Science.gov

Sample records for kalvns tomas saks

  1. An evaluation of sex-age-kill (SAK) model performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Boyce, Mark S.; Hansen, Lonnie P.; Kammermeyer, Kent

    2009-01-01

    The sex-age-kill (SAK) model is widely used to estimate abundance of harvested large mammals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Despite a long history of use, few formal evaluations of SAK performance exist. We investigated how violations of the stable age distribution and stationary population assumption, changes to male or female harvest, stochastic effects (i.e., random fluctuations in recruitment and survival), and sampling efforts influenced SAK estimation. When the simulated population had a stable age distribution and λ > 1, the SAK model underestimated abundance. Conversely, when λ < 1, the SAK overestimated abundance. When changes to male harvest were introduced, SAK estimates were opposite the true population trend. In contrast, SAK estimates were robust to changes in female harvest rates. Stochastic effects caused SAK estimates to fluctuate about their equilibrium abundance, but the effect dampened as the size of the surveyed population increased. When we considered both stochastic effects and sampling error at a deer management unit scale the resultant abundance estimates were within ±121.9% of the true population level 95% of the time. These combined results demonstrate extreme sensitivity to model violations and scale of analysis. Without changes to model formulation, the SAK model will be biased when λ ≠ 1. Furthermore, any factor that alters the male harvest rate, such as changes to regulations or changes in hunter attitudes, will bias population estimates. Sex-age-kill estimates may be precise at large spatial scales, such as the state level, but less so at the individual management unit level. Alternative models, such as statistical age-at-harvest models, which require similar data types, might allow for more robust, broad-scale demographic assessments.

  2. A Reflective Conversation with Ugur Sak: Gifted Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Sak, Ugur

    2015-01-01

    In this reflective conversation, Ugur Sak discusses the current "state of the art" of gifted education in Turkey. He reviews the use of enrichment, discusses acceleration and reviews curricular procedures in Turkey. He responds to questions about the identification of gifted students and discusses the age old debate of talent versus…

  3. Cloning, production, and functional expression of the bacteriocin sakacin A (SakA) and two SakA-derived chimeras in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and the yeasts Pichia pastoris and Kluyveromyces lactis.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Juan J; Borrero, Juan; Diep, Dzung B; Gútiez, Loreto; Nes, Ingolf F; Herranz, Carmen; Cintas, Luis M; Hernández, Pablo E

    2013-09-01

    Mature sakacin A (SakA, encoded by sapA) and its cognate immunity protein (SakI, encoded by sapiA), and two SakA-derived chimeras mimicking the N-terminal end of mature enterocin P (EntP/SakA) and mature enterocin A (EntA/SakA) together with SakI, were fused to different signal peptides (SP) and cloned into the protein expression vectors pNZ8048 and pMG36c for evaluation of their production and functional expression by different lactic acid bacteria. The amount, antimicrobial activity, and specific antimicrobial activity of SakA and its chimeras produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris NZ9000 depended on the SP and the expression vector. Only L. lactis NZ9000 (pNUPS), producing EntP/SakA, showed higher bacteriocin production and antimicrobial activity than the natural SakA-producer Lactobacillus sakei Lb706. The lower antimicrobial activity of the SakA-producer L. lactis NZ9000 (pNUS) and that of the EntA/SakA-producer L. lactis NZ9000 (pNUAS) could be ascribed to secretion of truncated bacteriocins. On the other hand, of the Lb. sakei Lb706 cultures transformed with the pMG36c-derived vectors only Lb. sakei Lb706 (pGUS) overproducing SakA showed a higher antimicrobial activity than Lb. sakei Lb706. Finally, cloning of SakA and EntP/SakA into pPICZαA and pKLAC2 permitted the production of SakA and EntP/SakA by recombinant Pichia pastoris X-33 and Kluyveromyces lactis GG799 derivatives although their antimicrobial activity was lower than expected from their production.

  4. Construction of novel chimeric proteins through the truncation of SEC2 and Sak from Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Hui, Jing; Yu, Xiao-jie; Cui, Xiao-jin; Mu, Teng; Lin, Jia-shuai; Ni, Pei; Li, Hui; You, Song; Hu, Feng-qing

    2014-01-01

    It is an usual clinical phenomenon that cancer patients are prone to thrombosis. Until now, there have been no efficient methods or appropriate drugs to prevent and cure tumor thrombus. Therefore, the construction of a bifunctional chimeric protein for the treatment of cancer, complicated with thrombosis, is of great significance. Utilizing the superantigenic activity of staphylococcal enterotoxin C2 (SEC2) and the thrombolytic activity of staphylokinase (Sak), Sak-linker-SEC2 and SEC2-linker-Sak were constructed which had good anti-tumor and thrombolytic activities at the same time. Due to the intrinsic emetic activity of SEC2 and high molecular weight (MW) of chimeric proteins (44 kDa), their clinical applications will be restricted. In this study, novel chimeric proteins including ΔSEC2-ΔSak and ΔSak-ΔSEC2 were constructed through the truncation of SEC2 and Sak without 9-Ala linker and His-tag. Compared with the former, both the truncated proteins preserved nearly the same anti-tumor and thrombolytic activities. In addition, their MWs were only 29 kDa and their immunoreactivities were slightly lower than that of Sak-linker-SEC2 and SEC2-linker-Sak, respectively. Therefore, the novel chimeric proteins possessed merits and characteristics, such as low MS, low immunogenicity, and difunctionality which the former had not. It will be of great interest if the above-mentioned proteins can be used to cure Trousseau syndrome in clinic. PMID:25209498

  5. The CMD-3 TOMA DAQ infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyrev, A. N.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Epshteyn, L. B.; Epifanov, D. A.; Popov, A. S.; Ruban, A. A.; Selivanov, A. N.; Talyshev, A. A.; Titov, V. M.; Yudin, Y. V.

    2014-10-01

    An upgrade of the CMD-3 detector for the VEPP-2000 e+e- collider is now in progress at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) in Novosibirsk. CMD-3 is equipped with a TOMA (Time Oriented Measurement and Acquire) DAQ system specially developed for the experiments at low energy e+e- colliders. The CMD-3 TOMA DAQ has a high grade of unification, which decreases the cost of ownership and production time of the whole system. Unification also makes it possible to reduce the variety, the price and the production time of the DAQ modules. Special attention is paid to the synchronization of the data transmission and on-line checks of electronics. The communication between DAQ elements is realized via a custom developed interface named C-Link. Several types of DAQ TOMA modules are briefly described.

  6. Toma de decisiones médicas

    Cancer.gov

    El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) lleva a cabo y facilita la realización de investigaciones básicas y aplicadas que pueden servir de base para la adopción de prácticas clínicas estándar y la toma de decisiones médicas.

  7. Fungi use the SakA (HogA) pathway for phytochrome-dependent light signalling.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhenzhong; Armant, Olivier; Fischer, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Stress-sensing in fungi depends on a signalling cascade comprised of a two-component phosphorylation relay plus a subsequent MAP kinase cascade to trigger gene expression. Besides osmotic or oxidative stress, fungi sense many other environmental factors, one of which is light(1,2). Light controls morphogenetic pathways but also the production of secondary metabolites such as penicillin. Here we show that phytochrome-dependent light signalling in Aspergillus nidulans involves the stress-sensing and osmosensing signalling pathway. In a screening for 'blind' mutants, the MAP kinase SakA (also known as HogA) was identified by whole-genome sequencing. The phytochrome FphA physically interacted with the histidine-containing phosphotransfer protein YpdA and caused light-dependent phosphorylation of the MAP kinase SakA and its shuttling into nuclei. In the absence of phytochrome, SakA still responded to osmotic stress but not to light. The SakA pathway thus integrates several stress factors and can be considered to be a hub for environmental signals. PMID:27572639

  8. Characterization of sakA gene from pathogenic dimorphic fungus Penicillium marneffei.

    PubMed

    Nimmanee, Panjaphorn; Woo, Patrick C Y; Kummasook, Aksarakorn; Vanittanakom, Nongnuch

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotes utilize stress activated protein kinase (SAPK) pathways to adapt to environmental stress, including heat, osmotic, oxidative or nutrient stresses. Penicillium marneffei (Talaromyces marneffei), the dimorphic pathogenic fungus that can cause disseminated mycosis in HIV-infected patients, has to encounter various types of stresses both outside and inside host cells. However, the strategies used by this fungus in response to these stresses are still unclear. In this report, the stress-activated kinase (sakA) gene of P. marneffei was characterized and the roles of this gene on various stress conditions were studied. The sakA gene deletion mutant was constructed using the split marker method. The phenotypes and sensitivities to varieties of stresses, including osmotic, oxidative, heat and cell wall stresses of the deletion mutant were compared with the wild type and the sakA complemented strains. Results demonstrated that the P. marneffei sakA gene encoded a putative protein containing TXY phosphorylation lip found in the stress high osmolarity glycerol 1 (Hog1)/Spc1/p38 MAPK family, and that this gene was involved not only in tolerance against oxidative and heat stresses, but also played a role in asexual development, chitin deposition, yeast cell generation in vitro and survival inside mouse and human macrophages.

  9. Phosphoprotein SAK1 is a regulator of acclimation to singlet oxygen in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Wakao, Setsuko; Chin, Brian L; Ledford, Heidi K; Dent, Rachel M; Casero, David; Pellegrini, Matteo; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Niyogi, Krishna K

    2014-01-01

    Singlet oxygen is a highly toxic and inevitable byproduct of oxygenic photosynthesis. The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is capable of acclimating specifically to singlet oxygen stress, but the retrograde signaling pathway from the chloroplast to the nucleus mediating this response is unknown. Here we describe a mutant, singlet oxygen acclimation knocked-out 1 (sak1), that lacks the acclimation response to singlet oxygen. Analysis of genome-wide changes in RNA abundance during acclimation to singlet oxygen revealed that SAK1 is a key regulator of the gene expression response during acclimation. The SAK1 gene encodes an uncharacterized protein with a domain conserved among chlorophytes and present in some bZIP transcription factors. The SAK1 protein is located in the cytosol, and it is induced and phosphorylated upon exposure to singlet oxygen, suggesting that it is a critical intermediate component of the retrograde signal transduction pathway leading to singlet oxygen acclimation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02286.001 PMID:24859755

  10. Effects of CO sub 2 addition to steam on recovery of West Sak crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Hornbrook, M.W. ); Dehghani, K. )

    1991-02-01

    This paper reports on a high-pressure 1D laboratory displacement study which evaluated the effects of adding CO{sub 2} to steam on the recovery of West Sak crude oil. Results of the laboratory experiments indicate that the simultaneous injection of CO{sub 2} and steam increases recovery, reduces injection temperatures, and reduces the heat input required.

  11. Cloning and sequencing of sakP encoding sakacin P, the bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus sake LTH 673.

    PubMed

    Tichaczek, P S; Vogel, R F; Hammes, W P

    1994-02-01

    Sakacin P is a heat-stable, unmodified peptide bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus sake LTH 673. The strain was isolated from fermented dry sausages and is well adapted to this habitat. The bacteriocin inhibits the growth of the opportunistic food pathogens Enterococcus faecalis and Listeria monocytogenes and therefore, it may improve the hygienic status of fermented food, i.e. meat products. Oligonucleotide probes were designed from the N-terminal amino acid sequence of sakacin P and used to identify sakP, the structural gene of sakacin P, on the chromosome of L. sake LTH 673. SakP was cloned into Escherichia coli NM554 and the nucleotide sequence of the gene and its adjacent regions were determined. Sakacin P appears to be synthesized as a prepeptide of 61 amino acids which is proteolytically processed to the mature bacteriocin consisting of 43 amino acids. Sequencing of the cloned fragment also revealed the presence of two other open reading frames orfX and orfY, which are located upstream and downstream of sakP, respectively, putatively encoding proteins of 52 and 98 amino acids, respectively. The functions of both ORFs remain unknown. Primer extension analysis revealed a promoter upstream of sakP. Two transcripts of approximately 0.35 and 1.0 kb were detected by Northern hybridization encoding either only sakP, or both sakP and orfY, respectively. PMID:8180701

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: PAINT OVERSPRAY ARRESTOR, KOCH FILTER CORPORATION MULTI-SAK 6FZ159-S

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of March 19-23, 1999, tests of Koch Filter Corporation's Multi-Sak 6FZ159-S paint overspray arrestor (POA) as part of an evaluation of POAs by EPA's Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The basic per...

  13. Aspergillus nidulans transcription factor AtfA interacts with the MAPK SakA to regulate general stress responses, development and spore functions.

    PubMed

    Lara-Rojas, Fernando; Sánchez, Olivia; Kawasaki, Laura; Aguirre, Jesús

    2011-04-01

    Fungi utilize a phosphorelay system coupled to a MAP kinase module for sensing and processing environmental signals. In Aspergillus nidulans, response regulator SskA transmits osmotic and oxidative stress signals to the stress MAPK (SAPK) SakA. Using a genetic approach together with GFP tagging and molecular bifluorescence we show that SakA and ATF/CREB transcription factor AtfA define a general stress-signalling pathway that plays differential roles in oxidative stress responses during growth and development. AtfA is permanently localized in the nucleus, while SakA accumulates in the nucleus in response to oxidative or osmotic stress signals or during normal spore development, where it physically interacts with AtfA. AtfA is required for expression of several genes, the conidial accumulation of SakA and the viability of conidia. Furthermore, SakA is active (phosphorylated) in asexual spores, remaining phosphorylated in dormant conidia and becoming dephosphorylated during germination. SakA phosphorylation in spores depends on certain (SskA) but not other (SrrA and NikA) components of the phosphorelay system. Constitutive phosphorylation of SakA induced by the fungicide fludioxonil prevents both, germ tube formation and nuclear division. Similarly, Neurospora crassa SakA orthologue OS-2 is phosphorylated in intact conidia and gets dephosphorylated during germination. We propose that SakA-AtfA interaction regulates gene expression during stress and conidiophore development and that SAPK phosphorylation is a conserved mechanism to regulate transitions between non-growing (spore) and growing (mycelia) states.

  14. Sak1 kinase interacts with Pso2 nuclease in response to DNA damage induced by interstrand crosslink-inducing agents in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Munari, Fernanda M; Revers, Luis F; Cardone, Jacqueline M; Immich, Bruna F; Moura, Dinara J; Guecheva, Temenouga N; Bonatto, Diego; Laurino, Jomar P; Saffi, Jenifer; Brendel, Martin; Henriques, João A P

    2014-01-01

    By isolating putative binding partners through the two-hybrid system (THS) we further extended the characterization of the specific interstrand cross-link (ICL) repair gene PSO2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nine fusion protein products were isolated for Pso2p using THS, among them the Sak1 kinase, which interacted with the C-terminal β-CASP domain of Pso2p. Comparison of mutagen-sensitivity phenotypes of pso2Δ, sak1Δ and pso2Δsak1Δ disruptants revealed that SAK1 is necessary for complete WT-like repair. The epistatic interaction of both mutant alleles suggests that Sak1p and Pso2p act in the same pathway of controlling sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. We also observed that Pso2p is phosphorylated by Sak1 kinase in vitro and co-immunoprecipitates with Sak1p after 8-MOP+UVA treatment. Survival data after treatment of pso2Δ, yku70Δ and yku70Δpso2Δ with nitrogen mustard, PSO2 and SAK1 with YKU70 or DNL4 single-, double- and triple mutants with 8-MOP+UVA indicated that ICL repair is independent of YKu70p and DNL4p in S. cerevisiae. Furthermore, a non-epistatic interaction was observed between MRE11, PSO2 and SAK1 genes after ICL induction, indicating that their encoded proteins act on the same substrate, but in distinct repair pathways. In contrast, an epistatic interaction was observed for PSO2 and RAD52, PSO2 and RAD50, PSO2 and XRS2 genes in 8-MOP+UVA treated exponentially growing cells. PMID:24362320

  15. Tomas Rivera, 1935-1984: The Man and His Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lattin, Vernon E., Ed.; And Others

    Tomas Rivera, the son of migrant farmworkers, became a secondary school teacher, university professor, university administrator, and finally Chancellor of the University of California, Riverside (UCR). He published two novels in Spanish and numerous short stories, poems, and essays in Spanish and English. His and his family's experiences as…

  16. SOLVENT-BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY PROCESSES TO DEVELOP WEST SAK ALASKA NORTH SLOPE HEAVY OIL RESOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    David O. Ogbe; Tao Zhu

    2004-01-01

    A one-year research program is conducted to evaluate the feasibility of applying solvent-based enhanced oil recovery processes to develop West Sak and Ugnu heavy oil resources found on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The project objective is to conduct research to develop technology to produce and market the 300-3000 cp oil in the West Sak and Ugnu sands. During the first phase of the research, background information was collected, and experimental and numerical studies of vapor extraction process (VAPEX) in West Sak and Ugnu are conducted. The experimental study is designed to foster understanding of the processes governing vapor chamber formation and growth, and to optimize oil recovery. A specially designed core-holder and a computed tomography (CT) scanner was used to measure the in-situ distribution of phases. Numerical simulation study of VAPEX was initiated during the first year. The numerical work completed during this period includes setting up a numerical model and using the analog data to simulate lab experiments of the VAPEX process. The goal was to understand the mechanisms governing the VAPEX process. Additional work is recommended to expand the VAPEX numerical study using actual field data obtained from Alaska North Slope.

  17. The SrkA Kinase Is Part of the SakA Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Interactome and Regulates Stress Responses and Development in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Jaimes-Arroyo, Rafael; Lara-Rojas, Fernando; Bayram, Özgür; Valerius, Oliver; Braus, Gerhard H.

    2015-01-01

    Fungi and many other eukaryotes use specialized mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) of the Hog1/p38 family to transduce environmental stress signals. In Aspergillus nidulans, the MAPK SakA and the transcription factor AtfA are components of a central multiple stress-signaling pathway that also regulates development. Here we characterize SrkA, a putative MAPK-activated protein kinase, as a novel component of this pathway. ΔsrkA and ΔsakA mutants share a derepressed sexual development phenotype. However, ΔsrkA mutants are not sensitive to oxidative stress, and in fact, srkA inactivation partially suppresses the sensitivity of ΔsakA mutant conidia to H2O2, tert-butyl-hydroperoxide (t-BOOH), and menadione. In the absence of stress, SrkA shows physical interaction with nonphosphorylated SakA in the cytosol. We show that H2O2 induces a drastic change in mitochondrial morphology consistent with a fission process and the relocalization of SrkA to nuclei and mitochondria, depending on the presence of SakA. SakA-SrkA nuclear interaction is also observed during normal asexual development in dormant spores. Using SakA and SrkA S-tag pulldown and purification studies coupled to mass spectrometry, we found that SakA interacts with SrkA, the stress MAPK MpkC, the PPT1-type phosphatase AN6892, and other proteins involved in cell cycle regulation, DNA damage response, mRNA stability and protein synthesis, mitochondrial function, and other stress-related responses. We propose that oxidative stress induces DNA damage and mitochondrial fission and that SakA and SrkA mediate cell cycle arrest and regulate mitochondrial function during stress. Our results provide new insights into the mechanisms by which SakA and SrkA regulate the remodelling of cell physiology during oxidative stress and development. PMID:25820520

  18. A new transcription factor for mitosis: in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the RFX transcription factor Sak1 works with forkhead factors to regulate mitotic expression.

    PubMed

    Garg, Angad; Futcher, Bruce; Leatherwood, Janet

    2015-08-18

    Mitotic genes are one of the most strongly oscillating groups of genes in the eukaryotic cell cycle. Understanding the regulation of mitotic gene expression is a key issue in cell cycle control but is poorly understood in most organisms. Here, we find a new mitotic transcription factor, Sak1, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Sak1 belongs to the RFX family of transcription factors, which have not previously been connected to cell cycle control. Sak1 binds upstream of mitotic genes in close proximity to Fkh2, a forkhead transcription factor previously implicated in regulation of mitotic genes. We show that Sak1 is the major activator of mitotic gene expression and also confirm the role of Fkh2 as the opposing repressor. Sep1, another forkhead transcription factor, is an activator for a small subset of mitotic genes involved in septation. From yeasts to humans, forkhead transcription factors are involved in mitotic gene expression and it will be interesting to see whether RFX transcription factors may also be involved in other organisms.

  19. TOMAS - A Toroidal Magnetized Plasma Facility for Studying Wall Conditioning of Future Fusion Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Stoerk, H.B.; Winter, J.; Ihde, J.; Esser, H.G.; Reimer, H.; Freisinger, M

    2001-01-15

    The TOroidal MAgnetized System (TOMAS) is a simple magnetized torus dedicated to the investigation of wall conditioning methods by microwave-induced plasmas. In the TOMAS facility, an electron cyclotron resonance plasma is produced by microwaves at a frequency of 2.45 GHz and the corresponding resonant magnetic field of 87.6 mT. The facility and the first operational experience of film deposition by means of methane plasmas are described.

  20. A Fast and Efficient Version of the TwO-Moment Aerosol Sectional (TOMAS) Global Aerosol Microphysics Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Yunha; Adams, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    This study develops more computationally efficient versions of the TwO-Moment Aerosol Sectional (TOMAS) microphysics algorithms, collectively called Fast TOMAS. Several methods for speeding up the algorithm were attempted, but only reducing the number of size sections was adopted. Fast TOMAS models, coupled to the GISS GCM II-prime, require a new coagulation algorithm with less restrictive size resolution assumptions but only minor changes in other processes. Fast TOMAS models have been evaluated in a box model against analytical solutions of coagulation and condensation and in a 3-D model against the original TOMAS (TOMAS-30) model. Condensation and coagulation in the Fast TOMAS models agree well with the analytical solution but show slightly more bias than the TOMAS-30 box model. In the 3-D model, errors resulting from decreased size resolution in each process (i.e., emissions, cloud processing wet deposition, microphysics) are quantified in a series of model sensitivity simulations. Errors resulting from lower size resolution in condensation and coagulation, defined as the microphysics error, affect number and mass concentrations by only a few percent. The microphysics error in CN70CN100 (number concentrations of particles larger than 70100 nm diameter), proxies for cloud condensation nuclei, range from 5 to 5 in most regions. The largest errors are associated with decreasing the size resolution in the cloud processing wet deposition calculations, defined as cloud-processing error, and range from 20 to 15 in most regions for CN70CN100 concentrations. Overall, the Fast TOMAS models increase the computational speed by 2 to 3 times with only small numerical errors stemming from condensation and coagulation calculations when compared to TOMAS-30. The faster versions of the TOMAS model allow for the longer, multi-year simulations required to assess aerosol effects on cloud lifetime and precipitation.

  1. The TOMAS software system for approximate analysis of emergency situations at nuclear power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukavin, A. P.

    2009-05-01

    The TOMAS software system for carrying out prompt analysis of different emergency situations in power units of nuclear power stations equipped with VVER-1000 and RBMK-1000 reactors is described. This software system can be used by experts of crisis centers for evaluating various situations, as well as for teaching students in higher schools specializing in the appropriate disciplines.

  2. Use of nootkatone as a senescence indicator for Rouge La Toma Cv. grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.).

    PubMed

    Biolatto, Andrea; Sancho, Ana M; Cantet, Rodolfo J C; Güemes, Daniel R; Pensel, Norma A

    2002-08-14

    The objective of this research was to study the usefulness of nootkatone as a senescence indicator for Rouge La Toma cv. grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.), simulating different treatments that included the normal postharvest handling of citrus fruits: temperature conditioning, cold storage, shipment periods to overseas markets such as Japan and the U.S., marketing conditions, and storage at nonchilling temperature (control treatments). The highest nootkatone levels, determined by GLC-MS analyses, were detected in fruits subjected to control treatments. No significant differences were observed in nootkatone levels between treatments either with or without temperature conditioning prior to the start of the cold storage. Levels of nootkatone increased throughout time for all assayed treatments. The linear regressions of nootkatone levels showed correlation coefficients of 0.80 and 0.83 with storage time (29 and 42 days, respectively). Therefore, nootkatone appears to be a good indicator of senescence for Rouge La Toma grapefruit. PMID:12166965

  3. Potential predecessors of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami — Sedimentary evidence of extreme wave events at Ban Bang Sak, SW Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brill, D.; Brückner, H.; Jankaew, K.; Kelletat, D.; Scheffers, A.; Scheffers, S.

    2011-08-01

    Where historical records are short and/or fragmentary, geological evidence is an important tool to reconstruct the recurrence rate of extreme wave events (tsunamis and/or storms). This is particularly true for those coastal zones around the Indian Ocean, where predecessors of similar magnitude as the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami (IOT) have not been reported by written sources. In this context, the sedimentary record of the Holocene coastal plain of Ban Bang Sak (Phang-nga province, Thailand) provides evidence of multiple prehistoric coastal flooding events in the form of allochthonous sand beds, which were radiocarbon dated to 700-500, 1350-1180, and younger than 2000 cal BP. The layers were assigned to high-energy events of marine origin, which could be either tsunamis or tropical storms, by means of granulometry, geochemistry, vertical structure, and macrofossil content. Although no landfall of a strong storm has occurred in the last 150 years of meteorological data recording, cyclones cannot be ruled out for the last centuries and millennia. However, discrimination between tsunami and storm origin was mainly based on the comparison of the palaeoevent beds with the local deposit of the IOT, which revealed similar characteristics in regard to spatial extend and sediment properties. Furthermore, the youngest palaeoevent correlates with contemporaneous deposits from Thailand and more distant coasts. Hence, we relate it to a basin wide tsunami which took place 700-500 years ago. For the sediments of older extreme events, deposited between 2000 and 1180 cal BP, we found no unambiguous counterparts at other sites; nevertheless, at least for now, they are treated as tsunami candidates.

  4. Mountain-Block Recharge in the Santo Tomas Valley, Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, W. M.; Kretzschmar, T.

    2009-12-01

    Mountain block recharge (MBR) to adjacent basin aquifers can be a significant source of groundwater in arid and semi-arid regions. Unfortunately, geologic complexities within the mountain block often limit our understanding of this indirect form of recharge. Secondary permeability, resulting from faults and fractures, allows rainwater to infiltrate crystalline mountain rock, ultimately recharging the basin aquifer. Therefore, it is essential to consider mountain block geological features, especially faults, in recharge studies. We attempt to better understand MBR by creating a detailed fracture-trace map and by sampling springs and groundwater throughout the Santo Tomas valley, located in Northern Baja California, Mexico. Bounded by active faults, the valley is heavily fractured. These fractures enable fluid flow within the mountain block. Stable isotope (δ18O and δ2H) data show two distinct types of spring water within the watershed, possibly representing local and regional flow paths. Thermal springs, believed to be regional flow, display a -1.9‰ δ18O depletion when compared to all other spring water, indicative of recharge from higher elevations or older waters; both of the latter would be less affected under local drought conditions. This distinct isotopic signal was found 15 km downstream in the alluvial aquifer, indicating a significant amount of water is recharging the basin aquifer via the mountain block along this flow regime. A quantitative permeability value for the faults and fracture zones is difficult to attain due to their heterogeneous nature. However, the thermal system and most cold-water springs surface along active faults, which appear to transmit more water than undifferentiated fractures. Stable isotope (O and H) data. An isotopic distinction can be seen between the hot and cold springs within the watershed. Note that all the spring samples are taken between 400 - 550 m elevation, which includes the hot springs.

  5. Evaluation of aerosol distributions in the GISS-TOMAS global aerosol microphysics model with remote sensing observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. H.; Adams, P. J.

    2010-03-01

    The Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and Angstrom Coefficient (AC) predictions in the GISS-TOMAS model of global aerosol microphysics are evaluated against remote sensing data from MODIS, MISR, and AERONET. The model AOD agrees well (within a factor of two) over polluted continental (or high sulfate), dusty, and moderate sea-salt regions but less well over the equatorial, high sea-salt, and biomass burning regions. Underprediction of sea-salt in the equatorial region is likely due to GCM meteorology (low wind speeds and high precipitation). For the Southern Ocean, overprediction of AOD is very likely due to high sea-salt emissions and perhaps aerosol water uptake in the model. However, uncertainties in cloud screening at high latitudes make it difficult to evaluate the model AOD there with the satellite-based AOD. AOD in biomass burning regions is underpredicted, a tendency found in other global models but more severely here. Using measurements from the LBA-SMOCC 2002 campaign, the surface-level OC concentration in the model are found to be underpredicted severely during the dry season while much less severely for EC concentration, suggesting the low AOD in the model is due to underpredictions in OM mass. The potential for errors in emissions and wet deposition to contribute to this bias is discussed.

  6. Evaluation of aerosol distributions in the GISS-TOMAS global aerosol microphysics model with remote sensing observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. H.; Adams, P. J.

    2009-09-01

    The Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and Angstrom Coefficient (AC) predictions in the GISS-TOMAS model of global aerosol microphysics are evaluated against remote sensing data from MODIS, MISR, and AERONET. The model AOD agrees well (within a factor of two) over polluted continental (or high sulfate), dusty, and moderate sea-salt regions but less well over the equatorial, high sea-salt, and biomass burning regions. Underprediction of sea-salt in the equatorial region is likely due to GCM meteorology (low wind speeds and high precipitation). For the Southern Ocean, overprediction of AOD is very likely due to high sea-salt emissions and perhaps aerosol water uptake in the model. However, uncertainties in cloud screening in high latitude make it difficult to evaluate the model AOD at high latitudes with the satellite-based AOD. AOD in biomass burning regions is underpredicted, a problem also seen in other global aerosol models but more severely in this work. Using measurements from the LBA-SMOCC 2002 campaign, the surface-level OC and EC concentrations in the model are found to be underpredicted severely during the dry season, suggesting the low AOD in the model is due to underpredictions in OM and EC mass. These, in turn, result from unrealistically short wet deposition lifetimes during the dry season in the GCM.

  7. Platinum-group minerals in the Santo Tomas II (Philex) porphyry copper-gold deposit, Luzon Island, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarkian, M.; Koopmann, G.

    1995-02-01

    Mineralized quartz diorites of the Santo Tomas II porphyry copper-gold deposit, carry high Au contents (average: 1.8 ppm) as well as 160 ppb Pd and 38 ppb Pt. Values of other platinum-group elements (PGE) and rhenium are below the analytical detection limits. There is a significant positive correlation between Au and Cu. The highest Pd values were detected in the most Au- and Cu-rich rocks. Platinum-group minerals (PGM) occur exclusively as inclusions in chalcopyrite and bornite. Potential Pd and Pt contents in sulphide concentrates are estimated at 1.5 g/t and 0.4 g/t, respectively. The precious metal assemblages consist of merenskyite (main PGM), kotulskite, moncheite, native gold, electrum, hessite and petzite. Polyphase fluid inclusions in quartz veinlets, associated with a PGM-bearing bornite-chalcopyrite-magnetite assemblage, are characterized by high salinity (35 to > 60 eq. wt% NaCl) and high trapping temperatures (between 380 and 520 °C). They may represent primary magmatic-hydrothermal fluids, which have been responsible for the transport of Pd, Pt and Au as chloride complexes.

  8. Endogenous DNA Damage and Repair Enzymes: -A short summary of the scientific achievements of Tomas Lindahl, Nobel Laureate in Chemistry 2015.

    PubMed

    Klungland, Arne; Yang, Yun-Gui

    2016-06-01

    Tomas Lindahl completed his medical studies at Karolinska Institute in 1970. Yet, his work has always been dedicated to unraveling fundamental mechanisms of DNA decay and DNA repair. His research is characterized with groundbreaking discoveries on the instability of our genome, the identification of novel DNA repair activities, the characterization of DNA repair pathways, and the association to diseases, throughout his 40 years of scientific career. PMID:26689322

  9. Endogenous DNA Damage and Repair Enzymes: -A short summary of the scientific achievements of Tomas Lindahl, Nobel Laureate in Chemistry 2015.

    PubMed

    Klungland, Arne; Yang, Yun-Gui

    2016-06-01

    Tomas Lindahl completed his medical studies at Karolinska Institute in 1970. Yet, his work has always been dedicated to unraveling fundamental mechanisms of DNA decay and DNA repair. His research is characterized with groundbreaking discoveries on the instability of our genome, the identification of novel DNA repair activities, the characterization of DNA repair pathways, and the association to diseases, throughout his 40 years of scientific career.

  10. Obtaining a Well-Aligned ZnO Nanotube Array Using the Hydrothermal Growth Method / Labi Sakārtotu Zno Nanocauruļu Kopu Iegūšana, Izmantojot Hidrotermālo Metodi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasovska, M.; Gerbreders, V.; Paskevics, V.; Ogurcovs, A.; Mihailova, I.

    2015-10-01

    Optimal growing parameters have been found using the hydrothermal method to obtain well-aligned vertical ZnO nanorod and nanotube arrays. The influence of different growing factors (such as temperature, growing solution concentration, method of obtaining seed layer and condition) on nanotube morphology and size is described in the paper. Well-structured ZnO nanotubes have been obtained by using a selfselective etching method with lowering temperatures of growth during the hydrothermal process. It is shown that the optical properties of the nanostructure arrays obtained are sensitive to the medium in which they are placed, which is why they can be used as sensors for pure substance detection and in different solutions for impurity determination. Dotajā darbā tika noteikti optimāli parametri labi sakārtotu ZnO nanocaurulīšu kopu iegūšanai, izmantojot hidrotermālo metodi ar temperatūras pazemināšanu, jeb t.s. selektīvu pa\\vskodināšanas metodi (self-selective etching), ir uzsvērtas šās metodes priekšrocības salīdzinājumā ar ķīmiskās kodināšanas metodi, kā arī tika aprakstīta dažādu augšanas faktora (tādu, ka darba šķīduma koncentrācija, augšanas temperatūra un laiks, iedīgļu slāņa iegūšanas veids un iegūšanas parametri) ietekme uz iegūtu nanostraktūra morfoloģiju. Tika konstatēts, ka noteicošu lomu ZnO nanocaurulīšu audzēšanas procesā spēlē iedīgļu slāņa graudu izmēri, kas savā staipā nosaka augošu nanostieņu izmērus un to tendenci pie pa\\vskodināšanas. Rentgenogrannnas parāda, ka iegūtām pie noteiktiem parametriem ZnO nanostruktūrām piemīt augsta kristāliskuma pakāpe un sakārtotība vertikālā virzienā. Optiskie mērījumi parāda, ka ZnO nanocauralītes ir jutīgas gan pret tīrām vielām (ūdens, spirts), gan pret dažādiem šķīdumiem, kas ļauj izmantot tos kā pie­jaukumu sensora. Salīdzinājumā ar ZnO nanostieņiem caurulīšu jūtība pieaug, jo pieaug nanostrakt

  11. Constraining Basin Geometry and Fault Kinematics on the Santo Tomas Segment of the Agua Blanca Fault Through a Combined Geophysical and Structural Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer, A.; Wetmore, P.; Fletcher, J.; Connor, C. B.; Callihan, S.; Beeson, J.; Wilson, J.

    2008-12-01

    The Santo Tomas basin, located in northern Baja California, formed at a right step in the dextral Agua Blanca fault (ABF). The ABF extends for more than 120km east from Punta Banda, with an east-west strike, and represents the southernmost fault in the San Andreas system of faulting. The basin is located roughly 40km south of Ensenada where the Agua Blanca fault intersects the Maximos fault. A detailed geophysical analysis defines the basin geometry, and helps to constrain the distribution and offset of mapped and concealed faults. Geophysical and structural data sets are combined to constrain the kinematic evolution of the Santo Tomas basin, including determining the relative amount of dip-slip and strike-slip motion on basin-bounding faults. Gravity data was collected over seven transects across and along the axis of the basin at 500 meter intervals, with 200 meter intervals at locations of known or inferred faults. Magnetic data were taken over the same lines, and are used in conjunction with gravity data to constrain the locations, geometries and displacements of intrabasinal faults. The combined gravity and magnetic data are modeled using Geosoft Oasis montaj software to create 2 3/4D models along profiles across the study area. Modeling of the geophysical data combined with structural mapping indicates that the Santo Tomas basin is bound by two major strike-slip faults, the ABF on the northeastern side and the Maximos fault on south, Based on offset markers, most of the strike-slip motion appears to be concentrated on the ABF on the north side of the basin. The ABF fault is characterized by multiple subparallel fault strands that appear to coalesce into single strands to the northwest and southeast of the basin. The Maximos is characterized by a single strand throughout the basin and it exhibits a minor dip-slip component. Basin sediments thicken slightly against the Maximos fault to as much as 1km. A third fault, cutting across the basin southeast of the

  12. Source attribution of aerosol size distributions and model evaluation using Whistler Mountain measurements and GEOS-Chem-TOMAS simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Andrea, S. D.; Ng, J. Y.; Kodros, J. K.; Atwood, S. A.; Wheeler, M. J.; Macdonald, A. M.; Leaitch, W. R.; Pierce, J. R.

    2015-09-01

    Remote and free tropospheric aerosols represent a large fraction of the climatic influence of aerosols; however, aerosol in these regions is less characterized than those polluted boundary layers. We evaluate aerosol size distributions predicted by the GEOS-Chem-TOMAS global chemical transport model with online aerosol microphysics using measurements from the peak of Whistler Mountain, BC, Canada (2182 m a.s.l.). We evaluate the model for predictions of aerosol number, size and composition during periods of free tropospheric (FT) and boundary-layer (BL) influence at "coarse" 4° × 5° and "nested" 0.5° × 0.667° resolutions by developing simple FT/BL filtering techniques. We find that using temperature as a proxy for upslope flow (BL influence) improved the model measurement comparisons. The best threshold temperature was around 2 °C for the coarse simulations and around 6 °C for the nested simulations, with temperatures warmer than the threshold indicating boundary-layer air. Additionally, the site was increasingly likely to be in-cloud when the measured RH was above 90 %, so we do not compare the modeled and measured size distributions during these periods. With the inclusion of these temperature and RH filtering techniques, the model-measurement comparisons improved significantly. The slope of the regression for N80 (the total number of particles with particle diameter, Dp > 80 nm) in the nested simulations increased from 0.09 to 0.65, R2 increased from 0.04 to 0.46, and log-mean bias improved from 0.95 to 0.07. We also perform simulations at the nested resolution without Asian anthropogenic (AA) emissions and without biomass-burning (BB) emissions to quantify the contribution of these sources to aerosols at Whistler Peak (through comparison with simulations with these emissions on). The long-range transport of AA aerosol was found to be significant throughout all particle number concentrations, and increased the number of particles larger than 80 nm (N80

  13. Source attribution of aerosol size distributions and model evaluation using Whistler Mountain measurements and GEOS-Chem-TOMAS simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Andrea, S. D.; Ng, J. Y.; Kodros, J. K.; Atwood, S. A.; Wheeler, M. J.; Macdonald, A. M.; Leaitch, W. R.; Pierce, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Remote and free-tropospheric aerosols represent a large fraction of the climatic influence of aerosols; however, aerosol in these regions is less characterized than those polluted boundary layers. We evaluate aerosol size distributions predicted by the GEOS-Chem-TOMAS global chemical transport model with online aerosol microphysics using measurements from the peak of Whistler Mountain, British Columbia, Canada (2182 m a.s.l., hereafter referred to as Whistler Peak). We evaluate the model for predictions of aerosol number, size, and composition during periods of free-tropospheric (FT) and boundary-layer (BL) influence at "coarse" 4° × 5° and "nested" 0.5° × 0.667° resolutions by developing simple FT/BL filtering techniques. We find that using temperature as a proxy for upslope flow (BL influence) improved the model-measurement comparisons. The best threshold temperature was around 2 °C for the coarse simulations and around 6 °C for the nested simulations, with temperatures warmer than the threshold indicating boundary-layer air. Additionally, the site was increasingly likely to be in cloud when the measured relative humidity (RH) was above 90 %, so we do not compare the modeled and measured size distributions during these periods. With the inclusion of these temperature and RH filtering techniques, the model-measurement comparisons improved significantly. The slope of the regression for N80 (the total number of particles with particle diameter, Dp, > 80 nm) in the nested simulations increased from 0.09 to 0.65, R2 increased from 0.04 to 0.46, and log-mean bias improved from 0.95 to 0.07. We also perform simulations at the nested resolution without Asian anthropogenic emissions and without biomass-burning emissions to quantify the contribution of these sources to aerosols at Whistler Peak (through comparison with simulations with these emissions on). The long-range transport of Asian anthropogenic aerosol was found to be significant throughout all particle

  14. Petrography, geochemistry, and depositional setting of the San Pedro and Santo Tomas coal zones: anomalous algae-rich coals in the middle part of the Claiborne Group (Eocene) of Webb County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warwick, P.D.; Hook, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    Two coal zones, the San Pedro and the overlying Santo Tomas, are presented for nearly 35 km in outcrop, surface and underground mines, and shallow drill holes along the strike of the middle part of the Claiborne Group (Eocene) in Webb County, Texas. A sandstone-dominated interval of 25 to 35 m separates the two coal zones, which range up to 3 m in thickness. The coal-bearing portion of the middle Claiborne Group in the Rio Grande area represents a fining-upward transition from sandstone-dominated, marine-influenced, lower delta plain depositional environments to more inland, mudstone-rich, predominantly freshwater deltaic settings. The less variable nature of the Santo Tomas coal zone reflects its origin in the upper part of an interlobe basin that received only minor clastic influx. Petrographic attributes of the nonbanded coals indicate that they formed subaqueously in fresh to possibly brackish waters. Petrographic study of polished blocks indicates that approximately 10% of the nonbanded coal from both coal zones is composed of green algae fructifications. -from Authors

  15. Is the Dark Side of the Moon Ever Illuminated by the Sun? (Breton Title: O Lado Escuro da Lua Nunca Apanha Sol?) El Lado Oscuro de la Luna Nunca Toma Sol?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, Odilon; Pellenz, Daiana; Catelli, Francisco

    2014-07-01

    This work presents the elaboration of an answer to the question "Is the dark side of the moon ever illuminated by the sun?", in which issues related to the students' conceptions, how they arise, and the core elements that constitute a "good answer" are considered. These issues are initially elaborated from a literature review of the research in the field; then, and also based on this review, a didactic model that involves the relative motions of the Earth - Moon - Sun system is proposed. A description of the application of this model in a learning environment within middle school students is described. This work confirms the students' initial concepts described in the literature; on the other hand, the questions asked by students during the activity provide evidence that meaningful learning, at least to some degree, has occurred. Este trabalho apresenta a elaboração de uma resposta à pergunta "O lado escuro da Lua nunca apanha sol?" na qual são consideradas questões relacionadas às concepções iniciais dos alunos, de onde elas surgem e os elementos centrais que constituem uma "boa resposta". Essas questões são tratadas, inicialmente, a partir de uma revisão da literatura sobre pesquisas na área e, em seguida, também com base nessa revisão, um objeto modelo didático que envolve os movimentos relativos do sistema Terra - Lua - Sol é proposto. Uma descrição detalhada da aplicação deste modelo em um ambiente de aprendizagem com alunos do ensino fundamental é relatada. As concepções iniciais apresentadas na literatura se confirmam e os questionamentos feitos pelos estudantes por ocasião da aplicação do modelo fornecem indícios de que uma aprendizagem significativa, pelo menos em algum grau, ocorreu. El artículo se presenta el desarrollo de una respuesta a la pregunta "¿El lado oscuro de la luna nunca toma sol?", en la que se consideran algunas cuestiones vinculadas que se refieren a las concepciones iniciales de los estudiantes, dónde surgen

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, PAINT OVERSPRAY ARRESTOR KOCH FILTER CORPORATION MULTI-SAK 6FZ159-S

    EPA Science Inventory

    Paint overspray arrestors (POAs) were evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Verification Center. The performance factor verified was the particle filtration efficiency as a function of size for particles smaller than 10 micrometers. The APCT Verification Center...

  17. [Acute kidney insufficiency of obstetric origin. Experience at the Santo Tomas Hospital (1966-1981)].

    PubMed

    Díaz, J H; de Gordón, G; Hernández, L; Medina, R

    1990-01-01

    The authors review 24 cases of acute renal failure of obstetric etiology occurred in Hospital Santo Tomás, which represents a frequency of 1.375/10,000, with a bimodal distribution and the main causes were toxemia of pregnancy and sepsis. All cases were of the oliguric type and a kidney biopsy was performed in 17 cases, revealing an acute tubular necrosis in 16 and a diffuse cortical necrosis in the other case. Two patients (8.3%) died and one did not received nephrology treatment as the other 23 patients. The fetal mortality was 37.5% and the Apgar was good in 2, fair in one and bad in 2. A 50% of the complications were infections and nine patients tolerated different surgical procedures after the installation of the acute renal failure. The follow-up of 12 patients shows no evidence of renal failure.

  18. Impact of a targeted typhoid vaccination campaign following cyclone Tomas, Republic of Fiji, 2010.

    PubMed

    Scobie, Heather M; Nilles, Eric; Kama, Mike; Kool, Jacob L; Mintz, Eric; Wannemuehler, Kathleen A; Hyde, Terri B; Dawainavesi, Akanisi; Singh, Sheetalpreet; Korovou, Samuel; Jenkins, Kylie; Date, Kashmira

    2014-06-01

    After a category 4 cyclone that caused extensive population displacement and damage to water and sanitation infrastructure in Fiji in March 2010, a typhoid vaccination campaign was conducted as part of the post-disaster response. During June-December 2010, 64,015 doses of typhoid Vi polysaccharide vaccine were administered to persons ≥ 2 years of age, primarily in cyclone-affected areas that were typhoid endemic. Annual typhoid fever incidence decreased during the post-campaign year (2011) relative to preceding years (2008-2009) in three subdivisions where a large proportion of the population was vaccinated (incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals: 0.23, 0.13-0.41; 0.24, 0.14-0.41; 0.58, 0.40-0.86), and increased or remained unchanged in 12 subdivisions where little to no vaccination occurred. Vaccination played a role in reducing typhoid fever incidence in high-incidence areas after a disaster and should be considered in endemic settings, along with comprehensive control measures, as recommended by the World Health Organization.

  19. Hispanicity and Educational Inequality: Risks, Opportunities and the Nation's Future. Tomas Rivera Lecture Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienda, Marta

    2009-01-01

    This publication reproduces the keynote address delivered by the author at the annual conference of the American Association of Hispanics in Higher Education (AAHHE) in March 2009, in San Antonio, Texas. In her essay, the author discusses the significance of the growing Hispanic presence through the lens of education. To frame the challenges--and…

  20. Staphylokinase Control of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation and Detachment Through Host Plasminogen Activation.

    PubMed

    Kwiecinski, Jakub; Peetermans, Marijke; Liesenborghs, Laurens; Na, Manli; Björnsdottir, Halla; Zhu, Xuefeng; Jacobsson, Gunnar; Johansson, Bengt R; Geoghegan, Joan A; Foster, Timothy J; Josefsson, Elisabet; Bylund, Johan; Verhamme, Peter; Jin, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus biofilms, a leading cause of persistent infections, are highly resistant to immune defenses and antimicrobial therapies. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of fibrin and staphylokinase (Sak) to biofilm formation. In both clinical S. aureus isolates and laboratory strains, high Sak-producing strains formed less biofilm than strains that lacked Sak, suggesting that Sak prevents biofilm formation. In addition, Sak induced detachment of mature biofilms. This effect depended on plasminogen activation by Sak. Host-derived fibrin, the main substrate cleaved by Sak-activated plasminogen, was a major component of biofilm matrix, and dissolution of this fibrin scaffold greatly increased susceptibility of biofilms to antibiotics and neutrophil phagocytosis. Sak also attenuated biofilm-associated catheter infections in mouse models. In conclusion, our results reveal a novel role for Sak-induced plasminogen activation that prevents S. aureus biofilm formation and induces detachment of existing biofilms through proteolytic cleavage of biofilm matrix components.

  1. The University of Santo Tomas Viewed from the Lens of Total Quality Management: Implications to Total Quality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Torres, Josefina R.

    2004-01-01

    Considered as a major management approach for improving organizational performance and competitive advantage, Total Quality Management (TQM) poses a challenge to dynamic institutions to adopt a systemic philosophy that places emphasis on customer needs and a commitment to a culture of excellence. Higher education institutions (HEIs) as learning…

  2. Central ossifying fibroma, periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia and complex odon-toma occurring in the same jaw.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Farzaneh Agha; Moslemi, Elham

    2011-05-16

    Central ossifying fibroma is a rare, benign fibro-osseous lesion that arises from the periodontal ligament. Periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia is another variant of fibro-osseous lesion which occurs in the anterior region of the mandible of females. Odontoma is a benign odontogenic tumor that contains enamel, dentine cement and pulp tissue. A 46-year-old woman was referred to the Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, with two non-painful swellings on both sides of the mandible, which had been slowly growing over a period of one year. Our differential diagnosis was florid cemento-osseous dysplasia, focal cemento-osseous dysplasia for the right side, complex odontoma for the left side and periapical cement-osseous dysplasia for the anterior side. The historical feature revealed ossifying fibroma, complex odontoma and periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia. The occurrence of these three lesions in the same jaw has been rarely reported in the literature. The relationship between the occurrence of these three lesions is not obvious it could be coincidental. It seems that more case reports are needed to establish the relationship between them.

  3. 27 CFR 25.53 - Submissions of samples of fermented products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... submit samples of: (a) Cereal beverage, saké, or any fermented product produced at the brewery, (b) Materials used in the production of cereal beverage, saké, or any fermented product; and (c) Cereal...

  4. Staphylokinase as a Plasminogen Activator Component in Recombinant Fusion Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Szarka, S. J.; Sihota, E. G.; Habibi, H. R.; Wong, S.-L.

    1999-01-01

    The plasminogen activator staphylokinase (SAK) is a promising thrombolytic agent for treatment of myocardial infarction. It can specifically stimulate the thrombolysis of both erythrocyte-rich and platelet-rich clots. However, SAK lacks fibrin-binding and thrombin inhibitor activities, two functions which would supplement and potentially improve its thrombolytic potency. Creating a recombinant fusion protein is one approach for combining protein domains with complementary functions. To evaluate SAK for use in a translational fusion protein, both N- and C-terminal fusions to SAK were constructed by using hirudin as a fusion partner. Recombinant fusion proteins were secreted from Bacillus subtilis and purified from culture supernatants. The rate of plasminogen activation by SAK was not altered by the presence of an additional N- or C-terminal protein sequence. However, cleavage at N-terminal lysines within SAK rendered the N-terminal fusion unstable in the presence of plasmin. The results of site-directed mutagenesis of lysine 10 and lysine 11 in SAK suggested that a plasmin-resistant variant cannot be created without interfering with the plasmin processing necessary for activation of SAK. Although putative plasmin cleavage sites are located at the C-terminal end of SAK at lysine 135 and lysine 136, these sites were resistant to plasmin cleavage in vitro. Therefore, C-terminal fusions represent stable configurations for developing improved thrombolytic agents based on SAK as the plasminogen activator component. PMID:9925575

  5. A correlation between thermal stability and structural features of staphylokinase and selected mutants: a Fourier-transform infrared study.

    PubMed

    Dornberger, U; Fandrei, D; Backmann, J; Hübner, W; Rahmelow, K; Gührs, K H; Hartmann, M; Schlott, B; Fritzsche, H

    1996-05-23

    Variants of recombinant staphylokinase (Sak) were investigated by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy: Sak (wild type), Sak-M26A, Sak-M26L, and Sak-G34S/R36G/R43H (Sak-B). Estimation of the secondary structure and hydrogen-deuterium exchange experiments revealed the existence of fast-exchanging and strongly solvent-exposed fractions of the helical structures in the two samples Sak and Sak-M26L. These two samples are also thermally less stable with unfolding transition temperatures of 43.7 degrees C (Sak) and 43.5 degrees C (Sak-M26L), respectively. On contrast, Sak-M26A and Sak-G34S/R36G/R43H have a slower hydrogen-deuterium exchange, have a smaller solvent-exposed portion of the helical part, and are more resistant against thermal unfolding; the transition temperatures are 51.7 degrees C and 59.3 degrees C, respectively. The secondary structure analysis was performed by two different approaches, by curve-fitting after band narrowing and by pattern recognition (factor analysis) based upon reference spectra of proteins with known crystal structure. Within the limits of the used methods, we are unable to detect significant differences in the secondary structure of the four variants of Sak. According to the results of the factor analysis, the portions of secondary structure elements were obtained to 16-20% alpha-helix, 28-30% beta-sheet, 23-27% turns, 28-30% irregular (random) and other structure. The sharp differences in the specific plasminogen-activating capacity (Sak, Sak-G34S/R36G/R43H and Sak-M26L are fully active, but Sak-M26A does not form a stable complex with plasminogen) are not reflected in the structural features revealed by the infrared spectra of this study.

  6. Reversibility of germinative and endocrine testicular function after long-term contraception with a GnRH-agonist implant in the tom-a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Goericke-Pesch, Sandra; Georgiev, Plamen; Antonov, Anton; Vodenicharov, Angel; Navarro, Christelle; Wehrend, Axel

    2014-04-15

    A significantly reduced gonadotropin and testosterone secretion is a well-described result of long-term administration of GnRH agonists in the male dog and cat. To date, no data are available about the duration of efficacy and the reversibility of treatment-induced effects after long-term treatment with a 4.7 mg deslorelin implant. Seven healthy male European Shorthair cats (3.2 ± 0.5 kg, 1-6 years) were treated with a 4.7 mg deslorelin implant. Blood samples (testosterone, T), testicular volume, penile spines, and mating behavior were recorded once weekly. Considering T > 0.5 ng/mL as the biological endpoint, mean duration of efficacy was 78.8 ± 12.9 weeks (range: 61.7-100.7 weeks) with T concentrations increasing rapidly after the last T less than 0.1 ng/mL (basal) (P < 0.0001), and pretreatment T concentrations being reached after 3 weeks. Testicular volume rapidly increased after the first increase of T (P < 0.001) with pretreatment testicular volume being reached after 6.9 ± 3.4 weeks (5-11 weeks). "Normal" libido reoccurred 88.7 ± 12.4 weeks after treatment, and "normal" mating behavior was observed even later. Fertile matings occurred 7 to 42 weeks after the last T less than 0.1 ng/mL with a mean of 4.0 ± 0.0 kittens, and 13.6 to 47.6 weeks afterwards testicular histology revealed normal spermatogenesis. The present data confirm that the use of slow-release GnRH-agonist implants containing deslorelin in tomcats represents an effective and safe reversible alternative for long-term contraception; however, as number of animals is low, further fertility trials are recommended. PMID:24581586

  7. "En el grupo tomas conciencia (in group you become aware)": Latino immigrants' satisfaction with a culturally informed intervention for men who batter.

    PubMed

    Parra-Cardona, José Rubén; Escobar-Chew, Ana Rocío; Holtrop, Kendal; Carpenter, Georgia; Guzmán, Ricardo; Hernández, Dolores; Zamudio, Efraín; González Ramírez, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative interviews were conducted with 21 Latino immigrant men who participated in a culturally informed batterer intervention. The objectives of this investigation were twofold. First, to identify the treatment components that facilitated the participants' willingness to engage in a process of change aimed at terminating their abusive behaviors. Second, to describe the treatment components that led to their satisfaction with the intervention. Research findings confirm that the Spanish version of the Duluth curriculum can be beneficial for Latino immigrant batterers. Results also demonstrate the critical role of culture as it refers to content of the intervention and method of delivery.

  8. Construction and Evaluation of a Diagnostic Examination in College Algebra for Freshmen of the College of Science, University of Santo Tomas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Mark Louie F.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct and evaluate an instrument for determining student preparedness in College Algebra. A 73-item instrument covering prerequisite arithmetic and high school Algebra knowledge for College Algebra was constructed. The instrument was pilot-tested on a freshman population of 595 students. Results of reliability…

  9. Staphylokinase has distinct modes of interaction with antimicrobial peptides, modulating its plasminogen-activation properties.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Leonard T; Vogel, Hans J

    2016-01-01

    Staphylokinase (Sak) is a plasminogen activator protein that is secreted by many Staphylococcus aureus strains. Sak also offers protection by binding and inhibiting specific antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Here, we evaluate Sak as a more general interaction partner for AMPs. Studies with melittin, mCRAMP, tritrpticin and bovine lactoferricin indicate that the truncation of the first ten residues of Sak (SakΔN10), which occurs in vivo and uncovers important residues in a bulge region, improves its affinity for AMPs. Melittin and mCRAMP have a lower affinity for SakΔN10, and in docking studies, they bind to the N-terminal segment and bulge region of SakΔN10. By comparison, lactoferricin and tritrpticin form moderately high affinity 1:1 complexes with SakΔN10 and their cationic residues form several electrostatic interactions with the protein's α-helix. Overall, our work identifies two distinct AMP binding surfaces on SakΔN10 whose occupation would lead to either inhibition or promotion of its plasminogen activating properties. PMID:27554435

  10. Staphylokinase has distinct modes of interaction with antimicrobial peptides, modulating its plasminogen-activation properties

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Leonard T.; Vogel, Hans J.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylokinase (Sak) is a plasminogen activator protein that is secreted by many Staphylococcus aureus strains. Sak also offers protection by binding and inhibiting specific antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Here, we evaluate Sak as a more general interaction partner for AMPs. Studies with melittin, mCRAMP, tritrpticin and bovine lactoferricin indicate that the truncation of the first ten residues of Sak (SakΔN10), which occurs in vivo and uncovers important residues in a bulge region, improves its affinity for AMPs. Melittin and mCRAMP have a lower affinity for SakΔN10, and in docking studies, they bind to the N-terminal segment and bulge region of SakΔN10. By comparison, lactoferricin and tritrpticin form moderately high affinity 1:1 complexes with SakΔN10 and their cationic residues form several electrostatic interactions with the protein’s α-helix. Overall, our work identifies two distinct AMP binding surfaces on SakΔN10 whose occupation would lead to either inhibition or promotion of its plasminogen activating properties. PMID:27554435

  11. Specificity of Structural Assessment of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumpower, David L.; Sharara, Harold; Goldsmith, Timothy E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the specificity of information provided by structural assessment of knowledge (SAK). SAK is a technique which uses the Pathfinder scaling algorithm to transform ratings of concept relatedness into network representations (PFnets) of individuals' knowledge. Inferences about individuals' overall domain knowledge based on the…

  12. The Problem of Untested Sexual Assault Kits: Why Are Some Kits Never Submitted to a Crime Laboratory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra; Campbell, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Victims of sexual assault are often advised to seek postassault medical care to have a forensic exam, which includes evidence collection (termed a "sexual assault kit" [SAK]). After the exam, law enforcement personnel are supposed to submit the SAK to a crime laboratory for analysis. However, recent media reports suggest that in many communities…

  13. Turning Awareness into Action: What Your Community Can Do about Drug Use in America = De La Toma de Conciencia a la Accion: Que Puede Hacer la Comunidad Respecto al Consumo de Drogas en America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    This booklet gives examples of successful community drug abuse prevention programs, as well as guidelines for finding out more about a community's prevention needs and taking action. The first section discusses taking action against drug abuse. It presents examples which illustrate the different approaches communities have taken. Ten steps to help…

  14. Variant form of angina pectoris: its clinical features and treatment. The 185th Luis Guerrero Memorial Lecture given at the 6th Paul Dudley White Session, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, The Philippines, January 24, 1979.

    PubMed

    Kimura, E

    1980-01-01

    The variant form of angina pectoris (VA) is a rather common disease in Japan, and the author himself is suffering from it. Among 100 successive cases of various types of angina seen in our Department, excluding myocardial infarction and post-infarctional angina, 23 cases were VA. The brief duration, cyclic occurrence and frequent incidence of the attacks at night are considered to be the clinical characteristics. The pathogenesis of VA is ascribed to coronary spasm on the basis of findings made in cinecoronary arteriography. ST elevation was observed more frequently on exercise test in VA than in ordinary exertional angina pectoris, indicating that patients with VA are in a markedly spasmophilic state. Although the prognosis is not generally so serious, 33 out of 50 cases of VA had arrhythmias during attacks, including such serious ones as advanced AV block and ventricular fibrillation. Nifedipine was dramatically effective in suppressing repeatedly occurring ventricular fibrillation. A survey of the effects of calcium antagonists in 243 cases of VA in 11 cardiology institutes throughout Japan revealed that these drugs were effective in more than 90% of the cases. Of particular note is the fact that the attacks were completely eliminated in more than 80% of the cases.

  15. INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN IN-SITU GAS HYDRATES AND HEAVY OIL OCCURRENCES ON THE NORTH SLOPE OF ALASKA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.

    1985-01-01

    In 1973, during the drilling of the West Sak #1 well on the North Slope of Alaska, oil was first recovered from a shallow Cretaceous sand interval which was later informally named the West Sak sands by ARCO Alaska. Stratigraphically above the West Sak sands there are two additional oil bearing sands, and are informally referred to by ARCO as the Ugnu and the 2150 horizons. Gas hydrates are interpreted to exist in the West Sak #6 well in conjunction with heavy oil and the physical properties of this oil may have been influenced by the gas hydrate. Prior to this work, only experimental evidence suggested that hydrates and oil could exist in the same reservoir.

  16. Sea Anemone Toxins Affecting Potassium Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diochot, Sylvie; Lazdunski, Michel

    The great diversity of K+ channels and their wide distribution in many tissues are associated with important functions in cardiac and neuronal excitability that are now better understood thanks to the discovery of animal toxins. During the past few decades, sea anemones have provided a variety of toxins acting on voltage-sensitive sodium and, more recently, potassium channels. Currently there are three major structural groups of sea anemone K+ channel (SAK) toxins that have been characterized. Radioligand binding and electrophysiological experiments revealed that each group contains peptides displaying selective activities for different subfamilies of K+ channels. Short (35-37 amino acids) peptides in the group I display pore blocking effects on Kv1 channels. Molecular interactions of SAK-I toxins, important for activity and binding on Kv1 channels, implicate a spot of three conserved amino acid residues (Ser, Lys, Tyr) surrounded by other less conserved residues. Long (58-59 amino acids) SAK-II peptides display both enzymatic and K+ channel inhibitory activities. Medium size (42-43 amino acid) SAK-III peptides are gating modifiers which interact either with cardiac HERG or Kv3 channels by altering their voltage-dependent properties. SAK-III toxins bind to the S3C region in the outer vestibule of Kv channels. Sea anemones have proven to be a rich source of pharmacological tools, and some of the SAK toxins are now useful drugs for the diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune diseases.

