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Sample records for kalimer-600 simplified core

  1. Conceptual design features of the Kalimer-600 sodium cooled fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, Dohee; Kim, Yeong-Il; Kim, Seong-O; Lee, Jae-Han; Lee, Yong-Bum; Jeong, Hae-Yong

    2007-07-01

    An advanced sodium cooled fast reactor concept, KALIMER-600, has been developed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute to satisfy the Gen-IV technology goals of sustainability, safety and reliability, economics and proliferation resistance. The concept enables an efficient utilization of uranium resources and a reduction of the radioactive waste. The core design has been developed with a strong emphasis on a proliferation resistance by adopting a single enrichment fuel without blanket assemblies. In addition, a passive residual heat removal system, shortened intermediate heat-transport system piping and seismic isolation have been realized in the reactor system design as enhancements to its safety and economics. The inherent safety characteristics of the KALIMER-600 design were verified through a safety analysis of its bounding events. The results for various unprotected events imply that the KALIMER-600 design can accommodate all the analyzed ATWS events. This self-regulation capability of the power without a scram is mainly attributed to the inherent reactivity feedback mechanisms implemented in the metal fuel core design and completely passive decay heat removal system. (authors)

  2. Scoping System Analysis of KALIMER-600 Design Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Young-Min Kwon; Hae-Yong Jeong; Ki-Seok Ha; Won-Pyo Chang; Yong-Bum Lee; Dohee Hahn

    2006-07-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is developing KALIMER (Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor), which is a sodium-cooled, metallic-fueled, pool-type reactor. The KALIMER-600 design concept (600 MWt) was selected as one of the reference GEN-IV sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs). The safety design philosophy of KALIMER-600 places maximum reliance on passive responses to abnormal and emergency conditions, and minimizes the need for active and engineered safety systems. KALIMER-600 utilizes the intrinsic negative reactivity feedback effect under design extended conditions where reactor scram failures are postulated. In order to assess the effectiveness of the inherent safety features, a scoping system analysis during unprotected overpower, loss of flow and under cooling events has been performed using the system-wide transient analysis code SSC-K. The present scoping analysis focuses on identification of enhanced safety design features that provide passive and self-regulating response to transient conditions and evaluation of safety margins. The results of the scoping analysis indicate an understanding of various inherent reactivity feedback mechanisms is very important in establishing design features. The analysis results show that the KALIMER-600 design concepts provide larger safety margins with respect to sodium boiling, fuel rod integrity, and structural integrity. The inherent safety can be enhanced by accounting for reactivity feedback mechanisms in the design process. (authors)

  3. Simplifier cut core inductor design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1976-01-01

    Advantages of specifying C cores and cut toroids fabricated from grain oriented silicon steels for use in high frequency power converters and pulse width modulated switching regulators are discussed. A method for rating cores assigns to each core a number which is the product of its window and core cross section area, called 'Area Product A sub p.' A correlation between the A sub p numbers and current density for a given temperature rise was developed. Also, straight line relationships were developed for A sub p and volume, A sub p and surface area, and A sub p and weight. These relationships can be used to simplify and standardize the process of inductor design. They also make it possible to design inductors of small bulk and volume or to optimize efficiency.

  4. Simplified cut core inductor design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1974-01-01

    Although filter inductor designers have routinely tended to specify molypermalloy powder cores for use in high frequency power converters and pulse-width modulated switching regulators, there are sigificant advantages in specifying C cores and cut toroids fabricated from grain oriented silicon steels which should not be overlooked. Such steel cores can develop flux densities of 1.6 tesla, with useful linearity to 1.2 tesla, whereas molypermalloy cores carrying d.c. current have useful flux density capabilities only to about 0.3 tesla. The use of silicon steel cores thus makes it possible to design more compact cores, and therefore inductors of reduced volume, or conversely to provide greater load capacity in inductors of a given volume. Information is available which makes it possible to obtain quick and close approximations of significant parameters such as size, weight and temperature rise for silicon steel cores for breadboarding. Graphs, nomographs and tables are presented for this purpose, but more complete mathematical derivations of some of the important parameters are also included for a more rigorous treatment.

  5. Simplifying the ELA Common Core; Demystifying Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmoker, Mike; Jago, Carol

    2013-01-01

    The English Language Arts (ELA) Common Core State Standards ([CCSS], 2010) could have a transformational effect on American education. Though the process seems daunting, one can begin immediately integrating the essence of the ELA Common Core in every subject area. This article shows how one could implement the Common Core and create coherent,…

  6. Simplifying the ELA Common Core; Demystifying Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmoker, Mike; Jago, Carol

    2013-01-01

    The English Language Arts (ELA) Common Core State Standards ([CCSS], 2010) could have a transformational effect on American education. Though the process seems daunting, one can begin immediately integrating the essence of the ELA Common Core in every subject area. This article shows how one could implement the Common Core and create coherent,…

  7. Liquid-filled simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shengnan; Gao, Wei; Li, Hongwei; Dong, Yongkang; Zhang, Hongying

    2014-12-01

    We report on a novel type of liquid-filled simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fibers (HC-PCFs), and investigate their transmission properties with various filling liquids, including water, ethanol and FC-40. The loss and dispersion characterizations are calculated for different fiber parameters including strut thickness and core diameter. The results show that there are still low-loss windows existing for liquid-filled simplified HC-PCFs, and the low-loss windows and dispersions can be easily tailored by filling different liquids. Such liquid-filled simplified HC-PCFs open up many possibilities for nonlinear fiber optics, optical, biochemical and medical sensing.

  8. Molded elastomer provides compact ferrite-core holder, simplifies assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, R. R.

    1964-01-01

    A ferrite-core holder, fabricated by casting an elastomer in a simple mold, simplifies the assembly of modular matrix units for computers. Use of the device permits the core leads to be multiply threaded and soldered to terminals, without requiring intermediate terminals.

  9. Mechanism and characteristics of long period fiber gratings in simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhifang; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Yan-Ge; Han, Tingting; Li, Shuo; Wei, Huifeng

    2011-08-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of high-quality LPFGs in simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fibers, composed of a hollow hexagonal core and six crown-like air holes, using CO2-laser-irradiation method. Theoretical and experimental investigations indicate that the LPFGs are originated from the strong mode-coupling between the LP01 and LP11 core modes. And a dominant physical mechanism for the mode-coupling is experimentally confirmed to be the periodic microbends rather than the deformations of the cross-section or other common factors. In addition, the LPFGs are highly sensitive to strain and nearly insensitive to temperature, and are promising candidates for gas sensors and nonlinear optical devices.

  10. Mechanism and characteristics of long period fiber gratings in simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhifang; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Yan-ge; Han, Tingting; Li, Shuo; Wei, Huifeng

    2011-08-29

    We demonstrate the fabrication of high-quality LPFGs in simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fibers, composed of a hollow hexagonal core and six crown-like air holes, using CO2-laser-irradiation method. Theoretical and experimental investigations indicate that the LPFGs are originated from the strong mode-coupling between the LP01 and LP11 core modes. And a dominant physical mechanism for the mode-coupling is experimentally confirmed to be the periodic microbends rather than the deformations of the cross-section or other common factors. In addition, the LPFGs are highly sensitive to strain and nearly insensitive to temperature, and are promising candidates for gas sensors and nonlinear optical devices.

  11. A simplified hollow-core microstructured optical fibre laser with microring resonators and strong radial emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi-Li; Liu, Yan-Ge; Yan, Min; Zhou, Wen-Yuan; Ying, Cui-Feng; Ye, Qing; Tian, Jian-Guo

    2014-08-01

    A simplified hollow-core microstructured optical fibre (SHMOF) laser with microring resonators and strong radial emission is demonstrated. We propose that a submicron thickness silica ring embedded in the SHMOF can act as a microring resonator, with the advantages of being both compact and solid. Furthermore, the microfluidics can be easily controlled with a side pumping scheme. We also obtained a highly stable and tunable laser. The attractive possibility of developing microfluidic dye lasers within single SHMOFs presents opportunities for integrated optics applications and biomedical analysis.

  12. The Neutronics Design and Analysis of a 200-MW(electric) Simplified Boiling Water Reactor Core

    SciTech Connect

    Tinkler, Daniel R.; Downar, Thomas J.

    2003-06-15

    A 200-MW(electric) simplified boiling water reactor (SBWR) was designed and analyzed under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy Nuclear Energy Research Initiative program. The compact size of a 200-MW(electric) reactor makes it attractive for countries with a less well developed engineering infrastructure, as well as for developed countries seeking to tailor generation capacity more closely to the growth of their electricity demand. The 200-MW(electric) core design reported here is based on the 600-MW(electric) General Electric SBWR core, which was first analyzed in the work performed here in order to qualify the computer codes used in the analysis. Cross sections for the 8 x 8 fuel assembly design were generated with the HELIOS lattice physics code, and core simulation was performed with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission codes RELAP5/PARCS. In order to predict the critical heat flux, the Hench-Gillis correlation was implemented in the RELAP5 code. An equilibrium cycle was designed for the 200-MW(electric) core, which provided a cycle length of more than 2 yr and satisfied the minimum critical power ratio throughout the core life.

  13. Fuel and Core Design for Long Operating Cycle Simplified BWR (LSBWR)

    SciTech Connect

    Noriyuki Yoshida; Kouji Hiraiwa; Mikihide Nakamaru; Hideaki Heki

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes an innovative core concept currently being developed for long operating cycle simplified BWR (LSBWR). The LSBWR adopts the long cycle operation (15 years) for the elimination of the fuel pool and the refueling machines and for the capacity usage ratio improvement. To achieve long cycle operation, a combination of enriched gadolinium and 0.7- times sized small bundle with peripheral-positioned gadolinium rod is adopted as a key design concept. A nuclear design for fuel bundle has been determined based on three dimensional nuclear and thermal hydraulic calculation. A core performance has been evaluated based on this bundle design and thermal performance and reactivity characteristics indicated preferable value. (authors)

  14. Simplified hollow-core microstructural optical fiber laser with intense output and polarized radial emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi-Li; Zhou, Wen-Yuan; Liu, Yan-Ge; Yan, Min; Tian, Jian-Guo

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate a novel simplified hollow-core microstructural optical fiber (SHMOF) laser with intense output and purely radial emission. The SHMOF comprises a large hexagonal core with six surrounding crown-like air holes. The microfluidic channel is composed of a nearly cylindrical center hole of the SHMOF, which is made by selectively blocking off other holes of the SHMOF. The novel SHMOF based laser device is integrated with the silica ring surroundings and the gain medium microchannel. The fiber core formed cavity which filled with a microfluidic gain medium (Rhodamine 6G) plug was lateral pumped by a nanosecond pulse laser. For pump energy at threshold as low as 80 nJ/pulse, single mode laser oscillation was observed at about 570 nm. And when pump energy was added to a higher value above the threshold, an intense output of a unique radiating field pattern characterized by cylindrical symmetry emerged in the azimuthal direction of the fiber. The explanation of this result lies in the particularity structure of the SHMOF in our experiment. This attractive capability presents opportunities in fiber laser array composed microsystems and fluorescence signal amplification for chemical and biological analysis.

  15. Direction-independent fiber inclinometer based on simplified hollow core photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuhui; Liu, Ningliang; Hou, Maoxiang; Guo, Jiangtao; Li, Zhihua; Lu, Peixiang

    2013-02-15

    A fiber optical inclinometer based on modal interferometer is demonstrated for bend angle sensing. The device consists of a piece of simplified hollow core photonic crystal fiber sandwiched between single mode fibers with lateral offset. The measurement of bend angles up to 45° is demonstrated, and the spectrum exhibits a blueshift of over 50 nm. The sensitivity is found to increase with the applied bend angles and reaches 2.4 nm/deg at 45°, and the response is independent of the direction of bending. A low temperature sensitivity of 0.5 pm/°C is observed between room temperature and 1000°C. Due to its capacity for withstanding high temperature, the device can work as a direction-independent inclinometer in high-temperature environments.

  16. Simplified failure sequence evaluation of reactor pressure vessel head corroding in-core instrumentation assembly

    SciTech Connect

    McVicker, J.P.; Conner, J.T.; Hasrouni, P.N.; Reizman, A.

    1995-11-01

    In-Core Instrumentation (ICI) assemblies located on a Reactor Pressure Vessel Head have a history of boric acid leakage. The acid tends to corrode the nuts and studs which fasten the flanges of the assembly, thereby compromising the assembly`s structural integrity. This paper provides a simplified practical approach in determining the likelihood of an undetected progressing assembly stud deterioration, which would lead to a catastrophic loss of reactor coolant. The structural behavior of the In-Core Instrumentation flanged assembly is modeled using an elastic composite section assumption, with the studs transmitting tension and the pressure sealing gasket experiencing compression. Using the above technique, one can calculate the flange relative deflection and the consequential coolant loss flow rate, as well as the stress in any stud. A solved real life example develops the expected failure sequence and discusses the exigency of leak detection for safe shutdown. In the particular case of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (CCNPP) it is concluded that leak detection occurs before catastrophic failure of the ICI flange assembly.

  17. STOCHASTICITY AND EFFICIENCY IN SIMPLIFIED MODELS OF CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA EXPLOSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Cardall, Christian Y.; Budiardja, Reuben D. E-mail: reubendb@utk.edu

    2015-11-01

    We present an initial report on 160 simulations of a highly simplified model of the post-bounce core-collapse supernova environment in three spatial dimensions (3D). We set different values of a parameter characterizing the impact of nuclear dissociation at the stalled shock in order to regulate the post-shock fluid velocity, thereby determining the relative importance of convection and the stationary accretion shock instability (SASI). While our convection-dominated runs comport with the paradigmatic notion of a “critical neutrino luminosity” for explosion at a given mass accretion rate (albeit with a nontrivial spread in explosion times just above threshold), the outcomes of our SASI-dominated runs are much more stochastic: a sharp threshold critical luminosity is “smeared out” into a rising probability of explosion over a ∼20% range of luminosity. We also find that the SASI-dominated models are able to explode with 3–4 times less efficient neutrino heating, indicating that progenitor properties, and fluid and neutrino microphysics, conducive to the SASI would make the neutrino-driven explosion mechanism more robust.

  18. Spiral search: a hydrophobic-core directed local search for simplified PSP on 3D FCC lattice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Protein structure prediction is an important but unsolved problem in biological science. Predicted structures vary much with energy functions and structure-mapping spaces. In our simplified ab initio protein structure prediction methods, we use hydrophobic-polar (HP) energy model for structure evaluation, and 3-dimensional face-centred-cubic lattice for structure mapping. For HP energy model, developing a compact hydrophobic-core (H-core) is essential for the progress of the search. The H-core helps find a stable structure with the lowest possible free energy. Results In order to build H-cores, we present a new Spiral Search algorithm based on tabu-guided local search. Our algorithm uses a novel H-core directed guidance heuristic that squeezes the structure around a dynamic hydrophobic-core centre. We applied random walks to break premature H-cores and thus to avoid early convergence. We also used a novel relay-restart technique to handle stagnation. Conclusions We have tested our algorithms on a set of benchmark protein sequences. The experimental results show that our spiral search algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art local search algorithms for simplified protein structure prediction. We also experimentally show the effectiveness of the relay-restart. PMID:23368706

  19. Acousto-optic mode coupling excited by flexural waves in simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Qiu, Minghui; Wu, Zhifang; Dong, Hongguang; Liu, Bo; Miao, Yinping

    2013-05-01

    We have demonstrated the formation of an acoustic grating in a simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fiber, which consists of a hollow hexagonal core and six crown-like air holes, by applying flexural acoustic waves along the fiber axis. The dependence of the resonance wavelength on the applied acoustic frequency has been acquired on the basis of the theoretical calculation of the phase matching curve; it is in good agreement with our experimental observation of the transmission spectral evolution as the applied acoustic frequency varies. Experimental results show that the acoustic grating resonance peak possesses acoustic frequency and strain dependences of 728 nm MHz-1 and -6.98 pm μɛ-1, respectively, based on which high-performance acousto-optic tunable filters and fiber-optic strain sensors with high sensitivity could be achieved. And furthermore, the research work presented in this paper indicates that microbending rather than physical deformation is the main physical mechanism that leads to the formation of equivalent long-period gratings, which would be of significance for developing related grating devices based on simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fibers.

  20. Simplified Model of Contactless Air-Core Power Alternator and Transfer Using Ideal Superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jian Xun; Chen, Xiao Yuan

    The feasibility study of a contactless power transfer (CPT) system using high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC windings has been carried out. The analyses on two HTS CPT application schemes with iron-core and air-core loosely-coupled transformer structures indicate that the introduction of HTS DC windings makes the large-current coupling CPT available for improving the transfer power and efficiency, promising for large-power AC and DC contactless loads, and its transfer efficiency almost coincides with efficiency of the cooperated motor. The design considerations and procedures of the HTS CPT system have also been discussed.

  1. Synthesis and Bioactivity of a Brasilicardin A Analogue Featuring a Simplified Core.

    PubMed

    Jung, Michael E; Chamberlain, Brian T; Koch, Pierre; Niazi, Kayvan R

    2015-07-17

    An analogue 2 of Brasilicardin A, 1 (BraA), a potent immunosuppressive and cytotoxic agent, was synthesized in which the natural tricyclic skeleton was replaced with a synthetically more accessible substituted tetrahydronaphthalene core. BraA, this analogue (BraL), and cyclosporine A were tested for their ability to inhibit the proliferation of human T cells upon CD3/CD28 activation. Although BraL did not impact T cell activation over the dose range tested, this study shows the inhibitory activity of BraA on human T cells for the first time.

  2. Rearchitecting IT: Simplify. Simplify

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panettieri, Joseph C.

    2006-01-01

    Simplifying and securing an IT infrastructure is not easy. It frequently requires rethinking years of hardware and software investments, and a gradual migration to modern systems. Even so, writes the author, universities can take six practical steps to success: (1) Audit software infrastructure; (2) Evaluate current applications; (3) Centralize…

  3. Scale Model Test and Transient Analysis of Steam Injector Driven Passive Core Injection System for Innovative-Simplified Nuclear Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmori, Shuichi; Narabayashi, Tadashi; Mori, Michitsugu

    A steam injector (SI) is a simple, compact and passive pump and also acts as a high-performance direct-contact compact heater. This provides SI with capability to serve also as a direct-contact feed-water heater that heats up feed-water by using extracted steam from turbine. Our technology development aims to significantly simplify equipment and reduce physical quantities by applying "high-efficiency SI", which are applicable to a wide range of operation regimes beyond the performance and applicable range of existing SIs and enables unprecedented multistage and parallel operation, to the low-pressure feed-water heaters and emergency core cooling system of nuclear power plants, as well as achieve high inherent safety to prevent severe accidents by keeping the core covered with water (a severe accident-free concept). This paper describes the results of the scale model test, and the transient analysis of SI-driven passive core injection system (PCIS).

  4. A simplified method for estimation of iron loss in wound toroidal cores energised by pulse width modulated voltage sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutkun, Nedim; Moses, Anthony J.

    2004-12-01

    Recently the strip wound toroidal cores have increasingly been used in switching mode and uninterruptible power supplies for a wide range of industrial applications. Therefore, the prediction of iron loss increase in such magnetic cores energised by non-sinusoidal voltage excitation is important step in the design of electromagnetic devices. In this investigation, a loss increase was estimated by determination of unknown constants in a previously developed loss separation model using genetic algorithms. Also the skin effect of flux density was taken into account for estimation of power loss under pulse width modulated voltage sources. The results obtained are in good agreement with the measured results in wound toroids at various flux densities.

  5. Temperature-insensitive refractive index sensing by use of micro Fabry-Pérot cavity based on simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Wang, D N; Liao, C R; Hu, Tianyi; Guo, Jiangtao; Wei, Huifeng

    2013-02-01

    A temperature-insensitive micro Fabry-Pérot (FP) cavity based on simplified hollow-core (SHC) photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is demonstrated. Such a device is fabricated by splicing a section of SHC PCF with single mode fibers at both cleaved ends. An extremely low temperature sensitivity of ~0.273 pm/°C is obtained between room temperature and 900°C. By drilling vertical micro-channels using a femtosecond laser, the micro FP cavity can be filled with liquids and functions as a sensitive refractometer and the refractive index sensitivity obtained is ~851.3 nm/RIU (refractive index unit), which indicates an ultra low temperature cross-sensitivity of ~3.2×10(-7) RIU/°C.

  6. MRI-guided core biopsy of the prostate in the supine position--introduction of a simplified technique using large-bore magnet systems.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Siegfried A; Kuefner, Michael A; Adamietz, Boris; Engelhard, Karl; Keck, Bastian; Kunath, Frank; Wach, Sven; Wullich, Bernd; Uder, Michael; Engehausen, Dirk G

    2013-05-01

    To introduce a simplified technique for MRI-guided core biopsies (MRGB) of the prostate in the supine position using large-bore magnet systems. Fifty men with a history of negative transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsies underwent MRGB in either a 1.5-T (13/50) or 3.0-T (37/50) wide-bore MRI unit. MRGBs were conducted with the patients in a supine position using a dedicated MR-compatible biopsy device. We developed a dedicated positioning device for the supine position. Using this device, the biopsies were performed successfully in all patients. Apart from minor rectal bleeding, only one patient developed a major side effect (urosepsis). Histology revealed prostate cancer in 25/50 (50 %) patients. The new technique appears feasible. Its major advantage is the more comfortable and patient-friendly supine position during the biopsy without the need to modify the MRI system's patient table. • A novel positioning device for MRI-guided prostate biopsies has been developed. • Biopsies can be performed in the patient-friendly supine position. • The positioning device can be utilised without modifying the MRI's patient table.

  7. Enhancing the pressure sensitivity of a Fabry-Perot interferometer using a simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fiber with a microchannel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yongqin; Chen, Xue; Huang, Quandong; Du, Chenlin; Ruan, Shuangchen; Wei, Huifeng

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate a novel and compact fiber-probe pressure sensor based on a micro-Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI). The device is fabricated by splicing both ends of a short-section simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (SHC-PCF) with single-mode fibers. Then, a microchannel is drilled by a femtosecond laser micromachining in the SHC-PCF to allow air to diffuse in. The pressure sensing mechanism is based on the dependence of the air refractive index on pressure. We use both theory and experiment to investigate the sensing characteristics. A micro-FPI with a length of 272 μm demonstrates a pressure sensitivity of 4.071 nm/MPa at 1580 nm and a low-temperature sensitivity of 1.1 pm/°C at atmospheric pressure. We further study the temperature cross sensitivity of the sensor under different pressures. The sensor also shows strong stability and good reversibility, and may be potentially used in pressure sensing applications.

  8. Simplifying Podcasting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panday, Prachi Parashar

    2009-01-01

    The article intends to simplify the different aspects of podcasting. The article covers types of podcasts; the pedagogical benefits of podcasting; the connection between theory and podcasting; answers to questions, queries, and apprehensions. Before trying out a new tool, it is important to understand why we do things the way we do. A crucial part…

  9. Simplified lipid guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Allan, G. Michael; Lindblad, Adrienne J.; Comeau, Ann; Coppola, John; Hudson, Brianne; Mannarino, Marco; McMinis, Cindy; Padwal, Raj; Schelstraete, Christine; Zarnke, Kelly; Garrison, Scott; Cotton, Candra; Korownyk, Christina; McCormack, James; Nickel, Sharon; Kolber, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To develop clinical practice guidelines for a simplified approach to primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD), concentrating on CVD risk estimation and lipid management for primary care clinicians and their teams; we sought increased contribution from primary care professionals with little or no conflict of interest and focused on the highest level of evidence available. Methods Nine health professionals (4 family physicians, 2 internal medicine specialists, 1 nurse practitioner, 1 registered nurse, and 1 pharmacist) and 1 nonvoting member (pharmacist project manager) comprised the overarching Lipid Pathway Committee (LPC). Member selection was based on profession, practice setting, and location, and members disclosed any actual or potential conflicts of interest. The guideline process was iterative through online posting, detailed evidence review, and telephone and online meetings. The LPC identified 12 priority questions to be addressed. The Evidence Review Group answered these questions. After review of the answers, key recommendations were derived through consensus of the LPC. The guidelines were drafted, refined, and distributed to a group of clinicians (family physicians, other specialists, pharmacists, nurses, and nurse practitioners) and patients for feedback, then refined again and finalized by the LPC. Recommendations Recommendations are provided on screening and testing, risk assessments, interventions, follow-up, and the role of acetylsalicylic acid in primary prevention. Conclusion These simplified lipid guidelines provide practical recommendations for prevention and treatment of CVD for primary care practitioners. All recommendations are intended to assist with, not dictate, decision making in conjunction with patients. PMID:26472792

  10. Simplified Vicarious Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, Thomas; Ryan, Robert; Holekamp, Kara; Pagnutti, Mary

    2010-01-01

    A measurement-based radiance estimation approach for vicarious radiometric calibration of spaceborne multispectral remote sensing systems has been developed. This simplified process eliminates the use of radiative transfer codes and reduces the number of atmospheric assumptions required to perform sensor calibrations. Like prior approaches, the simplified method involves the collection of ground truth data coincident with the overpass of the remote sensing system being calibrated, but this approach differs from the prior techniques in both the nature of the data collected and the manner in which the data are processed. In traditional vicarious radiometric calibration, ground truth data are gathered using ground-viewing spectroradiometers and one or more sun photometer( s), among other instruments, located at a ground target area. The measured data from the ground-based instruments are used in radiative transfer models to estimate the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) target radiances at the time of satellite overpass. These TOA radiances are compared with the satellite sensor readings to radiometrically calibrate the sensor. Traditional vicarious radiometric calibration methods require that an atmospheric model be defined such that the ground-based observations of solar transmission and diffuse-to-global ratios are in close agreement with the radiative transfer code estimation of these parameters. This process is labor-intensive and complex, and can be prone to errors. The errors can be compounded because of approximations in the model and inaccurate assumptions about the radiative coupling between the atmosphere and the terrain. The errors can increase the uncertainty of the TOA radiance estimates used to perform the radiometric calibration. In comparison, the simplified approach does not use atmospheric radiative transfer models and involves fewer assumptions concerning the radiative transfer properties of the atmosphere. This new technique uses two neighboring uniform

  11. Simplified Digital Down-Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigman, Elliott H.

    1995-01-01

    Design of digital frequency down-converters simplified by eliminating need for both high-speed number-controlled oscillators (NCOs) and mixer-multipliers, and implementing functions via multiplication coefficients of finite-impulse-response (FIR) filters. Simplification depends on particular choices of operating frequencies. Simplified designs implemented with commercial FIR integrated circuits.

  12. Saturation current spikes eliminated in saturable core transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, F. C.

    1971-01-01

    Unsaturating composite magnetic core transformer, consisting of two separate parallel cores designed so impending core saturation causes signal generation, terminates high current spike in converter primary circuit. Simplified waveform, demonstrates transformer effectiveness in eliminating current spikes.

  13. IRIS Simplified LERF Model

    SciTech Connect

    Maioli, A.; Finnicum, D.J.; Kumagai, Y.

    2004-10-06

    Westinghouse is currently conducting the pre-application licensing of the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS). One of the key aspects of the IRIS design is its safety-by-designTM philosophy and within this framework the PRA is being used as an integral part of the design process. The most ambitious risk-related goal for IRIS is to reduce the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) to within the exclusion area by demonstrating that the off-site doses are consistent with the US Protective Action Guidelines (PAGs) for initiation of emergency response so that the required protective actions would be limited to the exclusion area. As a first step, a model has been developed to provide a first order approximation of the Large Early Release Frequency (LERF) as a surrogate predictor of the off-site doses. A key-aspect of the LERF model development is the characterization of the possible paths of release. Four main categories have been historically pointed out: (1) Core Damage (CD ) sequences with containment bypass, (2) CD sequences with containment isolation failure, (3) CD sequences with containment failure at low pressure and (4) CD sequences with containment failure at high pressure. They have been reevaluated to account for the IRIS design features.

  14. Simplified Decoding of Convolutional Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, T. K.; Reed, I. S.

    1986-01-01

    Some complicated intermediate steps shortened or eliminated. Decoding of convolutional error-correcting digital codes simplified by new errortrellis syndrome technique. In new technique, syndrome vector not computed. Instead, advantage taken of newly-derived mathematical identities simplify decision tree, folding it back on itself into form called "error trellis." This trellis graph of all path solutions of syndrome equations. Each path through trellis corresponds to specific set of decisions as to received digits. Existing decoding algorithms combined with new mathematical identities reduce number of combinations of errors considered and enable computation of correction vector directly from data and check bits as received.

  15. Phase transitions in simplified models with long-range interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha Filho, T. M.; Amato, M. A.; Mello, B. A.; Figueiredo, A.

    2011-10-01

    We study the origin of phase transitions in several simplified models with long-range interactions. For the self-gravitating ring model, we are unable to observe a possible phase transition predicted by Nardini and Casetti [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.80.060103 80, 060103R (2009).] from an energy landscape analysis. Instead we observe a sharp, although without any nonanalyticity, change from a core-halo to a core-only configuration in the spatial distribution functions for low energies. By introducing a different class of solvable simplified models without any critical points in the potential energy we show that a behavior similar to the thermodynamics of the ring model is obtained, with a first-order phase transition from an almost homogeneous high-energy phase to a clustered phase and the same core-halo to core configuration transition at lower energies. We discuss the origin of these features for the simplified models and show that the first-order phase transition comes from the maximization of the entropy of the system as a function of energy and an order parameter, as previously discussed by Hahn and Kastner [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.72.056134 72, 056134 (2005); Eur. Phys. J. BEPJBFY1434-602810.1140/epjb/e2006-00100-7 50, 311 (2006)], which seems to be the main mechanism causing phase transitions in long-range interacting systems.

  16. Simplifying the Water Poverty Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Danny I.; Ogwang, Tomson; Opio, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, principal components methodology is used to derive simplified and cost effective indexes of water poverty. Using a well known data set for 147 countries from which an earlier five-component water poverty index comprising of "Resources," "Access," "Capacity," "Use" and "Environment" was constructed, we find that a simplified…

  17. The Simplified Posterior Interosseous Flap.

    PubMed

    Cavadas, Pedro C; Thione, Alessandro; Rubí, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Several technical modifications have been described to avoid complications and simplify dissection. The authors describe some technical tips that make posterior interosseous flap dissection safer and more straightforward. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. SEA - A Simplified Employee Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Busby, L

    2001-04-23

    This paper presents a proposal for modifying the current employee annual evaluation process in SCAD. It purports to simplify that process, primarily by breaking up the resultant document into a set of more or less independent components. It claims to reduce the overall time and effort required from each actor.

  19. Simplified High-Power Inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, D. B.; Rippel, W. E.

    1984-01-01

    Solid-state inverter simplified by use of single gate-turnoff device (GTO) to commutate multiple silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR's). By eliminating conventional commutation circuitry, GTO reduces cost, size and weight. GTO commutation applicable to inverters of greater than 1-kilowatt capacity. Applications include emergency power, load leveling, drives for traction and stationary polyphase motors, and photovoltaic-power conditioning.

  20. 75 FR 81459 - Simplified Proceedings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION 29 CFR Part 2700 Simplified Proceedings AGENCY: Federal Mine Safety and Health Review Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Federal Mine Safety and Health Review Commission (the...

  1. Simplified High-Power Inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, D. B.; Rippel, W. E.

    1984-01-01

    Solid-state inverter simplified by use of single gate-turnoff device (GTO) to commutate multiple silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR's). By eliminating conventional commutation circuitry, GTO reduces cost, size and weight. GTO commutation applicable to inverters of greater than 1-kilowatt capacity. Applications include emergency power, load leveling, drives for traction and stationary polyphase motors, and photovoltaic-power conditioning.

  2. Simplifying the Water Poverty Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Danny I.; Ogwang, Tomson; Opio, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, principal components methodology is used to derive simplified and cost effective indexes of water poverty. Using a well known data set for 147 countries from which an earlier five-component water poverty index comprising of "Resources," "Access," "Capacity," "Use" and "Environment" was constructed, we find that a simplified…

  3. Simplifying plasma chemistry via ILDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, T.; Kemaneci, E.; Graef, W.; van Dijk, J.

    2016-02-01

    A plasma fluid model containing a large number of chemical species and reactions yields a high computational load. One of the methods to overcome this difficulty is to apply Chemical Reduction Techniques as used in combustion engineering. The chemical reduction technique that we study here is ILDM (Intrinsic Lower Dimensional Manifold). The ILDM method is used to simplify an argon plasma model and then a comparison is made with a CRM (Collisional Radiative Model).

  4. Neuron Model with Simplified Memristive Ionic Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegab, Almoatazbellah M.; Salem, Noha M.; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Chua, Leon

    2015-06-01

    A simplified neuron model is introduced to mimic the action potential generated by the famous Hodgkin-Huxley equations by using the genetic optimization algorithm. Comparison with different neuron models is investigated, and it is confirmed that the sodium and potassium channels in our simplified neuron model are made out of memristors. In addition, the channel equations in the simplified model may be adjusted to introduce a simplified memristor model that is in accordance with the theoretical conditions of the memristive systems.

  5. Simplifying microbial electrosynthesis reactor design

    PubMed Central

    Giddings, Cloelle G. S.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Woodward, Trevor; Lovley, Derek R.; Butler, Caitlyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial electrosynthesis, an artificial form of photosynthesis, can efficiently convert carbon dioxide into organic commodities; however, this process has only previously been demonstrated in reactors that have features likely to be a barrier to scale-up. Therefore, the possibility of simplifying reactor design by both eliminating potentiostatic control of the cathode and removing the membrane separating the anode and cathode was investigated with biofilms of Sporomusa ovata. S. ovata reduces carbon dioxide to acetate and acts as the microbial catalyst for plain graphite stick cathodes as the electron donor. In traditional ‘H-cell’ reactors, where the anode and cathode chambers were separated with a proton-selective membrane, the rates and columbic efficiencies of microbial electrosynthesis remained high when electron delivery at the cathode was powered with a direct current power source rather than with a potentiostat-poised cathode utilized in previous studies. A membrane-less reactor with a direct-current power source with the cathode and anode positioned to avoid oxygen exposure at the cathode, retained high rates of acetate production as well as high columbic and energetic efficiencies. The finding that microbial electrosynthesis is feasible without a membrane separating the anode from the cathode, coupled with a direct current power source supplying the energy for electron delivery, is expected to greatly simplify future reactor design and lower construction costs. PMID:26029199

  6. Simplified propagation of standard uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Shull, A.H.

    1997-06-09

    An essential part of any measurement control program is adequate knowledge of the uncertainties of the measurement system standards. Only with an estimate of the standards` uncertainties can one determine if the standard is adequate for its intended use or can one calculate the total uncertainty of the measurement process. Purchased standards usually have estimates of uncertainty on their certificates. However, when standards are prepared and characterized by a laboratory, variance propagation is required to estimate the uncertainty of the standard. Traditional variance propagation typically involves tedious use of partial derivatives, unfriendly software and the availability of statistical expertise. As a result, the uncertainty of prepared standards is often not determined or determined incorrectly. For situations meeting stated assumptions, easier shortcut methods of estimation are now available which eliminate the need for partial derivatives and require only a spreadsheet or calculator. A system of simplifying the calculations by dividing into subgroups of absolute and relative uncertainties is utilized. These methods also incorporate the International Standards Organization (ISO) concepts for combining systematic and random uncertainties as published in their Guide to the Expression of Measurement Uncertainty. Details of the simplified methods and examples of their use are included in the paper.

  7. Simplifying microbial electrosynthesis reactor design.

    PubMed

    Giddings, Cloelle G S; Nevin, Kelly P; Woodward, Trevor; Lovley, Derek R; Butler, Caitlyn S

    2015-01-01

    Microbial electrosynthesis, an artificial form of photosynthesis, can efficiently convert carbon dioxide into organic commodities; however, this process has only previously been demonstrated in reactors that have features likely to be a barrier to scale-up. Therefore, the possibility of simplifying reactor design by both eliminating potentiostatic control of the cathode and removing the membrane separating the anode and cathode was investigated with biofilms of Sporomusa ovata. S. ovata reduces carbon dioxide to acetate and acts as the microbial catalyst for plain graphite stick cathodes as the electron donor. In traditional 'H-cell' reactors, where the anode and cathode chambers were separated with a proton-selective membrane, the rates and columbic efficiencies of microbial electrosynthesis remained high when electron delivery at the cathode was powered with a direct current power source rather than with a potentiostat-poised cathode utilized in previous studies. A membrane-less reactor with a direct-current power source with the cathode and anode positioned to avoid oxygen exposure at the cathode, retained high rates of acetate production as well as high columbic and energetic efficiencies. The finding that microbial electrosynthesis is feasible without a membrane separating the anode from the cathode, coupled with a direct current power source supplying the energy for electron delivery, is expected to greatly simplify future reactor design and lower construction costs.

  8. SIMPLIFIED SODIUM GRAPHITE REACTOR SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Dickinson, R.W.

    1963-03-01

    This patent relates to a nuclear power reactor comprising a reactor vessel, shielding means positioned at the top of said vessel, means sealing said reactor vessel to said shielding means, said vessel containing a quantity of sodium, a core tank, unclad graphite moderator disposed in said tank, means including a plurality of process tubes traversing said tank for isolating said graphite from said sodium, fuel elements positioned in said process tubes, said core tank being supported in spaced relation to the walls and bottom of said reactor vessel and below the level of said sodium, neutron shielding means positioned adjacent said core tank between said core tank and the walls of said vessel, said neutron shielding means defining an annuiar volume adjacent the inside wall of said reactor vessel, inlet plenum means below said core tank for providing a passage between said annular volume and said process tubes, heat exchanger means removably supported from the first-named shielding means and positioned in said annular volume, and means for circulating said sodium over said neutron shielding means down through said heat exchanger, across said inlet plenum and upward through said process tubes, said last-named means including electromagnetic pumps located outside said vessel and supported on said vessel wall between said heat exchanger means and said inlet plenum means. (AEC)

  9. Simplifying the design of microstructured optical fibre pressure sensors.

    PubMed

    Osório, Jonas H; Chesini, Giancarlo; Serrão, Valdir A; Franco, Marcos A R; Cordeiro, Cristiano M B

    2017-06-07

    In this paper, we propose a way to simplify the design of microstructured optical fibres with high sensitivity to applied pressure. The use of a capillary fibre with an embedded core allows the exploration of the pressure-induced material birefringence due to the capillary wall displacements and the photoelastic effect. An analytical description of pressure-induced material birefringence is provided, and fibre modal characteristics are explored through numerical simulations. Moreover, a capillary fibre with an embedded core is fabricated and used to probe pressure variations. Even though the embedded-core fibre has a non-optimized structure, measurements showed a pressure sensitivity of (1.04 ± 0.01) nm/bar, which compares well with more complex, specially designed fibre geometries reported in the literature. These results demonstrate that this geometry enables a novel route towards the simplification of microstructured fibre-based pressure sensors.

  10. Stabbing balls and simplifying proteins.

    PubMed

    Daescu, Ovidiu; Luo, Jun

    2009-01-01

    We address the problem of stabbing a sequence of indexed balls B = {B1,B2, . . . , Bn} in R(3), where Bi (1 simplified protein chains. We did experiments on thousands of proteins from the PDB Bank to estimate the simplification ratio achieved.

  11. Simplified Methodology for Calculating Building Heating Loads.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    an inexpensive, accurate, and reliable simplified methodology , termed the "Modified Bin Method ", for 2 calculating building heating loads. In doing so...I AD-AI01 725 AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGMT-PATTERSON AFB OH F/6 13/1 SIMPLIFIED METHODOLOGY FOR CALCULATING BUILDING HEATING LOADS.(U) NOV 80 S 0...University The Graduate School ," Department of Architectural Engineering 4, Simplified Methodology for Calculating Building Heating Loads, -A /. ’.- A

  12. 48 CFR 453.213 - Simplified Acquisition and other simplified purchase procedures (AD-838).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Simplified Acquisition and other simplified purchase procedures (AD-838). 453.213 Section 453.213 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Acquisition and other simplified purchase procedures (AD-838). Form AD-838, Purchase Order, is prescribed...

  13. 48 CFR 453.213 - Simplified Acquisition and other simplified purchase procedures (AD-838).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Simplified Acquisition and other simplified purchase procedures (AD-838). 453.213 Section 453.213 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Acquisition and other simplified purchase procedures (AD-838). Form AD-838, Purchase Order, is prescribed...

  14. Simplified modal method for slanted grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shubin; Zhou, Changhe; Jia, Wei

    2017-01-01

    We report the simplified modal method for the slanted grating based on the accurate dispersion equation. The vividly physical insight is presented to interpret the diffraction process for slanted grating. We also present that the simplified modal method with the two-lowest mode condition is effective for a large slanted angle up to 26°. By examining the eignefunction, the mode index, and the two-lowest mode condition, we provide new evidences to verify the assumption that a slanted grating with subwavelength period can be analyzed as an equivalent rectangular grating using the simplified modal method, which is right and convenient to use for a small slanted angle up to 20°. Numerical simulations of the simplified modal method are coincident with rigorous coupled wave analysis for small slanted angle gratings. Thus the simplified modal method can be used for small slanted angle grating since the equivalence of slanted grating and rectangular grating is verified due to its vivid physical analysis.

  15. Simplified method for nonlinear structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A.

    1983-01-01

    A simplified inelastic analysis computer program was developed for predicting the stress-strain history of a thermomechanically cycled structure from an elastic solution. The program uses an iterative and incremental procedure to estimate the plastic strains from the material stress-strain properties and a simulated plasticity hardening model. The simplified method was exercised on a number of problems involving uniaxial and multiaxial loading, isothermal and nonisothermal conditions, and different materials and plasticity models. Good agreement was found between these analytical results and nonlinear finite element solutions for these problems. The simplified analysis program used less than 1 percent of the CPU time required for a nonlinear finite element analysis.

  16. Simplified two and three dimensional HTTR benchmark problems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan Zhang; Dingkang Zhang; Justin M. Pounders; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2011-05-01

    To assess the accuracy of diffusion or transport methods for reactor calculations, it is desirable to create heterogeneous benchmark problems that are typical of whole core configurations. In this paper we have created two and three dimensional numerical benchmark problems typical of high temperature gas cooled prismatic cores. Additionally, a single cell and single block benchmark problems are also included. These problems were derived from the HTTR start-up experiment. Since the primary utility of the benchmark problems is in code-to-code verification, minor details regarding geometry and material specification of the original experiment have been simplified while retaining the heterogeneity and the major physics properties of the core from a neutronics viewpoint. A six-group material (macroscopic) cross section library has been generated for the benchmark problems using the lattice depletion code HELIOS. Using this library, Monte Carlo solutions are presented for three configurations (all-rods-in, partially-controlled and all-rods-out) for both the 2D and 3D problems. These solutions include the core eigenvalues, the block (assembly) averaged fission densities, local peaking factors, the absorption densities in the burnable poison and control rods, and pin fission density distribution for selected blocks. Also included are the solutions for the single cell and single block problems.

  17. Scattering characteristics of simplified cylindrical invisibility cloaks.

    PubMed

    Yan, Min; Ruan, Zhichao; Qiu, Min

    2007-12-24

    The previously reported simplified cylindrical linear cloak is improved so that the cloak's outer surface is impedance-matched to free space. The scattering characteristics of the improved linear cloak is compared to the previous counterpart as well as the recently proposed simplified quadratic cloak derived from quadratic coordinate transformation. Significant improvement in invisibility performance is noticed for the improved linear cloak with respect to the previously proposed linear one. The improved linear cloak and the simplified quadratic cloak have comparable invisibility performances, except that the latter however has to fulfill a minimum shell thickness requirement (i.e. outer radius must be larger than twice of inner radius). When a thin cloak shell is desired, the improved linear cloak is much more superior than the other two versions of simplified cloaks.

  18. Veitch diagram plotter simplifies Boolean functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, D. K.

    1964-01-01

    This device for simplifying the plotting of a Veitch diagram consists of several overlays for blocking out the unwanted squares. This method of plotting the various input combinations to a computer is used in conjunction with the Boolean functions.

  19. Simplified Derivation Of Geometrical Dynamic Range Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altman, W. P.

    1982-08-01

    A simplified derivation is presented which illustrates the effects of unmatched fields of view for a lidar system. The resultant equations are easily evaluated on a programmable calculator, and comparison with previous calculations are numerically similar.

  20. 3. 6 simplified methods for design

    SciTech Connect

    Nickell, R.E.; Yahr, G.T.

    1981-01-01

    Simplified design analysis methods for elevated temperature construction are classified and reviewed. Because the major impetus for developing elevated temperature design methodology during the past ten years has been the LMFBR program, considerable emphasis is placed upon results from this source. The operating characteristics of the LMFBR are such that cycles of severe transient thermal stresses can be interspersed with normal elevated temperature operational periods of significant duration, leading to a combination of plastic and creep deformation. The various simplified methods are organized into two general categories, depending upon whether it is the material, or constitutive, model that is reduced, or the geometric modeling that is simplified. Because the elastic representation of material behavior is so prevalent, an entire section is devoted to elastic analysis methods. Finally, the validation of the simplified procedures is discussed.

  1. Simplified solution for stresses and deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Brewe, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    Conventional contact deformation analysis for ball bearings, gears, and cams involves tedious iterative procedures or the use of design charts. A simplified approach that makes the elastic deformation at the center of contact easy to calculate was previously reported. The range of validity in which these equations can be used is extended. A simplified approach to the calculation of the location and magnitude of subsurface stresses developed in machine element applications is included.

  2. Simplified Models for LHC New Physics Searches

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, Daniele; Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Arora, Sanjay; Bai, Yang; Baumgart, Matthew; Berger, Joshua; Buckley, Matthew; Butler, Bart; Chang, Spencer; Cheng, Hsin-Chia; Cheung, Clifford; Chivukula, R.Sekhar; Cho, Won Sang; Cotta, Randy; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; El Hedri, Sonia; Essig, Rouven,; Evans, Jared A.; Fitzpatrick, Liam; Fox, Patrick; Franceschini, Roberto; /more authors..

    2012-06-01

    This document proposes a collection of simplified models relevant to the design of new-physics searches at the LHC and the characterization of their results. Both ATLAS and CMS have already presented some results in terms of simplified models, and we encourage them to continue and expand this effort, which supplements both signature-based results and benchmark model interpretations. A simplified model is defined by an effective Lagrangian describing the interactions of a small number of new particles. Simplified models can equally well be described by a small number of masses and cross-sections. These parameters are directly related to collider physics observables, making simplified models a particularly effective framework for evaluating searches and a useful starting point for characterizing positive signals of new physics. This document serves as an official summary of the results from the 'Topologies for Early LHC Searches' workshop, held at SLAC in September of 2010, the purpose of which was to develop a set of representative models that can be used to cover all relevant phase space in experimental searches. Particular emphasis is placed on searches relevant for the first {approx} 50-500 pb{sup -1} of data and those motivated by supersymmetric models. This note largely summarizes material posted at http://lhcnewphysics.org/, which includes simplified model definitions, Monte Carlo material, and supporting contacts within the theory community. We also comment on future developments that may be useful as more data is gathered and analyzed by the experiments.

  3. Simplified models for LHC new physics searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Daniele; Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Arora, Sanjay; Bai, Yang; Baumgart, Matthew; Berger, Joshua; Buckley, Matthew; Butler, Bart; Chang, Spencer; Cheng, Hsin-Chia; Cheung, Clifford; Sekhar Chivukula, R.; Cho, Won Sang; Cotta, Randy; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; El Hedri, Sonia; Essig (Editor, Rouven; Evans, Jared A.; Fitzpatrick, Liam; Fox, Patrick; Franceschini, Roberto; Freitas, Ayres; Gainer, James S.; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Gregoire, Thomas; Gripaios, Ben; Gunion, Jack; Han, Tao; Haas, Andy; Hansson, Per; Hewett, JoAnne; Hits, Dmitry; Hubisz, Jay; Izaguirre, Eder; Kaplan, Jared; Katz, Emanuel; Kilic, Can; Kim, Hyung-Do; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Koay, Sue Ann; Ko, Pyungwon; Krohn, David; Kuflik, Eric; Lewis, Ian; Lisanti (Editor, Mariangela; Liu, Tao; Liu, Zhen; Lu, Ran; Luty, Markus; Meade, Patrick; Morrissey, David; Mrenna, Stephen; Nojiri, Mihoko; Okui, Takemichi; Padhi, Sanjay; Papucci, Michele; Park, Michael; Park, Myeonghun; Perelstein, Maxim; Peskin, Michael; Phalen, Daniel; Rehermann, Keith; Rentala, Vikram; Roy, Tuhin; Ruderman, Joshua T.; Sanz, Veronica; Schmaltz, Martin; Schnetzer, Stephen; Schuster (Editor, Philip; Schwaller, Pedro; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Schwartzman, Ariel; Shao, Jing; Shelton, Jessie; Shih, David; Shu, Jing; Silverstein, Daniel; Simmons, Elizabeth; Somalwar, Sunil; Spannowsky, Michael; Spethmann, Christian; Strassler, Matthew; Su, Shufang; Tait (Editor, Tim; Thomas, Brooks; Thomas, Scott; Toro (Editor, Natalia; Volansky, Tomer; Wacker (Editor, Jay; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Yavin, Itay; Yu, Felix; Zhao, Yue; Zurek, Kathryn; LHC New Physics Working Group

    2012-10-01

    This document proposes a collection of simplified models relevant to the design of new-physics searches at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the characterization of their results. Both ATLAS and CMS have already presented some results in terms of simplified models, and we encourage them to continue and expand this effort, which supplements both signature-based results and benchmark model interpretations. A simplified model is defined by an effective Lagrangian describing the interactions of a small number of new particles. Simplified models can equally well be described by a small number of masses and cross-sections. These parameters are directly related to collider physics observables, making simplified models a particularly effective framework for evaluating searches and a useful starting point for characterizing positive signals of new physics. This document serves as an official summary of the results from the ‘Topologies for Early LHC Searches’ workshop, held at SLAC in September of 2010, the purpose of which was to develop a set of representative models that can be used to cover all relevant phase space in experimental searches. Particular emphasis is placed on searches relevant for the first ˜50-500 pb-1 of data and those motivated by supersymmetric models. This note largely summarizes material posted at http://lhcnewphysics.org/, which includes simplified model definitions, Monte Carlo material, and supporting contacts within the theory community. We also comment on future developments that may be useful as more data is gathered and analyzed by the experiments.

  4. Composite Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Spang & Company's new configuration of converter transformer cores is a composite of gapped and ungapped cores assembled together in concentric relationship. The net effect of the composite design is to combine the protection from saturation offered by the gapped core with the lower magnetizing requirement of the ungapped core. The uncut core functions under normal operating conditions and the cut core takes over during abnormal operation to prevent power surges and their potentially destructive effect on transistors. Principal customers are aerospace and defense manufacturers. Cores also have applicability in commercial products where precise power regulation is required, as in the power supplies for large mainframe computers.

  5. Development of a simplified dry gas seal

    SciTech Connect

    Evenson, R.; Mason, B.; St. Onge, A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper overviews the development and application of a simplified dry gas lubricating seal (Simplified Seal). Traditional seal designs attempt to minimize deflections or tilt of the mating ring scaling face through pressure balancing and rotational alignment features. The Simplified Seal concept significantly reduces the number of components per sealing stage and results in a rotating component of complex geometry called a mating rotor. Traditional mating ring seal face alignment features have also been eliminated. Geometry and material selection of seal components (rotating and stationary) can be engineered to account for the missing pressure balance and rotational alignment features on the mating rotor. Development of a potentially more durable dry gas seal of simpler design is discussed.

  6. Simplified Warfarin Dose-response Pharmacodynamic Models

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seongho; Gaweda, Adam E.; Wu, Dongfeng; Li, Lang; Rai, Shesh N.; Brier, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Warfarin is a frequently used oral anticoagulant for long-term prevention and treatment of thromboembolic events. Due to its narrow therapeutic range and large inter-individual dose-response variability, it is highly desirable to personalize warfarin dosing. However, the complexity of the conventional kinetic-pharmacodynamic (K-PD) models hampers the development of the personalized dose management. To avert this challenge, we propose simplified PD models for warfarin dose-response relationship, which is motivated by ideas from control theory. The simplified models were further applied to longitudinal data of 37 patients undergoing anticoagulation treatment using the standard two-stage approach and then compared with the conventional K-PD models. Data analysis shows that all models have a similar predictive ability, but the simplified models are most parsimonious. PMID:25750489

  7. Hypersonic Vehicle Propulsion System Simplified Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stueber, Thomas J.; Raitano, Paul; Le, Dzu K.; Ouzts, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This document addresses the modeling task plan for the hypersonic GN&C GRC team members. The overall propulsion system modeling task plan is a multi-step process and the task plan identified in this document addresses the first steps (short term modeling goals). The procedures and tools produced from this effort will be useful for creating simplified dynamic models applicable to a hypersonic vehicle propulsion system. The document continues with the GRC short term modeling goal. Next, a general description of the desired simplified model is presented along with simulations that are available to varying degrees. The simulations may be available in electronic form (FORTRAN, CFD, MatLab,...) or in paper form in published documents. Finally, roadmaps outlining possible avenues towards realizing simplified model are presented.

