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Sample records for kalvitis slams competition

  1. Slam Poetry and Cultural Experience for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreau, Kathryn E.

    2009-01-01

    Slam poetry, being not just recitation or memorization, affords children the opportunity to express their own personal cultural experiences and values. Slam is a spoken word performance; a competition among poets. Audience commentary is ongoing during the performance and vigorous audience participation is essential in a slam format. The founders…

  2. Slamming Arkansas Schools!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, W. Clayton

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author, a poet and teaching artist, shares how he successfully brought slam poetry to College Hill Middle School in Texarkana, Arkansas. In 2001 he discovered slam poetry--a poetry-reading format in which poets compete in dramatic readings of their works--and went to Slam Nationals in Seattle on the Arkansas slam team. He…

  3. Distributed SLAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binns, Lewis A.; Valachis, Dimitris; Anderson, Sean; Gough, David W.; Nicholson, David; Greenway, Phil

    2002-07-01

    Previously, we have developed techniques for Simultaneous Localization and Map Building based on the augmented state Kalman filter. Here we report the results of experiments conducted over multiple vehicles each equipped with a laser range finder for sensing the external environment, and a laser tracking system to provide highly accurate ground truth. The goal is simultaneously to build a map of an unknown environment and to use that map to navigate a vehicle that otherwise would have no way of knowing its location, and to distribute this process over several vehicles. We have constructed an on-line, distributed implementation to demonstrate the principle. In this paper we describe the system architecture, the nature of the experimental set up, and the results obtained. These are compared with the estimated ground truth. We show that distributed SLAM has a clear advantage in the sense that it offers a potential super-linear speed-up over single vehicle SLAM. In particular, we explore the time taken to achieve a given quality of map, and consider the repeatability and accuracy of the method. Finally, we discuss some practical implementation issues.

  4. Grand slam on cancer.

    PubMed

    Gartrell, Nanette

    2014-01-01

    A winner of 59 Grand Slam championships including a record 9 Wimbledon singles titles, Martina Navratilova is the most successful woman tennis player of the modern era. Martina was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame, named "Tour Player of the Year" seven times by the Women's Tennis Association, declared "Female Athlete of the Year" by the Associated Press, and ranked one of the "Top Forty Athletes of All-Time" by Sports Illustrated. Equally accomplished off the court, Martina is an author, philanthropist, TV commentator, and activist who has dedicated her life to educating people about prejudice and stereotypes. After coming out as a lesbian in 1981, Martina became a tireless advocate of equal rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people, and she has contributed generously to the LGBT community. Martina is the author of seven books, including most recently Shape Your Self: My 6-Step Diet and Fitness Plan to Achieve the Best Shape of your Life, an inspiring guide to healthy living and personal fitness. Martina was diagnosed with breast cancer in 2010. PMID:24400624

  5. Grand slam on cancer.

    PubMed

    Gartrell, Nanette

    2014-01-01

    A winner of 59 Grand Slam championships including a record 9 Wimbledon singles titles, Martina Navratilova is the most successful woman tennis player of the modern era. Martina was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame, named "Tour Player of the Year" seven times by the Women's Tennis Association, declared "Female Athlete of the Year" by the Associated Press, and ranked one of the "Top Forty Athletes of All-Time" by Sports Illustrated. Equally accomplished off the court, Martina is an author, philanthropist, TV commentator, and activist who has dedicated her life to educating people about prejudice and stereotypes. After coming out as a lesbian in 1981, Martina became a tireless advocate of equal rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people, and she has contributed generously to the LGBT community. Martina is the author of seven books, including most recently Shape Your Self: My 6-Step Diet and Fitness Plan to Achieve the Best Shape of your Life, an inspiring guide to healthy living and personal fitness. Martina was diagnosed with breast cancer in 2010.

  6. SLAM in a van

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binns, Lewis A.; Valachis, Dimitris; Anderson, Sean; Gough, David W.; Nicholson, David; Greenway, Phil

    2002-07-01

    We have developed techniques for Simultaneous Localization and Map Building based on the augmented state Kalman filter, and demonstrated this in real time using laboratory robots. Here we report the results of experiments conducted out doors in an unstructured, unknown, representative environment, using a van equipped with a laser range finder for sensing the external environment, and GPS to provide an estimate of ground truth. The goal is simultaneously to build a map of an unknown environment and to use that map to navigate a vehicle that otherwise would have no way of knowing its location. In this paper we describe the system architecture, the nature of the experimental set up, and the results obtained. These are compared with the estimated ground truth. We show that SLAM is both feasible and useful in real environments. In particular, we explore its repeatability and accuracy, and discuss some practical implementation issues. Finally, we look at the way forward for a real implementation on ground and air vehicles operating in very demanding, harsh environments.

  7. MonoSLAM: real-time single camera SLAM.

    PubMed

    Davison, Andrew J; Reid, Ian D; Molton, Nicholas D; Stasse, Olivier

    2007-06-01

    We present a real-time algorithm which can recover the 3D trajectory of a monocular camera, moving rapidly through a previously unknown scene. Our system, which we dub MonoSLAM, is the first successful application of the SLAM methodology from mobile robotics to the "pure vision" domain of a single uncontrolled camera, achieving real time but drift-free performance inaccessible to Structure from Motion approaches. The core of the approach is the online creation of a sparse but persistent map of natural landmarks within a probabilistic framework. Our key novel contributions include an active approach to mapping and measurement, the use of a general motion model for smooth camera movement, and solutions for monocular feature initialization and feature orientation estimation. Together, these add up to an extremely efficient and robust algorithm which runs at 30 Hz with standard PC and camera hardware. This work extends the range of robotic systems in which SLAM can be usefully applied, but also opens up new areas. We present applications of MonoSLAM to real-time 3D localization and mapping for a high-performance full-size humanoid robot and live augmented reality with a hand-held camera.

  8. Multiple robot system for decentralized SLAM investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deaves, Rob H.; Nicholson, David; Gough, David W.; Binns, Lewis A.; Vangasse, Paul; Greenway, Phil

    2000-10-01

    Technical details of laboratory based robotic system for researching decentralized Simultaneous Localization and Map building (SLAM) are provided. The main components of the system are Pioneer (ActivMedia) robots, laboratory environment for mapping, laser tracking system for testing the SLAM accuracy and a suite of SLAM software algorithms. The system is used to provide a demonstration and initial practical results of decentralized multiple-platform SLAM. The paper concludes that useful system has been set-up for researching this technology area. Further, the demonstration highlights important benefits of multiple- platform decentralized SLAM over a single platform approach. These include an increase in map accuracy, an improvement in the completeness and timeliness of the map, and an increase in platform accuracy although that platform was not extrinsically sensed. Future research areas are discussed.

  9. CoSLAM: collaborative visual SLAM in dynamic environments.

    PubMed

    Zou, Danping; Tan, Ping

    2013-02-01

    This paper studies the problem of vision-based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) in dynamic environments with multiple cameras. These cameras move independently and can be mounted on different platforms. All cameras work together to build a global map, including 3D positions of static background points and trajectories of moving foreground points. We introduce intercamera pose estimation and intercamera mapping to deal with dynamic objects in the localization and mapping process. To further enhance the system robustness, we maintain the position uncertainty of each map point. To facilitate intercamera operations, we cluster cameras into groups according to their view overlap, and manage the split and merge of camera groups in real time. Experimental results demonstrate that our system can work robustly in highly dynamic environments and produce more accurate results in static environments. PMID:22547430

  10. Concurrent initialization for Bearing-Only SLAM.

    PubMed

    Munguía, Rodrigo; Grau, Antoni

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) is perhaps the most fundamental problem to solve in robotics in order to build truly autonomous mobile robots. The sensors have a large impact on the algorithm used for SLAM. Early SLAM approaches focused on the use of range sensors as sonar rings or lasers. However, cameras have become more and more used, because they yield a lot of information and are well adapted for embedded systems: they are light, cheap and power saving. Unlike range sensors which provide range and angular information, a camera is a projective sensor which measures the bearing of images features. Therefore depth information (range) cannot be obtained in a single step. This fact has propitiated the emergence of a new family of SLAM algorithms: the Bearing-Only SLAM methods, which mainly rely in especial techniques for features system-initialization in order to enable the use of bearing sensors (as cameras) in SLAM systems. In this work a novel and robust method, called Concurrent Initialization, is presented which is inspired by having the complementary advantages of the Undelayed and Delayed methods that represent the most common approaches for addressing the problem. The key is to use concurrently two kinds of feature representations for both undelayed and delayed stages of the estimation. The simulations results show that the proposed method surpasses the performance of previous schemes.

  11. Concurrent initialization for Bearing-Only SLAM.

    PubMed

    Munguía, Rodrigo; Grau, Antoni

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) is perhaps the most fundamental problem to solve in robotics in order to build truly autonomous mobile robots. The sensors have a large impact on the algorithm used for SLAM. Early SLAM approaches focused on the use of range sensors as sonar rings or lasers. However, cameras have become more and more used, because they yield a lot of information and are well adapted for embedded systems: they are light, cheap and power saving. Unlike range sensors which provide range and angular information, a camera is a projective sensor which measures the bearing of images features. Therefore depth information (range) cannot be obtained in a single step. This fact has propitiated the emergence of a new family of SLAM algorithms: the Bearing-Only SLAM methods, which mainly rely in especial techniques for features system-initialization in order to enable the use of bearing sensors (as cameras) in SLAM systems. In this work a novel and robust method, called Concurrent Initialization, is presented which is inspired by having the complementary advantages of the Undelayed and Delayed methods that represent the most common approaches for addressing the problem. The key is to use concurrently two kinds of feature representations for both undelayed and delayed stages of the estimation. The simulations results show that the proposed method surpasses the performance of previous schemes. PMID:22294884

  12. Concurrent Initialization for Bearing-Only SLAM

    PubMed Central

    Munguía, Rodrigo; Grau, Antoni

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) is perhaps the most fundamental problem to solve in robotics in order to build truly autonomous mobile robots. The sensors have a large impact on the algorithm used for SLAM. Early SLAM approaches focused on the use of range sensors as sonar rings or lasers. However, cameras have become more and more used, because they yield a lot of information and are well adapted for embedded systems: they are light, cheap and power saving. Unlike range sensors which provide range and angular information, a camera is a projective sensor which measures the bearing of images features. Therefore depth information (range) cannot be obtained in a single step. This fact has propitiated the emergence of a new family of SLAM algorithms: the Bearing-Only SLAM methods, which mainly rely in especial techniques for features system-initialization in order to enable the use of bearing sensors (as cameras) in SLAM systems. In this work a novel and robust method, called Concurrent Initialization, is presented which is inspired by having the complementary advantages of the Undelayed and Delayed methods that represent the most common approaches for addressing the problem. The key is to use concurrently two kinds of feature representations for both undelayed and delayed stages of the estimation. The simulations results show that the proposed method surpasses the performance of previous schemes. PMID:22294884

  13. Competition.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D W

    1997-01-01

    Our ambivalence toward competition can be traced to an unspoken preference for certain types of competition which give us an advantage over the types we value less. Four types are defined (a) pure (same rules, same objectives), (b) collaborative (same rules, shared objective), (c) market share (different rules, same objectives), and (d) market growth (different rules, value added orientation). The defining characteristics of the four types of competition are respectively: needing a referee, arguing over the spoils, differentiation and substitutability, and customer focus. Dentistry has features of all four types of competition, thus making it difficult to have a meaningful discussion or frame a coherent policy on this topic.

  14. A novel combined SLAM based on RBPF-SLAM and EIF-SLAM for mobile system sensing in a large scale environment.

    PubMed

    He, Bo; Zhang, Shujing; Yan, Tianhong; Zhang, Tao; Liang, Yan; Zhang, Hongjin

    2011-01-01

    Mobile autonomous systems are very important for marine scientific investigation and military applications. Many algorithms have been studied to deal with the computational efficiency problem required for large scale simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) and its related accuracy and consistency. Among these methods, submap-based SLAM is a more effective one. By combining the strength of two popular mapping algorithms, the Rao-Blackwellised particle filter (RBPF) and extended information filter (EIF), this paper presents a combined SLAM-an efficient submap-based solution to the SLAM problem in a large scale environment. RBPF-SLAM is used to produce local maps, which are periodically fused into an EIF-SLAM algorithm. RBPF-SLAM can avoid linearization of the robot model during operating and provide a robust data association, while EIF-SLAM can improve the whole computational speed, and avoid the tendency of RBPF-SLAM to be over-confident. In order to further improve the computational speed in a real time environment, a binary-tree-based decision-making strategy is introduced. Simulation experiments show that the proposed combined SLAM algorithm significantly outperforms currently existing algorithms in terms of accuracy and consistency, as well as the computing efficiency. Finally, the combined SLAM algorithm is experimentally validated in a real environment by using the Victoria Park dataset.

  15. A novel combined SLAM based on RBPF-SLAM and EIF-SLAM for mobile system sensing in a large scale environment.

    PubMed

    He, Bo; Zhang, Shujing; Yan, Tianhong; Zhang, Tao; Liang, Yan; Zhang, Hongjin

    2011-01-01

    Mobile autonomous systems are very important for marine scientific investigation and military applications. Many algorithms have been studied to deal with the computational efficiency problem required for large scale simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) and its related accuracy and consistency. Among these methods, submap-based SLAM is a more effective one. By combining the strength of two popular mapping algorithms, the Rao-Blackwellised particle filter (RBPF) and extended information filter (EIF), this paper presents a combined SLAM-an efficient submap-based solution to the SLAM problem in a large scale environment. RBPF-SLAM is used to produce local maps, which are periodically fused into an EIF-SLAM algorithm. RBPF-SLAM can avoid linearization of the robot model during operating and provide a robust data association, while EIF-SLAM can improve the whole computational speed, and avoid the tendency of RBPF-SLAM to be over-confident. In order to further improve the computational speed in a real time environment, a binary-tree-based decision-making strategy is introduced. Simulation experiments show that the proposed combined SLAM algorithm significantly outperforms currently existing algorithms in terms of accuracy and consistency, as well as the computing efficiency. Finally, the combined SLAM algorithm is experimentally validated in a real environment by using the Victoria Park dataset. PMID:22346639

  16. Visual SLAM Using Variance Grid Maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Andrew B.; Marks, Tim K.

    2011-01-01

    An algorithm denoted Gamma-SLAM performs further processing, in real time, of preprocessed digitized images acquired by a stereoscopic pair of electronic cameras aboard an off-road robotic ground vehicle to build accurate maps of the terrain and determine the location of the vehicle with respect to the maps. Part of the name of the algorithm reflects the fact that the process of building the maps and determining the location with respect to them is denoted simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). Most prior real-time SLAM algorithms have been limited in applicability to (1) systems equipped with scanning laser range finders as the primary sensors in (2) indoor environments (or relatively simply structured outdoor environments). The few prior vision-based SLAM algorithms have been feature-based and not suitable for real-time applications and, hence, not suitable for autonomous navigation on irregularly structured terrain. The Gamma-SLAM algorithm incorporates two key innovations: Visual odometry (in contradistinction to wheel odometry) is used to estimate the motion of the vehicle. An elevation variance map (in contradistinction to an occupancy or an elevation map) is used to represent the terrain. The Gamma-SLAM algorithm makes use of a Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF) from Bayesian estimation theory for maintaining a distribution over poses and maps. The core idea of the RBPF approach is that the SLAM problem can be factored into two parts: (1) finding the distribution over robot trajectories, and (2) finding the map conditioned on any given trajectory. The factorization involves the use of a particle filter in which each particle encodes both a possible trajectory and a map conditioned on that trajectory. The base estimate of the trajectory is derived from visual odometry, and the map conditioned on that trajectory is a Cartesian grid of elevation variances. In comparison with traditional occupancy or elevation grid maps, the grid elevation variance

  17. A Novel Combined SLAM Based on RBPF-SLAM and EIF-SLAM for Mobile System Sensing in a Large Scale Environment

    PubMed Central

    He, Bo; Zhang, Shujing; Yan, Tianhong; Zhang, Tao; Liang, Yan; Zhang, Hongjin

    2011-01-01

    Mobile autonomous systems are very important for marine scientific investigation and military applications. Many algorithms have been studied to deal with the computational efficiency problem required for large scale Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) and its related accuracy and consistency. Among these methods, submap-based SLAM is a more effective one. By combining the strength of two popular mapping algorithms, the Rao-Blackwellised particle filter (RBPF) and extended information filter (EIF), this paper presents a Combined SLAM—an efficient submap-based solution to the SLAM problem in a large scale environment. RBPF-SLAM is used to produce local maps, which are periodically fused into an EIF-SLAM algorithm. RBPF-SLAM can avoid linearization of the robot model during operating and provide a robust data association, while EIF-SLAM can improve the whole computational speed, and avoid the tendency of RBPF-SLAM to be over-confident. In order to further improve the computational speed in a real time environment, a binary-tree-based decision-making strategy is introduced. Simulation experiments show that the proposed Combined SLAM algorithm significantly outperforms currently existing algorithms in terms of accuracy and consistency, as well as the computing efficiency. Finally, the Combined SLAM algorithm is experimentally validated in a real environment by using the Victoria Park dataset. PMID:22346639

  18. Efficient approach for binocular vision-SLAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Dai-Xian

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents an approach to binocular vision simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) algorithm is used to extract the Natural landmarks. But SIFT algorithm is complicated and computation time is long. Firstly, the linear combination of cityblock distance and chessboard distance is comparability measurement; secondly, partial features are used to matching. SLAM is completed by fusing the information of SIFT features and robot information with EKF. Mahalanobisis distance is used in data association which solve the problem that the scale of data association increase with the map grows in process of SLAM .The simulation experiment indicate that the proposed method reduce computational complexity, and with high localization precision in indoor environments.

  19. Competitiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minihan, Charles E.

    1991-03-01

    Competition is defined as a spirited, sometimes ruthless, engagement of rivals such as in a race, a match, or an effort by one person to sell goods or services to customers in the marketplace of another. Sound familiar? If you will bear with me for a few minutes, I would like to examine competitiveness on a more global basis with emphasis on the rules of the game. You may be thinking that more often than not the competitive arena is relatively small and far from global, and its consequences are singularly influential on a trivial document called the P & L. However, with the newly established freedom of a major segment of the world population and with the industrial capability formerly known as Communist moving into what has heretofore been "our" limited arena, the competition could get very brisk. Brisk, and perhaps ruthless, unless we work together to try to establish an international industrial policy that is truly based on equality of competitive opportunity for all.

  20. Visual EKF-SLAM from Heterogeneous Landmarks.

    PubMed

    Esparza-Jiménez, Jorge Othón; Devy, Michel; Gordillo, José L

    2016-04-07

    Many applications require the localization of a moving object, e.g., a robot, using sensory data acquired from embedded devices. Simultaneous localization and mapping from vision performs both the spatial and temporal fusion of these data on a map when a camera moves in an unknown environment. Such a SLAM process executes two interleaved functions: the front-end detects and tracks features from images, while the back-end interprets features as landmark observations and estimates both the landmarks and the robot positions with respect to a selected reference frame. This paper describes a complete visual SLAM solution, combining both point and line landmarks on a single map. The proposed method has an impact on both the back-end and the front-end. The contributions comprehend the use of heterogeneous landmark-based EKF-SLAM (the management of a map composed of both point and line landmarks); from this perspective, the comparison between landmark parametrizations and the evaluation of how the heterogeneity improves the accuracy on the camera localization, the development of a front-end active-search process for linear landmarks integrated into SLAM and the experimentation methodology.

  1. Visual EKF-SLAM from Heterogeneous Landmarks.

    PubMed

    Esparza-Jiménez, Jorge Othón; Devy, Michel; Gordillo, José L

    2016-01-01

    Many applications require the localization of a moving object, e.g., a robot, using sensory data acquired from embedded devices. Simultaneous localization and mapping from vision performs both the spatial and temporal fusion of these data on a map when a camera moves in an unknown environment. Such a SLAM process executes two interleaved functions: the front-end detects and tracks features from images, while the back-end interprets features as landmark observations and estimates both the landmarks and the robot positions with respect to a selected reference frame. This paper describes a complete visual SLAM solution, combining both point and line landmarks on a single map. The proposed method has an impact on both the back-end and the front-end. The contributions comprehend the use of heterogeneous landmark-based EKF-SLAM (the management of a map composed of both point and line landmarks); from this perspective, the comparison between landmark parametrizations and the evaluation of how the heterogeneity improves the accuracy on the camera localization, the development of a front-end active-search process for linear landmarks integrated into SLAM and the experimentation methodology. PMID:27070602

  2. Topological SLAM Using Fast Vision Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Felix; Maire, Frederic; Sitte, Joaquin

    In this paper we propose a method for vision only topological simultaneous localisation and mapping (SLAM). Our approach does not use motion or odometric information but a sequence of noisy visual measurements observed by traversing an environment. In particular, we address the perceptual aliasing problem which occurs using external observations only in topological navigation.

  3. But Slams Will Never Hurt Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villalobos, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Describes Youth Speaks NY Fifth Annual Teen Poetry Slam. Considers how Youth Speaks offers free after school writing workshops for teens. Notes that this nonprofit spoken word program Youth Speaks plays host to an auditorium of teen poets who "bust at the seams with verse." (SG)

  4. Current state of the art of vision based SLAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Naveed; Fofi, David; Ainouz, Samia

    2009-02-01

    The ability of a robot to localise itself and simultaneously build a map of its environment (Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping or SLAM) is a fundamental characteristic required for autonomous operation of the robot. Vision Sensors are very attractive for application in SLAM because of their rich sensory output and cost effectiveness. Different issues are involved in the problem of vision based SLAM and many different approaches exist in order to solve these issues. This paper gives a classification of state-of-the-art vision based SLAM techniques in terms of (i) imaging systems used for performing SLAM which include single cameras, stereo pairs, multiple camera rigs and catadioptric sensors, (ii) features extracted from the environment in order to perform SLAM which include point features and line/edge features, (iii) initialisation of landmarks which can either be delayed or undelayed, (iv) SLAM techniques used which include Extended Kalman Filtering, Particle Filtering, biologically inspired techniques like RatSLAM, and other techniques like Local Bundle Adjustment, and (v) use of wheel odometry information. The paper also presents the implementation and analysis of stereo pair based EKF SLAM for synthetic data. Results prove the technique to work successfully in the presence of considerable amounts of sensor noise. We believe that state of the art presented in the paper can serve as a basis for future research in the area of vision based SLAM. It will permit further research in the area to be carried out in an efficient and application specific way.

  5. Applying FastSLAM to Articulated Rovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, Robert Alexander

    This thesis presents the navigation algorithms designed for use on Kapvik, a 30 kg planetary micro-rover built for the Canadian Space Agency; the simulations used to test the algorithm; and novel techniques for terrain classification using Kapvik's LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) sensor. Kapvik implements a six-wheeled, skid-steered, rocker-bogie mobility system. This warrants a more complicated kinematic model for navigation than a typical 4-wheel differential drive system. The design of a 3D navigation algorithm is presented that includes nonlinear Kalman filtering and Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM). A neural network for terrain classification is used to improve navigation performance. Simulation is used to train the neural network and validate the navigation algorithms. Real world tests of the terrain classification algorithm validate the use of simulation for training and the improvement to SLAM through the reduction of extraneous LIDAR measurements in each scan.

  6. Local Frame Junction Trees in SLAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehnel, Frank O.

    2005-11-01

    Junction trees (JT) is a general purpose tool for exact inference on graphical models. Many of the existing algorithms for building junction trees require a fixed static graphical model. The construction process is not unique, finding the one with the best computational structure (smallest clique size) is also a hard problem. For large scale inference problems, such as Geo-referencing using triangular geodetic networks or equivalent, the simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) problem in robotics pose some challenges to junction tree applications. Incremental junction tree techniques for dynamic graphical models prescribe heuristic methods for growing the tree structure, and are applicable to large scale graphical models. Of concern are the proliferative widening of the tree, which makes message passing expensive. In the context of SLAM we present a new apporach that exploits the local frame dependence of novel observation variables.

  7. Visual SLAM for Handheld Monocular Endoscope.

    PubMed

    Grasa, Óscar G; Bernal, Ernesto; Casado, Santiago; Gil, Ismael; Montiel, J M M

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) methods provide real-time estimation of 3-D models from the sole input of a handheld camera, routinely in mobile robotics scenarios. Medical endoscopic sequences mimic a robotic scenario in which a handheld camera (monocular endoscope) moves along an unknown trajectory while observing an unknown cavity. However, the feasibility and accuracy of SLAM methods have not been extensively validated with human in vivo image sequences. In this work, we propose a monocular visual SLAM algorithm tailored to deal with medical image sequences in order to provide an up-to-scale 3-D map of the observed cavity and the endoscope trajectory at frame rate. The algorithm is validated over synthetic data and human in vivo sequences corresponding to 15 laparoscopic hernioplasties where accurate ground-truth distances are available. It can be concluded that the proposed procedure is: 1) noninvasive, because only a standard monocular endoscope and a surgical tool are used; 2) convenient, because only a hand-controlled exploratory motion is needed; 3) fast, because the algorithm provides the 3-D map and the trajectory in real time; 4) accurate, because it has been validated with respect to ground-truth; and 5) robust to inter-patient variability, because it has performed successfully over the validation sequences.

  8. Visual SLAM for Handheld Monocular Endoscope.

    PubMed

    Grasa, Óscar G; Bernal, Ernesto; Casado, Santiago; Gil, Ismael; Montiel, J M M

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) methods provide real-time estimation of 3-D models from the sole input of a handheld camera, routinely in mobile robotics scenarios. Medical endoscopic sequences mimic a robotic scenario in which a handheld camera (monocular endoscope) moves along an unknown trajectory while observing an unknown cavity. However, the feasibility and accuracy of SLAM methods have not been extensively validated with human in vivo image sequences. In this work, we propose a monocular visual SLAM algorithm tailored to deal with medical image sequences in order to provide an up-to-scale 3-D map of the observed cavity and the endoscope trajectory at frame rate. The algorithm is validated over synthetic data and human in vivo sequences corresponding to 15 laparoscopic hernioplasties where accurate ground-truth distances are available. It can be concluded that the proposed procedure is: 1) noninvasive, because only a standard monocular endoscope and a surgical tool are used; 2) convenient, because only a hand-controlled exploratory motion is needed; 3) fast, because the algorithm provides the 3-D map and the trajectory in real time; 4) accurate, because it has been validated with respect to ground-truth; and 5) robust to inter-patient variability, because it has performed successfully over the validation sequences. PMID:24107925

  9. 47 CFR 64.1140 - Carrier liability for slamming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carrier liability for slamming. 64.1140 Section 64.1140 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Providers § 64.1140 Carrier liability for slamming. (a) Carrier Liability for Charges. Any...

  10. Efficient data association for robot 3D vision-SLAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-hua; Zhu, Dai-xian

    2010-08-01

    A new approach to vision-based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) is proposed. the scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) features is landmarks, The minimal connected dominating set(CDS) approach is used in data association which solve the problem that the scale of data association increase with the map grows in process of SLAM. SLAM is completed by fusing the information of binocular vision and robot pose with Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). The system has been implemented and tested on data gathered with a mobile robot in a typical office environment. Experiments presented demonstrate that proposed method improves the data association and in this way leads to more accurate maps.

  11. Short Large-Amplitude Magnetic Structures (SLAMS) at Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collinson, G. A.; Wilson, L. B.; Sibeck, D. G.; Shane, N.; Zhang, T. L.; Moore, T. E.; Coates, A. J.; Barabash, S.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first observation of magnetic fluctuations consistent with Short Large-Amplitude Magnetic Structures (SLAMS) in the foreshock of the planet Venus. Three monolithic magnetic field spikes were observed by the Venus Express on the 11th of April 2009. The structures were approx.1.5->11s in duration, had magnetic compression ratios between approx.3->6, and exhibited elliptical polarization. These characteristics are consistent with the SLAMS observed at Earth, Jupiter, and Comet Giacobini-Zinner, and thus we hypothesize that it is possible SLAMS may be found at any celestial body with a foreshock.

  12. A comparison of SLAM and SCIPUFF using SEADEX tracer data

    SciTech Connect

    Atchison, M.K.

    1999-07-01

    The transport and diffusion models SCIPUFF (Second-order Closure Integrated Puff) and SLAM (Short-range Layered Atmospheric Model) were compared against each other using the land-sea breeze tracer data set SEADEX (The Shoreline Environment Atmospheric Dispersion Experiment). Predicted concentrations from both of these models were compared to observed concentrations at distances up to 15 km from a source for two of nine SEADEX releases. Emphasis was placed on a comparison of model output produced using various types of weather data (surface and upper-air). For the SEADEX release 1, SLAM was better at predicting the peak concentrations while SCIPUFF did a better job of predicting the overall plume widths. For SEADEX release 6, both SCIPUFF and SLAM performed similarly. However, SLAM moved the plume too fast compared to SCIPUFF and the actual observed plume location.

  13. Structure of CD84 Provides Insight into SLAM Family Function

    SciTech Connect

    Yan,Q.; Malashkevich, V.; Fedorov, A.; Fedorov, E.; Cao, E.; Lary, J.; Cole, J.; Nathenson, S.; Almo, S.

    2007-01-01

    The signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) family includes homophilic and heterophilic receptors that modulate both adaptive and innate immune responses. These receptors share a common ectodomain organization: a membrane-proximal immunoglobulin constant domain and a membrane-distal immunoglobulin variable domain that is responsible for ligand recognition. CD84 is a homophilic family member that enhances IFN-{gamma} secretion in activated T cells. Our solution studies revealed that CD84 strongly self-associates with a K{sub d} in the submicromolar range. These data, in combination with previous reports, demonstrate that the SLAM family homophilic affinities span at least three orders of magnitude and suggest that differences in the affinities may contribute to the distinct signaling behavior exhibited by the individual family members. The 2.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of the human CD84 immunoglobulin variable domain revealed an orthogonal homophilic dimer with high similarity to the recently reported homophilic dimer of the SLAM family member NTB-A. Structural and chemical differences in the homophilic interfaces provide a mechanism to prevent the formation of undesired heterodimers among the SLAM family homophilic receptors. These structural data also suggest that, like NTB-A, all SLAM family homophilic dimers adopt a highly kinked organization spanning an end-to-end distance of {approx}140 {angstrom}. This common molecular dimension provides an opportunity for all two-domain SLAM family receptors to colocalize within the immunological synapse and bridge the T cell and antigen-presenting cell.

  14. New validation algorithm for data association in SLAM.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Edmundo; Munguia, Rodrigo; Bolea, Yolanda; Grau, Antoni

    2013-09-01

    In this work, a novel data validation algorithm for a single-camera SLAM system is introduced. A 6-degree-of-freedom monocular SLAM method based on the delayed inverse-depth (DI-D) feature initialization is used as a benchmark. This SLAM methodology has been improved with the introduction of the proposed data association batch validation technique, the highest order hypothesis compatibility test, HOHCT. This new algorithm is based on the evaluation of statistically compatible hypotheses, and a search algorithm designed to exploit the characteristics of delayed inverse-depth technique. In order to show the capabilities of the proposed technique, experimental tests have been compared with classical methods. The results of the proposed technique outperformed the results of the classical approaches.

  15. Geometric projection filter: an efficient solution to the SLAM problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Paul M.; Durrant-Whyte, Hugh F.

    2001-10-01

    This paper is concerned with the simultaneous localization and map building (SLAM) problem. The SLAM problem asks if it is possible for an autonomous vehicle to start in an unknown location in an unknown environment and then to incrementally build a map of this environment while simultaneously using this map to compute absolute vehicle location. Conventional approaches to this problem are plagued with a prohibitively large increase in computation with the size of the environment. This paper offers a new solution to the SLAM problem that is both consistent and computationally feasible. The proposed algorithm builds a map expressing the relationships between landmarks which is then transformed into landmark locations. Experimental results are presented employing the new algorithm on a subsea vehicle using a scanning sonar sensor.

  16. A research on SLAM aided INS/GPS navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Menglong; Cui, Pingyuan

    2007-11-01

    Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) aided INS/GPS navigation system is a landmark based terrain aided autonomous integrated system that has the capability for online map building and simultaneously utilizing the generated map to bind the errors in the Inertial Navigation System (INS) when GPS is not available. If GPS information is available, the SLAM integrated system builds a landmark-based map using an INS/GPS solution. If GPS is not available, the previously newly generated map is used to constrain the INS errors. The SLAM augmented INS/GPS system shows two capabilities of landmark tracking and mapping using GPS information and more importantly, aiding the INS under GPS denied situation. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated by computer simulation.

  17. Analysis of different feature selection criteria based on a covariance convergence perspective for a SLAM algorithm.

    PubMed

    Auat Cheein, Fernando A; Carelli, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces several non-arbitrary feature selection techniques for a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) algorithm. The feature selection criteria are based on the determination of the most significant features from a SLAM convergence perspective. The SLAM algorithm implemented in this work is a sequential EKF (Extended Kalman filter) SLAM. The feature selection criteria are applied on the correction stage of the SLAM algorithm, restricting it to correct the SLAM algorithm with the most significant features. This restriction also causes a decrement in the processing time of the SLAM. Several experiments with a mobile robot are shown in this work. The experiments concern the map reconstruction and a comparison between the different proposed techniques performance. The experiments were carried out at an outdoor environment composed by trees, although the results shown herein are not restricted to a special type of features. PMID:22346568

  18. Analysis of Different Feature Selection Criteria Based on a Covariance Convergence Perspective for a SLAM Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Auat Cheein, Fernando A.; Carelli, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces several non-arbitrary feature selection techniques for a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) algorithm. The feature selection criteria are based on the determination of the most significant features from a SLAM convergence perspective. The SLAM algorithm implemented in this work is a sequential EKF (Extended Kalman filter) SLAM. The feature selection criteria are applied on the correction stage of the SLAM algorithm, restricting it to correct the SLAM algorithm with the most significant features. This restriction also causes a decrement in the processing time of the SLAM. Several experiments with a mobile robot are shown in this work. The experiments concern the map reconstruction and a comparison between the different proposed techniques performance. The experiments were carried out at an outdoor environment composed by trees, although the results shown herein are not restricted to a special type of features. PMID:22346568

  19. a Laser-Slam Algorithm for Indoor Mobile Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenjun; Zhang, Qiao; Sun, Kai; Guo, Sheng

    2016-06-01

    A novel Laser-SLAM algorithm is presented for real indoor environment mobile mapping. SLAM algorithm can be divided into two classes, Bayes filter-based and graph optimization-based. The former is often difficult to guarantee consistency and accuracy in largescale environment mapping because of the accumulative error during incremental mapping. Graph optimization-based SLAM method often assume predetermined landmarks, which is difficult to be got in unknown environment mapping. And there most likely has large difference between the optimize result and the real data, because the constraints are too few. This paper designed a kind of sub-map method, which could map more accurately without predetermined landmarks and avoid the already-drawn map impact on agent's location. The tree structure of sub-map can be indexed quickly and reduce the amount of memory consuming when mapping. The algorithm combined Bayes-based and graph optimization-based SLAM algorithm. It created virtual landmarks automatically by associating data of sub-maps for graph optimization. Then graph optimization guaranteed consistency and accuracy in large-scale environment mapping and improved the reasonability and reliability of the optimize results. Experimental results are presented with a laser sensor (UTM 30LX) in official buildings and shopping centres, which prove that the proposed algorithm can obtain 2D maps within 10cm precision in indoor environment range from several hundreds to 12000 square meter.