  17. [Effect of long-term shallow tillage and straw returning on soil potassium content and stratification ratio in winter wheat/summer maize rotation system in Guanzhong Plain, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiang-lan; Li, Xiu-shuang; Wang, Shu-juan; Li, Shuo; Li, You-bing; Tian, Xiao-hong

    2015-11-01

    Soil stratified sampling method and potassium chemical fractionation analysis were used to investigate effects of long-term shallow tillage and straw returning on soil K contents and stratification ratios in winter wheat/summer maize rotation system in Guanzhong Plain of Northwest China. The results showed that after 13-year continuous shallow tillage and straw returning, surface accumulation and stratification effect obviously occurred for soil available K (SAK) and non-exchangeable K (NEK), which was particularly remarkable for SAK and its fractions. Serious depletion of SAK occurred in 15-30 cm soil layer, and the SAK value was lower than the critical value of soil potassium deficiency. Meanwhile, significant differences were found between SR1 and SR2 values of SAK and its fractions, SR was obtained by values of topsoil layer (0-5 cm) divided by corresponding values of lower soil layers (5-15 cm layer, SR1, or 15-30 cm layer, SR2). However, no significant difference was observed between SR values of NEK and mineral K. In conclusion, returning of all straw over 10 years in the winter wheat/summer maize rotation system contributed greatly to maintaining soil K pool balance, while special attention should be paid to the negative effects of surface accumulation and stratification of SAK on soil K fertility.

  18. [Effect of long-term shallow tillage and straw returning on soil potassium content and stratification ratio in winter wheat/summer maize rotation system in Guanzhong Plain, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiang-lan; Li, Xiu-shuang; Wang, Shu-juan; Li, Shuo; Li, You-bing; Tian, Xiao-hong

    2015-11-01

    Soil stratified sampling method and potassium chemical fractionation analysis were used to investigate effects of long-term shallow tillage and straw returning on soil K contents and stratification ratios in winter wheat/summer maize rotation system in Guanzhong Plain of Northwest China. The results showed that after 13-year continuous shallow tillage and straw returning, surface accumulation and stratification effect obviously occurred for soil available K (SAK) and non-exchangeable K (NEK), which was particularly remarkable for SAK and its fractions. Serious depletion of SAK occurred in 15-30 cm soil layer, and the SAK value was lower than the critical value of soil potassium deficiency. Meanwhile, significant differences were found between SR1 and SR2 values of SAK and its fractions, SR was obtained by values of topsoil layer (0-5 cm) divided by corresponding values of lower soil layers (5-15 cm layer, SR1, or 15-30 cm layer, SR2). However, no significant difference was observed between SR values of NEK and mineral K. In conclusion, returning of all straw over 10 years in the winter wheat/summer maize rotation system contributed greatly to maintaining soil K pool balance, while special attention should be paid to the negative effects of surface accumulation and stratification of SAK on soil K fertility. PMID:26915186

  19. The problem of untested sexual assault kits: why are some kits never submitted to a crime laboratory?

    PubMed

    Patterson, Debra; Campbell, Rebecca

    2012-07-01

    Victims of sexual assault are often advised to seek postassault medical care to have a forensic exam, which includes evidence collection (termed a sexual assault kit [SAK]). After the exam, law enforcement personnel are supposed to submit the SAK to a crime laboratory for analysis. However, recent media reports suggest that in many communities throughout the United States, thousands of SAKs are left untested. Few studies have examined the rate at which law enforcement submits SAKs to crime labs or the factors that may predict them to do so. Thus, the purpose of this exploratory study is twofold: (a) to examine the percentage of SAKs law enforcement submits to crime labs in cases in which a sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) performed the exam with adult victims and (b) to explore whether assault and law enforcement characteristics predict whether SAKs are submitted to a crime lab. This study found that only 58.6% of the SAKs were submitted to the crime lab within a large Midwestern county. Using binary logistic regression, this study found that kits were significantly as likely to be submitted when there were documented physical (nonanogenital) injuries compared with kits that did not have documented physical injuries. In addition, kits that were handled by a law enforcement agency that had a high level of engagement with the SANE program were significantly as likely to be submitted as law enforcement agencies with a low or medium level of engagement. Kits were significantly less likely to be submitted when victims cleaned themselves after the sexual assault (e.g., bathing). No association was found between kit submission and the victim-offender relationship, suspected drug-facilitated sexual assault, anogenital injury, and when the victim consumed alcohol or drugs before the assault. This article concludes with a discussion of the implications for research and practice.

  20. Los padres como consejeros o coparticipes en la toma de decisiones. Serie E: El logro de la participacion de los padres, cuaderno III. Edicion para el estudiante. Cuadernos para el entrenamiento de maestros de educacion bilingue. (Parents as Advisors or Participants in Decision Making. Series E: Success with Parent Participation, Book III. Student Edition. Bilingual Education Teacher Training Packet).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Rodolfo, Comp.

    The student version of a learning module for teacher training in bilingual education is one of three focusing on promoting parent participation in the school system, and concentrates specifically on the role of parents as counselors and co-participants in decisionmaking. An introductory section discussing the overall objectives of the materials is…

  1. Consulta regional sobre investigacion en educacion y toma de decisiones en America Latina: Informe final (Lima, Peru, 11-15 de mayo de 1987) (Regional Meeting on Research in Education and Decision Making in Latin America: Final Report [Lima, Peru, May 11-15, 1987]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    This report presents the highlights of a United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) conference that was convened to give impetus to and encourage research programs, to analyze research policy formation, and to establish research priorities in the field of educational planning and administration. The document…

  2. Los padres como consejeros o coparticipes en la toma de decisiones. Serie E: [E1] logro de la participacion de los padres. cuaderno 3. Edicion para el maestro. Cuadernos para el entrenamiento de maestros de educacion bilingue. (Parents as Advisors or Participants in Decision Making. Series E: Parent Participation, Book 3. Teacher Edition. Bilingual Education Teacher Training Packet).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Rodolfo, Comp.

    This guide on training bilingual education teachers focuses on parents as advisors in the decision making process at bilingual schools. The two units, "An Introduction to Parent Participation" and "Parent Participation in Educational Decision Making," include objectives, definitions of terms, lists of materials and equipment, and learning…

  3. The pharmaceutics from the foreign empire: the molecular pharming of the prokaryotic staphylokinase in Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

    PubMed

    Hnatuszko-Konka, Katarzyna; Łuchniak, Piotr; Wiktorek-Smagur, Aneta; Gerszberg, Aneta; Kowalczyk, Tomasz; Gatkowska, Justyna; Kononowicz, Andrzej K

    2016-07-01

    Here, we present the application of microbiology and biotechnology for the production of recombinant pharmaceutical proteins in plant cells. To the best of our knowledge and belief it is one of few examples of the expression of the prokaryotic staphylokinase (SAK) in the eukaryotic system. Despite the tremendous progress made in the plant biotechnology, most of the heterologous proteins still accumulate to low concentrations in plant tissues. Therefore, the composition of expression cassettes to assure economically feasible level of protein production in plants remains crucial. The aim of our research was obtaining a high concentration of the bacterial anticoagulant factor-staphylokinase, in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds. The coding sequence of staphylokinase was placed under control of the β-phaseolin promoter and cloned between the signal sequence of the seed storage protein 2S2 and the carboxy-terminal KDEL signal sequence. The engineered binary vector pATAG-sak was introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana plants via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Analysis of the subsequent generations of Arabidopsis seeds revealed both presence of the sak and nptII transgenes, and the SAK protein. Moreover, a plasminogen activator activity of staphylokinase was observed in the protein extracts from seeds, while such a reaction was not observed in the leaf extracts showing seed-specific activity of the β-phaseolin promoter.

  4. CC9 livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus emerges in bloodstream infections in French patients unconnected with animal farming.

    PubMed

    Lamamy, Cindy; Berthelot, Aline; Bertrand, Xavier; Valentin, Anne-Sophie; Dos Santos, Sandra; Thiais, Sophie; Morange, Virginie; Girard, Nicole; Donnio, Pierre-Yves; Quentin, Roland; Schrenzel, Jacques; François, Patrice; van der Mee-Marquet, Nathalie

    2013-04-01

    We report 4 bloodstream infections associated with CC9 agr type II Staphylococcus aureus in individuals without animal exposure. We demonstrate, by microarray analysis, the presence of egc cluster, fnbA, cap operon, lukS, set2, set12, splE, splD, sak, epiD, and can, genomic features associated with a high virulence potential in humans.

  5. Becoming Dean: Selection and Socialization Processes of an Academic Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enomoto, Ernestine; Matsuoka, Jon

    2007-01-01

    In this qualitative case study, we offer an insider's perspective on the selection and socialization processes of an academic leader. The primary method of data collection was through a series of interviews with the candidate over a five-year period. Analysis drew from an organizational socialization model devised by Saks and Ashforth, which…

  6. The pharmaceutics from the foreign empire: the molecular pharming of the prokaryotic staphylokinase in Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

    PubMed

    Hnatuszko-Konka, Katarzyna; Łuchniak, Piotr; Wiktorek-Smagur, Aneta; Gerszberg, Aneta; Kowalczyk, Tomasz; Gatkowska, Justyna; Kononowicz, Andrzej K

    2016-07-01

    Here, we present the application of microbiology and biotechnology for the production of recombinant pharmaceutical proteins in plant cells. To the best of our knowledge and belief it is one of few examples of the expression of the prokaryotic staphylokinase (SAK) in the eukaryotic system. Despite the tremendous progress made in the plant biotechnology, most of the heterologous proteins still accumulate to low concentrations in plant tissues. Therefore, the composition of expression cassettes to assure economically feasible level of protein production in plants remains crucial. The aim of our research was obtaining a high concentration of the bacterial anticoagulant factor-staphylokinase, in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds. The coding sequence of staphylokinase was placed under control of the β-phaseolin promoter and cloned between the signal sequence of the seed storage protein 2S2 and the carboxy-terminal KDEL signal sequence. The engineered binary vector pATAG-sak was introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana plants via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Analysis of the subsequent generations of Arabidopsis seeds revealed both presence of the sak and nptII transgenes, and the SAK protein. Moreover, a plasminogen activator activity of staphylokinase was observed in the protein extracts from seeds, while such a reaction was not observed in the leaf extracts showing seed-specific activity of the β-phaseolin promoter. PMID:27263008

  7. Heavy oil recovery process: Conceptual engineering of a downhole methanator and preliminary estimate of facilities cost for application to North Slope Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Gondouin, M.

    1991-10-31

    The West Sak (Upper Cretaceous) sands, overlaying the Kuparuk field, would rank among the largest known oil fields in the US, but technical difficulties have so far prevented its commercial exploitation. Steam injection is the most successful and the most commonly-used method of heavy oil recovery, but its application to the West Sak presents major problems. Such difficulties may be overcome by using a novel approach, in which steam is generated downhole in a catalytic Methanator, from Syngas made at the surface from endothermic reactions (Table 1). The Methanator effluent, containing steam and soluble gases resulting from exothermic reactions (Table 1), is cyclically injected into the reservoir by means of a horizontal drainhole while hot produced fluids flow form a second drainhole into a central production tubing. The downhole reactor feed and BFW flow downward to two concentric tubings. The large-diameter casing required to house the downhole reactor assembly is filled above it with Arctic Pack mud, or crude oil, to further reduce heat leaks. A quantitative analysis of this production scheme for the West Sak required a preliminary engineering of the downhole and surface facilities and a tentative forecast of well production rates. The results, based on published information on the West Sak, have been used to estimate the cost of these facilities, per daily barrel of oil produced. A preliminary economic analysis and conclusions are presented together with an outline of future work. Economic and regulatory conditions which would make this approach viable are discussed. 28 figs.

  8. Altering Depth and Complexity in the Science Curriculum for the Gifted: Results of an Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çalikoglu, Burcu Seher; Kahveci, Nihat Gürel

    2015-01-01

    The Republic of Turkey has developed democratic support for equity in education for groups who have various learning needs (Levent, 2011, p. 89-91). In connection with Turkey's central policy of education, current educational applications have addressed these diverse needs to a certain extent. Sak (2011) drew our attention to the insufficiency of…

  9. Murine J774 Macrophages Recognize LPS/IFN-g, Non-CpG DNA or Two-CpG DNA-containing Sequences as Immunologically Distinct

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Lynn; Casey, Warren; Morgan, Kevin; Ni, Hong; Yoon, Lawrence; Easton, Marilyn; Misukonis, Mary; Burleson, Gary; Ghosh, Dipak K.

    2010-01-01

    Specific bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), IFN-γ, and unmethylated cytosine or guanosine-phosphorothioate containing DNAs (CpG) activate host immunity, influencing infectious responses. Macrophages detect, inactivate and destroy infectious particles, and synthetic CpG sequences invoke similar responses of the innate immune system. Previously, murine macrophage J774 cells treated with CpG induced the expression of nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) and cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX2) mRNA and protein. In this study murine J774 macrophages were exposed to vehicle, interferon γ + lipopolysaccharide (IFN-g/LPS), non-CpG (SAK1), or two-CpG sequence-containing DNA (SAK2) for 0–18 hr and gene expression changes measured. A large number of immunostimulatory and inflammatory changes were observed. SAK2 was a stronger activator of TNFα- and chemokine expression-related changes than LPS/IFN-g. Up regulation included tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily genes (TNFRSF’s), IL-1 receptor signaling via stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK), NF-κB activation, hemopoietic maturation factors and sonic hedgehog/wingless integration site (SHH/Wnt) pathway genes. Genes of the TGF-β pathway were down regulated. In contrast, LPS/IFN-g -treated cells showed increased levels for TGF-β signaling genes, which may be linked to the observed up regulation of numerous collagens and down regulation of Wnt pathway genes. SAK1 produced distinct changes from LPS/IFN-g or SAK2. Therefore, J774 macrophages recognize LPS/IFN-g, non-CpG DNA or two-CpG DNA-containing sequences as immunologically distinct. PMID:20097302

  10. Station Commander Congratulates New Flight Directors

    NASA Video Gallery

    Aboard the International Space Station, Expedition 29 Commander Mike Fossum congratulates Judd Frieling, Tomas Gonzalez-Torres and Greg Whitney on being selected as NASA's newest flight directors. ...

  11. Two-Component Signaling Regulates Osmotic Stress Adaptation via SskA and the High-Osmolarity Glycerol MAPK Pathway in the Human Pathogen Talaromyces marneffei.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Kylie J; Cao, Cunwei; Andrianopoulos, Alex

    2016-01-01

    For successful infection to occur, a pathogen must be able to evade or tolerate the host's defense systems. This requires the pathogen to first recognize the host environment and then signal this response to elicit a complex adaptive program in order to activate its own defense strategies. In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, two-component signaling systems are utilized to sense and respond to changes in the external environment. The hybrid histidine kinases (HHKs) at the start of the two-component signaling pathway have been well characterized in human pathogens. However, how these HHKs regulate processes downstream currently remains unclear. This study describes the role of a response regulator downstream of these HHKs, sskA, in Talaromyces marneffei, a dimorphic human pathogen. sskA is required for asexual reproduction, hyphal morphogenesis, cell wall integrity, osmotic adaptation, and the morphogenesis of yeast cells both in vitro at 37°C and during macrophage infection, but not during dimorphic switching. Comparison of the ΔsskA mutant with a strain in which the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) of the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway (SakA) has been deleted suggests that SskA acts upstream of this pathway in T. marneffei to regulate these morphogenetic processes. This was confirmed by assessing the amount of phosphorylated SakA in the ΔsskA mutant, antifungal resistance due to a lack of SakA activation, and the ability of a constitutively active sakA allele (sakA(F316L) ) to suppress the ΔsskA mutant phenotypes. We conclude that SskA regulates morphogenesis and osmotic stress adaptation in T. marneffei via phosphorylation of the SakA MAPK of the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway. IMPORTANCE This is the first study in a dimorphic fungal pathogen to investigate the role of a response regulator downstream of two-component signaling systems and its connection to the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway. This study will inspire further research into the

  12. Two-Component Signaling Regulates Osmotic Stress Adaptation via SskA and the High-Osmolarity Glycerol MAPK Pathway in the Human Pathogen Talaromyces marneffei

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Cunwei; Andrianopoulos, Alex

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT For successful infection to occur, a pathogen must be able to evade or tolerate the host’s defense systems. This requires the pathogen to first recognize the host environment and then signal this response to elicit a complex adaptive program in order to activate its own defense strategies. In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, two-component signaling systems are utilized to sense and respond to changes in the external environment. The hybrid histidine kinases (HHKs) at the start of the two-component signaling pathway have been well characterized in human pathogens. However, how these HHKs regulate processes downstream currently remains unclear. This study describes the role of a response regulator downstream of these HHKs, sskA, in Talaromyces marneffei, a dimorphic human pathogen. sskA is required for asexual reproduction, hyphal morphogenesis, cell wall integrity, osmotic adaptation, and the morphogenesis of yeast cells both in vitro at 37°C and during macrophage infection, but not during dimorphic switching. Comparison of the ΔsskA mutant with a strain in which the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) of the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway (SakA) has been deleted suggests that SskA acts upstream of this pathway in T. marneffei to regulate these morphogenetic processes. This was confirmed by assessing the amount of phosphorylated SakA in the ΔsskA mutant, antifungal resistance due to a lack of SakA activation, and the ability of a constitutively active sakA allele (sakAF316L) to suppress the ΔsskA mutant phenotypes. We conclude that SskA regulates morphogenesis and osmotic stress adaptation in T. marneffei via phosphorylation of the SakA MAPK of the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway. IMPORTANCE This is the first study in a dimorphic fungal pathogen to investigate the role of a response regulator downstream of two-component signaling systems and its connection to the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway. This study will inspire further research into

  13. Peasant struggles and social change: migration, households and gender in a rural Turkish society.

    PubMed

    Ilcan, S M

    1994-01-01

    "This article sheds light on the interrelationship of seasonal migration, subsistence production and peasant relations in a community (Sakli) located in Turkey's northwestern countryside.... While migrant labor is understood by local villagers as forming part of a continual battle to preserve local tradition and kinship ties, this article shows how it reduces the dominion of landlords while creating internal household differentiation and gendered hierarchies." PMID:12345795

  14. Molecular Evaluation of Genetic Diversity in Wild-Type Mastic Tree (Pistacia lentiscus L.).

    PubMed

    Abuduli, Alimu; Aydin, Yıldız; Sakiroglu, Muhammet; Onay, Ahmet; Ercisli, Sezai; Uncuoglu, Ahu Altinkut

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the patterns of genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships of mastic tree (Pistacia lentiscus L.) genotypes including 12 males and 12 females were evaluated using SSR, RAPD, ISSR, and ITS markers yielding 40, 703, 929 alleles, and 260-292 base pairs for ITS1 region, respectively. The average number of alleles produced from SSR, RAPD, and ISSR primers were 5.7, 14, and 18, respectively. The grouping pattern obtained from Bayesian clustering method based on each marker dataset was produced. Principal component analyses (PCA) of molecular data was investigated and neighbor joining dendrograms were subsequently created. Overall, the results indicated that ISSR and RAPD markers were the most powerful to differentiate the genotypes in comparison with other types of molecular markers used in this study. The ISSR results indicated that male and female genotypes were distinctly separated from each other. In this frame, M9 (Alaçatı) and M10 (Mesta Sakız Adası-Chios) were the closest genotypes and while F11 (Seferihisar) and F12 (Bornova/Gökdere) genotypes fall into same cluster and showing closer genetic relation. The RAPD pattern indicated that M8 (Urla) and M10 (Mesta Sakız Adası-Chios), and F10 (Mesta Sakız Adası-Chios) and F11 (Seferihisar) genotypes were the closest male and female genotypes, respectively. PMID:27246402

  15. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Sigal; Kent Newsham; Thomas Williams; Barry Freifeld; Timothy Kneafsey; Carl Sondergeld; Shandra Rai; Jonathan Kwan; Stephen Kirby; Robert Kleinberg; Doug Griffin

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. The work scope drilled and cored a well The Hot Ice No. 1 on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and utilized for determining the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. The final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists developing reservoir models. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in this report. The Hot Ice No. 1 well was drilled from the surface to a measured depth of 2300 ft. There was almost 100% core recovery from the bottom of surface casing at 107 ft to total depth. Based on the best estimate of the bottom of the methane hydrate stability zone (which used new data obtained from Hot Ice No. 1 and new analysis of data from adjacent wells), core was recovered over its complete range. Approximately 580 ft of porous, mostly frozen, sandstone and 155 of conglomerate were recovered in the Ugnu Formation and approximately 215 ft of porous sandstone were recovered in the West Sak Formation. There were gas shows in the bottom

  16. Secrets Shared: A Conversation with Francisco Jimemez.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrera, Rosalinda B.

    2003-01-01

    Presents an interview with Francisco Jimenez. Notes that he recently received the Tomas Rivera Mexican American Book Award for his authorship of "Breaking Through." Discusses his works and new ideas for future writing. (SG)

  17. The Intrinsic Fragility of DNA (Nobel Lecture).

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Tomas

    2016-07-18

    Our cells contain common molecules, such as water or oxygen, that can damage DNA. In his studies Tomas Lindahl has shown how specific repair enzymes remove and replace damaged parts of DNA in a process of vital importance.

  18. Disruption of Signaling in a Fungal-Grass Symbiosis Leads to Pathogenesis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Carla J.; Cox, Murray P.; Ambrose, Barbara; Becker, Matthias; Hesse, Uljana; Schardl, Christopher L.; Scott, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Symbiotic associations between plants and fungi are a dominant feature of many terrestrial ecosystems, yet relatively little is known about the signaling, and associated transcriptome profiles, that define the symbiotic metabolic state. Using the Epichloë festucae-perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) association as a model symbiotic experimental system, we show an essential role for the fungal stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (sakA) in the establishment and maintenance of this mutualistic interaction. Deletion of sakA switches the fungal interaction with the host from mutualistic to pathogenic. Infected plants exhibit loss of apical dominance, premature senescence, and dramatic changes in development, including the formation of bulb-like structures at the base of tillers that lack anthocyanin pigmentation. A comparison of the transcriptome of wild-type and sakA associations using high-throughput mRNA sequencing reveals dramatic changes in fungal gene expression consistent with the transition from restricted to proliferative growth, including a down-regulation of several clusters of secondary metabolite genes and up-regulation of a large set of genes that encode hydrolytic enzymes and transporters. Analysis of the plant transcriptome reveals up-regulation of host genes involved in pathogen defense and transposon activation as well as dramatic changes in anthocyanin and hormone biosynthetic/responsive gene expression. These results highlight the fine balance between mutualism and antagonism in a plant-fungal interaction and the power of deep mRNA sequencing to identify candidate sets of genes underlying the symbiosis. PMID:20519633

  19. Heavy oil recovery process: Conceptual engineering of a downhole methanator and preliminary estimate of facilities cost for application to North Slope Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Results from Tasks 8 and 9 are presented. Task 8 addressed the cost of materials and manufacturing of the Downhole Methanator and the cost of drilling and completing the vertical cased well and two horizontal drain holes in the West Sak reservoir. Task 9 addressed the preliminary design of surface facilities to support the enhanced recovery of heavy oil. Auxiliary facilities include steam reformers for carbon dioxide-rich natural gas reforming, emergency electric generators, nitrogen gas generators, and an ammonia synthesis unit. The ammonia is needed to stabilize the swelling of clays in the reservoir. Cost estimations and a description of how they were obtained are given.

  20. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect

    Donn McGuire; Steve Runyon; Richard Sigal; Bill Liddell; Thomas Williams; George Moridis

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is in the final stages of a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. Hot Ice No. 1 was planned to test the Ugnu and West Sak sequences for gas hydrates and a concomitant free gas accumulation on Anadarko's 100% working interest acreage in section 30 of Township 9N, Range 8E of the Harrison Bay quadrangle of the North Slope of Alaska. The Ugnu and West Sak intervals are favorably positioned in the hydrate-stability zone over an area extending from Anadarko's acreage westward to the vicinity of the aforementioned gas-hydrate occurrences. This suggests that a large, north-to-south trending gas-hydrate accumulation may exist in that area. The presence of gas shows in the Ugnu and West Sak reservoirs in wells situated eastward and down dip of the Hot Ice location indicate that a free-gas accumulation may be trapped by gas hydrates. The Hot Ice No. 1 well was designed to core from the surface to the base of the West Sak interval using the revolutionary and new

  1. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity. Annual report, November 1, 1990--October 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The objective of the cooperative research program is to characterize Alaskan reservoirs in terms of their reserves, physical and chemical properties, geologic configuration and structure, and the development potential. The tasks completed during this period include: (1) geologic reservoir description of Endicott Field; (2) petrographic characterization of core samples taken from selected stratigraphic horizons of the West Sak and Ugnu (Brookian) wells; (3) development of a polydispersed thermodynamic model for predicting asphaltene equilibria and asphaltene precipitation from crude oil-solvent mixtures, and (4) preliminary geologic description of the Milne Point Unit.

  2. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the cooperative research program is to characterize Alaskan reservoirs in terms of their reserves, physical and chemical properties, geologic configuration and structure, and the development potential. The tasks completed during this period include: (1) geologic reservoir description of Endicott Field; (2) petrographic characterization of core samples taken from selected stratigraphic horizons of the West Sak and Ugnu (Brookian) wells; (3) development of a polydispersed thermodynamic model for predicting asphaltene equilibria and asphaltene precipitation from crude oil-solvent mixtures, and (4) preliminary geologic description of the Milne Point Unit.

  3. Bacteriocin production and inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei 2a in a potentially synbiotic cheese spread.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Rafael Chacon Ruiz; Staliano, Cristina Dini; Vieira, Antonio Diogo Silva; Villarreal, Martha Lissete Morales; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Saad, Susana Marta Isay; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo

    2015-06-01

    Survival, bacteriocin(s) production, and antilisterial effect of Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei 2a were evaluated in a potentially synbiotic cheese spread, throughout storage at 4 °C and 15 °C for up to 28 days, using culture-dependent (plate count) and culture-independent (qPCR) methods. Bacteriocin(s) production in the food product was monitored by phenotypic and molecular (RT-qPCR) techniques. Three cheese spread trials (T) containing the prebiotic fiber inulin were produced in duplicates and studied: T1 (control - without inoculation of lactic acid bacteria); T2 (inoculated with the non-bacteriocinogenic Lb. sakei ATCC 15521 strain), and T3 (inoculated with the bacteriocinogenic Lb. sakei 2a strain). The cheese spreads were challenged with Listeria monocytogenes serotypes 4b and 1/2a, individually added to the food product. The counts of Lb. sakei 2a in the cheese spread T3 remained high during storage and the growth of L. monocytogenes was inhibited at both temperatures, especially L. monocytogenes 4b in the food product kept at 15 °C due to the production of bacteriocins (up to 6,400 AU/mL). Expression of the genes sakP and sakQ encoding for bacteriocins production during the cheese spread storage was demonstrated. Lb. sakei 2a can be used for production of potentially synbiotic cheese spreads with increased safety.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF SHALLOW VISCOUS OIL RESERVES IN NORTH SLOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2003-07-01

    North Slope of Alaska has huge oil deposits in heavy oil reservoirs such as Ugnu, West Sak and Shrader Bluff etc. The viscosity of the last two reservoir oils vary from {approx}30 cp to {approx}3000 cp and the amount in the range of 10-20 billion barrels. High oil viscosity and low formation strength impose problems to high recovery and well productivity. Water-alternate-gas injection processes can be effective for the lower viscosity end of these deposits in West Sak and Shrader Bluff. Several gas streams are available in the North Slope containing NGL and CO{sub 2} (a greenhouse gas). The goal of this research is to develop tools to find optimum solvent, injection schedule and well-architecture for a WAG process in North Slope shallow sand viscous oil reservoirs. In the last quarter, we added numerical solution along streamline subroutines to our streamline compositional simulator. The WAG injection algorithms are being developed. We studied the wettability of the reservoir oil and formulated a four-phase relative permeability model based on two-phase relative permeabilities. The effect of new relative permeability formulations on a five-spot pattern WAG recovery was evaluated. Effect of horizontal wells on pattern sweep has been initiated. A model quarter five-spot experiment is being designed. Plans for the next quarter includes modeling of WAG injection in streamline based simulation, evaluation of complex well-architecture and design of model quarter five-spot experiment.

  5. Nest survival of piping plovers at a dynamic reservoir indicates an ecological trap for a threatened population.

    PubMed

    Anteau, Michael J; Shaffer, Terry L; Sherfy, Mark H; Sovada, Marsha A; Stucker, Jennifer H; Wiltermuth, Mark T

    2012-12-01

    In the past 60 years, reservoirs have reshaped riverine ecosystems and transformed breeding habitats used by the threatened piping plover (Charadrius melodus; hereafter plover). Currently, 29 % of the Northern Great Plains plover population nests at reservoirs that might function as ecological traps because reservoirs have more diverse habitat features and greater dynamics in water levels than habitats historically used by breeding plovers. We examined factors influencing daily survival rates (DSR) of 346 plover nests at Lake Sakakawea (SAK; reservoir) during 2006-2009 by evaluating multiple a priori models, and we used our best model to hindcast nest success of plovers during 1985-2009. Our observed and hindcast estimates of nest success were low compared to published estimates. Previous findings indicate that plovers prefer nest sites that are low relative to water level. We found that elevation of nests above the water level had a strong positive correlation with DSR because water levels of SAK typically increased throughout the nesting period. Habitat characteristics on the reservoir differ from those that shaped nest-site selection for plovers. Accordingly, extraordinary nest loss occurs there in many years, largely due to inundation of nests, and based on low fledging rates those losses were not compensated by potential changes in chick survival. Therefore, our example supports the concept of ecological traps in birds because it addresses quantitative assessments of habitat preference and productivity over 25 years (since species listing) and affects a large portion of the population.

  6. Ciprofloxacin and Trimethoprim Cause Phage Induction and Virulence Modulation in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Goerke, Christiane; Köller, Johanna; Wolz, Christiane

    2006-01-01

    In Staphylococcus aureus strains of human origin, phages which integrate into the chromosomal gene coding for β-hemolysin (hlb) are widely distributed. Most of them encode accessory virulence determinants such as staphylokinase (sak) or enterotoxins. Here, we analyzed the effects of ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim on phage induction and expression of phage-encoded virulence factors by using isolates from patients with cystic fibrosis for which the induction of hlb-converting phages was demonstrated in vivo (C. Goerke, S. Matias y Papenberg, S. Dasbach, K. Dietz, R. Ziebach, B. C. Kahl, and C. Wolz, J. Infect. Dis. 189:724-734, 2004) as well as a φ13 lysogen of phage-cured strain 8325-4. Treatment of lysogens with subinhibitory concentrations of either antibiotic resulted in (i) delysogenization of strains resembling the isolates picked up after chronic lung infection and (ii) replication of phages in the bacterial host in a dose-dependent manner. Ciprofloxacin treatment resulted in enhanced recA transcription, indicating involvement of the SOS response in phage mobilization. Induction of φ13 was linked to elevated expression of the phage-encoded virulence gene sak, chiefly due to the activation of latent phage promoters. In summary, we could show the induction of hlb-converting phages and a subsequent virulence modulation of the host bacterium by ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim. PMID:16377683

  7. Paired Insulators and High-Temperature Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geballe, T. H.; Kivelson, S. A.

    In common with all condensed matter physicists of our generations, our way of thinking about our field was shaped and greatly inspired by countless seminal works of Phil Anderson -- a debt we are pleased to have the opportunity to acknowledge. Discussing plans for this article, we spent many pleasant times debating which particular contribution to highlight -- super-exchange (THG), Anderson-Higgs (SAK), the Anderson--Morel pseudopotential (THG), poor man's scaling (SAK), etc. In the end, we opted to highlight a single specific paper which greatly affected each of us at the time, and which has continued to exert a strong intellectual influence on us in the ensuing years. Almost 40 years ago in Ref. 1, Phil introduced the negative U center to account for the fact that most glasses and amorphous semiconductors are diamagnetic. This paper has been highly influential, but certainly does not rank among Phil's most famous works; however, focusing on it enables us to re-acquaint a younger generation with another of Phil's contributions, and to use this as a springboard to discuss some forward-looking extensions that continue to fascinate us...

  8. Nest survival of piping plovers at a dynamic reservoir indicates an ecological trap for a threatened population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anteau, Michael J.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Sovada, Marsha A.; Stucker, Jennifer H.; Wiltermuth, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    In the past 60 years, reservoirs have reshaped riverine ecosystems and transformed breeding habitats used by the threatened piping plover (Charadrius melodus; hereafter plover). Currently, 29 % of the Northern Great Plains plover population nests at reservoirs that might function as ecological traps because reservoirs have more diverse habitat features and greater dynamics in water levels than habitats historically used by breeding plovers. We examined factors influencing daily survival rates (DSR) of 346 plover nests at Lake Sakakawea (SAK; reservoir) during 2006–2009 by evaluating multiple a priori models, and we used our best model to hindcast nest success of plovers during 1985–2009. Our observed and hindcast estimates of nest success were low compared to published estimates. Previous findings indicate that plovers prefer nest sites that are low relative to water level. We found that elevation of nests above the water level had a strong positive correlation with DSR because water levels of SAK typically increased throughout the nesting period. Habitat characteristics on the reservoir differ from those that shaped nest-site selection for plovers. Accordingly, extraordinary nest loss occurs there in many years, largely due to inundation of nests, and based on low fledging rates those losses were not compensated by potential changes in chick survival. Therefore, our example supports the concept of ecological traps in birds because it addresses quantitative assessments of habitat preference and productivity over 25 years (since species listing) and affects a large portion of the population.

  9. Arsenic concentrations in rice, vegetables, and fish in Bangladesh: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Das, H K; Mitra, A K; Sengupta, P K; Hossain, A; Islam, F; Rabbani, G H

    2004-05-01

    Arsenic contaminating groundwater in Bangladesh is one of the largest environmental health hazards in the world. Because of the potential risk to human health through consumption of agricultural produce grown in fields irrigated with arsenic contaminated water, we have determined the level of contamination in 100 samples of crop, vegetables and fresh water fish collected from three different regions in Bangladesh. Arsenic concentrations were determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. All 11 samples of water and 18 samples of soil exceeded the expected limits of arsenic. No samples of rice grain (Oryza sativa L.) had arsenic concentrations more than the recommended limit of 1.0 mg/kg. However, rice plants, especially the roots had a significantly higher concentration of arsenic (2.4 mg/kg) compared to stem (0.73 mg/kg) and rice grains (0.14 mg/kg). Arsenic contents of vegetables varied; those exceeding the food safety limits included Kachu sak (Colocasia antiquorum) (0.09-3.99 mg/kg, n=9), potatoes (Solanum tuberisum) (0.07-1.36 mg/kg, n=5), and Kalmi sak (Ipomoea reptoms) (0.1-1.53 mg/kg, n=6). Lata fish (Ophicephalus punctatus) did not contain unacceptable levels of arsenic. These results indicate that arsenic contaminates some food items in Bangladesh. Further studies with larger samples are needed to demonstrate the extent of arsenic contamination of food in Bangladesh.

  10. Nucleolar release of Hand1 acts as a molecular switch to determine cell fate.

    PubMed

    Martindill, David M J; Risebro, Catherine A; Smart, Nicola; Franco-Viseras, Maria Del Mar; Rosario, Carla O; Swallow, Carol J; Dennis, James W; Riley, Paul R

    2007-10-01

    The bHLH transcription factor Hand1 is essential for placentation and cardiac morphogenesis in the developing embryo. Here we implicate Hand1 as a molecular switch that determines whether a trophoblast stem cell continues to proliferate or commits to differentiation. We identify a novel interaction of Hand1 with a protein that contains an I-mfa (inhibitor of myogenic factor) domain that anchors Hand1 in the nucleolus where it negatively regulates Hand1 activity. In the trophoblast stem-cell line Rcho-1, nucleolar sequestration of Hand1 accompanies sustained cell proliferation and renewal, whereas release of Hand1 into the nucleus leads to its activation, thus committing cells to a differentiated giant-cell fate. Site-specific phosphorylation is required for nucleolar release of Hand1, for its dimerization and biological function, and this is mediated by the non-canonical polo-like kinase Plk4 (Sak). Sak is co-expressed in Rcho-1 cells, localizes to the nucleolus during G2 and phosphorylates Hand1 as a requirement for trophoblast stem-cell commitment to a giant-cell fate. This study defines a novel cellular mechanism for regulating Hand1 that is a crucial step in the stem-cell differentiation pathway.

  11. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity; Final report, November 1, 1989--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.D.

    1993-09-01

    The Alaskan North Slope comprises one of the Nation`s and the world`s most prolific oil province. Original oil in place (OOIP) is estimated at nearly 70 BBL (Kamath and Sharma, 1986). Generalized reservoir descriptions have been completed by the University of Alaska`s Petroleum Development Laboratory over North Slope`s major fields. These fields include West Sak (20 BBL OOIP), Ugnu (15 BBL OOIP), Prudhoe Bay (23 BBL OOIP), Kuparuk (5.5 BBL OOIP), Milne Point (3 BBL OOIP), and Endicott (1 BBL OOIP). Reservoir description has included the acquisition of open hole log data from the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (AOGCC), computerized well log analysis using state-of-the-art computers, and integration of geologic and logging data. The studies pertaining to fluid characterization described in this report include: experimental study of asphaltene precipitation for enriched gases, CO{sup 2} and West Sak crude system, modeling of asphaltene equilibria including homogeneous as well as polydispersed thermodynamic models, effect of asphaltene deposition on rock-fluid properties, fluid properties of some Alaskan north slope reservoirs. Finally, the last chapter summarizes the reservoir heterogeneity classification system for TORIS and TORIS database.

  12. Perspectives on history: military dietetics in the Philippines during World War II.

    PubMed

    Hodges, P A

    1992-07-01

    The history of the profession of dietetics is a history of caring, dedicated, and capable individuals. This article examines the experiences of three dietitians during World War II in the Philippines--their pre-war status and their changing environments as the Japanese invaded the Philippines in overwhelming numbers. It recounts the extreme hardships they endured for 3 years as prisoners of war of the Japanese at Santo Tomas Internment Camp (formerly Santo Tomas University) in Manila. The article covers the time before Army dietitians had military status and concludes shortly after the former prisoners returned to the United States, when they were commissioned and promoted to the rank of first lieutenant.

  13. CO2 exchange following peat extraction - a comparison of two paired restored/unrestored peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, Ian; Strack, Maria; Pelletier, Luc; Nugent, Kelly; Rankin, Tracy

    2016-04-01

    Peat extraction is an important industry in parts of Canada and elsewhere globally. The resulting disturbance from drainage and vacuum-harvesting is mitigated through best practices which now incorporate restoration intended to return the peatland's biodiversity and greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange to that resembling the pre-disturbance state. We examine the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) in two sets of paired peatlands. Within each pair, the extraction year was the same and the sites were treated identically post-extraction in terms of management (blocking drains or leveling as applicable). The first pair is located in the vicinity of Rivière-du-Loup, Québec, Canada and were harvested in 1980. The Bois-des-Bel (BDB) site was restored in 1999 following the methods of Quinty and Rochefort (2003). GHG fluxes have been studied at various points since restoration (e.g. Strack and Zuback, 2013) largely using chamber measurements. The site now hosts a thriving bog ecosystem with Sphagnum, Eriophorum and shrub communities. A site 30 km away near Saint-Alexandre de Kamouraska (SAK) was managed post-harvest as BDB with drains blocked but was left unrestored and now has only sparse Eriophorum with invasive species. The second pair of peatlands represents a newly extracted site near Seba Beach, Alberta, Canada. One field was restored (SBR) in autumn 2012 as per the Québec sites but with ditches infilled when the fields were levelled while the other (SBU) was left unrestored. In the summer of 2013, eddy covariance towers were installed at each location and measured NEE continuously at 10Hz throughout the subsequent periods. BDB and SBR remain operational today while SBU was removed in fall 2014 and SAK in fall 2015. In this presentation, we will focus on the coincident years of operation. After 15 years, BDB has measured NEE in the range of that observed at natural peatlands. A summer sink and winter release lead to annual uptake of CO2. At SAK, the lack of establishment

  14. Electronic Pair-Binding and Hund's Rule Violations in Doped C60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hong-Chen; Kivelson, Steven

    We calculate the electronic properties of the t-J model on a C60 molecule using the density-matrix renormalization group and show that Hund's first rule is violated and that for an average of three added electron per molecule, an effective attraction (pair-binding) arises for intermediate values of t=J. Specifically, it is energetically favorable to put four electrons on one C60 and two on a second rather than putting three on each. Our results show that a dominantly electronic mechanism of superconductivity is possible in doped C60. HCJ and SAK were supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, under Contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.

  15. Cell cycle switch to endocycle: the nucleolus lends a hand.

    PubMed

    Martindill, David M J; Riley, Paul R

    2008-01-01

    The bHLH transcription factor Hand1 is essential for placentation and cardiac morphogenesis but how its developmental activity is regulated is largely unknown. We recently showed that Hand1 is sequestered in the nucleoli of rodent trophoblast stem (TS) cells by the I-mfa domain-containing protein HICp40 and that this is associated with their proliferation and continuing self-renewal. However when these cells commit to differentiate into trophoblast giant (TG) cells, Hand1 is phosphorylated by the polo-like kinase Plk4 (Sak) and released into the nucleus to activate downstream target genes. This event underlies the release of Hand1 from the nucleolus and represents the 'molecular switch' that promotes mitotic cell cycle exit and the onset of endoreduplication. In this brief discussion we examine the wider implications of these findings and address some of the unanswered questions that remain.

  16. Is Lebesgue measure the only [sigma]-finite invariant Borel measure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elekes, Marton; Keleti, Tamas

    2006-09-01

    S. Saks and recently R.D. Mauldin asked if every translation invariant [sigma]-finite Borel measure on is a constant multiple of Lebesgue measure. The aim of this paper is to investigate the versions of this question, since surprisingly the answer is "yes and no," depending on what we mean by Borel measure and by constant. According to a folklore result, if the measure is only defined for Borel sets, then the answer is affirmative. We show that if the measure is defined on a [sigma]-algebra containing the Borel sets, then the answer is negative. However, if we allow the multiplicative constant to be infinity, then the answer is affirmative in this case as well. Moreover, our construction also shows that an isometry invariant [sigma]-finite Borel measure (in the wider sense) on can be non-[sigma]-finite when we restrict it to the Borel sets.

  17. Enhancement of Commercial Antifungal Agents by Kojic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong H.; Chang, Perng-Kuang; Chan, Kathleen L.; Faria, Natália C. G.; Mahoney, Noreen; Kim, Young K.; Martins, Maria de L.; Campbell, Bruce C.

    2012-01-01

    Natural compounds that pose no significant medical or environmental side effects are potential sources of antifungal agents, either in their nascent form or as structural backbones for more effective derivatives. Kojic acid (KA) is one such compound. It is a natural by-product of fungal fermentation commonly employed by food and cosmetic industries. We show that KA greatly lowers minimum inhibitory (MIC) or fungicidal (MFC) concentrations of commercial medicinal and agricultural antifungal agents, amphotericin B (AMB) and strobilurin, respectively, against pathogenic yeasts and filamentous fungi. Assays using two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) mutants, i.e., sakAΔ, mpkCΔ, of Aspergillus fumigatus, an agent for human invasive aspergillosis, with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or AMB indicate such chemosensitizing activity of KA is most conceivably through disruption of fungal antioxidation systems. KA could be developed as a chemosensitizer to enhance efficacy of certain conventional antifungal drugs or fungicides. PMID:23203038

  18. Challenges in Improving Latino College Enrollment: Opportunities for Systemic Change Viewpoints from California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomas Rivera Policy Institute, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This document includes presentation summaries and policy recommendations from the 2004 Tomas Rivera Policy Institute (TRPI) Education Conference: (1) The Present and Coming Crisis: Demography and Education (Dowell Myers and Estela Mara Bensimon); (2) A View from the Academic Community (Moderators: Jorge Haynes and Jamilah Moore; Presenters:…

  19. College Scholarships for Latino Students: Are Opportunities Being Missed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquez, Amalia

    2006-01-01

    Previous research by The Tomas Rivera Policy Institute (TRPI) has demonstrated that extensive college financial aid opportunities are available in the form of scholarships, grants, and loans; yet many Latino students and their parents are not aware that numerous grants and scholarships are earmarked especially for them. This report provides…

  20. Characterization of expressed resistance gene analogs (RGAs) from peanut expressed sequence tags (ESTs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of the most important food legume crops grown worldwide, and is a major source for edible oil and protein. However, due to low genetic variation, peanut is very vulnerable to a variety of pathogens, such as early leaf spot, late leaf spot, rust and Toma...

  1. Buying into the Computer Age: A Look at the Hispanic Middle Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Anthony G.

    The Tomas Rivera Policy Institute conducted focus groups in the summer of 1997 to gain insight into why there is a gap in computer ownership between Hispanic middle-class families and non-Hispanic families of the same middle class income bracket (between 25 and 50 thousand dollars). Results from 6 focus groups of 15 to 20 heads of household each…

  2. Bio-based products via microwave-assisted maleation of tung oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple “green” and convenient chemical modification of tung oil for maleinized tung oil (TOMA) was developed via microwave-assisted one-step maleation. The mechanism of this microwave-assisted maleation was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). T...

  3. 78 FR 64510 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ..., Bethesda, MD 20892 (Virtual Meeting). Contact Person: Tomas Drgon, PhD., Scientific Review Officer, Center... (Virtual Meeting). Contact Person: Olga A Tjurmina, PhD., Scientific Review Officer, Center for Scientific..., 6701 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892 (Virtual Meeting). Contact Person: Dana Jeffrey Plude,...

  4. An update on sequence diversity of Impatiens necrotic spot virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV; genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) is an economically important viral pathogen for a wide range of plants, including greenhouse ornamental and vegetable crops. In many cases, symptoms induced by INSV are similar, though not identical, to those induced by Toma...

  5. Photons and magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-06-01

    Magnets are often electrically activated, but recent research has demonstrated various schemes that can control magnetization using light and photocarriers. Nature Photonics spoke to Petr Němec and Tomas Jungwirth about their recent work on a polarization-independent optical-torque approach.

  6. Learning Communities in Teacher Education Programs: Four Success Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Barbara, Ed.

    This report describes a program implemented by the Tomas Rivera Center (Claremont, California) to increase the number of well-prepared Latino teachers. Based on the concept of learning communities, the program aims to reduce the isolation experienced by minority students, offer support services that help nontraditional students satisfy academic…

  7. Access/"Acceso": Rising to the Challenge of Improving Higher Education Opportunities for Latinos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Charles B.; Scott, Jack

    2010-01-01

    The Tomas Rivera Lecture Series has a rich history of showcasing prominent lecturers, dating back to 1985. This year's lecture, the 26th in the series, features two influential and well-respected leaders in higher education, Chancellors Charles B. Reed and Jack Scott. Each brings a different perspective about the issues confronting higher…

  8. The Role of the Social Scientist in Human Resource Development Policy and Programs for Hispanics. National Symposium on Hispanics and CETA (1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furino, Antonio, Ed.

    Conference speakers focused on three topics: Hispanics and Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) policy and implementation issues; data sources; and research regarding Hispanic manpower. After introductory remarks by James W. Wagener, Eli Ginzberg and Tomas Rivera, Ernest Green discussed Hispanics and CETA. Harry Greenspan described…

  9. On-the-Spot Workshop Seminar on Early Childhood Education in the Philippines: Report (Manila, Philippines, January 6-14, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasik, Lynn Sperber

    The College of Education of the University of Santo Tomas and the Kapit-Bahay Community Center, Incorporated, approached the Israeli Embassy in Manila, Philippines, with a request for expertise in the area of early childhood. As a result of this request, the Mount Carmel International Training Centre, located in Haifa, Israel, submitted a proposal…

  10. African American and Latino Enrollment Trends among Medicine, Law, Business, and Public Affairs Graduate Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Garza, Rodolfo; Moghadam, Sepehr Hejazi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this Tomas Rivera Policy Institute (TRPI) report is twofold: to provide an analysis of the enrollment trends for African American and Latino students among graduate professional programs in the fields of medicine, business, law, and public affairs, and to present other relevant data pertaining to African American and Latino students…

  11. Reaching Higher Ground: Parental Outreach Programs at the Postsecondary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Celina; Marquez, Amalia

    2005-01-01

    In this follow-up study to "College Knowledge: What Latino Parents Need to Know and Why They Don't Know It," [see ED469295], the Tomas Rivera Policy Institute examines how postsecondary institutions are mobilizing to address the need for college information among Latino parents. The primary objective of "Reaching Higher Ground" is to profile in…

  12. A Poetry Workshop in Print: Pat Mora

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Lee Bennett

    2006-01-01

    After a successful career as a writer for adults, Pat Mora began creating books for children. Her first picture book, "Tomas and The Library Lady" (Knopf, 1997) is a tender story of a young migrant worker who unearths new worlds when he discovers the magic a public library holds. The text, cleverly interspersed with foreign words, became a…

  13. Que Pasa?: Are English Language Learning Students Remaining in English Learning Classes Too Long? Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Edward; Painter, Gary; Harlow-Nash, Zachary; Pachon, Harry

    2009-01-01

    English language learners (ELLs) have typically performed worse academically when compared to their English-fluent peers. Studies point to a number of possible causes for ELLs' poor performance, and offer differing recommendations for how best to educate them. This study by the Tomas Rivera Policy Institute (TRPI) demonstrates the significant…

  14. Necessary Infrastructure--Or Mission Inflation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Several US colleges, in their relentless pursuit of prestige, become obsessed with attracting students with increasingly extravagant student unions, dormitories, and other facilities. J. Douglas Toma, an associate professor at the Institute for Higher Education at the University of Georgia who is working on a book about the competition for status…

  15. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Martha E., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This review contains eight papers on topics within the field of information science and technology. The papers are divided into three sections as follows: (1) Planning Information Systems and Services, including "Information Ownership and Control" (Tomas A. Lipinski); and "Pricing and Marketing Online Information Services" (Sheila Anne Elizabeth…

  16. Sensory evaluation of baked chicken wrapped with antimicrobial apple and tomato edible films formulated with Cinnamaldehyde and Carvacrol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Addition of plant essential oils to edible films and coatings has been shown to protect against bacterial pathogens and spoilage while also enhancing sensory properties of foods. This study evaluated the effect of adding 0.5% and 0.75% carvacrol (active ingredient of oregano oil) to apple- and toma...

  17. Selection Indicates Preference in Diverse Habitats: A Ground-Nesting Bird (Charadrius melodus) Using Reservoir Shoreline

    PubMed Central

    Anteau, Michael J.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Wiltermuth, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    Animals use proximate cues to select resources that maximize individual fitness. When animals have a diverse array of available habitats, those selected could give insights into true habitat preferences. Since the construction of the Garrison Dam on the Missouri River in North Dakota, Lake Sakakawea (SAK) has become an important breeding area for federally threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus; hereafter plovers). We used conditional logistic regression to examine nest-site selection at fine scales (1, 3, and 10 m) during summers 2006–2009 by comparing characteristics at 351 nests to those of 668 random sites within nesting territories. Plovers selected sites (1 m2) that were lower than unused random sites, increasing the risk of nest inundation. Plovers selected nest sites that were flat, had little silt, and at least 1 cobble; they also selected for 3-m radius nest areas that were relatively flat and devoid of vegetation and litter. Ninety percent of nests had <38% coverage of silt and <10% slope at the site, and <15% coverage of vegetation or litter and <31% slope within the 3-m radius. Gravel was selected for at nest sites (11% median), but against in the area 10-m from the nest, suggesting plovers select for patches or strips of gravel. Although elevation is rarely evaluated in studies of ground-nesting birds, our results underscore its importance in habitat-selection studies. Relative to where plovers historically nested, habitat at SAK has more diverse topography, substrate composition, vegetation communities, and greater water-level fluctuations. Accordingly, our results provide an example of how habitat-selection results can be interpreted as habitat preferences because they are not influenced by desired habitats being scarce or absent. Further, our results will be useful for directing habitat conservation for plovers and interpreting other habitat-selection studies. PMID:22299037

  18. Designer and natural peptide toxin blockers of the KcsA potassium channel identified by phage display.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ruiming; Dai, Hui; Mendelman, Netanel; Cuello, Luis G; Chill, Jordan H; Goldstein, Steve A N

    2015-12-15

    Peptide neurotoxins are powerful tools for research, diagnosis, and treatment of disease. Limiting broader use, most receptors lack an identified toxin that binds with high affinity and specificity. This paper describes isolation of toxins for one such orphan target, KcsA, a potassium channel that has been fundamental to delineating the structural basis for ion channel function. A phage-display strategy is presented whereby ∼1.5 million novel and natural peptides are fabricated on the scaffold present in ShK, a sea anemone type I (SAK1) toxin stabilized by three disulfide bonds. We describe two toxins selected by sorting on purified KcsA, one novel (Hui1, 34 residues) and one natural (HmK, 35 residues). Hui1 is potent, blocking single KcsA channels in planar lipid bilayers half-maximally (Ki) at 1 nM. Hui1 is also specific, inhibiting KcsA-Shaker channels in Xenopus oocytes with a Ki of 0.5 nM whereas Shaker, Kv1.2, and Kv1.3 channels are blocked over 200-fold less well. HmK is potent but promiscuous, blocking KcsA-Shaker, Shaker, Kv1.2, and Kv1.3 channels with Ki of 1-4 nM. As anticipated, one Hui1 blocks the KcsA pore and two conserved toxin residues, Lys21 and Tyr22, are essential for high-affinity binding. Unexpectedly, potassium ions traversing the channel from the inside confer voltage sensitivity to the Hui1 off-rate via Arg23, indicating that Lys21 is not in the pore. The 3D structure of Hui1 reveals a SAK1 fold, rationalizes KcsA inhibition, and validates the scaffold-based approach for isolation of high-affinity toxins for orphan receptors. PMID:26627718

  19. Poultry-Like pA+ Biotype of Staphylococcus aureus CC346/084 Clone in Human Population.

    PubMed

    Piechowicz, Lidia; Garbacz, Katarzyna

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was (1) to analyse the prevalence of P-like pA+ biotype of S. aureus in material from healthy and diseased individuals, not employed at slaughterhouses or meat processing plants, and (2) to analyse the relatedness of these strains and their genetic variability. The study included 344 strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from hospitalized patients with staphylococcal infections and from healthy carriers. The biotypes of S. aureus were determined on the basis of fibrinolysin and β-haemolysin production, coagulation of bovine plasma, and type of growth on crystal violet agar. Additionally, the strains were tested for the synthesis of protein A in order to distinguish between P-like pA+ and poultry biotypes. Fibrinolysin gene (sak) and methicillin resistance (mecA) were detected by means of PCR. The clonal structure of studied strains was analysed using pulsed field gel electrophoresis and sequencing of spa gene. Finally, the strains were typed with a basic set of 23 bacteriophages. The strains belonging to P-like pA+ biotype corresponded to nearly 20 % of all the studied strains. In contrast to the human biotype, they formed one clonal complex, spa-CC346/084. The P-like pA+ biotype strains did not synthesize fibrinolysin, lacked the sak gene, and showed susceptibility to methicillin. In contrast to the human biotype strains, they belonged mostly to phage group II. The P-like pA+ biotype strains, previously described solely in meat products and meat industry workers, can be also present in hospitalized patients and extra-hospital carriers. These strains form a single, fibrinolysin-negative, clonal complex t084/CC346. PMID:27061586

  20. Cytotoxicity of food preservatives in cultured rat hepatocytes loaded with linolenic acid.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, N; Shimomichi, K; Furuno, K

    1997-06-01

    We investigated the ability of eight food preservatives to induce lipid peroxidation in normal and alpha-linolenic acid (LNA)-loaded cultured rat hepatocytes. On the addition of sodium dehydroacetate (DHA-Na), potassium sorbate (SA-K) or thiabendazole (TBZ) to the cell culture, lipid peroxidation, assessed in terms of the production of malondialdehyde (MDA), was induced in LNA-loaded cells, but not in normal cells. At the low concentrations, induction of lipid peroxidation in LNA-loaded cells was highest with TBZ, whereas at high concentrations DHA-Na greatly induced lipid peroxidation. The occurrence of lipid peroxidation in LNA-loaded cells was accompanied by a decrease in cellular GSH levels with the three preservatives and by a decrease in cellular protein-SH levels with DHA-Na and TBZ. Furthermore, cell injury, measured by the release of LDH, was produced in LNA-loaded cells exposed to DHA-Na and SA-K. The addition of TBZ caused substantial cell injury in normal cells, and even greater injury in LNA-loaded cells. The prevention of lipid peroxidation in LNA-loaded hepatocytes by addition of an antioxidant, N,N'-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPPD) almost completely prevented DHA-Na- and SA-K-induced cell injury, and reduced TBZ-induced cell injury. The addition of diphenyl (DP), o-phenylphenol (OPP) or butyl p-hydroxybenzoate (BHB) caused severe cell injury, in association with a marked decrease in cellular levels of both of GSH and protein-SH in both groups of cells. However, lipid peroxidation was not detectable in either group of cells exposed to these preservatives. Sodium propionate (PA-Na) and sodium benzoate (BA-Na) had little effect on any cytotoxic parameter in either group of cells.

  1. Designer and natural peptide toxin blockers of the KcsA potassium channel identified by phage display

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ruiming; Dai, Hui; Mendelman, Netanel; Cuello, Luis G.; Chill, Jordan H.; Goldstein, Steve A. N.

    2015-01-01

    Peptide neurotoxins are powerful tools for research, diagnosis, and treatment of disease. Limiting broader use, most receptors lack an identified toxin that binds with high affinity and specificity. This paper describes isolation of toxins for one such orphan target, KcsA, a potassium channel that has been fundamental to delineating the structural basis for ion channel function. A phage-display strategy is presented whereby ∼1.5 million novel and natural peptides are fabricated on the scaffold present in ShK, a sea anemone type I (SAK1) toxin stabilized by three disulfide bonds. We describe two toxins selected by sorting on purified KcsA, one novel (Hui1, 34 residues) and one natural (HmK, 35 residues). Hui1 is potent, blocking single KcsA channels in planar lipid bilayers half-maximally (Ki) at 1 nM. Hui1 is also specific, inhibiting KcsA-Shaker channels in Xenopus oocytes with a Ki of 0.5 nM whereas Shaker, Kv1.2, and Kv1.3 channels are blocked over 200-fold less well. HmK is potent but promiscuous, blocking KcsA-Shaker, Shaker, Kv1.2, and Kv1.3 channels with Ki of 1–4 nM. As anticipated, one Hui1 blocks the KcsA pore and two conserved toxin residues, Lys21 and Tyr22, are essential for high-affinity binding. Unexpectedly, potassium ions traversing the channel from the inside confer voltage sensitivity to the Hui1 off-rate via Arg23, indicating that Lys21 is not in the pore. The 3D structure of Hui1 reveals a SAK1 fold, rationalizes KcsA inhibition, and validates the scaffold-based approach for isolation of high-affinity toxins for orphan receptors. PMID:26627718

  2. Stepwise evolution of the centriole-assembly pathway.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Santos, Zita; Machado, Pedro; Branco, Pedro; Tavares-Cadete, Filipe; Rodrigues-Martins, Ana; Pereira-Leal, José B; Bettencourt-Dias, Mónica

    2010-05-01

    The centriole and basal body (CBB) structure nucleates cilia and flagella, and is an essential component of the centrosome, underlying eukaryotic microtubule-based motility, cell division and polarity. In recent years, components of the CBB-assembly machinery have been identified, but little is known about their regulation and evolution. Given the diversity of cellular contexts encountered in eukaryotes, but the remarkable conservation of CBB morphology, we asked whether general mechanistic principles could explain CBB assembly. We analysed the distribution of each component of the human CBB-assembly machinery across eukaryotes as a strategy to generate testable hypotheses. We found an evolutionarily cohesive and ancestral module, which we term UNIMOD and is defined by three components (SAS6, SAS4/CPAP and BLD10/CEP135), that correlates with the occurrence of CBBs. Unexpectedly, other players (SAK/PLK4, SPD2/CEP192 and CP110) emerged in a taxon-specific manner. We report that gene duplication plays an important role in the evolution of CBB components and show that, in the case of BLD10/CEP135, this is a source of tissue specificity in CBB and flagella biogenesis. Moreover, we observe extreme protein divergence amongst CBB components and show experimentally that there is loss of cross-species complementation among SAK/PLK4 family members, suggesting species-specific adaptations in CBB assembly. We propose that the UNIMOD theory explains the conservation of CBB architecture and that taxon- and tissue-specific molecular innovations, gained through emergence, duplication and divergence, play important roles in coordinating CBB biogenesis and function in different cellular contexts. PMID:20392737

  3. Alaska North Slope National Energy Strategy initiative: Analysis of five undeveloped fields

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.P.; Allaire, R.B.; Doughty, T.C.; Faulder, D.D.; Irving, J.S.; Jamison, H.C.; White, G.J.

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy was directed in the National Energy Strategy to establish a federal interagency task force to identify specific technical and regulatory barriers to the development of five undeveloped North Slope Alaska fields and make recommendations for their resolution. The five fields are West Sak, Point Thomson, Gwydyr Bay, Seal Island/Northstar, and Sandpiper Island. Analysis of environmental, regulatory, technical, and economic information, and data relating to the development potential of the five fields leads to the following conclusions: Development of the five fields would result in an estimated total of 1,055 million barrels of oil and 4.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas and total investment of $9.4 billion in 1992 dollars. It appears that all five of the fields will remain economically marginal developments unless there is significant improvement in world oil prices. Costs of regulatory compliance and mitigation, and costs to reduce or maintain environmental impacts at acceptable levels influence project investments and operating costs and must be considered in the development decision making process. The development of three of the fields (West Sak, Point Thomson, and Gwydyr Bay) that are marginally feasible would have an impact on North Slope production over the period from about 2000 to 2014 but cannot replace the decline in Prudhoe Bay Unit production or maintain the operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) beyond about 2014 with the assumption that the TAPS will shut down when production declines to the range of 400 to 200 thousand barrels of oil/day. Recoverable reserves left in the ground in the currently producing fields and soon to be developed fields, Niakuk and Point McIntyre, would range from 1 billion to 500 million barrels of oil corresponding to the time period of 2008 to 2014 based on the TAPS shutdown assumption.

