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Sample records for kanagawa prefecture japan

  1. Noise issues in Kanagawa Prefecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoshima, Shigenori; Tamura, Akihiro

    2001-05-01

    In Kanagawa Prefecture, bordering Tokyo Metropolis and the third most densely populated prefecture in Japan, various noises have caused serious problems in terms of living environment preservation and human health protection. This paper describes present states of noise issues in Kanagawa. Road traffic noise, remaining one of serious pollution issues, was monitored at a total 217 sites along trunk roads in Kanagawa from fiscal year 2000 to 2002. The percentage of the sites that achieve environmental quality standards for road traffic noise was approximately 20%. Noise caused by Tokaido Shinkansen trains, of which the total daily number is 287, also has negative impacts on inhabitants along the railway. As a result of the noise measurement from fiscal year 1994 to 2002, about 80% of the measurement sites exceeded environmental quality standards for Shinkansen railway noise during the years. In the areas surrounding the Atsugi Base, noise generated by training flights damagingly affects inhabitants' daily life. The number of complaints due to the noise was largest among noise issues. Moreover, neighborhood noises, noises emitted during the nighttime operation of bars, restaurants and shops, and noises produced by work in out-of-door yards have recently provoked social issues.

  2. Kozu-Matsuda fault system in northern Izu collision zone, western part of Kanagawa Prefecture, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odawara, K.; Aketagawa, T.; Yoshida, A.

    2010-12-01

    Western area of Kanagawa Prefecture is techtonically highlighted by its geological setting that the Izu-Bonin volcanic arc collides with the Japan Island arc there. The Kozu-Matsuda fault system which consists of the Kozu-Matsuda fault, the Matsuda-kita fault, the Hinata fault and the Hirayama fault is a surface manifestation of the plate boundary. Research of the Kozu-Matsuda fault has advanced dramatically after the 1995 Kobe Earthquake. Having conducted a trench survey, Kanagawa Prefectural Government (2004) reported that the Kozu-Matsuda fault was activated at least four times in the past 4000 years and the latest activity occurred 650-950 years ago (AD. 1350-1050). However, details of the activity of the Hinata and Hirayama faults, the northern extension of the Kozu-Matsuda fault, are not well understood. The Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Urban areas (DaiDaiToku) made a 2040 m deep drilling in 2004 in Yamakita Town (Hayashi et al., 2006). DaiDaiToku also carried out the seismic reflection profiling along a route from Odawara to Yamanashi in 2005 (Sato et al., 2005). The study done by DaiDaiToku elucidated presence of two north-dipping thrusts. The northern thrust corresponds to the Hinata fault, and the southern one which is also considered to be a continuation of the Kozu-Matsuda fault probably represents a frontal thrust (Miyauchi et al., 2006). We have conducted paleoseismic investigations using data from boreholes across these thrusts.

  3. Web-based Recruiting for a Survey on Knowledge and Awareness of Cervical Cancer Prevention Among Young Women Living in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Miyagi, Etsuko; Motoki, Yoko; Asai-Sato, Mikiko; Taguri, Masataka; Morita, Satoshi; Hirahara, Fumiki; Wark, John D.; Garland, Suzanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Cervical cancer (CC) incidence and mortality among young women have been increasing in Japan. To develop effective measures to combat this, we assessed the feasibility of using a social networking site (SNS) to recruit a representative sample of young women to conduct a knowledge and attitude study about CC prevention via an internet-based questionnaire. Methods From July 2012 to March 2013, advertising banners targeting women aged 16 to 35 years in Kanagawa Prefecture were placed on Facebook in a similar manner as an Australian (AUS) study conducted in 16- to 25-year-olds in 2010 and on a homepage to advertise our CC advocacy activities. Eligible participants were emailed instructions for accessing our secure Web site where they completed an online survey including demographics, awareness, and knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and CC. Data for the study population were compared with the general Japanese population and the AUS study. Results Among 394 women who expressed interest, 243 (62%) completed the survey, with 52% completing it via Facebook. Women aged 26 to 35 years, living in Yokohama City, with an education beyond high school, were overrepresented. Participants had high awareness and knowledge of HPV and CC, comparable with the AUS study participants. However, the self-reported HPV vaccination rate (22% among participants aged 16–25 years) and the recognition rate of the link between smoking and CC (31%) were significantly lower than in the AUS study (58% and 43%, respectively) (P < 0.05). Significant predictors of high knowledge scores about HPV included awareness of HPV vaccine (P < 0.001) and self-reported HPV vaccination (P < 0.05). Conclusions The SNS and homepage are efficient methods to recruit young women into health surveys, which can effectively be performed online. A nationwide survey using SNSs would be an appropriate next step to better understand the current lack of uptake of the national HPV vaccine program by young women

  4. [An outbreak of waterborne Cryptosporidiosis in Kanagawa, Japan].

    PubMed

    Kuroki, T; Watanabe, Y; Asai, Y; Yamai, S; Endo, T; Uni, S; Kimata, I; Iseki, M

    1996-02-01

    An outbreak of diarrhea due to infection with Cryptosporidium occurred among the staff members and customers who visited one of the 10 public houses or a dancing school in a building in Hiratsuka, Kanagawa Prefecture, at the end of summer in 1994. The epidemiological surveys by a questionnaire revealed that 461 out of 736 persons investigated complained of cholera-like or flu-like illness. The clinical manifestations included mucous and/or watery diarrhea (96.7%), abdominal pain (61.6%), fever (54.2%: lower than 39 degrees C = 84.1%, higher than 39 degrees C = 15.9%), malaise (37.1%), nausea (32.8%) and headache (29.3%). The polluted drinking water was strongly suspected to be the immediate cause of infection. Although several species of pathogenic bacteria were isolated both from stool and water samples, they were not supposed to be linked to the outbreak. No known enteropathogenic virus was found in either of the samples. Oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum were identified in 12 (48.0%) of the 25 stool samples. The oocysts were also found in tap water and other water samples from a receiving tank which was directly connected with the public waterworks, and an elevated tank on the roof, a wastewater pits, a soil pit and artesianspring water tank. These tanks and pits except for the elevated tank were built adjucent to each other on an underground floor of the building. These tanks and pits were connected with openings in the upperpart of the tank walls. These openings might have functioned to discharge excess of drinking water in the receiving tank to the wastewater pit. The water level of the wastewater pit is kept down below the openings by pumping out the sanitary sewage to the public drain. According to the declaration of the owner of the building, however, the wastewater pump was broken at the time of outbreak. Accidental malfunction of the drainage system caused contamination of drinking water with sanitary sewage through the connecting pipes.

  5. [A survey of utilization of and problems with the MSDS in chemical substances management at workplaces in Kanagawa Prefecture].

    PubMed

    Koshi, Kimiko; Mouri, Tetuo; Sugimori, Hiroki; Numano, Takashi; Ashida, Toshifumi; Hiro, Hisanori; Miyake, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Michiko; Ishiwata, Kouichi

    2002-09-01

    Kanagawa Occupational Health Promotion Center conducted a survey on how the MSDS is utilized at workplaces with more than 50 employees handling chemical substances, and what measures are taken to help employees to thoroughly understand information in the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Questionnaires were sent out to 265 enterprises in Kanagawa prefecture, putting questions to industrial physicians and industrial hygiene supervisors. The objective of the survey was to find out how MSDS is adopted in the system to manage occupational health, what improvements the survey respondents want in MSDS and what expectations the respondents have of our center. 193 enterprises (72.8%) returned answers to the questionnaire. The major findings are as follows. (1) In many companies, information on hazardous/toxic materials is "controlled by a division using such materials", and roughly half of the companies have compiled a common list shared throughout the company. (2) For the most part suppliers submit to the MSDS. Larger companies have a higher rate of posting up or filing the MSDS at their workplaces. Only 25.8% of the companies "rewrite the MSDS so that workers can understand it." (3) Companies that carry out a hazard/toxicity assessment before introducing a new chemical substance account for 72.1%, which is higher than we expected. It indicates that even though the companies don't manage the MSDS adequately, they are highly concerned about hazard control of chemical substances. (4) The rate of answering that "the current MSDS is not easy to understand" is higher among large-sized enterprises and lower among enterprises with fewer than 300 employees. (5) Asked what improvement needs to be made on the MSDS, the industrial physicians and industrial hygiene supervisors gave same answers such as "Workers find the terminology difficult to understand." and "Levels of toxicity can't be clearly identified." (6) The respondents expect our center to provide information for the MSDS

  6. Microbiological survey of mice (Mus musculus) purchased from commercial pet shops in Kanagawa and Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hayashimoto, Nobuhito; Morita, Hanako; Ishida, Tomoko; Uchida, Ritsuki; Tanaka, Mai; Ozawa, Midori; Yasuda, Masahiko; Itoh, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Information regarding the prevalence of infectious agents in mice in pet shops in Japan is scarce. This information is particularly useful for minimizing the risk of potential transmission of infections to laboratory mice. Therefore, we surveyed infectious agents in mice from pet shops in Kanagawa and Tokyo, Japan. The survey was conducted in 28 mice from 5 pet shops to screen for 47 items (17 viruses, 22 bacteria and fungi, 10 parasites) using culture tests, serology, PCR, and microscopy. The most common viral agent detected was murine norovirus (17 mice; 60.7%), followed by Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (13 mice; 46.4%), and mouse hepatitis virus (12 mice; 42.8%). The most common agent amongst the bacteria and fungi was Pasteurella pneumotropica (10 mice; 35.7%), followed by Helicobacter ganmani and Pneumocystis murina (8 mice; 28.5%, for both). Tritrichomonas muris was the most common parasite (19 mice; 67.8%), followed by Spironucleus muris (13 mice; 46.4%), Aspiculuris tetraptera, and Syphacia obvelata (8 mice each; 28.5%). Remarkably, a zoonotic agent, Hymenolepis nana, was found in 7 mice (25%). Given these results, we suggest that the workers in laboratory animal facilities should recognize again the potential risks of mice outside of the laboratory animal facilities as an infectious source, and avoid keeping mice as pets or as feed for carnivorous reptiles as much as possible for risk management.

  7. Prediction of Female Breast Cancer Incidence among the Aging Society in Kanagawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Kayoko

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the increasing number of elderly “baby boomers” in Japan, the number of cancer patients is also expected to increase. Approximately 2 million baby boomers from nearby local areas are residing in metropolitan areas; hence, the geographical distribution of cancer patients will probably markedly change. We assessed the expected number of breast cancer (BC) patients in different regions (urban, outer city, town, rural) using estimates of the nation’s population and Kanagawa Cancer Registry data. To estimate future BC incidence for each region, we multiplied the 2010 rate by the predicted female population for each region according to age group. The incidence cases of BC in those aged ≥65 years is expected to increase in all areas; in particular, compared to rates in 2010, the BC incidence in urban areas was predicted to increase by 82.6% in 2035 and 102.2% in 2040. Although the incidence in all BC cases in urban areas showed an increasing trend, until peaking in 2040 (increasing 31.2% from 2010), the number of BC patients would continue to decrease in other areas. The number of BC patients per capita BC specialist was 64.3 patients in 2010; this value would increase from 59.3 in 2010 to 77.7 in 2040 in urban areas, but would decrease in other areas. Our findings suggest that the number of elderly BC patients is expected to increase rapidly in urban areas and that the demand for BC treatment would increase in the elderly population in urban areas. PMID:27532126

  8. Imported malaria cases in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Higa, Futoshi; Tateyama, Masao; Tasato, Daisuke; Karimata, Yosuke; Nakamura, Hideta; Miyagi, Kazuya; Haranaga, Shusaku; Hirata, Tetsuo; Hokama, Akira; Cash, Haley L; Toma, Hiromu; Fujita, Jiro

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in global transportation, imported malaria has become a significant public health concern in Japan. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed all imported malaria cases in Okinawa Prefecture from 1988 to 2012. In that period, 23 patients with imported malaria were admitted to the University of the Ryukyus Hospital. Malaria types observed included Plasmodium falciparum (14 cases), P. vivax (7 cases), combined P. falciparum and P. ovale (1 case), and combined P. vivax and P. malariae (1 case). All cases were resolved by anti-malarial treatment. The clinical data from these patients highlights the importance of collecting patient travel history and ensuring an adequate supply of both diagnostic test and drug treatments in Okinawa.

  9. Changes in the frequency and clinical features of suicide attempts in the midwestern area of Kanagawa after the great East Japan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Kato, Koji; Mikami, Katsunaka; Kimoto, Keitaro; Kimoto, Kousuke; Takahashi, Yuki; Sato, Reiko; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the clinical features of suicide attempts and the Great East Japan earthquake in Kanagawa. We enrolled 592 patients who attempted suicide and were hospitalized for inpatient treatment. Clinical features were compared between before the earthquake (A) and after the earthquake (B) groups. The number of suicide attempts increased from 286 to 306. The rate of increase in suicide attempts in men was the highest in the age group of 40-59 years. The frequency of joblessness, family psychiatric histories, precipitating event, and alcohol intake at suicide attempt was significantly higher in the B group than in the A group. The number of patients in serious condition in the B group was significantly higher than that in the A group. Other clinical features related to suicide in people who were indirectly affected by the earthquake disaster should be investigated to develop targeted prevention strategies.

  10. Seeding Experiment of Liquid Carbon Dioxide for Enhancing Winter-time Precipitation in Saga Prefecture,Northern Kyushu,Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakimizu, K.; Nishiyama, K.; Tomine, K.; Maki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Morita, O.

    2012-12-01

    Many droughts (shortage of water) have broken out by extreme small amount rainfall in recent Japan. So far,in order to prevent these droughts,artificial rainfall methods with 'AgI' or 'dry ice' have been widely used in Japan. However,these methods have many problems,which a large amount of overcooling liquid in the cumulus cloud was not able to be converted into precipitation efficiently. So as to solve these problems,new artificial rainfall method using liquid carbon dioxide (LC) was proposed by Fukuta (1996). This new method consists of the generation of ice particles by homogeneous nucleation using LC and the subsequent more effective growth for ice particles without competition process. And, this method is called 'Low-Level Penetration Seeding of Homogeneous Ice Nucleant (LOLEPSHIN)' ; this induces a 'Roll-up Expansion of Twin Horizontal Ice-crystal Thermals (RETHIT)' and a subsequent 'Falling growth-Induced Lateral Air Spreading (FILAS)'. This LC method was applied to thin super-cooled cumulus clouds in Saga prefecture, Northern Kyushu, Japan on February 4,2006. The seeding airplane took off the Atugi Airport in Kanagawa Prefecture toward the Iki Island around 0830JST. Many cloud bands were cofirmed in the flight going to the experimental area and the cloud base temperature was approximately -9C (1200m). Scince some young developing thin cumuli were found over the Iki Island, LC seeding to these clouds was carried out two times from 0841JST until 0919JST penetrating the -9C (1200m) altitude. The first precipitation seeding ebded in failure. The second penetration seeding was done for 115 seconds around 0917JST. This penetration led to success of developing one artificial echo (Echo I) in the leeward side of the Iki Island. Eco I moved from NNW to SSW. The maximum area of Echo I were 48km2 (at 1033JST) and first comfirmed by the Kyushu University radar (KU radar) at 1006JST (46 min. after LC seeding) around Mt.Sefuri in Saga Prefecture. It can be inferred that

  11. Post-tsunami outbreaks of influenza in evacuation centers in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Masumitsu; Endo, Shiro; Tokuda, Koichi; Kunishima, Hiroyuki; Arai, Kazuaki; Yano, Hisakazu; Ishibashi, Noriomi; Aoyagi, Tetsuji; Yamada, Mitsuhiro; Inomata, Shinya; Kanamori, Hajime; Gu, Yoshiaki; Kitagawa, Miho; Hirakata, Yoichi; Kaku, Mitsuo

    2012-01-01

    We describe 2 post-tsunami outbreaks of influenza A in evacuation centers in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, in 2011. Although containment of the outbreak was challenging in the evacuation settings, prompt implementation of a systemic approach with a bundle of control measures was important to control the influenza outbreaks.

  12. Post-tsunami outbreaks of influenza in evacuation centers in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Masumitsu; Endo, Shiro; Tokuda, Koichi; Kunishima, Hiroyuki; Arai, Kazuaki; Yano, Hisakazu; Ishibashi, Noriomi; Aoyagi, Tetsuji; Yamada, Mitsuhiro; Inomata, Shinya; Kanamori, Hajime; Gu, Yoshiaki; Kitagawa, Miho; Hirakata, Yoichi; Kaku, Mitsuo

    2012-01-01

    We describe 2 post-tsunami outbreaks of influenza A in evacuation centers in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, in 2011. Although containment of the outbreak was challenging in the evacuation settings, prompt implementation of a systemic approach with a bundle of control measures was important to control the influenza outbreaks. PMID:21976468

  13. The Impact of Japan's 2004 Postgraduate Training Program on Intra-Prefectural Distribution of Pediatricians in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Rie; Wang, Wei; Yamaguchi, Norihiro; Tamura, Hiroshi; Goto, Rei; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Objective Inequity in physician distribution poses a challenge to many health systems. In Japan, a new postgraduate training program for all new medical graduates was introduced in 2004, and researchers have argued that this program has increased inequalities in physician distribution. We examined the trends in the geographic distribution of pediatricians as well as all physicians from 1996 to 2010 to identify the impact of the launch of the new training program. Methods The Gini coefficient was calculated using municipalities as the study unit within each prefecture to assess whether there were significant changes in the intra-prefectural distribution of all physicians and pediatricians before and after the launch of the new training program. The effect of the new program was quantified by estimating the difference in the slope in the time trend of the Gini coefficients before and after 2004 using a linear change-point regression design. We categorized 47 prefectures in Japan into two groups: 1) predominantly urban and 2) others by the definition from OECD to conduct stratified analyses by urban-rural status. Results The trends in physician distribution worsened after 2004 for all physicians (p value<.0001) and pediatricians (p value = 0.0057). For all physicians, the trends worsened after 2004 both in predominantly urban prefectures (p value = 0.0012) and others (p value<0.0001), whereas, for pediatricians, the distribution worsened in others (p value = 0.0343), but not in predominantly urban prefectures (p value = 0.0584). Conclusion The intra-prefectural distribution of physicians worsened after the launch of the new training program, which may reflect the impact of the new postgraduate program. In pediatrics, changes in the Gini trend differed significantly before and after the launch of the new training program in others, but not in predominantly urban prefectures. Further observation is needed to explore how this difference in trends affects

  14. Population-based database of multiples in childhood of Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ooki, Syuichi

    2006-12-01

    A new type of population-based database of multiples in childhood at the prefecture level was initiated in 2004 in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. We conducted an exhaustive search for demographic information concerning families with multiples, family support provided by governmental and medical institutions by mailed questionnaire, and at the same time tried to organize a human network to support such families. This registry aims not only to aid research on human genetics and maternal and child health, but also to contribute to the development of welfare programs for families with multiples.

  15. Daily radionuclide ingestion and internal radiation doses in Aomori prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Akata, Naofumi; Takaku, Yuichi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2013-10-01

    To assess internal annual dose in the general public in Aomori Prefecture, Japan, 80 duplicate cooked diet samples, equivalent to the food consumed over a 400-d period by one person, were collected from 100 volunteers in Aomori City and the village of Rokkasho during 2006–2010 and were analyzed for 11 radionuclides. To obtain average rates of ingestion of radionuclides, the volunteers were selected from among office, fisheries, agricultural, and livestock farm workers. Committed effective doses from ingestion of the diet over a 1-y period were calculated from the analytical results and from International Commission on Radiological Protection dose coefficients; for 40K, an internal effective dose rate from the literature was used. Fisheries workers had significantly higher combined internal annual dose than the other workers, possibly because of high rates of ingestion of marine products known to have high 210Po concentrations. The average internal dose rate, weighted by the numbers of households in each worker group in Aomori Prefecture, was estimated at 0.47 mSv y-1. Polonium-210 contributed 49% of this value. The sum of committed effective dose rates for 210Po, 210Pb, 228Ra, and 14C and the effective dose rate of 40K accounted for approximately 99% of the average internal dose rate. PMID:23982610

  16. GIS model for geothermal resource exploration in Akita and Iwate prefectures, northern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noorollahi, Younes; Itoi, Ryuichi; Fujii, Hikari; Tanaka, Toshiaki

    2007-08-01

    In this study, a Geographic Information System (GIS) is used as a decision-making tool to target potential regional-scale geothermal resources in the Akita and Iwate prefectures of northern Japan. The aims of the study are to determine the relationships between geothermal wells and geological, geochemical, and thermal data layers within the GIS and to use these relationships to identify promising areas for geothermal exploration. We calculated the distances from existing productive geothermal wells to Quaternary volcanic rocks, calderas and craters, faults, hot springs, fumaroles, and hydrothermal alteration zones. The dominant distances were then defined for each evidence layer. We used ArcMap to develop a GIS Model for Geothermal Resource Exploration (GM-GRE) consisting of geoprocessing tools and a modelbuilder. Areas of geothermal potential were defined and prioritized by assigning a weighted overlying selection query for geological, geochemical, and thermal data layers. The result shows that 97% of currently productive geothermal wells in Akita and Iwate prefectures are located within the first priority zone selected by the GM-GRE.

  17. Seroepidemiology of reovirus in healthy dogs in six prefectures in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Chung Chew; Mochizuki, Masami; Maeda, Ken; Okuda, Masaru; Mizuno, Takuya

    2014-03-01

    Reovirus infection is common in mammals. However, seroepidemiological data of reovirus neutralizing antibodies are limited in dogs. In this study, sera of 65 healthy dogs from six prefectures across Japan were tested for neutralizing antibodies against reovirus serotype 1 strain Lang (T1L), serotype 2 strain Amy (T2A) and serotype 3 strain Dearing (T3D) using plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Seropositivity against reovirus T1L, T2A and T3D was 53.85%, 33.85% and 46.15%, respectively. Distribution of reovirus seropositive samples displayed no distinguishable geographical pattern. However, reovirus seropositivity increased with age and in dogs housed outdoor. Co-infection of multiple reovirus serotypes in dogs was also detected. These data will provide valuable insights towards the usage of reovirus in oncolytic virotherapy in canine cancers.

  18. Incidence of Legionella and heterotrophic bacteria in household rainwater tanks in Azumino, Nagano prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Michiko; Oana, Kozue; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Many administrative agencies in Japan are encouraging installation of household rainwater-storage tanks for more effective use of natural rainwater. Water samples were collected periodically from 43 rainwater tanks from 40 households and tested for the presence of Legionella species and the extent of heterotrophic bacteria in Azumino city, Nagano prefecture, Japan. PCR assays indicated the presence of Legionella spp. in 12 (30%) of the 43 tank water samples. Attempts were made to identify correlations between PCR positive samples, topography, pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), atmospheric temperature and the numbers of heterotrophic bacteria. Between June and October, 2012, the numbers of heterotrophic bacteria in rainwater tanks and the values of COD positively correlated with the presence of Legionella species. In most of the Legionella-positive cases, heterotrophic bacterial cell counts were >10(4) CFU/mL. Moreover, Legionella species were less frequently detected when the COD value was >5 mg KMnO(4)/L. Therefore, at least in Azumino, Japan between June and October 2012, both heterotrophic bacterial counts and COD values may be considered index parameters for the presence of Legionella cells in rainwater tanks. Much more accumulation of such data is needed to verify the accuracy of these findings.

  19. Increases in perinatal mortality in prefectures contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Scherb, Hagen Heinrich; Mori, Kuniyoshi; Hayashi, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Descriptive observational studies showed upward jumps in secular European perinatal mortality trends after Chernobyl. The question arises whether the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident entailed similar phenomena in Japan. For 47 prefectures representing 15.2 million births from 2001 to 2014, the Japanese government provides monthly statistics on 69,171 cases of perinatal death of the fetus or the newborn after 22 weeks of pregnancy to 7 days after birth. Employing change-point methodology for detecting alterations in longitudinal data, we analyzed time trends in perinatal mortality in the Japanese prefectures stratified by exposure to estimate and test potential increases in perinatal death proportions after Fukushima possibly associated with the earthquake, the tsunami, or the estimated radiation exposure. Areas with moderate to high levels of radiation were compared with less exposed and unaffected areas, as were highly contaminated areas hit versus untroubled by the earthquake and the tsunami. Ten months after the earthquake and tsunami and the subsequent nuclear accident, perinatal mortality in 6 severely contaminated prefectures jumped up from January 2012 onward: jump odds ratio 1.156; 95% confidence interval (1.061, 1.259), P-value 0.0009. There were slight increases in areas with moderate levels of contamination and no increases in the rest of Japan. In severely contaminated areas, the increases of perinatal mortality 10 months after Fukushima were essentially independent of the numbers of dead and missing due to the earthquake and the tsunami. Perinatal mortality in areas contaminated with radioactive substances started to increase 10 months after the nuclear accident relative to the prevailing and stable secular downward trend. These results are consistent with findings in Europe after Chernobyl. Since observational studies as the one presented here may suggest but cannot prove causality because of unknown and uncontrolled factors or

  20. Supports for libraries'restoration from the Great East Japan Earthquake : Challenges we address at Miyagi Prefectural Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, Shinichiro

    This article overviews the situations of damage and reconstruction of mainly public libraries in Miyagi Prefecture about 9 months after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Serious damage of library buildings was due not only to the tsunami or seismic sea wave but to violent shaking, the latter less reported by the media. We at the Miyagi Prefectural Library implemented reconstruction assistance for regional public libraries in both direct and indirect ways. Among them, we report in detail on the support we offered until the Minami-sanriku Town Library reopened its service. We highlight a prefectural library's role, acting between supporters and those supportees, to consider the necessity of middle organizations. We clarify what challenges we face and examine how best to provide assistance in case of large-scale disasters.

  1. [Survey report on magnetic resonance equipment damage in areas in Miyagi Prefecture affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake].

    PubMed

    Maeyatsu, Fumio; Abe, Yoshihiro; Hishinuma, Makoto; Hikiti, Takeo; Tanji, Hajime; Seino, Shinya; Adachi, Kojiro; Musashi, Yasunori; Tuchihashi, Toshio; Machida, Yosihio; Yamaguchi-Sekino, Sachiko; Nakai, Toshiharu

    2014-03-01

    A questionnaire comprising 14 items, inquiring about the state of damage, whether safety could be ensured, and progress of repair and restoration was distributed to 984 facilities in seven prefectures on the Pacific coast as part of a fact-finding survey of damage caused to magnetic resonance (MR) devices by the Great East Japan Earthquake. In all, 458 responses (46.6%) were collected. In Miyagi Prefecture alone, 65 responses from 105 questionnaires were collected (response rate: 61.9%). The overall incidence of damage was 19.2%, with 57 facilities (12.4%) reporting that displacement of the magnets was the most common problem. The damage event rate in Miyagi Prefecture was 51.3%, with displacement of the magnet being highest at 17 cases (26.2%). There was a high rate of 13 cases (26.5%) of chiller and air conditioning failures and a rapid loss of He in ten MR scanners (20.4%). Notably, 87.8% of facilities in Miyagi Prefecture (24.5% of the total) were affected by earthquakes exceeding 6 on the Japanese Seismic Intensity Scale. Flood damage caused by the tsunami was also seen along the Sanriku coast to Sendai City (six MR scanners, 50% of the total), and was typical of the damage seen in Miyagi Prefecture.

  2. [Survey report on magnetic resonance equipment damage in areas in Miyagi Prefecture affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake].

    PubMed

    Maeyatsu, Fumio; Abe, Yoshihiro; Hishinuma, Makoto; Hikiti, Takeo; Tanji, Hajime; Seino, Shinya; Adachi, Kojiro; Musashi, Yasunori; Tuchihashi, Toshio; Machida, Yosihio; Yamaguchi-Sekino, Sachiko; Nakai, Toshiharu

    2014-03-01

    A questionnaire comprising 14 items, inquiring about the state of damage, whether safety could be ensured, and progress of repair and restoration was distributed to 984 facilities in seven prefectures on the Pacific coast as part of a fact-finding survey of damage caused to magnetic resonance (MR) devices by the Great East Japan Earthquake. In all, 458 responses (46.6%) were collected. In Miyagi Prefecture alone, 65 responses from 105 questionnaires were collected (response rate: 61.9%). The overall incidence of damage was 19.2%, with 57 facilities (12.4%) reporting that displacement of the magnets was the most common problem. The damage event rate in Miyagi Prefecture was 51.3%, with displacement of the magnet being highest at 17 cases (26.2%). There was a high rate of 13 cases (26.5%) of chiller and air conditioning failures and a rapid loss of He in ten MR scanners (20.4%). Notably, 87.8% of facilities in Miyagi Prefecture (24.5% of the total) were affected by earthquakes exceeding 6 on the Japanese Seismic Intensity Scale. Flood damage caused by the tsunami was also seen along the Sanriku coast to Sendai City (six MR scanners, 50% of the total), and was typical of the damage seen in Miyagi Prefecture. PMID:24647061

  3. Dioctophyme renale (Nematoda: Dioctophymatoidea) in the abdominal cavity of Rattus norvegicus in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tokiwa, Toshihiro; Harunari, Tsunehito; Tanikawa, Tsutomu; Akao, Nobuaki; Ohta, Nobuo

    2011-09-01

    We collected 24 brown rats, Rattus norvegicus, in Kanagawa Prefecture in Japan and found one rat harboring a dioctophymatid nematode. A single male and a female worm were recovered from the abdominal cavity and were identified as Dioctophyme renale based on morphologic features and a BLAST DNA sequence analysis. We describe the morphological features of the adult worms and eggs from this extremely rare case of D. renale infection in a brown rat.