  20. Distributed SLAM using improved particle filter for mobile robot localization.

    PubMed

    Pei, Fujun; Wu, Mei; Zhang, Simin

    2014-01-01

    The distributed SLAM system has a similar estimation performance and requires only one-fifth of the computation time compared with centralized particle filter. However, particle impoverishment is inevitably because of the random particles prediction and resampling applied in generic particle filter, especially in SLAM problem that involves a large number of dimensions. In this paper, particle filter use in distributed SLAM was improved in two aspects. First, we improved the important function of the local filters in particle filter. The adaptive values were used to replace a set of constants in the computational process of importance function, which improved the robustness of the particle filter. Second, an information fusion method was proposed by mixing the innovation method and the number of effective particles method, which combined the advantages of these two methods. And this paper extends the previously known convergence results for particle filter to prove that improved particle filter converges to the optimal filter in mean square as the number of particles goes to infinity. The experiment results show that the proposed algorithm improved the virtue of the DPF-SLAM system in isolate faults and enabled the system to have a better tolerance and robustness. PMID:24883362

  1. Monocular SLAM for Autonomous Robots with Enhanced Features Initialization

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Edmundo; Munguia, Rodrigo; Grau, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a variant approach to the monocular SLAM problem focused in exploiting the advantages of a human-robot interaction (HRI) framework. Based upon the delayed inverse-depth feature initialization SLAM (DI-D SLAM), a known monocular technique, several but crucial modifications are introduced taking advantage of data from a secondary monocular sensor, assuming that this second camera is worn by a human. The human explores an unknown environment with the robot, and when their fields of view coincide, the cameras are considered a pseudo-calibrated stereo rig to produce estimations for depth through parallax. These depth estimations are used to solve a related problem with DI-D monocular SLAM, namely, the requirement of a metric scale initialization through known artificial landmarks. The same process is used to improve the performance of the technique when introducing new landmarks into the map. The convenience of the approach taken to the stereo estimation, based on SURF features matching, is discussed. Experimental validation is provided through results from real data with results showing the improvements in terms of more features correctly initialized, with reduced uncertainty, thus reducing scale and orientation drift. Additional discussion in terms of how a real-time implementation could take advantage of this approach is provided. PMID:24699284

  2. Distributed SLAM Using Improved Particle Filter for Mobile Robot Localization

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Fujun; Wu, Mei; Zhang, Simin

    2014-01-01

    The distributed SLAM system has a similar estimation performance and requires only one-fifth of the computation time compared with centralized particle filter. However, particle impoverishment is inevitably because of the random particles prediction and resampling applied in generic particle filter, especially in SLAM problem that involves a large number of dimensions. In this paper, particle filter use in distributed SLAM was improved in two aspects. First, we improved the important function of the local filters in particle filter. The adaptive values were used to replace a set of constants in the computational process of importance function, which improved the robustness of the particle filter. Second, an information fusion method was proposed by mixing the innovation method and the number of effective particles method, which combined the advantages of these two methods. And this paper extends the previously known convergence results for particle filter to prove that improved particle filter converges to the optimal filter in mean square as the number of particles goes to infinity. The experiment results show that the proposed algorithm improved the virtue of the DPF-SLAM system in isolate faults and enabled the system to have a better tolerance and robustness. PMID:24883362

  3. Visual EKF-SLAM from Heterogeneous Landmarks †

    PubMed Central

    Esparza-Jiménez, Jorge Othón; Devy, Michel; Gordillo, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Many applications require the localization of a moving object, e.g., a robot, using sensory data acquired from embedded devices. Simultaneous localization and mapping from vision performs both the spatial and temporal fusion of these data on a map when a camera moves in an unknown environment. Such a SLAM process executes two interleaved functions: the front-end detects and tracks features from images, while the back-end interprets features as landmark observations and estimates both the landmarks and the robot positions with respect to a selected reference frame. This paper describes a complete visual SLAM solution, combining both point and line landmarks on a single map. The proposed method has an impact on both the back-end and the front-end. The contributions comprehend the use of heterogeneous landmark-based EKF-SLAM (the management of a map composed of both point and line landmarks); from this perspective, the comparison between landmark parametrizations and the evaluation of how the heterogeneity improves the accuracy on the camera localization, the development of a front-end active-search process for linear landmarks integrated into SLAM and the experimentation methodology. PMID:27070602

  4. Distributed SLAM using improved particle filter for mobile robot localization.

    PubMed

    Pei, Fujun; Wu, Mei; Zhang, Simin

    2014-01-01

    The distributed SLAM system has a similar estimation performance and requires only one-fifth of the computation time compared with centralized particle filter. However, particle impoverishment is inevitably because of the random particles prediction and resampling applied in generic particle filter, especially in SLAM problem that involves a large number of dimensions. In this paper, particle filter use in distributed SLAM was improved in two aspects. First, we improved the important function of the local filters in particle filter. The adaptive values were used to replace a set of constants in the computational process of importance function, which improved the robustness of the particle filter. Second, an information fusion method was proposed by mixing the innovation method and the number of effective particles method, which combined the advantages of these two methods. And this paper extends the previously known convergence results for particle filter to prove that improved particle filter converges to the optimal filter in mean square as the number of particles goes to infinity. The experiment results show that the proposed algorithm improved the virtue of the DPF-SLAM system in isolate faults and enabled the system to have a better tolerance and robustness.

  5. Monocular SLAM for autonomous robots with enhanced features initialization.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Edmundo; Munguia, Rodrigo; Grau, Antoni

    2014-04-02

    This work presents a variant approach to the monocular SLAM problem focused in exploiting the advantages of a human-robot interaction (HRI) framework. Based upon the delayed inverse-depth feature initialization SLAM (DI-D SLAM), a known monocular technique, several but crucial modifications are introduced taking advantage of data from a secondary monocular sensor, assuming that this second camera is worn by a human. The human explores an unknown environment with the robot, and when their fields of view coincide, the cameras are considered a pseudo-calibrated stereo rig to produce estimations for depth through parallax. These depth estimations are used to solve a related problem with DI-D monocular SLAM, namely, the requirement of a metric scale initialization through known artificial landmarks. The same process is used to improve the performance of the technique when introducing new landmarks into the map. The convenience of the approach taken to the stereo estimation, based on SURF features matching, is discussed. Experimental validation is provided through results from real data with results showing the improvements in terms of more features correctly initialized, with reduced uncertainty, thus reducing scale and orientation drift. Additional discussion in terms of how a real-time implementation could take advantage of this approach is provided.

  6. Structure of the measles virus hemagglutinin bound to its cellular receptor SLAM.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Takao; Ose, Toyoyuki; Kubota, Marie; Maita, Nobuo; Kamishikiryo, Jun; Maenaka, Katsumi; Yanagi, Yusuke

    2011-02-01

    Measles virus, a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide, predominantly infects immune cells using signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) as a cellular receptor. Here we present crystal structures of measles virus hemagglutinin (MV-H), the receptor-binding glycoprotein, in complex with SLAM. The MV-H head domain binds to a β-sheet of the membrane-distal ectodomain of SLAM using the side of its β-propeller fold. This is distinct from attachment proteins of other paramyxoviruses that bind receptors using the top of their β-propeller. The structure provides templates for antiviral drug design, an explanation for the effectiveness of the measles virus vaccine, and a model of the homophilic SLAM-SLAM interaction involved in immune modulations. Notably, the crystal structures obtained show two forms of the MV-H-SLAM tetrameric assembly (dimer of dimers), which may have implications for the mechanism of fusion triggering.

  7. Measles Virus Infection of SLAM (CD150) Knockin Mice Reproduces Tropism and Immunosuppression in Human Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Shinji; Ono, Nobuyuki; Seki, Fumio; Takeda, Makoto; Kura, Shinobu; Tsuzuki, Teruhisa; Yanagi, Yusuke

    2007-01-01

    The human signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM, also called CD150), a regulator of antigen-driven T-cell responses and macrophage functions, acts as a cellular receptor for measles virus (MV), and its V domain is necessary and sufficient for receptor function. We report here the generation of SLAM knockin mice in which the V domain of mouse SLAM was replaced by that of human SLAM. The chimeric SLAM had an expected distribution and normal function in the knockin mice. Splenocytes from the SLAM knockin mice permitted the in vitro growth of a virulent MV strain but not that of the Edmonston vaccine strain. Unlike in vitro infection, MV could grow only in SLAM knockin mice that also lacked the type I interferon receptor (IFNAR). After intraperitoneal or intranasal inoculation, MV was detected in the spleen and lymph nodes throughout the body but not in the thymus. Notably, the virus appeared first in the mediastinal lymph node after intranasal inoculation. Splenocytes from MV-infected IFNAR−/− SLAM knockin mice showed suppression of proliferative responses to concanavalin A. Thus, MV infection of SLAM knockin mice reproduces lymphotropism and immunosuppression in human infection, serving as a useful small animal model for measles. PMID:17135325

  8. vSLAM: vision-based SLAM for autonomous vehicle navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncalves, Luis; Karlsson, Niklas; Ostrowski, Jim; Di Bernardo, Enrico; Pirjanian, Paolo

    2004-09-01

    Among the numerous challenges of building autonomous/unmanned vehicles is that of reliable and autonomous localization in an unknown environment. In this paper we present a system that can efficiently and autonomously solve the robotics 'SLAM' problem, where a robot placed in an unknown environment, simultaneously must localize itself and make a map of the environment. The system is vision-based, and makes use of Evolution Robotic's powerful object recognition technology. As the robot explores the environment, it is continuously performing four tasks, using information from acquired images and the drive system odometry. The robot: (1) recognizes previously created 3-D visual landmarks; (2) builds new 3-D visual landmarks; (3) updates the current estimate of its location, using the map; (4) updates the landmark map. In indoor environments, the system can build a map of a 5m by 5m area in approximately 20 minutes, and can localize itself with an accuracy of approximately 15 cm in position and 3 degrees in orientation relative to the global reference frame of the landmark map. The same system can be adapted for outdoor, vehicular use.

  9. An Improved Sensor Model on Appearance Based SLAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keßler, Jens; König, Alexander; Gross, Horst-Michael

    In our previous work on visual, appearance-based localization and mapping, we presented in [14] a novel SLAM approach to build visually labeled topological maps. The essential contribution of this work was an adaptive sensor model, which is estimated online, and a graph matching scheme to evaluate the likelihood of a given topological map. Both methods enable the combination of an appearance-based, visual localization and mapping concept with a Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filter (RBPF) as state estimator to a real-world suitable, online SLAM approach. In this paper we improve our algorithm by using a novel probability driven approximation of the local similarity function (the sensor model) to deal with dynamic changes of the appearance in the operation area.1

  10. Global localization from monocular SLAM on a mobile phone.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Jonathan; Arth, Clemens; Reitmayr, Gerhard; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2014-04-01

    We propose the combination of a keyframe-based monocular SLAM system and a global localization method. The SLAM system runs locally on a camera-equipped mobile client and provides continuous, relative 6DoF pose estimation as well as keyframe images with computed camera locations. As the local map expands, a server process localizes the keyframes with a pre-made, globally-registered map and returns the global registration correction to the mobile client. The localization result is updated each time a keyframe is added, and observations of global anchor points are added to the client-side bundle adjustment process to further refine the SLAM map registration and limit drift. The end result is a 6DoF tracking and mapping system which provides globally registered tracking in real-time on a mobile device, overcomes the difficulties of localization with a narrow field-of-view mobile phone camera, and is not limited to tracking only in areas covered by the offline reconstruction.

  11. An evaluation of attention models for use in SLAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodge, Samuel; Karam, Lina

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we study the application of visual saliency models for the simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) problem. We consider visual SLAM, where the location of the camera and a map of the environment can be generated using images from a single moving camera. In visual SLAM, the interest point detector is of key importance. This detector must be invariant to certain image transformations so that features can be matched across di erent frames. Recent work has used a model of human visual attention to detect interest points, however it is unclear as to what is the best attention model for this purpose. To this aim, we compare the performance of interest points from four saliency models (Itti, GBVS, RARE, and AWS) with the performance of four traditional interest point detectors (Harris, Shi-Tomasi, SIFT, and FAST). We evaluate these detectors under several di erent types of image transformation and nd that the Itti saliency model, in general, achieves the best performance in terms of keypoint repeatability.

  12. Magnetic resonance Spectroscopy with Linear Algebraic Modeling (SLAM) for higher speed and sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Gabr, Refaat E.; Schär, Michael; Weiss, Robert G.; Bottomley, Paul A.

    2012-05-01

    Speed and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are critical for localized magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of low-concentration metabolites. Matching voxels to anatomical compartments a priori yields better SNR than the spectra created by summing signals from constituent chemical-shift-imaging (CSI) voxels post-acquisition. Here, a new method of localized Spectroscopy using Linear Algebraic Modeling (SLAM) is presented, that can realize this additional SNR gain. Unlike prior methods, SLAM generates spectra from C signal-generating anatomic compartments utilizing a CSI sequence wherein essentially only the C central k-space phase-encoding gradient steps with highest SNR are retained. After MRI-based compartment segmentation, the spectra are reconstructed by solving a sub-set of linear simultaneous equations from the standard CSI algorithm. SLAM is demonstrated with one-dimensional CSI surface coil phosphorus MRS in phantoms, the human leg and the heart on a 3T clinical scanner. Its SNR performance, accuracy, sensitivity to registration errors and inhomogeneity, are evaluated. Compared to one-dimensional CSI, SLAM yielded quantitatively the same results 4-times faster in 24 cardiac patients and healthy subjects. SLAM is further extended with fractional phase-encoding gradients that optimize SNR and/or minimize both inter- and intra-compartmental contamination. In proactive cardiac phosphorus MRS of six healthy subjects, both SLAM and fractional-SLAM (fSLAM) produced results indistinguishable from CSI while preserving SNR gains of 36-45% in the same scan-time. Both SLAM and fSLAM are simple to implement and reduce the minimum scan-time for CSI, which otherwise limits the translation of higher SNR achievable at higher field strengths to faster scanning.

  13. Deletion of Slam locus in mice reveals inhibitory role of SLAM family in NK cell responses regulated by cytokines and LFA-1.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huaijian; Cranert, Stacey A; Lu, Yan; Zhong, Ming-Chao; Zhang, Shaohua; Chen, Jun; Li, Rui; Mahl, Sarah E; Wu, Ning; Davidson, Dominique; Waggoner, Stephen N; Veillette, André

    2016-09-19

    Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family receptors (SFRs) can mediate either activating or inhibitory effects during natural killer cell (NK cell) activation. In this study, we addressed the global role, regulation, and mechanism of action of the SLAM family in NK cells by analyzing a mouse lacking the entire ∼400-kilobase Slam locus, which encodes all six SFRs and CD48, the ligand of SFR 2B4. This mouse displayed enhanced NK cell activation responses toward hematopoietic target cells. Analyses of mice lacking individual SFRs showed that the inhibitory function of the Slam locus was due solely to 2B4 and was not influenced positively or negatively by other SFRs. Differences in NK cell responses between recognition of targets expressing or lacking ligands for SFRs were enhanced by IL-12 but suppressed by type I interferon. Cytokines also changed the levels of SLAM-associated protein adaptors, which prevent the inhibitory function of SFRs. The enhanced activation responses of SFR-deficient NK cells were dependent on integrin LFA-1 but not on DNAM-1 or NKG2D. SFR-mediated inhibition prevented the generation of activated forms of LFA-1. Hence, the Slam locus has an overall inhibitory role during NK cell activation that is solely dependent on 2B4. This effect is influenced by cytokines and leads to suppression of LFA-1 activity.

  14. Martian Swarm Exploration and Mapping Using Laser Slam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, S.; Krüger, T.; Matthaei, J.; Bestmann, U.

    2013-08-01

    In order to explore planet Mars in detail and search for extra-terrestrial life the observation from orbit is not sufficient. To realize complex exploration tasks the use of automatic operating robots with a robust fault-tolerant method of navigation, independent of any infrastructure is a possibility. This work includes a concept of rotary-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) for Martian exploration in a swarm. Besides the scenario of Martian surrounding, with a small number of distinctive landmarks, the challenge consists of a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) concept using laser data of all swarm members.

  15. Performance analysis of the Microsoft Kinect sensor for 2D Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) techniques.

    PubMed

    Kamarudin, Kamarulzaman; Mamduh, Syed Muhammad; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Zakaria, Ammar

    2014-12-05

    This paper presents a performance analysis of two open-source, laser scanner-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) techniques (i.e., Gmapping and Hector SLAM) using a Microsoft Kinect to replace the laser sensor. Furthermore, the paper proposes a new system integration approach whereby a Linux virtual machine is used to run the open source SLAM algorithms. The experiments were conducted in two different environments; a small room with no features and a typical office corridor with desks and chairs. Using the data logged from real-time experiments, each SLAM technique was simulated and tested with different parameter settings. The results show that the system is able to achieve real time SLAM operation. The system implementation offers a simple and reliable way to compare the performance of Windows-based SLAM algorithm with the algorithms typically implemented in a Robot Operating System (ROS). The results also indicate that certain modifications to the default laser scanner-based parameters are able to improve the map accuracy. However, the limited field of view and range of Kinect's depth sensor often causes the map to be inaccurate, especially in featureless areas, therefore the Kinect sensor is not a direct replacement for a laser scanner, but rather offers a feasible alternative for 2D SLAM tasks.

  16. Performance analysis of the Microsoft Kinect sensor for 2D Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) techniques.

    PubMed

    Kamarudin, Kamarulzaman; Mamduh, Syed Muhammad; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Zakaria, Ammar

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a performance analysis of two open-source, laser scanner-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) techniques (i.e., Gmapping and Hector SLAM) using a Microsoft Kinect to replace the laser sensor. Furthermore, the paper proposes a new system integration approach whereby a Linux virtual machine is used to run the open source SLAM algorithms. The experiments were conducted in two different environments; a small room with no features and a typical office corridor with desks and chairs. Using the data logged from real-time experiments, each SLAM technique was simulated and tested with different parameter settings. The results show that the system is able to achieve real time SLAM operation. The system implementation offers a simple and reliable way to compare the performance of Windows-based SLAM algorithm with the algorithms typically implemented in a Robot Operating System (ROS). The results also indicate that certain modifications to the default laser scanner-based parameters are able to improve the map accuracy. However, the limited field of view and range of Kinect's depth sensor often causes the map to be inaccurate, especially in featureless areas, therefore the Kinect sensor is not a direct replacement for a laser scanner, but rather offers a feasible alternative for 2D SLAM tasks. PMID:25490595

  17. Performance Analysis of the Microsoft Kinect Sensor for 2D Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Kamarudin, Kamarulzaman; Mamduh, Syed Muhammad; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Zakaria, Ammar

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a performance analysis of two open-source, laser scanner-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) techniques (i.e., Gmapping and Hector SLAM) using a Microsoft Kinect to replace the laser sensor. Furthermore, the paper proposes a new system integration approach whereby a Linux virtual machine is used to run the open source SLAM algorithms. The experiments were conducted in two different environments; a small room with no features and a typical office corridor with desks and chairs. Using the data logged from real-time experiments, each SLAM technique was simulated and tested with different parameter settings. The results show that the system is able to achieve real time SLAM operation. The system implementation offers a simple and reliable way to compare the performance of Windows-based SLAM algorithm with the algorithms typically implemented in a Robot Operating System (ROS). The results also indicate that certain modifications to the default laser scanner-based parameters are able to improve the map accuracy. However, the limited field of view and range of Kinect's depth sensor often causes the map to be inaccurate, especially in featureless areas, therefore the Kinect sensor is not a direct replacement for a laser scanner, but rather offers a feasible alternative for 2D SLAM tasks. PMID:25490595

  18. Evaluating quantitative and conceptual models of speech production: how does SLAM fare?

    PubMed

    Walker, Grant M; Hickok, Gregory

    2016-04-01

    In a previous publication, we presented a new computational model called SLAM (Walker & Hickok, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review doi: 10.3758/s13423-015-0903 ), based on the hierarchical state feedback control (HSFC) theory (Hickok Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 13(2), 135-145, 2012). In his commentary, Goldrick (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review doi: 10.3758/s13423-015-0946-9 ) claims that SLAM does not represent a theoretical advancement, because it cannot be distinguished from an alternative lexical + postlexical (LPL) theory proposed by Goldrick and Rapp (Cognition, 102(2), 219-260, 2007). First, we point out that SLAM implements a portion of a conceptual model (HSFC) that encompasses LPL. Second, we show that SLAM accounts for a lexical bias present in sound-related errors that LPL does not explain. Third, we show that SLAM's explanatory advantage is not a result of approximating the architectural or computational assumptions of LPL, since an implemented version of LPL fails to provide the same fit improvements as SLAM. Finally, we show that incorporating a mechanism that violates some core theoretical assumptions of LPL-making it more like SLAM in terms of interactivity-allows the model to capture some of the same effects as SLAM. SLAM therefore provides new modeling constraints regarding interactions among processing levels, while also elaborating on the structure of the phonological level. We view this as evidence that an integration of psycholinguistic, neuroscience, and motor control approaches to speech production is feasible and may lead to substantial new insights. PMID:26537953

  19. Multibeam 3D Underwater SLAM with Probabilistic Registration.

    PubMed

    Palomer, Albert; Ridao, Pere; Ribas, David

    2016-04-20

    This paper describes a pose-based underwater 3D Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) using a multibeam echosounder to produce high consistency underwater maps. The proposed algorithm compounds swath profiles of the seafloor with dead reckoning localization to build surface patches (i.e., point clouds). An Iterative Closest Point (ICP) with a probabilistic implementation is then used to register the point clouds, taking into account their uncertainties. The registration process is divided in two steps: (1) point-to-point association for coarse registration and (2) point-to-plane association for fine registration. The point clouds of the surfaces to be registered are sub-sampled in order to decrease both the computation time and also the potential of falling into local minima during the registration. In addition, a heuristic is used to decrease the complexity of the association step of the ICP from O(n2) to O(n) . The performance of the SLAM framework is tested using two real world datasets: First, a 2.5D bathymetric dataset obtained with the usual down-looking multibeam sonar configuration, and second, a full 3D underwater dataset acquired with a multibeam sonar mounted on a pan and tilt unit.

  20. Multibeam 3D Underwater SLAM with Probabilistic Registration.

    PubMed

    Palomer, Albert; Ridao, Pere; Ribas, David

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a pose-based underwater 3D Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) using a multibeam echosounder to produce high consistency underwater maps. The proposed algorithm compounds swath profiles of the seafloor with dead reckoning localization to build surface patches (i.e., point clouds). An Iterative Closest Point (ICP) with a probabilistic implementation is then used to register the point clouds, taking into account their uncertainties. The registration process is divided in two steps: (1) point-to-point association for coarse registration and (2) point-to-plane association for fine registration. The point clouds of the surfaces to be registered are sub-sampled in order to decrease both the computation time and also the potential of falling into local minima during the registration. In addition, a heuristic is used to decrease the complexity of the association step of the ICP from O(n2) to O(n) . The performance of the SLAM framework is tested using two real world datasets: First, a 2.5D bathymetric dataset obtained with the usual down-looking multibeam sonar configuration, and second, a full 3D underwater dataset acquired with a multibeam sonar mounted on a pan and tilt unit. PMID:27104538

  1. Validation of Underwater Sensor Package Using Feature Based SLAM.

    PubMed

    Cain, Christopher; Leonessa, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Robotic vehicles working in new, unexplored environments must be able to locate themselves in the environment while constructing a picture of the objects in the environment that could act as obstacles that would prevent the vehicles from completing their desired tasks. In enclosed environments, underwater range sensors based off of acoustics suffer performance issues due to reflections. Additionally, their relatively high cost make them less than ideal for usage on low cost vehicles designed to be used underwater. In this paper we propose a sensor package composed of a downward facing camera, which is used to perform feature tracking based visual odometry, and a custom vision-based two dimensional rangefinder that can be used on low cost underwater unmanned vehicles. In order to examine the performance of this sensor package in a SLAM framework, experimental tests are performed using an unmanned ground vehicle and two feature based SLAM algorithms, the extended Kalman filter based approach and the Rao-Blackwellized, particle filter based approach, to validate the sensor package. PMID:26999142

  2. Multibeam 3D Underwater SLAM with Probabilistic Registration

    PubMed Central

    Palomer, Albert; Ridao, Pere; Ribas, David

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a pose-based underwater 3D Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) using a multibeam echosounder to produce high consistency underwater maps. The proposed algorithm compounds swath profiles of the seafloor with dead reckoning localization to build surface patches (i.e., point clouds). An Iterative Closest Point (ICP) with a probabilistic implementation is then used to register the point clouds, taking into account their uncertainties. The registration process is divided in two steps: (1) point-to-point association for coarse registration and (2) point-to-plane association for fine registration. The point clouds of the surfaces to be registered are sub-sampled in order to decrease both the computation time and also the potential of falling into local minima during the registration. In addition, a heuristic is used to decrease the complexity of the association step of the ICP from O(n2) to O(n). The performance of the SLAM framework is tested using two real world datasets: First, a 2.5D bathymetric dataset obtained with the usual down-looking multibeam sonar configuration, and second, a full 3D underwater dataset acquired with a multibeam sonar mounted on a pan and tilt unit. PMID:27104538

  3. Validation of Underwater Sensor Package Using Feature Based SLAM

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Christopher; Leonessa, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Robotic vehicles working in new, unexplored environments must be able to locate themselves in the environment while constructing a picture of the objects in the environment that could act as obstacles that would prevent the vehicles from completing their desired tasks. In enclosed environments, underwater range sensors based off of acoustics suffer performance issues due to reflections. Additionally, their relatively high cost make them less than ideal for usage on low cost vehicles designed to be used underwater. In this paper we propose a sensor package composed of a downward facing camera, which is used to perform feature tracking based visual odometry, and a custom vision-based two dimensional rangefinder that can be used on low cost underwater unmanned vehicles. In order to examine the performance of this sensor package in a SLAM framework, experimental tests are performed using an unmanned ground vehicle and two feature based SLAM algorithms, the extended Kalman filter based approach and the Rao-Blackwellized, particle filter based approach, to validate the sensor package. PMID:26999142

  4. Validation of Underwater Sensor Package Using Feature Based SLAM.

    PubMed

    Cain, Christopher; Leonessa, Alexander

    2016-03-17

    Robotic vehicles working in new, unexplored environments must be able to locate themselves in the environment while constructing a picture of the objects in the environment that could act as obstacles that would prevent the vehicles from completing their desired tasks. In enclosed environments, underwater range sensors based off of acoustics suffer performance issues due to reflections. Additionally, their relatively high cost make them less than ideal for usage on low cost vehicles designed to be used underwater. In this paper we propose a sensor package composed of a downward facing camera, which is used to perform feature tracking based visual odometry, and a custom vision-based two dimensional rangefinder that can be used on low cost underwater unmanned vehicles. In order to examine the performance of this sensor package in a SLAM framework, experimental tests are performed using an unmanned ground vehicle and two feature based SLAM algorithms, the extended Kalman filter based approach and the Rao-Blackwellized, particle filter based approach, to validate the sensor package.

  5. Bearing-Only SLAM with an Omnicam Robust Selection of SIFT Features for Service Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochdorfer, Siegfried; Schlegel, Christian

    SLAM mechanisms are a key component towards advanced service robotics applications. Currently, a major hurdle are the still high costs of suitable range measuring devices. A solution are bearing-only SLAM approaches since these can be used with cheap sensors like omnicams. The general approach of using an Extended Kaiman Filter (EKF) for bearing-only SLAM based on artificial landmarks has been described and evaluated in [2][1]. Instead of artificial landmarks, we now use SIFT features [3] as natural landmarks.

  6. Full-observability analysis and implementation of the general SLAM model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souici, Ae.; Courdesses, M.; Ouldali, A.; Chatila, R.

    2013-03-01

    Simultaneous localisation and mapping (SLAM) problem is a non-linear system with dynamic state and measurement dimensions. The full observability of such system was ignored, in spite of the fact that system observability is a fundamental aspect in any state estimation problem. In this article, we present a full observability analysis of the general SLAM model. We show that known landmarks (anchor) solution does not guarantee full observability. Furthermore, we prove that to make the general SLAM model fully observable, a combination of known landmarks and invariant metrics are needed. Moreover, we propose a solution to implement a fully observable SLAM model based on mature landmark and virtual observation concepts. Simulations and experimental results are presented demonstrating the validity of the solutions in real world.

  7. A Robust Approach for a Filter-Based Monocular Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) System

    PubMed Central

    Munguía, Rodrigo; Castillo-Toledo, Bernardino; Grau, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) is an important problem to solve in robotics theory in order to build truly autonomous mobile robots. This work presents a novel method for implementing a SLAM system based on a single camera sensor. The SLAM with a single camera, or monocular SLAM, is probably one of the most complex SLAM variants. In this case, a single camera, which is freely moving through its environment, represents the sole sensor input to the system. The sensors have a large impact on the algorithm used for SLAM. Cameras are used more frequently, because they provide a lot of information and are well adapted for embedded systems: they are light, cheap and power-saving. Nevertheless, and unlike range sensors, which provide range and angular information, a camera is a projective sensor providing only angular measurements of image features. Therefore, depth information (range) cannot be obtained in a single step. In this case, special techniques for feature system-initialization are needed in order to enable the use of angular sensors (as cameras) in SLAM systems. The main contribution of this work is to present a novel and robust scheme for incorporating and measuring visual features in filtering-based monocular SLAM systems. The proposed method is based in a two-step technique, which is intended to exploit all the information available in angular measurements. Unlike previous schemes, the values of parameters used by the initialization technique are derived directly from the sensor characteristics, thus simplifying the tuning of the system. The experimental results show that the proposed method surpasses the performance of previous schemes. PMID:23823972

  8. A robust approach for a filter-based monocular simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) system.

    PubMed

    Munguía, Rodrigo; Castillo-Toledo, Bernardino; Grau, Antoni

    2013-07-03

    Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) is an important problem to solve in robotics theory in order to build truly autonomous mobile robots. This work presents a novel method for implementing a SLAM system based on a single camera sensor. The SLAM with a single camera, or monocular SLAM, is probably one of the most complex SLAM variants. In this case, a single camera, which is freely moving through its environment, represents the sole sensor input to the system. The sensors have a large impact on the algorithm used for SLAM. Cameras are used more frequently, because they provide a lot of information and are well adapted for embedded systems: they are light, cheap and power-saving. Nevertheless, and unlike range sensors, which provide range and angular information, a camera is a projective sensor providing only angular measurements of image features. Therefore, depth information (range) cannot be obtained in a single step. In this case, special techniques for feature system-initialization are needed in order to enable the use of angular sensors (as cameras) in SLAM systems. The main contribution of this work is to present a novel and robust scheme for incorporating and measuring visual features in filtering-based monocular SLAM systems. The proposed method is based in a two-step technique, which is intended to exploit all the information available in angular measurements. Unlike previous schemes, the values of parameters used by the initialization technique are derived directly from the sensor characteristics, thus simplifying the tuning of the system. The experimental results show that the proposed method surpasses the performance of previous schemes.

  9. A robust approach for a filter-based monocular simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) system.

    PubMed

    Munguía, Rodrigo; Castillo-Toledo, Bernardino; Grau, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) is an important problem to solve in robotics theory in order to build truly autonomous mobile robots. This work presents a novel method for implementing a SLAM system based on a single camera sensor. The SLAM with a single camera, or monocular SLAM, is probably one of the most complex SLAM variants. In this case, a single camera, which is freely moving through its environment, represents the sole sensor input to the system. The sensors have a large impact on the algorithm used for SLAM. Cameras are used more frequently, because they provide a lot of information and are well adapted for embedded systems: they are light, cheap and power-saving. Nevertheless, and unlike range sensors, which provide range and angular information, a camera is a projective sensor providing only angular measurements of image features. Therefore, depth information (range) cannot be obtained in a single step. In this case, special techniques for feature system-initialization are needed in order to enable the use of angular sensors (as cameras) in SLAM systems. The main contribution of this work is to present a novel and robust scheme for incorporating and measuring visual features in filtering-based monocular SLAM systems. The proposed method is based in a two-step technique, which is intended to exploit all the information available in angular measurements. Unlike previous schemes, the values of parameters used by the initialization technique are derived directly from the sensor characteristics, thus simplifying the tuning of the system. The experimental results show that the proposed method surpasses the performance of previous schemes. PMID:23823972

  10. Measles virus interacts with human SLAM receptor on dendritic cells to cause immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Hahm, Bumsuk; Arbour, Nathalie; Oldstone, Michael B.A.

    2016-01-01

    Measles virus (MV) infects dendritic cells (DCs) resulting in immunosuppression. Human DCs express two MV receptors: CD46 and human signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (hSLAM); thus, the role played by either alone is unclear. Because wild-type (wt) MV uses hSLAM receptor preferentially, we dissected the molecular basis of MV–DC interaction and resultant immunosuppression through the hSLAM receptor by creating transgenic (tg) mice expressing hSLAM on DCs. After infection with wt MV, murine splenic DCs expressing hSLAM receptor had less B7-1, B7-2, CD40, MHC class I, and MHC class II molecules on their surfaces and displayed an increased rate of apoptosis when compared to uninfected DCs. Further, MV-infected DCs failed to stimulate allogeneic T cells and inhibited mitogen-dependent T-cell proliferation. Individual expression of human SLAM, interferon α/β receptor, tumor necrosis factor-α, and lymphotoxin-α or β from T cells was not required for MV-infected DCs to inhibit the proliferation of T cells. PMID:15193925

  11. Splash jet and slamming generated by a rotating flap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, S. Y.; Sun, S. L.; Ren, H. L.; Wu, G. X.

    2015-09-01

    The hydrodynamic problem of slamming generated by a rotating flap, commonly known as Oyster in the wave energy sector, plunging into water, is analysed based on the incompressible velocity potential theory. The problem is solved through the boundary element method in the time domain. Two typical case studies are undertaken. One is the flap plunging into calm water and the other into an incoming wave. The splash jet formed during the flap plunging is included in the simulation. When the jet meets the main flow, it is treated through the domain decomposition method without taking account the secondary impact, which is similar to the mathematical method of Riemann's second sheet in the complex plane. The problem is solved in each non-overlapping subdomain, and the velocity and pressure continuity condition is imposed on the interface of the subdomains. Detailed results for the flap plunging into water with different velocities or accelerations are provided. The gravity and wave effects are also investigated.

  12. Canine Distemper Virus Fusion Activation: Critical Role of Residue E123 of CD150/SLAM

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Mojtaba; Bringolf, Fanny; Röthlisberger, Silvan; Bieringer, Maria; Schneider-Schaulies, Jürgen; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Origgi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Measles virus (MeV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) possess tetrameric attachment proteins (H) and trimeric fusion proteins, which cooperate with either SLAM or nectin 4 receptors to trigger membrane fusion for cell entry. While the MeV H-SLAM cocrystal structure revealed the binding interface, two distinct oligomeric H assemblies were also determined. In one of the conformations, two SLAM units were sandwiched between two discrete H head domains, thus spotlighting two binding interfaces (“front” and “back”). Here, we investigated the functional relevance of both interfaces in activating the CDV membrane fusion machinery. While alanine-scanning mutagenesis identified five critical regulatory residues in the front H-binding site of SLAM, the replacement of a conserved glutamate residue (E at position 123, replaced with A [E123A]) led to the most pronounced impact on fusion promotion. Intriguingly, while determination of the interaction of H with the receptor using soluble constructs revealed reduced binding for the identified SLAM mutants, no effect was recorded when physical interaction was investigated with the full-length counterparts of both molecules. Conversely, although mutagenesis of three strategically selected residues within the back H-binding site of SLAM did not substantially affect fusion triggering, nevertheless, the mutants weakened the H-SLAM interaction recorded with the membrane-anchored protein constructs. Collectively, our findings support a mode of binding between the attachment protein and the V domain of SLAM that is common to all morbilliviruses and suggest a major role of the SLAM residue E123, located at the front H-binding site, in triggering the fusion machinery. However, our data additionally support the hypothesis that other microdomain(s) of both glycoproteins (including the back H-binding site) might be required to achieve fully productive H-SLAM interactions. IMPORTANCE A complete understanding of the measles virus

  13. Sensor Fusion of Monocular Cameras and Laser Rangefinders for Line-Based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) Tasks in Autonomous Mobile Robots

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinzheng; Rad, Ahmad B.; Wong, Yiu-Kwong

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a sensor fusion strategy applied for Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) in dynamic environments. The designed approach consists of two features: (i) the first one is a fusion module which synthesizes line segments obtained from laser rangefinder and line features extracted from monocular camera. This policy eliminates any pseudo segments that appear from any momentary pause of dynamic objects in laser data. (ii) The second characteristic is a modified multi-sensor point estimation fusion SLAM (MPEF-SLAM) that incorporates two individual Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) based SLAM algorithms: monocular and laser SLAM. The error of the localization in fused SLAM is reduced compared with those of individual SLAM. Additionally, a new data association technique based on the homography transformation matrix is developed for monocular SLAM. This data association method relaxes the pleonastic computation. The experimental results validate the performance of the proposed sensor fusion and data association method. PMID:22368478

  14. Sensor fusion of monocular cameras and laser rangefinders for line-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) tasks in autonomous mobile robots.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinzheng; Rad, Ahmad B; Wong, Yiu-Kwong

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a sensor fusion strategy applied for Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) in dynamic environments. The designed approach consists of two features: (i) the first one is a fusion module which synthesizes line segments obtained from laser rangefinder and line features extracted from monocular camera. This policy eliminates any pseudo segments that appear from any momentary pause of dynamic objects in laser data. (ii) The second characteristic is a modified multi-sensor point estimation fusion SLAM (MPEF-SLAM) that incorporates two individual Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) based SLAM algorithms: monocular and laser SLAM. The error of the localization in fused SLAM is reduced compared with those of individual SLAM. Additionally, a new data association technique based on the homography transformation matrix is developed for monocular SLAM. This data association method relaxes the pleonastic computation. The experimental results validate the performance of the proposed sensor fusion and data association method.