  8. SIMPLIFIED LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY WITH TWO INCISIONS

    PubMed Central

    ABAID, Rafael Antoniazzi; CECCONELLO, Ivan; ZILBERSTEIN, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Background Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has traditionally been performed with four incisions to insert four trocars, in a simple, efficient and safe way. Aim To describe a simplified technique of laparoscopic cholecystectomy with two incisions, using basic conventional instrumental. Technique In one incision in the umbilicus are applied two trocars and in epigastrium one more. The use of two trocars on the same incision, working in "x" does not hinder the procedure and does not require special instruments. Conclusion Simplified laparoscopic cholecystectomy with two incisions is feasible and easy to perform, allowing to operate with ergonomy and safety, with good cosmetic result. PMID:25004296

  9. Simplified D = 11 pure spinor b ghost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkovits, Nathan; Guillen, Max

    2017-07-01

    A b-ghost was constructed for the D = 11 non-minimal pure spinor superparticle by requiring that { Q, b} = T where Q={Λ}^{α }{D}_{α }+{R}^{α }{\\overline{W}}_{α } is the usual non-minimal pure spinor BRST operator. As was done for the D = 10 b-ghost, we will show that the D = 11 b-ghost can be simplified by introducing an SO(10, 1) fermionic vector {\\overline{Σ}}^i constructed out of the fermionic spinor D α and pure spinor variables. This simplified version will be shown to satisfy { Q, b} = T and { b, b} = BRST - trivial.

  10. Simplified modeling of the EBR-II control rods

    SciTech Connect

    Angelo, P.L.

    1995-06-25

    Simplified models of EBR-II control and safety rods have been developed for core modeling under various operational and shutdown conditions. A parametric study was performed on normal worth, high worth, and safety rod type control rods. A summary of worth changes due to individual modeling approximations is tabulated. Worth effects due to structural modeling simplification are negligible. Fuel region homogenization and burnup compression contributes more than any other factor. Reference case C/E values (ratio of calculated worth from detailed model to measured worth) of 1.072 and 1.142 for safety and normal worth rods indicate acceptable errors when the approximations are used. Fuel burnup effect illustrates rod worth sensitivity to the modeling approximation. Aggregate effects are calculated under a reduced mesh.

  11. Simplify, simplify

    PubMed Central

    Berenbaum, May R; Seufferheld, Manfredo J; Margam, Venu M; Strycharz, Joseph P; Yoon, Kyong S; Sun, Weilin; Reenan, Robert; Lee, Si Hyeock; Clark, John M

    2011-01-01

    The body louse, with its recently sequenced genome, is now primed to serve as a powerful model organism for addressing fundamental questions relating to how insects interact with their environment. One characteristic of the body louse that facilitates this research is the size of its genome—the smallest insect genome sequenced to date. This diminutive genome must nonetheless control an organism that senses and responds to its environment, reacting to threats of corporal and genomic integrity. Additionally, the body louse transmits several important human diseases compared to its very close relative, the head louse, which does not. Therefore, these two organisms comprise an excellent model system for studying molecular mechanisms associated with vector competence. To understand more fully the development of vector/pathogen interactions, we have developed an in vitro bioassay system and determined that the body louse genome appears to contain the genes necessary for RNAi. The body louse will therefore be useful for determining the set of conditions permissive to the evolution of vector competence. PMID:21655436

  12. Simplified modeling for infiltration and radon entry

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, M.H.

    1992-08-01

    Air leakage in the envelopes of residential buildings is the primary mechanism for provided ventilation to those buildings. For radon the same mechanisms that drive the ventilation, drive the radon entry This paper attempts to provide a simplified physical model that can be used to understand the interactions between the building leakage distribution, the forces that drive infiltration and ventilation, and indoor radon concentrations, Combining both ventilation and entry modeling together allows an estimation of Radon concentration and exposure to be made and demonstrates how changes in the envelope or ventilation system would affect it. This paper will develop simplified modeling approaches for estimating both ventilation rate and radon entry rate based on the air tightness of the envelope and the driving forces. These approaches will use conventional leakage values (i.e. effective leakage area ) to quantify the air tightness and include natural and mechanical driving forces. This paper will introduce a simplified parameter, the Radon Leakage Area, that quantifies the resistance to radon entry. To be practical for dwellings, modeling of the occupant exposures to indoor pollutants must be simple to use and not require unreasonable input data. This paper presents the derivation of the simplified physical model, and applies that model to representative situations to explore the tendencies to be expected under different circumstances.

  13. Simplified procedures for designing composite bolted joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.

    1990-01-01

    Simplified procedures are described to design and analyze single and multi-bolt composite joints. Numerical examples illustrate the use of these methods. Factors affecting composite bolted joints are summarized. References are cited where more detailed discussion is presented on specific aspects of composite bolted joints. Design variables associated with these joints are summarized in the appendix.

  14. Simplified Recipes for Day Care Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asmussen, Patricia D.

    The spiral-bound collection of 156 simplified recipes is designed to help those who prepare food for groups of children at day care centers. The recipes provide for 25 child-size servings to meet the nutritional needs and appetites of children from 2 to 6 years of age. The first section gives general information on ladle and scoop sizes, weights…

  15. Simplifying gene trees for easier comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Lott, Paul-Ludwig; Mundry, Marvin; Sassenberg, Christoph; Lorkowski, Stefan; Fuellen, Georg

    2006-01-01

    Background In the genomic age, gene trees may contain large amounts of data making them hard to read and understand. Therefore, an automated simplification is important. Results We present a simplification tool for gene trees called TreeSimplifier. Based on species tree information and HUGO gene names, it summarizes "monophyla". These monophyla correspond to subtrees of the gene tree where the evolution of a gene follows species phylogeny, and they are simplified to single leaves in the gene tree. Such a simplification may fail, for example, due to genes in the gene tree that are misplaced. In this way, misplaced genes can be identified. Optionally, our tool glosses over a limited degree of "paraphyly" in a further simplification step. In both simplification steps, species can be summarized into groups and treated as equivalent. In the present study we used our tool to derive a simplified tree of 397 leaves from a tree of 1138 leaves. Comparing the simplified tree to a "cartoon tree" created manually, we note that both agree to a high degree. Conclusion Our automatic simplification tool for gene trees is fast, accurate, and effective. It yields results of similar quality as manual simplification. It should be valuable in phylogenetic studies of large protein families. The software is available at . PMID:16643669

  16. Simplifying gene trees for easier comprehension.

    PubMed

    Lott, Paul-Ludwig; Mundry, Marvin; Sassenberg, Christoph; Lorkowski, Stefan; Fuellen, Georg

    2006-04-27

    In the genomic age, gene trees may contain large amounts of data making them hard to read and understand. Therefore, an automated simplification is important. We present a simplification tool for gene trees called TreeSimplifier. Based on species tree information and HUGO gene names, it summarizes "monophyla". These monophyla correspond to subtrees of the gene tree where the evolution of a gene follows species phylogeny, and they are simplified to single leaves in the gene tree. Such a simplification may fail, for example, due to genes in the gene tree that are misplaced. In this way, misplaced genes can be identified. Optionally, our tool glosses over a limited degree of "paraphyly" in a further simplification step. In both simplification steps, species can be summarized into groups and treated as equivalent. In the present study we used our tool to derive a simplified tree of 397 leaves from a tree of 1138 leaves. Comparing the simplified tree to a "cartoon tree" created manually, we note that both agree to a high degree. Our automatic simplification tool for gene trees is fast, accurate, and effective. It yields results of similar quality as manual simplification. It should be valuable in phylogenetic studies of large protein families. The software is available at http://www.uni-muenster.de/Bioinformatics/services/treesim/.

  17. Simplified Fabrication of Helical Copper Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    A simplified technique has been devised for fabricating helical antennas for use in experiments on radio-frequency generation and acceleration of plasmas. These antennas are typically made of copper (for electrical conductivity) and must have a specific helical shape and precise diameter.

  18. Simplified procedures for designing composite bolted joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.

    1988-01-01

    Simplified procedures are described to design and analyze single and multi-bolt composite joints. Numerical examples illustrate the use of these methods. Factors affecting composite bolted joints are summarized. References are cited where more detailed discussion is presented on specific aspects of composite bolted joints. Design variables associated with these joints are summarized in the appendix.

  19. Phase III Simplified Integrated Test (SIT) results - Space Station ECLSS testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barry C.; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Dubiel, Melissa Y.; Ogle, Kathryn Y.; Perry, Jay L.; Whitley, Ken M.

    1990-01-01

    During 1989, phase III testing of Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) began at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) with the Simplified Integrated Test. This test, conducted at the MSFC Core Module Integration Facility (CMIF), was the first time the four baseline air revitalization subsystems were integrated together. This paper details the results and lessons learned from the phase III SIT. Future plans for testing at the MSFC CMIF are also discussed.

  20. Simplified Analytical Model of a Six-Degree-of-Freedom Large-Gap Magnetic Suspension System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J.

    1997-01-01

    A simplified analytical model of a six-degree-of-freedom large-gap magnetic suspension system is presented. The suspended element is a cylindrical permanent magnet that is magnetized in a direction which is perpendicular to its axis of symmetry. The actuators are air core electromagnets mounted in a planar array. The analytical model consists of an open-loop representation of the magnetic suspension system with electromagnet currents as inputs.

  1. Simplified models of mixed dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, Clifford; Sanford, David E-mail: dsanford@caltech.edu

    2014-02-01

    We explore simplified models of mixed dark matter (DM), defined here to be a stable relic composed of a singlet and an electroweak charged state. Our setup describes a broad spectrum of thermal DM candidates that can naturally accommodate the observed DM abundance but are subject to substantial constraints from current and upcoming direct detection experiments. We identify ''blind spots'' at which the DM-Higgs coupling is identically zero, thus nullifying direct detection constraints on spin independent scattering. Furthermore, we characterize the fine-tuning in mixing angles, i.e. well-tempering, required for thermal freeze-out to accommodate the observed abundance. Present and projected limits from LUX and XENON1T force many thermal relic models into blind spot tuning, well-tempering, or both. This simplified model framework generalizes bino-Higgsino DM in the MSSM, singlino-Higgsino DM in the NMSSM, and scalar DM candidates that appear in models of extended Higgs sectors.

  2. Autogenic drainage: efficacy of a simplified method.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, H; Boldt, A; Kieselmann, R

    1990-01-01

    A simplified and modified technique of the original autogenic drainage (AD) is described which is supplemented by breathing against an external flow resistance. The new method allows a better teaching and learning. It's efficacy is proven by means of a comparative trial of AD and PEP physiotherapy (i.e. expiration against a defined stenosis). The autogenic drainage (AD) was introduced by a Belgian working group (2). The basic idea was to support the elimination of mucus by deep breathing and by repressing the cough as long as possible. However, a rather sophisticated method impeded teaching and learning of AD (1). Thus, till now, there are only preliminary results which suggest the efficacy of AD (e.g. 3). Therefore, a simplified technique was developed and examined with regard to its sputum eliminating effect.

  3. Development of a simplified biofilm model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Sushovan; Mazumder, Debabrata

    2017-07-01

    A simplified approach for analyzing the biofilm process in deriving an easy model has been presented. This simplified biofilm model formulated correlations between substrate concentration in the influent/effluent and at biofilm-liquid interface along with substrate flux and biofilm thickness. The model essentially considered the external mass transport according to Fick's Law, steady state substrate as well as biomass balance for attached growth microorganisms. In substrate utilization, Monod growth kinetics has been followed incorporating relevant boundary conditions at the liquid-biofilm interface and at the attachment surface. The numerical solution of equations was accomplished using Runge-Kutta method and accordingly an integrated computer program was developed. The model has been successfully applied in a distinct set of trials with varying range of representative input variables. The model performance was compared with available existing methods and it was found an easy, accurate method that can be used for process design of biofilm reactor.

  4. Simplified robot arm dynamics for control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Paul, R. P.

    1981-01-01

    A brief summary and evaluation is presented on the use of symbolic state equation techniques in order to represent robot arm dynamics with sufficient accuracy for controlling arm motion. The use of homogeneous transformations and the Lagrangian formulation of mechanics offers a convenient frame for the derivation, analysis and simplification of complex robot dynamics equations. It is pointed out that simplified state equations can represent robot arm dynamics with good accuracy.

  5. A simplified solar cell array modelling program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    As part of the energy conversion/self sufficiency efforts of DSN engineering, it was necessary to have a simplified computer model of a solar photovoltaic (PV) system. This article describes the analysis and simplifications employed in the development of a PV cell array computer model. The analysis of the incident solar radiation, steady state cell temperature and the current-voltage characteristics of a cell array are discussed. A sample cell array was modelled and the results are presented.

  6. Simplified dichromated gelatin hologram recording process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgekutty, Tharayil G.; Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1987-01-01

    A simplified method for making dichromated gelatin (DCG) holographic optical elements (HOE) has been discovered. The method is much less tedious and it requires a period of processing time comparable with that for processing a silver halide hologram. HOE characteristics including diffraction efficiency (DE), linearity, and spectral sensitivity have been quantitatively investigated. The quality of the holographic grating is very high. Ninety percent or higher diffraction efficiency has been achieved in simple plane gratings made by this process.

  7. Simplified Learning Scheme For Analog Neural Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, Silvio P.

    1991-01-01

    Synaptic connections adjusted one at a time in small increments. Simplified gradient-descent learning scheme for electronic neural-network processor less efficient than better-known back-propagation scheme, but offers two advantages: easily implemented in circuitry because data-access circuitry separated from learning circuitry; and independence of data-access circuitry makes possible to implement feedforward as well as feedback networks, including those of multiple-attractor type. Important in such applications as recognition of patterns.

  8. Simplified analysis of complex conductivity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, M.

    1981-03-01

    A simplified method is presented for the analysis of conductivity data for complex situations which involve ion pairing. The method was tested by comparing results with more elaborate analyses using published data for a number of salts in various solvents. The method is then used to analyze the conductivity data for several salts in thionyl chloride. These latter analyses are important for selecting electrolytes for lithium primary batteries.

  9. Simplified robot arm dynamics for control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Paul, R. P.

    1981-01-01

    A brief summary and evaluation is presented on the use of symbolic state equation techniques in order to represent robot arm dynamics with sufficient accuracy for controlling arm motion. The use of homogeneous transformations and the Lagrangian formulation of mechanics offers a convenient frame for the derivation, analysis and simplification of complex robot dynamics equations. It is pointed out that simplified state equations can represent robot arm dynamics with good accuracy.

  10. An Accurate, Simplified Model Intrabeam Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, Karl LF

    2002-05-23

    Beginning with the general Bjorken-Mtingwa solution for intrabeam scattering (IBS) we derive an accurate, greatly simplified model of IBS, valid for high energy beams in normal storage ring lattices. In addition, we show that, under the same conditions, a modified version of Piwinski's IBS formulation (where {eta}{sub x,y}{sup 2}/{beta}{sub x,y} has been replaced by {Eta}{sub x,y}) asymptotically approaches the result of Bjorken-Mtingwa.

  11. Simplified Modeling of Active Magnetic Regenerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdyny, Thomas

    Active magnetic regenerator (AMR) refrigeration is an alternative technology to conventional vapor-compression refrigerators that has the potential to operate at higher efficiencies. Based on the magnetocaloric effect, this technology uses the magnetization and demagnetization of environmentally neutral solid refrigerants to produce a cooling effect. To become competitive however, a large amount of research into the optimal device configurations, operating parameters and refrigerants is still needed. To aid in this research, a simplified model for predicting the general trends of AMR devices at a low computational cost is developed. The derivation and implementation of the model for an arbitrary AMR is presented. Simulations from the model are compared to experimental results from two different devices and show good agreement across a wide range of operating parameters. The simplified model is also used to study the impacts of Curie temperature spacing, material weighting and devices on the performance of multilayered regenerators. Future applications of the simplified AMR model include costing and optimization programs where the low computational demand of the model can be fully exploited.

  12. Simplified solution of diffraction from a Lyot system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yaujen; Vaughan, Arthur H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a derivation of a simplified analytical solution of diffraction from a Lyot (1939) system designed for observation of the solar corona outside of eclipses. Applying the theorem of Papoulis (1986) to simplify the calculations, a simplified solution is derived which is found to be in reasonable agreement with the exact solution. The simplified solution suffices for the preliminary evaluation of the amount of diffraction reduction needed to meet certain system requirements and also serves as a guideline for further apodization.

  13. Chinese-Mandarin Table of Simplified Chinese Characters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    The table of 545 simplified Chinese characters indicates the proper forms for general use according to the State Council of the People's Republic of China. The simplified characters are arranged according to a system that combines stroke counting and stroke order. Alongside the simplified characters are their traditional and more complex forms,…

  14. 29 CFR 2700.104 - Discontinuance of simplified proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Procedure. If it becomes apparent at any time that a case is not appropriate for Simplified Proceedings, the... Simplified Proceedings and order the case to continue under conventional rules. (b) Party motion. At any time... Simplified Proceedings be discontinued and that the matter continue under conventional procedures. A...

  15. 29 CFR 2700.104 - Discontinuance of simplified proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Procedure. If it becomes apparent at any time that a case is not appropriate for Simplified Proceedings, the... Simplified Proceedings and order the case to continue under conventional rules. (b) Party motion. At any time... Simplified Proceedings be discontinued and that the matter continue under conventional procedures. A...

  16. Simplified recording of soft contact lens fit.

    PubMed

    Wolffsohn, James S; Hunt, Olivia A; Basra, Amritpreet K

    2009-02-01

    To determine the critical fitting characteristics of modern soft contact lens fits and from this to devise a simplified recording scheme. Ten subjects (aged 28.1+/-7.4 years) wore eight different modern soft contact lenses. Video was captured and analysed of blink (central and up-gaze), excursion lag (up, down, right and left gaze) and push-up movement, centration and coverage. Lens centration was on average close to the corneal centre. Movement on blink was significantly smaller in up-gaze than in primary-gaze (p<0.001). Lag was greatest in down-gaze and least in up-gaze (p<0.001). Push-up test recovery speed was 1.32+/-0.73 mm/s. Overall lens movement was determined best by assessing horizontal lag, movement on blink in up-gaze and push-up recovery speed. Steeper lens base-curves did not have a significant effect on lens fit characteristics. Contact lens material did influence lens fit characteristics, particularly silicone-hydrogels which generally had lower centration and a faster push-up speed of recovery than HEMA lenses (p<0.05). Lag on vertical gaze, and movement on blink in primary gaze generally provide little extra information on overall lens movement compared to horizontal lag, movement on blink in up-gaze and push-up recovery speed. They can therefore be excluded from a simplified recording scheme. A simplified and comprehensive soft contact lens fit recording system could consist of a cross-hairs indicating the centre of the cornea; a circle to indicate the lens centration; a mark on the relevant position of the circle to indicate any limbal incursion; a grade (B) below for movement with blink in up-gaze, a grade (L) to the side for horizontal lag and a grade above (P) for the assessed push-up recovery speed.

  17. Simplified tools for evaluating domestic ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maansson, L.G.; Orme, M.

    1999-07-01

    Within an International Energy Agency (IEA) project, Annex 27, experts from 8 countries (Canada, France, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, Sweden, UK and USA) have developed simplified tools for evaluating domestic ventilation systems during the heating season. Tools for building and user aspects, thermal comfort, noise, energy, life cycle cost, reliability and indoor air quality (IAQ) have been devised. The results can be used both for dwellings at the design stage and after construction. The tools lead to immediate answers and indications about the consequences of different choices that may arise during discussion with clients. This paper presents an introduction to these tools. Examples applications of the indoor air quality and energy simplified tools are also provided. The IAQ tool accounts for constant emission sources, CO{sub 2}, cooking products, tobacco smoke, condensation risks, humidity levels (i.e., for judging the risk for mould and house dust mites), and pressure difference (for identifying the risk for radon or land fill spillage entering the dwelling or problems with indoor combustion appliances). An elaborated set of design parameters were worked out that resulted in about 17,000 combinations. By using multi-variate analysis it was possible to reduce this to 174 combinations for IAQ. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was made using 990 combinations. The results from all the runs were used to develop a simplified tool, as well as quantifying equations relying on the design parameters. A computerized energy tool has also been developed within this project, which takes into account air tightness, climate, window airing pattern, outdoor air flow rate and heat exchange efficiency.

  18. Simplified stock markets described by number operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagarello, F.

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we continue our systematic analysis of the operatorial approach previously proposed in an economical context and we discuss a mixed toy model of a simplified stock market, i.e. a model in which the price of the shares is given as an input. We deduce the time evolution of the portfolio of the various traders of the market, as well as of other observable quantities. As in a previous paper, we solve the equations of motion by means of a fixed point like approximation.

  19. Chronic Meningitis: Simplifying a Diagnostic Challenge.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Kelly; Whiting, Chris

    2016-03-01

    Chronic meningitis can be a diagnostic dilemma for even the most experienced clinician. Many times, the differential diagnosis is broad and encompasses autoimmune, neoplastic, and infectious etiologies. This review will focus on a general approach to chronic meningitis to simplify the diagnostic challenges many clinicians face. The article will also review the most common etiologies of chronic meningitis in some detail including clinical presentation, diagnostic testing, treatment, and outcomes. By using a case-based approach, we will focus on the key elements of clinical presentation and laboratory analysis that will yield the most rapid and accurate diagnosis in these complicated cases.

  20. Simplified definition system: magnetic products fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.S.

    1981-06-01

    The Simplified Definition System, a product definition approach that differentiates between design and production agency manufacturing requirements, has been used in producing 50 types of magnetic products. This system was formed as a result of cooperative work and proposed modifications by engineers from Bendix Kansas City and Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque (SNLA) to reduce product costs. The system places responsibility for production-related requirements with a production agency, a procedure that has realized both direct and indirect cost savings. This report is a documentation of the system's description and projected savings on magnetic products.

  1. Simplified dynamic buckling assessment of steel containments

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, C.R.; Duffey, T.A.; Renick, D.H.

    1993-02-01

    A simplified, three-degree-of-freedom analytical procedure for performing a response spectrum buckling analysis of a thin containment shell is developed. Two numerical examples with R/t values which bound many existing steel containments are used to illustrate the procedure. The role of damping on incipient buckling acceleration level is evaluated for a regulatory seismic spectrum using the two numerical examples. The zero-period acceleration level that causes incipient buckling in either of the two containments increases 31% when damping is increased from 1% to 4% of critical. Comparisons with finite element results on incipient buckling levels are favorable.

  2. A Simplified Model of Intrabeam Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, Karl LF

    2002-06-03

    Beginning with the general Bjorken-Mtingwa solution, we derive a simplified model of intrabeam scattering (IBS), one valid for high energy beams in normal storage rings; our result is similar, though more accurate than a model due to Raubenheimer. In addition, we show that a modified version of Piwinski's IBS formulation (where {eta}{sub x,y}{sup 2}/{beta}{sub x,y} has been replaced by {Eta}{sub x,y}) at high energies asymptotically approaches the same result.

  3. Simplified evaluation of magnetic field fluctuation thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wübbeler, G.; Elster, C.

    2013-11-01

    Recently, a Bayesian approach has been proposed for evaluating magnetic field fluctuation thermometry measurements. The approach provides a coherent use of calibration results in the inference of the temperature from subsequent magnetic field fluctuation thermometry measurements. It does, however, rely on an extensive numerical effort. In this paper, we develop simplified parametric and non-parametric analysis schemes. For all approaches we derive analytic expressions for the resulting temperature estimates and their uncertainties. We assess the new approaches and show in particular that an easy to apply non-parametric analysis yields results which are in good agreement with those obtained by the Bayesian inference.

  4. Simplified Explosive Joining of Tubes to Fittings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Bailey, J. W.; Perry, R.; Finch, M. S.

    1987-01-01

    Technique simplifies tube-to-fitting joining, as compared to fusion welding, and provides improvement on standard procedures used to join tubes explosively to tube fittings. Special tool inserted into tube to be joined. Tool allows strip of ribbon explosive to be placed right at joint. Ribbon explosive and mild detonating fuse allows use of smaller charge. Assembled tool storable, and process amenable to automation. Assembly of components, insertion of tool into weld site, and joining operation mechanized without human contact. Used to assemble components in nuclear reactors or in other environments hostile to humans.

  5. 24. A CORE WORKER DISPLAYS THE CORE BOX AND CORES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. A CORE WORKER DISPLAYS THE CORE BOX AND CORES FOR A BRASS GATE VALVE BODY MADE ON A CORE BOX, CA. 1950. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  6. A Simplified Scheme for Kinematic Source Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, A.; Castro-Artola, O.; Singh, S.; Hjorleifsdottir, V.; Legrand, D.

    2013-05-01

    It is well known that different kinematic source inversion schemes lead to non-unique solutions. For this reason, a simplified scheme, which yields the main characteristics of the rupture process, rather than the details, may be desirable. In this work we propose a modification of the frequency-domain inversion scheme of Cotton & Campillo (1995) to extract kinematic parameters using simplified geometries (ellipses). The forward problem is re-parameterized by including one or two ellipses in which the displacement is smoothly distributed. For the ellipses we invert for the position of the centers within the fault plane, the major and minor semi-axes, the maximum displacements, the angles of rotation and a parameter that controls the distribution of slip. A simulated annealing scheme is used to invert near-source displacements. We first test the method on synthetic displacement records corresponding to the Guerrero-Oaxaca earthquake (20/03/2012, Mw=7.5) by comparing the results obtained from the modified technique with the original method. In the next step, we use displacements obtained by double numerical integration of recorded accelerograms. We find that, in spite of the simple geometry, the modified method leads to a good fit between observed and synthetic displacements and recovers the main rupture characteristics.

  7. Core transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good news for all petroleum geoscientists, mining and environmental scientists, university researchers, and the like: Shell Oil Company has deeded its Midland core and sample repository to the Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) at the University of Texas at Austin. The Midland repository includes more than 1 million linear meters of slab, whole core, and prepared cuttings. Data comprising one of the largest U.S. core collections—the geologic samples from wells drilled in Texas and 39 other states—are now public data and will be incorporated into the existing BEG database. Both Shell and the University of Texas at Austin are affiliated with the American Geological Institute, which assisted in arranging the transfer as part of its goal to establish a National Geoscience Data Repository System at regional centers across the United States.

  8. Constructing Simplified Plans via Truth Criteria Approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, S.; DeJong, G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper has presented an approach to dealing with the complexity of explanation-based learning plans in complex domains. This approach uses a simplified algorithm to construct plans, and employs later refinements to repair bugs in constructed plans. This algorithm has the theoretical properties of completeness and convergence upon soundness. This incremental reasoning planning and learning algorithm has been implemented using a partial-order constraint posting planner and empirically compared to a conventional exhaustive reasoning partial-order constraint-posting planner and learning algorithm. This comparison showed that 1) incremental reasoning significantly reduced learning costs compared to exhaustive reasoning, 2) Explanation-based Learning (EBL) reduced failures from incremental reasoning, 3) EBL with incremental reasoning required less search to solve problems than EBL with exhaustive reasoning.

  9. Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol Field Study

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, L.; Cautley, D.; Bohac, D.; Francisco, P.; Shen, L.; Gloss, S.

    2015-11-01

    Combustions safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives. A survey of state weatherization agencies on combustion safety issues, details of a field data collection instrumentation package, summary of data collected over seven months, data analysis and results are included. The project team collected field data on 11 houses in 2015.

  10. Simplifying the circuit of Josephson parametric converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdo, Baleegh; Brink, Markus; Chavez-Garcia, Jose; Keefe, George

    Josephson parametric converters (JPCs) are quantum-limited three-wave mixing devices that can play various important roles in quantum information processing in the microwave domain, including amplification of quantum signals, transduction of quantum information, remote entanglement of qubits, nonreciprocal amplification, and circulation of signals. However, the input-output and biasing circuit of a state-of-the-art JPC consists of bulky components, i.e. two commercial off-chip broadband 180-degree hybrids, four phase-matched short coax cables, and one superconducting magnetic coil. Such bulky hardware significantly hinders the integration of JPCs in scalable quantum computing architectures. In my talk, I will present ideas on how to simplify the JPC circuit and show preliminary experimental results

  11. Space station ECLSS simplified integrated test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schunk, Richard G.; Bagdigian, Robert M.; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Ogle, Kathyrn Y.; Wieland, Paul O.

    1989-01-01

    A discussion of the Space Station Simplified Integrated Test (SIT) was conducted. The first in a series of three integrated Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system tests, the primary objectives of the SIT were to verify proper operation of ECLS subsystems functioning in an integrated fashion as well as to gather preliminary performance data for the partial ECLS system used in the test. A description of the SIT configuration, a summary of events, a discussion of anomalies that occurred during the test, and detailed results and analysis from individual measurements and water and gas samples taken during the test are included. The preprototype ECLS hardware used in the test is reported providing an overall process description and theory of operation for each hardware item.

  12. Simplified Model of Nonlinear Landau Damping

    SciTech Connect

    N. A. Yampolsky and N. J. Fisch

    2009-07-16

    The nonlinear interaction of a plasma wave with resonant electrons results in a plateau in the electron distribution function close to the phase velocity of the plasma wave. As a result, Landau damping of the plasma wave vanishes and the resonant frequency of the plasma wave downshifts. However, this simple picture is invalid when the external driving force changes the plasma wave fast enough so that the plateau cannot be fully developed. A new model to describe amplification of the plasma wave including the saturation of Landau damping and the nonlinear frequency shift is proposed. The proposed model takes into account the change of the plasma wave amplitude and describes saturation of the Landau damping rate in terms of a single fluid equation, which simplifies the description of the inherently kinetic nature of Landau damping. A proposed fluid model, incorporating these simplifications, is verified numerically using a kinetic Vlasov code.

  13. Entropy reduction via simplified image contourization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Martin J.

    1993-01-01

    The process of contourization is presented which converts a raster image into a set of plateaux or contours. These contours can be grouped into a hierarchical structure, defining total spatial inclusion, called a contour tree. A contour coder has been developed which fully describes these contours in a compact and efficient manner and is the basis for an image compression method. Simplification of the contour tree has been undertaken by merging contour tree nodes thus lowering the contour tree's entropy. This can be exploited by the contour coder to increase the image compression ratio. By applying general and simple rules derived from physiological experiments on the human vision system, lossy image compression can be achieved which minimizes noticeable artifacts in the simplified image.

  14. Simplified fundamental force and mass measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    The watt balance relates force or mass to the Planck constant h, the metre and the second. It enables the forthcoming redefinition of the unit of mass within the SI by measuring the Planck constant in terms of mass, length and time with an uncertainty of better than 2 parts in 108. To achieve this, existing watt balances require complex and time-consuming alignment adjustments limiting their use to a few national metrology laboratories. This paper describes a simplified construction and operating principle for a watt balance which eliminates the need for the majority of these adjustments and is readily scalable using either electromagnetic or electrostatic actuators. It is hoped that this will encourage the more widespread use of the technique for a wide range of measurements of force or mass. For example: thrust measurements for space applications which would require only measurements of electrical quantities and velocity/displacement.

  15. Aeroacoustic Analysis of a Simplified Landing Gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockard, David P.; Khorrami, Mehdi, R.; Li, Fei

    2004-01-01

    A hybrid approach is used to investigate the noise generated by a simplified landing gear without small scale parts such as hydraulic lines and fasteners. The Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation is used to predict the noise at far-field observer locations from flow data provided by an unsteady computational fluid dynamics calculation. A simulation with 13 million grid points has been completed, and comparisons are made between calculations with different turbulence models. Results indicate that the turbulence model has a profound effect on the levels and character of the unsteadiness. Flow data on solid surfaces and a set of permeable surfaces surrounding the gear have been collected. Noise predictions using the porous surfaces appear to be contaminated by errors caused by large wake fluctuations passing through the surfaces. However, comparisons between predictions using the solid surfaces with the near-field CFD solution are in good agreement giving confidence in the far-field results.

  16. Nonlinear optimization simplified by hypersurface deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Stillinger, F.H.; Weber, T.A.

    1988-09-01

    A general strategy is advanced for simplifying nonlinear optimization problems, the ant-lion method. This approach exploits shape modifications of the cost-function hypersurface which distend basins surrounding low-lying minima (including global minima). By intertwining hypersurface deformations with steepest-descent displacements, the search is concentrated on a small relevant subset of all minima. Specific calculations demonstrating the value of this method are reported for the partitioning of two classes of irregular but nonrandom graphs, the prime-factor graphs and the pi graphs. We also indicate how this approach can be applied to the traveling salesman problem and to design layout optimization, and that it may be useful in combination with simulated annealing strategies.

  17. Constructing Simplified Plans via Truth Criteria Approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, S.; DeJong, G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper has presented an approach to dealing with the complexity of explanation-based learning plans in complex domains. This approach uses a simplified algorithm to construct plans, and employs later refinements to repair bugs in constructed plans. This algorithm has the theoretical properties of completeness and convergence upon soundness. This incremental reasoning planning and learning algorithm has been implemented using a partial-order constraint posting planner and empirically compared to a conventional exhaustive reasoning partial-order constraint-posting planner and learning algorithm. This comparison showed that 1) incremental reasoning significantly reduced learning costs compared to exhaustive reasoning, 2) Explanation-based Learning (EBL) reduced failures from incremental reasoning, 3) EBL with incremental reasoning required less search to solve problems than EBL with exhaustive reasoning.

  18. Effectiveness of simplified dentin bonding systems.

    PubMed

    Imai, T; Itoh, K; Tani, C; Manabe, A; Yamashita, T; Hisamitsu, H; Wakumoto, S

    1998-03-01

    The effectiveness of newly developed commercial dentin bonding systems (SB, MB II and KB) was evaluated by measuring the contraction gap width of a resin composite restored into a cylindrical dentin cavity prepared in an extracted human molar and by measuring the tensile bond strength to the flat dentin surface. In addition, calcium loss during dentin conditioning was analyzed using electron microanalyses. An experimental dentin bonding system composed of EDTA conditioning, GM solution priming and a bonding agent containing 10-MDP was employed as a control in which it was presumed that contraction gap formation was prevented completely. However, gap formation was observed using the three commercial simplified dentin bonding systems. SEM observation showed that the gap was formed between the resin composite and the top surface of the dentin cavity wall indicating that the fracture occurred at the adhesive interface, but never inside the dentin nor inside the resin composite.

  19. Thermodynamic behaviour of simplified geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Hiriart, G.; Sanchez, E.

    1985-01-22

    Starting from the basic laws of conservation of mass and energy, the differential equations that represent the thermodynamic behavior of a simplified geothermal reservoir are derived. Its application is limited to a reservoir of high permeability as it usually occurs in the central zone of a geothermal field. A very practical method to solve numerically the equations is presented, based on the direct use of the steam tables. The method, based in one general equation, is extended and illustrated with a numerical example to the case of segregated mass extraction, variable influx and heat exchange between rock and fluid. As it is explained, the method can be easily coupled to several influx models already developed somewhere else. The proposed model can become an important tool to solve practical problems, where like in Los Azufres Mexico, the geothermal field can be divided in an inner part where flashing occurs and an exterior field where storage of water plays the main role.

  20. Antimalarial Properties of Simplified Kalihinol Analogues.

    PubMed

    Daub, Mary Elisabeth; Prudhomme, Jacques; Ben Mamoun, Choukri; Le Roch, Karine G; Vanderwal, Christopher D

    2017-03-09

    Several kalihinol natural products, members of the broader isocyanoterpene family of antimalarial agents, are potent inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum, the agent of the most severe form of human malaria. Our previous total synthesis of kalihinol B provided a blueprint to generate many analogues within this family, some as complex as the natural product and some much simplified and easier to access. Each analogue was tested for blood-stage antimalarial activity using both drug-sensitive and -resistant P. falciparum strains. Many considerably simpler analogues of the kalihinols retained potent activity, as did a compound with a different decalin scaffold made in only three steps from sclareolide. Finally, one representative compound showed reasonable stability toward microsomal metabolism, suggesting that the isonitrile functional group that is critical for activity is not an inherent liability in these compounds.

  1. Miniaturized photoelectric angular sensor with simplified design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumbravescu, Niculae; Schiaua, Silviu

    1999-09-01

    In building the movable elements of robots, peripheral devices and measuring apparata, increasing the resolution of the angular sensor systems, based on incremental rotary encoders, is essential, together with decreasing the complexity, dimensions and weight. Especially when the angular sensor is integrated in a measuring system, belonging to a programmed light airplane for surveillance, the key issue is to reduce both dimensions and weight. This can be done using a simplified design, which consists in the following solutions: replacement of the fragile Cr on glass substrate, 1.5 mm thick (normally used for the fabrication of incremental disks), with light Cr on polycarbonate substrate, with only 0.15 mm thick; the absence of collimating optics (based on microlenses, used in IR emitter-photocell receiver assembly), as a result of the good coupling efficiency (due to the possible approaching of these elements at minimum 0.45 mm); the shrinkage of the disk's diameters to only 14 mm; the use of surface mounting devices and the related surface mounting technology, enabling to reduce dimensions and weight. The maximum number of slits on a 14 mm diameter dividing disk, usually obtained in a Cr on polycarbonate version, being approx. 1000, no problem occurs in our case, for 360 slits. The requested angular resolution (only 0.5 degrees for the light airplane), using the whole classical '4x digital multiplication' is not necessary, but a lower one of only 2x, resulting in a simplified electronics. The proposed design permitted, that an original arrangement, for building a small size, lightweight, heavy-duty incremental transducer based angular sensor system, to be obtained, useful not only in avionics, but also in robotics, or other special applications. Besides, extending the number of fixed gratings (masks) allows, that many primary signals to be derived, and a further increase in resolution of even 6 angular minutes to be obtained from the initial 360 slits.

  2. Methodology for embedded transport core calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Boyan D.

    The progress in the Nuclear Engineering field leads to developing new generations of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) with complex rector core designs, such as cores loaded partially with mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, high burn-up loadings, and cores with advanced designs of fuel assemblies and control rods. Such heterogeneous cores introduce challenges for the diffusion theory that has been used for several decades for calculations of the current Pressurized Water Rector (PWR) cores. To address the difficulties the diffusion approximation encounters new core calculation methodologies need to be developed by improving accuracy, while preserving efficiency of the current reactor core calculations. In this thesis, an advanced core calculation methodology is introduced, based on embedded transport calculations. Two different approaches are investigated. The first approach is based on embedded finite element (FEM), simplified P3 approximation (SP3), fuel assembly (FA) homogenization calculation within the framework of the diffusion core calculation with NEM code (Nodal Expansion Method). The second approach involves embedded FA lattice physics eigenvalue calculation based on collision probability method (CPM) again within the framework of the NEM diffusion core calculation. The second approach is superior to the first because most of the uncertainties introduced by the off-line cross-section generation are eliminated.

  3. Core layering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, S. A.; Rubie, D. C.; Hernlund, J. W.; Morbidelli, A.

    2015-12-01

    We have created a planetary accretion and differentiation model that self-consistently builds and evolves Earth's core. From this model, we show that the core grows stably stratified as the result of rising metal-silicate equilibration temperatures and pressures, which increases the concentrations of light element impurities into each newer core addition. This stable stratification would naturally resist convection and frustrate the onset of a geodynamo, however, late giant impacts could mechanically mix the distinct accreted core layers creating large homogenous regions. Within these regions, a geodynamo may operate. From this model, we interpret the difference between the planetary magnetic fields of Earth and Venus as a difference in giant impact histories. Our planetary accretion model is a numerical N-body integration of the Grand Tack scenario [1]—the most successful terrestrial planet formation model to date [2,3]. Then, we take the accretion histories of Earth-like and Venus-like planets from this model and post-process the growth of each terrestrial planet according to a well-tested planetary differentiation model [4,5]. This model fits Earth's mantle by modifying the oxygen content of the pre-cursor planetesimals and embryos as well as the conditions of metal-silicate equilibration. Other non-volatile major, minor and trace elements included in the model are assumed to be in CI chondrite proportions. The results from this model across many simulated terrestrial planet growth histories are robust. If the kinetic energy delivered by larger impacts is neglected, the core of each planet grows with a strong stable stratification that would significantly impede convection. However, if giant impact mixing is very efficient or if the impact history delivers large impacts late, than the stable stratification can be removed. [1] Walsh et al. Nature 475 (2011) [2] O'Brien et al. Icarus 223 (2014) [3] Jacobson & Morbidelli PTRSA 372 (2014) [4] Rubie et al. EPSL 301

  4. Development of a simplified finite element model of the 50th percentile male occupant lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Doron; Moreno, Daniel P; Stitzel, Joel D; Gayzik, F Scott

    2014-01-01

    A simplified lower extremity model was developed using the geometry from the Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) 50th percentile male occupant model v4.1.1 (M50) as a base. This simplified model contains 31.4x103 elements and has structures that represent bone (assumed rigid) and soft tissue. This element total is substantially reduced compared to 117.7x103 elements in the original M50 lower extremity. The purpose of this simplified computational model is to output rapid kinematic and kinetic data when detailed structural response or injury prediction data is not required. The development process included evaluating the effects of element size, material properties, and contact definitions on total run time and response. Two simulations were performed to analyze this model; a 4.9 m/s knee bolster impact and a 6.9 m/s lateral knee impact using LS-DYNA R6.1.1. The 40 ms knee bolster impact and lateral knee impact tests required 5 and 7 minutes to run, respectively on 4 cores. The original detailed M50 lower extremity model required 94 and 112 minutes to run the same boundary conditions, on the same hardware, representing a reduction in run time of on average 94%. A quantitative comparison was made by comparing the peak force of the impacts between the two models. This simplified leg model will become a component in a simplified full body model of the seated, 50th percentile male occupant. The significantly reduced run time will be valuable for parametric studies with a full body finite element model.

  5. New weak keys in simplified IDEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafman, Sari Agustini; Muhafidzah, Arini

    2016-02-01

    Simplified IDEA (S-IDEA) is simplified version of International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) and useful teaching tool to help students to understand IDEA. In 2012, Muryanto and Hafman have found a weak key class in the S-IDEA by used differential characteristics in one-round (0, ν, 0, ν) → (0,0, ν, ν) on the first round to produce input difference (0,0, ν, ν) on the fifth round. Because Muryanto and Hafman only use three differential characteristics in one-round, we conducted a research to find new differential characteristics in one-round and used it to produce new weak key classes of S-IDEA. To find new differential characteristics in one-round of S-IDEA, we applied a multiplication mod 216+1 on input difference and combination of active sub key Z1, Z4, Z5, Z6. New classes of weak keys are obtained by combining all of these characteristics and use them to construct two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA with or without the 4th round sub key. In this research, we found six new differential characteristics in one round and combined them to construct two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA. When two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA are used and the 4th round sub key required, we obtain 2 new classes of weak keys, 213 and 28. When two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA are used, yet the 4th round sub key is not required, the weak key class of 213 will be 221 and 28 will be 210. Membership test can not be applied to recover the key bits in those weak key classes. The recovery of those unknown key bits can only be done by using brute force attack. The simulation result indicates that the bit of the key can be recovered by the longest computation time of 0,031 ms.

  6. Simplified Modeling of Oxidation of Hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Josette; Harstad, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    A method of simplified computational modeling of oxidation of hydrocarbons is undergoing development. This is one of several developments needed to enable accurate computational simulation of turbulent, chemically reacting flows. At present, accurate computational simulation of such flows is difficult or impossible in most cases because (1) the numbers of grid points needed for adequate spatial resolution of turbulent flows in realistically complex geometries are beyond the capabilities of typical supercomputers now in use and (2) the combustion of typical hydrocarbons proceeds through decomposition into hundreds of molecular species interacting through thousands of reactions. Hence, the combination of detailed reaction- rate models with the fundamental flow equations yields flow models that are computationally prohibitive. Hence, further, a reduction of at least an order of magnitude in the dimension of reaction kinetics is one of the prerequisites for feasibility of computational simulation of turbulent, chemically reacting flows. In the present method of simplified modeling, all molecular species involved in the oxidation of hydrocarbons are classified as either light or heavy; heavy molecules are those having 3 or more carbon atoms. The light molecules are not subject to meaningful decomposition, and the heavy molecules are considered to decompose into only 13 specified constituent radicals, a few of which are listed in the table. One constructs a reduced-order model, suitable for use in estimating the release of heat and the evolution of temperature in combustion, from a base comprising the 13 constituent radicals plus a total of 26 other species that include the light molecules and related light free radicals. Then rather than following all possible species through their reaction coordinates, one follows only the reduced set of reaction coordinates of the base. The behavior of the base was examined in test computational simulations of the combustion of

  7. Simplified Dynamic Analysis of Grinders Spindle Node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demec, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The contribution deals with the simplified dynamic analysis of surface grinding machine spindle node. Dynamic analysis is based on the use of the transfer matrix method, which is essentially a matrix form of method of initial parameters. The advantage of the described method, despite the seemingly complex mathematical apparatus, is primarily, that it does not require for solve the problem of costly commercial software using finite element method. All calculations can be made for example in MS Excel, which is advantageous especially in the initial stages of constructing of spindle node for the rapid assessment of the suitability its design. After detailing the entire structure of spindle node is then also necessary to perform the refined dynamic analysis in the environment of FEM, which it requires the necessary skills and experience and it is therefore economically difficult. This work was developed within grant project KEGA No. 023TUKE-4/2012 Creation of a comprehensive educational - teaching material for the article Production technique using a combination of traditional and modern information technology and e-learning.

  8. Simplified Storm Surge Simulations Using Bernstein Polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beisiegel, Nicole; Behrens, Jörn

    2016-04-01

    Storm surge simulations are vital for forecasting, hazard assessment and eventually improving our understanding of Earth system processes. Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods have recently been explored in that context, because they are locally mass-conservative and in combination with suitable robust nodal filtering techniques (slope limiters) positivity-preserving and well-balanced for the still water state at rest. These filters manipulate interpolation point values in every time step in order to retain the desirable properties of the scheme. In particular, DG methods are able to represent prognostic variables such as the fluid height at high-order accuracy inside each element (triangle). For simulations that include wetting and drying, however, the high-order accuracy will destabilize the numerical model because point values on quadrature points may become negative during the computation if they do not coincide with interpolation points. This is why the model that we are presenting utilizes Bernstein polynomials as basis functions to model the wetting and drying. This has the advantage that negative pointvalues away from interpolation points are prevented, the model is stabilized and no additional time step restriction is introduced. Numerical tests show that the model is capable of simulating simplified storm surges. Furthermore, a comparison of model results with third-order Bernstein polynomials with results using traditional nodal Lagrange polynomials reveals an improvement in numerical convergence.

  9. Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol Field Study

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, L; Cautley, D.; Bohac, D.; Francisco, P.; Shen, L.; Gloss, S.

    2015-11-05

    "9Combustions safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives. A survey of state weatherization agencies on combustion safety issues, details of a field data collection instrumentation package, summary of data collected over seven months, data analysis and results are included. The project provides several key results. State weatherization agencies do not generally track combustion safety failures, the data from those that do suggest that there is little actual evidence that combustion safety failures due to spillage from non-dryer exhaust are common and that only a very small number of homes are subject to the failures. The project team collected field data on 11 houses in 2015. Of these homes, two houses that demonstrated prolonged and excessive spillage were also the only two with venting systems out of compliance with the National Fuel Gas Code. The remaining homes experienced spillage that only occasionally extended beyond the first minute of operation. Combustion zone depressurization, outdoor temperature, and operation of individual fans all provide statistically significant predictors of spillage.

  10. Interferometric phase reconstruction using simplified coherence network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kui; Song, Ruiqing; Wang, Hui; Wu, Di; Wang, Hua

    2016-09-01

    Interferometric time-series analysis techniques, which extend the traditional differential radar interferometry, have demonstrated a strong capability for monitoring ground surface displacement. Such techniques are able to obtain the temporal evolution of ground deformation within millimeter accuracy by using a stack of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. In order to minimize decorrelation between stacked SAR images, the phase reconstruction technique has been developed recently. The main idea of this technique is to reform phase observations along a SAR stack by taking advantage of a maximum likelihood estimator which is defined on the coherence matrix estimated from each target. However, the phase value of a coherence matrix element might be considerably biased when its corresponding coherence is low. In this case, it will turn to an outlying sample affecting the corresponding phase reconstruction process. In order to avoid this problem, a new approach is developed in this paper. This approach considers a coherence matrix element to be an arc in a network. A so-called simplified coherence network (SCN) is constructed to decrease the negative impact of outlying samples. Moreover, a pointed iterative strategy is designed to resolve the transformed phase reconstruction problem defined on a SCN. For validation purposes, the proposed method is applied to 29 real SAR images. The results demonstrate that the proposed method has an excellent computational efficiency and could obtain more reliable phase reconstruction solutions compared to the traditional method using phase triangulation algorithm.

  11. A clinically useful simplified blastocyst grading system.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Alison; Brearley, Sophie; Ahitan, Saran; Chamberlain, Sarah; Davey, Tracey; Zujovic, Lyndsey; Hopkisson, James; Campbell, Bruce; Raine-Fenning, Nick

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a new simplified blastocyst grading system (A: fully expanded, clear inner cell mass, cohesive trophectoderm; B: not yet expanded, clear inner cell mass, cohesive trophectoderm; C: small inner cell mass ± irregular trophectoderm ± excluded/degenerate cells) was clinically useful. All day-5 single embryo transfers between 15 June 2009 and 29 June 2012 were reviewed. Implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates were related to embryo quality. Five embryologists were asked to grade and decide the clinical fate of 80 images of day-5 embryos on two occasions 4-6 weeks apart. Implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates decreased with deteriorating embryo quality. A highly significant (P < 0.01) difference was observed between the groups. Inter-observer agreement was substantial for grade allocation (K = 0.63) and clinical decision-making (K = 0.66). Intra-observer agreement ranged from substantial (K = 0.71) to almost perfect (K = 0.88) for grade allocation, and was almost perfect for clinical fate determination (K ≥ 0.84). This grading system is quick and easy to use, effectively predicts IVF outcome and has levels of agreement similar to, if not better than, those associated with more complex grading systems.

  12. Simplified Models for Dark Matter Model Building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiFranzo, Anthony Paul

    The largest mass component of the universe is a longstanding mystery to the physics community. As a glaring source of new physics beyond the Standard Model, there is a large effort to uncover the quantum nature of dark matter. Many probes have been formed to search for this elusive matter; cultivating a rich environment for a phenomenologist. In addition to the primary probes---colliders, direct detection, and indirect detection---each with their own complexities, there is a plethora of prospects to illuminate our unanswered questions. In this work, phenomenological techniques for studying dark matter and other possible hints of new physics will be discussed. This work primarily focuses on the use of Simplified Models, which are intended to be a compromise between generality and validity of the theoretical description. They are often used to parameterize a particular search, develop a well-defined sense of complementarity between searches, or motivate new search strategies. Explicit examples of such models and how they may be used will be the highlight of each chapter.

  13. Simplified environmental study on innovative bridge structure.

    PubMed

    Bouhaya, Lina; Le Roy, Robert; Feraille-Fresnet, Adélaïde

    2009-03-15

    The aim of this paper is to present a simplified life cycle assessment on an innovative bridge structure, made of wood and ultra high performance concrete, which combines mechanical performance with minimum environmental impact. The environmental analysis was conducted from cradle to grave using the Life Cycle Assessment method. It was restricted to energy release and greenhouse gas emissions. Assumptions are detailed for each step of the analysis. For the wood end-of-life, three scenarios were proposed: dumping, burning, and recycling. Results show that the most energy needed is in the production phase, which represents 73.4% of the total amount. Analysis shows that the renewable energy is about 70% of the production energy. Wood, through its biomass CO2, contributes positively to the environmental impact. It was concluded that no scenario can be the winner on both impacts. Indeed, the end-of-life wood recycling gives the best impact on CO2 release, whereas burning wood, despite its remarkable energy impact is the worst. According to the emphasis given to each impact, designers will be able to choose one or the other.

  14. Simplified liquid oxygen propellant conditioning concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleary, N. L.; Holt, K. A.; Flachbart, R. H.