  4. Assessment of Alaska's North Slope Oil Field Capacity to Sequester CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Umekwe, Pascal; Mongrain, Joanna; Ahmadi, Mohabbat; Hanks, Catherine

    2013-03-15

    The capacity of 21 major fields containing more than 95% of the North Slope of Alaska's oil were investigated for CO{sub 2} storage by injecting CO{sub 2} as an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agent. These fields meet the criteria for the application of miscible and immiscible CO{sub 2}-EOR methods and contain about 40 billion barrels of oil after primary and secondary recovery. Volumetric calculations from this study indicate that these fields have a static storage capacity of 3 billion metric tons of CO{sub 2}, assuming 100% oil recovery, re-pressurizing the fields to pre-fracturing pressure and applying a 50% capacity reduction to compensate for heterogeneity and for water invasion from the underlying aquifer. A ranking produced from this study, mainly controlled by field size and fracture gradient, identifies Prudhoe, Kuparuk, and West Sak as possessing the largest storage capacities under a 20% safety factor on pressures applied during storage to avoid over-pressurization, fracturing, and gas leakage. Simulation studies were conducted using CO{sub 2} Prophet to determine the amount of oil technically recoverable and CO{sub 2} gas storage possible during this process. Fields were categorized as miscible, partially miscible, and immiscible based on the miscibility of CO{sub 2} with their oil. Seven sample fields were selected across these categories for simulation studies comparing pure CO{sub 2} and water-alternating-gas injection. Results showed that the top two fields in each category for recovery and CO{sub 2} storage were Alpine and Point McIntyre (miscible), Prudhoe and Kuparuk (partially miscible), and West Sak and Lisburne (immiscible). The study concludes that 5 billion metric tons of CO{sub 2} can be stored while recovering 14.2 billion barrels of the remaining oil.

  5. Selection indicates preference in diverse habitats: A Ground-Nesting bird (charadrius melodus) using reservoir shoreline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anteau, M.J.; Sherfy, M.H.; Wiltermuth, M.T.

    2012-01-01

    Animals use proximate cues to select resources that maximize individual fitness. When animals have a diverse array of available habitats, those selected could give insights into true habitat preferences. Since the construction of the Garrison Dam on the Missouri River in North Dakota, Lake Sakakawea (SAK) has become an important breeding area for federally threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus; hereafter plovers). We used conditional logistic regression to examine nest-site selection at fine scales (1, 3, and 10 m) during summers 2006-2009 by comparing characteristics at 351 nests to those of 668 random sites within nesting territories. Plovers selected sites (1 m 2) that were lower than unused random sites, increasing the risk of nest inundation. Plovers selected nest sites that were flat, had little silt, and at least 1 cobble; they also selected for 3-m radius nest areas that were relatively flat and devoid of vegetation and litter. Ninety percent of nests had <38% coverage of silt and <10% slope at the site, and <15% coverage of vegetation or litter and <31% slope within the 3-m radius. Gravel was selected for at nest sites (11% median), but against in the area 10-m from the nest, suggesting plovers select for patches or strips of gravel. Although elevation is rarely evaluated in studies of ground-nesting birds, our results underscore its importance in habitat-selection studies. Relative to where plovers historically nested, habitat at SAK has more diverse topography, substrate composition, vegetation communities, and greater water-level fluctuations. Accordingly, our results provide an example of how habitat-selection results can be interpreted as habitat preferences because they are not influenced by desired habitats being scarce or absent. Further, our results will be useful for directing habitat conservation for plovers and interpreting other habitat-selection studies.

  6. Selection indicates preference in diverse habitats: A ground-nesting bird (Charadrius melodus) using reservoir shoreline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anteau, Michael J.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Wiltermuth, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    Animals use proximate cues to select resources that maximize individual fitness. When animals have a diverse array of available habitats, those selected could give insights into true habitat preferences. Since the construction of the Garrison Dam on the Missouri River in North Dakota, Lake Sakakawea (SAK) has become an important breeding area for federally threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus; hereafter plovers). We used conditional logistic regression to examine nest-site selection at fine scales (1, 3, and 10 m) during summers 2006–2009 by comparing characteristics at 351 nests to those of 668 random sites within nesting territories. Plovers selected sites (1 m2) that were lower than unused random sites, increasing the risk of nest inundation. Plovers selected nest sites that were flat, had little silt, and at least 1 cobble; they also selected for 3-m radius nest areas that were relatively flat and devoid of vegetation and litter. Ninety percent of nests had <38% coverage of silt and <10% slope at the site, and <15% coverage of vegetation or litter and <31% slope within the 3-m radius. Gravel was selected for at nest sites (11% median), but against in the area 10-m from the nest, suggesting plovers select for patches or strips of gravel. Although elevation is rarely evaluated in studies of ground-nesting birds, our results underscore its importance in habitat-selection studies. Relative to where plovers historically nested, habitat at SAK has more diverse topography, substrate composition, vegetation communities, and greater water-level fluctuations. Accordingly, our results provide an example of how habitat-selection results can be interpreted as habitat preferences because they are not influenced by desired habitats being scarce or absent. Further, our results will be useful for directing habitat conservation for plovers and interpreting other habitat-selection studies.

  7. Asterless licenses daughter centrioles to duplicate for the first time in Drosophila embryos.

    PubMed

    Novak, Zsofia A; Conduit, Paul T; Wainman, Alan; Raff, Jordan W

    2014-06-01

    Centrioles form centrosomes and cilia, and defects in any of these three organelles are associated with human disease [1]. Centrioles duplicate once per cell cycle, when a mother centriole assembles an adjacent daughter during S phase. Daughter centrioles cannot support the assembly of another daughter until they mature into mothers during the next cell cycle [2-5]. The molecular nature of this daughter-to-mother transition remains mysterious. Pioneering studies in C. elegans identified a set of core proteins essential for centriole duplication [6-12], and a similar set have now been identified in other species [10, 13-18]. The protein kinase ZYG-1/Sak/Plk4 recruits the inner centriole cartwheel components SAS-6 and SAS-5/Ana2/STIL, which then recruit SAS-4/CPAP, which in turn helps assemble the outer centriole microtubules [19, 20]. In flies and humans, the Asterless/Cep152 protein interacts with Sak/Plk4 and Sas-4/CPAP and is required for centriole duplication, although its precise role in the assembly pathway is unclear [21-24]. Here, we show that Asl is not incorporated into daughter centrioles as they assemble during S phase but is only incorporated once mother and daughter separate at the end of mitosis. The initial incorporation of Asterless (Asl) is irreversible, requires DSas-4, and, crucially, is essential for daughter centrioles to mature into mothers that can support centriole duplication. We therefore propose a "dual-licensing" model of centriole duplication, in which Asl incorporation provides a permanent primary license to allow new centrioles to duplicate for the first time, while centriole disengagement provides a reduplication license to allow mother centrioles to duplicate again.

  8. The Potential of Class II Bacteriocins to Modify Gut Microbiota to Improve Host Health

    PubMed Central

    Umu, Özgün C. O.; Bäuerl, Christine; Oostindjer, Marije; Pope, Phillip B.; Hernández, Pablo E.; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Diep, Dzung B.

    2016-01-01

    Production of bacteriocins is a potential probiotic feature of many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as it can help prevent the growth of pathogens in gut environments. However, knowledge on bacteriocin producers in situ and their function in the gut of healthy animals is still limited. In this study, we investigated five bacteriocin-producing strains of LAB and their isogenic non-producing mutants for probiotic values. The LAB bacteriocins, sakacin A (SakA), pediocin PA-1 (PedPA-1), enterocins P, Q and L50 (enterocins), plantaricins EF and JK (plantaricins) and garvicin ML (GarML), are all class II bacteriocins, but they differ greatly from each other in terms of inhibition spectrum and physicochemical properties. The strains were supplemented to mice through drinking water and changes on the gut microbiota composition were interpreted using 16S rRNA gene analysis. In general, we observed that overall structure of the gut microbiota remained largely unaffected by the treatments. However, at lower taxonomic levels, some transient but advantageous changes were observed. Some potentially problematic bacteria were inhibited (e.g., Staphylococcus by enterocins, Enterococcaceae by GarML, and Clostridium by plantaricins) and the proportion of LAB was increased in the presence of SakA-, plantaricins- and GarML-producing bacteria. Moreover, the treatment with GarML-producing bacteria co-occurred with decreased triglyceride levels in the host mice. Taken together, our results indicate that several of these bacteriocin producers have potential probiotic properties at diverse levels as they promote favorable changes in the host without major disturbance in gut microbiota, which is important for normal gut functioning. PMID:27695121

  9. Perspectives on history: military dietetics in the Philippines during World War II.

    PubMed

    Hodges, P A

    1992-07-01

    The history of the profession of dietetics is a history of caring, dedicated, and capable individuals. This article examines the experiences of three dietitians during World War II in the Philippines--their pre-war status and their changing environments as the Japanese invaded the Philippines in overwhelming numbers. It recounts the extreme hardships they endured for 3 years as prisoners of war of the Japanese at Santo Tomas Internment Camp (formerly Santo Tomas University) in Manila. The article covers the time before Army dietitians had military status and concludes shortly after the former prisoners returned to the United States, when they were commissioned and promoted to the rank of first lieutenant. PMID:1624653

  10. The 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry The Discovery of Essential Mechanisms that Repair DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Tomas; Modrich, Paul; Sancar, Aziz

    2016-01-01

    The Royal Swedish Academy awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2015 to Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich and Aziz Sancar for their discoveries in fundamental mechanisms of DNA repair. This pioneering research described three different essential pathways that correct DNA damage, safeguard the integrity of the genetic code to ensure its accurate replication through generations, and allow proper cell division. Working independently of each other, Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich and Aziz Sancar delineated the mechanisms of base excision repair, mismatch repair and nucleotide excision repair, respectively. These breakthroughs challenged and dismissed the early view that the DNA molecule was very stable, paving the way for the discovery of human hereditary diseases associated with distinct DNA repair deficiencies and a susceptibility to cancer. It also brought a deeper understanding of cancer as well as neurodegenerative or neurological diseases, and let to novel strategies to treat cancer.

  11. The 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry The Discovery of Essential Mechanisms that Repair DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Tomas; Modrich, Paul; Sancar, Aziz

    2016-01-01

    The Royal Swedish Academy awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2015 to Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich and Aziz Sancar for their discoveries in fundamental mechanisms of DNA repair. This pioneering research described three different essential pathways that correct DNA damage, safeguard the integrity of the genetic code to ensure its accurate replication through generations, and allow proper cell division. Working independently of each other, Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich and Aziz Sancar delineated the mechanisms of base excision repair, mismatch repair and nucleotide excision repair, respectively. These breakthroughs challenged and dismissed the early view that the DNA molecule was very stable, paving the way for the discovery of human hereditary diseases associated with distinct DNA repair deficiencies and a susceptibility to cancer. It also brought a deeper understanding of cancer as well as neurodegenerative or neurological diseases, and let to novel strategies to treat cancer. PMID:27183258

  12. Remote Sensing Application of the Geophysical Changes in the Coastlines and Rivers of Zambales, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz-Alberto, Annie Melinda; Sison, Melissa Joy M.; Bulaong, Edmark Pablo; Pakaigue, Marietta A.

    2016-06-01

    Geophysical changes in river outlet, river upstream and coastlines near the rivers of Bucao and Santo Tomas in Zambales, Philippines were analyzed using the Google Earth's historical satellite imageries from 2004 to 2013. Data in 2015 were gathered from in situ field measurements ground validation. The study aimed to measure and determine changes in the width of river outlet, width of river bank upstream and shifting of coastline. Results revealed that there was a decrease and increase in the width size of the Bucao and Santo Tomas river outlets, respectively during the study period. Geophysical changes occurred in the two rivers due to the continuous supply of lahar as an after effect of the Mount Pinatubo eruption in 1991. Coastline positions near the two rivers also changed. The highest rate of erosion along the coastal area was prevalently observed near the river outlet of both rivers. Moreover, accretion was observed in the coastline of Santo Tomas and erosion phenomenon was observed in the North and South coastlines of Bucao River. The shifting was caused by natural processes such as erosion, sedimentation and natural calamities as well as anthropogenic processes such as reclamation/quarrying. Occurrence of erosion and sedimentation played active roles in the changes of coastlines during the study period. Furthermore, the upstream of the Bucao river changed physically due to deposits of lahar present in the upstream which are being discharged directly and continuously going down to the river. Generally, the width of the Bucao River upstream decreased its size because of the accumulated sediment in the riverbank. On the other hand, the observed erosion is caused by high velocity of river during heavy rains and typhoons. The width of the Santo Tomas river bank upstream did not change due to the construction of concrete dikes which prevent the lahar-filled river from breaching the embankment and flooding the agricultural, residential and commercial areas near

  13. [Association between dietary habits and the presence of overweight/obesity in a sample of 21,385 chilean adolescents].

    PubMed

    Lopez-Legarrea, Patricia; Olivares, Pedro R; Almonacid-Fierro, Alejandro; Gomez-Campos, Rossana; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; Garcia-Rubio, Javier

    2015-05-01

    Objetivos: El principal objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar las posibles asociaciones entre los hábitos dietéticos y la presencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en adolescentes Chilenos. Método: Para este trabajo se analizaron los hábitos dietéticos de 21.385 estudiantes Chilenos y se determinaron el peso y la talla, con el fin de explorar posibles asociaciones entre los patrones de alimentación y los valores de índice de masa corporal (IMC). Resultados: La mayoría de los participantes realiza la toma del almuerzo (81%) y de la merienda (71,2%) todos los días de la semana. Sólo el 59,5% de los encuestados toma desayuno cada día y un 22% cena todas las noches. Desayunar es común entre los sujetos delgados y con peso normal, pero únicamente la mitad de los individuos con sobrepeso u obesidad desayuna habitualmente. Los obesos son el grupo que consume menos productos lácteos. Un 50,2% de todos los participantes nunca toma legumbres o lo hace una vez por semana. En torno a un 15% toma dulces todos los días y casi la mitad de los encuestados ingiere bebidas carbonatadas cada día de la semana. Además, tomar desayuno de forma habitual se asoció inversamente con el absentismo escolar. Conclusión: Se necesitan llevar a cabo estrategias de educación nutricional entre los estudiantes chilenos, ya que los hábitos dietéticos inadecuados se encuentran asociados con valores más elevados de IMC.

  14. Surfactant-modified bentonite clays: preparation, characterization, and atrazine removal.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Anirban; Singh, Neera

    2015-03-01

    Bentonite clay was modified using quaternary ammonium cations, viz. phenyltrimethylammonium (PTMA), hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA), trioctylmethylammonium (TOMA) [100 % of cation exchange capacity of clay], and stearylkonium (SK) [100 % (SK-I) and 250 % (SK-II) of cation exchange capacity of clay]. The organoclays were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Atrazine adsorption on modified clays was studied using a batch method. Bentonite clay was a poor adsorbent of atrazine as 9.4 % adsorption was observed at 1 μg mL(-1) atrazine concentration. Modification of clay by PTMA cation did not improve atrazine adsorption capacity. However, atrazine adsorption in HDTMA-, TOMA-, and SK-bentonites varied between 49 and 72.4 % and data fitted well to the Freundlich adsorption isotherm (R > 0.96). Adsorption of atrazine in organoclays was nonlinear and slope (1/n) values were <1. The product of Freundlich adsorption constants, K f(1/n) in HDTMA-, TOMA-, and SK-I-bentonites was 239.2, 302.4, and 256.6, respectively, while increasing the SK cation loading in the clay (SK-II) decreased atrazine adsorption [K f(1/n) - 196.4]. Desorption of atrazine from organoclays showed hysteresis and TOMA- and SK-I-bentonites were the best organoclays to retain the adsorbed atrazine. Organoclays showed better atrazine removal from wastewater than an aqueous solution. The synthesized organoclays may find application in soil and water decontamination and as a carrier for atrazine-controlled released formulations. PMID:25273519

  15. Surfactant-modified bentonite clays: preparation, characterization, and atrazine removal.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Anirban; Singh, Neera

    2015-03-01

    Bentonite clay was modified using quaternary ammonium cations, viz. phenyltrimethylammonium (PTMA), hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA), trioctylmethylammonium (TOMA) [100 % of cation exchange capacity of clay], and stearylkonium (SK) [100 % (SK-I) and 250 % (SK-II) of cation exchange capacity of clay]. The organoclays were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Atrazine adsorption on modified clays was studied using a batch method. Bentonite clay was a poor adsorbent of atrazine as 9.4 % adsorption was observed at 1 μg mL(-1) atrazine concentration. Modification of clay by PTMA cation did not improve atrazine adsorption capacity. However, atrazine adsorption in HDTMA-, TOMA-, and SK-bentonites varied between 49 and 72.4 % and data fitted well to the Freundlich adsorption isotherm (R > 0.96). Adsorption of atrazine in organoclays was nonlinear and slope (1/n) values were <1. The product of Freundlich adsorption constants, K f(1/n) in HDTMA-, TOMA-, and SK-I-bentonites was 239.2, 302.4, and 256.6, respectively, while increasing the SK cation loading in the clay (SK-II) decreased atrazine adsorption [K f(1/n) - 196.4]. Desorption of atrazine from organoclays showed hysteresis and TOMA- and SK-I-bentonites were the best organoclays to retain the adsorbed atrazine. Organoclays showed better atrazine removal from wastewater than an aqueous solution. The synthesized organoclays may find application in soil and water decontamination and as a carrier for atrazine-controlled released formulations.

  16. Streptomyces scabies 87-22 Possesses a Functional Tomatinase▿

    PubMed Central

    Seipke, Ryan F.; Loria, Rosemary

    2008-01-01

    The actinomycete Streptomyces scabies 87-22 is the causal agent of common scab, an economically important disease of potato and taproot crops. Sequencing of the S. scabies 87-22 genome revealed the presence of a gene with high homology to the gene encoding the α-tomatine-detoxifying enzyme tomatinase found in fungal tomato pathogens. The tomA gene from S. scabies 87-22 was cotranscribed with a putative family 1 glycosyl hydrolase gene, and purified TomA protein was active only on α-tomatine and not potato glycoalkaloids or xylans. Tomatinase-null mutants were more sensitive to α-tomatine than the wild-type strain in a disk diffusion assay. Interestingly, tomatine affected only aerial mycelium and not vegetative mycelium, suggesting that the target(s) of α-tomatine is not present during vegetative growth. Severities of disease for tomato seedlings affected by S. scabies 87-22 wild-type and ΔtomA1 strains were indistinguishable, suggesting that tomatinase is not important in pathogenicity on tomato plants. However, conservation of tomA on a pathogenicity island in S. acidiscabies and S. turgidiscabies suggests a role in plant-microbe interaction. PMID:18835993

  17. Modeling of alkyl quaternary ammonium cations intercalated into montmorillonite lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Daoudi, El Mehdi; Boughaleb, Yahia; El Gaini, Layla; Meghea, Irina; Bakasse, Mina

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► The modification of montmorillonites by three surfactants increases the basal spacing. ► The model proposed show a bilayer conformation for the surfactant ODTMA. ► The DODMA and TOMA surfactants adopt a paraffin type arrangement. ► Behavior of surfactants in interlayer space was confirmed by TGA and ATR analysis. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to study the conformation of the quaternary ammonium cations viz., octadecyl trimethyl ammonium (ODTMA), dioctadecyl dimethyl ammonium (DMDOA) and trioctadecyl methyl ammonium (TOMA) intercalated within montmorillonite. The modified montmorillonite was characterized by X-ray diffraction in small angle (SAXS), thermal analysis (TGA) and infrared spectroscopy of attenuated total reflection (ATR). The modification of organophilic montmorillonites by the three surfactants ODTMA, DMDOA and TOMA increases the basal spacing from their respective intercalated distances of 1.9 nm, 2.6 nm and 3.4 nm respectively. The increase in the spacing due to the basic organic modification was confirmed by the results of thermal analysis (TGA) and infrared spectroscopy (ATR), and also supported by theoretical calculations of longitudinal and transversal chain sizes of these alkyl quaternary ammonium cations.

  18. Negative conversion of COP (circumoval precipitation) reactions after selective mass chemotherapy on schistosomiasis japonica with praziquantel in Bohol, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Nakao, M; Matsuda, H; Tanaka, H; Santos, A T; Blas, B L; Nakamura, S

    1987-10-01

    For the longitudinal survey of human schistosomiasis japonica in the villages of Sto. Tomas and San Vicente in the province of Bohol, Philippines, the circumoval precipitin (COP) test was used for case detection. Plasma collected by finger prick from the community people and lyophilized eggs of Schistosoma japonicum were used for the assay. Degree of precipitation at type 2 or 3 of Yokogawa et al. [1] was considered as positive. Selective mass chemotherapy with praziquantel was given to the patients including cases with only positive COP reactions. San Vicente and Sto. Tomas villages were examined in 1984 and 1982, respectively and followed up in 1986. Positive COP reactions were converted to negative in 82.1% or 55 out of 67 cases treated in 1984 and 1985 at San Vicente. Similarly, negative conversion was observed in 75.4% or 43 out of 57 cases treated in 1981 and 1982 at Sto. Tomas. The cases with persistent positive COP reaction after treatment were considered as incomplete cure or reinfection. The concentrated distribution of positive cases around the habitat of Oncomelania snails was observed at San Vicente where the prevalence of COP positives declined from 22.2% to 14.0% in 2 years. These results suggest that in the area with selective mass chemotherapy on schistosomiasis japonica, COP reactions of treated cases are converted to negative at high proportions in 2 years, and the positives detected by subsequent survey after 2 years are considered mostly as new infections or reinfections.

  19. Short report: serologic evidence of human ehrlichiosis in Peru.

    PubMed

    Moro, Pedro L; Shah, Jyotsna; Li, Olga; Gilman, Robert H; Harris, Nick; Moro, Manuel H

    2009-02-01

    A serosurvey for human ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum was performed in different regions of Peru by using indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFAs). Regions included an urban community in a shantytown in Lima (Pampas) and three rural communities located on the northern coast of Peru (Cura Mori), in the southern Peruvian Andes (Cochapata), and in the Peruvian jungle region (Santo Tomas). An overall E. chaffeensis seroprevalence of 13% (21 of 160) was found by IFA. Seroprevalences in females and males was 15% (16 of 106) and 9% (5 of 53), respectively. Seroprevalences in Cura Mori, Cochapata, Pampas, and Santo Tomas were 25% (10 of 40), 23% (9 of 40), 3% (1 of 40), and 3% (1 of 40), respectively. Seroprevalences in Cura Mori and Cochapata were significantly higher than in Santo Tomas or Pampas (P < 0.01). No sera were reactive to A. phagocytophilum. These findings suggest that human infection with E. chaffeensis occurs in Peru. Further studies are needed to characterize Ehrlichia species in Peru, their vectors and their clinical significance.

  20. Antimicrobial compounds produced by Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei 2a, a bacteriocinogenic strain isolated from a Brazilian meat product.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Kátia G; Bambirra, Felipe H S; Kruger, Monika F; Barbosa, Matheus S; Oliveira, Jamil S; Santos, Alexandre M C; Nicoli, Jacques R; Bemquerer, Marcelo P; de Miranda, Antonio; Salvucci, Emiliano J; Sesma, Fernando J M; Franco, Bernadette D G M

    2010-04-01

    Bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria are gaining increased importance due to their activity against undesirable microorganisms in foods. In this study, a concentrated acid extract of a culture of Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei 2a, a bacteriocinogenic strain isolated from a Brazilian pork product, was purified by cation exchange and reversed-phase chromatographic methods. The amino acid sequences of the active antimicrobial compounds determined by Edman degradation were compared to known protein sequences using the BLAST-P software. Three different antimicrobial compounds were obtained, P1, P2 and P3, and mass spectrometry indicated molecular masses of 4.4, 6.8 and 9.5 kDa, respectively. P1 corresponds to classical sakacin P, P2 is identical to the 30S ribosomal protein S21 of L. sakei subsp. sakei 23 K, and P3 is identical to a histone-like DNA-binding protein HV produced by L. sakei subsp. sakei 23 K. Total genomic DNA was extracted and used as target DNA for PCR amplification of the genes sak, lis and his involved in the synthesis of P1, P2 and P3. The fragments were cloned in pET28b expression vector and the resulting plasmids transformed in E. coli KRX competent cells. The transformants were active against Listeria monocytogenes, indicating that the activity of the classical sakacin P produced by L. sakei 2a can be complemented by other antimicrobial proteins.

  1. The mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase BcOs4 is required for vegetative differentiation and pathogenicity in Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qianqian; Yan, Leiyan; Gu, Qin; Ma, Zhonghua

    2012-10-01

    The high-osmolarity glycerol signal pathway plays an important role in the response of fungi to various environmental stresses. In this study, we characterized a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase gene BcOS4 in Botrytis cinerea, which is homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae SSK2/SSK22. The BcOS4 deletion mutant was significantly impaired in vegetative growth and conidial formation. The mutant exhibited increased sensitivity to the osmotic, oxidative stresses and to the fungicides iprodione and fludioxonil. Western blot analysis showed that BcSak1, a putative downstream component of BcOs4, was not phosphorylated in the mutant. In addition, the BcOS4 mutant was unable to infect leaves of rapeseed and cucumber, and grape fruits, although it can cause disease on apple fruits. All the defects were restored by genetic complementation of the BcOS4 deletion mutant with the wild-type BcOS4 gene. The data of this study indicate that BcOS4 is involved in vegetative differentiation, virulence, adaption to hyperosmotic and oxidative stresses, and to fungicides in B. cinerea.

  2. High-K MISFET channel mobility from magnetoresistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bate, R. T.

    2005-03-01

    Carrier trapping in the gate insulator or at the interface with the silicon can depress the effective channel mobility of high-K MISFETs below the drift mobility. This reduction in effective mobility can be distinguished from true mobility reduction due to carrier scattering by using the Hall effect to measure the channel carrier density [1]. However, channel Hall measurements have traditionally required nonstandard multidrain devices, which must be included in the test chip design. We propose measuring the reduction in drain current of conventional transistors by a magnetic field to determine the Hall coefficient. This method, which requires no multidrain devices, could become a routine diagnostic procedure. It is based on a theorem concerning the magnetoresistance of a rectangular plate with perfectly conducting end contacts [2], which has apparently not been tested experimentally, at least on MOSFET's. The validity of the method can be determined by comparison with channel carrier density determined in other ways, including split capacitance on MOSFETS, conventional Hall effect, and Corbino magnetoresistance on MISFETs. Progress toward these goals is described. [1] N.S Saks and A.K Agarwal, Appl. Phys. Letters 77 (20), 3281 -- 3283 (2000); R. T. Bate and W. P. Kirk, Bull. Am. Phys, Soc. March, 2004, Abstract S6.011 [2] H. H. Jenson and H. Smith, J. Phys. C: Solid State, 5, 2867-2880, (1972)

  3. Schistosoma japonicum-like infection in Phichit province, northern Thailand: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bunnag, T; Impand, P; Sornmani, S

    1986-06-01

    A case of human schistosomiasis from Phichit Province is presented. Schistosome eggs were found in the ileo-caecal mass of a 44-year old woman, native of Sak-Lek, Muang District. Histologic pictures revealed an early acute granulomatous lesion which consisted of predominantly eosinophils without multinucleated giant cells and fibrotic change suggesting a recent infection. On the basis of the shape and microscopic appearance of the eggs, they are smaller than those described previously for Schistosoma japonicum, probably those of S. mekongi, a related species. This is the third histologic-confirmed case of schistosomiasis in this locality. Addendum: At the time of the manuscript preparation, another case of schistosomiasis was diagnosed. A 55-year old man who lives entirely in the very close adjacent village to the present case was admitted to the Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok with chronic hepatosplenomegaly in January 1986. Amyloidosis was suspected and rectal biopsy revealed schistosome eggs, some contained miracidia with varying degrees of degeneration, some were empty and/or fragmented shells and were surrounded with fibrotic changes and chronic cellular infiltration (Fig. 5). They were identical to those of Schistosoma japonicum. Several fecal examinations, miracidium hatching and COPT yielded negative results. This finding showed significantly that all schistosomiasis cases reported from this locality, except the second one, were in the old age group of 40 and above. Further epidemiologic investigation is in progress to delineate this locality as a potential endemic area for this infection.

  4. Study of hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff Pool, Milne Point Unit, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The National Energy Strategy Plan (NES) has called for 900,000 barrels/day production of heavy oil in the mid-1990s to meet our national needs. To achieve this goal, it is important that the Alaskan heavy oil fields be brought to production. Alaska has more than 25 billion barrels of heavy oil deposits. Conoco, and now BP Exploration have been producing from Schrader Bluff Pool, which is part of the super heavy oil field known as West Sak Field. Schrader Bluff reservoir, located in the Milne Point Unit, North Slope of Alaska, is estimated to contain up to 1.5 billion barrels of (14 to 21{degrees}API) oil in place. The field is currently under production by primary depletion; however, the primary recovery will be much smaller than expected. Hence, waterflooding will be implemented earlier than anticipated. The eventual use of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques, such as hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process, is vital for recovery of additional oil from this reservoir. The purpose of this research project was to determine the nature of miscible solvent slug which would be commercially feasible, to evaluate the performance of the hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug process, and to assess the feasibility of this process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff reservoir. The laboratory experimental work includes: slim tube displacement experiments and coreflood experiments. The components of solvent slug includes only those which are available on the North Slope of Alaska.

  5. Relations between short-range and long-range Ising models.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Maria Chiara; Parisi, Giorgio; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico

    2014-06-01

    We perform a numerical study of the long-range (LR) ferromagnetic Ising model with power law decaying interactions (J∝r{-d-σ}) on both a one-dimensional chain (d=1) and a square lattice (d=2). We use advanced cluster algorithms to avoid the critical slowing down. We first check the validity of the relation connecting the critical behavior of the LR model with parameters (d,σ) to that of a short-range (SR) model in an equivalent dimension D. We then study the critical behavior of the d=2 LR model close to the lower critical σ, uncovering that the spatial correlation function decays with two different power laws: The effect of the subdominant power law is much stronger than finite-size effects and actually makes the estimate of critical exponents very subtle. By including this subdominant power law, the numerical data are consistent with the standard renormalization group (RG) prediction by Sak [Phys. Rev. B 8, 281 (1973)], thus making not necessary (and unlikely, according to Occam's razor) the recent proposal by Picco [arXiv:1207.1018] of having a new set of RG fixed points in addition to the mean-field one and the SR one. PMID:25019738

  6. Systematic Global Analysis of Genes Encoding Protein Phosphatases in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Winkelströter, Lizziane K.; Dolan, Stephen K.; Fernanda dos Reis, Thaila; Bom, Vinícius Leite Pedro; Alves de Castro, Patrícia; Hagiwara, Daisuke; Alowni, Raneem; Jones, Gary W.; Doyle, Sean; Brown, Neil Andrew; Goldman, Gustavo H.

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a fungal pathogen that causes several invasive and noninvasive diseases named aspergillosis. This disease is generally regarded as multifactorial, considering that several pathogenicity determinants are present during the establishment of this illness. It is necessary to obtain an increased knowledge of how, and which, A. fumigatus signal transduction pathways are engaged in the regulation of these processes. Protein phosphatases are essential to several signal transduction pathways. We identified 32 phosphatase catalytic subunit-encoding genes in A. fumigatus, of which we were able to construct 24 viable deletion mutants. The role of nine phosphatase mutants in the HOG (high osmolarity glycerol response) pathway was evaluated by measuring phosphorylation of the p38 MAPK (SakA) and expression of osmo-dependent genes. We were also able to identify 11 phosphatases involved in iron assimilation, six that are related to gliotoxin resistance, and three implicated in gliotoxin production. These results present the creation of a fundamental resource for the study of signaling in A. fumigatus and its implications in the regulation of pathogenicity determinants and virulence in this important pathogen. PMID:25943523

  7. Comparative Genome Sequencing of an Isogenic Pair of USA800 Clinical Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Obtained before and after Daptomycin Treatment Failure▿†

    PubMed Central

    Boyle-Vavra, Susan; Jones, Marcus; Gourley, Brett L.; Holmes, Michael; Ruf, Rebecca; Balsam, Ashley R.; Boulware, David R.; Kline, Susan; Jawahir, Selina; DeVries, Aaron; Peterson, Scott N.; Daum, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    We describe here a clinical daptomycin treatment failure in a patient with recurrent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia in whom daptomycin was administered after a failed empirical treatment course with vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam. We had the opportunity to compare the genome sequences of an isogenic pair of daptomycin-susceptible and -resistant MRSA isolates obtained before and after initiation of daptomycin therapy, respectively. The genotype of both isolates was USA800, ST5, SCCmec type IV, agr type II. There was no increase in cell wall thickness in the daptomycin-resistant strain despite having decreased susceptibility to both vancomycin and daptomycin. By comparing the genome sequences by pyrosequencing, we identified a polymorphism (S337L) in the tenth transmembrane segment of the multiple peptide resistance factor, MprF, encoding lysyl phosphatidylglycerol transferase. This enzyme has been shown previously to promote repulsion of daptomycin at the cell surface by addition of positively charged lysine to phosphatidylglycerol. Also, the hlb open reading frame (ORF) encoding the β-toxin was interrupted by a prophage in the daptomycin-susceptible strain; this phage was missing in the daptomycin-resistant isolate and the hlb ORF was restored. Loss of the phage in the resistant isolate also resulted in loss of the virulence factor genes clpP, scn, and sak. This is the first study to use pyrosequencing to compare the genomes of a daptomycin-susceptible/resistant MRSA isolate pair obtained during failed daptomycin therapy in humans. PMID:21343446

  8. Lysine-acetylation as a fundamental regulator of Ran function: Implications for signaling of proteins of the Ras-superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Knyphausen, Philipp; Kuhlmann, Nora; de Boor, Susanne; Lammers, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The small GTP-binding protein Ran is involved in the regulation of essential cellular processes in interphase but also in mitotic cells: Ran controls the nucleocytoplasmic transport of proteins and RNA, it regulates mitotic spindle formation and nuclear envelope assembly. Deregulations in Ran dependent processes were implicated in the development of severe diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. To understand how Ran-function is regulated is therefore of highest importance. Recently, several lysine-acetylation sites in Ran were identified by quantitative mass-spectrometry, some being located in highly important regions such as the P-loop, switch I, switch II and the G5/SAK motif. We recently reported that lysine-acetylation regulates nearly all aspects of Ran-function such as RCC1 catalyzed nucleotide exchange, intrinsic nucleotide hydrolysis, its interaction with NTF2 and the formation of import- and export-complexes. As a hint for its biological importance, we identified Ran-specific lysine-deacetylases (KDACs) and -acetyltransferases (KATs). Also for other small GTPases such as Ras, Rho, Cdc42, and for many effectors and regulators thereof, lysine-acetylation sites were discovered. However, the functional impact of lysine-acetylation as a regulator of protein function has only been marginally investigated so far. We will discuss recent findings of lysine-acetylation as a novel modification to regulate Ras-protein signaling. PMID:26507377

  9. Geotourism Features of Sinop (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehra Seyyah, Memnune; Güngör, Yıldırım

    2016-04-01

    Sinop and its surrounding area presents pretty interesting geological formations formed between Trias and Quaternary. Permo-Trias aged Boyabat Metamorphites is found at the bottom. Above this formation, Jurassic aged Akgöl and Bürnük Formations and Lower Cretaceous aged İnaltı Formation comes. After these, respectively Çaǧlayan Formation, Upper Cretaceous aged Kaplanboǧazı, Yemişliçay, Hamsaros, Görsökü Formations is observed. These units are also overlaid by Paleocene aged Akveren Formation, Eocene aged Atbaşı, Sakızdaǧı Formations and Miocene aged Sinop Formation. Plio-Quaternary aged Sarıkum Formation is located on this sequence. Boyabat columnar basalts and Bedire Formation are the youngest formations of Sinop and its surrounding area. 
 In this geological sequence, columnar basalts, different forms of laminated rocks, fossil containing levels, various sedimentological processes, faults and folds located in laminated rocks, canyons which has been occurred related tectonism in the region, waterfalls run through fault steps take place among the important geotouristical pieces of Sinop and surroundings. In this study, it will be discussed how these geological features contribute to Sinop district that's most important source of income is tourism. 
 Key Words: Geological Heritage, Geopark, Geosite, Geotourism, Sinop

  10. Augmenting the Activity of Monoterpenoid Phenols against Fungal Pathogens Using 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde that Target Cell Wall Integrity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong H; Chan, Kathleen L; Mahoney, Noreen

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of cell wall integrity system should be an effective strategy for control of fungal pathogens. To augment the cell wall disruption efficacy of monoterpenoid phenols (carvacrol, thymol), antimycotic potency of benzaldehyde derivatives that can serve as chemosensitizing agents were evaluated against strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild type (WT), slt2Δ and bck1Δ (mutants of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and MAPK kinase kinase, respectively, in the cell wall integrity pathway). Among fourteen compounds investigated, slt2Δ and bck1Δ showed higher susceptibility to nine benzaldehydes, compared to WT. Differential antimycotic activity of screened compounds indicated "structure-activity relationship" for targeting the cell wall integrity, where 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (2H4M) exhibited the highest antimycotic potency. The efficacy of 2H4M as an effective chemosensitizer to monoterpenoid phenols (viz., 2H4M + carvacrol or thymol) was assessed in yeasts or filamentous fungi (Aspergillus, Penicillium) according to European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing or Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute M38-A protocols, respectively. Synergistic chemosensitization greatly lowers minimum inhibitory or fungicidal concentrations of the co-administered compounds. 2H4M also overcame the tolerance of two MAPK mutants (sakAΔ, mpkCΔ) of Aspergillus fumigatus to fludioxonil (phenylpyrrole fungicide). Collectively, 2H4M possesses chemosensitizing capability to magnify the efficacy of monoterpenoid phenols, which improves target-based (viz., cell wall disruption) antifungal intervention. PMID:26569223

  11. Regulation of Yeast G Protein Signaling by the Kinases That Activate the AMPK Homolog Snf1

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Sarah T.; Dixit, Gauri; Dohlman, Henrik G.

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular signals, such as nutrients and hormones, cue intracellular pathways to produce adaptive responses. Often, cells must coordinate their responses to multiple signals to produce an appropriate outcome. We showed that components of a glucose-sensing pathway acted on components of a heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide–binding protein (G protein)–mediated pheromone signaling pathway in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrated that the G protein α subunit Gpa1 was phosphorylated in response to conditions of reduced glucose availability and that this phosphorylation event contributed to reduced pheromone-dependent stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, gene transcription, cell morphogenesis, and mating efficiency. We found that Elm1, Sak1, and Tos3, the kinases that phosphorylate Snf1, the yeast homolog of adenosine monophosphate–activated protein kinase (AMPK), in response to limited glucose availability, also phosphorylated Gpa1 and contributed to the diminished mating response. Reg1, the regulatory subunit of the phosphatase PP1 that acts on Snf1, was likewise required to reverse the phosphorylation of Gpa1 and to maintain the mating response. Thus, the same kinases and phosphatase that regulate Snf1 also regulate Gpa1. More broadly, these results indicate that the pheromone signaling and glucose-sensing pathways communicate directly to coordinate cell behavior. PMID:24003255

  12. Augmenting the Activity of Monoterpenoid Phenols against Fungal Pathogens Using 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde that Target Cell Wall Integrity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong H; Chan, Kathleen L; Mahoney, Noreen

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of cell wall integrity system should be an effective strategy for control of fungal pathogens. To augment the cell wall disruption efficacy of monoterpenoid phenols (carvacrol, thymol), antimycotic potency of benzaldehyde derivatives that can serve as chemosensitizing agents were evaluated against strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild type (WT), slt2Δ and bck1Δ (mutants of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and MAPK kinase kinase, respectively, in the cell wall integrity pathway). Among fourteen compounds investigated, slt2Δ and bck1Δ showed higher susceptibility to nine benzaldehydes, compared to WT. Differential antimycotic activity of screened compounds indicated "structure-activity relationship" for targeting the cell wall integrity, where 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (2H4M) exhibited the highest antimycotic potency. The efficacy of 2H4M as an effective chemosensitizer to monoterpenoid phenols (viz., 2H4M + carvacrol or thymol) was assessed in yeasts or filamentous fungi (Aspergillus, Penicillium) according to European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing or Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute M38-A protocols, respectively. Synergistic chemosensitization greatly lowers minimum inhibitory or fungicidal concentrations of the co-administered compounds. 2H4M also overcame the tolerance of two MAPK mutants (sakAΔ, mpkCΔ) of Aspergillus fumigatus to fludioxonil (phenylpyrrole fungicide). Collectively, 2H4M possesses chemosensitizing capability to magnify the efficacy of monoterpenoid phenols, which improves target-based (viz., cell wall disruption) antifungal intervention.

  13. Augmenting the Activity of Monoterpenoid Phenols against Fungal Pathogens Using 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde that Target Cell Wall Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong H.; Chan, Kathleen L.; Mahoney, Noreen

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of cell wall integrity system should be an effective strategy for control of fungal pathogens. To augment the cell wall disruption efficacy of monoterpenoid phenols (carvacrol, thymol), antimycotic potency of benzaldehyde derivatives that can serve as chemosensitizing agents were evaluated against strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild type (WT), slt2Δ and bck1Δ (mutants of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and MAPK kinase kinase, respectively, in the cell wall integrity pathway). Among fourteen compounds investigated, slt2Δ and bck1Δ showed higher susceptibility to nine benzaldehydes, compared to WT. Differential antimycotic activity of screened compounds indicated “structure-activity relationship” for targeting the cell wall integrity, where 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (2H4M) exhibited the highest antimycotic potency. The efficacy of 2H4M as an effective chemosensitizer to monoterpenoid phenols (viz., 2H4M + carvacrol or thymol) was assessed in yeasts or filamentous fungi (Aspergillus, Penicillium) according to European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing or Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute M38-A protocols, respectively. Synergistic chemosensitization greatly lowers minimum inhibitory or fungicidal concentrations of the co-administered compounds. 2H4M also overcame the tolerance of two MAPK mutants (sakAΔ, mpkCΔ) of Aspergillus fumigatus to fludioxonil (phenylpyrrole fungicide). Collectively, 2H4M possesses chemosensitizing capability to magnify the efficacy of monoterpenoid phenols, which improves target-based (viz., cell wall disruption) antifungal intervention. PMID:26569223

  14. Low occurrence of the new species Staphylococcus argenteus in a Staphylococcus aureus collection of human isolates from Belgium.

    PubMed

    Argudín, M A; Dodémont, M; Vandendriessche, S; Rottiers, S; Tribes, C; Roisin, S; de Mendonça, R; Nonhoff, C; Deplano, A; Denis, O

    2016-06-01

    Staphylococcus argenteus is a novel Staphylococcus species closely related to Staphylococcus aureus that has been recently described. In this study, we investigated the proportion and the characteristics of S. argenteus recovered from humans in Belgium. S. aureus. human isolates collected in Belgium from 2006 to 2015 (n = 1,903) were retrospectively characterised via the presence of non-pigmented colonies on chocolate agar, spa typing and rpoB sequencing to determine if some of them were in fact S. argenteus. Out of 73 strains non-pigmented on chocolate plates, 3 isolates (0.16 %) showed rpoB sequences, in addition to spa and sequence types (ST2250/t5787, ST2250/t6675, ST3240/t6675), related to S. argenteus. Two of them were methicillin-resistant, harbouring a SCCmec type IV. The three S. argenteus isolates carried genes (sak, scn) of the immune evasion cluster. This first Belgian nationwide analysis showed a low occurrence of S. argenteus. Further studies should be conducted to identify the distribution range and the clinical impact of this new species. PMID:27044019

  15. The Development of Design Tools for Fault Tolerant Quantum Dot Cellular Automata Based Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Curtis D.; Humphreys, William M.

    2003-01-01

    We are developing software to explore the fault tolerance of quantum dot cellular automata gate architectures in the presence of manufacturing variations and device defects. The Topology Optimization Methodology using Applied Statistics (TOMAS) framework extends the capabilities of the A Quantum Interconnected Network Array Simulator (AQUINAS) by adding front-end and back-end software and creating an environment that integrates all of these components. The front-end tools establish all simulation parameters, configure the simulation system, automate the Monte Carlo generation of simulation files, and execute the simulation of these files. The back-end tools perform automated data parsing, statistical analysis and report generation.

  16. A cast of 40: population and family planning agencies at work in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Vicente, A A

    1975-09-01

    This is a compilation of 42 agencies, both government and private, participating in the Philippine population program. Each listing includes: the purpose of the organization; a summary of its activities for fiscal year 1974-1975; the name of the project director; and the address. A large number of these agencies are engaged primarily in population or family planning work. Others, such as the medical schools at the University of the Philippines and the University of Santo Tomas, have family planning programs as part of a broader effort.

  17. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-03-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Comment on `Magnetic and electric field strengths of high voltage power lines and household appliances' José Luis Giordano Dept. de Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales y Fluidos, CPSI, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain Twins paradox S R Carson Norton College, Malton, North Yorkshire, UK On alternative ways of finding the ratio of specific heats of gases Tomas Ficker Physics Department, Technical University of Brno, Czech Republic

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF SHALLOW VISCOUS OIL RESERVES IN NORTH SLOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2004-12-01

    North Slope of Alaska has huge oil deposits in heavy oil reservoirs such as Ugnu, West Sak and Shrader Bluff etc. The viscosity of the last two reservoir oils vary from {approx}30 cp to {approx}3000 cp and the amount in the range of 10-20 billion barrels. High oil viscosity and low formation strength impose problems to high recovery and well productivity. Water-alternate-gas injection processes can be effective for the lower viscosity end of these deposits in West Sak and Shrader Bluff. Several gas streams are available in the North Slope containing NGL and CO{sub 2} (a greenhouse gas). The goal of this research is to develop tools to find optimum solvent, injection schedule and well-architecture for a WAG process in North Slope shallow sand viscous oil reservoirs. Coreflood, quarter 5-spot study, compositional simulation, wettability, relative permeability study and streamline-based simulation were conducted in this project. 1D compositional simulation results agree reasonably well with those of the slim tube experiments. Injection of CO{sub 2}-NGL is preferable over that of PBG-NGL. MME is sensitive to pressure (in the range of 1300-1800 psi) for the injection of PBG-NGL, but not for CO{sub 2}-NGL. Three hydrocarbon phases form in this pressure range. As the mean thickness of the adsorbed organic layer on minerals increases, the oil-water contact angle increases. The adsorbed organic films left behind after extraction of oil by common aromatic solvents used in core studies, such as toluene and decalin, are thinner than those left behind by non-aromatic solvents, such as cyclohexane. The force of adhesion for minerals aged with just the asphaltene fraction is similar to that of the whole oil implying that asphaltenes are responsible for the mixed-wettability in this reservoir. A new relative permeability model for a four-phase, mixed-wet system has been proposed. A streamline module is developed which can be incorporated in an existing finite-difference based

  19. Mechanistic Investigation of Solvent Extraction Based on Anion-Functionalized Ionic Liquids for Selective Separation of Rare-Earth Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiaoqi; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, solvation has been found to be a dominant mechanism in a comprehensive ionic liquid based extraction system for rare earth elements (REEs). Trioctylmethylammonium di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate ([TOMA][DEHP]), an ionic-liquid extractant, was used in 1-alkyl-3-methylimidizolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide ([Cnmim][NTf2], n = 4, 6, 8, 10) and 1-alkyl-3-methylimidizolium bis(perfluoroethanesulfonyl)imide ([Cnmim][BETI], n = 4, 6, 8, 10) for the separation of REEs. Surprisingly, a very similar extraction behavior was observed even as the carbon chain length on the ionic-liquid (IL) cation increased from butyl (C4) to hexyl (C6), to octyl (C8), to decyl (C10). This behavior is in sharp contrast to that exhibited by the conventional neutral extractants, whose extraction efficiencies are strongly dependent on the hydrophobicity of IL cations. Furthermore, the addition of IL cations ([Cnmim]+) or IL anions ([NTf2]- or [BETI]-) to the aqueous phase had little effect on the extraction behavior of the above extraction system, ruling out the strong involvement of the ion-exchange mechanism associated with traditional IL-based extraction systems. Results showed that the extractabilities and selectivities of REEs using [TOMA][DEHP] in [C10mim][NTf2]/[BETI] are several orders of magnitude better than those achieved using conventional organic solvent, diisopropylbenzene (DIPB). This study highlights the potential of developing a comprehensive IL-based extraction strategy for REEs separations.

  20. Isolation and Characterization of Plant-Pathogenic Streptomyces Species Associated with Common Scab-Infected Potato Tubers in Newfoundland.

    PubMed

    Fyans, Joanna K; Bown, Luke; Bignell, Dawn R D

    2016-02-01

    Potato common scab (CS) is an economically important crop disease that is caused by several members of the genus Streptomyces. In this study, we characterized the plant-pathogenic Streptomyces spp. associated with CS-infected potato tubers harvested in Newfoundland, Canada. A total of 17 pathogenic Streptomyces isolates were recovered from potato scab lesions, of which eight were determined to be most similar to the known CS pathogen S. europaeiscabiei. All eight S. europaeiscabiei isolates were found to produce the thaxtomin A phytotoxin and to harbor the nec1 virulence gene, and most also carry the putative virulence gene tomA. The remaining isolates appear to be novel pathogenic species that do not produce thaxtomin A, and only two of these isolates were determined to harbor the nec1 or tomA genes. Of the non-thaxtomin-producing isolates, strain 11-1-2 was shown to exhibit a severe pathogenic phenotype against different plant hosts and to produce a novel, secreted phytotoxic substance. This is the first report documenting the plant-pathogenic Streptomyces spp. associated with CS disease in Newfoundland. Furthermore, our findings provide further evidence that phytotoxins other than thaxtomin A may also contribute to the development of CS by Streptomyces spp.

  1. Isolation and Characterization of Plant-Pathogenic Streptomyces Species Associated with Common Scab-Infected Potato Tubers in Newfoundland.

    PubMed

    Fyans, Joanna K; Bown, Luke; Bignell, Dawn R D

    2016-02-01

    Potato common scab (CS) is an economically important crop disease that is caused by several members of the genus Streptomyces. In this study, we characterized the plant-pathogenic Streptomyces spp. associated with CS-infected potato tubers harvested in Newfoundland, Canada. A total of 17 pathogenic Streptomyces isolates were recovered from potato scab lesions, of which eight were determined to be most similar to the known CS pathogen S. europaeiscabiei. All eight S. europaeiscabiei isolates were found to produce the thaxtomin A phytotoxin and to harbor the nec1 virulence gene, and most also carry the putative virulence gene tomA. The remaining isolates appear to be novel pathogenic species that do not produce thaxtomin A, and only two of these isolates were determined to harbor the nec1 or tomA genes. Of the non-thaxtomin-producing isolates, strain 11-1-2 was shown to exhibit a severe pathogenic phenotype against different plant hosts and to produce a novel, secreted phytotoxic substance. This is the first report documenting the plant-pathogenic Streptomyces spp. associated with CS disease in Newfoundland. Furthermore, our findings provide further evidence that phytotoxins other than thaxtomin A may also contribute to the development of CS by Streptomyces spp. PMID:26524546

  2. Miocene structural features of north and south Padre Island and OCS areas, offshore south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ghamdi, A.M.; Watkins, J.S.

    1996-12-31

    Integration of 2-D seismic reflection data, paleontological reports, velocity analysis, and well logs has provided a new structural model for North and South Padre Island OCS areas. The Clemente-Tomas fault system (Late Oligocene-Early Miocene) is located above overpressured shale ridges. Sediment loading initiated the faulting over the compacted shale. The Corsair fault system (Early-Middle Miocene) is located seaward of Clemente-Tomas and was formed due to a huge sediment influx that forced the salt to withdraw basinward. The Wanda fault system formed during the Late Miocene because of the further salt withdrawal. Study area is dominated by shale ridges and the salt are only formed beneath the present shelf edge as salt diapirs. Overpressured shale was mapped throughout the study area. Well logs show overpressured shale between 8,800 to 12,000 feet. Berg and Avery suggested that growth faults can seal the faults sheared zones which may cause a structural hydrocarbon trap. We examined most of the responses of the dip logs in the study area and we found that the seal general trend is the drag (non seal) type.

  3. Miocene structural features of north and south Padre Island and OCS areas, offshore south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ghamdi, A.M.; Watkins, J.S. )

    1996-01-01

    Integration of 2-D seismic reflection data, paleontological reports, velocity analysis, and well logs has provided a new structural model for North and South Padre Island OCS areas. The Clemente-Tomas fault system (Late Oligocene-Early Miocene) is located above overpressured shale ridges. Sediment loading initiated the faulting over the compacted shale. The Corsair fault system (Early-Middle Miocene) is located seaward of Clemente-Tomas and was formed due to a huge sediment influx that forced the salt to withdraw basinward. The Wanda fault system formed during the Late Miocene because of the further salt withdrawal. Study area is dominated by shale ridges and the salt are only formed beneath the present shelf edge as salt diapirs. Overpressured shale was mapped throughout the study area. Well logs show overpressured shale between 8,800 to 12,000 feet. Berg and Avery suggested that growth faults can seal the faults sheared zones which may cause a structural hydrocarbon trap. We examined most of the responses of the dip logs in the study area and we found that the seal general trend is the drag (non seal) type.

  4. Oral nutritional supplements intake and nutritional status among inpatients admitted in a tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Lammel Ricardi, Juliana; Marcadenti, Aline; Perocchin de Souza, Simone; Siviero Ribeiro, Anelise

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La malnutrición es muy frecuente en los hospitales y, en los pacientes ingresados con una prescripción de suplementación nutricional oral, hay una mejoría del estado nutricional. Objetivos: Detectar la tasa total de aceptación y la posible asociación entre la toma de suplementos de nutrición oral con el estado nutricional. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal entre 398 pacientes ingresados. Se analizaron 15 tipos de suplementos y se detectó el estado nutricional mediante la escala Subjective Global Assessment (SGA). Se obtuvo el índice reposo-ingesta (IR) y se empleó la regresión modificada de Poisson para detectar las asociaciones entre el estado nutricional y la toma de suplementos nutritivos. Resultados: La prevalencia de malnutrición fue del 43, 7% y la aceptación global de los suplementos fue de alrededor del 75%. Los suplementos de origen industrial tienen una mejor aceptación entre los pacientes bien nutridos y los pacientes que ingieren menos del 80% del suplemento ofrecido (ya sea industrial o casero) presentan un mayor riesgo de malnutrición (48%). Conclusión: Hubo una asociación entre la ingesta de suplementos nutricionales orales y el estado nutricional, a pesar de una buena tasa de aceptación.

  5. Physicochemical and nutritional qualities of grape pomace powder-fortified semi-hard cheeses.

    PubMed

    Marchiani, Roberta; Bertolino, Marta; Ghirardello, Daniela; McSweeney, Paul L H; Zeppa, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    Powders obtained from three grape pomaces (Barbera, Chardonnay before distillation, Chardonnay after distillation) were added at two concentration levels (0.8 and 1.6 % w/w) into semi-hard and hard cheeses (Italian Toma-like and Cheddar, respectively) to increase their polyphenol content. Effects on physicochemical characteristics, total phenolic content (TPC), radical scavenging activity (RSA), proteolysis, organic acids content, starter and non-starter bacteria were evaluated during ripening. The amount and the type of powder used did not significantly affect the physicochemical parameters of cheese with the exception of pH their values. Italian Toma-like and Cheddar cheeses fortified with Chardonnay after distillation powder showed at the end of ripening (30 days and 120 days respectively) the highest TPC and RSA values. Proteolysis and microbial counts did not show statistically significant differences between fortified and control cheeses. This study demonstrated that grape pomace powder can be a functional ingredient to increase TPC and RSA in consumers' diets and the addition of this by-product to cheese is an environmentally friendly way to manage winemaking wastes. PMID:27570284

  6. Microarray-based genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from camels.

    PubMed

    Monecke, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf; Slickers, Peter; Wernery, Renate; Johnson, Bobby; Jose, Sherry; Wernery, Ulrich

    2011-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of mastitis and other diseases in camels. In order to obtain data on population structure as well as on the carriage of toxin genes and resistance markers, a collection of 45 isolates from dromedaries of Dubai, United Arab Emirates, were genotyped. These isolates belonged to clonal complexes CC6 (twenty isolates; 44.44%), CC30 (sixteen isolates; 35.56%), CC188 (five isolates; 11.11%), CC152 (1 isolate, 2.2%) and to a previously un-described sequence type (ST1755: arcc-18, aroe-115, glpf-6, gmk-2 pta-109, tpi-50 and yqil-2; three isolates; 6.67%). Resistance genes proved to be rare. Only three out of 45 isolates (6.67%) carried the beta-lactamase operon. The tetracycline resistance gene tetK was also detected in three isolates (6.67%). Neither the mecA gene, defining MRSA, nor other resistance genes were found. Common virulence markers included leukocidin genes lukD+lukE (in twenty-five isolates; 55.56%), the staphylokinase gene sak (twenty-two isolates; 48.89%), the enterotoxin gene cluster egc (fifteen isolates; 33.33%), and a distinct variant of the enterotoxin A gene (sea-320E, GenBank AY196686.1; thirteen isolates; 28.89%). One CC152 isolate was positive for genes encoding the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (lukF-PV+lukS-PV). This study provides first genotyping data on the population structure and the presence of toxin genes and resistance markers of S. aureus strains in Middle Eastern camels.

  7. Characterization of a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus sakei R1333 isolated from smoked salmon.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Svetoslav D; Rachman, Cinta; Fourrier, Angélique; Dicks, Leon M T; van Reenen, Carol A; Prévost, Herve; Dousset, Xavier

    2011-02-01

    Strain R1333, isolated from commercially available smoked salmon, was identified as Lactobacillus sakei based on biochemical tests, sugar fermentation reactions (API 50 CHL), PCR with species-specific primers and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Strain R1333 produces a 3811 kDa class IIa bacteriocin, active against Streptococcus caprinus, Streptococcus macedonicus, Streptococcus spp., L. sakei, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Listeria innocua, Listeria ivanovii subsp. ivanovii and Listeria monocytogenes. The mode of activity against L. innocua 2030C and L. ivanovii subsp. ivanovii ATCC 19119 was bactericidal, resulting in cell lysis and enzyme- and DNA-leakage. The highest level of activity (1600 AU/mL) was recorded when cells were grown at 30°C in MRS broth (initial pH 6.5). Only 800 AU/mL was recorded when strain R1333 was grown in MRS without Tween 80. Lower levels of bacteriocin production were recorded when strain R1333 was grown in MRS at 20°C. Peptide R1333 adsorbs at low levels (200 AU/mL) to producer cells. Purification of bacteriocin R1333 was performed by 60% ammonium sulfate precipitation, followed by separation on a SepPak C(18) column and reverse-phase HPLC on a Nucleosil C(18) column with a linear gradient from 0.1% TFA to 90% acetonitryl. A molecular mass of 3811 kDa was determined by mass spectrometry. Based on mass spectrometry and sequencing of the PCR amplified fragment targeting the sakG gene, L. sakei R1333 is a potential producer of sakacin G. This is the first report of the identification of sakacin G produced by L. sakei isolated from smoked salmon.

  8. Study of hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff Pool, Milne Point Unit, Alaska. Annual report, January 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.D.

    1995-07-01

    Alaska is the second largest oil producing state in the nation and currently contributes nearly 24% of the nations oil production. It is imperative that Alaskan heavy oil fields be brought into production. Schrader Bluff reservoir, located in the Milne Point Unit, which is part of the heavy oil field known as West Sak is estimated to contain 1.5 billion barrels of (14 to 21 degree API) oil-in-place. The field is currently under production by primary depletion. The eventual implementation of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques will be vital for the recovery of additional oil from this reservoir. The availability of hydrocarbon gases (solvents) on the Alaska North Slope make the hydrocarbon miscible solvent injection process an important consideration for the EOR project in Schrader Bluff reservoir. Since Schrader Bluff oil is heavy and viscous, a water-alternating-gas (WAG) type of process for oil recovery is appropriate since such a process tends to derive synergetic benefits from both water injection (which provides mobility control and improvement in sweep efficiency) and miscible gas injection (which provides improved displacement efficiency). A miscible solvent slug injection process rather than continuous solvent injection is considered appropriate. Slim tube displacement studies, PVT data and asphaltene precipitation studies are needed for Schrader bluff heavy oil to define possible hydrocarbon solvent suitable for miscible solvent slug displacement process. Coreflood experiments are also needed to determine the effect of solvent slug size, WAG ratio and solvent composition on the recovery and solvent breakthrough. A compositional reservoir simulation study will be conducted later to evaluate the complete performance of the hydrocarbon solvent slug process and to assess the feasibility of this process for improving recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff reservoir.

  9. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC)1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Alba, Patricia; Feltrin, Fabiola; Cordaro, Gessica; Porrero, María Concepción; Kraushaar, Britta; Argudín, María Angeles; Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Monaco, Monica; Stegger, Marc; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Battisti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Sequence Type (ST)1, Clonal Complex(CC)1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA-) lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in Italian dairy cattle herds. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences between ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from cattle and pig herds in Italy and Europe and human isolates. Sixty-tree animal isolates from different holdings and 20 human isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa-typing, SCCmec typing, and by micro-array analysis for several virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and strain/host-specific marker genes. Three major PFGE clusters were detected. The bovine isolates shared a high (≥90% to 100%) similarity with human isolates and carried the same SCCmec type IVa. They often showed genetic features typical of human adaptation or present in human-associated CC1: Immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes sak and scn, or sea; sat and aphA3-mediated aminoglycoside resistance. Contrary, typical markers of porcine origin in Italy and Spain, like erm(A) mediated macrolide-lincosamide-streptograminB, and of vga(A)-mediated pleuromutilin resistance were always absent in human and bovine isolates. Most of ST(CC)1 MRSA from dairy cattle were multidrug-resistant and contained virulence and immunomodulatory genes associated with full capability of colonizing humans. As such, these strains may represent a greater human hazard than the porcine strains. The zoonotic capacity of CC1 LA-MRSA from livestock must be taken seriously and measures should be implemented at farm-level to prevent spill-over. PMID:26322785

  10. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC)1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans.

    PubMed

    Alba, Patricia; Feltrin, Fabiola; Cordaro, Gessica; Porrero, María Concepción; Kraushaar, Britta; Argudín, María Angeles; Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Monaco, Monica; Stegger, Marc; Aarestrup, Frank M; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Battisti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Sequence Type (ST)1, Clonal Complex(CC)1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA-) lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in Italian dairy cattle herds. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences between ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from cattle and pig herds in Italy and Europe and human isolates. Sixty-tree animal isolates from different holdings and 20 human isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa-typing, SCCmec typing, and by micro-array analysis for several virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and strain/host-specific marker genes. Three major PFGE clusters were detected. The bovine isolates shared a high (≥90% to 100%) similarity with human isolates and carried the same SCCmec type IVa. They often showed genetic features typical of human adaptation or present in human-associated CC1: Immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes sak and scn, or sea; sat and aphA3-mediated aminoglycoside resistance. Contrary, typical markers of porcine origin in Italy and Spain, like erm(A) mediated macrolide-lincosamide-streptograminB, and of vga(A)-mediated pleuromutilin resistance were always absent in human and bovine isolates. Most of ST(CC)1 MRSA from dairy cattle were multidrug-resistant and contained virulence and immunomodulatory genes associated with full capability of colonizing humans. As such, these strains may represent a greater human hazard than the porcine strains. The zoonotic capacity of CC1 LA-MRSA from livestock must be taken seriously and measures should be implemented at farm-level to prevent spill-over.