  15. Sensor fusion of monocular cameras and laser rangefinders for line-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) tasks in autonomous mobile robots.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinzheng; Rad, Ahmad B; Wong, Yiu-Kwong

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a sensor fusion strategy applied for Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) in dynamic environments. The designed approach consists of two features: (i) the first one is a fusion module which synthesizes line segments obtained from laser rangefinder and line features extracted from monocular camera. This policy eliminates any pseudo segments that appear from any momentary pause of dynamic objects in laser data. (ii) The second characteristic is a modified multi-sensor point estimation fusion SLAM (MPEF-SLAM) that incorporates two individual Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) based SLAM algorithms: monocular and laser SLAM. The error of the localization in fused SLAM is reduced compared with those of individual SLAM. Additionally, a new data association technique based on the homography transformation matrix is developed for monocular SLAM. This data association method relaxes the pleonastic computation. The experimental results validate the performance of the proposed sensor fusion and data association method. PMID:22368478

  16. The Quiet Revolution of Poetry Slam: The Sustainability of Cultural Capital in the Light of Changing Artistic Conventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Helen

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the educational and theoretical implications of an analysis into the artistic movement of poetry slam. Slam is a successful and growing global phenomenon, which both directly and indirectly sets itself against the dominant literary world. As such, it could be viewed as presenting a challenge to dominant literary conventions…

  17. High Pathogenicity of Wild-Type Measles Virus Infection in CD150 (SLAM) Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sellin, Caroline I.; Davoust, Nathalie; Guillaume, Vanessa; Baas, Dominique; Belin, Marie-Françoise; Buckland, Robin; Wild, T. Fabian; Horvat, Branka

    2006-01-01

    Measles virus (MV) infection causes an acute childhood disease, associated in certain cases with infection of the central nervous system and development of a severe neurological disease. We have generated transgenic mice ubiquitously expressing the human protein SLAM (signaling lymphocytic activation molecule), or CD150, recently identified as an MV receptor. In contrast to all other MV receptor transgenic models described so far, in these mice infection with wild-type MV strains is highly pathogenic. Intranasal infection of SLAM transgenic suckling mice leads to MV spread to different organs and the development of an acute neurological syndrome, characterized by lethargy, seizures, ataxia, weight loss, and death within 3 weeks. In addition, in this model, vaccine and wild-type MV strains can be distinguished by virulence. Furthermore, intracranial MV infection of adult transgenic mice generates a subclinical infection associated with a high titer of MV-specific antibodies in the serum. Finally, to analyze new antimeasles therapeutic approaches, we created a recombinant soluble form of SLAM and demonstrated its important antiviral activity both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our results show the high susceptibility of SLAM transgenic mice to MV-induced neurological disease and open new perspectives for the analysis of the implication of SLAM in the neuropathogenicity of other morbilliviruses, which also use this molecule as a receptor. Moreover, this transgenic model, in allowing a simple readout of the efficacy of an antiviral treatment, provides unique experimental means to test novel anti-MV preventive and therapeutic strategies. PMID:16775330

  18. Accurate Mobile Urban Mapping via Digital Map-Based SLAM †.

    PubMed

    Roh, Hyunchul; Jeong, Jinyong; Cho, Younggun; Kim, Ayoung

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents accurate urban map generation using digital map-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM). Throughout this work, our main objective is generating a 3D and lane map aiming for sub-meter accuracy. In conventional mapping approaches, achieving extremely high accuracy was performed by either (i) exploiting costly airborne sensors or (ii) surveying with a static mapping system in a stationary platform. Mobile scanning systems recently have gathered popularity but are mostly limited by the availability of the Global Positioning System (GPS). We focus on the fact that the availability of GPS and urban structures are both sporadic but complementary. By modeling both GPS and digital map data as measurements and integrating them with other sensor measurements, we leverage SLAM for an accurate mobile mapping system. Our proposed algorithm generates an efficient graph SLAM and achieves a framework running in real-time and targeting sub-meter accuracy with a mobile platform. Integrated with the SLAM framework, we implement a motion-adaptive model for the Inverse Perspective Mapping (IPM). Using motion estimation derived from SLAM, the experimental results show that the proposed approaches provide stable bird's-eye view images, even with significant motion during the drive. Our real-time map generation framework is validated via a long-distance urban test and evaluated at randomly sampled points using Real-Time Kinematic (RTK)-GPS. PMID:27548175

  19. Shocklets, SLAMS, and Field-Aligned Ion Beams in the Terrestrial Foreshock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, L. B.; Koval, A.; Sibeck, D. G.; Szabo, A.; Cattell, C. A.; Kasper, J. C.; Maruca, B. A.; Pulupa, M.; Salem, C. S.; Wilber, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present Wind spacecraft observations of ion distributions showing field- aligned beams (FABs) and large-amplitude magnetic fluctuations composed of a series of shocklets and short large-amplitude magnetic structures (SLAMS). The FABs are found to have T(sub k) approx 80-850 eV, V(sub b)/V(sub sw) approx 1.3-2.4, T(sub perpendicular,b)/T(sub paralell,b) approx 1-8, and n(sub b)/n(sub o) approx 0.2-11%. Saturation amplitudes for ion/ion resonant and non-resonant instabilities are too small to explain the observed SLAMS amplitudes. We show two examples where groups of SLAMS can act like a local quasi-perpendicular shock reflecting ions to produce the FABs, a scenario distinct from the more-common production at the quasi-perpendicular bow shock. The SLAMS exhibit a foot-like magnetic enhancement with a leading magnetosonic whistler train, consistent with previous observations. Strong ion and electron heating are observed within the series of shocklets and SLAMS with temperatures increasing by factors approx > 5 and approx >3, respectively. Both the core and halo electron components show strong perpendicular heating inside the feature.

  20. A SLAM based on auxiliary marginalised particle filter and differential evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havangi, R.; Nekoui, M. A.; Teshnehlab, M.; Taghirad, H. D.

    2014-09-01

    FastSLAM is a framework for simultaneous localisation and mapping (SLAM) using a Rao-Blackwellised particle filter. In FastSLAM, particle filter is used for the robot pose (position and orientation) estimation, and parametric filter (i.e. EKF and UKF) is used for the feature location's estimation. However, in the long term, FastSLAM is an inconsistent algorithm. In this paper, a new approach to SLAM based on hybrid auxiliary marginalised particle filter and differential evolution (DE) is proposed. In the proposed algorithm, the robot pose is estimated based on auxiliary marginal particle filter that operates directly on the marginal distribution, and hence avoids performing importance sampling on a space of growing dimension. In addition, static map is considered as a set of parameters that are learned using DE. Compared to other algorithms, the proposed algorithm can improve consistency for longer time periods and also, improve the estimation accuracy. Simulations and experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm is effective.

  1. On-board SLAM for indoor UAV using a laser range finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpen, M.; Willrodt, C.; Frick, K.; Horn, J.

    2010-04-01

    Here we present a real-time algorithm for on-board SLAM (simultaneous localization and mapping) of a quadrotor using a laser range finder. Based on successfully implemented techniques for ground robots, we developed an algorithm that merges a new scan into the global map without any iteration. This causes some inaccuracy of the global map which leads to an error propagation during the robot's mission. Therefore an optimization algorithm reducing this inaccuracy is essential. Within this optimization lines with the same orientation and an overlapping in one of the two possible coordinates of a 2D-plane are merged if their distance is below a certain threshold value. Due to reduction of the required computing power for SLAM calculation by using orthogonal SLAM a real time SLAM running on a microcontroller becomes possible. Because of the small weight and the low electric power consumption, this controller can be mounted on an industrial quadrotor. Therefore acting autonomously in an unknown indoor environment becomes possible. In this paper we also show the validation of the presented SLAM algorithm. The first step of validation is an offline implementation in Matlab and the second step is the online validation of our algorithm on the industrial quadrotor AR100B of the AirRobot Company.

  2. Simple but novel test method for quantitatively comparing robot mapping algorithms using SLAM and dead reckoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davey, Neil S.; Godil, Haris

    2013-05-01

    This article presents a comparative study between a well-known SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) algorithm, called Gmapping, and a standard Dead-Reckoning algorithm; the study is based on experimental results of both approaches by using a commercial skid-based turning robot, P3DX. Five main base-case scenarios are conducted to evaluate and test the effectiveness of both algorithms. The results show that SLAM outperformed the Dead Reckoning in terms of map-making accuracy in all scenarios but one, since SLAM did not work well in a rapidly changing environment. Although the main conclusion about the excellence of SLAM is not surprising, the presented test method is valuable to professionals working in this area of mobile robots, as it is highly practical, and provides solid and valuable results. The novelty of this study lies in its simplicity. The simple but novel test method for quantitatively comparing robot mapping algorithms using SLAM and Dead Reckoning and some applications using autonomous robots are being patented by the authors in U.S. Patent Application Nos. 13/400,726 and 13/584,862.

  3. Accurate Mobile Urban Mapping via Digital Map-Based SLAM †.

    PubMed

    Roh, Hyunchul; Jeong, Jinyong; Cho, Younggun; Kim, Ayoung

    2016-08-18

    This paper presents accurate urban map generation using digital map-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM). Throughout this work, our main objective is generating a 3D and lane map aiming for sub-meter accuracy. In conventional mapping approaches, achieving extremely high accuracy was performed by either (i) exploiting costly airborne sensors or (ii) surveying with a static mapping system in a stationary platform. Mobile scanning systems recently have gathered popularity but are mostly limited by the availability of the Global Positioning System (GPS). We focus on the fact that the availability of GPS and urban structures are both sporadic but complementary. By modeling both GPS and digital map data as measurements and integrating them with other sensor measurements, we leverage SLAM for an accurate mobile mapping system. Our proposed algorithm generates an efficient graph SLAM and achieves a framework running in real-time and targeting sub-meter accuracy with a mobile platform. Integrated with the SLAM framework, we implement a motion-adaptive model for the Inverse Perspective Mapping (IPM). Using motion estimation derived from SLAM, the experimental results show that the proposed approaches provide stable bird's-eye view images, even with significant motion during the drive. Our real-time map generation framework is validated via a long-distance urban test and evaluated at randomly sampled points using Real-Time Kinematic (RTK)-GPS.

  4. Accurate Mobile Urban Mapping via Digital Map-Based SLAM

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Hyunchul; Jeong, Jinyong; Cho, Younggun; Kim, Ayoung

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents accurate urban map generation using digital map-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM). Throughout this work, our main objective is generating a 3D and lane map aiming for sub-meter accuracy. In conventional mapping approaches, achieving extremely high accuracy was performed by either (i) exploiting costly airborne sensors or (ii) surveying with a static mapping system in a stationary platform. Mobile scanning systems recently have gathered popularity but are mostly limited by the availability of the Global Positioning System (GPS). We focus on the fact that the availability of GPS and urban structures are both sporadic but complementary. By modeling both GPS and digital map data as measurements and integrating them with other sensor measurements, we leverage SLAM for an accurate mobile mapping system. Our proposed algorithm generates an efficient graph SLAM and achieves a framework running in real-time and targeting sub-meter accuracy with a mobile platform. Integrated with the SLAM framework, we implement a motion-adaptive model for the Inverse Perspective Mapping (IPM). Using motion estimation derived from SLAM, the experimental results show that the proposed approaches provide stable bird’s-eye view images, even with significant motion during the drive. Our real-time map generation framework is validated via a long-distance urban test and evaluated at randomly sampled points using Real-Time Kinematic (RTK)-GPS. PMID:27548175

  5. Waves of 3D marine structures slamming at different initial poses in complex wind-wave-flow environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Liang-sheng; Yu, Long-fei

    2016-10-01

    Aimed at the hydrodynamic response for marine structures slamming into water, based on the mechanism analysis to the slamming process, and by combining 3D N-S equation and k- ɛ turbulent kinetic equation with structure fully 6DOF motion equation, a mathematical model for the wind-fluid-solid interaction is established in 3D marine structure slamming wave at free poses and wind-wave-flow complex environments. Compared with the results of physical model test, the numerical results from the slamming wave well correspond with the experimental results. Through the mathematical model, the wave-making issue of 3D marine structure at initial pose falls into water in different complex wind, wave and flow environments is investigated. The research results show that various kinds of natural factors and structure initial poses have different influence on the slamming wave, and there is an obvious rule in this process.

  6. BatSLAM: Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Using Biomimetic Sonar

    PubMed Central

    Steckel, Jan; Peremans, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    We propose to combine a biomimetic navigation model which solves a simultaneous localization and mapping task with a biomimetic sonar mounted on a mobile robot to address two related questions. First, can robotic sonar sensing lead to intelligent interactions with complex environments? Second, can we model sonar based spatial orientation and the construction of spatial maps by bats? To address these questions we adapt the mapping module of RatSLAM, a previously published navigation system based on computational models of the rodent hippocampus. We analyze the performance of the proposed robotic implementation operating in the real world. We conclude that the biomimetic navigation model operating on the information from the biomimetic sonar allows an autonomous agent to map unmodified (office) environments efficiently and consistently. Furthermore, these results also show that successful navigation does not require the readings of the biomimetic sonar to be interpreted in terms of individual objects/landmarks in the environment. We argue that the system has applications in robotics as well as in the field of biology as a simple, first order, model for sonar based spatial orientation and map building. PMID:23365647

  7. Large-scale experimental design for decentralized SLAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Alex; Dellaert, Frank

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents an analysis of large scale decentralized SLAM under a variety of experimental conditions to illustrate design trade-offs relevant to multi-robot mapping in challenging environments. As a part of work through the MAST CTA, the focus of these robot teams is on the use of small-scale robots with limited sensing, communication and computational resources. To evaluate mapping algorithms with large numbers (50+) of robots, we developed a simulation incorporating sensing of unlabeled landmarks, line-of-sight blocking obstacles, and communication modeling. Scenarios are randomly generated with variable models for sensing, communication, and robot behavior. The underlying Decentralized Data Fusion (DDF) algorithm in these experiments enables robots to construct a map of their surroundings by fusing local sensor measurements with condensed map information from neighboring robots. Each robot maintains a cache of previously collected condensed maps from neighboring robots, and actively distributes these maps throughout the network to ensure resilience to communication and node failures. We bound the size of the robot neighborhoods to control the growth of the size of neighborhood maps. We present the results of experiments conducted in these simulated scenarios under varying measurement models and conditions while measuring mapping performance. We discuss the trade-offs between mapping performance and scenario design, including robot teams separating and joining, multi-robot data association, exploration bounding, and neighborhood sizes.

  8. BatSLAM: Simultaneous localization and mapping using biomimetic sonar.

    PubMed

    Steckel, Jan; Peremans, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    We propose to combine a biomimetic navigation model which solves a simultaneous localization and mapping task with a biomimetic sonar mounted on a mobile robot to address two related questions. First, can robotic sonar sensing lead to intelligent interactions with complex environments? Second, can we model sonar based spatial orientation and the construction of spatial maps by bats? To address these questions we adapt the mapping module of RatSLAM, a previously published navigation system based on computational models of the rodent hippocampus. We analyze the performance of the proposed robotic implementation operating in the real world. We conclude that the biomimetic navigation model operating on the information from the biomimetic sonar allows an autonomous agent to map unmodified (office) environments efficiently and consistently. Furthermore, these results also show that successful navigation does not require the readings of the biomimetic sonar to be interpreted in terms of individual objects/landmarks in the environment. We argue that the system has applications in robotics as well as in the field of biology as a simple, first order, model for sonar based spatial orientation and map building. PMID:23365647

  9. BatSLAM: Simultaneous localization and mapping using biomimetic sonar.

    PubMed

    Steckel, Jan; Peremans, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    We propose to combine a biomimetic navigation model which solves a simultaneous localization and mapping task with a biomimetic sonar mounted on a mobile robot to address two related questions. First, can robotic sonar sensing lead to intelligent interactions with complex environments? Second, can we model sonar based spatial orientation and the construction of spatial maps by bats? To address these questions we adapt the mapping module of RatSLAM, a previously published navigation system based on computational models of the rodent hippocampus. We analyze the performance of the proposed robotic implementation operating in the real world. We conclude that the biomimetic navigation model operating on the information from the biomimetic sonar allows an autonomous agent to map unmodified (office) environments efficiently and consistently. Furthermore, these results also show that successful navigation does not require the readings of the biomimetic sonar to be interpreted in terms of individual objects/landmarks in the environment. We argue that the system has applications in robotics as well as in the field of biology as a simple, first order, model for sonar based spatial orientation and map building.

  10. Ultra wide-band localization and SLAM: a comparative study for mobile robot navigation.

    PubMed

    Segura, Marcelo J; Auat Cheein, Fernando A; Toibero, Juan M; Mut, Vicente; Carelli, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a comparative study between an Ultra Wide-Band (UWB) localization system and a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) algorithm is presented. Due to its high bandwidth and short pulses length, UWB potentially allows great accuracy in range measurements based on Time of Arrival (TOA) estimation. SLAM algorithms recursively estimates the map of an environment and the pose (position and orientation) of a mobile robot within that environment. The comparative study presented here involves the performance analysis of implementing in parallel an UWB localization based system and a SLAM algorithm on a mobile robot navigating within an environment. Real time results as well as error analysis are also shown in this work.

  11. A fast map merging algorithm in the field of multirobot SLAM.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanli; Fan, Xiaoping; Zhang, Heng

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the research on single-robot simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) has made a great success. However, multirobot SLAM faces many challenging problems, including unknown robot poses, unshared map, and unstable communication. In this paper, a map merging algorithm based on virtual robot motion is proposed for multi-robot SLAM. The thinning algorithm is used to construct the skeleton of the grid map's empty area, and a mobile robot is simulated in one map. The simulated data is used as information sources in the other map to do partial map Monte Carlo localization; if localization succeeds, the relative pose hypotheses between the two maps can be computed easily. We verify these hypotheses using the rendezvous technique and use them as initial values to optimize the estimation by a heuristic random search algorithm.

  12. Ultra wide-band localization and SLAM: a comparative study for mobile robot navigation.

    PubMed

    Segura, Marcelo J; Auat Cheein, Fernando A; Toibero, Juan M; Mut, Vicente; Carelli, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a comparative study between an Ultra Wide-Band (UWB) localization system and a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) algorithm is presented. Due to its high bandwidth and short pulses length, UWB potentially allows great accuracy in range measurements based on Time of Arrival (TOA) estimation. SLAM algorithms recursively estimates the map of an environment and the pose (position and orientation) of a mobile robot within that environment. The comparative study presented here involves the performance analysis of implementing in parallel an UWB localization based system and a SLAM algorithm on a mobile robot navigating within an environment. Real time results as well as error analysis are also shown in this work. PMID:22319397

  13. A fast map merging algorithm in the field of multirobot SLAM.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanli; Fan, Xiaoping; Zhang, Heng

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the research on single-robot simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) has made a great success. However, multirobot SLAM faces many challenging problems, including unknown robot poses, unshared map, and unstable communication. In this paper, a map merging algorithm based on virtual robot motion is proposed for multi-robot SLAM. The thinning algorithm is used to construct the skeleton of the grid map's empty area, and a mobile robot is simulated in one map. The simulated data is used as information sources in the other map to do partial map Monte Carlo localization; if localization succeeds, the relative pose hypotheses between the two maps can be computed easily. We verify these hypotheses using the rendezvous technique and use them as initial values to optimize the estimation by a heuristic random search algorithm. PMID:24302855

  14. On the consistency analysis of A-SLAM for UAV navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguz, A. E.; Temeltas, Hakan

    2014-06-01

    Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) is a good choice for UAV navigation when both UAV's position and region map are not known. Due to nonlinearity of kinematic equations of a UAV, Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) are employed. In this study, EKF and UKF based A-SLAM concepts are discussed in details by presenting the formulations and simulation results. The UAV kinematic model and the state-observation models for EKF and UKF based A-SLAM methods are developed to analyze the filters' consistencies. Analysis during landmark observation exhibits an inconsistency in the form of a jagged UAV trajectory. It has been found that unobservable subspaces and the Jacobien matrices used for linearization are two major sources of the inconsistencies observed. UKF performs better in terms of filter consistency since it does not require the Jacobien matrix linearization.

  15. Ultra Wide-Band Localization and SLAM: A Comparative Study for Mobile Robot Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Segura, Marcelo J.; Auat Cheein, Fernando A.; Toibero, Juan M.; Mut, Vicente; Carelli, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a comparative study between an Ultra Wide-Band (UWB) localization system and a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) algorithm is presented. Due to its high bandwidth and short pulses length, UWB potentially allows great accuracy in range measurements based on Time of Arrival (TOA) estimation. SLAM algorithms recursively estimates the map of an environment and the pose (position and orientation) of a mobile robot within that environment. The comparative study presented here involves the performance analysis of implementing in parallel an UWB localization based system and a SLAM algorithm on a mobile robot navigating within an environment. Real time results as well as error analysis are also shown in this work. PMID:22319397

  16. Semantic data association for planar features in outdoor 6D-SLAM using lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulas, C.; Temeltas, H.

    2013-05-01

    Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) is a fundamental problem of the autonomous systems in GPS (Global Navigation System) denied environments. The traditional probabilistic SLAM methods uses point features as landmarks and hold all the feature positions in their state vector in addition to the robot pose. The bottleneck of the point-feature based SLAM methods is the data association problem, which are mostly based on a statistical measure. The data association performance is very critical for a robust SLAM method since all the filtering strategies are applied after a known correspondence. For point-features, two different but very close landmarks in the same scene might be confused while giving the correspondence decision when their positions and error covariance matrix are solely taking into account. Instead of using the point features, planar features can be considered as an alternative landmark model in the SLAM problem to be able to provide a more consistent data association. Planes contain rich information for the solution of the data association problem and can be distinguished easily with respect to point features. In addition, planar maps are very compact since an environment has only very limited number of planar structures. The planar features does not have to be large structures like building wall or roofs; the small plane segments can also be used as landmarks like billboards, traffic posts and some part of the bridges in urban areas. In this paper, a probabilistic plane-feature extraction method from 3DLiDAR data and the data association based on the extracted semantic information of the planar features is introduced. The experimental results show that the semantic data association provides very satisfactory result in outdoor 6D-SLAM.

  17. A new design for SLAM front-end based on recursive SOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xuesi; Xia, Shengping

    2015-12-01

    Aiming at the graph optimization-based monocular SLAM, a novel design for the front-end in single camera SLAM is proposed, based on the recursive SOM. Pixel intensities are directly used to achieve image registration and motion estimation, which can save time compared with the current appearance-based frameworks, usually including feature extraction and matching. Once a key-frame is identified, a recursive SOM is used to actualize loop-closure detecting, resulting a more precise location. The experiment on a public dataset validates our method on a computer with a quicker and effective result.

  18. Resting lymphocyte transduction with measles virus glycoprotein pseudotyped lentiviral vectors relies on CD46 and SLAM

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Qi; Schneider, Irene C.; Gallet, Manuela; Kneissl, Sabrina; Buchholz, Christian J.

    2011-05-10

    The measles virus (MV) glycoproteins hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) were recently shown to mediate transduction of resting lymphocytes by lentiviral vectors. MV vaccine strains use CD46 or signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) as receptor for cell entry. A panel of H protein mutants derived from vaccine strain or wild-type MVs that lost or gained CD46 or SLAM receptor usage were investigated for their ability to mediate gene transfer into unstimulated T lymphocytes. The results demonstrate that CD46 is sufficient for efficient vector particle association with unstimulated lymphocytes. For stable gene transfer into these cells, however, both MV receptors were found to be essential.

  19. What can be learnt from analysing insect orientation flights using probabilistic SLAM?

    PubMed

    Baddeley, Bartholomew; Philippides, Andrew; Graham, Paul; de Ibarra, Natalie Hempel; Collett, Thomas; Husbands, Phillip

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, we provide an analysis of orientation flights in bumblebees, employing a novel technique based on simultaneous localisation and mapping (SLAM) a probabilistic approach from autonomous robotics. We use SLAM to determine what bumblebees might learn about the locations of objects in the world through the arcing behaviours that are typical of these flights. Our results indicate that while the bees are clearly influenced by the presence of a conspicuous landmark, there is little evidence that they structure their flights to specifically learn about the position of the landmark. PMID:19639335

  20. Application of simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) in autonomous exploration of urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Andrew R.; Greenway, Phil; le Maistre, Mike; Manley, Richard; Mullin, David; Nicholson, David; Swinnerton, James; Valachis, Dimitris; Wright, Andy

    2003-08-01

    This paper describes an autonomous navigation system capable of exploring an unknown environment, as implemented by the Advanced Technology Centre of BAE SYSTEMS (ATC). An overview of the enabling technology of the autonomous system, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM), is given before describing in detail the utility functions used to perform the strategic decision making required for autonomous exploration. Relevant studies, performed in simulation, of the major issues involved in multi-platform SLAM are also described. Initial results and conclusions are given at the end of the paper. All experiments are conducted on the Pioneer all terrain mobile robots using common off the shelf sensing devices.

  1. What can be learnt from analysing insect orientation flights using probabilistic SLAM?

    PubMed

    Baddeley, Bartholomew; Philippides, Andrew; Graham, Paul; de Ibarra, Natalie Hempel; Collett, Thomas; Husbands, Phillip

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, we provide an analysis of orientation flights in bumblebees, employing a novel technique based on simultaneous localisation and mapping (SLAM) a probabilistic approach from autonomous robotics. We use SLAM to determine what bumblebees might learn about the locations of objects in the world through the arcing behaviours that are typical of these flights. Our results indicate that while the bees are clearly influenced by the presence of a conspicuous landmark, there is little evidence that they structure their flights to specifically learn about the position of the landmark.

  2. AUV SLAM and Experiments Using a Mechanical Scanning Forward-Looking Sonar

    PubMed Central

    He, Bo; Liang, Yan; Feng, Xiao; Nian, Rui; Yan, Tianhong; Li, Minghui; Zhang, Shujing

    2012-01-01

    Navigation technology is one of the most important challenges in the applications of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) which navigate in the complex undersea environment. The ability of localizing a robot and accurately mapping its surroundings simultaneously, namely the simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) problem, is a key prerequisite of truly autonomous robots. In this paper, a modified-FastSLAM algorithm is proposed and used in the navigation for our C-Ranger research platform, an open-frame AUV. A mechanical scanning imaging sonar is chosen as the active sensor for the AUV. The modified-FastSLAM implements the update relying on the on-board sensors of C-Ranger. On the other hand, the algorithm employs the data association which combines the single particle maximum likelihood method with modified negative evidence method, and uses the rank-based resampling to overcome the particle depletion problem. In order to verify the feasibility of the proposed methods, both simulation experiments and sea trials for C-Ranger are conducted. The experimental results show the modified-FastSLAM employed for the navigation of the C-Ranger AUV is much more effective and accurate compared with the traditional methods. PMID:23012549

  3. AUV SLAM and experiments using a mechanical scanning forward-looking sonar.

    PubMed

    He, Bo; Liang, Yan; Feng, Xiao; Nian, Rui; Yan, Tianhong; Li, Minghui; Zhang, Shujing

    2012-01-01

    Navigation technology is one of the most important challenges in the applications of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) which navigate in the complex undersea environment. The ability of localizing a robot and accurately mapping its surroundings simultaneously, namely the simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) problem, is a key prerequisite of truly autonomous robots. In this paper, a modified-FastSLAM algorithm is proposed and used in the navigation for our C-Ranger research platform, an open-frame AUV. A mechanical scanning imaging sonar is chosen as the active sensor for the AUV. The modified-FastSLAM implements the update relying on the on-board sensors of C-Ranger. On the other hand, the algorithm employs the data association which combines the single particle maximum likelihood method with modified negative evidence method, and uses the rank-based resampling to overcome the particle depletion problem. In order to verify the feasibility of the proposed methods, both simulation experiments and sea trials for C-Ranger are conducted. The experimental results show the modified-FastSLAM employed for the navigation of the C-Ranger AUV is much more effective and accurate compared with the traditional methods. PMID:23012549

  4. AUV SLAM and experiments using a mechanical scanning forward-looking sonar.

    PubMed

    He, Bo; Liang, Yan; Feng, Xiao; Nian, Rui; Yan, Tianhong; Li, Minghui; Zhang, Shujing

    2012-01-01

    Navigation technology is one of the most important challenges in the applications of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) which navigate in the complex undersea environment. The ability of localizing a robot and accurately mapping its surroundings simultaneously, namely the simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) problem, is a key prerequisite of truly autonomous robots. In this paper, a modified-FastSLAM algorithm is proposed and used in the navigation for our C-Ranger research platform, an open-frame AUV. A mechanical scanning imaging sonar is chosen as the active sensor for the AUV. The modified-FastSLAM implements the update relying on the on-board sensors of C-Ranger. On the other hand, the algorithm employs the data association which combines the single particle maximum likelihood method with modified negative evidence method, and uses the rank-based resampling to overcome the particle depletion problem. In order to verify the feasibility of the proposed methods, both simulation experiments and sea trials for C-Ranger are conducted. The experimental results show the modified-FastSLAM employed for the navigation of the C-Ranger AUV is much more effective and accurate compared with the traditional methods.

  5. RGB-D SLAM Combining Visual Odometry and Extended Information Filter

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Heng; Liu, Yanli; Tan, Jindong; Xiong, Naixue

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel RGB-D SLAM system based on visual odometry and an extended information filter, which does not require any other sensors or odometry. In contrast to the graph optimization approaches, this is more suitable for online applications. A visual dead reckoning algorithm based on visual residuals is devised, which is used to estimate motion control input. In addition, we use a novel descriptor called binary robust appearance and normals descriptor (BRAND) to extract features from the RGB-D frame and use them as landmarks. Furthermore, considering both the 3D positions and the BRAND descriptors of the landmarks, our observation model avoids explicit data association between the observations and the map by marginalizing the observation likelihood over all possible associations. Experimental validation is provided, which compares the proposed RGB-D SLAM algorithm with just RGB-D visual odometry and a graph-based RGB-D SLAM algorithm using the publicly-available RGB-D dataset. The results of the experiments demonstrate that our system is quicker than the graph-based RGB-D SLAM algorithm. PMID:26263990

  6. Bridging Philosophy of Technology and Neurobiological Research: Interpreting Images from the "Slam Freezer"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberger, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The swiftly growing field of neurobiological research utilizes highly advanced technologies (e.g., magnetic resonance imaging, electron microscopy) to mediate between investigators and the brains they investigate. Here, the author analyzes a device called the "slam freezer" that quick-freezes neurons to be studied under the microscope. Employing…

  7. Highly-accelerated quantitative 2D and 3D localized spectroscopy with linear algebraic modeling (SLAM) and sensitivity encoding

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Gabr, Refaat E.; Zhou, Jinyuan; Weiss, Robert G.; Bottomley, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Noninvasive magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) with chemical shift imaging (CSI) provides valuable metabolic information for research and clinical studies, but is often limited by long scan times. Recently, spectroscopy with linear algebraic modeling (SLAM) was shown to provide compartment-averaged spectra resolved in one spatial dimension with many-fold reductions in scan-time. This was achieved using a small subset of the CSI phase-encoding steps from central image k-space that maximized the signal-to-noise ratio. Here, SLAM is extended to two- and three-dimensions (2D, 3D). In addition, SLAM is combined with sensitivity-encoded (SENSE) parallel imaging techniques, enabling the replacement of even more CSI phase-encoding steps to further accelerate scan-speed. A modified SLAM reconstruction algorithm is introduced that significantly reduces the effects of signal nonuniformity within compartments. Finally, main-field inhomogeneity corrections are provided, analogous to CSI. These methods are all tested on brain proton MRS data from a total of 24 patients with brain tumors, and in a human cardiac phosphorus 3D SLAM study at 3T. Acceleration factors of up to 120-fold versus CSI are demonstrated, including speed-up factors of 5-fold relative to already-accelerated SENSE CSI. Brain metabolites are quantified in SLAM and SENSE SLAM spectra and found to be indistinguishable from CSI measures from the same compartments. The modified reconstruction algorithm demonstrated immunity to maladjusted segmentation and errors from signal heterogeneity in brain data. In conclusion, SLAM demonstrates the potential to supplant CSI in studies requiring compartment-average spectra or large volume coverage, by dramatically reducing scan-time while providing essentially the same quantitative results. PMID:24188921

  8. Highly-accelerated quantitative 2D and 3D localized spectroscopy with linear algebraic modeling (SLAM) and sensitivity encoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Gabr, Refaat E.; Zhou, Jinyuan; Weiss, Robert G.; Bottomley, Paul A.

    2013-12-01

    Noninvasive magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) with chemical shift imaging (CSI) provides valuable metabolic information for research and clinical studies, but is often limited by long scan times. Recently, spectroscopy with linear algebraic modeling (SLAM) was shown to provide compartment-averaged spectra resolved in one spatial dimension with many-fold reductions in scan-time. This was achieved using a small subset of the CSI phase-encoding steps from central image k-space that maximized the signal-to-noise ratio. Here, SLAM is extended to two- and three-dimensions (2D, 3D). In addition, SLAM is combined with sensitivity-encoded (SENSE) parallel imaging techniques, enabling the replacement of even more CSI phase-encoding steps to further accelerate scan-speed. A modified SLAM reconstruction algorithm is introduced that significantly reduces the effects of signal nonuniformity within compartments. Finally, main-field inhomogeneity corrections are provided, analogous to CSI. These methods are all tested on brain proton MRS data from a total of 24 patients with brain tumors, and in a human cardiac phosphorus 3D SLAM study at 3T. Acceleration factors of up to 120-fold versus CSI are demonstrated, including speed-up factors of 5-fold relative to already-accelerated SENSE CSI. Brain metabolites are quantified in SLAM and SENSE SLAM spectra and found to be indistinguishable from CSI measures from the same compartments. The modified reconstruction algorithm demonstrated immunity to maladjusted segmentation and errors from signal heterogeneity in brain data. In conclusion, SLAM demonstrates the potential to supplant CSI in studies requiring compartment-average spectra or large volume coverage, by dramatically reducing scan-time while providing essentially the same quantitative results.

  9. Slam is an outer membrane protein that is required for the surface display of lipidated virulence factors in Neisseria.

    PubMed

    Hooda, Yogesh; Lai, Christine Chieh-Lin; Judd, Andrew; Buckwalter, Carolyn M; Shin, Hyejin Esther; Gray-Owen, Scott D; Moraes, Trevor F

    2016-01-01

    Lipoproteins decorate the surface of many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, playing essential roles in immune evasion and nutrient acquisition. In Neisseria spp., the causative agents of gonorrhoea and meningococcal meningitis, surface lipoproteins (SLPs) are required for virulence and have been extensively studied as prime candidates for vaccine development. However, the machinery and mechanism that allow for the surface display of SLPs are not known. Here, we describe a transposon (Tn5)-based search for the proteins required to deliver SLPs to the surface of Neisseria meningitidis, revealing a family of proteins that we have named the surface lipoprotein assembly modulator (Slam). N. meningitidis contains two Slam proteins, each exhibiting distinct substrate preferences. The Slam proteins are sufficient to reconstitute SLP transport in laboratory strains of Escherichia coli, which are otherwise unable to efficiently display these lipoproteins on their cell surface. Immunoprecipitation and domain probing experiments suggest that the SLP, TbpB, interacts with Slam during the transit process; furthermore, the membrane domain of Slam is sufficient for selectivity and proper surface display of SLPs. Rather than being a Neisseria-specific factor, our bioinformatic analysis shows that Slam can be found throughout proteobacterial genomes, indicating a conserved but until now unrecognized virulence mechanism. PMID:27572441

  10. Comparison of real-time performance of Kalman filter-based slam methods for unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temeltaş, Hakan; Kavak, Deniz

    2009-05-01

    Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) using for the mobile robot navigation has two main problems. First problem is the computational complexity due to the growing state vector with the added landmark in the environment. Second problem is data association which matches the observations and landmarks in the state vector. In this study, we compare Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) based SLAM which is well-developed and well-known algorithm, and Compressed Extended Kalman Filter (CEKF) based SLAM developed for decreasing of the computational complexity of the EKF based SLAM. We write two simulation program to investigate these techniques. Firts program is written for the comparison of EKF and CEKF based SLAM according to the computational complexity and covariance matrix error with the different numbers of landmarks. In the second program, EKF and CEKF based SLAM simulations are presented. For this simulation differential drive vehicle that moves in a 10m square trajectory and LMS 200 2-D laser range finder are modelled and landmarks are randomly scattered in that 10m square environment.

  11. SLAM algorithm applied to robotics assistance for navigation in unknown environments

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The combination of robotic tools with assistance technology determines a slightly explored area of applications and advantages for disability or elder people in their daily tasks. Autonomous motorized wheelchair navigation inside an environment, behaviour based control of orthopaedic arms or user's preference learning from a friendly interface are some examples of this new field. In this paper, a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) algorithm is implemented to allow the environmental learning by a mobile robot while its navigation is governed by electromyographic signals. The entire system is part autonomous and part user-decision dependent (semi-autonomous). The environmental learning executed by the SLAM algorithm and the low level behaviour-based reactions of the mobile robot are robotic autonomous tasks, whereas the mobile robot navigation inside an environment is commanded by a Muscle-Computer Interface (MCI). Methods In this paper, a sequential Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) feature-based SLAM algorithm is implemented. The features correspond to lines and corners -concave and convex- of the environment. From the SLAM architecture, a global metric map of the environment is derived. The electromyographic signals that command the robot's movements can be adapted to the patient's disabilities. For mobile robot navigation purposes, five commands were obtained from the MCI: turn to the left, turn to the right, stop, start and exit. A kinematic controller to control the mobile robot was implemented. A low level behavior strategy was also implemented to avoid robot's collisions with the environment and moving agents. Results The entire system was tested in a population of seven volunteers: three elder, two below-elbow amputees and two young normally limbed patients. The experiments were performed within a closed low dynamic environment. Subjects took an average time of 35 minutes to navigate the environment and to learn how to use the MCI. The SLAM

  12. Characterization of defects in Mn-Zn ferrites by scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Boehning, C.W.; Tuohig, W.D.