    1995-01-01

    Current liquid oxygen feed systems waste propellant and use hardware, unnecessary during flight, to condition the propellant at the engine turbopumps prior to launch. Simplified liquid oxygen propellant conditioning concepts are being sought for future launch vehicles. During a joint program, four alternative propellant conditioning options were studied: (1) passive recirculation; (2) low bleed through the engine; (3) recirculation lines; and (4) helium bubbling. The test configuration for this program was based on a vehicle design which used a main recirculation loop that was insulated on the downcomer and uninsulated on the upcomer. This produces a natural convection recirculation flow. The test article for this program simulated a feedline which ran from the main recirculation loop to the turbopump. The objective was to measure the temperature profile of this test article. Several parameters were varied from the baseline case to determine their effects on the temperature profile. These parameters included: flow configuration, feedline slope, heat flux, main recirculation loop velocity, pressure, bleed rate, helium bubbling, and recirculation lines. The heat flux, bleed rate, and recirculation configurations produced the greatest changes from the baseline temperature profile. However, the temperatures in the feedline remained subcooled. Any of the options studied could be used in future vehicles.

  15. Simplified Optics and Controls for Laser Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Chien-Chung; Hemmati, Hamid

    2006-01-01

    A document discusses an architecture of a spaceborne laser communication system that provides for a simplified control subsystem that stabilizes the line of sight in a desired direction. Heretofore, a typical design for a spaceborne laser communication system has called for a high-bandwidth control loop, a steering mirror and associated optics, and a fast steering-mirror actuator to stabilize the line of sight in the presence of vibrations. In the present architecture, the need for this fast steering-mirror subsystem is eliminated by mounting the laser-communication optics on a disturbance-free platform (DFP) that suppresses coupling of vibrations to the optics by 60 dB. Taking advantage of microgravitation, in the DFP, the optical assembly is free-flying relative to the rest of the spacecraft, and a low-spring-constant pointing control subsystem exerts small forces to regulate the position and orientation of the optics via voice coils. All steering is effected via the DFP, which can be controlled in all six degrees of freedom relative to the spacecraft. A second control loop, closed around a position sensor and the spacecraft attitude-control system, moves the spacecraft as needed to prevent mechanical contact with the optical assembly.

  16. Predictive processing simplified: The infotropic machine.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Chris

    2017-03-01

    On a traditional view of cognition, we see the agent acquiring stimuli, interpreting these in some way, and producing behavior in response. An increasingly popular alternative is the predictive processing framework. This sees the agent as continually generating predictions about the world, and responding productively to any errors made. Partly because of its heritage in the Bayesian brain theory, predictive processing has generally been seen as an inherently Bayesian process. The 'hierarchical prediction machine' which mediates it is envisaged to be a specifically Bayesian device. But as this paper shows, a specification for this machine can also be derived directly from information theory, using the metric of predictive payoff as an organizing concept. Hierarchical prediction machines can be built along purely information-theoretic lines, without referencing Bayesian theory in any way; this simplifies the account to some degree. The present paper describes what is involved and presents a series of working models. An experiment involving the conversion of a Braitenberg vehicle to use a controller of this type is also described.

  17. Simplifying profiles of comorbidity in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Eisner, Lori R; Johnson, Sheri L; Youngstrom, Eric A; Pearlstein, Jennifer G

    2017-10-01

    Comorbid psychiatric symptoms in bipolar disorder (BD) predict poorer course of illness and treatment outcome. The sheer number of comorbid symptoms has thwarted developing treatments to address these comorbid concerns. The goal of this study was to develop a more parsimonious approach to understanding clusters of comorbid symptoms within BD. Data were collected as part of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Structured diagnostic interviews were conducted with 43,093 participants using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV (AUDADIS-IV). Analyses were conducted on lifetime symptom counts for the most common 14 comorbid disorders among the 1411 persons who met lifetime criteria for bipolar I disorder. An exploratory factor analysis with promax rotation as well as confirmatory factor analyses revealed a three-factor solution of Externalizing, Anxiety, and Mood syndromes, with a higher order Internalizing factor comprised of the Mood and Anxiety factors. Further research is needed in a clinical sample. Comorbid symptoms in BD tend to cohere into Internalizing and Externalizing disorders, which could simplify research and treatment on comorbidity in BD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Simplified limits on resonances at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chivukula, R. Sekhar; Ittisamai, Pawin; Mohan, Kirtimaan; Simmons, Elizabeth H.

    2016-11-01

    In the earliest stages of evaluating new collider data, especially if a small excess may be present, it would be useful to have a method for comparing the data with entire classes of models, to get an immediate sense of which classes could conceivably be relevant. In this paper, we propose a method that applies when the new physics invoked to explain the excess corresponds to the production and decay of a single, relatively narrow, s -channel resonance. A simplifed model of the resonance allows us to convert an estimated signal cross section into general bounds on the product of the branching ratios corresponding to the dominant production and decay modes. This quickly reveals whether a given class of models could possibly produce a signal of the required size at the LHC. Our work sets up a general framework, outlines how it operates for resonances with different numbers of production and decay modes, and analyzes cases of current experimental interest, including resonances decaying to dibosons, diphotons, dileptons, or dijets. If the LHC experiments were to report their searches for new resonances beyond the standard model in the simplified limits variable ζ defined in this paper, that would make it far easier to avoid blind alleys and home in on the most likely candidate models to explain any observed excesses.

  19. Simplified lattice model for polypeptide fibrillar transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xuhui; Wu, Ming-Chya

    2014-10-01

    Polypeptide fibrillar transitions are studied using a simplified lattice model, modified from the three-state Potts model, where uniform residues as spins, placed on a cubic lattice, can interact with neighbors to form coil, helical, sheet, or fibrillar structure. Using the transfer matrix method and numerical calculations, we analyzed the partition function and construct phase diagrams. The model manifests phase transitions among coil, helix, sheet, and fibril through parameterizing bond coupling energy ɛh,ɛs,ɛf, structural entropies sh,ss,sf of helical, sheet, and fibrillar states, and number density ρ. The phase diagrams show the transition sequence is basically governed by ɛh, ɛs, and ɛf, while the transition temperature is determined by the competition among ɛh, ɛs, and ɛf, as well as sh, ss, sf, and ρ. Furthermore, the fibrillation is accompanied with an abrupt phase transition from coil, helix, or sheet to fibril even for short polypeptide length, resembling the feature of nucleation-growth process. The finite-size effect in specific heat at transitions for the nonfibrillation case can be described by the scaling form of lattice model. With rich phase-transition properties, our model provides a useful reference for protein aggregation experiments and modeling.

  20. Space Station Freedom environmental control and life support system phase 3 simplified integrated test detailed report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, B. C.; Carrasquillo, R. L.; Dubiel, M. Y.; Ogle, K. Y.; Perry, J. L.; Whitley, K. M.

    1990-01-01

    A description of the phase 3 simplified integrated test (SIT) conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Core Module Integration Facility (CMIF) in 1989 is presented. This was the first test in the phase 3 series integrated environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) tests. The basic goal of the SIT was to achieve full integration of the baseline air revitalization (AR) subsystems for Space Station Freedom. Included is a description of the SIT configuration, a performance analysis of each subsystem, results from air and water sampling, and a discussion of lessons learned from the test. Also included is a full description of the preprototype ECLSS hardware used in the test.

  1. 7 CFR 273.25 - Simplified Food Stamp Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Simplified Food Stamp Program. 273.25 Section 273.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM CERTIFICATION OF ELIGIBLE HOUSEHOLDS § 273.25 Simplified...

  2. 26 CFR 1.41-9 - Alternative simplified credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Alternative simplified credit. 1.41-9 Section 1.41-9 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.41-9 Alternative simplified credit. For further guidance, see § 1.41-9T....

  3. Communication: A simplified coupled-cluster Lagrangian for polarizable embedding

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, Katharina; Klopper, Wim

    2016-01-28

    A simplified coupled-cluster Lagrangian, which is linear in the Lagrangian multipliers, is proposed for the coupled-cluster treatment of a quantum mechanical system in a polarizable environment. In the simplified approach, the amplitude equations are decoupled from the Lagrangian multipliers and the energy obtained from the projected coupled-cluster equation corresponds to a stationary point of the Lagrangian.

  4. 7 CFR 4280.114 - Qualification for simplified applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... simplified application process. In order to use the simplified application process, each of the conditions.... (5) Construction planning and performing development must be performed in compliance with § 4280.119... completion, including all operational testing and certifications acceptable to the Agency. (b) Application...

  5. Simplified method for calculating shear deflections of beams.

    Treesearch

    I. Orosz

    1970-01-01

    When one designs with wood, shear deflections can become substantial compared to deflections due to moments, because the modulus of elasticity in bending differs from that in shear by a large amount. This report presents a simplified energy method to calculate shear deflections in bending members. This simplified approach should help designers decide whether or not...

  6. Naturally Simplified Input, Comprehension, and Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    This article examines the concept of simplification in second language (SL) learning, reviewing research on the simplified input that both naturalistic and classroom SL learners receive. Research indicates that simplified input, particularly if derived from naturally occurring interactions, does aid comprehension but has not been shown to…

  7. 26 CFR 1.41-9 - Alternative simplified credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Alternative simplified credit. 1.41-9 Section 1.41-9 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.41-9 Alternative simplified credit. For further guidance, see § 1.41-9T. ...

  8. A simplified method for assessing cytotechnologist workload.

    PubMed

    Vaickus, Louis J; Tambouret, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Examining cytotechnologist workflow and how it relates to job performance and patient safety is important in determining guidelines governing allowable workloads. This report discusses the development of a software tool that significantly simplifies the process of analyzing cytotechnologist workload while simultaneously increasing the quantity and resolution of the data collected. The program runs in Microsoft Excel and minimizes manual data entry and data transcription by automating as many tasks as is feasible. Data show the cytotechnologists tested were remarkably consistent in the amount of time it took them to screen a cervical cytology (Gyn) or a nongynecologic cytology (Non-Gyn) case and that this amount of time was directly proportional to the number of slides per case. Namely, the time spent per slide did not differ significantly in Gyn versus Non-Gyn cases (216 ± 3.4 seconds and 235 ± 24.6 seconds, respectively; P=.16). There was no significant difference in the amount of time needed to complete a Gyn case between the morning and the evening (314 ± 4.7 seconds and 312 ± 7.1 seconds; P=.39), but a significantly increased time spent screening Non-Gyn cases (slide-adjusted) in the afternoon hours (323 ± 20.1 seconds and 454 ± 67.6 seconds; P=.027), which was largely the result of significantly increased time spent on prescreening activities such as checking the electronic medical record (62 ± 6.9 seconds and 145 ± 36 seconds; P=.006). This Excel-based data collection tool generates highly detailed data in an unobtrusive manner and is highly customizable to the individual working environment and clinical climate. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  9. Simplified overturn stability monitoring of agricultural tractors.

    PubMed

    Nichol, C I; Sommer, H J; Murphy, D J

    2005-02-01

    Agricultural tractors are the most common source of farm work fatalities in the U.S., with overturns the most common type of incident. For the year 2001, there were 15 tractor-related fatalities in Pennsylvania, 9 of which were due to tractor rollover. A new device using low-cost sensors and microcomputers was developed around a simplified mathematical model of an agricultural tractor to inform the operator of potential tractor instability. This device communicates the current rollover potential, along with a recent history of rollover potential, to the operator of the tractor via a simple bar-graph display. The device uses a single-chip accelerometer to sense the current rollover potential and a small microprocessor to analyze the accelerometer data, compensate for variations due to temperature, and then send this information to a visual display. The use of these low-cost "off the shelf" components enabled the fabrication of a very inexpensive sensor system. Because agricultural tractors have a long service life, it was important to make the device low cost and flexible. This could enable it to be sold as an aftermarket add-on for a variety of tractor models. The device is also capable of interfacing with newer on-board tractor systems via a CAN bus to make it more attractive to tractor manufacturers who may want to incorporate this device into new models. Work is continuing on the development of an improved display to inform the tractor operator of possible instability, including display ergonomic studies, investigation of threshold levels for alerting an operator of potential instability, and investigation into audible warning signals.

  10. A Simplified HTTR Diffusion Theory Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Rodolfo M. Ferrer; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Farzad Rahnema

    2010-10-01

    The Georgia Institute of Technology (GA-Tech) recently developed a transport theory benchmark based closely on the geometry and the features of the HTTR reactor that is operational in Japan. Though simplified, the benchmark retains all the principal physical features of the reactor and thus provides a realistic and challenging test for the codes. The purpose of this paper is twofold. The first goal is an extension of the benchmark to diffusion theory applications by generating the additional data not provided in the GA-Tech prior work. The second goal is to use the benchmark on the HEXPEDITE code available to the INL. The HEXPEDITE code is a Green’s function-based neutron diffusion code in 3D hexagonal-z geometry. The results showed that the HEXPEDITE code accurately reproduces the effective multiplication factor of the reference HELIOS solution. A secondary, but no less important, conclusion is that in the testing against actual HTTR data of a full sequence of codes that would include HEXPEDITE, in the apportioning of inevitable discrepancies between experiment and models, the portion of error attributable to HEXPEDITE would be expected to be modest. If large discrepancies are observed, they would have to be explained by errors in the data fed into HEXPEDITE. Results based on a fully realistic model of the HTTR reactor are presented in a companion paper. The suite of codes used in that paper also includes HEXPEDITE. The results shown here should help that effort in the decision making process for refining the modeling steps in the full sequence of codes.

  11. Simplified models for heat transfer in rooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graca, Guilherme C. C. Carrilho Da

    Buildings protect their occupants from the outside environment. As a semi-enclosed environment, buildings tend to contain the internally generated heat and air pollutants, as well as the solar and conductive heat gains that can occur in the facade. In the warmer months of the year this generally leads to overheating, creating a need for a cooling system. Ventilation air replaces contaminated air in the building and is often used as the dominant medium for heat transfer between indoor and outdoor environments. The goal of the research presented in this thesis is to develop a better understanding of the important parameters in the performance of ventilation systems and to develop simplified convective heat transfer models. The general approach used in this study seeks to capture the dominant physical processes for these problems with first order accuracy, and develop simple models that show the correct system behavior trends. Dimensional analysis, in conjunction with simple momentum and energy conservation, scaled model experiments and numerical simulations, is used to improve airflow and heat transfer rate predictions in both single and multi room ventilation systems. This study includes the three commonly used room ventilation modes: mixing, displacement and cross-ventilation. A new modeling approach to convective heat transfer between the building and the outside is presented: the concept of equivalent room heat transfer coefficient. The new model quantifies the reduction in heat transfer between ventilation air and internal room surfaces caused by limited thermal capacity and temperature variation of the air for the three modes studied. Particular emphasis is placed on cross-ventilation, and on the development of a simple model to characterize the airflow patterns that occur in this case. The implementation of the models in a building thermal simulation software tool is presented as well as comparisons between model predictions, experimental results and complex

  12. A Simplified Model of Tropical Cyclone Intensification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, W. H.

    2015-12-01

    An axisymmetric model of tropical cyclone intensification is presented. The model is based on Salmon's wave-vortex approximation, which can describe flows with high Rossby number and low Froude number. After introducing an additional approximation designed to filter propagating inertia-gravity waves, the problem is reduced to the prediction of potential vorticity (PV) and the inversion of this PV to obtain the balanced wind and mass fields. This PV prediction/inversion problem is solved analytically for two types of forcing: a two-region model in which there is nonzero forcing in the cyclone core and zero forcing in the far-field; a three-region model in which there is non-zero forcing in both the cyclone core and the eyewall, with zero forcing in the far-field. The solutions of the two-region model provide insight into why tropical cyclones can have long incubation times before rapid intensification and how the size of the mature vortex can be influenced by the size of the initial vortex. The solutions of the three-region model provide insight into the formation of hollow PV structures and the inward movement of angular momentum surfaces across the radius of maximum wind.

  13. Simplified coupling power model for fibers fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saktioto, J.; Ali, J.; Fadhali, M.

    2009-09-01

    Fiber coupler fabrication used for an optical waveguide requires lossless power for an optimal application. The previous research coupled fibers were successfully fabricated by injecting hydrogen flow at 1 bar and fused slightly by unstable torch flame in the range of 800-1350°C. Optical parameters may vary significantly over wide range physical properties. Coupling coefficient and refractive index are estimated from the experimental result of the coupling ratio distribution from 1% to 75%. The change of geometrical fiber affects the normalized frequency V even for single mode fibers. V is derived and some parametric variations are performed on the left and right hand side of the coupling region. A partial power is modelled and derived using V, normalized lateral phase constant u, and normalized lateral attenuation constant, w through the second kind of modified Bessel function of the l order, which obeys the normal mode and normalized propagation constant b. Total power is maintained constant in order to comply with the energy conservation law. The power is integrated through V, u, and w over the pulling length of 7500 µm for 1-D. The core radius of a fiber significantly affects V and power partially at coupling region rather than wavelength and refractive index of core and cladding. This model has power phenomena in transmission and reflection for an optical switch and tunable filter.

  14. BN-600 full MOX core benchmark analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y. I.; Hill, R. N.; Grimm, K.; Rimpault, G.; Newton, T.; Li, Z. H.; Rineiski, A.; Mohanakrishan, P.; Ishikawa, M.; Lee, K. B.; Danilytchev, A.; Stogov, V.; Nuclear Engineering Division; International Atomic Energy Agency; CEA SERCO Assurance; China Inst. of Atomic Energy; Forschnungszentrum Karlsruhe; Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research; Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst.; Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst.; Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering

    2004-01-01

    As a follow-up of the BN-600 hybrid core benchmark, a full MOX core benchmark was performed within the framework of the IAEA co-ordinated research project. Discrepancies between the values of main reactivity coefficients obtained by the participants for the BN-600 full MOX core benchmark appear to be larger than those in the previous hybrid core benchmarks on traditional core configurations. This arises due to uncertainties in the proper modelling of the axial sodium plenum above the core. It was recognized that the sodium density coefficient strongly depends on the core model configuration of interest (hybrid core vs. fully MOX fuelled core with sodium plenum above the core) in conjunction with the calculation method (diffusion vs. transport theory). The effects of the discrepancies revealed between the participants results on the ULOF and UTOP transient behaviours of the BN-600 full MOX core were investigated in simplified transient analyses. Generally the diffusion approximation predicts more benign consequences for the ULOF accident but more hazardous ones for the UTOP accident when compared with the transport theory results. The heterogeneity effect does not have any significant effect on the simulation of the transient. The comparison of the transient analyses results concluded that the fuel Doppler coefficient and the sodium density coefficient are the two most important coefficients in understanding the ULOF transient behaviour. In particular, the uncertainty in evaluating the sodium density coefficient distribution has the largest impact on the description of reactor dynamics. This is because the maximum sodium temperature rise takes place at the top of the core and in the sodium plenum.

  15. A simplified model for heat transfer in heat exchangers and stack plates for thermoacoustic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.; Herman, C.

    1999-07-01

    A simplified model of heat transfer in heat exchangers and stack plates of thermoacoustic devices was developed. The model took advantage of previous results regarding the thermal behavior of the thermoacoustic core for investigations of the performance of heat exchangers attached to the core. Geometrical and operational parameters as well as thermophysical properties of the heat exchangers, the plate, and the working medium were organized into dimensionless groups that allowed to account for their impact on the performance of the heat exchangers. Numerical simulations with the model were carried out. Nonlinear temperature distributions and heat fluxes near the edge of the stack plate were observed. Effects of different parameters on the thermal performance of the heat exchangers were investigated.

  16. Simplifying CEA through Excel, VBA, and Subeq

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Ryan

    2004-01-01

    Many people use compound equilibrium programs for very different reasons, varying from refrigerators to light bulbs to rockets. A commonly used equilibrium program is CEA. CEA can take various inputs such as pressure, temperature, and volume along with numerous reactants and run them through equilibrium equations to obtain valuable output information, including products formed and their relative amounts. A little over a year ago, Bonnie McBride created the program subeq with the goal to simplify the calling of CEA. Subeq was also designed to be called by other programs, including Excel, through the use of Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The largest advantage of using Excel is that it allows the user to input the information in a colorful and user-friendly environment while allowing VBA to run subeq, which is in the form of a FORTRAN DLL (Dynamic Link Library). Calling subeq in this form makes it much faster than if it were converted to VBA. Since subeq requires such large lists of reactant and product names, all of which can't be passed in as an array, subeq had to be changed to accept very long strings of reactants and products. To pass this string and adjust the transfer of input and output parameters, the subeq DLL had to be changed. One program that does this is Compaq Visual FORTRAN, which allows DLLs to be edited, debugged, and compiled. Compaq Visual FORTRAN uses FORTRAN 90/95, which has additional features to that of FORTRAN 77. My goals this summer include finishing up the excel spreadsheet of subeq, which I started last summer, and putting it on the Internet so that others can use it without having to download my spreadsheet. To finish up the spreadsheet I will need to work on debugging current options and problems. I will also work on making it as robust as possible, so that all errors that may arise will be clearly communicated to the user. New features will be added old ones will be changed as I receive comments from people using the spreadsheet

  17. Simplifying CEA through Excel, VBA, and Subeq

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Ryan

    2004-01-01

    Many people use compound equilibrium programs for very different reasons, varying from refrigerators to light bulbs to rockets. A commonly used equilibrium program is CEA. CEA can take various inputs such as pressure, temperature, and volume along with numerous reactants and run them through equilibrium equations to obtain valuable output information, including products formed and their relative amounts. A little over a year ago, Bonnie McBride created the program subeq with the goal to simplify the calling of CEA. Subeq was also designed to be called by other programs, including Excel, through the use of Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The largest advantage of using Excel is that it allows the user to input the information in a colorful and user-friendly environment while allowing VBA to run subeq, which is in the form of a FORTRAN DLL (Dynamic Link Library). Calling subeq in this form makes it much faster than if it were converted to VBA. Since subeq requires such large lists of reactant and product names, all of which can't be passed in as an array, subeq had to be changed to accept very long strings of reactants and products. To pass this string and adjust the transfer of input and output parameters, the subeq DLL had to be changed. One program that does this is Compaq Visual FORTRAN, which allows DLLs to be edited, debugged, and compiled. Compaq Visual FORTRAN uses FORTRAN 90/95, which has additional features to that of FORTRAN 77. My goals this summer include finishing up the excel spreadsheet of subeq, which I started last summer, and putting it on the Internet so that others can use it without having to download my spreadsheet. To finish up the spreadsheet I will need to work on debugging current options and problems. I will also work on making it as robust as possible, so that all errors that may arise will be clearly communicated to the user. New features will be added old ones will be changed as I receive comments from people using the spreadsheet

  18. Artificial cell mimics as simplified models for the study of cell biology.

    PubMed

    Salehi-Reyhani, Ali; Ces, Oscar; Elani, Yuval

    2017-07-01

    Living cells are hugely complex chemical systems composed of a milieu of distinct chemical species (including DNA, proteins, lipids, and metabolites) interconnected with one another through a vast web of interactions: this complexity renders the study of cell biology in a quantitative and systematic manner a difficult task. There has been an increasing drive towards the utilization of artificial cells as cell mimics to alleviate this, a development that has been aided by recent advances in artificial cell construction. Cell mimics are simplified cell-like structures, composed from the bottom-up with precisely defined and tunable compositions. They allow specific facets of cell biology to be studied in isolation, in a simplified environment where control of variables can be achieved without interference from a living and responsive cell. This mini-review outlines the core principles of this approach and surveys recent key investigations that use cell mimics to address a wide range of biological questions. It will also place the field in the context of emerging trends, discuss the associated limitations, and outline future directions of the field. Impact statement Recent years have seen an increasing drive to construct cell mimics and use them as simplified experimental models to replicate and understand biological phenomena in a well-defined and controlled system. By summarizing the advances in this burgeoning field, and using case studies as a basis for discussion on the limitations and future directions of this approach, it is hoped that this minireview will spur others in the experimental biology community to use artificial cells as simplified models with which to probe biological systems.

  19. Simplified models for dark matter searches at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Abdallah, Jalal; Araujo, Henrique; Arbey, Alexandre; Ashkenazi, Adi; Belyaev, Alexander; Berger, Joshua; Boehm, Celine; Boveia, Antonio; Brennan, Amelia; Brooke, Jim; Buchmueller, Oliver; Buckley, Matthew; Busoni, Giorgio; Calibbi, Lorenzo; Chauhan, Sushil; Daci, Nadir; Davies, Gavin; De Bruyn, Isabelle; De Jong, Paul; De Roeck, Albert; de Vries, Kees; Del Re, Daniele; De Simone, Andrea; Di Simone, Andrea; Doglioni, Caterina; Dolan, Matthew; Dreiner, Herbi K.; Ellis, John; Eno, Sarah; Etzion, Erez; Fairbairn, Malcolm; Feldstein, Brian; Flaecher, Henning; Feng, Eric; Fox, Patrick; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gouskos, Loukas; Gramling, Johanna; Haisch, Ulrich; Harnik, Roni; Hibbs, Anthony; Hoh, Siewyan; Hopkins, Walter; Ippolito, Valerio; Jacques, Thomas; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Khoze, Valentin V.; Kirk, Russell; Korn, Andreas; Kotov, Khristian; Kunori, Shuichi; Landsberg, Greg; Liem, Sebastian; Lin, Tongyan; Lowette, Steven; Lucas, Robyn; Malgeri, Luca; Malik, Sarah; McCabe, Christopher; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Morgante, Enrico; Mrenna, Stephen; Nakahama, Yu; Newbold, Dave; Nordstrom, Karl; Pani, Priscilla; Papucci, Michele; Pataraia, Sophio; Penning, Bjoern; Pinna, Deborah; Polesello, Giacomo; Racco, Davide; Re, Emanuele; Riotto, Antonio Walter; Rizzo, Thomas; Salek, David; Sarkar, Subir; Schramm, Steven; Skubic, Patrick; Slone, Oren; Smirnov, Juri; Soreq, Yotam; Sumner, Timothy; Tait, Tim M. P.; Thomas, Marc; Tomalin, Ian; Tunnell, Christopher; Vichi, Alessandro; Volansky, Tomer; Weiner, Neal; West, Stephen M.; Wielers, Monika; Worm, Steven; Yavin, Itay; Zaldivar, Bryan; Zhou, Ning; Zurek, Kathryn

    2015-09-01

    This document a outlines a set of simplified models for dark matter and its interactions with Standard Model particles. It is intended to summarize the main characteristics that these simplified models have when applied to dark matter searches at the LHC, and to provide a number of useful expressions for reference. The list of models includes both s-channel and t-channel scenarios. For s-channel, spin-0 and spin-1 mediations are discussed, and also realizations where the Higgs particle provides a portal between the dark and visible sectors. The guiding principles underpinning the proposed simplified models are spelled out, and some suggestions for implementation are presented.

  20. Simplified Models for Dark Matter Face their Consistent Completions

    SciTech Connect

    Goncalves, Dorival; Machado, Pedro N.; No, Jose Miguel

    2016-11-14

    Simplified dark matter models have been recently advocated as a powerful tool to exploit the complementarity between dark matter direct detection, indirect detection and LHC experimental probes. Focusing on pseudoscalar mediators between the dark and visible sectors, we show that the simplified dark matter model phenomenology departs significantly from that of consistent ${SU(2)_{\\mathrm{L}} \\times U(1)_{\\mathrm{Y}}}$ gauge invariant completions. We discuss the key physics simplified models fail to capture, and its impact on LHC searches. Notably, we show that resonant mono-Z searches provide competitive sensitivities to standard mono-jet analyses at $13$ TeV LHC.

  1. Simplified models for dark matter searches at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, Jalal; Araujo, Henrique; Arbey, Alexandre; Ashkenazi, Adi; Belyaev, Alexander; Berger, Joshua; Boehm, Celine; Boveia, Antonio; Brennan, Amelia; Brooke, Jim; Buchmueller, Oliver; Buckley, Matthew; Busoni, Giorgio; Calibbi, Lorenzo; Chauhan, Sushil; Daci, Nadir; Davies, Gavin; De Bruyn, Isabelle; De Jong, Paul; De Roeck, Albert; de Vries, Kees; Del Re, Daniele; De Simone, Andrea; Di Simone, Andrea; Doglioni, Caterina; Dolan, Matthew; Dreiner, Herbi K.; Ellis, John; Eno, Sarah; Etzion, Erez; Fairbairn, Malcolm; Feldstein, Brian; Flaecher, Henning; Feng, Eric; Fox, Patrick; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gouskos, Loukas; Gramling, Johanna; Haisch, Ulrich; Harnik, Roni; Hibbs, Anthony; Hoh, Siewyan; Hopkins, Walter; Ippolito, Valerio; Jacques, Thomas; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Khoze, Valentin V.; Kirk, Russell; Korn, Andreas; Kotov, Khristian; Kunori, Shuichi; Landsberg, Greg; Liem, Sebastian; Lin, Tongyan; Lowette, Steven; Lucas, Robyn; Malgeri, Luca; Malik, Sarah; McCabe, Christopher; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Morgante, Enrico; Mrenna, Stephen; Nakahama, Yu; Newbold, Dave; Nordstrom, Karl; Pani, Priscilla; Papucci, Michele; Pataraia, Sophio; Penning, Bjoern; Pinna, Deborah; Polesello, Giacomo; Racco, Davide; Re, Emanuele; Riotto, Antonio Walter; Rizzo, Thomas; Salek, David; Sarkar, Subir; Schramm, Steven; Skubic, Patrick; Slone, Oren; Smirnov, Juri; Soreq, Yotam; Sumner, Timothy; Tait, Tim M. P.; Thomas, Marc; Tomalin, Ian; Tunnell, Christopher; Vichi, Alessandro; Volansky, Tomer; Weiner, Neal; West, Stephen M.; Wielers, Monika; Worm, Steven; Yavin, Itay; Zaldivar, Bryan; Zhou, Ning; Zurek, Kathryn

    2015-09-01

    This document outlines a set of simplified models for dark matter and its interactions with Standard Model particles. It is intended to summarize the main characteristics that these simplified models have when applied to dark matter searches at the LHC, and to provide a number of useful expressions for reference. The list of models includes both ss-channel and tt-channel scenarios. For ss-channel, spin-0 and spin-1 mediations are discussed, and also realizations where the Higgs particle provides a portal between the dark and visible sectors. The guiding principles underpinning the proposed simplified models are spelled out, and some suggestions for implementation are presented.

  2. Aligning Your Curriculum to the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Now that most states have adopted the new Common Core State Standards, the next major challenge is to simplify and implement them by 2014. That is why it is important to begin this work now. Joe Crawford, Milken Award-winning educator and author of "Using Power Standards to Build an Aligned Curriculum", shares his proven process for…

  3. Photographic and drafting techniques simplify method of producing engineering drawings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provisor, H.

    1968-01-01

    Combination of photographic and drafting techniques has been developed to simplify the preparation of three dimensional and dimetric engineering drawings. Conventional photographs can be converted to line drawings by making copy negatives on high contrast film.

  4. Modular chassis simplifies packaging and interconnecting of circuit boards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, W. E.; Boline, K. G.

    1964-01-01

    A system of modular chassis structures has simplified the design for mounting a number of printed circuit boards. This design is structurally adaptable to computer and industrial control system applications.

  5. Simplified circuit corrects faults in parallel binary information channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, J.

    1966-01-01

    Corrective circuit prevents the appearance of erroneous output signals from the possible failure of any single-channel element interconnected in parallel binary information channels. The circuit is simplified and economical because it does not use redundant channels.

  6. Simplified Correction Of Errors In Reed-Solomon Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, T. K.; Hsu, I. S.; Eastman, W. L.; Reed, I. S.

    1990-01-01

    New decoder realized by simplified pipeline architecture. Simplified procedure for correction of errors and erasures in Reed-Solomon codes expected to result in simpler decoding equipment. Development widens commercial applicability of Reed-Solomon codes, used to correct bursts of errors in digital communication and recording systems. Improved decoder less complex. Made more regular, simple, and suitable for implementation in both VLSI and software.

  7. Simplified method for numerical modeling of fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Shtyrina, O V; Yarutkina, I A; Fedoruk, M P

    2014-12-29

    A simplified numerical approach to modeling of dissipative dispersion-managed fiber lasers is examined. We present a new numerical iteration algorithm for finding the periodic solutions of the system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations describing the intra-cavity dynamics of the dissipative soliton characteristics in dispersion-managed fiber lasers. We demonstrate that results obtained using simplified model are in good agreement with full numerical modeling based on the corresponding partial differential equations.

  8. How to simplify the CT diagnosis of Le Fort fractures.

    PubMed

    Rhea, James T; Novelline, Robert A

    2005-05-01

    The numerous components seen in the Le Fort fractures make classification difficult. Our objective is to simplify the task of classifying Le Fort fractures. Each of the Le Fort fractures has at least one unique component that is easily recognizable: I, the anterolateral margin of the nasal fossa; II, the inferior orbital rim; and III, the zygomatic arch. Classification of the Le Fort fractures is simplified by using these unique components to establish a tentative classification that is then confirmed.

  9. A simplified dynamic model of the Space Shuttle main engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duyar, Ahmet; Eldem, Vasfi; Merrill, Walter; Guo, Ten-Huei

    1991-01-01

    A simplified model is presented of the space shuttle main engine (SSME) dynamics valid within the range of operation of the engine. This model is obtained by linking the linearized point models obtained at 25 different operating points of SSME. The simplified model was developed for use with a model-based diagnostic scheme for failure detection and diagnostics studies, as well as control design purposes.

  10. Simplifier: a web tool to eliminate redundant NGS contigs

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Rommel Thiago Jucá; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; Azevedo, Vasco; Schneider, Maria Paula; Barh, Debmalya; Silva, Artur

    2012-01-01

    Modern genomic sequencing technologies produce a large amount of data with reduced cost per base; however, this data consists of short reads. This reduction in the size of the reads, compared to those obtained with previous methodologies, presents new challenges, including a need for efficient algorithms for the assembly of genomes from short reads and for resolving repetitions. Additionally after abinitio assembly, curation of the hundreds or thousands of contigs generated by assemblers demands considerable time and computational resources. We developed Simplifier, a stand-alone software that selectively eliminates redundant sequences from the collection of contigs generated by ab initio assembly of genomes. Application of Simplifier to data generated by assembly of the genome of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain 258 reduced the number of contigs generated by ab initio methods from 8,004 to 5,272, a reduction of 34.14%; in addition, N50 increased from 1 kb to 1.5 kb. Processing the contigs of Escherichia coli DH10B with Simplifier reduced the mate-paired library 17.47% and the fragment library 23.91%. Simplifier removed redundant sequences from datasets produced by assemblers, thereby reducing the effort required for finalization of genome assembly in tests with data from Prokaryotic organisms. Availability Simplifier is available at http://www.genoma.ufpa.br/rramos/softwares/simplifier.xhtmlIt requires Sun jdk 6 or higher. PMID:23275695

  11. S-channel dark matter simplified models and unitarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englert, Christoph; McCullough, Matthew; Spannowsky, Michael

    2016-12-01

    The ultraviolet structure of s-channel mediator dark matter simplified models at hadron colliders is considered. In terms of commonly studied s-channel mediator simplified models it is argued that at arbitrarily high energies the perturbative description of dark matter production in high energy scattering can break down. This is analogous to the well documented breakdown of an EFT description of dark matter collider production. With this in mind, to diagnose whether or not the use of simplified models at the LHC is valid, perturbative unitarity of the scattering amplitude in the processes relevant to LHC dark matter searches is studied. The results are as one would expect: at the LHC and future proton colliders the simplified model descriptions of dark matter production are in general valid. As a result of the general discussion, a simple class of 'Fermiophobic Scalar' simplified models is proposed, in which a scalar mediator couples to electroweak vector bosons. The Fermiophobic simplified model is well motivated and exhibits interesting collider and direct detection phenomenology.

  12. Simplifier: a web tool to eliminate redundant NGS contigs.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Rommel Thiago Jucá; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; Azevedo, Vasco; Schneider, Maria Paula; Barh, Debmalya; Silva, Artur

    2012-01-01

    Modern genomic sequencing technologies produce a large amount of data with reduced cost per base; however, this data consists of short reads. This reduction in the size of the reads, compared to those obtained with previous methodologies, presents new challenges, including a need for efficient algorithms for the assembly of genomes from short reads and for resolving repetitions. Additionally after abinitio assembly, curation of the hundreds or thousands of contigs generated by assemblers demands considerable time and computational resources. We developed Simplifier, a stand-alone software that selectively eliminates redundant sequences from the collection of contigs generated by ab initio assembly of genomes. Application of Simplifier to data generated by assembly of the genome of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain 258 reduced the number of contigs generated by ab initio methods from 8,004 to 5,272, a reduction of 34.14%; in addition, N50 increased from 1 kb to 1.5 kb. Processing the contigs of Escherichia coli DH10B with Simplifier reduced the mate-paired library 17.47% and the fragment library 23.91%. Simplifier removed redundant sequences from datasets produced by assemblers, thereby reducing the effort required for finalization of genome assembly in tests with data from Prokaryotic organisms. Simplifier is available at http://www.genoma.ufpa.br/rramos/softwares/simplifier.xhtmlIt requires Sun jdk 6 or higher.

  13. cFE/CFS (Core Flight Executive/Core Flight System)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wildermann, Charles P.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes in detail the requirements and goals of the Core Flight Executive (cFE) and the Core Flight System (CFS). The Core Flight Software System is a mission independent, platform-independent, Flight Software (FSW) environment integrating a reusable core flight executive (cFE). The CFS goals include: 1) Reduce time to deploy high quality flight software; 2) Reduce project schedule and cost uncertainty; 3) Directly facilitate formalized software reuse; 4) Enable collaboration across organizations; 5) Simplify sustaining engineering (AKA. FSW maintenance); 6) Scale from small instruments to System of Systems; 7) Platform for advanced concepts and prototyping; and 7) Common standards and tools across the branch and NASA wide.

  14. Temperature - speed characteristics of new motors utilizing temperature - sensitive magnetic cores

    SciTech Connect

    Seki, K.; Matsuki, H.; Murakami, K.; Shida, J.

    1982-11-01

    The possibility of using temperature-sensitive magnetic cores in the field of rotating electric machinery has been proposed, and new motors with such cores as a part of the magnetic path have been made. These simplified motors of which the speed is automatically controlled by the temperature change have a larger temperature dependence than ordinary motors.

  15. Simplified Complete Denture: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ye; Sun, Jian

    2017-06-01

    Many procedures are used to construct traditional (T) complete dentures; however, a simplified (S) method requiring fewer steps and less time is available. This systematic review intends to summarize the modeling of simplified methods for complete dentures and evaluate the differences between the T method and S method. With this review, we hope to lay the foundation for proposing a standardized fabrication method for "simplified dentures." The MEDLINE (via PubMed) and EMBASE databases were searched for articles on simplified complete dentures published in English before April 2014. Eleven articles were included. One was about one-step complete dentures, two were about SET (simplified treatment of edentulous patients), and the others were about the normal simplified method, which includes impression, occlusal registration, and try-in. Seven were randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs). The time, cost, patient satisfaction, clinical effects, masticatory performance, masticatory ability, and professional evaluation reported in these studies were compared. We summarized the different techniques of fabricating complete dentures and discussed the RCTs of the normal complete technique. None of the RCTs identified significant differences between the S and T groups in terms of patient ratings for general satisfaction, OHIP-edentulous scale, denture quality, or masticatory ability. At the same time, the T method was significantly more expensive and required more time to complete than the S method. Current scientific evidence suggests that the S method can replace or partly replace the T method. Moreover, specific rules should be devised to restrict the simplified construction, and detailed research should be conducted. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  16. Development of the ICD-10 simplified version and field test.

    PubMed

    Paoin, Wansa; Yuenyongsuwan, Maliwan; Yokobori, Yukiko; Endo, Hiroyoshi; Kim, Sukil

    2017-01-01

    The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision (ICD-10) has been used in various Asia-Pacific countries for more than 20 years. Although ICD-10 is a powerful tool, clinical coding processes are complex; therefore, many developing countries have not been able to implement ICD-10-based health statistics (WHO-FIC APN, 2007). This study aimed to simplify ICD-10 clinical coding processes, to modify index terms to facilitate computer searching and to provide a simplified version of ICD-10 for use in developing countries. The World Health Organization Family of International Classifications Asia-Pacific Network (APN) developed a simplified version of the ICD-10 and conducted field testing in Cambodia during February and March 2016. Ten hospitals were selected to participate. Each hospital sent a team to join a training workshop before using the ICD-10 simplified version to code 100 cases. All hospitals subsequently sent their coded records to the researchers. Overall, there were 1038 coded records with a total of 1099 ICD clinical codes assigned. The average accuracy rate was calculated as 80.71% (66.67-93.41%). Three types of clinical coding errors were found. These related to errors relating to the coder (14.56%), those resulting from the physician documentation (1.27%) and those considered system errors (3.46%). The field trial results demonstrated that the APN ICD-10 simplified version is feasible for implementation as an effective tool to implement ICD-10 clinical coding for hospitals. Developing countries may consider adopting the APN ICD-10 simplified version for ICD-10 code assignment in hospitals and health care centres. The simplified version can be viewed as an introductory tool which leads to the implementation of the full ICD-10 and may support subsequent ICD-11 adoption.

  17. SIMPLIFIED METHODS FOR COMBINING MECHANICAL VENTILATION AND NATURAL INFILTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Modera, M.; Peterson, F.

    1985-01-01

    During the past ten years, the means of ventilating single-family residences has received considerable attention. In many areas, the use of natural ventilation for infiltration has either come under close scrutiny, or has already been supplanted by mechanical ventilation systems. To evaluate the energy efficiency and ventilation effectiveness of both mechanical and natural ventilation strategies, both complex and simplified infiltration models are used. This paper examines the inaccuracies associated with using simplified models to compare ventilation strategies. Two simplified techniques for combining mechanical ventilation flows to the flows caused by wind and stack effects are examined. The simplified combination techniques are compared with the results obtained with an iterative flow-balance simulation. The flow-balance simulation determines the ventilation by balancing the incoming and outgoing flows under the pressure conditions resulting from the combination of wind effect, stack effect and mechanical ventilation. These comparisons result in three major conclusions: (1) the commonly used flow superposition technique (flow combination in quadrature) provides better estimates of the total flow than does a technique that takes into account measured flow exponents, (2) although flow combination in quadrature overpredicts ventilation when combining wind-induced and stack-induced flows, this is not the case when mechanical ventilation is added to the picture, and (3) a simple correction for the errors caused by the simplified flow superposition technique is not easy to achieve due to the large variations in error that occur with changes in wind direction and individual flow ratios.

  18. Novel fine flux integration methods for the DIABOLO simplified transport solver in COCAGNE

    SciTech Connect

    Couyras, D.; FeVotte, F.; Plagne, L.

    2013-07-01

    As part of its activity, EDF R and D is developing a new nuclear core simulation code named COCAGNE. This code relies on DIABOLO, a Simplified P{sub N} (SP{sub N}) method to compute the neutron flux inside the core for k{sub eff} eigenvalue problems. In order to complete complex simulations involving a large number of successive eigenvalue calculations within acceptable CPU times, the DIABOLO solver uses computational meshes that contain a restricted number of cells (e.g. 4x4 cells per assembly). Solutions obtained on these relatively coarse computational meshes are then spatially interpolated to obtain physical quantities such as neutron production rates on finer meshes (e.g. pin-by-pin power production). This paper describes two novel methods, named Straw-hat and Poisson, that allow the neutron flux to be integrated over fine mesh cells. Unlike the original method used in COCAGNE, these new methods compute accurate fine flux integrals trough the interpolation of the current DOFs of DIABOLO'S mixed dual RTk finite elements. Assessed on a set of 3-D PWR realistic core configurations, these methods are shown to bring about significant improvements over the original integration scheme: for smooth enough flux distribution, the Poisson method improves the pin-by-pin production rates accuracy by as much as one order of magnitude. (authors)

  19. Development of Technologies on Innovative-Simplified Nuclear Power Plant using High-Efficiency Steam Injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmori, Shuichi; Narabayashi, Tadashi; Mori, Michitsugu; Iwaki, Chikako; Asanuma, Yutaka; Goto, Shoji

    A Steam Injector (SI) is a simple, compact and passive pump and also acts as a high-performance direct-contact heater. This provides SI with capability to serve also as a direct-contact feed-water heater that heats up feed-water by using extracted steam from turbine. Our technology development aims to significantly simplify equipment and reduce physical quantities by applying "High-Efficiency SI", which are applicable to a wide range of operation regimes beyond the performance and applicable range of existing SIs and enables unprecedented multistage and parallel operation, to the low-pressure feed-water heaters and Emergency Core Cooling System of nuclear power plants, as well as achieve high inherent safety to prevent severe accidents by keeping the core covered with water (a Severe Accident-Free Concept). This paper describes the results of the endurance and performance tests of low-pressure SIs for feed-water heaters with Jet-deaerator and core injection system.

  20. Dislocation dynamics and core structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Karin Shu

    2000-10-01

    Understanding the dynamics of dislocations is essential to the accurate prediction of the mechanical properties of materials. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in this area through the development of large computer simulations which seek to model plastic deformation by considering the interactions of many dislocations. However, the many-body nature of the problem, as well as the limitations inherent in the elasticity theory used to describe dislocation interactions, requires that such simulations make certain simplifying assumptions. The work reported here seeks to examine some of the issues relevant to these simulations in two ways. First, the dynamics of a single dislocation are studied through the development and analysis of a mesoscopic, two-dimensional kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of dislocation motion. The stress and temperature dependence of the dislocation velocity is studied, and finite-size effects are discussed. Through a simple analogy to models of crystal growth, it is shown that the simulated dislocations exhibit kinetic roughening with scaling exponents predicted by the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation. Second, the structure of dislocation cores is studied at the atomic level in diamond cubic materials. These studies are necessary for understanding dislocation properties at small distances, and can provide accurate parameters for use in larger scale continuum simulations. The first study uses periodic supercells and ab initio techniques to compare two possible reconstructions of the 90° partial dislocation core in diamond. The relative energies are found to depend upon the stress field experienced by a dislocation in the periodic array. By fitting the energies to an isotropic elasticity theory expression for the dislocation core energy, values for the core radius and shear modulus of diamond are extracted and found to agree well with theoretical estimates and experimental observations. A similar analysis using empirical potentials

  1. Demonstration of fully coupled simplified extended station black-out accident simulation with RELAP-7

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Haihua; Zhang, Hongbin; Zou, Ling; Anders, David; Martineau, Richard

    2014-10-01

    The RELAP-7 code is the next generation nuclear reactor system safety analysis code being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The RELAP-7 code develop-ment effort started in October of 2011 and by the end of the second development year, a number of physical components with simplified two phase flow capability have been de-veloped to support the simplified boiling water reactor (BWR) extended station blackout (SBO) analyses. The demonstration case includes the major components for the primary system of a BWR, as well as the safety system components for the safety relief valve (SRV), the reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system, and the wet well. Three scenar-ios for the SBO simulations have been considered. Since RELAP-7 is not a severe acci-dent analysis code, the simulation stops when fuel clad temperature reaches damage point. Scenario I represents an extreme station blackout accident without any external cooling and cooling water injection. The system pressure is controlled by automatically releasing steam through SRVs. Scenario II includes the RCIC system but without SRV. The RCIC system is fully coupled with the reactor primary system and all the major components are dynamically simulated. The third scenario includes both the RCIC system and the SRV to provide a more realistic simulation. This paper will describe the major models and dis-cuss the results for the three scenarios. The RELAP-7 simulations for the three simplified SBO scenarios show the importance of dynamically simulating the SRVs, the RCIC sys-tem, and the wet well system to the reactor safety during extended SBO accidents.

  2. A simplified method for elastic-plastic-creep structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A.

    1985-01-01

    A simplified inelastic analysis computer program (ANSYPM) was developed for predicting the stress-strain history at the critical location of a thermomechanically cycled structure from an elastic solution. The program uses an iterative and incremental procedure to estimate the plastic strains from the material stress-strain properties and a plasticity hardening model. Creep effects are calculated on the basis of stress relaxation at constant strain, creep at constant stress or a combination of stress relaxation and creep accumulation. The simplified method was exercised on a number of problems involving uniaxial and multiaxial loading, isothermal and nonisothermal conditions, dwell times at various points in the cycles, different materials and kinematic hardening. Good agreement was found between these analytical results and nonlinear finite element solutions for these problems. The simplified analysis program used less than 1 percent of the CPU time required for a nonlinear finite element analysis.

  3. A simplified method for elastic-plastic-creep structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A.

    1984-01-01

    A simplified inelastic analysis computer program (ANSYPM) was developed for predicting the stress-strain history at the critical location of a thermomechanically cycled structure from an elastic solution. The program uses an iterative and incremental procedure to estimate the plastic strains from the material stress-strain properties and a plasticity hardening model. Creep effects are calculated on the basis of stress relaxation at constant strain, creep at constant stress or a combination of stress relaxation and creep accumulation. The simplified method was exercised on a number of problems involving uniaxial and multiaxial loading, isothermal and nonisothermal conditions, dwell times at various points in the cycles, different materials and kinematic hardening. Good agreement was found between these analytical results and nonlinear finite element solutions for these problems. The simplified analysis program used less than 1 percent of the CPU time required for a nonlinear finite element analysis.

  4. Simplified Models for Dark Matter Searches at the LHC

    DOE PAGES

    Abdallah, Jalal

    2015-08-11

    This document outlines a set of simplified models for dark matter and its interactions with Standard Model particles. It is intended to summarize the main characteristics that these simplified models have when applied to dark matter searches at the LHC, and to provide a number of useful expressions for reference. The list of models includes both s-channel and t-channel scenarios. For s-channel, spin-0 and spin-1 mediations are discussed, and also realizations where the Higgs particle provides a portal between the dark and visible sectors. The guiding principles underpinning the proposed simplified models are spelled out, and some suggestions for implementationmore » are presented.« less

  5. Optical chirp z-transform processor with a simplified architecture.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Nam Quoc

    2014-12-29

    Using a simplified chirp z-transform (CZT) algorithm based on the discrete-time convolution method, this paper presents the synthesis of a simplified architecture of a reconfigurable optical chirp z-transform (OCZT) processor based on the silica-based planar lightwave circuit (PLC) technology. In the simplified architecture of the reconfigurable OCZT, the required number of optical components is small and there are no waveguide crossings which make fabrication easy. The design of a novel type of optical discrete Fourier transform (ODFT) processor as a special case of the synthesized OCZT is then presented to demonstrate its effectiveness. The designed ODFT can be potentially used as an optical demultiplexer at the receiver of an optical fiber orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission system.

  6. Simplified Analysis Model for Predicting Pyroshock Responses on Composite Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasa, Takashi; Shi, Qinzhong

    A simplified analysis model based on the frequency response analysis and the wave propagation analysis was established for predicting Shock Response Spectrum (SRS) on the composite panel subjected to pyroshock loadings. The complex composite panel was modeled as an isotropic single layer panel defined in NASA Lewis Method. Through the conductance of an impact excitation test on a composite panel with no equipment mounted on, it was presented that the simplified analysis model could estimate the SRS as well as the acceleration peak values in both near and far field in an accurate way. In addition, through the simulation for actual pyroshock tests on an actual satellite system, the simplified analysis model was proved to be applicable in predicting the actual pyroshock responses, while bringing forth several technical issues to estimate the pyroshock test specifications in early design stages.

  7. Cylindrical invisibility cloak with simplified material parameters is inherently visible.

    PubMed

    Yan, Min; Ruan, Zhichao; Qiu, Min

    2007-12-07

    It was proposed that perfect invisibility cloaks can be constructed for hiding objects from electromagnetic illumination [J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Science 312, 1780 (2006)10.1126/science.1125907]. The cylindrical cloaks experimentally demonstrated [D. Schurig, Science 314, 977 (2006)10.1126/science.1133628] and theoretically proposed [W. Cai, Nat. Photon. 1, 224 (2007)10.1038/nphoton.2007.28] have however simplified material parameters in order to facilitate easier realization as well as to avoid infinities in optical constants. Here we show that the cylindrical cloaks with simplified material parameters inherently allow the zeroth-order cylindrical wave to pass through the cloak as if the cloak is made of a homogeneous isotropic medium, and thus visible. To all high-order cylindrical waves, our numerical simulation suggests that the simplified cloak inherits some properties of the ideal cloak, but finite scatterings exist.