  4. Radium geochemistry in Na-Cl type groundwater in Niigata Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Junpei; Satake, Hiroshi; Fukuyama, Taijiro; Sasaki, Keiichi; Sakaguchi, Aya; Yamamoto, Masayoshi

    2010-03-01

    Radium isotopes in 23 Na-Cl type groundwater sampled mainly from deep wells in Niigata Prefecture, which is the site of the largest oil- and gas-fields in Japan, were measured along with U isotopes, chemical components and hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios to elucidate the distribution and behavior of Ra in a brackish environment underground. Also analyzed were U and Th isotopes in 38 rock samples collected from outcrops at 17 locations. Ra-226 concentrations (8.86-1637 mBq kg(-1)) of groundwater samples roughly correlated with total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations and other alkaline earth contents. Their (228)Ra/(226)Ra activity ratios (0.32-5.2) were similar to or higher than the (232)Th/(238)U activity ratios (0.6-1.7) in the rocks. The most likely transport mechanism of Ra isotopes into groundwater was due to their alpha-recoil from the solid phase, probably from the water-rock interface where Th isotopes had accumulated, and adsorption/desorption reaction based on the increase in (226)Ra contents with TDS.

  5. Thrust-faulting earthquake induced many normal-faulting aftershocks, in northeastern Chiba Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, S.; Kato, A.; Hirata, N.; Nakagawa, S.; Kasahara, K.; Sato, H.; Kurashimo, E.; Nanjo, K.; Panayotopoulos, Y.; Obara, K.; Aketagawa, T.; Kimura, H.

    2010-12-01

    A thrust faulting type earthquake of a local body wave magnitude (MJMA) of 4.9 occurred near the upper interface of the subducting Philippine Sea Plate (PHS) in northeastern Chiba Prefecture on July 22, 2010. We have been developing a dense seismic net work call the MeSO-net in the Tokyo Metropolitan area. So far, 249 stations are available for the study of a large felt earthquakes and small event as low as M=1.5. We also deployed a temporary seismic array 24 of which were used for the analysis of the aftershocks. We locate the July 22 earthquake(MJMA=4.9) and its 19 aftershocks (M>1.5) by the double difference location algorithm. We also determine focal mechanisms for the main- and after-shocks. The locations of the main shock and three aftershocks are closely distributed near the upper interface of PHS, which is consistent with the idea that the event occurred on the plate interface. However, most aftershocks whose focal mechanism is normal-fault type with a T-axis directing NE-SW are located off the upper interface indicating that intra-slab events are also generated by the event. Acknowledgement: The present study is supported by Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan.

  6. Lymantria mathura nucleopolyhedrovirus: Identification, occurrence and genetic diversity in Iwate Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Takatsuka, Jun

    2016-07-01

    A high prevalence of nuclear polyhedrosis has been observed in larval outbreaks of Lymantria mathura in Iwate Prefecture, Japan. However, the virus responsible has not been identified. Here the virus was designated Lymantria mathura nucleopolyhedrovirus (LymaNPV), based on partial sequence results of the lef-8, lef-9, and polh genes and transmission electron microscopic observations. Diagnosis by polymerase chain reaction targeting of the partial polh gene and a subsequent restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis indicated that LymaNPV was an exclusive causative agent for the nuclear polyhedrosis of the L. mathura larvae. LymaNPV was also detected from a very small fraction of L. dispar larvae that co-occurred with L. mathura larvae where the prevalence of LymaNPV-caused disease was high. A bioassay using LymaNPV against L. dispar larvae produced infection with the inoculated virus. This finding was consistent with the results of the field sample analysis. LymaNPV contained six genome types in the L. mathura populations sampled, as determined by RFLP of LymaNPV genomic DNA and southern blot hybridization analyses. None of the genome types was unique to any sampling site, indicating that some flow had occurred among sites. However, genome-type composition seemed to differ among sites. This study provides basic information about the interaction between L. mathura and LymaNPV. PMID:27234422

  7. Deposition in Chiba prefecture, Japan, of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant fallout.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Tagami, Keiko; Takata, Hyoe; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Kawaguchi, Isao; Watanabe, Yoshito; Uchida, Shigeo

    2013-02-01

    Radioactivity from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F-1NPP) accident in deposition samples has been monitored at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Chiba Prefecture, Japan, located about 220 km south-southwest of the F-1NPP. Sampling was carried out from 15 March 2011, two to three times a day for 10 d and then once a day until 22 April 2011. Gamma-ray spectrometry of fallout deposition samples revealed the presence of (131)I, (132)I, (132)Te, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs. The largest deposition was observed during 7:00-16:00 on 21 March. The estimated total deposition densities at NIRS were 1.40 × 10(5) Bq m(-2) for (131)I, 4.12 × 10(4) Bq m(-2) for (132)Te, 1.45 × 10(4) Bq m(-2) for (134)Cs, and 1.48 × 10(4) Bq m(-2) for (137)Cs (corrected to 11 March 2011). The obtained densities of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were also supported by the accumulated amount of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in soil near the deposition sampling site. For the vertical profile of those radionuclides in soil at NIRS, about 94% of the total deposition was distributed in the top 10 mm depth on 26 April 2011.

  8. GIS-based numerical simulations of the July 2014 Nagiso debris flow in Nagano Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunxiang; Fukuoka, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    A debris flow disaster took place in Nagiso, Nagano Prefecture of Japan in the later afternoon of 9 July 2014 triggered by 76 mm torrential rain associated with the typhoon Neoguri. This debris flow killed one resident and completely destroyed several houses. Although the source of the debris flows, especially the origin of their large boulders exceeding 5 m, are not clear, it seems that those debris flows initiated in the two upstream torrents and they joined Nashisawa torrent. Finally the debris flow ran and deposited in the Kiso River. The downstream residents are much aware of the many historical cases on similar debris flow disasters in the torrents in Nagiso and surrounding communities. Most of the residents could evacuate immediately after they felt the ground tremors induced by the running debris flow. Authors used LAHARZ (Schilling 1998) to simulate the Nagiso debris flow using 5-meter resolution Digital Elevation Model and several debris-flow volumes for the calibration. We also performed a numerical simulation to predicting the runout distance and to get insight into the behavior of the debris flow movement. A GIS-based depth-averaged 2D numerical model using a coupled viscous and Coulomb type law is used to simulate a debris flow from initiation to deposition. We compared the two simulation results and suggested the more appropriate coefficients of equations in LAHARZ for calculating the cross sectional area and planimetric area for application to the July 2014 Nagiso debris flows.

  9. Groundwater chemistry in the nitrate contaminated area in Shimabara, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, K.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater contamination by nitrate from agricultural fields is a problem shared by many parts of the world. Shimabara, Nagasaki prefecture, Japan is an important agricultural district experiencing this problem. In Shimabara, drinking water relies on the groundwater. In this study, groundwater samples were collected at 40 locations such as residents and municipal waterworks wells, springs and rivers from August 2011 to November 2013. NO3-N concentration of 15 samples exceeded 10 mg L-1 (drinking water standard in Japan). Maximum NO3-N concentration was 26.6 mg L-1. Correlation coefficients were calculated between ion components of collected samples (n=277). NO3- had the highest positive correlation with Cl-(r =0.956) and had positive correlation with K+(r=0.679), SO42-(r=0.654) and Ca2+(r=0.593), respectively. The results revealed that Cl- and K+ related to livestock wastes, SO42- related to chemical fertilizers and Ca2+ related to calcareous materials. Main source of NO3- is from livestock wastes. To understand groundwater chemistry in detail, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis were carried out. Result from the PCA, chemical characteristics of groundwater was summarized by the first principal component and the second principal component. Both of two principal components reflected nitrate contamination and ion dissolution from aquifer matrix during groundwater flows. Result from the cluster analysis, chemical characteristics of groundwater was classified into four clusters. Nitrate polluted samples into specific cluster and the rest samples were classified into other clusters depending on the original water quality.

  10. Surveillance of diarrhea-causing pathogens in dairy and beef cows in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan from 2002 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Mawatari, Takahiro; Hirano, Kaori; Ikeda, Hidetoshi; Tsunemitsu, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Tohru

    2014-09-01

    The economic consequences of bovine diarrhea are serious. Few long-term epidemiological data are available concerning the causative pathogens of bovine diarrhea in Japan. From 2002 to 2011, surveillance of enteric pathogens was performed in cows of various breed and age from 302 farms in which diarrhea had occurred in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. Differences between dairy and beef cows in the number of cases of diarrhea and rates of infection by Salmonella spp. and Eimeria spp. were found. Clinical symptoms (duration of epidemic, hematochezia and complications) caused by bovine rotavirus infection were milder than those caused by bovine coronavirus infection.

  11. Surveillance of diarrhea-causing pathogens in dairy and beef cows in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan from 2002 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Mawatari, Takahiro; Hirano, Kaori; Ikeda, Hidetoshi; Tsunemitsu, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Tohru

    2014-09-01

    The economic consequences of bovine diarrhea are serious. Few long-term epidemiological data are available concerning the causative pathogens of bovine diarrhea in Japan. From 2002 to 2011, surveillance of enteric pathogens was performed in cows of various breed and age from 302 farms in which diarrhea had occurred in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. Differences between dairy and beef cows in the number of cases of diarrhea and rates of infection by Salmonella spp. and Eimeria spp. were found. Clinical symptoms (duration of epidemic, hematochezia and complications) caused by bovine rotavirus infection were milder than those caused by bovine coronavirus infection. PMID:25039819

  12. Effective educational practice of river learning by using of Hiikawa-river of elementary school, Shimane prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomoyuki, U.; Matsumoto, I.

    2012-12-01

    The importance of field learning has been increasing at elementary school and junior high school in Japan. However, In Japan, it is little actual situation that there is in an opportunity for the field learning enforced in the school science lesson. This tendency is strong as much as school of the city and that circumference. I think that this cause is that there are few suitable places for educational tool to observe geological field near the school. Children learn about "Function of running water" in Grade 5 of elementary school in Japan. Therefore, In this study, We remark the river called "Hiikawa-river" which flow in Izumo city, Shimane prefecture as the science teaching materials. Hiikawa is the river which flowing through the granitic rock district. Therefore We can observe granitic rock from in the upper stream, midstream, to the down stream. That is, we can observe the function of running water and diameter (size) of granitic boulders. It is mean that Hiikawa is the one of good educational tool for Children to learn the function of running water. Though it is the place where nature is comparatively rich even in Japan, it can't be said that field learning is relatively popular in Shimane prefecture. I think that teacher has to learning experience at field, because teacher should settle confidence to guide to the student at the field. That is, if it is not, you can not teach children with truly important of curriculum view point of natural and field science. In this research, we introduce practice of geological field learning at the public elementary school of the Shimane prefecture by using of Hiikawa as educational tool which children learn about the function of running water in grade 5, elementary school. In addition, we hope that this study contribute to teachers teaching method and to children natural science literacy.

  13. Detection of Rickettsia tamurae DNA in ticks and wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax) skins in Shimane Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Motoi, Yuta; Asano, Makoto; Inokuma, Hisashi; Ando, Shuji; Kawabata, Hiroki; Takano, Ai; Suzuki, Masatsugu

    2013-01-01

    We used 24 wild boars trapped from December 2009 to January 2010 and a further 65 from July 2010 to August 2010 in Misato Town, Shimane Prefecture, Japan. We collected blood, spleens, skins and ticks from the wild boars, which were examined for rickettsial infections using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for the genes rickettsial 17-kDa antigen and citrate synthase (gltA). We amplified Rickettsia tamurae AT-1 DNA from the tick Amblyomma testudinarium and from wild boar skins where ticks attached. Antibodies against spotted fever group Rickettsia were detected in wild boar sera using immunofluorescence, whereas blood and spleen samples contained no rickettsial DNA. This study suggests that wild boars have a role as an amplifier and a transporter of A. testudinarium, which harbor R. tamurae. One case of R. tamurae infection in humans was reported in Shimane Prefecture. Therefore, R. tamurae infections in humans might increase, if wild boar populations and their habitats expand.

  14. Natural denitrification in the Kakamigahara groundwater basin, Gifu prefecture, central Japan.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mohamed A A; Terao, H; Suzuki, Ryo; Babiker, Insaf S; Ohta, Keiichi; Kaori, K; Kato, Kikuo

    2003-05-20

    Although nitrate is recognized as the most common groundwater contaminant due to growing anthropogenic sources, such as agriculture in particular, its adverse effects on human and animal health are debatable. The current issue, however, is to control and reduce nitrate contamination with regards to the long residence time of groundwater within aquifers. Denitrification has recently been recognized for its ability to reduce high nitrate concentrations in groundwater. The Kakamigahara groundwater basin, Gifu prefecture, Japan, witnessed rising levels of nitrate (>12 mg/l NO(3)-N) originating from agricultural sources. Chemical analyses for the determination of major constituents of groundwater and delta(15)N of residual nitrate were performed on representative groundwater samples in order to fulfill two main objectives. One is to investigate the current situation of nitrate groundwater pollution. The second objective is to determine whether the denitrification is a potential natural mechanism, which eliminates nitrate pollution in the Kakamigahara aquifer. Agricultural nitrate contamination of groundwater was obvious from characteristically high concentrations of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), NO(3)(-) and SO(4)(2-). High nitrate concentrations were found on the eastern side of the basin in association with vegetable cultivation fields, and decreased gradually towards the west of the basin along the direction of groundwater flow. The decrease of nitrate concentration was conveniently coupled with increase of HCO(3)(-) (the heterotrophic denitrification product), pH and delta(15)N of residual nitrate (due to isotopic fractionation) from east to west. Therefore, denitrification in situ is continuously removing nitrate from the Kakamigahara groundwater system.

  15. [Deaths due to heat waves during the summer of 1994 in Osaka Prefecture, Japan].

    PubMed

    Bai, H; Islam, M N; Kuroki, H; Honda, K; Wakasugi, C

    1995-08-01

    The summer of 1994 was unusually hot and dry in Japan, setting a record for high temperature and low rainfall in many areas. The daily record of temperature of July and August which were announced by Osaka District Meteorological Observatory exceeded the past ones. The daily recorded temperature of 75 consecutive days in Osaka city was above 30 degrees C with the maximum 39.1 degrees C on 18 August 1994 and 38 degrees C on 16 July 1994. The number of unusual deaths (except traffic accidents) in Osaka Prefecture was 655 and 733 in the month of July and August respectively which exceeded the number of death for the corresponding period of the last 5 consecutive years by 1.5 folds, which was directly proportionate to the change of temperatures. This was due to the illness of the people concerned. We investigated the age, sex and rectal temperature during the inquest and compared them with those of the same period of 1992, which we kept as control. On comparing age and sex of the dead bodies, the cases of 1994 were older than those of 1992, which was due to increased number of death of female aged 70 or more. On comparing the rectal temperatures of those who were found indoors within 8 hours after death, the average temperature of 1994 was also higher than that of 1992. Between the age groups of 75 or more and 74 or younger, the rectal temperature of the former is significantly higher than those of later age group. While regarding the room temperature of the high rectal temperature (39 degrees C < or =) group, no significant difference was observed between the age groups of 75 or more and 74 or younger. In general, the number of unusual deaths in the summer of 1994 in Osaka was more compared to those of previous years. The analysis of the recorded rectal temperatures demonstrated that, 75 or older age group has a tendency to hyperthermia. Since the aging society of Japan is gradually increasing, preventive measures will be necessary when forecasting heat wave to reduce

  16. Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami on health, medical care and public health systems in Iwate Prefecture, Japan, 2011

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Problem The Great East Japan Earthquake was one of the largest earthquakes ever recorded in global history. The damage was spread over a wide area, with the worst-hit areas being Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures. In this paper we report on the damage and the impact of the damage to describe the health consequences among disaster victims in Iwate Prefecture. Context In Iwate Prefecture the tsunami claimed 4659 lives, with 1633 people missing. In addition to electricity, water and gas being cut off following the disaster, communication functions were paralysed and there was a lack of gasoline. Action Medical and public health teams from Iwate Prefecture and around the country, including many different specialists, engaged in a variety of public health activities mainly at evacuation centres, including medical and mental health care and activities to prevent infectious diseases. Outcome Given the many fatalities, there were relatively few patients who required medical treatment for major injuries. However, there were significant medical needs in the subacute and chronic phases of care in evacuation centres, with great demand for medical treatment and public health assistance, measures to counteract infection and mental health care. Discussion By referring to past experiences of national and international large-scale disasters, it was possible to respond effectively to the health-related challenges. However, there are still challenges concerning how to share information and coordinate overall activities among multiple public health response teams. Further examination will be required to ensure better preparedness in response to future disasters. PMID:23908898

  17. [Nutritional factors influencing the incidence of new dialysis due to diabetes mellitus in each prefecture of Japan].

    PubMed

    Ogata, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    There are regional differences in the incidence of new dialysis in Japan. We investigated nutritional factors that might influence the incidence of new dialysis due to diabetes mellitus(DM)in each prefecture. We analyzed the data reported for 47 prefectures in the National Nutrition Survey 1995-1999 (n = 38,003), and the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy 2005-2007 (n = 45,033). Ecological regression was assessed using univariate regression analysis. Univariate analysis showed that body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.296, p = 0.022), intake of fish and shellfish (r = -0.254, p = 0.043), meat (r = 0.275, p=0.031), energy (r = -0.280, p = 0.028), carbohydrates (r = -0.283, p = 0.027), calcium (r = -0.278, p = 0.029), iron (r = -0.338, p = 0.010), salt (r = -0.288, p = 0.025), vitamin B2 (r = -0.279, p = 0.029), and vitamin C (r = -0.302, p = 0.020) were correlated with the incidence of new dialysis due to DM. The incidence of new dialysis due to DM in each prefecture may be influenced by environmental factors, including nutritional factors.

  18. Outbreak of cryptosporidiosis after contamination of the public water supply in Saitama Prefecture, Japan, in 1996.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, N; Urabe, K; Takaoka, M; Nakazawa, K; Gotoh, A; Haga, M; Fuchigami, H; Kimata, I; Iseki, M

    2000-06-01

    An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis occurred in Ogose Town, Saitama Prefecture. Japan, in June 1996. Of 12,345 respondents to a questionnaire sent to households in the town (population; 13,809), 8,812 (71.4%) reported an acute gastrointestinal illness some time between May and July. In addition, 274 traceable visitors at local inns, golf courses, and the like during this period and 54 employees from out of town were infected. Cases of cryptosporidiosis were estimated to 9,140. Of these, 2,856 subjects were treated at outpatient clinics and 24 subjects were hospitalized (some subjects counted twice). No deaths were attributed to the outbreak. Among the visitors to Ogose who were traced, 7 persons who stayed only one day during the outbreak and drank half a glass to 2 glasses (100 to 360 ml) of tap water had cryptosporidiosis confirmed by laboratory tests. The median incubation period for the 14 persons for whom this calculation was possible was 6.4 days (range, 5 to 8 days). Of 469 pupils reporting details of their fever and diarrhea, abdominal cramps, or these combined signs and symptoms, the median maximum body temperature was 37.8 degrees C (range, 36.7 to 40.3 degrees C). The duration of illness, reported by 608 of the pupils, was 5.2 days (range, 1 to 15 days), and that reported by 187 employees was 4.8 days (range, 1 to 18 days). The longest known time for discharge of oocysts after onset was 44 days. Blood was not found in the 609 stool specimens examined. The outbreak was caused by contamination of the town's potable water by Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. The town's water treatment plant treated river water by coagulation, sedimentation, sand filtration, and chlorination. Contamination arose because of various natural and artificial factors: one was that the monthly precipitation in May was much lower than average, causing the river water level to drop. Another factor was heavy rainfall one night in May that increased water turbidity. The amounts of the

  19. Bunnoite, a new hydrous manganese aluminosilicate from Kamo Mountain, Kochi prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio-Hamane, Daisuke; Momma, Koichi; Miyawaki, Ritsuro; Minakawa, Tetsuo

    2016-07-01

    A new mineral, bunnoite, originating from Kamo Mountain in Ino, Kochi Prefecture, Japan, has been identified. Bunnoite occurs as veins and lenses in hematite-rich ferromanganese ore, is dull green in color, and forms foliated subhedral crystals up to 0.5 mm in length. Its hardness is 5½ on the Mohs scale and its calculated density is 3.63 g cm-3. The mineral is optically biaxial (+), with α = 1.709(1), β = 1.713(1), γ = 1.727(1) (white light), 2V meas = 54° and 2V calc = 57°. The empirical formula of bunnoite is (Mn2+ 5.36Mg0.27Fe2+ 0.25Fe3+ 0.11)Σ6.00(Al0.60Fe3+ 0.40)Σ1.00(Si5.89Al0.11)Σ6.00O18(OH)3, and its simplified ideal formula is written as Mn2+ 6AlSi6O18(OH)3. The mineral is triclinic P overline{1} , and the unit cell parameters refined from powder X-ray diffraction data are a = 7.521(5) Å, b = 10.008(8) Å, c = 12.048(2) Å, α = 70.46(5)°, β = 84.05(6)°, γ = 68.31(6)° and V = 793.9(9) Å3. The crystal structure of bunnoite has been solved by the charge flipping method in conjunction with single-crystal X-ray diffraction data and refined to R1 = 3.3 %. Bunnoite was found to have a layered structure with alternating tetrahedral and octahedral sheets parallel to the ( overline{1} 11). The silicate tetrahedra form sorosilicate [Si6O18(OH)] clusters in the tetrahedral sheets, while the octahedra share edges to form continuous strips linked by [Mn2O8] dimers in the octahedral sheets. This mineral is classified as 9.BH according to the Nickel-Strunz system and has been named in honor of the Japanese mineralogist Michiaki Bunno (b. 1942).

  20. Radioactive materials deposition in Iwate prefecture, northeast japan, due to the Fukushima dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Hideyuki

    2013-04-01

    A catastrophic earthquake occurred in March 11, 2011, and additional tsunami gave the big damage along the pacific coastline of the northeast Japan. Tsunami also caused the accident of Fukushima dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FNPP), released of massive amount of radioactive materials to all over the northeast to central Japan. Ministry of Education, cultural, sports, science and technology (MEXT), Japan, carried out the airborne monitoring survey on several times, however, it is impossible to know the deposition of low level radiation under 0.1μSv/h. On the other hand, radioactive material was detected in Iwate by farm and livestock products, and it was necessary to understand an accurate contamination status in Iwate prefecture. Behavior of radioactive material is very similar to the ashfall by the volcanic eruption. Therefore, it is possible to apply the knowledge of volcanology to evaluation of the natural radiation dose. The author carried out the detailed contamination mapping across the Iwate prefecture. To γ-ray measurement, using scintillation counter A2700 of the clearpulse, measured on 1m grass field above ground, for one minute. The total measurement point became more than 800 point whole in Iwate. Field survey were carried out from April to November, 2011, therefore, it is necessary to consider to the half - life of the radioactive element of the cesium 134 and 137. In this study, the author reconstructed a deposition of April, 2011, just after the accident. In addition, the author also carried out the revision of the natural radiation dose included in the granite and so on. From the result, Concentration of radioactive materials depend on the topography, it tend to high concentrate in the basin or along the valley. The feeble deposition 0.01-0.2μsv/h with the radioactive material was recognized in whole prefecture. High contamination area distributed over the E-W directions widely in the southern part of the prefecture, and it also existence of the

  1. Overland flow connectivity in a forest plantation before and after tree thinning (Tochigi Prefecture, central Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Onda, Yuichi; Sun, Xinchao; Kato, Hiroaki; Gomi, Takashi; Hiraoka, Marino

    2016-04-01

    Overland flow connectivity is a key factor to understand the redistribution dynamics of sediments, nutrients, radiotracers, etc., in the different compartments at channel, hillslope and catchment scales. Human organization of landscape elements has a significant control on runoff and soil redistribution processes. Construction of trails, forest roads and firewalls influence runoff connectivity (RC) in forested catchments. In this study we simulated RC in two forested catchments, called K2 (19.3 ha) and K3 (13.6 ha), located on the Mount Karasawa, in the Tochigi Prefecture in central Japan. Forest plantation includes Japanese cypress and cedar and covers 59% of the total area. Native broad-leaved trees (28%) and mixed forest occupy the rest of the study area. We selected the Index of runoff and sediment Connectivity (IC) of Borselli et al. (2008) to simulate three temporal scenarios: i) Sc-2011, before tree thinning (TT); ii) Sc-2012 after TT in most part of the forest plantation in K2 (32% of the total area); and iii) Sc-2013 after TT in some areas of the K3 catchment, affecting 38% of the total area. The study areas were defined from the coalescence point (139⁰ 36' 04" E, 36⁰ 22' 03" N) of both catchments upslope. Elevation ranges from 75 to 287 m a.s.l. and the mean slope steepness is of 67 and 65% in K2 and K3. Three different high resolution DEM-LiDAR maps at 0.5 x 0.5 m of cell size were used to run the IC model in each scenario. The permanent streams in the study area have a total length of 2123 m. The mean C-RUSLE factor was of 0.0225 in Sc-2011 and 21% and 25% higher in Sc-2012 and Sc-2013. The total length of the landscape linear elements incremented from 2482 m in Sc-2011 to 3151 m in Sc-2012 and Sc-2013 due to the construction of new skid trails in K2. The mean RC in the study area was of -4.536 in Sc-2011 and increased 7.4% and 8.9% in the Sc-2012 and Sc-2013, respectively, due to the tree thinning operations and the construction of new skid trails

  2. Research on the Natural Enemies of the Mulberry Scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni), in Tea Fields in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Akihito; Kubota, Sakae; Kaneko, Shuji; Ishigami, Shigeru

    The mulberry scale Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni) is one of the most important pests on tea trees in Japan; in particular, severe outbreaks have occurred in Shizuoka Prefecture in recent years. Natural enemies of the scale are considered to be one of important factors for controlling the scale population, and it is necessary to clarify the actual condition of the natural enemies of the scale in tea fields. We investigated the species and species composition of natural enemies of the scale in tea fields in Shizuoka Prefecture of Japan in 2002 and 2003 by identifying the parasitoids that emerged and dissecting the adult female scales. We identified 4 species of primary parasites, namely, Arrhenophagus albitibiae Girault, Pteroptrix orientalis (Silvestri), Thomsonisca indica? Hayat (this species was identified as T. amathus in Japan) and Epitetracnemus comis Noyes & Ren, and 2 species of hyperparasites, namely, Marietta carnesi (Howard) and Zaomma near lambinus (Walker). We also identified the following 3 species of coleopteran predators: Pseudoscymnus hareja Weise, Chilocorus kuwanae Silvestri, and Cybocephalus nipponicus Endrody-Younga. Further, 1 species of Cecidomyiidae (predatory gall midge), namely, Dentifibula sp. was confirmed. The primary dominant parasitoid and predatory beetle species were A. albitibiae and P. hareja, respectively. The species composition of the parasitoids that emerged changed with location and generation of the scale, and A. albitibiae was the major species in the overwintering generation of the scale. However, from the first to the second generation, the frequency of species other than A. albitibiae increased, i.e., species diversity increased. The percentage parasitism of all of the parasitoids increased with the alternation of scale generations, and there were tea fields in which the predatory Cecidomyiidae Dentifibula sp. became the primary dominant species at the second generation of the scale. Therefore, it was suggested that

  3. Geological field study for science education on Elementary and Junior high school student, in Shimane prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, I.

    2011-12-01

    The importance of learning at field has been increasing in the elementary and the junior high school in Japan. And, an environmental education is one of the important subjects even in the school education, too. It was important, as for science education, understanding with actual feeling and learning were specified as for the Teaching outlines (the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) of the new science textbook of the elementary and the junior high school as well. However, It is a little actual situation that there is in an opportunity for the field learning enforced in the school lesson by the investigation of JST (Japan Science and Tecnology Agency). This tendency is strong as much as school of the city and that circumference. I have this cause think that there are a few suitable places for learning to observe geological and biological field near school. In addition, below two is pointed out as a big problem to obstruct the execution of field learning. 1) A natural experience isn't being done sufficient as much as a teacher can teach to the student. 2) It doesn't have the confidence that a teacher teaches a student geology and biology at the field. I introduce the practical example of geological field learning at the public elementary school of the Shimane prefecture by this research. Though it is the place where nature is comparatively rich even in Japan, it can't be said that field learning is popular in Shimane prefecture. A school teacher has to learning experience at field, and he must settle confidence to guide a student at the field. A specialist in the university and the museum must support continuous learning for that to the school teacher.

  4. Working as a Foreign English Teacher in Rural Japan: JET Instructors in Shimane Prefecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scully, Etsuko

    In the past decade over 30,000 young college graduates from overseas have been employed in Japan by the Japan Exchange and Teaching Program (JET). The stated goals of the program are to enhance foreign language education, to internationalize the country's viewpoint, and to promote mutual understanding between Japan and other countries. This study…

  5. Biodiversity data mining from Argus-eyed citizens: the first illegal introduction record of Lepomis macrochirus macrochirus Rafinesque, 1819 in Japan based on Twitter information.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yusuke; Teramura, Akinori; Senou, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    An apparent illegal introduction of Lepomis macrochirus macrochirus from Yokohama City, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, is reported based on a juvenile specimen and a photograph of two adults collected on 14 June 2015 and deposited in the Kangawa Prefectural Museum of Natural History. The specimens and photographs were initially reported on the internet-based social networking site, Twitter. Two specimens of Carassius auratus, including an aquarium form, were also reported at the same locality and date, suggesting that the illegal introductions originated from an aquarium release. Our report demonstrates an example of web data mining in the discipline of Citizen Science.