    1987-06-01

    A scanning laser acoustic microscope (SLAM) has been used to evaluate the integrity of Mn-Zn ferrite ceramic components which comprise part of the magnetic circuit in an electromechanical code interrogation device. Cracking of the ferrites during processing and assembly emerged as a significant manufacturing problem. Operations such as grinding, metallization, joining, and welding were suspected of causing damage, and acoustic microscopy was used to monitor these processes. Parts which produced suspicious acoustic images were dismantled and destructively sectioned to identify specific physical defects. Correlations between the defects and their acoustic signatures were established. This procedure has provided the basis for several process modifications and improvements which have resulted in acceptable production yields. The SLAM is used as an engineering tool for the detection and characterization of defects and is presently being used routinely to inspect production ferrite components.

  13. Loop Closing Detection in RGB-D SLAM Combining Appearance and Geometric Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Heng; Liu, Yanli; Tan, Jindong

    2015-01-01

    A kind of multi feature points matching algorithm fusing local geometric constraints is proposed for the purpose of quickly loop closing detection in RGB-D Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM). The visual feature is encoded with BRAND (binary robust appearance and normals descriptor), which efficiently combines appearance and geometric shape information from RGB-D images. Furthermore, the feature descriptors are stored using the Locality-Sensitive-Hashing (LSH) technique and hierarchical clustering trees are used to search for these binary features. Finally, the algorithm for matching of multi feature points using local geometric constraints is provided, which can effectively reject the possible false closure hypotheses. We demonstrate the efficiency of our algorithms by real-time RGB-D SLAM with loop closing detection in indoor image sequences taken with a handheld Kinect camera and comparative experiments using other algorithms in RTAB-Map dealing with a benchmark dataset. PMID:26102492

  14. Loop Closing Detection in RGB-D SLAM Combining Appearance and Geometric Constraints.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heng; Liu, Yanli; Tan, Jindong

    2015-01-01

    A kind of multi feature points matching algorithm fusing local geometric constraints is proposed for the purpose of quickly loop closing detection in RGB-D Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM). The visual feature is encoded with BRAND (binary robust appearance and normals descriptor), which efficiently combines appearance and geometric shape information from RGB-D images. Furthermore, the feature descriptors are stored using the Locality-Sensitive-Hashing (LSH) technique and hierarchical clustering trees are used to search for these binary features. Finally, the algorithm for matching of multi feature points using local geometric constraints is provided, which can effectively reject the possible false closure hypotheses. We demonstrate the efficiency of our algorithms by real-time RGB-D SLAM with loop closing detection in indoor image sequences taken with a handheld Kinect camera and comparative experiments using other algorithms in RTAB-Map dealing with a benchmark dataset. PMID:26102492

  15. A SLAM II simulation model for analyzing space station mission processing requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linton, D. G.

    1985-01-01

    Space station mission processing is modeled via the SLAM 2 simulation language on an IBM 4381 mainframe and an IBM PC microcomputer with 620K RAM, two double-sided disk drives and an 8087 coprocessor chip. Using a time phased mission (payload) schedule and parameters associated with the mission, orbiter (space shuttle) and ground facility databases, estimates for ground facility utilization are computed. Simulation output associated with the science and applications database is used to assess alternative mission schedules.

  16. Severe Psychosis, Drug Dependence, and Hepatitis C Related to Slamming Mephedrone.

    PubMed

    Dolengevich-Segal, Helen; Rodríguez-Salgado, Beatriz; Gómez-Arnau, Jorge; Sánchez-Mateos, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background. Synthetic cathinones (SCs), also known as "bath salts," are β-ketone amphetamine compounds derived from cathinone, a psychoactive substance found in Catha edulis. Mephedrone is the most representative SC. Slamming is the term used for the intravenous injection of these substances in the context of chemsex parties, in order to enhance sex experiences. Using IV mephedrone may lead to diverse medical and psychiatric complications like psychosis, aggressive behavior, and suicide ideation. Case. We report the case of a 25-year-old man admitted into a psychiatric unit, presenting with psychotic symptoms after slamming mephedrone almost every weekend for the last 4 months. He presents paranoid delusions, intense anxiety, and visual and kinesthetic hallucinations. He also shows intense craving, compulsive drug use, general malaise, and weakness. After four weeks of admission and antipsychotic treatment, delusions completely disappear. The patient is reinfected with hepatitis C. Discussion. Psychiatric and medical conditions related to chemsex and slamming have been reported in several European cities, but not in Spain. Psychotic symptoms have been associated with mephedrone and other SCs' consumption, with the IV route being prone to produce more severe symptomatology and addictive conducts. In the case we report, paranoid psychosis, addiction, and medical complications are described.

  17. Severe Psychosis, Drug Dependence, and Hepatitis C Related to Slamming Mephedrone

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Salgado, Beatriz; Sánchez-Mateos, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background. Synthetic cathinones (SCs), also known as “bath salts,” are β-ketone amphetamine compounds derived from cathinone, a psychoactive substance found in Catha edulis. Mephedrone is the most representative SC. Slamming is the term used for the intravenous injection of these substances in the context of chemsex parties, in order to enhance sex experiences. Using IV mephedrone may lead to diverse medical and psychiatric complications like psychosis, aggressive behavior, and suicide ideation. Case. We report the case of a 25-year-old man admitted into a psychiatric unit, presenting with psychotic symptoms after slamming mephedrone almost every weekend for the last 4 months. He presents paranoid delusions, intense anxiety, and visual and kinesthetic hallucinations. He also shows intense craving, compulsive drug use, general malaise, and weakness. After four weeks of admission and antipsychotic treatment, delusions completely disappear. The patient is reinfected with hepatitis C. Discussion. Psychiatric and medical conditions related to chemsex and slamming have been reported in several European cities, but not in Spain. Psychotic symptoms have been associated with mephedrone and other SCs' consumption, with the IV route being prone to produce more severe symptomatology and addictive conducts. In the case we report, paranoid psychosis, addiction, and medical complications are described. PMID:27247820

  18. Severe Psychosis, Drug Dependence, and Hepatitis C Related to Slamming Mephedrone.

    PubMed

    Dolengevich-Segal, Helen; Rodríguez-Salgado, Beatriz; Gómez-Arnau, Jorge; Sánchez-Mateos, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background. Synthetic cathinones (SCs), also known as "bath salts," are β-ketone amphetamine compounds derived from cathinone, a psychoactive substance found in Catha edulis. Mephedrone is the most representative SC. Slamming is the term used for the intravenous injection of these substances in the context of chemsex parties, in order to enhance sex experiences. Using IV mephedrone may lead to diverse medical and psychiatric complications like psychosis, aggressive behavior, and suicide ideation. Case. We report the case of a 25-year-old man admitted into a psychiatric unit, presenting with psychotic symptoms after slamming mephedrone almost every weekend for the last 4 months. He presents paranoid delusions, intense anxiety, and visual and kinesthetic hallucinations. He also shows intense craving, compulsive drug use, general malaise, and weakness. After four weeks of admission and antipsychotic treatment, delusions completely disappear. The patient is reinfected with hepatitis C. Discussion. Psychiatric and medical conditions related to chemsex and slamming have been reported in several European cities, but not in Spain. Psychotic symptoms have been associated with mephedrone and other SCs' consumption, with the IV route being prone to produce more severe symptomatology and addictive conducts. In the case we report, paranoid psychosis, addiction, and medical complications are described. PMID:27247820

  19. An approach to robot SLAM based on incremental appearance learning with omnidirectional vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hua; Qin, Shi-Yin

    2011-03-01

    Localisation and mapping with an omnidirectional camera becomes more difficult as the landmark appearances change dramatically in the omnidirectional image. With conventional techniques, it is difficult to match the features of the landmark with the template. We present a novel robot simultaneous localisation and mapping (SLAM) algorithm with an omnidirectional camera, which uses incremental landmark appearance learning to provide posterior probability distribution for estimating the robot pose under a particle filtering framework. The major contribution of our work is to represent the posterior estimation of the robot pose by incremental probabilistic principal component analysis, which can be naturally incorporated into the particle filtering algorithm for robot SLAM. Moreover, the innovative method of this article allows the adoption of the severe distorted landmark appearances viewed with omnidirectional camera for robot SLAM. The experimental results demonstrate that the localisation error is less than 1 cm in an indoor environment using five landmarks, and the location of the landmark appearances can be estimated within 5 pixels deviation from the ground truth in the omnidirectional image at a fairly fast speed.

  20. Competitive Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…

  1. Academic Competitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marin County Office of Education, San Rafael, CA.

    Descriptions of scholastic competitions for Marin County (California) students are presented. Following a rationale for conducting scholastic competitions, community groups and businesses which lend support are listed along with the type of support given. Participating grade levels, dates of competition during the 1983-84 school year, and a brief…

  2. Seismo-Lineament Analysis Method (SLAM) Applied to the South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worrell, V. E.; Cronin, V. S.

    2014-12-01

    We used the seismo-lineament analysis method (SLAM; http://bearspace.baylor.edu/Vince_Cronin/www/SLAM/) to "predict" the location of the fault that produced the M 6.0 South Napa earthquake of 24 August 2014, using hypocenter and focal mechanism data from NCEDC (http://www.ncedc.org/ncedc/catalog-search.html) and a digital elevation model from the USGS National Elevation Dataset (http://viewer.nationalmap.gov/viewer/). The ground-surface trace of the causative fault (i.e., the Browns Valley strand of the West Napa fault zone; Bryant, 2000, 1982) and virtually all of the ground-rupture sites reported by the USGS and California Geological Survey (http://www.eqclearinghouse.org/2014-08-24-south-napa/) were located within the north-striking seismo-lineament. We also used moment tensors published online by the USGS and GCMT (http://comcat.cr.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/nc72282711#scientific_moment-tensor) as inputs to SLAM and found that their northwest-striking seismo-lineaments correlated spatially with the causative fault. We concluded that SLAM could have been used as soon as these mechanism solutions were available to help direct the search for the trace of the causative fault and possible rupture-related damage. We then considered whether the seismogenic fault could have been identified using SLAM prior to the 24 August event, based on the focal mechanisms of smaller prior earthquakes reported by the NCEDC or ISC (http://www.isc.ac.uk). Seismo-lineaments from three M~3.5 events from 1990 and 2012, located in the Vallejo-Crockett area, correlate spatially with the Napa County Airport strand of the West Napa fault and extend along strike toward the Browns Valley strand (Bryant, 2000, 1982). Hence, we might have used focal mechanisms from smaller earthquakes to establish that the West Napa fault is likely seismogenic prior to the South Napa earthquake. Early recognition that a fault with a mapped ground-surface trace is seismogenic, based on smaller earthquakes

  3. LERC-SLAM - THE NASA LEWIS RESEARCH CENTER SATELLITE LINK ATTENUATION MODEL PROGRAM (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    The frequency and intensity of rain attenuation affecting the communication between a satellite and an earth terminal is an important consideration in planning satellite links. The NASA Lewis Research Center Satellite Link Attenuation Model Program (LeRC-SLAM) provides a static and dynamic statistical assessment of the impact of rain attenuation on a communications link established between an earth terminal and a geosynchronous satellite. The program is designed for use in the specification, design and assessment of satellite links for any terminal location in the continental United States. The basis for LeRC-SLAM is the ACTS Rain Attenuation Prediction Model, which uses a log-normal cumulative probability distribution to describe the random process of rain attenuation on satellite links. The derivation of the statistics for the rainrate process at the specified terminal location relies on long term rainfall records compiled by the U.S. Weather Service during time periods of up to 55 years in length. The theory of extreme value statistics is also utilized. The user provides 1) the longitudinal position of the satellite in geosynchronous orbit, 2) the geographical position of the earth terminal in terms of latitude and longitude, 3) the height above sea level of the terminal site, 4) the yearly average rainfall at the terminal site, and 5) the operating frequency of the communications link (within 1 to 1000 GHz, inclusive). Based on the yearly average rainfall at the terminal location, LeRC-SLAM calculates the relevant rain statistics for the site using an internal data base. The program then generates rain attenuation data for the satellite link. This data includes a description of the static (i.e., yearly) attenuation process, an evaluation of the cumulative probability distribution for attenuation effects, and an evaluation of the probability of fades below selected fade depths. In addition, LeRC-SLAM calculates the elevation and azimuth angles of the terminal

  4. LERC-SLAM - THE NASA LEWIS RESEARCH CENTER SATELLITE LINK ATTENUATION MODEL PROGRAM (MACINTOSH VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    The frequency and intensity of rain attenuation affecting the communication between a satellite and an earth terminal is an important consideration in planning satellite links. The NASA Lewis Research Center Satellite Link Attenuation Model Program (LeRC-SLAM) provides a static and dynamic statistical assessment of the impact of rain attenuation on a communications link established between an earth terminal and a geosynchronous satellite. The program is designed for use in the specification, design and assessment of satellite links for any terminal location in the continental United States. The basis for LeRC-SLAM is the ACTS Rain Attenuation Prediction Model, which uses a log-normal cumulative probability distribution to describe the random process of rain attenuation on satellite links. The derivation of the statistics for the rainrate process at the specified terminal location relies on long term rainfall records compiled by the U.S. Weather Service during time periods of up to 55 years in length. The theory of extreme value statistics is also utilized. The user provides 1) the longitudinal position of the satellite in geosynchronous orbit, 2) the geographical position of the earth terminal in terms of latitude and longitude, 3) the height above sea level of the terminal site, 4) the yearly average rainfall at the terminal site, and 5) the operating frequency of the communications link (within 1 to 1000 GHz, inclusive). Based on the yearly average rainfall at the terminal location, LeRC-SLAM calculates the relevant rain statistics for the site using an internal data base. The program then generates rain attenuation data for the satellite link. This data includes a description of the static (i.e., yearly) attenuation process, an evaluation of the cumulative probability distribution for attenuation effects, and an evaluation of the probability of fades below selected fade depths. In addition, LeRC-SLAM calculates the elevation and azimuth angles of the terminal

  5. The 2007 National Federation of the Blind Youth Slam: Making Astronomy Accessible to Students Who are Blind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grice, Noreen A.

    2008-05-01

    In the summer of 2007, nearly two hundred blind and visually impaired high school students participated in a weeklong enrichment program at Johns Hopkins University called the National Federation of the Blind Youth Slam. They spent four days participating in hands-on science and engineering classes and exploring careers previously thought inaccessible to those without sight. The students were separated into "tracks” with each group focusing on a different field. Want to know what happened in the astronomy track? Come by this paper and see examples of accessible astronomy activities, including accessible star parties, from the Youth Slam!

  6. Ipsilateral carpal, metacarpal, and ankle fractures resulting from an attempted basketball slam-dunk. A case report.

    PubMed

    McClelland, S J; Fithian, D C

    1988-01-01

    A 23-year-old male recreational basketball player sustained an open ankle fracture and ipsilateral carpal and metacarpal fractures as a result of a fall while attempting a slam-dunk. The wrist and hand fractures were treated nonoperatively. The open ankle fracture required irrigation, debridement, and open reduction/internal fixation. In addition to the prerequisite leaping ability, long-term success in "playing above the rim" requires experience, exceptional physical agility, and the mental discipline to anticipate and avoid slam-dunk opportunities with high risk for personal injury.

  7. 3-D seakeeping analysis with water on deck and slamming. Part 1: Numerical solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, M.; Lugni, C.

    2012-08-01

    A three-dimensional seakeeping numerical solver is developed to handle occurrence and effects of water-on-deck and bottom slamming. It couples (A) the rigid-ship motions with (B) the water flowing along the deck and (C) bottom slamming events. Problem A is studied with a 3-D weakly nonlinear potential flow solver based on the weak-scatterer hypothesis. Problem B, and so local and global induced green-water loads, are investigated by assuming shallow-water conditions onto the deck. Problem C is examined through a Wagner-type wedge-impact analysis. Within the coupling between A and B: the external seakeeping problem furnishes the initial and boundary conditions to the in-deck solver in terms of water level and velocity along the deck profile; in return the shallow-water problem makes available to the seakeeping solver the green-water loads to be introduced as additional loads into the rigid-motion equations. Within the coupling between A and C: the instantaneous ship configuration and its kinematic and dynamic conditions with respect to the incident waves will fix the parameters for the local impact problem; in return the slamming and water-entry pressures are integrated in the vessel region of interest and introduced as additional loads into the rigid-motion equations. The resulting numerical solver can study efficiently the ship interaction with regular and irregular sea states and the forward motion with limited speed of the vessel. This is crucial to perform reliable and feasible statistical investigations of vessel behavior. Main elements of the solver are described and validated against reference numerical solutions and model tests.

  8. Network simulation using the simulation language for alternate modeling (SLAM 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, S.; Morris, D. W.

    1983-01-01

    The simulation language for alternate modeling (SLAM 2) is a general purpose language that combines network, discrete event, and continuous modeling capabilities in a single language system. The efficacy of the system's network modeling is examined and discussed. Examples are given of the symbolism that is used, and an example problem and model are derived. The results are discussed in terms of the ease of programming, special features, and system limitations. The system offers many features which allow rapid model development and provides an informative standardized output. The system also has limitations which may cause undetected errors and misleading reports unless the user is aware of these programming characteristics.

  9. RGB-D SLAM Based on Extended Bundle Adjustment with 2D and 3D Information

    PubMed Central

    Di, Kaichang; Zhao, Qiang; Wan, Wenhui; Wang, Yexin; Gao, Yunjun

    2016-01-01

    In the study of SLAM problem using an RGB-D camera, depth information and visual information as two types of primary measurement data are rarely tightly coupled during refinement of camera pose estimation. In this paper, a new method of RGB-D camera SLAM is proposed based on extended bundle adjustment with integrated 2D and 3D information on the basis of a new projection model. First, the geometric relationship between the image plane coordinates and the depth values is constructed through RGB-D camera calibration. Then, 2D and 3D feature points are automatically extracted and matched between consecutive frames to build a continuous image network. Finally, extended bundle adjustment based on the new projection model, which takes both image and depth measurements into consideration, is applied to the image network for high-precision pose estimation. Field experiments show that the proposed method has a notably better performance than the traditional method, and the experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in improving localization accuracy. PMID:27529256

  10. RGB-D SLAM Based on Extended Bundle Adjustment with 2D and 3D Information.

    PubMed

    Di, Kaichang; Zhao, Qiang; Wan, Wenhui; Wang, Yexin; Gao, Yunjun

    2016-08-13

    In the study of SLAM problem using an RGB-D camera, depth information and visual information as two types of primary measurement data are rarely tightly coupled during refinement of camera pose estimation. In this paper, a new method of RGB-D camera SLAM is proposed based on extended bundle adjustment with integrated 2D and 3D information on the basis of a new projection model. First, the geometric relationship between the image plane coordinates and the depth values is constructed through RGB-D camera calibration. Then, 2D and 3D feature points are automatically extracted and matched between consecutive frames to build a continuous image network. Finally, extended bundle adjustment based on the new projection model, which takes both image and depth measurements into consideration, is applied to the image network for high-precision pose estimation. Field experiments show that the proposed method has a notably better performance than the traditional method, and the experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in improving localization accuracy.

  11. Pseudolinear Model Based Solution to the SLAM Problem of Nonholonomic Mobile Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathiranage, Chandima Dedduwa; Watanabe, Keigo; Izumi, Kiyotaka

    This paper describes an improved solution to the simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) problem based on pseudolinear models. Accurate estimation of vehicle and landmark states is one of the key issues for successful mobile robot navigation if the configuration of the environment and initial robot location are unknown. A state estimator which can be designed to use the nonlinearity as it is coming from the original model has always been invaluable in which high accuracy is expected. Thus to accomplish the above highlighted point, pseudolinear model based Kalman filter (PLKF) state estimator is introduced. A less error prone vehicle process model is proposed to improve the accuracy and the faster convergence of state estimation. Evolution of vehicle motion is modeled using vehicle frame translation derived from successive dead reckoned poses as a control input. A measurement model with two sensor frames is proposed to improve the data association. The PLKF-based SLAM algorithm is simulated using Matlab for vehicle-landmarks system and results show that the proposed approach performs much accurately compared to the well known extended Kalman filter (EKF).

  12. Automatic Relocalization and Loop Closing for Real-Time Monocular SLAM.

    PubMed

    Williams, Brian; Klein, Georg; Reid, Ian

    2011-09-01

    Monocular SLAM has the potential to turn inexpensive cameras into powerful pose sensors for applications such as robotics and augmented reality. We present a relocalization module for such systems which solves some of the problems encountered by previous monocular SLAM systems--tracking failure, map merging, and loop closure detection. This module extends recent advances in keypoint recognition to determine the camera pose relative to the landmarks within a single frame time of 33 ms. We first show how this module can be used to improve the robustness of these systems. Blur, sudden motion, and occlusion can all cause tracking to fail, leading to a corrupted map. Using the relocalization module, the system can automatically detect and recover from tracking failure while preserving map integrity. Extensive tests show that the system can then reliably generate maps for long sequences even in the presence of frequent tracking failure. We then show that the relocalization module can be used to recognize overlap in maps, i.e., when the camera has returned to a previously mapped area. Having established an overlap, we determine the relative pose of the maps using trajectory alignment so that independent maps can be merged and loop closure events can be recognized. The system combining all of these abilities is able to map larger environments and for significantly longer periods than previous systems.

  13. Application of real-time single camera SLAM technology for image-guided targeting in neurosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yau-Zen; Hou, Jung-Fu; Tsao, Yi Hsiang; Lee, Shih-Tseng

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we propose an application of augmented reality technology for targeting tumors or anatomical structures inside the skull. The application is a combination of the technologies of MonoSLAM (Single Camera Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) and computer graphics. A stereo vision system is developed to construct geometric data of human face for registration with CT images. Reliability and accuracy of the application is enhanced by the use of fiduciary markers fixed to the skull. The MonoSLAM keeps track of the current location of the camera with respect to an augmented reality (AR) marker using the extended Kalman filter. The fiduciary markers provide reference when the AR marker is invisible to the camera. Relationship between the markers on the face and the augmented reality marker is obtained by a registration procedure by the stereo vision system and is updated on-line. A commercially available Android based tablet PC equipped with a 320×240 front-facing camera was used for implementation. The system is able to provide a live view of the patient overlaid by the solid models of tumors or anatomical structures, as well as the missing part of the tool inside the skull.

  14. RGB-D SLAM Based on Extended Bundle Adjustment with 2D and 3D Information.

    PubMed

    Di, Kaichang; Zhao, Qiang; Wan, Wenhui; Wang, Yexin; Gao, Yunjun

    2016-01-01

    In the study of SLAM problem using an RGB-D camera, depth information and visual information as two types of primary measurement data are rarely tightly coupled during refinement of camera pose estimation. In this paper, a new method of RGB-D camera SLAM is proposed based on extended bundle adjustment with integrated 2D and 3D information on the basis of a new projection model. First, the geometric relationship between the image plane coordinates and the depth values is constructed through RGB-D camera calibration. Then, 2D and 3D feature points are automatically extracted and matched between consecutive frames to build a continuous image network. Finally, extended bundle adjustment based on the new projection model, which takes both image and depth measurements into consideration, is applied to the image network for high-precision pose estimation. Field experiments show that the proposed method has a notably better performance than the traditional method, and the experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in improving localization accuracy. PMID:27529256

  15. Laser-Based Slam with Efficient Occupancy Likelihood Map Learning for Dynamic Indoor Scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Yao, Jian; Xie, Renping; Tu, Jinge; Feng, Chen

    2016-06-01

    Location-Based Services (LBS) have attracted growing attention in recent years, especially in indoor environments. The fundamental technique of LBS is the map building for unknown environments, this technique also named as simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) in robotic society. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for SLAMin dynamic indoor scenes based on a 2D laser scanner mounted on a mobile Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) with the help of the grid-based occupancy likelihood map. Instead of applying scan matching in two adjacent scans, we propose to match current scan with the occupancy likelihood map learned from all previous scans in multiple scales to avoid the accumulation of matching errors. Due to that the acquisition of the points in a scan is sequential but not simultaneous, there unavoidably exists the scan distortion at different extents. To compensate the scan distortion caused by the motion of the UGV, we propose to integrate a velocity of a laser range finder (LRF) into the scan matching optimization framework. Besides, to reduce the effect of dynamic objects such as walking pedestrians often existed in indoor scenes as much as possible, we propose a new occupancy likelihood map learning strategy by increasing or decreasing the probability of each occupancy grid after each scan matching. Experimental results in several challenged indoor scenes demonstrate that our proposed approach is capable of providing high-precision SLAM results.

  16. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    1. Physics competitions: aims and realizations One aim of physics competitions is to increase the interest of young students, primarily at upper secondary level, to physics and natural sciences in general. A competition has motivational aspects known usually from sports events or games—comparing one's own ability with others, of course with the desire to be better and to win. If competitions reach nationwide and even international levels, additional stimulation is created. Competitions provide greatest attraction to possible winners, to the group of gifted people in a particular field. This implies that science contests are excellent tools for the promotion of talented students. Traditional teaching has been shown to have problems in supporting this group of students. Very often teachers are overstretched with the demands of teaching both low- and high-level students. Extracurricular activities are therefore a good chance to relieve the teacher, and to give talented students the opportunity for appropriate training and challenge. The competitions, however, have a broader impact and address more young people than one might guess from the statements above. Training courses and selection at school level give a larger group of students extra and, to some extent, complimentary education in physics. The degree of complexity of the tasks corresponds very often to the standards of the next level of education in the school system. Interestingly, many physics competitions have their origin in countries beyond the former Iron Curtain. They started as regional and national tournaments, were joined by neighbouring countries and have grown, in some cases, to events with participants from more than 80 countries. Although the features mentioned above are common to the different competitions, there are distinct differences between them [1]. The International Physics Olympiad (IPhO) is the oldest international physics competition for students at upper secondary level [2]. It dates

  17. Using SLAM to Look For the Dog Valley Fault, Truckee Area, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, V. S.; Ashburn, J. A.; Sverdrup, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Truckee earthquake (9/12/1966, ML6.0) was a left-lateral event on a previously unrecognized NW-trending fault. The Prosser Creek and Boca Dams sustained damage, and the trace of the suspected causative fault passes near or through the site of the then-incomplete Stampede Dam. Another M6 earthquake occurred along the same general trend in 1948 with an epicenter in Dog Valley ~14 km to the NW of the 1966 epicenter. This trend is called the Dog Valley Fault (DVF), and its location on the ground surface is suggested by a prominent but broad zone of geomorphic lineaments near the cloud of aftershock epicenters determined for the 1966 event. Various ground effects of the 1966 event described by Kachadoorian et al. (1967) were located within this broad zone. The upper shoreface of reservoirs in the Truckee-Prosser-Martis basin are now exposed due to persistent drought. We have examined fault strands in a roadcut and exposed upper shoreface adjacent to the NE abutment of Stampede Dam. These are interpreted to be small-displacement splays associated with the DVF -- perhaps elements of the DVF damage zone. We have used the Seismo-Lineament Analysis Method (SLAM) to help us constrain the location of the DVF, based on earthquake focal mechanisms. Seismo-lineaments were computed, using recent revisions in the SLAM code (bearspace.baylor.edu/Vince_Cronin/www/SLAM/), for the 1966 main earthquake and for the better-recorded earthquakes of 7/3/1983 (M4) and 8/30/1992 (M3.2) that are inferred to have occurred along the DVF. Associated geomorphic analysis and some field reconnaissance identified a trend that might be associated with a fault, extending from the NW end of Prosser Creek Reservoir ~32° toward the Stampede Dam area. Triangle-strain analysis using horizontal velocities of local Plate Boundary Observatory GPS sites P146, P149, P150 and SLID indicates that the area rotates clockwise ~1-2°/Myr relative to the stable craton, as might be expected because the study area is

  18. SLAM- and Nectin-4-Independent Noncytolytic Spread of Canine Distemper Virus in Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Lisa; Khosravi, Mojtaba; Avila, Mislay; Ader-Ebert, Nadine; Bringolf, Fanny; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Vandevelde, Marc

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Measles and canine distemper viruses (MeV and CDV, respectively) first replicate in lymphatic and epithelial tissues by using SLAM and nectin-4 as entry receptors, respectively. The viruses may also invade the brain to establish persistent infections, triggering fatal complications, such as subacute sclerosis pan-encephalitis (SSPE) in MeV infection or chronic, multiple sclerosis-like, multifocal demyelinating lesions in the case of CDV infection. In both diseases, persistence is mediated by viral nucleocapsids that do not require packaging into particles for infectivity but are directly transmitted from cell to cell (neurons in SSPE or astrocytes in distemper encephalitis), presumably by relying on restricted microfusion events. Indeed, although morphological evidence of fusion remained undetectable, viral fusion machineries and, thus, a putative cellular receptor, were shown to contribute to persistent infections. Here, we first showed that nectin-4-dependent cell-cell fusion in Vero cells, triggered by a demyelinating CDV strain, remained extremely limited, thereby supporting a potential role of nectin-4 in mediating persistent infections in astrocytes. However, nectin-4 could not be detected in either primary cultured astrocytes or the white matter of tissue sections. In addition, a bioengineered “nectin-4-blind” recombinant CDV retained full cell-to-cell transmission efficacy in primary astrocytes. Combined with our previous report demonstrating the absence of SLAM expression in astrocytes, these findings are suggestive for the existence of a hitherto unrecognized third CDV receptor expressed by glial cells that contributes to the induction of noncytolytic cell-to-cell viral transmission in astrocytes. IMPORTANCE While persistent measles virus (MeV) infection induces SSPE in humans, persistent canine distemper virus (CDV) infection causes chronic progressive or relapsing demyelination in carnivores. Common to both central nervous system (CNS

  19. Underground localization using dual magnetic field sequence measurement and pose graph SLAM for directional drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Byeolteo; Myung, Hyun

    2014-12-01

    With the development of unconventional gas, the technology of directional drilling has become more advanced. Underground localization is the key technique of directional drilling for real-time path following and system control. However, there are problems such as vibration, disconnection with external infrastructure, and magnetic field distortion. Conventional methods cannot solve these problems in real time or in various environments. In this paper, a novel underground localization algorithm using a re-measurement of the sequence of the magnetic field and pose graph SLAM (simultaneous localization and mapping) is introduced. The proposed algorithm exploits the property of the drilling system that the body passes through the previous pass. By comparing the recorded measurement from one magnetic sensor and the current re-measurement from another magnetic sensor, the proposed algorithm predicts the pose of the drilling system. The performance of the algorithm is validated through simulations and experiments.

  20. Competitive morality.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Gilbert

    2013-02-01

    Baumard et al. argue that partner choice leads to fairness and mutualism, which then form the basis for morality. I comment that mutualism takes us only so far, and I apply the theory of competitive altruism in arguing how strategic investment in behaviours which make one a desirable partner may drive moral conduct.

  1. a Fast and Flexible Method for Meta-Map Building for Icp Based Slam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurian, A.; Morin, K. W.

    2016-06-01

    Recent developments in LiDAR sensors make mobile mapping fast and cost effective. These sensors generate a large amount of data which in turn improves the coverage and details of the map. Due to the limited range of the sensor, one has to collect a series of scans to build the entire map of the environment. If we have good GNSS coverage, building a map is a well addressed problem. But in an indoor environment, we have limited GNSS reception and an inertial solution, if available, can quickly diverge. In such situations, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) is used to generate a navigation solution and map concurrently. SLAM using point clouds possesses a number of computational challenges even with modern hardware due to the shear amount of data. In this paper, we propose two strategies for minimizing the cost of computation and storage when a 3D point cloud is used for navigation and real-time map building. We have used the 3D point cloud generated by Leica Geosystems's Pegasus Backpack which is equipped with Velodyne VLP-16 LiDARs scanners. To improve the speed of the conventional iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm, we propose a point cloud sub-sampling strategy which does not throw away any key features and yet significantly reduces the number of points that needs to be processed and stored. In order to speed up the correspondence finding step, a dual kd-tree and circular buffer architecture is proposed. We have shown that the proposed method can run in real time and has excellent navigation accuracy characteristics.

  2. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    1. Physics competitions: aims and realizations One aim of physics competitions is to increase the interest of young students, primarily at upper secondary level, to physics and natural sciences in general. A competition has motivational aspects known usually from sports events or games—comparing one's own ability with others, of course with the desire to be better and to win. If competitions reach nationwide and even international levels, additional stimulation is created. Competitions provide greatest attraction to possible winners, to the group of gifted people in a particular field. This implies that science contests are excellent tools for the promotion of talented students. Traditional teaching has been shown to have problems in supporting this group of students. Very often teachers are overstretched with the demands of teaching both low- and high-level students. Extracurricular activities are therefore a good chance to relieve the teacher, and to give talented students the opportunity for appropriate training and challenge. The competitions, however, have a broader impact and address more young people than one might guess from the statements above. Training courses and selection at school level give a larger group of students extra and, to some extent, complimentary education in physics. The degree of complexity of the tasks corresponds very often to the standards of the next level of education in the school system. Interestingly, many physics competitions have their origin in countries beyond the former Iron Curtain. They started as regional and national tournaments, were joined by neighbouring countries and have grown, in some cases, to events with participants from more than 80 countries. Although the features mentioned above are common to the different competitions, there are distinct differences between them [1]. The International Physics Olympiad (IPhO) is the oldest international physics competition for students at upper secondary level [2]. It dates

  3. Slam Dunk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herek, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    There's nothing like a worldwide financial meltdown to kick-start an alumni association's career networking offerings. In 2009, the Northwestern University alumni board provided clear direction to its regional affiliates and to the full-time staff working at the Evanston, Illinois, campus: Develop ways to purposefully connect alumni with each…

  4. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2010-07-01

    This editorial opens the second special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics. In the first section last year, we asked for feedback on the idea of such a section and on the content of the articles. We received no answer whatsoever, which can be interpreted in two ways: the section is not interesting enough to raise motivation for feedback, or the reader is satisfied. Having no indication which scenario is the correct one, we are optimistic and favour the second. The section at hand contains three articles. Again, as last year, the organizer of the annual Olympiad reports on tasks and outcomes of this competition. The Olympiad took place in Merida, Mexico, and was by far the largest event with 316 contestants from 68 countries. Again, the predominance of Asian/Chinese students was manifest, showing how serious the training is taken by both their authorities and students. Unfortunately, the winners of the last International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT), the team from Korea, did not accept the offer to report on their prize-winning contribution. We are thankful that two students from Austria, who achieved second place with their team, took over and reported on the task which they presented in the finals of the competition. It connects the fields of sport and physics and explains a special move in skateboarding. The third contribution introduces a different competition, 'International Conference of Young Scientists'. On one hand, as in the Olympiad, it addresses individuals, not teams. On the other, as in the IYPT, students have several months to prepare and also the quality of the presentation is an important element of the judgment. In fact, this competition comes closer to real scientific research compared to the other events. Finally and again, we hope that this section will serve several purposes: To show the competitions as a very important tool in the support of gifted students. To raise awareness amongst university teachers, and

  5. GPS-Supported Visual SLAM with a Rigorous Sensor Model for a Panoramic Camera in Outdoor Environments

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yun; Ji, Shunping; Shi, Zhongchao; Duan, Yulin; Shibasaki, Ryosuke

    2013-01-01

    Accurate localization of moving sensors is essential for many fields, such as robot navigation and urban mapping. In this paper, we present a framework for GPS-supported visual Simultaneous Localization and Mapping with Bundle Adjustment (BA-SLAM) using a rigorous sensor model in a panoramic camera. The rigorous model does not cause system errors, thus representing an improvement over the widely used ideal sensor model. The proposed SLAM does not require additional restrictions, such as loop closing, or additional sensors, such as expensive inertial measurement units. In this paper, the problems of the ideal sensor model for a panoramic camera are analysed, and a rigorous sensor model is established. GPS data are then introduced for global optimization and georeferencing. Using the rigorous sensor model with the geometric observation equations of BA, a GPS-supported BA-SLAM approach that combines ray observations and GPS observations is then established. Finally, our method is applied to a set of vehicle-borne panoramic images captured from a campus environment, and several ground control points (GCP) are used to check the localization accuracy. The results demonstrated that our method can reach an accuracy of several centimetres. PMID:23344377

  6. Solution to the SLAM problem in low dynamic environments using a pose graph and an RGB-D sensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Donghwa; Myung, Hyun

    2014-07-11

    In this study, we propose a solution to the simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) problem in low dynamic environments by using a pose graph and an RGB-D (red-green-blue depth) sensor. The low dynamic environments refer to situations in which the positions of objects change over long intervals. Therefore, in the low dynamic environments, robots have difficulty recognizing the repositioning of objects unlike in highly dynamic environments in which relatively fast-moving objects can be detected using a variety of moving object detection algorithms. The changes in the environments then cause groups of false loop closing when the same moved objects are observed for a while, which means that conventional SLAM algorithms produce incorrect results. To address this problem, we propose a novel SLAM method that handles low dynamic environments. The proposed method uses a pose graph structure and an RGB-D sensor. First, to prune the falsely grouped constraints efficiently, nodes of the graph, that represent robot poses, are grouped according to the grouping rules with noise covariances. Next, false constraints of the pose graph are pruned according to an error metric based on the grouped nodes. The pose graph structure is reoptimized after eliminating the false information, and the corrected localization and mapping results are obtained. The performance of the method was validated in real experiments using a mobile robot system.