  11. Insights into K-Ras 4B regulation by post-translational lysine acetylation.

    PubMed

    Knyphausen, Philipp; Lang, Franziska; Baldus, Linda; Extra, Antje; Lammers, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Ras is a molecular switch cycling between an active, GTP-bound and an inactive, GDP-bound state. Mutations in Ras, mostly affecting the off-switch, are found in many human tumours. Recently, it has been shown that K-Ras 4B is targeted by lysine acetylation at K104. Based on results obtained for an acetylation mimetic Ras mutant (K104Q), it was hypothesised that K104-acetylation might interfere with its oncogenicity by impairing SOS-catalysed guanine-nucleotide exchange. We prepared site-specifically K104-acetylated K-Ras 4B and the corresponding oncogenic mutant protein G12V using the genetic-code expansion concept. We found that SOS-catalysed nucleotide exchange, also of allosterically activated SOS, was neither affected by acetylation of K104 in wildtype K-Ras 4B nor in the G12V mutant, suggesting that glutamine is a poor mimetic for acetylation at this site. In vitro, the lysine-acetyltransferases CBP and p300 were able to acetylate both, wildtype and G12V K-Ras 4B. In addition to K104 we identified further acetylation sites in K-Ras 4B, including K147, within the important G5/SAK-motif. However, the intrinsic and the SOS-catalysed nucleotide exchange was not affected by K147-acetylation of K-Ras 4B. Finally, we show that Sirt2 and HDAC6 do neither deacetylate K-Ras 4B if acetylated at K104 nor if acetylated at K147 in vitro.

  12. Snf1 Is a Regulator of Lipid Accumulation in Yarrowia lipolytica

    PubMed Central

    Seip, John; Jackson, Raymond; He, Hongxian; Zhu, Quinn

    2013-01-01

    In the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, de novo lipid synthesis and accumulation are induced under conditions of nitrogen limitation (or a high carbon-to-nitrogen ratio). The regulatory pathway responsible for this induction has not been identified. Here we report that the SNF1 pathway plays a key role in the transition from the growth phase to the oleaginous phase in Y. lipolytica. Strains with a Y. lipolytica snf1 (Ylsnf1) deletion accumulated fatty acids constitutively at levels up to 2.6-fold higher than those of the wild type. When introduced into a Y. lipolytica strain engineered to produce omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), Ylsnf1 deletion led to a 52% increase in EPA titers (7.6% of dry cell weight) over the control. Other components of the Y. lipolytica SNF1 pathway were also identified, and their function in limiting fatty acid accumulation is suggested by gene deletion analyses. Deletion of the gene encoding YlSnf4, YlGal83, or YlSak1 significantly increased lipid accumulation in both growth and oleaginous phases compared to the wild type. Furthermore, microarray and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses of the Ylsnf1 mutant identified significantly differentially expressed genes during de novo lipid synthesis and accumulation in Y. lipolytica. Gene ontology analysis found that these genes were highly enriched with genes involved in lipid metabolism. This work presents a new role for Snf1/AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathways in lipid accumulation in this oleaginous yeast. PMID:24056466

  13. Oral cancer malnutrition impacts weight and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Handschel, Jörg; Holtmann, Henrik; Krüskemper, Gertrud

    2015-04-01

    Diet is important for both quality of life (QoL) and survival of patients with oral cancer. Their intake of food is impeded by functional restrictions in chewing and swallowing. In the DÖSAK REHAB STUDY 1652 patients from 38 hospitals within the German-language area of Germany; Austria and Switzerland were examined with regard to functional and psychological variables having an impact on diet. Chewing and swallowing are correlated with mobility of the tongue and the mandible as well as opening of the mouth. Thirty five percent of the patients lost weight; 41% maintained their weight and 24% gained weight. The QoL of patients who were able to maintain their weight and of those who gained weight was significantly better than that of patients who lost weight. A normal diet was important for maintaining weight. Mashed food; liquid food and loss of appetite were closely associated with loss of weight; although it was possible for nutritional counseling and dietary support to be implemented particularly favorably in this respect. Due to problems with eating patients' strength deteriorated; thus restricting activity. Radiotherapy had a negative impact on diet and weight. It influenced sense of taste; dryness of the mouth; swelling and discomfort when ingesting food. Pain and scars in the region of the operation also cause patients to dislike hard; spicy and sour food. Support from a nutritional counselor in implementing a calorie-rich diet remedied this and such support needs to be integrated into patient management. The fact that a poor nutritional status is of such great importance is well-known; but what is often lacking is the systematic implementation of continued professional nutritional counseling over a long period of time; weight control and psycho-social support of the operated patients; particularly those who also have had radiotherapy. PMID:25825828

  14. Intramanchette transport (IMT): managing the making of the spermatid head, centrosome, and tail.

    PubMed

    Kierszenbaum, Abraham L

    2002-09-01

    Intramanchette transport (IMT) and intraflagellar transport (IFT) share similar molecular components: a raft protein complex transporting cargo proteins mobilized along microtubules by molecular motors. IFT, initially discovered in flagella of Chlamydomonas, has been also observed in cilia of the worm Caenorhabditis elegans and in mouse ciliated and flagellated cells. IFT has been defined as the mechanism by which protein raft components (also called IFT particles) are displaced between the flagellum and the plasma membrane in the anterograde direction by kinesin-II and in the retrograde direction by cytoplasmic dynein 1b. Mutation of the gene Tg737, encoding one of the components of the raft protein complex, designated Polaris in the mouse and IFT88 in both Chlamydomonas and mouse, results in defective ciliogenesis and flagellar development as well as asymmetry in left-right axis determination. Polaris/IFT88 is detected in the manchette of mouse and rat spermatids. Indications of an IMT mechanism originated from the finding that two proteins associated with the manchette (Sak57/K5 and TBP-1, the latter a component of the 26S proteasome) repositioned to the centrosome and sperm tail once the manchette disassembled. IMT has the features of the IFT machinery but, in addition, facilitates nucleocytoplasmic exchange activities during spermiogenesis. An example is Ran, a small GTPase present in the nucleus and cytoplasm of round spermatids and in the manchette of elongating spermatids. Upon disassembly of the manchette, Ran GTPase is found in the centrosome region of elongating spermatids. Because defective molecular motors and raft proteins result in defective flagella, cilia, and cilia-containing photoreceptor cells in the retina, IMT and IFT are emerging as essential mechanisms for managing critical aspects of sperm development. Details of specific role of Ran GTPase in nucleocytoplasmic transport and its relocation from the manchette to the centrosome to the sperm

  15. Effects of Alternative Fuels and Aromatics on Gas-Turbine Particle Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornhill, K. L., II; Moore, R.; Winstead, E.; Anderson, B. E.; Klettlinger, J. L.; Ross, R. C.; Surgenor, A.

    2015-12-01

    This presentation describes experiments conducted with a Honeywell GTCP36-150 Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) to evaluate the effects of varying fuel composition on particle emissions. The APU uses a single-stage compressor stage, gas turbine engine with a can-type combustor to generate bypass flow and electrical power for supporting small aircraft and helicopters. It is installed in a "hush-house" at NASA Glenn Research Center and is configured as a stand-alone unit that can be fueled from an onboard tank or external supply. It operates at constant RPM, but its fuel flow can be varied by changing the electrical load or volume of bypass flow. For these tests, an external bank of resistors were attached to the APU's DC and AC electrical outlets and emissions measurements were made at low, medium and maximum electrical current loads. Exhaust samples were drawn from several points downstream in the exhaust duct and fed to an extensive suite of gas and aerosol sensors installed within a mobile laboratory parked nearby. Aromatic- and sulfur-free synthetic kerosenes from Rentech, Gevo, UOP, Amyris and Sasol were tested and their potential to reduce PM emissions evaluated against a single Jet A1 base fuel. The role of aromatic compounds in regulating soot emissions was also evaluated by adding metered amounts of aromatic blends (Aro-100, AF-Blend, SAK) and pure compounds (tetracontane and 1-methylnaphthalene) to a base alternative fuel (Sasol). Results show that, relative to Jet A1, alternative fuels reduce nonvolatile particle number emissions by 50-80% and--by virtue of producing much smaller particles—mass emissions by 65-90%; fuels with the highest hydrogen content produced the greatest reductions. Nonvolatile particle emissions varied in proportion to fuel aromatic content, with additives containing the most complex ring structures producing the greatest emission enhancements.

  16. Animal and human Staphylococcus aureus associated clonal lineages and high rate of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius novel lineages in Spanish kennel dogs: predominance of S. aureus ST398.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Torres, Carmen; Benito, Daniel; Lozano, Carmen; Zarazaga, Myriam

    2013-10-25

    Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MSSP) are gaining interest to track the evolution of emerging methicillin-resistant strains in animals and humans. We focused on the characterization of the methicillin-susceptible coagulase-positive staphylococci (MSCoPS) recovered from nasal samples of 98 healthy kennel-dogs. Isolates were typed by spa, agr, MLST and SmaI/ApaI-PFGE. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence profiles were investigated. Presence of the human-associated Immune-Evasion-Cluster (IEC) genes was analyzed in MSSA. Twenty-four MSSA, 16 MSSP and one MS Staphylococcus schleiferi subspecies coagulans were obtained. Thirteen spa-types and 12 sequence-types (STs) were detected among MSSA, with ST398 predominance (7/24, 29.2%). MSSA isolates were enclosed within 6 clonal complexes (no. of isolates): CC5 (8), CC398 (7), CC88 (4), CC45 (2), CC133 (1), and CC22 (1), and one singleton. High clonal diversity was observed among MSSP, and 14 STs (10 of them new) were detected. Twelve (50%) MSSA and 12 (75%) MSSP isolates showed resistance to at least one of the tested antimicrobials, with low MSSA penicillin resistance (5 isolates) and high MSSP tetracycline resistance (9 isolates). MSSA isolates ST398, ST133, ST1 and ST2329[new] were susceptible to all antimicrobials and were the only ones lacking the scn, chp and/or sak IEC genes. High diversity of enterotoxin genes was detected among non-ST398/ST133 MSSA isolates. MSSP showed a more homogeneous virulence genes profile. Our results give evidence that dogs can be S. aureus carriers of not only typical human associated lineages but also lineages commonly detected among other animal species. Continue surveillance on CoPS in dogs is required to unveil their role in the dissemination of clones adapted to other animal species.

  17. Operational Challenges in Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) Transportation Through Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Godwin A. Chukwu; Santanu Khataniar; Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar

    2006-06-30

    Oil production from Alaskan North Slope oil fields has steadily declined. In the near future, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level (200,000 to 400,000 bbl/day) that maintaining economic operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) will require pumping alternative products through the system. Heavy oil deposits in the West Sak and Ugnu formations are a potential resource, although transporting these products involves addressing important sedimentation issues. One possibility is the use of Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) technology. Estimated recoverable gas reserves of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) on the North Slope of Alaska can be converted to liquid with GTL technology and combined with the heavy oils for a product suitable for pipeline transport. Issues that could affect transport of this such products through TAPS include pumpability of GTL and crude oil blends, cold restart of the pipeline following a prolonged winter shutdown, and solids deposition inside the pipeline. This study examined several key fluid properties of GTL, crude oil and four selected blends under TAPS operating conditions. Key measurements included Reid Vapor Pressure, density and viscosity, PVT properties, and solids deposition. Results showed that gel strength is not a significant factor for the ratios of GTL-crude oil blend mixtures (1:1; 1:2; 1:3; 1:4) tested under TAPS cold re-start conditions at temperatures above - 20 F, although Bingham fluid flow characteristics exhibited by the blends at low temperatures indicate high pumping power requirements following prolonged shutdown. Solids deposition is a major concern for all studied blends. For the commingled flow profile studied, decreased throughput can result in increased and more rapid solid deposition along the pipe wall, resulting in more frequent pigging of the pipeline or, if left unchecked, pipeline corrosion.

  18. Clustering of Staphylococcus aureus bovine mastitis strains from regions of Central-Eastern Poland based on their biochemical and genetic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Puacz, E; Ilczyszyn, W M; Kosecka, M; Buda, A; Dudziak, W; Polakowska, K; Panz, T; Białecka, A; Kasprowicz, A; Lisowski, A; Krukowski, H; Cuteri, V; Międzobrodzki, J

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from mastitic milk of cows with infected mammary glands. The animals were living in 12 different farms near Lublin, in Central-Eastern Poland. A biochemical identification method based on enzymatic assay was performed, followed by haemolytic and proteolytic tests. PCR-RFLP targeted on the gap gene allowed the genetic identification of strains at the species level and verified phenotypic identification results. A molecular typing method using triplex PCR was performed to recognize the genetic similarity of the analyzed strains. DNA microarray hybridization (StaphyType, Alere Technologies) was used for detection of antibiotic resistance and virulence associated markers. The results obtained indicate high genetic similarity in strains isolated from the same sites. High genetic similarities were also detected between strains isolated from cows from different farms of the same region. A slightly lower similarity was noted however, in strains from various regions indicating that the strains are herd specific and that the cow's infections caused by S. aureus were of a clonal character. In 21 representative isolates selected for DNA-microarray testing, only fosfomycin (fosB) and penicillin resistance markers (blaZ, blaI, blaR) were detected. The presence of genes coding for haemolysins (lukF, lukS, hlgA, hla, hld, hlb), proteases (aur, sspA, sspB, sspP), enterotoxins (entA, entD, entG, entI, entJ, entM, entN, entO, entR, entU, egc-cluster), adhesins (icaA, icaC, icaD, bbp, clfA, clfB, fib, fnbA, map, vwb) or immune evasion proteins (scn, chp, sak) was common and, with exceptions, matched triplex PCR-defined clusters. PMID:26172183

  19. DNA microarray analysis of Staphylococcus aureus causing bloodstream infection: bacterial genes associated with mortality?

    PubMed

    Blomfeldt, A; Aamot, H V; Eskesen, A N; Monecke, S; White, R A; Leegaard, T M; Bjørnholt, J V

    2016-08-01

    Providing evidence for microbial genetic determinants' impact on outcome in Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections (SABSI) is challenging due to the complex and dynamic microbe-host interaction. Our recent population-based prospective study reported an association between the S. aureus clonal complex (CC) 30 genotype and mortality in SABSI patients. This follow-up investigation aimed to examine the genetic profiles of the SABSI isolates and test the hypothesis that specific genetic characteristics in S. aureus are associated with mortality. SABSI isolates (n = 305) and S. aureus CC30 isolates from asymptomatic nasal carriers (n = 38) were characterised by DNA microarray analysis and spa typing. Fisher's exact test, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) and elastic net regressions were performed to discern within four groups defined by patient outcome and characteristics. No specific S. aureus genetic determinants were found to be associated with mortality in SABSI patients. By applying LASSO and elastic net regressions, we found evidence suggesting that agrIII and cna were positively and setC (=selX) and seh were negatively associated with S. aureus CC30 versus non-CC30 isolates. The genes chp and sak, encoding immune evasion molecules, were found in higher frequencies in CC30 SABSI isolates compared to CC30 carrier isolates, indicating a higher virulence potential. In conclusion, no specific S. aureus genes were found to be associated with mortality by DNA microarray analysis and state-of-the-art statistical analyses. The next natural step is to test the hypothesis in larger samples with higher resolution methods, like whole genome sequencing. PMID:27177754

  20. Characterization of gprK Encoding a Putative Hybrid G-Protein-Coupled Receptor in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Jung, Mun-Gu; Kim, Sung Su; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Shin, Kwang-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family represents the largest and most varied collection of membrane embedded proteins that are sensitized by ligand binding and interact with heterotrimeric G proteins. Despite their presumed critical roles in fungal biology, the functions of the GPCR family members in the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus are largely unknown, as only two (GprC and GprD) of the 15 predicted GPCRs have been studied. Here, we characterize the gprK gene, which is predicted to encode a hybrid GPCR with both 7-transmembrane and regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) domains. The deletion of gprK causes severely impaired asexual development coupled with reduced expression of key developmental activators. Moreover, ΔgprK results in hyper-activation of germination even in the absence of carbon source, and elevated expression and activity of the protein kinase A PkaC1. Furthermore, proliferation of the ΔgprK mutant is restricted on the medium when pentose is the sole carbon source, suggesting that GprK may function in external carbon source sensing. Notably, the absence of gprK results in reduced tolerance to oxidative stress and significantly lowered mRNA levels of the stress-response associated genes sakA and atfA. Activities of catalases and SODs are severely decreased in the ΔgprK mutant, indicating that GprK may function in proper activation of general stress response. The ΔgprK mutant is also defective in gliotoxin (GT) production and slightly less virulent toward the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella. Transcriptomic studies reveal that a majority of transporters are down-regulated by ΔgprK. In summary, GprK is necessary for proper development, GT production, and oxidative stress response, and functions in down-regulating the PKA-germination pathway. PMID:27584150

  1. Changes in Caenorhabditis elegans immunity and Staphylococcal virulence factors during their interactions.

    PubMed

    JebaMercy, Gnanasekaran; Prithika, Udayakumar; Lavanya, Nehru; Sekar, Chinnathambi; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy

    2015-03-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is used as a model system for the study of host-pathogen interactions. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is one of the major virulent and immunostimulatory components found in gram positive bacteria. The current study used LTA isolated from Staphylococcus aureus and pathogenic and non-pathogenic Staphylococcus epidermidis. The overall physiological assays revealed that LTA exposed C. elegans show a significant reduction in the life span, production of eggs and progenies. To understand the involvement of innate immune specific players at the mRNA level, the regulation of few candidate antimicrobial genes was studied during Staphylococcal LTA exposures. qPCR analysis indicated an upregulation of antimicrobial peptides during LTA exposures. To understand the involvement of LTA and other virulent genes during infection, the regulation of LTA synthase and a few virulence genes was monitored during host exposure. The qPCR analyses indicated the upregulation of ltaS and other virulence genes (atoxin, sak, ssaA and fbe) during infection. Ability of the pathogens to modify their internal machinery during host presence was monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltametric analyses. The FTIR results indicated distinct alterations of peaks from Staphylococcal LTA composition between control and the host exposed. Further, EIS and CV data displayed clear differences between the host exposed Staphylococcal samples compared to their respective unexposed controls. The pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains showed different types of regulations and interactions during host exposures. The observed modifications clearly suggest that the Gram positive pathogen changes its LTA production and possibly the structure to cause a severe pathogenic effect on an interacting host.

  2. Prion protein gene polymorphism and genetic risk evaluation for scrapie in all Turkish native sheep breeds.

    PubMed

    Meydan, H; Yüceer, B; Degirmenci, R; Özkan, M M; Yildiz, M A

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the prion protein (PrP) gene polymorphism in a total of 1,110 healthy sheep from 18 Turkish native sheep breeds. There were nine alleles and 22 genotypes observed based on codons 136, 154, and 171 of the PrP gene. The ARQ allele was predominant for all breeds. The most resistant allele to scrapie, ARR, was present in all breeds. The VRQ allele, associated with the highest susceptibility to scrapie, was detected at low frequencies in İvesi (0.06), Kıvırcık (0.021), Sakız (0.010), Karayaka (0.011), Çine Çaparı (0.012), and Güneykaraman (0.017). In general, the ARQ/ARQ genotype was predominant in all breeds. The most resistant genotype to scrapie, ARR/ARR, was found with the frequency lower than 0.180. The most susceptible genotype, VRQ/VRQ, was found in only Kıvırcık. The TRR and TRH alleles and the genotypes of ARR/TRR, ARR/ARK, and ARH/TRH have been found for the first time in Turkish native sheep breeds. According to these results, all breeds belong to risk group R3 followed by R2. It is propounded that the susceptibility to scrapie increased from eastern to western part of Turkey. Our findings of Turkish native sheep breeds with PrP gene polymorphisms will assist the sheep breeding program for selection of scrapie resistance genotypes to reduce the risk of scrapie.

  3. Cloning of two genes encoding Rab7 in Paramecium.

    PubMed

    Surmacz, Liliana; Wiejak, Jolanta; Wyroba, Elzbieta

    2006-01-01

    Rab7 is a small GTPase that plays a crucial role in the regulation of transport from early to late endosomes and lysosomes, phagosome maturation and in lysosomal biogenesis in mammalian cells. It contains conserved and unique sequence elements that mediate its function. Two Rab7 genes, Rab7a (703 bp) and Rab7b (707 bp) were identified in the unicellular eukaryote Paramecium by PCR amplification. They contain three short introns of different lengths (28-32 bp) and sequence located at identical positions in both genes. The presence of two Rab7 genes in the Paramecium genome was confirmed by Southern hybridization analysis performed with six different restriction enzymes. Expression of both genes was assessed by Northern blot and RT-PCR. Two transcripts of 1.8 and 2.2 kb were identified by hybridization analysis. The cloned complementary DNAs, both of 618 nucleotides in length, encode polypeptides of 206 amino acids that are 97.6% identical and differ in their C-termini. The predicted protein sequences of Rab7a and Rab7b contain all characteristic domains essential for Rab function: the effector domain (YRATVGADF) and four GTP-binding consensus sequences (GDSGVGKT, WDTAGQ, NKLD, SAK) as well as the prenylation motif (-CC) at the C-terminus indispensable for Rab binding to the membrane. Similarity searches revealed 81.6-82.1% homology of Paramecium Rab7 isoforms to human Rab7 and a lack of an insert typical for the Kinetoplastida - the species that appeared earlier in evolution. Paramecium is the first free-living lower eukaryote in which homologues of Rab7 have been identified that exhibit features similar to those of mammalian Rab7.

  4. DNA microarray analysis of Staphylococcus aureus causing bloodstream infection: bacterial genes associated with mortality?

    PubMed

    Blomfeldt, A; Aamot, H V; Eskesen, A N; Monecke, S; White, R A; Leegaard, T M; Bjørnholt, J V

    2016-08-01

    Providing evidence for microbial genetic determinants' impact on outcome in Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections (SABSI) is challenging due to the complex and dynamic microbe-host interaction. Our recent population-based prospective study reported an association between the S. aureus clonal complex (CC) 30 genotype and mortality in SABSI patients. This follow-up investigation aimed to examine the genetic profiles of the SABSI isolates and test the hypothesis that specific genetic characteristics in S. aureus are associated with mortality. SABSI isolates (n = 305) and S. aureus CC30 isolates from asymptomatic nasal carriers (n = 38) were characterised by DNA microarray analysis and spa typing. Fisher's exact test, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) and elastic net regressions were performed to discern within four groups defined by patient outcome and characteristics. No specific S. aureus genetic determinants were found to be associated with mortality in SABSI patients. By applying LASSO and elastic net regressions, we found evidence suggesting that agrIII and cna were positively and setC (=selX) and seh were negatively associated with S. aureus CC30 versus non-CC30 isolates. The genes chp and sak, encoding immune evasion molecules, were found in higher frequencies in CC30 SABSI isolates compared to CC30 carrier isolates, indicating a higher virulence potential. In conclusion, no specific S. aureus genes were found to be associated with mortality by DNA microarray analysis and state-of-the-art statistical analyses. The next natural step is to test the hypothesis in larger samples with higher resolution methods, like whole genome sequencing.

  5. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC)1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans.

    PubMed

    Alba, Patricia; Feltrin, Fabiola; Cordaro, Gessica; Porrero, María Concepción; Kraushaar, Britta; Argudín, María Angeles; Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Monaco, Monica; Stegger, Marc; Aarestrup, Frank M; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Battisti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Sequence Type (ST)1, Clonal Complex(CC)1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA-) lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in Italian dairy cattle herds. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences between ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from cattle and pig herds in Italy and Europe and human isolates. Sixty-tree animal isolates from different holdings and 20 human isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa-typing, SCCmec typing, and by micro-array analysis for several virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and strain/host-specific marker genes. Three major PFGE clusters were detected. The bovine isolates shared a high (≥90% to 100%) similarity with human isolates and carried the same SCCmec type IVa. They often showed genetic features typical of human adaptation or present in human-associated CC1: Immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes sak and scn, or sea; sat and aphA3-mediated aminoglycoside resistance. Contrary, typical markers of porcine origin in Italy and Spain, like erm(A) mediated macrolide-lincosamide-streptograminB, and of vga(A)-mediated pleuromutilin resistance were always absent in human and bovine isolates. Most of ST(CC)1 MRSA from dairy cattle were multidrug-resistant and contained virulence and immunomodulatory genes associated with full capability of colonizing humans. As such, these strains may represent a greater human hazard than the porcine strains. The zoonotic capacity of CC1 LA-MRSA from livestock must be taken seriously and measures should be implemented at farm-level to prevent spill-over. PMID:26322785

  6. Oral cancer malnutrition impacts weight and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Handschel, Jörg; Holtmann, Henrik; Krüskemper, Gertrud

    2015-04-01

    Diet is important for both quality of life (QoL) and survival of patients with oral cancer. Their intake of food is impeded by functional restrictions in chewing and swallowing. In the DÖSAK REHAB STUDY 1652 patients from 38 hospitals within the German-language area of Germany; Austria and Switzerland were examined with regard to functional and psychological variables having an impact on diet. Chewing and swallowing are correlated with mobility of the tongue and the mandible as well as opening of the mouth. Thirty five percent of the patients lost weight; 41% maintained their weight and 24% gained weight. The QoL of patients who were able to maintain their weight and of those who gained weight was significantly better than that of patients who lost weight. A normal diet was important for maintaining weight. Mashed food; liquid food and loss of appetite were closely associated with loss of weight; although it was possible for nutritional counseling and dietary support to be implemented particularly favorably in this respect. Due to problems with eating patients' strength deteriorated; thus restricting activity. Radiotherapy had a negative impact on diet and weight. It influenced sense of taste; dryness of the mouth; swelling and discomfort when ingesting food. Pain and scars in the region of the operation also cause patients to dislike hard; spicy and sour food. Support from a nutritional counselor in implementing a calorie-rich diet remedied this and such support needs to be integrated into patient management. The fact that a poor nutritional status is of such great importance is well-known; but what is often lacking is the systematic implementation of continued professional nutritional counseling over a long period of time; weight control and psycho-social support of the operated patients; particularly those who also have had radiotherapy.

  7. Characterization of gprK Encoding a Putative Hybrid G-Protein-Coupled Receptor in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Mun-Gu; Kim, Sung Su; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Shin, Kwang-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family represents the largest and most varied collection of membrane embedded proteins that are sensitized by ligand binding and interact with heterotrimeric G proteins. Despite their presumed critical roles in fungal biology, the functions of the GPCR family members in the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus are largely unknown, as only two (GprC and GprD) of the 15 predicted GPCRs have been studied. Here, we characterize the gprK gene, which is predicted to encode a hybrid GPCR with both 7-transmembrane and regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) domains. The deletion of gprK causes severely impaired asexual development coupled with reduced expression of key developmental activators. Moreover, ΔgprK results in hyper-activation of germination even in the absence of carbon source, and elevated expression and activity of the protein kinase A PkaC1. Furthermore, proliferation of the ΔgprK mutant is restricted on the medium when pentose is the sole carbon source, suggesting that GprK may function in external carbon source sensing. Notably, the absence of gprK results in reduced tolerance to oxidative stress and significantly lowered mRNA levels of the stress-response associated genes sakA and atfA. Activities of catalases and SODs are severely decreased in the ΔgprK mutant, indicating that GprK may function in proper activation of general stress response. The ΔgprK mutant is also defective in gliotoxin (GT) production and slightly less virulent toward the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella. Transcriptomic studies reveal that a majority of transporters are down-regulated by ΔgprK. In summary, GprK is necessary for proper development, GT production, and oxidative stress response, and functions in down-regulating the PKA-germination pathway. PMID:27584150

  8. Involvement of two type 2C protein phosphatases BcPtc1 and BcPtc3 in the regulation of multiple stress tolerance and virulence of Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qianqian; Jiang, Jinhua; Mayr, Christiane; Hahn, Matthias; Ma, Zhonghua

    2013-10-01

    Type 2C Ser/Thr phosphatases (PP2Cs) are involved in various cellular processes in many eukaryotes, but little has been known about their functions in filamentous fungi. Botrytis cinerea contains four putative PP2C genes, named BcPTC1, -3, -5, and -6. Biological functions of these genes were analysed by gene deletion and complementation. While no phenotypes aberrant from the wild type were observed with mutants of BcPTC5 and BcPTC6, mutants of BcPTC1 and BcPTC3 had reduced hyphal growth, increased conidiation, and impaired sclerotium development. Additionally, BcPTC1 and BcPTC3 mutants exhibited increased sensitivity to osmotic and oxidative stresses, and to cell wall degrading enzymes. Both mutants exhibited dramatically decreased virulence on host plant tissues. All of the defects were restored by genetic complementation of the mutants with wild-type BcPTC1 and BcPTC3 respectively. Different from what is known in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, BcPtc3, but not BcPtc1, negatively regulates phosphorylation of BcSak1 (the homologue of S. cerevisiae Hog1) in B. cinerea, although both BcPTC1 and BcPTC3 were able to rescue the growth defects of a yeast PTC1 deletion mutant under various stress conditions. These results demonstrated that BcPtc1 and BcPtc3 play important roles in the regulation of multiple stress tolerance and virulence of B. cinerea. PMID:23601355

  9. [Atypical femoral fractures and bisphosphonates treatment: is it a risk factor?].

    PubMed

    Geada, Nuno; Mafra, Inês; Barroso, Rogério; Franco, José

    2014-01-01

    IntroduçÉo: Os bifosfonatos têm eficácia comprovada na prevençÉo das fracturas osteoporóticas. Contudo, têm sido descritas fracturas femorais atípicas associadas à toma prolongada de bifosfonatos com um padrÉo radiológico bem definido. Os objectivos no nosso estudo foram caracterizar os doentes de idade ≥ 65 anos com fracturas femorais (subtrocantéricas/diafisárias) consideradas típicas e atípicas e avaliar a relaçÉo entre a ocorrência das fracturas atípicas e o uso de bifosfonatos.Material e Métodos: Realizámos um estudo caso-controlo com os doentes admitidos no nosso Hospital por fractura subtrocantérica ou diafisária do fémur, num período de cinco anos e meio. Após aplicaçÉo dos critérios de exclusÉo, as 92 fracturas (91 doentes) foram classificadas como atípicas ou típicas. A determinaçÉo do tratamento prévio com bifosfonatos foi obtida através do historial clínico dos doentes.Resultados: Foram encontradas 11 fracturas atípicas (10 doentes) e 81 fracturas típicas (81 doentes). A idade mediana entre os dois grupos foi estatisticamente diferente (72 anos - atípicas vs 80 anos - típicas, p < 0,01). A razÉo do uso de bifosfonatos foi de 0,60 nas fracturas atípicas e de 0,01 nas típicas, traduzindo um odds ratio de 101,1 (p < 0,01).DiscussÉo: Na generalidade, os nossos resultados sÉo apoiados e estÉo de acordo com os estudos publicados referentes à ocorrência de fracturas femorais atípicas associadas à toma de bifosfonatos.ConclusÉo: Apesar do pequeno número de casos foi possível demonstrar a relaçÉo, estatisticamente, significativa entre as fracturas femorais atípicas e a toma de bifosfonatos. De notar que estas fracturas atípicas ocorreram em doentes, significativamente, mais jovens do que os doentes com fracturas típicas.

  10. Influence of early environmental factors on lymphocyte subsets and gut microbiota in infants at risk of celiac disease; the PROFICEL study.

    PubMed

    Pozo-Rubio, Tamara; de Palma, Giada; Mujico, Jorge R; Olivares, Marta; Marcos, Ascensión; Acuña, María Dolores; Polanco, Isabel; Sanz, Yolanda; Nova, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Es bien sabido que el genotipo HLA puede explicar un 40% del riesgo genético de enfermedad celíaca, por lo que otros factores de predisposición genéticos así como factores que sutilmente modulen la activación y diferenciación de células T necesitan ser estudiados. Esto incluye factores ambientales, de los que se cree actualmente que ejercen un efecto sobre el desarrollo del sistema inmune y la microbiota intestinal. Objetivo: Evaluar las asociaciones entre factores ambientales tempranos, las subpoblaciones de linfocitos y la composición de la microbiota intestinal en niños con riesgo familiar de enfermedad celíaca. Diseño del estudio: Estudio prospectivo observacional Sujetos: 55 niños de 4 meses de edad con al menos un familiar celíaco de primer grado. Los niños fueron clasificados de acuerdo al tipo de parto, ingesta materna de antibióticos durante el embarazo y durante el parto, tipo de lactancia, infecciones tempranas y toma de antibióticos, administración de la vacuna de rotavirus, y incidencia de alergias dentro de los 18 primeros meses de vida. Métodos: Las subpoblaciones de linfocitos y la composición de la microbiota intestinal fueron estudiadas a la edad de 4 meses. Resultados: La lactancia de fórmula y las infecciones tempranas se asociaron con un mayor número absoluto de células CD3+, CD4+, CD4+CD38+, CD4+CD28+ y CD3+CD4+CD45RO+ (P0.01). El parto por cesárea y la administración de la vacuna de rotavirus se asociaron a un menor porcentaje de células CD4+CD25+. La toma temprana de antibióticos se asoció y correlacionó con menor número de Bifidobacterium longum y mayor número de Bacteroides fragilis. Conclusiones: Las infecciones y la toma de antibióticos en los primeros 4 meses de edad son los factores ambientales tempranos más fuertemente y/o frecuentemente asociados a las subpoblaciones de linfocitos y la composición de la microbiota, respectivamente, en niños con riesgo de enfermedad celíaca.

  11. The evolution of biomass-burning aerosol size distributions due to coagulation: dependence on fire and meteorological details and parameterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Kimiko M.; Laing, James R.; Stevens, Robin G.; Jaffe, Daniel A.; Pierce, Jeffrey R.

    2016-06-01

    Biomass-burning aerosols have a significant effect on global and regional aerosol climate forcings. To model the magnitude of these effects accurately requires knowledge of the size distribution of the emitted and evolving aerosol particles. Current biomass-burning inventories do not include size distributions, and global and regional models generally assume a fixed size distribution from all biomass-burning emissions. However, biomass-burning size distributions evolve in the plume due to coagulation and net organic aerosol (OA) evaporation or formation, and the plume processes occur on spacial scales smaller than global/regional-model grid boxes. The extent of this size-distribution evolution is dependent on a variety of factors relating to the emission source and atmospheric conditions. Therefore, accurately accounting for biomass-burning aerosol size in global models requires an effective aerosol size distribution that accounts for this sub-grid evolution and can be derived from available emission-inventory and meteorological parameters. In this paper, we perform a detailed investigation of the effects of coagulation on the aerosol size distribution in biomass-burning plumes. We compare the effect of coagulation to that of OA evaporation and formation. We develop coagulation-only parameterizations for effective biomass-burning size distributions using the SAM-TOMAS large-eddy simulation plume model. For the most-sophisticated parameterization, we use the Gaussian Emulation Machine for Sensitivity Analysis (GEM-SA) to build a parameterization of the aged size distribution based on the SAM-TOMAS output and seven inputs: emission median dry diameter, emission distribution modal width, mass emissions flux, fire area, mean boundary-layer wind speed, plume mixing depth, and time/distance since emission. This parameterization was tested against an independent set of SAM-TOMAS simulations and yields R2 values of 0.83 and 0.89 for Dpm and modal width, respectively. The

  12. Analysis of feedbacks between nucleation rate, survival probability and cloud condensation nuclei formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westervelt, D. M.; Pierce, J. R.; Adams, P. J.

    2014-06-01

    Aerosol nucleation is an important source of particle number in the atmosphere. However, in order to become cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), freshly nucleated particles must undergo significant condensational growth while avoiding coagulational scavenging. In an effort to quantify the contribution of nucleation to CCN, this work uses the GEOS-Chem-TOMAS global aerosol model to calculate changes in CCN concentrations against a broad range of nucleation rates and mechanisms. We then quantify the factors that control CCN formation from nucleation, including daily nucleation rates, growth rates, coagulation sinks, condensation sinks, survival probabilities, and CCN formation rates, in order to examine feedbacks that may limit growth of nucleated particles to CCN. Nucleation rate parameterizations tested in GEOS-Chem-TOMAS include ternary nucleation (with multiple tuning factors), activation nucleation (with two pre-factors), binary nucleation, and ion-mediated nucleation. We find that nucleation makes a significant contribution to boundary layer CCN(0.2%), but this contribution is only modestly sensitive to the choice of nucleation scheme, ranging from 49 to 78% increase in concentrations over a control simulation with no nucleation. Moreover, a two order-of-magnitude increase in the globally averaged nucleation rate (via changes to tuning factors) results in small changes (less than 10%) to global CCN(0.2%) concentrations. To explain this, we present a simple theory showing that survival probability has an exponentially decreasing dependence on the square of the condensation sink. This functional form stems from a negative correlation between condensation sink and growth rate and a positive correlation between condensation sink and coagulational scavenging. Conceptually, with a fixed condensable vapor budget (sulfuric acid and organics), any increase in CCN concentrations due to higher nucleation rates necessarily entails an increased aerosol surface area in the

  13. PubMed

    Barrantes-Monge, Melba; Rodríguez, Eduardo; Lama, Alexis

    2009-01-01

    Existen prejuicios en relación con la vejez, incluso entre los profesionales que se dedican a la gerontología. Uno común y peligroso es considerar que los viejos son todos enfermos o discapacitados.La relación médico-paciente es la piedra angular de la práctica y ética médicas. Para alcanzar el respeto por los adultos mayores es necesaria una medicina prudente, basada en una práctica en la cual la reflexión ética y clínica pueda contribuir. Esto último es posible si se hacen valer los derechos del adulto mayor, en particular como paciente para la toma de decisiones.

  14. Importance of Viscoelastic Property Measurement of a New Hydrogel for Health Care

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Niladri; Saha, Nabanita; Kitano, Takeshi; Saha, Petr

    2009-07-01

    A simple technology based new hydrogel "PVP-CMC-BA" has been prepared by the scientists of Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Czech Republic. Its swelling property (in presence of water, human blood and different pH), antimicrobial property (in presence of skin infection causing agents like: Staphylococcus aureus; bacteria and Candida albicans; fungi) and viscoelastic properties such as storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G") and complex viscosity (η*) were investigated at room temperature (25-28° C) which demonstrate that PVP-CMC-BA hydrogel is maintaining requisite properties for health care application, specially as a wound dressing material. The elasticity and antimicrobial property of PVP-CMC-BA is directly correlated with percentage of boric acid, an antiseptic agent. The consequential values of viscoelastic properties of the hydrogel (before drying) enable us to understand its specific flexible condition to apply on the surface of human body.

  15. Science and Technology Review December 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Bearinger, J P

    2009-11-17

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Advanced Materials for Our Past, Present, and Future - Commentary by Tomas Diaz de la Rubia; (2) A Defensive 'Coat' for Materials under Attack - Amorphous metal coatings provide the strength and corrosion resistance needed to protect military vessels and spent nuclear fuel containers; (3) Too Close for Comfort - Laboratory scientists are analyzing the feasibility of using nuclear explosives to disrupt or divert asteroids on a collision course with Earth; (4) Hyperion: A Titan of High-Performance Computing Systems - Livermore is collaborating with 10 computing industry leaders to create a test bed for Linux cluster hardware and software technologies; (5) Isolating Pathogens for Speedy Identification - An automated miniature device separates viruses, bacteria, genetic material, and proteins from nasal swabs and blood and urine samples for speedy identification.

  16. Science and Technology Review December 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolic, R J

    2011-11-01

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) High-Performance Computing for Energy Innovation - Commentary by Tomas Diaz de la Rubia; (2) Simulating the Next Generation of Energy Technologies - Projects using high-performance computing demonstrate Livermore's computational horsepower and improve the quality of energy solutions and the speed of deployment; (3) ARC Comes into Focus - The Advanced Radiographic Capability, a petawatt-class laser, can penetrate dense objects to reveal material dynamics during National Ignition Facility experiments; (4) A New Method to Track Viral Evolution - A sensitive technique developed at the Laboratory can identify virus mutations that may jump from host to host; and (5) Data for Defense: New Software Finds It Fast - Department of Defense warfighters and planners are using Livermore software systems to extract pertinent information from massive amounts of data.

  17. Science and Technology Review December 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Blobaum, K M

    2010-10-29

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) More Insight to Better Understand Climate Change - Commentary by Tomas Diaz de la Rubia; (2) Strengthening Our Understanding of Climate Change - Researchers at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry are working to better understand climate variation and sharpen the accuracy of predictive models; (3) Precision Diagnostics Tell All - The National Ignition Facility relies on sophisticated diagnostic instruments for measuring the key physical processes that occur in high-energy-density experiments; (4) Quick Detection of Pathogens by the Thousands - Livermore scientists have developed a device that can simultaneously identify thousands of viruses and bacteria within 24 hours; and (5) Carbon Dioxide into the Briny Deep - A proposed technique for burying carbon dioxide underground could help mitigate the effects of this greenhouse gas while producing freshwater.

  18. Stroke education in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Jose C; Baroque, Alejandro C; Lokin, Johnny K

    2013-10-01

    Education is paramount in effectively reducing the significant burden of stroke in the Philippines. Dedicated academic institutions and dynamic professional organizations in the Philippines have collaborated to involve themselves in the plight against stroke through systematic curriculum development for undergraduates, continuous regulation of quality residency and fellowship training program, hosting up-to-date Continuing Medical Education (CME) activities for local and international audience, and active participation in clinical stroke trials. Most recently, the University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Medicine & Surgery and the Department of Neurology & Psychiatry offered a 72-hour Certification Course in Stroke Medicine that commenced in 2011 in anticipation of the Master on Health Sciences in Stroke Medicine course being prepared for 2013. PMID:23506562

  19. Science& Technology Review November 2003

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, D

    2003-11-01

    This issue of Science & Technology Review covers the following topics: (1) We Will Always Need Basic Science--Commentary by Tomas Diaz de la Rubia; (2) When Semiconductors Go Nano--experiments and computer simulations reveal some surprising behavior of semiconductors at the nanoscale; (3) Retinal Prosthesis Provides Hope for Restoring Sight--A microelectrode array is being developed for a retinal prosthesis; (4) Maglev on the Development Track for Urban Transportation--Inductrack, a Livermore concept to levitate train cars using permanent magnets, will be demonstrated on a 120-meter-long test track; and (5) Power Plant on a Chip Moves Closer to Reality--Laboratory-designed fuel processor gives power boost to dime-size fuel cell.

  20. Science and Technology Review July/August 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Radousky, H B

    2006-05-25

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Experiments at the Scale of Simulations--Commentary by Tomas Diaz de la Rubia; (2) A New Realm of Materials Science--Livermore scientists are combining experiment, theory, and simulation to study the response of solids to extreme dynamic stresses at nanometer and subnanosecond scales; (3) Planets and Stars under the Magnifying Glass--An international collaboration involving Laboratory scientists has discovered a planet made of rock or ice orbiting a dim star outside our solar system; and (4) Keeping an Eye on the Prize--A Livermore-IBM team uses a new code and the world's fastest computer to set a performance record for a science application.

  1. Science and Technology Review July/August 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Bearinger, J P

    2009-06-29

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Game-Changing Science in the National Interest - Commentary by Tomas Diaz de la Rubia; (2) Preventing Close Encounters of the Orbiting Kind - The Testbed Environment for Space Situational Awareness is improving capabilities for monitoring and detecting threats to space operations; (3) A CAT Scanner for Nuclear Weapon Components - A new x-ray system images nuclear weapon components in three dimensions, promising unprecedented resolution and clarity; (4) Mass-Producing Positrons - Scientists reveal a new method for yielding a greater density of positrons at a much faster rate inside a laboratory setting; and (5) The Next Generation of Medical Diagnostic Devices - Portable medical diagnostic devices using ultrawideband technology help first responders evaluate injuries in emergency situations and could improve overall health care.

  2. Performance optimization of minimally nonlinear irreversible heat engines and refrigerators under a trade-off figure of merit.

    PubMed

    Long, Rui; Liu, Zhichun; Liu, Wei

    2014-06-01

    A performance optimization for minimally nonlinear heat engines and refrigerators is conducted under an optimization criterion of Ω. The results show that under tight-coupling conditions, the efficiency and coefficient of performance (COP) bounds in asymmetric dissipation limits are the same as those obtained by de Tomas et al. [Phys. Rev. E 87, 012105 (2013)] for low dissipation heat devices. The efficiency bounds for heat engines under nontight-coupling conditions are also analyzed and the experimental results lie between theoretical results obtained under different coupling strengths. For refrigerators, the theoretical results are also in good agreement with some observed results. The efficiency and COP bounds under the Ω criterion are refined, which are closer to real heat engines and refrigerators.

  3. Science and Technology Review May 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Henson, V E

    2004-04-02

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) ''A Multidisciplinary Attack on Bioterrorism''--Commentary by Tomas Diaz de la Rubia. (2) ''Life at the Nanoscale''--Livermore researchers are exploring the molecules of life at the nanoscale to fight bioterrorism, improve human health, and understand how proteins function. (3) ''Screening Cargo Containers to Remove a Terrorist Threat''--A detection system for cargo containers will search for hidden nuclear materials that terrorists might try to ship to U.S. seaports. (4) ''Improved Algorithms Speed It Up for Codes''--Recent changes to the algorithms used in Monte Carlo calculations are reducing the time needed to run the high-fidelity simulations being developed for the nation's supercomputers. (5) ''The Siren Call of the Seas: Sequestering Carbon Dioxide''--Scientists at Livermore evaluate possible methods for removing carbon dioxide from Earth's atmosphere and storing it in the planet's waters.

  4. RELACIÓN MÉDICO PACIENTE: DERECHOS DEL ADULTO MAYOR

    PubMed Central

    Barrantes-Monge, Melba; Rodríguez, Eduardo; Lama, Alexis

    2009-01-01

    Existen prejuicios en relación con la vejez, incluso entre los profesionales que se dedican a la gerontología. Uno común y peligroso es considerar que los viejos son todos enfermos o discapacitados. La relación médico-paciente es la piedra angular de la práctica y ética médicas. Para alcanzar el respeto por los adultos mayores es necesaria una medicina prudente, basada en una práctica en la cual la reflexión ética y clínica pueda contribuir. Esto último es posible si se hacen valer los derechos del adulto mayor, en particular como paciente para la toma de decisiones. PMID:20379380

  5. PubMed

    Barrantes-Monge, Melba; Rodríguez, Eduardo; Lama, Alexis

    2009-01-01

    Existen prejuicios en relación con la vejez, incluso entre los profesionales que se dedican a la gerontología. Uno común y peligroso es considerar que los viejos son todos enfermos o discapacitados.La relación médico-paciente es la piedra angular de la práctica y ética médicas. Para alcanzar el respeto por los adultos mayores es necesaria una medicina prudente, basada en una práctica en la cual la reflexión ética y clínica pueda contribuir. Esto último es posible si se hacen valer los derechos del adulto mayor, en particular como paciente para la toma de decisiones. PMID:20379380

  6. Science & Technology Review March 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Radousky, H B

    2007-02-05

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Partnering to Enhance Americans Health--Commentary by Tomas Diaz de la Rubia; (2) Advancing the Frontiers in Cancer Research--Researchers at the University of California Davis Cancer Center and Lawrence Livermore are teaming up to fight cancer; (3) On the Leading Edge of Atmospheric Predictions--Continual research and development at the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center help mitigate the consequences of toxic airborne hazards; (4) Climate and Agriculture: Change Begets Change--A Livermore researcher is using computer models to explore how a warmer climate may affect crop yields in California; (5) New Routes to High Temperatures and Pressures--With functionally graded density impactors composed of thin metal and polyethylene films, researchers can explore new areas of experimental physics; and (6) From Sound Waves to Stars: Teller's Contributions to Shock Physics--Edward Teller's interest in shock physics led to significant developments in both basic and applied science.

  7. A 18^th century thermometer recipe: The begin of experimental physics courses in Guadalajara, M'exico?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Alba Martinez, Durruty Jesus

    2007-03-01

    As a part of the Special Funds Collection of the Jalisco's State Public Library ``Juan Jos'e Arreola'' is a physics course manuscript attributed to Francisco Javier Clavigero s.j. (1731-1787), teacher at the Jesuit Colegio de Santo Tom'as (a college-level institution in Guadalajara before the university opening), inside of the vellum bounded volume is a unbounded folio containing instructions on how to build a thermometer. In this work are discussed some evidences of the belonging of such folio to the manuscript in spite of their differences (it is written in Spanish not in Latin as the whole), we also describe the process to construct the thermometer and how could be the experimental part of the physics course. Also is briefly exposed the importance of the educational role of Clavigero as a builder of the concept of mexicanity.

  8. Science & Technology Review November 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Aufderheide, M B

    2005-09-19

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) A Major Advance in Understanding Metals--Commentary by Tomas Diaz de la Rubia; (2) Materials Scientists Discover the Power of ParaDiS--A new supercomputer code is revealing how metals become stronger through the formation of dislocation line junctions; (3) A Wide New Window on the Universe--Livermore scientists and engineers are contributing to the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, which will provide unprecedented digital maps of the changing night sky; (4) Built for Speed: Graphics Processors for General-Purpose Computing--Commercial graphics processors used in the computer gaming industry are providing low-cost solutions for high-performance data processing; and (5) Negative Plasma Densities Raise Questions--Livermore physicists shed light on anomalous results in x-ray interferometry of plasmas.

  9. [Myasthenia gravis in Santo Tomás Hospital 1990-1997].

    PubMed

    Frago, G; Gracia, F; Chang, E; Andrade Alegre, R

    1998-09-01

    Myasthenia Gravis is an infrequent disease. Diagnosis and treatment must be done early to avoid high morbidity that can compromise patients lives. Nine cases were identified during the eight year 1990-1997 at the Santo Tomas Hospital of Panama city but one had to be excluded because he refused treatment. Most of the patients (7/8) had symptoms for more than 3 months. The diagnosis of Myasthenia Gravis requires a high index of suspicion and the clinical impressión must be confirmed by various diagnostic studies that include the edrophonium test, the repetitive stimulation test, the therapeutic test with pyridostigmine, the determination of acetylcholine anti-receptor antibodies and a CT Scan of the thorax. Medical treatment consists mainly of anticholinesterase agents and surgical treatment consists of thymectomy by means of an extended transternal ablation. Operative results were excellent, seven out of eight improved.

  10. Prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time as a predictor of bleeding in patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Chua, M N; Molanida, R; de Guzman, M; Laberiza, F

    1993-01-01

    Eighty-nine pediatric patients admitted at the University of Santo Tomas Hospital from June to December 1992, with the clinical diagnosis of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) were studied with the following objectives: To determine the possible use of hematocrit, platelet count, prothrombin time (PT) and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) as predictors of bleeding and outcome in patient with DHF. The following were established: PTT can be an index in predicting bleeding in DHF. The tendency to bleed is greater with prolongation of > 30 seconds; platelet count can be a predictor of mortality, with death six times greater among those platelet count < 50,000/microliters than those whose platelet count was > 50,000/microliters. PT can also predict bleeding in patients with DHF.

  11. Stroke education in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Jose C; Baroque, Alejandro C; Lokin, Johnny K

    2013-10-01

    Education is paramount in effectively reducing the significant burden of stroke in the Philippines. Dedicated academic institutions and dynamic professional organizations in the Philippines have collaborated to involve themselves in the plight against stroke through systematic curriculum development for undergraduates, continuous regulation of quality residency and fellowship training program, hosting up-to-date Continuing Medical Education (CME) activities for local and international audience, and active participation in clinical stroke trials. Most recently, the University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Medicine & Surgery and the Department of Neurology & Psychiatry offered a 72-hour Certification Course in Stroke Medicine that commenced in 2011 in anticipation of the Master on Health Sciences in Stroke Medicine course being prepared for 2013.

  12. Cell scientist to watch - Emmanuel Boucrot.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Emmanuel Boucrot obtained an undergraduate and a master's degree in biochemistry at the University of Geneva in Switzerland. He pursued his PhD in immunology at the University of Aix-Marseille II in France, supervised by Stéphane Méresse in the laboratory of Jean-Pierre Gorvel. Emmanuel moved to the USA for his postdoctoral training in the laboratory of Tomas Kirchhausen at Harvard Medical School, first as an EMBO fellow and then as a Human Frontiers Science Program fellow. Before starting his own laboratory in 2011, Emmanuel held another postdoctoral position in the laboratory of Harvey McMahon at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, UK. He is a recipient of a Lister Institute Research Prize and a BBSRC David Phillips Research Fellowship. His group at University College London is interested in studying the mechanisms of clathrin-independent endocytosis, as well as investigating properties of quiescent cells.

  13. Science& Technology Review July/August 2003

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, D H

    2003-07-01

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Calling All Nuclear Scientists--Commentary by Tomas Diaz de la Rubia; (2) An Inside Attack on Cancer--Customizing the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, for individual cancers and individual patients, is the goal of a Livermore research initiative; (3) Cells Respond Uniquely to Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation--Mammalian cells and tissues exposed to low-level radiation respond by switching on hundreds of genes specialized in repairing damaged chromosomes, membranes, and proteins and in countering cellular stress. (4) A New Generation of Munitions--Warhead designers are developing low collateral damage munitions that only deliver their destructive force to the intended target; and (5) Whatever the Waste, New Facility Takes It On--A new decontamination and waste treatment facility makes it easier for Livermore to manage a variety of wastes effectively, practically, and responsibly.

  14. Cell scientist to watch - Emmanuel Boucrot.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Emmanuel Boucrot obtained an undergraduate and a master's degree in biochemistry at the University of Geneva in Switzerland. He pursued his PhD in immunology at the University of Aix-Marseille II in France, supervised by Stéphane Méresse in the laboratory of Jean-Pierre Gorvel. Emmanuel moved to the USA for his postdoctoral training in the laboratory of Tomas Kirchhausen at Harvard Medical School, first as an EMBO fellow and then as a Human Frontiers Science Program fellow. Before starting his own laboratory in 2011, Emmanuel held another postdoctoral position in the laboratory of Harvey McMahon at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, UK. He is a recipient of a Lister Institute Research Prize and a BBSRC David Phillips Research Fellowship. His group at University College London is interested in studying the mechanisms of clathrin-independent endocytosis, as well as investigating properties of quiescent cells. PMID:27587837

  15. [Association between breakfast intake and quality of life among self-sufficient Chilean elderly].

    PubMed

    García Milla, Paula; Candia Johns, Priscila; Durán Agüero, Samuel

    2014-10-01

    Introducción: Los adultos mayores (AM) son cada vez más prevalentes en nuestro país, por lo cual se hace relevante los estudios en este grupo de edad. Por otra parte el impacto en la salud que tiene el consumo de desayuno y la calidad de este, está demostrado en grupos de escolares. Objetivo: Determinar si el consumo de desayuno está asociado a una mejor calidad de vida en AM chilenos autonomos. Metodología: Se entrevistó a 1285 AM (> 60 años) autonomos de ambos sexos. A cada AM se le aplicaron dos encuestas (encuesta alimentaria y estilos de vida saludables), posteriormente se realizó una evaluación antropométrica. Resultados: El 5,6% de los AM no consume desayuno. Los que consumen desayuno presentan una mejor calidad de vida (p=0,004), destacándose en hombres un menor índice de masa corporal (IMC) cuando se toma desayuno (p=0,002). Por otra parte, los resultados indican que es mayor la proporción de AM que fuma y que no toma desayuno, así como, una mayor responsabilidad en salud, nutrición, manejo del estrés en quienes si desayunan. Finalmente hubo una asociación entre la ingesta de desayuno y mejor nutrición (p=0,01) y autorrealización (p=0,005) Conclusión: Los AM que consumen desayuno, presentan una mejor calidad de vida que quienes no los consumen.

  16. Healthcare- and Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Fatal Pneumonia with Pediatric Deaths in Krasnoyarsk, Siberian Russia: Unique MRSA's Multiple Virulence Factors, Genome, and Stepwise Evolution.

    PubMed

    Khokhlova, Olga E; Hung, Wei-Chun; Wan, Tsai-Wen; Iwao, Yasuhisa; Takano, Tomomi; Higuchi, Wataru; Yachenko, Svetlana V; Teplyakova, Olga V; Kamshilova, Vera V; Kotlovsky, Yuri V; Nishiyama, Akihito; Reva, Ivan V; Sidorenko, Sergey V; Peryanova, Olga V; Reva, Galina V; Teng, Lee-Jene; Salmina, Alla B; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogen. We herein discussed MRSA and its infections in Krasnoyarsk, Siberian Russia between 2007 and 2011. The incidence of MRSA in 3,662 subjects was 22.0% and 2.9% for healthcare- and community-associated MRSA (HA- and CA-MRSA), respectively. The 15-day mortality rates for MRSA hospital- and community-acquired pneumonia (HAP and CAP) were 6.5% and 50%, respectively. MRSA CAP cases included pediatric deaths; of the MRSA pneumonia episodes available, ≥27.3% were associated with bacteremia. Most cases of HA-MRSA examined exhibited ST239/spa3(t037)/SCCmecIII.1.1.2 (designated as ST239Kras), while all CA-MRSA cases examined were ST8/spa1(t008)/SCCmecIV.3.1.1(IVc) (designated as ST8Kras). ST239Kras and ST8Kras strongly expressed cytolytic peptide (phenol-soluble modulin α, PSMα; and δ-hemolysin, Hld) genes, similar to CA-MRSA. ST239Kras pneumonia may have been attributed to a unique set of multiple virulence factors (MVFs): toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1), elevated PSMα/Hld expression, α-hemolysin, the staphylococcal enterotoxin SEK/SEQ, the immune evasion factor SCIN/SAK, and collagen adhesin. Regarding ST8Kras, SEA was included in MVFs, some of which were common to ST239Kras. The ST239Kras (strain OC3) genome contained: a completely unique phage, φSa7-like (W), with no att repetition; S. aureus pathogenicity island SaPI2R, the first TSST-1 gene-positive (tst+) SaPI in the ST239 lineage; and a super copy of IS256 (≥22 copies/genome). ST239Kras carried the Brazilian SCCmecIII.1.1.2 and United Kingdom-type tst. ST239Kras and ST8Kras were MDR, with the same levofloxacin resistance mutations; small, but transmissible chloramphenicol resistance plasmids spread widely enough to not be ignored. These results suggest that novel MDR and MVF+ HA- and CA-MRSA (ST239Kras and ST8Kras) emerged in Siberian Russia (Krasnoyarsk) associated with fatal pneumonia, and also with ST

  17. Phase Behavior, Solid Organic Precipitation, and Mobility Characterization Studies in Support of Enhanced Heavy Oil Recovery on the Alaska North Slope

    SciTech Connect

    Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    amount of geographically diverse data, it is not possible to develop a comprehensive predictive model. Based on the comprehensive phase behavior analysis of Alaska North Slope crude oil, a reservoir simulation study was carried out to evaluate the performance of a gas injection enhanced oil recovery technique for the West Sak reservoir. It was found that a definite increase in viscous oil production can be obtained by selecting the proper injectant gas and by optimizing reservoir operating parameters. A comparative analysis is provided, which helps in the decision-making process.

  18. Antifungal activity of redox-active benzaldehydes that target cellular antioxidation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Disruption of cellular antioxidation systems should be an effective method for control of fungal pathogens. Such disruption can be achieved with redox-active compounds. Natural phenolic compounds can serve as potent redox cyclers that inhibit microbial growth through destabilization of cellular redox homeostasis and/or antioxidation systems. The aim of this study was to identify benzaldehydes that disrupt the fungal antioxidation system. These compounds could then function as chemosensitizing agents in concert with conventional drugs or fungicides to improve antifungal efficacy. Methods Benzaldehydes were tested as natural antifungal agents against strains of Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. terreus and Penicillium expansum, fungi that are causative agents of human invasive aspergillosis and/or are mycotoxigenic. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was also used as a model system for identifying gene targets of benzaldehydes. The efficacy of screened compounds as effective chemosensitizers or as antifungal agents in formulations was tested with methods outlined by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Results Several benzaldehydes are identified having potent antifungal activity. Structure-activity analysis reveals that antifungal activity increases by the presence of an ortho-hydroxyl group in the aromatic ring. Use of deletion mutants in the oxidative stress-response pathway of S. cerevisiae (sod1Δ, sod2Δ, glr1Δ) and two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) mutants of A. fumigatus (sakAΔ, mpkCΔ), indicates antifungal activity of the benzaldehydes is through disruption of cellular antioxidation. Certain benzaldehydes, in combination with phenylpyrroles, overcome tolerance of A. fumigatus MAPK mutants to this agent and/or increase sensitivity of fungal pathogens to mitochondrial respiration inhibitory agents. Synergistic chemosensitization greatly lowers minimum inhibitory (MIC) or fungicidal (MFC) concentrations. Effective

  19. A Livestock-Associated, Multidrug-Resistant, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clonal Complex 97 Lineage Spreading in Dairy Cattle and Pigs in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Feltrin, Fabiola; Alba, Patricia; Kraushaar, Britta; Ianzano, Angela; Argudín, María Angeles; Di Matteo, Paola; Porrero, María Concepción; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia

    2015-01-01

    Pandemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 97 (CC97) lineages originated from livestock-to-human host jumps. In recent years, CC97 has become one of the major MRSA lineages detected in Italian farmed animals. The aim of this study was to characterize and analyze differences in MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) mainly of swine and bovine origins. Forty-seven CC97 isolates, 35 MRSA isolates, and 6 MSSA isolates from different Italian pig and cattle holdings; 5 pig MRSA isolates from Germany; and 1 human MSSA isolate from Spain were characterized by macrorestriction pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, and antimicrobial resistance pattern analysis. Virulence and resistance genes were investigated by PCR and microarray analysis. Most of the isolates were of SCCmec type V (SCCmec V), except for two German MRSA isolates (SCCmec III). Five main clusters were identified by PFGE, with the German isolates (clusters I and II) showing 60.5% similarity with the Italian isolates, most of which (68.1%) grouped into cluster V. All CC97 isolates were Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) negative, and a few (n = 7) tested positive for sak or scn. All MRSA isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR), and the main features were erm(B)- or erm(C)-mediated (n = 18) macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance, vga(A)-mediated (n = 37) pleuromutilin resistance, fluoroquinolone resistance (n = 33), tet(K) in 32/37 tet(M)-positive isolates, and blaZ in almost all MRSA isolates. Few host-associated differences were detected among CC97 MRSA isolates: their extensive MDR nature in both pigs and dairy cattle may be a consequence of a spillback from pigs of a MRSA lineage that originated in cattle as MSSA and needs further investigation. Measures should be implemented at the farm level to prevent spillover to humans in intensive farming

  20. A Livestock-Associated, Multidrug-Resistant, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clonal Complex 97 Lineage Spreading in Dairy Cattle and Pigs in Italy.