  8. Development of a simplified procedure for cyclic structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A.

    1984-01-01

    Development was extended of a simplified inelastic analysis computer program (ANSYMP) for predicting the stress-strain history at the critical location of a thermomechanically cycled structure from an elastic solution. The program uses an iterative and incremental procedure to estimate the plastic strains from the material stress-strain properties and a plasticity hardening model. Creep effects can be calculated on the basis of stress relaxation at constant strain, creep at constant stress, or a combination of stress relaxation and creep accumulation. The simplified method was exercised on a number of problems involving uniaxial and multiaxial loading, isothermal and nonisothermal conditions, dwell times at various points in the cycles, different materials, and kinematic hardening. Good agreement was found between these analytical results and nonlinear finite-element solutions for these problems. The simplified analysis program used less than 1 percent of the CPU time required for a nonlinear finite-element analysis.

  9. A simplified method for elastic-plastic-creep structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A.

    1985-01-01

    A simplified inelastic analysis computer program (ANSYPM) was developed for predicting the stress-strain history at the critical location of a thermomechanically cycled structure from an elastic solution. The program uses an iterative and incremental procedure to estimate the plastic strains from the material stress-strain properties and a plasticity hardening model. Creep effects are calculated on the basis of stress relaxation at constant strain, creep at constant stress or a combination of stress relaxation and creep accumulation. The simplified method was exercised on a number of problems involving uniaxial and multiaxial loading, isothermal and nonisothermal conditions, dwell times at various points in the cycles, different materials and kinematic hardening. Good agreement was found between these analytical results and nonlinear finite element solutions for these problems. The simplified analysis program used less than 1 percent of the CPU time required for a nonlinear finite element analysis.

  10. A Simplified Model of The Electrical Asymmetry Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keil, Douglas L.; Augustyniak, Edward; Sakiyama, Yukinori; Ni, Pavel

    2014-10-01

    Dual Frequency Capacitively Coupled Plasmas (DF CCP) have been used extensively in semiconductor processing. One of the most promising methods for extending CCP technology is the application of the Electrical Asymmetry Effect (EAE). Extensive studies of this effect have appeared in the literature and the effect can be claimed to be reasonably well understood. However, the complexity of the available models often makes them unwieldy for resolving engineering issues and for analysis of test data. In this work it is shown that most of the industrially important features of the EAE effect can be captured with a greatly simplified model. Although approximate, this simplified model enables relatively quick design guidance and simplifies analysis of test data. Electrical measurements of the EAE effect from a commercially relevant CCP plasma deposition tool are presented. These results show good agreement with the model and serve to illustrate the basic features of the model.

  11. Simplifying Probability Elicitation and Uncertainty Modeling in Bayesian Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Paulson, Patrick R; Carroll, Thomas E; Sivaraman, Chitra; Neorr, Peter A; Unwin, Stephen D; Hossain, Shamina S

    2011-04-16

    In this paper we contribute two methods that simplify the demands of knowledge elicitation for particular types of Bayesian networks. The first method simplify the task of providing probabilities when the states that a random variable takes can be described by a new, fully ordered state set in which a state implies all the preceding states. The second method leverages Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence to provide a way for the expert to express the degree of ignorance that they feel about the estimates being provided.

  12. A simplified dynamic model of the T700 turboshaft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duyar, Ahmet; Gu, Zhen; Litt, Jonathan S.

    1992-01-01

    A simplified open-loop dynamic model of the T700 turboshaft engine, valid within the normal operating range of the engine, is developed. This model is obtained by linking linear state space models obtained at different engine operating points. Each linear model is developed from a detailed nonlinear engine simulation using a multivariable system identification and realization method. The simplified model may be used with a model-based real time diagnostic scheme for fault detection and diagnostics, as well as for open loop engine dynamics studies and closed loop control analysis utilizing a user generated control law.

  13. Simulation and simplified design studies of photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, D.L.; Facinelli, W.A.; Koehler, L.P.

    1980-09-01

    Results of TRNSYS simulations of photovoltaic systems with electrical storage are described. Studies of the sensitivity of system performance, in terms of the fraction of the electrical load supplied by the solar energy system, to variables such as array size, battery size, location, time of year, and load shape are reported. An accurate simplified method for predicting array output of max-power photovoltaic systems is presented. A second simplified method, which estimates the overall performance of max-power systems, is developed. Finally, a preliminary technique for predicting clamped-voltage system performance is discussed.

  14. Simplified pregnant woman models for the fetus exposure assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jala, Marjorie; Conil, Emmanuelle; Varsier, Nadège; Wiart, Joe; Hadjem, Abdelhamid; Moulines, Éric; Lévy-Leduc, Céline

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce a study that we carried out in order to validate the use of a simplified pregnant woman model for the assessment of the fetus exposure to radio frequency waves. This simplified model, based on the use of a homogeneous tissue to replace most of the inner organs of the virtual mother, would allow us to deal with many issues that are raised because of the lack of pregnant woman models for numerical dosimetry. Using specific absorption rate comparisons, we show that this model could be used to estimate the fetus exposure to plane waves.

  15. Simplified ontologies allowing comparison of developmental mammalian gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Adele; Hofmann, Oliver; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Hide, Winston

    2007-01-01

    Model organisms represent an important resource for understanding the fundamental aspects of mammalian biology. Mapping of biological phenomena between model organisms is complex and if it is to be meaningful, a simplified representation can be a powerful means for comparison. The Developmental eVOC ontologies presented here are simplified orthogonal ontologies describing the temporal and spatial distribution of developmental human and mouse anatomy. We demonstrate the ontologies by identifying genes showing a bias for developmental brain expression in human and mouse. PMID:17961239

  16. Core-core and core-valence correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of (1s) core correlation on properties and energy separations was analyzed using full configuration-interaction (FCI) calculations. The Be 1 S - 1 P, the C 3 P - 5 S and CH+ 1 Sigma + or - 1 Pi separations, and CH+ spectroscopic constants, dipole moment and 1 Sigma + - 1 Pi transition dipole moment were studied. The results of the FCI calculations are compared to those obtained using approximate methods. In addition, the generation of atomic natural orbital (ANO) basis sets, as a method for contracting a primitive basis set for both valence and core correlation, is discussed. When both core-core and core-valence correlation are included in the calculation, no suitable truncated CI approach consistently reproduces the FCI, and contraction of the basis set is very difficult. If the (nearly constant) core-core correlation is eliminated, and only the core-valence correlation is included, CASSCF/MRCI approached reproduce the FCI results and basis set contraction is significantly easier.

  17. 7 CFR 273.25 - Simplified Food Stamp Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Simplified Food Stamp Program. 273.25 Section 273.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM CERTIFICATION OF ELIGIBLE HOUSEHOLDS Program Alternatives...

  18. Simplified physically based model of earthen embankment breaching

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A simplified physically based model has been developed to simulate the breaching processes of homogenous and composite earthen embankments owing to overtopping and piping. The breach caused by overtopping flow is approximated as a flat broad-crested weir with a trapezoidal cross section, downstream ...

  19. Simplified preliminary economic analysis for passive solar heating. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Baldetti, P.J.; Lockard, M.A.

    1983-09-01

    This report establishes economic feasibility criteria for considering the use of passive solar design. In light of the growing cost of supplying the energy demands of the Air Force, a method is needed to simplify the adaptation of passive solar heating and cooling in future building construction.

  20. Simplify Web Development for Faculty and Promote Instructional Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, David C.

    Faculty members are often overwhelmed with the prospect of implementing Web-based instruction. In an effort to simplify the process and incorporate some basic instructional design elements, the Educational Technology Team at Embry Riddle Aeronautical University created a course template for WebCT. Utilizing rapid prototyping, the template…

  1. 7 CFR 273.25 - Simplified Food Stamp Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Simplified Food Stamp Program. 273.25 Section 273.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM CERTIFICATION OF ELIGIBLE HOUSEHOLDS Program...

  2. 7 CFR 273.25 - Simplified Food Stamp Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Simplified Food Stamp Program. 273.25 Section 273.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM CERTIFICATION OF ELIGIBLE HOUSEHOLDS Program...

  3. 7 CFR 273.25 - Simplified Food Stamp Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Simplified Food Stamp Program. 273.25 Section 273.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM CERTIFICATION OF ELIGIBLE HOUSEHOLDS Program...

  4. Validation of the standardized and simplified cutting bill

    Treesearch

    Urs Buehlmann; D. Earl Kline; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; R., Jr. Noble

    2008-01-01

    This research validated the framework for the standardized and simplified cutting bill presented in an earlier paper. The cutting bill validation was carried out in two ways. First, all 20 of the cutting bill's part groups were examined to determine if significant yield influences resulted from changing specific part sizes within the boundaries of a given part...

  5. Psychometric Evaluation of the Simplified Chinese Version of Flourishing Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Xiaoqing; Duan, Wenjie; Wang, Zhizhang; Liu, Tianyuan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The Flourishing Scale (FS) was developed to measure psychological well-being from the eudaimonic perspective, highlighting the flourishing of human functioning. This article evaluated the psychometric characteristics of the simplified Chinese version of FS among a Chinese community population. Method: A total of 433 participants from…

  6. The new soliton solutions via modified Hereman's simplified method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pınar, Zehra

    2017-02-01

    It is well recognized that new types of exact travelling wave solutions to nonlinear partial differential equations can be obtained modifications of the methods which are in hand. In this study, the new ansatz which was proposed by Wazwaz is considered to get new soliton solutions modifying the methodology which is known as Hereman's simplified method.

  7. An Introduction to Simplified Performance Management Approaches. Report No. 98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddu, Roland

    This guide to simplified performance management approaches contains five sections. The first section, entitled "Simple Techniques for Managing an Innovation," is written from the viewpoint of a principal as manager. It describes how to manage an innovation, develop an objective, allocate resources for the innovation, keep organized…

  8. 48 CFR 1532.003 - Simplified acquisition procedures financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... procedures financing. 1532.003 Section 1532.003 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL... procedures financing. (a) Scope. This subpart provides for authorization of advance and interim payments on commercial item orders not exceeding the simplified acquisition threshold. Advance payments are payments...

  9. 48 CFR 1532.003 - Simplified acquisition procedures financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... procedures financing. 1532.003 Section 1532.003 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL... procedures financing. (a) Scope. This subpart provides for authorization of advance and interim payments on commercial item orders not exceeding the simplified acquisition threshold. Advance payments are payments...

  10. 48 CFR 1532.003 - Simplified acquisition procedures financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... procedures financing. 1532.003 Section 1532.003 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL... procedures financing. (a) Scope. This subpart provides for authorization of advance and interim payments on commercial item orders not exceeding the simplified acquisition threshold. Advance payments are payments...

  11. Simplified seismic performance assessment and implications for seismic design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Timothy J.; Welch, David P.; Calvi, Gian Michele

    2014-08-01

    The last decade or so has seen the development of refined performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE) approaches that now provide a framework for estimation of a range of important decision variables, such as repair costs, repair time and number of casualties. This paper reviews current tools for PBEE, including the PACT software, and examines the possibility of extending the innovative displacement-based assessment approach as a simplified structural analysis option for performance assessment. Details of the displacement-based s+eismic assessment method are reviewed and a simple means of quickly assessing multiple hazard levels is proposed. Furthermore, proposals for a simple definition of collapse fragility and relations between equivalent single-degree-of-freedom characteristics and multi-degree-of-freedom story drift and floor acceleration demands are discussed, highlighting needs for future research. To illustrate the potential of the methodology, performance measures obtained from the simplified method are compared with those computed using the results of incremental dynamic analyses within the PEER performance-based earthquake engineering framework, applied to a benchmark building. The comparison illustrates that the simplified method could be a very effective conceptual seismic design tool. The advantages and disadvantages of the simplified approach are discussed and potential implications of advanced seismic performance assessments for conceptual seismic design are highlighted through examination of different case study scenarios including different structural configurations.

  12. A simplified Forest Inventory and Analysis database: FIADB-Lite

    Treesearch

    Patrick D. Miles

    2008-01-01

    This publication is a simplified version of the Forest Inventory and Analysis Data Base (FIADB) for users who do not need to compute sampling errors and may find the FIADB unnecessarily complex. Possible users include GIS specialists who may be interested only in identifying and retrieving geographic information and per acre values for the set of plots used in...

  13. Synthesis of (+)-crocacin D and simplified bioactive analogues.

    PubMed

    Pasqua, Adele E; Ferrari, Frank D; Crawford, James J; Whittingham, William G; Marquez, Rodolfo

    2015-03-01

    The total synthesis of (+)-crocacin D has been achieved in 15 steps (9 isolated intermediates) and 14% overall yield from commercially available starting materials and using (+)-crocacin C as a key intermediate. A number of simplified analogues and their biological activities are also reported. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Some Observations on Cohesion and Coherence in Simplified Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lautamatti, Liisa

    Analysis of several texts simplified to teach reading comprehension to college second language students shows that simplification affects both textual cohesion and coherence. Moreover, simplification restricts the amount of significant semantic information and creates a more transparent pattern of reference. The use of cohesive conjunctions varies…

  15. A Simplified Technique for Evaluating Human "CCR5" Genetic Polymorphism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falteisek, Lukáš; Cerný, Jan; Janštová, Vanda

    2013-01-01

    To involve students in thinking about the problem of AIDS (which is important in the view of nondecreasing infection rates), we established a practical lab using a simplified adaptation of Thomas's (2004) method to determine the polymorphism of HIV co-receptor CCR5 from students' own epithelial cells. CCR5 is a receptor involved in inflammatory…

  16. Investigations in a Simplified Bracketed Grid Approach to Metrical Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Patrick Pei

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, I examine the fundamental mechanisms and assumptions of the Simplified Bracketed Grid Theory (Idsardi 1992) in two ways: first, by comparing it with Parametric Metrical Theory (Hayes 1995), and second, by implementing it in the analysis of several case studies in stress assignment and syllabification. Throughout these…

  17. 7 CFR 4280.109 - Qualification for simplified applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... process. In order to use the simplified application process, each of the conditions specified in...) Construction planning and performing development must be performed in compliance with § 4280.115. The applicant... completion, including all operational testing and certifications acceptable to the Agency. (b) Application...

  18. Simplified Load-Following Control for a Fuel Cell System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    A simplified load-following control scheme has been proposed for a fuel cell power system. The scheme could be used to control devices that are important parts of a fuel cell system but are sometimes characterized as parasitic because they consume some of the power generated by the fuel cells.

  19. 42 CFR 413.321 - Simplified cost report for SNFs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... prospectively determined payment rate system may file a simplified cost report. The cost report contains a... health care complex. Those SNFs must file a cost report that reflects the shared services and administrative costs of the hospital and any other related facilities in the health care complex. ...

  20. A Simplified Diagnostic Method for Elastomer Bond Durability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Paul

    2009-01-01

    A simplified method has been developed for determining bond durability under exposure to water or high humidity conditions. It uses a small number of test specimens with relatively short times of water exposure at elevated temperature. The method is also gravimetric; the only equipment being required is an oven, specimen jars, and a conventional laboratory balance.

  1. Flat pack interconnection structure simplifies modular electronic assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzin, L.

    1967-01-01

    Flat pack interconnection structure composed of stick modules simplifies modular electronic assemblies by allowing a single axis mother board. Two of the wiring planes are located in the stick module, which is the lower level of assembly, with the third wiring plane in the mother board.

  2. 12 CFR 3.144 - Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CAPITAL ADEQUACY STANDARDS Risk-Weighted Assets-Internal Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches Risk-Weighted Assets for Securitization Exposures § 3.144 Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA). (a) General requirements for the SSFA. To use the SSFA to determine the risk weight for a...

  3. 12 CFR 324.211 - Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY CAPITAL ADEQUACY OF FDIC-SUPERVISED INSTITUTIONS Risk-Weighted Assets-Market Risk § 324.211 Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA). (a) General requirements. To use the SSFA to determine the specific risk-weighting factor for a securitization position, an FDIC-supervised...

  4. 12 CFR 3.211 - Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CAPITAL ADEQUACY STANDARDS Risk-Weighted Assets-Market Risk § 3.211 Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA). (a) General requirements. To use the SSFA to determine the specific risk-weighting factor... must assign a specific risk-weighting factor of 100 percent to the position. (b) SSFA parameters. To...

  5. A Simplified Technique for Evaluating Human "CCR5" Genetic Polymorphism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falteisek, Lukáš; Cerný, Jan; Janštová, Vanda

    2013-01-01

    To involve students in thinking about the problem of AIDS (which is important in the view of nondecreasing infection rates), we established a practical lab using a simplified adaptation of Thomas's (2004) method to determine the polymorphism of HIV co-receptor CCR5 from students' own epithelial cells. CCR5 is a receptor involved in inflammatory…

  6. Simplified mechanistic models of gene regulation for analysis and design

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, Edward J.; Stan, Guy-Bart; Arpino, James A. J.; Papachristodoulou, Antonis

    2015-01-01

    Simplified mechanistic models of gene regulation are fundamental to systems biology and essential for synthetic biology. However, conventional simplified models typically have outputs that are not directly measurable and are based on assumptions that do not often hold under experimental conditions. To resolve these issues, we propose a ‘model reduction’ methodology and simplified kinetic models of total mRNA and total protein concentration, which link measurements, models and biochemical mechanisms. The proposed approach is based on assumptions that hold generally and include typical cases in systems and synthetic biology where conventional models do not hold. We use novel assumptions regarding the ‘speed of reactions’, which are required for the methodology to be consistent with experimental data. We also apply the methodology to propose simplified models of gene regulation in the presence of multiple protein binding sites, providing both biological insights and an illustration of the generality of the methodology. Lastly, we show that modelling total protein concentration allows us to address key questions on gene regulation, such as efficiency, burden, competition and modularity. PMID:26063825

  7. The Choice of Traditional vs. Simplified Characters in US Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Shi-zhong

    2009-01-01

    Which form of Chinese characters should be taught in Chinese language classes: traditional or simplified? The results of a questionnaire distributed to sections at the University of Florida show the reasons for students' preferences for one or the other form. In view of the students' awareness that traditional characters are more beneficial to…

  8. 48 CFR 14.201-9 - Simplified contract format.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.201-9 Simplified contract format...) Contract line item number. (2) Description of supplies or services, or data sufficient to identify the..., but shall retain them in the contract file. Award by acceptance of a bid on the award portion of...

  9. 48 CFR 14.201-9 - Simplified contract format.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.201-9 Simplified contract format...) Contract line item number. (2) Description of supplies or services, or data sufficient to identify the..., but shall retain them in the contract file. Award by acceptance of a bid on the award portion of...

  10. Delayed ripple counter simplifies square-root computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, R.

    1965-01-01

    Ripple subtract technique simplifies the logic circuitry required in a binary computing device to derive the square root of a number. Successively higher numbers are subtracted from a register containing the number out of which the square root is to be extracted. The last number subtracted will be the closest integer to the square root of the number.

  11. Measuring Phantom Recollection in the Simplified Conjoint Recognition Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Christoph; Klauer, Karl Christoph

    2009-01-01

    False memories are sometimes strong enough to elicit recollective experiences. This phenomenon has been termed Phantom Recollection (PR). The Conjoint Recognition (CR) paradigm has been used to empirically separate PR from other memory processes. Recently, a simplification of the CR procedure has been proposed. We herein extend the simplified CR…

  12. Measuring Phantom Recollection in the Simplified Conjoint Recognition Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Christoph; Klauer, Karl Christoph

    2009-01-01

    False memories are sometimes strong enough to elicit recollective experiences. This phenomenon has been termed Phantom Recollection (PR). The Conjoint Recognition (CR) paradigm has been used to empirically separate PR from other memory processes. Recently, a simplification of the CR procedure has been proposed. We herein extend the simplified CR…

  13. Simplified Calculation Of Solar Fluxes In Solar Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhandari, Pradeep

    1990-01-01

    Simplified Calculation of Solar Flux Distribution on Side Wall of Cylindrical Cavity Solar Receivers computer program employs simple solar-flux-calculation algorithm for cylindrical-cavity-type solar receiver. Results compare favorably with those of more complicated programs. Applications include study of solar energy and transfer of heat, and space power/solar-dynamics engineering. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  14. Psychometric Evaluation of the Simplified Chinese Version of Flourishing Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Xiaoqing; Duan, Wenjie; Wang, Zhizhang; Liu, Tianyuan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The Flourishing Scale (FS) was developed to measure psychological well-being from the eudaimonic perspective, highlighting the flourishing of human functioning. This article evaluated the psychometric characteristics of the simplified Chinese version of FS among a Chinese community population. Method: A total of 433 participants from…

  15. A simplified ductile-brittle transition temperature tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arias, A.

    1973-01-01

    The construction and operation of a versatile, simplified bend tester is described. The tester is usable at temperatures from - 192 to 650 C in air. Features of the tester include a single test chamber for cryogenic or elevated temperatures, specimen alining support rollers, and either manual or motorized operation.

  16. Investigations in a Simplified Bracketed Grid Approach to Metrical Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Patrick Pei

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, I examine the fundamental mechanisms and assumptions of the Simplified Bracketed Grid Theory (Idsardi 1992) in two ways: first, by comparing it with Parametric Metrical Theory (Hayes 1995), and second, by implementing it in the analysis of several case studies in stress assignment and syllabification. Throughout these…

  17. On Simplifying Features in OpenStreetMap database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xinlin; Tao, Kunwang; Wang, Liang

    2015-04-01

    Currently the visualization of OpenStreetMap data is using a tile server which stores map tiles that have been rendered from vector data in advance. However, tiled map are short of functionalities such as data editing and customized styling. To enable these advanced functionality, Client-side processing and rendering of geospatial data is needed. Considering the voluminous size of the OpenStreetMap data, simply sending region queries results of OSM database to client is prohibitive. To make the OSM data retrieved from database adapted for client receiving and rendering, It must be filtered and simplified at server-side to limit its volume. We propose a database extension for OSM database to make it possible to simplifying geospatial objects such as ways and relations during data queries. Several auxiliary tables and PL/pgSQL functions are presented to make the geospatial features can be simplified by omitting unimportant vertices. There are five components in the database extension: Vertices weight computation by polyline and polygon simplification algorithm, Vertices weight storage in auxiliary tables. filtering and selecting of vertices using specific threshold value during spatial queries, assembling of simplified geospatial objects using filtered vertices, vertices weight updating after geospatial objects editing. The database extension is implemented on an OSM APIDB using PL/pgSQL. The database contains a subset of OSM database. The experimental database contains geographic data of United Kingdom which is about 100 million vertices and roughly occupy 100GB disk. JOSM are used to retrieve the data from the database using a revised data accessing API and render the geospatial objects in real-time. When serving simplified data to client, The database allows user to set the bound of the error of simplification or the bound of responding time in each data query. Experimental results show the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed methods in building a

  18. Academic Rigor: The Core of the Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Some educators see the Common Core State Standards as reason for stress, most recognize the positive possibilities associated with them and are willing to make the professional commitment to implementing them so that academic rigor for all students will increase. But business leaders, parents, and the authors of the Common Core are not the only…

  19. Academic Rigor: The Core of the Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Some educators see the Common Core State Standards as reason for stress, most recognize the positive possibilities associated with them and are willing to make the professional commitment to implementing them so that academic rigor for all students will increase. But business leaders, parents, and the authors of the Common Core are not the only…

  20. CFD Analysis of Core Bypass Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Richard W. Johnson; Hiroyuki Sato; Richard R. Schultz

    2010-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is exploring the potential for the VHTR which will be either of a prismatic or a pebble-bed type. One important design consideration for the reactor core of a prismatic VHTR is coolant bypass flow which occurs in the interstitial regions between fuel blocks. Such gaps are an inherent presence in the reactor core because of tolerances in manufacturing the blocks and the inexact nature of their installation. Furthermore, the geometry of the graphite blocks changes over the lifetime of the reactor because of thermal expansion and irradiation damage. The existence of the gaps induces a flow bias in the fuel blocks and results in unexpected increase of maximum fuel temperature. Traditionally, simplified methods such as flow network calculations employing experimental correlations are used to estimate flow and temperature distributions in the core design. However, the distribution of temperature in the fuel pins and graphite blocks as well as coolant outlet temperatures are strongly coupled with the local heat generation rate within fuel blocks which is not uniformly distributed in the core. Hence, it is crucial to establish mechanistic based methods which can be applied to the reactor core thermal hydraulic design and safety analysis. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes, which have a capability of local physics based simulation, are widely used in various industrial fields. This study investigates core bypass flow phenomena with the assistance of commercial CFD codes and establishes a baseline for evaluation methods. A one-twelfth sector of the hexagonal block surface is modeled and extruded down to whole core length of 10.704m. The computational domain is divided vertically with an upper reflector, a fuel section and a lower reflector. Each side of the sector grid can be set as a symmetry boundary

  1. CFD Analysis of Core Bypass Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Richard W. Johnson; Hiroyuki Sato; Richard R. Schultz

    2009-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is exploring the potential for the VHTR which will be either of a prismatic or a pebble-bed type. One important design consideration for the reactor core of a prismatic VHTR is coolant bypass flow which occurs in the interstitial regions between fuel blocks. Such gaps are an inherent presence in the reactor core because of tolerances in manufacturing the blocks and the inexact nature of their installation. Furthermore, the geometry of the graphite blocks changes over the lifetime of the reactor because of thermal expansion and irradiation damage. The existence of the gaps induces a flow bias in the fuel blocks and results in unexpected increase of maximum fuel temperature. Traditionally, simplified methods such as flow network calculations employing experimental correlations are used to estimate flow and temperature distributions in the core design. However, the distribution of temperature in the fuel pins and graphite blocks as well as coolant outlet temperatures are strongly coupled with the local heat generation rate within fuel blocks which is not uniformly distributed in the core. Hence, it is crucial to establish mechanistic based methods which can be applied to the reactor core thermal hydraulic design and safety analysis. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes, which have a capability of local physics based simulation, are widely used in various industrial fields. This study investigates core bypass flow phenomena with the assistance of commercial CFD codes and establishes a baseline for evaluation methods. A one-twelfth sector of the hexagonal block surface is modeled and extruded down to whole core length of 10.704m. The computational domain is divided vertically with an upper reflector, a fuel section and a lower reflector. Each side of the one-twelfth grid can be set as a symmetry boundary

  2. On the joint inversion of geophysical data for models of the coupled core-mantle system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voorhies, Coerte V.

    1991-01-01

    Joint inversion of magnetic, earth rotation, geoid, and seismic data for a unified model of the coupled core-mantle system is proposed and shown to be possible. A sample objective function is offered and simplified by targeting results from independent inversions and summary travel time residuals instead of original observations. These data are parameterized in terms of a very simple, closed model of the topographically coupled core-mantle system. Minimization of the simplified objective function leads to a nonlinear inverse problem; an iterative method for solution is presented. Parameterization and method are emphasized; numerical results are not presented.

  3. A simplified time-dependent recovery model as applied to RCP seal LOCAs

    SciTech Connect

    Kohut, P.; Bozoki, G.; Fitzpatrick, R. )

    1991-01-01

    In Westinghouse-designed reactors, the reactor coolant pump (RCP) seals constantly require a modest amount of cooling. This cooling function depends on the service water (SW) system. Upon the loss of the cooling function due to the unavailability of the SW, component cooling water system or electrical power (station blackout), the RCP seals may degrade, resulting in a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). Recent studies indicate that the frequency of the loss of SW initiating events is higher than previously thought. This change significantly increases the core damage frequency contribution from RCP seal failure. The most critical/dominant element in the loss of SW events was found to be the SW-induced RCP seal failure. For these potential accident scenarios, there are large uncertainties regarding the actual frequency of RCP seal LOCA, the resulting leakage rate, and time-dependent behavior. The roles of various recovery options based on the time evolution of the seal LOCA have been identified and taken into account in recent NUREG-1150 probabilistic risk assessment PRA analyses. In this paper, a consistent time-dependent recovery model is described that takes into account the effects of various recovery actions based on explicit considerations given to a spectrum of time- and flow-rate dependencies. The model represents a simplified approach but is especially useful when extensive seal leak rate and core uncovery information is unavailable.

  4. A simplified model of heat transfer in heat exchangers and stack plates of thermoacoustic refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Cila; Chen, Yuwen

    2006-08-01

    A simplified model of heat transfer was developed to investigate the thermal behavior of heat exchangers and stack plates of thermoacoustic devices. The model took advantage of previous results describing the thermal behavior of the thermoacoustic core and heat transfer in oscillating flow to study the performance of heat exchangers attached to the core. The configuration considered is a flat tube (with a working fluid flowing in the tube) of the thickness of the stack plate attached to both ends of the stack plate. Geometrical and operational parameters as well as thermophysical properties of the heat exchangers, transport fluids in the heat exchangers, stack plate and the thermoacoustic working fluid were organized into dimensionless groups that allowed accounting for their impact on the performance of the heat exchangers. Two types of thermal boundary conditions were considered: constant temperature and constant heat flux along the heat exchanger tubes. Numerical simulations were carried out with the model introduced in the paper. The temperature distributions and heat fluxes near the edge of the stack plate were found to be nonlinear. The influence of system parameters on the thermal performance of the heat exchangers was analyzed.

  5. Simplifying the complexity of resistance heterogeneity in metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Lavi, Orit; Greene, James M.; Levy, Doron; Gottesman, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of treatment regimens for metastasis is to control growth rates, not eradicate all cancer cells. Mathematical models offer methodologies that incorporate high-throughput data with dynamic effects on net growth. The ideal approach would simplify, but not over-simplify, a complex problem into meaningful and manageable estimators that predict a patient’s response to specific treatments. Here, we explore three fundamental approaches with different assumptions concerning resistance mechanisms, in which the cells are categorized into either discrete compartments or described by a continuous range of resistance levels. We argue in favor of modeling resistance as a continuum and demonstrate how integrating cellular growth rates, density-dependent versus exponential growth, and intratumoral heterogeneity improves predictions concerning the resistance heterogeneity of metastases. PMID:24491979

  6. Ureteral Clipping Simplifies Hand-Assisted Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Sajadi, Kamran P.; Wynn, James J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: We describe a technique of doubly clipping the distal ureter during hand-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (HALDN) to prevent urine accumulation, thereby simplifying renal hilar division and potentially decreasing the graft warm ischemic time. Methods: A technique of placing polymer-locking clips across the distal ureter prior to division was developed to prevent urine accumulation and the need for suctioning during critical hilar vessel division. Results: We found that ureteral clipping and the elimination of urine accumulation simplified renal hilar division. Retrospective assessment of a series of 27 sequential HALDNs (15 without and 12 with clipping) demonstrated similar estimated blood loss, total operative and warm ischemic times (P=0.13 to 0.18). No adverse impact on graft viability or recipient outcome was observed. Conclusion: Distal ureter clipping to prevent urine accumulation around the renal hilum during HALDN is safe and helpful. PMID:21605517

  7. Simplified partial digest problem: enumerative and dynamic programming algorithms.

    PubMed

    Blazewicz, Jacek; Burke, Edmund; Kasprzak, Marta; Kovalev, Alexandr; Kovalyov, Mikhail

    2007-01-01

    We study the Simplified Partial Digest Problem (SPDP), which is a mathematical model for a new simplified partial digest method of genome mapping. This method is easy for laboratory implementation and robust with respect to the experimental errors. SPDP is NP-hard in the strong sense. We present an $O(n2;n)$ time enumerative algorithm and an O(n(2q)) time dynamic programming algorithm for the error-free SPDP, where $n$ is the number of restriction sites and n is the number of distinct intersite distances. We also give examples of the problem, in which there are 2(n+2)/(3)-1 non-congruent solutions. These examples partially answer a question recently posed in the literature about the number of solutions of SPDP. We adapt our enumerative algorithm for handling SPDP with imprecise input data. Finally, we describe and discuss the results of the computer experiments with our algorithms.

  8. A SIMPLIFIED APPROACH TO ANALYZE AND MODEL INDUCTIVE VOLTAGE ADDER

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,W.; ENG, W.; PAI, C.; SANDBERG, J.; TAN, Y.; TIAN, Y.

    2007-06-25

    We have recently developed a simplified model and a set of simple formulas for inductive voltage adder design. This model reveals the relationship of output waveform parameters and hardware designs. A computer simulation has demonstrated that parameter estimation based on this approach is accurate as compared to an actual circuit. This approach can be used in early stages of project development to assist feasibility study, geometry selection in engineering design, and parameter selection of critical components. In this paper, we give the deduction of a simplified model. Among the estimation formulas we present are those for pulse rise time, system impedance, and number of stages. Examples are used to illustrate the advantage of this approach. This approach is also applicable to induction LINAC design.

  9. Simplified scheme for entanglement preparation with Rydberg pumping via dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Shi-Lei; Guo, Qi; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

    2015-08-01

    Inspired by recent work [Carr and Saffman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 033607 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.033607], we propose a simplified scheme to prepare the two-atom maximally entangled states via dissipative Rydberg pumping. Compared with the former scheme, the simplified one involves fewer classical laser fields and Rydberg interactions, and the asymmetric Rydberg interactions are avoided. Master equation simulations demonstrate that the fidelity and the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt correlation of the maximally entangled state could reach up to 0.999 and 2.821, respectively, under certain conditions. Furthermore, we extend the physical thoughts to prepare the three-dimensional entangled state, and the numerical simulations show that, in theory, both the fidelity and the negativity of the desired entanglement could be very close to unity under certain conditions.

  10. A simplified hydrocarbon reaction mechanism for combustion applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jachimowski, C. J.

    1985-01-01

    A simplified chemical kinetic reaction mechanism for the combustion of a hydrocarbon fuel is presented and discussed. The observed kinetic behavior of propane combustion as determined in shock tube studies and the calculated kinetic behavior of propane/air mixtures as derived from a detailed propane combustion mechanism were used as a data base for constructing and refining the mechanism. The mechanism contains 13 chemical species and 26 chemical reactions. Numerical studies revealed that the simplified mechanism can reproduce the observed kinetic behavior of propane/air mixtures, including laminar flame speeds, over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. It is anticipated that the mechanism can be used in various combustion applications and provide a more realistic description of the combustion process than can be achieved using global reaction mechanisms.

  11. Methane generation in tropical landfills: simplified methods and field results.

    PubMed

    Machado, Sandro L; Carvalho, Miriam F; Gourc, Jean-Pierre; Vilar, Orencio M; do Nascimento, Julio C F

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the use of simplified methods to predict methane generation in tropical landfills. Methane recovery data obtained on site as part of a research program being carried out at the Metropolitan Landfill, Salvador, Brazil, is analyzed and used to obtain field methane generation over time. Laboratory data from MSW samples of different ages are presented and discussed; and simplified procedures to estimate the methane generation potential, Lo, and the constant related to the biodegradation rate, k are applied. The first order decay method is used to fit field and laboratory results. It is demonstrated that despite the assumptions and the simplicity of the adopted laboratory procedures, the values Lo and k obtained are very close to those measured in the field, thus making this kind of analysis very attractive for first approach purposes.

  12. Interpretation of searches for supersymmetry with simplified models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Aguilo, E.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Mohammadi, A.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Malbouisson, H.; Malek, M.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Anjos, T. S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Mahrous, A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Karjalainen, A.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dalchenko, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Fassi, F.; Mercier, D.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Brochet, S.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Calpas, B.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.; Jussen, R.; Klein, K.; Merz, J.

    2013-09-01

    The results of searches for supersymmetry by the CMS experiment are interpreted in the framework of simplified models. The results are based on data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.73 to 4.98fb-1. The data were collected at the LHC in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. This paper describes the method of interpretation and provides upper limits on the product of the production cross section and branching fraction as a function of new particle masses for a number of simplified models. These limits and the corresponding experimental acceptance calculations can be used to constrain other theoretical models and to compare different supersymmetry-inspired analyses.

  13. Working Mechanism for Flexible Perovskite Solar Cells with Simplified Architecture.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaobao; Chen, Qi; Hong, Ziruo; Zhou, Huanping; Liu, Zonghao; Chang, Wei-Hsuan; Sun, Pengyu; Chen, Huajun; De Marco, Nicholas; Wang, Mingkui; Yang, Yang

    2015-10-14

    In this communication, we report an efficient and flexible perovskite solar cell based on formamidinium lead trihalide (FAPbI3) with simplified configuration. The device achieved a champion efficiency of 12.70%, utilizing direct contact between metallic indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode and perovskite absorber. The underlying working mechanism is proposed subsequently, via a systematic investigation focusing on the heterojunction within this device. A significant charge storage has been observed in the perovskite, which is believed to generate photovoltage and serves as the driving force for charge transferring from the absorber to ITO electrode as well. More importantly, this simplified device structure on flexible substrates suggests its compatibility for scale-up fabrication, which paves the way for commercialization of perovskite photovoltaic technology.

  14. Fiber composite structural durability and damage tolerance: Simplified predictive methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Ginty, Carol A.

    1987-01-01

    Simplified predictive methods and models (theory) to evaluate fiber/polymer-matrix composite material for determining structural durability and damage tolerance are presented and described. This theory includes equations for (1) fatigue and fracture of composites without and with defects, (2) impact resistance and residual strength after impact, (3) thermal fatigue, and (4) combined stress fatigue. Several examples are included to illustrate applications of the theory and to identify significant parameters and sensitivities. Comparisons with limited experimental data are made.

  15. Bond strengths of conventional and simplified bonding systems.

    PubMed

    Wilder, A D; Swift, E J; May, K N; Waddell, S L

    1998-06-01

    To compare the shear bond strengths of composite to dentin using conventional (three-component) and simplified (two-component) adhesive systems. 100 bovine teeth were mounted in phenolic rings and ground to 600-grit to obtain 90 flat facial dentin surfaces and 10 flat facial enamel surfaces. The dentin specimens were assigned to nine treatment groups of 10 teeth each. Three groups were assigned to conventional, three-component bonding systems: All-Bond 2, OptiBond FL, and Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus. Six groups were assigned to simplified, two-component bonding systems: Clearfil Liner Bond 2, Fuji Bond LC, One-Step, OptiBond Solo, Prime & Bond 2.1, and Tenure Quik with Fluoride. The enamel specimens were used as the control group with Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus Adhesive. Each ground surface was first conditioned according to the manufacturers' directions. After rinsing, the surface of each specimen was left visibly moist prior to application of the bonding system. Each bonding system was applied according to its manufacturer's directions. The corresponding composite restorative materials were applied in 4.4 mm diameter molds to the adhesive surface and light-cured from four directions. The completed specimens were stored in water 48 hours before testing. Shear bond strengths were measured using an Instron universal testing machine. Data were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparison test. Mean shear bond strengths of the conventional systems ranged from 16.3 to 20.6 MPa. Mean shear bond strengths of the simplified systems ranged from 14.7 to 17.4 MPa. The mean shear bond strength of the control (enamel bonding) was 21.4 MPa. The mean shear bond strengths of the conventional and simplified systems were not significantly different from each other or from the control system.

  16. Simplified Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) system

    SciTech Connect

    Sweatt, W.C.; Stanton, P.L.; Crump, O.B. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A simplified, rugged VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector) system has been developed using a non-removable delay element and an essentially non-adjustable interferometer cavity. In this system, the critical interference adjustments are performed during fabrication of the cavity, freeing the user from this task. Prototype systems are easy to use and give extremely high quality results. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Towards the next generation of simplified Dark Matter models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Andreas; Bauer, Martin; Brooke, Jim; Buchmueller, Oliver; Cerdeño, David G.; Citron, Matthew; Davies, Gavin; de Cosa, Annapaola; De Roeck, Albert; De Simone, Andrea; Du Pree, Tristan; Flaecher, Henning; Fairbairn, Malcolm; Ellis, John; Grohsjean, Alexander; Hahn, Kristian; Haisch, Ulrich; Harris, Philip C.; Khoze, Valentin V.; Landsberg, Greg; McCabe, Christopher; Penning, Bjoern; Sanz, Veronica; Schwanenberger, Christian; Scott, Pat; Wardle, Nicholas

    2017-06-01

    This White Paper is an input to the ongoing discussion about the extension and refinement of simplified Dark Matter (DM) models. It is not intended as a comprehensive review of the discussed subjects, but instead summarises ideas and concepts arising from a brainstorming workshop that can be useful when defining the next generation of simplified DM models (SDMM). In this spirit, based on two concrete examples, we show how existing SDMM can be extended to provide a more accurate and comprehensive framework to interpret and characterise collider searches. In the first example we extend the canonical SDMM with a scalar mediator to include mixing with the Higgs boson. We show that this approach not only provides a better description of the underlying kinematic properties that a complete model would possess, but also offers the option of using this more realistic class of scalar mixing models to compare and combine consistently searches based on different experimental signatures. The second example outlines how a new physics signal observed in a visible channel can be connected to DM by extending a simplified model including effective couplings. In the next part of the White Paper we outline other interesting options for SDMM that could be studied in more detail in the future. Finally, we review important aspects of supersymmetric models for DM and use them to propose how to develop more complete SDMMs. This White Paper is a summary of the brainstorming meeting ;Next generation of simplified Dark Matter models; that took place at Imperial College, London on May 6, 2016, and corresponding follow-up studies on selected subjects.

  18. A simplified cystic fibrosis scoring system (a preliminary report)

    PubMed Central

    Cooperman, E. M.; Park, M.; McKee, J.; Assad, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    The inherent variability in the natural severity of cystic fibrosis (CF) makes each aspect of therapy of this condition difficult to isolate and to evaluate objectively. There is little hope of resolving the problems which arise as a result until a way of measuring the severity of the disease at any one point in time is devised. We present a simplified CF scoring system (analogous to the Apgar scoring system for the newborn) based on five simple measurements. PMID:5118677

  19. Adjuvant properties of a simplified C32 monomycolyl glycerol analogue.

    PubMed

    Bhowruth, Veemal; Minnikin, David E; Agger, Else Marie; Andersen, Peter; Bramwell, Vincent W; Perrie, Yvonne; Besra, Gurdyal S

    2009-04-01

    A simplified C(32) monomycolyl glycerol (MMG) analogue demonstrated enhanced immunostimulatory activity in a dioctadecyl ammonium bromide (DDA)/Ag85B-ESAT-6 formulation. Elevated levels of IFN-gamma and IL-6 were produced in spleen cells from mice immunised with a C(32) MMG analogue comparable activity to the potent Th1 adjuvant, trehalose 6,6'-di-behenate (TDB).

  20. A simplified table improves the recognition of paediatric hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Charlene K; Theriot, Judith A; Sayat, Jonathan G; Muchant, Dianne G; Franco, Sofia M

    2011-01-01

    Unrecognised and untreated hypertension can lead to significant morbidity and mortality over time. In a 2003 chart review, we found that our providers only recognised 15% of hypertensive blood pressure (BP). Our objective was to determine whether a simplified BP table improves the recognition of elevated BP in children. We developed a simplified BP table for children 3-18 years and posted it in provider work areas beginning August 2006. We reviewed a retrospective sample of well visits for children aged 3-18 years, with equal numbers by sex and year of age, presenting at a university-based paediatric clinic between January and August 2007. Visit notes for all children with elevated BP values ≥ 90th percentile were reviewed to identify whether the provider recognised that the BP was elevated. In 493 well visits, 85 (17.2%) children had pre-hypertensive (90th to < 95th percentile) and 100 (20.3%) had hypertensive (≥ 95th percentile) BP values. Providers recognised elevations in 34 (40%) pre-hypertensive and 77 (77%) hypertensive measurements. Recognition was significantly more common for those in the hypertensive than the pre-hypertensive range (χ² = 24.9, degrees of freedom= 1, P < 0.001). Compared with our 2003 data, recognition of hypertensive BP values was significantly greater (77% vs. 15%) (t = 14.479, degrees of freedom = 98, P <0.001) after introduction of the simplified BP table. Use of a simplified BP table can lead to significantly improved recognition of elevated BP in children. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2010 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  1. Window preparation for sinus lift procedures: a simplified technique.

    PubMed

    Romanos, George E

    2008-12-01

    A simplified technique for preparation of the window and elevation of the sinus membrane using conventional instruments is described for the practitioner to prepare the Schneiderian membrane without perforations in an easy and time efficient method. The clinician uses a combination of a mallet and a mirror holder to break the buccal aspect of the maxillary sinus border after a small osteotomy has been made. This is a complication-free procedure.

  2. The Equality Bill - simplifying and strengthening anti-discrimination.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

    2010-04-01

    Last month Richard Griffith and Cassam Tengnah considered how current discrimination law affects district nurse practice. This month they outline the proposals in the Equality Bill, which is being introduced to simplify and extend discrimination law to include socioeconomic factors, discrimination by association and dual discrimination. Significantly for district nurses and the NHS, it will extend discrimination related to age to include the provision of goods and services, such as health care.

  3. Surgical site infection after cardiac surgery: a simplified surveillance method.

    PubMed

    Lucet, Jean-Christophe

    2006-12-01

    We report the results of a 2-year, 7-center program of surveillance of deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) after cardiac surgery. DSWI was defined as the need for reoperation. Stratification data were abstracted from computerized files. The incidence of DSWI was 2.2% (198 of 8,816 cardiac surgery procedures). The risk factors identified were obesity, age, coronary artery bypass grafting, postoperative mechanical ventilation, and early surgical reexploration. The resource efficiency of this simplified surveillance method is discussed.

  4. A simplified model of aerosol removal by containment sprays

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, D.A. ); Burson, S.B. . Div. of Safety Issue Resolution)

    1993-06-01

    Spray systems in nuclear reactor containments are described. The scrubbing of aerosols from containment atmospheres by spray droplets is discussed. Uncertainties are identified in the prediction of spray performance when the sprays are used as a means for decontaminating containment atmospheres. A mechanistic model based on current knowledge of the physical phenomena involved in spray performance is developed. With this model, a quantitative uncertainty analysis of spray performance is conducted using a Monte Carlo method to sample 20 uncertain quantities related to phenomena of spray droplet behavior as well as the initial and boundary conditions expected to be associated with severe reactor accidents. Results of the uncertainty analysis are used to construct simplified expressions for spray decontamination coefficients. Two variables that affect aerosol capture by water droplets are not treated as uncertain; they are (1) [open quote]Q[close quote], spray water flux into the containment, and (2) [open quote]H[close quote], the total fall distance of spray droplets. The choice of values of these variables is left to the user since they are plant and accident specific. Also, they can usually be ascertained with some degree of certainty. The spray decontamination coefficients are found to be sufficiently dependent on the extent of decontamination that the fraction of the initial aerosol remaining in the atmosphere, m[sub f], is explicitly treated in the simplified expressions. The simplified expressions for the spray decontamination coefficient are given. Parametric values for these expressions are found for median, 10 percentile, and 90 percentile values in the uncertainty distribution for the spray decontamination coefficient. Examples are given to illustrate the utility of the simplified expressions to predict spray decontamination of an aerosol-laden atmosphere.

  5. Velocity profiles in a hot jet by simplified RELIEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Raman Excitation + Laser Induced Electronic Fluorescence (RELIEF) is a double resonance velocimetry technique in which oxygen molecules are vibrationally excited via stimulated Raman scattering at a specific location within a flow field. After suitable time delay, typically 1-10 microseconds, the displacement of the tagged molecules is determined by laser induced fluorescence imaging. Providing support for the installation of simplified RELIEF flow tagging instrumentation at NASA LaRC was the principal goal of this research.

  6. Analysis of a simplified treatment for stuttering in children.

    PubMed Central

    Wagaman, J R; Miltenberger, R G; Arndorfer, R E

    1993-01-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of a simplified program for the treatment of stuttering in children. The simplified treatment included awareness training, in which the subjects learned to detect every occurrence of stuttering; training a response incompatible with stuttering, which involved relaxation and regulation of air flow over the larynx when speaking; and social support, which involved parent-delivered prompts and praise of children's use of the techniques in everyday environments. Eight children were treated in their homes with the simplified treatment, in a multiple baseline across subjects design, and all reached the criterion level of less than 3% words stuttered. In addition, the reduction in stuttering generalized to the school setting and was maintained at posttreatment (10 to 13 months). The subjects' rates of speech remained stable throughout baseline and treatment. Pretreatment and posttreatment ratings by the parents showed that they found treatment to be both acceptable and credible. Finally, social validity measures revealed a noticeable improvement in the subjects' speech to parents and speech pathologists. PMID:8473258

  7. Documenting resident procedure and diagnostic experience: simplifying the process.

    PubMed

    Baldor, R A; Broadhurst, J

    1997-10-01

    The Residency Review Committee (RRC) requires documentation of family practice residents' procedural and diagnostic experiences. Further, hospital privileging is frequently based on documentation of prior clinical experience. Residency programs need a user-friendly (ie, resident-friendly) mechanism for collecting data and generating reports to document these experiences. This paper outlines a simplified, user-friendly method of documenting resident procedural and diagnostic experiences. We developed a pocket-sized, optically scannable card for data input. This is coupled with a computerized database with report generation capability. The system is based on diagnostic clusters to further simplify the data input process. The system's setup costs are about $10,000. Annual maintenance and operational fees are about $5,000. After instituting the system, the number of residents submitting documentation information increased substantially. This system meets both RRC and potential clinical privileging requirements and provides a useful tool for guiding resident evaluation and developing appropriate training opportunities during the latter half of the residency. Simplified, accurate documentation may allow for comparisons among residents at various levels--program, state, and national.

  8. Simplified tornado depressurization design methods for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, N.M.; Krasnopoler, M.I.

    1983-05-01

    A simplified approach for the calculation of tornado depressurization effects on nuclear power plant structures and components is based on a generic computer depressurization analysis for an arbitrary single volume V connected to the atmosphere by an effective vent area A. For a given tornado depressurization transient, the maximum depressurization ..delta..P of the volume was found to depend on the parameter V/A. The relation between ..delta..P and V/A can be represented by a single monotonically increasing curve for each of the three design-basis tornadoes described in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guide 1.76. These curves can be applied to most multiple-volume nuclear power plant structures by considering each volume and its controlling vent area. Where several possible flow areas could be controlling, the maximum value of V/A can be used to estimate a conservative value for ..delta..P. This simplified approach was shown to yield reasonably conservative results when compared to detailed computer calculations of moderately complex geometries. Treatment of severely complicated geometries, heating and ventilation systems, and multiple blowout panel arrangements were found to be beyond the limitations of the simplified analysis.

  9. Coring Sample Acquisition Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, Nicolas E.; Murray, Saben D.; Walkemeyer, Phillip E.; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Kriechbaum, Kristopher L.; Richardson, Megan; Klein, Kerry J.

    2012-01-01

    A sample acquisition tool (SAT) has been developed that can be used autonomously to sample drill and capture rock cores. The tool is designed to accommodate core transfer using a sample tube to the IMSAH (integrated Mars sample acquisition and handling) SHEC (sample handling, encapsulation, and containerization) without ever touching the pristine core sample in the transfer process.

  10. Toroidal converter core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1977-01-01

    Improved approach consists of cut and uncut cores nested in concentric configuration. Cores are made by winding steel ribbon on mandrel and impregnating with epoxy to bond layers together. Gap is made by cutting across wound and bonded core. Rough ends are ground or lapped.

  11. Core Competence and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Gary; Hooper, Nick

    2000-01-01

    Outlines the concept of core competence and applies it to postcompulsory education in the United Kingdom. Adopts an educational perspective that suggests accreditation as the core competence of universities. This economic approach suggests that the market trend toward lifetime learning might best be met by institutions developing a core competence…

  12. Banded transformer cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W. T. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A banded transformer core formed by positioning a pair of mated, similar core halves on a supporting pedestal. The core halves are encircled with a strap, selectively applying tension whereby a compressive force is applied to the core edge for reducing the innate air gap. A dc magnetic field is employed in supporting the core halves during initial phases of the banding operation, while an ac magnetic field subsequently is employed for detecting dimension changes occurring in the air gaps as tension is applied to the strap.

  13. 76 FR 14437 - Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor Standard Design: GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; Issuance of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor Standard Design: GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; Issuance of... GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy (GEH) for the economic simplified boiling water reactor (ESBWR)...