  6. Biodiversity data mining from Argus-eyed citizens: the first illegal introduction record of Lepomis macrochirus macrochirus Rafinesque, 1819 in Japan based on Twitter information

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Yusuke; Teramura, Akinori; Senou, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract An apparent illegal introduction of Lepomis macrochirus macrochirus from Yokohama City, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, is reported based on a juvenile specimen and a photograph of two adults collected on 14 June 2015 and deposited in the Kangawa Prefectural Museum of Natural History. The specimens and photographs were initially reported on the internet-based social networking site, Twitter. Two specimens of Carassius auratus, including an aquarium form, were also reported at the same locality and date, suggesting that the illegal introductions originated from an aquarium release. Our report demonstrates an example of web data mining in the discipline of Citizen Science. PMID:27110154

  7. Biodiversity data mining from Argus-eyed citizens: the first illegal introduction record of Lepomis macrochirus macrochirus Rafinesque, 1819 in Japan based on Twitter information.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yusuke; Teramura, Akinori; Senou, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    An apparent illegal introduction of Lepomis macrochirus macrochirus from Yokohama City, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, is reported based on a juvenile specimen and a photograph of two adults collected on 14 June 2015 and deposited in the Kangawa Prefectural Museum of Natural History. The specimens and photographs were initially reported on the internet-based social networking site, Twitter. Two specimens of Carassius auratus, including an aquarium form, were also reported at the same locality and date, suggesting that the illegal introductions originated from an aquarium release. Our report demonstrates an example of web data mining in the discipline of Citizen Science. PMID:27110154

  8. Vertical distribution of radiation dose rates in the water of a brackish lake in Aomori Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Iyogi, Takashi; Ueda, Shinji; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2015-11-01

    Seasonal radiation dose rates were measured with glass dosemeters housed in watertight cases at various depths in the water of Lake Obuchi, a brackish lake in Aomori Prefecture, Japan, during fiscal years 2011-2013 to assess the background external radiation dose to aquatic biota in the lake. The mean radiation dose in the surface water of the lake was found to be 27 nGy h(-1), which is almost the same as the absorption dose rate due to cosmic ray reported in the literature. Radiation dose rates decreased exponentially with water depth down to a depth of 1 m above the bottom sediment. In the water near the sediment, the dose rate increased with depth owing to the emission of γ-rays from natural radionuclides in the sediment.

  9. Distinct distribution of Dicrocoelium dendriticum and D. chinensis in Iwate Prefecture, Japan, and a new final host record for D. chinensis.

    PubMed

    Ohtori, Maiko; Aoki, Mikiko; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2014-10-01

    This study dealt with the morphological and molecular identification of Dicrocoelium flukes obtained from Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon centralis) in the twelve districts of Iwate Prefecture, Japan. Dicrocoelium dendriticum and D. chinensis were exclusively detected in the western, and coastal and eastern areas of Iwate Prefecture, respectively. This geographically distinct occurrence of the two Dicrocoelium species would be associated with the distribution of the final hosts, sika deer for D. chinensis and Japanese serow for D. dendriticum. This study also reports that Capricornis crispus is a new final host of D. chinensis. PMID:24998394

  10. Natural infections of Clinostomum complanatum (Trematoda: Clinostomatidae) in wild herons and egrets, Tottori Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Aohagi, Y; Shibahara, T; Machida, N; Yamaga, Y; Kagota, K; Hayashi, T

    1992-07-01

    Nycticorax nycticorax, Ardea cinerea, Egretta garzetta, and Egretta intermedia were naturally infected with Clinostomum complanatum (Trematoda: Clinostomatidae) among fourteen wild herons, seven wild egrets and one wild bittern evaluated at the Veterinary Hospital of Tottori University, Tottori, Japan. The latter three species of heron and egrets are reported for the first time as definitive hosts of this parasite in Japan.

  11. Assessing cost and effectiveness of radiation decontamination in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Naito, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Despite the enormous cost of radiation decontamination in Fukushima Prefecture, it is not clear what levels of reduction in external radiation exposure are possible in the Special Decontamination Area, the Intensive Contamination Survey Areas and the whole of Fukushima. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of radiation decontamination in Fukushima Prefecture in its entirety. Using a geographic information system, we calculated the costs of removal, storage containers, transport, and temporary and interim storage facilities as well as the reduction in air dose rate for a cumulative external exposure for 9000 1 km × 1 km mesh units incorporating 51 municipalities. The decontamination cost for the basic scenario, for which forested areas within 20 m of habitation areas were decontaminated, was JPY2.53-5.12 trillion; the resulting reduction in annual external dose was about 2500 person-Sv. The transport, storage, and administrative costs of decontamination waste and removed soil reached JPY1.55-2.12 trillion under this scenario. Although implementing decontamination of all forested areas provides some major reductions in the external radiation dose for the average inhabitant, decontamination costs could potentially exceed JPY16 trillion. These results indicate that technologies for reducing the volume of decontamination waste and removed soil should be considered to reduce storage costs and that further discussions about forest decontamination policies are needed.

  12. Assessing cost and effectiveness of radiation decontamination in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Naito, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Despite the enormous cost of radiation decontamination in Fukushima Prefecture, it is not clear what levels of reduction in external radiation exposure are possible in the Special Decontamination Area, the Intensive Contamination Survey Areas and the whole of Fukushima. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of radiation decontamination in Fukushima Prefecture in its entirety. Using a geographic information system, we calculated the costs of removal, storage containers, transport, and temporary and interim storage facilities as well as the reduction in air dose rate for a cumulative external exposure for 9000 1 km × 1 km mesh units incorporating 51 municipalities. The decontamination cost for the basic scenario, for which forested areas within 20 m of habitation areas were decontaminated, was JPY2.53-5.12 trillion; the resulting reduction in annual external dose was about 2500 person-Sv. The transport, storage, and administrative costs of decontamination waste and removed soil reached JPY1.55-2.12 trillion under this scenario. Although implementing decontamination of all forested areas provides some major reductions in the external radiation dose for the average inhabitant, decontamination costs could potentially exceed JPY16 trillion. These results indicate that technologies for reducing the volume of decontamination waste and removed soil should be considered to reduce storage costs and that further discussions about forest decontamination policies are needed. PMID:26051754

  13. An analysis on the relationship between land subsidence and floods at the Kujukuri Plain in Chiba Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Y.; Chen, H.; Sawamukai, M.; Su, T.; Tokunaga, T.

    2015-11-01

    Surface environments at the Kujukuri Plain in Chiba Prefecture, Japan, in 1970, 2004, and 2013, were analyzed and compared to discuss the possible impact of land subsidence on the occurrence of floods. The study area has been suffered from land subsidence due to ground deformation from paleo-earthquakes, tectonic activities, and human-induced subsidence by groundwater exploitation. Meteorological data, geomorphological data including DEM obtained from the airborne laser scanning (1-m spatial resolution), leveling data, and the result of our assessment map (Chen et al., 2015) were used in this study. Clear relationship between floods and land subsidence was not recognized, while geomorphological setting, urbanization, and change of precipitation pattern were found to contribute to the floods. The flood prone-area is distributed on the characteristic geomorphological setting such as floodplain and back swamp. It was revealed that the urban area has been expanded on these geomorphological setting in recent years. The frequency of hourly precipitation was also shown to be increased in the past ca. 40 years, and this could induce rapid freshet and overflow of small- and medium-sized rivers and sewerage lines. The distribution of depression areas was increased from 2004 to 2013. This change could be associated with the ground deformation after the Tohoku earthquake (Mw = 9.0) in 2011.

  14. First fossil occurrence of a filefish (Tetraodontiformes; Monacanthidae) in Asia, from the Middle Miocene in Nagano Prefecture, central Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyajima, Yusuke; Koike, Hakuichi; Matsuoka, Hiroshige

    2014-04-10

    A new fossil filefish, Aluterus shigensis sp. nov., with a close resemblance to the extant Aluterus scriptus (Osbeck), is described from the Middle Miocene Bessho Formation in Nagano Prefecture, central Japan. It is characterized by: 21 total vertebrae; very slender and long first dorsal spine with tiny anterior barbs; thin and lancet-shaped basal pterygiophore of the spiny dorsal fin, with its ventral margin separated from the skull; proximal tip of moderately slender first pterygiophore of the soft dorsal fin not reaching far ventrally; soft dorsal-fin base longer than anal-fin base; caudal peduncle having nearly equal depth and length; and tiny, fine scales with slender, straight spinules. The occurrence of this fossil filefish from the Bessho Formation is consistent with the influence of warm water currents suggested by other fossils, but it is inconsistent with the deep-water sedimentary environment of this Formation. This is the first fossil occurrence of a filefish in Asia; previously described fossil filefishes are known from the Pliocene and Pleistocene of Italy, the Pliocene of Greece, and the Miocene and Pliocene of North America. These fossil records suggest that the genus Aluterus had already been derived and was widely distributed during the Middle Miocene with taxa closely resembling Recent species.

  15. Discharge of perfluorinated compounds from rivers and their influence on the coastal seas of Hyogo prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Takemine, Shusuke; Matsumura, Chisato; Yamamoto, Katsuya; Suzuki, Motoharu; Tsurukawa, Masahiro; Imaishi, Hiromasa; Nakano, Takeshi; Kondo, Akira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate 12 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) including perfluorinated carboxylates (C4-C12) and perfluorinated alkyl sulfonates (C4, C6, and C8) in river and seawater samples to determine contamination levels in the aquatic environment of Hyogo prefecture, Japan. High levels of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA; 2300-16,000 ng/L) were detected in the Samondogawa River at Tatsumi Bridge downstream of a PFC production facility; this location also had the highest mass flow rate of PFCs (3900-29,000 kg/y). Widespread contamination of coastal waters was confirmed with PFHxA as the dominant compound. Perfluorooctanoic acid was also prevalent in coastal waters. The concentration of PFHxA in coastal seawater and the distance from the mouth of the Samondogawa River were inversely related. This discharge of high concentrations of PFHxA from the Samondogawa River may have affected concentrations of PFCs in Osaka Bay.

  16. Shear-rate-dependent strength control on the dynamics of rainfall-triggered landslides, Tokushima Prefecture, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, G.; Suemine, A.; Schulz, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    A typhoon (Typhoon No. 10) attacked Shikoku Island and the Tyugoku area of Japan in 2004. This typhoon produced a new daily precipitation record of 1317 mm on Shikoku Island and triggered hundreds of landslides in Tokushima Prefecture. One catastrophic landslide was triggered in the Shiraishi area of Kisawa village, and destroyed more than 10 houses while also leaving an unstable block high on the slope. The unstable block kept moving after the event, showing accelerating and decelerating movement during and after rainfall and reaching a displacement of several meters before countermeasures were put into place. To examine the mechanism for this landsliding characteristic, samples (weathered serpentinite) were taken from the field, and their shear behaviours examined using ring shear tests. The test results revealed that the residual shear strength of the samples is positively dependent on the shear rate, which may provide an explanation for the continuous acceleratingdecelerating process of the landsliding. The roughness of the shear surface and the microstructure of the shear zone were measured and observed by laser microscope and SEM techniques in an attempt to clarify the mechanism of shear rate effect on the residual shear strength. Copyright ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Research on the Natural Enemies of the Mulberry Scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni), in Tea Fields in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Akihito; Kubota, Sakae; Kaneko, Shuji; Ishigami, Shigeru

    Species composition and the seasonal prevalence of natural enemies on the mulberry scale Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni) in tea fields in Shizuoka Prefecture of Japan were investigated by monitoring methods using yellow sticky traps hung on the branches under leaf layers. The species captured by the sticky traps were as follows: 5 species of parasitic wasps,Arrhenophagus albitibiae Girault, Pteroptrix orientalis (Silvestri), Thomsonisca indica Hayat (this species was identified as Thomsonisca amathus in Japan), and Epitetracnemus comis Noyes & Ren; 1 species of hyperparasites, Marietta carnesi (Howard); and 3 species of coleopteran predators, Pseudoscymnus hareja Weise, Chilocorus kuwanae Silvestri, and Cybocephalus nipponicus Endrody-Younga. Further, 1 Cecidomyiidae species (predatory gall midge), namely,Dentifibula sp., was captured by sticky traps. Among the parasitoids captured, A. albitibiae was the most abundant species, followed by P. orientalis. Among the predacious beetles captured, P. hareja was the dominant species. A. albitibiae demonstrated 5 or 6 peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year, and P. orientalis and T. indica exhibited 3 peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year. P. hareja and Dentifibula sp. demonstrated 3 indistinct peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year. The peak dates of A. albitibiae, P. orientalis, T. indica, and Dentifibula sp. were compared with those of the first instar larvae and adult males of the hosts, P. pentagona, which were captured by sticky traps. The relationships between the total numbers of each generation captured by sticky traps of the parasitoids A. albitibiae and the host P. pentagona over a period of 2 years revealed similar changes in the dynamics of the host-parasitoid models of Nicholson and Bailey (1935).This suggested that A. albitibiae was one of the most important natural enemies against P.pentagona in tea fields.

  18. Current status of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis in Okinawa prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakama, Rika; Shingaki, Aoi; Miyazato, Hiroko; Higa, Rikako; Nagamoto, Chota; Hamamoto, Kouta; Ueda, Shuhei; Hachiman, Teruyuki; Touma, Yuki; Miyagi, Kazufumi; Kawahara, Ryuji; Toyosato, Takehiko; Hirai, Itaru

    2016-05-01

    Enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) are distributed worldwide. In this study, 114 ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were isolated by analyzing 1672 clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae collected from an Okinawa prefectural hospital in Japan between June 2013 and July 2014. The overall prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae was 6.8%; the prevalence of different bacterial species among the ESBL-producing isolates was as follows: 11.5% Escherichia coli (90 of 783 isolates), 6.2% Klebsiella pneumoniae (19 of 307 isolates), and 11.1% Proteus mirabilis (5 of 45 isolates). The ESBL types blaCTX-M-1, -3, -15, -2, -14, -27, and mutants of blaSHV-1 were detected. Among them, blaCTX-M-15 (33.3%), blaCTX-M-14 (27.8%) and blaCTX-M-27 (33.3%) were dominant in the E. coli isolates, whereas a blaSHV mutant which possessed four mutations (Tyr7Phe, Leu35Gln, Gly238Ser and Glu240Lys) in the amino acid sequence of SHV-1 dominated in the K. pneumoniae isolates (11 of 19, 57.9%). The pandemic E. coli ST131 clone was found to constitute 3.3% of the overall examined isolates and 62.2% of the ESBL-producing E. coli isolates. Our results suggest that the genetic combination of blaCTX-M, and blaSHV and antibiotics-resistant profile were different from that in other regions such as other areas of Japan, Asia, Europe, and North America, especially in the ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates and in the E. coli B2-O25b-ST131 isolates possessing blaCTX-M-15 (40.7% of the E. coli B2-O25b-ST131 isolates). Taken together, our results indicate that the ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Okinawa, Japan, might be of a unique nature. PMID:26898665

  19. Current status of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis in Okinawa prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakama, Rika; Shingaki, Aoi; Miyazato, Hiroko; Higa, Rikako; Nagamoto, Chota; Hamamoto, Kouta; Ueda, Shuhei; Hachiman, Teruyuki; Touma, Yuki; Miyagi, Kazufumi; Kawahara, Ryuji; Toyosato, Takehiko; Hirai, Itaru

    2016-05-01

    Enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) are distributed worldwide. In this study, 114 ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were isolated by analyzing 1672 clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae collected from an Okinawa prefectural hospital in Japan between June 2013 and July 2014. The overall prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae was 6.8%; the prevalence of different bacterial species among the ESBL-producing isolates was as follows: 11.5% Escherichia coli (90 of 783 isolates), 6.2% Klebsiella pneumoniae (19 of 307 isolates), and 11.1% Proteus mirabilis (5 of 45 isolates). The ESBL types blaCTX-M-1, -3, -15, -2, -14, -27, and mutants of blaSHV-1 were detected. Among them, blaCTX-M-15 (33.3%), blaCTX-M-14 (27.8%) and blaCTX-M-27 (33.3%) were dominant in the E. coli isolates, whereas a blaSHV mutant which possessed four mutations (Tyr7Phe, Leu35Gln, Gly238Ser and Glu240Lys) in the amino acid sequence of SHV-1 dominated in the K. pneumoniae isolates (11 of 19, 57.9%). The pandemic E. coli ST131 clone was found to constitute 3.3% of the overall examined isolates and 62.2% of the ESBL-producing E. coli isolates. Our results suggest that the genetic combination of blaCTX-M, and blaSHV and antibiotics-resistant profile were different from that in other regions such as other areas of Japan, Asia, Europe, and North America, especially in the ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates and in the E. coli B2-O25b-ST131 isolates possessing blaCTX-M-15 (40.7% of the E. coli B2-O25b-ST131 isolates). Taken together, our results indicate that the ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Okinawa, Japan, might be of a unique nature.

  20. Highly Toxic Ribbon Worm Cephalothrix simula Containing Tetrodotoxin in Hiroshima Bay, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Asakawa, Manabu; Ito, Katsutoshi; Kajihara, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    In 1998, during a toxicological surveillance of various marine fouling organisms in Hiroshima Bay, Japan, specimens of the ribbon worm, Cephalothrix simula (Nemertea: Palaeonemertea) were found. These ribbon worms contained toxins with extremely strong paralytic activity. The maximum toxicity in terms of tetrodotoxin (TTX) was 25,590 mouse units (MU) per gram for the whole worm throughout the monitoring period. The main toxic component was isolated and recrystallized from an acidified methanolic solution. The crystalline with a specific toxicity of 3520 MU/mg was obtained and identified as TTX by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorescent detection (FLD) (HPLC-FLD), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest toxicity of C. simula exceeded the human lethal dose per a single worm. A toxicological surveillance of C. simula from 1998 to 2005 indicated approximately 80% of the individuals were ranked as “strongly toxic” (≥1000 MU/g). Forty-eight percent of the specimens possessed toxicity scores of more than 2000 MU/g. Seasonal variations were observed in the lethal potency of C. simula. Specimens collected on January 13, 2000 to December 26, 2000 showed mean toxicities of 665–5300 MU/g (n = 10). These data prompted a toxicological surveillance of ribbon worms from other localities with different habitats in Japan, including Akkeshi Bay (Hokkaido) under stones on rocky intertidal beaches, as well as Otsuchi (Iwate) among calcareous tubes of serpulid polychaetes on rocky shores. Within twelve species of ribbon worms examined, only C. simula possessed extremely high toxicity. Therefore, C. simula appears to show generally high toxicity irrespective of their locality and habitat. PMID:23430577

  1. Highly toxic ribbon worm Cephalothrix simula containing tetrodotoxin in Hiroshima Bay, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Manabu; Ito, Katsutoshi; Kajihara, Hiroshi

    2013-02-20

    In 1998, during a toxicological surveillance of various marine fouling organisms in Hiroshima Bay, Japan, specimens of the ribbon worm, Cephalothrix simula (Nemertea: Palaeonemertea) were found. These ribbon worms contained toxins with extremely strong paralytic activity. The maximum toxicity in terms of tetrodotoxin (TTX) was 25,590 mouse units (MU) per gram for the whole worm throughout the monitoring period. The main toxic component was isolated and recrystallized from an acidified methanolic solution. The crystalline with a specific toxicity of 3520 MU/mg was obtained and identified as TTX by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorescent detection (FLD) (HPLC-FLD), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest toxicity of C. simula exceeded the human lethal dose per a single worm. A toxicological surveillance of C. simula from 1998 to 2005 indicated approximately 80% of the individuals were ranked as "strongly toxic" (≥1000 MU/g). Forty-eight percent of the specimens possessed toxicity scores of more than 2000 MU/g. Seasonal variations were observed in the lethal potency of C. simula. Specimens collected on January 13, 2000 to December 26, 2000 showed mean toxicities of 665-5300 MU/g (n = 10). These data prompted a toxicological surveillance of ribbon worms from other localities with different habitats in Japan, including Akkeshi Bay (Hokkaido) under stones on rocky intertidal beaches, as well as Otsuchi (Iwate) among calcareous tubes of serpulid polychaetes on rocky shores. Within twelve species of ribbon worms examined, only C. simula possessed extremely high toxicity. Therefore, C. simula appears to show generally high toxicity irrespective of their locality and habitat.

  2. Intracranial hemorrhage and platelet transfusion after administration of anti-platelets agents: Fukushima Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yuhko; Sato, Taku; Sakuma, Jun; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Kishida, Yugo; Oda, Keiko; Watanabe, Yoichi; Goto, Takeshi; Sato, Masahiro; Nollet, Kenneth E; Saito, Kiyoshi; Ohto, Hitoshi

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a case series study to assess intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in the context of anti-platelets agents (APAs) and platelet (PLT) transfusion in Fukushima Prefecture.This study included patients who were newly diagnosed with ICH between January 2008 and June 2014 in the neurosurgical hospitals of Fukushima Prefecture. Four of ten neurosurgical hospitals responded to our questionnaire. Of 287 ICH patients, 51 (20.6%) were on APA therapy, of whom PLT transfusion was given to only one persistently bleeding patient who was on dual anti-platelet therapy. In a follow-up survey, 30 out of 51 ICH patients on APA therapy, average age 75 years, were analyzed, of whom 21 (70%) were male. The predominant underlying disease was diabetes mellitus. It is interesting to note that peripheral artery disease and aortic aneurysm were among the indications for APAs. ICH was mainly observed supratentorially. Hematoma enlargement was observed in 13 (44.8%) cases. By day 7, 3 patients (10%) had died from complications of ICH. In this study, we show that ICH during APA therapy matched what was observed in Kanagawa Prefecture. Whether or not a national survey differs, we anticipate greater statistical validity and an opportunity to improve patient outcomes in Japan and around the world. PMID:27210309

  3. Heterogeneous stress field in the source area of the 2003 M6.4 Northern Miyagi Prefecture, NE Japan, earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Akira; Okada, Tomomi

    2016-07-01

    We investigated a detailed spatial distribution of principal stress axis orientations in the source area of the 2003 M6.4 Northern Miyagi Prefecture earthquake that occurred in the forearc of northeastern Japan. Aftershock hypocentres were precisely relocated by applying the double difference method to arrival time data obtained at temporary stations as well as at surrounding routine stations. We picked many P-wave polarity data from seismograms at these stations, which enabled us to obtain 312 well-determined focal mechanism solutions. Stress tensor inversions were performed by using these focal mechanism data. The results show that quite a lot of focal mechanisms are difficult to explain by the uniform stress field, especially near the large slip area of the main-shock rupture. Stress tensor inversions at the location of individual earthquakes show that σ1 axes are orientated mainly to WSW-ENE in the northern part of the source area, while they are oriented to NW-SE in the southern part. This spatial pattern is roughly similar to those of the static stress change by the main shock, which suggests that the observed spatially heterogeneous stress field was formed by the static stress change. If this is the case, the deviatoric stress magnitude before the main shock was very small. Another possibility is the heterogeneous stress field observed after the main shock had existed even before the main shock, although we do not know why it was formed. Unfavourable orientation of the main shock fault with respect to this stress field suggests that the fault is not strong in this case too.

  4. A GIS-based DRASTIC model for assessing aquifer vulnerability in Kakamigahara Heights, Gifu Prefecture, central Japan.

    PubMed

    Babiker, Insaf S; Mohamed, Mohamed A A; Hiyama, Tetsuya; Kato, Kikuo

    2005-06-01

    Vulnerability assessment to delineate areas that are more susceptible to contamination from anthropogenic sources has become an important element for sensible resource management and land use planning. This contribution aims at estimating aquifer vulnerability by applying the DRASTIC model as well as utilizing sensitivity analyses to evaluate the relative importance of the model parameters for aquifer vulnerability in Kakamigahara Heights, Gifu Prefecture central Japan. An additional objective is to demonstrate the combined use of the DRASTIC and geographical information system (GIS) as an effective method for groundwater pollution risk assessment. The DRASTIC model uses seven environmental parameters (Depth to water, net Recharge, Aquifer media, Soil media, Topography, Impact of vadose zone, and hydraulic Conductivity) to characterize the hydrogeological setting and evaluate aquifer vulnerability. The western part of the Kakamigahara aquifer was dominated by "High" vulnerability classes while the eastern part was characterized by "Moderate" vulnerability classes. The elevated north-eastern part of the study area displayed "Low" aquifer vulnerability. The integrated vulnerability map shows the high risk imposed on the eastern part of the Kakamigahara aquifer due to the high pollution potential of intensive vegetable cultivation. The more vulnerable western part of the aquifer is, however, under a lower contamination risk. In Kakamigahara Heights, land use seems to be a better predictor of groundwater contamination by nitrate. Net recharge parameter inflicted the largest impact on the intrinsic vulnerability of the aquifer followed by soil media, topography, vadose zone media, and hydraulic conductivity. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the removal of net recharge, soil media and topography causes large variation in vulnerability index. Moreover, net recharge and hydraulic conductivity were found to be more effective in assessing aquifer vulnerability than

  5. Has land subsidence changed the flood hazard potential? A case example from the Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. L.; Ito, Y.; Sawamukai, M.; Su, T.; Tokunaga, T.

    2015-11-01

    Coastal areas are subject to flood hazards because of their topographic features, social development and related human activities. The Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan, is located nearby the Tokyo metropolitan area and it faces to the Pacific Ocean. In the Kujukuri Plain, widespread occurrence of land subsidence has been caused by exploitation of groundwater, extraction of natural gas dissolved in brine, and natural consolidation of the Holocene and landfill deposits. The locations of land subsidence include areas near the coast, and it may increase the flood hazard potential. Hence, it is very important to evaluate flood hazard potential by taking into account the temporal change of land elevation caused by land subsidence, and to prepare hazard maps for protecting the surface environment and for developing an appropriate land-use plan. In this study, flood hazard assessments at three different times, i.e., 1970, 2004, and 2013 are implemented by using a flood hazard model based on Multicriteria Decision Analysis with Geographical Information System techniques. The model incorporates six factors: elevation, depression area, river system, ratio of impermeable area, detention ponds, and precipitation. Main data sources used are 10 m resolution topography data, airborne laser scanning data, leveling data, Landsat-TM data, two 1:30 000 scale river watershed maps, and precipitation data from observation stations around the study area and Radar data. The hazard assessment maps for each time are obtained by using an algorithm that combines factors with weighted linear combinations. The assignment of the weight/rank values and their analysis are realized by the application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process method. This study is a preliminary work to investigate flood hazards on the Kujukuri Plain. A flood model will be developed to simulate more detailed change of the flood hazard influenced by land subsidence.

  6. A GIS-based DRASTIC model for assessing aquifer vulnerability in Kakamigahara Heights, Gifu Prefecture, central Japan.

    PubMed

    Babiker, Insaf S; Mohamed, Mohamed A A; Hiyama, Tetsuya; Kato, Kikuo

    2005-06-01

    Vulnerability assessment to delineate areas that are more susceptible to contamination from anthropogenic sources has become an important element for sensible resource management and land use planning. This contribution aims at estimating aquifer vulnerability by applying the DRASTIC model as well as utilizing sensitivity analyses to evaluate the relative importance of the model parameters for aquifer vulnerability in Kakamigahara Heights, Gifu Prefecture central Japan. An additional objective is to demonstrate the combined use of the DRASTIC and geographical information system (GIS) as an effective method for groundwater pollution risk assessment. The DRASTIC model uses seven environmental parameters (Depth to water, net Recharge, Aquifer media, Soil media, Topography, Impact of vadose zone, and hydraulic Conductivity) to characterize the hydrogeological setting and evaluate aquifer vulnerability. The western part of the Kakamigahara aquifer was dominated by "High" vulnerability classes while the eastern part was characterized by "Moderate" vulnerability classes. The elevated north-eastern part of the study area displayed "Low" aquifer vulnerability. The integrated vulnerability map shows the high risk imposed on the eastern part of the Kakamigahara aquifer due to the high pollution potential of intensive vegetable cultivation. The more vulnerable western part of the aquifer is, however, under a lower contamination risk. In Kakamigahara Heights, land use seems to be a better predictor of groundwater contamination by nitrate. Net recharge parameter inflicted the largest impact on the intrinsic vulnerability of the aquifer followed by soil media, topography, vadose zone media, and hydraulic conductivity. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the removal of net recharge, soil media and topography causes large variation in vulnerability index. Moreover, net recharge and hydraulic conductivity were found to be more effective in assessing aquifer vulnerability than

  7. Prefectural difference in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage incidence in Japan analyzed with publically accessible diagnosis procedure combination data: possibilities and limitations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Annually reported, publically accessible Diagnosis Procedure Combination (DPC) data from the Japanese government is a part of the total DPC database of the Japanese medical reimbursement system for hospitalization. Although medical issues can be evaluated with these data promptly, the applicability of these data in epidemiological analyses has not been assessed. METHODS: We performed analyses using only statistical indices reported on the a government website. As a preliminary step, the prefectural consistency of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) was examined with prefectural mortality over 20 years. Then the prefectural incidence of sICH for four years was calculated, utilizing publically accessible DPC data. To determine its reliability, the consistency was examined, and correlations were analyzed with three prefectural factors expected to have an effect: the elderly rate, mortality due to sICH, and the non-DPC bed rate. In addition, a comparison model between prefectures with this method was developed by analyzing other prefecture-specific factors. RESULTS: Prefectural mortality due to sICH and prefectural sICH incidence in the DPC database were both consistent over the years. Prefectural sICH incidence had a constant positive correlation with the elderly rate, a partial correlation with mortality due to sICH, but no correlation with the non-DPC bed rate, which is one of the major biases when utilizing the DPC database. In the comparison model, the factors of low income and alcohol consumption showed increased sICH incidence. CONCLUSIONS: Although careful attention to its limitations is required, publically accessible DPC data will provide insights into epidemiological issues. PMID:27384329

  8. Tsunami deposits caused by the March 2011 Tohoku-oki Tsunami in the Soma region, Fukushima Prefecture, northeast Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashizaki, R.; Shirai, M.

