A.

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial flagellar hook is a tubular helical structure made by the polymerization of multiple copies of a protein, FlgE. Here we report the structure of the hook from Campylobacter jejuni by cryo-electron microscopy at a resolution of 3.5 Å. On the basis of this structure, we show that the hook is stabilized by intricate inter-molecular interactions between FlgE molecules. Extra domains in FlgE, found only in Campylobacter and in related bacteria, bring more stability and robustness to the hook. Functional experiments suggest that Campylobacter requires an unusually strong hook to swim without its flagella being torn off. This structure reveals details of the quaternary organization of the hook that consists of 11 protofilaments. Previous study of the flagellar filament of Campylobacter by electron microscopy showed its quaternary structure made of seven protofilaments. Therefore, this study puts in evidence the difference between the quaternary structures of a bacterial filament and its hook. PMID:27811912

  16. Geochemical evidence for the melting of subducting oceanic lithosphere at plate edges.

    PubMed

    Yogodzinski, G M; Lees, J M; Churikova, T G; Dorendorf, F; Wöerner, G; Volynets, O N

    2001-01-25

    Most island-arc magmatism appears to result from the lowering of the melting point of peridotite within the wedge of mantle above subducting slabs owing to the introduction of fluids from the dehydration of subducting oceanic crust. Volcanic rocks interpreted to contain a component of melt (not just a fluid) from the subducting slab itself are uncommon, but possible examples have been recognized in the Aleutian islands, Baja California, Patagonia and elsewhere. The geochemically distinctive rocks from these areas, termed 'adakites, are often associated with subducting plates that are young and warm, and therefore thought to be more prone to melting. But the subducting lithosphere in some adakite locations (such as the Aleutian islands) appears to be too old and hence too cold to melt. This implies either that our interpretation of adakite geochemistry is incorrect, or that our understanding of the tectonic context of adakites is incomplete. Here we present geochemical data from the Kamchatka peninsula and the Aleutian islands that reaffirms the slab-melt interpretation of adakites, but in the tectonic context of the exposure to mantle flow around the edge of a torn subducting plate. We conclude that adakites are likely to form whenever the edge of a subducting plate is warmed or ablated by mantle flow. The use of adakites as tracers for such plate geometry may improve our understanding of magma genesis and thermal structure in a variety of subduction-zone environments.

  17. The biopsychosocial model and its potential for a new theory of homeopathy.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Josef M

    2012-04-01

    Since the nineteenth century the theory of conventional medicine has been developed in close alignment with the mechanistic paradigm of natural sciences. Only in the twentieth century occasional attempts were made to (re)introduce the 'subject' into medical theory, as by Thure von Uexküll (1908-2004) who elaborated the so-called biopsychosocial model of the human being, trying to understand the patient as a unit of organic, mental, and social dimensions of life. Although widely neglected by conventional medicine, it is one of the most coherent, significant, and up-to-date models of medicine at present. Being torn between strict adherence to Hahnemann's original conceptualization and alienation caused by contemporary scientific criticism, homeopathy today still lacks a generally accepted, consistent, and definitive theory which would explain in scientific terms its strength, peculiarity, and principles without relapsing into biomedical reductionism. The biopsychosocial model of the human being implies great potential for a new theory of homeopathy, as may be demonstrated with some typical examples.

  18. Retinal flat cells participate in the formation of fibers by retinal neuroblasts in vitro. Time lapse video studies.

    PubMed

    Li, H P; Sheffield, J B

    1986-03-01

    Freshly dissociated cells from embryonic chick neural retinas grow in characteristic patterns on flat cells or on chick embryo mesodermal cells. A striking difference between the two patterns is that the cells grown on flat cells are interconnected by a complex network of fibers, whereas those grown on mesodermal cells are aggregated into clusters that remain relatively isolated within the mesodermal monolayer. Analysis by time-lapse video microscopy indicates that two processes produce the fibers. (1) Fibers grow out by the extension of growth cones from cells within aggregates. (2) Neuronal cell aggregates that attach to two flat cells are pulled apart by the movement of the cells beneath them. As the aggregate is pulled apart, portions of the cells remain attached to the two halves, and their cytoplasm is drawn into thin fibers. The lack of fibers on a mesodermal substrate is due to two factors: (1) Aggregates are widely spaced on the substrate surface and do not come into contact often. (2) On those occasions when they do come into contact, the movement of the monolayer is so vigorous that emerging fibers are torn.

  19. The Effects of Rainfall on the Population Dynamics of an Endangered Aquatic Plant, Schoenoplectus gemmifer (Cyperaceae).

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Koshi; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Tainaka, Kei-Ichi; Yoshimura, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The conservation of aquatic plants in river ecosystems should consider the wash-out (away) problem resulting from severe rainfall. The aquatic plant Schoenoplectus gemmifer is an endangered species endemic to Japan. Our previous study reported that the population size of S. gemmifer in Hamamatsu city, Japan, had decreased by one-tenth because many individuals had been washed out by a series of heavy rains in 2004. However, there is insufficient information on the ecological nature of this endangered aquatic plant for adequate conservation. In this paper, we report the population dynamics of one population in Hamamatsu city from 2004 to 2012 in relation to rainfall. We surveyed the number and growing location of all living individuals in the population 300 times during the study period. To examine the temporal changes of individual plants, we also counted the number of culms for 38 individuals in four observations among 300 records. Decreases and increases in the population size of this plant were associated with washing out and the settlement of gemmae (vegetative propagation), respectively. The major cause of the reduction in the population size was an increase in the number of washed-out individuals and not the decreased settlement of gemmae. The wash-out rates for small and large individuals were not significantly different. Small individuals having a stream form with linear leaves resisted flooding, and large individuals were often partially torn off by flooding events. Modification of river basins to reduce the flow velocity may be effective for the conservation of S. gemmifer.

  20. Sports cardiology: lessons from the past and perspectives for the future.

    PubMed

    Leischik, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of myocardial damage as a result of endurance sport has been known about since ancient times. According to a leg-end, a soldier named Pheidippides (more likely Philippides) dropped dead after run-ning from war-torn Marathon to Athens with the news of victory. Millennia later, we do not know whether he was a soldier or a courier, or whether he really ran the entire 240 km from Athens to Sparta and then back from Marathon to Athens. What is clear however, is that his death went down in history as the first documented exercise-related death and provides a tangible starting-point for the discipline of sport cardiology. Sports cardiology today covers a broad range of areas; from patients with cardiomyopathies, coronary disease and metabolic syndrome through to fitness fans, high-performance athletes and those with physically demanding professions. The following editorial introduces the primary topics for discussion to be included in the F1000Research channel Sports cardiology with the hope that this will evoke open, controversial and broad discourse in the form of reviews and original research papers in this important field.