  14. HYDRATE CORE DRILLING TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Cohen; Thomas E. Williams; Ali G. Kadaster; Bill V. Liddell

    2002-11-01

    The ''Methane Hydrate Production from Alaskan Permafrost'' project is a three-year endeavor being conducted by Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI), Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The project's goal is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. The project team plans to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope includes drilling and coring one well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 during the winter drilling season. A specially built on-site core analysis laboratory will be used to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. Prior to going to the field, the project team designed and conducted a controlled series of coring tests for simulating coring of hydrate formations. A variety of equipment and procedures were tested and modified to develop a practical solution for this special application. This Topical Report summarizes these coring tests. A special facility was designed and installed at MTI's Drilling Research Center (DRC) in Houston and used to conduct coring tests. Equipment and procedures were tested by cutting cores from frozen mixtures of sand and water supported by casing and designed to simulate hydrate formations. Tests were conducted with chilled drilling fluids. Tests showed that frozen core can be washed out and reduced in size by the action of the drilling fluid. Washing of the core by the drilling fluid caused a reduction in core diameter, making core recovery very difficult (if not impossible). One successful solution was to drill the last 6 inches of core dry (without fluid circulation). These tests demonstrated that it will be difficult to capture core when drilling in permafrost or hydrates without implementing certain safeguards. Among the coring tests was a simulated hydrate formation comprised of coarse, large

  15. 23. CORE WORKER OPERATING A COREBLOWER THAT PNEUMATICALLY FILLED CORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. CORE WORKER OPERATING A CORE-BLOWER THAT PNEUMATICALLY FILLED CORE BOXES WITH RESIGN IMPREGNATED SAND AND CREATED A CORE THAT THEN REQUIRED BAKING, CA. 1950. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  16. Core-Cutoff Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gheen, Darrell

    2007-01-01

    A tool makes a cut perpendicular to the cylindrical axis of a core hole at a predetermined depth to free the core at that depth. The tool does not damage the surrounding material from which the core was cut, and it operates within the core-hole kerf. Coring usually begins with use of a hole saw or a hollow cylindrical abrasive cutting tool to make an annular hole that leaves the core (sometimes called the plug ) in place. In this approach to coring as practiced heretofore, the core is removed forcibly in a manner chosen to shear the core, preferably at or near the greatest depth of the core hole. Unfortunately, such forcible removal often damages both the core and the surrounding material (see Figure 1). In an alternative prior approach, especially applicable to toxic or fragile material, a core is formed and freed by means of milling operations that generate much material waste. In contrast, the present tool eliminates the damage associated with the hole-saw approach and reduces the extent of milling operations (and, hence, reduces the waste) associated with the milling approach. The present tool (see Figure 2) includes an inner sleeve and an outer sleeve and resembles the hollow cylindrical tool used to cut the core hole. The sleeves are thin enough that this tool fits within the kerf of the core hole. The inner sleeve is attached to a shaft that, in turn, can be attached to a drill motor or handle for turning the tool. This tool also includes a cutting wire attached to the distal ends of both sleeves. The cutting wire is long enough that with sufficient relative rotation of the inner and outer sleeves, the wire can cut all the way to the center of the core. The tool is inserted in the kerf until its distal end is seated at the full depth. The inner sleeve is then turned. During turning, frictional drag on the outer core pulls the cutting wire into contact with the core. The cutting force of the wire against the core increases with the tension in the wire and

  17. 75 FR 71376 - Simplified Network Application Processing System, On-Line Registration and Account Maintenance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Part 748 RIN 0694-AE98 Simplified Network Application Processing... and CIV (herein ``work items'') electronically via BIS's Simplified Network Application Processing... from BIS. BIS implemented a revised version of its Simplified Network Applications Processing System...

  18. 76 FR 82315 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Entry/Immediate Delivery Application and Simplified Entry

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

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  19. A Simplified Model of Choice Behavior under Uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-Hung; Lin, Yu-Kai; Song, Tzu-Jiun; Huang, Jong-Tsun; Chiu, Yao-Chu

    2016-01-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) has been standardized as a clinical assessment tool (Bechara, 2007). Nonetheless, numerous research groups have attempted to modify IGT models to optimize parameters for predicting the choice behavior of normal controls and patients. A decade ago, most researchers considered the expected utility (EU) model (Busemeyer and Stout, 2002) to be the optimal model for predicting choice behavior under uncertainty. However, in recent years, studies have demonstrated that models with the prospect utility (PU) function are more effective than the EU models in the IGT (Ahn et al., 2008). Nevertheless, after some preliminary tests based on our behavioral dataset and modeling, it was determined that the Ahn et al. (2008) PU model is not optimal due to some incompatible results. This study aims to modify the Ahn et al. (2008) PU model to a simplified model and used the IGT performance of 145 subjects as the benchmark data for comparison. In our simplified PU model, the best goodness-of-fit was found mostly as the value of α approached zero. More specifically, we retested the key parameters α, λ, and A in the PU model. Notably, the influence of the parameters α, λ, and A has a hierarchical power structure in terms of manipulating the goodness-of-fit in the PU model. Additionally, we found that the parameters λ and A may be ineffective when the parameter α is close to zero in the PU model. The present simplified model demonstrated that decision makers mostly adopted the strategy of gain-stay loss-shift rather than foreseeing the long-term outcome. However, there are other behavioral variables that are not well revealed under these dynamic-uncertainty situations. Therefore, the optimal behavioral models may not have been found yet. In short, the best model for predicting choice behavior under dynamic-uncertainty situations should be further evaluated. PMID:27582715

  20. A Simplified Model of Choice Behavior under Uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Hung; Lin, Yu-Kai; Song, Tzu-Jiun; Huang, Jong-Tsun; Chiu, Yao-Chu

    2016-01-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) has been standardized as a clinical assessment tool (Bechara, 2007). Nonetheless, numerous research groups have attempted to modify IGT models to optimize parameters for predicting the choice behavior of normal controls and patients. A decade ago, most researchers considered the expected utility (EU) model (Busemeyer and Stout, 2002) to be the optimal model for predicting choice behavior under uncertainty. However, in recent years, studies have demonstrated that models with the prospect utility (PU) function are more effective than the EU models in the IGT (Ahn et al., 2008). Nevertheless, after some preliminary tests based on our behavioral dataset and modeling, it was determined that the Ahn et al. (2008) PU model is not optimal due to some incompatible results. This study aims to modify the Ahn et al. (2008) PU model to a simplified model and used the IGT performance of 145 subjects as the benchmark data for comparison. In our simplified PU model, the best goodness-of-fit was found mostly as the value of α approached zero. More specifically, we retested the key parameters α, λ, and A in the PU model. Notably, the influence of the parameters α, λ, and A has a hierarchical power structure in terms of manipulating the goodness-of-fit in the PU model. Additionally, we found that the parameters λ and A may be ineffective when the parameter α is close to zero in the PU model. The present simplified model demonstrated that decision makers mostly adopted the strategy of gain-stay loss-shift rather than foreseeing the long-term outcome. However, there are other behavioral variables that are not well revealed under these dynamic-uncertainty situations. Therefore, the optimal behavioral models may not have been found yet. In short, the best model for predicting choice behavior under dynamic-uncertainty situations should be further evaluated.

  1. Model complexity and performance: How far can we simplify?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raick, C.; Soetaert, K.; Grégoire, M.

    2006-07-01

    Handling model complexity and reliability is a key area of research today. While complex models containing sufficient detail have become possible due to increased computing power, they often lead to too much uncertainty. On the other hand, very simple models often crudely oversimplify the real ecosystem and can not be used for management purposes. Starting from a complex and validated 1D pelagic ecosystem model of the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean Sea), we derived simplified aggregated models in which either the unbalanced algal growth, the functional group diversity or the explicit description of the microbial loop was sacrificed. To overcome the problem of data availability with adequate spatial and temporal resolution, the outputs of the complex model are used as the baseline of perfect knowledge to calibrate the simplified models. Objective criteria of model performance were used to compare the simplified models’ results to the complex model output and to the available data at the DYFAMED station in the central Ligurian Sea. We show that even the simplest (NPZD) model is able to represent the global ecosystem features described by the complex model (e.g. primary and secondary productions, particulate organic matter export flux, etc.). However, a certain degree of sophistication in the formulation of some biogeochemical processes is required to produce realistic behaviors (e.g. the phytoplankton competition, the potential carbon or nitrogen limitation of the zooplankton ingestion, the model trophic closure, etc.). In general, a 9 state-variable model that has the functional group diversity removed, but which retains the bacterial loop and the unbalanced algal growth, performs best.

  2. Use of albedo for neutron reflector regions in reactor core 3-D simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanakrishnan, P.

    1989-10-01

    In this paper we present two new simplified schemes for the application of the albedo concept of replacing the reflector in 3-D reactor core simulations. Both involve the numerical derivation of albedoes from the fluxes at the core- (blanket-) reflector interface obtained from sample calculations including the reflector. Diffusion theory is used for core calculations in both cases. In the first scheme a new method for "diagonalising" the albedo matrix is demonstrated. This achieves easy applicability of the albedo parameters in core simulations of a fast breeder reactor core, resulting in significant savings in computing efforts. The second scheme, applied to light water reactors, achieves better accuracy in core periphery power predictions with the use of only uniform coarse meshes throughout the core and the numerically derived albedoes.

  3. Simplified subsurface modelling: data assimilation and violated model assumptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdal, Daniel; Lange, Natascha; Neuweiler, Insa

    2017-04-01

    Integrated models are gaining more and more attention in hydrological modelling as they can better represent the interaction between different compartments. Naturally, these models come along with larger numbers of unknowns and requirements on computational resources compared to stand-alone models. If large model domains are to be represented, e.g. on catchment scale, the resolution of the numerical grid needs to be reduced or the model itself needs to be simplified. Both approaches lead to a reduced ability to reproduce the present processes. This lack of model accuracy may be compensated by using data assimilation methods. In these methods observations are used to update the model states, and optionally model parameters as well, in order to reduce the model error induced by the imposed simplifications. What is unclear is whether these methods combined with strongly simplified models result in completely data-driven models or if they can even be used to make adequate predictions of the model state for times when no observations are available. In the current work we consider the combined groundwater and unsaturated zone, which can be modelled in a physically consistent way using 3D-models solving the Richards equation. For use in simple predictions, however, simpler approaches may be considered. The question investigated here is whether a simpler model, in which the groundwater is modelled as a horizontal 2D-model and the unsaturated zones as a few sparse 1D-columns, can be used within an Ensemble Kalman filter to give predictions of groundwater levels and unsaturated fluxes. This is tested under conditions where the feedback between the two model-compartments are large (e.g. shallow groundwater table) and the simplification assumptions are clearly violated. Such a case may be a steep hill-slope or pumping wells, creating lateral fluxes in the unsaturated zone, or strong heterogeneous structures creating unaccounted flows in both the saturated and unsaturated

  4. The occlusal guard: a simplified technique for fabrication and equilibration.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, John; Hottel, Timothy L; Siegel, Sharon C; Brandt, Robert; Silva, Gladston

    2013-01-01

    Hard occlusal guards have been used effectively to treat myofacial pain originating from parafunctional activities. Also, they can protect the natural dentition when it opposes porcelain restorations, help to evaluate changes in occlusal vertical dimension during full mouth rehabilitation, minimize further tooth loss in patients with abfraction lesions, and redirect occlusal loads more favorably onto dental implant-supported prostheses. A simplified technique is described to fabricate a properly designed wax model of an occlusal guard that can be processed in acrylic in the same manner used to construct a complete denture.

  5. Technology Solutions Case Study: Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    L. Brand, D. Cautley, D. Bohac, P. Francisco, L. Shen, and S. Gloss

    2015-12-01

    Combustions safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives.

  6. A simplified biosphere model for global climate studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue, Y.; Sellers, P. J.; Kinter, J. L.; Shukla, J.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the simple biosphere model (SIB) of Sellers et al. (1986) is performed in an effort to bridge the gap between the typical hydrological treatment of the land surface biosphere and the conventional general circulation model treatment, which is specified through a single parameter. Approximations are developed that stimulate the effects of reduced soil moisture more simply, maintaining the essence of the biophysical concepts utilized in SIB. Comparing the reduced parameter biosphere with those from the original formulation in a GCM and a zero-dimensional model shows the simplified version to reproduce the original results quite closely.

  7. A simplified model of the modified Hadley circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Edwin K.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, a simplified model of modified Hadley circulation that is amenable to analysis is developed to find the low-latitude upper-tropospheric circulation which would exist in the absence of transient eddies. The model is developed as a perturbation of the ideal Hadley circulation solution due to zonally assymmetric thermal forcing and is solved semianalytically. The modified Hadley circulation, found using forcing derived from observed outgoing long-wave radiation, exhibits some similarities to observed features of the tropical and subtropical time-mean upper-tropospheric flow, particularly with regard to the velocity potential.

  8. Simplifying trauma airway management in South African rural hospitals.

    PubMed

    Berry, Michael; Wood, Darryl

    2014-05-14

    South African emergency centres witness high levels of trauma. Successfully managing a compromised trauma airway requires considerable skill and expertise. In the rural healthcare setting, clinics and hospitals are often staffed by junior doctors without formal advanced airway training. Current airway management algorithms tend to ignore lack of resources and skill. We therefore propose a simplified guideline for the rural hospital practitioner. Our algorithm offers a step-by-step approach, with the aim of providing an easy sequence to follow that will ensure successful airway management and patient safety. The lack of advanced airway equipment in most rural hospitals is taken into consideration.

  9. Simplified design procedures for fiber composite structural components/joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, P. L. N.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1990-01-01

    Simplified step-by-step design procedures are summarized, which are suitable for the preliminary design of composite structural components such as panels (laminates) and composite built-up structures (box beams). Similar procedures are also summarized for the preliminary design of composite bolted and adhesively bonded joints. The summary is presented in terms of sample design cases complemented with typical results. Guidelines are provided which can be used in the design selection process of composite structural components/joints. Also, procedures to account for cyclic loads, hygrothermal effects and lamination residual stresses are included.

  10. A simplified analytic form for generation of axisymmetric plasma boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luce, T. C.

    2017-04-01

    An improved method has been formulated for generating analytic boundary shapes as input for axisymmetric MHD equilibria. This method uses the family of superellipses as the basis function, as previously introduced. The improvements are a simplified notation, reduction of the number of simultaneous nonlinear equations to be solved, and the realization that not all combinations of input parameters admit a solution to the nonlinear constraint equations. The method tests for the existence of a self-consistent solution and, when no solution exists, it uses a deterministic method to find a nearby solution. Examples of generation of boundaries, including tests with an equilibrium solver, are given.

  11. A simplified approach to calibrating [sup 14]C dates

    SciTech Connect

    Talma, A.S.; Vogel, J.C. )

    1993-01-01

    The authors propose a simplified approach to the calibration of radiocarbon dates. They use splines through the tree-ring data as calibration curves, thereby eliminating a large part of the statistical scatter of the actual data points. To express the age range, they transform the [plus minus]1 [sigma] and [plus minus]2 [sigma] values of the BP age to calendar dates and interpret them as the 68% and 95% confidence intervals. This approach by-passes the conceptual problems of the transfer of individual probability values from the radiocarbon to the calendar age. They have adapted software to make this calibration possible.

  12. A simplified In Situ cosmogenic 14C extraction system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pigati, J.S.; Lifton, N.A.; Timothy, Jull A.J.; Quade, Jay

    2010-01-01

    We describe the design, construction, and testing of a new, simplified in situ radiocarbon extraction system at the University of Arizona. Blank levels for the new system are low ((234 ?? 11) ?? 103 atoms (1 ??; n = 7)) and stable. The precision of a given measurement depends on the concentration of 14C, but is typically <5% for concentrations of 100 ?? 103 atoms g-1 or more. The new system is relatively small and easy to construct, costs significantly less than the original in situ 14C extraction system at Arizona, and lends itself to future automation. ?? 2010 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona.

  13. Simplified numerical study of evaporation processes inside vertical tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocłoń, Paweł; Nowak, Marzena; Łopata, Stanisław

    2014-04-01

    The paper presents a simplified numerical model of evaporation processes inside vertical tubes. In this model only the temperature fields in the fluid domain (the liquid or two-phase mixture) and solid domain (a tube wall) are determined. Therefore its performance and efficiency is high. The analytical formulas, which allow calculating the pressure drop and the distribution of heat transfer coefficient along the tube length, are used in this model. The energy equation for the fluid domain is solved with the Control Volume Method and for the solid domain with the Finite Element Method in order to determine the temperature field for the fluid and solid domains.

  14. A simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, Corinne P; Bauman, Joan E; Hahn, D Caldwell

    2009-03-01

    Female birds deposit significant amounts of steroid hormones into the yolks of their eggs. Studies have demonstrated that these hormones, particularly androgens, affect nestling growth and development. In order to measure androgen concentrations in avian egg yolks, most authors follow the extraction methods outlined by Schwabl (1993. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 90:11446-11450). We describe a simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks. Our method, which has been validated through recovery and linearity experiments, consists of a single ethanol precipitation that produces substantially higher recoveries than those reported by Schwabl (1993. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 90:11446-11450). Zoo Biol 28:137-143, 2009.

  15. Simulation and simplified design of photovoltaic power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, D. L.; Facinelli, W. A.; Koehler, L. P.

    Results of TRNSYS simulations of photovoltaic systems with and without battery storage are described. The systems have south facing, flat arrays that are max-power tracked and have one day or less of storage. Studies of the sensitivity of system performance, in terms of the fraction of the electrical load supplied by the solar energy system, to variables such as array size, battery size, location, time of year, and load shape are reported. A simplified method for calculating system performance is described and examples of its accuracy are presented.

  16. Parameter adaptation in a simplified pulse-coupled neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szekely, Geza; Lindblad, Thomas

    1999-03-01

    In a general purpose pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) algorithm the following parameters are used: 2 weight matrices, 3 time constants, 3 normalization factors and 2 further parameters. In a given application, one has to determine the near optimal parameter set to achieve the desired goal. Here a simplified PCNN is described which contains a parameter fitting part, in the least squares sense. Given input and a desired output image, the program is able to determine the optimal value of a selected PCNN parameter. This method can be extended to more general PCNN algorithms, because partial derivatives are not required for the fitting. Only the sum of squares of the differences is used.

  17. A simplified biosphere model for global climate studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue, Y.; Sellers, P. J.; Kinter, J. L.; Shukla, J.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the simple biosphere model (SIB) of Sellers et al. (1986) is performed in an effort to bridge the gap between the typical hydrological treatment of the land surface biosphere and the conventional general circulation model treatment, which is specified through a single parameter. Approximations are developed that stimulate the effects of reduced soil moisture more simply, maintaining the essence of the biophysical concepts utilized in SIB. Comparing the reduced parameter biosphere with those from the original formulation in a GCM and a zero-dimensional model shows the simplified version to reproduce the original results quite closely.

  18. A VLSI architecture for simplified arithmetic Fourier transform algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Irving S.; Shih, Ming-Tang; Truong, T. K.; Hendon, E.; Tufts, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    The arithmetic Fourier transform (AFT) is a number-theoretic approach to Fourier analysis which has been shown to perform competitively with the classical FFT in terms of accuracy, complexity, and speed. Theorems developed in a previous paper for the AFT algorithm are used here to derive the original AFT algorithm which Bruns found in 1903. This is shown to yield an algorithm of less complexity and of improved performance over certain recent AFT algorithms. A VLSI architecture is suggested for this simplified AFT algorithm. This architecture uses a butterfly structure which reduces the number of additions by 25 percent of that used in the direct method.

  19. A simplified estimate of seismic soil strain for lifeline systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kamiyama, Makoto; O`Rourke, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    A simplified method for estimating seismic soil strains is presented. It is based on a semi-empirical attenuation law for peak ground velocity as well as on the theory of one dimensional wave propagation. The method requires information on the earthquake magnitude, epicentral distance, focal depth and the N-value distribution for the soil profile in question. The soil strains predicted by the method are compared with observed soil strains from three observation sites in Japan. It is shown that the predicted strains agree reasonably well with observed values. In areas away from ground failure such as liquefaction, the seismic behavior of buried pipelines is closely related to soil strains.

  20. A simplified correlation technique for position location using earth satellites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, S. C.; Davies, W. D. T.

    1972-01-01

    To derive range to a moving vehicle for surveillance and navigation purposes, the phase delays in sets of sinusoidal tones may be measured using synchronous satellites for signal relay. When the number of users is large, problems of rapid acquisition and measurement occur in multiple-access systems. This paper describes the selection and processing of an orthogonal tone set which has several useful features. The paper also presents a simulation of a simplified digital technique for the noise-free case, as well as for a composite signal buried in wideband noise. The digital simulation is also modified to include the proposed 'hard limiting' or clipping technique.

  1. Simplified quantum bit commitment using single photon nonlocality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guang Ping

    2014-10-01

    We simplified our previously proposed quantum bit commitment (QBC) protocol based on the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, by replacing symmetric beam splitters with asymmetric ones. It eliminates the need for random sending time of the photons; thus, the feasibility and efficiency are both improved. The protocol is immune to the cheating strategy in the Mayers-Lo-Chau no-go theorem of unconditionally secure QBC, because the density matrices of the committed states do not satisfy a crucial condition on which the no-go theorem holds.

  2. A VLSI architecture for simplified arithmetic Fourier transform algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Irving S.; Shih, Ming-Tang; Truong, T. K.; Hendon, E.; Tufts, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    The arithmetic Fourier transform (AFT) is a number-theoretic approach to Fourier analysis which has been shown to perform competitively with the classical FFT in terms of accuracy, complexity, and speed. Theorems developed in a previous paper for the AFT algorithm are used here to derive the original AFT algorithm which Bruns found in 1903. This is shown to yield an algorithm of less complexity and of improved performance over certain recent AFT algorithms. A VLSI architecture is suggested for this simplified AFT algorithm. This architecture uses a butterfly structure which reduces the number of additions by 25 percent of that used in the direct method.

  3. Simplified simulation models for control studies of turbojet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, T. C.; Leake, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The essential dynamical characteristics of a simple single spool turbojet engine were determined through simulation of low order system models on an analog computer. An accurate model was studied and system complexity was reduced through various linearizations and approximations. A derivation of a seventh order simplified simulation model is presented with a derivation of an even simpler third order model, and simulation results from each. The control problem studied is one of getting from zero fuel flow equilibrium to a high thrust equilibrium while taking into account surge margin and turbine inlet temperature constraints.

  4. A simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozlowski, C.P.; Bauman, J.E.; Hahn, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    Female birds deposit significant amounts of steroid hormones into the yolks of their eggs. Studies have demonstrated that these hormones, particularly androgens, affect nestling growth and development. In order to measure androgen concentrations in avian egg yolks, most authors follow the extraction methods outlined by Schwabl (1993. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 90:11446-11450). We describe a simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks. Our method, which has been validated through recovery and linearity experiments, consists of a single ethanol precipitation that produces substantially higher recoveries than those reported by Schwabl.

  5. Simplified method of switching management for matrix converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazet, L.; Huselstein, J.-J.; Glaize, C.

    2001-10-01

    This paper presents a new method of switching management for four quadrant switches (FQS) of matrix converters. By discriminating the FQS command orders, it is possible to lay down the FQS configuration (transistor or diode). The presented method uses the load current sign and zero closeness information to ensure good sequencing of command orders. By using Mealy state machines, we simplify the existing state diagrams for any phase number switching cell. The successful results on a three-phase switching cell, without oversized power circuit, validate this new state diagram structure.

  6. Simplified fatigue life analysis for traction drive contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohn, D. A.; Loewenthal, S. H.; Coy, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    A simplified fatigue life analysis for traction drive contacts of arbitrary geometry is presented. The analysis is based on the Lundberg-Palmgren theory used for rolling-element bearings. The effects of torque, element size, speed, contact ellipse ratio, and the influence of traction coefficient are shown. The analysis shows that within the limits of the available traction coefficient, traction contacts exhibit longest life at high speeds. Multiple, load-sharing roller arrangements have an advantageous effect on system life, torque capacity, power-to-weight ratio and size.

  7. Simplified aerodynamic analysis of the cyclogiro rotating wing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheatley, John B

    1930-01-01

    A simplified aerodynamic theory of the cyclogiro rotating wing is presented herein. In addition, examples have been calculated showing the effect on the rotor characteristics of varying the design parameters of the rotor. A performance prediction, on the basis of the theory here developed, is appended, showing the performance to be expected of a machine employing this system of sustentation. The aerodynamic principles of the cyclogiro are sound; hovering flight, vertical climb, and a reasonable forward speed may be obtained with a normal expenditure of power. Auto rotation in a gliding descent is available in the event of a power-plant failure.

  8. A simplified marking technique for eyebrow reconstruction using composite grafts.

    PubMed

    Nieto, José; Gladstone, Geoffrey J

    2010-08-01

    Eyebrows can be damaged in facial burns, trauma, skin cancer, herpes zoster and other conditions. Some of these patients will demand eyebrow reconstruction surgery. This can be done using free composite grafts from the scalp or flaps from the temporal area. Both techniques require time-consuming planning, marking and shaping of the graft or flap in order to achieve a good cosmetic result. In an attempt to make free graft reconstructions faster and easier, we modified the technique. We describe an easy way of obtaining a template that simplifies the procedure and enhances symmetry.

  9. Description of an exact, recursive method to simplify shading calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawrocki, A. D.; Kammerud, R.

    An exact, recursive method called SHADE is described which attempts to simplify shading calculations as performed by a programmable calculator or microcomputer. Preliminary applications of SHADE using a Hewlett Packard HP-41C programmable calculator are outlined. For a given solar hour, SHADE is used to compute the following quantities for overhang and side fin combinations which shade various openings: the percentage of the total area of the opening which is shaded; the shaded area itself; the cosine of the angle of incidence between the Sun and glazing surface; the direct insolation at this surface, with and without shading; and the direct solar power at this surface, with and without shading.

  10. Core sample extractor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akins, James; Cobb, Billy; Hart, Steve; Leaptrotte, Jeff; Milhollin, James; Pernik, Mark

    1989-01-01

    The problem of retrieving and storing core samples from a hole drilled on the lunar surface is addressed. The total depth of the hole in question is 50 meters with a maximum diameter of 100 millimeters. The core sample itself has a diameter of 60 millimeters and will be two meters in length. It is therefore necessary to retrieve and store 25 core samples per hole. The design utilizes a control system that will stop the mechanism at a certain depth, a cam-linkage system that will fracture the core, and a storage system that will save and catalogue the cores to be extracted. The Rod Changer and Storage Design Group will provide the necessary tooling to get into the hole as well as to the core. The mechanical design for the cam-linkage system as well as the conceptual design of the storage device are described.

  11. The core paradox.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, G. C.; Higgins, G. H.

    1973-01-01

    Rebuttal of suggestions from various critics attempting to provide an escape from the seeming paradox originated by Higgins and Kennedy's (1971) proposed possibility that the liquid in the outer core was thermally stably stratified and that this stratification might prove a powerful inhibitor to circulation of the outer core fluid of the kind postulated for the generation of the earth's magnetic field. These suggestions are examined and shown to provide no reasonable escape from the core paradox.

  12. The core paradox.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, G. C.; Higgins, G. H.

    1973-01-01

    Rebuttal of suggestions from various critics attempting to provide an escape from the seeming paradox originated by Higgins and Kennedy's (1971) proposed possibility that the liquid in the outer core was thermally stably stratified and that this stratification might prove a powerful inhibitor to circulation of the outer core fluid of the kind postulated for the generation of the earth's magnetic field. These suggestions are examined and shown to provide no reasonable escape from the core paradox.

  13. Core Research Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hicks, Joshua; Adrian, Betty

    2009-01-01

    The Core Research Center (CRC) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), located at the Denver Federal Center in Lakewood, Colo., currently houses rock core from more than 8,500 boreholes representing about 1.7 million feet of rock core from 35 States and cuttings from 54,000 boreholes representing 238 million feet of drilling in 28 States. Although most of the boreholes are located in the Rocky Mountain region, the geologic and geographic diversity of samples have helped the CRC become one of the largest and most heavily used public core repositories in the United States. Many of the boreholes represented in the collection were drilled for energy and mineral exploration, and many of the cores and cuttings were donated to the CRC by private companies in these industries. Some cores and cuttings were collected by the USGS along with other government agencies. Approximately one-half of the cores are slabbed and photographed. More than 18,000 thin sections and a large volume of analytical data from the cores and cuttings are also accessible. A growing collection of digital images of the cores are also becoming available on the CRC Web site Internet http://geology.cr.usgs.gov/crc/.

  14. Adaptive core simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Khalik, Hany Samy

    The work presented in this thesis is a continuation of a master's thesis research project conducted by the author to gain insight into the applicability of inverse methods to developing adaptive simulation capabilities for core physics problems. Use of adaptive simulation is intended to improve the fidelity and robustness of important core attributes predictions such as core power distribution, thermal margins and core reactivity. Adaptive simulation utilizes a selected set of past and current reactor measurements of reactor observables, i.e. in-core instrumentations readings, to adapt the simulation in a meaningful way. A meaningful adaption will result in high fidelity and robust adapted core simulators models. To perform adaption, we propose an inverse theory approach in which the multitudes of input data to core simulators, i.e. reactor physics and thermal-hydraulic data, are to be adjusted to improve agreement with measured observables while keeping core simulators models unadapted. At a first glance, devising such adaption for typical core simulators models would render the approach impractical. This follows, since core simulators are based on very demanding computational models, i.e. based on complex physics models with millions of input data and output observables. This would spawn not only several prohibitive challenges but also numerous disparaging concerns. The challenges include the computational burdens of the sensitivity-type calculations required to construct Jacobian operators for the core simulators models. Also, the computational burdens of the uncertainty-type calculations required to estimate the uncertainty information of core simulators input data presents a demanding challenge. The concerns however are mainly related to the reliability of the adjusted input data. We demonstrate that the power of our proposed approach is mainly driven by taking advantage of this unfavorable situation. Our contribution begins with the realization that to obtain

  15. MODULAR AND FULL SIZE SIMPLIFIED BOILING WATER REACTOR DESIGN WITH FULLY PASSIVE SAFETY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    M. Ishii; S. T. Revankar; T. Downar; Y. Xu, H. J. Yoon; D. Tinkler; U. S. Rohatgi

    2003-06-16

    OAK B204 The overall goal of this three-year research project was to develop a new scientific design of a compact modular 200 MWe and a full size 1200 MWe simplified boiling water reactors (SBWR). Specific objectives of this research were: (1) to perform scientific designs of the core neutronics and core thermal-hydraulics for a small capacity and full size simplified boiling water reactor, (2) to develop a passive safety system design, (3) improve and validate safety analysis code, (4) demonstrate experimentally and analytically all design functions of the safety systems for the design basis accidents (DBA) and (5) to develop the final scientific design of both SBWR systems, 200 MWe (SBWR-200) and 1200 MWe (SBWR-1200). The SBWR combines the advantages of design simplicity and completely passive safety systems. These advantages fit well within the objectives of NERI and the Department of Energy's focus on the development of Generation III and IV nuclear power. The 3-year research program was structured around seven tasks. Task 1 was to perform the preliminary thermal-hydraulic design. Task 2 was to perform the core neutronic design analysis. Task 3 was to perform a detailed scaling study and obtain corresponding PUMA conditions from an integral test. Task 4 was to perform integral tests and code evaluation for the DBA. Task 5 was to perform a safety analysis for the DBA. Task 6 was to perform a BWR stability analysis. Task 7 was to perform a final scientific design of the compact modular SBWR-200 and the full size SBWR-1200. A no cost extension for the third year was requested and the request was granted and all the project tasks were completed by April 2003. The design activities in tasks 1, 2, and 3 were completed as planned. The existing thermal-hydraulic information, core physics, and fuel lattice information was collected on the existing design of the simplified boiling water reactor. The thermal-hydraulic design were developed. Based on a detailed integral

  16. Simplified Physics Based Models Research Topical Report on Task #2

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Srikanta; Ganesh, Priya

    2014-10-31

    We present a simplified-physics based approach, where only the most important physical processes are modeled, to develop and validate simplified predictive models of CO2 sequestration in deep saline formation. The system of interest is a single vertical well injecting supercritical CO2 into a 2-D layered reservoir-caprock system with variable layer permeabilities. We use a set of well-designed full-physics compositional simulations to understand key processes and parameters affecting pressure propagation and buoyant plume migration. Based on these simulations, we have developed correlations for dimensionless injectivity as a function of the slope of fractional-flow curve, variance of layer permeability values, and the nature of vertical permeability arrangement. The same variables, along with a modified gravity number, can be used to develop a correlation for the total storage efficiency within the CO2 plume footprint. Similar correlations are also developed to predict the average pressure within the injection reservoir, and the pressure buildup within the caprock.

  17. Simplified Metadata Curation via the Metadata Management Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shum, D.; Pilone, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Metadata Management Tool (MMT) is the newest capability developed as part of NASA Earth Observing System Data and Information System's (EOSDIS) efforts to simplify metadata creation and improve metadata quality. The MMT was developed via an agile methodology, taking into account inputs from GCMD's science coordinators and other end-users. In its initial release, the MMT uses the Unified Metadata Model for Collections (UMM-C) to allow metadata providers to easily create and update collection records in the ISO-19115 format. Through a simplified UI experience, metadata curators can create and edit collections without full knowledge of the NASA Best Practices implementation of ISO-19115 format, while still generating compliant metadata. More experienced users are also able to access raw metadata to build more complex records as needed. In future releases, the MMT will build upon recent work done in the community to assess metadata quality and compliance with a variety of standards through application of metadata rubrics. The tool will provide users with clear guidance as to how to easily change their metadata in order to improve their quality and compliance. Through these features, the MMT allows data providers to create and maintain compliant and high quality metadata in a short amount of time.

  18. Architecture analysis of the simplified libration point satellite navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Xu, Bo

    2016-10-01

    The libration point satellite navigation system is a novel navigation architecture that consists of satellites located in periodic orbits around the Earth-Moon libration points. Superiorities of the proposed system lie in its autonomy and extended navigation capability, which have been proved in our previous works. Based on the candidate architectures obtained before, a detailed analysis of the simplified libration point satellite navigation system, i.e. the Earth-Moon L1,2 two-satellite constellation, is conducted in this work. Firstly, relation between orbits amplitude is derived for the candidate two-satellite constellations to ensure continuous crosslink measurements between libration point satellites. Then, with the use of a reference lunar exploration mission scenario, navigation performances of different constellation configurations are evaluated by Monte-Carlo simulations. The simulation results indicate that the amplitude and initial phase combinations of libration point orbits have direct effect on the performance of the two-satellite constellations. By using a cooperative evolutionary algorithm for configuration parameter optimization, some optimal constellations are finally obtained for the simplified navigation architecture. The results obtained in this paper may be a reference for future system design.

  19. A simplified Reynolds stress model for unsteady turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, Sixin; Lakshminarayana, Budugur

    1993-01-01

    A simplified Reynolds stress model has been developed for the prediction of unsteady turbulent boundary layers. By assuming that the net transport of Reynolds stresses is locally proportional to the net transport of the turbulent kinetic energy, the time dependent full Reynolds stress model is reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations. These equations contain only time derivatives and can be readily integrated in a time dependent boundary layer or Navier-Stokes code. The turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate needed for the model are obtained by solving the k-epsilon equations. This simplified Reynolds stress turbulence model (SRSM) does not use the eddy viscosity assumption, which may not be valid for unsteady turbulent flows. The anisotropy of both the steady and the unsteady turbulent normal stresses can be captured by the SRSM model. Through proper damping of the shear stresses, the present model can be used in the near wall region of turbulent boundary layers. This model has been validated against data for steady and unsteady turbulent boundary layers, including periodic turbulent boundary layers subjected to a mean adverse pressure gradient. For the cases tested, the predicted unsteady velocity and turbulent stress components agree well with the experimental data. Comparison between the predictions from the SRSM model and a k-epsilon model is also presented.

  20. Numerical Simulation of Incremental Sheet Forming by Simplified Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delamézière, A.; Yu, Y.; Robert, C.; Ayed, L. Ben; Nouari, M.; Batoz, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    The Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF) is a process, which can transform a flat metal sheet in a 3D complex part using a hemispherical tool. The final geometry of the product is obtained by the relative movement between this tool and the blank. The main advantage of that process is that the cost of the tool is very low compared to deep drawing with rigid tools. The main disadvantage is the very low velocity of the tool and thus the large amount of time to form the part. Classical contact algorithms give good agreement with experimental results, but are time consuming. A Simplified Approach for the contact management between the tool and the blank in ISF is presented here. The general principle of this approach is to imposed displacement of the nodes in contact with the tool at a given position. On a benchmark part, the CPU time of the present Simplified Approach is significantly reduced compared with a classical simulation performed with Abaqus implicit.

  1. Cardiac dynamics: a simplified model for action potential propagation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes a new semiphysiological ionic model, used recently to study reexitations and reentry in cardiac tissue [I.R. Cantalapiedra et al, PRE 82 011907 (2010)]. The aim of the model is to reproduce action potencial morphologies and restitution curves obtained, either from experimental data, or from more complex electrophysiological models. The model divides all ion currents into four groups according to their function, thus resulting into fast-slow and inward-outward currents. We show that this simplified model is flexible enough as to accurately capture the electrical properties of cardiac myocytes, having the advantage of being less computational demanding than detailed electrophysiological models. Under some conditions, it has been shown to be amenable to mathematical analysis. The model reproduces the action potential (AP) change with stimulation rate observed both experimentally and in realistic models of healthy human and guinea pig myocytes (TNNP and LRd models, respectively). When simulated in a cable it also gives the right dependence of the conduction velocity (CV) with stimulation rate. Besides reproducing correctly these restitution properties, it also gives a good fit for the morphology of the AP, including the notch typical of phase 1. Finally, we perform simulations in a realistic geometric model of the rabbit’s ventricles, finding a good qualitative agreement in AP propagation and the ECG. Thus, this simplified model represents an alternative to more complex models when studying instabilities in wave propagation. PMID:23194429

  2. SIMPLIFIED CALCULATION FOR CORRECTIVE OSTEOTOMIES OF LONG BONES

    PubMed Central

    ROLIM, EPITÁCIO LEITE; TORRES, MARCELO RAUL CAVALCANTI; SILVA, MAURISTON RENAN MARTINS; LIMA, FILIPE RAMOS; AGUIAR, JOSÉ LAMARTINE DE ANDRADE

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To present a simplified calculation for the measurement of osteotomy wedges used for the correction of angular uniplanar deformities of long bones and to compare the simplified calculation proposed (circumferential calculation) with the classical trigonometric calculations, as well as with the exact calculation performed by computer software AutoCADtm. Methods: The software AutoCADtm was used to calculate the bone wedges, for mathematical comparison of the three main groups, each one of them containing 18 hypothetical bone deformities which angles ranging from 5 to 90 degrees, with 5 degrees intervals between them. Results: In the analysis of 18 deformities, the hypothetical angular bone, the average lengths of the corrective wedges obtained by the trigonometric, circumferential and the exact metods were, respectively, 32.21 ± 16.81 mm, 33.16 ± 18.63 mm and 35.22 ± 23.52 mm. There was no statistically significant difference between the three calculation methods (p>0.05). Conclusion: The circumferential calculation proposed in this study is useful for being accurate and simple, not requiring any trigonometric knowledge. Level of Evidence II, Experimental Study. PMID:28149191

  3. A simplified memory network model based on pattern formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kesheng; Zhang, Xiyun; Wang, Chaoqing; Liu, Zonghua

    2014-12-01

    Many experiments have evidenced the transition with different time scales from short-term memory (STM) to long-term memory (LTM) in mammalian brains, while its theoretical understanding is still under debate. To understand its underlying mechanism, it has recently been shown that it is possible to have a long-period rhythmic synchronous firing in a scale-free network, provided the existence of both the high-degree hubs and the loops formed by low-degree nodes. We here present a simplified memory network model to show that the self-sustained synchronous firing can be observed even without these two necessary conditions. This simplified network consists of two loops of coupled excitable neurons with different synaptic conductance and with one node being the sensory neuron to receive an external stimulus signal. This model can be further used to show how the diversity of firing patterns can be selectively formed by varying the signal frequency, duration of the stimulus and network topology, which corresponds to the patterns of STM and LTM with different time scales. A theoretical analysis is presented to explain the underlying mechanism of firing patterns.

  4. Can Psychiatric Rehabilitation Be Core to CORE?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olney, Marjorie F.; Gill, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, we seek to determine whether psychiatric rehabilitation principles and practices have been more fully incorporated into the Council on Rehabilitation Education (CORE) standards, the extent to which they are covered in four rehabilitation counseling "foundations" textbooks, and how they are reflected in the…

  5. Can Psychiatric Rehabilitation Be Core to CORE?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olney, Marjorie F.; Gill, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, we seek to determine whether psychiatric rehabilitation principles and practices have been more fully incorporated into the Council on Rehabilitation Education (CORE) standards, the extent to which they are covered in four rehabilitation counseling "foundations" textbooks, and how they are reflected in the…

  6. More on the Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Monnica

    2013-01-01

    From a higher education perspective, new "Common Core" standards could improve student college-readiness levels, reduce institutional remediation rates, and close education gaps in and between states. As a national initiative to create common educational standards for students across multiple states, the Common Core State Standards…

  7. Mercury's core evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deproost, Marie-Hélène; Rivoldini, Attilio; Van Hoolst, Tim

    2016-10-01

    Remote sensing data of Mercury's surface by MESSENGER indicate that Mercury formed under reducing conditions. As a consequence, silicon is likely the main light element in the core together with a possible small fraction of sulfur. Compared to sulfur, which does almost not partition into solid iron at Mercury's core conditions and strongly decreases the melting temperature, silicon partitions almost equally well between solid and liquid iron and is not very effective at reducing the melting temperature of iron. Silicon as the major light element constituent instead of sulfur therefore implies a significantly higher core liquidus temperature and a decrease in the vigor of compositional convection generated by the release of light elements upon inner core formation.Due to the immiscibility in liquid Fe-Si-S at low pressure (below 15 GPa), the core might also not be homogeneous and consist of an inner S-poor Fe-Si core below a thinner Si-poor Fe-S layer. Here, we study the consequences of a silicon-rich core and the effect of the blanketing Fe-S layer on the thermal evolution of Mercury's core and on the generation of a magnetic field.

  8. Making an Ice Core.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopaska-Merkel, David C.

    1995-01-01

    Explains an activity in which students construct a simulated ice core. Materials required include only a freezer, food coloring, a bottle, and water. This hands-on exercise demonstrates how a glacier is formed, how ice cores are studied, and the nature of precision and accuracy in measurement. Suitable for grades three through eight. (Author/PVD)

  9. Ice Core Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krim, Jessica; Brody, Michael

    2008-01-01

    What can glaciers tell us about volcanoes and atmospheric conditions? How does this information relate to our understanding of climate change? Ice Core Investigations is an original and innovative activity that explores these types of questions. It brings together popular science issues such as research, climate change, ice core drilling, and air…

  10. NFE Core Bibliographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Inst. for International Studies in Education.

    This collection of core bibliographies, which expands on an initial bibliography published in 1979 of the core resources housed in the Non-Formal Education Information Center at Michigan State University, comprises a basic stock of materials on nonformal education and women in development that have been contributed by development planners,…

  11. Ice Core Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krim, Jessica; Brody, Michael

    2008-01-01

    What can glaciers tell us about volcanoes and atmospheric conditions? How does this information relate to our understanding of climate change? Ice Core Investigations is an original and innovative activity that explores these types of questions. It brings together popular science issues such as research, climate change, ice core drilling, and air…

  12. More on the Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Monnica

    2013-01-01

    From a higher education perspective, new "Common Core" standards could improve student college-readiness levels, reduce institutional remediation rates, and close education gaps in and between states. As a national initiative to create common educational standards for students across multiple states, the Common Core State Standards…

  13. CORE - Performance Feedback System

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-02

    CORE is an architecture to bridge the gaps between disparate data integration and delivery of disparate information visualization. The CORE Technology Program includes a suite of tools and user-centered staff that can facilitate rapid delivery of a deployable integrated information to users.

  14. Modular core holder

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, J.; Cole, C.W.; Hamid, S.; Lucas, J.K.

    1991-03-05

    This patent describes a modular core holder. It comprises: a sleeve, forming an internal cavity for receiving a core. The sleeve including segments; support means, overlying the sleeve, for supporting the sleeve; and access means, positioned between at least two of the segments of the sleeve, for allowing measurement of conditions within the internal cavity.

  15. Making an Ice Core.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopaska-Merkel, David C.

    1995-01-01

    Explains an activity in which students construct a simulated ice core. Materials required include only a freezer, food coloring, a bottle, and water. This hands-on exercise demonstrates how a glacier is formed, how ice cores are studied, and the nature of precision and accuracy in measurement. Suitable for grades three through eight. (Author/PVD)

  16. Iowa Core Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    One central component of a great school system is a clear set of expectations, or standards, that educators help all students reach. In Iowa, that effort is known as the Iowa Core. The Iowa Core represents the statewide academic standards, which describe what students should know and be able to do in math, science, English language arts, and…

  17. Simplified Generation of High-Angular-Momentum Light Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Maleki, Lute; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry; Grudinin, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    A simplified method of generating a beam of light having a relatively high value of angular momentum (see figure) involves the use of a compact apparatus consisting mainly of a laser, a whispering- gallery-mode (WGM) resonator, and optical fibers. The method also can be used to generate a Bessel beam. ( Bessel beam denotes a member of a class of non-diffracting beams, so named because their amplitudes are proportional to Bessel functions of the radii from their central axes. High-order Bessel beams can have high values of angular momentum.) High-angular-momentum light beams are used in some applications in biology and nanotechnology, wherein they are known for their ability to apply torque to make microscopic objects rotate. High-angular-momentum light beams could also be used to increase bandwidths of fiber-optic communication systems. The present simplified method of generating a high-angular-momentum light beam was conceived as an alternative to prior such methods, which are complicated and require optical setups that include, variously, holograms, modulating Fabry-Perot cavities, or special microstructures. The present simplified method exploits a combination of the complex structure of the electromagnetic field inside a WGM resonator, total internal reflection in the WGM resonator, and the electromagnetic modes supported by an optical fiber. The optical fiber used to extract light from the WGM resonator is made of fused quartz. The output end of this fiber is polished flat and perpendicular to the fiber axis. The input end of this fiber is cut on a slant and placed very close to the WGM resonator at an appropriate position and orientation. To excite the resonant whispering- gallery modes, light is introduced into the WGM resonator via another optical fiber that is part of a pigtailed fiber-optic coupler. Light extracted from the WGM resonator is transformed into a high-angular- momentum beam inside the extraction optical fiber and this beam is emitted from the

  18. Simplified Predictive Models for CO2 Sequestration Performance Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Srikanta; RaviGanesh, Priya; Schuetter, Jared; Mooney, Douglas; He, Jincong; Durlofsky, Louis

    2014-05-01

    We present results from an ongoing research project that seeks to develop and validate a portfolio of simplified modeling approaches that will enable rapid feasibility and risk assessment for CO2 sequestration in deep saline formation. The overall research goal is to provide tools for predicting: (a) injection well and formation pressure buildup, and (b) lateral and vertical CO2 plume migration. Simplified modeling approaches that are being developed in this research fall under three categories: (1) Simplified physics-based modeling (SPM), where only the most relevant physical processes are modeled, (2) Statistical-learning based modeling (SLM), where the simulator is replaced with a "response surface", and (3) Reduced-order method based modeling (RMM), where mathematical approximations reduce the computational burden. The system of interest is a single vertical well injecting supercritical CO2 into a 2-D layered reservoir-caprock system with variable layer permeabilities. In the first category (SPM), we use a set of well-designed full-physics compositional simulations to understand key processes and parameters affecting pressure propagation and buoyant plume migration. Based on these simulations, we have developed correlations for dimensionless injectivity as a function of the slope of fractional-flow curve, variance of layer permeability values, and the nature of vertical permeability arrangement. The same variables, along with a modified gravity number, can be used to develop a correlation for the total storage efficiency within the CO2 plume footprint. In the second category (SLM), we develop statistical "proxy models" using the simulation domain described previously with two different approaches: (a) classical Box-Behnken experimental design with a quadratic response surface fit, and (b) maximin Latin Hypercube sampling (LHS) based design with a Kriging metamodel fit using a quadratic trend and Gaussian correlation structure. For roughly the same number of

  19. Simplified Ion Thruster Xenon Feed System for NASA Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, John Steven; Randolph, Thomas M.; Hofer, Richard R.; Goebel, Dan M.

    2009-01-01

    The successful implementation of ion thruster technology on the Deep Space 1 technology demonstration mission paved the way for its first use on the Dawn science mission, which launched in September 2007. Both Deep Space 1 and Dawn used a "bang-bang" xenon feed system which has proven to be highly successful. This type of feed system, however, is complex with many parts and requires a significant amount of engineering work for architecture changes. A simplified feed system, with fewer parts and less engineering work for architecture changes, is desirable to reduce the feed system cost to future missions. An attractive new path for ion thruster feed systems is based on new components developed by industry in support of commercial applications of electric propulsion systems. For example, since the launch of Deep Space 1 tens of mechanical xenon pressure regulators have successfully flown on commercial spacecraft using electric propulsion. In addition, active proportional flow controllers have flown on the Hall-thruster-equipped Tacsat-2, are flying on the ion thruster GOCE mission, and will fly next year on the Advanced EHF spacecraft. This present paper briefly reviews the Dawn xenon feed system and those implemented on other xenon electric propulsion flight missions. A simplified feed system architecture is presented that is based on assembling flight-qualified components in a manner that will reduce non-recurring engineering associated with propulsion system architecture changes, and is compared to the NASA Dawn standard. The simplified feed system includes, compared to Dawn, passive high-pressure regulation, a reduced part count, reduced complexity due to cross-strapping, and reduced non-recurring engineering work required for feed system changes. A demonstration feed system was assembled using flight-like components and used to operate a laboratory NSTAR-class ion engine. Feed system components integrated into a single-string architecture successfully operated

  20. Simplified Ion Thruster Xenon Feed System for NASA Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, John Steven; Randolph, Thomas M.; Hofer, Richard R.; Goebel, Dan M.

    2009-01-01

    The successful implementation of ion thruster technology on the Deep Space 1 technology demonstration mission paved the way for its first use on the Dawn science mission, which launched in September 2007. Both Deep Space 1 and Dawn used a "bang-bang" xenon feed system which has proven to be highly successful. This type of feed system, however, is complex with many parts and requires a significant amount of engineering work for architecture changes. A simplified feed system, with fewer parts and less engineering work for architecture changes, is desirable to reduce the feed system cost to future missions. An attractive new path for ion thruster feed systems is based on new components developed by industry in support of commercial applications of electric propulsion systems. For example, since the launch of Deep Space 1 tens of mechanical xenon pressure regulators have successfully flown on commercial spacecraft using electric propulsion. In addition, active proportional flow controllers have flown on the Hall-thruster-equipped Tacsat-2, are flying on the ion thruster GOCE mission, and will fly next year on the Advanced EHF spacecraft. This present paper briefly reviews the Dawn xenon feed system and those implemented on other xenon electric propulsion flight missions. A simplified feed system architecture is presented that is based on assembling flight-qualified components in a manner that will reduce non-recurring engineering associated with propulsion system architecture changes, and is compared to the NASA Dawn standard. The simplified feed system includes, compared to Dawn, passive high-pressure regulation, a reduced part count, reduced complexity due to cross-strapping, and reduced non-recurring engineering work required for feed system changes. A demonstration feed system was assembled using flight-like components and used to operate a laboratory NSTAR-class ion engine. Feed system components integrated into a single-string architecture successfully operated

  1. Mars' core and magnetism.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, D J

    2001-07-12

    The detection of strongly magnetized ancient crust on Mars is one of the most surprising outcomes of recent Mars exploration, and provides important insight about the history and nature of the martian core. The iron-rich core probably formed during the hot accretion of Mars approximately 4.5 billion years ago and subsequently cooled at a rate dictated by the overlying mantle. A core dynamo operated much like Earth's current dynamo, but was probably limited in duration to several hundred million years. The early demise of the dynamo could have arisen through a change in the cooling rate of the mantle, or even a switch in convective style that led to mantle heating. Presently, Mars probably has a liquid, conductive outer core and might have a solid inner core like Earth.

  2. Lunar Core and Tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G.; Boggs, D. H.; Ratcliff, J. T.

    2004-01-01

    Variations in rotation and orientation of the Moon are sensitive to solid-body tidal dissipation, dissipation due to relative motion at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, and tidal Love number k2 [1,2]. There is weaker sensitivity to flattening of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) [2,3,4] and fluid core moment of inertia [1]. Accurate Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) measurements of the distance from observatories on the Earth to four retroreflector arrays on the Moon are sensitive to lunar rotation and orientation variations and tidal displacements. Past solutions using the LLR data have given results for dissipation due to solid-body tides and fluid core [1] plus Love number [1-5]. Detection of CMB flattening, which in the past has been marginal but improving [3,4,5], now seems significant. Direct detection of the core moment has not yet been achieved.

  3. Internal core tightener

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, Glen V.; Snyder, Jr., Harold J.