    PubMed

    Feltrin, Fabiola; Alba, Patricia; Kraushaar, Britta; Ianzano, Angela; Argudín, María Angeles; Di Matteo, Paola; Porrero, María Concepción; Aarestrup, Frank M; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Battisti, Antonio

    2015-11-20

    Pandemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 97 (CC97) lineages originated from livestock-to-human host jumps. In recent years, CC97 has become one of the major MRSA lineages detected in Italian farmed animals. The aim of this study was to characterize and analyze differences in MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) mainly of swine and bovine origins. Forty-seven CC97 isolates, 35 MRSA isolates, and 6 MSSA isolates from different Italian pig and cattle holdings; 5 pig MRSA isolates from Germany; and 1 human MSSA isolate from Spain were characterized by macrorestriction pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, and antimicrobial resistance pattern analysis. Virulence and resistance genes were investigated by PCR and microarray analysis. Most of the isolates were of SCCmec type V (SCCmec V), except for two German MRSA isolates (SCCmec III). Five main clusters were identified by PFGE, with the German isolates (clusters I and II) showing 60.5% similarity with the Italian isolates, most of which (68.1%) grouped into cluster V. All CC97 isolates were Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) negative, and a few (n = 7) tested positive for sak or scn. All MRSA isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR), and the main features were erm(B)- or erm(C)-mediated (n = 18) macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance, vga(A)-mediated (n = 37) pleuromutilin resistance, fluoroquinolone resistance (n = 33), tet(K) in 32/37 tet(M)-positive isolates, and blaZ in almost all MRSA isolates. Few host-associated differences were detected among CC97 MRSA isolates: their extensive MDR nature in both pigs and dairy cattle may be a consequence of a spillback from pigs of a MRSA lineage that originated in cattle as MSSA and needs further investigation. Measures should be implemented at the farm level to prevent spillover to humans in intensive farming

  1. Validating the regional hydrogeological models with stable isotope data in precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvāns, Andis; Babre, Alise; Popovs, Konārds; Timuhins, Andrejs; Spalviņš, Aivars

    2016-04-01

    Modelling and Simulations (I.RE.MO.S.), Praise Worthy Prize, Naples, Italy, 8, pp. 266-276. Terzer, S., Wassenaar, L. I., Araguás-Araguás, L. J., Aggarwal, P. K., 2013. Global Isoscapes for δ18O and δ2H in Precipitation: Improved Prediction Using Regionalized Climatic Regression Models. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 17, pp. 4713-4728 Virbulis, J., Bethers U., Saks T., Sennikovs, J., Timuhins, A., 2013. Hydrogeological Model of the Baltic Artesian Basin. Hydrogeology Journal, 21, pp. 845-862

  2. Molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in nosocomial infections in a tertiary-care facility: emergence of new clonal complexes in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Senok, A; Ehricht, R; Monecke, S; Al-Saedan, R; Somily, A

    2016-11-01

    Changes in the molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) continue to be reported. This study was carried out to characterize MRSA isolates in Saudi Arabia. MRSA isolates causing nosocomial infections (n = 117) obtained from 2009-2015 at a tertiary-care facility in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were studied. Molecular characterization of isolates was carried out using the StaphyType DNA microarray (Alere Technologies, Jena, Germany). Fourteen clonal complexes (CC) were identified, with the most common being CC80 (n = 35), CC6 (n = 15), CC5 (n = 13) and CC22 (n = 12). With the exception of nine ST239 MRSA-III isolates, all others were of community-associated MRSA lineages. The following strains are identified for the first time in Saudi Arabia: ST8-MRSA-IV [PVL(+)/ACME(+)], USA300 (n = 1); ST72-MRSA-IV USA700 (n = 1); CC5-MRSA-IV, [PVL(+)/edinA(+)], WA MRSA-121 (n = 1); CC5-MRSA-V+SCCfus, WA MRSA-14/109 (n = 2), CC97-MRSA-IV, WA MRSA-54/63; CC2250/2277-MRSA-IV and WA MRSA-114. CC15-MRSA (n = 3) was identified for the first time in clinical infection in Saudi Arabia. None of the isolates harboured vancomycin resistance genes, while genes for resistance to mupirocin and quaternary ammonium compounds were found in one and nine isolates respectively. Fifty-seven isolates (48.7%) were positive for Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes. While the staphylokinase (sak) and staphylococcal complement inhibitor (scn) genes were present in over 95% of the isolates, only 37.6% had the chemotaxis-inhibiting protein (chp) gene. Increasing occurrence of community-acquired MRSA lineages plus emergence of pandemic and rare MRSA strains is occurring in our setting. Strict infection control practices are important to limit the dissemination of these MRSA strains. PMID:27621823

  3. Molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in nosocomial infections in a tertiary-care facility: emergence of new clonal complexes in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Senok, A; Ehricht, R; Monecke, S; Al-Saedan, R; Somily, A

    2016-11-01

    Changes in the molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) continue to be reported. This study was carried out to characterize MRSA isolates in Saudi Arabia. MRSA isolates causing nosocomial infections (n = 117) obtained from 2009-2015 at a tertiary-care facility in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were studied. Molecular characterization of isolates was carried out using the StaphyType DNA microarray (Alere Technologies, Jena, Germany). Fourteen clonal complexes (CC) were identified, with the most common being CC80 (n = 35), CC6 (n = 15), CC5 (n = 13) and CC22 (n = 12). With the exception of nine ST239 MRSA-III isolates, all others were of community-associated MRSA lineages. The following strains are identified for the first time in Saudi Arabia: ST8-MRSA-IV [PVL(+)/ACME(+)], USA300 (n = 1); ST72-MRSA-IV USA700 (n = 1); CC5-MRSA-IV, [PVL(+)/edinA(+)], WA MRSA-121 (n = 1); CC5-MRSA-V+SCCfus, WA MRSA-14/109 (n = 2), CC97-MRSA-IV, WA MRSA-54/63; CC2250/2277-MRSA-IV and WA MRSA-114. CC15-MRSA (n = 3) was identified for the first time in clinical infection in Saudi Arabia. None of the isolates harboured vancomycin resistance genes, while genes for resistance to mupirocin and quaternary ammonium compounds were found in one and nine isolates respectively. Fifty-seven isolates (48.7%) were positive for Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes. While the staphylokinase (sak) and staphylococcal complement inhibitor (scn) genes were present in over 95% of the isolates, only 37.6% had the chemotaxis-inhibiting protein (chp) gene. Increasing occurrence of community-acquired MRSA lineages plus emergence of pandemic and rare MRSA strains is occurring in our setting. Strict infection control practices are important to limit the dissemination of these MRSA strains.

  4. A Livestock-Associated, Multidrug-Resistant, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clonal Complex 97 Lineage Spreading in Dairy Cattle and Pigs in Italy.

    PubMed

    Feltrin, Fabiola; Alba, Patricia; Kraushaar, Britta; Ianzano, Angela; Argudín, María Angeles; Di Matteo, Paola; Porrero, María Concepción; Aarestrup, Frank M; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Battisti, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    Pandemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 97 (CC97) lineages originated from livestock-to-human host jumps. In recent years, CC97 has become one of the major MRSA lineages detected in Italian farmed animals. The aim of this study was to characterize and analyze differences in MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) mainly of swine and bovine origins. Forty-seven CC97 isolates, 35 MRSA isolates, and 6 MSSA isolates from different Italian pig and cattle holdings; 5 pig MRSA isolates from Germany; and 1 human MSSA isolate from Spain were characterized by macrorestriction pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, and antimicrobial resistance pattern analysis. Virulence and resistance genes were investigated by PCR and microarray analysis. Most of the isolates were of SCCmec type V (SCCmec V), except for two German MRSA isolates (SCCmec III). Five main clusters were identified by PFGE, with the German isolates (clusters I and II) showing 60.5% similarity with the Italian isolates, most of which (68.1%) grouped into cluster V. All CC97 isolates were Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) negative, and a few (n = 7) tested positive for sak or scn. All MRSA isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR), and the main features were erm(B)- or erm(C)-mediated (n = 18) macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance, vga(A)-mediated (n = 37) pleuromutilin resistance, fluoroquinolone resistance (n = 33), tet(K) in 32/37 tet(M)-positive isolates, and blaZ in almost all MRSA isolates. Few host-associated differences were detected among CC97 MRSA isolates: their extensive MDR nature in both pigs and dairy cattle may be a consequence of a spillback from pigs of a MRSA lineage that originated in cattle as MSSA and needs further investigation. Measures should be implemented at the farm level to prevent spillover to humans in intensive farming

  5. Comparison of genomic and antimicrobial resistance features of latex agglutination test-positive and latex agglutination test-negative Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Moser, A; Stephan, R; Corti, S; Johler, S

    2013-01-01

    The dairy industry suffers massive economic losses due to staphylococcal mastitis in cattle. The Staphaureux latex agglutination test (Oxoid, Basel, Switzerland) was reported to lead to negative results in 54% of bovine Staphylococcus aureus strains, and latex-negative strains are thought to be less virulent than Staphaurex latex-positive strains. However, comparative information on virulence and resistance profiles of these 2 groups of Staph. aureus is scarce. Our objective was to associate the latex agglutination phenotype of Staph. aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis milk with data on clonal complexes, virulence genes, and antibiotic resistance to (1) determine the virulence profiles of the Staphaureux test positive and Staphaurex test negative groups, and (2) provide data needed to improve treatment of bovine mastitis and to identify potential vaccine targets. Seventy-eight Staph. aureus strains isolated from 78 cows on 57 Swiss farms were characterized. Latex agglutination was tested by Staphaureux kit, and resistance profiles were generated by disk diffusion. A DNA microarray was used to assign clonal complexes (CC) and to determine virulence and resistance gene profiles. By the Staphaureux test, 49% of the isolates were latex-positive and 51% were latex-negative. All latex-negative strains were assigned to CC151, whereas latex-positive strains were assigned to various clonal complexes, including CC97 (n=16), CC8 (n=10), CC479 (n=5), CC20 (n=4), CC7 (n=1), CC9 (n=1), and CC45 (n=1). Although the latex-negative isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested, 24% of latex-positive isolates were classified as intermediate with regard to cefalexin-kanamycin and 13% were resistant to both ampicillin and penicillin. Microarray profiles of latex-negative isolates were highly similar, but differed largely from those of latex-positive isolates. Although the latex-negative group lacked several enterotoxin genes and sak, it exhibited significantly

  6. Healthcare- and Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Fatal Pneumonia with Pediatric Deaths in Krasnoyarsk, Siberian Russia: Unique MRSA's Multiple Virulence Factors, Genome, and Stepwise Evolution.

    PubMed

    Khokhlova, Olga E; Hung, Wei-Chun; Wan, Tsai-Wen; Iwao, Yasuhisa; Takano, Tomomi; Higuchi, Wataru; Yachenko, Svetlana V; Teplyakova, Olga V; Kamshilova, Vera V; Kotlovsky, Yuri V; Nishiyama, Akihito; Reva, Ivan V; Sidorenko, Sergey V; Peryanova, Olga V; Reva, Galina V; Teng, Lee-Jene; Salmina, Alla B; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogen. We herein discussed MRSA and its infections in Krasnoyarsk, Siberian Russia between 2007 and 2011. The incidence of MRSA in 3,662 subjects was 22.0% and 2.9% for healthcare- and community-associated MRSA (HA- and CA-MRSA), respectively. The 15-day mortality rates for MRSA hospital- and community-acquired pneumonia (HAP and CAP) were 6.5% and 50%, respectively. MRSA CAP cases included pediatric deaths; of the MRSA pneumonia episodes available, ≥27.3% were associated with bacteremia. Most cases of HA-MRSA examined exhibited ST239/spa3(t037)/SCCmecIII.1.1.2 (designated as ST239Kras), while all CA-MRSA cases examined were ST8/spa1(t008)/SCCmecIV.3.1.1(IVc) (designated as ST8Kras). ST239Kras and ST8Kras strongly expressed cytolytic peptide (phenol-soluble modulin α, PSMα; and δ-hemolysin, Hld) genes, similar to CA-MRSA. ST239Kras pneumonia may have been attributed to a unique set of multiple virulence factors (MVFs): toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1), elevated PSMα/Hld expression, α-hemolysin, the staphylococcal enterotoxin SEK/SEQ, the immune evasion factor SCIN/SAK, and collagen adhesin. Regarding ST8Kras, SEA was included in MVFs, some of which were common to ST239Kras. The ST239Kras (strain OC3) genome contained: a completely unique phage, φSa7-like (W), with no att repetition; S. aureus pathogenicity island SaPI2R, the first TSST-1 gene-positive (tst+) SaPI in the ST239 lineage; and a super copy of IS256 (≥22 copies/genome). ST239Kras carried the Brazilian SCCmecIII.1.1.2 and United Kingdom-type tst. ST239Kras and ST8Kras were MDR, with the same levofloxacin resistance mutations; small, but transmissible chloramphenicol resistance plasmids spread widely enough to not be ignored. These results suggest that novel MDR and MVF+ HA- and CA-MRSA (ST239Kras and ST8Kras) emerged in Siberian Russia (Krasnoyarsk) associated with fatal pneumonia, and also with ST

  7. Healthcare- and Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Fatal Pneumonia with Pediatric Deaths in Krasnoyarsk, Siberian Russia: Unique MRSA's Multiple Virulence Factors, Genome, and Stepwise Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Khokhlova, Olga E.; Hung, Wei-Chun; Wan, Tsai-Wen; Iwao, Yasuhisa; Takano, Tomomi; Higuchi, Wataru; Yachenko, Svetlana V.; Teplyakova, Olga V.; Kamshilova, Vera V.; Kotlovsky, Yuri V.; Nishiyama, Akihito; Reva, Ivan V.; Sidorenko, Sergey V.; Peryanova, Olga V.; Reva, Galina V.; Teng, Lee-Jene; Salmina, Alla B.; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogen. We herein discussed MRSA and its infections in Krasnoyarsk, Siberian Russia between 2007 and 2011. The incidence of MRSA in 3,662 subjects was 22.0% and 2.9% for healthcare- and community-associated MRSA (HA- and CA-MRSA), respectively. The 15-day mortality rates for MRSA hospital- and community-acquired pneumonia (HAP and CAP) were 6.5% and 50%, respectively. MRSA CAP cases included pediatric deaths; of the MRSA pneumonia episodes available, ≥27.3% were associated with bacteremia. Most cases of HA-MRSA examined exhibited ST239/spa3(t037)/SCCmecIII.1.1.2 (designated as ST239Kras), while all CA-MRSA cases examined were ST8/spa1(t008)/SCCmecIV.3.1.1(IVc) (designated as ST8Kras). ST239Kras and ST8Kras strongly expressed cytolytic peptide (phenol-soluble modulin α, PSMα; and δ-hemolysin, Hld) genes, similar to CA-MRSA. ST239Kras pneumonia may have been attributed to a unique set of multiple virulence factors (MVFs): toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1), elevated PSMα/Hld expression, α-hemolysin, the staphylococcal enterotoxin SEK/SEQ, the immune evasion factor SCIN/SAK, and collagen adhesin. Regarding ST8Kras, SEA was included in MVFs, some of which were common to ST239Kras. The ST239Kras (strain OC3) genome contained: a completely unique phage, φSa7-like (W), with no att repetition; S. aureus pathogenicity island SaPI2R, the first TSST-1 gene-positive (tst+) SaPI in the ST239 lineage; and a super copy of IS256 (≥22 copies/genome). ST239Kras carried the Brazilian SCCmecIII.1.1.2 and United Kingdom-type tst. ST239Kras and ST8Kras were MDR, with the same levofloxacin resistance mutations; small, but transmissible chloramphenicol resistance plasmids spread widely enough to not be ignored. These results suggest that novel MDR and MVF+ HA- and CA-MRSA (ST239Kras and ST8Kras) emerged in Siberian Russia (Krasnoyarsk) associated with fatal pneumonia, and also with ST

  8. Gas geochemistry of the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: implications for gas hydrate exploration in the Arctic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenson, T.D.; Collett, T.S.; Hunter, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Gases were analyzed from well cuttings, core, gas hydrate, and formation tests at the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, drilled within the Milne Point Unit, Alaska North Slope. The well penetrated a portion of the Eileen gas hydrate deposit, which overlies the more deeply buried Prudhoe Bay, Milne Point, West Sak, and Kuparuk River oil fields. Gas sources in the upper 200 m are predominantly from microbial sources (C1 isotopic compositions ranging from −86.4 to −80.6‰). The C1 isotopic composition becomes progressively enriched from 200 m to the top of the gas hydrate-bearing sands at 600 m. The tested gas hydrates occur in two primary intervals, units D and C, between 614.0 m and 664.7 m, containing a total of 29.3 m of gas hydrate-bearing sands. The hydrocarbon gases in cuttings and core samples from 604 to 914 m are composed of methane with very little ethane. The isotopic composition of the methane carbon ranges from −50.1 to −43.9‰ with several outliers, generally decreasing with depth. Gas samples collected by the Modular Formation Dynamics Testing (MDT) tool in the hydrate-bearing units were similarly composed mainly of methane, with up to 284 ppm ethane. The methane isotopic composition ranged from −48.2 to −48.0‰ in the C sand and from −48.4 to −46.6‰ in the D sand. Methane hydrogen isotopic composition ranged from −238 to −230‰, with slightly more depleted values in the deeper C sand. These results are consistent with the concept that the Eileen gas hydrates contain a mixture of deep-sourced, microbially biodegraded thermogenic gas, with lesser amounts of thermogenic oil-associated gas, and coal gas. Thermal gases are likely sourced from existing oil and gas accumulations that have migrated up-dip and/or up-fault and formed gas hydrate in response to climate cooling with permafrost formation.

  9. North Central Thailand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This radar image shows the dramatic landscape in the Phang Hoei Range of north central Thailand, about 40 kilometers (25 miles) northeast of the city of Lom Sak. The plateau, shown in green to the left of center, is the area of Phu Kradung National Park. This plateau is a remnant of a once larger plateau, another portion of which is seen along the right side of the image. The plateaus have been dissected by water erosion over thousands of years. Forest areas appear green on the image; agricultural areas and settlements appear as red and blue. North is toward the lower right. The area shown is 38 by 50 kilometers (24 by 31 miles) and is centered at 16.96 degrees north latitude, 101.67 degrees east longitude. Colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted and horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) imaging radar on October 3, 1994, when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR is a joint mission of the U.S./German and Italian space agencies.

    Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by

  10. Role of integrins, tetraspanins, and ADAM proteins during the development of apoptotic bodies by spermatogenic cells.

    PubMed

    Kierszenbaum, Abraham L; Rosselot, Carolina; Rivkin, Eugene; Tres, Laura L

    2006-07-01

    cell apoptosis, integrin beta1, alpha3, and alpha6 subunits, and tetraspanins CD9 and C81 become displaced away from the developing apoptotic bodies. In contrast, the intermediate filament protein Sak57, a keratin 5 ortholog, concentrates in the developing apoptotic bodies. We propose that the redistribution of integrin-tetraspanin complexes during spermatogenic cell apoptosis may be evidence of a signaling cascade initiated by Sertoli cell geometric changes. As a result, Sertoli cell reduction in surface area may be a limiting factor of spermatogenic cell survival and in the developmental regulation of spermatogenic cell progenies in the intact seminiferous epithelium.

  11. Response regulators SrrA and SskA are central components of a phosphorelay system involved in stress signal transduction and asexual sporulation in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Pérez, Itzel; Sánchez, Olivia; Kawasaki, Laura; Georgellis, Dimitris; Aguirre, Jesús

    2007-09-01

    Among eukaryotes, only slime molds, fungi, and plants contain signal transduction phosphorelay systems. In filamentous fungi, multiple sensor kinases appear to use a single histidine-containing phosphotransfer (HPt) protein to relay signals to two response regulators (RR). In Aspergillus nidulans, the RR SskA mediates activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase SakA in response to osmotic and oxidative stress, whereas the functions of the RR SrrA were unknown. We used a genetic approach to characterize the srrA gene as a new member of the skn7/prr1 family and to analyze the roles of SrrA in the phosphorelay system composed of the RR SskA, the HPt protein YpdA, and the sensor kinase NikA. While mutants lacking the HPt protein YpdA are unviable, mutants lacking SskA (DeltasskA), SrrA (DeltasrrA), or both RR (DeltasrrA DeltasskA) are viable and differentially affected in osmotic and oxidative stress responses. Both RR are involved in osmostress resistance, but DeltasskA mutants are more sensitive to this stress, and only SrrA is required for H(2)O(2) resistance and H(2)O(2)-mediated induction of catalase CatB. In contrast, both RR are individually required for fungicide sensitivity and calcofluor resistance and for normal sporulation and conidiospore viability. The DeltasrrA and DeltasskA sporulation defects appear to be related to decreased mRNA levels of the key sporulation gene brlA. In contrast, conidiospore viability defects do not correlate with the activity of the spore-specific catalase CatA. Our results support a model in which NikA acts upstream of SrrA and SskA to transmit fungicide signals and to regulate asexual sporulation and conidiospore viability. In contrast, NikA appears dispensable for osmotic and oxidative stress signaling. These results highlight important differences in stress signal transmission among fungi and define a phosphorelay system involved in oxidative and osmotic stress, cell wall maintenance, fungicide sensitivity, asexual

  12. Transformation of Resources to Reserves: Next Generation Heavy-Oil Recovery Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Stanford University; Department of Energy Resources Engineering Green Earth Sciences

    2007-09-30

    crude oil. A significant number of laboratory-scale tests were made to evaluate the solution gas drive potential of West Sak (AK) viscous oil. The West Sak sample has a low acid number, low asphaltene content, and does not appear foamy under laboratory conditions. Tests show primary recovery of about 22% of the original oil in place under a variety of conditions. The acid number of other Alaskan North Slope samples tests is greater, indicating a greater potential for recovery by heavy-oil solution gas drive. Effective cold production leads to reservoir pressure depletion that eases the implementation of thermal recovery processes. When viewed from a reservoir perspective, thermal recovery is the enhanced recovery method of choice for viscous and heavy oils because of the significant viscosity reduction that accompanies the heating of oil. One significant issue accompanying thermal recovery in cold environments is wellbore heat losses. Initial work on thermal recovery found that a technology base for delivering steam, other hot fluids, and electrical heat through cold subsurface environments, such as permafrost, was in place. No commercially available technologies are available, however. Nevertheless, the enabling technology of superinsulated wells appears to be realized. Thermal subtasks focused on a suite of enhanced recovery options tailored to various reservoir conditions. Generally, electrothermal, conventional steam-based, and thermal gravity drainage enhanced oil recovery techniques appear to be applicable to 'prime' Ugnu reservoir conditions to the extent that reservoir architecture and fluid conditions are modeled faithfully here. The extent of reservoir layering, vertical communication, and subsurface steam distribution are important factors affecting recovery. Distribution of steam throughout reservoir volume is a significant issue facing thermal recovery. Various activities addressed aspects of steam emplacement. Notably, hydraulic fracturing of horizontal

  13. [Clinical decision-making support systems in renal failure].

    PubMed

    Martínez Bernabé, E; Paluzie-Ávila, G; Terre Ohme, S; Ruiz Poza, D; Parada Aradilla, M A; González Martínez, J; Albertí Valmaña, R; Castellvi Gordo, M

    2014-05-01

    Introducción: Los sistemas de soporte a la toma de decisiones clínicas utilizan característicasindividuales del paciente para generar recomendaciones a los clínicos.Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto de una herramienta de ajuste de fármacos en insuficienciarenal como sistema de soporte en la toma de decisiones clínicas encuanto al grado de aceptación de las intervenciones y el tiempo invertido por elfarmacéutico.Método: Estudio cuasi-experimental del tipo antes y después realizado en dos hospitalescomarcales. La intervención consistía en la incorporación de una alerta automatizadade función renal en la orden médica. Antes de la intervención (2007) semonitorizaron 40 fármacos. Se revisaron las analíticas de pacientes cuyo tratamientocontenía alguno de ellos. En caso de función renal alterada, se insertabauna recomendación de ajuste en la orden médica. Si el médico aceptaba, se considerabaéxito. El tiempo medio empleado fue 1 minuto/analítica consultada y 3minutos/recomendación. En 2008 se incorporó un sistema de recomendación automáticade ajuste según función renal de 100 fármacos con mensajes emergentes.En una fase posterior (2009) se evaluó y comparó el número de intervenciones y elporcentaje de éxito con la herramienta.Resultados: Fase previa: Se validaron 28.234 Ordenes Médicas Electrónicas, correspondientesa un promedio de 205 pacientes hospitalizados/día, y se revisaron 4.035analíticas. Se realizaron 121 intervenciones farmacéuticas (0,43% del total de órdenesmédicas). Se obtuvo éxito en el 33,06% de las intervenciones. El tiempo invertidopor el farmacéutico en consultar analíticas y realizar recomendaciones fue 73,3horas (67,25 horas correspondían a pacientes sin alteración de la función renal y enlos que no se realizó ninguna intervención). Fase posterior: Se validaron 26.584Ordenes Médicas Electrónicas, correspondientes a un promedio de 193 pacienteshospitalizados/día, y se realizaron 1.737 intervenciones

  14. [Nutritional content of foods offered and consumed in a Spanish university canteen].

    PubMed

    Fernández Torres, Ángela; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Cámara Martos, Fernando

    2014-09-12

    Objetivo: El primer objetivo de nuestro trabajo fue estudiar los hábitos alimentarios durante el almuerzo en la Universidad de Córdoba. En segundo término se trató de reducir el consumo energetico de colesterol y grasa en la dieta de dicho colectivo. Marco: El estudio se realiza entre los años 2010 al 2012 sobre la principal cantina en la que se sirve comida en esta Universidad, centrándonos en la toma de alimento del almuerzo, que es la principal toma alimentaria a lo largo del día, suponiendo entre el 35 y 40% del total de calorías ingeridas a lo largo del día. Muestras: Se han abordado un total de 9530 observaciones que corresponden cada una de ellas a la valoración nutricional de una toma de alimento (almuerzo completo) por estudiantes, profesorado y personal de servicios. Diseño: El estudio se desarrolló en 5 fases de intervención y una previa en la que no se intervino, esta última se utilizó para establecer las ingestas habituales alimentarias del colectivo. En cada fase se incremento la información nutricional suministrada a los usuarios de la cantina, para en la fase final, desarrollar también una modificación del precio de los menús servidos. Análisis: Las elecciones alimentarias que realizaban los universitarios de forma libre fueron transformadas en cantidad de nutrientes mediante la valoración nutricional previa de los platos, desarrollada por cálculo mediante la base de datos Nutriplato®. Esto permitió evaluar 29 nutrientes que a partir de los datos observados de los usuarios se transformaron en % de aporte a la RDA (de cada grupo de población) lo que produce una estandarización de los datos que permitió un estudio estadístico posterior, mediante el procedimiento GLM (SPSS v15) para evaluar el efecto de los diferentes factores contemplados. Principales medidas tomadas: Se tuvieron en cuenta como factores de clasificación (variables independientes): sexo, grupo de edad y nivel de grasa corporal, así como la fase de

  15. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Molina Garrido, María José

    2016-01-01

    Cada vez es mayor el número de ancianos con diagnóstico de cáncer que acuden a las consultas de Oncología Médica. El proceso del envejecimiento y la gran variabilidad existente en la población geriátrica implican que, para hacer un abordaje adecuado del paciente, se deba considerar la edad fisiológica del anciano, y no su edad biológica. Para ello, es preciso hacer una evaluación somera, específica e individualizada a cada uno de los ancianos con diagnóstico de cáncer que acudan a nuestra consulta. La valoración geriátrica integral (VGI) es la herramienta clave que permite evaluarlos de forma adecuada, e incluso orienta la toma de decisiones "personalizada" en los ancianos con diagnóstico de cáncer. Dado que la VGI consume mucho tiempo en la consulta diaria, se están desarrollando distintas herramientas de cribado que permitan acortar la atención al paciente, al seleccionar aquellos ancianos que deban someterse a una VGI y aquellos en los que esta no sea necesaria. Se han publicado distintos modelos de VGI en la Oncogeriatría y se han desarrollado distintas herramientas de cribado de fragilidad; los más conocidos son el cuestionario Vulnerable Elders Survey-13 (VES-13) y el cuestionario G-8. En este artículo se hace una revisión acerca de la evidencia científica existente en cuanto a la atención y valoración del anciano oncológico, así como los distintos parámetros de los que se disponen para la toma de decisiones definitiva. Dichos datos reflejan el papel de la Oncogeriatría como la vía para ofrecer una atención global óptima a este grupo poblacional. PMID:27269217

  16. Economic evaluation in collaborative hospital drug evaluation reports.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Ana; Fraga, María Dolores; Marín-Gil, Roberto; Lopez-Briz, Eduardo; Puigventós, Francesc; Dranitsaris, George

    2015-09-01

    Objetivo: la evaluación económica es un criterio fundamental en el posicionamiento de medicamentos. El método MADRE (Método de Ayuda para la toma de Decisiones y la Realización de Evaluaciones de medicamentos) es ampliamente utilizado en la evaluación de medicamentos. Fue desarrollado por el grupo GENESIS de la Sociedad Española de Farmacia Hospitalaria (SEFH), e incluye una evaluación económica. Con objeto de mejorar los aspectos económicos de este método, analizaremos la experiencia previa con esta metodología y propondremos mejoras. Método: revisión retrospectiva de las evaluaciones económicas en los informes de evaluación de medicamentos realizados de forma colaborativa (como SEFH) con el método MADRE. Resultados: se revisaron 32 informes, el 87,5% incluían una evaluación económica realizada por los autores y un 65,6% una publicada. El 90,6% incluían un análisis de impacto presupuestario. 14 informes incluían el coste por año de vida o por año de vida ganado ajustado por calidad. 23 informes recibieron alegaciones relacionadas con la evaluación económica. Las principales dificultades fueron: baja calidad de la evidencia en la población diana, falta de estudios comparativos con el comparador relevante, resultados finales no evaluados, falta de datos de calidad de vida, precio del medicamento no fijado, incertidumbre en la dosis y diferentes precios del medicamento. Conclusiones: mejoras propuestas: incorporar ayudas para inclusión de costes no farmacológicos, estimación de la supervivencia y adaptación de evaluaciones económicas publicadas; establecer criterios para: selección de precios, toma de decisiones en condiciones de incertidumbre o evidencia pobre, cálculo de dosis y umbrales de coste-efectividad en diferentes situaciones.

  17. The role of economic analysis in groundwater management in semi-arid regions: the case of Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Gayatri

    The aim of this paper is to use an economic framework to derive decision making rules for river basin management with a focus on groundwater resources. Using an example from northern Nigeria, the paper provides an example of how decision making for sustainable water resources management may be facilitated by comparing net benefits and costs across a river basin. It is argued that economic tools can be used to assess the value of water resources in different uses, identify and analyze management scenarios, and provide decision rules for the sustainable use and management of surface and ground water resources in the region. L'objet de cet article est l'utilisation d'un cadre économique pour établir des règles de prise de décision pour la gestion d'un bassin versant prenant en compte les ressources en eau souterraine. À partir d'un exemple du Nigéria septentrional, cet article explique comment une prise de décision pour la gestion durable de ressources en eau peut être facilitée en comparant les bénéfices nets et les coûts sur tout le bassin versant. Il est montré que les outils économiques peuvent être utilisés pour établir la valeur des ressources en eau dans les différents usages, pour identifier et analyser des scénarios de gestion et pour fournir des règles de décision pour un usage et une gestion durables des ressources en eaux de surface et souterraines dans la région. El objetivo de este artículo es utilizar un enfoque económico para deducir reglas de toma de decisión en la gestión de cuencas, haciendo énfasis en los recursos subterráneos. Por medio de un ejemplo del Norte de Nigeria, se ilustra cómo la toma de decisiones orientadas a la gestión sustentable de los recursos hídricos puede ser facilitada si se compara los beneficios netos y los costes en toda la cuenca. Se argumenta que las herramientas económicas pueden servir para establecer el valor de los recursos hídricos destinados a usos diferentes, para identificar y

  18. Eficacia de la detección sistemática de la gripe en las fronteras en los viajeros que llegan por vía aérea*

    PubMed Central

    Priest, Patricia C.; Jennings, Lance C.; Duncan, Alasdair R.; Brunton, Cheryl R.; Baker, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Se midieron los síntomas y la prevalencia de la gripe (también llamada influenza), así como la eficacia del mecanismo de detección sistemática basado en los síntomas y la temperatura para diagnosticar la gripe en viajeros internacionales que llegaban por vía aérea. Métodos. El presente estudio transversal recopiló datos de viajeros que llegaron al aeropuerto internacional de Christchurch (Nueva Zelandia) en el invierno del 2008 mediante un cuestionario de salud, medición de la temperatura y toma de muestras de las vías respiratorias. Resultados. De los viajeros, 15 976 (68%) entregaron los formularios completos. De ellos, 17% notificaron al menos un síntoma de gripe; los síntomas más comunes fueron rinorrea o congestión nasal (10%) y tos (8%). Se tomaron muestras de las vías respiratorias de 3 769 viajeros. La prevalencia estimada de la gripe fue de 1,1% (4% en las personas sintomáticas, 0,2% en las asintomáticas). La sensibilidad de los criterios de detección varió de 84% para “cualquier síntoma” a 3% para la fiebre de 37,8 °C o mayor. El valor predictivo positivo fue bajo para todos los criterios. Conclusiones. El método de detección sistemática en las fronteras mediante la autonotificación de síntomas y la toma de la temperatura presenta limitaciones para impedir que una gripe pandémica entre en un país. Basarse en criterios como “cualquier síntoma” o la tos haría que se investigara a varias personas no infectadas, mientras que algunas personas infectadas pasarían inadvertidas. Si se usaran criterios más específicos como la fiebre, la mayoría de las personas infectadas entrarían en el país a pesar del mecanismo de detección.

  19. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Molina Garrido, María José

    2016-06-03

    Cada vez es mayor el número de ancianos con diagnóstico de cáncer que acuden a las consultas de Oncología Médica. El proceso del envejecimiento y la gran variabilidad existente en la población geriátrica implican que, para hacer un abordaje adecuado del paciente, se deba considerar la edad fisiológica del anciano, y no su edad biológica. Para ello, es preciso hacer una evaluación somera, específica e individualizada a cada uno de los ancianos con diagnóstico de cáncer que acudan a nuestra consulta. La valoración geriátrica integral (VGI) es la herramienta clave que permite evaluarlos de forma adecuada, e incluso orienta la toma de decisiones "personalizada" en los ancianos con diagnóstico de cáncer. Dado que la VGI consume mucho tiempo en la consulta diaria, se están desarrollando distintas herramientas de cribado que permitan acortar la atención al paciente, al seleccionar aquellos ancianos que deban someterse a una VGI y aquellos en los que esta no sea necesaria. Se han publicado distintos modelos de VGI en la Oncogeriatría y se han desarrollado distintas herramientas de cribado de fragilidad; los más conocidos son el cuestionario Vulnerable Elders Survey-13 (VES-13) y el cuestionario G-8. En este artículo se hace una revisión acerca de la evidencia científica existente en cuanto a la atención y valoración del anciano oncológico, así como los distintos parámetros de los que se disponen para la toma de decisiones definitiva. Dichos datos reflejan el papel de la Oncogeriatría como la vía para ofrecer una atención global óptima a este grupo poblacional.

  20. Voting Systems for Environmental Decisions

    PubMed Central

    BURGMAN, MARK A; REGAN, HELEN M; MAGUIRE, LYNN A; COLYVAN, MARK; JUSTUS, JAMES; MARTIN, TARA G; ROTHLEY, KRIS

    2014-01-01

    Voting systems aggregate preferences efficiently and are often used for deciding conservation priorities. Desirable characteristics of voting systems include transitivity, completeness, and Pareto optimality, among others. Voting systems that are common and potentially useful for environmental decision making include simple majority, approval, and preferential voting. Unfortunately, no voting system can guarantee an outcome, while also satisfying a range of very reasonable performance criteria. Furthermore, voting methods may be manipulated by decision makers and strategic voters if they have knowledge of the voting patterns and alliances of others in the voting populations. The difficult properties of voting systems arise in routine decision making when there are multiple criteria and management alternatives. Because each method has flaws, we do not endorse one method. Instead, we urge organizers to be transparent about the properties of proposed voting systems and to offer participants the opportunity to approve the voting system as part of the ground rules for operation of a group. Sistemas de Votación para Decisiones Ambientales Resumen Los sistemas de votación agregan preferencias eficientemente y muy seguido se usan para decidir prioridades de conservación. Las características deseables de un sistema de votación incluyen la transitividad, lo completo que sean y la optimalidad de Pareto, entre otras. Los sistemas de votación que son comunes y potencialmente útiles para la toma de decisiones ambientales incluyen simple mayoría, aprobación y votación preferencial. Desafortunadamente, ningún sistema de votación puede garantizar un resultado y a la vez satisfacer un rango de criterios de desempeño muy razonable. Además, los métodos de votación pueden manipularse por los que toman las decisiones y votantes estratégicos si tienen el conocimiento de los patrones de votación y de las alianzas entre miembros dentro de las poblaciones votantes. Las

  1. Using Uranium-series isotopes to understand processes of rapid soil formation in tropical volcanic settings: an example from Basse-Terre, French Guadeloupe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lin

    2015-04-01

    Lin Ma1, Yvette Pereyra1, Peter B Sak2, Jerome Gaillardet3, Heather L Buss4 and Susan L Brantley5, (1) University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX, United States, (2) Dickinson College, Carlisle, PA, United States, (3) Institute de Physique d Globe Paris, Paris, France, (4) University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom, (5) Pennsylvania State University Main Campus, University Park, PA, United States Uranium-series isotopes fractionate during chemical weathering and their activity ratios can be used to determine timescales and rates of soil formation. Such soil formation rates provide important information to understand processes related to rapid soil formation in tropical volcanic settings, especially with respect to their fertility and erosion. Recent studies also highlighted the use of U-series isotopes to trace and quantify atmospheric inputs to surface soils. Such a process is particularly important in providing mineral nutrients to ecosystems in highly depleted soil systems such as the tropical soils. Here, we report U-series isotope compositions in thick soil profiles (>10 m) developed on andesitic pyroclastic flows in Basse-Terre Island of French Guadeloupe. Field observations have shown heterogeneity in color and texture in these thick profiles. However, major element chemistry and mineralogy show some general depth trends. The main minerals present throughout the soil profile are halloysite and gibbsite. Chemically immobile elements such as Al, Fe, and Ti show a depletion profile relative to Th while elements such as K, Mn, and Si show a partial depletion profile at depth. Mobile elements such as Ca, Mg, and Sr have undergone intensive weathering at depths, and an addition profile near the surface, most likely related to atmospheric inputs. (238U/232Th) activity ratios in one soil profile from the Brad David watershed in this study ranged from 0.374 to 1.696, while the (230Th/232Th) ratios ranged from 0.367 to 1.701. A decrease of (238U/232Th) in the

  2. Biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in an extremely acidic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Stapleton, R.D.; Savage, D.C.; Sayler, G.S.; Stacey, G.

    1998-11-01

    The potential for biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons was evaluated in soil samples recovered along gradients of both contaminant levels and pH values existing downstream of a long-term coal pile storage basin. pH values for areas greatly impacted by runoff from the storage basin were 2.0. Even at such a reduced pH, the indigenous microbial community was metabolically active, showing the ability to oxidize more than 40% of the parent hydrocarbons, naphthalene and toluene, to carbon dioxide and water. Treatment of the soil samples with cycloheximide inhibited mineralization of the aromatic substrates. DNA hybridization analysis indicated that whole-community nucleic acids recovered from these samples did not hybridize with genes, such as nahA, nahG, nahH, todC1C2, and tomA, that encode common enzymes from neutrophilic bacteria. Since these data suggested that the degradation of aromatic compounds may involve a microbial consortium instead of individual acidophilic bacteria, experiments using microorganisms isolated from these samples were initiated. While no defined mixed cultures were able to evolve {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from labeled substrates in these mineralization experiments, an undefined mixed culture including a fungus, a yeast, and several bacteria successfully metabolized approximately 27% of supplied naphthalene after 1 week. This study shows that biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons can occur in environments with extremely low pH values.

  3. The current state of eukaryotic DNA base damage and repair

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Nicholas C.; Corbett, Anita H.; Doetsch, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    DNA damage is a natural hazard of life. The most common DNA lesions are base, sugar, and single-strand break damage resulting from oxidation, alkylation, deamination, and spontaneous hydrolysis. If left unrepaired, such lesions can become fixed in the genome as permanent mutations. Thus, evolution has led to the creation of several highly conserved, partially redundant pathways to repair or mitigate the effects of DNA base damage. The biochemical mechanisms of these pathways have been well characterized and the impact of this work was recently highlighted by the selection of Tomas Lindahl, Aziz Sancar and Paul Modrich as the recipients of the 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their seminal work in defining DNA repair pathways. However, how these repair pathways are regulated and interconnected is still being elucidated. This review focuses on the classical base excision repair and strand incision pathways in eukaryotes, considering both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and humans, and extends to some important questions and challenges facing the field of DNA base damage repair. PMID:26519467

  4. The aerosol radiative effects of uncontrolled combustion of domestic waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodros, John K.; Cucinotta, Rachel; Ridley, David A.; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Pierce, Jeffrey R.

    2016-06-01

    Open, uncontrolled combustion of domestic waste is a potentially significant source of aerosol; however, this aerosol source is not generally included in many global emissions inventories. To provide a first estimate of the aerosol radiative impacts from domestic-waste combustion, we incorporate the Wiedinmyer et al. (2014) emissions inventory into GEOS-Chem-TOMAS, a global chemical-transport model with online aerosol microphysics. We find domestic-waste combustion increases global-mean black carbon and organic aerosol concentrations by 8 and 6 %, respectively, and by greater than 40 % in some regions. Due to uncertainties regarding aerosol optical properties, we estimate the globally averaged aerosol direct radiative effect to range from -5 to -20 mW m-2; however, this range increases from -40 to +4 mW m-2 when we consider uncertainties in emission mass and size distribution. In some regions with significant waste combustion, such as India and China, the aerosol direct radiative effect may exceed -0.4 W m-2. Similarly, we estimate a cloud-albedo aerosol indirect effect of -13 mW m-2, with a range of -4 to -49 mW m-2 due to emission uncertainties. In the regions with significant waste combustion, the cloud-albedo aerosol indirect effect may exceed -0.4 W m-2.

  5. PREFACE: HITES 2012: 'Horizons of Innovative Theories, Experiments, and Supercomputing in Nuclear Physics'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, K. T.

    2012-12-01

    This volume contains the contributions of the speakers of an international conference in honor of Jerry Draayer's 70th birthday, entitled 'Horizons of Innovative Theories, Experiments and Supercomputing in Nuclear Physics'. The list of contributors includes not only international experts in these fields, but also many former collaborators, former graduate students, and former postdoctoral fellows of Jerry Draayer, stressing innovative theories such as special symmetries and supercomputing, both of particular interest to Jerry. The organizers of the conference intended to honor Jerry Draayer not only for his seminal contributions in these fields, but also for his administrative skills at departmental, university, national and international level. Signed: Ted Hecht University of Michigan Conference photograph Scientific Advisory Committee Ani AprahamianUniversity of Notre Dame Baha BalantekinUniversity of Wisconsin Bruce BarrettUniversity of Arizona Umit CatalyurekOhio State Unversity David DeanOak Ridge National Laboratory Jutta Escher (Chair)Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Jorge HirschUNAM, Mexico David RoweUniversity of Toronto Brad Sherill & Michigan State University Joel TohlineLouisiana State University Edward ZganjarLousiana State University Organizing Committee Jeff BlackmonLouisiana State University Mark CaprioUniversity of Notre Dame Tomas DytrychLouisiana State University Ana GeorgievaINRNE, Bulgaria Kristina Launey (Co-chair)Louisiana State University Gabriella PopaOhio University Zanesville James Vary (Co-chair)Iowa State University Local Organizing Committee Laura LinhardtLouisiana State University Charlie RascoLouisiana State University Karen Richard (Coordinator)Louisiana State University

  6. CCII based fractional filters of different orders

    PubMed Central

    Soltan, Ahmed; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Soliman, Ahmed M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to generalize the design of continuous-time filters to the fractional domain with different orders and validates the theoretical results with two different CCII based filters. In particular, the proposed study introduces the generalized formulas for the previous fractional-order analysis of equal orders. The fractional-order filters enhance the design flexibility and prove that the integer-order performance is a very narrow subset from the fractional-order behavior due to the extra degrees of freedom. The general fundamentals of these filters are presented by calculating the maximum and minimum frequencies, the half power frequency and the right phase frequency which are considered a critical issue for the filter design. Different numerical solutions for the generalized fractional order low pass filters with two different fractional order elements are introduced and verified by the circuit simulations of two fractional-order filters: Kerwin–Huelsman–Newcomb (KHN) and Tow-Tomas CCII-based filters, showing great matching. PMID:25685483

  7. [Reversible neuropsychological deterioration associated to zonisamide in a paediatric patient with tuberous sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Fournier-Del Castillo, M Concepción; Melero-Llorente, Javier; Blanco-Beregana, Miriam; Robles-Bermejo, Fernando; Budke, Marcelo; Garcia-Fernandez, Marta; Garcia-Penas, Juan José; Perez-Jimenez, M Ángeles

    2015-01-16

    Objetivo. Documentar el deterioro cognitivo reversible asociado a altas dosis de zonisamida, utilizando indices de cambio fiable para controlar los efectos de practica derivados de evaluaciones neuropsicologicas repetidas. Caso clinico. Niño de 11 años con complejo esclerosis tuberosa y epilepsia refractaria del lobulo frontal izquierdo, evaluado en el contexto de un programa de cirugia de la epilepsia pediatrica. La zona epileptogena se relaciono con un tuber epileptogeno localizado en el giro frontal inferior del hemisferio izquierdo. Los efectos de altas dosis de zonisamida mimetizaron una afectacion de la corteza elocuente en la zona epileptogena y un impacto de las crisis no controladas en el funcionamiento cognitivo asociado al hemisferio dominante para el lenguaje. La retirada del farmaco mejoro significativamente, mas alla de los efectos de practica, el cociente intelectual total, el indice intelectual de comprension verbal y habilidades cognitivas especificas sustentadas en el lenguaje. Conclusiones. La diferenciacion entre los efectos cognitivos de los farmacos y la existencia de un deficit funcional por afectacion de la corteza elocuente en el area epileptogena puede ser crucial para la toma de decisiones en cirugia de la epilepsia.

  8. [Detection of antileptospira antibodies in a vulnerable population of Ixhuatlancillo, Veracruz].

    PubMed

    Lugo-Chávez, Brianda Liliana; Velasco-Rodríguez, Luz Carmen; Canales-Velásquez, Guadalupe; Velázquez-Hernández, José Felipe; Herrera-Huerta, Emma Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: el objetivo de este artículo es determinar la seroprevalencia de Leptospira sp. en residentes del municipio de Ixhuatlancillo y sus mascotas del género canino. Métodos: se detectó la presencia de anticuerpos antileptospira en una población de 29 caninos y 36 dueños de los caninos, el estudio consistió en dos fases: a) gestión e invitación y aplicación de encuesta, y b) toma de muestra a caninos y a dueños de caninos positivos. Las muestras se analizaron en el Laboratorio Estatal de Veracruz, empleando la técnica de microaglutinación. El análisis estadístico se realizó empleando una tabla de contingencia de 2 x 2 para conocer la relación entre variables, para probar la posible independencia de las dos variables empleando la prueba de chi cuadrada. Resultados: la prevalencia de anticuerpos antileptospira encontrada en caninos fue del 66 %, predominando la serovariedad tarassovi (47 %); la prevalencia hallada en los dueños analizados fue del 61 %, donde también la serovariedad tarassovi fue la de mayor prevalencia (78 %). Conclusiones: se hallaron anticuerpos antileptospira en caninos (66 %) y sus dueños, la serovariedad tarassovi fue la de mayor prevalencia, por lo que la convivencia con mascotas es un factor de riesgo potente para infectarse por esta bacteria.

  9. Efecto del Programa de Entrenamiento “Manejo del Dolor” en la Documentación de Enfermería en el Expediente Electrónico

    PubMed Central

    Monsiváis, María Guadalupe Moreno; Guzmán, Ma. Guadalupe Interial; Flores, Paz Francisco Sauceda; Arreola, Leticia Vázquez

    2012-01-01

    Resumen En el presente trabajo se muestra la importancia de entrenar al personal de enfermería para mejorar la documentación en el expediente electrónico. Se eligió el manejo del dolor por ser un área prioritaria; una alta proporción de pacientes en período post operatorio cursa con dolor, por lo tanto, la documentación debe ser útil para la toma de decisiones clínicas. Se implementó un programa de entrenamiento denominado “Manejo del Dolor” dirigido al personal de enfermería. Se utilizó la tecnología de la información como herramienta para fortalecer el conocimiento con base en la revisión sistemática de la literatura; el personal de enfermería participante seleccionó la mejor evidencia; posteriormente se trabajó en la transferencia de este conocimiento a la práctica a través del diseño de un protocolo para el manejo del dolor. Se concluye que el conocimiento del manejo del dolor es fundamental para que enfermería documente con mayor precisión sus intervenciones. PMID:24199106

  10. Tonkin herbal drug: a multidisciplinary approach to development.

    PubMed

    Ysrael, Mafel C

    2003-01-01

    Ipomoea muricata (L.) Jacq, locally known as 'Tonkin', has been used for generations by the Dominicans in the Philippines for medicinal purposes. The seeds, stems and leaves are said to be effective in treating several types of skin ailments such as chronic and gangrenous wounds, cuts and blisters due to burns. Scientific investigations to rationalize the reported medicinal uses of the plant were carried out at University of Santo Tomas. Botanists at the University did the identification and studied the cultivation and propagation of the plant. Pharmacists and chemists worked closely together on the 'Tonkin' seeds. The seeds were found to have both analgesic and antiseptic properties. Chemists identified indolizidine alkaloids in the seeds, to which the analgesic properties have been attributed. Antimicrobial and antifungal compounds were also identified. Different formulations of the crude drug have been made, namely, an ointment for the treatment of skin ailments, glycerol preparation for the treatment of pharyngitis and an otic preparation for the treatment of otitis externa. Limited clinical trials of these formulations were carried out in collaboration with the medical doctors. The clinical trial studies were supported by in vitro studies carried out by microbiologists. Basic research on this plant material is still continuing. Efforts are now underway for the commercial production of the Tonkin ointment.

  11. Philippine migration policy: dilemmas of a crisis.

    PubMed

    Battistella, G

    1999-04-01

    Philippine migration policy is traced from the early 1970s to the present. The main migration trends in the 1990s are described. An assessment is made of the efficacy and appropriateness of present migration policy in light of the economic crisis. A regional approach to migration policy is necessary in order to encourage placing migration as a greater priority on national agendas and in bilateral agreements. In the Philippines, migrants are considered better paid workers, which diminishes their importance as a legislative or program priority. Santo Tomas (1998) conducted an empirical assessment of migration policies in the Philippines, but refinement is needed. Although migration is a transnational experience, there is little dialogue and cooperation among countries. Philippine migration policy defines its role as an information resource for migrants. Policy shifted from labor export to migrant management in the public and private sectors. Predeparture information program studies are recommending a multi-stage process that would involve all appropriate parties. There is talk of including migration information in the education curriculum. There are a variety of agendas, competing interests, and information resources between migration networks and officiating agencies. The Asian financial crisis may have a mild impact, but there are still issues of reintegration, protection, and employment conditions

  12. [Neurologic diseases associated with the HTLV-1 virus in Panama].

    PubMed

    Gracia, F; Castillo, L; de Lao, S L; Archibold, C A; Larreátegui, M; Reeves, W C; Levine, P

    1990-09-01

    Studies of the prevalence of the human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1) in 1984 to 1986 in the Republic of Panama revealed a national seroprevalence of 1 to 2%. Since 1985 clinical epidemiological studies of neurological diseases associated to HTLV-1 are being done. Two hundred and fitly six clinical cases of thirty eight different neurological diseases of unknown etiology studied in the Neurology Services of the Santo Tomas Hospital and the Social Security Metropolitan Hospital Complex have been associated in some way to the HTLV-1. Twelve cases of progressive spastic paraparesis were identified and related to HLTV-1 as an etiologic agent. The ratio of men to women was maintained at 1:1 with the average age at onset at 44 years and without racial preference. There are important doubts about the association of this virus to multiple sclerosis. The seroprevalence of the HTLV-1 virus in Panama is found to be similar to that reported in neighboring countries and the association of tropical spastic paraparesis to THLV-1 infection is identified.

  13. [Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in Panama. Etiologic agent, epidemiologic and clinical aspects].

    PubMed

    Sáenz, R E; Paz, H M; de Rodriguez, G C; de Vásquez, A M; Mata, R E; Johnson, C M

    1989-01-01

    From November 1985 to December 1988, 33 patients were enrolled at Santo Tomas Hospital and Gorgas Memorial Laboratory to study the etiology, epidemiology and clinical characteristics of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Seventeen were males and 16 females, 14 to 80 years old from the endemic rural areas of the provinces of Panama, Colón, Coclé, Darién, Veraguas, Bocas del Toro and San Blas. In 8 patients the respiratory mucosa involvement occurred at the time of the primary infection and 25 had the involvement after an incubation period of 2 to 30 years. Twenty one of these 25 patients had a clear history of cutaneous leishmaniasis and the characteristic depressed and hyperpigmented scar of a previous leishmanial infection. The Montenegro skin test was positive in all the patients, serology in 84%, direct smear in 47%, histopathology in 37% and culture in 26%. The strains were characterized as L. braziliensis panamensis by electrophoresis of isoenzymes. Possible risk factors in development of MCL were found to be female sex and the lack of past treatment of CL. The mucosal involvement was mild in the majority of the patients, the infection was localized in the nasal mucosal (nasal septum and inferior turbinate) in 91% of the patients, and the most common symptoms were epistaxis, nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea.

  14. [Empathy and moral judgements in the elderly population].

    PubMed

    Ortega, Helga; Cacho, Raúl; López-Goñi, José J; Tirapu-Ustárroz, Javier

    2014-08-01

    Introduccion. La cognicion social se refiere a los procesos mentales que operan en situaciones de interaccion social y facilitan el ajuste y el funcionamiento en tales escenarios. Objetivo. Estudiar la respuesta empatica en dos grupos de personas mayores y su relacion con la inteligencia emocional y el juicio moral. Sujetos y metodos. Participaron 60 sujetos divididos en dos grupos de 30 cada uno, que cumplimentaron una bateria de pruebas: Trait Meta-Mood Scale-24, cuestionario disejecutivo, indice de reactividad interpersonal (IRI) y dilemas morales. Resultados. En la dimension de toma de perspectiva del IRI, el grupo de edad avanzada puntuo significativamente menos que el grupo de mediana edad (U = 279; p < 0,05). En el resto de variables no se encontraron diferencias estadisticamente significativas. Conclusiones. Los resultados muestran la ausencia de un deficit generalizado en la cognicion social en la muestra de ancianos evaluada. Sin embargo, se aprecian diferencias en funcion de la edad en la empatia y en el rendimiento ejecutivo: con el paso del tiempo tiene lugar un deterioro progresivo en la teoria de la mente y un declive en la capacidad empatica general. Con respecto a la inteligencia emocional, los ancianos evaluados manifiestan una adecuada percepcion y comprension de sus emociones, aunque informan de una peor capacidad para manejar y regular sus afectos.

  15. Indicators of the Fukushima radioactive release in NW Romania.

    PubMed

    Cosma, C; Iurian, A R; Niţă, D C; Begy, R; Cîndea, C

    2012-12-01

    As a result of the Fukushima nuclear release, (131)I was found in different environmental media (rainwater, sheep and cow milk, herbage, sheep meat and thyroid tissue) in north-west Romania. On April 4, 2011 a maximum value of 1.40 ± 0.21 Bq/L in (131)I activity was found in rainwater obtained from the Arad region. The obtained value corresponded with the maximum of (131)I concentration in air, as measured by Toma et al. (2011) for the Piteşti area. One day later, sheep milk from the Cluj area was found to contain a maximum activity of 9.22 ± 0.95 Bq/L. A value of 0.85 ± 0.07 μSv was calculated as the total monthly effective dose received by the population as a result of the ingestion of sheep milk and sheep meat contaminated with (131)I. Only rainwater samples contained (134)Cs and (137)Cs at levels close to minimum detectable activity. Since the determined values could be influenced by Chernobyl (137)Cs, the (137)Cs concentrations are subject to uncertainty. The radioiodine transfer coefficients (Fm) and the concentration ratio (CR) from herbage to sheep milk, as well as sheep meat, from the Cluj-Apahida area are also presented.

  16. [Lumbar stabilization exercises].

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Ríos, Jorge Rodrigo; Nava-Bringas, Tania Inés

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: el ejercicio es la intervención con mayor grado de evidencia de eficacia para el tratamiento del dolor crónico de la espalda baja, con beneficio superior en términos de dolor y funcionalidad, en comparación con cualquiera otra intervención. Existe una amplia variedad de ejercicios diseñados; sin embargo, actualmente los llamados ejercicios de estabilización lumbar adquiririeron una popularidad creciente entre los clínicos que están en contacto con enfermedades de la columna. Sin embargo, existe controversia en cuanto a la prescripción adecuada de los mismos y los múltiples protocolos publicados. Objetivo: analizar la bibliografía científica acerca del uso y prescripción de estos ejercicios para favorecer la mejor toma de decisiones enlos clínicos y diseñar, con base a la evidencia, el programa más adecuado para cada paciente. Conclusión: se encontró que este programa es una herramienta esencial en el tratamiento del dolor de espalda baja, en la etapa terapéutica y en la preventiva.

  17. Pareto-based evolutionary algorithms for the calculation of transformation parameters and accuracy assessment of historical maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzano-Agugliaro, F.; San-Antonio-Gómez, C.; López, S.; Montoya, F. G.; Gil, C.

    2013-08-01

    When historical map data are compared with modern cartography, the old map coordinates must be transformed to the current system. However, historical data often exhibit heterogeneous quality. In calculating the transformation parameters between the historical and modern maps, it is often necessary to discard highly uncertain data. An optimal balance between the objectives of minimising the transformation error and eliminating as few points as possible can be achieved by generating a Pareto front of solutions using evolutionary genetic algorithms. The aim of this paper is to assess the performance of evolutionary algorithms in determining the accuracy of historical maps in regard to modern cartography. When applied to the 1787 Tomas Lopez map, the use of evolutionary algorithms reduces the linear error by 40% while eliminating only 2% of the data points. The main conclusion of this paper is that evolutionary algorithms provide a promising alternative for the transformation of historical map coordinates and determining the accuracy of historical maps in regard to modern cartography, particularly when the positional quality of the data points used cannot be assured.

  18. [Consensus document on spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis. Grupo de Enfermedades Desmielinizantes de la Sociedad Española de Neurología].

    PubMed

    Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Montalban, Xavier; de Andrés, Clara; Casanova-Estruch, Bonaventura; Muñoz-García, Delicias; García, Inmaculada; Fernández, Óscar

    2013-10-16

    Introduccion. La esclerosis multiple es una enfermedad neurologica cronica, desmielinizante e inflamatoria. Los neurologos implicados en el tratamiento sintomatico de esta enfermedad tienden a aplicar criterios diagnosticos y de tratamiento heterogeneos. Objetivo. Elaborar un documento de consenso para establecer criterios homogeneos para el tratamiento de la espasticidad, basados en el conocimiento cientifico disponible que faciliten la toma de decisiones en la practica clinica habitual. Desarrollo. Un grupo de expertos españoles en esclerosis multiple del Grupo de Enfermedades Desmielinizantes de la Sociedad Española de Neurologia (SEN) se reunieron para revisar los aspectos relacionados con la espasticidad en esta enfermedad y elaborar el consenso. Tras una busqueda bibliografica exhaustiva y siguiendo la metodologia metaplan se establecieron unas recomendaciones preliminares para incorporar al documento. Finalmente, cada argumento se clasifico segun su grado de recomendacion, atendiendo a las categorias del sistema SIGN (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network). El texto resultante fue sometido a la revision de los miembros del Grupo de Enfermedades Desmielinizantes de la SEN. Se ha alcanzado un consenso de expertos respecto a los factores desencadenantes de la espasticidad, la sintomatologia relacionada, los criterios diagnosticos, los metodos de valoracion de la espasticidad, la calidad de vida y los criterios en el manejo terapeutico (farmacologicos y no farmacologicos). Conclusion. Las recomendaciones contenidas en este consenso pueden ser una herramienta util para el neurologo para la practica clinica del dia a dia y para mejorar la calidad de vida del paciente, ya que permiten un mejor diagnostico y tratamiento de la espasticidad.

  19. Social and news media enable estimation of epidemiological patterns early in the 2010 Haitian cholera outbreak.

    PubMed

    Chunara, Rumi; Andrews, Jason R; Brownstein, John S

    2012-01-01

    During infectious disease outbreaks, data collected through health institutions and official reporting structures may not be available for weeks, hindering early epidemiologic assessment. By contrast, data from informal media are typically available in near real-time and could provide earlier estimates of epidemic dynamics. We assessed correlation of volume of cholera-related HealthMap news media reports, Twitter postings, and government cholera cases reported in the first 100 days of the 2010 Haitian cholera outbreak. Trends in volume of informal sources significantly correlated in time with official case data and was available up to 2 weeks earlier. Estimates of the reproductive number ranged from 1.54 to 6.89 (informal sources) and 1.27 to 3.72 (official sources) during the initial outbreak growth period, and 1.04 to 1.51 (informal) and 1.06 to 1.73 (official) when Hurricane Tomas afflicted Haiti. Informal data can be used complementarily with official data in an outbreak setting to get timely estimates of disease dynamics.

  20. VALIDATION AND COMPARISON OF EQ-5D-3L AND SF-6D INSTRUMENTS IN A SPANISH PARKINSON´S DISEASE POPULATION SAMPLE.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Gordillo, Miguel Ángel; Del Pozo-Cruz, B; Adsuar, J C; Cordero-Ferrera, J M; Abellan-Perpiñan, J M; Sanchez-Martinez, F I

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: el uso de cuestionarios de calidad de vida basados en preferencias poblacionales están recibiendo cada vez más atención en el proceso de toma de decisiones en el ámbito sanitario. Sin embargo, a nuestro entender, EQ-5D y SF-6D nunca han sido comparados en una muestra de población con la enfermedad de Parkinson. Objetivo: el objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar las propiedades psicométricas de ambos instrumentos en una muestra de población española con enfermos de Parkinson. Métodos: un total de 133 pacientes fueron entrevistados utilizando EQ-5D y SF-6D. La validez, el grado de acuerdo y la sensibilidad de ambos instrumentos fueron calculados para su posterior comparación. Las preferencias de la población española fueron utilizadas en ambos instrumentos. Resultados: las utilidades de EQ-5D y SF-6D han mostrado una fuerte correlación (r> 0,50 y p.