    2012-12-01

    The March 2011 Tohoku-oki Tsunami is considered to be a recurrence of the Jogan Earthquake Tsunami (A.D. 869), and generated tsunamis that caused great damage to a wide range of the Pacific coast of eastern Japan. Tsunami deposits are useful to estimate recurrence intervals and scale of past tsunamis, and these estimations are helpful to prevent tsunami disasters. However, identifying tsunami deposits from onshore depositional succession and estimating scale of paleo-tsunami from the tsunami deposits are difficult. Investigation of modern tsunami deposits is necessary to test estimating more accurate scales of the tsunami from deposits themselves. We therefore attempt to find new characteristics of the tsunami deposits which are caused by the March 2011 Tohoku-oki Tsunami, at the Soma region, Fukushima Prefecture, northeast Japan. We found evidences being consistent with previous studies on tsunami deposits in the area and also report characteristics which have not yet been well-documented. Identified characteristics of the tsunami deposits, which have been reported by previous studies, at the investigation area, as follows, (i) the tsunami deposits, which have normal or inverse grading, become generally thinner and finer with distance from the shoreline, (ii) these often intercalate organic-rich silt layers which are deposited during the stagnant phase, and (iii) display variations in thickness due to local surface relief. Although further verification is required, we found the high-angle landward dipping sedimentary structures influenced tsunami on the backshore deposits. We also found the dewatering structures influenced tsunami in the foreshore deposits at the coast in front of the Sendai airport, north of the Soma region. These results suggest tsunami deposits might be preserved in the coastal environment, even though erosion is the primary factor in the environment. The tide gauge records at the Soma port were missed after the first tsunami run-up, therefore

  9. The Meio 1498 earthquake and tsunami : driving force of abrupt environmental change in the Hamana floodplain, Shizuoka prefecture, Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyvaert, Vanessa M. A.; Fujiwara, Osamu; Umitsu, Masatomo; Sato, Yoshiki; Ono, Einsuke; Yata, Toshifumi

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this research is to study the role of a tsunami, generated by the 1498 Meio earthquake (M8.2 - 8.4) along the eastern Nankai on the geomorphological evolution of the Hamana river floodplain, located along the Pacific coastline of Central Japan (Shizuoka prefecture). Historical sources document a sudden decline at the end of the 15th century of the harbour town Hashimoto, located along the river Hamana. Before the 15th century, this river connected the Pacific Ocean with an enclosed coastal embayment separated by a sand barrier (i.e. the present-day Hamana lake) from the Pacific. The reconstruction of the palaeocourse of the Hamana river was carried out on the basis of detailed facies and diatom analyses of undisturbed sediment cores (geoslicer and drilling). The palaeochannel was detected along the western side of the present-day coastal embayment. It seems that the river's mouth was abruptly sealed off due to the migration of huge volumes of sand that initiated the development of a marsh environment upstream along the channel. The identification and radiocarbon dating of these sandy high-energy flow deposits in several cores (thick sand bed of marine origin intercalated at the estuarine - marsh environmental change boundary) suggests that the river mouth closure was initated by mass sediment transport by a storm surge or tsunami (1498 Meio tsunami and/or 1498 and 1499 large storm surges along the Hamana coastline). The same process, of sudden river mouth sealing by tsunami-transported sediments, was recently observed in the northeast of Japan during the great 2011 Sendai tsunami (Uda, T., 2011). Historical sources document that after the 1498 Meio tsunami, the Hamana back-barrier sheltered environment was reconnected to the Pacific Ocean due to breaching of its sand barrier. Both environmental changes (river mouth closure and barrier breaching)are synchronous with the sudden decline of the harbour town Hashimoto. These data suggest that disruption

  10. Steatitis in egrets and herons from Japan.

    PubMed

    Neagari, Yasuko; Arii, Suzue; Udagawa, Mai; Onuma, Manabu; Odaya, Yoshiya; Kawasaki, Takeshi; Tenpaku, Makio; Hayama, Hisayo; Harada, Ken-ichi; Mizukami, Masaya; Murata, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    More than 70 egrets and herons were found sick or dead at an agricultural water reservoir in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan between September and October 2008. The birds showed weakness, lethargy, and inability to fly before death. Postmortem findings included large amounts of firm subcutaneous and cavitary fat comprised of necrotic adipose tissues with infiltrates of heterophils and macrophages. The birds were diagnosed with steatitis on the basis of the gross lesions and histopathology. Egrets with steatitis had low blood levels of vitamin E. High counts of cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa) were found in the reservoir concurrent with the outbreak of steatitis. No microcystin was detected in the reservoir water or the livers from the egrets. This is the first report of steatitis in wild birds in Japan.

  11. Geochemical evaluation of the land use and human activities at a Medieval harbor site, Masuda city, Shimane Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalai, Banzragch; Ishiga, Hiroaki

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale harbor and settlement sites from the latter half of the eleventh through sixteenth centuries have recently been discovered in the northern part of Masuda City, Shimane Prefecture, Japan. The sites were constructed at the river mouth delta of the Takatsu and Masuda rivers, facing the Sea of Japan. In former time, the mouths of the two rivers are thought to have formed a shallow lagoon connecting with the Sea of Japan. The harbor was thus well located for ships sailing along the sea coast, especially for conducting trade with the China mainland and the Korean peninsula. Archaeological investigations have identified over 800 construction pits, blacksmith hearths, harbor structures and numerous fragments of ceramic porcelain originating both from within Japan and from Asia (China, Korea, Vietnam and Thailand). It seems that the maritime trade network operated from this Medieval harbor site by the Masuda Clan was on an East Asian scale. Consequently, the harbor site can be expected to have received a considerable amount of ancient anthropogenic matter. Concentrations of 22 elements in 66 soil samples from the Nakazu Higashihara site were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, in order to identify the land use and human impacts on soil chemistry at the harbor site. The results show that significant differences in geochemical compositional exist between the northern and southern parts of the site due to differences in lithology and land use practice. The south area was a production area of this harbor site. Three different activity areas were recognized within this area (fire pit and charcoal area, building pillars, and a blacksmith furnace area), based on geochemical and archaeological information. Cluster analysis shows a strong relationship exists between As, Pb, Cu, Br, TS, MnO and P2O5 in the fire pit and charcoal area. These charcoal materials were likely derived from fuel used in firing and heating. Close relationships occur between Cr, Sr, Sc

  12. Tanohataite, LiMn2Si3O8(OH): a new mineral from the Tanohata mine, Iwate Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagase, Toshiro; Hori, Hidemichi; Kitamine, Mizuya; Nagashima, Mariko; Abduriyim, Ahmadjan; Kuribayashi, Takahiro

    Tanohataite, LiMn2Si3O8(OH), the Li analogue of serandite, has been found in a metamorphosed manganese ore deposit of the Tanohata mine, Iwate Prefecture, Japan. The mineral has the triclinic space group P1 with a = 7.612(7), b = 7.038(4), c = 6.700(4) Å, α = 90.23(6)°, β = 94.70(7)°, γ = 105.26 (8)°, V =345.0(3) Å3, and Z = 2. The seven strongest lines in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern are [d(Å), (I), (hkl)]: 6.64(35)(001), 3.67(26)(200), 3.13(89)(102), 3.11(69)(211), 2.95(100)(102), 2.81(33)(120), and 2.18(40)(103). Electron microprobe analysis and laser ablation microprobe-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry gave an SiO2 content of 51.97; MnO, 37.99; MgO, 1.06; CaO, 0.41; Na2O, 1.97; Li2O, 3.34; total, 96.74 wt%, corresponding to an empirical formula of (Li0.78Na0.22)Σ1.00(Mn1.86Ca0.03Mg0.09)Σ1.98Si3.01O8(OH) on the basis of O = 9. Tanohataite is transparent and pinkish white with a vitreous and silky luster. The streak is white. The cleavage is perfect on {001} and {100}. On the Mohs' scale, the hardness is 5-51/2. The calculated density is 3.33 g/cm3. Optically, tanohataite is biaxial positive with 2Vcalc = 82(2)°, α = 1.593(3), β = 1.618(3), and γ = 1.653(3). Tanohataite occurs as an aggregation of fibrous crystals in veinlets composed mainly of quartz, aegirine, Mn-arfvedsonite, nambulite, natronambulite, and barite.

  13. Database of Industrial Technological Information in Kanagawa : Networks for Technology Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Akira; Shindo, Tadashi

    This system is one of the databases which require participation by its members and of which premise is to open all the data in it. Aiming at free technological cooperation and exchange among industries it was constructed by Kanagawa Prefecture in collaboration with enterprises located in it. The input data is 36 items such as major product, special and advantageous technology, technolagy to be wanted for cooperation, facility and equipment, which technologically characterize each enterprise. They are expressed in 2,000 characters and written by natural language including Kanji except for some coded items. 24 search items are accessed by natural language so that in addition to interactive searching procedures including menu-type it enables extensive searching. The information service started in Oct., 1986 covering data from 2,000 enterprisen.

  14. Bath water contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria in 24-hour home baths, hot springs, and public bathhouses of Nagano Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Michiko; Oana, Kozue; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Bath water samples were collected from 116 hot springs, 197 public bathhouses, and 38 24-hour home baths in Nagano Prefecture, Japan, during the period of April 2009 to November 2011, for determining the presence and extent of contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Cultures positive for Legionella were observed in 123 of the 3,314 bath water samples examined. The distribution and abundance of Legionella and/or combined contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria were investigated to clarify the contamination levels. The abundance of Legionella was demonstrated to correlate considerably with the levels of combined contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Legionella spp. were obtained from 61% of the water samples from 24-hour home baths, but only from 3% of the samples from public bathhouses and hot springs. This is despite the fact that a few outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease in Nagano Prefecture as well as other regions of Japan have been traced to bath water contamination. The comparatively higher rate of contamination of the 24-hour home baths is a matter of concern. It is therefore advisable to routinely implement good maintenance of the water basins, particularly of the 24-hour home baths.

  15. Importance of field scientific learning at the time of elementary and junior high school. - Introduction of geological field learning in Shimane Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, I.

    2014-12-01

    Importance of the scientific field learning is increasing since the disaster by the Tohoku-Earthquake and Tsunami at the 11th March 2011, in Japan. Effective enforcement of the environmental education from a kindergarten to a University student is very important educational tool for protecting future earth's environment. Practice of the geological field study at the time of elementary and junior high school is very important. This study reports the present situation and the practice example of field scientific learning of Japan. Particularly, I report practice of the geological field education in a class of Shimane prefecture. I point out that "Consciousness (In)", "knowledge (About)", and "action (For)" are important three factors not only environmental education but also geological field education (e.g. Matsumoto, 2014). However, the practice rate of field geological learning at the elementary and junior high school is very low in Japan (Miyashita and Matsumoto, 2010). I introduce the effective method of increasing the practice rate of field geological study. I discuss about pedagogy which improves especially a student's scientific literacy.

  16. Possibility of relationship between the yellow sand and the foot-and-mouth disease in Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan in March 2010 by using MODIS images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Yoshinobu

    2014-11-01

    In Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan, the O-type foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) appeared and spread from March to July, 2010. The first infected livestock by FMD virus was detected on March 26, 2010 at Tsuno Town in Miyazaki Prefecture. The O-type FMD was found on March 14 at the suburb of Lanzhou City in Gansu, and on March 25, 2010 in Shanxi, China. The duration of FMD virus incubation is 2 to 8 days. Maki et al. (2011, 2012) presumed the cause of the first FMD in Miyazaki as follows: The yellow sand adhered with FMD virus was transported from Gansu to Miyazaki by global westerly winds. In this paper, we investigate whether the yellow sand generated in Gansu flew to Miyazaki in March, 2010 by using MODIS data of Terra and Aqua satellites. True-color mosaic images, AVI mosaic images and T11 mosaic images from China to Japan are made and examined. The aerosol vapor index (AVI) is defined as AVI=T12-T11, where T12 and T11 are the brightness temperatures at 12μm and 11μm wavelength, respectively. The AVI can detect the dust and sandstorms (DSS, i.e., yellow sands) in satellite images both at daytime and night. AVI values are classified into six levels from 0 to 5. From AVI images, DSS existed in the vicinity of Lanzhou on March 19, and in the south area of Shanxi on March 20, and in the vicinity of Tsuno Town on March 21. If Maki et al. are right, the cause of the first FMD in Miyazaki in March 2010 is that DSS generated in Gansu on March 19 flew to Miyazaki on March 21.

  17. Phylogenetic analysis of avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 in pigeons in Japan

    PubMed Central

    MASE, Masaji; KANEHIRA, Katsushi

    2015-01-01

    To understand the epidemiology of Avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1) in pigeons in Japan, phylogenetic analysis was comprehensively conducted based on partial fusion protein gene using isolate from the surveillance of this virus with previously known Japanese pigeon strains. This surveillance was conducted using feces obtained from domestic pigeons collected in 40 prefectures throughout Japan from June 2011 to March 2013. From a total of 1,021 samples, a single virus (APMV1/pigeon/Japan/Kanagawa/2013: JP/Kanagawa-pg/2013) was isolated. All Japanese pigeon APMV-1 strains were clustered into a single genetic lineage, which was termed VIb/1 by phylogenetic analysis based on the F gene including the sequence of the cleavage site. These APMV-1 strains were further subdivided into four subgroups identified over 4 separate timeframes: 1984–1995 (group 1), 1995–2000 (group 2), 2001–2007 (group 3) and the novel subgroup isolated in 2013 (group 4). Each subgroup has specific amino acid motifs at a cleavage site of the F protein, namely, 112GRQKR-F117(except for one strain), 112RRKKR-F117, 112RRQKR-F117 and 112RRQKR-F117, respectively. Our data suggest that Japanese APMV-1 strains from pigeons were diverse and reinforced the possibility that there were multiple introduction routes from foreign countries into Japan. PMID:25797040

  18. Increases in perinatal mortality in prefectures contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in Japan: A spatially stratified longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Scherb, Hagen Heinrich; Mori, Kuniyoshi; Hayashi, Keiji

    2016-09-01

    Descriptive observational studies showed upward jumps in secular European perinatal mortality trends after Chernobyl. The question arises whether the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident entailed similar phenomena in Japan. For 47 prefectures representing 15.2 million births from 2001 to 2014, the Japanese government provides monthly statistics on 69,171 cases of perinatal death of the fetus or the newborn after 22 weeks of pregnancy to 7 days after birth. Employing change-point methodology for detecting alterations in longitudinal data, we analyzed time trends in perinatal mortality in the Japanese prefectures stratified by exposure to estimate and test potential increases in perinatal death proportions after Fukushima possibly associated with the earthquake, the tsunami, or the estimated radiation exposure. Areas with moderate to high levels of radiation were compared with less exposed and unaffected areas, as were highly contaminated areas hit versus untroubled by the earthquake and the tsunami. Ten months after the earthquake and tsunami and the subsequent nuclear accident, perinatal mortality in 6 severely contaminated prefectures jumped up from January 2012 onward: jump odds ratio 1.156; 95% confidence interval (1.061, 1.259), P-value 0.0009. There were slight increases in areas with moderate levels of contamination and no increases in the rest of Japan. In severely contaminated areas, the increases of perinatal mortality 10 months after Fukushima were essentially independent of the numbers of dead and missing due to the earthquake and the tsunami. Perinatal mortality in areas contaminated with radioactive substances started to increase 10 months after the nuclear accident relative to the prevailing and stable secular downward trend. These results are consistent with findings in Europe after Chernobyl. Since observational studies as the one presented here may suggest but cannot prove causality because of unknown and uncontrolled factors or confounders

  19. Increases in perinatal mortality in prefectures contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in Japan: A spatially stratified longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Scherb, Hagen Heinrich; Mori, Kuniyoshi; Hayashi, Keiji

    2016-09-01

    Descriptive observational studies showed upward jumps in secular European perinatal mortality trends after Chernobyl. The question arises whether the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident entailed similar phenomena in Japan. For 47 prefectures representing 15.2 million births from 2001 to 2014, the Japanese government provides monthly statistics on 69,171 cases of perinatal death of the fetus or the newborn after 22 weeks of pregnancy to 7 days after birth. Employing change-point methodology for detecting alterations in longitudinal data, we analyzed time trends in perinatal mortality in the Japanese prefectures stratified by exposure to estimate and test potential increases in perinatal death proportions after Fukushima possibly associated with the earthquake, the tsunami, or the estimated radiation exposure. Areas with moderate to high levels of radiation were compared with less exposed and unaffected areas, as were highly contaminated areas hit versus untroubled by the earthquake and the tsunami. Ten months after the earthquake and tsunami and the subsequent nuclear accident, perinatal mortality in 6 severely contaminated prefectures jumped up from January 2012 onward: jump odds ratio 1.156; 95% confidence interval (1.061, 1.259), P-value 0.0009. There were slight increases in areas with moderate levels of contamination and no increases in the rest of Japan. In severely contaminated areas, the increases of perinatal mortality 10 months after Fukushima were essentially independent of the numbers of dead and missing due to the earthquake and the tsunami. Perinatal mortality in areas contaminated with radioactive substances started to increase 10 months after the nuclear accident relative to the prevailing and stable secular downward trend. These results are consistent with findings in Europe after Chernobyl. Since observational studies as the one presented here may suggest but cannot prove causality because of unknown and uncontrolled factors or confounders

  20. Resistance phenotypes and genotypes among multiple-antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Choleraesuis strains isolated between 2008 and 2012 from slaughter pigs in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Matayoshi, Masanao; Kitano, Takashi; Sasaki, Tetsu; Nakamura, Masaji

    2015-06-01

    A total of 349 Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis) strains, which were isolated between 2008 and 2012 from 349 pigs at two slaughterhouses in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, were investigated for antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes. All isolates were resistant to at least four antimicrobial agents. The antimicrobial agents for which isolates showed a high incidence of resistance were as follows: ampicillin (100%) and streptomycin (100%), followed by gentamicin (99.7%), oxytetracycline (99.7%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (99.4%), nalidixic acid (40.1%) and oxolinic acid (40.1%). All isolates were sensitive to cefuroxime, ceftiofur, colistin, fosfomycin, enrofloxacin, orbifloxacin and danofloxacin. The predominant resistance phenotypes and genotypes were: resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, gentamicin, oxytetracycline and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (58.5%, 204/349) and blaTEM-strA-strB-aadA1-aadA2-aacC2-tet (B)-sul1-sul2-dhfrXII-dhfrXIII (36.1%, 126/349). The quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE of the quinolone-resistant isolates (n=12) showed amino acid substitutions of Ser-83→Phe or Asp-87→Tyr in GyrA and Ser-107→Ala in ParC. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance among S. Choleraesuis strains in Japan.

  1. A Molecular and Serological Survey of Rickettsiales Bacteria in Wild Sika Deer (Cervus nippon nippon) in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan: High Prevalence of Anaplasma Species.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dongxing; Wuritu; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Gaowa; Kawamori, Fumihiko; Ikegaya, Asaka; Ohtake, Masayoshi; Ohashi, Masataka; Shimada, Masahiko; Takada, Ayumi; Iwai, Katsuki; Ohashi, Norio

    2015-01-01

    We surveyed Rickettsiales bacteria, including Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Neoehrlichia, in wild sika deer (Cervus nippon nippon) from Shizuoka prefecture, Japan. In spleen samples from 187 deer, Anaplasma phagocytophilum (deer type), A. bovis, and A. centrale were successfully detected by PCR assay targeting to 16S rDNA or p44/msp2, and their positive rates were 96.3% (180/187), 53.5% (100/187), and 78.1% (146/187), respectively. Additionally, 2 or 3 Anaplasma species could be detected from a single deer in 165 spleen samples (88.2%), indicating dual or triple infection. In contrast, A. phagocytophilum (human type) 16S rDNA, Rickettsia gltA, Ehrlichia p28/omp-1, and Neoehrlichia 16S rDNA could not be amplified. The serological test of 105 deer serum samples by immunofluorescence assay showed that the detection of antibodies against antigens of A. phagocytophilum HZ (US-human isolate) and Rickettsia japonica YH were 29.5% (31/105) and 75.2% (79/105), respectively. These findings suggest that A. phagocytophilum (deer type), A. centrale, and A. bovis are highly dominant and prevalent in wild sika deer from Shizuoka, a central region of Japan, and that the antibodies against some Rickettsiales bacteria have also been retained in deer blood.

  2. Resistance phenotypes and genotypes among multiple-antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Choleraesuis strains isolated between 2008 and 2012 from slaughter pigs in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    MATAYOSHI, Masanao; KITANO, Takashi; SASAKI, Tetsu; NAKAMURA, Masaji

    2015-01-01

    A total of 349 Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis) strains, which were isolated between 2008 and 2012 from 349 pigs at two slaughterhouses in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, were investigated for antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes. All isolates were resistant to at least four antimicrobial agents. The antimicrobial agents for which isolates showed a high incidence of resistance were as follows: ampicillin (100%) and streptomycin (100%), followed by gentamicin (99.7%), oxytetracycline (99.7%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (99.4%), nalidixic acid (40.1%) and oxolinic acid (40.1%). All isolates were sensitive to cefuroxime, ceftiofur, colistin, fosfomycin, enrofloxacin, orbifloxacin and danofloxacin. The predominant resistance phenotypes and genotypes were: resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, gentamicin, oxytetracycline and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (58.5%, 204/349) and blaTEM-strA-strB-aadA1-aadA2-aacC2-tet (B)-sul1-sul2-dhfrXII-dhfrXIII (36.1%, 126/349). The quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE of the quinolone-resistant isolates (n=12) showed amino acid substitutions of Ser-83→Phe or Asp-87→Tyr in GyrA and Ser-107→Ala in ParC. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance among S. Choleraesuis strains in Japan. PMID:25715779

  3. A Molecular and Serological Survey of Rickettsiales Bacteria in Wild Sika Deer (Cervus nippon nippon) in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan: High Prevalence of Anaplasma Species.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dongxing; Wuritu; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Gaowa; Kawamori, Fumihiko; Ikegaya, Asaka; Ohtake, Masayoshi; Ohashi, Masataka; Shimada, Masahiko; Takada, Ayumi; Iwai, Katsuki; Ohashi, Norio

    2015-01-01

    We surveyed Rickettsiales bacteria, including Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Neoehrlichia, in wild sika deer (Cervus nippon nippon) from Shizuoka prefecture, Japan. In spleen samples from 187 deer, Anaplasma phagocytophilum (deer type), A. bovis, and A. centrale were successfully detected by PCR assay targeting to 16S rDNA or p44/msp2, and their positive rates were 96.3% (180/187), 53.5% (100/187), and 78.1% (146/187), respectively. Additionally, 2 or 3 Anaplasma species could be detected from a single deer in 165 spleen samples (88.2%), indicating dual or triple infection. In contrast, A. phagocytophilum (human type) 16S rDNA, Rickettsia gltA, Ehrlichia p28/omp-1, and Neoehrlichia 16S rDNA could not be amplified. The serological test of 105 deer serum samples by immunofluorescence assay showed that the detection of antibodies against antigens of A. phagocytophilum HZ (US-human isolate) and Rickettsia japonica YH were 29.5% (31/105) and 75.2% (79/105), respectively. These findings suggest that A. phagocytophilum (deer type), A. centrale, and A. bovis are highly dominant and prevalent in wild sika deer from Shizuoka, a central region of Japan, and that the antibodies against some Rickettsiales bacteria have also been retained in deer blood. PMID:25971318

  4. [Mental health care systems and provisions in the immediate and acute phase of the Great East Japan Earthquake: situational and support activities in Miyagi Prefecture].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, which measured 9.0 on the Richter scale, was followed by a huge tsunami that caused catastrophic damage to the area extending from the Tohoku to Kanto regions. It was also accompanied by the meltdown of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Mental health service provisions were hit equally hard by the disaster, with a wide range of support and relief activities being implemented. This article reviews damage that was inflicted and support activities that were carried out in the mental health field in Miyagi Prefecture in the immediate aftermath and acute phase of the disaster, and also examines future challenges. Almost all mental health institutions in Miyagi Prefecture were affected by the disaster, and experienced difficulties such as feeding inpatients and securing necessary medication. Mental health institutions in the coastal area, in particular, were severely hit. Three hospitals-were seriously damaged by the tsunami, which forced them to make arrangements for the transfer of 300 inpatients. In the aftermath of the earthquake, it became difficult to access medical institutions, and confusion ensued regarding the provision of mental health services. Many municipalities in Miyagi Prefecture were seriously affected by the disaster, and information-gathering was crippled due to the disruption of communication and transport networks. Consequently, the administrative function regarding mental health service provisions was significantly impaired. Through official, private, and academic channels, volunteers in the field of mental health were sent to the affected areas in the immediate aftermath of the disaster. It was very difficult to coordinate these volunteers because of the confusion in gathering-information and in the chain of command for support activities. The number of support teams working in the affected areas peaked one to two months after the earthquake, but it became clear that continuous and long

  5. [Mental health care systems and provisions in the immediate and acute phase of the Great East Japan Earthquake: situational and support activities in Miyagi Prefecture].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, which measured 9.0 on the Richter scale, was followed by a huge tsunami that caused catastrophic damage to the area extending from the Tohoku to Kanto regions. It was also accompanied by the meltdown of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Mental health service provisions were hit equally hard by the disaster, with a wide range of support and relief activities being implemented. This article reviews damage that was inflicted and support activities that were carried out in the mental health field in Miyagi Prefecture in the immediate aftermath and acute phase of the disaster, and also examines future challenges. Almost all mental health institutions in Miyagi Prefecture were affected by the disaster, and experienced difficulties such as feeding inpatients and securing necessary medication. Mental health institutions in the coastal area, in particular, were severely hit. Three hospitals-were seriously damaged by the tsunami, which forced them to make arrangements for the transfer of 300 inpatients. In the aftermath of the earthquake, it became difficult to access medical institutions, and confusion ensued regarding the provision of mental health services. Many municipalities in Miyagi Prefecture were seriously affected by the disaster, and information-gathering was crippled due to the disruption of communication and transport networks. Consequently, the administrative function regarding mental health service provisions was significantly impaired. Through official, private, and academic channels, volunteers in the field of mental health were sent to the affected areas in the immediate aftermath of the disaster. It was very difficult to coordinate these volunteers because of the confusion in gathering-information and in the chain of command for support activities. The number of support teams working in the affected areas peaked one to two months after the earthquake, but it became clear that continuous and long

  6. Japan Smoke

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Smoke Plume from Industrial Fires in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan     View larger image ... northeastern Japan at 2:46 p.m. local time on March 11, 2011, and its subsequent tsunami, several oil refineries and industrial ...

  7. Effect of tree thinning and litter removal on the radiocesium (Cs-134, 137) discharge rates in the Kawauchi forest plantation (Fukushima Prefecture, northern Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Onda, Yuichi; Takahashi, Junko; Kato, Hiroaki; Hisadome, Keigo

    2016-04-01

    On 11 March 2011 a 9.0 earthquake and the resulting tsunami occurred in central-eastern Japan triggering, one day after, the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (DNPP) accident. Despite the bulk of radionuclides (ca. 80%) were transported offshore and out over the Pacific Ocean, significant wet and dry deposits of those radionuclides occurred mainly in the Fukushima Prefecture and in a minor way in the Miyagi, Tochigi, Gunma and Ibaraki Prefectures. As a consequence and among other radionuclides, a total of 511,000 TBq of I-131, 13,500 TBq of Cs-134 and 13,600 TBq of Cs-137 were released into the atmosphere and the ocean, contaminating cultivated soils, rivers, settlements and forested areas. This accident caused severe environmental and economic damages. Several decontamination practices have done, including tree thinning and litter removal within the forests and tree plantations. In this study we analysed the effect of eight different management practices on the radiocesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) discharge rates during 20 months (May'2013 - Dec'2014) in a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) plantation (stand age of 57 years), located in a hillslope near the Kawauchi village, Fukushima Prefecture, northern Japan. This study area (37⁰ 20' 04" N, 140⁰ 53' 13.5" E) is located 16 km southwestern from the DNPP and within the evacuation area. The soils are Andosols. Ten runoff plots (5 x 2 meters) were installed and measurements started on May 2013. Two plots remained without any treatment as control plots and the other eight plots represented the following management practices: Mng1) Litter removal + clear-cutting (no sheet); Mng2) Litter removal + clear-cutting (no sheet); Mng3) Litter removal + clear-cutting (no sheet); Mng4) Litter removal; Mng5) Thinning (logged area); Mng6) Thinning (under remnant trees); Mng7) Litter removal + thinning (logged area); Mng8) Litter removal + thinning (under remnant trees). Each plot had a gauging station and sediment samples

  8. Distribution of IS629 and stx genotypes among enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 isolates in Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan, 2004-2013.

    PubMed

    Kameyama, Mitsuhiro; Tominaga, Kiyoshi; Yabata, Junko; Nomura, Yasuharu

    2015-11-01

    Patterns of insertion sequence (IS)629, norV genotype, and Shiga toxin (Stx) genotype distribution were investigated amongst 203 enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 isolates collected in Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan, between 2004 and 2013. A total of 114 IS629 patterns were identified; these were divided into eight IS groups (A-H). Ninety isolates carried an intact norV gene, whereas 113 isolates carried a norV with a 204-bp deletion. Other than one isolate from IS group G, all isolates with an intact norV belonged to groups A-F, whereas isolates with a mutant norV belonged to IS groups G and H. Seven stx genotypes were identified, and of those, stx1a/stx2a was predominant (n=105), followed by stx2c (n=32) and stx2a (n=27). The stx1a/stx2a genotype was associated with the mutant norV isolates, whereas isolates with an intact norV had the stx2c genotype. Therefore, certain combinations of IS type and stx genotype appear to be more frequent among O157 clades which may be useful for detection of predominant subtypes in the interest of public health.

  9. Radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) in Na-Cl type groundwaters from Tohoku District (Aomori, Akita and Yamagata Prefectures) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Jumpei; Zhang, Jing; Yamamoto, Masayoshi

    2014-11-01

    A total of 28 Na-Cl type groundwater samples were collected from Aomori, Akita and Yamagata Prefectures, in the Tohoku District of Japan, and their radium isotope ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) concentrations were measured along with their chemical components and stable isotope ratios (δ(2)H and δ(18)Os). The (226)Ra concentrations in groundwater samples varied widely, ranging from 8.8 to 1587 mBq kg(-1). These concentrations showed an increasing tendency with the increase of the total dissolved solid (TDS) contents. The (228)Ra/(226)Ra activity ratios were in the range from 0.3 to 4.2, with most data being around 0.5-2. These ratios were within those of (232)Th/(238)U found in granitic and related rocks and so on in Japan, indicating that Ra isotopes mainly ejected into the groundwater by the alpha-recoil process. The relationship between (226)Ra and other parameters suggested that Ra isotopes in groundwater samples in this study were mainly constrained by adsorption-desorption reactions depending on salinity with wide variation. Clear correlation between (226)Ra-Ca, (226)Ra-Sr, (226)Ra-Ba and (226)Ra-TDS observed in sulfate-free groundwater samples indicated that Ra isotopes of them were constrained by adsorption-desorption reactions depending on salinity under reducing condition. In contrast, relationship of (226)Ra-Ca, (226)Ra-Sr, (226)Ra-Ba and (226)Ra-TDS in sulfate-containing groundwater samples varied widely, and then, removal or enhanced mobility of Ra isotopes of them were observed.