    1976-06-22

    An internal core tightener which is a linear actuated (vertical actuation motion) expanding device utilizing a minimum of moving parts to perform the lateral tightening function. The key features are: (1) large contact areas to transmit loads during reactor operation; (2) actuation cam surfaces loaded only during clamping and unclamping operation; (3) separation of the parts and internal operation involved in the holding function from those involved in the actuation function; and (4) preloaded pads with compliant travel at each face of the hexagonal assembly at the two clamping planes to accommodate thermal expansion and irradiation induced swelling. The latter feature enables use of a "fixed" outer core boundary, and thus eliminates the uncertainty in gross core dimensions, and potential for rapid core reactivity changes as a result of core dimensional change.

  4. Lunar Core and Tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G.; Boggs, D. H.; Ratcliff, J. T.

    2004-01-01

    Variations in rotation and orientation of the Moon are sensitive to solid-body tidal dissipation, dissipation due to relative motion at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, and tidal Love number k2 [1,2]. There is weaker sensitivity to flattening of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) [2,3,4] and fluid core moment of inertia [1]. Accurate Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) measurements of the distance from observatories on the Earth to four retroreflector arrays on the Moon are sensitive to lunar rotation and orientation variations and tidal displacements. Past solutions using the LLR data have given results for dissipation due to solid-body tides and fluid core [1] plus Love number [1-5]. Detection of CMB flattening, which in the past has been marginal but improving [3,4,5], now seems significant. Direct detection of the core moment has not yet been achieved.

  5. Simplify to survive: prescriptive layouts ensure profitable scaling to 32nm and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebmann, Lars; Pileggi, Larry; Hibbeler, Jason; Rovner, Vyacheslav; Jhaveri, Tejas; Northrop, Greg

    2009-03-01

    The time-to-market driven need to maintain concurrent process-design co-development, even in spite of discontinuous patterning, process, and device innovation is reiterated. The escalating design rule complexity resulting from increasing layout sensitivities in physical and electrical yield and the resulting risk to profitable technology scaling is reviewed. Shortcomings in traditional Design for Manufacturability (DfM) solutions are identified and contrasted to the highly successful integrated design-technology co-optimization used for SRAM and other memory arrays. The feasibility of extending memory-style design-technology co-optimization, based on a highly simplified layout environment, to logic chips is demonstrated. Layout density benefits, modeled patterning and electrical yield improvements, as well as substantially improved layout simplicity are quantified in a conventional versus template-based design comparison on a 65nm IBM PowerPC 405 microprocessor core. The adaptability of this highly regularized template-based design solution to different yield concerns and design styles is shown in the extension of this work to 32nm with an increased focus on interconnect redundancy. In closing, the work not covered in this paper, focused on the process side of the integrated process-design co-optimization, is introduced.

  6. A simplified DEM-CFD approach for pebble bed reactor simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Ji, W.

    2012-07-01

    In pebble bed reactors (PBR's), the pebble flow and the coolant flow are coupled with each other through coolant-pebble interactions. Approaches with different fidelities have been proposed to simulate similar phenomena. Coupled Discrete Element Method-Computational Fluid Dynamics (DEM-CFD) approaches are widely studied and applied in these problems due to its good balance between efficiency and accuracy. In this work, based on the symmetry of the PBR geometry, a simplified 3D-DEM/2D-CFD approach is proposed to speed up the DEM-CFD simulation without significant loss of accuracy. Pebble flow is simulated by a full 3-D DEM, while the coolant flow field is calculated with a 2-D CFD simulation by averaging variables along the annular direction in the cylindrical geometry. Results show that this simplification can greatly enhance the efficiency for cylindrical core, which enables further inclusion of other physics such as thermal and neutronic effect in the multi-physics simulations for PBR's. (authors)

  7. A Simplified Mass-Transfer Model for Visual Pigments in Amphibian Retinal-Cone Outer Segments

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Paul W.; Howle, Laurens E.; Murray, Mark M.; Corless, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    When radiolabeled precursors and autoradiography are used to investigate turnover of protein components in photoreceptive cone outer segments (COSs), the labeled components—primarily visual pigment molecules (opsins)—are diffusely distributed along the COS. To further assess this COS labeling pattern, we derive a simplified mass-transfer model for quantifying the contributions of advective and diffusive mechanisms to the distribution of opsins within COSs of the frog retina. Two opsin-containing regions of the COS are evaluated: the core axial array of disks and the plasmalemma. Numerical solutions of the mass-transfer model indicate three distinct stages of system evolution. In the first stage, plasmalemma diffusion is dominant. In the second stage, the plasmalemma density reaches a metastable state and transfer between the plasmalemma and disk region occurs, which is followed by an increase in density that is qualitatively similar for both regions. The final stage consists of both regions slowly evolving to the steady-state solution. Our results indicate that autoradiographic and cognate approaches for tracking labeled opsins in the COS cannot be effective methodologies for assessing new disk formation at the base of the COS. PMID:21281566

  8. A simplified reaction mechanism for soot formation in nonpremixed flames

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, K.M.; Lindstedt, R.P. ); Jones, W.P. )

    1991-12-01

    The present article outlines a simplified reaction mechanism for the formation, growth, and combustion of soot particles in laminar nonpremixed flames. The model can be combined with detailed chemistry descriptions for the gas phase, as in the present case, or with reduced chemical reaction mechanisms. The reaction mechanism involves nucleation, surface growth, particle coagulation, and combustion steps. The model outlined has been created with the intention of being applicable to the prediction of turbulent flames via different approaches. The soot nucleation and surface growth reactions are linked to the gas phase by presuming that pyrolysis products, in the present case acetylene, and not the fuel itself, are of primary importance in the soot formation process. The deduced reaction mechanism is applied to counterflow ethylene and propane flames burning with a range of oxygen-enriched and depleted air streams. The results obtained show excellent qualitative and quantitative agreement with measured data for soot volume fraction, particle growth, and number density.

  9. Simplifying complex clinical element models to encourage adoption.

    PubMed

    Freimuth, Robert R; Zhu, Qian; Pathak, Jyotishman; Chute, Christopher G

    2014-01-01

    Clinical Element Models (CEMs) were developed to provide a normalized form for the exchange of clinical data. The CEM specification is quite complex and specialized knowledge is required to understand and implement the models, which presents a significant barrier to investigators and study designers. To encourage the adoption of CEMs at the time of data collection and reduce the need for retrospective normalization efforts, we developed an approach that provides a simplified view of CEMs for non-experts while retaining the full semantic detail of the underlying logical models. This allows investigators to approach CEMs through generalized representations that are intended to be more intuitive than the native models, and it permits them to think conceptually about their data elements without worrying about details related to the CEM logical models and syntax. We demonstrate our approach using data elements from the Pharmacogenomics Research Network (PGRN).

  10. A simplified model of high pressure spray combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, C.-P.; Wakamatsu, Y.; Faeth, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    A simplified model of high-pressure spray combustion is examined. The analysis relies on a kappa-epsilon-g turbulence model in conjunction with the locally homogeneous flow (LHF) approximation of two-phase flow, which implies infinitely fast transport rates between the phases. High-pressure phenomena near the thermodynamic critical point are treated using the Redlich-Kwong equation of state. Predictions are compared with existing measurements of spray boundaries in a pressure-atomized n-pentane spray (Sauter mean diameter, approximately 30 microns) burning in stagnant air at 3, 6, and 9 MPa. The LHF model overestimates the rate of development of the flow, yielding spray lengths roughly 20% shorter than measured. Calibrated drop-life-history calculations suggest that finite interphase transport rates are the primary cause of the discrepancy.

  11. Detailed and simplified nonequilibrium helium ionization in the solar atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Golding, Thomas Peter; Carlsson, Mats; Leenaarts, Jorrit E-mail: mats.carlsson@astro.uio.no

    2014-03-20

    Helium ionization plays an important role in the energy balance of the upper chromosphere and transition region. Helium spectral lines are also often used as diagnostics of these regions. We carry out one-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of the solar atmosphere and find that the helium ionization is set mostly by photoionization and direct collisional ionization, counteracted by radiative recombination cascades. By introducing an additional recombination rate mimicking the recombination cascades, we construct a simplified three-level helium model atom consisting of only the ground states. This model atom is suitable for modeling nonequilibrium helium ionization in three-dimensional numerical models. We perform a brief investigation of the formation of the He I 10830 and He II 304 spectral lines. Both lines show nonequilibrium features that are not recovered with statistical equilibrium models, and caution should therefore be exercised when such models are used as a basis for interpretating observations.

  12. ON ENERGY CONSERVATION OF THE SIMPLIFIED TAKAHASHI-IMADA METHOD*, **

    PubMed Central

    Hairer, Ernst; McLachlan, Robert I.; Skeel, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    In long-time numerical integration of Hamiltonian systems, and especially in molecular dynamics simulation, it is important that the energy is well conserved. For symplectic integrators applied with sufficiently small step size, this is guaranteed by the existence of a modified Hamiltonian that is exactly conserved up to exponentially small terms. This article is concerned with the simplified Takahashi-Imada method, which is a modification of the Störmer-Verlet method that is as easy to implement but has improved accuracy. This integrator is symmetric and volume-preserving, but no longer symplectic. We study its long-time energy conservation and give theoretical arguments, supported by numerical experiments, which show the possibility of a drift in the energy (linear or like a random walk). With respect to energy conservation, this article provides empirical and theoretical data concerning the importance of using a symplectic integrator. PMID:20539750

  13. Simplified Expert Elicitation Procedure for Risk Assessment of Operating Events

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; David Gertman; Jeffrey Joe; Julie Marble; William Galyean; Larry Blackwood; Harold Blackman

    2005-06-01

    This report describes a simplified, tractable, and usable procedure within the US Nuclear Regulator Commission (NRC) for seeking expert opinion and judgment. The NRC has increased efforts to document the reliability and risk of nuclear power plants (NPPs) through Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) models. The Significance Determination Process (SDP) and Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) programs at the NRC utilize expert judgment on the probability of failure, human error, and the operability of equipment in cases where otherwise insufficient operational data exist to make meaningful estimates. In the past, the SDP and ASP programs informally sought the opinion of experts inside and outside the NRC. This document represents a formal, documented procedure to take the place of informal expert elicitation. The procedures outlined in this report follow existing formal expert elicitation methodologies, but are streamlined as appropriate to the degree of accuracy required and the schedule for producing SDP and ASP analyses.

  14. A Simplified Technique for Drainage of Chronic Calcified Pleural Empyema.

    PubMed

    Rabiou, Sani; Younssa, Hama; Didier, James; Ibrahim, Magagi; Harissou, Adamou; Adakal, Ousseini; Sani, Rachid

    2017-01-28

    Chronic pleural pocket has well-known diagnosis and treatment principles since first described by Hippocrates 2,400 years ago. However, its treatment remains constant even though its causes, severity during management, and terrain vary considerably. In well-structured health care systems, posttuberculous empyema has become rare; its well-codified medical treatment relies on early diagnosis and adapted antibiotherapy, punctures/drainage, and appropriate intrapleural antifibrinolytics. In developing countries, a poor health organizational system increases the incidence of pleural pocket, which can progress until surgery is indicated. In such a context, the general principles of treatment include pleural decortication along with pulmonary resection. This technique remains difficult, risky, and, sometimes, impossible due to the chronicity of the lesion. In patients debilitated by several months of septic evolution, a simplified thoracostomy technique permits complete resection of the pocket. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. A simplified common-path autocorrelator based on Fizeau interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yonggui; Yang, Jun; Zhou, Ai; Yuan, Libo

    2011-05-01

    We propose a simplified common-path autocorrelator based on Fizeau interferometer for quasi-distributed measurement. A four-port fiber circulator is employed to connect broadband light source, fiber sensor array, Fizeau interferometer and photodetector, constructing a most simple configuration and common-path between sensing and reference signals. This common-path configuration of the autocorrelator can greatly reduce the polarization and dispersion mismatch between sensing and reference signals. The use of circulator can also avoid reflective light from sensor array reentering into light source, which can improve the stability and efficiency of the autocorrelator. The optimization of the autocorrelator is theoretically discussed, and a seven-sensor autocorrelator is experimentally demonstrated. The common-path sensing system is quite suitable for quasi-distributed measurement of strain and temperature in smart structures.

  16. Detailed and Simplified Nonequilibrium Helium Ionization in the Solar Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golding, Thomas Peter; Carlsson, Mats; Leenaarts, Jorrit

    2014-03-01

    Helium ionization plays an important role in the energy balance of the upper chromosphere and transition region. Helium spectral lines are also often used as diagnostics of these regions. We carry out one-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of the solar atmosphere and find that the helium ionization is set mostly by photoionization and direct collisional ionization, counteracted by radiative recombination cascades. By introducing an additional recombination rate mimicking the recombination cascades, we construct a simplified three-level helium model atom consisting of only the ground states. This model atom is suitable for modeling nonequilibrium helium ionization in three-dimensional numerical models. We perform a brief investigation of the formation of the He I 10830 and He II 304 spectral lines. Both lines show nonequilibrium features that are not recovered with statistical equilibrium models, and caution should therefore be exercised when such models are used as a basis for interpretating observations.

  17. Development of a simplified urban water balance model (WABILA).

    PubMed

    Henrichs, M; Langner, J; Uhl, M

    2016-01-01

    During the last decade, water sensitive urban design (WSUD) has become more and more accepted. However, there is not any simple tool or option available to evaluate the influence of these measures on the local water balance. To counteract the impact of new settlements, planners focus on mitigating increases in runoff through installation of infiltration systems. This leads to an increasing non-natural groundwater recharge and decreased evapotranspiration. Simple software tools which evaluate or simulate the effect of WSUD on the local water balance are still needed. The authors developed a tool named WABILA (Wasserbilanz) that could support planners for optimal WSUD. WABILA is an easy-to-use planning tool that is based on simplified regression functions for established measures and land covers. Results show that WSUD has to be site-specific, based on climate conditions and the natural water balance.

  18. A simplified computational memory model from information processing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lanhua; Zhang, Dongsheng; Deng, Yuqin; Ding, Xiaoqian; Wang, Yan; Tang, Yiyuan; Sun, Baoliang

    2016-01-01

    This paper is intended to propose a computational model for memory from the view of information processing. The model, called simplified memory information retrieval network (SMIRN), is a bi-modular hierarchical functional memory network by abstracting memory function and simulating memory information processing. At first meta-memory is defined to express the neuron or brain cortices based on the biology and graph theories, and we develop an intra-modular network with the modeling algorithm by mapping the node and edge, and then the bi-modular network is delineated with intra-modular and inter-modular. At last a polynomial retrieval algorithm is introduced. In this paper we simulate the memory phenomena and functions of memorization and strengthening by information processing algorithms. The theoretical analysis and the simulation results show that the model is in accordance with the memory phenomena from information processing view. PMID:27876847

  19. Development of a Simplified Model for Completely Mixed Biofilm Reactor.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sushovan; Mazumder, Debabrata

    2016-12-01

      A simplified model for the completely mixed biofilm process formulated correlations between entering and exiting substrate concentrations, average substrate flux in the biofilm and effective biofilm thickness. The model essentially considered the substrate mass transport into the biofilm as per Fick's second law and steady state substrate as well as biomass balance for biofilm. The numerical solution of the biofilm model involved evaluation of the average flux along with exiting substrate concentration and application of the Runge-Kutta method for determining the effective biofilm thickness. Accordingly, two computer programs were developed for the sake of quick solution. The solution model was successfully applied in several cases with varying range of representative input variables. The model performance was compared with available existing methods and validated with the experimental results. It was found as an easy, accurate and fast method that can be used for process design.

  20. Simplified spinal cord phantom for evaluation of SQUID magnetospinography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Y.; Oyama, D.; Somchai, N.; Kawabata, S.; Uehara, G.

    2014-05-01

    Spinal cord functional imaging by magnetospinography (MSG) is a noninvasive diagnostic method for spinal cord diseases. However, the accuracy and spatial resolution of lesion localization by MSG have barely been evaluated in detail so far. We developed a simplified spinal cord phantom for MSG evaluation. The spinal cord phantom is composed of a cylindrical vessel filled with saline water, which acts as a model of a neck. A set of modeled vertebrae is arranged in the cylindrical vessel, which has a neural current model made from catheter electrodes. The neural current model emulates the current distribution around the activated site along the axon of the spinal cord nerve. Our MSG system was used to observe the magnetic field from the phantom; a quadrupole-like pattern of the magnetic field distribution, which is a typical distribution pattern for spinal cord magnetic fields, was successfully reproduced by the phantom. Hence, the developed spinal cord phantom can be used to evaluate MSG source analysis methods.

  1. Simplified process for preparation of schizophyllan solutions for biomaterial applications.

    PubMed

    Sutivisedsak, Nongnuch; Leathers, Timothy D; Biresaw, Girma; Nunnally, Melinda S; Bischoff, Kenneth M

    2016-01-01

    Schizophyllan is a biopolymer commercially produced for pharmaceutical and cosmetics uses. However, schizophyllan also has potential biomaterial applications. Schizophyllan is conventionally produced from glucose and recovered by diafiltration and ultrafiltration to produce a highly purified product. Here we demonstrate a simplified process for preparation of schizophyllan solutions for biomaterial applications. Schizophyllan was produced in 1.5-L bioreactors from distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), an abundant coproduct of dry grind fuel ethanol production. Downstream processing eliminated filtration and concentration steps, providing solutions containing 4.2 ± 0.3 g schizophyllan/L. Solutions contained high-molecular-weight schizophyllan and exhibited viscosity properties similar to those of commercial schizophyllan. Schizophyllan solutions showed promise as a component of biolubricants in friction and wear tests and by dynamic surface and interfacial tension measurements.

  2. Simplified Analysis Methods for Primary Load Designs at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Peter; Jetter, Robert I; Sham, Sam

    2011-01-01

    The use of simplified (reference stress) analysis methods is discussed and illustrated for primary load high temperature design. Elastic methods are the basis of the ASME Section III, Subsection NH primary load design procedure. There are practical drawbacks with this approach, particularly for complex geometries and temperature gradients. The paper describes an approach which addresses these difficulties through the use of temperature-dependent elastic-perfectly plastic analysis. Correction factors are defined to address difficulties traditionally associated with discontinuity stresses, inelastic strain concentrations and multiaxiality. A procedure is identified to provide insight into how this approach could be implemented but clearly there is additional work to be done to define and clarify the procedural steps to bring it to the point where it could be adapted into code language.

  3. The CryoCapsule: Simplifying correlative light to electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Heiligenstein, Xavier; Heiligenstein, Jérôme; Delevoye, Cédric; Hurbain, Ilse; Bardin, Sabine; Paul-Gilloteaux, Perrine; Sengmanivong, Lucie; Régnier, Gilles; Salamero, Jean; Antony, Claude; Raposo, Graca

    2014-01-01

    Correlating complementary multiple scale images of the same object is a straightforward means to decipher biological processes. Light and electron microscopy are the most commonly used imaging techniques, yet despite their complementarity, the experimental procedures available to correlate them are technically complex. We designed and manufactured a new device adapted to many biological specimens, the CryoCapsule, that simplifies the multiple sample preparation steps, which at present separate live cell fluorescence imaging from contextual high-resolution electron microscopy, thus opening new strategies for full correlative light to electron microscopy. We tested the biological application of this highly optimized tool on three different specimens: the in-vitro Xenopus laevis mitotic spindle, melanoma cells over-expressing YFP-langerin sequestered in organized membranous subcellular organelles and a pigmented melanocytic cell in which the endosomal system was labeled with internalized fluorescent transferrin. PMID:24533564

  4. A simplified scheme for computing radiation transfer in the troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katayama, A.

    1973-01-01

    A scheme is presented, for the heating of clear and cloudy air by solar and infrared radiation transfer, designed for use in tropospheric general circulation models with coarse vertical resolution. A bulk transmission function is defined for the infrared transfer. The interpolation factors, required for computing the bulk transmission function, are parameterized as functions of such physical parameters as the thickness of the layer, the pressure, and the mixing ratio at a reference level. The computation procedure for solar radiation is significantly simplified by the introduction of two basic concepts. The first is that the solar radiation spectrum can be divided into a scattered part, for which Rayleigh scattering is significant but absorption by water vapor is negligible, and an absorbed part for which absorption by water vapor is significant but Rayleigh scattering is negligible. The second concept is that of an equivalent cloud water vapor amount which absorbs the same amount of radiation as the cloud.

  5. Cask crush pad analysis using detailed and simplified analysis methods

    SciTech Connect

    Uldrich, E.D.; Hawkes, B.D.

    1997-12-31

    A crush pad has been designed and analyzed to absorb the kinetic energy of a hypothetically dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask into a 44-ft. deep cask unloading pool at the Fluorinel and Storage Facility (FAST). This facility, located at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho national Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is a US Department of Energy site. The basis for this study is an analysis by Uldrich and Hawkes. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate various hypothetical cask drop orientations to ensure that the crush pad design was adequate and the cask deceleration at impact was less than 100 g. It is demonstrated herein that a large spent fuel shipping cask, when dropped onto a foam crush pad, can be analyzed by either hand methods or by sophisticated dynamic finite element analysis using computer codes such as ABAQUS. Results from the two methods are compared to evaluate accuracy of the simplified hand analysis approach.

  6. Simplified correlation-domain Brillouin sensor using plastic optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Neisei; Mizuno, Yosuke; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2015-07-01

    To perform distributed strain and temperature measurement, we have recently developed simplified Brillouin optical correlation-domain reflectometry (S-BOCDR), in which the light Fresnel-reflected at the ends of the fiber under test (FUT) is used as a reference light. Here, we implement S-BOCDR using a plastic optical fiber (POF) as an FUT, which provides the following advantages over S-BOCDR using a standard silica single-mode fiber (SMF): (1) the beat signal of the Stokes light and the Fresnel-reflected light that is obtained at the interface between the POF and the SMF (the pigtail of an optical circulator) can be stabilized, and (2) the effect of the 0th correlation peak can be easily and effectively suppressed by exploiting a so-called Brillouin frequency shift-hopping phenomenon. We then experimentally demonstrate a distributed measurement and detect a 0.46-m-long heated POF section.

  7. Simplified self-consistent theory of colloid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Maldonado, R; Chávez-Rojo, M A; Ramírez-González, P E; Yeomans-Reyna, L; Medina-Noyola, M

    2007-12-01

    One of the main elements of the self-consistent generalized Langevin equation (SCGLE) theory of colloid dynamics [Phys. Rev. E 62, 3382 (2000); 72, 031107 (2005)] is the introduction of exact short-time moment conditions in its formulation. The need to previously calculate these exact short-time properties constitutes a practical barrier for its application. In this Brief Report, we report that a simplified version of this theory, in which this short-time information is eliminated, leads to the same results in the intermediate and long-time regimes. Deviations are only observed at short times, and are not qualitatively or quantitatively important. This is illustrated by comparing the two versions of the theory for representative model systems.

  8. Simplifying rules for optimal allocation of preventive care resources.

    PubMed

    Gandjour, Afschin

    2012-04-01

    Given the limited resources for preventive care, policy-makers need to consider the efficiency/cost-effectiveness of preventive measures, such as drugs and vaccines, when allocating preventive care resources. However, in many settings only limited information on lifetime costs and effects of preventive measures exists. Therefore, it seems useful to provide policy-makers with some simplifying rules when allocating preventive care resources. The purpose of this article is to investigate the relevance of risk and severity of the disease to be prevented for the optimal allocation of preventive care resources. The report shows - based on a constrained optimization model - that optimal allocation of preventive care resources does, in fact, depend on both factors. Resources should be allocated to the prevention of diseases with a higher probability of occurrence or larger severity. This article also identifies situations where preventive care resources should be allocated to the prevention of less severe disease.

  9. A simplified analytic form for generation of axisymmetric plasma boundaries

    DOE PAGES

    Luce, Timothy C.

    2017-02-23

    An improved method has been formulated for generating analytic boundary shapes as input for axisymmetric MHD equilibria. This method uses the family of superellipses as the basis function, as previously introduced. The improvements are a simplified notation, reduction of the number of simultaneous nonlinear equations to be solved, and the realization that not all combinations of input parameters admit a solution to the nonlinear constraint equations. The method tests for the existence of a self-consistent solution and, when no solution exists, it uses a deterministic method to find a nearby solution. As a result, examples of generation of boundaries, includingmore » tests with an equilibrium solver, are given.« less

  10. Simplified interplanetary guidance procedures using onboard optical measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamer, H. A.; Johnson, K. G.

    1972-01-01

    Simplified guidance procedures have been developed which are based on preflight determination of the characteristics of perturbed trajectories. The results are devoted primarily to planetary approach guidance; however, some considerations for midcourse guidance are included. The methods are studied for an Earth-to-Mars trajectory but would be applicable to Grand Tour and other types of missions. Generally requiring only a single onboard optical angular measurement, the approach procedure predicts guidance corrections for the control of periapsis radius as well as orbital plane orientation. An error analysis has shown that the periapsis radius at Mars can be controlled to a 1 sigma accuracy of about 20 km if the guidance is performed 1/2 day before periapsis passage. If the guidance is performed at the Martian sphere of influence (2.2 days before periapsis), the error doubles because of the increased effect of measurement and maneuvering errors.

  11. The simplified Fermi accelerator in classical and quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karner, Gunther

    1994-11-01

    We review the simplified classical Fermi acceleration mechanism and construct a quantum counterpart by imposing time-dependent boundary conditions on solutions of the "free" Schrödinger equation at the unit interval. We find similiar dynamical features in the sense that limiting KAM curves, respectively purely singular quasienergy spectrum, exist(s) for sufficiently smooth "wall oscillations" (typically of C 2 type). In addition, we investigate quantum analogs to local approximations of the Fermi map both in its quasiperiodic and irregular phase space regions. In particular, we find pure point q.e. spectrum in the former case and conjecture that "random boundary conditions" are necessary to model a quantum analog to the chaotic regime of the classical accelerator.

  12. Simplified three-phase transformer model for electromagnetic transient studies

    SciTech Connect

    Chimklai, S.; Marti, J.R.

    1995-07-01

    This paper presents a simplified high-frequency model for three-phase, two- and three-winding transformers. The model is based on the classical 60-Hz equivalent circuit, extended to high frequencies by the addition of the winding capacitances and the synthesis of the frequency-dependent short-circuit branch by an RLC equivalent network. By retaining the T-form of the classical model, it is possible to separate the frequency-dependent series branch from the constant-valued shunt capacitances. Since the short-circuit branch can be synthesized by a minimum-phase-shift rational approximation, the mathematical complications of fitting mutual impedance or admittance functions are avoided and the model is guaranteed to be numerically absolutely stable. Experimental tests were performed on actual power transformers to determine the parameters of the model. EMTP simulation results are also presented.

  13. A simplified self-adaptive grid method, SAGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, C.; Venkatapathy, E.

    1989-01-01

    The formulation of the Self-Adaptive Grid Evolution (SAGE) code, based on the work of Nakahashi and Deiwert, is described in the first section of this document. The second section is presented in the form of a user guide which explains the input and execution of the code, and provides many examples. Application of the SAGE code, by Ames Research Center and by others, in the solution of various flow problems has been an indication of the code's general utility and success. Although the basic formulation follows the method of Nakahashi and Deiwert, many modifications have been made to facilitate the use of the self-adaptive grid method for single, zonal, and multiple grids. Modifications to the methodology and the simplified input options make this current version a flexible and user-friendly code.

  14. Anovulatory and ovulatory infertility: results with simplified management.

    PubMed Central

    Hull, M G; Savage, P E; Bromham, D R

    1982-01-01

    A simplified scheme for the management of anovulatory and of ovulatory (usually called unexplained) infertility was evaluated in 244 women. Eighteen patients were excluded because of primary ovarian failure, 164 were treated for ovulatory failure, and 62 with ovulatory infertility remained untreated. Twenty-five patients had a properly validated negative postcoital test. In the remaining 201 patients the two-year conception rates were 96% in patients with amenorrhoea, 83% in those with oligomenorrhoea, 74% in those with luteal deficiency, and 88% in those with ovulatory infertility. Comparison with normal rates implied that amenorrhoea represents a pure form of ovulatory failure that is completely correctable whereas in other conditions unexplained factors also contribute to infertility though to a much smaller extent than was previously thought. PMID:6805656

  15. A simplified computational memory model from information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lanhua; Zhang, Dongsheng; Deng, Yuqin; Ding, Xiaoqian; Wang, Yan; Tang, Yiyuan; Sun, Baoliang

    2016-11-01

    This paper is intended to propose a computational model for memory from the view of information processing. The model, called simplified memory information retrieval network (SMIRN), is a bi-modular hierarchical functional memory network by abstracting memory function and simulating memory information processing. At first meta-memory is defined to express the neuron or brain cortices based on the biology and graph theories, and we develop an intra-modular network with the modeling algorithm by mapping the node and edge, and then the bi-modular network is delineated with intra-modular and inter-modular. At last a polynomial retrieval algorithm is introduced. In this paper we simulate the memory phenomena and functions of memorization and strengthening by information processing algorithms. The theoretical analysis and the simulation results show that the model is in accordance with the memory phenomena from information processing view.

  16. A Simplified Determination of Percent Oxygen in Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Chin-Hsiang

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a simplified determination of the percent oxygen in air with simple and special designed apparatus. The method is based on a consumption of oxygen resulting in reduced pressure and causing water to be drawn in to the inverted flask. This experiment should be very safe, rapid, and simple. The experiment, the combustion of ethyl alcohol with oxygen in air, can either be demonstrated by chemistry teachers or be performed easily and exactly (overall average 20.77 to 20.81 % O2) by students in the student laboratory. In this way, a fountain will be produced, utilizing the siphoning effect of reducing the pressure in the inverted flask. The maximum volume of water, which is drawn into the inverted flask from the Erlenmeyer flask below by creating an interesting fountain, is reached in 5-10 minutes.

  17. Simplified Method for Preparing Methylene-Blue-Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurokawa, Kazumasa; Koike, Satoshi; Namba, Sinji; Mizuno, Toru; Kubota, Toshihiro

    1998-05-01

    Methylene-blue-sensitized dichromated gelatin (MBDCG) is a suitable material for recording full-color holograms in a single layer. However, a drying process in an ammonia atmosphere is necessary to prepare the MBDCG plate. This process is time-consuming and unstable. A simplified method for preparing the MBDCG plate is presented in which the MBDCG can be dried without ammonia. Elimination of the drying process is possible when the methylene blue in MBDCG does not separate. This is achieved by a decrease in the concentration of dichromate in the photosensitized solution and the addition of an ammonia solution to the photosensitized solution. Last, the gelatin is allowed to gel. A Lippmann color hologram grating with a diffraction efficiency of more than 80% is obtained by use of this MBDCG.

  18. 34. DESPATCH CORE OVENS, GREY IRON FOUNDRY CORE ROOM, BAKES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. DESPATCH CORE OVENS, GREY IRON FOUNDRY CORE ROOM, BAKES CORES THAT ARE NOT MADE ON HEATED OR COLD BOX CORE MACHINES, TO SET BINDING AGENTS MIXED WITH THE SAND CREATING CORES HARD ENOUGH TO WITHSTAND THE FLOW OF MOLTEN IRON INSIDE A MOLD. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  19. Mortality Probability Model III and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II

    PubMed Central

    Vasilevskis, Eduard E.; Kuzniewicz, Michael W.; Cason, Brian A.; Lane, Rondall K.; Dean, Mitzi L.; Clay, Ted; Rennie, Deborah J.; Vittinghoff, Eric; Dudley, R. Adams

    2009-01-01

    Background: To develop and compare ICU length-of-stay (LOS) risk-adjustment models using three commonly used mortality or LOS prediction models. Methods: Between 2001 and 2004, we performed a retrospective, observational study of 11,295 ICU patients from 35 hospitals in the California Intensive Care Outcomes Project. We compared the accuracy of the following three LOS models: a recalibrated acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) IV-LOS model; and models developed using risk factors in the mortality probability model III at zero hours (MPM0) and the simplified acute physiology score (SAPS) II mortality prediction model. We evaluated models by calculating the following: (1) grouped coefficients of determination; (2) differences between observed and predicted LOS across subgroups; and (3) intraclass correlations of observed/expected LOS ratios between models. Results: The grouped coefficients of determination were APACHE IV with coefficients recalibrated to the LOS values of the study cohort (APACHE IVrecal) [R2 = 0.422], mortality probability model III at zero hours (MPM0 III) [R2 = 0.279], and simplified acute physiology score (SAPS II) [R2 = 0.008]. For each decile of predicted ICU LOS, the mean predicted LOS vs the observed LOS was significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) for three, two, and six deciles using APACHE IVrecal, MPM0 III, and SAPS II, respectively. Plots of the predicted vs the observed LOS ratios of the hospitals revealed a threefold variation in LOS among hospitals with high model correlations. Conclusions: APACHE IV and MPM0 III were more accurate than SAPS II for the prediction of ICU LOS. APACHE IV is the most accurate and best calibrated model. Although it is less accurate, MPM0 III may be a reasonable option if the data collection burden or the treatment effect bias is a consideration. PMID:19363210

  20. Simplified laser-driven flyer plates for shock compression science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Kathryn E.; Shaw, William L.; Zheng, Xianxu; Dlott, Dana D.

    2012-10-01

    We describe a simplified system of laser-driven flyer plates for shock compression science and shock spectroscopy. We used commercially available one-box Nd:YAG lasers and beam homogenization solutions to create two launch systems, one based on a smaller (400 mJ) YAG laser and an inexpensive diffusive optic, and one based on a larger (2500 mJ) laser and a diffractive beam homogenizer. The flyer launch, flight, and impact processes were characterized by an 8 GHz fiberoptic photon Doppler velocimeter. We investigated effects of different substrates, adhesives, absorbers, ablative layers, and punching out disks from continuous foils versus fabricating individual foil disks, and found that a simple metal foil epoxied to a glass window was satisfactory in almost all cases. Our simplified system launched flyer plates with velocities up to 4.5 km s-1 and kinetic energies up to 250 mJ that can drive sustained steady shocks for up to 25 ns. The factor that limits these velocities and energies is the laser fluence that can be transmitted through the glass substrate to the flyer surface without optical damage. Methods to increase this transmission are discussed. Reproducible flyer launches were demonstrated with velocity variations of 0.06% and impact time variations of 1 ns. The usefulness of this flyer plate system is demonstrated by Hugoniot equation of state measurements of a polymer film, emission spectroscopy of a dye embedded in the polymer, and impact initiation and emission spectroscopy of a reactive material consisting of nanoscopic fuel and oxidizer particles.

  1. Simplified laser-driven flyer plates for shock compression science.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kathryn E; Shaw, William L; Zheng, Xianxu; Dlott, Dana D

    2012-10-01

    We describe a simplified system of laser-driven flyer plates for shock compression science and shock spectroscopy. We used commercially available one-box Nd:YAG lasers and beam homogenization solutions to create two launch systems, one based on a smaller (400 mJ) YAG laser and an inexpensive diffusive optic, and one based on a larger (2500 mJ) laser and a diffractive beam homogenizer. The flyer launch, flight, and impact processes were characterized by an 8 GHz fiberoptic photon Doppler velocimeter. We investigated effects of different substrates, adhesives, absorbers, ablative layers, and punching out disks from continuous foils versus fabricating individual foil disks, and found that a simple metal foil epoxied to a glass window was satisfactory in almost all cases. Our simplified system launched flyer plates with velocities up to 4.5 km s(-1) and kinetic energies up to 250 mJ that can drive sustained steady shocks for up to 25 ns. The factor that limits these velocities and energies is the laser fluence that can be transmitted through the glass substrate to the flyer surface without optical damage. Methods to increase this transmission are discussed. Reproducible flyer launches were demonstrated with velocity variations of 0.06% and impact time variations of 1 ns. The usefulness of this flyer plate system is demonstrated by Hugoniot equation of state measurements of a polymer film, emission spectroscopy of a dye embedded in the polymer, and impact initiation and emission spectroscopy of a reactive material consisting of nanoscopic fuel and oxidizer particles.

  2. Simplified laser-driven flyer plates for shock compression science

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Kathryn E.; Shaw, William L.; Zheng Xianxu; Dlott, Dana D.

    2012-10-15

    We describe a simplified system of laser-driven flyer plates for shock compression science and shock spectroscopy. We used commercially available one-box Nd:YAG lasers and beam homogenization solutions to create two launch systems, one based on a smaller (400 mJ) YAG laser and an inexpensive diffusive optic, and one based on a larger (2500 mJ) laser and a diffractive beam homogenizer. The flyer launch, flight, and impact processes were characterized by an 8 GHz fiberoptic photon Doppler velocimeter. We investigated effects of different substrates, adhesives, absorbers, ablative layers, and punching out disks from continuous foils versus fabricating individual foil disks, and found that a simple metal foil epoxied to a glass window was satisfactory in almost all cases. Our simplified system launched flyer plates with velocities up to 4.5 km s{sup -1} and kinetic energies up to 250 mJ that can drive sustained steady shocks for up to 25 ns. The factor that limits these velocities and energies is the laser fluence that can be transmitted through the glass substrate to the flyer surface without optical damage. Methods to increase this transmission are discussed. Reproducible flyer launches were demonstrated with velocity variations of 0.06% and impact time variations of 1 ns. The usefulness of this flyer plate system is demonstrated by Hugoniot equation of state measurements of a polymer film, emission spectroscopy of a dye embedded in the polymer, and impact initiation and emission spectroscopy of a reactive material consisting of nanoscopic fuel and oxidizer particles.

  3. Use of simplified system models to measure retrofit energy savings

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, S.; Claridge, D.E. )

    1993-05-01

    The retrofit of dual duct constant volume systems (DDCV) with energy efficient variable air volume systems (VAV) has become common in recent years. In general, the energy savings from such retrofits are estimated by developing a temperature dependent regression model using whole building preretrofit energy consumption data. Model predictions are then compared with measured post retrofit consumption, to determine the savings. In cases where the preretrofit energy consumption is not available such a method cannot be implemented. This paper describes a method that can be used to calculate savings in such cases. The method is based on use of simplified calibrated system models. A VAV model was developed based on the ASHRAE TC 4.7 Simplified Energy Analysis Procedure (SEAP) (Knebel, 1983) and calibrated with the postretrofit energy consumption of a large engineering center in Central Texas. The loads from the calibrated VAV model were then used with the DDCV model to estimate the preretrofit energy use, also based on TC 4.7 SEAP, and apparent savings were determined as the difference between the DDCV predicted consumption and measured energy consumption for the postretrofit VAV system. The simulated hourly cooling energy consumption from the VAV model was within [plus minus] 20 percent of the measured consumption. The simulated daily consumption (the sum of 24 hours of consumption) compared better with the measured daily consumption (within [plus minus] 7 percent). The apparent saving from the retrofit of the DDCV system with VAV was about 684 GJ in cooling energy and 324 GJ in heating energy for a three week period in June and July 1991.

  4. Multiple Core Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R.H.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Nuclei of galaxies often show complicated density structures and perplexing kinematic signatures. In the past we have reported numerical experiments indicating a natural tendency for galaxies to show nuclei offset with respect to nearby isophotes and for the nucleus to have a radial velocity different from the galaxy's systemic velocity. Other experiments show normal mode oscillations in galaxies with large amplitudes. These oscillations do not damp appreciably over a Hubble time. The common thread running through all these is that galaxies often show evidence of ringing, bouncing, or sloshing around in unexpected ways, even though they have not been disturbed by any external event. Recent observational evidence shows yet another phenomenon indicating the dynamical complexity of central regions of galaxies: multiple cores (M31, Markarian 315 and 463 for example). These systems can hardly be static. We noted long-lived multiple core systems in galaxies in numerical experiments some years ago, and we have more recently followed up with a series of experiments on multiple core galaxies, starting with two cores. The relevant parameters are the energy in the orbiting clumps, their relative.masses, the (local) strength of the potential well representing the parent galaxy, and the number of cores. We have studied the dependence of the merger rates and the nature of the final merger product on these parameters. Individual cores survive much longer in stronger background potentials. Cores can survive for a substantial fraction of a Hubble time if they travel on reasonable orbits.

  5. Multiple Core Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R.H.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Nuclei of galaxies often show complicated density structures and perplexing kinematic signatures. In the past we have reported numerical experiments indicating a natural tendency for galaxies to show nuclei offset with respect to nearby isophotes and for the nucleus to have a radial velocity different from the galaxy's systemic velocity. Other experiments show normal mode oscillations in galaxies with large amplitudes. These oscillations do not damp appreciably over a Hubble time. The common thread running through all these is that galaxies often show evidence of ringing, bouncing, or sloshing around in unexpected ways, even though they have not been disturbed by any external event. Recent observational evidence shows yet another phenomenon indicating the dynamical complexity of central regions of galaxies: multiple cores (M31, Markarian 315 and 463 for example). These systems can hardly be static. We noted long-lived multiple core systems in galaxies in numerical experiments some years ago, and we have more recently followed up with a series of experiments on multiple core galaxies, starting with two cores. The relevant parameters are the energy in the orbiting clumps, their relative.masses, the (local) strength of the potential well representing the parent galaxy, and the number of cores. We have studied the dependence of the merger rates and the nature of the final merger product on these parameters. Individual cores survive much longer in stronger background potentials. Cores can survive for a substantial fraction of a Hubble time if they travel on reasonable orbits.

  6. Global Core Plasma Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, Dennis L.; Craven, P. D.; Comfort, R. H.

    1999-01-01

    Abstract. The Global Core Plasma Model (GCPM) provides, empirically derived, core plasma density as a function of geomagnetic and solar conditions throughout the inner magnetosphere. It is continuous in value and gradient and is composed of separate models for the ionosphere, the plasmasphere, the plasmapause, the trough, and the polar cap. The relative composition of plasmaspheric H+, He+, and O+ is included in the GCPM. A blunt plasmaspheric bulge and rotation of the bulge with changing geomagnetic conditions is included. The GCPM is an amalgam of density models, intended to serve as a framework for continued improvement as new measurements become available and are used to characterize core plasma density, composition, and temperature.

  7. Global Core Plasma Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, Dennis L.; Craven, P. D.; Comfort, R. H.

    1999-01-01

    Abstract. The Global Core Plasma Model (GCPM) provides, empirically derived, core plasma density as a function of geomagnetic and solar conditions throughout the inner magnetosphere. It is continuous in value and gradient and is composed of separate models for the ionosphere, the plasmasphere, the plasmapause, the trough, and the polar cap. The relative composition of plasmaspheric H+, He+, and O+ is included in the GCPM. A blunt plasmaspheric bulge and rotation of the bulge with changing geomagnetic conditions is included. The GCPM is an amalgam of density models, intended to serve as a framework for continued improvement as new measurements become available and are used to characterize core plasma density, composition, and temperature.

  8. Core shroud corner joints

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Charles B.; Forsyth, David R.

    2013-09-10

    A core shroud is provided, which includes a number of planar members, a number of unitary corners, and a number of subassemblies each comprising a combination of the planar members and the unitary corners. Each unitary corner comprises a unitary extrusion including a first planar portion and a second planar portion disposed perpendicularly with respect to the first planar portion. At least one of the subassemblies comprises a plurality of the unitary corners disposed side-by-side in an alternating opposing relationship. A plurality of the subassemblies can be combined to form a quarter perimeter segment of the core shroud. Four quarter perimeter segments join together to form the core shroud.

  9. The Intensity-dependence of Tropical Cyclone Intensification in a Simplified Energetic System and a Full Physics Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Several recent studies based on best track data for tropical cyclones (TCs) over the North Atlantic revealed a strong dependence of the TC intensification rate (IR) on TC intensity. The TC IR shows a maximum (i.e., most rapid intensification) when the TC intensity reaches about 35 - 40 m s-1. Physically, this intensity-dependence has been explained in terms of the inner-core inertial stability and the decreased potential for a TC to intensify as it approaches its maximum potential intensity (MPI). Here, we propose a new simplified dynamical system based on TC energetics. For this purpose, the TC system is considered as a Carnot heat engine as in earlier theoretical studies, and formulated on the grounds of major energy production and dissipation processes. This offers a way to explain the IR behavior of TCs in terms of its sensitivity to the physical processes involved, and to derive a physically-based relationship between TC intensification and intensity. This relationship is consistent with observations, and in quantitative agreement with that gained from empirical relations in an alternative dynamical system proposed by DeMaria(2009), which has been formulated analogously to the logistic growth equation (LGE). Results from idealized full-physics model simulations confirm the validity of several key assumptions implicitly involved in the simplified dynamical system and the intensity-dependence of the TC IR as well.

  10. Large-Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident Testing and Simulation for 200-MWe Simplified Boiling Water Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Revankar, S.T.; Xu, Y.; Yoon, H.J.; Ishii, M.

    2002-07-01

    The performance of the safety systems of a new design of the 200-MWe simplified boiling water reactor during a large-break, loss-of-coolant accident transient was investigated through code modeling and integral system testing. The accident considered was a break in the main steam line which is the major design basis accident. RELAP5/MOD3 best estimate reactor thermalhydraulic code was used and its applicability to the reactor safety system evaluation was examined. The integral tests were performed to assess the safety systems and the response of the emergency core cooling systems to accident conditions in a scaled facility called PUMA. The details of the safety system behavior are presented. The integral test simulations examined code applicability at the scaled facility level as well as prototype key safety system performance. (authors)

  11. Transfer of Perceptual Expertise: The Case of Simplified and Traditional Chinese Character Recognition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianyin; Chuk, Tin Yim; Yeh, Su-Ling; Hsiao, Janet H

    2016-11-01

    Expertise in Chinese character recognition is marked by reduced holistic processing (HP), which depends mainly on writing rather than reading experience. Here we show that, while simplified and traditional Chinese readers demonstrated a similar level of HP when processing characters shared between the simplified and traditional scripts, simplified Chinese readers were less holistic than traditional Chinese readers in perceiving simplified characters; this effect depended mainly on their writing rather than reading performance. However, the two groups did not differ in HP of traditional characters, regardless of their difference in reading and writing performances. Our image analysis showed high visual similarity between the two character types, with a larger variance among simplified characters; this may allow simplified Chinese readers to interpolate and generalize their skills to traditional characters. Thus, transfer of perceptual expertise may be constrained by both the similarity in feature and the difference in exemplar variance between the categories. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  12. Magnetorotational iron core collapse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Symbalisty, E. M. D.

    1984-01-01

    During its final evolutionary stages, a massive star, as considered in current astrophysical theory, undergoes rapid collapse, thereby triggering a sequence of a catastrophic event which results in a Type II supernova explosion. A remnant neutron star or a black hole is left after the explosion. Stellar collapse occurs, when thermonuclear fusion has consumed the lighter elements present. At this stage, the core consists of iron. Difficulties arise regarding an appropriate model with respect to the core collapse. The present investigation is concerned with the evolution of a Type II supernova core including the effects of rotation and magnetic fields. A simple neutrino model is developed which reproduced the spherically symmetric results of Bowers and Wilson (1982). Several two-dimensional computational models of stellar collapse are studied, taking into account a case in which a 15 solar masses iron core was artificially given rotational and magnetic energy.

  13. Biospecimen Core Resource - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Biospecimen Core Resource centralized laboratory reviews and processes blood and tissue samples and their associated data using optimized standard operating procedures for the entire TCGA Research Network.

  14. Contaminated Sediment Core Profiling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluating the environmental risk of sites containing contaminated sediments often poses major challenges due in part to the absence of detailed information available for a given location. Sediment core profiling is often utilized during preliminary environmental investigations ...

  15. INTEGRAL core programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.; Schoenfelder, V.; Ubertini, P.; Winkler, C.

    1997-01-01

    The International Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) mission is described with emphasis on the INTEGRAL core program. The progress made in the planning activities for the core program is reported on. The INTEGRAL mission has a nominal lifetime of two years with a five year extension option. The observing time will be divided between the core program (between 30 and 35 percent during the first two years) and general observations. The core program consists of three main elements: the deep survey of the Galactic plane in the central radian of the Galaxy; frequent scans of the Galactic plane in the search for transient sources, and pointed observations of several selected sources. The allocation of the observation time is detailed and the sensitivities of the observations are outlined.

  16. Core assembly storage structure

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., Charles E.; Brunings, Jay E.

    1988-01-01

    A structure for the storage of core assemblies from a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor. The structure comprises an enclosed housing having a substantially flat horizontal top plate, a bottom plate and substantially vertical wall members extending therebetween. A plurality of thimble members extend downwardly through the top plate. Each thimble member is closed at its bottom end and has an open end adjacent said top plate. Each thimble member has a length and diameter greater than that of the core assembly to be stored therein. The housing is provided with an inlet duct for the admission of cooling air and an exhaust duct for the discharge of air therefrom, such that when hot core assemblies are placed in the thimbles, the heat generated will by convection cause air to flow from the inlet duct around the thimbles and out the exhaust duct maintaining the core assemblies at a safe temperature without the necessity of auxiliary powered cooling equipment.

  17. Contaminated Sediment Core Profiling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluating the environmental risk of sites containing contaminated sediments often poses major challenges due in part to the absence of detailed information available for a given location. Sediment core profiling is often utilized during preliminary environmental investigations ...

  18. Warm core rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Gulf stream phenomena have been the focus of numerous studies by U.S. and Canadian oceanographic laboratories. Two years ago, observations of warm core rings associated with the Gulf Stream were reported in The Oceanography Report, (November 2, 1982, p. 834). It was noted then that the structure of warm core rings can undergo rapid transformation. Recently, a multidisciplinary group of physical and biological oceanographic institutions has examined the evolution of warm core rings in detail [Nature, 308, pp. 837-840, 1984]. The study has involved research vessels Endeavor, Atlantis II, and Albatross IV for surface measurements of temperature, salinity, and for measurement surface pigments to assess the concentration of marine plants. The results are that even though warm core rings are often very stable, undergoing only slow changes, it turns out that major alterations in structure can and do occur in short periods of 2-5 days.

  19. Core-Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015 (N+1), 2020 (N+2), and 2025 (N+3) timeframes; SFW strategic thrusts and technical challenges; SFW advanced subsystems that are broadly applicable to N+3 vehicle concepts, with an indication where further noise research is needed; the components of core noise (compressor, combustor and turbine noise) and a rationale for NASA's current emphasis on the combustor-noise component; the increase in the relative importance of core noise due to turbofan design trends; the need to understand and mitigate core-noise sources for high-efficiency small gas generators; and the current research activities in the core-noise area, with additional details given about forthcoming updates to NASA's Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) core-noise prediction capabilities, two NRA efforts (Honeywell International, Phoenix, AZ and University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, respectively) to improve the understanding of core-noise sources and noise propagation through the engine core, and an effort to develop oxide/oxide ceramic-matrix-composite (CMC) liners for broadband noise attenuation suitable for turbofan-core application. Core noise must be addressed to ensure that the N+3 noise goals are met. Focused, but long-term, core-noise research is carried out to enable the advanced high-efficiency small gas-generator subsystem, common to several N+3 conceptual designs, needed to meet NASA's technical challenges. Intermediate updates to prediction tools are implemented as the understanding of the source structure and engine-internal propagation effects is improved. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The

  20. Health Information in Chinese - Simplified (简体中文): MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... 简体中文 (Chinese - Simplified) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Diabetes Type 1 How to Use a Glucose Meter 如何使用葡萄糖计表 - 简体中文 ( ... 简体中文 (Chinese - Simplified) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Non-Stress Test in Pregnancy 怀孕非压力检查 - 简体中文 (Chinese - Simplified) ...

  1. Nuclear core positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Garkisch, Hans D.; Yant, Howard W.; Patterson, John F.

    1979-01-01

    A structural support system for the core of a nuclear reactor which achieves relatively restricted clearances at operating conditions and yet allows sufficient clearance between fuel assemblies at refueling temperatures. Axially displaced spacer pads having variable between pad spacing and a temperature compensated radial restraint system are utilized to maintain clearances between the fuel elements. The core support plates are constructed of metals specially chosen such that differential thermal expansion produces positive restraint at operating temperatures.

  2. Core bounce supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Cooperstein, J.

    1987-01-01

    The gravitational collapse mechanism for Type II supernovae is considered, concentrating on the direct implosion - core bounce - hydrodynamic explosion picture. We examine the influence of the stiffness of the dense matter equation of state and discuss how the shock wave is formed. Its chances of success are determined by the equation of state, general relativistic effects, neutrino transport, and the size of presupernova iron core. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  3. SLS Core Stage Simulator

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-02

    CHRISTOPHER CRUMBLY, MANAGER OF THE SPACECRAFT PAYLOAD INTEGRATION AND EVOLUTION OFFICE, GAVE VISITORS AN INSIDER'S PERSPECTIVE ON THE CORE STAGE SIMULATOR AT MARSHALL AND ITS IMPORTANCE TO DEVELOPMENT OF THE SPACE LAUNCH SYSTEM. CHRISTOPHER CRUMBLY, MANAGER OF THE SPACECRAFT PAYLOAD INTEGRATION AND EVOLUTION OFFICE, GAVE VISITORS AN INSIDER'S PERSPECTIVE ON THE CORE STAGE SIMULATOR AT MARSHALL AND ITS IMPORTANCE TO DEVELOPMENT OF THE SPACE LAUNCH SYSTEM.