  1. Lactancia Materna y VIH/SIDA

    PubMed Central

    Valeria Cortés, F.; Jaime Pérez, A.; Lilian Ferrer, L.; Rosina Cianelli, A.; Báltica Cabieses, V.

    2009-01-01

    Resumen VIH/SIDA es una pandemia que afecta a hombres, mujeres y niños, pero que presenta una tendencia hacia la feminización, afectando especialmente a mujeres jóvenes. Su consecuencia es el aumento de la transmisión vertical, durante el embarazo, parto o lactancia materna. Este estudio bibliográfico describe la relación entre VIH/SIDA y lactancia materna, explicitando factores que influyen en la elección de la modalidad de alimentación de madres viviendo con VIH/SIDA. Se describen causas de morbimortalidad infantil asociada y recomendaciones internacionales de lactancia en mujeres con VIH/SIDA. En un mundo globalizado con constantes migraciones poblacionales, estos resultados representan un llamado de atención para profesionales de salud quienes deben considerar factores sociales que influenciarán la toma de decisión de madres viviendo con VIH/SIDA al escoger la modalidad de lactancia. No sólo basta conocer el riesgo de transmisión vertical, sino que se debe tomar conciencia de aquellos factores dinámicos y específicos de cada comunidad. PMID:20046815

  2. Tropical-Depression Precipitation In Southwestern North America: An Isotope Record From Arizona, And Isotope Signatures In Baja California Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastoe, C. J.; Hess, G.; Mahieux, S.

    2011-12-01

    A 30-year data set of O and H isotopes in individual precipitation events in Tucson, Arizona, includes entries identified with rainfall associated with tropical depressions, which occasionally pass through southern Arizona. Tropical-depression rain events yielding > 7 mm have a δ18O range -9 to -16 per mil, compared to volume-weighted average summer rainfall with δ18O = -6 per mil, a set of isotope effects similar to those observed in south Texas. The isotope signature of tropical-depression rain is present in groundwater of central and southern Baja California (BC), where summer and fall rain make up at least 50% of annual precipitation. Tritium-bearing groundwater at Todos los Santos (southern BC) has a δ18O range of -8 to -11 per mil and d-parameters near 10. Altitude effects related to adjacent, 1800 m mountains do not explain the isotope data. Groundwater of similar isotope character is present near the Tres Virgenes geothermal field (central BC), but not at Santo Tomas (northern BC). Large deuterium excess (d > 15) is not observed in any of the data.

  3. Direct, immunological and molecular techniques for a fasciolosis survey in a rural area of San Luis, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Carnevale, Silvana; Cabrera, Marta Graciela; Cucher, Marcela Alejandra; di Risio, Cecilia Alicia; Malandrini, Jorge Bruno; Kamenetzky, Laura; Alazraqui, Marcio; Etchart, Cristina Beatriz; Pantano, María Laura; Velásquez, Jorge Néstor

    2013-10-01

    Fasciolosis is a zoonosis caused by the trematode Fasciola hepatica, prevalent in cattle, that is actually emerging as a cause of disease in humans. The goal of this work was to describe the characteristics of fasciolosis in arroyo El Juncal region, La Toma, San Luis province, Argentina. In order to get this objective, a transversal, quantitative study was carried out by a fieldwork that allowed the collection of data, human, animal, and environmental samples. The materials were processed by direct, immunological and/or molecular diagnostic techniques. According to the geographical characteristics and in presence of all the definitive and intermediate hosts, reservoirs, and sources of infection, it was possible to describe the persistence of fasciolosis in the area. The prevalence was 11.90 % in humans (by serology), 5.26 % in cattle (by coprological analysis) and 61.76 % in snails (by PCR). The situation that was found for this area indicates that any measure of intervention for the control of this zoonosis should be adopted by multidisciplinary teams. PMID:24431579

  4. Representation of Nucleation Mode Microphysics in a Global Aerosol Model with Sectional Microphysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. H.; Pierce, J. R.; Adams, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    In models, nucleation mode (1 nmTOMAS) aerosol microphysics model running with the GISS GCM II-prime by varying its lowest diameter boundary: 1 nm, 3 nm, and 10 nm. The model with the 1 nm boundary simulates the nucleation mode particles with fully resolved microphysical processes, while the model with the 10 nm and 3 nm boundaries uses a nucleation mode dynamics parameterization to account for the growth of nucleated particles to 10 nm and 3 nm, respectively.We also investigate the impact of the time step for aerosol microphysical processes (a 10 min versus a 1 h time step) to aerosol number predictions in the TOMAS models with explicit dynamics for the nucleation mode particles (i.e., 3 nm and 1 nm boundary). The model with the explicit microphysics (i.e., 1 nm boundary) with the 10 min time step is used as a numerical benchmark simulation to estimate biases caused by varying the lower size cutoff and the time step. Different representations of the nucleation mode have a significant effect on the formation rate of particles larger than 10 nm from nucleated particles (J10) and the burdens and lifetimes of ultrafinemode (10 nm=Dp =70 nm) particles but have less impact on the burdens and lifetimes of CCN-sized particles. The models using parameterized microphysics (i.e., 10 nm and 3 nm boundaries) result in higher J10 and shorter coagulation lifetimes of ultrafine-mode particles than the model with explicit dynamics (i.e., 1 nm boundary). The spatial distributions of CN10 (Dp =10 nm) and CCN(0.2 %) (i.e., CCN concentrations at 0.2%supersaturation) are moderately affected, especially CN10 predictions above 700 h

  5. [Effects of branched amino acids in endurance sports: a review].

    PubMed

    Salinas-García, María Elia; Martínez-Sanz, José Miguel; Urdampilleta, Aritz; Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Norte Navarro, Aurora; Ortiz-Moncada, Rocio

    2014-11-16

    toma antes o durante la actividad física no mejora el rendimiento deportivo. No se ha encontrado consenso en la dosis y cronología de la toma más eficaz, aunque es más efectivo si hay una relación 2-3/1/1g, entre los aminoácidos Leucina/ Isoleucina y Valina.

  6. Fe-dominated samarskite - a new member of the samarskite 'group'?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolescu, S.; Davis, F. E.; Cornell, D.; Eckert, J., Jr.; Bojar, H.; Walter, F.; Luzik, E.

    2013-12-01

    Davis and Nicolescu (2011) alluded to the fact that Fe-dominated samarskite from the pegmatite at the Spinelli prospect in Glastonbury, CT is a potential new member of the samarskite mineral 'group'. Further work on untreated material from the same occurrence confirms Fe dominance at the A site, and based on 29 microprobe and four LA-ICP-MS analyses the following empirical formula is obtained: (Fe3+0.384[Y0.239Dy0.026Gd0.018Sm0.012Nd0.007Er0.006Tb0.005Yb0.005Ho0.003Ce0.003Pr0.001Tm0.001]Σ0.326U0.090Mn0.052Th0.047Ti0.033Ca0.009Pb0.006Mg0.003Al0.003Si0.001Sc0.001)0.956(Nb0.814Ta0.149Sn0.026W0.019)1.007O4. The corresponding simplified formula is (Fe3+,Y,U,REE)(Nb,Ta)O4. Due to its UO2 and ThO2 content (9.12 and 4.67 wt. %, respectively) and age of ~ 260 Ma, Spinelli prospect samarskite is completely metamict. Literature data (Simmons et al., 2006 and references therein) suggest that annealing metamict samarskite in a slightly reducing atmosphere of 95 % Ar - 5 % H2 for 12 hrs. at 1100° C will result in recrystallized samarskite. Repeated experiments conducted on powdered Spinelli prospect material under these conditions, at gas flow rates of 100 cm3/min. and 200 cm3/min., resulted in sintered material composed of an ill-defined mixture of fergusonite, columbite, possible samarskite and an unidentified phase. Moreover, in each of the 1100° C annealing experiments a black radioactive sublimate was deposited at the cold end of the annealing apparatus, suggesting significant changes in the chemistry of the annealed material. Annealing the powdered metamict phase for 21 hrs. at 650° C (Tomašić et al., 2004) in a 95 % Ar - 5 % H2 atmosphere at a flow rate of 100 cm3/min. resulted in a mineral phase yielding broad X-ray diffraction peaks, especially at elevated diffraction angles. Because of the broad diffraction peaks and one ambiguous peak impossible to index, attempts to calculate the unit cell parameters of the annealed phase were unsuccessful for either monoclinic

  7. XVII International Conference on the Use of Computers in Radiation Therapy (ICCR 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-03-01

    Verification, Risk assessment and IGRT • Trials, registries and more Each of the streams had its own theme editor and we would like to thank Peter Greer, Sarah Gulliford, Tomas Janssen, Joerg Lehmann and Peter Metcalfe and for their invaluable contributions. I believe we all shared the joy of reading the huge variety of manuscripts which reflect a dynamic field and a truly international authorship. All manuscripts have been peer reviewed by at least two independent referees. Still, proceedings are different from journal articles. The focus of the proceedings is on interest for others, novelty and creativity. While trying to ensure a common format to all contributions we have also aimed to maintain the style and approach of the individual authors. We would like to thank all authors and reviewers for their contribution to these ICCR proceedings. On behalf of the editorial team we would like to invite you to explore the proceedings and hope that you enjoy reading them as much as we did editing them. Yours sincerely Annette Haworth and Tomas Kron Editors, Proceedings of the 17th ICCR

  8. [Study of death with secondary diagnosis of malnutrition in a third level hospital].

    PubMed

    Fernández Valdivia, Antonia; Lobo Támer, Gabriela; Martínez Cirre, Ma Carmen; Valero Aguilera, Beatriz; Peña Taveras, Manuel del Carmen; Rodríguez Rodríguez, José María; Martínez Tapias, Jesús; Pérez de la Cruz, Antonio Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La desnutrición constituye uno de los principales problemas de Salud Pública, según datos de la OMS, es la primera causa de mortalidad, cuando la misma afecta al colectivo de los sujetos hospitalizados, toma entidad propia denominándose “desnutrición hospitalaria”. Objetivos: El objetivo general es cuantificar los diagnósticos principales de alta más frecuentes, que causan exitus, con el diagnóstico secundario de desnutrición. Métodos: Se trata de un estudio transversal y descriptivo, en el que se han incluido todas las altas hospitalarias del año 2011 y primer semestre de 2012, que han sido exitus y que tienen como diagnóstico secundario la desnutrición, siendo el total de 33. Se ha realizado un análisis estadístico descriptivo, efectuándose el test de Mann-Whitney para pruebas no paramétricas (p < 0,05). Resultados: Los diagnósticos principales más frecuentes entre las 33 altas analizadas son la sepsis (12,1%), metástasis hepáticas (9,1%), neumonía (6,1%), insuficiencia respiratoria aguda (6,1%) e insuficiencia renal aguda (6,1%). Conclusiones: Aunque el diagnóstico principal más frecuente es la sepsis, al agrupar los diagnósticos, el GRD más frecuente es de patología respiratoria, por lo que se ha de hacer codificación exhaustiva y de calidad para ajustar el peso relativo de los mismos a la realidad. Es fundamental especificar en la fuente de información clínica utilizada para la codificación, el grado de desnutrición, para obtener mayor especificidad en los datos.

  9. Eighteen-month-old children learn words in non-ostensive contexts.

    PubMed

    Tomasello, M; Strosberg, R; Akhtar, N

    1996-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that children aged 2;0 can learn new words in a variety of non-ostensive contexts. The current two studies were aimed at seeing if this was also true of children just beginning to learn words at 1;6. In the first study an adult interacted with 48 children. She used a nonce word to announce her intention to find an object ('Let's find the gazzer'), picked up and rejected an object with obvious disappointment, and then gleefully found the target object (using no language). Children learned the new word as well in this condition as in a condition in which the adult found the object immediately. In the second study the adult first played several rounds of a finding game with each of 60 children, in which it was first established that one of several novel objects was always in a very distinctive hiding place (a toy barn). The adult then used a nonce word to announce her intention to find an object ('Let's find the toma') and then proceeded to the barn. In the key condition the barn was mysteriously 'locked'; the child thus never saw the target object after the nonce word was introduced. Children learned the new word as well in this condition as in a condition in which the adult found the object immediately. The results of these two studies suggest that from very early in language acquisition children learn words not through passive, associative processes, but rather through active attempts to understand adult behaviour in a variety of action and discourse contexts. PMID:8733565

  10. Historical anthropogenic radiative forcing of changes in biogenic secondary aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta Navarro, Juan; D'Andrea, Stephen; Pierce, Jeffrey; Ekman, Annica; Struthers, Hamish; Zorita, Eduardo; Guenther, Alex; Arneth, Almut; Smolander, Sampo; Kaplan, Jed; Farina, Salvatore; Scott, Catherine; Rap, Alexandru; Farmer, Delphine; Spracklen, Domink; Riipinen, Ilona

    2016-04-01

    Human activities have lead to changes in the energy balance of the Earth and the global climate. Changes in atmospheric aerosols are the second largest contributor to climate change after greenhouse gases since 1750 A.D. Land-use practices and other environmental drivers have caused changes in the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) well before 1750 A.D, possibly causing climate effects through aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions. Two numerical emission models LPJ-GUESS and MEGAN were used to quantify the changes in aerosol forming BVOC emissions in the past millennium. A chemical transport model of the atmosphere (GEOS-Chem-TOMAS) was driven with those BVOC emissions to quantify the effects on radiation caused by millennial changes in SOA. We found that global isoprene emissions decreased after 1800 A.D. by about 12% - 15%. This decrease was dominated by losses of natural vegetation, whereas monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions increased by about 2% - 10%, driven mostly by rising surface air temperatures. From 1000 A.D. to 1800 A.D, isoprene, monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions decline by 3% - 8% driven by both, natural vegetation losses, and the moderate global cooling between the medieval climate anomaly and the little ice age. The millennial reduction in BVOC emissions lead to a 0.5% to 2% reduction in climatically relevant aerosol particles (> 80 nm) and cause a direct radiative forcing between +0.02 W/m² and +0.07 W/m², and an indirect radiative forcing between -0.02 W/m² and +0.02 W/m².

  11. Aerosol Size Distribution Response to Anthropogenically Driven Historical Changes in Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, J. R.; D'Andrea, S.; Acosta Navarro, J. C.; Farina, S.; Scott, C.; Farmer, D. K.; Spracklen, D. V.; Riipinen, I.

    2014-12-01

    Emissions of biological volatile organic compounds (BVOC) have changed in the past millennium due to changes in land use, temperature and CO2 concentrations. A recent model reconstruction of BVOC emissions over the past millennium predicted the changes in the three dominant secondary organic aerosol (SOA) producing BVOC classes (isoprene, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes). The reconstruction predicted that in global averages isoprene emissions have decreased (land-use changes to crop/grazing land dominate the reduction), while monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions have increased (temperature increases dominate the increases); however, all three show both increases and decreases in certain regions due to competition between the various influencing factors. These BVOC changes have largely been anthropogenic in nature, and land-use change was shown to have the most dramatic effect by decreasing isoprene emissions. We use these modeled estimates of these three dominant BVOC classes' emissions from the years 1000 to 2000 to test the effect of anthropogenic changes to BVOC emissions on SOA formation and global aerosol size distributions using the GEOS-Chem-TOMAS global aerosol microphysics model. With anthropogenic emissions (e.g. SO2, NOx, primary aerosols) held at present day values and BVOC emissions changed from year 1000 to year 2000 values, decreases in the number concentration of particles of size Dp > 80 nm (N80) of >25% in year 2000 relative to year 1000 were predicted in regions with extensive land-use changes since year 1000. This change in N80 was predominantly driven by a shift towards crop/grazing land that produces less BVOC than the natural vegetation. Similar sensitivities to year 1000 vs. year 2000 BVOC emissions exist when anthropogenic emissions are turned off. This large decrease in N80 could be a largely overlooked and important anthropogenic aerosol effect on regional climates.

  12. Aerosol size distribution and radiative forcing response to anthropogenically driven historical changes in biogenic secondary organic aerosol formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Andrea, S. D.; Acosta Navarro, J. C.; Farina, S. C.; Scott, C. E.; Rap, A.; Farmer, D. K.; Spracklen, D. V.; Riipinen, I.; Pierce, J. R.

    2015-03-01

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) have changed in the past millennium due to changes in land use, temperature, and CO2 concentrations. Recent reconstructions of BVOC emissions have predicted that global isoprene emissions have decreased, while monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions have increased; however, all three show regional variability due to competition between the various influencing factors. In this work, we use two modeled estimates of BVOC emissions from the years 1000 to 2000 to test the effect of anthropogenic changes to BVOC emissions on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, global aerosol size distributions, and radiative effects using the GEOS-Chem-TOMAS (Goddard Earth Observing System; TwO-Moment Aerosol Sectional) global aerosol microphysics model. With anthropogenic emissions (e.g., SO2, NOx, primary aerosols) turned off and BVOC emissions changed from year 1000 to year 2000 values, decreases in the number concentration of particles of size Dp > 80 nm (N80) of > 25% in year 2000 relative to year 1000 were predicted in regions with extensive land-use changes since year 1000 which led to regional increases in the combined aerosol radiative effect (direct and indirect) of > 0.5 W m-2 in these regions. We test the sensitivity of our results to BVOC emissions inventory, SOA yields, and the presence of anthropogenic emissions; however, the qualitative response of the model to historic BVOC changes remains the same in all cases. Accounting for these uncertainties, we estimate millennial changes in BVOC emissions cause a global mean direct effect of between +0.022 and +0.163 W m-2 and the global mean cloud-albedo aerosol indirect effect of between -0.008 and -0.056 W m-2. This change in aerosols, and the associated radiative forcing, could be a largely overlooked and important anthropogenic aerosol effect on regional climates.

  13. Guadua zuloagae sp. nov., the First Petrified Bamboo Culm Record from the Ituzaingó Formation (Pliocene), Paraná Basin, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Brea, Mariana; Zucol, Alejandro F.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims The anatomical characterization and morphology of Guadua zuloagae nov. sp. (Poaceae–Bambusoideae) culm was determined. This material was collected at the Toma Vieja fossil locality, Paraná basin, Argentina. This fossil culm is the first record of Bambusoideae in sediments of the Pliocene from the Ituzaingó Formation. The studied specimen was compared with the taxa of the Bambusoideae sub-family, especially with the American woody bamboos and others taxa that have woody culms, including Arundo, Thysalonaena and Gynerium. Methods The material was preserved by siliceous cellular permineralization, and it was prepared for microscopic examination by surface polishing and thin sections. The morphology and anatomy of this new species were described. The estimated height, critical buckling height and safety factor were calculated on the basis of the fossil bamboo diameter using the formula of Niklas. The relationship and comparison with the nearest living relatives (NLRs) are discussed. Key Results Well-preserved petrified culm with internodes and nodes from the Pliocene of Argentina provides the basis for the description of a new fossil bamboo, Guadua zuloagae. The results of the anatomical analysis of the fossil bamboo showed a great affinity with the extant species Guadua angustifolia and constitute the first evidence of petrified bamboo culm. Conclusions The new fossil bamboo culm constitutes the only fossil record, preserved as permineralized by silicification, in the world. This fossil record indicates that the genus Guadua was more widespread in the past than today. Discovery of G. zuloagae allows the presence of a Bambusoideae understorey in the mixed forests described for the Ituzaingó Formation to be inferred. The climatic conditions inferred from fossil bamboo and sedimentary deposits indicate a temperate-warm, humid climate. PMID:17728337

  14. Complex-mixing dolomitization of supratidal deposits, Ambergris Cay, Belize, Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzullo, S.J.; Reid, A.M.

    1985-02-01

    Extensive dolomitization of Holocene sediments is occurring on humid supratidal flats adjoining lagoons in the interior of Ambergris Cay. One such flat (Tomas Savannah) caps 3 discrete emergent beach-ridge and washover-swale sand and mud systems that prograded over an irregular, karstic surface of Pleistocene limestone. The Scytonema-covered sediments of the flats are dominantly Mg-calcitic peneroplid (foram) sands and micrites, with subordinate amounts of aragonite from cerithids and bivalves. The relict beach ridges stand as much as 30 cm above mean sea level, whereas adjoining swales are nearly perennially bathed in waters of varying salinity. The most-landward swale occupies a bowl on the Pleistocene surface and is the locus of dolomitization on the flats. The sediments of the swale are a 0.7 m thick section of graded sandy muds in which 3 superposed dolomitic crusts (each 10-15 cm thick) are present; the middle and upper crust are dated at 1700 and 905 yr B.P. (+/- 130), respectively. The volume of dolomite on this one flat alone is 17,000 m/sup 3/, which formed at a startling rate of 14 cm/1000 yr. Each crust grades downward to an equal thickness of unconsolidated deposits. The upper crust contains 64-68% protodolomite, the remainder is Mg-calcite micrite and altered peneroplids; most of the skeletal aragonite has been removed by dissolution. The dolomite is microcrystalline and has selectively replaced the host micrite of the sediments. Average porosities and permeabilities of the crusts are 45-52% and 5.9-7.2 darcys, respectively.

  15. Role of atmospheric ammonia in particulate matter formation in Houston during summertime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Longwen; Lewicki, Rafał; Griffin, Robert J.; Tittel, Frank K.; Lonsdale, Chantelle R.; Stevens, Robin G.; Pierce, Jeffrey R.; Malloy, Quentin G. J.; Travis, Severin A.; Bobmanuel, Loliya M.; Lefer, Barry L.; Flynn, James H.

    2013-10-01

    Simultaneous high-time-resolution measurements of atmospheric NH3, HNO3, soluble gas-phase chloride, and aerosol species were made in Houston, TX, from August 5, 2010 to August 9, 2010. Gaseous NH3 was measured using a 10.4-μm external cavity quantum cascade laser-based sensor employing conventional photo-acoustic spectroscopy, while gaseous HNO3 and HCl were sampled using a mist chamber-ion chromatograph (IC) system. Particle chemical composition was determined using a particle-into-liquid-sampler-IC system. There was a large amount of variability in the gas phase mixing ratios of NH3 (3.0 ± 2.5 ppb), HNO3 (287.4 ± 291.6 ppt), and HCl (221.3 ± 260.7 ppt). Elevated NH3 levels occurred around mid-day when NH (0.5 ± 1.0 μg m-3) and SO (4.5 ± 4.3 μg m-3) also increased considerably, indicating that NH3 likely influenced aerosol particle mass. By contrast, the formation of NH4NO3 and NH4Cl was not observed during the measurements. Point sources (e.g., power plant and chemical plant) might be potential contributors to the enhancements in NH3 at the measurement site under favorable meteorological conditions. Increased particle number concentrations were predicted by the SAM-TOMAS model downwind of a large coal-fired power plant when NH3 emissions (based on these measurements) were included, highlighting the potential importance of NH3 with respect to particle number concentration. Separate measurements also indicate the role of NH3 in new particle formation in Houston under low-sulfur conditions.

  16. [EFFECT OF OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY ON THE EQUILIBRIUM TIME, BUT NO IN THE TOTAL BODY WATER AND BODY COMPOSITION COMPARTMENTS IN WOMEN SUBJECTS OVER 60 YEARS OF AGE].

    PubMed

    Lizárraga-Cañedo, Jonathan; Robles-Sardin, Alma; Salazar, Gabriela; Alemán-Mateo, Heliodoro

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: el envejecimiento y la obesidad producen cambios en la tasa de recambio de agua, lo que podría afectar al tiempo de equilibrio del óxido de deuterio (2H2O). Objetivo: se evaluó el efecto del sobrepeso y la obesidad sobre el tiempo de equilibrio del isótopo estable de deuterio en muestras de saliva de adultos mayores. Métodos: se incluyeron 18 mujeres entre 63 y 80 años con un índice de masa corporal (IMC) de 20,8 a 40,5 kg/m2. Después de la toma de una muestra de saliva basal se administró una dosis vía oral de 30 g de 2H2O. Se tomaron muestras de saliva a las 2, 2,5, 3, 3,5 y 4 horas post-dosis, las cuales fueron analizadas mediante espectrometría infrarroja con transformada de Fourier. Resultados: el tiempo de equilibrio (plateau) promedio en las mujeres con un IMC normal (18,5-24,9 kg/m2) fue de 3,6 ± 0,2 horas, el cual fue diferente estadísticamente al obtenido en el grupo con sobrepeso (25-29,9 kg/m2) y obesidad (>30 kg/m2) de 2,9 ± 0,4 horas y 2,8 ± 0,4 horas, respectivamente (p0,05). Conclusión: se encontró un efecto de la obesidad sobre el tiempo de equilibrio; sin embargo, no afectó al cálculo del agua corporal total y a la composición corporal en este grupo etario.

  17. [Thermolabile drugs stability faced with an accidental interruption in the cold chain].

    PubMed

    Ricote-Lobera, I; Ortiz-Martín, B; Fraile-Gil, S; Santos-Mena, B; Hidalgo-Correas, F J; García-Díaz, B

    2014-05-01

    Objetivo: Elaborar una guía actualizada sobre la estabilidad delos medicamentos termolábiles incluidos en la Guía Farmacoterapéuticaque, según ficha técnica, deben conservarse bajorefrigeración o congelación, expuestos accidentalmente a temperaturasde conservación fuera del rango recomendado por elfabricante.Métodos: Se revisó la información sobre las temperaturas deconservación recomendadas en ficha técnica y los datos deestabilidad disponibles a distintas temperaturas de los medicamentostermolábiles incluidos en la Guía Farmacoterapéuticade un hospital de 400 camas que, según el fabricante, debenconservarse bajo refrigeración o congelación. Se excluyeron losmedicamentos incluidos en ensayos clínicos. Los datos de estabilidadse obtuvieron a partir de la ficha técnica, la informacióncontenida en las dos últimas guías de conservación de medicamentostermolábiles publicadas en España y a través de las consultasrealizadas a los laboratorios (vía telefónica o por e-mail).Resultados: Se confeccionó una tabla con las temperaturas deconservación recomendadas en ficha técnica y los datos deestabilidad disponibles actualmente a distintas temperaturas de209 presentaciones de distintas especialidades farmacéuticas.Se solicitaron datos de estabilidad actualizados de 172 de ellasa los laboratorios.Conclusiones: La guía elaborada constituye una herramientaque facilita la toma de decisiones del farmacéutico ante unarotura accidental de la cadena de frío, cuando sea necesarioconocer si el fármaco puede ser utilizado y no sea posible contactarcon el laboratorio fabricante.

  18. [Hospital efficiency measured by bed space use in a secondary care hospital].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Martínez, Roberto; Martínez-Cruz, Rocío Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: reconociendo que los recursos disponibles en las unidades médicas forman parte de los factores que condicionan la atención médica de calidad, resulta de importancia medir su aprovechamiento. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la eficiencia hospitalaria a través del recurso cama en un hospital de segundo nivel. Métodos: del Sistema de Información Médico Operativo, se examinaron los cuadros de salida mensuales de julio 2012 a junio 2013 que incluyen variables como egresos, días paciente, porcentaje de ocupación y promedio de días de estancia por especialidad y división, se obtuvieron los resultados por cada indicador estratégico y se relacionaron dichos resultados proponiendo supuestos para valorar la eficiencia hospitalaria. Resultados: de manera global, se identifica una óptima eficiencia hospitalaria, sin embargo el análisis por servicio y división señala una eficiencia deteriorada y baja. El resultado global de los cinco indicadores aplicados ignora la saturación de los servicios al interior de la unidad médica. Sin embargo, el análisis en conjunto revela dicha problemática, demostrando la ventaja de evaluar un mismo escenario desde diferentes perspectivas. Conclusiones: incluir indicadores que midan la eficiencia hospitalaria partiendo del recurso cama, permite considerar deficiencias no identificadas, con lo que se fortalece la toma de decisiones en salud.

  19. Effect of In-Plume Aerosol Processing on the Efficacy of Marine Cloud Albedo Enhancement from Controlled Sea-Spray Injections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, R. G.; Spracklen, D.; Korhonen, H.; Pierce, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    The intentional enhancement of cloud albedo via controlled sea-spray injection from ships has been suggested as a possible means to control anthropogenic global warming (1); however, there remains significant uncertainty in the efficacy of this method due to uncertainties in aerosol and cloud microphysics. Recent analysis showed that more sea-spray may be necessary than previously assumed to reach a desired cooling due to nonlinearities in the aerosol/cloud microphysics (2). A major assumption used in (2) is that all sea-spray was emitted uniformly into some oceanic grid boxes, and thus did not account for sub-grid aerosol microphysics within the sea-spray plumes. However, as a consequnce of the fast sea-spray injection rates which are proposed, in the order of 1x10^17 1/s (1), particle concentrations in these plumes may be quite high and particle coagulation may significantly reduce the number of emitted particles and increase their average size. Therefore, it is possible that the emissions necessary to reach a desired cooling may be even larger than currently assumed. We explore the processing of the freshly emitted sea-spray plumes in the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES)/Cloud Resolving Model (CRM) the System for Atmospheric Modelling (SAM, 3) with the online aerosol microphysics module TOMAS (4). We determine how the final number and size of particles (once well mixed with background air) depends on the emission rate and size distribution of the sea-spray plume and on the pre-existing aerosol concentrations and local atmospheric conditions. Finally, we make suggestions for effective size-resolved emissions for use in climate models. (1) Salter, S. et al., Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A., 2008. (2) Korhonen, H. et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 4133-4143, 2010. (3) Khairoutdinov, M., and Randall, D.,. J. Atmos. Sci., 60, 607-625, 2003. (4) Pierce, J. and Adams, P., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 1339-1356, 2009.

  20. [Intra-abdominal pressure as a surgery predictor in patients with acute abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Campos-Muñoz, Manuel Alejandro; Villarreal-Ríos, Enrique; Chimal-Torres, Mariano; Pozas-Medina, Josué Atila

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la presión intraabdominal es el estado de equilibrio de la presión de la cavidad abdominal en reposo y puede presentar cambios durante la ventilación mecánica o espontánea. El objetivo fue determinar la presión intraabdominal como predictor de cirugía en el paciente con dolor abdominal agudo. Métodos: se llevó a cabo un estudio de casos y controles anidado en una cohorte de pacientes con dolor abdominal agudo en el servicio de urgencias de un hospital de segundo nivel, en el periodo comprendido entre abril y diciembre de 2013. Se incluyeron 37 pacientes, todos fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente con previa toma de la presión intraabdominal. Se formaron los grupos con el resultado del estudio anatomopatológico: con evidencia de proceso inflamatorio abdominal agudo (n = 28) y sin evidencia de proceso inflamatorio abdominal agudo (n = 9). Resultados: en los casos el 100 % presentó presión intraabdominal alta con una p = 0.01, RM: 5 (IC 95 %: 2.578-9.699). En los casos la media de la presión intraabdominal fue de 11.46 y en los controles de 9.2 (p = 0.183). Conclusiones: el dolor abdominal que requiere cirugía para su resolución tiene relación directa con una presión intraabdominal > 5 mmHg.

  1. Development of taste sensor system for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines

    SciTech Connect

    Kaltsum, U.; Triyana, K. Siswanta, D.

    2014-09-25

    In Indonesia, herbal medicines are usually produced by small and medium enterprises which are relatively low in quality control. The purpose of this paper is to report that we have developed a taste sensor system with global selectivity, i.e., electronic tongue (e-tongue) for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines. The e-tongue was composed of five kinds of ion selective electrodes as working electrodes, data acquisition system, and pattern recognition system. Each ion selective electrode (ISE) was built by attaching lipid/polymer membrane. For this purpose, the five kinds of membranes were built by mixing lipid, plasticizer (nitrophenyl octyl ether/NPOE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and tetrahydrofuran (THF). In this study, we employed five kinds of lipid, namely oleic acid (OA), dioctyl phosphate (DOP), decyl alcohol (DA), dodecylamine (DDC), and trioctyl methyl ammonium chloride (TOMA). In this case, the membranes transform information of taste substances into electric signal. The five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicine were purchased from local supermarket in Yogyakarta, i.e., kunyit asam (made from turmeric and tamarind), beras kencur (made from rice and kencur), jahe wangi (made from ginger and fragrance), sirih wangi (made from betel leaf), and temulawak (made from Javanese ginger). Prior to detecting the taste from the Indonesian herbal medicine samples, each ion selective electrode was tested with five basic taste samples, i.e., for saltiness, sweetness, umami, bitterness, and sourness. All ISEs showed global selectivity to all samples. Furthermore, the array of ISEs showed specific response pattern to each Indonesian herbal medicine. For pattern recognition system, we employed principle component analysis (PCA). As a result, the e-tongue was able to differentiate five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicines, proven by the total variance of first and second principle components is about 93%. For the future, the e-tongue may be developed for quality

  2. Development of taste sensor system for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltsum, U.; Triyana, K.; Siswanta, D.

    2014-09-01

    In Indonesia, herbal medicines are usually produced by small and medium enterprises which are relatively low in quality control. The purpose of this paper is to report that we have developed a taste sensor system with global selectivity, i.e., electronic tongue (e-tongue) for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines. The e-tongue was composed of five kinds of ion selective electrodes as working electrodes, data acquisition system, and pattern recognition system. Each ion selective electrode (ISE) was built by attaching lipid/polymer membrane. For this purpose, the five kinds of membranes were built by mixing lipid, plasticizer (nitrophenyl octyl ether/NPOE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and tetrahydrofuran (THF). In this study, we employed five kinds of lipid, namely oleic acid (OA), dioctyl phosphate (DOP), decyl alcohol (DA), dodecylamine (DDC), and trioctyl methyl ammonium chloride (TOMA). In this case, the membranes transform information of taste substances into electric signal. The five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicine were purchased from local supermarket in Yogyakarta, i.e., kunyit asam (made from turmeric and tamarind), beras kencur (made from rice and kencur), jahe wangi (made from ginger and fragrance), sirih wangi (made from betel leaf), and temulawak (made from Javanese ginger). Prior to detecting the taste from the Indonesian herbal medicine samples, each ion selective electrode was tested with five basic taste samples, i.e., for saltiness, sweetness, umami, bitterness, and sourness. All ISEs showed global selectivity to all samples. Furthermore, the array of ISEs showed specific response pattern to each Indonesian herbal medicine. For pattern recognition system, we employed principle component analysis (PCA). As a result, the e-tongue was able to differentiate five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicines, proven by the total variance of first and second principle components is about 93%. For the future, the e-tongue may be developed for quality

  3. Separation of compounds with multiple -OH groups from dilute aqueous solutions via complexation with organoboronate. [1,2-propanediol

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, Tina Kuo Fung.

    1992-05-01

    The complexing extractant agent investigated in this work is 3-nitrophenylboronic acid (NPBA) in its anionic form (NPB). NPBA and Aliquat 336 (quaternary amine) is dissolved in 2-ethyl-l-hexanol, and the extractant is contacted with aq. NaOH. Solutes investigated were 1,2-propanediol, glycerol, fructose, sorbitol and lactic acid. Batch extraction experiments were performed at 25{degree}C. Partition coefficients, distribution ratios and loadings are reported for varying concentrations of solute and NPB. All solutes complexed with NPB{sup {minus}}, with all complexes containing only one NPB{sup {minus}} per complex. The 1:1 complexation constants for the solutes glycerol, fructose and sorbitol follow trends similar to complexation with B(OH){sub 4}{sup {minus}} (aq.), i.e. the complexation constants increase with increasing number of {minus}OH groups available for complexation. Assumption of 1:1 complex is not valid for 1, 2-propanediol, which showed overloading (more than one mole of solute complexed to one mole NPB{sup {minus}}) at higher concentrations. The {minus}OH group on the NPB{sup {minus}} which is left uncomplexed after one solute molecule had bound to the other two {minus}OH groups may be responsible for the overloading. Overloading is also observed in extraction of tactic acid, but through a different mechanism. It was found that TOMA{sup +} can extract lactic acid to an extent comparable to the uptake of lactic acid by NPB{sup {minus}}. The complexation is probably through formation of an acid-base ion pair. Losses of NPBA into the aqueous phase could lead to problems, poor economics in industrial separation processes. One way of overcoming this problem would be to incorporate the NPBA onto a solid support.

  4. Separation of compounds with multiple -OH groups from dilute aqueous solutions via complexation with organoboronate

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, Tina Kuo Fung

    1992-05-01

    The complexing extractant agent investigated in this work is 3-nitrophenylboronic acid (NPBA) in its anionic form (NPB). NPBA and Aliquat 336 (quaternary amine) is dissolved in 2-ethyl-l-hexanol, and the extractant is contacted with aq. NaOH. Solutes investigated were 1,2-propanediol, glycerol, fructose, sorbitol and lactic acid. Batch extraction experiments were performed at 25{degree}C. Partition coefficients, distribution ratios and loadings are reported for varying concentrations of solute and NPB. All solutes complexed with NPB{sup {minus}}, with all complexes containing only one NPB{sup {minus}} per complex. The 1:1 complexation constants for the solutes glycerol, fructose and sorbitol follow trends similar to complexation with B(OH){sub 4}{sup {minus}} (aq.), i.e. the complexation constants increase with increasing number of {minus}OH groups available for complexation. Assumption of 1:1 complex is not valid for 1, 2-propanediol, which showed overloading (more than one mole of solute complexed to one mole NPB{sup {minus}}) at higher concentrations. The {minus}OH group on the NPB{sup {minus}} which is left uncomplexed after one solute molecule had bound to the other two {minus}OH groups may be responsible for the overloading. Overloading is also observed in extraction of tactic acid, but through a different mechanism. It was found that TOMA{sup +} can extract lactic acid to an extent comparable to the uptake of lactic acid by NPB{sup {minus}}. The complexation is probably through formation of an acid-base ion pair. Losses of NPBA into the aqueous phase could lead to problems, poor economics in industrial separation processes. One way of overcoming this problem would be to incorporate the NPBA onto a solid support.

  5. Effect of secondary organic aerosol amount and condensational behavior on global aerosol size distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Andrea, S. D.; Häkkinen, S. A. K.; Westervelt, D. M.; Kuang, C.; Spracklen, D. V.; Riipinen, I.; Pierce, J. R.

    2013-05-01

    Recent research has shown that secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are major contributors to ultrafine particle growth to climatically relevant sizes, increasing global cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations within the continental boundary layer. Many models treat SOA solely as semivolatile, which leads to condensation of SOA proportional to the aerosol mass distribution; however, recent closure studies with field measurements show that a significant fraction of SOA condenses proportional to the aerosol surface area, which suggests a very low volatility. Additionally, while many global models contain only biogenic sources of SOA (with emissions generally 10-30 Tg yr-1), recent studies have shown a need for an additional source of SOA around 100 Tg yr-1 correlated with anthropogenic carbon monoxide (CO) emissions is required to match measurements. Here, we explore the significance of these two findings using the GEOS-Chem-TOMAS global aerosol microphysics model. The percent change in the number of particles of size Dp > 40 nm (N40) within the continental boundary layer between the surface-area-and massdistribution condensation schemes, both with the base biogenic SOA only, yielded a global increase of 8% but exceeds 100% in biogenically active regions. The percent change in N40 within the continental boundary layer between the base simulation (19 Tg yr-1) and the additional SOA (100 Tg yr-1) both using the surface area condensation scheme (very low volatility) yielded a global increase of 14%, and a global decrease in the number of particles of size Dp > 10 nm (N10) of 32%. These model simulations were compared to measured data from Hyytiälä, Finland and other global locations and confirmed a decrease in the model-measurement bias. Thus, treating SOA as very low volatile as well as including additional SOA correlated with anthropogenic CO emissions causes a significant global increase in the number of climatically relevant sized particles, and therefore we

  6. [Neurological examination in patients undergoing sedation with propofol: a descriptive study].

    PubMed

    Ordas-Bandera, Carlos M; Sanchez-Marcos, Carolina; Janeiro-Lumbreras, David; Jimenez-Martin, M José; Muniz-Castrillo, Sergio; Cuadrado-Perez, M Luz; Porta-Etessam, Jesús

    2014-06-16

    Introduccion. La exploracion neurologica es un recurso en la evaluacion de los pacientes en coma. La anestesia puede ser un factor influyente en los hallazgos. Evaluamos la exploracion del paciente en coma en pacientes anestesiados con propofol para definir su valor clinico. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio prospectivo en sometidos a cirugia cardiaca en los cuidados intensivos de un hospital terciario durante los meses de abril y mayo de 2011. Se analiza la exploracion del coma anestesico, factores farmacologicos o medicos que pueden influir y exploracion neurologica completa tras la recuperacion. Se excluyeron pacientes con sintomas neurologicos previos. Resultados. Se seleccionan 30 pacientes (16 hombres y 14 mujeres); edad media: 72 ± 10 años. Todos los pacientes estaban sedados con propofol. Durante la sedacion, 17 (46,7%) presentaban pupilas arreactivas. En el 100% no se observaron movimientos espontaneos de los ojos. El 23,3% presentaba alteracion ocular en posicion primaria. Los reflejos oculocefalicos estaban ausentes en el 93,3%, y los oculovestibulares, en el 100%; el reflejo corneal, en el 70% (con asimetria); el espinociliar, en el 83,3%. La respuesta motora algesica estaba ausente en el 93,3%; en un 20%, los reflejos cutaneoplantares extensores; e indiferentes, en el 66,7%. Tras la anestesia, la exploracion neurologica fue normal en el 80%, hubo leves alteraciones de orientacion en un 16,7% y se encontro un sindrome hemisferico en un paciente. Conclusiones. La anestesia con propofol altera los reflejos pupilares, del tronco, respuestas motoras y reflejo cutaneoplantar reversibles al retirar la sedacion. Las alteraciones pueden ser asimetricas. No se deberia utilizar la exploracion neurologica en el paciente sedado con propofol para la toma de decisiones clinicas.

  7. [Langerhans cell histiocytosis with vertebral involvement and soft tissue extension: clinical case].

    PubMed

    Luong, Tai C; Scrigni, Adriana; Paglia, Marcela; Garavaglia, Mariano; Aisenberg, Nuria; Rowensztein, Hernán; Sampor, Claudia

    2016-08-01

    La histiocitosis de células de Langerhans es una enfermedad heterogénea de etiología desconocida, que se caracteriza por la proliferación no controlada de histiocitos. Es poco frecuente y, si bien el compromiso óseo es común, la afectación vertebral es rara. Se presenta una niña de 4 años que consultó por dolor abdominal difuso de un mes de evolución, al que se agregó constipación y, posteriormente, debilidad en los miembros inferiores. El examen físico mostraba clonus e hiperreflexia en los miembros inferiores y la marcha era inestable. Se realizó una resonancia magnética, que mostró la vértebra dorsal 9 (D9) plana con tejido blando patológico en el espacio epidural y laterovertebral. Se realizó una cirugía descompresiva, artrodesis para fijar la columna y toma de biopsia, que confirmó el diagnóstico de histiocitosis de células de Langerhans. Recibió 6 meses de tratamiento con metilprednisona y vinblastina, de acuerdo con el protocolo LCH III, con excelente evolución y remisión completa. Conclusión: frente a una imagen radiológica de vértebra plana o colapso vertebral, debe pensarse en histiocitosis de células de Langerhans como diagnóstico diferencial.

  8. Active Strike-Slip Faulting in the Inner Continental Borderland, Southern California: Results From New High-Resolution Seismic Reflection Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, J. E.; Ryan, H. F.; Sliter, R. W.

    2008-12-01

    The inner Continental Borderland offshore of southern California accommodates about 7 mm/yr of slip between the North American and Pacific plates. Nearly half of this total has previously been thought to be taken up on the Palos Verdes (PV) and Coronado Bank (CB) fault zones, which have been modeled as a single, continuous fault zone in recent seismic hazard assessments for southern California. Although these faults lie roughly on strike with each other, a connection between these faults has not been clearly demonstrated. Newly acquired high-resolution seismic reflection data indicate that the PV fault terminates southwest of Lasuen Knoll in a horsetail splay that becomes progressively buried to the south. The lack of a connection between the PV and CB fault zones implies that a significant amount of slip must be taken up elsewhere in the inner Continental Borderland. Two other significant offshore faults, the San Diego Trough (SDT) and San Pedro Basin (SPB) fault zones, lie about 10-15 km southwest of and sub parallel to the trace of the PV and CB faults. The SDT fault zone extends from south of the Mexican border near Punta Santo Tomas for about 150 km northward to near Crespi Knoll. The SPB fault zone extends northward from off Santa Catalina Island to near Point Dume. The new seismic reflection data reveal a previously unmapped but apparently active fault zone along strike and in the area between the known strands of the SDT and the SPB fault zones. This newly recognized fault links the SDT and SPB faults, forming a continuous, active fault zone that extends about 250 km along the inner Continental Borderland. Although there are no slip rate data available for this fault zone, its overall length, continuity, and active character suggest that a significant portion of the plate motion that occurs offshore is accommodated along the SDT-SPB fault zone, which may pose a more significant seismic hazard than previously recognized.

  9. Combating opposition in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Marcelino, A B

    1996-01-01

    The Philippine family planning movement has been in existence for 25 years. The Catholic Church, however, has launched a smear campaign against it with the shibboleths of antichild, antifamily, antilife, and pro-abortion that had to be countered by the association. At the Pro-Life's First Training Congress on Love, Life, and Family held in 1995 at the country's oldest Catholic university in Manila (University of Santo Tomas), charges were leveled against it and the International Planned Parenthood Federation as owners of multinational companies that manufacture infant formulas, contraceptives, and abortion machines. At the IPPF Members' Assembly in 1995 this anti-family planning campaign escalated with charges that the IPPF was the agent of free sex, promiscuity, and low morality. All this in the face of IPPF's strong commitment to reproductive rights embodied in the Cairo and Beijing conference concluding documents on reproductive health. The President of the Philippines also addressed this meeting and voiced his support for family planning as an integral part of national development. The major issues in this arena are the gender relations between men and women; prevailing cultural norms and beliefs; lack of information and education; inadequate health care delivery; and poverty. In this climate Pro-Life, Philippines and Human Life International are outspoken in their 1996-98 advocacy campaign to: 1) capture key local government positions and promote their anti-FP agenda; 2) to undertake grassroots education through the Church's Family Life Apostolate; and 3) to campaign for the removal of population education currently being introduced in public schools and replace them with anti-FP and anti-population control education modules. This campaign poses a major challenge for the Philippine FP organization to work toward: 1) changing the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of women and couples toward FP; 2) changing the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of decision

  10. Tuberculosis among Filipino patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Victorio-Navarra, S T; Dy, E E; Arroyo, C G; Torralba, T P

    1996-12-01

    A retrospective review of the clinical records of 54 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and documented tuberculosis (TB) infection seen at the University of Santo Tomas Hospital was accomplished. There were 53 women and one man, with a mean age of 32.2 +/- 10 years and a total of 57 TB occurrences. Pulmonary involvement was recorded in 42 (74%): upper lungfield in 25, mid to lower lungfield in 7, and miliary pattern or diffuse infiltrates in 10. TB arthritis was noted in 8, osteomyelitis in 4, and soft tissue abscesses in 4. Central nervous system involvement consisted of brain abscesses (tuberculomas) in two and meningitis in one. Two patients each had TB lymphadenitis, genitourinary TB, ileocecal TB, and TB peritonitis. Hepatobiliary and cutaneous TB occurred in one patient each. Eight of 10 patients with disseminated or miliary TB died primarily of respiratory failure; six of these eight patients also had some form of extrapulmonary involvement. Using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test, there were significant differences in the mean SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) and Severity of Disease Index (SDI) scores between those with limited TB (SLEDAI 24 +/- 7 SD; SDI 19 +/- 18 SD) versus those with extensive TB (SLEDAI 41 +/- 16 SD; SDI 36 +/- 21 SD), P < .05. There was no significant difference in the average daily prednisone dose (mg) between those with limited TB (25 +/- 17 SD) versus those with extensive TB (31 +/- 16 SD). The contributory role of tuberculous infection in the morbidity and mortality of patients with SLE must be emphasized, especially in areas endemic for TB.

  11. Clinical manifestations and clinical syndromes of Filipino patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Villamin, Charles A C; Navarra, Sandra V

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the presenting clinical manifestations and syndromes of Filipino patients on diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We performed a retrospective review of medical records of Filipino SLE patients included in the lupus database of the University of Santo Tomas (UST) in Manila, Philippines. All patients fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology criteria for SLE. The following data were recorded: (1) demographic profile, (2) clinical manifestations on SLE diagnosis, and (3) clinical syndromes prior to and during fulfillment of diagnostic criteria for SLE and disease interval from diagnosis of a clinical syndrome to SLE diagnosis. Clinical data of 1,070 patients entered into the UST lupus database as of October 2005 were analyzed. The average age at SLE diagnosis was 28.5 +/- 11.5 (range 5-71) years, with 1,025 female and 45 male subjects. The most common presenting manifestation was arthritis (68%), followed by malar rash (49%), renal involvement (47%), photosensitivity (33%), and oral ulcers (33%). The following clinical syndromes were recorded prior to or during SLE diagnosis: nephrotic syndrome (30%), undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) (22%), autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) (6%), and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) (6%). Among these, AIHA preceded the diagnosis of SLE at the longest interval (20.3 +/- 30.6, range 1-194 months). In this large database of Filipino patients with SLE, the most common presenting manifestation was arthritis, with renal involvement occurring in almost 50%. Among the clinical syndromes, nephrotic syndrome was the most common, whereas AIHA recorded the longest interval preceding SLE diagnosis, at an average of 20.3 months. Our findings are similar to data from other countries and emphasize the broad range of manifestations of SLE. The findings also reinforce the need to establish and maintain SLE databases to enhance awareness, early diagnosis, and more

  12. [Open comparative study between the combination clyndamicin/gentamycin and penicillin/gentamycin in septic abortion].

    PubMed

    French, A R; Kennion, G

    1985-01-01

    Septic abortion is not uncommon in countries where abortion is illegal, and antibiotics are second only to uterine evacuation in the treatment of such cases. Although the combination of penicillin and gentamycin has given excellent results, the high incidence of Bacteroides fragilis and other anerobics in septic abortion prompted a comparison of penicillin and gentamycin with clindamycin and gentamycin at the Hospital Santo Tomas in Panama City, Panama, beginning in May 1984. Among 30 febrile patients with diagnoses of septic abortion, 14 were treated with penicillin/gentamycin and 16 with clindamycin/gentamycin. The penicillin group ranged in age from 17-29 with an average age of 21.9, while the clindamycin group ranged from 18-32 years with an average of 24.3. The average gestational ages were 10.2 weeks for the penicillin group and 10.7 for the clindamycin group. The average body temperature of both groups was 38.9 degrees Celsius. 1 patient had a blood pressure of 80/60 without clinical evidence of shock. The average duration of fever was 43 hours in the penicillin group and 40.6 hours in the clindamycin group. The hospital stay ranged from 3-7 days with an average of 5.4 in the penicillin group and from 3-6 days with an average of 4.2 in the clindamycin group. Patients recovered rapidly after uterine curettage and initiation of antibiotic therapy. Bacteremia was not detected in any patient. Tolerance to the drugs was similar in both groups.

  13. Preliminary assessment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma incidence in the Philippines: a second look at published data from four centers.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Mario Paulus Cesar B; Mejia, Michael Benedict A

    2014-03-01

    In endemic regions such as southern China and Southeast Asia, the annual incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) ranges from 3 to 30 per 100,000. In the Philippines, the estimated incidence in 2010 was 1.2 per 100,000. However, this rate is based on data collected from registries covering only two regions in the country. Here, we report the findings from our study to better approximate the incidence of NPC in the Philippines. Between September 1, 2011 and August 31, 2012, data were collected from 49 patients from 4 different institutions-University of Santo Tomas, Makati Medical Center, Philippine Oncology Center Corporation, and Cardinal Santos Memorial Medical Center-using a NPC screening questionnaire. Crude incidence was 0.09 per 100,000. Age-standardized incidences using Segi and WHO standards were 2.08 and 1.79 per 100,000, respectively. Of the 49 patients, 31 were males and 18 were females, and 71% of patients were between 30 and 59 years old. WHO types II and III represented 22% and 78% of the subjects, respectively, and 75.5% of cases were locally advanced (stages III-IVB). Although the age-standardized incidence from the 4 institutions was numerically higher than the published age-standardized incidence (2.07 per 100,000 vs. 1.2 per 100,000), two-proportion z-test showed no significant difference between them (P = 0.68). A more concerted effort is needed for a better approximation of the country's NPC disease burden.

  14. Pulmonary arterial hypertension among Filipino patients with connective tissue diseases.

    PubMed

    Santos Estrella, Paul V; Lin, Yih Chang; Navarra, Sandra V

    2007-01-01

    We describe the clinical features, therapies, and clinical course of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in a group of Filipinos with connective tissue diseases (CTDs). We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients diagnosed with PAH by a two-dimensional echocardiogram as a tricuspid regurgitant jet of more than 25 mmHg. All patients had underlying CTDs, defined by the American College of Rheumatology criteria, and were seen at the rheumatology clinics of the University of Santo Tomas Hospital and the St. Luke's Medical Center, Philippines. Of the 33 patients (32 women) included in the analysis, there were 14 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 12 with scleroderma, 5 with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD), 1 with primary antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), and 1 with dermatomyositis. The average age at PAH diagnosis was 38 +/- 14 years (mean +/- SD), and the mean duration of illness from CTD to PAH diagnosis was 53 +/- 52 months. Twelve patients had died at the time of this report, with a median duration of 15 months (range 1-57 months) from PAH diagnosis to mortality: six of these had scleroderma, five with SLE, and one with APS. The following therapies were used in this group of patients: low molecular weight heparin, warfarin, calcium-channel blockers, aspirin, cyclophosphamide, bosentan, iloprost, and sildenafil. We have described the clinical profile of PAH in a group of Filipino patients with CTDs, most commonly SLE. Various forms of pharmacologic therapies were used among these patients. Mortality remains high, particularly among those with underlying scleroderma. Early recognition and treatment are crucial in order to provide a better outcome for these patients.

  15. Integrating oral health into Haiti's National Health Plan: from disaster relief to sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Estupiñán-Day, Saskia; Lafontant, Christina; Acuña, Maria Cecilia

    2011-11-01

    In 2010, Haiti suffered three devastating national emergencies: a 7.0 magnitude earthquake that killed over 200 000 and injured 300 000; a cholera outbreak that challenged recovery efforts and caused more deaths; and Hurricane Tomas, which brought additional destruction. In the aftermath, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) reoriented its technical cooperation to face the myriad of new challenges and needs. Efforts included support and technical assistance to the Ministry of Health and Population of Haiti and coordination of actions by the United Nations Health Cluster. This Special Report focuses specifically on the PAHO Regional Oral Health Program's call to action in Haiti and the institutional partnerships that were developed to leverage resources for oral health during this critical time and beyond. To date, achievements include working with Haiti's private sector, dental schools, public health associations, and other stakeholders, via the Oral Health of Haiti (OHOH) Coalition. The OHOH aims to meet the immediate needs of the dental community and to rebuild the oral health component of the health system; to provide dental materials and supplies to oral health sites in affected areas; and to ensure that the "Basic Package of Health Services" includes specific interventions for oral health care and services. The experience in Haiti serves as a reminder to the international community of how important linking immediate/short-term disaster-response to mid- and longterm strategies is to building a health system that provides timely access to health services, including oral health. Haiti's humanitarian crisis became an important time to rethink the country's health system and services in terms of the right to health and the concepts of citizenship, solidarity, and sustainable development.

  16. Effect of primary organic sea spray emissions on cloud condensation nuclei concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westervelt, D. M.; Moore, R. H.; Nenes, A.; Adams, P. J.

    2011-02-01

    This work quantifies the primary marine organic aerosol global emission source and its impact on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations by implementing an organic sea spray source function into a series of global aerosol simulations. The source function assumes that a fraction of the sea spray emissions, depending on the local chlorophyll concentration, is organic matter in place of NaCl. Effect on CCN concentrations (at 0.2% supersaturation) is modeled using the Two-Moment Aerosol Sectional (TOMAS) microphysics algorithm coupled to the GISS II-prime general circulation model. The presence of organics affects CCN activity in competing ways: by reducing the amount of solute available in the particle and decreasing surface tension of CCN. To model surfactant effects, surface tension depression data from seawater samples taken near the Georgia coast were applied as a function of carbon concentrations. A global marine organic aerosol emission rate of 17.7 Tg C yr-1 is estimated from the simulations. Marine organics exert a localized influence on CCN(0.2%) concentrations, decreasing regional concentrations by no more than 5% and by less than 0.5% over most of the globe. The decrease in CCN concentrations results from the fact that the decrease in particle solute concentration outweighs the organic surfactant effects. The low sensitivity of CCN(0.2%) to the marine organic emissions is likely due to the small compositional changes: the mass fraction of OA in accumulation mode aerosol increases by only 15% in a biologically active region of the Southern Ocean.

  17. [Off-label use of oncology drugs: national survey results].

    PubMed

    González-Haba Peña, Eva; Agustín Ferrández, María José; Mangues Bafalluy, Irene; Alfredo López, Nicolás; Fraga Fuentes, María Dolores; Marín Gil, Roberto; Martínez Bautista, María José; Clopés Estela, Ana

    2015-09-01

    Objetivo: identificar mediante una encuesta los tratamientos fuera de la ficha tecnica (FFT) que mas frecuentemente se utilizan en el area de oncohematologia. Conocer los procedimientos y criterios que se han establecido para autorizar estos tratamientos. Método: se diseno una encuesta con cuatro secciones: 1) datos demograficos y de actividad del hospital, 2) procedimiento de utilizacion de medicamentos FFT, 3) criterios de aprobacion y 4) tratamientos oncologicos FFT tramitados durante el ano anterior. Resultados: en el 42,1% de los centros la proporcion en la que es necesaria autorizacion previa a la dispensacion es mayor del 80%. El factor mas importante que influye en el circuito de autorizacion-dispensacion de estos farmacos es la evidencia disponible. El procedimiento de autorizacion mas habitual es la autorizacion de la direccion del hospital previo informe del servicio de farmacia. En un 55,3% de los hospitales se han establecido criterios especificos del paciente que ayudan a la toma de decisiones, junto con los aspectos de eficacia y seguridad de los farmacos en la indicacion solicitada. En la mayoria de los centros se acepta un menor nivel de evidencia en el caso de que no existan alternativas terapeuticas, asi como en los tumores de baja prevalencia. La mayor parte de los centros no tienen claramente establecido un criterio de eficacia para considerar un beneficio como clinicamente relevante, y tampoco el umbral coste-eficacia para aprobar un FFT. Conclusiones: existe una gran variabilidad en el procedimiento de utilizacion de los FFT y en los criterios que se utilizan para su aprobacion.

  18. Floating into Deep Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Frenais, R.; Saraceno, T.; Powell, J.

    2014-04-01

    Is it possible for spaceflight to become more sustainable? Artist and architect Tomas Saraceno proposes a long-term artscience research project based on his initial work with solar balloons to join with the efforts of engineers such as John Powell, working on the Airship to Orbit experiments, which describe a three stage process of using airships to fly to a large suborbital "Dark Sky Station' then literally floating into orbit with additional electrical and chemical propulsion. (See: http://www.jpaerospace.com) In his artworks Tomás Saraceno proposes cell-like flying cities as possible architectonic living spaces in direct reference to Buckminster Fuller's Cloud Nine (circa 1960). The fantastic architectural utopia Cloud Nine consists of a freely floating sphere measuring one mile in diameter that offers living space to several autonomous communities encompassing thousands of inhabitants each. The notion of the cloud is essential to the artist's work. The cloud as metaphor stands for artistic intention, for the meaning of territory and border in today's (urban) society, and for exploring possibilities for the sustainable development of the human living environment. In Saraceno's work this environment is not limited to the earth, but is explicitly conceived to reach into outer space. (Biomimetic Constructions- On the works of Tomás Saraceno By Katharina Schlüter) Saraceno is also interested in human factors experiments using his existing constructions as analogue environments for living on Mars and is proposing carry out a series of workshops, experiments and solar balloon launces in White Sands desert in early 2016 in collaboration with the curator Dr Rob La Frenais, the Rubin Center at The University of Texas at El Paso and various scientific partners.

  19. [Eating habits and attitudes towards change in Spanish university students and workers].

    PubMed

    Zazpe, Itziar; Marqués, María; Sánchez-Tainta, Ana; Rodríguez-Mourille, Ana; Beunza, Juan-José; Santiago, Susana; Fernández-Montero, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El entorno educativo y laboral ha adquirido protagonismo como ámbito prometedor para llevar a cabo intervenciones nutricionales en población adulta. Objetivos: El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar los hábitos alimentarios y actitudes hacia el cambio en trabajadores y alumnos universitarios con distinto perfil académico. Métodos: Estudio epidemiológico descriptivo de tipo transversal en población universitaria española de 1.429 sujetos. Se analizaron los hábitos alimentarios y las actitudes hacia el cambio de hábitos. Resultados: La edad media de los trabajadores fue de 37 años y en los estudiantes de 23 años. En ambos grupos el fraccionamiento de la ingesta más frecuente fue de cuatro tomas al día. En los alumnos se observó menor frecuencia de consumo de verdura, vino, pescado y frutos secos y mayor de bebidas carbonatadas, repostería comercial, fast-food y carnes rojas. Por otro lado, en general los hábitos alimentarios de los estudiantes de ciencias fueron más saludables que los de letras. Aunque no se observaron diferencias significativas en las actitudes hacia el cambio entre estudiantes y trabajadores, el 32% de los empleados y el 39% de los estudiantes afirmaron estar planteándose seriamente cambiar sus costumbres. Conclusiones: El patrón alimentario fue más saludable entre los trabajadores que entre los alumnos, especialmente en aquellos que cursan grados de letras, que constituyen el grupo más vulnerable desde el punto de vista nutricional. Además, aproximadamente un tercio de los trabajadores y alumnos se planteaba modificar sus hábitos.

  20. Young children's developing sensitivity to discourse continuity as a cue for inferring reference.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Alexandra C; Frank, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    Children encounter many opportunities for word learning where a novel word (e.g., "chinchilla") coincides in time with the presence of its referent (e.g., a parent pointing at a fuzzy rodent). These two ingredients are not always paired simultaneously, but they sometimes still occur in succession within a discourse. We investigated children's ability to apply their knowledge of discourse structure to infer the referent of a novel word in the absence of social cues such as pointing and eye gaze. In Experiment 1A, we introduced 2- to 6-year-old children and adults to two novel toys and described each using two sentences. We embedded the introduction of a novel label ("Have you seen a toma before?") between the two sentences about one of the toys, with no cues implying the label's referent other than its position in the discourse. Children older than 3 years and adults were more likely to attribute the label to the toy whose descriptions surrounded the naming event. In Experiment 1B, we tested whether participants made their selections based on temporal associations-choosing the toy that was described closest in time to the naming event-rather than inferences about discourse. Participants heard the novel label introduced after the two descriptions of a toy rather than embedded between them. Both children and adults responded close to chance in this experiment, indicating that temporal proximity alone did not guide their selections. Together, these results suggest that children can use discourse position to make inferences about reference in word learning situations.