  7. Solution to the SLAM Problem in Low Dynamic Environments Using a Pose Graph and an RGB-D Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Donghwa; Myung, Hyun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we propose a solution to the simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) problem in low dynamic environments by using a pose graph and an RGB-D (red-green-blue depth) sensor. The low dynamic environments refer to situations in which the positions of objects change over long intervals. Therefore, in the low dynamic environments, robots have difficulty recognizing the repositioning of objects unlike in highly dynamic environments in which relatively fast-moving objects can be detected using a variety of moving object detection algorithms. The changes in the environments then cause groups of false loop closing when the same moved objects are observed for a while, which means that conventional SLAM algorithms produce incorrect results. To address this problem, we propose a novel SLAM method that handles low dynamic environments. The proposed method uses a pose graph structure and an RGB-D sensor. First, to prune the falsely grouped constraints efficiently, nodes of the graph, that represent robot poses, are grouped according to the grouping rules with noise covariances. Next, false constraints of the pose graph are pruned according to an error metric based on the grouped nodes. The pose graph structure is reoptimized after eliminating the false information, and the corrected localization and mapping results are obtained. The performance of the method was validated in real experiments using a mobile robot system. PMID:25019633

  8. GPS-supported visual SLAM with a rigorous sensor model for a panoramic camera in outdoor environments.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yun; Ji, Shunping; Shi, Zhongchao; Duan, Yulin; Shibasaki, Ryosuke

    2012-12-21

    Accurate localization of moving sensors is essential for many fields, such as robot navigation and urban mapping. In this paper, we present a framework for GPS-supported visual Simultaneous Localization and Mapping with Bundle Adjustment (BA-SLAM) using a rigorous sensor model in a panoramic camera. The rigorous model does not cause system errors, thus representing an improvement over the widely used ideal sensor model. The proposed SLAM does not require additional restrictions, such as loop closing, or additional sensors, such as expensive inertial measurement units. In this paper, the problems of the ideal sensor model for a panoramic camera are analysed, and a rigorous sensor model is established. GPS data are then introduced for global optimization and georeferencing. Using the rigorous sensor model with the geometric observation equations of BA, a GPS-supported BA-SLAM approach that combines ray observations and GPS observations is then established. Finally, our method is applied to a set of vehicle-borne panoramic images captured from a campus environment, and several ground control points (GCP) are used to check the localization accuracy. The results demonstrated that our method can reach an accuracy of several centimetres.

  9. GPS-supported visual SLAM with a rigorous sensor model for a panoramic camera in outdoor environments.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yun; Ji, Shunping; Shi, Zhongchao; Duan, Yulin; Shibasaki, Ryosuke

    2012-01-01

    Accurate localization of moving sensors is essential for many fields, such as robot navigation and urban mapping. In this paper, we present a framework for GPS-supported visual Simultaneous Localization and Mapping with Bundle Adjustment (BA-SLAM) using a rigorous sensor model in a panoramic camera. The rigorous model does not cause system errors, thus representing an improvement over the widely used ideal sensor model. The proposed SLAM does not require additional restrictions, such as loop closing, or additional sensors, such as expensive inertial measurement units. In this paper, the problems of the ideal sensor model for a panoramic camera are analysed, and a rigorous sensor model is established. GPS data are then introduced for global optimization and georeferencing. Using the rigorous sensor model with the geometric observation equations of BA, a GPS-supported BA-SLAM approach that combines ray observations and GPS observations is then established. Finally, our method is applied to a set of vehicle-borne panoramic images captured from a campus environment, and several ground control points (GCP) are used to check the localization accuracy. The results demonstrated that our method can reach an accuracy of several centimetres. PMID:23344377

  10. Solution to the SLAM problem in low dynamic environments using a pose graph and an RGB-D sensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Donghwa; Myung, Hyun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we propose a solution to the simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) problem in low dynamic environments by using a pose graph and an RGB-D (red-green-blue depth) sensor. The low dynamic environments refer to situations in which the positions of objects change over long intervals. Therefore, in the low dynamic environments, robots have difficulty recognizing the repositioning of objects unlike in highly dynamic environments in which relatively fast-moving objects can be detected using a variety of moving object detection algorithms. The changes in the environments then cause groups of false loop closing when the same moved objects are observed for a while, which means that conventional SLAM algorithms produce incorrect results. To address this problem, we propose a novel SLAM method that handles low dynamic environments. The proposed method uses a pose graph structure and an RGB-D sensor. First, to prune the falsely grouped constraints efficiently, nodes of the graph, that represent robot poses, are grouped according to the grouping rules with noise covariances. Next, false constraints of the pose graph are pruned according to an error metric based on the grouped nodes. The pose graph structure is reoptimized after eliminating the false information, and the corrected localization and mapping results are obtained. The performance of the method was validated in real experiments using a mobile robot system. PMID:25019633

  11. Malaysian competition

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffs, E.

    1994-11-01

    Two years ago, the first tentative steps were taken to privatize the Malaysian electricity supply industry with the flotation of 25 percent of Tenaga Nasional Bhd. At the same time the terms were defined for independent power generation, and plans were drawn up for six projects. Now, with six independent power producer projects under construction adding more capacity than the partly privatized TNB, the utility`s station managers are concerned they will be at a competitive disadvantage unless they can operate under the same type of power sales agreement.

  12. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2011-07-01

    International tests on competences, such as TIMSS or PISA, and knowledge of young students have revealed low average scores in many countries, often unexpectedly. One effective measure to increase the average standard of a population is to bring the last third of the group to a higher level. Therefore, many nations put some effort into this activity. This brings the danger that not enough attention is paid to students at the other end, those who are talented. Indeed, it is a very difficult task for a teacher to support the less able and at the same time challenge the gifted students, to lead them to the limits of their abilities and provide for a smooth transition to university study. Physics competitions have been proven to fulfil these last demands to a large degree, and therefore are an important additional and, to some extent, complementary tool for the promotion of talented students. This third special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics contains three papers, each dealing with a different form of science contest. The first continues the series of presentations of tasks performed at the International Young Physicists' Tournament, which was held in Vienna in 2011. First place went to the team from Singapore, and they have put their investigation on vertical oscillations of coupled magnets into written form (not required by the tournament, where an oral presentation and a defence and discussion are the central aspects). Their paper shows how rich in physics this problem is, and what level of solutions high-school students can already achieve. Sadly, those responsible for the organization of last year's International Physics Olympiad did not provide us with a report on this competition. This is unfortunate, since the Olympiad in Zagreb was very successful and, in particular, the experimental tasks were creative and demanding. Very similar to the aims and the execution of the Physics Olympiad is the International Olympiad on Astronomy

  13. Lighter-Than-Air UAV with slam capabilities for mapping applications and atmpsphere analysys.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombatti, G.; Aboudan, A.; La Gloria, N.; Debei, S.; Flamini, E.

    Exploration of the planets and the moons of the Solar System has, up to now, been performed by remote sensing from Earth, fly-by probes, orbiters, landers and rovers. It must be outlined that remote sensing probes and orbiters can only provide non-contact, limited resolution imagery over a small number of spectral bands; on the other hand, landers provide high-resolution imagery and in-situ data collection and analysis capabilities, but only for a single site; while rovers allow imagery collection and in-situ science across their path. These characteristics of the described means highlight how mobility is a key requirement for planetary exploration missions. Autonomous Lighter-Than-Air systems can be used to explore unknown environments without obstacle avoidance problems, mapping large areas to different resolutions and perform a wide variety of measurements and experiments while traveling in the atmosphere. Sensor fusion between Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and vision systems can be used to support vehicle navigation and variable resolution surface mapping. In this work a minimal sensor suite composed by a navigation-grade IMU and stereo camera pair has been studied. At altitudes below 100 m stereo vision techniques can provide range, bearing and elevation measurements of a set of scattered points on the planetary surface. Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) extended Kalman filter algorithm has been adapted to deal with stereo camera observations. Sensor fusion with IMU measurements is used to track rapid vehicle movements and to maintain the vehicle position and attitude estimation also if, for a limited period of time, no vision measurements are available. Moreover the SLAM algorithm produces a scattered points map of the complete traveled area. In this work we analyse the dynamics of the airship in response of the encountered environment of Titan moon. Possible trajectories for an extended survey are investigated; this allows to have a precise

  14. ICOS, SLAM and PD-1 expression and regulation on T lymphocytes reflect the immune dysregulation in patients with HIV-related illness with pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Jurado, Javier Oscar; Pasquinelli, Virginia; Alvarez, Ivana Belén; Martínez, Gustavo Javier; Laufer, Natalia; Sued, Omar; Cahn, Pedro; Musella, Rosa María; Abbate, Eduardo; Salomón, Horacio; Quiroga, María Florencia

    2012-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be the most frequent cause of illness and death from an infectious agent globally, and its interaction with HIV is having devastating effects. To investigate how HIV alters the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), we assessed basal and Mtb-induced proliferation, cytokine production, and expression of signalling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM), inducible costimulator (ICOS) and programmed death-1 (PD-1) on T lymphocytes from HIV-positive individuals coinfected with TB, HIV-positive subjects, TB patients and healthy donors (HD). Findings HIV-TB patients showed increased ICOS, SLAM and PD-1 basal levels on T lymphocytes, whereas HIV-positive individuals displayed elevated levels of SLAM and PD-1, TB patients high levels of SLAM, and HD low levels of the three proteins. Mtb-stimulation enhanced ICOS expression in the four groups, but only TB and HD increased SLAM and PD-1 levels. Conclusions These data show the immune deregulation that takes place during the immune response against TB in different study populations. PMID:22713261

  15. Complex competitive systems and competitive thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Klimenko, A Y

    2013-01-13

    This publication reviews the framework of abstract competition, which is aimed at studying complex systems with competition in their generic form. Although the concept of abstract competition has been derived from a specific field--modelling of mixing in turbulent reacting flows--this concept is, generally, not attached to a specific phenomenon or application. Two classes of competition rules, transitive and intransitive, need to be distinguished. Transitive competitions are shown to be consistent (at least qualitatively) with thermodynamic principles, which allows for introduction of special competitive thermodynamics. Competitive systems can thus be characterized by thermodynamic quantities (such as competitive entropy and competitive potential), which determine that the predominant direction of evolution of the system is directed towards higher competitiveness. There is, however, an important difference: while conventional thermodynamics is constrained by its zeroth law and is fundamentally transitive, the transitivity of competitive thermodynamics depends on the transitivity of the competition rules. The analogy with conventional thermodynamics weakens as competitive systems become more intransitive, while strongly intransitive competitions can display types of behaviour associated with complexity: competitive cooperation and leaping cycles. Results of simulations demonstrating complex behaviour in abstract competitions are presented in the electronic supplementary material.

  16. Matchplay characteristics of Grand Slam tennis: implications for training and conditioning.

    PubMed

    Reid, Machar; Morgan, Stuart; Whiteside, David

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to probe the sex-based differences in the stroke and movement dynamics of Grand Slam hard-court tennis. Player and ball tracking data were collated for 102 male and 95 female players during the 2012-2014 Australian Open tournaments. Serve, serve return, groundstroke and movement data were compared between sexes. Serve statistics were the subject of the largest differences, with males achieving significantly faster speeds, aces and unreturned serves while also winning a greater percentage of service points. When returning serve, women contacted the ball closer to the net, lower to the ground and achieved flatter ball trajectories than males. Groundstroke frequencies were similar between sexes, although males hit with greater speed, flatter trajectories and impacted more shots inside the baseline. Distance covered per set or during points won or lost was not sex dependent, yet men exhibited faster average movement speeds. These findings highlight the need for sex-specific training and practice designs that cater to the different stroke dynamics, particularly in relation to the first serve and serve-return, as well as movement speeds.

  17. Expression of the SLAM family of receptors adapter EAT-2 as a novel strategy for enhancing beneficial immune responses to vaccine antigens.

    PubMed

    Aldhamen, Yasser A; Appledorn, Daniel M; Seregin, Sergey S; Liu, Chyong-jy J; Schuldt, Nathaniel J; Godbehere, Sarah; Amalfitano, Andrea

    2011-01-15

    Recent studies have shown that activation of the signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family of receptors plays an important role in several aspects of immune regulation. However, translation of this knowledge into a useful clinical application has not been undertaken. One important area where SLAM-mediated immune regulation may have keen importance is in the field of vaccinology. Because SLAM signaling plays such a critical role in the innate and adaptive immunity, we endeavored to develop a strategy to improve the efficacy of vaccines by incorporation of proteins known to be important in SLAM-mediated signaling. In this study, we hypothesized that coexpression of the SLAM adapter EWS-FLI1-activated transcript 2 (EAT-2) along with a pathogen-derived Ag would facilitate induction of beneficial innate immune responses, resulting in improved induction of Ag-specific adaptive immune responses. To test this hypothesis, we used rAd5 vector-based vaccines expressing murine EAT-2, or the HIV-1-derived Ag Gag. Compared with appropriate controls, rAd5 vectors expressing EAT-2 facilitated bystander activation of NK, NKT, B, and T cells early after their administration into animals. EAT-2 overexpression also augments the expression of APC (macrophages and dendritic cells) surface markers. Indeed, this multitiered activation of the innate immune system by vaccine-mediated EAT-2 expression enhanced the induction of Ag-specific cellular immune responses. Because both mice and humans express highly conserved EAT-2 adapters, our results suggest that human vaccination strategies that specifically facilitate SLAM signaling may improve vaccine potency when targeting HIV Ags specifically, as well as numerous other vaccine targets in general.

  18. Competitive Science: Is Competition Ruining Science?

    PubMed Central

    Casadevall, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Science has always been a competitive undertaking. Despite recognition of the benefits of cooperation and team science, reduced availability of funding and jobs has made science more competitive than ever. Here we consider the benefits of competition in providing incentives to scientists and the adverse effects of competition on resource sharing, research integrity, and creativity. The history of science shows that transformative discoveries often occur in the absence of competition, which only emerges once fields are established and goals are defined. Measures to encourage collaboration and ameliorate competition in the scientific enterprise are discussed. PMID:25605760

  19. Competitive science: is competition ruining science?

    PubMed

    Fang, Ferric C; Casadevall, Arturo

    2015-04-01

    Science has always been a competitive undertaking. Despite recognition of the benefits of cooperation and team science, reduced availability of funding and jobs has made science more competitive than ever. Here we consider the benefits of competition in providing incentives to scientists and the adverse effects of competition on resource sharing, research integrity, and creativity. The history of science shows that transformative discoveries often occur in the absence of competition, which only emerges once fields are established and goals are defined. Measures to encourage collaboration and ameliorate competition in the scientific enterprise are discussed.

  20. Competitive science: is competition ruining science?

    PubMed

    Fang, Ferric C; Casadevall, Arturo

    2015-04-01

    Science has always been a competitive undertaking. Despite recognition of the benefits of cooperation and team science, reduced availability of funding and jobs has made science more competitive than ever. Here we consider the benefits of competition in providing incentives to scientists and the adverse effects of competition on resource sharing, research integrity, and creativity. The history of science shows that transformative discoveries often occur in the absence of competition, which only emerges once fields are established and goals are defined. Measures to encourage collaboration and ameliorate competition in the scientific enterprise are discussed. PMID:25605760

  1. Lunabotics Mining Competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Rob; Murphy, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation describes a competition to design a lunar robot (lunabot) that can be controlled either remotely or autonomously, isolated from the operator, and is designed to mine a lunar aggregate simulant. The competition is part of a systems engineering curriculum. The 2010 competition winners in five areas of the competition were acknowledged, and the 2011 competition was announced.

  2. Competitive spirit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    Leicester University will host the 65 international teams of students who will assemble in July for this year's International Physics Olympiad . The last time the Olympiad came to the UK was in 1986 in London, and it was the notable enthusiasm of the Leicester Physics and Astronomy department which persuaded the Olympiad Committee to give them the chance of organizing the prestigious event. The students taking part from all over the world are studying physics at A-level or an equivalent standard and they will take part in an intellectual marathon of theoretical and practical examinations. Each national team comprises five students selected from three rounds of competition and the teams will receive an official welcome from the city, as well as opportunities to visit some of the important educational and cultural centres of the surrounding region. The finalists will also be able to test their skills and initiative at the Challenger Learning Centre, which forms part of Leicester's new National Space Science Centre. Specific information on the event can be found on the Olympiad-2000 website at www.star.le.ac.uk/IphO-2000 . The Rudolf Ortvay problem solving contest in physics, which takes place in November, is a tradition of Eötvös University in Budapest, Hungary. The competition was first opened to international participants in 1998, enabling students from universities around the world to show their knowledge, ingenuity, problem-solving skills and physical insight into problems that are far beyond routine level. The problems (30 - 35 each year) are chosen from different branches of theoretical as well as applied physics. They have varying levels of difficulty, and every contestant can send solutions for ten problems. The focus is not on school-level problem-solving routines but rather on the `physical' way of thinking, recognition of the heart of the problem and an appropriate choice of mathematics. The majority of the assigned problems are original, few having

  3. Competitive spirit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    Leicester University will host the 65 international teams of students who will assemble in July for this year's International Physics Olympiad . The last time the Olympiad came to the UK was in 1986 in London, and it was the notable enthusiasm of the Leicester Physics and Astronomy department which persuaded the Olympiad Committee to give them the chance of organizing the prestigious event. The students taking part from all over the world are studying physics at A-level or an equivalent standard and they will take part in an intellectual marathon of theoretical and practical examinations. Each national team comprises five students selected from three rounds of competition and the teams will receive an official welcome from the city, as well as opportunities to visit some of the important educational and cultural centres of the surrounding region. The finalists will also be able to test their skills and initiative at the Challenger Learning Centre, which forms part of Leicester's new National Space Science Centre. Specific information on the event can be found on the Olympiad-2000 website at www.star.le.ac.uk/IphO-2000 . The Rudolf Ortvay problem solving contest in physics, which takes place in November, is a tradition of Eötvös University in Budapest, Hungary. The competition was first opened to international participants in 1998, enabling students from universities around the world to show their knowledge, ingenuity, problem-solving skills and physical insight into problems that are far beyond routine level. The problems (30 - 35 each year) are chosen from different branches of theoretical as well as applied physics. They have varying levels of difficulty, and every contestant can send solutions for ten problems. The focus is not on school-level problem-solving routines but rather on the `physical' way of thinking, recognition of the heart of the problem and an appropriate choice of mathematics. The majority of the assigned problems are original, few having

  4. A stochastic, Lagrangian model of sinking biogenic aggregates in the ocean (SLAMS 1.0): model formulation, validation and sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokulsdottir, Tinna; Archer, David

    2016-04-01

    We present a new mechanistic model, stochastic, Lagrangian aggregate model of sinking particles (SLAMS) for the biological pump in the ocean, which tracks the evolution of individual particles as they aggregate, disaggregate, sink, and are altered by chemical and biological processes. SLAMS considers the impacts of ballasting by mineral phases, binding of aggregates by transparent exopolymer particles (TEP), zooplankton grazing and the fractal geometry (porosity) of the aggregates. Parameterizations for age-dependent organic carbon (orgC) degradation kinetics, and disaggregation driven by zooplankton grazing and TEP degradation, are motivated by observed particle fluxes and size spectra throughout the water column. The model is able to explain observed variations in orgC export efficiency and rain ratio from the euphotic zone and to the sea floor as driven by sea surface temperature and the primary production rate and seasonality of primary production. The model provides a new mechanistic framework with which to predict future changes on the flux attenuation of orgC in response to climate change forcing.

  5. Identification of the SLAM Adapter Molecule EAT-2 as a Lupus-Susceptibility Gene That Acts through Impaired Negative Regulation of Dendritic Cell Signaling.

    PubMed

    Talaei, Nafiseh; Yu, Tao; Manion, Kieran; Bremner, Rod; Wither, Joan E

    2015-11-15

    We showed previously that C57BL/6 congenic mice with an introgressed homozygous 70 cM (125.6 Mb) to 100 cM (179.8 Mb) interval on c1 from the lupus-prone New Zealand Black (NZB) mouse develop high titers of antinuclear Abs and severe glomerulonephritis. Using subcongenic mice, we found that a genetic locus in the 88-96 cM region was associated with altered dendritic cell (DC) function and synergized with T cell functional defects to promote expansion of pathogenic proinflammatory T cell subsets. In this article, we show that the promoter region of the NZB gene encoding the SLAM signaling pathway adapter molecule EWS-activated transcript 2 (EAT-2) is polymorphic, which results in an ∼ 70% reduction in EAT-2 in DC. Silencing of the EAT-2 gene in DC that lacked this polymorphism led to increased production of IL-12 and enhanced differentiation of T cells to a Th1 phenotype in T cell-DC cocultures, reproducing the phenotype observed for DC from congenic mice with the NZB c1 70-100 cM interval. SLAM signaling was shown to inhibit production of IL-12 by CD40L-activated DCs. Consistent with a role for EAT-2 in this inhibition, knockdown of EAT-2 resulted in increased production of IL-12 by CD40-stimulated DC. Assessment of downstream signaling following CD40 cross-linking in the presence or absence of SLAM cross-linking revealed that SLAM coengagement blocked activation of p38 MAPK and JNK signaling pathways in DC, which was reversed in DC with the NZB EAT-2 allele. We conclude that EAT-2 negatively regulates cytokine production in DC downstream of SLAM engagement and that a genetic polymorphism that disturbs this process promotes the development of lupus.

  6. Mixing, entropy and competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, A. Y.

    2012-06-01

    Non-traditional thermodynamics, applied to random behaviour associated with turbulence, mixing and competition, is reviewed and analysed. Competitive mixing represents a general framework for the study of generic properties of competitive systems and can be used to model a wide class of non-equilibrium phenomena ranging from turbulent premixed flames and invasion waves to complex competitive systems. We demonstrate consistency of the general principles of competition with thermodynamic description, review and analyse the related entropy concepts and introduce the corresponding competitive H-theorem. A competitive system can be characterized by a thermodynamic quantity—competitive potential—which determines the likely direction of evolution of the system. Contested resources tend to move between systems from lower to higher values of the competitive potential. There is, however, an important difference between conventional thermodynamics and competitive thermodynamics. While conventional thermodynamics is constrained by its zeroth law and is fundamentally transitive, the transitivity of competitive thermodynamics depends on the transitivity of the competition rules. Intransitivities are common in the real world and are responsible for complex behaviour in competitive systems. This work follows ideas and methods that have originated from the analysis of turbulent combustion, but reviews a much broader scope of issues linked to mixing and competition, including thermodynamic characterization of complex competitive systems with self-organization. The approach presented here is interdisciplinary and is addressed to the general educated readers, whereas the mathematical details can be found in the appendices.

  7. Smart watch RSSI localization and refinement for behavioral classification using laser-SLAM for mapping and fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Jay D; Mittek, Mateusz; Parkison, Steven A; Sathler, Pedro; Bayne, David; Psota, Eric T; Perez, Lance C; Bonasera, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    As a first step toward building a smart home behavioral monitoring system capable of classifying a wide variety of human behavior, a wireless sensor network (WSN) system is presented for RSSI localization. The low-cost, non-intrusive system uses a smart watch worn by the user to broadcast data to the WSN, where the strength of the radio signal is evaluated at each WSN node to localize the user. A method is presented that uses simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) for system calibration, providing automated fingerprinting associating the radio signal strength patterns to the user's location within the living space. To improve the accuracy of localization, a novel refinement technique is introduced that takes into account typical movement patterns of people within their homes. Experimental results demonstrate that the system is capable of providing accurate localization results in a typical living space.

  8. Growth profiles of recent canine distemper isolates on Vero cells expressing canine signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM).

    PubMed

    Lan, N T; Yamaguchi, R; Uchida, K; Sugano, S; Tateyama, S

    2005-07-01

    Fresh samples of lymph node, lung and cerebrum taken post mortem from dogs no. 1, 2 and 3 yielded canine distemper virus (CDV) strains 007 Lm, 009 L and 011 C, respectively. These were titrated on Vero cells stably expressing canine signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM; Vero-DST cells). Growth curves of the three strains were produced by titration of the released virus and cell-associated virus at various timepoints. All three isolates, especially 007 Lm, grew well on Vero-DST cells. The titres of cell-associated virus of two strains (009 L and 011 C) were clearly lower than those of virus released into the culture supernate. The results indicate that Vero-DST cells are not only useful for primary isolation but also efficient for titrating virus from fresh tissues and for the study of growth profiles of recent CDV isolates.

  9. Smart watch RSSI localization and refinement for behavioral classification using laser-SLAM for mapping and fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Jay D; Mittek, Mateusz; Parkison, Steven A; Sathler, Pedro; Bayne, David; Psota, Eric T; Perez, Lance C; Bonasera, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    As a first step toward building a smart home behavioral monitoring system capable of classifying a wide variety of human behavior, a wireless sensor network (WSN) system is presented for RSSI localization. The low-cost, non-intrusive system uses a smart watch worn by the user to broadcast data to the WSN, where the strength of the radio signal is evaluated at each WSN node to localize the user. A method is presented that uses simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) for system calibration, providing automated fingerprinting associating the radio signal strength patterns to the user's location within the living space. To improve the accuracy of localization, a novel refinement technique is introduced that takes into account typical movement patterns of people within their homes. Experimental results demonstrate that the system is capable of providing accurate localization results in a typical living space. PMID:25570416

  10. Strategic planning and competition

    SciTech Connect

    Gang, W.G. )

    1994-02-01

    This article discusses how to formulate a successful strategic plan in the face of competition from other electric utilities. Areas covered include reasons for plan failure, competitive simulations to test strategic plans, intelligence gathering, and cost reduction through reorganization.

  11. Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liles, Cassandra

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition is a new competition that needs graphics, logos, rules, as well as an arena. Although this is the first year of the competition, the competition is modeled after an existing competition, the Centennial Lunar Excavator Challenge. This competition however is aimed at college students. This makes the challenge identifying key aspects of the original competition and modeling them to fit into an easier task, and creating exciting advertisement that helps encourage participation. By using a youth focus group, young insight, as well as guiding advice from experts in the field, hopefully an arena can be designed and built, rules can be molded and created to fit, and alluring graphics can be printed to bring about a successful first year of the Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition.

  12. Competition in Courtship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laner, Mary Riege

    1986-01-01

    Explores both positive and negative competition within premarital relationships using a typology of competitive behaviors. Findings compare competitive activities of men and women in serious mate-choice oriented relationships. Implications for both courtship and marital relationships are offered. (Author/BL)

  13. In Defence of Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prvulovich, Zika Rad

    1982-01-01

    Examines objections to competition as presented by educational philosopher Michael Fielding and others. The two major types of criticism of competition are that it is unfair and divisive and that it is selfish and immoral. The author advocates educational experiences which combine self-competition with cooperation. (AM)

  14. Gaining the Competitive Edge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Society for Training and Development, Alexandria, VA.

    Economic competitiveness is today's most critical issue. Keeping the United States competitive in the world marketplace means the difference between a rising standard of living for everyone and the disappearance of what is taken for granted as a way of life. Developing human capital is the route toward successful competition, as some examples…

  15. Competitive Anxiety in Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Rainer; And Others

    This book is a comprehensive review of competitive anxiety research that has used the Sport Competition Anxiety Test, or SCAT (a trait scale), and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2). The book describes the theoretical basis and development procedures for both scales, including detailed information on reliability and validity. In…

  16. Strategizing for Intense Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, William; Bourgeois, Ernest J., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Examines trend toward more aggressive student recruiting strategies by colleges and universities, applying a model that assesses five competitive forces-cause and effect of competition, the expanding marketplace, substitute products, buyer power, and supplier power, and examines various strategies for dealing with these competitive forces, such as…

  17. Approximate kernel competitive learning.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Sheng; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Lai, Jian-Huang

    2015-03-01

    Kernel competitive learning has been successfully used to achieve robust clustering. However, kernel competitive learning (KCL) is not scalable for large scale data processing, because (1) it has to calculate and store the full kernel matrix that is too large to be calculated and kept in the memory and (2) it cannot be computed in parallel. In this paper we develop a framework of approximate kernel competitive learning for processing large scale dataset. The proposed framework consists of two parts. First, it derives an approximate kernel competitive learning (AKCL), which learns kernel competitive learning in a subspace via sampling. We provide solid theoretical analysis on why the proposed approximation modelling would work for kernel competitive learning, and furthermore, we show that the computational complexity of AKCL is largely reduced. Second, we propose a pseudo-parallelled approximate kernel competitive learning (PAKCL) based on a set-based kernel competitive learning strategy, which overcomes the obstacle of using parallel programming in kernel competitive learning and significantly accelerates the approximate kernel competitive learning for large scale clustering. The empirical evaluation on publicly available datasets shows that the proposed AKCL and PAKCL can perform comparably as KCL, with a large reduction on computational cost. Also, the proposed methods achieve more effective clustering performance in terms of clustering precision against related approximate clustering approaches.

  18. Approximate kernel competitive learning.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Sheng; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Lai, Jian-Huang

    2015-03-01

    Kernel competitive learning has been successfully used to achieve robust clustering. However, kernel competitive learning (KCL) is not scalable for large scale data processing, because (1) it has to calculate and store the full kernel matrix that is too large to be calculated and kept in the memory and (2) it cannot be computed in parallel. In this paper we develop a framework of approximate kernel competitive learning for processing large scale dataset. The proposed framework consists of two parts. First, it derives an approximate kernel competitive learning (AKCL), which learns kernel competitive learning in a subspace via sampling. We provide solid theoretical analysis on why the proposed approximation modelling would work for kernel competitive learning, and furthermore, we show that the computational complexity of AKCL is largely reduced. Second, we propose a pseudo-parallelled approximate kernel competitive learning (PAKCL) based on a set-based kernel competitive learning strategy, which overcomes the obstacle of using parallel programming in kernel competitive learning and significantly accelerates the approximate kernel competitive learning for large scale clustering. The empirical evaluation on publicly available datasets shows that the proposed AKCL and PAKCL can perform comparably as KCL, with a large reduction on computational cost. Also, the proposed methods achieve more effective clustering performance in terms of clustering precision against related approximate clustering approaches. PMID:25528318

  19. Use of SLAM and PVRL4 and identification of pro-HB-EGF as cell entry receptors for wild type phocine distemper virus.

    PubMed

    Melia, Mary M; Earle, John Philip; Abdullah, Haniah; Reaney, Katherine; Tangy, Frederic; Cosby, Sara Louise

    2014-01-01

    Signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) has been identified as an immune cell receptor for the morbilliviruses, measles (MV), canine distemper (CDV), rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants (PPRV) viruses, while CD46 is a receptor for vaccine strains of MV. More recently poliovirus like receptor 4 (PVRL4), also known as nectin 4, has been identified as a receptor for MV, CDV and PPRV on the basolateral surface of polarised epithelial cells. PVRL4 is also up-regulated by MV in human brain endothelial cells. Utilisation of PVRL4 as a receptor by phocine distemper virus (PDV) remains to be demonstrated as well as confirmation of use of SLAM. We have observed that unlike wild type (wt) MV or wtCDV, wtPDV strains replicate in African green monkey kidney Vero cells without prior adaptation, suggesting the use of a further receptor. We therefore examined candidate molecules, glycosaminoglycans (GAG) and the tetraspan proteins, integrin β and the membrane bound form of heparin binding epithelial growth factor (proHB-EGF),for receptor usage by wtPDV in Vero cells. We show that wtPDV replicates in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing SLAM and PVRL4. Similar wtPDV titres are produced in Vero and VeroSLAM cells but more limited fusion occurs in the latter. Infection of Vero cells was not inhibited by anti-CD46 antibody. Removal/disruption of GAG decreased fusion but not the titre of virus. Treatment with anti-integrin β antibody increased rather than decreased infection of Vero cells by wtPDV. However, infection was inhibited by antibody to HB-EGF and the virus replicated in CHO-proHB-EGF cells, indicating use of this molecule as a receptor. Common use of SLAM and PVRL4 by morbilliviruses increases the possibility of cross-species infection. Lack of a requirement for wtPDV adaptation to Vero cells raises the possibility of usage of proHB-EGF as a receptor in vivo but requires further investigation. PMID:25171206

  20. Use of SLAM and PVRL4 and identification of pro-HB-EGF as cell entry receptors for wild type phocine distemper virus.

    PubMed

    Melia, Mary M; Earle, John Philip; Abdullah, Haniah; Reaney, Katherine; Tangy, Frederic; Cosby, Sara Louise

    2014-01-01

    Signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) has been identified as an immune cell receptor for the morbilliviruses, measles (MV), canine distemper (CDV), rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants (PPRV) viruses, while CD46 is a receptor for vaccine strains of MV. More recently poliovirus like receptor 4 (PVRL4), also known as nectin 4, has been identified as a receptor for MV, CDV and PPRV on the basolateral surface of polarised epithelial cells. PVRL4 is also up-regulated by MV in human brain endothelial cells. Utilisation of PVRL4 as a receptor by phocine distemper virus (PDV) remains to be demonstrated as well as confirmation of use of SLAM. We have observed that unlike wild type (wt) MV or wtCDV, wtPDV strains replicate in African green monkey kidney Vero cells without prior adaptation, suggesting the use of a further receptor. We therefore examined candidate molecules, glycosaminoglycans (GAG) and the tetraspan proteins, integrin β and the membrane bound form of heparin binding epithelial growth factor (proHB-EGF),for receptor usage by wtPDV in Vero cells. We show that wtPDV replicates in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing SLAM and PVRL4. Similar wtPDV titres are produced in Vero and VeroSLAM cells but more limited fusion occurs in the latter. Infection of Vero cells was not inhibited by anti-CD46 antibody. Removal/disruption of GAG decreased fusion but not the titre of virus. Treatment with anti-integrin β antibody increased rather than decreased infection of Vero cells by wtPDV. However, infection was inhibited by antibody to HB-EGF and the virus replicated in CHO-proHB-EGF cells, indicating use of this molecule as a receptor. Common use of SLAM and PVRL4 by morbilliviruses increases the possibility of cross-species infection. Lack of a requirement for wtPDV adaptation to Vero cells raises the possibility of usage of proHB-EGF as a receptor in vivo but requires further investigation.

  1. Four paths of competition

    SciTech Connect

    Studness, C.M.

    1995-05-01

    The financial community`s focus on utility competition has been riveted on the proceedings now in progress at state regulatory commissions. The fear that something immediately damaging will come out of these proceedings seems to have diminished in recent months, and the stock market has reacted favorably. However, regulatory developments are only one of four paths leading to competition; the others are the marketplace, the legislatures, and the courts. Each could play a critical role in the emergence of competition.

  2. Competitiveness, Technology and Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lall, Sanjaya

    This document examines competitiveness in the developing world. Chapters 1 through 3, which are largely conceptual, examine the following topics: the concept of competitiveness and why it is important; market-stimulating technology policies in developing countries, and the relationship between import liberalization and industrial performance.…

  3. Competition in Economic Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livesey, F.

    1982-01-01

    Considers two alternative views of competition found in the economics literature. The author demonstrates that these alternative views of competition underlie alternative views in other areas of economics, including welfare economics and micro-economic policy. Implications for college students and teachers are examined. (Author/AM)

  4. Competition: Was Kohn Right?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, David Light; Bredemeier, Brenda Light

    2010-01-01

    Alfie Kohn made the case for competition being destructive to education. The truth may be that there are two separate ways to contest: true competition, which is a healthy desire to excel, and decompetition, which is the unhealthy desire merely to beat the opponent. Decompetition leads to the ills that Kohn enumerated. Educators should teach their…

  5. A fast slam approach to freehand 3-d ultrasound reconstruction for catheter ablation guidance in the left atrium.

    PubMed

    Koolwal, Aditya B; Barbagli, Federico; Carlson, Christopher R; Liang, David H

    2011-12-01

    We present a method for real-time, freehand 3D ultrasound (3D-US) reconstruction of moving anatomy, with specific application towards guiding the catheter ablation procedure in the left atrium. Using an intracardiac echo (ICE) catheter with a pose (position/orientation) sensor mounted to its tip, we continually mosaic 2D-ICE images of a left atrium phantom model to form a 3D-US volume. Our mosaicing strategy employs a probabilistic framework based on simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM), a technique commonly used in mobile robotics for creating maps of unexplored environments. The measured ICE catheter tip pose provides an initial estimate for compounding 2D-ICE image data into the 3D-US volume. However, we simultaneously consider the overlap-consistency shared between 2D-ICE images and the 3D-US volume, computing a "corrected" tip pose if need be to ensure spatially-consistent reconstruction. This allows us to compensate for anatomic movement and sensor drift that would otherwise cause motion artifacts in the 3D-US volume. Our approach incorporates 2D-ICE data immediately after acquisition, allowing us to continuously update the registration parameters linking sensor coordinates to 3D-US coordinates. This, in turn, enables real-time localization and display of sensorized therapeutic catheters within the 3D-US volume for facilitating procedural guidance.