  10. Radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) in Na-Cl type groundwaters from Tohoku District (Aomori, Akita and Yamagata Prefectures) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Jumpei; Zhang, Jing; Yamamoto, Masayoshi

    2014-11-01

    A total of 28 Na-Cl type groundwater samples were collected from Aomori, Akita and Yamagata Prefectures, in the Tohoku District of Japan, and their radium isotope ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) concentrations were measured along with their chemical components and stable isotope ratios (δ(2)H and δ(18)Os). The (226)Ra concentrations in groundwater samples varied widely, ranging from 8.8 to 1587 mBq kg(-1). These concentrations showed an increasing tendency with the increase of the total dissolved solid (TDS) contents. The (228)Ra/(226)Ra activity ratios were in the range from 0.3 to 4.2, with most data being around 0.5-2. These ratios were within those of (232)Th/(238)U found in granitic and related rocks and so on in Japan, indicating that Ra isotopes mainly ejected into the groundwater by the alpha-recoil process. The relationship between (226)Ra and other parameters suggested that Ra isotopes in groundwater samples in this study were mainly constrained by adsorption-desorption reactions depending on salinity with wide variation. Clear correlation between (226)Ra-Ca, (226)Ra-Sr, (226)Ra-Ba and (226)Ra-TDS observed in sulfate-free groundwater samples indicated that Ra isotopes of them were constrained by adsorption-desorption reactions depending on salinity under reducing condition. In contrast, relationship of (226)Ra-Ca, (226)Ra-Sr, (226)Ra-Ba and (226)Ra-TDS in sulfate-containing groundwater samples varied widely, and then, removal or enhanced mobility of Ra isotopes of them were observed. PMID:25113929

  11. Monitoring free-living Japanese Bush Warblers (Cettia diphone) in a most highly radiocontaminated area of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Ken; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M

    2015-12-01

    The Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident is an IAEA level 7 event, the same as that of Chernobyl, while the amount of radionuclides released is not comparable. Radioactivity attributed to the F1NPP accident was detected 250 km away from the F1NPP. Although we have not yet systematically studied the effect of radionuclides on the environment and wildlife, one of three Japanese Bush Warblers (Cettia diphone), captured in Akaugi district in August 2011, was observed to have a conspicuous lesion near the cloaca, which is rare in Japan. All of the birds' feathers were strongly contaminated. Further study is needed to determine the significance of this result. We emphasize the importance of continuing assessment of the effects of the F1NPP accident on wildlife. PMID:26825298

  12. [Toxin profiles in fish implicated in ciguatera fish poisoning in Amami and Kakeroma Islands, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan].

    PubMed

    Yogi, Kentaro; Oshiro, Naomasa; Matsuda, Seiko; Sakugawa, Satsuki; Matsuo, Toshiaki; Yasumoto, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Ciguatoxins (CTXs) responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in Amami Islands, Kagoshima, Japan in 2008 were determined by LC-MS/MS analysis. Ciguatoxin-1B (CTX1B), 54-deoxyCTX1B, and 52-epi-54-deoxyCTX1B were detected in Variola louti and Lutjanus monostigma. The toxin profile distinctly differed from that of a CFP-related fish from Miyazaki, which mainly contained ciguatoxin-3C type toxins. Toxin profiles were species-specific, as observed in fish from Okinawa. The LC-MS/MS and mouse bioassay (MBA) methods produced comparable data, though 54-deoxyCTX1B was not taken into consideration owing to the lack of toxicity data. To improve assessment, toxicity data for this compound are needed. A reef fish caught on the same occasion and judged nontoxic by MBA (<0.025 MU/g) was found to contain low levels of CTX, indicating a potential risk for CFP.

  13. Monitoring free-living Japanese Bush Warblers (Cettia diphone) in a most highly radiocontaminated area of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Ken; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima–Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident is an IAEA level 7 event, the same as that of Chernobyl, while the amount of radionuclides released is not comparable. Radioactivity attributed to the F1NPP accident was detected 250 km away from the F1NPP. Although we have not yet systematically studied the effect of radionuclides on the environment and wildlife, one of three Japanese Bush Warblers (Cettia diphone), captured in Akaugi district in August 2011, was observed to have a conspicuous lesion near the cloaca, which is rare in Japan. All of the birds' feathers were strongly contaminated. Further study is needed to determine the significance of this result. We emphasize the importance of continuing assessment of the effects of the F1NPP accident on wildlife. PMID:26825298

  14. Paleomagnetism of Pliocene to Pleistocene lava flows in the northern part of Hyogo prefecture, Southwest Japan and Brunhes Chron paleosecular variation in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morinaga, H.; Matsumoto, T.; Okimura, Y.; Matsuda, T.

    2000-06-01

    Paleomagnetic investigation was performed on 26 Potassium-Argon dated Pliocene to Pleistocene lava flows, collected at 34 sites from northern Hyogo, Southwest Japan. Most magnetic polarities were found to be coincident with the geomagnetic polarity timescale (GPTS), although two lava flows do not agree with the timescale. One of 2 lava flows incompatible with the GPTS, the Oliveine Andesite lava flow from the Oginosen volcano group dated at 0.92 + / -0.05 Ma, shows normal polarity. This finding is a possible evidence confirming the existence of the Santa Rosa Event proposed recently. Twenty-two paleomagnetic data sets were used to investigate paleosecular variation (PSV) having passed the following criteria: 1) characteristic components are obtained from four specimens or more for a lava flow, 2) a95 of the lava flow mean direction is < 10° and 3) the virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) latitude calculated is >50° or < -50°. The mean VGP was calculated to be latitude = 85.5°N and longitude = 285.3°E (k= 34.8 and a95= 5.3°). The resultant angular standard deviation (ASD) with respect to the geographic pole was calculated to be 14.5° with the upper limit = 18.3° and the lower limit = 12.1°. The ASD value is almost equal to most existing results from the Japan Islands. Brunhes Chron PSV in Japan was estimated using the identical criteria for selection; 66 of 87 available data sets passed. The mean VGP was calculated to be latitude = 89.3°N and longitude = 14.4°E (k= 33.1 and a95= 3.1°). The resultant ASD with respect to the geographic pole was calculated to be 14.2° with the upper limit = 16.1° and the lower limit = 12.7°. The ASD values for the past 3 million years in northern Hyogo and for the Brunhes Chron in Japan are compatible with the global trend for the past 5 million years fitted by physical PSV Model F and phenomenological PSV Model G. This suggests that the PSV in Japan is not low compared with anomalously low PSV area in the Pacific Region.

  15. Serotype, Shiga toxin (Stx) type, and antimicrobial resistance of Stx-producing Escherichia coli isolated from humans in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan (2003-2007).

    PubMed

    Hiroi, Midori; Takahashi, Naomi; Harada, Tetsuya; Kawamori, Fumihiko; Iida, Natsuko; Kanda, Takashi; Sugiyama, Kanji; Ohashi, Norio; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Masuda, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    The serotype, Shiga toxin (Stx) type, and antimicrobial resistance patterns of 138 Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains isolated from humans between 2003 and 2007 in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan were characterized. The predominant O serogroups of the STEC isolates were O157, O26, and O111. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the STEC isolates showed that 31 of the 138 isolates (22.5%) were resistant to antibiotics. Compared to the results reported in the previous studies, a higher rate of STEC O157 isolates were susceptible to all the antimicrobial agents used in this study. However, antimicrobial susceptibility data from this study showed that antimicrobial resistance patterns have increased by 6 compared to the survey performed by Masuda et al. between 1987 and 2002 (Jpn. J. Food Microbiol., 21, 44-51, 2004). This indicates that STEC isolates have evolved to show a variety of antimicrobial resistance patterns. It is important to consider the population of isolates showing decreased susceptibility to clinically relevant drugs such as ciprofloxacin (CPFX) and fosfomycin (FOM). All the 3 STEC isolates resistant to nalidixic acid showed low susceptibility to CPFX (MIC, 0.25-0.5 μg/ml). In addition, a decreased susceptibility to FOM was clearly observed in the E. coli O26 isolates. Our findings also showed that 1 STEC O26 strain could possibly be a chromosomal AmpC β-lactamase hyperproducer. These results suggest that antimicrobial therapy may be less effective in patients with non-O157 STEC infections than in those with STEC O157 infections.

  16. Perfluoroalkyl substances in the blood of wild rats and mice from 47 prefectures in Japan: use of samples from nationwide specimen bank.

    PubMed

    Taniyasu, Sachi; Senthilkumar, Kurunthachalam; Yamazaki, Eriko; Yeung, Leo W Y; Guruge, Keerthi S; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi

    2013-07-01

    Numerous studies have reported on the global distribution, persistence, fate, and toxicity of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). However, studies on PFASs in terrestrial mammals are scarce. Rats can be good sentinels of human exposure to toxicants because of their habitat, which is in close proximity to humans. Furthermore, exposure data measured for rats can be directly applied for risk assessment because many toxicological studies use rodent models. In this study, a nationwide survey of PFASs in the blood of wild rats as well as surface water samples collected from rats' habitats from 47 prefectures in Japan was conducted. In addition to known PFASs, combustion ion chromatography technique was used for analysis of total fluorine concentrations in the blood of rats. In total, 216 blood samples representing three species of wild rats (house rat, Norway rats, and field mice) were analyzed for 23 PFASs. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS; concentration range <0.05-148 ng/mL), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA; <0.1-157), perfluorododecanoate (<0.05-5.8), perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA; <0.05-51), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA; <0.05-9.7), perfluorononanoate (PFNA; <0.05-249), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) (<0.05-60) were detected >80 % of the blood samples. Concentrations of several PFASs in rat blood were similar to those reported for humans. PFSAs (mainly PFOS) accounted for 45 % of total PFASs, whereas perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), especially PFUnDA and PFNA, accounted for 20 and 10 % of total PFASs, respectively. In water samples, PFCAs were the predominant compounds with PFOA and PFNA found in >90 % of the samples. There were strong correlations (p < 0.001 to p < 0.05) between human population density and levels of PFOS, PFNA, PFOA, and PFOSA in wild rat blood. PMID:23494483

  17. Seismic activity near the Moriyoshi-zan volcano in Akita Prefecture, northeastern Japan: implications for geofluid migration and a midcrustal geofluid reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosuga, Masahiro

    2014-12-01

    The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku (Tohoku-oki) earthquake caused increased seismicity in many inland areas in Japan. A seismic cluster north of the Moriyoshi-zan volcano in Akita prefecture, Tohoku District, is of interest in light of the contribution of geofluids to seismic activity. We observed a seismic cluster characterized by the migration of seismicity and reflected/scattered phases. We relocated hypocenters of the cluster using data from temporal observations and the hypoDD location technique, which significantly increased the hypocentral accuracy. We interpreted a complex spatiotemporal variation of seismicity in the cluster as the migration of pore fluid pressure from multiple pressure sources. The hydraulic diffusivity of the cluster was in the range of 0.01 to 0.7 m2/s and increased with time, implying that the migration of hypocenters accelerated after a pathway for fluids was formed by fracturing of the wall rock during the initial stage of seismic activity. A prominent feature of the seismograms is a reflected/scattered phase observed at stations around the volcano. We regard the phase as S-to- S scattered waves and estimated the location of the scatterers using a back-projection method. The scatterers are inferred to be located about 5 km northwest of the Moriyoshi-zan volcano, at an approximate depth of 13 km. The Moriyoshi-zan area is one of the source areas of deep low-frequency earthquakes that have been interpreted as events generated by the migration of geofluids. The depth of the scatterers is close to the upper limit of the depth at which low-frequency earthquakes occur. Thus, we interpret the observed scatterers to be a reservoir of geofluid that came from the uppermost mantle accompanying contemporaneous low-frequency earthquakes.

  18. Seismic activity near the Moriyoshi-zan volcano in Akita Prefecture, northeastern Japan: implications for geofluid migration and a midcrustal geofluid reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosuga, M.

    2014-12-01

    The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku (Tohoku-oki) earthquake caused increased seismicity in many inland areas in Japan. A triggered seismic cluster north of the Moriyoshi-zan volcano in Akita prefecture, Tohoku District, is of interest in light of the contribution of geofluids to seismic activity. We observed an active seismic cluster characterized by the migration of seismicity and reflected/scattered phases. We relocated hypocenters of the cluster using data from temporal observations and the hypoDD location technique, which significantly increased the hypocentral accuracy. We interpreted a complex spatiotemporal variation of seismicity in the cluster as the migration of pore fluid pressure from multiple pressure sources. The hydraulic diffusivity of the cluster was in the range of 0.01 to 0.7 m2/s and increased with time, implying that the migration of hypocenters accelerated after a pathway for fluids was formed by fracturing of the wall rock during the initial stage of seismic activity. A prominent feature of the seismograms is a reflected/scattered phase observed at stations around the volcano. We regard the phase as S-to-S scattered waves and estimated the location of the scatterers using a back-projection method. The scatterers are inferred to be located about 5 km northwest of the Moriyoshi-zan volcano, at an approximate depth of 13 km. The Moriyoshi-zan area is one of the source areas of deep low-frequency earthquakes that have been interpreted as events generated by the migration of geofluids. The depth of the scatterers is close to the upper depth limit of low-frequency earthquakes. Thus, we interpret the observed scatterers to be a reservoir of geofluid that came from the uppermost mantle accompanying contemporaneous low-frequency earthquakes.

  19. Earthquake clustering and seismic scattering possibly related to geofluid near the Moriyoshi-zan volcano in the Akita Prefecture, northeastern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosuga, M.

    2012-12-01

    The great 2011 Off the Pacific coast of Tohoku (Tohoku-oki) Earthquake brought increased seismicity in many areas apart from the source fault. In the inland area of Tohoku district, induced seismicity is quite high in the Akita Prefecture located in the Japan Sea side. Seismic activity to the north of Moriyoshi-zan volcano is interesting in the light of contribution of geofluid to earthquake clustering and seismic scattering. The Moriyoshi-zan is a Quaternary volcano located to the west of the volcanic front of northeastern Japan. Induced seismic activity around the volcano started just after the occurrence of Tohoku-oki earthquake, while the clustering began from May 2011, about two months after the Tohoku-oki earthquake. Relocated hypocenters show two column-like clusters separated about 1 km to the southwest and to the northeast. The diameter and the height of both columns are similar, about 1 km and 3 km, respectively. The seismic activity started from the southwest and migrated to the northeast with a speed of about 10 m/day in the horizontal direction. Vertical migration was not obvious. A prominent feature of the seismogram is the existence of a later phase in the S-wave coda. To minutely investigate the nature of the later phase, we calculated the RMS envelopes of band-pass-filtered seismograms at center frequencies of 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 Hz. Stacked envelopes delineate the shape of coda part. Amplitude increase is distinct in wide frequency ranges from 4 to 16 Hz, and in the horizontal components observed at a station located to the west-southwest and at a station to the east of the epicenter. At the closest station, the amplitude starts to increase about 1 s after the arrival of S-wave and lasts about 2 s in the lower frequency range of 4 Hz. On the other hand, the increase is abrupt about 1.5 s after the S-wave arrival and the duration is shorter in the higher frequency range of 16 Hz. Similar later phase has previously observed from an earthquake swarm

  20. Onsite medical rounds and fact-finding activities conducted by Nippon Medical School in Miyagi prefecture after the Great East Japan Earthquake 2011.

    PubMed

    Fuse, Akira; Igarashi, Yutaka; Tanaka, Toshihiko; Kim, Shiei; Tsujii, Atsuko; Kawai, Makoto; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    This report describes our onsite medical rounds and fact-finding activities conducted in the acute phase and medical relief work conducted in the subacute phase in Miyagi prefecture following the Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent tsunami that occurred off northeastern Honshu on March 11, 2011. As part of the All-Japan Hospital Association medical team deployed to the disaster area, a Nippon Medical School team conducted fact-finding and onsite medical rounds and evaluated basic life and medical needs in the affected areas of Shiogama and Tagajo. We performed triage for more than 2,000 casualties, but in our medical rounds of hospitals, clinics, and nursing homes, we found no severely injured person but did find 1 case of hyperglycemia. We conducted medical rounds at evacuation shelters in Kesennuma City during the subacute phase of the disaster, from March 17 through June 1, as part of the Tokyo Medical Association medical teams deployed. Sixty-seven staff members (17 teams), including 46 physicians, 11 nurses, 3 pharmacists, and 1 clinical psychotherapist, joined this mission. Most patients complained of a worsening of symptoms of preexisting conditions, such as hypertension, respiratory problems, and diabetes, rather than of medical problems specifically related to the tsunami. In the acute phase of the disaster, the information infrastructure was decimated and we could not obtain enough information about conditions in the affected areas, such as how many persons were severely injured, how severely lifeline services had been damaged, and what was lacking. To start obtaining this information, we conducted medical rounds. This proved to be a good decision, as we found many injured persons in evacuation shelters without medication, communication devices, or transportation. Also, basic necessities for life, such as water and food, were lacking. We were able to evaluate these basic needs and inform local disaster headquarters of them. In Kesennuma City, we

  1. Monitoring of precursor landslide surface deformation using InSAR image in Kuchi-Sakamoto, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, H. P.; Nakajima, H.; Nakano, T.; Daimaru, H.

    2014-12-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is the technique to obtain ground surface images using microwave that is emitted from and received on the antenna. The Kuchi-Sakamoto area, 2.2 km2 in precipitous mountains, central Japan, has suffered from frequent landslides, and slow landslide surface deformation has been monitored by on-site extensometer; however, such the monitoring method cannot detect the deformation in the whole area. Because satellite InSAR is effective tool to monitor slow landslide suface deformation, it is a promising tool for detecting precursor deformation and preparing effective measures against serious landslide disasters. In this study Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) / Phased Array type L-band SAR (PALSAR) data were used, and InSAR images were produced from the PALSAR data that were observed between 5 Sep 2008 and 21 Oct 2008 (from descending orbit) and between 20 Jul 2008 and 7 Sep 2009 (from ascending orbit). InSAR image from descending orbit was found to detect clear precursor landslide surface deformation on a slope; however, InSAR image on ascending orbit did not always detect clear precursor deformation. It is thought to be related with atmospheric moisture condition, length of observation baseline and so on. Furthermore, after phase unwrapping on InSAR images, 2.5-dimensional deformation was analized. This analysis needed both ascending and descending InSAR images and culculated quasi east-west deformation component (Figs. (a) and (b)) and quasi up-down deformation component (Figs. (c) and (d)). The resulting 2.5D calculation gave westward deformation and mixture of upward and downward deformations on the precursor landslide surface deformation slope (blue circles in Figs. (c) and (d)), where remarkable disrupted deep landslide occurred during Nov 2012 and 25 Jun 2013, judging from result of airborne LiDAR survey and field survey; the occurrence date is not precisely identified. The figure remains the issue that eliminating "real

  2. Verification of Green's Function Approximation from Ambient Noise Cross-correlation using Three-year Continuous Seismic Data in South Niigata Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashida, T.; Yoshimi, M.

    2015-12-01

    A continuous broadband-to-strong motion observation network that consists of 15 stations has been in operation since September 2011 in south Niigata Prefecture (Yoshimi et al., 2012). We applied seismic interferometry to the ambient noise data for the purpose of validating three-dimensional S-wave velocity structure (deep sedimentary structure) models beneath the observation area (Hayashida and Yoshimi, 2012, 2015). We used 37-month ambient noise data (October 2011 - October 2014) to obtain nine component (RR, TT, ZZ, RT, TR, ZR, ZT, RZ, and TZ) cross-correlation functions between two stations (105 station pairs) for distances from 4.3 to 40.7 km, according to the signal processing technique by Bensen et al. (2007). Our results show that signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of cross-correlation functions increase logarithmically as the stacking number increase and the wave trains are clear especially for TT and ZZ correlations. Some station pairs show large SNRs even for RT and TR correlations, indicating complicated velocity structure beneath the area. To extract Rayleigh-wave Green's functions efficiently, we applied body and surface wave separation technique by Takagi et al. (2014). We obtained clear dispersion curves of Rayleigh and Love waves in the frequency range between 0.1 and 1.0 Hz that correspond well to theoretical curves from existing velocity structure model of Sekiguchi et al. (2009). We found that maximum detectable wavelength of surface wave is nearly equivalent to station-to-station distance for near station pairs (< 20 km), whereas the maximum wavelength is about a half of station-to-station distance for further station pairs. We also investigated the effectiveness of uniform noise source distribution assumptions by comparing hourly stacked complex coherence functions of ambient noise between neighboring two stations and theoretical Bessel functions of the of first kind of zero order with the existing crustal (Takeda et al., 2012) and deep sedimentary

  3. Occurrence of bovine ephemeral fever in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, in 2012 and development of a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay to detect bovine ephemeral fever virus gene.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Tsuyoshi; Shirafuji, Hiroaki; Ikemiyagi, Kazufumi; Nitta, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Moemi; Kato, Tomoko; Yanase, Tohru

    2015-04-01

    In September 2012, several cows and a calf showed decreased activity, anorexia and fever on Ishigaki Island, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, and the cases were diagnosed as bovine ephemeral fever (BEF). We isolated BEF virus (BEFV) from one of the affected cows and then determined the complete genome sequence of the G gene, which encodes a class I transmembrane glycoprotein of BEFV. The BEFV isolate in this case, ON-3/E/12, was sorted into the same cluster as other BEFV isolates in Japan, Taiwan and China obtained in 1996-2004 and was most closely related to a 2002 Chinese isolate, JT02L, according to the phylogenetic analysis of the complete G gene. Since inactivated vaccines for BEF available in Japan are considered effective against the ON-3/E/12 isolate as well as other isolates in East Asia from 1996-2004, annual vaccination should be conducted to prevent BEF in Okinawa. Additionally, in this study, we developed an RT-PCR assay to detect the BEFV gene in Japan and neighboring countries. Our assay was able to amplify target sequences in all of the tested BEFV isolates, including 18 isolates in Japan and another isolate in Australia. The assay was found to be useful also for testing RNA samples extracted from bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the detection limit of the assay was 10 copies per tube. We believe that our assay would be an important tool for the screening of BEFV infection and the diagnosis of BEF.

  4. Biogeochemistry of plant-soil system in a limestone area: A case study of Mt. Kinsho-zan, Gifu prefecture, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, S.; Sugitani, K.; Ono, M.

    2010-12-01

    Limestone contains few of the nutrients essential for plant growth, such as Si, K, and P. Owing to its high concentrations of alkali earth elements and the resulting high pH, P and Fe tend to be sparingly available for plants in soils developed in limestone areas. Because of this limited availability of nutrients in calcareous soils, certain typical calcareous plants are known to occasionally dominate. On Mt. Kinsho-zan, a limestone mountain in Gifu prefecture, central Japan, however, typical calcareous plants are not seen; various non-calcareous plants appear and do not seem to be malnourished. In addition to the nutrients supplied by precipitation and eolian dusts, litter decomposition may supply nutrients, which could circulate in the plant-soil system. In this study, the soil properties (water content, loss on ignition, and pH) and the chemical compositions of soils, plant leaves (Chamaecyparis obtusa), and parental rocks (limestone) were analyzed to clarify the biogeochemical cycle of the plant-soil system on Mt. Kinsho-zan. A mountain composed of sandstone and mudstone, which lies near the main research area, was chosen for comparison. Chemical compositions were analyzed using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (Spectris Co., Ltd Panalytical Division Axios-N system). Ten major elements were analyzed in all samples, and 13 and 4 trace elements were analyzed for soils and plants and for limestones, respectively. In the limestone samples, the concentrations were as follows: SiO2 = 0.12-0.22wt%, Al2O3 = 0.054-0.13wt%, Fe2O3 = 0.021-0.057wt%, CaO = 55.12-55.33wt%, K2O = 40-55 ppm, TiO2 = 29-48 ppm, and Zr = 12-14 ppm. In soils developed in the limestone area, SiO2 = 43.48-55.46wt%, Al2O3 = 25.47-34.92wt%, Fe2O3 = 10.75-13.64wt%, CaO = 0.46-5.61wt%, K2O = 1.30-1.72wt%, TiO2 = 1.02-1.36wt%, and Zr = 240-319 ppm. Concentrations of Fe2O3, MnO, and P2O5 in soils from the limestone area are two times higher than those in soils from the sandstone-mudstone area; the

  5. Aftershock distribution and heterogeneous structure in and around the source area of the 2014 northern Nagano Prefecture earthquake (Mw 6.2) , central Japan, revealed by dense seismic array observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurashimo, E.; Hirata, N.; Iwasaki, T.; Sakai, S.; Obara, K.; Ishiyama, T.; Sato, H.

    2015-12-01

    A shallow earthquake (Mw 6.2) occurred on November 22 in the northern Nagano Prefecture, central Japan. Aftershock area is located near the Kamishiro fault, which is a part of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line (ISTL). ISTL is one of the major tectonic boundaries in Japan. Precise aftershock distribution and heterogeneous structure in and around the source region of this earthquake is important to constrain the process of earthquake occurrence. We conducted a high-density seismic array observation in and around source area to investigate aftershock distribution and crustal structure. One hundred sixty-three seismic stations, approximately 1 km apart, were deployed during the period from December 3, 2014 to December 21, 2014. Each seismograph consisted of a 4.5 Hz 3-component seismometer and a digital data recorder (GSX-3). Furthermore, the seismic data at 40 permanent stations were incorporated in our analysis. During the seismic array observation, the Japan Meteorological Agency located 977 earthquakes in a latitude range of 35.5°-37.1°N and a longitude range of 136.7°-139.0°E, from which we selected 500 local events distributed uniformly in the study area. To investigate the aftershock distribution and the crustal structure, the double-difference tomography method [Zhang and Thurber, 2003] was applied to the P- and S-wave arrival time data obtained from 500 local earthquakes. The relocated aftershock distribution shows a concentration on a plane dipping eastward in the vicinity of the mainshock hypocenter. The large slip region (asperity) estimated from InSAR analysis [GSI, 2014] corresponds to the low-activity region of the aftershocks. The depth section of Vp structure shows that the high Vp zone corresponds to the large slip region. These results suggest that structural heterogeneities in and around the fault plane may have controlled the rupture process of the 2014 northern Nagano Prefecture earthquake.

  6. Indications of an increase of occupational pleural mesothelioma in Japan.

    PubMed

    Baba, K

    1983-03-01

    In order to obtain an epidemiological picture of occupational pleural malignant mesotheliomas in Japan, the author surveyed the Annual of Pathological Autopsy Cases (published by the Japanese Pathological Society) from 1974 through 1980. Two hundred and twenty-two malignant mesotheliomas (0.114% of all autopsy cases) were found in that period. One hundred and forty-five cases (0.074%) of them were of pleural origin. Until 1977, there were no pleural malignant mesotheliomas associated with asbestosis, but there were one in 1978, three in 1979 and two in 1980. Two of them were housewives and the others were a ship builder, a welder, a ceramist and a steel factory worker. Two lived in Sakae City, and the others in Kure City, Kaizuka City, Nagasaki City and Kanagawa Prefecture, where large shipyards are located. Compared to the Western countries, there is a time lag of 10 to 20 years in the increase of consumption of asbestos in Japan, where the increase has occurred rapidly after World War II. The epidemiological picture obtained by this study clearly states that the number of occupational pleural malignant mesotheliomas began to increase in the past few years in Japan.

  7. Differences in monthly variation, cause, and place of injury between femoral neck and trochanteric fractures: 6-year survey (2008–2013) in Kyoto prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Horii, Motoyuki; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Mikami, Yasuo; Ikeda, Takumi; Ueshima, Keiichiro; Ikoma, Kazuya; Shirai, Toshiharu; Nagae, Masateru; Oka, Yoshinobu; Sawada, Koshiro; Kuriyama, Nagato; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The incidence of femoral neck and trochanteric fractures reportedly differ by age and regionality. We investigated differences in monthly variations of the occurrence of femoral neck and trochanteric fractures as well as place and cause of injury in the Kyoto prefecture over a 6-year period. Methods Fracture type (neck or trochanteric fracture), age, sex, place of injury, and cause of injury were surveyed among patients aged ≥ 65 years with hip fractures that occurred between 2008 and 2013 who were treated in 1 of 13 participating hospitals (5 in an urban area and 8 in a rural area). The proportion of sick beds in the participating hospitals was 24.7% (4,151/16,781). Monthly variations in the number of patients were investigated in urban and rural areas in addition to the entire Kyoto prefecture. Place of injury was classified as indoors or outdoors, and cause of injury was categorized as simple fall, accident, or uncertain. Results There were 2,826 patients with neck fractures (mean age, 82.1 years) and 3,305 patients with trochanteric fractures (mean age, 85.0 years). There were similarities in the monthly variation of the number of fractures in addition to the place and cause of injury between neck and trochanteric fractures. Indoors (approximately 74%) and simple falls (approximately 78%) were the primary place and cause of injury, respectively. The place of injury was not significantly different by fracture type with each age group. Significantly more patients with neck fracture had “uncertain” as the cause of injury than trochanteric fracture in all age groups. Conclusions Based on the results of the present study, the injury pattern might not have a great effect on the susceptibility difference between neck and trochanteric fractures. PMID:27252738

  8. Postsecondary Educational Decision-Making among First-Generation College-Bound Students in Okinawa Prefecture, with Consideration of the Population Problem in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaki, Yuki

    2010-01-01

    In correspondence to an overall decline in the Japanese population, the number of young students in Japan has been dramatically decreasing to the extent that the Japanese government has predicted a situation in which as of 2009 admissions places in Japanese universities will be equal to the number of applicants. Currently, approximately fifty…

  9. Paralytic toxicity in the ribbon worm Cephalothrix species (Nemertea) in Hiroshima Bay, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan and the isolation of tetrodotoxin as a main component of its toxins.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Manabu; Toyoshima, Tadayoshi; Ito, Katsutoshi; Bessho, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Chisato; Tsunetsugu, Shogo; Shida, Yasuo; Kajihara, Hiroshi; Mawatari, Shunsuke F; Noguchi, Tamao; Miyazawa, Keisuke

    2003-06-01

    Paralytic toxicity of ribbon worms ("himomushi" in Japanese), identified as undescribed species of the genus Cephalothrix, found on the surface of the shells of cultured oysters in Hiroshima Bay, Hiroshima Prefecture was examined between April 1998 and December 2001. The toxicity study showed that all of specimens were found to contain toxins with strong paralytic action in mice; the highest toxicity (as tetrodotoxin, TTX) was 25,590 mouse units (MU) per gram for whole body throughout the monitoring period. The main toxic component of this himomushi toxin (HMT) was isolated from a pooled specimen (390 g; total toxicity 2,897,000MU) by a method that consisted of treatment with activated charcoal, chromatography on Bio-Gel P-2 and Bio-Rex 70 (H+ form), and finally crystallization from an acidified methanolic solution. The recrystallized toxin showed a specific toxicity of 3520MU/mg. This toxin showed (M+H)+ and (M+H-H(2)O)+ ion peaks at m/z 320 and 302, respectively, by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The absorption band at 3353, 3235, 1666, 1612 and 1076 cm(-1) were observed in infrared spectrum of this toxin. This spectrum was indistinguishable from that of TTX. The 1H-NMR spectrum for the recrystallized toxin was the same as that for TTX. The pair of doublets centered at 2.33 (J=10.0Hz) and 5.48 ppm (J=10.0Hz) which are characteristic of TTX, were shown to be coupled by double irradiation. Furthermore, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the alkali-hydrolyzate of this toxin indicated the presence of quinazoline skeleton (C9-base) specific to TTX.