  1. [Expectations of benefit/risk of calcium intake in women with osteoporosis treatment of Asturias; ASFARCAL study].

    PubMed

    Rigueira García, Ana Isabel; Zardain Tamargo, Emma; López González, Inmaculada; Sánchez Álvarez, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: el uso de suplementos de calcio parece inevitable como tratamiento concomitante de mujeres sometidas a tratamientos más específicos para la prevención de problemas óseos aunque existe controversia en la relación beneficio/riesgo. Material y métodos: Se administró un cuestionario a las mujeres que acudían a retirar sus medicamentos para osteoporosis en oficina de farmacia, para conocer la cantidad de calcio ingerida en dieta y a partir de suplementos. Análisis posterior para explorar los factores relacionados con la ingesta adecuada y otro análisis de sensibilidad del beneficio/ riesgo considerando diversos intervalos de cantidades de calcio recomendables para conocer el número necesario a tratar (NNT) y el número necesario para hacer dAÑO (NNH) con el uso de suplementos, teniendo en cuenta las controversias científicas acerca de su seguridad y el tratamiento con tiazidas. Resultados: La toma de cantidades de calcio consideradas como adecuadas se relaciona con la ingesta de lácteos como variable dicotómica (sí/no). No se ha encontrado una situación evidente de carencia de ingesta de calcio en las mujeres de estudio, representantes de toda una comunidad autónoma en España, al contrario de lo que se describe en otros estudios que utilizan referentes de ingesta no espAÑOles. El uso de suplementos sólo ofrece una relación beneficio/riesgo favorable en aquellas mujeres que no toman lácteos diariamente.

  2. [Role of anaerobic blood culture in the simultaneous blood culture taking for the diagnosis of bacteremia].

    PubMed

    Guajardo-Lara, Claudia Elena; Saldaña-Ramírez, Martha Idalia; Ayala-Gaytán, Juan Jacobo; Valdovinos-Chávez, Salvador Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la frecuencia de la septicemia va en aumento y su mortalidad es alta; por lo tanto, su detección, la identificación del microorganismo causal y su susceptibilidad son perentorias. Metodos: se revisaron los registros de 4110 botellas de cultivo de sangre obtenida de enero de 2013 a julio de 2014 de pacientes adultos en un hospital privado de tercer nivel. Resultados: se observó crecimiento de microorganismos en 559 cultivos (12.6 %). En 2648 hemocultivos (60 %) inoculados en pares de frascos uno con medio aeróbico y el otro anaeróbico (1324 sets), se detectó crecimiento en 182 frascos a los que les fueron inoculadas las muestras tomadas al mismo tiempo a 135 pacientes (13.7 %). En 86 pares de frascos con las muestras de 54 pacientes (40 %), el crecimiento solamente se dio en el frasco aeróbico (47.5 %); en 24 pares de frascos (13.19 %) tomados a 21 pacientes (15.5 %, p < 0.05), solamente hubo crecimiento en el frasco anaeróbico. En los hemocultivos de 32 de 60 pacientes con crecimiento en ambos frascos (53 %), el crecimiento se detectó primero en el frasco anaeróbico. Conclusiones: los hemocultivos anaeróbicos tienen una utilidad baja para la detección de bacteriemias por anaerobios estrictos; no obstante, en el 15.55 % de los pacientes estuvo presente el riesgo de pasar por alto la presencia de bacteriemia, y en 53 % de los pacientes con hemocultivos positivos, el diagnóstico de bacteriemia pudo establecerse de manera más temprana, lo que permitió anticipar con mejor precisión la toma de decisiones.

  3. [Key recommendations of the clinical guidelines of arterial hypertension in primary care].

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Flores, Adriana Abigail; Solórzano-Santos, Fortino; Valenzuela-Flores, Alma Gabriela; Durán-Arenas, Luis G; Ponce de León-Rosales, Samuel; Oropeza-Martínez, M Patricia; Gómez-García, Jesús Alejandro; Moreno-Ruiz, Luis A; Martínez-Vargas, Romel; Hernández-Amezcua, Lucía; Escobar-Rodríguez, David; Martínez-Flores, Enrique; Viniegra-Osorio, Arturo; Oest-Dávila, Cecilio Walterio; Soria-Guerra, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la hipertensión arterial (HA) ocupa el primer lugar de atención en unidades médicas de primer nivel. La mitad de los pacientes con HA no están controlados. El objetivo de este documento es proporcionar las recomendaciones de la guía de diagnóstico y tratamiento de HA en el primer nivel de atención que han sido consideradas clave para el proceso de atención, con el fin de ayudar a los profesionales de la salud, en la toma de decisiones clínicas. Métodos: la guía se integró con recomendaciones de guías internacionales y evidencias de estudios publicados que señalaron los cambios ocurridos en el abordaje y tratamiento de la HA, así como las diferencias entre los grupos poblacionales blanco de la guía. La búsqueda de información se realizó por medio de una secuencia estandarizada en Pubmed y Cochrane Library Plus. Las recomendaciones clave se eligieron por consenso de un grupo de profesionales y gestores de la salud. Conclusiones: las recomendaciones clave, basadas en evidencias, ayudarán a tomar decisiones estandarizadas sobre prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento en pacientes con HA, y coadyuvarán a disminuir el riesgo cardiovascular, impulsar cambios en el estilo de vida, controlar la enfermedad y reducir las complicaciones.

  4. Causal production of the electromagnetic energy flux and role of the negative energies in the Blandford-Znajek process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toma, Kenji; Takahara, Fumio

    2016-06-01

    The Blandford-Znajek process, the steady electromagnetic energy extraction from a rotating black hole (BH), is widely believed to work for driving relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts, and Galactic microquasars, although it is still under debate how the Poynting flux is causally produced and how the rotational energy of the BH is reduced. We generically discuss the Kerr BH magnetosphere filled with a collisionless plasma screening the electric field along the magnetic field, extending the arguments of Komissarov [S. S. Komissarov, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 50, 427 (2004)] and our previous [K. Toma and F. Takahara, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 442, 2855 (2014)] paper, and propose a new picture for resolving the issues. For the magnetic field lines threading the equatorial plane in the ergosphere, we find that the inflow of particles with negative energy as measured in the coordinate basis is generated near that plane as a feedback from the Poynting flux production, which appears to be a similar process to the mechanical Penrose process. For the field lines threading the event horizon, we first show that the concept of the steady inflow of negative electromagnetic energy is not physically essential, partly because the sign of the electromagnetic energy density depends on the coordinates. Then we build an analytical toy model of a time-dependent process in both the Boyer-Lindquist and Kerr-Schild coordinate systems, in which the force-free plasma injected continuously fills a vacuum, and suggest that the structure of the steady outward Poynting flux is causally constructed by the displacement current and the cross-field current at the ingoing boundary between the plasma and the vacuum. In the steady state, the Poynting flux is maintained without any electromagnetic source.

  5. Incentivizing Monitoring and Compliance in Trophy Hunting

    PubMed Central

    BUNNEFELD, NILS; EDWARDS, CHARLES T T; ATICKEM, ANAGAW; HAILU, FETENE; MILNER-GULLAND, E J

    2014-01-01

    enfocan más en los conductores del comportamiento humano y en las implicaciones de varias fuentes de incertidumbre en la toma de decisiones de manejo. La cacería de trofeos ha sido sugerida como una herramienta de conservación porque le otorga valor económico a la vida silvestre, pero ejemplos recientes muestran que la sobrecolecta es un problema sustancial y que las limitaciones de datos son abundantes. Usamos el estudio de caso de la cacería de trofeos de un antílope en peligro, el nyala de las montañas (Tragelaphus buxtoni), para explorar como las incertidumbres generadas por el monitoreo de poblaciones y el tráfico de especies interactúan con la toma de decisiones de 2 actores clave: las compañías de safari y el gobierno. Construimos un modelo de evaluación de estrategia de manejo que incluye la dinámica poblacional del nyala de las montañas, un modelo de monitoreo y un modelo de toma de decisiones de una compañía. Investigamos escenarios de inversión en el combate del tráfico de especies y el monitoreo por el gobierno y las compañías de safari. La estrategia de colecta fue robusta hacia la incertidumbre en los estimados de población obtenidos del monitoreo, pero el tráfico de especies tuvo un efecto más fuerte sobre la cuota y la sustentabilidad; por esto, reducir el tráfico de especies está dentro de los intereses de compañías que desean incrementar la rentabilidad de las empresas, por ejemplo al hacer participar a los miembros de la comunidad como guías de caza. Hay un nivel umbral de incertidumbre en los estimados de población más allá del cual la variación anual en la cuota de trofeos previene la planeación por parte de las compañías de safari. Esto sugiere un papel para el gobierno asegurando que un nivel base de monitoreo de población se lleve a cabo para que este nivel no sea excedido. Nuestros resultados ilustran la importancia de considerar los incentivos de partes interesadas múltiples al designar marcos de trabajo para

  6. Incentivizing Monitoring and Compliance in Trophy Hunting

    PubMed Central

    BUNNEFELD, NILS; EDWARDS, CHARLES T T; ATICKEM, ANAGAW; HAILU, FETENE; MILNER-GULLAND, E J

    2014-01-01

    enfocan más en los conductores del comportamiento humano y en las implicaciones de varias fuentes de incertidumbre en la toma de decisiones de manejo. La cacería de trofeos ha sido sugerida como una herramienta de conservación porque le otorga valor económico a la vida silvestre, pero ejemplos recientes muestran que la sobrecolecta es un problema sustancial y que las limitaciones de datos son abundantes. Usamos el estudio de caso de la cacería de trofeos de un antílope en peligro, el nyala de las montañas (Tragelaphus buxtoni), para explorar como las incertidumbres generadas por el monitoreo de poblaciones y el tráfico de especies interactúan con la toma de decisiones de 2 actores clave: las compañías de safari y el gobierno. Construimos un modelo de evaluación de estrategia de manejo que incluye la dinámica poblacional del nyala de las montañas, un modelo de monitoreo y un modelo de toma de decisiones de una compañía. Investigamos escenarios de inversión en el combate del tráfico de especies y el monitoreo por el gobierno y las compañías de safari. La estrategia de colecta fue robusta hacia la incertidumbre en los estimados de población obtenidos del monitoreo, pero el tráfico de especies tuvo un efecto más fuerte sobre la cuota y la sustentabilidad; por esto, reducir el tráfico de especies está dentro de los intereses de compañías que desean incrementar la rentabilidad de las empresas, por ejemplo al hacer participar a los miembros de la comunidad como guías de caza. Hay un nivel umbral de incertidumbre en los estimados de población más allá del cual la variación anual en la cuota de trofeos previene la planeación por parte de las compañías de safari. Esto sugiere un papel para el gobierno asegurando que un nivel base de monitoreo de población se lleve a cabo para que este nivel no sea excedido. Nuestros resultados ilustran la importancia de considerar los incentivos de partes interes

  7. Chemical Methods for Ugnu Viscous Oils

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore Mohanty

    2012-03-31

    The North Slope of Alaska has large (about 20 billion barrels) deposits of viscous oil in Ugnu, West Sak and Shraeder Bluff reservoirs. These shallow reservoirs overlie existing productive reservoirs such as Kuparuk and Milne Point. The viscosity of the Ugnu reservoir on top of Milne Point varies from 200 cp to 10,000 cp and the depth is about 3300 ft. The same reservoir extends to the west on the top of the Kuparuk River Unit and onto the Beaufort Sea. The depth of the reservoir decreases and the viscosity increases towards the west. Currently, the operators are testing cold heavy oil production with sand (CHOPS) in Ugnu, but oil recovery is expected to be low (< 10%). Improved oil recovery techniques must be developed for these reservoirs. The proximity to the permafrost is an issue for thermal methods; thus nonthermal methods must be considered. The objective of this project is to develop chemical methods for the Ugnu reservoir on the top of Milne Point. An alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) formulation was developed for a viscous oil (330 cp) where as an alkaline-surfactant formulation was developed for a heavy oil (10,000 cp). These formulations were tested in one-dimensional and quarter five-spot Ugnu sand packs. Micromodel studies were conducted to determine the mechanisms of high viscosity ratio displacements. Laboratory displacements were modeled and transport parameters (such as relative permeability) were determined that can be used in reservoir simulations. Ugnu oil is suitable for chemical flooding because it is biodegraded and contains some organic acids. The acids react with injected alkali to produce soap. This soap helps in lowering interfacial tension between water and oil which in turn helps in the formation of macro and micro emulsions. A lower amount of synthetic surfactant is needed because of the presence of organic acids in the oil. Tertiary ASP flooding is very effective for the 330 cp viscous oil in 1D sand pack. This chemical formulation

  8. What makes Aspergillus fumigatus a successful pathogen? Genes and molecules involved in invasive aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Abad, Ana; Fernández-Molina, Jimena Victoria; Bikandi, Joseba; Ramírez, Andoni; Margareto, Javier; Sendino, Javier; Hernando, Fernando Luis; Pontón, Jose; Garaizar, Javier; Rementeria, Aitor

    2010-01-01

    -C, fumitremorgin A-C, verruculogen, fumagillin, helvolic acid, aflatoxin B1 and G1, and laeA. Two sections cover genes and molecules related with nutrient uptake, signaling and metabolic regulations involved in virulence, including enzymes, such as serine proteases (alp/asp f 13, alp2, and asp f 18), metalloproteases (mep/asp f 5, mepB, and mep20), aspartic proteases (pep/asp f 10, pep2, and ctsD), dipeptidylpeptidases (dppIV and dppV), and phospholipases (plb1-3 and phospholipase C); siderophores and iron acquisition (sidA-G, sreA, ftrA, fetC, mirB-C, and amcA); zinc acquisition (zrfA-H, zafA, and pacC); amino acid biosynthesis, nitrogen uptake, and cross-pathways control (areA, rhbA, mcsA, lysF, cpcA/gcn4p, and cpcC/gcn2p); general biosynthetic pathway (pyrG, hcsA, and pabaA), trehalose biosynthesis (tpsA and tpsB), and other regulation pathways such as those of the MAP kinases (sakA/hogA, mpkA-C, ste7, pbs2, mkk2, steC/ste11, bck1, ssk2, and sho1), G-proteins (gpaA, sfaD, and cpgA), cAMP-PKA signaling (acyA, gpaB, pkaC1, and pkaR), His kinases (fos1 and tcsB), Ca(2+) signaling (calA/cnaA, crzA, gprC and gprD), and Ras family (rasA, rasB, and rhbA), and others (ace2, medA, and srbA). Finally, we also comment on the effect of A. fumigatus allergens (Asp f 1-Asp f 34) on IA. The data gathered generate a complex puzzle, the pieces representing virulence factors or the different activities of the fungus, and these need to be arranged to obtain a comprehensive vision of the virulence of A. fumigatus. The most recent gene expression studies using DNA-microarrays may be help us to understand this complex virulence, and to detect targets to develop rapid diagnostic methods and new antifungal agents. PMID:20974273

  9. [An overview of the beneficial effects of hydrolysed collagen intake on joint and bone health and on skin ageing].

    PubMed

    Figueres Juher, Teresa; Basés Pérez, Esther

    2015-07-18

    Introducción: el colágeno hidrolizado (CH) es una mezcla de péptidos de colágeno con un peso molecular (PM) inferior a 5.000 Da. Se obtiene de la gelatinización y posterior hidrólisis enzimática de colágeno nativo procedente de tejidos animales ricos en esta proteína. Existe abundante evidencia científica sobre el efecto positivo que la toma de CH ejerce sobre las patologías osteoarticulares degenerativas y el envejecimiento dérmico. Objetivo: revisar los estudios científicos existentes actualmente sobre el CH y evaluar su acción terapéutica sobre algunos tejidos colaginosos como cartílagos, huesos y piel. Resultados: hasta la fecha se han realizado más de 60 estudios científicos (in vitro, in vivo, clínicos y de biodisponibilidad) sobre la efectividad del CH a la hora de reducir las consecuencias del deterioro y pérdida de colágeno tisular como son el dolor y el desgaste articular (artrosis), la pérdida de masa ósea (osteoporosis) y el envejecimiento dérmico. Conclusiones: los estudios preclínicos indican que el CH estimula la regeneración de los tejidos colaginosos, potenciando la síntesis de colágeno tisular y también de los restantes componentes minoritarios de dichos tejidos (proteoglicanos y ácido hialurónico). Los estudios clínicos demuestran que la ingesta continuada de CH ayuda a reducir el dolor articular de desgaste, a ralentizar la pérdida de masa ósea y a atenuar los signos de envejecimiento dérmico. Estos resultados, junto con su alto nivel de seguridad y tolerancia, hacen del CH un suplemento adecuado para tomar a largo plazo, indicado para prevenir y tratar enfermedades crónicas degenerativas (artrosis y osteoporosis), así como para prevenir y atenuar el envejecimiento dérmico.

  10. [Food-related lifestyles and eating habits inside and outside the home in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile].

    PubMed

    Schnettler, Berta; Peña, Juan Pablo; Mora, Marcos; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela; Lobos, Germán

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Distinguir tipologías de consumidores en base a su estilo de vida en relación a la alimentación en las principales comunas de la Región Metropolitana de Santiago, Chile, y caracterizarlas según sus hábitos de consumo de alimentos dentro y fuera del hogar, características sociodemográficas y su nivel de satisfacción con su alimentación. Material y método: Se aplicó un cuestionario estructurado a una muestra de 951 personas en las principales comunas de la Región Metropolitana de Santiago (más de 100.000 habitantes). El instrumento de recogida de información incluyó una adaptación del cuestionario de estilos de vida en relación a la alimentación (FRL) y la escala SWFL (Satisfaction with Food-related Life). Se consultaron los hábitos de consumo de alimentos dentro y fuera del hogar y variables de clasificación sociodemográfica de los encuestados. Resultados: Mediante análisis cluster se distinguieron cinco tipologías con diferencias significativas en los cinco componentes obtenidos del FRL, con análisis factorial de componentes principales. Las tipologías presentaron distinto perfil de género, edad y nivel socioeconómico y difirieron en los puntajes obtenidos en la SWFL. Se diferenciaron en la frecuencia en que la persona almuerza, toma once y cena en su hogar. Respecto a las comidas fuera del hogar, las tipologías se distinguieron según la frecuencia de comidas en restaurantes, locales de comida rápida y en la compra de comida preparada. Conclusiones: Un estilo de vida en relación a la alimentación con baja implicación y disfrute de los alimentos se asocia con un mayor nivel socioeconómico y menor edad de las personas. Adicionalmente, se asocia con comportamientos alimentarios poco saludables y no beneficiosos para las personas, como una mayor frecuencia de comidas en restaurantes y de compra de comida preparada, junto a una menor frecuencia de comidas en el hogar, lo que estaría influyendo en un nivel inferior de

  11. Processes Controlling the Seasonal Cycle of Arctic Aerosol Number and Size Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentworth, G.; Croft, B.; Martin, R.; Leaitch, W. R.; Tunved, P.; Breider, T. J.; D'Andrea, S.; Pierce, J. R.; Murphy, J. G.; Kodros, J.; Abbatt, J.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements at high-Arctic sites show a strong seasonal cycle in aerosol number and size. The number of aerosols with diameters larger than 20 nm exhibits a maximum in late spring associated with a dominant accumulation mode, and a second maximum in the summer associated with a dominant Aitken mode. Seasonal-mean aerosol effective diameter ranges from about 160 nm in summer to 250 nm in winter. This study interprets these seasonal cycles with the GEOS-Chem-TOMAS global aerosol microphysics model. We find improved agreement with in situ measurements (SMPS) of aerosol size at both Alert, Nunavut, and Mt. Zeppelin, Svalbard following model developments: 1) increase the efficiency of wet scavenging in the Arctic summer and 2) represent coagulation between interstitial aerosols and aerosols activated to form cloud droplets. Our simulations indicate that the dominant summer-time Aitken mode is associated with increased efficiency of wet removal, which limits the number of larger aerosols and promotes local new-aerosol formation. We also find an important role of interstitial coagulation in clouds in the Arctic, which limits the number of Aitken-mode aerosols in the non-summer seasons when direct wet removal of these aerosols is inefficient. The summertime Arctic atmosphere is particularly pristine and strongly influenced by natural regional emissions which have poorly understood climate impacts. Especially influenced are the climatic roles of atmospheric particles and clouds. Here we present evidence that ammonia (NH3) emissions from migratory-seabird guano (dung) are the primary contributor to summertime free ammonia levels recently measured in the Canadian Arctic atmosphere. These findings suggest that ammonia from seabird guano is a key factor contributing to bursts of new-particle formation, which are observed every summer in the near-surface atmosphere at Alert, Canada. Chemical transport model simulations show that these newly formed particles can grow by vapour

  12. [Obesity associated risk using Edmonton staging in bariatric surgery].

    PubMed

    de Cos, Ana Isabel; Cardenas, Jersy J; Pelegrina, Beatriz; Roldan, M Concepción; Calvo, Isabel; Vázquez, Clotilde; Pallardo, Luis Felipe

    2014-09-20

    Con una prevalencia de obesidad mórbida del 1,2% en población española, los criterios de indicación para Cirugía Bariátrica (CB) no consideran comorbilidades ni estado funcional. Es necesaria una aproximación diagnóstica capaz de predecir mortalidad y sustentar criterios de priorización terapéutica. Objetivo: Aplicar la propuesta Edmonton como sistema de estadiaje clínico para la clasificación de pacientes en lista de espera de CB. Método: Se recogen datos de 81 pacientes (2011 – 2013), tras protocolo prequirúrgico. Se registra peso, talla, IMC, cintura, determinaciones bioquímicas, TA, presencia de enfermedad hepática, renal, osteoarticular, síndrome apnea-hipopnea del sueño (SAHS) y reflujo gastroesofágico. Se aplica a cada persona la propuesta de estadiaje de Edmonton, con 10 variables. Resultados: 67% mujeres. Edad media: 47 años, 18% con edad inferior a 30 años. IMC medio: 47 (37-67), 90% IMC > de 40. El 34% de los pacientes presentan SHAS y el 25% enfermedad por reflujo. Un 9% asocia IMC > 45, disglucosis- diabetes mellitus y SAHS. Aplicando el modelo de Edmonton, nueve pacientes (11%) se sitúan en el rango de mayor riesgo (estadío 3), 70% en rango de riesgo elevado (estadío 2), y 15 pacientes (18%), están incluidos en la condición de bajo riesgo. Ningún paciente se situaba en estadio 0, sin factores de riesgo asociados a obesidad. Conclusiones: El estadiaje de Edmonton nos aporta información sobre la presencia y extensión de co-mobilidades, que apoye la toma de decisiones terapéuticas. La capacidad predictiva de mortalidad de la propuesta de Edmonton podría ser útil para establecer criterios de priorización quirúrgica.

  13. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    San Mauro-Martín, Ismael; Collado-Yurrita, Luis; Blumenfeld-Olivares, Javier Andrés; Cuadrado-Cenzual, María Ángeles; Calle-Purón, María Elisa; Hernández-Cabria, Marta; Garicano-Vilar, Elena; Pérez-Arruche, Eva; Arce-Delgado, Esperanza; CiudadCabañas, María José

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la hipercolesterolemia es uno de los principales factores de riesgo en la enfermedad cardiovascular. Los esteroles vegetales se han postulado como agentes reguladores y beneficiosos para el control de esta.Objetivo: analizar el efecto de los esteroles vegetales añadidos en una leche en la reducción del colesterol plasmático en adultos jóvenes.Métodos: ensayo clínico, controlado, aleatorizado, doble ciego y cruzado. Los esteroles (2,24 g diarios) fueron administrados en dos tomas de 350 ml de una leche comercial desnatada, durante dos periodos de 3 semanas, separados por una "fase de lavado" de 2 semanas, en el grupo experimental. Al grupo control se le administró la misma cantidad de leche desnatada, sin esteroles. Tanto al inicio como al final de cadaperiodo de intervención se extrajeron muestras sanguíneas. Se analizaron la composición corporal, hábitos de salud y los siguientes marcadores sanguíneos: perfil lipídico, hematológico, inflamación, etc.Resultados: se incluyeron 54 personas en el estudio con una edad media de 38,8 ± 7,3 años. La diferencia porcentual entre los marcadores basales y finales para el colesterol total, colesterol-LDL, colesterol-HDL, triglicéridos y colesterol no-HDL fueron del 9,73%, 12,5%, 1,9%, 3,15% y 13,2%, respectivamente. Se obtuvieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre el grupo experimental y el grupo control, para todos los marcadores analizados excepto para los triglicéridos.Conclusión: los esteroles vegetales suministrados en un alimento de consumo habitual, como la leche, pueden ser una estrategia terapéutica no farmacológica para el control de la hipercolesterolemia de alto interés sanitario. PMID:27513506

  14. [Cutaneous manifestations of leukemia].

    PubMed

    Pulido-Díaz, Nancy; Medina, Gabriela; Palomino, Nymrod; Peralta, Fidelio

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: el objetivo de este estudio es describir la frecuencia y tipo de manifestaciones cutáneas en pacientes con leucemia.Métodos: estudio observacional, descriptivo. Se incluyeron pacientes mayores de 16 años, con diagnóstico confirmado de leucemia, de los departamentos de Hematología y Dermatología procedentes de la consulta externa u hospitalizados. Se excluyeron los pacientes trasplantados de médula ósea. Se les efectuó historia clínica y revisión dermatológica completa de la piel y anexos, toma de biopsias y cultivos en caso de requerirlo. Las manifestaciones cutáneas se clasificaron en manifestaciones secundarias a procesos infecciosos o medicamentos, infiltración leucémica, dermatosis asociadas a la leucemia y lesiones inespecíficas. Se empleó estadística descriptiva.Resultados: Se incluyeron 142 pacientes con los siguientes diagnósticos: leucemia mieloide aguda (n = 36 pacientes), leucemia linfoblástica aguda (n = 52), leucemia mieloide crónica (n = 21), leucemia linfocítica crónica (n = 30), leucemia de células peludas (n = 3). El 42.25 % de los pacientes (n = 60) presentaron hallazgos positivos para alguna dermatosis. Se encontraron 36 dermatosis inespecíficas, 21 medicamentosas, 20 infecciosas, 3 infiltrativas y ninguna asociada.Conclusiones: las manifestaciones cutáneas directamente relacionadas a leucemia son frecuentes, siendo las inespecíficas las más comúnmente observadas. Sin embargo, el examen dermatológico completo es importante en estos pacientes como parte de su evaluación integral.

  15. Processes controlling the annual cycle of Arctic aerosol number and size distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, Betty; Martin, Randall V.; Leaitch, W. Richard; Tunved, Peter; Breider, Thomas J.; D'Andrea, Stephen D.; Pierce, Jeffrey R.

    2016-03-01

    Measurements at high-Arctic sites (Alert, Nunavut, and Mt. Zeppelin, Svalbard) during the years 2011 to 2013 show a strong and similar annual cycle in aerosol number and size distributions. Each year at both sites, the number of aerosols with diameters larger than 20 nm exhibits a minimum in October and two maxima, one in spring associated with a dominant accumulation mode (particles 100 to 500 nm in diameter) and a second in summer associated with a dominant Aitken mode (particles 20 to 100 nm in diameter). Seasonal-mean aerosol effective diameter from measurements ranges from about 180 in summer to 260 nm in winter. This study interprets these annual cycles with the GEOS-Chem-TOMAS global aerosol microphysics model. Important roles are documented for several processes (new-particle formation, coagulation scavenging in clouds, scavenging by precipitation, and transport) in controlling the annual cycle in Arctic aerosol number and size. Our simulations suggest that coagulation scavenging of interstitial aerosols in clouds by aerosols that have activated to form cloud droplets strongly limits the total number of particles with diameters less than 200 nm throughout the year. We find that the minimum in total particle number in October can be explained by diminishing new-particle formation within the Arctic, limited transport of pollution from lower latitudes, and efficient wet removal. Our simulations indicate that the summertime-dominant Aitken mode is associated with efficient wet removal of accumulation-mode aerosols, which limits the condensation sink for condensable vapours. This in turn promotes new-particle formation and growth. The dominant accumulation mode during spring is associated with build up of transported pollution from outside the Arctic coupled with less-efficient wet-removal processes at colder temperatures. We recommend further attention to the key processes of new-particle formation, interstitial coagulation, and wet removal and their delicate

  16. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    San Mauro-Martín, Ismael; Collado-Yurrita, Luis; Blumenfeld-Olivares, Javier Andrés; Cuadrado-Cenzual, María Ángeles; Calle-Purón, María Elisa; Hernández-Cabria, Marta; Garicano-Vilar, Elena; Pérez-Arruche, Eva; Arce-Delgado, Esperanza; CiudadCabañas, María José

    2016-06-30

    Introducción: la hipercolesterolemia es uno de los principales factores de riesgo en la enfermedad cardiovascular. Los esteroles vegetales se han postulado como agentes reguladores y beneficiosos para el control de esta.Objetivo: analizar el efecto de los esteroles vegetales añadidos en una leche en la reducción del colesterol plasmático en adultos jóvenes.Métodos: ensayo clínico, controlado, aleatorizado, doble ciego y cruzado. Los esteroles (2,24 g diarios) fueron administrados en dos tomas de 350 ml de una leche comercial desnatada, durante dos periodos de 3 semanas, separados por una "fase de lavado" de 2 semanas, en el grupo experimental. Al grupo control se le administró la misma cantidad de leche desnatada, sin esteroles. Tanto al inicio como al final de cadaperiodo de intervención se extrajeron muestras sanguíneas. Se analizaron la composición corporal, hábitos de salud y los siguientes marcadores sanguíneos: perfil lipídico, hematológico, inflamación, etc.Resultados: se incluyeron 54 personas en el estudio con una edad media de 38,8 ± 7,3 años. La diferencia porcentual entre los marcadores basales y finales para el colesterol total, colesterol-LDL, colesterol-HDL, triglicéridos y colesterol no-HDL fueron del 9,73%, 12,5%, 1,9%, 3,15% y 13,2%, respectivamente. Se obtuvieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre el grupo experimental y el grupo control, para todos los marcadores analizados excepto para los triglicéridos.Conclusión: los esteroles vegetales suministrados en un alimento de consumo habitual, como la leche, pueden ser una estrategia terapéutica no farmacológica para el control de la hipercolesterolemia de alto interés sanitario.

  17. Statistical methods for detecting periodic fragments in DNA sequence data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    presence of eroded periodicity. The autocorrelation method was identified as poorly suited for use with the blockwise bootstrap. Application of our methods to the genomes of two model organisms revealed a striking proportion of the yeast and mouse genomes are spanned by NPS. Despite their markedly different sizes, roughly equivalent proportions (19-21%) of the genomes lie within period-10 spans of the NPS dinucleotides {AA, TT, TA}. The biological significance of these regions remains to be demonstrated. To facilitate this, the genomic coordinates are available as Additional files 1, 2, and 3 in a format suitable for visualisation as tracks on popular genome browsers. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Prof Tomas Radivoyevitch, Dr Vsevolod Makeev (nominated by Dr Mikhail Gelfand), and Dr Rob D Knight. PMID:21527008

  18. Aerosol size distribution and radiative forcing response to anthropogenically driven historical changes in biogenic secondary organic aerosol formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Andrea, S. D.; Acosta Navarro, J. C.; Farina, S. C.; Scott, C. E.; Rap, A.; Farmer, D. K.; Spracklen, D. V.; Riipinen, I.; Pierce, J. R.

    2014-10-01

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) have changed in the past millennium due to changes in land use, temperature and CO2 concentrations. Recent model reconstructions of BVOC emissions over the past millennium predicted changes in dominant secondary organic aerosol (SOA) producing BVOC classes (isoprene, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes). The reconstructions predicted that global isoprene emissions have decreased (land-use changes to crop/grazing land dominate the reduction), while monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions have increased (temperature increases dominate the increases); however, all three show regional variability due to competition between the various influencing factors. These BVOC changes have largely been anthropogenic in nature, and land-use change was shown to have the most dramatic effect by decreasing isoprene emissions. In this work, we use two modeled estimates of BVOC emissions from the years 1000 to 2000 to test the effect of anthropogenic changes to BVOC emissions on SOA formation, global aerosol size distributions, and radiative effects using the GEOS-Chem-TOMAS global aerosol microphysics model. With anthropogenic emissions (e.g. SO2, NOx, primary aerosols) held at present day values and BVOC emissions changed from year 1000 to year 2000 values, decreases in the number concentration of particles of size Dp > 80 nm (N80) of >25% in year 2000 relative to year 1000 were predicted in regions with extensive land-use changes since year 1000 which led to regional increases in direct plus indirect aerosol radiative effect of >0.5 W m-2 in these regions. We test the sensitivity of our results to BVOC emissions inventory, SOA yields and the presence of anthropogenic emissions; however, the qualitative response of the model to historic BVOC changes remains the same in all cases. Accounting for these uncertainties, we estimate millennial changes in BVOC emissions cause a global mean direct effect of between +0.022 and +0.163 W m-2

  19. Malformaciones arteriovenosas revisión y análisis descriptivo de 52 mavs tratadas durante el periodo de 2000-2010

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Mariano; Mezzano, Emilio; Berra, Matias S.; Parés, Herald R.; Olocco, Ricardo V.; Papalini, Francisco R.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: Describir nuestra experiencia en el manejo de las Mavs analizando las características clínicas de los pacientes y los resultados postoperatorios. Método de análisis: Realizamos un análisis retrospectivo de 52 pacientes admitidos en el Servicio de neurocirugía para manejo quirúrgico: La información de referencia incluyo síntomas al inicio, diagnostico de admisión, hallazgos neurológicos y hallazgos en estudio por imágenes tales como tomografía cerebral, IRM cerebral y angiografía por sustracción digital. Los hallazgos postoperatorios de interés fueron: Mortalidad, examen neurológico postoperatorio y complicaciones asociadas. Presentamos nuestro análisis estadístico. Resultados: Edad promedio: 37,7 años. Distribución: Hombres: 61,5%. Motivos de consulta más frecuentes: Cefalea 63,5%, evento hemorrágico 59,6%, convulsiones 26,9%. Localización: Supratentorial: 92,9%, Infratentorial: 7,2%. 30,8%, de las Mavs fueron grado 2 y grado 3 Cincuenta por ciento del total presentaron aneurismas, del total de la MAVs, 59,6% debutó con sangrado, 26,9% con Crisis Convulsivas y 13,5% con déficit neurológico. Recibieron tratamiento endovascular previo a cirugía 30,7%. Durante el postoperatorio 23,1% presentaron mejoría clínica, 57,7% no presento modificación, 19,2% empeoraron en el postoperatorio. La mortalidad fue 13,5%. Conclusión: Creemos que el subgrupo de Mavs grados III a V representan una entidad que requiere una compleja toma de decisiones dada la alta incidencia de aneurismas asociados que presentan y su asociación con eventos de sangrado. Nuestra mortalidad postoperatoria coincide con la bibliografía. Palabras clave, Mavs- aneurismas asociados- Acv hemorrágico- convulsiones. PMID:26600984

  20. Executive functions in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2014-03-01

    Introducción: Los mecanismos fisiopatológicos que explican el desarrollo y la persistencia de la anorexia nerviosa (AN) siguen sin estar claros. Con respecto al funcionamiento neuropsicológico, se han señalado alteraciones en las funciones ejecutivas, especialmente en la flexibilidad cognitiva y en los procesos de toma de decisiones. Objetivos: El objetivo de este trabajo fue revisar el estado actual de los estudios neuropsicológicos sobre anorexia nerviosa, especialmente los centrados en las funciones ejecutivas. Métodos: Se realizó un proceso de búsqueda con tres relevantes bases de datos electrónicas, así como una búsqueda adicional con las referencias incluidas en los documentos analizados. Finalmente hay que mencionar otras revisiones ya publicadas y una búsqueda manual de otras fuentes. Resultados y discusión: Los datos de comparación de pacientes y controles sanos siguen siendo controvertidos, así como la comparación entre los diferentes trastornos de la alimentación con respecto a la disfunción neuropsicológica. El papel de variables como depresión, ansiedad y obsesividad necesita ser aclarado. Parece que hay alguna base para afirmar que existen algunos puntos en común entre los llamados trastornos de peso extremo (anorexia, obesidad). El vínculo entre la disfunción neuropsicológica en AN y biomarcadores aún no está claro. El papel de los déficits neuropsicológicos en la AN, como factores iniciales o simplemente como meras consecuencias, tampoco está aclarado. La relación entre los trastornos de imagen corporal y la disfunción neuropsicológica debe asimismo aclararse. Los datos sobre las similitudes, en cuanto a la disfunción neuropsicológica, entre AN y otros trastornos mentales pueden ser considerados, hasta la fecha, como una mera aproximación. Lo mismo ocurre con la relación entre el rendimiento neuropsicológico de los pacientes con AN y la personalidad o el género.

  1. [Subclinical atheroesclerosis and metabolic syndrome in children].

    PubMed

    Arnaiz, Pilar; Barja, Salesa; Villarroel, Luis; Domínguez, Angélica; Godoy, Iván; Castillo, Oscar; Farías, Marcelo; Mardones, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El síndrome metabólico (SM) en niños se ha vinculado al desarrollo de ateroesclerosis subclínica, estimada por el grosor intimo-medial carotideo (CIMT). Objetivos: Estudiar la asociación del CIMT con los componentes del SM, la resistencia insulínica (RI) y el estado nutricional en escolares, además de explorar puntos de corte asociados a riesgo. Métodos: Estudio transversal de 447 niños asistentes a escuelas públicas de Santiago, Chile (2009-2011), seleccionados por presentar uno o más componentes del SM y RI. Se realizó antropometría y toma estandarizada de presión de arteria braquial, además de muestras de sangre para determinar lípidos glicemia e insulinemia. Se midió el CIMT por ultrasonografía de alta resolución. Se utilizó correlación de Pearson, t de Student, chi cuadrado y regresión logística. Resultados: Edad 11,5 ± 1,0 años (rango 10-14); 59% mujeres; 93% púberes; 72% con exceso de peso; 24% con SM y 15% con RI. Los promedios de los componentes del SM en los niños con CIMT ≥?percentil 75 vs < percentil 75 tuvieron diferencias para presión arterial sistólica o diastólica ≥?percentil 90 (PA) y colesterol unido a lipoproteínas de alta densidad =?40 mg/dL (CHDL). En la regresión logística para CIMT ≥?percentil 75 fueron seleccionadas PA y CHDL. En la regresión logística para CIMT ≥?percentil 90 no hubo variables seleccionadas. Conclusiones: En este grupo de niños los niveles de PA y CHDL se asocian con CIMT ≥?percentil 75. No se encontró asociación con estado nutricional y RI posiblemente por ser una muestra seleccionada.

  2. La implantacion del enfoque constructivista en el aula de ciencia: Estudio de caso multiple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroyo Betancourt, Luz I.

    Esta investigacion estudia la implantacion del enfoque constructivista en tres aulas de ciencia del contexto puertorriqueno. Se auscultaron las practicas educativas que utilizan maestras consideradas constructivistas y la correspondencia de sus practicas educativas con los elementos esenciales de la didactica que proponen los teoricos de los planteamientos constructivistas. Se ausculto, ademas, a que vision del enfoque constructivista responden las expresiones de las maestras acerca de su practica educativa y como compara con su quehacer, a la luz de los elementos esenciales de las visiones constructivistas piagetiana, social y radical. Se utilizo el diseno de estudio descriptivo de caso multiple. El estudio se baso en entrevistas a profundidad, revision de documentos y observacion no participativa a la sala de clases. El contexto fueron tres escuelas publicas de la Region Educativa de San Juan, una elemental, una intermedia y una superior. Los resultados confirmaron que la transicion hacia el enfoque constructivista es un proceso que toma tiempo, dedicacion y la participacion en adiestramientos y readiestramientos acerca del nuevo enfoque. Las maestras coinciden en la mayoria de las practicas educativas que utilizan para implantar el enfoque constructivista de ensenanza y difieren en algunas debido, probablemente, a que han tenido que adaptarlas a los correspondientes niveles de ensenanza: elemental, intermedio y superior. Dos de las maestras planifican por conceptos generadores, mientras que una de ellas planifica siguiendo la guia que recibe del Departamento de Educacion. Difieren ademas, en el enfasis que confieren al inquirir cientifico. Con relacion a la correspondencia entre la vision manifestada por las maestras a la luz de las visiones piagetiana, social y radical, aparentemente, las preguntas del protocolo de entrevistas no lograron evocar la informacion con suficiente profundidad, por lo que la investigadora tuvo que inferir las visiones de las

  3. Studies of Filipino patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: autoantibody profile of first-degree relatives.

    PubMed

    Navarra, S V; Ishimori, M I; Uy, E A; Hamijoyo, L; Sama, J; James, J A; Holers, V M; Weisman, M H

    2011-04-01

    This study surveyed the frequency of autoantibodies among un-affected first-degree relatives (FDRs) of Filipino systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared with healthy un-related Filipino controls. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of the autoantibodies for SLE diagnosis were also assessed in this Filipino cohort. Filipino patients included in the University of Santo Tomas (UST) Lupus Database and un-affected FDRs were recruited. Healthy controls included those with no known personal or family history of autoimmune disease. The following autoantibodies were tested in all subjects: anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), anti-dsDNA, anti-Ro/SSA, anti-chromatin, anti-thyroid microsome, and anti-cardiolipin antibodies. Participants included 232 SLE patients, 546 FDRs, and 221 healthy controls. Median age of patients was 27 (range 8-66) years with median disease duration of 27.5 (range 1-292) months. Median age of FDRs was 42.0 (range 5-87) years. Compared with healthy controls, there were significantly more FDRs with positive ANA at titers 1 : 40 to 1 : 160 (p < 0.001) and 1 : 320 (p = 0.003), anti-Ro/SSA (4.94% versus 0.45%, p = 0.003), and anti-dsDNA ≥ 5.0 IU/ml (4.58% versus 1.36%, p = 0.031). ANA titer ≥1  :  160, anti-dsDNA, anti-Ro/SSA and anti-chromatin had the highest predictive value for SLE diagnosis. These findings reinforce the role of genetic influence in SLE risk among Filipinos, with a significant proportion of un-affected FDRs of SLE patients testing positive for autoantibodies compared with healthy Filipino controls. A longitudinal observational study in this same cohort will determine which proportion of these un-affected FDRs will evolve into clinical SLE disease in the future.

  4. Effect of primary organic sea spray emissions on cloud condensation nuclei concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westervelt, D. M.; Moore, R. H.; Nenes, A.; Adams, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    This work estimates the primary marine organic aerosol global emission source and its impact on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations by implementing an organic sea spray source function into a series of global aerosol simulations. The source function assumes that a fraction of the sea spray emissions, depending on the local chlorophyll concentration, is organic matter in place of sea salt. Effect on CCN concentrations (at 0.2% supersaturation) is modeled using the Two-Moment Aerosol Sectional (TOMAS) microphysics algorithm coupled to the GISS II-prime general circulation model. The presence of organics affects CCN activity in competing ways: by reducing the amount of solute available in the particle and decreasing surface tension of CCN. To model surfactant effects, surface tension depression data from seawater samples taken near the Georgia coast were applied as a function of carbon concentrations. A global marine organic aerosol emission rate of 17.7 Tg C yr-1 is estimated from the simulations. Marine organics exert a localized influence on CCN(0.2%) concentrations, decreasing regional concentrations by no more than 5% and by less than 0.5% over most of the globe, assuming direct replacement of sea salt aerosol with organic aerosol. The decrease in CCN concentrations results from the fact that the decrease in particle solute concentration outweighs the organic surfactant effects. The low sensitivity of CCN(0.2%) to the marine organic emissions is likely due to the small compositional changes: the mass fraction of OA in accumulation mode aerosol increases by only ~15% in a biologically active region of the Southern Ocean. To test the sensitivity to uncertainty in the sea spray emissions process, we relax the assumption that sea spray aerosol number and mass remain fixed and instead can add to sea spray emissions rather than replace existing sea salt. In these simulations, we find that marine organic aerosol can increase CCN by up to 50% in the Southern

  5. Uncertainties in global aerosols and climate effects due to biofuel emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodros, J. K.; Scott, C. E.; Farina, S. C.; Lee, Y. H.; L'Orange, C.; Volckens, J.; Pierce, J. R.

    2015-08-01

    Aerosol emissions from biofuel combustion impact both health and climate; however, while reducing emissions through improvements to combustion technologies will improve health, the net effect on climate is largely unconstrained. In this study, we examine sensitivities in global aerosol concentration, direct radiative climate effect, and cloud-albedo aerosol indirect climate effect to uncertainties in biofuel emission factors, optical mixing state, and model nucleation and background secondary organic aerosol (SOA). We use the Goddard Earth Observing System global chemical-transport model (GEOS-Chem) with TwO Moment Aerosol Sectional (TOMAS) microphysics. The emission factors include amount, composition, size, and hygroscopicity, as well as optical mixing-state properties. We also evaluate emissions from domestic coal use, which is not biofuel but is also frequently emitted from homes. We estimate the direct radiative effect assuming different mixing states (homogeneous, core-shell, and external) with and without absorptive organic aerosol (brown carbon). We find the global-mean direct radiative effect of biofuel emissions ranges from -0.02 to +0.06 W m-2 across all simulation/mixing-state combinations with regional effects in source regions ranging from -0.2 to +0.8 W m-2. The global-mean cloud-albedo aerosol indirect effect (AIE) ranges from +0.01 to -0.02 W m-2 with regional effects in source regions ranging from -1.0 to -0.05 W m-2. The direct radiative effect is strongly dependent on uncertainties in emissions mass, composition, emissions aerosol size distributions, and assumed optical mixing state, while the indirect effect is dependent on the emissions mass, emissions aerosol size distribution, and the choice of model nucleation and secondary organic aerosol schemes. The sign and magnitude of these effects have a strong regional dependence. We conclude that the climate effects of biofuel aerosols are largely unconstrained, and the overall sign of the aerosol

  6. Small karstic Dobra River (Croatia) suggested as natural laboratory for impactite research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frančišković-Bilinski, Stanislav; Bilinski, Halka; Sikder, Arif M.

    2016-04-01

    An unexpected anomaly of magnetic susceptibility (MS) was observed in stream sediments of the upper course of the karstic Dobra River (Croatia). Preliminary results pointed to a possible impactite, formed by a shock event caused by a meteorite impact or by volcanic processes [1]. In addition to geophysical experiments, petrological and geochemical studies are reported [2, 3]. The multidisciplinary work for identification and confirmation of impact structure is still in progress. Results will be presented and the difficulties due to weathering and transport processes will be discussed and compared with recent literature [4, 5]. In reported results numerous evidences exist, which are in support of impact origin, such as vesicular glass with quench texture, ballen textures in the lechatelierite, presence of Troilite, etc. We suggest that the Dobra River from its source to the abyss in Ogulin (Upper Dobra) is a possible natural laboratory for studying processes of mixing between impactite material and fluvial sediments within a small area, including spherules exposed to water and in the overbank sediments. Especially the introduction of isotope studies in this research and enlargement of multinational team of experts are suggested. Literature: [1] Franči\\vsković-Bilinski, S., Bilinski, H., Scholger, R., Tomašić, N., Maldini, K. (2014): Magnetic spherules in sediments of the sinking karstic Dobra River (Croatia). Journal of soils and sediments 14(3), 600-614. [2] Franči\\vsković-Bilinski, S., Sikder, A.M., Bilinski, H., Castano, C.E., Garman, G.C. (2015): Traces of meteorite impact in the sediments of karstic Dobra River (Croatia). 15th International multidisciplinary scientific geoconference SGEM 2015 Conference proceedings, Vol. 1, 507-514. [3] Sikder, A.M., Franči\\vsković-Bilinski, S., Bilinski, H., Castano, C.E., Clifford, D.M., Turner, J.B., Garman, G.C. (2015): Petrographic analysis of the magnetic spherules from the sediments of karastic Dobra River

  7. Joint Multifractal Analysis of penetration resistance variability in an olive orchard.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Herrera, Juan; Herrero-Tejedor, Tomas; Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Villeta, Maria; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2016-04-01

    analysis of crop yield and terrain slope. Agro. j. 92: 1279-1290. López de Herrera, J., Tomas Herrero Tejedor, Antonio Saa-Requejo and Ana M. Tarquis (2015a) Influence of tillage in soil penetration resistance variability in an olive orchard. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 17, EGU2015-15425. López de Herrera, J., Tomás Herrero Tejedor, Antonio Saa-Requejo, A.M. Tarquis. Influence of tillage in soil penetration resistance variability in an olive orchard. Soil Research, accepted, 2015b. doi: SR15046 Zeleke TB, Si BC (2004) Scaling properties of topographic indices and crop yield: Multifractal and joint multifractal approaches. Agro. j. 96: 1082-1090.

  8. Improving supplementary feeding in species conservation

    PubMed Central

    Ewen, John G; Walker, Leila; Canessa, Stefano; Groombridge, Jim J

    2015-01-01

    ón suplementaria con frecuencia es una reacción instintiva a la declinación de poblaciones y su aplicación no se evalúa críticamente, lo que lleva a opiniones polarizadas sobre su uso entre los manejadores. Aquí abogamos por una estrategia más decisiva para la alimentación suplementaria para que la opción de usarla esté claramente justificada sobre, o en combinación con, otras acciones de manejo y las consecuencias pronosticadas sean entonces evaluadas críticamente después de su implementación. Proponemos combinar métodos de otro conjunto de disciplinas especialistas que permitirán la evaluación crítica de la necesidad, el beneficio y los riesgos de la alimentación suplementaria. Por medio del uso de la ecología nutricional, la ecología de poblaciones y la toma de decisiones estructuradas, quienes manejan la conservación pueden tomar mejores decisiones sobre qué y cómo alimentar al estimar las consecuencias de la recuperación poblacional a través de un rango de acciones posibles. Esta estrategia estructurada también informa al monitoreo enfocado y permite con mayor claridad la integración de la alimentación suplementaria a los planes de recuperación y reduce el riesgo de decisiones ineficientes. En Nueva Zelanda, los manejadores del hihi (Notiomystis cincta) que se encuentra en peligro de extinción, con frecuencia dependen de la alimentación suplementaria para apoyar a las poblaciones reintroducidas. En la isla de Kapiti, la población reintroducida de hihis ha respondido de buena manera a la alimentación suplementaria, pero la logística de proporcionar a una demanda en crecimiento recientemente sobrepasó la capacidad de manejo. Para decidir si el régimen alimentario debería revisarse y cómo hacerlo, los manejadores usaron una estrategia estructurada de toma de decisiones con información sobre las respuestas de la población a regímenes alternativos de alimentación. La decisión se hizo para reducir la distribución espacial de los

  9. Improving supplementary feeding in species conservation

    PubMed Central

    Ewen, John G; Walker, Leila; Canessa, Stefano; Groombridge, Jim J

    2015-01-01

    ón suplementaria con frecuencia es una reacción instintiva a la declinación de poblaciones y su aplicación no se evalúa críticamente, lo que lleva a opiniones polarizadas sobre su uso entre los manejadores. Aquí abogamos por una estrategia más decisiva para la alimentación suplementaria para que la opción de usarla esté claramente justificada sobre, o en combinación con, otras acciones de manejo y las consecuencias pronosticadas sean entonces evaluadas críticamente después de su implementación. Proponemos combinar métodos de otro conjunto de disciplinas especialistas que permitirán la evaluación crítica de la necesidad, el beneficio y los riesgos de la alimentación suplementaria. Por medio del uso de la ecología nutricional, la ecología de poblaciones y la toma de decisiones estructuradas, quienes manejan la conservación pueden tomar mejores decisiones sobre qué y cómo alimentar al estimar las consecuencias de la recuperación poblacional a través de un rango de acciones posibles. Esta estrategia estructurada también informa al monitoreo enfocado y permite con mayor claridad la integración de la alimentación suplementaria a los planes de recuperación y reduce el riesgo de decisiones ineficientes. En Nueva Zelanda, los manejadores del hihi (Notiomystis cincta) que se encuentra en peligro de extinción, con frecuencia dependen de la alimentación suplementaria para apoyar a las poblaciones reintroducidas. En la isla de Kapiti, la población reintroducida de hihis ha respondido de buena manera a la alimentación suplementaria, pero la logística de proporcionar a una demanda en crecimiento recientemente sobrepasó la capacidad de manejo. Para decidir si el régimen alimentario debería revisarse y cómo hacerlo, los manejadores usaron una estrategia estructurada de toma de decisiones con información sobre las respuestas de la población a regímenes alternativos de a

  10. Gulf of Mexico miocene CO₂ site characterization mega transect

    SciTech Connect

    Meckel, Timothy; Trevino, Ramon

    2014-12-01

    This project characterized the Miocene-age sub-seafloor stratigraphy in the near-offshore portion of the Gulf of Mexico adjacent to the Texas coast. The large number of industrial sources of carbon dioxide (CO₂) in coastal counties and the high density of onshore urbanization and environmentally sensitive areas make this offshore region extremely attractive for long-term storage of carbon dioxide emissions from industrial sources (CCS). The study leverages dense existing geologic data from decades of hydrocarbon exploration in and around the study area to characterize the regional geology for suitability and storage capacity. Primary products of the study include: regional static storage capacity estimates, sequestration “leads” and prospects with associated dynamic capacity estimates, experimental studies of CO₂-brine-rock interaction, best practices for site characterization, a large-format ‘Atlas’ of sequestration for the study area, and characterization of potential fluid migration pathways for reducing storage risks utilizing novel high-resolution 3D (HR3D) seismic surveys. In addition, three subcontracted studies address source-to-sink matching optimization, offshore well bore management and environmental aspects. The various geologic data and interpretations are integrated and summarized in a series of cross-sections and maps, which represent a primary resource for any near-term commercial deployment of CCS in the area. The regional study characterized and mapped important geologic features (e.g., Clemente-Tomas fault zone, the regionally extensive Marginulina A and Amphistegina B confining systems, etc.) that provided an important context for regional static capacity estimates and specific sequestration prospects of the study. A static capacity estimate of the majority of the Study area (14,467 mi2) was estimated at 86 metric Gigatonnes. While local capacity estimates are likely to be lower due to reservoir-scale characteristics, the

  11. [METABOLIC SYNDROME AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK IN PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA, BIPOLAR DISORDER AND SCHIZOAFFECTIVE DISORDER].

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Calero Franco, Paloma; Sánchez Sánchez, Blanca; Rodríguez Criado, Natalia; Pinilla Santos, Berta; Bravo Herrero, Sandra; Cruz Fourcade, José Fernando; Martín Aragón, Rubén

    2015-12-01

    cardiovascular mayor del 10% en los próximos 10 años. Conclusiones: el estilo de vida, las desigualdades en el acceso a la salud, el curso de la enfermedad y la toma de psicofármacos en los pacientes con trastorno mental grave favorecen el sobrepeso y sus consecuencias derivadas. Las estrategias diseñadas para promover la salud física de estos pacientes en el sistema sanitario español son insuficientes.

  12. Elastoplasticidad anisotropa de metales en grandes deformaciones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caminero Torija, Miguel Angel

    Eterovic y Bathe para incluir la posibilidad de plasticidad anisotropa con endurecimiento mixto. Este primer algoritmo esta restringido a casos de isotropia elastica. La isotropia elastica es una hipotesis bastante habitual en plasticidad anisotropa y tiene la ventaja de que permite el uso de formulaciones mixtas u/p. El segundo algoritmo, mas complejo y general, incluye la posibilidad de elasticidad anisotropa, plasticidad anisotropa y endurecimiento mixto. Este algoritmo supone una contribucion importante ya que esta basado en hipotesis comunmente aceptadas y utilizadas en elastoplasticidad isotropa: descomposicion multiplicativa del gradiente de deformaciones en parte elastica y parte plastica, descripcion hiperelastica sencilla en funcion de deformaciones logaritmicas e integracion exponencial que conserva el volumen. Ademas, la estructura final del algoritmo es modular y relativamente sencilla, consistiendo en un pre- y un postprocesador geometrico y una correccion plastica realizada en pequenas deformaciones. El algoritmo esta consistentemente linealizado para conservar la convergencia cuadratica asintotica de los metodos de Newton y la forma final que toma dicha linealizacion es similar al caso de isotropia elastoplastica implementado; consiste en el modulo tangente algoritmico de pequenas deformaciones sobre el que se aplica una transformacion para convertirlo en el de grandes deformaciones. Todos estos modelos han sido implementados en un codigo propio de elementos finitos denominado DULCINEA, el cual tiene formulaciones lagrangianas totales y actualizadas para grandes deformaciones. Una de las tareas necesarias para poder realizar las simulaciones, ha sido el estudio e implementacion de diferentes elementos que no sufran el bloqueo volumetrico severo que se observa en formulaciones estandar basadas en desplazamientos. Este bloqueo se debe a la condicion de quasi-incompresibilidad que imponen los modelos de plasticidad desviadores y consiste en una respuesta

  13. Spatial performance of RegEM climate field reconstruction techniques in a realistic pseudoproxy context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Emile-Geay, J.; Guillot, D.

    2011-12-01

    . Joos, D. S. Schimel, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, and R. A. Tomas (2007), Solar influence on climate during the past millennium: Results from transient simulations with the NCAR Climate System Model, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 104, 3713-3718, doi:10.1073/pnas.0605064103. Mann, M. E., R. S. Bradley, and M. K. Hughes (1998), Global-scale temperaturepatterns and climate forcing over the past six centuries, Nature, 392, 779-787, doi:10.1038/33859. Mann, M. E., S. Rutherford, E. Wahl, and C. Ammann (2007), Robustness of proxy-based climate field reconstruction methods, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D12109, doi:10.1029/2006JD008272. Mann, M. E., et al. (2008), Proxy-based reconstructions of hemispheric and global surface temperature variations over the past two millennia, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 105, 13,252-13,257, doi:10.1073/pnas.0805721105. Schneider, T. (2001), Analysis of incomplete climate data: Estimation of mean values and covariance matrices and imputation of missing values, J. Clim., 14, 853-871, doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<0853: AOICDE>2.0.CO;2. Smerdon, J. E., A. Kaplan, E. Zorita, J. F. González-Rouco, and M. N. Evans (2011), Spatial performance of four climate field reconstruction methods targeting the Common Era, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L11705, doi:10.1029/2011GL047372.

  14. A protocol for eliciting nonmaterial values through a cultural ecosystem services frame

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Rachelle K; Klain, Sarah C; Ardoin, Nicole M; Satterfield, Terre; Woodside, Ulalia; Hannahs, Neil; Daily, Gretchen C; Chan, Kai M

    2015-01-01

    espaciales en la representación comprensiva de los valores de los valores que pertenecen a los ecosistemas. Este protocolo puede ayudar a incorporar valores frecuentemente ignorados en el proceso de toma de decisiones. PMID:25354730

  15. GaN Initiative for Grid Applications (GIGA)

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, George

    2015-07-03

    For nearly 4 ½ years, MIT Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL) led a very successful, DoE-funded team effort to develop GaN-on-Si materials and devices, targeting high-voltage (>1 kV), high-power, cost-effective electronics for grid applications. This effort, called the GaN Initiative for Grid Applications (GIGA) program, was initially made up of MIT/LL, the MIT campus group of Prof. Tomas Palacios (MIT), and the industrial partner M/A Com Technology Solutions (MTS). Later in the program a 4th team member was added (IQE MA) to provide commercial-scale GaN-on-Si epitaxial materials. A basic premise of the GIGA program was that power electronics, for ubiquitous utilization -even for grid applications - should be closer in cost structure to more conventional Si-based power electronics. For a number of reasons, more established GaN-on-SiC or even SiC-based power electronics are not likely to reach theses cost structures, even in higher manufacturing volumes. An additional premise of the GIGA program was that the technical focus would be on materials and devices suitable for operating at voltages > 1 kV, even though there is also significant commercial interest in developing lower voltage (< 1 kV), cost effective GaN-on-Si devices for higher volume applications, like consumer products. Remarkable technical progress was made during the course of this program. Advances in materials included the growth of high-quality, crack-free epitaxial GaN layers on large-diameter Si substrates with thicknesses up to ~5 μm, overcoming significant challenges in lattice mismatch and thermal expansion differences between Si and GaN in the actual epitaxial growth process. Such thick epilayers are crucial for high voltage operation of lateral geometry devices such as Schottky barrier (SB) diodes and high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). New “Normally-Off” device architectures were demonstrated – for safe operation of power electronics circuits. The trade-offs between lateral and

  16. Mid-Holocene variability of the East Asian monsoon based on bulk organic δ13C and C/N records from the Pearl River estuary, southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, F.; Lloyd, J. M.; Zong, Y.; Leng, M. J.; Switzer, A. D.; Yim, W. W.; Huang, G.

    2010-12-01

    Understanding the mid-Holocene dynamics of the East Asian monsoon (EAM) is integral to modelling the Holocene development of the global climate system (Webster et al., 1998). Thus the mid-Holocene EAM history was reconstructed using bulk organic carbon isotopes (δ13C), total carbon to total nitrogen (C/N) ratios and total organic carbon (TOC) from a sediment core (UV1), at a mean resolution of 10 years, from the Pearl River estuary, southern China. Sedimentary δ13C, C/N and TOC from the Pearl River estuary is a good indicator of changes in monsoonal precipitation strength (Zong et al., 2006; Yang et al., 2010), eg sediments buried during a period of high precipitation exhibit a high proportion of terrigenous sediments, and have low δ13C and high C/N, and vice versa (Yu et al., 2010). Results suggest a general decreasing trend in monsoonal precipitation from 6650-2215 cal yr BP due to the weakening insolation over northern hemisphere most likely related to the current precession circle (An, 2000). Superimposed on this trend are apparent dry-wet oscillations at centennial to millennial timescales most likely in response to solar activity. Mismatch between δ13C and results from the Dongge Cave in southern China at millennial-timescale oscillations (Wang et al., 2005), may indicate that the δ13C from the Pearl River estuary reveals changes in precipitation in a broader area than the δ18O from Dongge Cave does. Reference An Z (2000) The history and variability of the East Asian paleomonsoon climate. Quaternary Science Reviews 19: 171-187. Wang Y, Cheng H, Edwards RL, He Y, Kong X, An Z, Wu J, Kelly MJ, Dykoski CA and Li X (2005) The Holocene Asian Monsoon: Links to Solar Changes and North Atlantic Climate. Science 308: 854-857. Webster PJ, Magaña VO, Palmer TN, Shukla J and Tomas RA (1998) Monsoons: Processes, predictability, and the prospects for prediction. Journal of Geophysical Research 103(C7): 14451-14510. Yang S, Tang M, Yim WWS, Zong Y, Huang G, Switzer

  17. Implementation of indicators through balanced scorecards in a nutritional therapy company.

    PubMed

    de Matos Nasser, Emanuele; Reis da Costa, Stella Regina

    2013-01-01

    al cliente (SAC) 88%, motivación: confianza, perspectivas financieras, anulaciones 5% y beneficio neto para la compañía. Conclusión: La implantación de indicadores incluidos en las cuatro perspectivas del Balanced Scorecard fue favorable para el rendimiento organizativo y en ayudar en el proceso de toma de decisiones.