  4. Micro coring apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, David; Brooks, Marshall; Chen, Paul; Dwelle, Paul; Fischer, Ben

    1989-01-01

    A micro-coring apparatus for lunar exploration applications, that is compatible with the other components of the Walking Mobile Platform, was designed. The primary purpose of core sampling is to gain an understanding of the geological composition and properties of the prescribed environment. This procedure has been used extensively for Earth studies and in limited applications during lunar explorations. The corer is described and analyzed for effectiveness.

  5. Spectra of Hot Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, S.; McKee, C. F.

    2003-12-01

    The turbulent core model for massive star formation (McKee & Tan 2002) generalizes the standard isothermal collapse model for low-mass stars to include turbulent pressure support. This model predicts reasonable massive star formation times of order 105 years, which is short enough to overcome the radiation pressure of the newly formed star. We calculate the millimeter and infrared spectrum predicted by the turbulent core model and compare with observations of several hot molecular cores. We consider spherically symmetric dust envelopes and use DUSTY, a 1-D radiative transfer code (Ivezic, Nenkova, Elitzur 1997), to numerically calculate the SEDs of these hot cores. We also analytically calculate the spectra in the asymptotic regions of low and high frequency and join these asymptotic forms smoothly by a fitting function that minimizes the relative error between the analytic and numerical spectra. Thus, we are able to express the functional dependence of the spectra of hot cores in terms of the dynamical variables of any given collapse model. This approach allows us to use observed SEDs as a diagnostic tool in inferring physical conditions in these cores.

  6. MCNP LWR Core Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Noah A.

    2012-08-14

    The reactor core input generator allows for MCNP input files to be tailored to design specifications and generated in seconds. Full reactor models can now easily be created by specifying a small set of parameters and generating an MCNP input for a full reactor core. Axial zoning of the core will allow for density variation in the fuel and moderator, with pin-by-pin fidelity, so that BWR cores can more accurately be modeled. LWR core work in progress: (1) Reflectivity option for specifying 1/4, 1/2, or full core simulation; (2) Axial zoning for moderator densities that vary with height; (3) Generating multiple types of assemblies for different fuel enrichments; and (4) Parameters for specifying BWR box walls. Fuel pin work in progress: (1) Radial and azimuthal zoning for generating further unique materials in fuel rods; (2) Options for specifying different types of fuel for MOX or multiple burn assemblies; (3) Additional options for replacing fuel rods with burnable poison rods; and (4) Control rod/blade modeling.

  7. Emergency core cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Schenewerk, William E.; Glasgow, Lyle E.

    1983-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor provided with an emergency core cooling system includes a reactor vessel which contains a reactor core comprising an array of fuel assemblies and a plurality of blanket assemblies. The reactor core is immersed in a pool of liquid metal coolant. The reactor also includes a primary coolant system comprising a pump and conduits for circulating liquid metal coolant to the reactor core and through the fuel and blanket assemblies of the core. A converging-diverging venturi nozzle with an intermediate throat section is provided in between the assemblies and the pump. The intermediate throat section of the nozzle is provided with at least one opening which is in fluid communication with the pool of liquid sodium. In normal operation, coolant flows from the pump through the nozzle to the assemblies with very little fluid flowing through the opening in the throat. However, when the pump is not running, residual heat in the core causes fluid from the pool to flow through the opening in the throat of the nozzle and outwardly through the nozzle to the assemblies, thus providing a means of removing decay heat.

  8. A simplified ecological footprint at a regional scale.

    PubMed

    Hopton, Matthew E; White, Denis

    2012-11-30

    We calculated an Ecological Footprint Analysis (EFA) at a regional scale. EFA captures the human impact on the environmental system by identifying the amount of biologically productive land necessary to support a person's level of consumption and waste generation. EFA is a commonly used metric of sustainability because it is easy to conceptualize and the calculation is relatively straightforward. Utilizing free, readily available data, we calculated an EFA for a region in southern Colorado. Gathering existing data at a regional scale is difficult because data are often collected at national or state levels. The lack of data is further confounded by the fact that data are often collected at intervals greater than one year. Variables that were missing data for certain years were estimated using linear interpolation. Data not available by county were scaled to the region from state or national level data. Thirty-five variables from 1980 to 2005 (26 years) were collected and used to calculate a time-dependent EFA and the resulting trend was visually examined. The available biocapacity in the region did not decrease during the period, but per capita biocapacity decreased due to population growth. Per capita biocapacity was at a period high of nearly 41 ha per person (ha/ca) in 1980 and steadily decreased to a low around 31 ha/ca in 2005. Ecological footprint remained constant over the 26-year period, varying from a low of 5.1 ha/ca in 1997 to a high of 5.5 ha/ca in 1985. A steady ecological footprint combined with a decreasing per capita biocapacity, implies the ecological reserve is decreasing and, thus, the region is moving away from sustainability. Although per capita consumption did not increase substantially during the 26 years, more people are drawing on a fixed quantity of resources. Our methodology is a simplified approach to EFA and does not follow standards that are currently being established. Adhering to the suggested standards would require obtaining data

  9. On the coupling of fluid dynamics and electromagnetism at the top of the earth's core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    A kinematic approach to short-term geomagnetism has recently been based upon pre-Maxwell frozen-flux electromagnetism. A complete dynamic theory requires coupling fluid dynamics to electromagnetism. A geophysically plausible simplifying assumption for the vertical vorticity balance, namely that the vertical Lorentz torque is negligible, is introduced and its consequences are developed. The simplified coupled magnetohydrodynamic system is shown to conserve a variety of magnetic and vorticity flux integrals. These provide constraints on eligible models for the geomagnetic main field, its secular variation, and the horizontal fluid motions at the top of the core, and so permit a number of tests of the underlying assumptions.

  10. Core-Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation is a technical progress report and near-term outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external work on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduced-Noise-Aircraft Technical Challenge; the current research activities in the core-noise area, with some additional details given about the development of a high-fidelity combustion-noise prediction capability; the need for a core-noise diagnostic capability to generate benchmark data for validation of both high-fidelity work and improved models, as well as testing of future noise-reduction technologies; relevant existing core-noise tests using real engines and auxiliary power units; and examples of possible scenarios for a future diagnostic facility. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The SFW Reduced-Noise-Aircraft Technical Challenge aims to enable concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries. This reduction of aircraft noise is critical for enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. Noise generated in the jet engine core, by sources such as the compressor, combustor, and turbine, can be a significant contribution to the overall noise signature at low-power conditions, typical of approach flight. At high engine power during takeoff, jet and fan noise have traditionally dominated over core noise. However, current design trends and expected technological advances in engine-cycle design as well as noise-reduction methods are likely to reduce non-core noise even at engine-power points higher than approach. In addition, future low-emission combustor designs could increase

  11. Packing in protein cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaines, J. C.; Clark, A. H.; Regan, L.; O'Hern, C. S.

    2017-07-01

    Proteins are biological polymers that underlie all cellular functions. The first high-resolution protein structures were determined by x-ray crystallography in the 1960s. Since then, there has been continued interest in understanding and predicting protein structure and stability. It is well-established that a large contribution to protein stability originates from the sequestration from solvent of hydrophobic residues in the protein core. How are such hydrophobic residues arranged in the core; how can one best model the packing of these residues, and are residues loosely packed with multiple allowed side chain conformations or densely packed with a single allowed side chain conformation? Here we show that to properly model the packing of residues in protein cores it is essential that amino acids are represented by appropriately calibrated atom sizes, and that hydrogen atoms are explicitly included. We show that protein cores possess a packing fraction of φ ≈ 0.56 , which is significantly less than the typically quoted value of 0.74 obtained using the extended atom representation. We also compare the results for the packing of amino acids in protein cores to results obtained for jammed packings from discrete element simulations of spheres, elongated particles, and composite particles with bumpy surfaces. We show that amino acids in protein cores pack as densely as disordered jammed packings of particles with similar values for the aspect ratio and bumpiness as found for amino acids. Knowing the structural properties of protein cores is of both fundamental and practical importance. Practically, it enables the assessment of changes in the structure and stability of proteins arising from amino acid mutations (such as those identified as a result of the massive human genome sequencing efforts) and the design of new folded, stable proteins and protein-protein interactions with tunable specificity and affinity.

  12. Potentialities of TEC topping: A simplified view of parametric effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    An examination of the benefits of thermionic-energy-conversion (TEC)-topped power plants and methods of increasing conversion efficiency are discussed. Reductions in the cost of TEC modules yield direct decreases in the cost of electricity (COE) from TEC-topped central station power plants. Simplified COE, overall-efficiency charts presented illustrate this trend. Additional capital-cost diminution results from designing more compact furnaces with considerably increased heat transfer rates allowable and desirable for high temperature TEC and heat pipes. Such improvements can evolve of the protection from hot corrosion and slag as well as the thermal expansion compatibilities offered by silicon-carbide clads on TEC-heating surfaces. Greater efficiencies and far fewer modules are possible with high-temperature, high-power-density TEC: This decreases capital and fuel costs much more and substantially increases electric power outputs for fixed fuel inputs. In addition to more electricity, less pollution, and lower costs, TEC topping used directly in coal-combustion products contributes balance-of-payment gains.

  13. Bithermal fatigue: A simplified alternative to thermomechanical fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verrilli, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    A bithermal fatigue test technique was proposed as a simplified alternative to the thermomechanical fatigue test. Both the thermomechanical cycle and the bithermal technique can be used to study nonisothermal fatigue behavior. The difference between the two cycles is that in a conventional thermomechanical fatigue cycle the temperature is continuously varied concurrently with the applied mechanical strains, but in the bithermal fatigue cycle the specimen is held at zero load during the temperature excursions and all the loads are applied at the two extreme temperatures of the cycle. Experimentally, the bithermal fatigue test technique offers advantages such as ease in synchronizing the temperature and mechanical strain waveforms, in minimizing temperature gradients in the specimen gauge length, and in reducing and interpreting thermal fatigue such as the influence of alternate high and low temperatures on the cyclic stress-strain response characteristics, the effects of thermal state, and the possibility of introducing high- and low-temperature deformation mechanisms within the same cycle. The bithermal technique was used to study nonisothermal fatigue behavior of alloys such as single-crystal PWA 1480, single-crystal Rene N4, cast B1900+Hf, and wrought Haynes 188.

  14. Triplet repeat primed PCR simplifies testing for Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Jama, Mohamed; Millson, Alison; Miller, Christine E; Lyon, Elaine

    2013-03-01

    Diagnostic and predictive testing for Huntington disease (HD) requires an accurate determination of the number of CAG repeats in the Huntingtin (HHT) gene. Currently, when a sample appears to be homozygous for a normal allele, additional testing is required to confirm amplification from both alleles. If the sample still appears homozygous, Southern blot analysis is performed to rule out an undetected expanded HTT allele. Southern blot analysis is expensive, time-consuming, and labor intensive and requires high concentrations of DNA. We have developed a chimeric PCR process to help streamline workflow; true homozygous alleles are easily distinguished by this simplified method, and only very large expanded alleles still require Southern blot analysis. Two hundred forty-six HD samples, previously run with a different fragment analysis method, were analyzed with our new method. All samples were correctly genotyped, resulting in 100% concordance between the methods. The chimeric PCR assay was able to identify expanded alleles up to >150 CAG repeats. This method offers a simple strategy to differentiate normal from expanded CAG alleles, thereby reducing the number of samples reflexed to Southern blot analysis. It also provides assurance that expanded alleles are not routinely missed because of allele dropout.

  15. Global preamplification simplifies targeted mRNA quantification

    PubMed Central

    Kroneis, Thomas; Jonasson, Emma; Andersson, Daniel; Dolatabadi, Soheila; Ståhlberg, Anders

    2017-01-01

    The need to perform gene expression profiling using next generation sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) on small sample sizes and single cells is rapidly expanding. However, to analyse few molecules, preamplification is required. Here, we studied global and target-specific preamplification using 96 optimised qPCR assays. To evaluate the preamplification strategies, we monitored the reactions in real-time using SYBR Green I detection chemistry followed by melting curve analysis. Next, we compared yield and reproducibility of global preamplification to that of target-specific preamplification by qPCR using the same amount of total RNA. Global preamplification generated 9.3-fold lower yield and 1.6-fold lower reproducibility than target-specific preamplification. However, the performance of global preamplification is sufficient for most downstream applications and offers several advantages over target-specific preamplification. To demonstrate the potential of global preamplification we analysed the expression of 15 genes in 60 single cells. In conclusion, we show that global preamplification simplifies targeted gene expression profiling of small sample sizes by a flexible workflow. We outline the pros and cons for global preamplification compared to target-specific preamplification. PMID:28332609

  16. Graphical User Interface for Simplified Neutron Transport Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, Randolph; Carter, Leland L

    2011-07-18

    A number of codes perform simple photon physics calculations. The nuclear industry is lacking in similar tools to perform simplified neutron physics shielding calculations. With the increased importance of performing neutron calculations for homeland security applications and defense nuclear nonproliferation tasks, having an efficient method for performing simple neutron transport calculations becomes increasingly important. Codes such as Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) can perform the transport calculations; however, the technical details in setting up, running, and interpreting the required simulations are quite complex and typically go beyond the abilities of most users who need a simple answer to a neutron transport calculation. The work documented in this report resulted in the development of the NucWiz program, which can create an MCNP input file for a set of simple geometries, source, and detector configurations. The user selects source, shield, and tally configurations from a set of pre-defined lists, and the software creates a complete MCNP input file that can be optionally run and the results viewed inside NucWiz.

  17. A simplified model of saltcake moisture distribution. Letter report

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, C.S.

    1995-09-01

    This letter report describes the formulation of a simplified model for finding the moisture distribution in a saltcake waste profile that has been stabilized by pumping out the drainable interstitial liquid. The model is based on assuming that capillarity mainly governs the distribution of moisture in the porous saltcake waste. A stead upward flow of moisture driven by evaporation from the waste surface is conceptualized to occur for isothermal conditions. To obtain hydraulic parameters for unsaturated conditions, the model is calibrated or matched to the relative saturation distribution as measured by neutron probe scans. The model is demonstrated on Tanks 104-BY and 105-TX as examples. A value of the model is that it identifies the key physical parameters that control the surface moisture content in a waste profile. Moreover, the model can be used to estimate the brine application rate at the waste surface that would raise the moisture content there to a safe level. Thus, the model can be applied to help design a strategy for correcting the moisture conditions in a saltcake waste tank.

  18. Design and fabrication of a solid simplified head phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanikawa, Yukari; Imai, Daigo; Mizuno, Sho; Maki, Hiroshi; Shinozaki, Osamu; Yamada, Yukio

    1997-08-01

    Optical tomography aims to image the distribution of optical properties in human bodies by measuring transmitted light at skin surfaces. Pervious calculations and experiments have been mainly performed on phantoms with simple geometries such as slabs and cylinders, but for optical tomography it is inevitable to fully understand light propagation through and perform experiments using phantoms with complicated structures in three dimensions. Therefore, we need stable and realistic solid phantoms for experimental studies toward the goal of optical tomography. In this study, we have fabricated two types of solid phantoms which optically and anatomically simulate human heads. One has a shape and structures of a part of human head above eye plane, and the other has a more simplified shape of hemisphere. These phantoms consisted of five layers which corresponded to five tissue types in human head; i.e., skin, skull, clear CSF layer, gray matter and white matter. Size and optical properties were given according to those of human neonatal head. After taking original shapes from MRI images, prototypes of five layers were fabricated by a rapid prototyping based photolithography. Epoxy resin with titanium oxide particles as scatterers and green dye as absorber was cast into the molds of the prototypes to make optical phantoms. Absorbers simulating inhomogeneities were also embedded.

  19. Simplified power processing for inert gas ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.; Pinero, L. R.; Hamley, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Significant simplifications to power processors for inert gas ion thrusters in the 1 to 5 kW range have been identified. They include elimination of all but three power supplies - one each for the neutralizer, main discharge, and beam. The neutralizer and discharge power supplies would provide both cathode heating and plasma generating functions. This dual-use power supply concept was validated via integration tests with a 30 cm diameter xenon ion thruster. The beam/accelerator power supply would have positive and negative outputs to allow a single power supply to provide both functions. The discharge and beam power supplies would incorporate full-bridge inverters similar to those proven for flight-ready arcjet propulsion systems. Operation of this simplified power processing scheme at an inverter frequency of 50 kHz results in a projected power processor design with low mass and high efficiency. A 2 kW reference point design has estimated values of specific mass of 5.4 kg/kW and an efficiency of 93 percent.

  20. Simplified calibration for broadband solar ultraviolet radiation measurements.

    PubMed

    Oppenrieder, A; Hoeppe, P; Koepke, P; Reuder, J; Schween, J; Schreder, J

    2003-12-01

    Aspects of different calibration procedures for erythemally weighing broadband radiometers are presented in this study. These instruments are common in projects dealing with ultraviolet radiation effects on humans. Many erythemally weighing broadband radiometers are still operated using a single calibration factor (cf) that is provided with the instrument. The individual characteristics of every instrument are strongly dependent on the total ozone amount and the solar elevation. Therefore, a calibration procedure also has to take into account the ozone concentrations and the solar elevation to compensate for the effects of the individual characteristics and to provide comparable measurements. Given the variation of the ozone concentrations and the solar elevation, an individual cf has to be calculated for every measurement. Using a simplified version of the calibration procedure, which is presented in this study, can lessen this effort. Taking into account the relevant meteorological conditions for a measuring site, a single cf is calculated to compensate the individual characteristics of the instruments and therefore deliver comparable measurements with less effort.

  1. Simplified training for hazardous materials management in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Braithwaite, J.

    1994-12-31

    There are thousands of dangerous situations happening daily in developing countries around the world involving untrained workers and hazardous materials. There are very few if any agencies in developing countries that are charged with ensuring safe and healthful working conditions. In addition to the problem of regulation and enforcement, there are potential training problems due to the level of literacy and degree of scientific background of these workers. Many of these workers are refugees from poorly developed countries who are willing to work no matter what the conditions. Training methods (standards) accepted as state of the art in the United States and other developed countries may not work well under the conditions found in developing countries. Because these methods may not be appropriate, new and novel ways to train workers quickly, precisely and economically in hazardous materials management should be developed. One approach is to develop training programs that use easily recognizable graphics with minimal verbal instruction, programs similar to the type used to teach universal international driving regulations and safety. The program as outlined in this paper could be tailored to any sized plant and any hazardous material handling or exposure situation. The situation in many developing countries is critical, development of simplified training methods for workers exposed to hazardous materials hold valuable market potential and are an opportunity for many underdeveloped countries to develop indigenous expertise in hazardous materials management.

  2. Discrimination of musical instrument sounds resynthesized with simplified spectrotemporal parameters.

    PubMed

    McAdams, S; Beauchamp, J W; Meneguzzi, S

    1999-02-01

    The perceptual salience of several outstanding features of quasiharmonic, time-variant spectra was investigated in musical instrument sounds. Spectral analyses of sounds from seven musical instruments (clarinet, flute, oboe, trumpet, violin, harpsichord, and marimba) produced time-varying harmonic amplitude and frequency data. Six basic data simplifications and five combinations of them were applied to the reference tones: amplitude-variation smoothing, coherent variation of amplitudes over time, spectral-envelope smoothing, forced harmonic-frequency variation, frequency-variation smoothing, and harmonic-frequency flattening. Listeners were asked to discriminate sounds resynthesized with simplified data from reference sounds resynthesized with the full data. Averaged over the seven instruments, the discrimination was very good for spectral envelope smoothing and amplitude envelope coherence, but was moderate to poor in decreasing order for forced harmonic frequency variation, frequency variation smoothing, frequency flattening, and amplitude variation smoothing. Discrimination of combinations of simplifications was equivalent to that of the most potent constituent simplification. Objective measurements were made on the spectral data for harmonic amplitude, harmonic frequency, and spectral centroid changes resulting from simplifications. These measures were found to correlate well with discrimination results, indicating that listeners have access to a relatively fine-grained sensory representation of musical instrument sounds.

  3. LESS sacrocolpopexy: step by step of a simplified knotless technique.

    PubMed

    Tobias-Machado, Marcos; Chicoli, Felipe A; Costa, Renato M M; Carlos, Alexandre Stievano; Bezerra, Carlos A; Longuino, Luiz F F; Starling, Eduardo S; Tome, André L F; Pompeo, Antonio C L

    2012-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse is an ordinary disease with around 200.000 surgeries performed annually in the US to treat this condition. The surgical treatment for complete vaginal vault prolapse after hysterectomy involves abdominal or vaginal sacrocolpopexy. The purpose of this video is to demonstrate the steps of a laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) sacrocolpopexy performed by a simplified knotless technique. A 52 year-old female submitted a total hysterectomy five years ago due to miomatosis who developed vault prolapse and urinary incontinence after surgery. She was treated by transumbilical LESS cutaneous retractor and a surgical glove attached to three trocars through a 3.5 cm umbilical incision. Patient was positioned in lithotomy, the Y-shape polypropylene mesh was passed through the trocar. Only conventional laparoscopic instruments were used for intrabdominal dissection of vagina and peritoneum. The mesh was fixed to the vaginal fornix using 3 continuous sutures held in extremities by polymeric clips. The last helical suture was fixed by polymeric clips to the sacral periosteum from the promontory to achieve good vaginal positioning without tension. The posterior peritoneum was closed over the mesh. The operative time was 150 minutes, blood loss of approximately 100 mL and the patient was discharged after 18 hours with no immediate complications and a 3 months follow-up free of vault prolapse and urinary incontinence until now. LESS sacrocolpopexy performed with conventional instruments is feasible and a safe procedure reproducing surgical steps of conventional laparoscopic or robotic surgery.

  4. A Simplified Mesh Deformation Method Using Commercial Structural Analysis Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Su-Yuen; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Samareh, Jamshid

    2004-01-01

    Mesh deformation in response to redefined or moving aerodynamic surface geometries is a frequently encountered task in many applications. Most existing methods are either mathematically too complex or computationally too expensive for usage in practical design and optimization. We propose a simplified mesh deformation method based on linear elastic finite element analyses that can be easily implemented by using commercially available structural analysis software. Using a prescribed displacement at the mesh boundaries, a simple structural analysis is constructed based on a spatially varying Young s modulus to move the entire mesh in accordance with the surface geometry redefinitions. A variety of surface movements, such as translation, rotation, or incremental surface reshaping that often takes place in an optimization procedure, may be handled by the present method. We describe the numerical formulation and implementation using the NASTRAN software in this paper. The use of commercial software bypasses tedious reimplementation and takes advantage of the computational efficiency offered by the vendor. A two-dimensional airfoil mesh and a three-dimensional aircraft mesh were used as test cases to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Euler and Navier-Stokes calculations were performed for the deformed two-dimensional meshes.

  5. Simplified jet-A kinetic mechanism for combustor application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chi-Ming; Kundu, Krishna; Ghorashi, Bahman

    1993-01-01

    Successful modeling of combustion and emissions in gas turbine engine combustors requires an adequate description of the reaction mechanism. For hydrocarbon oxidation, detailed mechanisms are only available for the simplest types of hydrocarbons such as methane, ethane, acetylene, and propane. These detailed mechanisms contain a large number of chemical species participating simultaneously in many elementary kinetic steps. Current computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models must include fuel vaporization, fuel-air mixing, chemical reactions, and complicated boundary geometries. To simulate these conditions a very sophisticated computer model is required, which requires large computer memory capacity and long run times. Therefore, gas turbine combustion modeling has frequently been simplified by using global reaction mechanisms, which can predict only the quantities of interest: heat release rates, flame temperature, and emissions. Jet fuels are wide-boiling-range hydrocarbons with ranges extending through those of gasoline and kerosene. These fuels are chemically complex, often containing more than 300 components. Jet fuel typically can be characterized as containing 70 vol pct paraffin compounds and 25 vol pct aromatic compounds. A five-step Jet-A fuel mechanism which involves pyrolysis and subsequent oxidation of paraffin and aromatic compounds is presented here. This mechanism is verified by comparing with Jet-A fuel ignition delay time experimental data, and species concentrations obtained from flametube experiments. This five-step mechanism appears to be better than the current one- and two-step mechanisms.

  6. Evaluation of simplified evaporation duct refractivity models for inversion problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeger, J. T.; Grimes, N. G.; Rickard, H. E.; Hackett, E. E.

    2015-10-01

    To assess a radar system's instantaneous performance on any given day, detailed knowledge of the meteorological conditions is required due to the dependency of atmospheric refractivity on thermodynamic properties such as temperature, water vapor, and pressure. Because of the significant challenges involved in obtaining these data, recent efforts have focused on development of methods to obtain the refractivity structure inversely using radar measurements and radar wave propagation models. Such inversion techniques generally use simplified refractivity models in order to reduce the parameter space of the solution. Here the accuracy of three simple refractivity models is examined for the case of an evaporation duct. The models utilize the basic log linear shape classically associated with evaporation ducts, but each model depends on various parameters that affect different aspects of the profile, such as its shape and duct height. The model parameters are optimized using radiosonde data, and their performance is compared to these atmospheric measurements. The optimized models and data are also used to predict propagation using a parabolic equation code with the refractivity prescribed by the models and measured data, and the resulting propagation patterns are compared. The results of this study suggest that the best log linear model formulation for an inversion problem would be a two-layer model that contains at least three parameters: duct height, duct curvature, and mixed layer slope. This functional form permits a reasonably accurate fit to atmospheric measurements as well as embodies key features of the profile required for correct propagation prediction with as few parameters as possible.

  7. Simplified method for calculation of equilibrium plasma composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rydalevskaya, Maria A.

    2017-06-01

    In this work, a simplified method for the evaluation of equilibrium composition of plasmas consisted of monoatomic species is proposed. Multicomponent gas systems resulting from thermal ionization of spatially uniform mixtures are assumed enough rarefied to be treated as ideal gases even after multiple ionization steps. The method developed for the calculation of equilibrium composition of these mixtures makes use of the fundamental principles of statistical physics. Equilibrium concentrations of mixture components are determined by integration of distribution functions over the space of momentum and summation over electronic energy levels. These functions correspond to the entropy maximum. To determine unknown parameters, the systems of equations corresponding to the normalization conditions are derived. It is shown that the systems may be reduced to one algebraic equation if the equilibrium temperature is known. Numeral method to solve this equation is proposed. Special attention is given to the ionized mixtures, generated from the atoms of a single chemical species and the situations, when in the gas only the first- or the first- and second-order ionization are possible.

  8. Simplified thermal model of the ITER magnet system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furci, Hernán; Luongo, Cesar

    2014-09-01

    A simplified thermal model of the ITER magnet system has been developed to capture the essence of the magnet heat load dynamics without the need for extensive computations. Idealization of the magnets has been made using mainly two standard types of elements, solids and tubes. No Navier-Stokes equations have been solved for the hydraulics, but instead a simple transport model with approximation for pressure evolution has been used. The model was implemented in C language and used to investigate the important features needed to implement a computationally efficient and fast magnet thermal model capturing overall behavior in terms of superconductor cooling channel description (thermal coupling with jackets, presence of the conductor, importance of the central channel, etc.). Furthermore, the model was benchmarked against validated simulation tools such as SuperMagnet and Vincenta using the ITER Central Solenoid normal operation scenario for comparison. Dynamics were shown to be reproduced in good agreement with results attainable with these more detailed codes, considering the high level of uncertainty on the input parameters, namely the heat transfer coefficients and the values of heat loads.

  9. Jogging in place. Evaluation of a simplified exercise test

    SciTech Connect

    Papazoglou, N.; Kolokouri-Dervou, E.; Fanourakis, I.; Natsis, P.; Koutsiouba, P. )

    1989-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate jogging in place as an electrocardiographic exercise test. Jogging in place continuously recorded via an ordinary single-channel electrocardiograph was compared with the Bruce treadmill protocol with a three-channel monitor and recorder in 141 cases with a wide spectrum of chest complaints. Agreement for the presence or absence of electrocardiographic ischemia (ST-segment displacement greater than or equal to 1 mm at 80 ms from the J point, or U-wave inversion) for the two tests was observed in 91 percent of the cases (95 percent confidence intervals: 86 percent to 95.5 percent). One hundred of the previous cases with paired electrocardiographic exercise tests were compared with the presence of reversible defects on exercise myocardial thallium-201 scintigraphy. The electrocardiographic ischemia had a similar correct classification rate in both methods (83 percent with jogging in place and 85 percent with Bruce treadmill protocol; not significant) against the finding of scintigraphic ischemia. This was also true for 52 cases having selective coronary arteriography. The correct classification rate was 54 percent (28/52) with jogging in place and 48 percent (25/52) with Bruce treadmill protocol (not significant). Given the safety and the easy applicability, even in older persons, this simplified test can be recommended as a valid alternative to the established multistage exercise tests.

  10. Simplified solutions to predicting the magnetic vectors within CMEs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savani, N.

    2015-12-01

    The direction of magnetic vectors within coronal mass ejections, CMEs, has significant importance for forecasting terrestrial behavior. However forecasting these vectors remains largely elusive and lies predominately with the difficulty in disassociating the predictive skill of the magnetic configuration during the initiation process with the skill of understanding the evolutionary effects of the topology during propagation. Here, we discuss a simplified system for predicting the magnetic vector within CMEs, driven by observations and empirical relationships. We suggest a modification to a CME helicity rule by Bothmer & Schwenn (1998) can improve the skills with the initiation problem near the solar surface, and accurate triangulation methods of the CME with recent observational studies can improve the predictions of the evolutionary effects. Both tools in conjunction can provide the first steps to providing operationally reliable estimates of the magnetic vectors for all possible CMEs and include scope to improve individual modules within the forecasting scheme. By focusing on Earth-directed CMEs, we can develop forecasting skill scores for multiple CMEs using NOAA definitions for geomagnetic storms. We will present the skill scores of predicted CMEs in relation to their associated Kp values at Earth for CMEs that were predicted in a real-time setting at NASA Space Weather Research Center.

  11. Characterization of a simplified method of cryopreserving human parathyroid tissue.

    PubMed

    Saxe, A W; Gibson, G W; Kay, S

    1990-12-01

    Cryopreservation of human parathyroid tissue plays an important role in managing difficult parathyroid disease. It also can permit investigators to conduct experiments without dependence on the operating room schedule. Availability of cryopreservation has been limited by the perceived need for expensive, complex equipment. We adapted a simple method of freezing cell suspensions to freezing human parathyroid tissue. Vials containing human parathyroid in culture media, dimethylsulfoxide, and patient serum were placed in a plastic rack in a metal pan containing prechilled (4 degrees C) ethanol and placed in a -70 degrees C freezer. We compared viability (trypan blue dye exclusion by collagenase dispersed cells) of tissue frozen in this manner to that of tissue frozen in a programmable liquid nitrogen freezer at 1 degrees C per minute, a cooling rate recommended for human parathyroid tissue. The viability of 30 patients' samples cooled in liquid nitrogen (average length of storage 5 months) was 74% +/- 15% and that of 64 patients' samples cooled in ethanol (average length of storage 26 months) was 71% +/- 15%. Viability of 19 samples of fresh tissue was 79% +/- 10%. Neither method had a statistically significant correlation between length of storage and viability. Successful cryopreservation with simplified technology may expand the availability of parathyroid tissue to meet both clinical and investigative requirements.

  12. Simulation of spray dispersion in a simplified heavy vehicle wake

    SciTech Connect

    Paschkewitz, J S

    2006-01-13

    Simulations of spray dispersion in a simplified tractor-trailer wake have been completed with the goal of obtaining a better understanding of how to mitigate this safety hazard. The Generic Conventional Model (GCM) for the tractor-trailer was used. The impact of aerodynamic drag reduction devices, specifically trailer-mounted base flaps, on the transport of spray in the vehicle wake was considered using the GCM. This analysis demonstrated that base flaps including a bottom plate may actually worsen motorist visibility because of the interaction of fine spray with large vortex flows in the wake. This work suggests that to use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to design and evaluate spray mitigation strategies the jet or sheet breakup processes can be modeled using an array of injectors of small (< 0.1 mm) water droplets; however the choice of size distribution, injection locations, directions and velocities is largely unknown and requires further study. Possible containment strategies would include using flow structures to 'focus' particles into regions away from passing cars or surface treatments to capture small drops.

  13. Probing dimensionality using a simplified 4-probe method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjeldby, Snorre B.; Evenstad, Otto M.; Cooil, Simon P.; Wells, Justin W.

    2017-10-01

    4-probe electrical measurements have been in existence for many decades. One of the most useful aspects of the 4-probe method is that it is not only possible to find the resistivity of a sample (independently of the contact resistances), but that it is also possible to probe the dimensionality of the sample. In theory, this is straightforward to achieve by measuring the 4-probe resistance as a function of probe separation. In practice, it is challenging to move all four probes with sufficient precision over the necessary range. Here, we present an alternative approach. We demonstrate that the dimensionality of the conductive path within a sample can be directly probed using a modified 4-probe method in which an unconventional geometry is exploited; three of the probes are rigidly fixed, and the position of only one probe is changed. This allows 2D and 3D (and other) contributions the to resistivity to be readily disentangled. The required experimental instrumentation can be vastly simplified relative to traditional variable spacing 4-probe instruments.

  14. A simplified, low power system for effective vessel sealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyle, Allison B.; Kennedy, Jenifer S.; Schmaltz, Dale F.; Kennedy, Aaron S.

    2015-03-01

    The first bipolar vessel sealing system was developed nearly 15 years ago and has since become standard of care in surgery. These systems make use of radio frequency current that is delivered between bipolar graspers to permanently seal arteries, veins and tissue bundles. Conventional vessel sealing generators are based off traditional electrosurgery generator architecture and deliver high power (150-300 Watts) and high current using complex control and sense algorithms to adjust the output for vessel sealing applications. In recent years, a need for small-scale surgical vessel sealers has developed as surgeons strive to further reduce their footprint on patients. There are many technical challenges associated with miniaturization of vessel sealing devices including maintaining electrical isolation while delivering high current in a saline environment. Research into creating a small, 3mm diameter vessel sealer revealed that a highly simplified generator system could be used to achieve excellent results and subsequently a low power vessel sealing system was developed. This system delivers 25 Watts constant power while limiting voltage (<= Vrms) and current (<= Amps) until an impedance endpoint is achieved, eliminating the use of complicated control and sensing software. The result is optimized tissue effect, where high seal strength is maintained (> 360mmHg), but seal times (1.7 +/- 0.7s versus 4.1 +/- 0.7s), thermal spread (<1mm vs <=2mm) and total energy delivery are reduced, when compared to an existing high power system.

  15. Impact of mass generation for spin-1 mediator simplified models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Nicole F.; Cai, Yi; Leane, Rebecca K.

    2017-01-01

    In the simplified dark matter models commonly studied, the mass generation mechanism for the dark fields is not typically specified. We demonstrate that the dark matter interaction types, and hence the annihilation processes relevant for relic density and indirect detection, are strongly dictated by the mass generation mechanism chosen for the dark sector particles, and the requirement of gauge invariance. We focus on the class of models in which fermionic dark matter couples to a spin-1 vector or axial-vector mediator. However, in order to generate dark sector mass terms, it is necessary in most cases to introduce a dark Higgs field and thus a spin-0 scalar mediator will also be present. In the case that all the dark sector fields gain masses via coupling to a single dark sector Higgs field, it is mandatory that the axial-vector coupling of the spin-1 mediator to the dark matter is non-zero; the vector coupling may also be present depending on the charge assignments. For all other mass generation options, only pure vector couplings between the spin-1 mediator and the dark matter are allowed. If these coupling restrictions are not obeyed, unphysical results may be obtained such as a violation of unitarity at high energies. These two-mediator scenarios lead to important phenomenology that does not arise in single mediator models. We survey two-mediator dark matter models which contain both vector and scalar mediators, and explore their relic density and indirect detection phenomenology.

  16. Flow Visualization around a Simplified Two-Wheel Landing Gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekmekci, Alis; Feltham, Graham

    2013-11-01

    The flow topology around a simplified two-wheel landing gear model is investigated experimentally by employing the hydrogen bubble flow visualization technique in a recirculating water channel. The landing gear test model consists of two identical wheels, an axle, a main strut and a support strut. The flow Reynolds number based on wheel diameter is 31,500 and wheels with varying geometric details are considered. Flow structures have been identified through analysis of long-time video recordings and linked to the model geometry. In the flow region above the wheels (wing side), the flow in the inter-wheel region either separates prematurely from the inner surfaces of the wheels and forms slant vortices in the near-wake, or remains attached till the aft wheel perimeter. Inclusion of interior wheel wells are found to result in a jet-like ejection as a result of the interaction with the axle and main strut. In the flow region below the wheels (ground side) the near wake contains periodically forming, complex, large-scale structures.

  17. Toward a simplified perceptual quality metric for watermarking applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carosi, Maurizio; Pankajakshan, Vinod; Autrusseau, Florent

    2010-01-01

    This work is motivated by the limitations of statistical quality metrics to assess the quality of images distorted in distinct frequency ranges. Common quality metrics, which basically have been designed and tested for various kind of global distortions, such as image coding may not be efficient for watermarking applications, where the distortions might be restricted on a very narrow portion of the frequency spectrum. We hereby want to propose an objective quality metric whose performances do not depend on the distortion frequency range, but we nevertheless want to provide a simplified objective quality metric in opposition to the complex Human Visual System (HVS) based quality metrics recently made available. The proposed algorithm is generic (not designed for a particular distortion), and exploits the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) along with an adapted Minkowski error pooling. The results show a high correlation between the proposed objective metric and the mean opinion score (MOS) given by observers. A comparison with relevant existing objective quality metrics is provided.

  18. Assessment of a simplified insertion technique for intrauterine devices.

    PubMed

    Christenson, Kamilee; Lerma, Klaira; Shaw, Kate A; Blumenthal, Paul D

    2016-07-01

    To explore a simplified technique for intrauterine device (IUD) insertion. The present prospective longitudinal study enrolled patients aged at least 18years presenting at the gynecology clinic of Stanford University for IUD insertion between June 1, 2013 and June 30, 2014. No pelvic examination or uterine sounding was performed prior to IUD insertion. Transvaginal ultrasonography was performed immediately after insertion and at 4-6weeks to confirm device placement. The primary outcome was successful IUD placement. The study enrolled 50 patients. IUD insertion was completed successfully without any cervical manipulation in 40 (80%) participants. Sounding was not needed for any procedures. A cervical dilator was required to locate the internal os for 10 (20%) patients. The mean distance between IUDs and the endometrial verge immediately following insertion was 2.9mm. IUD insertion was rated "difficult" by the physician performing the procedure in 3 (6%) patients. No perforations were recorded. IUD expulsion occurred in 3 (6%) patients; menorrhagia was the indication for IUD insertion in two of these patients. IUD insertion without prior pelvic examination and sounding was feasible; this technique could reduce the need for instrument use during insertion and, consequently, the pain associated with insertion. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A simplified technique for embryo biopsy for preimplantation genetic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Hua; Kaskar, Khalied; Gill, Jimmy; DeSplinter, Traci

    2008-08-01

    To report a simplified embryo biopsy method for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Technique and method. A regional hospital in vitro fertilization (IVF) laboratory and private reproductive medicine clinic. Women undergoing IVF and PGD. Blastomeres were successfully isolated from day-3 embryos at various stages. Blastomere integrity after biopsy, time of biopsy procedure, and subsequent blastocyst developmental rate. Twenty embryos derived from abnormally fertilized oocytes (one pronucleus or three pronuclei) were used for biopsy at four-cell to 10-cell stages (day 3) by a laser zona drilling and assisted hatching micropipette delivery of culture medium inside the zona to push one blastomere out. Biopsies of all embryos using this method were successful. In two cases for PGD, fourteen 6-9-cell and four 3-4-cell stage embryos were successfully biopsied by this method. Ten out of 14 embryos from the 6-9-cell stage developed to hatching or hatched blastocysts. When two hatched blastocysts were vitrified, warmed, and cultured, both reexpanded, showing normal morphologic features. This technique is easy to learn, less damaging to the embryos, and less time consuming. It can be used for all stages of embryos without damage to either embryos or isolated blastomeres. It is an alternative method for embryo biopsy in PGD.

  20. Simplified model for fouling of a pleated membrane filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanaei, Pejman; Cummings, Linda

    2014-11-01

    Pleated filter cartridge are widely used to remove undesired impurities from a fluid. A filter membrane is sandwiched between porous support layers, then pleated and packed in to an annular cylindrical cartridge. Although this arrangement offers a high ratio of surface filtration area to volume, the filter performance (measured, e.g., by graph of total flux versus throughput for a given pressure drop), is not as good as a flat filter membrane. The reasons for this difference in performance are currently unclear, but likely factors include the additional resistance of the porous support layers upstream and downstream of the membrane, the pleat packing density (PPD) and possible damage to the membrane during the pleating process. To investigate this, we propose a simplified mathematical model of the filtration within a single pleat. We consider the fluid dynamics through the membrane and support layers, and propose a model by which the pores of the membrane become fouled (i) by particles smaller than the membrane pore size; and (ii) by particles larger than the pores.We present some simulations of our model, investigating how flow and fouling differ between not only flat and pleated membranes, but also for support layers of different permeability profiles. NSF DMS-1261596.

  1. Simplified procedure of silymarin extraction from Silybum marianum L. Gaertner.

    PubMed

    Wianowska, Dorota; Wiśniewski, Mariusz

    2015-02-01

    Silymarin, a mixture of flavonolignans exhibiting many pharmacological activities, is obtained from the fruits of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaertner). Due to the high lipid content in thistle fruits, the European Pharmacopoeia recommends a two-step process of its extraction. First, the fruits are defatted for 6 h, using n-hexane; second, silymarin is extracted with methanol for 5 more hours. The presented data show that this extremely long traditional Soxhlet extraction process can be shortened to a few minutes using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). PLE also allows to eliminate the defatting stage required in the traditional procedure, thus simplifying the silymarin extraction procedure and preventing silymarin loss caused by defatting. The PLE recoveries obtained under the optimized extraction conditions are clearly better than the ones obtained by the Pharmacopoeia-recommended Soxhlet extraction procedure. The PLE yields of silychristin, silydianin, silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A and isosilybin B in acetone are 3.3, 6.9, 3.3, 5.1, 2.6 and 1.5 mg/g of the non-defatted fruits, respectively. The 5-h Soxhlet extraction with methanol on defatted fruits gives only ∼72% of the silymarin amount obtained in 10 min PLE at 125°C. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. A simplified model for TIG-dressing numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferro, P.; Berto, F.; James, M. N.

    2017-04-01

    Irrespective of the mechanical properties of the alloy to be welded, the fatigue strength of welded joints is primarily controlled by the stress concentration associated with the weld toe or weld root. In order to reduce the effects of such notch defects in welds, which are influenced by tensile properties of the alloy, post-weld improvement techniques have been developed. The two most commonly used techniques are weld toe grinding and TIG dressing, which are intended to both remove toe defects such as non-metallic intrusions and to re-profile the weld toe region to give a lower stress concentration. In the case of TIG dressing the weld toe is re-melted to provide a smoother transition between the plate and the weld crown and to beneficially modify the residual stress redistribution. Assessing the changes to weld stress state arising from TIG-dressing is most easily accomplished through a complex numerical simulation that requires coupled thermo-fluid dynamics and solid mechanics. However, this can be expensive in terms of computational cost and time needed to reach a solution. The present paper therefore proposes a simplified numerical model that overcomes such drawbacks and which simulates the remelted toe region by means of the activation and deactivation of elements in the numerical model.

  3. Understanding modern breast reduction techniques with a simplified approach.

    PubMed

    Andrades, Patricio; Prado, Arturo

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the geometrical principles of breast reduction, to propose a classification of reduction mammaplasty techniques and to show a simplified approach based on the authors experience. A thorough analysis of the geometrical differences between the normal and enlarged breast was performed. As a result of this analysis, the concept of separate management of the skin and gland for breast reduction was used as a method to classify the different techniques. Some aspects of technique selection and the authors' preferences are also discussed. The four geometric differences between the normal and enlarged breast are: vertical excess, broadened base, horizontal excess and a descended nipple-areola complex. All breast reduction techniques use a specific pedicle and a separate skin incision pattern, so they should be named after the scar and pedicle used. Technique selection must consider the degree of hypertrophy and ptosis, the skin and gland quality, the patient's requirements, and the surgeon's experience and preferences. Some clinical examples are provided. The comprehension of basic breast geometry, a universal language for communication and a simple algorithm to approach the breast reduction patient are valuable tools, particularly for the surgeon who is becoming acquainted with reduction mammaplasty procedures.

  4. Update on medical abortion: simplifying the process for women.

    PubMed

    Whaley, Natalie S; Burke, Anne E

    2015-12-01

    Medical abortion using mifepristone and misoprostol comprises a growing proportion of abortions performed in the United States. Simplifying the process of medical abortion can optimize use of resources and improve care for women. Medical abortion using evidence-based protocols is effective through 70 days' gestation. The requirement of a follow-up office visit with a transvaginal ultrasound to ensure completion of medical abortion is safely and effectively replaced with self-administered low-sensitivity or semiquantitative urine pregnancy tests and remote communication with women. Most contraceptive options can be initiated the same day as mifepristone administration to improve contraceptive use after medical abortion. State legislatures continue to pass laws that threaten evidence-based medical abortion practices. Such efforts ultimately limit access to well-tolerated and effective medical abortion services. Research supports simplification of the follow-up protocol for medical abortion, and provision of the contraceptive implant and progestin injectable for postabortion contraception the same day as mifepristone administration. With disregard to its documented safety and efficacy, legislative challenges persist as significant challenges to provision of evidence-based medical abortion.

  5. A simplified method for defining air humidification and dehumidification requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korjenic, Azra; Bednar, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    Nowadays, the use of ventilation systems is very common. In museums and exhibition rooms, they are used to guarantee the optimal temperature and humidity conditions for valuable and irreplaceable objects. Ventilation systems are increasingly used even in residential and office buildings. In Austria and other similar climates, winter outdoor air is very dry. Because of the constant air exchange using a ventilation system, the relative humidity of indoor air is often lower than the comfort limit, so that air humidification is necessary. In the same rooms, air must be dehumidified during the summer months. Humidification and dehumidification should be minimized as they are processes that consume a large amount of energy. The problem is that until now, it has been unclear how much humidification or dehumidification is necessary and could not be calculated easily. In this investigation, a simplified method for determining the humidification and dehumidification demands taking into account the effective moisture capacity of the room was developed. The developed model is used for the calculation of the energy balance and will be integrated into the program for energy certification in Austria.

  6. Development of a simplified model for the fixed biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sushovan; Mazumder, Debabrata

    2015-01-01

    A simplified fixed biofilm model was developed to formulate the relationship between the substrate concentrations at both the entry and exit, at the biofilm-liquid interface and at the biofilm attached surface along with average substrate flux in the biofilm, substrate flux at the biofilm-liquid interface and effective biofilm thickness. The model considered the substrate mass transport external to the biofilm and into the biofilm as per Fick's law and the steady state substrate as well as biomass balance for attached growth microorganisms. Monod's growth kinetics has been adopted in substrate utilization, incorporating relevant boundary conditions. The numerical solution of model equations was accomplished for calculating average flux and exit substrate concentration and thereafter the Runge-Kutta method was employed for determining effective biofilm thickness. Consequently, two computer programs were developed for the purpose of rapid solution. The model was satisfactorily applied to data available from the literature for checking its accuracy and was validated with the experimental results. The model was found to be an easy, accurate and fast method that can be used for process design of a fixed biofilm reactor.

  7. Simplified hearing protector ratings—an international comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waugh, R.

    1984-03-01

    A computer was programmed to model the distributions of dB(A) levels reaching the ears of an imaginary workforce wearing hearing protectors selected on the basis of either octave band attenuation values or various simplified ratings in use in Australia, Germany, Poland, Spain or the U.S.A. Both multi-valued and single-valued versions of dB(A) reduction and sound level conversion ratings were considered. Ratings were compared in terms of precision and protection rate and the comparisons were replicated for different samples of noise spectra ( N = 400) and hearing protectors ( N = 70) to establish the generality of the conclusions. Different countries adopt different approaches to the measurement of octave band attenuation values and the consequences of these differences were investigated. All rating systems have built-in correction factors to account for hearing protector performance variability and the merits of these were determined in the light of their ultimate effects on the distribution of dB(A) levels reaching wearers' ears. It was concluded that the optimum rating is one that enables the dB(A) level reaching wearers to be estimated by subtracting a single rating value from the dB(C) level of the noise environment, the rating value to be determined for a pink noise spectrum from mean minus one standard deviation octave band attenuation values with further protection rate adjustments being achieved by the use of a constant correction factor.

  8. A Simplified Procedure to Reconstitute Hair-Producing Skin

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Lily F.; Jiang, Ting Xin; Garner, Warren

    2011-01-01

    One of the major objectives of tissue engineering is to reconstitute skin from stem cells. This requires multipotent skin stem cells and the ability to guide these cells to form a piece of skin with proper architecture and skin appendages. Based on previous progress, we develop a simplified procedure that can be useful for large-scale screening of factors that can modulate the hair formation ability of candidate cells. Newborn mouse cells are used. Dissociated epidermal and dermal cells in high-density suspension are allowed to reconstitute in vitro to generate its own matrix, or seeded into a scaffold-like matrix already used clinically. These cells self-organize and form a reconstituted skin with proper proportions and topological organization of different components. Large numbers of hair follicles form. The cellular and molecular events are characterized, showing a distinct but parallel morphogenetic process compared to those occurring in embryonic development. The formed hair follicles can cycle and regenerate and the reconstituted skin can heal after injury. The skins are in good condition 1 year after transplant. This procedure enables flexible size and shape of the reconstituted skin, so clinical applications can be envisioned for the future when large numbers of multipotential skin stem cells become available. PMID:21034159

  9. River predisposition to ice jams: a simplified geospatial model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Munck, Stéphane; Gauthier, Yves; Bernier, Monique; Chokmani, Karem; Légaré, Serge

    2017-07-01

    Floods resulting from river ice jams pose a great risk to many riverside municipalities in Canada. The location of an ice jam is mainly influenced by channel morphology. The goal of this work was therefore to develop a simplified geospatial model to estimate the predisposition of a river channel to ice jams. Rather than predicting the timing of river ice breakup, the main question here was to predict where the broken ice is susceptible to jam based on the river's geomorphological characteristics. Thus, six parameters referred to potential causes for ice jams in the literature were initially selected: presence of an island, narrowing of the channel, high sinuosity, presence of a bridge, confluence of rivers, and slope break. A GIS-based tool was used to generate the aforementioned factors over regular-spaced segments along the entire channel using available geospatial data. An ice jam predisposition index (IJPI) was calculated by combining the weighted optimal factors. Three Canadian rivers (province of Québec) were chosen as test sites. The resulting maps were assessed from historical observations and local knowledge. Results show that 77 % of the observed ice jam sites on record occurred in river sections that the model considered as having high or medium predisposition. This leaves 23 % of false negative errors (missed occurrence). Between 7 and 11 % of the highly predisposed river sections did not have an ice jam on record (false-positive cases). Results, limitations, and potential improvements are discussed.

  10. A simplified rate control algorithm for H.264/SVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guang Y.; Abdelazim, Abdelrahman; Mein, Stephen J.; Varley, Martin R.; Ait-Boudaoud, Djamel

    2011-06-01

    The objective of scalable video coding is to enable the generation of a unique bitstream that can adapt to various bitrates, transmission channels and display capabilities. The scalability is categorised in terms of temporal, spatial, and quality. Effective Rate Control (RC) has important ramifications for coding efficiency, and also channel bandwidth and buffer constraints in real-time communication. The main target of RC is to reduce the disparity between the actual and target bit-rates. In order to meet the target bitrate, a predicted Mean of Absolute Difference (MAD) between frames is used in a rate-quantisation model to obtain the Quantisation Parameter (QP) for encoding the current frame. The encoding process exploits the interdependencies between video frames; therefore the MAD does not change abruptly unless the scene changes significantly. After the scene change, the MAD will maintain a stable slow increase or decrease. Based on this observation, we developed a simplified RC algorithm. The scheme is divided in two steps; firstly, we predict scene changes, secondly, in order to suppress the visual quality, we limit the change in QP value between two frames to an adaptive range. This limits the need to use the rate-quantisation model to those situations where the scene changes significantly. To assess the proposed algorithm, comprehensive experiments were conducted. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm significantly reduces encoding time whilst maintaining similar rate distortion performance, compared to both the H.264/SVC reference software and recently reported work.