  6. A fast slam approach to freehand 3-d ultrasound reconstruction for catheter ablation guidance in the left atrium.

    PubMed

    Koolwal, Aditya B; Barbagli, Federico; Carlson, Christopher R; Liang, David H

    2011-12-01

    We present a method for real-time, freehand 3D ultrasound (3D-US) reconstruction of moving anatomy, with specific application towards guiding the catheter ablation procedure in the left atrium. Using an intracardiac echo (ICE) catheter with a pose (position/orientation) sensor mounted to its tip, we continually mosaic 2D-ICE images of a left atrium phantom model to form a 3D-US volume. Our mosaicing strategy employs a probabilistic framework based on simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM), a technique commonly used in mobile robotics for creating maps of unexplored environments. The measured ICE catheter tip pose provides an initial estimate for compounding 2D-ICE image data into the 3D-US volume. However, we simultaneously consider the overlap-consistency shared between 2D-ICE images and the 3D-US volume, computing a "corrected" tip pose if need be to ensure spatially-consistent reconstruction. This allows us to compensate for anatomic movement and sensor drift that would otherwise cause motion artifacts in the 3D-US volume. Our approach incorporates 2D-ICE data immediately after acquisition, allowing us to continuously update the registration parameters linking sensor coordinates to 3D-US coordinates. This, in turn, enables real-time localization and display of sensorized therapeutic catheters within the 3D-US volume for facilitating procedural guidance. PMID:22014856

  7. Justice and competitive markets.

    PubMed

    Brody, B A

    1987-02-01

    This essay challenges the view that the provision of health care must take place within a competitive-free system. The author argues that, presuming that there is a requirement to meet the demands of those who cannot pay for health care, a competitive market provides a good way to deal with injustices within the health care system. The author concludes that the demands for justice are best met when indigent individuals use some portion of the funds they receive from the government to purchase one of the many competing forms of health care. This scheme requires a competitive market in the delivery of health care.

  8. Costing and competition.

    PubMed

    Bates, K; Brignall, S

    1994-01-01

    Working for patients established a new system of contracts between providers and purchasers of healthcare, with prices based on full costs, avoiding cross-subsidization. The new regime necessitates greatly improved costing systems, to improve the efficiency of service provision by creating price competition between providers. Ken Bates and Stan Brignall argue that non-price competition also occurs, with providers 'differentiating' on quality of service/product, flexibility or innovation. PMID:10136091

  9. 2000 FIRST Robotics Competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purman, Richard

    2000-01-01

    The New Horizons Regional Education Center (NHREC) in Hampton, VA sought and received NASA funding to support its participation in the 2000 FIRST Robotics competition. FIRST, Inc. (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) is an organization which encourages the application of creative science, math, and computer science principles to solve real-world engineering problems. The FIRST competition is an international engineering contest featuring high school, government, and business partnerships.

  10. Untangling healthcare competition.

    PubMed

    Harris, I C; McDaniel, R R

    1993-11-01

    Traditional approaches to competition may be inappropriate for healthcare providers. Neoclassical economics makes the implicit assumption that a single actor embodies consumption, compensation, and benefit from a transaction. In healthcare, this assumption does not hold. Instead, such actions are accomplished by three separate actors--consumers (physicians), customers (third-party payers), and clients (patients). A hospital simultaneously competes in three arenas. Hospitals compete for physicians along a technological dimension. Competition for third-party payers takes on a financial dimension. Hospitals compete for patients along a marketing dimension. Because of the complex marketplace interactions among hospital, patient, physician, and third-party payer, the role of price in controlling behavior is difficult to establish. The dynamics underlying the hospital selection decision--that is, the decision maker's expectations of services and the convenience of accessing services--must also be considered. Healthcare managers must understand the interrelationships involved in the three-pronged competitive perspective for several reasons. This perspective clarifies the multiple facets of competition a hospital faces. It also disentangles the actions previously fulfilled by the traditional single buyer. It illuminates the critical skills underlying the competition for each audience. Finally, it defines the primary criterion each audience uses in sorting among hospitals. Recognition of the multifaceted nature of competition among healthcare providers will help demystify market behavior and thereby improve internal organizational communication systems, managers' ability to focus on appropriate activities, and the hospital's ability to adapt to changing market conditions.

  11. Competition for land

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Pete; Gregory, Peter J.; van Vuuren, Detlef; Obersteiner, Michael; Havlík, Petr; Rounsevell, Mark; Woods, Jeremy; Stehfest, Elke; Bellarby, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    A key challenge for humanity is how a future global population of 9 billion can all be fed healthily and sustainably. Here, we review how competition for land is influenced by other drivers and pressures, examine land-use change over the past 20 years and consider future changes over the next 40 years. Competition for land, in itself, is not a driver affecting food and farming in the future, but is an emergent property of other drivers and pressures. Modelling studies suggest that future policy decisions in the agriculture, forestry, energy and conservation sectors could have profound effects, with different demands for land to supply multiple ecosystem services usually intensifying competition for land in the future. In addition to policies addressing agriculture and food production, further policies addressing the primary drivers of competition for land (population growth, dietary preference, protected areas, forest policy) could have significant impacts in reducing competition for land. Technologies for increasing per-area productivity of agricultural land will also be necessary. Key uncertainties in our projections of competition for land in the future relate predominantly to uncertainties in the drivers and pressures within the scenarios, in the models and data used in the projections and in the policy interventions assumed to affect the drivers and pressures in the future. PMID:20713395

  12. Development of kinematic 3D laser scanning system for indoor mapping and as-built BIM using constrained SLAM.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Sanghyun; Ju, Sungha; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest and use of indoor mapping is driving a demand for improved data-acquisition facility, efficiency and productivity in the era of the Building Information Model (BIM). The conventional static laser scanning method suffers from some limitations on its operability in complex indoor environments, due to the presence of occlusions. Full scanning of indoor spaces without loss of information requires that surveyors change the scanner position many times, which incurs extra work for registration of each scanned point cloud. Alternatively, a kinematic 3D laser scanning system, proposed herein, uses line-feature-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technique for continuous mapping. Moreover, to reduce the uncertainty of line-feature extraction, we incorporated constrained adjustment based on an assumption made with respect to typical indoor environments: that the main structures are formed of parallel or orthogonal line features. The superiority of the proposed constrained adjustment is its reduction for uncertainties of the adjusted lines, leading to successful data association process. In the present study, kinematic scanning with and without constrained adjustment were comparatively evaluated in two test sites, and the results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed system. The accuracy of the 3D mapping result was additionally evaluated by comparison with the reference points acquired by a total station: the Euclidean average distance error was 0.034 m for the seminar room and 0.043 m for the corridor, which satisfied the error tolerance for point cloud acquisition (0.051 m) according to the guidelines of the General Services Administration for BIM accuracy.

  13. Development of Kinematic 3D Laser Scanning System for Indoor Mapping and As-Built BIM Using Constrained SLAM

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Sanghyun; Ju, Sungha; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest and use of indoor mapping is driving a demand for improved data-acquisition facility, efficiency and productivity in the era of the Building Information Model (BIM). The conventional static laser scanning method suffers from some limitations on its operability in complex indoor environments, due to the presence of occlusions. Full scanning of indoor spaces without loss of information requires that surveyors change the scanner position many times, which incurs extra work for registration of each scanned point cloud. Alternatively, a kinematic 3D laser scanning system, proposed herein, uses line-feature-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technique for continuous mapping. Moreover, to reduce the uncertainty of line-feature extraction, we incorporated constrained adjustment based on an assumption made with respect to typical indoor environments: that the main structures are formed of parallel or orthogonal line features. The superiority of the proposed constrained adjustment is its reduction for uncertainties of the adjusted lines, leading to successful data association process. In the present study, kinematic scanning with and without constrained adjustment were comparatively evaluated in two test sites, and the results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed system. The accuracy of the 3D mapping result was additionally evaluated by comparison with the reference points acquired by a total station: the Euclidean average distance error was 0.034 m for the seminar room and 0.043 m for the corridor, which satisfied the error tolerance for point cloud acquisition (0.051 m) according to the guidelines of the General Services Administration for BIM accuracy. PMID:26501292

  14. Development of kinematic 3D laser scanning system for indoor mapping and as-built BIM using constrained SLAM.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Sanghyun; Ju, Sungha; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest and use of indoor mapping is driving a demand for improved data-acquisition facility, efficiency and productivity in the era of the Building Information Model (BIM). The conventional static laser scanning method suffers from some limitations on its operability in complex indoor environments, due to the presence of occlusions. Full scanning of indoor spaces without loss of information requires that surveyors change the scanner position many times, which incurs extra work for registration of each scanned point cloud. Alternatively, a kinematic 3D laser scanning system, proposed herein, uses line-feature-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technique for continuous mapping. Moreover, to reduce the uncertainty of line-feature extraction, we incorporated constrained adjustment based on an assumption made with respect to typical indoor environments: that the main structures are formed of parallel or orthogonal line features. The superiority of the proposed constrained adjustment is its reduction for uncertainties of the adjusted lines, leading to successful data association process. In the present study, kinematic scanning with and without constrained adjustment were comparatively evaluated in two test sites, and the results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed system. The accuracy of the 3D mapping result was additionally evaluated by comparison with the reference points acquired by a total station: the Euclidean average distance error was 0.034 m for the seminar room and 0.043 m for the corridor, which satisfied the error tolerance for point cloud acquisition (0.051 m) according to the guidelines of the General Services Administration for BIM accuracy. PMID:26501292

  15. Healthy Competition and Unsound Comparison: Reforming Educational Competition in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    It is frequently claimed that the "competition state" responds to external competition by making competition increasingly central to its internal processes as well. This article discusses education reform in Singapore as departing from the opposite position. In Singapore "excessive" competition in education is now targeted by…

  16. Augmenting ViSP's 3D Model-Based Tracker with RGB-D SLAM for 3D Pose Estimation in Indoor Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li-Chee-Ming, J.; Armenakis, C.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a novel application of the Visual Servoing Platform's (ViSP) for pose estimation in indoor and GPS-denied outdoor environments. Our proposed solution integrates the trajectory solution from RGBD-SLAM into ViSP's pose estimation process. Li-Chee-Ming and Armenakis (2015) explored the application of ViSP in mapping large outdoor environments, and tracking larger objects (i.e., building models). Their experiments revealed that tracking was often lost due to a lack of model features in the camera's field of view, and also because of rapid camera motion. Further, the pose estimate was often biased due to incorrect feature matches. This work proposes a solution to improve ViSP's pose estimation performance, aiming specifically to reduce the frequency of tracking losses and reduce the biases present in the pose estimate. This paper explores the integration of ViSP with RGB-D SLAM. We discuss the performance of the combined tracker in mapping indoor environments and tracking 3D wireframe indoor building models, and present preliminary results from our experiments.

  17. Price competition in procurement

    SciTech Connect

    Keisler, J.M.; Buehring, W.A.

    1996-07-01

    When creating a private market to provide a public good, government agencies can influence the market`s competitive characteristics. Markets have predictable, but often counterintuitive, behaviors. To succeed in applying available controls, and thereby reduce future costs, agencies must understand the behavior of the market. A model has been constructed to examine some issues in establishing competition for a structure in which there are economies of scale and government is obligated to purchase a fixed total quantity of a good. This model is used to demonstrate a way to estimate the cost savings from several alternative plans for a buyer exploring competitive procurement. The results are not and cannot be accurate for budgeting purposes; rather, they indicate the approximate magnitude of changes in cost that would be associated with changes in the market structure within which procurement occurs.

  18. IT product competition Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiu-Lian; Zhou, Lei; Shi, Jian-Jun; Wang, Yong-Li; Feng, Ai-Xia; He, Da-Ren

    2008-03-01

    Along with the technical development, the IT product competition becomes increasingly fierce in recent years. The factories, which produce the same IT product, have to improve continuously their own product quality for taking a large piece of cake in the product sale market. We suggest using a complex network description for the IT product competition. In the network the factories are defined as nodes, and two nodes are connected by a link if they produce a common IT product. The edge represents the sale competition relationship. 2121 factories and 265 products have been investigated. Some statistical properties, such as the degree distribution, node strength distribution, assortativity, and node degree correlation have been empirically obtained.

  19. Utility competition and residential customers

    SciTech Connect

    Studness, C.M.

    1994-11-01

    Residential customers have found themselves either ignored or ill-used by the major participants in the struggle over utility competition. No group is seeking to secure them the benefits of competition, and those who oppose competition have curried their favor by conjuring up misleading horror stories about how competition would harm them. Yet residential customers ultimately stand to gain as much from competition as larger customers.

  20. Advancing Manufacturing Research Through Competitions

    SciTech Connect

    Balakirsky, Stephen; Madhavan, Raj

    2009-01-01

    Competitions provide a technique for building interest and collaboration in targeted research areas. This paper will present a new competition that aims to increase collaboration amongst Universities, automation end-users, and automation manufacturers through a virtual competition. The virtual nature of the competition allows for reduced infrastructure requirements while maintaining realism in both the robotic equipment deployed and the scenarios. Details of the virtual environment as well as the competitions objectives, rules, and scoring metrics will be presented.

  1. Cohort profile of the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust Biomedical Research Centre (SLaM BRC) Case Register: current status and recent enhancement of an Electronic Mental Health Record-derived data resource

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Gayan; Broadbent, Matthew; Callard, Felicity; Chang, Chin-Kuo; Downs, Johnny; Dutta, Rina; Fernandes, Andrea; Hayes, Richard D; Henderson, Max; Jackson, Richard; Jewell, Amelia; Kadra, Giouliana; Little, Ryan; Pritchard, Megan; Shetty, Hitesh; Tulloch, Alex; Stewart, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The South London and Maudsley National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust Biomedical Research Centre (SLaM BRC) Case Register and its Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) application were developed in 2008, generating a research repository of real-time, anonymised, structured and open-text data derived from the electronic health record system used by SLaM, a large mental healthcare provider in southeast London. In this paper, we update this register's descriptive data, and describe the substantial expansion and extension of the data resource since its original development. Participants Descriptive data were generated from the SLaM BRC Case Register on 31 December 2014. Currently, there are over 250 000 patient records accessed through CRIS. Findings to date Since 2008, the most significant developments in the SLaM BRC Case Register have been the introduction of natural language processing to extract structured data from open-text fields, linkages to external sources of data, and the addition of a parallel relational database (Structured Query Language) output. Natural language processing applications to date have brought in new and hitherto inaccessible data on cognitive function, education, social care receipt, smoking, diagnostic statements and pharmacotherapy. In addition, through external data linkages, large volumes of supplementary information have been accessed on mortality, hospital attendances and cancer registrations. Future plans Coupled with robust data security and governance structures, electronic health records provide potentially transformative information on mental disorders and outcomes in routine clinical care. The SLaM BRC Case Register continues to grow as a database, with approximately 20 000 new cases added each year, in addition to extension of follow-up for existing cases. Data linkages and natural language processing present important opportunities to enhance this type of research resource further, achieving both volume

  2. Competition in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Erv

    1981-01-01

    Argues that teacher use of competition in the classroom may lead to anxiety, aggression, or a decrease in self-concept among students and that learning to compete is not so important in a postindustrial society. Advocates cooperative classroom activities. (SJL)

  3. Cost and competition

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, E.

    1994-11-01

    The growth of private power is part of the movement away from administrative regulation and toward competitive control of prices for electricity. Despite the substantial success of the private power industry, this process is far from complete. Utility regulators, who preside over the power purchase contracting process, are responsible for assuring that the prices which are presented to them for approval are reasonable.

  4. Competition in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jameson, Daphne

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author shares the strategy she adopted to even out the participation among her multicultural students during their classroom discussions. The author realized that her students had different concepts about the classroom and different philosophies about competition. For the Americans and Indians, the classroom was a site of…

  5. Reed Hundt's Friendly Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educom Review, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Presents an interview with Reed Hundt, Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), who implemented the Education Task Force to coordinate the FCC's role in educational provisions of the Telecommunications Act of 1996. He asserts that writing clear rules for the communications sector will promote competition and ensure educational…

  6. Building Camaraderie from Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    Educational institutions have adopted athletics programs to promote character building. Sports help people feel comfortable in their skins and provide unique opportunities to develop qualities such as cooperation, perseverance, and the ability to cope with fear. But the arena can be a hothouse for more primal feelings that emerge in competition.…

  7. Competitiveness and Campaign '88.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan-Schloss, Adam, Ed.; And Others

    This report profiles the positions of the six Democratic and six Republican 1988 presidential candidates on policy issues affecting U.S. competitiveness in the global economy. Candidate profiles are provided for: Bruce Babbitt, Michael Dukakis, Richard Gephardt, Albert Gore, Jr., Jesse Jackson, and Paul Simon (Democrats); and George Bush, Robert…

  8. Human Resources Competitiveness Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Competitiveness, Washington, DC.

    This report distills hundreds of indicators from both domestic and international sources to determine how the United States compares to other countries and to its own past performance in competitiveness. It attempts to establish a baseline of some key education and training indicators that, taken together, show where the nation stands and where it…

  9. Growing Competition for Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Questia subscription-based online academic digital books library. Highlights include weaknesses of the collection; what college students want from a library; importance of marketing; competition for traditional academic libraries that may help improve library services; and the ability of Questia to overcome barriers and…

  10. Positioning for Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapovsky, Lucie; Hubbell, Loren Loomis

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes results of the 1999 National Association of College and Business Officers tuition discounting survey and identifies trends. Finds colleges and universities are reactively responding to market pressures and proactively trying to analyze and position themselves ahead of the competition, often regional rather than national, for the…

  11. A Winning Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geddes, Kim; Franchini, Elease

    2012-01-01

    As a high school physics teacher, Kim Geddes is constantly searching for new experiences to challenge, motivate, and engage students. Last year, she incorporated ExploraVision into the energy unit of her school's physics curriculum with the help of their media specialist (Elease Franchini). ExploraVision is a competition offered through a…

  12. Competitiveness Index 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Competitiveness, Washington, DC.

    The United States' economic performance in the world economy is compared with that of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom (the Summit 7 countries). Competitiveness is assessed by four economic indicators: standard of living, trade, manufacturing productivity, and investment. The United States continues to outinvest the…

  13. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Sears; Clauset, Aaron

    2013-10-29

    In most professional sports, playing field structure is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact environmental heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics or competitive advantages. Applying a novel generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between the structure within a competition and its scoring dynamics, while controlling the impact of chance. Despite wide structural variations, we observe a common three-phase pattern in the tempo of events. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. Surprisingly, the most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the design principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data for investigating social dynamics and competition.

  14. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, Sears; Clauset, Aaron

    2013-10-01

    In most professional sports, playing field structure is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact environmental heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics or competitive advantages. Applying a novel generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between the structure within a competition and its scoring dynamics, while controlling the impact of chance. Despite wide structural variations, we observe a common three-phase pattern in the tempo of events. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. Surprisingly, the most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the design principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data for investigating social dynamics and competition.

  15. Demolishing the competition: the longitudinal link between competitive video games, competitive gambling, and aggression.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Paul J C; Willoughby, Teena

    2013-07-01

    The majority of research on the link between video games and aggression has focused on the violent content in games. In contrast, recent experimental research suggests that it is video game competition, not violence, that has the greatest effect on aggression in the short-term. However, no researchers have examined the long-term relationship between video game competition and aggression. In addition, if competition in video games is a significant reason for the link between video game play and aggression, then other competitive activities, such as competitive gambling, also may predict aggression over time. In the current study, we directly assessed the socialization (competitive video game play and competitive gambling predicts aggression over time) versus selection hypotheses (aggression predicts competitive video game play and competitive gambling over time). Adolescents (N = 1,492, 50.8 % female) were surveyed annually from Grade 9 to Grade 12 about their video game play, gambling, and aggressive behaviors. Greater competitive video game play and competitive gambling predicted higher levels of aggression over time, after controlling for previous levels of aggression, supporting the socialization hypothesis. The selection hypothesis also was supported, as aggression predicted greater competitive video game play and competitive gambling over time, after controlling for previous competitive video game play and competitive gambling. Our findings, taken together with the fact that millions of adolescents play competitive video games every day and that competitive gambling may increase as adolescents transition into adulthood, highlight the need for a greater understanding of the relationship between competition and aggression.

  16. Demolishing the competition: the longitudinal link between competitive video games, competitive gambling, and aggression.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Paul J C; Willoughby, Teena

    2013-07-01

    The majority of research on the link between video games and aggression has focused on the violent content in games. In contrast, recent experimental research suggests that it is video game competition, not violence, that has the greatest effect on aggression in the short-term. However, no researchers have examined the long-term relationship between video game competition and aggression. In addition, if competition in video games is a significant reason for the link between video game play and aggression, then other competitive activities, such as competitive gambling, also may predict aggression over time. In the current study, we directly assessed the socialization (competitive video game play and competitive gambling predicts aggression over time) versus selection hypotheses (aggression predicts competitive video game play and competitive gambling over time). Adolescents (N = 1,492, 50.8 % female) were surveyed annually from Grade 9 to Grade 12 about their video game play, gambling, and aggressive behaviors. Greater competitive video game play and competitive gambling predicted higher levels of aggression over time, after controlling for previous levels of aggression, supporting the socialization hypothesis. The selection hypothesis also was supported, as aggression predicted greater competitive video game play and competitive gambling over time, after controlling for previous competitive video game play and competitive gambling. Our findings, taken together with the fact that millions of adolescents play competitive video games every day and that competitive gambling may increase as adolescents transition into adulthood, highlight the need for a greater understanding of the relationship between competition and aggression. PMID:23595418

  17. The Literature of Competitive Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Thomas D.

    1994-01-01

    Describes competitive intelligence (CI) literature in terms of its location, quantity, authorship, length, and problems of bibliographic access. Highlights include subject access; competitive intelligence research; espionage and security; monographs; and journals. (21 references) (LRW)

  18. Competition for finite resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, L. Jonathan; Zia, R. K. P.

    2012-05-01

    The resources in a cell are finite, which implies that the various components of the cell must compete for resources. One such resource is the ribosomes used during translation to create proteins. Motivated by this example, we explore this competition by connecting two totally asymmetric simple exclusion processes (TASEPs) to a finite pool of particles. Expanding on our previous work, we focus on the effects on the density and current of having different entry and exit rates.

  19. Competitive Intelligence and Social Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Elisabeth; Cronin, Blaise

    1994-01-01

    Presents an overview of issues concerning civilian competitive intelligence (CI). Topics discussed include competitive advantage in academic and research environments; public domain information and libraries; covert and overt competitive intelligence; data diversity; use of the Internet; cooperative intelligence; and implications for library and…

  20. Hospital survival in a competitive environment: the competitive constituency model.

    PubMed

    Ehreth, J

    1993-01-01

    Organizational theory is extended to develop a method for administrators to assess hospital effectiveness in a competitive environment. First, the literature pertaining to organizational effectiveness and survival is synthesized to show the lack of consideration for the effects of competition. Second, the article integrates the effects of competition on organizational effectiveness through a competitive constituency model. A step-by-step procedure is proposed to apply the theory in an organizational setting. The model explicitly addresses differences in power relations between hospitals, their competition, and their stakeholders. The relative nature of effectiveness is explored by comparing the hospital to its competition using criteria developed through specific goals of stakeholders. The distinction between managerial and organizational effectiveness constructs is clarified. Finally, the practical application of this model is demonstrated by assessing the effectiveness of a hospital in the competitive environment of Seattle, Washington, where two hospitals have recently closed.

  1. The two sides of competition: competition-induced effort and affect during intergroup versus interindividual competition.

    PubMed

    Wittchen, Marion; Krimmel, Anna; Kohler, Mischa; Hertel, Guido

    2013-08-01

    Competition strongly affects individual effort and performance for both individuals and groups. Especially in work settings, these effort gains might come at the cost of individual well-being. The present study tested whether competition increases both effort (as indicated by task performance) and stress (in terms of cardiovascular reactivity and affective response), and whether this effect is further qualified by the type of competition (interindividual vs. intergroup), using a cognitive computer-based task and a 2 (Group: Yes, No) × 2 (Competition: Yes, No) × 2 (Gender) factorial design (N = 147). All participants either worked as a representative of a group or as an individual, and were offered performance-related incentives distributed in a lottery. In the competition conditions, participants were informed that they competed with someone else, and that only the winning person/team would take part in the lottery. Consistent with expectations, competition increased both individual effort and cardiovascular reactivity compared to non-competitive work. Moreover, for female participants, intergroup competition triggered increased effort and more positive affect than interindividual competition. Aside from documenting costly side-effects of competition in terms of stress, this study provides evidence for a stress-related explanation of effort gains during intergroup competition as compared to interindividual competition.

  2. Rowing competitions and perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Alfinio; Bernhardt, Stephen A.; Shipman, Henry L.

    2015-02-01

    This paper is about integrating the use of graphing technology (specifically, GeoGebra) with principles of motion, principles of perspective, and the concept of vanishing points to model a dynamic event. Students were asked to analyse video images of a rowing competition filmed with a single camera positioned perpendicular to the race. The fixed position of the camera in such races makes it difficult to determine whether a scull closer to the camera is actually overtaking another, more distant scull. The paper illustrates how students in their first year at the university can integrate the use of technology, science, mathematics, and writing to solve a real world problem involving motion.

  3. Attention competition with advertisement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  4. Attention competition with advertisement.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant. PMID:25314476

  5. Attention competition with advertisement.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  6. Slam-Dunking Scholars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winbush, Donald E.

    1995-01-01

    The Clark Atlanta University (GA) women's basketball coach recruits high academic achievers and supports their academic and athletic performance with discipline, on-the-road study, and teamwork. The approach has been effective for achieving athletic, academic, and interpersonal goals. (MSE)

  7. School Construction Summer Slam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    Every school has a list of renovations, upgrades and repairs that need attention, but many are too distracting and disruptive to carry out during the school year. Often, the best time to address these nagging construction projects is during the summer when students are on break and the campus is quieter. Although these "summer slammers" often are…

  8. Hurricane slams gulf operations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-07

    This paper reports that reports of damage by Hurricane Andrew escalated last week as operators stepped up inspections of oil and gas installations in the Gulf of Mexico. By midweek, companies operating in the gulf and South Louisiana were beginning to agree that earlier assessments of damage only scratched the surface. Damage reports included scores of lost, toppled, or crippled platforms, pipeline ruptures, and oil slicks. By midweek the U.S. coast Guard had received reports of 79 oil spills. Even platforms capable of resuming production in some instances were begin curtailed because of damaged pipelines. Offshore service companies the another 2-4 weeks could be needed to fully assess Andrew's wrath. Lack of personnel and equipment was slowing damage assessment and repair.

  9. More competitive silicon smelting

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1996-02-01

    Over the past several years, foreign manufacturers of ferrosilicon and silicon alloys have been making inroads in American markets such as computer chips. To make domestic smelting of these materials more competitive, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has funded the development of a direct-current plasma-arc-furnace smelting process by the South Carolina Research Authority (SCRA) in North Charleston. This new technology can reduce the energy consumption of the smelting process, saving million of dollars in energy costs per year. Typically, silicon and ferrosilicon alloys are produced in open-top, submerged-arc, alternating-current furnaces. A mixture of quartz ore and reducing agents are fed into the furnace, multiple electrodes are inserted into the material, and the mixture is charged to produce the desired metal. The process consumes high amounts of electrical power relative to the amount of metal recovered.

  10. Mapping your competitive position.

    PubMed

    D'Aveni, Richard A

    2007-11-01

    A price-benefit positioning map helps you see, through your customers' eyes, how your product compares with all its competitors in a market. You can draw such a map quickly and objectively, without having to resort to costly, time-consuming consumer surveys or subjective estimates of the excellence of your product and the shortcomings of all the others. Creating a positioning map involves three steps: First, define your market to include everything your customers might consider to be your product's competitors or substitutes. Second, track the price your customers actually pay (wholesale or retail? bundled or unbundled?) and identify what your customers see as your offering's primary benefit. This is done through regression analysis, determining which of the product's attributes (as described objectively by rating services, government agencies, R&D departments, and the like) explains most of the variance in its price. Third, draw the map by plotting on a graph the position of every product in the market you've selected according to its price and its level of primary benefit, and draw a line that runs through the middle of the points. What you get is a picture of the competitive landscape of your market, where all the products above the line command a price premium owing to some secondary benefit customers value, and all those below the line are positioned to earn market share through lower prices and reduced secondary benefits. Using examples as varied as Harley-Davidson motorcycles, Motorola cell phones, and the New York restaurant market, Tuck professor D'Aveni demonstrates some of the many ways the maps can be used: to locate unoccupied or less-crowded spaces in highly competitive markets, for instance, or to identify opportunities created through changes in the relationship between the primary benefit and prices. The maps even allow companies to anticipate--and counter-- rivals' strategies. R eprint RO711G PMID:18159791

  11. Mapping your competitive position.

    PubMed

    D'Aveni, Richard A

    2007-11-01

    A price-benefit positioning map helps you see, through your customers' eyes, how your product compares with all its competitors in a market. You can draw such a map quickly and objectively, without having to resort to costly, time-consuming consumer surveys or subjective estimates of the excellence of your product and the shortcomings of all the others. Creating a positioning map involves three steps: First, define your market to include everything your customers might consider to be your product's competitors or substitutes. Second, track the price your customers actually pay (wholesale or retail? bundled or unbundled?) and identify what your customers see as your offering's primary benefit. This is done through regression analysis, determining which of the product's attributes (as described objectively by rating services, government agencies, R&D departments, and the like) explains most of the variance in its price. Third, draw the map by plotting on a graph the position of every product in the market you've selected according to its price and its level of primary benefit, and draw a line that runs through the middle of the points. What you get is a picture of the competitive landscape of your market, where all the products above the line command a price premium owing to some secondary benefit customers value, and all those below the line are positioned to earn market share through lower prices and reduced secondary benefits. Using examples as varied as Harley-Davidson motorcycles, Motorola cell phones, and the New York restaurant market, Tuck professor D'Aveni demonstrates some of the many ways the maps can be used: to locate unoccupied or less-crowded spaces in highly competitive markets, for instance, or to identify opportunities created through changes in the relationship between the primary benefit and prices. The maps even allow companies to anticipate--and counter-- rivals' strategies. R eprint RO711G

  12. Immunological impact of Taekwondo competitions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y W; Shin, K W; Paik, I-Y; Jung, W M; Cho, S-Y; Choi, S T; Kim, H D; Kim, J Y

    2012-01-01

    Immunological changes in elite adolescent female athletes during Taekwondo competitions were investigated on-field. 6 female athletes (16.7 ± 0.8 year-old) volunteered and performed 5 bouts of demonstration Taekwondo competitions simulating real tournaments in intensity, duration, and break-time intervals on the same day. Blood samples were taken before, after the competitions and during the recovery, respectively. Immunological changes and oxidative stress in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were evaluated by flow-cytometry. During the competitions, exercise intensity was 92.2 ± 3.8% (86.1~95.7) of the maximal heart rate. Blood lactate increased immediately after the competitions (p=0.0165) and decreased to baseline during recovery. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the peripheral blood increased continuously during recovery (p<0.05, respectively). Natural killer cells increased immediately after the competitions (p=0.0006), and decreased during recovery. B and T cells increased immediately after the competitions and remained elevated throughout recovery (p<0.05, respectively). CD4/CD8 ratio after the competitions was decreased (p=0.0091) and returned to baseline during recovery. These results suggest that the immunological function of the elite female adolescent athletes could be attenuated after Taekwondo competitions. Further large-scaled Taekwondo studies on immunologic and apoptotic changes related to oxidative stress should be performed for improving and protecting the health of adolescent athletes.

  13. Spatial Aspects of Interspecific Competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durrett, Rick; Levin, Simon

    1998-01-01

    Using several variants of a stochastic spatial model introduced by Silvertown et al., we investigate the effect of spatial distribution of individuals on the outcome of competition. First, we prove rigorously that if one species has a competitive advantage over each of the others, then eventually it takes over all the sites in the system. Second, we examine tradeoffs between competition and dispersal distance in a two-species system. Third, we consider a cyclic competitive relationship between three types. In this case, a nonspatial treatment leads to densities that follow neutrally stable cycles or even unstable spiral solutions, while a spatial model yields a stationary distribution with an interesting spatial structure.

  14. Competitive sports for the disabled.

    PubMed

    Clark, M W

    1980-01-01

    A full life experience for people with and without physical disabilities usually includes some form of recreation or sport. Competition adds to enjoyment of sport for many people and can improve morale. This paper reviews some of the competitive opportunities available for people with a physical disability. These include competition within existing "able-bodied" organizations with or without adaptive devices and competition in separate organizations for those with disabilities. The latter include the National Wheelchair Basketball Association and the National Wheelchair Athletic Association.

  15. Gender differences in competitive stress.

    PubMed

    Madden, C C; Kirkby, R J

    1995-06-01

    Stress experienced in competitive basketball was investigated in a sample of 84 men and 49 women recruited from players engaged in regular, organized, competitive grade basketball. Subjects were administered the Stressful Situations in Basketball Questionnaire which provides measures on 5 types of stress in competitive basketball. Analyses of gender differences showed that men reported more stress than female players on the "Team performance" scale. Research is required to evaluate whether this difference is due to a perception of women that they have less influence over the performance of the team or whether it is due to men having a higher stake in the results of competition.

  16. Student Advertising Competitions: Student Perspectives on the AAF Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marra, James L.; Avery, James R.

    An exploratory study examined student perspectives and beliefs about involvement in the American Advertising Federation's (AAF) National Student Advertising Competition. Subjects, 34 students from 7 of the 15 winning regional teams in the 1991 AAF competition, completed a single-page, 2-part questionnaire. Multiple correlations were run on…

  17. The 2005 Australian Informatics Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the Australian Informatics Competition (AIC), a non-programming competition aimed at identifying students with potential in programming and algorithmic design. It is the first step in identifying students to represent Australia at the International Olympiad in Informatics. The main aim of the AIC is to increase awareness of…

  18. Fresno County Mock Trial Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fresno City Unified School District, CA.

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: The Fresno County Office of Education and the Fresno Unified School District hosted the Mock Trial Competition. The state competition is sponsored by the Constitutional Rights Foundation, with cosponsorship from the California State Bar Association and the California Young Lawyer's Association. This…

  19. Neurocognitive Performance: Returning to Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Larry W.; McIntire, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Athletes who suffer from concussions under report their symptoms in order to expedite their return to competition. Athletic trainers and coaches must be aware of what is going on with athletes, even if it means requiring them to refrain from competition. Ninety percent of concussions are minor and can be difficult to diagnosis. There is a lack of…

  20. An Approach to Competitive Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Petrina M.

    1994-01-01

    Offers a detailed discussion of competitive assessment, an efficient and cost-effective method to evaluate competitive products. Describes its three phases: numerical scoring, building a best-of-breed model, and determining the gap between the best-of-breed model and another product. (SR)

  1. Competitive Electricity Prices: An Update

    EIA Publications

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates a third impact of the move to competitive generation pricing -- the narrowing of the range of prices across regions of the country. This feature article updates information in Electricity Prices in a Competitive Environment: Marginal Cost Pricing of Generation Services and Financial Status of Electric Utilities.

  2. Higher Education, Employability and Competitiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlin, Samo; Svetlicic, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between competitiveness and higher education systems in Europe. It explores whether more competitive countries have developed more labour-market-oriented systems of higher education (HE) that thereby give their graduates greater short term employability potential. Based on and a large-scale survey among 45.000…

  3. Competitive strategy a new era.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, Alan M

    2007-11-01

    By adopting five basic practices, your organization will be ready to advance to the next level of competitive fitness: Develop a reliable financial baseline. Insist on development of a competitive intelligence database system. Employ rigorous business planning. Advocate for focus and discipline. Really commit to competing.

  4. Feature Discovery by Competitive Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumelhart, David E.; Zipser, David

    1985-01-01

    Reports results of studies with an unsupervised learning paradigm called competitive learning which is examined using computer simulation and formal analysis. When competitive learning is applied to parallel networks of neuron-like elements, many potentially useful learning tasks can be accomplished. (Author)

  5. DOE Collegiate Wind Competition (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.

    2014-02-01

    This presentation for the January Stakeholder Engagement and Outreach webinar outlines the expanded need for workers in the wind industry and provides an overview of the DOE Wind Competition (to be held in May 2014) and the guiding principles of the competition.

  6. Competitive Skills Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Camino Coll., Torrance, CA.

    Almost 180 (22.5 percent) of BP Chemicals/HITCO, Inc. (BPCHI) employees have participated in the basic skills courses offered through the Competitive Skills Project (CSP) at El Camino College (Torrance, California). Workplace basics provide a solid foundation for Total Quality Management (TQM), enabling workers to be globally competitive. Two main…

  7. Preliminary Use of the Seismo-Lineament Analysis Method (SLAM) to Investigate Seismogenic Faulting in the Grand Canyon Area, Northern Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, V. S.; Cleveland, D. M.; Prochnow, S. J.