  10. Growth and (137)Cs uptake of four Brassica species influenced by inoculation with a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus pumilus in three contaminated farmlands in Fukushima prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Aung, Han Phyo; Djedidi, Salem; Oo, Aung Zaw; Aye, Yi Swe; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Suzuki, Sohzoh; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea

    2015-07-15

    The effectiveness of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus pumilus regarding growth promotion and radiocesium ((137)Cs) uptake was evaluated in four Brassica species grown on different (137)Cs contaminated farmlands at Fukushima prefecture in Japan from June to August 2012. B. pumilus inoculation did not enhance growth in any of the plants, although it resulted in a significant increase of (137)Cs concentration and higher (137)Cs transfer from the soil to plants. The Brassica species exhibited different (137)Cs uptake abilities in the order Komatsuna>turnip>mustard>radish. TF values of (137)Cs ranged from 0.018 to 0.069 for all vegetables. Komatsuna possessed the largest root surface area and root volume, and showed a higher (137)Cs concentration in plant tissue and higher (137)Cs TF values (0.060) than the other vegetables. Higher (137)Cs transfer to plants was prominent in soil with a high amount of organic matter and an Al-vermiculite clay mineral type. PMID:25847170

  11. Growth and (137)Cs uptake of four Brassica species influenced by inoculation with a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus pumilus in three contaminated farmlands in Fukushima prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Aung, Han Phyo; Djedidi, Salem; Oo, Aung Zaw; Aye, Yi Swe; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Suzuki, Sohzoh; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea

    2015-07-15

    The effectiveness of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus pumilus regarding growth promotion and radiocesium ((137)Cs) uptake was evaluated in four Brassica species grown on different (137)Cs contaminated farmlands at Fukushima prefecture in Japan from June to August 2012. B. pumilus inoculation did not enhance growth in any of the plants, although it resulted in a significant increase of (137)Cs concentration and higher (137)Cs transfer from the soil to plants. The Brassica species exhibited different (137)Cs uptake abilities in the order Komatsuna>turnip>mustard>radish. TF values of (137)Cs ranged from 0.018 to 0.069 for all vegetables. Komatsuna possessed the largest root surface area and root volume, and showed a higher (137)Cs concentration in plant tissue and higher (137)Cs TF values (0.060) than the other vegetables. Higher (137)Cs transfer to plants was prominent in soil with a high amount of organic matter and an Al-vermiculite clay mineral type.

  12. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Rita; And Others

    The document offers practical and motivating techniques for studying Japan. Dedicated to promoting global awareness, separate sections discuss Japan's geography, history, culture, education, government, economics, energy, transportation, and communication. Each section presents a topical overview; suggested classroom activities; and easily…

  13. Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on Hotel Industry in Pacific Tohoku Prefectures ---From Spatio-Temporal Dependence of Hotel Availability---

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, A.

    This paper investigates the impact of the Great Japan Earthquake(and subsequent tsunami turmoil) on socio-economic activities by using data on hotel opportunities collected from an electronic hotel booking service. A method to estimate both primary and secondary regional effects of a natural disaster on human behavior is proposed. It is confirmed that temporal variation in the regional share of available hotels before and after a natural disaster may be an indicator to measure the socio-economic impact at each district.

  14. Distribution of the Fukushima-derived radionuclides in seawater in the Pacific off the coast of Miyagi, Fukushima, and Ibaraki Prefectures, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, S.; Takata, H.; Watabe, T.; Misonoo, J.; Kusakabe, M.

    2013-03-01

    The activities of artificial radionuclides in seawater samples collected off the coast of Miyagi, Fukushima, and Ibaraki Prefectures were measured as part of a monitoring program initiated by the Japanese government Ministry of Education, Sports, Science and Technology immediately after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. The spatial and temporal distributions of those activities are summarized herein. The activities of strontium-90, iodine-131, cesium-134 and -137 (i.e. 90Sr, 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs) derived from the accident were detected in seawater samples taken from areas of the coastal ocean adjacent to the power plant. No 131I was detected in surface waters (≤ 5 m depth) or in intermediate and bottom waters after 30 April 2011. Strontium-90 was found in surface waters collected from a few sampling stations in mid-August 2011 to mid-December 2011. Temporal changes of 90Sr activity in surface waters were evident, although the 90Sr activity at a given time varied widely between sampling stations. The activity of 90Sr in surface waters decreased slowly over time, and by the end of December 2011 had reached background levels recorded before the accident. Radiocesium, 134Cs and 137Cs, was found in seawater samples immediately after the accident. There was a remarkable change in 137Cs activities in surface waters during the first 7 months (March through September 2011) after the accident; the activity reached a maximum in the middle of April and thereafter decreased exponentially with time. Qualitatively, the distribution patterns in surface waters suggested that in early May 137Cs-polluted water was advected northward; some of the water then detached and was transported to the south. Two cores of the water with high 137Cs activity persisted at least until July 2011. In subsurface waters 137Cs activity was first detected in the beginning of April 2011, and the water masses were characterized by σt (an indicator of density) values of 25

  15. Distribution of the Fukushima-derived radionuclides in seawater in the Pacific off the coast of Miyagi, Fukushima, and Ibaraki Prefectures, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, S.; Takata, H.; Watabe, T.; Misonoo, J.; Kusakabe, M.

    2013-07-01

    The activities of artificial radionuclides in seawater samples collected off the coast of Miyagi, Fukushima, and Ibaraki Prefectures were measured as part of a monitoring program initiated by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Sports, Science and Technology immediately after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The spatial and temporal distributions of those activities are summarized herein. The activities of strontium-90, iodine-131, cesium-134 and -137 (i.e. 90Sr, 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs) derived from the accident were detected in seawater samples taken from areas of the coastal ocean adjacent to the power plant. No 131I was detected in surface waters (≤ 5 m depth) or in intermediate and bottom waters after 30 April 2011. Strontium-90 was found in surface waters collected from a few sampling stations in mid-August 2011 to mid-December 2011. Temporal changes of 90Sr activity in surface waters were evident, although the 90Sr activity at a given time varied widely between sampling stations. The activity of 90Sr in surface waters decreased slowly over time, and by the end of December 2011 had reached background levels recorded before the accident. Radiocesium, 134Cs and 137Cs, was found in seawater samples immediately after the accident. There was a remarkable change in radiocesium activities in surface waters during the first 7 months (March through September 2011) after the accident; the activity reached a maximum in the middle of April and thereafter decreased exponentially with time. Qualitatively, the distribution patterns in surface waters suggested that in early May radiocesium-polluted water was advected northward; some of the water then detached and was transported to the south. Two water cores with high 137Cs activity persisted at least until July 2011. In subsurface waters radiocesium activity was first detected in the beginning of April 2011, and the water masses were characterized by σt (an indicator of density) values of 25

  16. Tracing the dispersion of sediment contaminated with fallout radionuclides along the main rivers draining the contaminated plume in Fukushima Prefecture (Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evrard, O.; Patin, J.; Lefèvre, I.; Chartin, C.; Ayrault, S.; Bonté, Ph.; Onda, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident led to the release of important quantities of radionuclides into the environment. Several of those substances (e.g., Cs-134; Cs-137) strongly sorb onto soil particles. Resulting radiations lead to an external exposure threat associated with the spatial distribution of radionuclides. This threat, associated with the possibility of transfer of contamination to plants and direct ingestion of contaminated particles, will affect human activities such as agriculture, forest exploitation and fishing for long periods of time, depending on the half life of the radionuclides (e.g., 2 yrs for Cs-134; 30 yrs for Cs-137). Furthermore, sediment can be a preferential vector of contaminants in rivers, and its transfer can lead to the dispersion of radioactive contamination across larger areas over time. We present here preliminary results obtained during a field campaign conducted in November 2011 in a part of Fukushima Prefecture located in the main contamination plume and covering an area of about 5000 km2. We had the unique opportunity to measure and "trace" the dispersion of sediment contaminated with radionuclides shortly after the catastrophe. In total, 125 soil and sediment samples were collected along the main rivers of the area (i.e., Abukuma, Nitta, Mano, Kutchibuto and Hirose Rivers). This hydrological network drains the contamination plume located 20 to 80 km northwest of Fukushima Dai-ichi power plant. Furthermore, radiation dose rates were measured all throughout the field survey. Preliminary results show that, 8 months after the accident, radiation dose rates constitute a good proxy to trace contamination dispersion in the region, especially along rivers. Radiation dose rates varied between 0.5 µSv/h and 200 µSv/h in the field. Transfer of contaminated sediment has already started in rivers, and it was accelerated by the occurrence of violent typhoons in the region between July and October, 2011. Main gamma

  17. Relationship between prevalence of childhood obesity in 17-year-olds and socioeconomic and environmental factors: prefecture-level analysis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Rie

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the association between childhood obesity and neighborhood-level socio-economic and environmental factors in Japan. The prevalence of childhood obesity in 2008 was obtained from annual reports of the School Health Survey. The following 12 factors were publicly available: income per person, ratio of people completing up to college or university education, population density, total length of roads per square kilometer, number relative to the population of food and drink stores, restaurants, large-scale retail stores, convenience stores, passenger cars, traffic accidents, criminal offenses, and death by accidents. The ratio of people completing up to college or university education was inversely associated with obesity in boys and girls. No association was found between obesity and the other factors examined. An inverse association was shown between educational level and childhood obesity in both boys and girls. Further studies integrating associations between childhood obesity and neighborhood-level factors are needed.

  18. Japan.

    PubMed

    1987-02-01

    Japan is composed of 4 main islands and more than 3900 smaller islands and has 317.7 persons/square kilometer. This makes it one of the most densely populated nations in the world. Religion is an important force in the life of the Japanese and most consider themselves Buddhists. Schooling is free through junior high but 90% of Japanese students complete high school. In fact, Japan enjoys one of the highest literacy rates in the world. There are over 178 newspapers and 3500 magazines published in Japan and the number of new book titles issued each year is greater than that in the US. Since WW1, Japan expanded its influence in Asia and its holdings in the Pacific. However, as a direct result of WW2, Japan lost all of its overseas possessions and was able to retain only its own islands. Since 1952, Japan has been ruled by conservative governments which cooperate closely with the West. Great economic growth has come since the post-treaty period. Japan as a constitutional monarchy operates within the framework of a constitution which became effective in May 1947. Executive power is vested in a cabinet which includes the prime minister and the ministers of state. Japan is one of the most politically stable of the postwar democracies and the Liberal Democratic Party is representative of Japanese moderate conservatism. The economy of Japan is strong and growing. With few resources, there is only 19% of Japanese land suitable for cultivation. Its exports earn only about 19% of the country's gross national product. More than 59 million workers comprise Japan's labor force, 40% of whom are women. Japan and the US are strongly linked trading partners and after Canada, Japan is the largest trading partner of the US. Foreign policy since 1952 has fostered close cooperation with the West and Japan is vitally interested in good relations with its neighbors. Relations with the Soviet Union are not close although Japan is attempting to improve the situation. US policy is based on

  19. Time series analysis for the estimation of tidal fluctuation effect on different aquifers in a small coastal area of Saijo plain, Ehime prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pankaj; Tsujimura, Maki; Nakano, Takanori; Minoru, Tokumasu

    2013-04-01

    Considering the current poor understanding of the seawater-freshwater (SW-FW) interaction pattern at dynamic hydro-geological boundary of coastal aquifers, this work strives to study tidal effect on groundwater quality using chemical tracers combined with environmental isotopes. In situ measurement data of electrical conductivity and groundwater level along with laboratory measurement data of hydro-chemical species were compared with tidal level data measured by Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department, Saijo City, Japan for time series analysis. Result shows that diurnal tides have significant effect on groundwater level as well as its chemical characteristics; however, the magnitude of effect is different in case of different aquifers. Various scatter diagrams were plotted in order to infer mechanisms responsible for water quality change with tidal phase, and results show that cations exchange, selective movement and local SW-FW mixing were likely to be the main processes responsible for water quality changes. It was also found that geological structure of the aquifers is the most important factor affecting the intensity of tidal effect on water quality.

  20. Behaviour of radiocaesium in coastal rivers of the Fukushima Prefecture (Japan) during conditions of low flow and low turbidity--Insight on the possible role of small particles and detrital organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Eyrolle-Boyer, Frédérique; Boyer, Patrick; Garcia-Sanchez, Laurent; Métivier, Jean-Michel; Onda, Yuichi; De Vismes, Anne; Cagnat, Xavier; Boulet, Béatrice; Cossonnet, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    To investigate riverine transfers from contaminated soils of the Fukushima Prefecture in Japan to the marine environment, suspended sediments, filtered water, sediments and detrital organic macro debris deposited onto river beds were collected in November 2013 within small coastal rivers during conditions of low flow rates and low turbidity. River waters were directly filtered on the field and high efficiency well-type Ge detectors were used to analyse radiocaesium concentrations in very small quantities of suspended particles and filtered water (a few mg to a few g). For such base-flow conditions, our results show that the watersheds studied present similar hydro-sedimentary behaviours at their outlets and that the exports of dissolved and particulate radiocaesium are comparable. Moreover, the contribution of these rivers to the instantaneous export of radiocaesium to the ocean is similar to that of the Abukuma River. Our preliminary results indicate that, in the estuaries, radiocaesium concentrations in suspended sediments would be reduced by more than 80%, while radiocaesium concentration in filtered waters would be maintained. Significant correlations between radiocaesium concentrations and radiocaesium inventories in the soils of the catchments indicate that there was at that time little intra and inter-watershed variability in the transfer processes of radiocaesium from lands to rivers at this regional scale. The apparent liquid-solid partition coefficient (KD) values acquired for the lowest loads/finest particles complement the values acquired by using sediment traps and highlight the strong capacity of the smallest particles to transfer radiocaesium. Finally, but not least, our observations suggest that there could be a significant transfer of highly contaminated detrital biomass from forest litter to the downstream rivers in a rather conservative way. PMID:26588202

  1. Behaviour of radiocaesium in coastal rivers of the Fukushima Prefecture (Japan) during conditions of low flow and low turbidity--Insight on the possible role of small particles and detrital organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Eyrolle-Boyer, Frédérique; Boyer, Patrick; Garcia-Sanchez, Laurent; Métivier, Jean-Michel; Onda, Yuichi; De Vismes, Anne; Cagnat, Xavier; Boulet, Béatrice; Cossonnet, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    To investigate riverine transfers from contaminated soils of the Fukushima Prefecture in Japan to the marine environment, suspended sediments, filtered water, sediments and detrital organic macro debris deposited onto river beds were collected in November 2013 within small coastal rivers during conditions of low flow rates and low turbidity. River waters were directly filtered on the field and high efficiency well-type Ge detectors were used to analyse radiocaesium concentrations in very small quantities of suspended particles and filtered water (a few mg to a few g). For such base-flow conditions, our results show that the watersheds studied present similar hydro-sedimentary behaviours at their outlets and that the exports of dissolved and particulate radiocaesium are comparable. Moreover, the contribution of these rivers to the instantaneous export of radiocaesium to the ocean is similar to that of the Abukuma River. Our preliminary results indicate that, in the estuaries, radiocaesium concentrations in suspended sediments would be reduced by more than 80%, while radiocaesium concentration in filtered waters would be maintained. Significant correlations between radiocaesium concentrations and radiocaesium inventories in the soils of the catchments indicate that there was at that time little intra and inter-watershed variability in the transfer processes of radiocaesium from lands to rivers at this regional scale. The apparent liquid-solid partition coefficient (KD) values acquired for the lowest loads/finest particles complement the values acquired by using sediment traps and highlight the strong capacity of the smallest particles to transfer radiocaesium. Finally, but not least, our observations suggest that there could be a significant transfer of highly contaminated detrital biomass from forest litter to the downstream rivers in a rather conservative way.

  2. Delayed increase in male suicide rates in tsunami disaster-stricken areas following the great east japan earthquake: a three-year follow-up study in Miyagi Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Orui, Masatsugu; Sato, Yasuhiro; Tazaki, Kanako; Kawamura, Ikuko; Harada, Shuichiro; Hayashi, Mizuho

    2015-01-01

    Devastating natural disasters and their aftermath are known to cause psychological distress. However, little information is available regarding suicide rates following tsunami disasters that destroy regional social services and networks. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the tsunami disaster following the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011 has influenced suicide rates. The study period was from March 2009 to February 2014. Tsunami disaster-stricken areas were defined as the 16 municipalities facing the Pacific Ocean in Miyagi Prefecture. Inland areas were defined as other municipalities in Miyagi that were damaged by the earthquake. Suicide rates in the tsunami disaster-stricken areas were compared to national averages, using a time-series analysis and the Poisson distribution test. In tsunami disaster-stricken areas, male suicide rates were significantly lower than the national average during the initial post-disaster period and began to increase after two years. Likewise, male suicide rates in the inland areas decreased for seven months, and then increased to exceed the national average. In contrast, female post-disaster suicide rates did not change in both areas compared to the national average. Importantly, the male suicide rates in the inland areas started to increase earlier compared to the tsunami-stricken areas, which may reflect the relative deficiency of mental healthcare services in the inland areas. Considering the present status that many survivors from the tsunami disaster still live in temporary housing and face various challenges to rebuild their lives, we should continue intensive, long-term mental healthcare services in the tsunami-stricken areas.

  3. Change in and long-term investigation of neuro-otologic disorders in disaster-stricken Fukushima prefecture: retrospective cohort study before and after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Jun; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Obara, Taku; Hashimoto, Ken; Tateda, Yutaka; Okumura, Yuri; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu; Katori, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, Japan's northeast Pacific coast was hit by a gigantic earthquake and subsequent tsunami. Soma City in Fukushima Prefecture is situated approximately 44 km north of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Soma General Hospital is the only hospital in Soma City that provides full-time otolaryngological medical care. We investigated the changes in new patients from one year before to three years after the disaster. We investigated 18,167 new patients treated at our department during the four years from April 1, 2010 to March 31, 2014. Of the new patients, we categorized the diagnoses into Meniere's disease, acute low-tone sensorineural hearing loss, vertigo, sudden deafness, tinnitus, and facial palsy as neuro-otologic symptoms. We also investigated the changes in the numbers of patients whom we examined at that time concerning other otolaryngological disorders, including epistaxis, infectious diseases of the laryngopharynx, and allergic rhinitis. The total number of new patients did not change remarkably on a year-to-year basis. Conversely, cases of vertigo, Meniere's disease, and acute low-tone sensorineural hearing loss increased in number immediately after the disaster, reaching a plateau in the second year and slightly decreasing in the third year. Specifically, 4.8% of patients suffering from these neuro-otologic diseases had complications from depression and other mental diseases. With regard to new patients in our department, there was no apparent increase in the number of patients suffering from diseases other than neuro-otologic diseases, including epistaxis, and allergic rhinitis. Patients suffering from vertigo and/or dizziness increased during the first few years after the disaster. These results are attributed to the continuing stress and tension of the inhabitants. This investigation of those living in the disaster area highlights the need for long-term support. PMID:25849607

  4. Delayed increase in male suicide rates in tsunami disaster-stricken areas following the great east japan earthquake: a three-year follow-up study in Miyagi Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Orui, Masatsugu; Sato, Yasuhiro; Tazaki, Kanako; Kawamura, Ikuko; Harada, Shuichiro; Hayashi, Mizuho

    2015-01-01

    Devastating natural disasters and their aftermath are known to cause psychological distress. However, little information is available regarding suicide rates following tsunami disasters that destroy regional social services and networks. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the tsunami disaster following the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011 has influenced suicide rates. The study period was from March 2009 to February 2014. Tsunami disaster-stricken areas were defined as the 16 municipalities facing the Pacific Ocean in Miyagi Prefecture. Inland areas were defined as other municipalities in Miyagi that were damaged by the earthquake. Suicide rates in the tsunami disaster-stricken areas were compared to national averages, using a time-series analysis and the Poisson distribution test. In tsunami disaster-stricken areas, male suicide rates were significantly lower than the national average during the initial post-disaster period and began to increase after two years. Likewise, male suicide rates in the inland areas decreased for seven months, and then increased to exceed the national average. In contrast, female post-disaster suicide rates did not change in both areas compared to the national average. Importantly, the male suicide rates in the inland areas started to increase earlier compared to the tsunami-stricken areas, which may reflect the relative deficiency of mental healthcare services in the inland areas. Considering the present status that many survivors from the tsunami disaster still live in temporary housing and face various challenges to rebuild their lives, we should continue intensive, long-term mental healthcare services in the tsunami-stricken areas. PMID:25765170

  5. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Savannah C.

    Materials for a secondary level, interdisciplinary social studies course on Japan are divided into introductory information, 14 classroom units, and study and evaluation materials. Introductory material includes lists of objectives and skills, an outline of Japanese history, and an explanation of Japan's name and flag. The units cover the…

  6. Role of natural organic matter on iodine and (239)(,240)Pu distribution and mobility in environmental samples from the northwestern Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chen; Zhang, Saijin; Sugiyama, Yuko; Ohte, Nobuhito; Ho, Yi-Fang; Fujitake, Nobuhide; Kaplan, Daniel I; Yeager, Chris M; Schwehr, Kathleen; Santschi, Peter H

    2016-03-01

    original bulk deposition (∼ 28.6% of total iodine) have been completely converted to organo-iodine. Fukushima-derived (239,240)Pu was detectable at a distance ∼ 61 km away, NW of FDNPP. However, it is confined to the litter layer, even three years after the FDNPP accident-derived emissions. Plutonium-239,240 activities were significantly correlated with soil OC and nitrogen contents, indicating Pu may be associated with nitrogen-containing SOM, similar to what has been observed at other locations in the United States. Together, these finding suggest that natural organic matter (NOM) plays a key role in affecting the fate and transport of I and Pu and may warrant greater consideration for predicting long-term stewardship of contaminated areas and evaluating various remediation options in Japan. PMID:26773510

  7. Transport process of the March 2011 Tohoku-oki Tsunami deposits estimated using OSL dating related techniques in the Soma coast, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashizaki, R.; Shirai, M.

    2013-12-01

    Modern tsunami deposits offer us the opportunity to understand characteristics and sedimentary processes of tsunami deposits. Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) intensity of mineral grains are useful to estimate the length of burial age, which represents the amount of ionizing radiation absorbed by the minerals and is reset by sufficient exposure to sunlight (bleaching). Although unbleached or partially bleached samples are not available for estimation of true OSL age, residual OSL intensity may be useful to estimate origin of sediments and/or transport processes. Although lots studies correlate depositional environment and equivalent dose (De), which is obtained from OSL intensity and essential parameter for obtaining OSL age, none discusses relation between transport processes and De. Whereas, Shirai and Hayashizaki (2013) attempted to estimate sand grain transport process using percentage of bleached grain (bleaching percentage; BLP) estimated directly from OSL intensity. This study therefore attempts to estimate depositional processes of tsunami deposits caused by the March 2011 Tohoku-oki Tsunami using De and BLP in the Soma coast, Fukushima, northeastern Japan. In this study, tsunami deposits and pre-tsunami foreshore sediments (5 cm depth; sampled on Oct. 2010) were investigated. The 300-500 μm K-rich feldspar grains were extracted from sediment samples under subdued orange light. An individual feldspar grain was handpicked and fixed on a stainless steel disk with a binocular microscope. The measurements were made on an automated luminescence reader (Risø TL/OSL DA-20) equipped with a 90Sr/90Y beta source (ca. 0.13Gy/s). De for single grain K-feldspar was determined using a single-aliquot regenerative dose (SAR) protocol. Although pre-tsunami foreshore sediments are expected to be bleached by exposing enough sunlight, some of them are not reset completely in the Soma coast. Coastal erosion induces exposure of old buried sediments having higher De and

  8. Role of natural organic matter on iodine and (239)(,240)Pu distribution and mobility in environmental samples from the northwestern Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chen; Zhang, Saijin; Sugiyama, Yuko; Ohte, Nobuhito; Ho, Yi-Fang; Fujitake, Nobuhide; Kaplan, Daniel I; Yeager, Chris M; Schwehr, Kathleen; Santschi, Peter H

    2016-03-01

    original bulk deposition (∼ 28.6% of total iodine) have been completely converted to organo-iodine. Fukushima-derived (239,240)Pu was detectable at a distance ∼ 61 km away, NW of FDNPP. However, it is confined to the litter layer, even three years after the FDNPP accident-derived emissions. Plutonium-239,240 activities were significantly correlated with soil OC and nitrogen contents, indicating Pu may be associated with nitrogen-containing SOM, similar to what has been observed at other locations in the United States. Together, these finding suggest that natural organic matter (NOM) plays a key role in affecting the fate and transport of I and Pu and may warrant greater consideration for predicting long-term stewardship of contaminated areas and evaluating various remediation options in Japan.

  9. Ehimeite, NaCa2Mg4CrSi6Al2O22(OH)2: The first Cr-dominant amphibole from the Akaishi Mine, Higashi-Akaishi Mountain, Ehime Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio-Hamane, Daisuke; Ohnishi, Masayuki; Minakawa, Tetsuo; Yamaura, Jun-Ichi; Saito, Shohei; Kadota, Ryo

    The first Cr-dominant amphibole, ehimeite, ideally NaCa2Mg4CrSi6Al2O22(OH)2, has been found in a chromitite deposit in the Akaishi Mine, Higashi-Akaishi Mountain, Ehime Prefecture, Japan. Ehimeite occurs as prismatic crystals of up to 1.5 cm in length and 0.5 cm in width and is found in association with chromite, kämmererite (Cr-rich clinochlore), Cr-poor clinochlore, phlogopite, and uvarovite. It is transparent, emerald green to pale green in color with pale green streaks, and has a vitreous luster. Optically, it is biaxial positive with α = 1.644(2), β = 1.647(2), γ = 1.659(2), and 2Vcalc. = 53°. It has a Mohs’ hardness of 6 and densities of 3.08(3) g/cm3 (measured using heavy liquids) and 3.121 g/cm3 (calculated from powder diffraction data and the empirical formula). The empirical formula is (Na0.88K0.07)Σ0.95(Ca1.89Na0.02Mg0.09)Σ2.00(Mg4.03Cr0.62Al0.19Fe3+0.07Fe2+0.07Ti0.03)Σ5.00(Si6.14Al1.86)Σ8.00O22(OH)2 on the basis of O = 22 and OH = 2, and ehimeite mainly forms a solid solution, NaCa2Mg4(Cr, Al)Si6Al2O22(OH)2, with pargasite. It has a monoclinic unit cell with a = 9.9176(14) Å, b = 18.0009(12) Å, c = 5.2850(7) Å, β = 105.400(7)°, V = 909.6 (17) Å3, and Z = 2, and it belongs to the space group C2/m, as refined from powder XRD data. The eight strongest lines in the powder XRD pattern [d (Å), I/I0, hkl] are (3.370, 58, 150), (2.932, 43, 221), (2.697, 81, 151), (2.585, 50, 061), (2.546, 100, 202), (2.346, 42, 351), (2.156, 35, 261), and (1.514, 55, 263). The crystal structure has been refined to R1 = 0.0488 using single-crystal XRD data. It has been concluded that ehimeite in the Akaishi Mine was formed by the reaction of chromitite and the metamorphic fluid in the retrograde stage of serpentinization during the Sanbagawa metamorphism.

  10. Accurate detection of spatio-temporal variability of plant phenology by using satellite-observed daily green-red vegetation index (GRVI) in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, S.; Saitoh, T. M.; Nasahara, K. N.; Inoue, T.; Suzuki, R.

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the spatio-temporal variability of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning and service in deciduous forests, accurate detection of the timing of plant phenology such as leaf-flushing, -coloring, and -falling is important from plot to continental scales. Here, (1) we detected the spatio-temporal variability in the timing of start (SGS) and end of growing season (EGS) in Japan from 2001 to 2014 by analyzing Terra and Aqua/MODIS satellite-observed daily green-red vegetation index (GRVI) with a 500-m spatial resolution. (2) We examined the characteristics of timing of SGS and EGS in deciduous forests along vertical (altitude) and horizontal (latitude) gradients and their sensitivity to air temperature. (3) We evaluated the relationship between the spatial distribution of leaf-coloring phenology derived from Landsat-8/OLI satellite-observed GRVI with a 30-m spatial resolution on 23 November 2014 and leaf-coloring information published on web sites in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. We found that (1) changes along the vertical and horizontal gradients in the timing of SGS tended to be larger than those of EGS; (2) the sensitivity of the timing of SGS to air temperature was much more than that of EGS; and (3) leaf-coloring information published on web sites covering multiple points was useful for verification of leaf-coloring phenology derived from satellite-observed GRVI in relation to the altitude gradient in mountainous regions.