  11. Description of an exact recursive method to simplify shading calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrocki, A.D.; Kammerud, R.

    1981-04-01

    An exact, recursive method called SHADE is described which attempts to simplify shading calculations as performed by a programmable calculator or microcomputer. Preliminary applications of SHADE using a Hewlett Packard HP-41C programmable calculation are outlined. In particular, for a given solar hour, SHADE is used to compute the following quantities for overhang and side fin combinations which shade various openings: the percentage of the total area of the opening which is shaded; the shaded area itself; the cosine of the angle of incidence between sun and glazing surface; the direct insolation at this surface, with and without shading; and the direct solar power at this surface, with and without shading. Hence, in its present HP-41C application, SHADE can be used in preliminary design and comparative analyses of shading devices on an hourly, daily, or seasonal basis, provided that: (1) the fins and overhangs be square or rectangular, and lie in planes perpendicular to the plane of the opening; and (2) the opening itself be vertical and rectangular with arbitrary building azimuths. Design candidates include conventional overhangs and side fins, porches, and reveals. In principle, SHADE can be extended to awnings, slatted sun screens, and bevelled recesses; in addition, its HP-41C application can be extended to calculations of direct solar gain through vertical and non-vertical glazings, thereby providing a more useful tool in building heating and cooling load calculations.

  12. Simplifying DOSY spectra with selective TOCSY edited preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Scott A.; Krishnamurthy, Krish; Hu, Haitao

    2005-01-01

    Diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy, while quite powerful, is limited by its inability to resolve signals that are severely overlapped in the proton spectrum. We present here a DOSY experiment that uses selective TOCSY as an editing/preparation period. With this method, well-resolved signals of the analytes are selectively excited and the magnetization subsequently transferred by isotropic mixing to resonances buried in the matrix background, which are then resolved by the ensuing DOSY sequence. Key to the success of our proposed method is the incorporation of a highly effective zero-quantum filter into the selective TOCSY preparation period, which prevents zero-quantum coherence from being carried into the DOSY part of the pulse sequence. Further improvement in spectral resolution can be obtained by expanding the proposed experiment into a 3D sequence and utilizing the homonuclear decoupling feature of the BASHD-TOCSY technique. Both pulse sequences were found to greatly simplify the DOSY spectrum of a 'dirty' sucrose/raffinose mixture, as the complex matrix background is no longer present to obscure or overlap with the signals of interests. Furthermore, complete resolution of the relevant signals was achieved with the 3D sequence.

  13. A numerical investigation of a simplified human birth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gossmann, Roseanna; Baumer, Alexa; Fauci, Lisa; Leftwich, Megan C.

    2016-11-01

    This work uses a simplified model to explore the forces experienced by the fetus during human birth. Numerical results are compared with the results of a physical model representing the fetus moving through the birth canal using a rigid cylinder (fetus) that moves at a constant velocity through the center of a passive elastic tube (birth canal). The entire system is immersed in a highly viscous fluid. Numerical simulations are run at low and zero Reynolds numbers. In each case, the pulling force necessary to move the rigid inner cylinder at a constant velocity through the tube is measured. The discrete elastic tube through which the rigid cylinder passes has macroscopic elasticity matched to the tube used in the physical experiment. The buckling behavior of the elastic tube is explored by varying velocity, length, and diameter of the rigid cylinder, and length of the elastic tube. More complex geometries as well as peristaltic activation of the elastic tube can be added to the model to provide more insight into the relationship between force and velocity during human birth.

  14. A numerical investigation of a simplified human birth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pealatere, Roseanna; Baumer, Alexa; Fauci, Lisa; Leftwich, Megan C.

    2015-11-01

    This work uses simplified models and numerical computations to explore the effects of both the fetal velocity and the viscosity of the surrounding fluid on the forces associated with human birth. The numerical results are compared with the results of an experimental model representing the fetus moving through the birth canal using a rigid cylinder (fetus) that moves at a constant velocity through the center of a passive elastic tube (birth canal). The entire system is immersed in highly viscous fluid. Due to low Reynolds' number, the Stokes equations can be used to describe the relationship between velocity and forces in the system. The mathematical model uses the method of regularized Stokeslets to estimate the pulling force necessary to move the rigid inner cylinder at a constant velocity. The elastic tube through which the rigid cylinder passes is constructed by a discrete network of Hookean springs, with macroscopic elasticity matched to the tube used in the physical experiment. More complex geometries as well as peristaltic activation of the elastic tube can be added to the model to provide more insight into the relationship between force and velocity during human birth.

  15. Simplified calculation of solar cell temperatures in terrestrial photovoltaic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingersoll, J. G.

    1984-12-01

    A simplified algorithm to predict the average steady-state temperature of the solar cells in a photovoltaic array has been developed. The methodology can be applied to arrays on the roof (or walls) of buildings as well as on the ground. It is intended primarily for residential buildings, although it can be used for any type of building, and considers all four-array mounting systems (rack, stand-off, direct, and integral). Input parameters in this development include weather (insolation, ambient temperature, wind speed, humidity, and sky cloud cover), as well as building construction and operation characteristics. The photovoltaic array's geometrical, optical, and thermal properties are used in the analysis as well. Natural or forced convection under the solar panels and/or in the building attic below can also be accounted for by this model. The model has been partially verified against limited measured data and found to be in very good agreement for wind speeds of 1 m/s or more.

  16. Evaluating complex interventions and health technologies using normalization process theory: development of a simplified approach and web-enabled toolkit

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Normalization Process Theory (NPT) can be used to explain implementation processes in health care relating to new technologies and complex interventions. This paper describes the processes by which we developed a simplified version of NPT for use by clinicians, managers, and policy makers, and which could be embedded in a web-enabled toolkit and on-line users manual. Methods Between 2006 and 2010 we undertook four tasks. (i) We presented NPT to potential and actual users in multiple workshops, seminars, and presentations. (ii) Using what we discovered from these meetings, we decided to create a simplified set of statements and explanations expressing core constructs of the theory (iii) We circulated these statements to a criterion sample of 60 researchers, clinicians and others, using SurveyMonkey to collect qualitative textual data about their criticisms of the statements. (iv) We then reconstructed the statements and explanations to meet users' criticisms, embedded them in a web-enabled toolkit, and beta tested this 'in the wild'. Results On-line data collection was effective: over a four week period 50/60 participants responded using SurveyMonkey (40/60) or direct phone and email contact (10/60). An additional nine responses were received from people who had been sent the SurveyMonkey form by other respondents. Beta testing of the web enabled toolkit produced 13 responses, from 327 visits to http://www.normalizationprocess.org. Qualitative analysis of both sets of responses showed a high level of support for the statements but also showed that some statements poorly expressed their underlying constructs or overlapped with others. These were rewritten to take account of users' criticisms and then embedded in a web-enabled toolkit. As a result we were able translate the core constructs into a simplified set of statements that could be utilized by non-experts. Conclusion Normalization Process Theory has been developed through transparent procedures at

  17. Recent developments in pressure coring

    SciTech Connect

    McFall, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    The current rapid growth in the number of enhanced oil and gas recovery projects has created a strong demand for reservoir data such as true residual oil saturations. The companies providing pressure coring services have moved to fill this need. Two recent developments have emerged with the potential of significantly improving the present performance of pressure coring. Coring bits utilizing synthetic diamond cutters have demonstrated coring rates of one-foot per minute while improving core recovery. It is also apparent that cores of a near-unconsolidated nature are more easily recovered. In addition, a special low invasion fluid that is placed in the core retriever has demonstrated reduced core washing by the drilling mud and a decrease in the complexity of preparing cores for analysis. This paper describes the design, laboratory, and field testing efforts that led to these coring improvements. Also, experience in utilizing these developments while recovering over 100 cores is discussed.

  18. Core Noise - Increasing Importance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; turbofan design trends and their aeroacoustic implications; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge; and the current research activities in the core-noise area, with additional details given about the development of a high-fidelity combustor-noise prediction capability as well as activities supporting the development of improved reduced-order, physics-based models for combustor-noise prediction. The need for benchmark data for validation of high-fidelity and modeling work and the value of a potential future diagnostic facility for testing of core-noise-reduction concepts are indicated. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The SFW Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge aims to develop concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries. This reduction of aircraft noise is critical to enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. Noise generated in the jet engine core, by sources such as the compressor, combustor, and turbine, can be a significant contribution to the overall noise signature at low-power conditions, typical of approach flight. At high engine power during takeoff, jet and fan noise have traditionally dominated over core noise. However, current design trends and expected technological advances in engine-cycle design as well as noise-reduction methods are likely to reduce non-core noise even at engine-power points higher than approach. In addition, future low-emission combustor

  19. Core Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; turbofan design trends and their aeroacoustic implications; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduce-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge; and the current research activities in the core noise area. Recent work1 on the turbine-transmission loss of combustor noise is briefly described, two2,3 new NRA efforts in the core-noise area are outlined, and an effort to develop CMC-based acoustic liners for broadband noise reduction suitable for turbofan-core application is delineated. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The reduction of aircraft noise is critical to enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project's Reduce-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge aims to develop concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries.

  20. Pressure Core Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santamarina, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Natural gas hydrates form under high fluid pressure and low temperature, and are found in permafrost, deep lakes or ocean sediments. Hydrate dissociation by depressurization and/or heating is accompanied by a multifold hydrate volume expansion and host sediments with low permeability experience massive destructuration. Proper characterization requires coring, recovery, manipulation and testing under P-T conditions within the stability field. Pressure core technology allows for the reliable characterization of hydrate bearing sediments within the stability field in order to address scientific and engineering needs, including the measurement of parameters used in hydro-thermo-mechanical analyses, and the monitoring of hydrate dissociation under controlled pressure, temperature, effective stress and chemical conditions. Inherent sampling effects remain and need to be addressed in test protocols and data interpretation. Pressure core technology has been deployed to study hydrate bearing sediments at several locations around the world. In addition to pressure core testing, a comprehensive characterization program should include sediment analysis, testing of reconstituted specimens (with and without synthetic hydrate), and in situ testing. Pressure core characterization technology can be used to study other gas-charged formations such as deep sea sediments, coal bed methane and gas shales.

  1. Wave propagation in sandwich panels with a poroelastic core.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Finnveden, Svante; Barbagallo, Mathias; Arteaga, Ines Lopez

    2014-05-01

    Wave propagation in sandwich panels with a poroelastic core, which is modeled by Biot's theory, is investigated using the waveguide finite element method. A waveguide poroelastic element is developed based on a displacement-pressure weak form. The dispersion curves of the sandwich panel are first identified as propagating or evanescent waves by varying the damping in the panel, and wave characteristics are analyzed by examining their motions. The energy distributions are calculated to identify the dominant motions. Simplified analytical models are also devised to show the main physics of the corresponding waves. This wave propagation analysis provides insight into the vibro-acoustic behavior of sandwich panels lined with elastic porous materials.

  2. A Simplified Shuttle Payload Thermal Analyzer /SSPTA/ program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartoszek, J. T.; Huckins, B.; Coyle, M.

    1979-01-01

    A simple thermal analysis program for Space Shuttle payloads has been developed to accommodate the user who requires an easily understood but dependable analytical tool. The thermal analysis program includes several thermal subprograms traditionally employed in spacecraft thermal studies, a data management system for data generated by the subprograms, and a master program to coordinate the data files and thermal subprograms. The language and logic used to run the thermal analysis program are designed for the small user. In addition, analytical and storage techniques which conserve computer time and minimize core requirements are incorporated into the program.

  3. Earth's core iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geophysicist J. Michael Brown of Texas A & M University noted recently at the Spring AGU Meeting in Baltimore that the structure and phase of metallic iron at pressures of the earth's inner core (approximately 3.3 Mbar) could have great significance in defining geometrical aspects of the core itself. Brown worked at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory with R.B. McQueen to redetermine the phase relations of metallic iron in a series of new shock-wave experiments. They found the melting point of iron at conditions equal to those at the boundary of the earth's outer (liquid) and inner (solid) cores to be 6000°±500°C (Geophysical Research Letters, 7, 533-536, 1980).

  4. Mars' Inner Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This figure shows a cross-section of the planet Mars revealing an inner, high density core buried deep within the interior. Dipole magnetic field lines are drawn in blue, showing the global scale magnetic field that one associates with dynamo generation in the core. Mars must have one day had such a field, but today it is not evident. Perhaps the energy source that powered the early dynamo has shut down. The differentiation of the planet interior - heavy elements like iron sinking towards the center of the planet - can provide energy as can the formation of a solid core from the liquid.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  5. Molten core retention assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1976-06-22

    Molten fuel produced in a core overheating accident is caught by a molten core retention assembly consisting of a horizontal baffle plate having a plurality of openings therein, heat exchange tubes having flow holes near the top thereof mounted in the openings, and a cylindrical, imperforate baffle attached to the plate and surrounding the tubes. The baffle assembly is supported from the core support plate of the reactor by a plurality of hanger rods which are welded to radial beams passing under the baffle plate and intermittently welded thereto. Preferably the upper end of the cylindrical baffle terminates in an outwardly facing lip to which are welded a plurality of bearings having slots therein adapted to accept the hanger rods.

  6. 48 CFR 1513.170 - Competition exceptions and justification for sole source simplified acquisition procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Competition exceptions and justification for sole source simplified acquisition procedures. 1513.170 Section 1513.170 Federal Acquisition... ACQUISITION PROCEDURES General 1513.170 Competition exceptions and justification for sole source simplified...

  7. Simplified Discontinuous Galerkin Methods for Systems of Conservation Laws with Convex Extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy J.

    1999-01-01

    Simplified forms of the space-time discontinuous Galerkin (DG) and discontinuous Galerkin least-squares (DGLS) finite element method are developed and analyzed. The new formulations exploit simplifying properties of entropy endowed conservation law systems while retaining the favorable energy properties associated with symmetric variable formulations.

  8. 26 CFR 1.41-9T - Alternative simplified credit (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Alternative simplified credit (temporary). 1.41... INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.41-9T Alternative simplified credit (temporary). (a) Determination of credit. At the election of the taxpayer, the credit determined under section 41(a)(1) equals...

  9. Insights into Fourier Synthesis and Analysis: Part 2--A Simplified Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Guy S. M.

    1988-01-01

    Introduced is an analysis of a waveform into its Fourier components. Topics included are simplified analysis of a square waveform, a triangular waveform, half-wave rectified alternating current (AC), and impulses. Provides the mathematical expression and simplified analysis diagram of each waveform. (YP)

  10. 78 FR 23945 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Entry and Immediate Delivery Application and Simplified...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... Delivery Application and Simplified Entry AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of... Delivery Application (Forms 3461 and 3461 ALT) and Simplified Entry. This is a proposed extension of an..., or other technological techniques or other forms of information. Title: Entry and Immediate...

  11. 78 FR 9719 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Entry and Immediate Delivery Application and Simplified...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... Delivery Application and Simplified Entry AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of... concerning the Entry and Immediate Delivery Application (Forms 3461 and 3461 ALT) and Simplified Entry. This... concerning the following information collection: Title: Entry and Immediate Delivery Application...

  12. 29 CFR 403.4 - Simplified annual reports for smaller labor organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Simplified annual reports for smaller labor organizations..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS LABOR ORGANIZATION ANNUAL FINANCIAL REPORTS § 403.4 Simplified annual reports for smaller labor organizations. (a)(1) If a labor organization, not in trusteeship,...

  13. A simplified GPS C/A reciever front end with low noise performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. D.; Clements, A. D. J.

    1984-01-01

    A redesign of the antenna electronics package for the NBS/GPS C/A receiver has resulted in significantly reduced cost and improved performance. Major improvements include a simplified and more reliable multiplier/mixer, elimination of all twelve piston trimmer tuning capacitors in the original design, elimination of expensive bandpass filters, less expensive antenna and a simplified packaging scheme.

  14. 29 CFR 2520.104-49 - Alternative method of compliance for certain simplified employee pensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... employee pensions. 2520.104-49 Section 2520.104-49 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE... certain simplified employee pensions. Under the authority of section 110 of the Act, the provisions of... requirements set forth in part 1 of title I of the Act for a simplified employee pension (SEP) described in...

  15. Simplified computer program for the analysis of phase change in liquid face seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchak, M.; Hughes, W. F.

    1977-01-01

    A simplified computer program is presented which allows for the prediction of boiling (phase change) in liquid face seals. The program determines if and when boiling occurs and then calculates the location of the boiling interface, pressure and temperature profiles, and load. The main assumption which allows for a simplified analysis is the assumption of an isothermal gas phase.

  16. 26 CFR 1.41-9T - Alternative simplified credit (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Alternative simplified credit (temporary). 1.41... INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.41-9T Alternative simplified credit (temporary). (a) Determination of credit. At the election of the taxpayer, the credit determined under section 41(a)(1) equals the...

  17. Stability of submerged slopes on the flanks of the Hawaiian Islands, a simplified approach

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.J.; Torresan, M.E.; McArthur, W.

    1994-12-31

    Undersea transmission lines and shoreline AC-DC conversion stations and near-shore transmission lines are being considered as part of a system for transporting energy between the Hawaiian Islands. These facilities will need to be designed so that they will not be damaged or destroyed by coastal or undersea landslides. Advanced site surveys and engineering design of these facilities will require detailed site specific analyses, including sediment sampling and laboratory testing of samples, in situ testing of sediment and rock, detailed charting of bathymetry, and two- or three-dimensional numerical analyses of the factors of safety of the slopes against failure from the various possible loading mechanisms. An intermediate approximate approach can be followed that involves gravity and piston cores, laboratory testing and the application of simplified models to determine a seismic angle of repose for actual sediment in the vicinity of the planned facility. An even simpler and more approximate approach involves predictions of angles of repose using classification of the sediment along a proposed route as either a coarse volcaniclastic sand, a calcareous ooze, or a muddy terrigenous sediment. The steepest slope that such a sediment can maintain is the static angle of repose. Sediment may be found on slopes as steep as these, but it must be considered metastable and liable to fail in the event of any disturbance, storm or earthquake. The seismic angle of repose likely governs most slopes on the Hawaiian Ridge. This declivity corresponds to the response of the slope to a continuing seismic environment. As a long history of earthquakes affects the slopes, they gradually flatten to this level. Slopes that exceed or roughly equal this value can be considered at risk to fail during future earthquakes. Seismic and static angles of repose for three sediment types are tabulated in this report.

  18. Use of simplified PSA studies in support of the ASTRID design process

    SciTech Connect

    Gauthe, P.; Curnier, F.; Bertrand, F.; Vincon, L.; Jouve, S.; Balmain, M.; Rychkov, V.; Banchieri, Y.

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of the French Act of 28 June 2006 about nuclear materials and waste management, a GEN IV and actinides incineration demonstration prototype is to be commissioned in the 2020 decade. In this objective a prototype called ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration) is proposed to demonstrate the progress made in SFR technology at an industrial scale by qualifying innovative options, some of which still remain open in the areas requiring improvements, especially safety and operability. More specifically, we aim for a level of safety that is at least equivalent to that of the EPR (third generation), with improvements made in SFR-specific fields. The integration of safety issues in the early phase of the design of ASTRID is necessarily expected. For this purpose, CEA and its partners AREVA and EDF have planned to perform a level-1 PSA to support and orientate the preliminary design of ASTRID reactor. This paper presents the PSA approach and current studies for the assessment of safety systems and the future work to be done for the 2012-2014 period. The preliminary preparation of PSA studies is presented: objectives and scope of the early design phase PSA, definition of core damage states, selection and grouping of initiating events, assessment of safety functions and related systems. Work under progress is also presented: modelling of event trees, construction of fault trees of safety systems, transient calculations of accident sequences with the CATHARE2 code and reliability data assessment. Main objectives of a level-1 PSA performed at conceptual design stage are an early assessment of the safety architecture of the reactor and findings about the most effective areas for improvement, but also the identification of dominant accident sequences and comparison with alternative designs. After the elaboration of a simplified level-1 PSA model for nominal state and main internal initiators, various design alternatives will be

  19. Simplified containment event tree analysis for the Sequoyah Ice Condenser containment

    SciTech Connect

    Galyean, W.J.; Schroeder, J.A.; Pafford, D.J. )

    1990-12-01

    An evaluation of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) ice condenser containment was performed. In this evaluation, simplified containment event trees (SCETs) were developed that utilized the vast storehouse of information generated by the NRC's Draft NUREG-1150 effort. Specifically, the computer programs and data files produced by the NUREG-1150 analysis of Sequoyah were used to electronically generate SCETs, as opposed to the NUREG-1150 accident progression event trees (APETs). This simplification was performed to allow graphic depiction of the SCETs in typical event tree format, which facilitates their understanding and use. SCETs were developed for five of the seven plant damage state groups (PDSGs) identified by the NUREG-1150 analyses, which includes: both short- and long-term station blackout sequences (SBOs), transients, loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs), and anticipated transient without scram (ATWS). Steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) and event-V PDSGs were not analyzed because of their containment bypass nature. After being benchmarked with the APETs, in terms of containment failure mode and risk, the SCETs were used to evaluate a number of potential containment modifications. The modifications were examined for their potential to mitigate or prevent containment failure from hydrogen burns or direct impingement on the containment by the core, (both factors identified as significant contributors to risk in the NUREG-1150 Sequoyah analysis). However, because of the relatively low baseline risk postulated for Sequoyah (i.e., 12 person-rems per reactor year), none of the potential modifications appear to be cost effective. 15 refs., 10 figs. , 17 tabs.

  20. Lignes directrices simplifiées sur les lipides

    PubMed Central

    Allan, G. Michael; Lindblad, Adrienne J.; Comeau, Ann; Coppola, John; Hudson, Brianne; Mannarino, Marco; McMinis, Cindy; Padwal, Raj; Schelstraete, Christine; Zarnke, Kelly; Garrison, Scott; Cotton, Candra; Korownyk, Christina; McCormack, James; Nickel, Sharon; Kolber, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Produire un guide de pratique clinique comportant une approche simplifiée à la prévention primaire des maladies cardiovasculaires (MCV), en insistant sur l’estimation du risque de MCV et la prise en charge des profils lipidiques à l’intention des cliniciens de soins primaires et leurs équipes; nous avons recherché la contribution de professionnels des soins primaires qui n’avaient que peu ou pas de conflits d’intérêts et nous nous sommes concentrés sur les données probantes de la plus haute qualité accessibles. Méthodes Neuf professionnels de la santé (4 médecins de famille, 2 internistes, 1 infirmière praticienne, 1 infirmière autorisée et 1 pharmacienne) et 1 membre non votant (pharmacienne gestionnaire de projet) formaient le comité principal appelé le Lipid Pathway Committee (le comité). La sélection des membres s’est fondée sur la profession, le milieu de pratique et son emplacement. Les membres ont divulgué tous leurs conflits d’intérêts potentiels ou réels. Le processus d’élaboration des lignes directrices était itératif et s’appuyait sur des affichages en ligne, une révision détaillée des données probantes, des réunions par téléphone et en ligne. Le comité a cerné 12 questions prioritaires à répondre. Le groupe de révision des données probantes a répondu à ces questions. À la suite d’un examen des réponses, les principales recommandations ont été formulées par consensus du comité. Nous avons produit une ébauche des lignes directrices qui a ensuite été peaufinée, distribuée à un groupe de cliniciens (médecins de famille, autres spécialistes, pharmaciens, infirmières et infirmières praticiennes) et à des patients pour obtenir de la rétroaction, la réviser en conséquence et le comité l’a ensuite finalisée. Recommandations Des recommandations sont présentées concernant le dépistage et les analyses, les évaluations du risque, le suivi, de même que le r

  1. CORE SATURATION BLOCKING OSCILLATOR

    DOEpatents

    Spinrad, R.J.

    1961-10-17

    A blocking oscillator which relies on core saturation regulation to control the output pulse width is described. In this arrangement an external magnetic loop is provided in which a saturable portion forms the core of a feedback transformer used with the thermionic or semi-conductor active element. A first stationary magnetic loop establishes a level of flux through the saturation portion of the loop. A second adjustable magnet moves the flux level to select a saturation point giving the desired output pulse width. (AEC)

  2. Power-law rheology and flow behavior of low-invasion coring fluids

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, P.L.

    1981-08-01

    An improved pressure coring system has been developed in which an extremely viscous polymer mud is extruded by the core and is used to seal and protect the core from flushing by drilling fluids. The polymer mud must be extremely viscous to minimize invasion, yet must be extruded through a long, narrow annular gap with a minimum of pressure buildup. A highly non-Newtonian shear-thinning polymer is utilized in the low invasion coring fluid. This paper describes the measurement and modeling of non-Newtonian rheology from rotary viscometer data in detail since the simplified equations which are generally used with these instruments can be grossly in error. The development of both an approximate analytical solution and an exact numerical solution of the non-Newtonian extrusion process is presented. These solutions were used to optimize the non-Newtonian rheology of the low-invasion fluid which will be used in actual coring operations.

  3. Full Core TREAT Kinetics Demonstration Using Rattlesnake/BISON Coupling Within MAMMOTH

    SciTech Connect

    Ortensi, Javier; DeHart, Mark D.; Gleicher, Frederick N.; Wang, Yaqi; Alberti, Anthony L.; Palmer, Todd S.

    2015-08-01

    This report summarizes key aspects of research in evaluation of modeling needs for TREAT transient simulation. Using a measured TREAT critical measurement and a transient for a small, experimentally simplified core, Rattlesnake and MAMMOTH simulations are performed building from simple infinite media to a full core model. Cross sections processing methods are evaluated, various homogenization approaches are assessed and the neutronic behavior of the core studied to determine key modeling aspects. The simulation of the minimum critical core with the diffusion solver shows very good agreement with the reference Monte Carlo simulation and the experiment. The full core transient simulation with thermal feedback shows a significantly lower power peak compared to the documented experimental measurement, which is not unexpected in the early stages of model development.

  4. Fasting glycaemia to simplify screening for gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ryser Rüetschi, J; Jornayvaz, F R; Rivest, R; Huhn, E A; Irion, O; Boulvain, M

    2016-12-01

    Recommendations in Switzerland on screening for gestational diabetes endorse the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group consensus. As universal testing is time consuming and glucose loading is unpleasant, the recommendations include a simplification, not performing the glucose loading in women with fasting glycaemia <4.4 mmol/l. Our objective was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of this simplified strategy, compared with the complete test, in our population with a low prevalence of gestational diabetes. We collected 2298 complete 75-g glucose tolerance tests. We simulated stopping the test, so avoiding the glucose loading and further glycaemia, if fasting glycaemia was <4.4 or ≥5.1 mmol/l. Unselected pregnant women from Geneva and Basel, at 24-28 weeks of gestation. We calculated the sensitivity, and the percentage of women who would avoid the complete test with the strategy based on fasting glycaemia. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 10.9% in our population. Among 251 women with gestational diabetes, fasting glycaemia was ≥5.1 mmol/l in 119 women (47.4%), between 4.4 and <5.1 mmol/l in 78 women (31.1%) and <4.4 mmol/l in 54 women (21.5%). Proceeding with the complete test only in women with fasting glycaemia between 4.4 and <5.1 mmol/l will result in a sensitivity of 78.5%. This strategy would avoid glucose loading in 63.8% of women. Screening with fasting glycaemia is an attractive alternative to universal screening with the complete 75-g glucose tolerance test. This strategy is, however, slightly less sensitive than previously reported in higher-risk populations. Fasting glycaemia can be considered as an alternative to the complete test for gestational diabetes screening. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  5. GeoDataspaces: Simplifying Data Management Tasks with Globus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, T.; Chard, K.; Tchoua, R. B.; Foster, I.

    2014-12-01

    Data and its management are central to modern scientific enterprise. Typically, geoscientists rely on observations and model output data from several disparate sources (file systems, RDBMS, spreadsheets, remote data sources). Integrated data management solutions that provide intuitive semantics and uniform interfaces, irrespective of the kind of data source are, however, lacking. Consequently, geoscientists are left to conduct low-level and time-consuming data management tasks, individually, and repeatedly for discovering each data source, often resulting in errors in handling. In this talk we will describe how the EarthCube GeoDataspace project is improving this situation for seismologists, hydrologists, and space scientists by simplifying some of the existing data management tasks that arise when developing computational models. We will demonstrate a GeoDataspace, bootstrapped with "geounits", which are self-contained metadata packages that provide complete description of all data elements associated with a model run, including input/output and parameter files, model executable and any associated libraries. Geounits link raw and derived data as well as associating provenance information describing how data was derived. We will discuss challenges in establishing geounits and describe machine learning and human annotation approaches that can be used for extracting and associating ad hoc and unstructured scientific metadata hidden in binary formats with data resources and models. We will show how geounits can improve search and discoverability of data associated with model runs. To support this model, we will describe efforts related towards creating a scalable metadata catalog that helps to maintain, search and discover geounits within the Globus network of accessible endpoints. This talk will focus on the issue of creating comprehensive personal inventories of data assets for computational geoscientists, and describe a publishing mechanism, which can be used to

  6. Engineering and characterization of simplified vaginal and seminal fluid simulants.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Rachna; Su, Jonathan; Mahalingam, Alamelu; Clark, Justin; Sung, Samuel; Hope, Thomas; Kiser, Patrick F

    2016-04-01

    Reported vaginal and seminal fluid simulants have complex compositions with multiple preparatory steps that contribute to physical instability. We report the design and characterization of stable and simplified buffers that mimic the salient physical/chemical properties of the physiological fluids. Human cervicovaginal and seminal fluid samples were collected and buffering capacity was determined. The major buffering species were identified from published compositions of reproductive tract fluids. These values were used to compute the composition of vaginal and seminal fluid simulants. Ionic strength, buffering capacities, pH and osmolalities were then calculated or experimentally determined. Finally, cytotoxicity was evaluated in HEC-1-A cells and 3D reconstructed EpiVaginal™ tissue (VEC-100-FT) using naïve cells/tissue and nonoxynol-9 as controls. The use of calculated amounts of conjugate acid and base for buffer development resulted in compositions that did not require endpoint pH adjustment and could be formulated as stable 10× concentrates. Furthermore, due to the absence of complex divalent salts, all our proposed simulants were stable at 4 °C for 1 month whereas precipitation and pH and osmolality changes were noted in reported buffers. Experimental determination of buffering capacities yielded similar values for undiluted cervicovaginal fluid (β4.2-5.2=35.6 ± 12.3 mM, N=7) and human seminal fluid (β7-6=37.5 ± 5 mM, N=3). All neat simulants showed significant cytotoxicity in HEC-1-A cells but were well tolerated by organotypic vaginal tissue. We report revised and improved compositions of buffers mimicking salient properties of vaginal and seminal fluid necessary for in vitro product evaluation. To support research in reproductive health and in particular drug delivery, we have designed and characterized stable new media to mimic these important fluids that can be used in a variety of in vitro studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  7. Office of River Protection: Simplifying Project management tools

    SciTech Connect

    TAYLOR, D.G.

    2000-09-24

    The primary approach to the effort was to form a multi-organizational team comprised of federal and contractor staff to develop and implement the necessary tools and systems to manage the project. In late 1999 the DOE Manager of the Office of River Protection formed the Project Integration Office to achieve the objective of managing the efforts as a single project. The first major task, and the foundation upon which to base the development of all other tools, was the establishment of a single baseline of activities. However, defining a single scope schedule and cost was a difficult matter indeed. Work scopes were available throughout the project, but the level of detail and the integration of the activities existed primarily between working groups and individuals and not on a project-wide basis. This creates a situation where technical needs, logic flaws, resource balancing, and other similar integration needs are not elevated for management attention and resolution. It should be noted that probably 90% of the interface issues were known and being addressed. The key is simplifying the process and providing tangible assurance that the other 10% does not contain issues that can delay the project. Fortunately all of the contractors employed a common scheduling tool, which served as the basis for first communicating and then integrating baseline activities. Utilizing a powerful computer-based scheduling tool, it was soon possible to integrate the various schedules after the following was accomplished: Establishment of a scheduling specification (standardized input, coding, and approach to logic); and Clearly defined project assumptions.

  8. STEWB - Simplified Transient Estimation of the Water Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, P. D.; Simmons, C. S.; Cady, R. E.; Gee, G. W.

    2001-12-01

    A simplified model describing the transient water budget of a shallow unsaturated soil profile is presented. This model was developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide estimates of the time-varying net infiltration at sites containing residual levels of radioactive materials. Ease of use, computational efficiency, and use of standard parameters and available data were requirements of the model. The model's conceptualization imposes the following simplifications: a uniform soil profile, instantaneous redistribution of infiltrated water, drainage under a unit hydraulic gradient, and no drainage from the soil profile during infiltration. The model's formulation is a revision of that originally presented by Kim et al. [WRR, 32(12):3475-3484, 1996]. Daily meteorological data are required as input. Random durations for precipitation events are generated based on an estimate of the average number of exceedances per year for the specific daily rainfall depth observed. Snow accumulation and melt are described using empirical relationships. During precipitation or snowmelt, runoff is described using an infiltration equation for ponded conditions. When no water is being applied to the profile, evapotranspiration (ET) and drainage occur. The ET rate equals the potential evapotranspiration rate, PET, above a critical value of saturation, SC. Below this critical value, ET = PET*(S/SC)**p, where S is saturation and p is an empirical parameter. Drainage flux from the profile equals the hydraulic conductivity as represented by the Brooks-Corey model. The model has been implemented with an easy-to-use graphical interface and is available at http://nrc-hydro-uncert.pnl.gov/code.htm. Comparison of the model results with lysimeter measurements will be shown, including a 50-year record from the ARS-Coshocton site in Ohio. The interpretation of parameters and the sensitivity of the model to parameter values will be discussed.

  9. Data analytics for simplifying thermal efficiency planning in cities

    PubMed Central

    Abdolhosseini Qomi, Mohammad Javad; Noshadravan, Arash; Sobstyl, Jake M.; Toole, Jameson; Ferreira, Joseph; Pellenq, Roland J.-M.; Ulm, Franz-Josef; Gonzalez, Marta C.

    2016-01-01

    More than 44% of building energy consumption in the USA is used for space heating and cooling, and this accounts for 20% of national CO2 emissions. This prompts the need to identify among the 130 million households in the USA those with the greatest energy-saving potential and the associated costs of the path to reach that goal. Whereas current solutions address this problem by analysing each building in detail, we herein reduce the dimensionality of the problem by simplifying the calculations of energy losses in buildings. We present a novel inference method that can be used via a ranking algorithm that allows us to estimate the potential energy saving for heating purposes. To that end, we only need consumption from records of gas bills integrated with a building's footprint. The method entails a statistical screening of the intricate interplay between weather, infrastructural and residents' choice variables to determine building gas consumption and potential savings at a city scale. We derive a general statistical pattern of consumption in an urban settlement, reducing it to a set of the most influential buildings' parameters that operate locally. By way of example, the implications are explored using records of a set of (N = 6200) buildings in Cambridge, MA, USA, which indicate that retrofitting only 16% of buildings entails a 40% reduction in gas consumption of the whole building stock. We find that the inferred heat loss rate of buildings exhibits a power-law data distribution akin to Zipf's law, which provides a means to map an optimum path for gas savings per retrofit at a city scale. These findings have implications for improving the thermal efficiency of cities' building stock, as outlined by current policy efforts seeking to reduce home heating and cooling energy consumption and lower associated greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:27097652

  10. A simplified model of decontamination by BWR steam suppression pools

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, D.A.

    1997-05-01

    Phenomena that can decontaminate aerosol-laden gases sparging through steam suppression pools of boiling water reactors during reactor accidents are described. Uncertainties in aerosol properties, aerosol behavior within gas bubbles, and bubble behavior in plumes affect predictions of decontamination by steam suppression pools. Uncertainties in the boundary and initial conditions that are dictated by the progression of severe reactor accidents and that will affect predictions of decontamination by steam suppression pools are discussed. Ten parameters that characterize boundary and initial condition uncertainties, nine parameters that characterize aerosol property and behavior uncertainties, and eleven parameters that characterize uncertainties in the behavior of bubbles in steam suppression pools are identified. Ranges for the values of these parameters and subjective probability distributions for parametric values within the ranges are defined. These uncertain parameters are used in Monte Carlo uncertainty analyses to develop uncertainty distributions for the decontamination that can be achieved by steam suppression pools and the size distribution of aerosols that do emerge from such pools. A simplified model of decontamination by steam suppression pools is developed by correlating features of the uncertainty distributions for total decontamination factor, DF(total), mean size of emerging aerosol particles, d{sub p}, and the standard deviation of the emerging aerosol size distribution, {sigma}, with pool depth, H. Correlations of the median values of the uncertainty distributions are suggested as the best estimate of decontamination by suppression pools. Correlations of the 10 percentile and 90 percentile values of the uncertainty distributions characterize the uncertainty in the best estimates. 295 refs., 121 figs., 113 tabs.

  11. Simplifying numerical ray tracing for characterization of optical systems.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Yakir Luc; Speiser, Daniel I; Johnsen, Sönke

    2014-07-20

    Ray tracing, a computational method for tracing the trajectories of rays of light through matter, is often used to characterize mechanical or biological visual systems with aberrations that are larger than the effect of diffraction inherent in the system. For example, ray tracing may be used to calculate geometric point spread functions (PSFs), which describe the image of a point source after it passes through an optical system. Calculating a geometric PSF is useful because it gives an estimate of the detail and quality of the image formed by a given optical system. However, when using ray tracing to calculate a PSF, the accuracy of the estimated PSF directly depends on the number of discrete rays used in the calculation; higher accuracies may require more computational power. Furthermore, adding optical components to a modeled system will increase its complexity and require critical modifications so that the model will describe the system correctly, sometimes necessitating a completely new model. Here, we address these challenges by developing a method that represents rays of light as a continuous function that depends on the light's initial direction. By utilizing Chebyshev approximations (via the chebfun toolbox in MATLAB) for the implementation of this method, we greatly simplified the calculations for the location and direction of the rays. This method provides high precision and fast calculation speeds that allow the characterization of any symmetrical optical system (with a centered point source) in an analytical-like manner. Next, we demonstrate our methods by showing how they can easily calculate PSFs for complicated optical systems that contain multiple refractive and/or reflective interfaces.

  12. Simplified Analytical Solution for Martian OH*-layer Altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grygalashvyly, Mykhaylo; Sonnemann, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    In the Earth atmosphere airglow emissions of OH* are used in very diverse branches of research from gravity waves (GWs) and tides observations to minor chemical constituents and temperature measurements. Moreover, the airglow observations have good potential as, for example, for water vapor profile retrieval in the mesopause region. Recently, hydroxyl emissions were found in Mars and in Venus atmospheres. Thus, the applicability potential has been increased in spurts. Even for Earth's atmosphere there is a lack of knowledge on morphology of OH*-layer, i.e. on altitude, number density and shape variability with the intro- and extra-annual cycles, due to planetary waves (PWs), GWs, and tides. The questions on relations between OH* layer altitude, number density (volume emission, intensity), surrounding temperature, and winds (meridional and vertical) are still open. Modern satellite airglow measurements are not enough precise with a typical error in determination of altitude ~2-3 km, while the ground-based measurements are restricted by local point of observations and integrated volume emission. Thus, retrievals of emission altitudes variations to derive are awkward. The difficulties are much stronger for the investigation of the Martian OH*-layer variability and altitude diagnostics. We introduce a simplified analytical approach for OH*-layer altitude in the Martian atmosphere. The expressions for the number density and height of the OH*-layer peak, as well as relationship between both parameters, are derived for night time conditions. These OH*-layer parameters are determined by the temperature, atomic oxygen density and their vertical gradients. The approximations can be useful for analysis of ground-based and satellite-borne airglow observations. We discuss the consequences following from the derived expression.

  13. Evaluating performances of simplified physically based landslide susceptibility models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capparelli, Giovanna; Formetta, Giuseppe; Versace, Pasquale

    2015-04-01

    Rainfall induced shallow landslides cause significant damages involving loss of life and properties. Prediction of shallow landslides susceptible locations is a complex task that involves many disciplines: hydrology, geotechnical science, geomorphology, and statistics. Usually to accomplish this task two main approaches are used: statistical or physically based model. This paper presents a package of GIS based models for landslide susceptibility analysis. It was integrated in the NewAge-JGrass hydrological model using the Object Modeling System (OMS) modeling framework. The package includes three simplified physically based models for landslides susceptibility analysis (M1, M2, and M3) and a component for models verifications. It computes eight goodness of fit indices (GOF) by comparing pixel-by-pixel model results and measurements data. Moreover, the package integration in NewAge-JGrass allows the use of other components such as geographic information system tools to manage inputs-output processes, and automatic calibration algorithms to estimate model parameters. The system offers the possibility to investigate and fairly compare the quality and the robustness of models and models parameters, according a procedure that includes: i) model parameters estimation by optimizing each of the GOF index separately, ii) models evaluation in the ROC plane by using each of the optimal parameter set, and iii) GOF robustness evaluation by assessing their sensitivity to the input parameter variation. This procedure was repeated for all three models. The system was applied for a case study in Calabria (Italy) along the Salerno-Reggio Calabria highway, between Cosenza and Altilia municipality. The analysis provided that among all the optimized indices and all the three models, Average Index (AI) optimization coupled with model M3 is the best modeling solution for our test case. This research was funded by PON Project No. 01_01503 "Integrated Systems for Hydrogeological Risk

  14. A simplified technique for giant inguinal hernia repair in infants.

    PubMed

    Banieghbal, B

    2008-06-01

    Repair of giant inguino-scrotal hernia (GISH) in male infants is a difficult operation, even in experienced hands. It requires an immaculate technique to avoid known complications such as tearing of the sac, injury to delicate testicular vessels and dividing of vas deferens. Moreover, a recurrence rate of 9% is noted in a number of reports. This article describes a new surgical maneuver to simplify the procedure. All GISH repaired by the author, over a 5-year period (October 2001-September 2006), were reviewed retrospectively. In total, 89 infants with 106 GISH underwent uni- or bilateral herniotomies. A standard inguinal incision is made and Scarpa's fascia is sharply opened; the external inguinal ring and the cord is identified. By gentle manipulation and blunt dissection, the spermatic cord together with the testis is exteriorized. The assistant applies gentle traction to the cord, which allows for easy identification of the inguinal sac and its subsequent separation from vas and vessels. Testis is replaced in the scrotum, hernial sac suture ligated at its base and the wound closed in layers. All cases were managed with the above approach. The average length of the procedure was 11 min for unilateral and 19 min for bilateral cases. Except for minimal scrotal swelling post-operatively, no other surgery-related complications were noted during or immediately after the operation. Testicular atrophy or iatrogenic undescended testes were not encountered in the follow-up period. Ipsilateral recurrent hernia was noted in one infant after 6 months which required re-operation with the same technique. In cases of GISH; dislocating the testis into the wound and applying a gentle stretch on the cord allows for a safe dissection of the hernial sac and subsequent herniotomy. This maneuver converts a difficult procedure into a relatively simple one.

  15. Simplified method for detecting tritium contamination in plants and soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andraski, B.J.; Sandstrom, M.W.; Michel, R.L.; Radyk, J.C.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Johnson, M.J.; Mayers, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Cost-effective methods are needed to identify the presence and distribution of tritium near radioactive waste disposal and other contaminated sites. The objectives of this study were to (i) develop a simplified sample preparation method for determining tritium contamination in plants and (ii) determine if plant data could be used as an indicator of soil contamination. The method entailed collection and solar distillation of plant water from foliage, followed by filtration and adsorption of scintillation-interfering constituents on a graphitebased solid phase extraction (SPE) column. The method was evaluated using samples of creosote bush [Larrea tridentata (Sesse?? & Moc. ex DC.) Coville], an evergreen shrub, near a radioactive disposal area in the Mojave Desert. Laboratory tests showed that a 2-g SPE column was necessary and sufficient for accurate determination of known tritium concentrations in plant water. Comparisons of tritium concentrations in plant water determined with the solar distillation-SPE method and the standard (and more laborious) toluene-extraction method showed no significant difference between methods. Tritium concentrations in plant water and in water vapor of root-zone soil also showed no significant difference between methods. Thus, the solar distillation-SPE method provides a simple and cost-effective way to identify plant and soil contamination. The method is of sufficient accuracy to facilitate collection of plume-scale data and optimize placement of more sophisticated (and costly) monitoring equipment at contaminated sites. Although work to date has focused on one desert plant, the approach may be transferable to other species and environments after site-specific experiments.

  16. Data analytics for simplifying thermal efficiency planning in cities.

    PubMed

    Abdolhosseini Qomi, Mohammad Javad; Noshadravan, Arash; Sobstyl, Jake M; Toole, Jameson; Ferreira, Joseph; Pellenq, Roland J-M; Ulm, Franz-Josef; Gonzalez, Marta C

    2016-04-01

    More than 44% of building energy consumption in the USA is used for space heating and cooling, and this accounts for 20% of national CO2emissions. This prompts the need to identify among the 130 million households in the USA those with the greatest energy-saving potential and the associated costs of the path to reach that goal. Whereas current solutions address this problem by analysing each building in detail, we herein reduce the dimensionality of the problem by simplifying the calculations of energy losses in buildings. We present a novel inference method that can be used via a ranking algorithm that allows us to estimate the potential energy saving for heating purposes. To that end, we only need consumption from records of gas bills integrated with a building's footprint. The method entails a statistical screening of the intricate interplay between weather, infrastructural and residents' choice variables to determine building gas consumption and potential savings at a city scale. We derive a general statistical pattern of consumption in an urban settlement, reducing it to a set of the most influential buildings' parameters that operate locally. By way of example, the implications are explored using records of a set of (N= 6200) buildings in Cambridge, MA, USA, which indicate that retrofitting only 16% of buildings entails a 40% reduction in gas consumption of the whole building stock. We find that the inferred heat loss rate of buildings exhibits a power-law data distribution akin to Zipf's law, which provides a means to map an optimum path for gas savings per retrofit at a city scale. These findings have implications for improving the thermal efficiency of cities' building stock, as outlined by current policy efforts seeking to reduce home heating and cooling energy consumption and lower associated greenhouse gas emissions.

  17. Antimicrobial potency and selectivity of simplified symmetric-end peptides.

    PubMed

    Dong, Na; Zhu, Xin; Chou, Shuli; Shan, Anshan; Li, Weizhong; Jiang, Junguang

    2014-09-01

    Because antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are potentially useful for the treatment of multidrug-resistant infections, more attention is being paid to the structural modification and structure-function relationship of both naturally occurring and synthetic AMPs. Previous studies indicated that Protegrin-1 (PG-1), isolated from porcine leukocytes, exhibited considerable antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity. The β-turn of PG-1 floated on the surface of bacterial membrane, while its β-strand inserted into the bacterial membrane and formed pores that were dedicated to producing cytotoxicity. For reducing cytotoxicity and improving cells selectivity, we designed a series of simplified symmetric-end peptides by combining the β-turn of PG-1 with simple amino acid repeat sequences. The sequence of designed symmetric-end peptides is (XR)nH(RX)n, (n = 1,2; X represents I, F, W and P; H represents CRRRFC). The symmetric-end peptides displayed antimicrobial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. In particular, (XR)2H(RX)2 (X here is I, F and W) showed greater antimicrobial potency than PG-1. Hemolysis activity and cytotoxicity, detected by using human red blood cells (RBCs) and human embryonic lung fibroblasts MRC-5 cells, were observably lower than the native peptide PG-1. (IR)2H(RI)2 (IR2), folded into β-sheet structures, displayed the highest therapeutic index, suggesting its great cell selectivity. The fluorescence spectroscopy, flow cytometry, and electron microscopy observation indicated that IR2 exhibited great membrane penetration potential by inducing membrane blebbing, disruption and lysis. Collectively, generating symmetric-end β-sheet peptides is a promising strategy for designing effective AMPs with great antimicrobial activities and cell selectivity.

  18. Evaluating performances of simplified physically based models for landslide susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formetta, G.; Capparelli, G.; Versace, P.

    2015-12-01

    Rainfall induced shallow landslides cause loss of life and significant damages involving private and public properties, transportation system, etc. Prediction of shallow landslides susceptible locations is a complex task that involves many disciplines: hydrology, geotechnical science, geomorphology, and statistics. Usually to accomplish this task two main approaches are used: statistical or physically based model. Reliable models' applications involve: automatic parameters calibration, objective quantification of the quality of susceptibility maps, model sensitivity analysis. This paper presents a methodology to systemically and objectively calibrate, verify and compare different models and different models performances indicators in order to individuate and eventually select the models whose behaviors are more reliable for a certain case study. The procedure was implemented in package of models for landslide susceptibility analysis and integrated in the NewAge-JGrass hydrological model. The package includes three simplified physically based models for landslides susceptibility analysis (M1, M2, and M3) and a component for models verifications. It computes eight goodness of fit indices by comparing pixel-by-pixel model results and measurements data. Moreover, the package integration in NewAge-JGrass allows the use of other components such as geographic information system tools to manage inputs-output processes, and automatic calibration algorithms to estimate model parameters. The system was applied for a case study in Calabria (Italy) along the Salerno-Reggio Calabria highway, between Cosenza and Altilia municipality. The analysis provided that among all the optimized indices and all the three models, the optimization of the index distance to perfect classification in the receiver operating characteristic plane (D2PC) coupled with model M3 is the best modeling solution for our test case.

  19. Engineering and Characterization of Simplified Vaginal and Seminal Fluid Simulants

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Rachna; Su, Jonathan; Mahalingam, Alamelu; Clark, Justin; Sung, Samuel; Hope, Thomas; Kiser, Patrick F.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Reported vaginal and seminal fluid simulants have complex compositions with multiple preparatory steps which contribute to physical instability. We report the design and characterization of stable and simplified buffers that mimic the salient physical-chemical properties of the physiological fluids. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS Human cervicovaginal and seminal fluid samples were collected and buffering capacity was determined. The major buffering species were identified from published compositions of reproductive tract fluids. These values were used to compute the composition of vaginal and seminal fluid simulants. Ionic strength, buffering capacities, pH and osmolalities were then calculated or experimentally determined. Finally, cytotoxicity was evaluated in HEC-1-A cells and 3D reconstructed EpiVaginal™tissue (VEC-100-FT) using naïve cells/tissue and nonoxynol-9 as controls. RESULTS The use of calculated amounts of conjugate acid and base for buffer development resulted in compositions that did not require end point pH adjustment and could be formulated as stable 10X concentrates. Furthermore, due to the absence of complex divalent salts, all our proposed simulants were stable at 4°C for 1 month whereas precipitation, and pH and osmolality changes were noted in reported buffers. Experimental determination of buffering capacities yielded similar values for undiluted cervicovaginal fluid (β4.2–5.2 = 35.6 ± 12.3 mM, N = 7) and human seminal fluid (β7–6 =37.5 ± 5 mM, N = 3). All neat simulants showed significant cytotoxicity in HEC-1-A cells but were well tolerated by organotypic vaginal tissue. CONCLUSIONS We report revised and improved compositions of buffers mimicking salient properties of vaginal and seminal fluid necessary for in vitro product evaluation. PMID:26585883

  20. Simplifying electrocardiographic assessment in STEMI reperfusion management: Pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Wong, Cheuk-Kit

    2017-01-15

    Current guidelines on STEMI reperfusion management do not incorporate further electrocardiographic details over the presence of significant ST elevation. Fibrinolysis is considered an alternative therapy to primary PCI if there is a long PCI-related delay, but the 2 therapies should not be combined. Meanwhile, reperfusion for ischemic stroke has evolved on mechanistic understanding - reperfusion benefit being greatest in the patient with small "core" infarct and large ischemic "penumbra". Fibrinolysis is not regarded as an alternative to mechanical thrombectomy, and the 2 therapies can be combined. In this article describing how reperfusion regimes have evolved along different paths for STEMI and for ischemic stroke, a new concept is made that in STEMI infarct lead Q waves can be the counterpart of the "core" and ST elevation the "penumbra". Suggestions to modify STEMI treatment algorithms are made, exploring further the relative role of (pre-hospital) fibrinolysis versus PCI particularly in younger patients presenting at the onset of their STEMI (no Q waves). In contrast, some patients particularly the older ones with more evolved STEMI (large Q waves present) may be much more suited for PCI despite expecting a long delay. The article finishes by describing potential future alterations in the method of reperfusion. Despite primary PCI being the well-established therapy, there are rooms for further research to optimize STEMI outcomes.