    2007-12-01

    This is a progress report on our application of the Seismo-Lineament Analysis Method (SLAM) to the eastern Grand Canyon area of northern Arizona. SLAM is a new integrated method for identifying potentially seismogenic faults using earthquake focal-mechanism solutions, geomorphic analysis and field work. There are two nodal planes associated with any double-couple focal-mechanism solution, one of which is thought to coincide with the fault that produced the earthquake; the slip vector is normal to the other (auxiliary) plane. When no uncertainty in the orientation of the fault-plane solution is reported, we use the reported vertical and horizontal uncertainties in the focal location to define a tabular uncertainty volume whose orientation coincides with that of the fault-plane solution. The intersection of the uncertainty volume and the ground surface (represented by the DEM) is termed a seismo-lineament. An image of the DEM surface is illuminated perpendicular to the strike of the seismo- lineament to accentuate geomorphic features within the seismo-lineament that may be related to seismogenic faulting. This evaluation of structural geomorphology is repeated for several different azimuths and elevations of illumination. A map is compiled that includes possible geomorphic indicators of faulting as well as previously mapped faults within each seismo-lineament, constituting a set of hypotheses for the possible location of seismogenic fault segments that must be evaluated through fieldwork. A fault observed in the field that is located within a seismo-lineament, and that has an orientation and slip characteristics that are statistically compatible with the fault-plane solution, is considered potentially seismogenic. We compiled a digital elevation model (DEM) of the Grand Canyon area from published data sets. We used earthquake focal-mechanism solutions produced by David Brumbaugh (2005, BSSA, v. 95, p. 1561-1566) for five M > 3.5 events reported between 1989 and 1995

  8. How competition affects evolutionary rescue

    PubMed Central

    Osmond, Matthew Miles; de Mazancourt, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Populations facing novel environments can persist by adapting. In nature, the ability to adapt and persist will depend on interactions between coexisting individuals. Here we use an adaptive dynamic model to assess how the potential for evolutionary rescue is affected by intra- and interspecific competition. Intraspecific competition (negative density-dependence) lowers abundance, which decreases the supply rate of beneficial mutations, hindering evolutionary rescue. On the other hand, interspecific competition can aid evolutionary rescue when it speeds adaptation by increasing the strength of selection. Our results clarify this point and give an additional requirement: competition must increase selection pressure enough to overcome the negative effect of reduced abundance. We therefore expect evolutionary rescue to be most likely in communities which facilitate rapid niche displacement. Our model, which aligns to previous quantitative and population genetic models in the absence of competition, provides a first analysis of when competitors should help or hinder evolutionary rescue. PMID:23209167

  9. Competition among leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Aflalo, E; Weinstein, Y

    1990-01-01

    We investigated competition among leukemic cells induced by Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoLV) in order to understand the mechanisms involved in the generation of leukemia. We used six leukemic cells lines from Balb/C mice infected with MoLV. Each line had a unique genetic marker which enabled us to trace it in mixtures of cells either in vivo or in vitro. The markers were a unique rearrangement of T-cell receptors, the integration sites of the retrovirus and rearrangements in the Pim-1 oncogene. A mixture of two cell lines (1:1) injected into intact Balb/C mice usually produced a monoclonal tumor originating from one cell line. In most cases, the cell lines that were aggressive in vivo were also dominant in mixing experiments in vitro. In some lines, we could correlate the aggressiveness of the tumor to its superior growth rate and lower requirement for serum factors in vitro. In others, this correlation did not hold, and we assumed that host factors like the immune system contribute to the malignant potential of the leukemic cell.

  10. Mechanics of competition walking.

    PubMed

    Cavagna, G A; Franzetti, P

    1981-06-01

    1. The work done at each step to lift and accelerate the centre of mass of the body has been measured in competition walkers during locomotion from 2 to 20 km/hr. 2. Three distinct phases characterize the mechanics of walking. From 2 to 6 km/hr the vertical displacement during each step, Sv, increases to a maximum (3.5 vs. 6 cm in normal walking) due to an increase in the amplitude of the rotation over the supporting leg. 3. The transfer, R, between potential energy of vertical displacement and kinetic energy of forward motion during this rotation, reaches a maximum at 4-5 km/hr (R = 65%). From 6 to 10 km/hr R decreases more steeply than in normal walking, indicating a smaller utilization of the pendulum-like mechanism characteristic of walking. 4. Above 10 km/hr potential and kinetic energies vary during each step because both are simultaneously taken up and released by the muscles with almost no transfer between them (R = 2-10%). Above 13-14 km/hr an aerial phase (25-60 msec) takes place during the step. 5. Speeds considerably greater than in normal walking are attained thanks to a greater efficiency of doing positive work. This is made possible by a mechanism of locomotion allowing an important storage and recovery of mechanical energy by the muscles.

  11. Female competition in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Pusey, Anne E; Schroepfer-Walker, Kara

    2013-01-01

    Female chimpanzees exhibit exceptionally slow rates of reproduction and raise their offspring without direct paternal care. Therefore, their reproductive success depends critically on long-term access to high-quality food resources over a long lifespan. Chimpanzee communities contain multiple adult males, multiple adult females and their offspring. Because males are philopatric and jointly defend the community range while most females transfer to new communities before breeding, adult females are typically surrounded by unrelated competitors. Communities are fission-fusion societies in which individuals spend time alone or in fluid subgroups, whose size depends mostly on the abundance and distribution of food. To varying extents in different populations, females avoid direct competition by foraging alone or in small groups in distinct, but overlapping core areas within the community range to which they show high fidelity. Although rates of aggression are low, females compete for space and access to food. High rank correlates with high reproductive success, and high-ranking females win direct contests for food and gain preferential access to resource-rich sites. Females are aggressive to immigrant females and even kill the newborn infants of community members. The intensity of such aggression correlates with population density. These patterns are compared to those in other species, including humans.

  12. 5 CFR 351.402 - Competitive area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competitive area. 351.402 Section 351.402... Competition § 351.402 Competitive area. (a) Each agency shall establish competitive areas in which employees compete for retention under this part. (b) A competitive area must be defined solely in terms of...

  13. 5 CFR 351.402 - Competitive area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Competitive area. 351.402 Section 351.402... Competition § 351.402 Competitive area. (a) Each agency shall establish competitive areas in which employees compete for retention under this part. (b) A competitive area must be defined solely in terms of...

  14. 5 CFR 351.402 - Competitive area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competitive area. 351.402 Section 351.402... Competition § 351.402 Competitive area. (a) Each agency shall establish competitive areas in which employees compete for retention under this part. (b) A competitive area must be defined solely in terms of...

  15. 5 CFR 351.402 - Competitive area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Competitive area. 351.402 Section 351.402... Competition § 351.402 Competitive area. (a) Each agency shall establish competitive areas in which employees compete for retention under this part. (b) A competitive area must be defined solely in terms of...

  16. 5 CFR 351.403 - Competitive level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competitive level. 351.403 Section 351... FORCE Scope of Competition § 351.403 Competitive level. (a)(1) Each agency shall establish competitive levels consisting of all positions in a competitive area which are in the same grade (or...

  17. 5 CFR 351.403 - Competitive level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Competitive level. 351.403 Section 351... FORCE Scope of Competition § 351.403 Competitive level. (a)(1) Each agency shall establish competitive levels consisting of all positions in a competitive area which are in the same grade (or...

  18. Sperm competition and ejaculate economics.

    PubMed

    Parker, Geoff A; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2010-11-01

    Sperm competition was identified in 1970 as a pervasive selective force in post-copulatory sexual selection that occurs when the ejaculates of different males compete to fertilise a given set of ova. Since then, sperm competition has been much studied both empirically and theoretically. Because sperm competition often favours large ejaculates, an important challenge has been to understand the evolution of strategies through which males invest in sperm production and economise sperm allocation to maximise reproductive success under competitive conditions. Sperm competition mechanisms vary greatly, depending on many factors including the level of sperm competition, space constraints in the sperm competition arena, male mating roles, and female influences on sperm utilisation. Consequently, theoretical models of ejaculate economics are complex and varied, often with apparently conflicting predictions. The goal of this review is to synthesise the theoretical basis of ejaculate economics under sperm competition, aiming to provide empiricists with categorised model assumptions and predictions. We show that apparent contradictions between older and newer models can often be reconciled and there is considerable consensus in the predictions generated by different models. We also discuss qualitative empirical support for some of these predictions, and detail quantitative matches between predictions and observations that exist in the yellow dung fly. We argue that ejaculate economic theory represents a powerful heuristic to explain the diversity in ejaculate traits at multiple levels: across species, across males and within individual males. Future progress requires greater understanding of sperm competition mechanisms, quantification of trade-offs between ejaculate allocation and numbers of matings gained, further knowledge of mechanisms of female sperm selection and their associated costs, further investigation of non-sperm ejaculate effects, and theoretical integration of

  19. Testosterone, cortisol, and human competition.

    PubMed

    Casto, Kathleen V; Edwards, David A

    2016-06-01

    Testosterone and cortisol figure prominently in the research literature having to do with human competition. In this review, we track the history of this literature, concentrating particularly on major theoretical and empirical contributions, and provide commentary on what we see as important unresolved issues. In men and women, athletic competition is typically associated with an increase in testosterone (T) and cortisol (C). Hormone changes in response to non-athletic competition are less predictable. Person (e.g., power motivation, mood, aggressiveness, social anxiety, sex, and baseline levels of T and C) and context (e.g., whether a competition is won or lost, the closeness of the competition, whether the outcome is perceived as being influenced by ability vs. chance, provocations) factors can influence hormone responses to competition. From early on, studies pointed to a positive relationship between T and dominance motivation/status striving. Recent research, however, suggests that this relationship only holds for individuals with low levels of C - this is the core idea of the dual-hormone hypothesis, and it is certain that the broadest applications of the hypothesis have not yet been realized. Individuals differ with respect to the extent to which they embrace competition, but the hormonal correlates of competitiveness remain largely unexplored. Although rapid increases in both T and C associated with competition are likely adaptive, we still know very little about the psychological benefits of these hormonal changes. Administration studies have and will continue to contribute to this inquiry. We close with a discussion of what, we think, are important methodological and mechanistic issues for future research.

  20. Testosterone, cortisol, and human competition.

    PubMed

    Casto, Kathleen V; Edwards, David A

    2016-06-01

    Testosterone and cortisol figure prominently in the research literature having to do with human competition. In this review, we track the history of this literature, concentrating particularly on major theoretical and empirical contributions, and provide commentary on what we see as important unresolved issues. In men and women, athletic competition is typically associated with an increase in testosterone (T) and cortisol (C). Hormone changes in response to non-athletic competition are less predictable. Person (e.g., power motivation, mood, aggressiveness, social anxiety, sex, and baseline levels of T and C) and context (e.g., whether a competition is won or lost, the closeness of the competition, whether the outcome is perceived as being influenced by ability vs. chance, provocations) factors can influence hormone responses to competition. From early on, studies pointed to a positive relationship between T and dominance motivation/status striving. Recent research, however, suggests that this relationship only holds for individuals with low levels of C - this is the core idea of the dual-hormone hypothesis, and it is certain that the broadest applications of the hypothesis have not yet been realized. Individuals differ with respect to the extent to which they embrace competition, but the hormonal correlates of competitiveness remain largely unexplored. Although rapid increases in both T and C associated with competition are likely adaptive, we still know very little about the psychological benefits of these hormonal changes. Administration studies have and will continue to contribute to this inquiry. We close with a discussion of what, we think, are important methodological and mechanistic issues for future research. PMID:27103058

  1. FIRST 2002, 2003, 2004 Robotics Competition(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purman, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The New Horizons Regional Education Center (NHREC) in Hampton, VA sought and received NASA funding to support its participation in the 2002, 2003, and 2004 FIRST Robotics Competitions. FIRST, Inc. (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) is an organization which encourages the application of creative science, math, and computer science principles to solve real-world engineering problems. The FIRST competition is an international engineering contest featuring high school, government, and business partnerships.

  2. Distributional preferences and competitive behavior.

    PubMed

    Balafoutas, Loukas; Kerschbamer, Rudolf; Sutter, Matthias

    2012-06-01

    We study experimentally the relationship between distributional preferences and competitive behavior. We find that spiteful subjects react strongest to competitive pressure and win in a tournament significantly more often than efficiency-minded and inequality averse subjects. However, when given the choice between a tournament and a piece rate scheme, efficiency-minded subjects choose the tournament most often, while spiteful and inequality averse subjects avoid it. When controlling for distributional preferences, risk attitudes and past performance, the gender gap in the willingness to compete is no longer significant, indicating that gender-related variables explain why twice as many men as women self-select into competition.

  3. Gender and competitive preferences: The role of competition size.

    PubMed

    Hanek, Kathrin J; Garcia, Stephen M; Tor, Avishalom

    2016-08-01

    In a series of 8 studies, we examine whether gender differences in competition entry preferences are moderated by the size of the competition. Drawing on theories of gender roles and stereotypes, we show that women, relative to men, prefer to enter smaller compared with larger competitions. Studies 1a and 1b demonstrate this effect in observational data on preferences for working in differently sized firms and applying to differently sized colleges. Studies 2a and 2b replicate the effect with real behavioral decisions in different domains. We also find empirical evidence that prescriptive gender norms and stereotypes underlie this effect. In Study 3, we find experimental evidence that women and men differ in their preferences for differently sized groups under competition, but not in noncompetitive settings. Three additional experimental studies (Studies 4, 5a, and 5b) show that perceptions of comfort in small versus larger competitions underlie women's preferences. These findings suggest that women's preferences for smaller competitions may be driven by an adherence to prescriptive gender norms. We discuss the implications of the current findings for gender inequalities in organizations. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27176148

  4. Competitive hybridization models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherepinsky, Vera; Hashmi, Ghazala; Mishra, Bud

    2010-11-01

    Microarray technology, in its simplest form, allows one to gather abundance data for target DNA molecules, associated with genomes or gene-expressions, and relies on hybridizing the target to many short probe oligonucleotides arrayed on a surface. While for such multiplexed reactions conditions are optimized to make the most of each individual probe-target interaction, subsequent analysis of these experiments is based on the implicit assumption that a given experiment yields the same result regardless of whether it was conducted in isolation or in parallel with many others. It has been discussed in the literature that this assumption is frequently false, and its validity depends on the types of probes and their interactions with each other. We present a detailed physical model of hybridization as a means of understanding probe interactions in a multiplexed reaction. Ultimately, the model can be derived from a system of ordinary differential equations (ODE’s) describing kinetic mass action with conservation-of-mass equations completing the system. We examine pairwise probe interactions in detail and present a model of “competition” between the probes for the target—especially, when the target is effectively in short supply. These effects are shown to be predictable from the affinity constants for each of the four probe sequences involved, namely, the match and mismatch sequences for both probes. These affinity constants are calculated from the thermodynamic parameters such as the free energy of hybridization, which are in turn computed according to the nearest neighbor (NN) model for each probe and target sequence. Simulations based on the competitive hybridization model explain the observed variability in the signal of a given probe when measured in parallel with different groupings of other probes or individually. The results of the simulations can be used for experiment design and pooling strategies, based on which probes have been shown to have a strong

  5. Competitive Strategy in Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baden, Clifford

    1987-01-01

    Reviews strategic variables available to those planning continuing education marketing programs. Discusses generic competitive strategies: (1) overall cost leadership, (2) differentiation, and (3) specialization. Mentions several potential problems. (CH)

  6. An amusement park physics competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moll, Rachel F.

    2010-07-01

    Amusement park physics is a popular way to reinforce physics concepts and to motivate physics learners. This article describes a novel physics competition where students use simple tools to take amusement park ride measurements and use the data to answer challenging exam questions. Research into the impact of participating in the competition reveals positive effects such as the acquisition of experimentation skills and improved attitudes towards physics.

  7. Chemical defense lowers plant competitiveness.

    PubMed

    Ballhorn, Daniel J; Godschalx, Adrienne L; Smart, Savannah M; Kautz, Stefanie; Schädler, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Both plant competition and plant defense affect biodiversity and food web dynamics and are central themes in ecology research. The evolutionary pressures determining plant allocation toward defense or competition are not well understood. According to the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis (GDB), the relative importance of herbivory and competition have led to the evolution of plant allocation patterns, with herbivore pressure leading to increased differentiated tissues (defensive traits), and competition pressure leading to resource investment towards cellular division and elongation (growth-related traits). Here, we tested the GDB hypothesis by assessing the competitive response of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) plants with quantitatively different levels of cyanogenesis-a constitutive direct, nitrogen-based defense against herbivores. We used high (HC) and low cyanogenic (LC) genotypes in different competition treatments (intra-genotypic, inter-genotypic, interspecific), and in the presence or absence of insect herbivores (Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis) to quantify vegetative and generative plant parameters (above and belowground biomass as well as seed production). Highly defended HC-plants had significantly lower aboveground biomass and seed production than LC-plants when grown in the absence of herbivores implying significant intrinsic costs of plant cyanogenesis. However, the reduced performance of HC- compared to LC-plants was mitigated in the presence of herbivores. The two plant genotypes exhibited fundamentally different responses to various stresses (competition, herbivory). Our study supports the GDB hypothesis by demonstrating that competition and herbivory affect different plant genotypes differentially and contributes to understanding the causes of variation in defense within a single plant species.

  8. Interference competition and parasite virulence.

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Ruth C.; Buckling, Angus; ffrench-Constant, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Within-host competition between parasites, a consequence of infection by multiple strains, is predicted to favour rapid host exploitation and greater damage to hosts (virulence). However, the inclusion of biological variables can drastically change this relationship. For example, if competing parasite strains produce toxins that kill each other (interference competition), their growth rates and virulence may be reduced relative to single-strain infections. Bacteriocins are antimicrobial toxins produced by bacteria that target closely related strains and species, and to which the producing strain is immune. We investigated competition between bacteriocin-producing, insect-killing bacteria (Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus) and how this competition affected virulence in caterpillars. Where one strain could kill the other, and not vice versa, the non-killing strain was competitively excluded, and insect mortality was the same as that of the killing strain alone. However, when caterpillars were multiply infected by strains that could kill each other, we did not observe competitive exclusion and their virulence was less than single-strain infections. The ubiquity and diversity of bacteriocins among pathogenic bacteria suggest mixed infections will be, on average, less virulent than single infections. PMID:15255095

  9. Competitive Bidding in Medicare: Who Benefits From Competition?

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zirui; Landrum, Mary Beth; Chernew, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To conduct the first empirical study of competitive bidding in Medicare. Study Design and Methods We analyzed 2006–2010 Medicare Advantage data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services using longitudinal models adjusted for market and plan characteristics. Results A $1 increase in Medicare's payment to health maintenance organization (HMO) plans led to a $0.49 (P <.001) increase in plan bids, with $0.34 (P <.001) going to beneficiaries in the form of extra benefits or lower cost sharing. With preferred provider organization and private fee-for-service plans included, higher Medicare payments increased bids less ($0.33 per dollar), suggesting more competition among these latter plans. Conclusions As a market-based alternative to cost control through administrative pricing, competitive bidding relies on private insurance plans proposing prices they are willing to accept for insuring a beneficiary. However, competition is imperfect in the Medicare bidding market. As much as half of every dollar in increased plan payment went to higher bids rather than to beneficiaries. While having more insurers in a market lowered bids, the design of any bidding system for Medicare should recognize this shortcoming of competition. PMID:23009305

  10. Interference competition and species coexistence.

    PubMed Central

    Amarasekare, Priyanga

    2002-01-01

    Interference competition is ubiquitous in nature. Yet its effects on resource exploitation remain largely unexplored for species that compete for dynamic resources. Here, I present a model of exploitative and interference competition with explicit resource dynamics. The model incorporates both biotic and abiotic resources. It considers interference competition both in the classical sense (i.e. each species suffers a net reduction in per capita growth rate via interference from, and interference on, the other species) and in the broad sense (i.e. each species suffers a net reduction in per capita growth rate via interference from, but can experience an increase in growth rate via interference on, the other species). Coexistence cannot occur under classical interference competition even when the species inferior at resource exploitation is superior at interference. Such a trade-off can, however, change the mechanism of competitive exclusion from dominance by the superior resource exploiter to a priority effect. Now the inferior resource exploiter can exclude the superior resource exploiter provided it has a higher initial abundance. By contrast, when interference is beneficial to the interacting species, coexistence is possible via a trade-off between exploitation and interference. These results hold regardless of whether the resource is biotic or abiotic, indicating that the outcome of exploitative and interference competition does not depend on the exact nature of resource dynamics. The model makes two key predictions. First, species that engage in costly interference mechanisms (e.g. territoriality, overgrowth or undercutting, allelopathy and other forms of chemical competition) should not be able to coexist unless they also engage in beneficial interference mechanisms (e.g. predation or parasitism). Second, exotic invasive species that displace native biota should be superior resource exploiters that have strong interference effects on native species with little

  11. Competitive helping in online giving.

    PubMed

    Raihani, Nichola J; Smith, Sarah

    2015-05-01

    Unconditional generosity in humans is a puzzle. One possibility is that individuals benefit from being seen as generous if there is competition for access to partners and if generosity is a costly-and therefore reliable-signal of partner quality [1-3]. The "competitive helping" hypothesis predicts that people will compete to be the most generous, particularly in the presence of attractive potential partners [1]. However, this key prediction has not been directly tested. Using data from online fundraising pages, we demonstrate competitive helping in the real world. Donations to fundraising pages are public and made sequentially. Donors can therefore respond to the behavior of previous donors, creating a potential generosity tournament. Our test of the competitive helping hypothesis focuses on the response to large, visible donations. We show that male donors show significantly stronger responses (by donating more) when they are donating to an attractive female fundraiser and responding to a large donation made by another male donor. The responses for this condition are around four times greater than when males give to less-attractive female (or male) fundraisers or when they respond to a large donation made by a female donor. Unlike males, females do not compete in donations when giving to attractive male fundraisers. These data suggest that males use competitive helping displays in the presence of attractive females and suggest a role for sexual selection in explaining unconditional generosity.

  12. The Scientific Competitiveness of Nations

    PubMed Central

    Cimini, Giulio; Gabrielli, Andrea; Sylos Labini, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We use citation data of scientific articles produced by individual nations in different scientific domains to determine the structure and efficiency of national research systems. We characterize the scientific fitness of each nation—that is, the competitiveness of its research system—and the complexity of each scientific domain by means of a non-linear iterative algorithm able to assess quantitatively the advantage of scientific diversification. We find that technological leading nations, beyond having the largest production of scientific papers and the largest number of citations, do not specialize in a few scientific domains. Rather, they diversify as much as possible their research system. On the other side, less developed nations are competitive only in scientific domains where also many other nations are present. Diversification thus represents the key element that correlates with scientific and technological competitiveness. A remarkable implication of this structure of the scientific competition is that the scientific domains playing the role of “markers” of national scientific competitiveness are those not necessarily of high technological requirements, but rather addressing the most “sophisticated” needs of the society. PMID:25493626

  13. Business Plan Competitions: An Overview. CELCEE Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Nicole

    This document describes business plan competitions sponsored by universities. The idea began in the early 1980s at the University of Texas when Masters in Business Administration (MBA) students created a friendly competitive activity along the lines of the law schools Moot Court competition. Later the competition became national, and then…

  14. 32 CFR 22.320 - Special competitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special competitions. 22.320 Section 22.320... REGULATIONS DoD GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS-AWARD AND ADMINISTRATION Competition § 22.320 Special competitions. Some... competed specifically among institutions of higher education. All such special competitions shall...

  15. 24 CFR 791.406 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Competition. 791.406 Section 791... Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.406 Competition. (a) All budget authority allocated pursuant to § 791.403(b)(2) shall be reserved and obligated pursuant to a competition. Any such competition shall...

  16. 24 CFR 791.406 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Competition. 791.406 Section 791... Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.406 Competition. (a) All budget authority allocated pursuant to § 791.403(b)(2) shall be reserved and obligated pursuant to a competition. Any such competition shall...

  17. 24 CFR 791.406 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Competition. 791.406 Section 791... Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.406 Competition. (a) All budget authority allocated pursuant to § 791.403(b)(2) shall be reserved and obligated pursuant to a competition. Any such competition shall...

  18. 24 CFR 791.406 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Competition. 791.406 Section 791... Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.406 Competition. (a) All budget authority allocated pursuant to § 791.403(b)(2) shall be reserved and obligated pursuant to a competition. Any such competition shall...

  19. 7 CFR 3430.11 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Competition. 3430.11 Section 3430.11 Agriculture... Pre-award: Solicitation and Application § 3430.11 Competition. (a) Standards for competition. Except..., unless restricted by statute, only after competition. (b) Exception. The NIFA ADO and the...

  20. 7 CFR 3430.11 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Competition. 3430.11 Section 3430.11 Agriculture... Pre-award: Solicitation and Application § 3430.11 Competition. (a) Standards for competition. Except... agreements, unless restricted by statute, only after competition. (b) Exception. The CSREES ADO and...

  1. 7 CFR 3430.11 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competition. 3430.11 Section 3430.11 Agriculture... Pre-award: Solicitation and Application § 3430.11 Competition. (a) Standards for competition. Except..., unless restricted by statute, only after competition. (b) Exception. The NIFA ADO and the...

  2. 7 CFR 3430.11 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Competition. 3430.11 Section 3430.11 Agriculture... Pre-award: Solicitation and Application § 3430.11 Competition. (a) Standards for competition. Except..., unless restricted by statute, only after competition. (b) Exception. The NIFA ADO and the...

  3. 32 CFR 22.320 - Special competitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special competitions. 22.320 Section 22.320... REGULATIONS DoD GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS-AWARD AND ADMINISTRATION Competition § 22.320 Special competitions. Some... competed specifically among institutions of higher education. All such special competitions shall...

  4. 24 CFR 791.406 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Competition. 791.406 Section 791... Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.406 Competition. (a) All budget authority allocated pursuant to § 791.403(b)(2) shall be reserved and obligated pursuant to a competition. Any such competition shall...

  5. 48 CFR 570.203-2 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 570.203-2... 570.203-2 Competition. (a) Solicit at least three sources to promote competition to the maximum extent..., document the file to explain the lack of competition....

  6. 78 FR 20697 - New Competitive Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... is noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning an addition to the competitive product list... 57 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ It asserts that Priority Mail Contract 57 is a competitive... Priority Mail Contract 57 to Competitive Product List and Notice of Filing (Under Seal) of...

  7. 40 CFR 35.603 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.603 Section 35... (section 104(b)(3)) § 35.603 Competitive process. EPA will award water quality cooperative agreement funds through a competitive process in accordance with national program guidance. After the competitive...

  8. 40 CFR 35.382 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.382 Section 35...)(3)) § 35.382 Competitive process. State Wetlands Development Grants are awarded on a competitive... established by EPA. After the competitive process is complete, the recipient can, at its discretion,...

  9. 40 CFR 35.382 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.382 Section 35...)(3)) § 35.382 Competitive process. State Wetlands Development Grants are awarded on a competitive... established by EPA. After the competitive process is complete, the recipient can, at its discretion,...

  10. 40 CFR 35.382 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.382 Section 35...)(3)) § 35.382 Competitive process. State Wetlands Development Grants are awarded on a competitive... established by EPA. After the competitive process is complete, the recipient can, at its discretion,...

  11. 40 CFR 35.382 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.382 Section 35...)(3)) § 35.382 Competitive process. State Wetlands Development Grants are awarded on a competitive... established by EPA. After the competitive process is complete, the recipient can, at its discretion,...

  12. Game on: creating competitive advantages.

    PubMed

    Riskind, Patricia; Foreman, M Shane

    2004-01-01

    Whether you are opening a new imaging center or trying to keep an existing center competitive, there are 3 critical factors: customer service, marketing, and a "what's next?" attitude. Customer service: Outstanding customer service is what sticks in the minds of referring physicians and patients. Not only does providing better service differentiate you from the competition, but it also boosts employee morale and motivates people to acquire new skills. Marketing: From the front office staff to the radiologists,promoting the center should be part of every employee's job description. Simply paying lip service to the concept of marketing will not cut it. A "what's next?" attitude: Complacency is a luxury that does not exist in today's competitive health care arena. Three facilities provide examples of how these factors applied to their success.

  13. Belowground competition among invading detritivores.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Han; Szlavecz, Katalin; Filley, Timothy; Buyer, Jeffrey S; Bernard, Michael J; Pitz, Scott L

    2016-01-01

    The factors regulating soil animal communities are poorly understood. Current theory favors niche complementarity and facilitation over competition as the primary forms of non-trophic interspecific interaction in soil fauna; however, competition has frequently been suggested as an important community-structuring factor in earthworms, ecosystem engineers that influence belowground processes. To date, direct evidence of competition in earthworms is lacking due to the difficulty inherent in identifying a limiting resource for saprophagous animals. In the present study, we offer the first direct evidence of interspecific competition for food in this dominant soil detritivore group by combining field observations with laboratory mesocosm experiments using 13C and 15N double-enriched leaf litter to track consumption patterns. In our experiments, the Asian invasive species Amynthas hilgendorfi was a dominant competitor for leaf litter against two European species currently invading the temperate deciduous forests in North America. This competitive advantage may account for recent invasion success of A. hilgendorfi in forests with established populations of European species, and we hypothesize that specific phenological differences play an important role in determining the outcome of the belowground competition. In contrast, Eisenoides lonnbergi, a common native species in the Eastern United States, occupied a unique trophic position with limited interactions with other species, which may contribute to its persistence in habitats dominated by invasive species. Furthermore, our results supported neither the hypothesis that facilitation occurs between species of different functional groups nor the hypothesis that species in the same group exhibit functional equivalency in C and N translocation in the soil. We propose that species identity is a more powerful approach to understand earthworm invasion and its impacts on belowground processes.

  14. Belowground competition among invading detritivores.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Han; Szlavecz, Katalin; Filley, Timothy; Buyer, Jeffrey S; Bernard, Michael J; Pitz, Scott L

    2016-01-01

    The factors regulating soil animal communities are poorly understood. Current theory favors niche complementarity and facilitation over competition as the primary forms of non-trophic interspecific interaction in soil fauna; however, competition has frequently been suggested as an important community-structuring factor in earthworms, ecosystem engineers that influence belowground processes. To date, direct evidence of competition in earthworms is lacking due to the difficulty inherent in identifying a limiting resource for saprophagous animals. In the present study, we offer the first direct evidence of interspecific competition for food in this dominant soil detritivore group by combining field observations with laboratory mesocosm experiments using 13C and 15N double-enriched leaf litter to track consumption patterns. In our experiments, the Asian invasive species Amynthas hilgendorfi was a dominant competitor for leaf litter against two European species currently invading the temperate deciduous forests in North America. This competitive advantage may account for recent invasion success of A. hilgendorfi in forests with established populations of European species, and we hypothesize that specific phenological differences play an important role in determining the outcome of the belowground competition. In contrast, Eisenoides lonnbergi, a common native species in the Eastern United States, occupied a unique trophic position with limited interactions with other species, which may contribute to its persistence in habitats dominated by invasive species. Furthermore, our results supported neither the hypothesis that facilitation occurs between species of different functional groups nor the hypothesis that species in the same group exhibit functional equivalency in C and N translocation in the soil. We propose that species identity is a more powerful approach to understand earthworm invasion and its impacts on belowground processes. PMID:27008785

  15. Can NCLB Survive the Competitiveness Competition? Education Outlook. Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.; Rotherham, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    Some see the George W. Bush administration's American Competitiveness Initiative (ACI) as the perfect complement to the No Child Left Behind Act's (NCLB) equity focus. The authors believe, however, that the prospects for synergy of these two agendas are not bright. In this essay, the authors discuss the history behind NCLB and the ACI, and argue…

  16. Knee pain in competitive swimming.

    PubMed

    Rodeo, S A

    1999-04-01

    The high volume of training in competitive swimming results in cumulative overload injuries. Knee pain ranks second to shoulder pain as a common complaint in competitive swimmers. Most knee pain occurs on the medial side of the knee and, most commonly, in breaststroke swimmers; however, knee pain may accompany all strokes. This article reviews the incidence of knee pain, the biomechanic and anatomic factors predisposing to injury, specific injury patterns, injury diagnosis, and the treatment and prevention of injury to the knee in swimmers. PMID:10230572

  17. 23 CFR 636.404 - Can a competitive range be used to limit competition?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can a competitive range be used to limit competition... used to limit competition? If the solicitation notifies offerors that the competitive range can be... permit an efficient competition. However, you must provide written notice to any offeror whose...

  18. 23 CFR 636.404 - Can a competitive range be used to limit competition?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can a competitive range be used to limit competition... used to limit competition? If the solicitation notifies offerors that the competitive range can be... permit an efficient competition. However, you must provide written notice to any offeror whose...

  19. 23 CFR 636.404 - Can a competitive range be used to limit competition?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can a competitive range be used to limit competition... used to limit competition? If the solicitation notifies offerors that the competitive range can be... permit an efficient competition. However, you must provide written notice to any offeror whose...

  20. 23 CFR 636.404 - Can a competitive range be used to limit competition?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a competitive range be used to limit competition... used to limit competition? If the solicitation notifies offerors that the competitive range can be... permit an efficient competition. However, you must provide written notice to any offeror whose...

  1. Future survival requires competitive skills

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, P.J.

    1996-10-01

    The companies that will succeed in the global power business in 25 years will be those that best understand the productivity implications of the current power game. In the competitive free market for electricity, the inefficient will be driven out. This will include the developer that is unable to achieve higher productivity in developing and financing projects, the engineer-constructor that longs for the old risk-free, cost-plus environment and the trading company that fails to enter into new relationships with the most productive companies in the world. Also in jeopardy will be the operator who can`t reduce O and M costs and the manufacturer who is unable to control overhead or labor costs. Succeeding will be all about productivity. Free market competition drives productivity improvement. In a competitive environment, companies must operate at a more efficient level. The US learned this accidentally through the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act, getting us a side benefit of free market competition and lower electricity prices. In other countries the practice of socialism and its final bankruptcy forced adjustments to free market policies.

  2. Raising Economic Competitiveness with Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberman, Harry F.

    The current school reform movement has been plagued by three false assumptions. The first of these postulates that more academic requirements will strengthen the minds of students, improve their reasoning, prepare them for a rapidly changing economy, and make the U.S. economy more competitive. Although it is true that the workers of the future…

  3. An Amusement Park Physics Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Rachel F.

    2010-01-01

    Amusement park physics is a popular way to reinforce physics concepts and to motivate physics learners. This article describes a novel physics competition where students use simple tools to take amusement park ride measurements and use the data to answer challenging exam questions. Research into the impact of participating in the competition…

  4. Teaching the Values of Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buyer, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The author of this paper first learned about the values of competition as a member of the 1989 Star of Indiana Drum and Bugle Corps. Because they played more than thirty shows that summer, it was common to compete two nights in a row. He vividly remembers one such occasion. Their first show was outstanding, and they finished second. Everyone was…

  5. The components of kin competition.

    PubMed

    Van Dyken, J David

    2010-10-01

    It is well known that competition among kin alters the rate and often the direction of evolution in subdivided populations. Yet much remains unclear about the ecological and demographic causes of kin competition, or what role life cycle plays in promoting or ameliorating its effects. Using the multilevel Price equation, I derive a general equation for evolution in structured populations under an arbitrary intensity of kin competition. This equation partitions the effects of selection and demography, and recovers numerous previous models as special cases. I quantify the degree of kin competition, α, which explicitly depends on life cycle. I show how life cycle and demographic assumptions can be incorporated into kin selection models via α, revealing life cycles that are more or less permissive of altruism. As an example, I give closed-form results for Hamilton's rule in a three-stage life cycle. Although results are sensitive to life cycle in general, I identify three demographic conditions that give life cycle invariant results. Under the infinite island model, α is a function of the scale of density regulation and dispersal rate, effectively disentangling these two phenomena. Population viscosity per se does not impede kin selection.

  6. Competitive economics of nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Hellman, R.

    1981-03-02

    Some 12 components of a valid study of the competitive economics of a newly ordered nuclear power plant are identified and explicated. These are then used to adjust the original cost projections of four authoritative studies of nuclear and coal power economics.

  7. Competition with Charters Motivates Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Marc J.; Lueken, Martin F.; Egalite, Anna J.

    2013-01-01

    Proponents of market-based education reform often argue that introducing charter schools and other school choice policies creates a competitive dynamic that will prompt low-performing districts to improve their practice. Rather than simply providing an alternative to neighborhood public schools for a handful of students, the theory says, school…

  8. Does market competition explain fairness?

    PubMed

    Descioli, Peter

    2013-02-01

    The target article by Baumard et al. uses their previous model of bargaining with outside options to explain fairness and other features of human sociality. This theory implies that fairness judgments are determined by supply and demand but humans often perceive prices (divisions of surplus) in competitive markets to be unfair.

  9. Clean Energy Business Plan Competition

    SciTech Connect

    Maxted, Sara Jane; Lojewski, Brandon; Scherson, Yaniv

    2012-01-01

    Top Students Pitch Clean Energy Business Plans The six regional finalists of the National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition pitched their business plans to a panel of judges June 13 in Washington, D.C. The expert judges announced NuMat Technologies from Northwestern University as the grand prize winner.