  11. Letter from President Millard Fillmore to the Emperor of Japan: The President's Letter Opened a Closed Country to the West

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkert, Marvin; Potter, Lee Ann

    2004-01-01

    In 1852, Commodore Matthew C. Perry of the U.S. Navy sailed to Japan with instructions to deliver a letter from President Millard Fillmore to the Emperor. The letter eventually led to the 1854 Treaty of Kanagawa and the opening of Japan to trade with Western nations. The State Department's letter book copy of the letter is featured in this…

  12. [[Interregional marriage in Japan

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T

    1990-07-01

    Patterns in interregional marriage in Japan are examined by prefecture. Data are from the 1977, 1982, and 1987 National Fertility Surveys and are presented for distance between marriage site and birthplace, including the effects of arranged marriage and wife's labor force participation; prior living arrangements; and educational status of the couple. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  13. Aspects of the haemolytic reaction induced by Kanagawa haemolysin of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Huntley, J S; Hall, A C

    1994-11-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus, an important enteric pathogen, produces toxin (Kanagawa haemolysin, KH), the presence of which correlates well with pathogenicity. KH induced lysis of human red blood cells (HRBC); the kinetics were strongly dependent on KH concentration (0-1 HU/ml) and rather independent of target cell concentration [0.5 < or = haematocrit (%) < or = 6] and the ratio KH:HRBC. The suggestion that KH-induced haemolysis is due to colloid osmosis is supported by results indicating: (1) osmotic protection (by suspension in iso-osmotic choline chloride, D-sorbitol or L-valine, or MOPS-buffered saline with added sucrose), (2) a cell volume increase prior to lysis, and (3) an increase in HRBC cation (86Rb+) influx after KH addition, indicating raised passive cation permeation. The effect of temperature on KH-induced haemolysis indicates the importance of processes other than the action of a simple water-filled pore, because of the high activation energy [53.30 +/- 2.79 kJ (mol.)-1] involved. Although haemolytic rate was attenuated by washout after 5 min KH exposure, the KH-induced lesion itself was not susceptible to washout by either extracellular volume expansion (at constant osmolarity) or centrifugation/resuspension. This suggests that HRBC binding of KH from aqueous solution still continues after 5 min exposure at 37 degrees C. Pre-vortexing KH with dibutyl phthalate (DBP) dramatically reduced the haemolytic activity of the aqueous toxin preparation, suggesting a protein-lipid interaction, which may support the contention that KH can move from a hydrophilic to a hydrophobic environment. Two features were identified that are characteristic of highly purified TDH preparations: (1) thermostability of haemolysin, and (2) monovalent cation selectivity series of lesion: Cs+ > Li+ > K+ > Rb+ > Na+, confirming that TDH is the important leak-inducing agent of KH. PMID:7886698

  14. Change in and Long-Term Investigation of Neuro-Otologic Disorders in Disaster-Stricken Fukushima Prefecture: Retrospective Cohort Study before and after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Kuriyama, Shinichi; Obara, Taku; Hashimoto, Ken; Tateda, Yutaka; Okumura, Yuri; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu; Katori, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, Japan’s northeast Pacific coast was hit by a gigantic earthquake and subsequent tsunami. Soma City in Fukushima Prefecture is situated approximately 44 km north of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Soma General Hospital is the only hospital in Soma City that provides full-time otolaryngological medical care. We investigated the changes in new patients from one year before to three years after the disaster. We investigated 18,167 new patients treated at our department during the four years from April 1, 2010 to March 31, 2014. Of the new patients, we categorized the diagnoses into Meniere’s disease, acute low-tone sensorineural hearing loss, vertigo, sudden deafness, tinnitus, and facial palsy as neuro-otologic symptoms. We also investigated the changes in the numbers of patients whom we examined at that time concerning other otolaryngological disorders, including epistaxis, infectious diseases of the laryngopharynx, and allergic rhinitis. The total number of new patients did not change remarkably on a year-to-year basis. Conversely, cases of vertigo, Meniere’s disease, and acute low-tone sensorineural hearing loss increased in number immediately after the disaster, reaching a plateau in the second year and slightly decreasing in the third year. Specifically, 4.8% of patients suffering from these neuro-otologic diseases had complications from depression and other mental diseases. With regard to new patients in our department, there was no apparent increase in the number of patients suffering from diseases other than neuro-otologic diseases, including epistaxis, and allergic rhinitis. Patients suffering from vertigo and/or dizziness increased during the first few years after the disaster. These results are attributed to the continuing stress and tension of the inhabitants. This investigation of those living in the disaster area highlights the need for long-term support. PMID:25849607

  15. Ultrasonography survey and thyroid cancer in the Fukushima Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Peter; Kaiser, Jan Christian; Ulanovsky, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Thyroid cancer is one of the major health concerns after the accident in the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station (NPS). Currently, ultrasonography surveys are being performed for persons residing in the Fukushima Prefecture at the time of the accident with an age of up to 18 years. Here, the expected thyroid cancer prevalence in the Fukushima Prefecture is assessed based on an ultrasonography survey of Ukrainians, who were exposed at an age of up to 18 years to (131)I released during the Chernobyl NPS accident, and on differences in equipment and study protocol in the two surveys. Radiation risk of thyroid cancer incidence among survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and preliminary estimates of thyroid dose due to the Fukushima accident were used for the prediction of baseline and radiation-related thyroid cancer risks. We estimate a prevalence of thyroid cancer of 0.027 % (95 % CI 0.010 %; 0.050 %) for the first screening campaign in the Fukushima Prefecture. Compared with the incidence rate in Japan in 2007, the ultrasonography survey is predicted to increase baseline thyroid cancer incidence by a factor of 7.4 (95 % CI 0.95; 17.3). Under the condition of continued screening, thyroid cancer during the first fifty years after the accident is predicted to be detected for about 2 % of the screened population. The prediction of radiation-related thyroid cancer in the most exposed fraction (a few ten thousand persons) of the screened population of the Fukushima Prefecture has a large uncertainty with the best estimates of the average risk of 0.1-0.3 %, depending on average dose.

  16. 78 FR 7485 - Designation of Seven Individuals and One Entity Pursuant to Executive Order 13581, “Blocking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    .... INAGAWA-KAI, 7-8-4 Roppongi, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan . Dated: January 23, 2013. Adam J. Szubin, Director...); DOB 1940; POB Japan (individual) . 3. UCHIBORI, Kazuo (a.k.a. UCHIBORI, Kazuya); DOB 1952; POB Kawasaki, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan (individual) . 4. ZAGARIA, Antonio; DOB 29 Jun 1962; POB San...

  17. The national financial adjustment policy and the equalisation of health levels among prefectures

    PubMed Central

    Takano, T; Nakamura, K

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES—The objectives of this study were to examine (1) trends concerning financial assistance from the national government to local governments, (2) trends regarding death rates and life expectancies among prefectures, and (3) the effect of the national financial adjustment policy in equalising both the revenues of local governments and variations in the health levels among prefectures in terms of death rates and life expectancies.
DESIGN—The study analysed prefectural income, the amount of national taxes collected, financial assistance from the national government to local governments, and age adjusted death rates and life expectancies of all of the prefectures in Japan during the period from 1965 through 1995.
MAIN RESULTS—(1) Under the financial adjustment policy, financial assistance from the national government to the local governments, which consists of the sum of the local allocation tax and treasury disbursements, increased from 1831 billion yen in 1965 to 31 116 billion yen in 1995. (2) During the same period, the age adjusted death rate per 100 000 people decreased from 1168.9 (1965) to 545.3 (1995). The range of variation in the age adjusted death rate among prefectures diminished as the coefficient of variation of the death rate declined from 0.060 in 1965 to 0.043 in 1995. (3) There was a significant statistical correlation between higher prefectural incomes and lower mortality rates during from 1965 until 1975 (p < 0.05), whereas this correlation was indistinct in the 1980s and has not been observed since 1990. (4) The relative health level of Tokyo has declined in terms of its ranking among all the prefectures with regard to life expectancy, from being the best in 1965 to below average in 1995.
CONCLUSIONS—The national financial adjustment policy to balance the revenues of local governments has increased the health levels of rural prefectures. It is probable that the policy reduced the disparity in death

  18. Mortality among Japanese construction workers in Mie Prefecture

    PubMed Central

    Sun, J; Kubota, H; Hisanaga, N; Shibata, E; Kamijima, M; Nakamura, K

    2002-01-01

    Aims: A historical cohort mortality study was conducted among 17 668 members of the Construction Workers' Health Insurance Society of Mie Prefecture in Japan, in order to verify the relation between occupations and mortality status. Methods: The cohort was followed from 2 April 1973 to 1 April 1998. Standardised mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated for all members and each job classification. Results: 98.7% of the members were traced successfully until the date when the follow up terminated. When all members were considered together, significant excess mortality was observed for "accidents and adverse effects". Significant excess mortalities were also observed for lung cancers among scaffold men and ironworkers, for cancer of the oesophagus among plumbers, and for "chronic liver disease and cirrhosis" among scaffold men and painters. Conclusion: Results suggest that more detailed investigations, which would include some minor job classifications should be undertaken. This is an updated cohort study which was partially completed in 1997. PMID:12151606

  19. [Tuberculin sensitivity among school children in Niigata Prefecture, Japan].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, K

    1998-09-01

    Tuberculin sensitivity was studied in 668 apparently healthy schoolchildren six to seven years of age vaccinated B.C.G. before the age of one. Sensitivity was assessed using the standard dose of PPD and reactions with an area of erythema of 10 mm diameter or more were considered positive. The results were as follows: 1) The frequencies of tuberculin-positive children were 97 (31.3%) of 310 subjects in the fishing area, 21 (9.9%) of 213 in the farming area, and 35 (24.1%) of 145 in the intermediate zone. 2) Prevalences of the positive children by obesity index were 28 (36.8%) of 76 in the large, 72 (24.5%) of 294 in medium, and 53 (17.8%) of 298 in the small, and the decreasing tend in frequencies among these three classes by obesity index were statistically significant (p < 0.01). 3) Gender differences in frequency of tubereulin-positive children were not clearly detected when a comparative study grouped by obesity index and area was carried out. These observations suggest that tuberculin sensitivity in children may be influenced by the size of body mass and also characteristic factors, including diet, in their residential districts.

  20. Seroepidemiological survey of sheep flocks from Northern Japan for Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Mycoplasma agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Giangaspero, Massimo; Nicholas, Robin A J; Hlusek, Miroslav; Bonfini, Barbara; Osawa, Takeshi; Orusa, Riccardo; Tatami, Shingo; Takagi, Eishu; Moriya, Hiroaki; Okura, Norimoto; Kato, Kazuo; Kimura, Atsushi; Harasawa, Ryô; Ayling, Roger D

    2012-03-01

    Sheep flocks from Hokkaido, Iwate and Aomori, three northern prefectures of Japan, were screened for antibodies to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Mycoplasma agalactiae by ELISA. Sixty four animals out of 246 (26%) were seropositive to M. ovipneumoniae, with positive results obtained from all three prefectures. None of the sera tested were serologically positive to M. agalactiae.

  1. Measurement of long-term land subsidence by combination of InSAR and time series analysis - Application study to Kanto Plains of Japan -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deguchi, T.; Rokugawa, S.; Matsushima, J.

    2009-04-01

    InSAR is an application technique of synthetic aperture radars and is now drawing attention as a methodology capable of measuring subtle surface deformation over a wide area with a high spatial resolution. In this study, the authors applied the method of measuring long-term land subsidence by combining InSAR and time series analysis to Kanto Plains of Japan using 28 images of ENVISAT/ASAR data. In this measuring method, the value of land deformation is set as an unknown parameter and the optimal solution to the land deformation amount is derived by applying a smoothness-constrained inversion algorithm. The vicinity of the Kanto Plain started to subside in the 1910s, and became exposed to extreme land subsidence supposedly in accordance with the reconstruction efforts after the Second World War and the economic development activities. The main causes of the land subsidence include the intake of underground water for the use in industries, agriculture, waterworks, and other fields. In the Kujukuri area, the exploitation of soluble natural gas also counts. The Ministry of Environment reported in its documents created in fiscal 2006 that a total of 214 km2 in Tokyo and the six prefectures around the Plain had undergone a subsidence of 1 cm or more per a year. As a result of long-term land subsidence over approximately five and a half years from 13th January, 2003, to 30th June, 2008, unambiguous land deformation was detected in six areas: (i) Haneda Airport, (ii) Urayasu City, (iii) Kasukabe-Koshigaya, (iv) Southern Kanagawa, (v) Toride-Ryugasaki, and (vi) Kujukuri in Chiba Prefecture. In particular, the results for the Kujukuri area were compared with the leveling data taken around the same area to verify the measuring accuracy. The comparative study revealed that the regression formula between the results obtained by time series analysis and those by the leveling can be expressed as a straight line with a gradient of approximately 1, though including a bias of about

  2. Terrorism in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asai, Yasufumi; Arnold, Jeffrey L

    2003-01-01

    Although the 1995 Tokyo subway sarin attack probably was the most widely reported terrorist event in Japan to date (5,500 injured, 12 dead), the country has suffered numerous other large terrorism-related events in recent decades, including bombings of the headquarters of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries in Tokyo in 1974 (207 injured, 8 dead), the Hokkaido Prefectural Government office building in Sapporo in 1976 (80 injured, 2 dead), and the Yosakoi-Soran Festival in Sapporo in 2000 (10 injured, none dead). Japan also has experienced two other mass-casualty terrorist events involving chemical releases, including the 1994 Matsumoto sarin attack (600 injured, 7 dead) and the 1998 Wakayama arsenic incident (67 injured, 4 dead). Until 1995, emergency management in Japan focused on planning and preparedness at the local level for the frequent disasters caused by natural events. Since that time, substantial progress has been made in advancing emergency planning and preparedness for terrorism-related events, including the designation of disaster centers in each prefecture, the implementation of several education and training programs for nuclear, biological, and chemical terrorism, and the establishment of a national Anti terrorism Office within the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare.

  3. [A case of black dot ringworm caused by Trichophyton tonsurans in Chiba Prefecture].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoko; Sano, Ayako; Komori, Takashi; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Nishimura, Kazuko

    2005-01-01

    A 74-year-old woman visited a clinic in Kisarazu, Chiba Prefecture in December 2002 complaining of itching, scale and alopecia. She had been diagnosed as having tinea capitis by a direct microscopic examination of scales, and been treated with an antifungal cream and steroid lotion since 1999. The bald area spread from frontal to occipital in which multiple black dots and red papules were scattered. Abundant endothrix spores were observed in the hair shaft. A mycelial colony was isolated from the black dots. A giant colony on Sabouraud's agar was white, powdery and flattened with cottony elevation at the center in the obverse, and a reddish-brown pigmentation in the reverse. The isolate produced abundant microconidia that were round to club-and balloon-shaped with extreme swelling, while macroconidia and spiral bodies were few. Hair perforation test was negative and urease activity test was positive. ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA sequencing revealed 100% homology with T. tonsurans isolated from two old women in Niigata Prefecture. On the other hand, 3 bases were different from those of the outbreak isolates from judo and wrestling players infected through international matches. T. tonsurans has polymorphism and the present isolate might be an autochthonous genotype in Japan. This is the first time T. tonsurans was isolated in Chiba Prefecture. But this prefecture had been known as an endemic area of Trichophyton coccineum, which was very similar in morphological and physiological characteristics to those of T. tonsurans before World War II. These facts raise the question of whether T. tonsurans has existed in this prefecture before.

  4. Impact of suspended sediment and nutrient loading from land uses against water quality in the Hii River basin, Japan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lake Shinji lies in eastern Shimane Prefecture, and is typical of brackish lakes in Japan. Water quality of the lake does not meet the expected environmental standards for total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), even though the national and prefectural governments have tried to improve water...

  5. Non-Commercial Audiovisual Instructional Materials in Japan. AVE in Japan No. 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takakuwa, Yasuo

    This report outlines the history of non-commercial and local production of audiovisual instructional materials in Japan since World War II, discusses current trends in instructional materials usage, and presents four case studies of materials production at the prefectural level. Topics addressed include: (1) materials production prior to the…

  6. Inspections of radiocesium concentration levels in rice from Fukushima Prefecture after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    PubMed Central

    Nihei, Naoto; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2015-01-01

    We summarize the inspections of radiocesium concentration levels in rice produced in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, for 3 years from the nuclear accident in 2011. In 2011, three types of verifications, preliminary survey, main inspection, and emergency survey, revealed that rice with radiocesium concentration levels over 500 Bq/kg (the provisional regulation level until March 2012 in Japan) was identified in the areas north and west of the Fukushima nuclear power plant. The internal exposure of an average adult eating rice grown in the area north of the nuclear plant was estimated as 0.05 mSv/year. In 2012, Fukushima Prefecture authorities decided to investigate the radiocesium concentration levels in all rice using custom-made belt conveyor testers. Notably, rice with radiocesium concentration levels over 100 Bq/kg (the new standard since April 2012 in Japan) were detected in only 71 and 28 bags out of the total 10,338,000 in 2012 and 11,001,000 in 2013, respectively. We considered that there were almost no rice exceeding 100 Bq/kg produced in Fukushima Prefecture after 3 years from the nuclear accident, and the safety of Fukushima's rice were ensured because of the investigation of all rice. PMID:25731663

  7. Inspections of radiocesium concentration levels in rice from Fukushima Prefecture after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Nihei, Naoto; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M

    2015-01-01

    We summarize the inspections of radiocesium concentration levels in rice produced in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, for 3 years from the nuclear accident in 2011. In 2011, three types of verifications, preliminary survey, main inspection, and emergency survey, revealed that rice with radiocesium concentration levels over 500 Bq/kg (the provisional regulation level until March 2012 in Japan) was identified in the areas north and west of the Fukushima nuclear power plant. The internal exposure of an average adult eating rice grown in the area north of the nuclear plant was estimated as 0.05 mSv/year. In 2012, Fukushima Prefecture authorities decided to investigate the radiocesium concentration levels in all rice using custom-made belt conveyor testers. Notably, rice with radiocesium concentration levels over 100 Bq/kg (the new standard since April 2012 in Japan) were detected in only 71 and 28 bags out of the total 10,338,000 in 2012 and 11,001,000 in 2013, respectively. We considered that there were almost no rice exceeding 100 Bq/kg produced in Fukushima Prefecture after 3 years from the nuclear accident, and the safety of Fukushima's rice were ensured because of the investigation of all rice. PMID:25731663

  8. Inspections of radiocesium concentration levels in rice from Fukushima Prefecture after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nihei, Naoto; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2015-03-01

    We summarize the inspections of radiocesium concentration levels in rice produced in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, for 3 years from the nuclear accident in 2011. In 2011, three types of verifications, preliminary survey, main inspection, and emergency survey, revealed that rice with radiocesium concentration levels over 500 Bq/kg (the provisional regulation level until March 2012 in Japan) was identified in the areas north and west of the Fukushima nuclear power plant. The internal exposure of an average adult eating rice grown in the area north of the nuclear plant was estimated as 0.05 mSv/year. In 2012, Fukushima Prefecture authorities decided to investigate the radiocesium concentration levels in all rice using custom-made belt conveyor testers. Notably, rice with radiocesium concentration levels over 100 Bq/kg (the new standard since April 2012 in Japan) were detected in only 71 and 28 bags out of the total 10,338,000 in 2012 and 11,001,000 in 2013, respectively. We considered that there were almost no rice exceeding 100 Bq/kg produced in Fukushima Prefecture after 3 years from the nuclear accident, and the safety of Fukushima's rice were ensured because of the investigation of all rice.

  9. [Regional differences in prevalence of anemia found by periodic health checkups at workplaces in Japan].

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Tomoko; Wakabayashi, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Anemia-related blood examinations are included in examinations for periodic health checkups at workplaces designated by the Industrial Safety and Health Law in Japan. The aim of this study was to determine whether there were regional differences in the prevalence of anemia in workers and, if so, to investigate possible reasons for the differences. Relationships between prevalence of anemia found by periodic health checkups and some common factors related to anemia in each prefecture of Japan were investigated by ecological regression analysis using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. There were regional differences in the prevalence of anemia in the prefectures of Japan (5.2-11.7%), and high prevalence was observed in prefectures in the northeastern district, such as Iwate, Akita and Yamagata Prefectures, and in Fukui, Shimane and Nagasaki Prefectures. Prevalence of anemia in each prefecture was significantly correlated with the prevalence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, liver dysfunction, abnormality in ECG, hyperglycemia or glucosuria at health checkups in each prefecture. Prevalence of anemia in each prefecture was significantly correlated with the percentage of patients receiving therapy for anemia in each prefecture but not with the prevalence of myoma uteri, endometriosis uteri or mortality of uterus cancer in each prefecture. There was also no significant correlation of the prevalence of anemia with the prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia or dietary iron intake in each prefecture. The prevalence of anemia in each prefecture showed significant positive correlations with the ratio of female population to total population and the ratio of female workers to total workers in each prefecture; it also showed a significant negative correlation with the ratio of the number of large-sized workplaces (300 or more workers) to the number of workplaces with 50 or more workers in each prefecture. A considerable regional difference in the prevalence of anemia was found

  10. [Kyoto Prefectural Hospital "Tenko-in" for the mentally disabled: its opening, development, and abolition].

    PubMed

    Ono, N

    1993-12-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate various attempts made at the first hospital for the mentally disabled in Japan. The prefectural government opened the hospital "Tenkyo-in" in the Nanzenji-Hojo, a temple in a residential area in Kyoto on 25 July, 1875. New rules on nursing, medical examination and medical fees, such as doctor's fees and hospital charges, were established. The doctors' services for Kyoto residents required no charge from 1876. The hospital's therapeutic concepts depended on the knowledge and opinions of Langegg Junker, a German teacher invited by the Kyoto Ryo-byoin. His idea adapted "moral treatment" which was popular in Britain. Diagnostic methods in this hospital were formed around the model based on the concept described in "insanity", an article written by Henry Maudsley in 1872. By promoting these ideas, the hospital was able to help many patients return to their lives in their own residences. The hospital was closed on 21 September, 1882, because the hospital faced a big financial deficit and because prefectural policies were changed. The hospital was founded as a facility of public health service in Kyoto in the age of modernization of Japan. It introduced a new idea for mental health and treatment, which had a strong impact on hospital care of psychiatric patients afterwards.

  11. [A study on the 1946 smallpox epidemic in Japan and measures taken against it].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Seiji; Sugita, Satoru; Marui, Eiji

    2014-09-01

    In early 1946, immediately after World War II, there was a smallpox epidemic in Japan. In this paper we investigated trends in the occurrence of smallpox by week and region using official documents of the General Headquarters, Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (GHQ/SCAP), which are stored in the National Diet Library Modern Japanese Political History Materials Room, and summarized the measures taken against this epidemic. The following two points were clarified: 1) The 1946 smallpox epidemic peaked in Week 13 (March 24-30; 1,405 new patients), and the highest morbidity during this epidemic was seen in Hyogo Prefecture, followed by Osaka Prefecture, Aichi Prefecture, Tokyo Prefecture, and Hokkaido Prefecture. 2) Measures taken against this epidemic were classified into the following three stages: 1. "Vaccine shortage/Manufacture acceleration stage," 2. "Vaccine sufficiency/Smallpox vaccination program implementation stage," and 3. "Detection of defects in vaccination technique/Reimplementation of the smallpox vaccination program stage".

  12. Progress in infant health in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hokama, Tomiko; Binns, Colin

    2012-07-01

    The infant mortality rate (IMR) and neonatal mortality rate (NMR) defined as the number of infant and newborn deaths per 1000 live births, respectively, are widely accepted as population indicators of the level of perinatal and postnatal health. Since the end of World War II, Japan has made substantial progress in reducing its IMR and NMR. This resulted from improving living standards and the provision of universal maternal and child health care (MCH) services. Okinawa, the island prefecture that is the furthest from mainland Japan, had the third highest IMR and the highest low-birth-weight rate (LBW) among all prefectures when its statistics were integrated into Japan in 1973. Even though the LBW rate in Okinawa has remained higher than the all-Japan average, Okinawa has shown a considerable improvement in IMR and NMR. The aim is to review the trends in IMR, NMR, and LBW in Japan and Okinawa and to discuss sociodemographic trends, economics, and the provision of health care services. The IMR and NMR in Okinawa decreased during that time from 14.8 to 2.4 and from 7.5 to 0.8, respectively. The LBW rate decreased until the mid-1980s, but since then it has increased to 11.5 (Okinawa) and 9.6 (Japan) in 2009. Okinawa's public health and primary health care model for infants has been very successful and may be applicable to child health in island nations of the Asia-Pacific region.

  13. Development of Education in Japan, 1974-1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Tokyo (Japan).

    Organization and recent trends in education in Japan are discussed. Part one of the report describes administration, structure, and curriculum. The central education authority is the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture. Matters of policy and finances are administered by boards of education on prefectural and municipal levels. Elementary and…

  14. [Trials for early intervention in Mie Prefectural Mental Care Center].

    PubMed

    Harada, Masanori; Adachi, Takako; Iwasa, Takashi; Kurita, Kouji; Nakamura, Tomoki; Hama, Yukinobu; Yamamoto, Ayako; Maegawa, Sanae

    2013-01-01

    Mie Prefectural Mental Care Center is a public psychiatric hospital that has 400 beds and 250 outpatients a day. The main catchment area is Tsu City (population: 290,000). Our hospital started early intervention in Aug 2008, and opened the Youth Mental Support Center MIE (YMSC MIE) in Oct 2008. This article reports an early intervention trial in a regional area of Japan. The mission of YMSC MIE is the education, consultation, staff training, and intervention for mental health problems and early psychosis of youths. In Jul 2009, we set up the Youth Assist Clinic (YAC) to support youths with mental health problems and early psychoses. Our activities consist of school-based, community-based, and hospital-based approaches. Specific programs are as follows: 1) School-based approaches: Outreach consultation to school. Mental health lessens. Creating mental health textbooks. Education for parents and teachers. 2) Community-based approaches: To enlighten primary physicians and mental clinic psychiatrists about the importance of early psychosis. To survey their concerns regarding early psychosis. Promoting awareness of community staff and the general public. 3) Hospital-based approaches: YAC. Case manager system. Family meetings for the family including the young with mental disorders. Peer group. Looking back over our 3-year trials, especially in school and the community, we find several problems, as follows: 1) Lack of consultation skills of medical staff outside the hospital. 2) Limiting number of schools which have mental support system. 3) Support for school attendance and learning. 4) Lack of concern about early psychosis of primary physicians and mental clinic psychiatrists. 5) Staff training for early intervention. We are now getting close to improving these issues.

  15. [Development and application of microbiology data monitoring system (Akita-ReNICS) for networking hospitals in Akita Prefecture].

    PubMed

    Takeda, Masahide; Ueki, Shigeharu; Takahashi, Tomoe; Tatsuko, Rumi; Kobayashi, Noriko; Shibata, Hiroyuki; Hirokawa, Makoto

    2013-12-01

    Networking among regional hospitals recently became required for infection control activities in Japan. In Akita prefecture, we developed a microbiology data warehouse for networking hospital laboratories in 2010. Designated users can easily obtain microbiology data and compare it with other participating hospitals using this system. For example, users are able to compare the MRSA/MSSA ratio in Staphylococcus aureus with other participating hospitals in Akita-ReNICS. The effectiveness and assignment of this system were shown by a questionnaire administrated in 2013. In this paper, we clarify the current state and assignment of Akita-ReNICS and consider its effective application for better infection control activities.

  16. [Community-based hearing screening project in Tochigi prefecture and results thorough audiometric test].

    PubMed

    Fukami, Satoru; Nakamura, Mamiko; Baba, Kohtaro; Hirabayashi, Hideki; Haruna, Shinichi; Ichimura, Keiichi; Ishikawa, Kotaro

    2009-02-01

    Community-based hearing screening projects have the objectives of screening hearing to identify early and intervene in cases of hearing-impaired infants and to consider how to implement mass screening, education, and support suitable. This project started in Tochigi prefecture in 2002. Of 6198 infants undergoing automatic auditory brainstem response (ABR), those rescreened accounted for 1.1% and those referred for diagnostic testing for 0.7%. After initial thorough audiometric testing, 20 infants were suggested to have bilateral hearing loss, although this was finally reduced to 17. Inconsistency between automatic and conventional ABR was found in 10 cases. Automatic ABR showed 7 false-positive and 3 false-negative cases, all of which finally proved to be within normal range hearing. Newborn-hearing screening enabled infants with hearing loss to be identified early. Japan has yet, however, to implement needed medical treatment and appropriate educational and support systems for hearing-impaired infants. PMID:19317225

  17. Relation of occupations to the regional differences of lung cancer motality in Fukuoka Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, T; Yamasaki, M

    1977-07-01

    Geographic pattern of lung cancer mortality in Fukuoka Prefecture showed elevated mortalities among males in the Chikuho district where many coal-mines had long been operated as one of the biggest coal-mining areas in Japan. The analysis in relations of occupations to lung cancer mortality revealed that consistently significant correlations exist between lung cancer mortality, and mining and quarrying occupations in every census year after World War II. No other occupations showed consistent relations to lung cancer though a few significant correlations were found only in the recent years. The results appear to suggest that elevated risk of lung cancer among coal-mining workers may exist and deserve further analytical study. PMID:592541

  18. Relation of occupations to the regional differences of lung cancer motality in Fukuoka Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, T; Yamasaki, M

    1977-07-01

    Geographic pattern of lung cancer mortality in Fukuoka Prefecture showed elevated mortalities among males in the Chikuho district where many coal-mines had long been operated as one of the biggest coal-mining areas in Japan. The analysis in relations of occupations to lung cancer mortality revealed that consistently significant correlations exist between lung cancer mortality, and mining and quarrying occupations in every census year after World War II. No other occupations showed consistent relations to lung cancer though a few significant correlations were found only in the recent years. The results appear to suggest that elevated risk of lung cancer among coal-mining workers may exist and deserve further analytical study.