  18. Corals from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patzert, William C.

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this research is to monitor the health and vigor of coral reef ecosystems, and their sensitivity to natural and anthropogenic climate changes. To achieve these lofty goals, this research is investigating the feasibility of using spaceborne high-resolution spectrometers (on the US Landsat, French Systeme Probatoire pour l'Observation de la Terre [SPOT] and/or the Indian Resources Satellite [IRS 1C & 1D] spacecraft) to first map the aerial extent of coral reef systems, and second separate the amount of particular corals. If this is successful, we could potentially provide a quantum leap in our understanding of coral reef systems, as well as provide much needed baseline data to measure future changes in global coral reef ecosystems. In collaboration with Tomas Tomascik, Yann Morel, and other colleagues, a series of experiments were planned to coordinate in situ coral observations, high-resolution spaceborne imagery (from Landsat, SPOT, and, possibly, IRS IC spacecraft), and NASA Space Shuttle photographs and digital images. Our eventual goal is to develop "coral health algorithms" that can be used to assess time series of imagery collected from satellite sensors (Landsat since 1972, SPOT since 1986) in concert with in situ observations. The bad news from last year was that from 1997 to mid- 1998, the extreme cloudiness over southeast Asia due to prolonged smoke from El Nino-related fires and the economic chaos in this region frustrated both our space and reef-based data collection activities. When this volatile situation stabilizes, we will restart these activities. The good news was that in collaboration with Al Strong at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) we had an exciting year operationally using the NOAA's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer sensor derived sea surface temperature products to warn of coral "bleaching" at many locations throughout the tropics. Data from NOAA's satellites showed that during the El Nino of

  19. Microfluidics—from fundamental research to industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köster, Sarah

    2013-03-01

    The advance of microfluidics started in the early 1980s. At the time, researchers realized that many processes and reactions in chemistry and biology, which typically take place on small length scales, can be defined, controlled and understood much better when using tools on equally small length scales. Reactions and reaction kinetics rely on (gradual) concentration differences and microfluidics provides the unique possibility to establish exactly such gradients of solutes, ion concentrations, pH value and so on. Nowadays the variety of specific microfluidic methods is large. In principle, they can be divided into two groups: (i) monophase flow, where miscible (e.g. aqueous) fluids are mixed, mostly by diffusion owing to the laminar flow on small length scales and (ii) multiphase flow, the most prominent example of which is probably droplet microfluidics, where water-in-oil or oil-in-water emulsions are used to encapsulate chemical or biological systems and separate them from each other, much like in 'micron-scale test tubes'. Now, 30 years later, microfluidic techniques are seriously considered for industrial applications, although some important steps in the upscaling process are still missing. The purpose of this special issue is to shed light on the different aspects in microfluidics research starting from fundamental research reaching all the way to industrial applications. The study by Toma and co-workers takes advantage of the controlled diffusive mixing when co-flowing aqueous, miscible solutions. They combine microfluidics with optical, spectroscopic and scattering techniques to study DNA packing. Nunes et al review the different regimes when replacing one of the fluids by an oil phase and varying flow rates and device geometries with a particular emphasis on using multiphase microfluidics for synthesis of particles or fibres. Going into the third dimension by fabricating microfluidic devices with several layers, producing emulsions can also be achieved by

  20. Investigation of particle and vapor wall-loss effects on controlled wood-smoke smog-chamber experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Q.; May, A. A.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Pierce, J. R.

    2015-06-01

    Smog chambers are extensively used to study processes that drive gas and particle evolution in the atmosphere. A limitation of these experiments is that particles and gas-phase species may be lost to chamber walls on shorter timescales than the timescales of the atmospheric processes being studied in the chamber experiments. These particle and vapor wall losses have been investigated in recent studies of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, but they have not been systematically investigated in experiments of primary emissions from combustion. The semi-volatile nature of combustion emissions (e.g. from wood smoke) may complicate the behavior of particle and vapor wall deposition in the chamber over the course of the experiments due to the competition between gas/particle and gas/wall partitioning. Losses of vapors to the walls may impact particle evaporation in these experiments, and potential precursors for SOA formation from combustion may be lost to the walls, causing underestimates of aerosol yields. Here, we conduct simulations to determine how particle and gas-phase wall losses contributed to the observed evolution of the aerosol during experiments in the third Fire Lab At Missoula Experiment (FLAME III). We use the TwO-Moment Aerosol Sectional (TOMAS) microphysics algorithm coupled with the organic volatility basis set (VBS) and wall-loss formulations to examine the predicted extent of particle and vapor wall losses. We limit the scope of our study to the dark periods in the chamber before photo-oxidation to simplify the aerosol system for this initial study. Our model simulations suggest that over one third of the initial particle-phase organic mass (36%) was lost during the experiments, and roughly half of this particle organic mass loss was from direct particle wall loss (56% of the loss) with the remainder from evaporation of the particles driven by vapor losses to the walls (44% of the loss). We perform a series of sensitivity tests to understand

  1. Investigation of particle and vapor wall-loss effects on controlled wood-smoke smog-chamber experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Q.; May, A. A.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Pierce, J. R.

    2015-10-01

    Smog chambers are extensively used to study processes that drive gas and particle evolution in the atmosphere. A limitation of these experiments is that particles and gas-phase species may be lost to chamber walls on shorter timescales than the timescales of the atmospheric processes being studied in the chamber experiments. These particle and vapor wall losses have been investigated in recent studies of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, but they have not been systematically investigated in experiments of primary emissions from combustion. The semi-volatile nature of combustion emissions (e.g. from wood smoke) may complicate the behavior of particle and vapor wall deposition in the chamber over the course of the experiments due to the competition between gas/particle and gas/wall partitioning. Losses of vapors to the walls may impact particle evaporation in these experiments, and potential precursors for SOA formation from combustion may be lost to the walls, causing underestimations of aerosol yields. Here, we conduct simulations to determine how particle and gas-phase wall losses contributed to the observed evolution of the aerosol during experiments in the third Fire Lab At Missoula Experiment (FLAME III). We use the TwO-Moment Aerosol Sectional (TOMAS) microphysics algorithm coupled with the organic volatility basis set (VBS) and wall-loss formulations to examine the predicted extent of particle and vapor wall losses. We limit the scope of our study to the dark periods in the chamber before photo-oxidation to simplify the aerosol system for this initial study. Our model simulations suggest that over one-third of the initial particle-phase organic mass (41 %) was lost during the experiments, and over half of this particle-organic mass loss was from direct particle wall loss (65 % of the loss) with the remainder from evaporation of the particles driven by vapor losses to the walls (35 % of the loss). We perform a series of sensitivity tests to understand

  2. Micromechanical Analyses of Sturzstroms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imre, Bernd; Laue, Jan; Springman, Sarah M.

    2010-05-01

    have been made observable and reproducible within a physical and a distinct element numerical modelling environment (DEM). As link between field evidence gained from the deposits of natural sturzstroms, the physical model within the ETH Geotechnical Drum Centrifuge (Springman et al., 2001) and the numerical model PFC-3D (Cundall and Strack, 1979; Itasca, 2005), serves a deterministic fractal analytical comminution model (Sammis et al., 1987; Steacy and Sammis, 1991). This approach allowed studying the effects of dynamic fragmentation within sturzstroms at true (macro) scale within the distinct element model, by allowing for a micro-mechanical, distinct particle based, and cyclic description of fragmentation at the same time, without losing significant computational efficiency. Theses experiments indicate rock mass and boundary conditions, which allow an alternating fragmenting and dilating dispersive regime to evolve and to be sustained long enough to replicate the spreading and run out of sturzstroms. The fragmenting spreading model supported here is able to explain the run out of a dry granular flow, beyond the travel distance predicted by a Coulomb frictional sliding model, without resorting to explanations by mechanics that can only be valid for certain, specific of the boundary conditions. The implications derived suggest that a sturzstrom, because of its strong relation to internal fractal fragmentation and other inertial effects, constitutes a landslide category of its own. Its mechanics differ significantly from all other gravity driven mass flows. This proposition does not exclude the possible appearance of frictionites, Toma hills or suspension flows etc., but it considers them as secondary features. The application of a fractal comminution model to describe natural and experimental sturzstrom deposits turned out to be a useful tool for sturzstrom research. Implemented within the DEM, it allows simulating the key features of sturzstrom successfully and

  3. The Kosice meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, J.; Svoren, J.

    2012-01-01

    Sciences (under the leadership of the second author), Comenius University in Bratislava (under the leadership of the first author), and the Czech Academy of Sciences (under the leadership of Pavel Spurny) started to sweep meadows and forests at the calculated area. The first meteorite was discovered by Juraj Toth on March 20th. By October 6th, 77 meteorite fragments were found. The heaviest fragment weighs 2.17 kg and was found by Tereza Krejcova; the smallest pieces were only about 0.5 g (finder Julius Koza). The total mass recovered is 4.3 kg. There were 28 finders: Juraj Toth, Diana Buzova, Marek Husarik, Tereza Krejcova, Jan Svoren, Julius Koza, David Capek, Pavel Spurny, Stanislav Kaniansky, Eva Schunova, Marcel Skreka, Dusan Tomko, Pavol Zigo, Miroslav Seben, Jiri Silha, Leonard Kornos, Marcela Bodnarova, Peter Veres, Jozef Nedoroscik, Zuzana Mimovicova, Zuzana Krisandova, Jaromir Petrzala, Stefan Gajdos, Tomas Dobrovodsky, Peter Delincak, Zdenko Bartos, Ales Kucera, and Jozef Vilagi. Preliminary as well as complex mineralogic analysis implies that the recovered meteorite is classified as an ordinary H5 chondrite (Dr. J. Haloda, Czech Geological Survey, D. Ozdin, and P. Uher, Comenius University in Bratislava). The authors are grateful to all collaborators mentioned above. More details about the meteorite will be published in the near future.

  4. Comparison of overbank fines magnetic pollution in the rivers of Czech Republic by using MS/Fe ratio and enrichment factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Famera, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Martin Famera1, Tereza Novakova3,4, Tomas Matys Grygar3, Jitka Elznicová, Andrea Tipanová1, Ondrej Babek1,2, Martin Chadima5 1Department of Geology, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 1192/12, 771 46 Olomouc, Czech Republic 2Department of Geological Sciences, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno, Czech Republic 3Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v.v.i., 250 68 Rez, Czech Republic 4Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Albertov 6, 128 43 Prague, Czech Republic 5Agico, s.r.o., Jecna 29a, 621 00 Brno, Czech Republic Magnetic susceptibility (MS) normalized to the content of Fe is able to effectively remove the influence of facies (grain-size effect) in determining the background values, as well as Al normalization of heavy metal concentrations. Normalization MS/Fe is also used to determine the contamination of sediments by magnetic particles, using calculation of enrichment factor of magnetic susceptibility in sediments. In our study, we compared the magnetic enrichment of overbank fines of five rivers in Czech Republic (the Ploucnice, the Morava, the Jizera, the Litavka, and the Berounka rivers). Magnetic susceptibility was measured using KLY-2 Kappabridge (Agico, Czech Republic) and mass-specific data were expressed in m3×kg-1. X-ray fluorescence elementary analysis of powdered sediments was performed by ED XRF MiniPal 4.0 (PANalytical, the Netherlands). ED XRF results were calibrated to ppm values using results obtained from selected samples by ICP MS. Compared samples were taken from lithogenic parts of profiles, unaffected by anthropogenic contamination and pedogenetic and reductimorphic processes. Results showed high variability of the measured values. In the Litavka and the Morava River sediments were measured low values of MS (˂150×10-9) at relatively high contents of Fe (20-45 000 ppm). In contrast, lower flow of the Jizera River showed low Fe contents (˂12000 ppm) having MS values in a wide range (70-800×10-9). The Plou

  5. [Validation of self-reported weight and height university population and factors associated with differences between self reported and measured antropometrics].

    PubMed

    Savane, Fatoumauta Rosita; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Ma; García de la Hera, Manuela; Gimenez-Monzo, Daniel; Gonzalez-Palacios, Sandra; Valera-Gran, Desirée; Sempere-Orts, María; Vioque, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La obesidad es un problema de salud pública importante que se asocia a un mayor riesgo muerte por enfermedades crónico-degenerativas como diabetes, enfermedades cardiovasculares y varios cánceres. En estudios epidemiológicos de amplio tamaño donde a veces solo es posible obtener datos auto-referido de peso y talla, pueden surgir dudas sobre las estimaciones del índice de masa corporal (IMC). Objetivo: En este estudio se comparan datos auto-referido de peso, talla e IMC frente a datos obtenidos por medición directa en población adulta joven, y se analizan los factores asociados a la discrepancia entre datos referidos y medidos. Metodología: Entre 2006-2012 un total de 628 universitarios de ciencias de la salud (476 mujeres) aceptaron cumplimentar un cuestionario con preguntas sobre peso y talla y realizar posteriormente un examen físico con la toma del peso y talla siguiendo protocolos estandarizados en ropa ligera. El peso de la ropa ligera se sustrajo del peso medido en 1 kg para los hombres y 0,9 kg para las mujeres. Se analizó la validez de las estimaciones antropométricas auto-referidas frente a las medidas para peso, talla y obesidad mediante índices de sensibilidad, especificidad, valores predictivos y índice kappa y se usó regresión lineal múltiple para analizar los factores asociados a las discrepancias entre datos referidos y medidos. Resultado: La media del peso, talla e IMC auto-referido fueron 62,5 kg, 167,6 cm y 22,1 kg/m2, y de los medidos, 62,6 kg, 167,4 cm y 22,2 kg/m2 respectivamente. Las correlaciones entre datos declararos y medidos fueron de r = 0,97, 0,96 y 0,95 respectivamente. La sensibilidad para detectar exceso de peso (IMC ≥?25 kg/m2) mediante datos declarados fue del 81,0%, la especificidad del 98,5%, el valor predictivo positivo 90,6% y el índice kappa de 0,75. La discrepancia entre peso, talla e IMC medido y declarado se asoció significativamente con una mayor edad, y para la talla también con un

  6. Testing Pixel Translation Digital Elevation Models to Reconstruct Slip Histories: An Example from the Agua Blanca Fault, Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J.; Wetmore, P. H.; Malservisi, R.; Ferwerda, B. P.; Teran, O.

    2012-12-01

    We use recently collected slip vector and total offset data from the Agua Blanca fault (ABF) to constrain a pixel translation digital elevation model (DEM) to reconstruct the slip history of this fault. This model was constructed using a Perl script that reads a DEM file (Easting, Northing, Elevation) and a configuration file with coordinates that define the boundary of each fault segment. A pixel translation vector is defined as a magnitude of lateral offset in an azimuthal direction. The program translates pixels north of the fault and prints their pre-faulting position to a new DEM file that can be gridded and displayed. This analysis, where multiple DEMs are created with different translation vectors, allows us to identify areas of transtension or transpression while seeing the topographic expression in these areas. The benefit of this technique, in contrast to a simple block model, is that the DEM gives us a valuable graphic which can be used to pose new research questions. We have found that many topographic features correlate across the fault, i.e. valleys and ridges, which likely have implications for the age of the ABF, long term landscape evolution rates, and potentially provide conformation for total slip assessments The ABF of northern Baja California, Mexico is an active, dextral strike slip fault that transfers Pacific-North American plate boundary strain out of the Gulf of California and around the "Big Bend" of the San Andreas Fault. Total displacement on the ABF in the central and eastern parts of the fault is 10 +/- 2 km based on offset Early-Cretaceous features such as terrane boundaries and intrusive bodies (plutons and dike swarms). Where the fault bifurcates to the west, the northern strand (northern Agua Blanca fault or NABF) is constrained to 7 +/- 1 km. We have not yet identified piercing points on the southern strand, the Santo Tomas fault (STF), but displacement is inferred to be ~4 km assuming that the sum of slip on the NABF and STF is

  7. L-Moments Regional Frequency Analysis Methodology Application in maximum rainfall values over the Bogota River's basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Claudia; Mesa, Duvan

    2015-04-01

    L-Moments Regional Frequency Analysis Methodology Application in maximum rainfall values over the Bogota River's basin 1°Claudia Patricia Romero Hernández; 2°Duvan Javier Mesa Fernández Universidad Santo Tomas; Colombia The application area of this methodology is the Bogota River's basin, which is located in Cundinamarca; a Colombian department with a total surface area of 589.143 hectares. This basin includes 19 sub-basins, and it is the most densely urbanized of the country. Including its metropolitan area, this region boasts a population of 9.000.000 inhabitants; which composes approximately 23% of Colombia's population and possesses around 19% of the country's industries. This basin has shown a notorious increase of complicated floods frequency in the last few years due to climatic variations. These climatic periods correspond to a weather pattern called Niña Phenomenon (2010-2011), which affected 57.000 citizens in this department and 4,900 people directly in Bogota city, with an estimated economic damage of 277'121,052 USD. The Regional Frequency Analysis methodology is a statistics procedure that consists in adding information from multiple samples in a single large sample, assuming previously that all of these come from the same probability model, except for a difference between them due to a scale factor. These samples are defined by a "regionalization" procedure known as the "Avenue Index" or "Flood Index". This procedure groups several kinds of information that comes from a common probability model, such as temperature, rainfall, and water flow. This model must be similar for all of the weather stations located in a homogeneous region. Maps for each of 4 return periods (5, 10, 50 and 100 years) were developed based on 120 weather stations located on this basin. The information used in this process comes from median monthly rainfall data, based on historical series between 30 and 40 years average. An increase in the annual median rainfall was

  8. The history of the Laboratory of Pathology of the Cluj-Napoca Oncological Institute.

    PubMed

    Simu, G; Buiga, R

    2006-01-01

    The Laboratory of Pathology of the actual "Professor Ion Chiricută" Oncological Institute of Cluj-Napoca, former "Iuliu Maniu" Institute for Cancer Study and Prophylaxis, had the privilege that in its framework carry on an important part of their activity professors Titu Vasiliu and Rubin Popa, who are forming, beside Victor Babeş, the golden trinity of the Romanian pathology. The Cancer Institute of Cluj, one of the first in the World, was founded in 1929, especially by the clear-sightedness and the efforts of Professor Iuliu Moldovan, the master of the modern Romanian school of hygiene. The clinic division was assisted by a Laboratory of Pathology, whose chief was appointed the young pathologist of high competence, Rubin Popa, associate Professor of this department of the Cluj School of Medicine. In 1942' he became director of the Institute, function accomplished until his premature disappearance in 1958. Titu Vasiliu worked in the Oncological Institute from 1949, a year after his forced retreat from the chair of pathology, up to 1958. Fortunately, his premature disappearance did not interrupt the activity of the laboratory, because the management of the Oncological Institute was committed to Ion Chiricută, an experimented and modern surgeon of Bucharest. From 1960, the Laboratory of Pathology has been led by Professor Augustin Mureşan, an experimented, rigorous and prudent pathologist, who has imprinted these indispensable qualities to his disciples learning under his leadership. The activity of the laboratory has been very favorably influenced by the presence of Professor Gheorghe Badenski from the Department of Microbiology. The collaboration with Professor Eugen Pora from Babeş-Bolyai Department of Animal Physiology and his disciples, Virgil Toma, Draga Nestor, Sena Roşculet, Carmen Stugren and Georgette Buga has carried on the performance of interesting works concerning the thymus involution in tumor-bearing hosts and its signification for the

  9. Mid-Holocene variability of the East Asian monsoon based on bulk organic δ13C and C/N records from the Pearl River estuary, southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, F.; Zong, Y.; Lloyd, J. M.; Leng, M. J.; Switzer, A. D.; Yim, W. W.; Huang, G.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the mid-Holocene dynamics of the East Asian monsoon (EAM) is integral to modelling the Holocene development of the global climate system (Webster et al., 1998). Thus the mid-Holocene EAM history was reconstructed using bulk organic carbon isotopes (δ13C), total carbon to total nitrogen (C/N) ratios and total organic carbon (TOC) from a sediment core (UV1), at a mean resolution of 7-10 years, from the Pearl River estuary, southern China. Sedimentary δ13C, C/N and TOC from the Pearl River estuary is a good indicator of changes in monsoonal precipitation strength (Zong et al., 2006; Yang et al., 2010; Yu et al., 2010), eg sediments buried during a period of high precipitation exhibit a high proportion of terrigenous sediments, and have low δ13C and high C/N, and vice versa (Yu et al., 2010). Results suggest a general decreasing trend in monsoonal precipitation from 6650 to 2215 cal yr BP because of the weakening Northern Hemisphere insolation most likely related to the current precession circle (An, 2000). Superimposed on this trend are apparent dry-wet oscillations at centennial to millennial timescales most likely in response to solar activity. Mismatch between δ13C and results from the Dongge Cave in southern China at millennial-timescale oscillations (Wang et al., 2005), may indicate that the δ13C from the Pearl River estuary reveals changes in precipitation in a broader area than the δ18O from Dongge Cave does. Reference An Z (2000) The history and variability of the East Asian paleomonsoon climate. Quaternary Science Reviews 19: 171-187. Wang Y, Cheng H, Edwards RL, He Y, Kong X, An Z, Wu J, Kelly MJ, Dykoski CA and Li X (2005) The Holocene Asian Monsoon: Links to Solar Changes and North Atlantic Climate. Science 308: 854-857. Webster PJ, Magaña VO, Palmer TN, Shukla J and Tomas RA (1998) Monsoons: Processes, predictability, and the prospects for prediction. Journal of Geophysical Research 103(C7): 14451-14510. Yang S, Tang M, Yim WWS, Zong

  10. Location of B- and Z-DNA in the chromosomes of a primitive eukaryote dinoflagellate.

    PubMed

    Soyer-Gobillard, M O; Géraud, M L; Coulaud, D; Barray, M; Théveny, B; Révet, B; Delain, E

    1990-08-01

    The usual conformation of DNA is a right-handed double helix (B-DNA). DNA with stretches of alternating purine-pyrimidine (G-C or A-T) can form a left-handed helix (Z-DNA). The transition B----Z, facilitated by the presence of divalent cations, cytosine methylation, or constraints on DNA such as superhelicity may play a role in the regulation of gene expression and/or in DNA compaction (Zarling, D. A., D. J. Arndt-Jovin, M. Robert-Nicoud, L. P. McIntosh, R. Tomae, and T. M. Jovin. 1984. J. Mol. Biol. 176:369-415). Divalent cations are also important in the structure of the quasi-permanently condensed chromosomes of dinoflagellate protists (Herzog, M., and M.-O. Soyer. 1983. Eur. J. Cell Biol. 30:33-41) which also have superhelicity in their DNA. The absence of histones in dinoflagellate chromosomes suggest that the search for Z-DNA sequences might be fruitful and could provide one indication of the physiological role of this particular DNA conformation. We report a complete immunofluorescent and immunogold analysis of the nuclei of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans E. using monoclonal and polyclonal anti-B and anti-Z-DNA antibodies. Positive labeling was obtained with immunofluorescence using squash preparations and cryosections, both of which showed the intranuclear presence of the two DNA conformations. In ultrathin sections of aldehyde-prefixed, osmium-fixed, and epoxy-embedded cells, we have localized B-DNA and Z-DNA either with single or double immunolabeling using IgG labeled with 5- and 7-nm gold particles, respectively. Chromosomal nucleofilaments of dividing or nondividing chromosomes, as seen in ultrathin sections in their arch-shaped configuration, are abundantly labeled with anti-B-DNA antibody. Extrachromosomal anti-B-DNA labeling is also detected on the nucleoplasm that corresponds to DNA loops; we confirm the presence of these loops previously described external to the chromosomes (Soyer, M.-O., and O. K. Haapala. 1974. Chromosoma (Berl.). 47

  11. The influence of regional Arctic sea-ice decline on stratospheric and tropospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, Christine; Bracegirdle, Thomas; Shuckburgh, Emily; Haynes, Peter

    2016-04-01

    region (one perturbation experiment combines all regions). These regions correspond to sea-ice loss hotspots such as the Barents-Kara Seas and the Bering Sea. The differences between the control and perturbation runs yields the effects of the imposed sea-ice loss on the polar vortex. To detect and count SSWs for each run, we use the World Meteorological Organisation's definition of an SSW (a reversal in zonal mean zonal wind at 10 hPa and 60° N, and a reversal in zonal mean meridional temperature gradient at 10 hPa between 60° N and 90° N). The poster will present and discuss the initial results of this study. Implications of the results for future change in the lower latitude mid-troposphere will be discussed. References Sun, L., C. Deser, and R. A. Tomas, 2015: Mechanisms of Stratospheric and Tropospheric Circulation Response to Projected Arctic Sea Ice Loss. J. Climate, 28, 7824-7845, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0169.1.

  12. The Sunphotometer Airborne Validation Experiment 2012: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estellés, Victor; Marenco, Franco; Ryder, Claire L.; Campanelli, Monica; Expósito, Francisco; Solá, Yolanda; Segura, Sara; Marcos, Carlos; Toledano, Carlos; Berjón, Alberto; Guirado, Carmen; Claxton, Bernard; Todd, Martin

    2013-04-01

    to provide detailed vertically resolved aerosol measurements, in order to compare these to sunphotometer retrievals. Simultaneously, 4 different ground AERONET - Cimel sites were deployed in the Tenerife island, at different latitudes and altitudes for further investigation of spatial and vertical variability. Three of these sites also measured solar radiation components with CM21 pyranometers and CHP1 pirheliometers, for further research on radiative forcing of aerosols. One site was equipped with a Prede POM sun-sky radiometer for comparison with Cimel sunphotometer. On the other hand, for the FENNEC campaign another AERONET Cimel sunphotometer was deployed in Zouerate (Mauritania). The ideal conditions for such a comparison consisted of cloudless skies and high mineral aerosol burdens, brought by the Saharan outflow. Although these conditions were not reached in the Tenerife area during the scheduled field campaign, appropriate conditions were met in western Mauritania, over the AERONET Zouerate site. In this study, we perform a preliminary analysis of the columnar properties of aerosols in the Canary Islands and West Sahara areas during the FENNEC 2011 and FENNEC-SAVEX 2012 field campaigns, with an emphasis on the comparison between the size distributions retrieved from both AERONET and SKYRAD algorithms using the Zouerate Cimel site data. Validation of the vertical integrated aerosol size distributions will be also presented. References - M.Campanelli, V.Estelles, T. Smyth, T. Nakajima, M. Hashimoto, A.Lupi, C. Tomas, "Retrieval of aerosol radiative properties from sun-sky radiometers measurements of ESR network: comparison between the inversion codes Skyrad4.2.pack and the new Skyrad5.pack", European Aerosol Conference, 2011. - V. Estellés, M. Campanelli, M. P. Utrillas, F. Expósito, and J. A. Martínez-Lozano, "Comparison of AERONET and SKYRAD4.2 inversion products retrieved from a Cimel CE318 sunphotometer", Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 569—579, 2012.

  13. PREFACE: International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP'09)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruntorad, Jan; Lokajicek, Milos

    2010-11-01

    Physics Milos Lokajicek (co-chair), Institute of Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Prague Vojtech Petracek, Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering and especially the Programme Committee for their careful choice of conference contributions and their enormous work with organization of 340 post conference proceedings paper review Ludek Matyska (chair), CESNET Online Computing Volker Gülzow, DESY Jiri Masik, University of Manchester/on leave from Institute of Physics AS CR, Prague Event Processing Elizabeth Sexton-Kennedy, FNAL Tomas Davidek, Charles University, Prague Software Components, Tools and Databases Paolo Calafiura, LBNL Julius Hrivnac, LAL Track 4 Hardware and Computing Fabrics Takashi Sasaki, KEK Jiri Chudoba, Institute of Physics AS CR, Prague Grid Middleware and Networking Technologies Francesco Giacomini, CERN Ales Krenek, Masaryk University, Brno/CESNET Distributed Processing and Analysis Latchezar Betev, CERN Simon Lin, ASGC, Taipei Dagmar Adamova, Nuclear Physics Institute AS CR, Prague Collaborative Tools Eva Hladka, Masaryk University, Brno/CESNET Thank you to all who made CHEP'09 a success. Jan Gruntorad and Milos Lokajicek CHEP'09 Conference Chairs Prague, March 2010 The PDF and HTML files contain a list of all CHEP'09 contributions.

  14. Elastoplasticidad anisotropa de metales en grandes deformaciones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caminero Torija, Miguel Angel

    Eterovic y Bathe para incluir la posibilidad de plasticidad anisotropa con endurecimiento mixto. Este primer algoritmo esta restringido a casos de isotropia elastica. La isotropia elastica es una hipotesis bastante habitual en plasticidad anisotropa y tiene la ventaja de que permite el uso de formulaciones mixtas u/p. El segundo algoritmo, mas complejo y general, incluye la posibilidad de elasticidad anisotropa, plasticidad anisotropa y endurecimiento mixto. Este algoritmo supone una contribucion importante ya que esta basado en hipotesis comunmente aceptadas y utilizadas en elastoplasticidad isotropa: descomposicion multiplicativa del gradiente de deformaciones en parte elastica y parte plastica, descripcion hiperelastica sencilla en funcion de deformaciones logaritmicas e integracion exponencial que conserva el volumen. Ademas, la estructura final del algoritmo es modular y relativamente sencilla, consistiendo en un pre- y un postprocesador geometrico y una correccion plastica realizada en pequenas deformaciones. El algoritmo esta consistentemente linealizado para conservar la convergencia cuadratica asintotica de los metodos de Newton y la forma final que toma dicha linealizacion es similar al caso de isotropia elastoplastica implementado; consiste en el modulo tangente algoritmico de pequenas deformaciones sobre el que se aplica una transformacion para convertirlo en el de grandes deformaciones. Todos estos modelos han sido implementados en un codigo propio de elementos finitos denominado DULCINEA, el cual tiene formulaciones lagrangianas totales y actualizadas para grandes deformaciones. Una de las tareas necesarias para poder realizar las simulaciones, ha sido el estudio e implementacion de diferentes elementos que no sufran el bloqueo volumetrico severo que se observa en formulaciones estandar basadas en desplazamientos. Este bloqueo se debe a la condicion de quasi-incompresibilidad que imponen los modelos de plasticidad desviadores y consiste en una respuesta

  15. Micromechanical Analyses of Sturzstroms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imre, Bernd; Laue, Jan; Springman, Sarah M.

    2010-05-01

    have been made observable and reproducible within a physical and a distinct element numerical modelling environment (DEM). As link between field evidence gained from the deposits of natural sturzstroms, the physical model within the ETH Geotechnical Drum Centrifuge (Springman et al., 2001) and the numerical model PFC-3D (Cundall and Strack, 1979; Itasca, 2005), serves a deterministic fractal analytical comminution model (Sammis et al., 1987; Steacy and Sammis, 1991). This approach allowed studying the effects of dynamic fragmentation within sturzstroms at true (macro) scale within the distinct element model, by allowing for a micro-mechanical, distinct particle based, and cyclic description of fragmentation at the same time, without losing significant computational efficiency. Theses experiments indicate rock mass and boundary conditions, which allow an alternating fragmenting and dilating dispersive regime to evolve and to be sustained long enough to replicate the spreading and run out of sturzstroms. The fragmenting spreading model supported here is able to explain the run out of a dry granular flow, beyond the travel distance predicted by a Coulomb frictional sliding model, without resorting to explanations by mechanics that can only be valid for certain, specific of the boundary conditions. The implications derived suggest that a sturzstrom, because of its strong relation to internal fractal fragmentation and other inertial effects, constitutes a landslide category of its own. Its mechanics differ significantly from all other gravity driven mass flows. This proposition does not exclude the possible appearance of frictionites, Toma hills or suspension flows etc., but it considers them as secondary features. The application of a fractal comminution model to describe natural and experimental sturzstrom deposits turned out to be a useful tool for sturzstrom research. Implemented within the DEM, it allows simulating the key features of sturzstrom successfully and

  16. EDITORIAL: Focus on Quantum Information and Many-Body Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisert, Jens; Plenio, Martin B.

    2010-02-01

    and F Verstraete SIMULATION AND DYNAMICS A quantum differentiation of k-SAT instances B Tamir and G Ortiz Classical Ising model test for quantum circuits Joseph Geraci and Daniel A Lidar Exact matrix product solutions in the Heisenberg picture of an open quantum spin chain S R Clark, J Prior, M J Hartmann, D Jaksch and M B Plenio Exact solution of Markovian master equations for quadratic Fermi systems: thermal baths, open XY spin chains and non-equilibrium phase transition Tomaž Prosen and Bojan Žunkovič Quantum kinetic Ising models R Augusiak, F M Cucchietti, F Haake and M Lewenstein ENTANGLEMENT AND SPECTRAL PROPERTIES Ground states of unfrustrated spin Hamiltonians satisfy an area law Niel de Beaudrap, Tobias J Osborne and Jens Eisert Correlation density matrices for one-dimensional quantum chains based on the density matrix renormalization group W Münder, A Weichselbaum, A Holzner, Jan von Delft and C L Henley The invariant-comb approach and its relation to the balancedness of multipartite entangled states Andreas Osterloh and Jens Siewert Entanglement scaling of fractional quantum Hall states through geometric deformations Andreas M Läuchli, Emil J Bergholtz and Masudul Haque Entanglement versus gap for one-dimensional spin systems Daniel Gottesman and M B Hastings Entanglement spectra of critical and near-critical systems in one dimension F Pollmann and J E Moore Macroscopic bound entanglement in thermal graph states D Cavalcanti, L Aolita, A Ferraro, A García-Saez and A Acín Entanglement at the quantum phase transition in a harmonic lattice Elisabeth Rieper, Janet Anders and Vlatko Vedral Multipartite entanglement and frustration P Facchi, G Florio, U Marzolino, G Parisi and S Pascazio Entropic uncertainty relations—a survey Stephanie Wehner and Andreas Winter Entanglement in a spin system with inverse square statistical interaction D Giuliano, A Sindona, G Falcone, F Plastina and L Amico APPLICATIONS Time-dependent currents of one-dimensional bosons

  17. EDITORIAL: Focus on Quantum Information and Many-Body Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisert, Jens; Plenio, Martin B.

    2010-02-01

    and F Verstraete SIMULATION AND DYNAMICS A quantum differentiation of k-SAT instances B Tamir and G Ortiz Classical Ising model test for quantum circuits Joseph Geraci and Daniel A Lidar Exact matrix product solutions in the Heisenberg picture of an open quantum spin chain S R Clark, J Prior, M J Hartmann, D Jaksch and M B Plenio Exact solution of Markovian master equations for quadratic Fermi systems: thermal baths, open XY spin chains and non-equilibrium phase transition Tomaž Prosen and Bojan Žunkovič Quantum kinetic Ising models R Augusiak, F M Cucchietti, F Haake and M Lewenstein ENTANGLEMENT AND SPECTRAL PROPERTIES Ground states of unfrustrated spin Hamiltonians satisfy an area law Niel de Beaudrap, Tobias J Osborne and Jens Eisert Correlation density matrices for one-dimensional quantum chains based on the density matrix renormalization group W Münder, A Weichselbaum, A Holzner, Jan von Delft and C L Henley The invariant-comb approach and its relation to the balancedness of multipartite entangled states Andreas Osterloh and Jens Siewert Entanglement scaling of fractional quantum Hall states through geometric deformations Andreas M Läuchli, Emil J Bergholtz and Masudul Haque Entanglement versus gap for one-dimensional spin systems Daniel Gottesman and M B Hastings Entanglement spectra of critical and near-critical systems in one dimension F Pollmann and J E Moore Macroscopic bound entanglement in thermal graph states D Cavalcanti, L Aolita, A Ferraro, A García-Saez and A Acín Entanglement at the quantum phase transition in a harmonic lattice Elisabeth Rieper, Janet Anders and Vlatko Vedral Multipartite entanglement and frustration P Facchi, G Florio, U Marzolino, G Parisi and S Pascazio Entropic uncertainty relations—a survey Stephanie Wehner and Andreas Winter Entanglement in a spin system with inverse square statistical interaction D Giuliano, A Sindona, G Falcone, F Plastina and L Amico APPLICATIONS Time-dependent currents of one-dimensional bosons

  18. Achieving Conservation Science that Bridges the Knowledge–Action Boundary

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Carly N; Mascia, Michael B; Schwartz, Mark W; Possingham, Hugh P; Fuller, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    capacitación para profesionales de la conservación. Aunque estos no son los únicos métodos para generar ciencia que traspone fronteras, ni son mutuamente excluyentes, proporcionan mecanismos que promueven la comunicación, traslación y mediación para trasponer la frontera conocimiento-acción. Consideramos que no obstante los retos, la ciencia de la conservación debería pugnar por ser una ciencia de frontera, que incrementa el entendimiento científico y contribuye a la toma de decisiones. PMID:23574343

  19. The conceptualization model problem—surprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredehoeft, John

    2005-03-01

    que le modèle conceptuel peut bien changer lorsque des nouvelles informations apparaissent. Dans l'analyse finale le hydrogéologue prend une décision subjective sur le modèle conceptuel approprié. Le problème du le modèle conceptuel ne doit pas rendre le modèle inutilisable. Ce problème introduit une incertitude qui n'est pas toujours reconnue. Les incertitudes du modèle conceptuel deviennent plus importantes dans les cases de prévisions à long terme dans l'analyse de performance. La base para hacer un análisis de un modelo es el modelo conceptual. Se define aquí la sorpresa como los datos nuevos que convierten en incoherente al modelo conceptual previamente aceptado; tal como se define aquí esto representa un cambio de paradigma. Los datos empíricos limitados indican que estas sorpresas suceden entre un 20 a un 30% de los análisis de modelos. Esto sugiere que los analistas de modelos de agua subterránea tienen dificultades al seleccionar el modelo conceptual apropiado. No hayotra solución disponible a este problema del modelo conceptual diferente de: (1) Recolectar tanta información como sea posible, mediante la utilización de todos los métodos aplicables, lo cual puede resultar en que esta nueva información ayude a cambiar el modelo conceptual vigente, y (2) Que el analista de modelos se mantenga siempre abierto al hecho de que un modelo conceptual puede cambiar de manera total, en la medida en que se colecte mas información. En el análisis final el hidrogeólogo toma una decisión subjetiva en cuanto al modelo conceptual apropiado. El problema de la conceptualización no produce modelos inútiles. El problema presenta una incertidumbre, la cual a menudo no es tenida en cuentade manera adecuada. Esta incertidumbre en los modelos conceptuales se aumenta, cuando se hacen predicciones a largo plazo del comportamiento de un sistema dado.

  20. Managing for sustainability in an arid climate: lessons learned from 20 years of groundwater management in Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Katharine L.; Holway, James M.

    'importance de données de haute qualité dans la prise de décisions de gestion. Resumen Se ha logrado un progreso substancial en el centro de Arizona para conseguir un futuro más sustentable del agua, particularmente al trasladar la demanda urbana desde un suministro basado principalmente en aguas subterráneas no renovables hacia una mayor dependencia de las aguas superficiales de los ríos Colorado y Salado y de los efluentes de aguas depuradas. Los esfuerzos de gestión incluyen un amplio rango de programas legales y voluntarios que han tenido un éxito combinado. El Departamento de Recursos Hídricos ha aprendido diversas lecciones clave a lo largo de los años, y este artículo intenta establecer el contexto de la gestión del agua e identificar lo averiguado para beneficio de terceros que quieran evaluar enfoques alternativos para gestionar las aguas subterráneas. Entre los temas tratados, destaca la evaluación de los enfoques de gestión del agua en un contexto político público, la efectividad de enfoques alternativos de gestión y los méritos relativos de los esfuerzos regulativos y no regulativos, y la importancia de los datos de alta calidad para la toma de decisiones de gestión. Groundwater use in many areas of Arizona greatly exceeds the natural replenishment of the aquifer, so although a portion of the groundwater use is renewable, the majority is not.

  1. EDITORIAL: Focus on High Energy Cosmic Rays FOCUS ON HIGH ENERGY COSMIC RAYS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teshima, Masahiro; Watson, Alan A.

    2009-06-01

    regard to the energy spectrum of the highest energy cosmic rays. The remaining contributions are of a more theoretical nature and discuss propagation (T Stanev), the time structure of multi-messenger signals (G H W Sigl), ultra-high energy cosmic ray production near black holes (A Yu Neronov, D V Semikoz and I I Tkachev), production in jets associated with black holes (C D Dermer, S Razzaque, J Finke and A Atoyan) and emission from a specific object, Cen A (M Kachelriess, S S Ostapchenko and R Tomas). Additionally the potential of high energy cosmic rays to give information about features of hadronic interactions, specifically the cross-section for p-air collisions, is discussed in the paper by R Ulrich et al. We thank all our authors most sincerely for their efforts and Tim Smith and his editorial team for their hard work. We believe that this collection of articles will be of great value to workers in the field: further contributions to this focus issue will be published during the course of 2009. Focus on High Energy Cosmic Rays Contents The cosmic ray energy spectrum as measured using the Pierre Auger Observatory Giorgio Matthiae The northern site of the Pierre Auger Observatory Johannes Blümer and the Pierre Auger Collaboration Searching for new physics with ultrahigh energy cosmic rays Floyd W Stecker and Sean T Scully On the measurement of the proton-air cross section using air shower data R Ulrich, J Blümer, R Engel, F Schüssler and M Unger High energy radiation from Centaurus A M Kachelrieß, S Ostapchenko and R Tomàs Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays from black hole jets of radio galaxies C D Dermer, S Razzaque, J D Finke and A Atoyan Ultra-high energy cosmic ray production in the polar cap regions of black hole magnetospheres A Yu Neronov, D V Semikoz and I I Tkachev Time structure and multi-messenger signatures of ultra-high energy cosmic ray sources Günter Sigl Propagation of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays Todor Stanev Search for the end of the energy

  2. Contribution of Systematic Reviews to Management Decisions

    PubMed Central

    COOK, CARLY N; POSSINGHAM, HUGH P; FULLER, RICHARD A

    2014-01-01

    Decisiones de Manejo Resumen Las revisiones sistemáticas resumen integralmente la evidencia sobre la efectividad de las intervenciones de conservación. Investigamos la contribución de las decisiones de manejo hechas por este creciente cuerpo de literatura. Identificamos 43 revisiones sistemáticas de evidencia de conservación, 23 de las cuales hicieron algunas conclusiones concretas relevantes al manejo. La mayoría de las revisiones se dirigían a intervenciones de conservación relevantes a las decisiones políticas; sólo el 35% consideraba intervenciones de manejo sobre-la-causa prácticas. La mayoría de las revisiones cubrieron solo una pequeña fracción de la amplitud geográfica y taxonómica a la que buscaban dirigirse (mediana = 13% de los países relevantes y 16% de los taxones relevantes). La probabilidad de que las revisiones tuvieran por lo menos algunas implicaciones para el manejo tendió a incrementar conforme la cobertura geográfica incrementaba y a declinar conforme aumentaba la amplitud taxonómica. Estos resultados sugieren que la amplitud de una revisión taxonómica requiere de una consideración cuidadosa. Las revisiones identificaron una media de 312 estudios primarios relevantes pero excluyeron 88% de estos por deficiencias en el diseño o fallas para coincidir con otros criterios de inclusión. Las revisiones resumieron en promedio 248 juegos de datos y 112 años de actividad de investigación, pero la probabilidad de que sus resultados tuvieran por lo menos algunas implicaciones para el manejo no incrementaron mientras la cantidad de investigación primaria resumida aumentaba. En algunos casos, las conclusiones fueron elusivas a pesar de la inclusión de cientos de conjuntos de datos y años de actividad de investigación acumulada. Las revisiones sistemáticas son una parte importante del juego de herramientas en la toma de decisiones de conservación, aunque consideramos que los beneficios de las revisiones sistemáticas podrían ser

  3. PREFACE: Selected contributions from the 3rd Theory Meets Industry International Workshop, TMI2009 (Nagoya, Japan, 11-13 November 2009) Selected contributions from the 3rd Theory Meets Industry International Workshop, TMI2009 (Nagoya, Japan, 11-13 November 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Isao; Hafner, Jürgen; Wimmer, Erich; Asahi, Ryoji

    2010-09-01

    . Lectures and poster presentations were thus solicited from leading international academic and industrial researchers. The large audience that attended responded to the high quality of the talks with pertinent questions and lively discussions. The third workshop, TMI2009, was held over three days from 11-13 November, 2009, at the Nagoya International Center, Nagoya, Japan. Invited talks were given by 23 speakers from 9 countries from both the academic and industry sectors. The speakers were Ryoji Asahi (Toyota Central R&D Labs, Japan), Tomas Bucko (University of Vienna, Austria), Gábor Csányi (University of Cambridge, UK), Alessandro De Vita (King's College London, UK), Bernard Delley (Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland), Christophe Domain (EDF, France), George Fitzgerald (Accelrys, USA), Takeo Fujiwara (University of Tokyo, Japan), Jürgen Hafner (University of Vienna, Austria), Masaya Ishida (Sumitomo Chemicals, Japan), Werner Janse Van Rensburg (Sasol Technology, South Africa), Masanori Kohyama (AIST, Japan), Takao Kotani (Tottori University, Japan), Georg Kresse (University of Vienna, Austria), Katsuyuki Matsunaga (Kyoto University, Japan), Stefan Müller (University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany), Shin-ichiro Nakamura (Mitsubishi Chemicals, Japan), Fumiyasu Oba (Kyoto University, Japan), Tamio Oguchi (Hiroshima University, Japan), Pascal Raybaud (IFP, France), Isao Tanaka (Kyoto University/JFCC, Japan), Göran Wahnström (Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden), and Erich Wimmer (Materials Design Inc., USA). There were 40 poster presentations in total. The workshop was attended by approximately 120 participants with approximately 50 per cent from industry. The invited talks covered advances in ab initio solid-state calculations and their practical use in industry. Presentations outlining the progress made in treating large and complex systems, as well as more accurate and efficient calculation methods, were given from the theory side. Examples of the use of ab

  4. a Passage to the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    a concluding Press Conference , during which the outcome of this unique event will be summarized by the participants and the organisers: Monday, November 20, 1995, 15:30 pm, at the ESO Headquarters, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany List of National First-Prize Winners Belgium: Mr. Freddy Allemeersch (Teacher), Mr. Pieter De Ceuninck, Mr. Jeroen Staelens (Onze-Lieve-Vrouwecollege, Brugge) Denmark: Mr. Joern C. Olsen, Mr. Henrik Struckmann, Mr. Uffe A. Hansen, Mr. Mogens Winther (Teacher) (Soenderborg Amtsgymnasium) Finland: Mr. Reima Eresmaa, Ms. Laura Elina Nykyri, Ms. Reetamaija Janhonen (Cygnaeues-Lukeo, Jyvaeskylae and Jyvaeskylaen Lyseon Lukeo) France: Mr. Rene Cavaroz (Teacher), Mr. Vincent Hardy, Mr. Antoine Lesuffleur (Lycee Chartier, Bayeux) Germany: Ms. Dorothee Barth, Mr. Walter Czech (Teacher), Mr. Uwe Kranz, Ms. Karin Wieland (Immanuel-Kant-Gymnasium, Leinfelden-Echterdingen, Baden-Wuerttemberg) Greece: Ms. Agni Ioannidi, Ms. Elena Katifori, Mr. Vassilis Samiotis, Mr. Vassillos Tzotzes (Teacher) (Second Varvakelo Experimental Lyceum, Athens) Ireland: Mr. Declan Maccuarta (Teacher), Mr. Colm Mcloughlin (St. Peter's College, Wexford, Co. Wexford) Italy: Mr. Pasquale Ciarletta, Ms. Francesca D'elia, Ms. Ada Fortugna (Teacher), Mr. Alfredo Pudano (Liceo Scientifico `Leonardo da Vinci', Reggio Calabria) The Netherlands: Mr. Alex De Beer, Mr. Klaas Huijbregts, Mr. Ruud Nellen (Norbertuscollege, Rosendaal) Spain: Mr. Aritz Atela Aio, Mr. Julen Sarasola Manich (Teacher), Mr. Jon Huertas Rodriquez (Txorierri Batxilergoko Institua, Derio Bizkaia) Sweden: Mr. Rahman Amanullah, Mr. Kjell L. Bonander (Teacher), Mr. Tomas Oppelstrup, Ms. Christin Wiedemann (Saltsjoebadens Samskola, Saltsjoebaden) United Kingdom: Mr. Michael Ching, Dr. Richard Field (Teacher) (Oundle School, Peterborough) National Committees Further information about the national contests may be obtained from the National Committees: Belgium: Dr. C. Sterken, Vrije Universiteit

  5. Geochemistry and the understanding of ground-water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glynn, Pierre D.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2005-03-01

    mecanismos de flujo y transporte en sistemas de agua subterránea, y han ayudado a descifrar un archivo de información paleoambiental. Información hidroquímica e isotópica puede utilizarse para interpretar el origen y modo de recarga de agua subterránea, descifrar procesos reactivos, aportar información paleohidrológica, y calibrar modelos de flujo de agua subterránea. Necesita avanzarse en la obtención de muestras representativas. Se necesitan mejoras en la interpretación de la información obtenida y en la construcción e interpretación de modelos numéricos que utilizan datos hidroquímicos. El mejor enfoque asegurará un proceso iterativo optimizado entre toma y análisis de datos de campo, interpretación, y la aplicación de herramientas de modelizado estadísticas, directas, e inversas. Se anticipan avancesa partir de investigaciones microbiológicas, la caracterización de orgánicos naturales, caracterización isotópica, aplicaciones de mediciones de gas disuelto, y los campos de cinética de reacción y procesos acoplados. Se ofrece una perspectiva termodinámica que podría facilitar la comparación y entendimiento de los múltiples procesos físicos, químicos, y biológicos que afectan sistemas de aguas subterráneas.

  6. Chlorine-36 and the initial value problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Stanley N.; Cecil, DeWayne; Zreda, Marek; Sharma, Pankaj

    atmosféricos. También se produjeron grandes cantidades en las pruebas termonucleares que tuvieron lugar entre 1952-58. Al tratarse de un anión monovalente, el cloruro es la forma más común en que se presenta el cloro en la hidrosfera, y al ser extremadamente móvil en sistemas acuosos, los análisis tanto de Cl- total como de 36Cl han tenido gran importancia en muchos estudios hidrológicos. En la mayoría de aplicaciones del 36Cl, el conocimiento de los niveles iniciales (pre-antropogénicos) de 36Cl es esencial. Los métodos tradicionales para la determinación de los valores iniciales han sido: (a) calcular la producción cosmogénica teórica y su aporte a la superficie de la Tierra, que varía en función de la latitud; (b) medir el 36Cl en las precipitaciones actuales, asumiendo que las contribuciones antropogénicas son despreciables; (c) asumir que las aguas subterráneas más superficiales mantienen la concentración inicial; (d) extraer los contenidos de 36Cl en perfiles verticales profundos en suelos desérticos (e) realizar la misma operación en muestras de hielo glaciar; y (f) calcular la producción subsuperficial de 36Cl para un agua que lleva sin contacto con la atmósfera durante más de un millón de años. El valor inicial de los perfiles de suelo y de las muestras de hielo se toma como el valor que se presenta directamente por debajo del punto que marca el pico producido por las bombas, y que es fácilmente identificable. Los seis métodos tienen sus puntos débiles. Entre los factores que complican la interpretación se incluyen las concentraciones de 36Cl no relacionadas con fuentes cosmogénicas, las variaciones temporales en la producción cosmogénica, la mezcla de fuentes de cloruro en las aguas subterráneas, el deshielo y recongelación del agua en los glaciares, y la recarga estacional que contiene concentraciones de 36Cl que no se corresponden con el promedio anual.

  7. Preface: SciDAC 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Rick

    2008-07-01

    talks from several European groups, including Laurent Gicquel of CERFACS, who spoke on `Large-Eddy Simulations of Turbulent Reacting Flows of Real Burners: Status and Challenges', and Jean-Francois Hamelin from EDF, who presented a talk on `Getting Ready for Petaflop Capacities and Beyond: A Utility Perspective'. Two other compelling addresses gave attendees a glimpse into the future. Tomas Diaz de la Rubia of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory spoke on a vision for a fusion/fission hybrid reactor known as the `LIFE Engine' and discussed some of the materials and modeling challenges that need to be overcome to realize the vision for a 1000-year greenhouse-gas-free power source. Dan Reed from Microsoft gave a capstone talk on the convergence of technology, architecture, and infrastructure for cloud computing, data-intensive computing, and exascale computing (1018 flops/sec). High-performance computing is making rapid strides. The SciDAC community's computational resources are expanding dramatically. In the summer of 2008 the first general purpose petascale system (IBM Cell-based RoadRunner at Los Alamos National Laboratory) was recognized in the top 500 list of fastest machines heralding in the dawning of the petascale era. The DOE's leadership computing facility at Argonne reached number three on the Top 500 and is at the moment the most capable open science machine based on an IBM BG/P system with a peak performance of over 550 teraflops/sec. Later this year Oak Ridge is expected to deploy a 1 petaflops/sec Cray XT system. And even before the scientific community has had an opportunity to make significant use of petascale systems, the computer science research community is forging ahead with ideas and strategies for development of systems that may by the end of the next decade sustain exascale performance. Several talks addressed barriers to, and strategies for, achieving exascale capabilities. The last day of the conference was devoted to tutorials hosted by

  8. Participatory groundwater management in Jordan: Development and analysis of options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebaane, Mohamed; El-Naser, Hazim; Fitch, Jim; Hijazi, Amal; Jabbarin, Amer

    ómicos, se ha recomendado la implementación de cinco opciones complementarias de gestión: establecimiento de un Servicio Asesor de Riego; adquisición de pozos de granjas; imposición de límites estrictos en las extracciones de pozos y superficies de riego; substitución de las aguas subterráneas con aguas residuales depuradas; y medidas para incrementar la eficiencia de los usos municipales e industriales del agua. Se ha agrupado varias combinaciones y niveles de dichas opciones en escenarios, representando estrategias posibles de implementación. Los escenarios han sido diseñados para ayudar a los gestores en la toma de decisiones, a los propietarios de pozos y a otros agentes para que se vaya consiguiendo de forma gradual un régimen de extracciones sustentable. Se ha analizado los aspectos sociales y económicos de cada opción y de cada escenario, presentándolos a los diversos agentes, además de generar un resumen de ramificaciones legales, institucionales y medioambientales. Se ha concebido la combinación de un análisis científico con un enfoque participativo en la cuenca de Ammán-Zarga como un prototipo de gestión de las aguas subterráneas que puede ser aplicado a la gestión de otras cuencas en Jordania. También sería útil en otros lugares del mundo que estén experimentando problemas similares de sobreexplotación de los recursos hídricos subterráneos.

  9. About some processes of replacement of PGM from the placers of Southern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvedov, G. I.; Knyazev, V. N.; Nekos, V. V.

    2003-04-01

    placer of Sysim river (Eastern Sayan). The similar composition of phase was described by S.A.Toma and S.Murphy /6/. In placer of Talanovaya river (Kuznetsky Alatau) the edging of idealized composition Os_2S (tab., No. 4-1) are develops on the grain of Os-Ir-ruthenium (tab., No.4). It indicates deficit of sulfur in a solution. In case of increased concentration of arsenic the minerals of Os-Ir-Ru system (tab., No. 5) are replaced by diarsenides (anduoite - omeiite series) (tab., No. 5-1) or sulfoarsenides of these elements as it was observed in PGM from placer of Rudnaya river (Western Sayan). In the extremely rare cases at superposition of sulfurless and arsenicless solutions the replacement of alloys Os-Ir-Ru by exotic phases can happen. For example, authors find the grain of native iridium, which was heavily deformed and impregnated on microgaps by phases of generalized composition from Pt(Ni,Cu,Fe)_2 to Ir(Ni,Fe,Cu)_3 in placer of Bolshoy Khaylik river /7/. The forming of similar phases can be initiated by very specific conditions: the extremely reducing conditions, very low fugitivity of sulfur and oxygen, absence of other anion-forming elements, high activity of a nickel, iron and cooper. The similar phases were found in streak-schlieren chromitic ores in one massif of alpine-type ultramafic rocks of Koryak Highland /3/. Also rather rare replacement of platinum with the high contents of ruthenium and iridium (platruthenosmiridium by old nomenclature) (tab., No.6) by Pt-Fe alloys (tab., No.6-1). It was observed by authors in PGM from placer of Talanovaya river (Kuznetsky Alatau). In the system Pt-Fe most widespread placer-forming minerals are ferriferous platinum, tetraferroplatinum and isoferroplatinum. In placers that were investigated by the authors the Pt-Fe alloys most frequently is replaced by cuperite, which forms the various thickness edgings. It usual phenomenon in some cases becomes complicated by forming of narrow (first microns) intermittent band of high

  10. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    Università di Napoli Federico II Elena Méndez Escobar University of Edinburgh Iulian Negru University of Craiova Emil NissimovInstitute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia Teake NutmaCentre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen Niels Obers Niels Bohr Institute, København Olof Ohlsson SaxUppsala University Rodrigo OleaIstituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano Domenico OrlandoUniversité de Neuchâtel Marta Orselli Niels Bohr Institute, København Tomas OrtinInstituto de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Yaron OzTel Aviv University Enrico PajerLudwig-Maximilians-Universität, München Angel Paredes GalanUtrecht University Sara PasquettiUniversité de Neuchâtel Silvia PenatiUniversità di Milano-Bicocca Jan PerzKatholieke Universiteit Leuven Igor PesandoUniversità di Torino Tassos PetkouUniversity of Crete Marios PetropoulosCenter de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Franco PezzellaIstituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli Moises Picon PonceUniversity of Padova Marco PirroneUniversità di Milano-Bicocca Andrea PrinslooUniversity of Cape Town Joris RaeymaekersKatholieke Universiteit Leuven Alfonso RamalloUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Carlo Alberto RattiUniversità di Milano-Bicocca Marco RauchPhysikalisches Institut, Universität Bonn Ronald Reid-EdwardsUniversity of Hamburg Patricia RitterUniversity of Edinburgh Peter RoenneDESY, Hamburg Jan RosseelUniversità di Torino Clement RuefService de Physique Théorique, CEA Saclay Felix RustMax-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Thomas RyttovNiels Bohr Institute, København and CERN, Geneva Agustin Sabio VeraCERN, Geneva Christian SaemannTrinity College, Dublin Houman Safaai SISSA, Trieste Henning SamtlebenÉcole Normale Supérieure, Lyon Alberto SantambrogioIstituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano Silviu Constantin SararuUniversity of Craiova Ricardo SchiappaCERN, Geneva Ionut Romeo SchiopuChalmers University, G

  11. Young Astronomers' Observe with ESO Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    system (with the name `Ngnz'i'!), consisting of a central star that is somewhat larger than the Sun and situated at the same distance as the Sun from the centre of the Milky Way System (31,700 light-years). The distance from the Sun is twice as large, 63,400 light-years. Circling the central star at a distance of 300 million kilometres, there is a double planet with a revolution period of just over 3 years. The conditions on another planet further out is suitable for life and it harbours frog-like intelligent beings. Two outer, gaseous planets complete this system. Spain: Mr. Aritz Atela Aio, Mr. Julen Sarasola Manich (Teacher), Mr. Jon Huertas Rodriquez (Txorierri Batxilergoko Institua, Derio Bizkaia) The group built its own f/8 Newtonian reflector with a main mirror of 20 cm diameter. They tested it on various astronomical objects and found that it produced quite good images. Then they put together their own CCD camera from spare parts; the frame size is about 5 x 4 mm with a total of 300,000 pixels. With this special equipment, they have observed the major Jovian moons as they revolve around Jupiter. They projected the image on a TV-screen and measured the exact positions of the moons, relative to Jupiter, on this screen. In this way, they were able to determine the periods of revolution of the moons and from the diameters of the orbits and Jupiter's size, they could determine Jupiter's mass and mean density. Sweden: Mr. Rahman Amanullah, Mr. Kjell L. Bonander (Teacher), Mr. Tomas Oppelstrup, Ms. Christin Wiedemann (Saltsjoebadens Samskola, Saltsjoebaden) In another Universe, three heroes meet on a far-away planet, named Magrathea. They check the computerized data archive available there, discovering a reference to the planetary system Ikaros III, and a description of its formation and evolution. At the centre is an A-type star, Ikaros; the temperature is 9700 K, and its lifetime is about 500 million years. It is surrounded by three planets, whose physical

  12. PREFACE: CEWQO Topical Issue CEWQO Topical Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita

    2009-09-01

    conducting plates (modifications of the decay rate between such plates) and the three-level Jaynes-Cummings dynamics in the single-mode regime. Tomas studies the interaction between two atoms, one excited and the other in its ground state near the interface between two media. It is shown that the nonretarded van der Waals force gets enhanced by almost three orders of magnitude at the surface mode resonance. Vuskovic et al write about the plasma treatment of a bulk Nb surface which is very efficient for producing high-Q factor microwave cavities. Nemeth et al review the theory and experiments of the coherently pumped micromaser. With varied atomic inversion in a coherently pumped micromaser, a sudden switch occurs between two distinctively different field states, with high and low photon numbers. Moi et al show that alkali-metal atoms adsorbed either in organic films or in porous glass are released into the vapor phase (desorbed) under illumination, the action of many photons. Several papers are devoted to matter-wave interference and quantum fluids. By analyzing unavoidable quantum losses as they appear in neutron phase-echo and spin rotation experiments, Rauch concludes that basic quantum irreversibility exists in neutron interferometry. Rauch also shows how entanglement effects in a single particle system demonstrate quantum contextuality, and then argues that a quantum system carries much more information than is usually extracted. The time evolution of the wave function of an atom hit by a photon in a three-grating interferometer is used by Arsenovic et al to interpret the intriguing results of the corresponding experiment by Chapman et al. Grujic et al demonstrate dark Raman resonance due to Ramsey interference in a spatially separated pump and probe laser beams co-propagating through a pure 87Rb vapor cell. Obtained EIT profiles are explained by solving Bloch's equations for an atom in a magnetic field moving through pump and probe laser regions. Gawlik et al present