  10. Competitive Cooperation: The Iceberg Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Jerry L.

    Competitive athletes' scores on the Profile of Mood States (POMS) test create an iceberg-like pattern known as the "Iceberg Profile." Their scores for tension, depression, anger, fatigue, and confusion are low while their scores on vigor juts upward creating the "Iceberg Profile." Persons in a cooperative relationship are often competing against…

  11. Geographic Proximity and Enrollment Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zammuto, Raymond F.

    The use of a measure of geographic proximity to help explain enrollment competition among postsecondary institutions was investigated. The measure, the number of miles between institutions, was obtained by determining the longitude and latitude coordinates for about 99% of the schools in the Higher Education General Information System universe.…

  12. Assessing the New Competitive Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blustain, Harvey; Goldstein, Philip; Lozier, Gregory

    1998-01-01

    Argues that complex forces (new delivery technologies, changing demographics, emergence of corporate universities, global economy) have created a new, competitive landscape for higher education that forces institutions to think methodically about how to respond. A framework for college planning, incorporating three critical components, is…

  13. A Sinking Feeling about Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirasuolo, Joseph J.

    2001-01-01

    A competitive school ambience will further distinguish winners from losers in an increasingly fractured and stratified society. Disadvantaged students have little chance to win the standards game. Educators should examine the gilded age's hypocrisy; what gallantry existed the night the Titanic sank applied only to first-class female passengers.…

  14. Economic Competitiveness: A Campaign Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2008-01-01

    With the dollar's continued swoon and grim news on the job front, American economic competitiveness has become a central theme in the presidential election. Stumping in Ohio and Pennsylvania, old-line industrial states hit hard by the flight of manufacturing jobs, Democrats Hillary Rodham Clinton and Barack Obama have called for renegotiating the…

  15. Clean Energy Business Plan Competition

    ScienceCinema

    Maxted, Sara Jane; Lojewski, Brandon; Scherson, Yaniv

    2016-07-12

    Top Students Pitch Clean Energy Business Plans The six regional finalists of the National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition pitched their business plans to a panel of judges June 13 in Washington, D.C. The expert judges announced NuMat Technologies from Northwestern University as the grand prize winner.

  16. Competition in a Social Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legara, Erika Fille; Longjas, Anthony; Batac, Rene

    Complex adaptive agents develop strategies in the presence of competition. In modern human societies, there is an inherent sense of locality when describing inter-agent dynamics because of its network structure. One then wonders whether the traditional advertising schemes that are globally publicized and target random individuals are as effective in attracting a larger portion of the population as those that take advantage of local neighborhoods, such as "word-of-mouth" marketing schemes. Here, we demonstrate using a differential equation model that schemes targeting local cliques within the network are more successful at gaining a larger share of the population than those that target users randomly at a global scale (e.g., television commercials, print ads, etc.). This suggests that success in the competition is dependent not only on the number of individuals in the population but also on how they are connected in the network. We further show that the model is general in nature by considering examples of competition dynamics, particularly those of business competition and language death.

  17. Demolishing the Competition: The Longitudinal Link between Competitive Video Games, Competitive Gambling, and Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adachi, Paul J. C.; Willoughby, Teena

    2013-01-01

    The majority of research on the link between video games and aggression has focused on the violent content in games. In contrast, recent experimental research suggests that it is video game competition, not violence, that has the greatest effect on aggression in the short-term. However, no researchers have examined the long-term relationship…

  18. Modeling competition between yeast strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gee, Maarten; van Mourik, Hilda; de Visser, Arjan; Molenaar, Jaap

    2016-04-01

    We investigate toxin interference competition between S. cerevisiae colonies grown on a solid medium. In vivo experiments show that the outcome of this competition depends strongly on nutrient availability and cell densities. Here we present a new model for S. cerevisiae colonies, calculating the local height and composition of the colonies. The model simulates yeast colonies that show a good fit to experimental data. Simulations of colonies that start out with a homogeneous mixture of toxin producing and toxin sensitive cells can display remarkable pattern formation, depending on the initial ratio of the strains. Simulations in which the toxin producing and toxin sensitive species start at nearby positions clearly show that toxin production is advantageous.

  19. Arizona network improves providers' competitiveness.

    PubMed

    Lipson, E H; McHaney, J E

    1987-01-01

    In the September/October issue of Physician Executive, the Remote Practice Network (RPN) health care delivery system concept was introduced and explained. In this article, the concept is illustrated by a description of Arizona HealthSource (AHS), an RPN developed in Phoenix, Arizona. AHS's design, evolution, and operation demonstrate both the competitive pressures that force hospitals into taking new initiatives and the exciting alternative offered by an RPN. Arizona HealthSource serves the Phoenix, Ariz., region, a highly competitive health care marketplace. The organization was started by St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center in cooperation with Magliaro & McHaney, a consulting firm with offices in Atlanta, Ga., and La Jolla, Calif. AHS is currently managed under contract by Magliaro & McHaney, which develop the RPN concept and which designs, implements, markets, and manages health care delivery system. PMID:10312349

  20. Neanderthal Extinction by Competitive Exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Banks, William E.; d'Errico, Francesco; Peterson, A. Townsend; Kageyama, Masa; Sima, Adriana; Sánchez-Goñi, Maria-Fernanda

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite a long history of investigation, considerable debate revolves around whether Neanderthals became extinct because of climate change or competition with anatomically modern humans (AMH). Methodology/Principal Findings We apply a new methodology integrating archaeological and chronological data with high-resolution paleoclimatic simulations to define eco-cultural niches associated with Neanderthal and AMH adaptive systems during alternating cold and mild phases of Marine Isotope Stage 3. Our results indicate that Neanderthals and AMH exploited similar niches, and may have continued to do so in the absence of contact. Conclusions/Significance The southerly contraction of Neanderthal range in southwestern Europe during Greenland Interstadial 8 was not due to climate change or a change in adaptation, but rather concurrent AMH geographic expansion appears to have produced competition that led to Neanderthal extinction. PMID:19107186

  1. BDS thin film damage competition

    SciTech Connect

    Stolz, C J; Thomas, M D; Griffin, A J

    2008-10-24

    A laser damage competition was held at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium in order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state-of-the-art of high laser resistance coatings since they are all tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. A normal incidence high reflector multilayer coating was selected at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The substrates were provided by the submitters. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials, and layer count will also be shared.

  2. FIRST teams watch the competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    FIRST teams watch robots in action during the FIRST competition. Students from all over the country are at the KSC Visitor Complex for the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition March 9-11 in the Rocket Garden. Teams of high school students are testing the limits of their imagination using robots they have designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing, 16 are Florida teams co-sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

  3. Plan competitions reveal entrepreneurial talent

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, Alison L.

    2011-05-15

    Monthly economic diversity column for Tri-City Herald business section. Excerpt below: There’s something to be said for gaining valuable real-world experience in a structured, nurturing environment. Take for instance learning to scuba dive in the comfort of my resort pool rather than immediately hanging out with sharks while I figure out little things like oxygen tanks and avoiding underwater panic attacks. Likewise, graduate students are getting some excellent, supportive real-world training through university business plan competitions. These competitions are places where smart minds, new technologies, months of preparation and coaching, and some healthy pre-presentation jitters collide to reveal not only solid new business ideas, but also some promising entrepreneurial talent. In fact, professionals from around our region descend upon college campuses every spring to judge these events, which help to bridge the gap between academics and the real technology and business-driven economy.

  4. Microscale Titration in Schools Titration Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the requirements of the National Titration Competition and describes how a team in a local competition used the technique. Compares microscale titration to conventional titration. Outlines the benefits of employing microscale techniques. (DDR)

  5. 77 FR 2676 - Competitive Postal Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... Postal Service an artificial competitive advantage. The Commission gave considerable weight to the... 39 CFR Part 3015 Competitive Postal Products AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Commission is initiating a review to determine whether...

  6. Competitive Intelligence and the Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, H. Frances

    1988-01-01

    Examines the competitive intelligence approach to corporate information gathering, and discusses how it differs from the traditional library information center approach. Steps for developing a competitive intelligence system in the library information center are suggested. (33 references) (MES)

  7. Developing Information Systems for Competitive Intelligence Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohhof, Bonnie

    1994-01-01

    Discusses issues connected with developing information systems for competitive intelligence support; defines the elements of an effective competitive information system; and summarizes issues affecting system design and implementation. Highlights include intelligence information; information needs; information sources; decision making; and…

  8. 48 CFR 245.7302 - Competitive sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competitive sales. 245..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Sale of Surplus Contractor Inventory 245.7302 Competitive sales....

  9. 43 CFR 3120.5 - Competitive sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competitive sale. 3120.5 Section 3120.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Competitive sale....

  10. 43 CFR 3120.5 - Competitive sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competitive sale. 3120.5 Section 3120.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Competitive sale....

  11. 43 CFR 3120.5 - Competitive sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competitive sale. 3120.5 Section 3120.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Competitive sale....

  12. 43 CFR 3120.5 - Competitive sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competitive sale. 3120.5 Section 3120.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Competitive sale....

  13. Managed competition: the policy context.

    PubMed

    Scotton, R

    1999-01-01

    In order to maintain universal access to medically effective care for all, costs must be contained at both the system-wide and micro levels. The managed competition model offers a framework within which increased efficiency could be pursued without sacrificing the goal of universal access and without impairing health outcomes and social cohesion. It would do this by removing structural impediments to rational decision-making and allocating to markets and governments the functions they perform best. PMID:10558292

  14. Physiological demands of competitive surfing.

    PubMed

    Farley, Oliver R L; Harris, Nigel K; Kilding, Andrew E

    2012-07-01

    This study was a performance analysis of surfing athletes during competitive surfing events in an attempt to inform the development of surfing-specific conditioning. Twelve nationally ranked surfers were fitted with heart rate (HR) monitors and global positioning system (GPS) units and videoed during the heats of 2 sanctioned competitions. Means and SDs represented the centrality and spread of analyzed data. From the 32 videos analyzed, the greatest amount of time spent during surfing was paddling (54 ± 6.3% of the total time) (% TT). The remaining stationary represented 28 ± 6.9% TT, wave riding, and paddling for a wave represented only 8 ± 2% TT and 4 ± 1.5% TT, respectively. Surfers spent 61 ± 7% of the total paddling bouts and 64 ± 6.8% of total stationary bouts between 1 and 10 seconds. The average speed recorded via the GPS for all the subjects was 3.7 ± 0.6 km·h(-1), with an average maximum speed of 33.4 ± 6.5 km·h(-1) (45 km·h(-1) was the highest speed recorded). The average distance covered was 1,605 ± 313 m. The mean HR during the surf competitions was 139 ± 11 b·min(-1) (64% HRmax), with a (mean) peak of 190 ± 12 b·min(-1) (87% HRmax). Sixty percent TT was spent between 56 and 74% of the age-predicted HR maximum (HRmax), 19% TT >46% HRmax, and approximately 3% TT >83% HRmax. Competitive surfing therefore involves intermittent high-intensity bouts of all out paddling intercalated with relatively short recovery periods and repeated bouts of low-intensity paddling, incorporating intermittent breath holding. Surfing-specific conditioning sessions should attempt to replicate such a profile. PMID:21986691

  15. 7 CFR 1738.210 - Competitive analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Competitive analysis. 1738.210 Section 1738.210... Competitive analysis. The applicant must submit a competitive market analysis for each service area regardless of projected penetration rates. Each analysis must identify all existing service providers and...

  16. 7 CFR 1738.210 - Competitive analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competitive analysis. 1738.210 Section 1738.210... Competitive analysis. The applicant must submit a competitive market analysis for each service area regardless of projected penetration rates. Each analysis must identify all existing service providers and...

  17. 7 CFR 1738.210 - Competitive analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Competitive analysis. 1738.210 Section 1738.210... Competitive analysis. The applicant must submit a competitive market analysis for each service area regardless of projected penetration rates. Each analysis must identify all existing service providers and...

  18. 7 CFR 550.46 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Competition. 550.46 Section 550.46 Agriculture... Procurement Standards § 550.46 Competition. (a) All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The Cooperator shall be alert...

  19. 14 CFR 1274.504 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Competition. 1274.504 Section 1274.504... FIRMS Procurement Standards § 1274.504 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall...

  20. 7 CFR 3019.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Competition. 3019.43 Section 3019.43 Agriculture... § 3019.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to...

  1. 22 CFR 518.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Competition. 518.43 Section 518.43 Foreign... Procurement Standards § 518.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  2. 14 CFR 1274.504 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Competition. 1274.504 Section 1274.504... FIRMS Procurement Standards § 1274.504 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall...

  3. 28 CFR 70.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Competition. 70.43 Section 70.43 Judicial... Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 70.43 Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  4. 20 CFR 435.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Competition. 435.43 Section 435.43 Employees...-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 435.43 Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  5. 7 CFR 3019.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competition. 3019.43 Section 3019.43 Agriculture... § 3019.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to...

  6. 36 CFR 1210.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Competition. 1210.43 Section... Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  7. 2 CFR 215.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Competition. 215.43 Section 215.43 Grants... A-110) Post Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 215.43 Competition. All procurement... competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well as...

  8. 48 CFR 13.104 - Promoting competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Promoting competition. 13... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 13.104 Promoting competition. The contracting officer must promote competition to the maximum extent practicable to obtain supplies and...

  9. 7 CFR 550.5 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Competition. 550.5 Section 550.5 Agriculture... Competition. REE agencies may enter into non-assistance cooperative agreements, as authorized by this part, without regard to any requirements for competition. (7 U.S.C. 3318(e))....

  10. 22 CFR 145.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Competition. 145.43 Section 145.43 Foreign... Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  11. 7 CFR 3019.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Competition. 3019.43 Section 3019.43 Agriculture... § 3019.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to...

  12. 49 CFR 19.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition. 19.43 Section 19.43 Transportation... Requirements Procurement Standards § 19.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall...

  13. 38 CFR 49.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Competition. 49.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 49.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  14. 43 CFR 12.943 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition. 12.943 Section 12.943 Public....943 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to...

  15. 28 CFR 70.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competition. 70.43 Section 70.43 Judicial... Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 70.43 Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  16. 48 CFR 570.104 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competition. 570.104... PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY General 570.104 Competition. Unless the contracting officer uses the simplified procedures in subpart 570.2, the competition requirements of FAR part 6...

  17. 48 CFR 570.104 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition. 570.104... PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY General 570.104 Competition. Unless the contracting officer uses the simplified procedures in subpart 570.2, the competition requirements of FAR part 6...

  18. 7 CFR 550.5 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competition. 550.5 Section 550.5 Agriculture... Competition. REE agencies may enter into non-assistance cooperative agreements, as authorized by this part, without regard to any requirements for competition. (7 U.S.C. 3318(e))....

  19. 43 CFR 12.943 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Competition. 12.943 Section 12.943 Public....943 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to...

  20. 48 CFR 1353.206 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 1353.206 Competition requirements. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1306.303-70, use Form CD-492, Justification for Other Than Full and Open Competition, to support the requirements... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition...

  1. 48 CFR 1353.206 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 1353.206 Competition requirements. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1306.303-70, use Form CD-492, Justification for Other Than Full and Open Competition, to support the requirements... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competition...

  2. 45 CFR 74.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competition. 74.43 Section 74.43 Public Welfare... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 74.43 Competition. All procurement... competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well as...

  3. 49 CFR 19.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition. 19.43 Section 19.43 Transportation... Requirements Procurement Standards § 19.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall...

  4. 48 CFR 570.203-2 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition. 570.203-2... 570.203-2 Competition. (a) To the maximum extent practicable, the contracting officer must solicit at least three sources to promote competition. If there are repeated requirements for space in the...

  5. 36 CFR 1210.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Competition. 1210.43 Section... Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  6. 40 CFR 30.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Competition. 30.43 Section 30.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 30.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  7. 48 CFR 9.206-3 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition. 9.206-3... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Qualifications Requirements 9.206-3 Competition. (a) Presolicitation. If a... solicitation to ascertain whether the number of sources is adequate for competition. (See 9.204(a) for...

  8. 29 CFR 95.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Competition. 95.43 Section 95.43 Labor Office of the... Standards § 95.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  9. 29 CFR 95.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competition. 95.43 Section 95.43 Labor Office of the... Standards § 95.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  10. 48 CFR 570.104 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition. 570.104... PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY General 570.104 Competition. Unless the contracting officer uses the simplified procedures in subpart 570.2, the competition requirements of FAR part 6...

  11. 43 CFR 12.943 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition. 12.943 Section 12.943 Public....943 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to...

  12. 20 CFR 435.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Competition. 435.43 Section 435.43 Employees...-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 435.43 Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  13. 45 CFR 2400.2 - Annual competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Annual competition. 2400.2 Section 2400.2 Public... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS General § 2400.2 Annual competition. To achieve its principal purposes, the Foundation holds an annual national competition to select teachers in grades 7-12, college seniors,...

  14. 48 CFR 873.104 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition requirements... Competition requirements. (a) Without regard to FAR part 6, if the health-care resource required is a... officers must seek competition to the maximum extent practicable and must permit all responsible...

  15. 40 CFR 35.936-3 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Competition. 35.936-3 Section 35.936-3... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.936-3 Competition. EPA's policy is to encourage free and open competition appropriate to the type of project work to be performed....

  16. 45 CFR 2400.2 - Annual competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Annual competition. 2400.2 Section 2400.2 Public... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS General § 2400.2 Annual competition. To achieve its principal purposes, the Foundation holds an annual national competition to select teachers in grades 7-12, college seniors,...

  17. 48 CFR 1353.206 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 1353.206 Competition requirements. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1306.303-70, use Form CD-492, Justification for Other Than Full and Open Competition, to support the requirements... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition...

  18. 22 CFR 145.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Competition. 145.43 Section 145.43 Foreign... Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  19. 22 CFR 518.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Competition. 518.43 Section 518.43 Foreign... Procurement Standards § 518.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  20. 48 CFR 34.005-1 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition. 34.005-1... OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION General 34.005-1 Competition. (a) The program manager shall, throughout the acquisition process, promote full and open competition and sustain effective...

  1. 40 CFR 35.936-3 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Competition. 35.936-3 Section 35.936-3... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.936-3 Competition. EPA's policy is to encourage free and open competition appropriate to the type of project work to be performed....

  2. 48 CFR 873.104 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition requirements... Competition requirements. (a) Without regard to FAR part 6, if the health-care resource required is a... officers must seek competition to the maximum extent practicable and must permit all responsible...

  3. 38 CFR 49.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competition. 49.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 49.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  4. 22 CFR 518.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Competition. 518.43 Section 518.43 Foreign... Procurement Standards § 518.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  5. 48 CFR 370.504 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition. 370.504... SPECIAL PROGRAMS AFFECTING ACQUISITION Acquisitions Under the Buy Indian Act 370.504 Competition. (a) Contracts awarded under the Buy Indian Act are subject to competition among Indians or Indian concerns...

  6. 40 CFR 35.936-3 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competition. 35.936-3 Section 35.936-3... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.936-3 Competition. EPA's policy is to encourage free and open competition appropriate to the type of project work to be performed....

  7. 20 CFR 435.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Competition. 435.43 Section 435.43 Employees...-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 435.43 Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  8. 48 CFR 570.203-2 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition. 570.203-2... 570.203-2 Competition. (a) To the maximum extent practicable, the contracting officer must solicit at least three sources to promote competition. If there are repeated requirements for space in the...

  9. 2 CFR 215.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competition. 215.43 Section 215.43 Grants... A-110) Post Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 215.43 Competition. All procurement... competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well as...

  10. 48 CFR 9.206-3 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition. 9.206-3... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Qualifications Requirements 9.206-3 Competition. (a) Presolicitation. If a... solicitation to ascertain whether the number of sources is adequate for competition. (See 9.204(a) for...

  11. 14 CFR 1274.504 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competition. 1274.504 Section 1274.504... FIRMS Procurement Standards § 1274.504 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall...

  12. 32 CFR 32.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Competition. 32.43 Section 32.43 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 32.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  13. 48 CFR 9.206-3 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competition. 9.206-3... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Qualifications Requirements 9.206-3 Competition. (a) Presolicitation. If a... solicitation to ascertain whether the number of sources is adequate for competition. (See 9.204(a) for...

  14. 7 CFR 550.5 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Competition. 550.5 Section 550.5 Agriculture... Competition. REE agencies may enter into non-assistance cooperative agreements, as authorized by this part, without regard to any requirements for competition. (7 U.S.C. 3318(e))....

  15. 49 CFR 19.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition. 19.43 Section 19.43 Transportation... Requirements Procurement Standards § 19.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall...

  16. 40 CFR 30.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Competition. 30.43 Section 30.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 30.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  17. 48 CFR 873.104 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition requirements... Competition requirements. (a) Without regard to FAR part 6, if the health-care resource required is a... officers must seek competition to the maximum extent practicable and must permit all responsible...

  18. 7 CFR 550.46 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Competition. 550.46 Section 550.46 Agriculture... Procurement Standards § 550.46 Competition. (a) All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The Cooperator shall be alert...

  19. 48 CFR 13.104 - Promoting competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Promoting competition. 13... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 13.104 Promoting competition. The contracting officer must promote competition to the maximum extent practicable to obtain supplies and...

  20. 34 CFR 74.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Competition. 74.43 Section 74.43 Education Office of... Standards § 74.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  1. 32 CFR 32.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competition. 32.43 Section 32.43 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 32.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  2. 48 CFR 570.203-2 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competition. 570.203-2... 570.203-2 Competition. (a) To the maximum extent practicable, the contracting officer must solicit at least three sources to promote competition. If there are repeated requirements for space in the...

  3. 2 CFR 215.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Competition. 215.43 Section 215.43 Grants... A-110) Post Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 215.43 Competition. All procurement... competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well as...

  4. 38 CFR 49.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Competition. 49.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 49.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  5. 45 CFR 74.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition. 74.43 Section 74.43 Public Welfare... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 74.43 Competition. All procurement... competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well as...

  6. 40 CFR 35.936-3 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Competition. 35.936-3 Section 35.936-3... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.936-3 Competition. EPA's policy is to encourage free and open competition appropriate to the type of project work to be performed....

  7. 48 CFR 370.504 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competition. 370.504... SPECIAL PROGRAMS AFFECTING ACQUISITION Acquisitions Under the Buy Indian Act 370.504 Competition. (a) Contracts awarded under the Buy Indian Act are subject to competition among Indians or Indian concerns...

  8. 7 CFR 550.46 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Competition. 550.46 Section 550.46 Agriculture... Procurement Standards § 550.46 Competition. (a) All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The Cooperator shall be alert...

  9. 45 CFR 74.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition. 74.43 Section 74.43 Public Welfare... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 74.43 Competition. All procurement... competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well as...

  10. 36 CFR 1210.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Competition. 1210.43 Section... Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  11. 10 CFR 600.143 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competition. 600.143 Section 600.143 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.143 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  12. 20 CFR 435.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Competition. 435.43 Section 435.43 Employees...-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 435.43 Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  13. 10 CFR 600.143 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Competition. 600.143 Section 600.143 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.143 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  14. 29 CFR 95.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Competition. 95.43 Section 95.43 Labor Office of the... Standards § 95.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  15. 48 CFR 570.203-2 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition. 570.203-2... 570.203-2 Competition. (a) To the maximum extent practicable, the contracting officer must solicit at least three sources to promote competition. If there are repeated requirements for space in the...

  16. 40 CFR 30.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competition. 30.43 Section 30.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 30.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  17. 10 CFR 600.143 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Competition. 600.143 Section 600.143 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.143 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  18. 48 CFR 34.005-1 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition. 34.005-1... OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION General 34.005-1 Competition. (a) The program manager shall, throughout the acquisition process, promote full and open competition and sustain effective...

  19. 29 CFR 95.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Competition. 95.43 Section 95.43 Labor Office of the... Standards § 95.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  20. 34 CFR 74.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Competition. 74.43 Section 74.43 Education Office of... Standards § 74.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  1. 7 CFR 550.5 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Competition. 550.5 Section 550.5 Agriculture... Competition. REE agencies may enter into non-assistance cooperative agreements, as authorized by this part, without regard to any requirements for competition. (7 U.S.C. 3318(e))....

  2. 48 CFR 873.104 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competition requirements... Competition requirements. (a) Without regard to FAR part 6, if the health-care resource required is a... officers must seek competition to the maximum extent practicable and must permit all responsible...

  3. 22 CFR 145.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Competition. 145.43 Section 145.43 Foreign... Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  4. 48 CFR 9.206-3 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition. 9.206-3... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Qualifications Requirements 9.206-3 Competition. (a) Presolicitation. If a... solicitation to ascertain whether the number of sources is adequate for competition. (See 9.204(a) for...

  5. 34 CFR 74.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Competition. 74.43 Section 74.43 Education Office of... Standards § 74.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  6. 48 CFR 370.504 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition. 370.504... SPECIAL PROGRAMS AFFECTING ACQUISITION Acquisitions Under the Buy Indian Act 370.504 Competition. (a) Contracts awarded under the Buy Indian Act are subject to competition among Indians or Indian concerns...

  7. 7 CFR 3019.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Competition. 3019.43 Section 3019.43 Agriculture... § 3019.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to...

  8. 45 CFR 74.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition. 74.43 Section 74.43 Public Welfare... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 74.43 Competition. All procurement... competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well as...

  9. 43 CFR 12.943 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition. 12.943 Section 12.943 Public....943 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to...

  10. 48 CFR 1353.206 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 1353.206 Competition requirements. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1306.303-70, use Form CD-492, Justification for Other Than Full and Open Competition, to support the requirements... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition...

  11. 48 CFR 13.104 - Promoting competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Promoting competition. 13... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 13.104 Promoting competition. The contracting officer must promote competition to the maximum extent practicable to obtain supplies and...

  12. 48 CFR 570.104 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition. 570.104... PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY General 570.104 Competition. Unless the contracting officer uses the simplified procedures in subpart 570.2, the competition requirements of FAR part 6...

  13. 22 CFR 518.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Competition. 518.43 Section 518.43 Foreign... Procurement Standards § 518.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  14. 34 CFR 74.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competition. 74.43 Section 74.43 Education Office of... Standards § 74.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  15. 48 CFR 13.104 - Promoting competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Promoting competition. 13... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 13.104 Promoting competition. The contracting officer must promote competition to the maximum extent practicable to obtain supplies and...

  16. 48 CFR 370.504 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition. 370.504... SPECIAL PROGRAMS AFFECTING ACQUISITION Acquisitions Under the Buy Indian Act 370.504 Competition. (a) Contracts awarded under the Buy Indian Act are subject to competition among Indians or Indian concerns...

  17. 28 CFR 70.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Competition. 70.43 Section 70.43 Judicial... Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 70.43 Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  18. 49 CFR 19.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competition. 19.43 Section 19.43 Transportation... Requirements Procurement Standards § 19.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall...

  19. 14 CFR § 1274.504 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Competition. § 1274.504 Section § 1274... COMMERCIAL FIRMS Procurement Standards § 1274.504 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  20. 48 CFR 34.005-1 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competition. 34.005-1... OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION General 34.005-1 Competition. (a) The program manager shall, throughout the acquisition process, promote full and open competition and sustain effective...

  1. 45 CFR 2400.2 - Annual competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Annual competition. 2400.2 Section 2400.2 Public... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS General § 2400.2 Annual competition. To achieve its principal purposes, the Foundation holds an annual national competition to select teachers in grades 7-12, college seniors,...

  2. 38 CFR 49.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Competition. 49.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 49.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  3. 32 CFR 32.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Competition. 32.43 Section 32.43 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 32.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  4. 41 CFR 105-72.503 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Competition. 105-72.503... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS 72.50-Post-Award Requirements/Procurement Standards § 105-72.503 Competition... practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  5. 48 CFR 34.005-1 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition. 34.005-1... OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION General 34.005-1 Competition. (a) The program manager shall, throughout the acquisition process, promote full and open competition and sustain effective...

  6. 10 CFR 600.143 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Competition. 600.143 Section 600.143 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.143 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  7. 36 CFR 1210.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Competition. 1210.43 Section... Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  8. 45 CFR 2400.2 - Annual competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Annual competition. 2400.2 Section 2400.2 Public... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS General § 2400.2 Annual competition. To achieve its principal purposes, the Foundation holds an annual national competition to select teachers in grades 7-12, college seniors,...

  9. 28 CFR 70.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Competition. 70.43 Section 70.43 Judicial... Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 70.43 Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  10. 7 CFR 3019.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 3019.43 Section 3019.43 Agriculture... § 3019.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to...

  11. 7 CFR 3430.11 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 3430.11 Section 3430.11 Agriculture...-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Pre-award: Solicitation and Application § 3430.11 Competition. (a) Standards for competition. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, CSREES will enter...

  12. 24 CFR 84.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Competition. 84.43 Section 84.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 84.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  13. 10 CFR 600.143 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 600.143 Section 600.143 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.143 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  14. 43 CFR 12.943 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 12.943 Section 12.943 Public....943 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to...

  15. 40 CFR 30.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 30.43 Section 30.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 30.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  16. 22 CFR 518.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Competition. 518.43 Section 518.43 Foreign... Procurement Standards § 518.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  17. 48 CFR 9.206-3 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 9.206-3... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Qualifications Requirements 9.206-3 Competition. (a) Presolicitation. If a... solicitation to ascertain whether the number of sources is adequate for competition. (See 9.204(a) for...

  18. 49 CFR 19.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 19.43 Section 19.43 Transportation... Requirements Procurement Standards § 19.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall...

  19. 38 CFR 49.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 49.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 49.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  20. 14 CFR 1274.504 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 1274.504 Section 1274.504... FIRMS Procurement Standards § 1274.504 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall...

  1. 34 CFR 74.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 74.43 Section 74.43 Education Office of... Standards § 74.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  2. 48 CFR 873.104 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition requirements... Competition requirements. (a) Without regard to FAR part 6, if the health-care resource required is a... officers must seek competition to the maximum extent practicable and must permit all responsible...

  3. 32 CFR 32.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 32.43 Section 32.43 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 32.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  4. 48 CFR 1353.206 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 1353.206 Competition requirements. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1306.303-70, use Form CD-492, Justification for Other Than Full and Open Competition, to support the requirements... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition...

  5. Measuring Competition: Inconsistent Definitions, Inconsistent Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linick, Matthew Allen

    2014-01-01

    There is a developing literature examining how charter schools, through the effects of competition, impact performance in public school districts and district-run public schools, also known as the second-level effects of competition. What follows is an examination of how competition is measured in this literature that offers a critique of existing…

  6. 20 CFR 435.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Competition. 435.43 Section 435.43 Employees...-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 435.43 Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  7. 41 CFR 105-72.503 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 105-72.503... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS 72.50-Post-Award Requirements/Procurement Standards § 105-72.503 Competition... practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  8. Exploring the Competitive Effects of Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Dick M., II; Medina, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Central to the debate over school choice has been the question of how public schools respond to market-based competition. Many choice advocates suggest that competition can spur public schools to become more effective and efficient, but the evidence regarding the effect of competition from charters is comparably sparse and mixed. This article…

  9. 2 CFR 215.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 215.43 Section 215.43 Grants... ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-110) Post Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 215.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  10. 22 CFR 145.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Competition. 145.43 Section 145.43 Foreign... Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  11. 36 CFR 1210.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 1210.43 Section... Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  12. 48 CFR 370.504 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 370.504... SPECIAL PROGRAMS AFFECTING ACQUISITION Acquisitions Under the Buy Indian Act 370.504 Competition. (a) Contracts awarded under the Buy Indian Act are subject to competition among Indians or Indian concerns...

  13. 7 CFR 550.46 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 550.46 Section 550.46 Agriculture... Procurement Standards § 550.46 Competition. (a) All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The Cooperator shall be alert...

  14. 29 CFR 95.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Competition. 95.43 Section 95.43 Labor Office of the... Standards § 95.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  15. 45 CFR 2400.2 - Annual competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual competition. 2400.2 Section 2400.2 Public... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS General § 2400.2 Annual competition. To achieve its principal purposes, the Foundation holds an annual national competition to select teachers in grades 7-12, college seniors,...

  16. 48 CFR 570.104 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 570.104... PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY General 570.104 Competition. Unless you use the simplified procedures in subpart 570.2, the competition requirements of FAR part 6 apply to acquisition...

  17. 7 CFR 550.5 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 550.5 Section 550.5 Agriculture... Competition. REE agencies may enter into non-assistance cooperative agreements, as authorized by this part, without regard to any requirements for competition. (7 U.S.C. 3318(e))....

  18. 40 CFR 35.936-3 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 35.936-3 Section 35.936-3... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.936-3 Competition. EPA's policy is to encourage free and open competition appropriate to the type of project work to be performed....

  19. 28 CFR 70.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 70.43 Section 70.43 Judicial... Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 70.43 Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  20. 40 CFR 35.661 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.661 Section 35... 6605) § 35.661 Competitive process. EPA Regions award Pollution Prevention Grant funds to Tribes and Intertribal Consortia through a competitive process in accordance with EPA guidance. When evaluating a...

  1. 40 CFR 35.342 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.342 Section 35...) § 35.342 Competitive process. EPA Regions award Pollution Prevention State Grants to State programs through a competitive process in accordance with EPA guidance. When evaluating State applications,...

  2. 13 CFR 313.8 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 313.8 Competitive process. (a) Applications for assistance to develop a Strategic Plan or for an implementation grant shall be reviewed by EDA in accord with a competitive process as set forth in the applicable... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competitive process. 313.8...

  3. 13 CFR 313.8 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 313.8 Competitive process. (a) Applications for assistance to develop a Strategic Plan or for an implementation grant shall be reviewed by EDA in accord with a competitive process as set forth in the applicable... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Competitive process. 313.8...

  4. 13 CFR 313.8 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 313.8 Competitive process. (a) Applications for assistance to develop a Strategic Plan or for an implementation grant shall be reviewed by EDA in accord with a competitive process as set forth in the applicable... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Competitive process. 313.8...

  5. 13 CFR 313.8 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 313.8 Competitive process. (a) Applications for assistance to develop a Strategic Plan or for an implementation grant shall be reviewed by EDA in accord with a competitive process as set forth in the applicable... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Competitive process. 313.8...

  6. 43 CFR 3602.40 - Competitive sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competitive sales. 3602.40 Section 3602.40..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.40 Competitive sales. In addition to the following sections, §§ 3602.41 through...

  7. 36 CFR 228.58 - Competitive sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Competitive sales. 228.58... Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods of Disposal § 228.58 Competitive sales. (a) Invitation for bid. Sales must be conducted as described below after inviting competitive bids through...

  8. 36 CFR 228.58 - Competitive sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Competitive sales. 228.58... Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods of Disposal § 228.58 Competitive sales. (a) Invitation for bid. Sales must be conducted as described below after inviting competitive bids through...

  9. 43 CFR 3602.40 - Competitive sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competitive sales. 3602.40 Section 3602.40..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.40 Competitive sales. In addition to the following sections, §§ 3602.41 through...

  10. 36 CFR 228.58 - Competitive sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Competitive sales. 228.58... Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods of Disposal § 228.58 Competitive sales. (a) Invitation for bid. Sales must be conducted as described below after inviting competitive bids through...

  11. 43 CFR 3602.40 - Competitive sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competitive sales. 3602.40 Section 3602.40..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.40 Competitive sales. In addition to the following sections, §§ 3602.41 through...

  12. 36 CFR 228.58 - Competitive sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competitive sales. 228.58... Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods of Disposal § 228.58 Competitive sales. (a) Invitation for bid. Sales must be conducted as described below after inviting competitive bids through...

  13. 43 CFR 3602.40 - Competitive sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competitive sales. 3602.40 Section 3602.40..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.40 Competitive sales. In addition to the following sections, §§ 3602.41 through...

  14. Machiavellianism and Spontaneous Cheating in Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Sloan; Peterson, Christopher

    1980-01-01

    Assigned undergraduates to groups defined by combination of factors: opportunity to cheat, type of competition, subject Machiavellianism (Mach). Cheating occurred in opportunity to cheat, impersonal competition, high Mach group and in opportunity to cheat, personal competition, low Mach group. Extends research to situations where subjects cheated…

  15. 78 FR 20360 - New Competitive Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... the competitive product list. This notice informs the public of the filing, invites public comment... Priority Mail Contract 56 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that Priority Mail... States Postal Service to Add Priority Mail Contract 56 to Competitive Product List and Notice of...

  16. 78 FR 26404 - New Competitive Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... 4 to the competitive product list. This notice informs the public of the filing, invites public... Return Service Contract 4 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that Parcel... the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Return Service Contract 4 to Competitive Product...

  17. Report on the 2006 AAPT Apparatus Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flarend, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Each year at the AAPT summer meeting there is an apparatus competition in which members of the physics community can share ideas for new or improved apparatus to aid in the teaching of physics. The 2006 competition at the summer meeting in Syracuse, NY, was the largest competition in quite a while and continued an upward trend in the number of…

  18. An Alternative Instrument for Private School Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Zada, D.

    2009-01-01

    Empirical studies estimating the effect of private school competition on student outcomes commonly use the share of Catholics in the local population as an instrument for private school competition. I show that this is not a valid instrument since it is endogenous to private school competition and suggest using instead the local share of Catholics…

  19. Comparing and Contrasting: Stories of Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizza, Mary G.; Reis, Sally M.

    2001-01-01

    A study investigated how 11 successful high school female students described the impact of competition on their academic and social lives. Competition was viewed by participants as a negative behavior. When faced with situations of competition, students preferred to concentrate on prosocial behaviors that promoted interpersonal relationships.…

  20. 40 CFR 35.723 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.723 Section 35... Grants (pub.l. 105-276) § 35.723 Competitive process. EPA will award Tribal hazardous waste program... guidance. After the competitive process is complete, the recipient can, at its discretion, accept the...