  19. Inequality in Japan (1892-1941): physical stature, income, and health.

    PubMed

    Bassino, Jean-Pascal

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between physical stature, per capita income, health, and regional inequality in Japan at the prefecture-level for the period 1892-1941. The analysis shows that inequality in income and access to health services explains differences in average height of the population across the 47 Japanese prefectures during this period and that variation in income contributed to changes in height during the 1930s. Annual regional time series of height indicate that Japan experienced a regional convergence in biological welfare before 1914, and that a divergence occurred during the interwar period; personal inequality followed a similar pattern.

  20. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium parvum from two different Japanese prefectures, Okinawa and Hokkaido.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Aita, Junya; Masatani, Tatsunori; Suzuki, Moemi; Nitta, Yoshiki; Tamayose, Genta; Iso, Takehiro; Suganuma, Keisuke; Fujiwara, Takashi; Matsuyama, Keita; Niikura, Tadamasa; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Yamakawa, Kazuhiro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Itagaki, Tadashi; Zakimi, Satoshi; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2015-04-01

    Infectious diarrhea is the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal calves. Cryptosporidium parvum is one of the main pathogens associated with calf diarrhea. Although diarrhea is a symptom of infection with various pathogens, investigations to detect the types of pathogens have never been performed in Japan. This study investigated the prevalence of four major diarrhea-causing pathogens in calves: C. parvum, rotavirus, coronavirus, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli K99). Commercial immunochromatography testing of all four pathogens and molecular analysis of C. parvum with diarrhea in calves from southernmost Okinawa and northernmost Hokkaido, Japan, were conducted. The frequencies of C. parvum, rotavirus, coronavirus, and E. coli (K99) in Okinawa were 50%, 28%, 2.3%, and 4.7%, respectively. Watery fecal stools were significantly correlated with C. parvum (p<0.05). In oocyst calculations for C. parvum, no significant difference was observed between the single-infection cases and the mixed-infection cases with rotavirus. Interestingly, molecular analyses targeting small subunit ribosomal RNA as well as glycoprotein 60 (GP60) genes revealed that the C. parvum nucleotide sequences from the two prefectures were identical, indicating that C. parvum with a uniform characteristic is distributed throughout Japan. GP60 subtyping analysis identified C. parvum from Okinawa and Hokkaido as belonging to the IIaA15G2R1 subtype, a known zoonotic subtype. Hence, control of cryptosporidiosis is important not only for pre-weaned calves, but also for human health.

  1. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium parvum from two different Japanese prefectures, Okinawa and Hokkaido.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Aita, Junya; Masatani, Tatsunori; Suzuki, Moemi; Nitta, Yoshiki; Tamayose, Genta; Iso, Takehiro; Suganuma, Keisuke; Fujiwara, Takashi; Matsuyama, Keita; Niikura, Tadamasa; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Yamakawa, Kazuhiro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Itagaki, Tadashi; Zakimi, Satoshi; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2015-04-01

    Infectious diarrhea is the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal calves. Cryptosporidium parvum is one of the main pathogens associated with calf diarrhea. Although diarrhea is a symptom of infection with various pathogens, investigations to detect the types of pathogens have never been performed in Japan. This study investigated the prevalence of four major diarrhea-causing pathogens in calves: C. parvum, rotavirus, coronavirus, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli K99). Commercial immunochromatography testing of all four pathogens and molecular analysis of C. parvum with diarrhea in calves from southernmost Okinawa and northernmost Hokkaido, Japan, were conducted. The frequencies of C. parvum, rotavirus, coronavirus, and E. coli (K99) in Okinawa were 50%, 28%, 2.3%, and 4.7%, respectively. Watery fecal stools were significantly correlated with C. parvum (p<0.05). In oocyst calculations for C. parvum, no significant difference was observed between the single-infection cases and the mixed-infection cases with rotavirus. Interestingly, molecular analyses targeting small subunit ribosomal RNA as well as glycoprotein 60 (GP60) genes revealed that the C. parvum nucleotide sequences from the two prefectures were identical, indicating that C. parvum with a uniform characteristic is distributed throughout Japan. GP60 subtyping analysis identified C. parvum from Okinawa and Hokkaido as belonging to the IIaA15G2R1 subtype, a known zoonotic subtype. Hence, control of cryptosporidiosis is important not only for pre-weaned calves, but also for human health. PMID:25481361

  2. Is Histoplasma capsulatum a native inhabitant of Japan?

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Ken; Sugita, Takashi; Makimura, Koichi; Urata, Kensaku; Someya, Takashi; Sasaki, Takashi; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Niimi, Masakazu; Hiramatsu, Keiichi; Uehara, Yoshimasa

    2008-09-01

    Histoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by inhaling spores of the fungal pathogen H. capsulatum and in Japan is considered an imported mycosis. However, some patients in Japan with histoplasmosis have no history of traveling overseas nor of risk of occupational exposure to Histoplasma. To investigate the possibility of native distribution of Histoplasma in Japan, 187 bat guano samples from 67 bat-inhabited caves in 17 prefectures were collected. These were examined for H. capsulatum by culture and Histoplasma-specific PCR in three independent laboratories. No H. capsulatum was detected by either method, therefore H. capsulatum is unlikely to be present in bat guano in Japanese caves. PMID:19039954

  3. Geographic Inequalities in All-Cause Mortality in Japan: Compositional or Contextual?

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Etsuji; Kashima, Saori; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S. V.

    2012-01-01

    Background A recent study from Japan suggested that geographic inequalities in all-cause premature adult mortality have increased since 1995 in both sexes even after adjusting for individual age and occupation in 47 prefectures. Such variations can arise from compositional effects as well as contextual effects. In this study, we sought to further examine the emerging geographic inequalities in all-cause mortality, by exploring the relative contribution of composition and context in each prefecture. Methods We used the 2005 vital statistics and census data among those aged 25 or older. The total number of decedents was 524,785 men and 455,863 women. We estimated gender-specific two-level logistic regression to model mortality risk as a function of age, occupation, and residence in 47 prefectures. Prefecture-level variance was used as an estimate of geographic inequalities in mortality, and prefectures were ranked by odds ratios (ORs), with the reference being the grand mean of all prefectures (value  = 1). Results Overall, the degree of geographic inequalities was more pronounced when we did not account for the composition (i.e., age and occupation) in each prefecture. Even after adjusting for the composition, however, substantial differences remained in mortality risk across prefectures with ORs ranging from 0.870 (Okinawa) to 1.190 (Aomori) for men and from 0.864 (Shimane) to 1.132 (Aichi) for women. In some prefectures (e.g., Aomori), adjustment for composition showed little change in ORs, while we observed substantial attenuation in ORs in other prefectures (e.g., Akita). We also observed qualitative changes in some prefectures (e.g., Tokyo). No clear associations were observed between prefecture-level socioeconomic status variables and the risk of mortality in either sex. Conclusions Geographic disparities in mortality across prefectures are quite substantial and cannot be fully explained by differences in population composition. The relative contribution

  4. Isolation of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica 1B/O:8 from Apodemus mice in Japan.

    PubMed

    Oda, Shinya; Kabeya, Hidenori; Sato, Shingo; Shimonagane, Ai; Inoue, Kai; Hayashidani, Hideki; Takada, Nobuhiro; Fujita, Hiromi; Kawabata, Hiroki; Maruyama, Soichi

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica was isolated from 15.7% (88/560) of wild rodents captured in 15 prefectures in Japan. Prevalences by rodent species were 18.0% (70/388) in Japanese field mice (Apodemus speciosus), 20% (14/71) in small Japanese field mice (Apodemus argenteus), and 11% (4/38) in gray red-backed vole (Myodes rufocanus bedfordiae), suggesting that these rodent species are important reservoirs of Y. enterocolitica. Although most of the isolates were identified as biotype 1A, the pathogenic bioserotype 1B/O:8 was detected in one of the A. speciosus and in three of the A. argenteus captured in Aomori Prefecture. It is suggested that Apodemus mice may be an important reservoir of Y. enterocolitica, and that there are foci of the pathogenic bioserotype 1B/O:8 in Aomori Prefecture, because human sporadic cases by the serotype have been reported in this prefecture.

  5. Assessment of individual radionuclide distributions from the Fukushima nuclear accident covering central-east Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Norikazu; Sueki, Keisuke; Sasa, Kimikazu; Kitagawa, Jun-ichi; Ikarashi, Satoshi; Nishimura, Tomohiro; Wong, Ying-Shee; Satou, Yukihiko; Handa, Koji; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Sato, Masanori; Yamagata, Takeyasu

    2011-01-01

    A tremendous amount of radioactivity was discharged because of the damage to cooling systems of nuclear reactors in the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant in March 2011. Fukushima and its adjacent prefectures were contaminated with fission products from the accident. Here, we show a geographical distribution of radioactive iodine, tellurium, and cesium in the surface soils of central-east Japan as determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Especially in Fukushima prefecture, contaminated area spreads around Iitate and Naka-Dori for all the radionuclides we measured. Distributions of the radionuclides were affected by the physical state of each nuclide as well as geographical features. Considering meteorological conditions, it is concluded that the radioactive material transported on March 15 was the major contributor to contamination in Fukushima prefecture, whereas the radioactive material transported on March 21 was the major source in Ibaraki, Tochigi, Saitama, and Chiba prefectures and in Tokyo. PMID:22084070

  6. Assessment of individual radionuclide distributions from the Fukushima nuclear accident covering central-east Japan.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Norikazu; Sueki, Keisuke; Sasa, Kimikazu; Kitagawa, Jun-ichi; Ikarashi, Satoshi; Nishimura, Tomohiro; Wong, Ying-Shee; Satou, Yukihiko; Handa, Koji; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Sato, Masanori; Yamagata, Takeyasu

    2011-12-01

    A tremendous amount of radioactivity was discharged because of the damage to cooling systems of nuclear reactors in the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant in March 2011. Fukushima and its adjacent prefectures were contaminated with fission products from the accident. Here, we show a geographical distribution of radioactive iodine, tellurium, and cesium in the surface soils of central-east Japan as determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Especially in Fukushima prefecture, contaminated area spreads around Iitate and Naka-Dori for all the radionuclides we measured. Distributions of the radionuclides were affected by the physical state of each nuclide as well as geographical features. Considering meteorological conditions, it is concluded that the radioactive material transported on March 15 was the major contributor to contamination in Fukushima prefecture, whereas the radioactive material transported on March 21 was the major source in Ibaraki, Tochigi, Saitama, and Chiba prefectures and in Tokyo. PMID:22084070

  7. Assessment of individual radionuclide distributions from the Fukushima nuclear accident covering central-east Japan.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Norikazu; Sueki, Keisuke; Sasa, Kimikazu; Kitagawa, Jun-ichi; Ikarashi, Satoshi; Nishimura, Tomohiro; Wong, Ying-Shee; Satou, Yukihiko; Handa, Koji; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Sato, Masanori; Yamagata, Takeyasu

    2011-12-01

    A tremendous amount of radioactivity was discharged because of the damage to cooling systems of nuclear reactors in the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant in March 2011. Fukushima and its adjacent prefectures were contaminated with fission products from the accident. Here, we show a geographical distribution of radioactive iodine, tellurium, and cesium in the surface soils of central-east Japan as determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Especially in Fukushima prefecture, contaminated area spreads around Iitate and Naka-Dori for all the radionuclides we measured. Distributions of the radionuclides were affected by the physical state of each nuclide as well as geographical features. Considering meteorological conditions, it is concluded that the radioactive material transported on March 15 was the major contributor to contamination in Fukushima prefecture, whereas the radioactive material transported on March 21 was the major source in Ibaraki, Tochigi, Saitama, and Chiba prefectures and in Tokyo.

  8. Canine tumor development and crude incidence of tumors by breed based on domestic dogs in Gifu prefecture

    PubMed Central

    KOMAZAWA, Satoshi; SAKAI, Hiroki; ITOH, Yusuke; KAWABE, Mifumi; MURAKAMI, Mami; MORI, Takashi; MARUO, Kohji

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the status of tumor development in dogs by breed based on tumor cases that presented to the Department of Veterinary Pathology of the Gifu University for diagnostic examinations over eight years (2005–2012). We also calculated the crude incidence of tumors in dogs by breed based on the results of a survey conducted in 2011 in Gifu Prefecture. The most common sites of tumor development included the skin, digestive organs and mammary glands. Smaller dogs showed a tendency to have a higher incidence of breast tumors. We thus identified dog breeds with a higher crude incidence of tumors (Bernese mountain dog, golden retriever, corgi, etc.) and those with a lower crude incidence of tumors (Pomeranian, poodle, Chihuahua, etc.). Unlike the current trends for domestic dogs in the US and Europe, Japan has a higher number of small dogs as pets; it is therefore necessary to develop a policy for canine cancer specific to Japan. PMID:27150207

  9. Shotgun weddings (dekichatta kekkon) in contemporary Japan.

    PubMed

    Castro-Vázquez, Genaro

    2015-01-01

    The accelerated greying of its population along with birth rates plummeting below replacement levels synergise into one of the most acute social issues in contemporary Japan. Although singleness, childlessness, delayed marriage and late-in-life-childbirth have become endemic, official records nevertheless reveal an increase in childbirth among women aged 15-19 in 2013. Furthermore, official statistics for 2010 show that 50% of Japanese women aged 25 or younger who married were expecting a baby. This paper focuses on 17 Japanese mothers who had a 'shotgun wedding' (dekichatta kekkon)--a ceremony organised due to an unplanned pregnancy. Aged between 29 and 35 years, the mothers came from Tokyo and Kanagawa and were interviewed for the purposes of exploring their experiences with and viewpoints on unplanned childbirth, contraception and marriage. Grounded in a symbolic interactionist perspective, the analysis of interviews suggested that shotgun weddings largely stem from contraception issues, the will to get pregnant in order to keep a partner and homosocial pressure to prevent the termination of the unexpected pregnancy.

  10. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) Isolated from Whooper Swans, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Yuko; Mase, Masaji; Yoneda, Kumiko; Kimura, Atsumu; Obara, Tsuyoshi; Kumagai, Seikou; Yamamoto, Yu; Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Tsukamoto, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Shigeo

    2008-01-01

    On April 21, 2008, four whooper swans were found dead at Lake Towada, Akita prefecture, Japan. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype was isolated from specimens of the affected birds. The hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the isolate belongs to clade 2.3.2 in the HA phylogenetic tree. PMID:18760011

  11. Some Mathematical Attitudinal Data on Eighth Grade Students in Japan Measured by a Semantic Differential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minato, Saburoh

    1983-01-01

    Subjects were 175 eighth-grade students of a public lower secondary school in Akita Prefecture, Japan. Attitudes were measured by a version of a semantic differential scale originally developed to assess attitudes of prospective elementary school teachers. The hope is expressed that the instrument will be used in the West. (Author/MP)

  12. [Epidemiological analysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Gifu prefecture and the northern district of Aichi prefecture--2009].

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Yuka; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Sawamura, Haruki; Suematsu, Hiroyuki; Asano, Yuko; Ishigo, Shiomi; Hatano, Masakazu; Matsubara, Shigenori; Ohta, Hirotoshi; Matsukawa, Yoko; Saeki, Hiroikazu; Mutou, Toshihiro; Teraji, Mayumi; Mouri, Tetsuo; Kawahara, Yuki; Akita, Shigeki; Miyabe, Takanori; Okada, Masako; Terada, Hiroshi; Sakuma, Takashi; Morita, Eri; Miyamoto, Naoya; Tuchiya, Yoko; Yamada, Yukiji; Yamaoka, Kazukiyo; Miyaki, Yuki; Tanaka, Kaori; Watanabe, Kunitomo

    2012-02-01

    High pathogenicity and drug resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae are serious problem in clinical practice. Since 1999, we have conducted epidemiologic analyses of S. pneumoniae in Chubu district. We report the results of the analysis conducted in 2009. Three hundred and eight (308) S. pneumoniae isolates with a gene coding for autolysin lyt-A, which had been isolated from patients at 21 medical institutions in Gifu prefecture and the northern part of Aichi prefecture in 2009, were enrolled in this study. The strains were classified according to their drug resistance based on the presence of the pbp mutation, and examined for the presence of the two macrolide-resistance genes, ermB and mefA. Moreover, they were serotyped using type-specific antisera. The mean age of the patients from whom these S. pneumoniae strains were isolated, was 23.4 +/- 30.1 years old, and children aged 15 years old or less accounted for 66% of all the patients. Genotype penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae (gPSSP), genotype penicillin-intermediate S. pneumoniae (gPISP) and genotype penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (gPRSP) were 22 (7.1%), 131 (42.5%) and 155 (50.3%), respectively. The strains with mefA positive and ermB negative, mefA negative and ermB positive, and mefA positive and ermB positive were 80 (26.0%), 153 (49.7%), and 47 (15.3%), respectively. The MIC90 values of tebipenem (TBPM) and faropenem were 0.06 microg/mL and 0.5 microg/mL, respectively. TBPM showed the high bactericidal activity against gPRSP. In carbapenems, panipenem and biapenem exhibited higher bactericidal activities. Quinolone-resistant S. pneumoniae (QRSP) were isolated from 10 (3.2%). QRSP dominated 5 (7.9%) and 3 (1.5%) among the elderly (over 65 years old) and children, respectively. (As for the serotype, serotypes 6, 19 and 23 were 60 (19.5%), 62 (20.1%), and 44 (14.3%), respectively. Further epidemiologic studies on S. pneumoniae might be required also in the future, including the relationship between the

  13. Food-borne botulism in Japan in March 2012.

    PubMed

    Momose, Yoshika; Asakura, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Masaru; Okada, Yumiko; Ueda, Yutaka; Hanabara, Yutaro; Sakamoto, Tomohiro; Matsumura, Tsuyoshi; Iwaki, Masaaki; Kato, Haru; Shibayama, Keigo; Igimi, Shizunobu

    2014-07-01

    In March 2012, two patients were transported urgently to the hospital in Tottori Prefecture, Japan, because of symptoms suggestive of botulism. Botulinum neurotoxin type A was detected in the clinical specimens and the food consumed by the two patients (vacuum packed adzuki-batto, a sweet adzuki bean soup containing noodles). We were able to make a prompt diagnosis of food botulism associated with the consumption of adzuki-batto, from which the causative pathogen Clostridium botulinum Ab was cultured.

  14. [Increase of poisoning by tropical mushrooms in Japan in recent years].

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Gonmori, Kunio

    2009-09-01

    A tropical poisonous mushroom, Chlorophyllum molybdites, invaded into Japan in recent years, and distributed in south-eastern and central part of Japan including 27 Prefectures in 2009; Gunma, Tochigi, Saitama, Ibaraki, Tokyo (including Bonin Islands), Chiba, Shizuoka, Ishikawa, Aichi, Mie, Shiga, Kyoto, Nara, Osaka, Wakayama, Hyogo, Tottori, Okayama, Hiroshima, Yamaguchi, Kagawa, Tokushima, Kochi, Ohita, Kumamoto, Kagoshima and Okinawa. Poisoning by this fungus has increased recently (Table 2). Topics on distribution and poisoning by Russula subnigricans and Podostroma cornu-damae briefly discussed.

  15. Estimate of the Potential Amount of Low-Level Waste from the Fukushima Prefecture - 12370

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Carolyn; Olson, Eric A.J.; Elmer, John

    2012-07-01

    The amount of waste generated by the cleanup of the Fukushima Prefecture (Fukushima-ken) following the releases from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident (March 2011) is dependent on many factors, including: - Contamination amounts; - Cleanup levels determined for the radioisotopes contaminating the area; - Future land use expectations and human exposure scenarios; - Groundwater contamination considerations; - Costs and availability of storage areas, and eventually disposal areas for the waste; and - Decontamination and volume reduction techniques and technologies used. For the purposes of estimating these waste volumes, Fukushima-ken is segregated into zones of similar contamination level and expected future use. Techniques for selecting the appropriate cleanup methods for each area are shown in a decision tree format. This approach is broadly applied to the 20 km evacuation zone and the total amounts and types of waste are estimated; waste resulting from cleanup efforts outside of the evacuation zone is not considered. Some of the limits of future use and potential zones where residents must be excluded within the prefecture are also described. The size and design of the proposed intermediate storage facility is also discussed and the current situation, cleanup, waste handling, and waste storage issues in Japan are described. The method for estimating waste amounts outlined above illustrates the large amount of waste that could potentially be generated by remediation of the 20 km evacuation zone (619 km{sup 2} total) if the currently proposed cleanup goals are uniformly applied. The Japanese environment ministry estimated in early October that the 1 mSv/year exposure goal would make the government responsible for decontaminating about 8,000 km{sup 2} within Fukushima-ken and roughly 4,900 km{sup 2} in areas outside the prefecture. The described waste volume estimation method also does not give any consideration to areas with localized hot spots

  16. Okinawa: an exception to the social gradient of life expectancy in Japan.

    PubMed

    Cockerham, W C; Yamori, Y

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines why the social gradient of life expectancy does not apply in Japan when Okinawa is considered. The social gradient thesis links differences in longevity to social rank, with people and populations in higher status hierarchical positions having lower mortality and longer life expectancies than those beneath them in the social scale. Japan has been cited as a major example of this thesis in that Japanese life expectancy improved dramatically as Japan rose to the top echelon of nations in economic rank in the late 20th century. Thus it follows that Japan's most affluent and leading prefectures should be the major catalysts behind the nation's rise in life expectancy as well to the number one position in the world. However, this is not the case as life expectancy in Okinawa, Japan's poorest prefecture, exceeds that of Japan as a whole. We find that the social gradient of life expectancy does not apply at the prefectural level and question its validity for geographical areas. We suggest that healthy lifestyles, especially diet and the social support of family and friends, are more important than sense of hierarchy for longevity in Okinawa.

  17. Relationship between public subsidies and vaccination rates with the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine in elderly persons, including the influence of the free vaccination campaign after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Naito, Toshio; Matsuda, Naoto; Tanei, Mika; Watanabe, Yukiko; Watanabe, Akira

    2014-07-01

    Low vaccination rates with pneumococcal vaccine in elderly persons in Japan are thought to be related to low levels of public subsidy. To identify strategies to increase future pneumococcal vaccination rates, we examined the relationship between public subsidies and vaccination rates. We also investigated the influence of free vaccinations after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake on vaccination rates in the three Tohoku prefectures of Japan. We surveyed a total of 1742 municipalities in Japan about whether public subsidies were available and their monetary amount. Vaccination rates with the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine were calculated as the "cumulative amount shipped to each municipality divided by the population aged ≥65 years." There were no subsidies in 773 municipalities (44.4%). In those municipalities with public subsidies, larger subsidies were significantly associated with elevated vaccination rates (p < 0.0001). Compared to a mean vaccination rate of 25.4% throughout Japan, the vaccination rate was 52.1% in municipalities where the full cost was subsidized. The three prefectures (Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima) most affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake ranked as the top three prefectures for vaccination rates in Japan, presumably as a result of the free vaccination campaign for disaster victims. Our findings show that public subsidies play an important role in increasing the vaccination rate. The free vaccinations given to disaster victims after the Great East Japan Earthquake helped to achieve extremely high vaccination rates in the three Tohoku prefectures. We suggest that such public subsidies should be promoted throughout Japan.

  18. Update Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoopes, Aaron

    This book is a guide intended for persons planning on relocating to Japan. Following a chapter on background information, 13 additional chapters lead the reader step-by-step through the relocation process. These chapters include: before leaving, on arrival, language, culture, doing business in Japan, household pointers and everyday life, schools…

  19. [Activity to prevent mental diseases after the Great East Japan Earthquake].

    PubMed

    Uchida, Tomohiro; Matsumoto, Kazunori; Takahashi, Yoko; Koshimichi, Rie; Sakuma, Atsushi; Katsura, Masahiro; Sato, Hirotoshi; Ueda, Ikki; Matsuoka, Hiroo

    2014-01-01

    Following the Great East Japan Earthquake, we have been supporting psychiatric hospitals and mental health and welfare centers in Miyagi Prefecture. In October 2011, with a grant from Miyagi Prefecture, the Department of Preventive Psychiatry was established in Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine. The institute aims to promote the prevention of and early intervention for mental diseases. As its members, we carry out our duties in collaboration with the Miyagi Disaster Mental Health Care Center. We refer to our activities as the Great East Japan Earthquake Mental Health Support and Research (GEMS) project. The GEMS project includes both practices and research in the affected areas in Miyagi Prefecture. The focus is on supporting those who provide services for survivors long-term, such as municipal employees, nurses, fire fighters, and staff of the social welfare council. We investigated how much the disaster impaired the functioning of psychiatric hospitals and clinics in Miyagi Prefecture. We also conduct mental health surveys in public organizations. Based on the results, we arrange workshops, consultation, or counseling. Moreover, we promote improvement of the mental health skills of mental health professionals, which are essential for mid and long-term support after the disaster. One of them is "Skills for Psychological Recovery". As members of the support organization in the region, we keep working toward the recovery and development of mental health systems in Miyagi Prefecture. PMID:24783442

  20. Impact of the great east Japan earthquake on the body mass index of preschool children: a nationwide nursery school survey

    PubMed Central

    Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Zheng, Wei; Matsubara, Hiroko; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yokoya, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kato, Noriko; Chida, Shoichi; Ono, Atsushi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Kure, Shigeo; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of the 2011 great east Japan earthquake on body mass index (BMI) of preschool children. Design Retrospective cohort study and ecological study. Setting Affected prefectures (Fukushima, Miyagi and Iwate) and unaffected prefectures in northeast Japan. Participants The cohort study assessed 2033 and 1707 boys and 1909 and 1658 girls in 3 affected prefectures and unaffected prefectures, respectively, all aged 3–4 years at the time of the earthquake. The ecological study examined random samples of schoolchildren from the affected prefectures. Primary and secondary outcome measures The cohort study compared postdisaster changes in BMIs and the prevalence of overweight and obese children. The ecological study evaluated postdisaster changes in the prevalence of overweight children. Results 1 month after the earthquake, significantly increased BMIs were observed among girls (+0.087 kg/m2 vs unaffected prefectures) in Fukushima and among boys and girls (+0.165 and +0.124 kg/m2, respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Iwate. 19 months after the earthquake, significantly increased BMIs were detected among boys and girls (+0.137 and +0.200 kg/m2, respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Fukushima, whereas significantly decreased BMIs were observed among boys and girls (−0.218 and −0.082 kg/m2, respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Miyagi. 1 month after the earthquake, Fukushima, Miyagi and Iwate had a slightly increased prevalence of overweight boys, whereas Fukushima had a slightly decreased prevalence of overweight girls, compared with the unaffected prefectures. The ecological study detected increases in the prevalence of overweight boys and girls in Fukushima who were 6–11 and 6–10 years of age, respectively. Conclusions These results suggest that in the affected prefectures, preschool children gained weight immediately after the earthquake. The long-term impact of the earthquake on early childhood

  1. Spatial distribution of precisely determined hypocenters and focal mechanisms in the Izu-Honshu collision zone, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukutake, Y.; Takeda, T.; Honda, R.; Yoshida, A.

    2010-12-01

    In the Tanzawa region, central Japan, where the Izu-Bonin arc collides into the Honshu crust, the Philippine Sea plate (PHS) subducts intricately and the seismicity is particularly high. The configuration of the PHS plate in the region has been estimated based on the hypocenter distribution, seismic velocity tomography, and seismic profile (e.g. Ishida, 1992; Matsubara et al., 2005; Sato et al., 2005). However, the relationship between the structure of the PHP and the seismicity in the collision zone is still not clearly understood. To elucidate the seismotectonics, it is essential to get precisely determined hypocenters and focal mechanisms. We used data from 107 permanent online stations operated by Hot Springs Research Institute of Kanagawa Prefecture, NIED Hi-net and JMA, which are located within 80-km from the epicenters. We relocated hypocenters of 4351 events that occurred in and around the Tanzawa region with the double-difference relocation algorithm (DD method) (Waldhauser and Ellsworth, 2000), using the differential arrival time obtained by both manual picking and waveform cross-correlation analysis. Then, we determined the focal mechanisms of 420 events using the absolute P- and SH-wave amplitudes by adding the P-wave polarities. We found that the earthquakes in the eastern Tanzawa region are distributed along the planar zone slightly dipping toward east. On the other hand, the earthquakes in the western region spread out in the volume of approximately 10 km × 10 km × 10 km. We examined similarity between the focal mechanisms of earthquakes and a reference of focal mechanism that is inferred from the configuration and relative motion of the PHP. We assumed the fault plane direction of the reference focal mechanism based on the fault model of the 1923 Kanto Earthquake (Matsu'ura et al., 1980). The slip direction is assumed so as to be consistent with the relative motion of the PHP with respect to the Eurasian plate in the Kanto region (Seno, 1993). The

  2. Income inequality, parental socioeconomic status, and birth outcomes in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Ito, Jun; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2013-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of income inequality and parental socioeconomic status on several birth outcomes in Japan. Data were collected on birth outcomes and parental socioeconomic status by questionnaire from Japanese parents nationwide (n = 41,499) and then linked to Gini coefficients at the prefectural level in 2001. In multilevel analysis, z scores of birth weight for gestational age decreased by 0.018 (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.029, -0.006) per 1-standard-deviation (0.018-unit) increase in the Gini coefficient, while gestational age at delivery was not associated with the Gini coefficient. For dichotomous outcomes, mothers living in prefectures with middle and high Gini coefficients were 1.24 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.47) and 1.23 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.48) times more likely, respectively, to deliver a small-for-gestational-age infant than mothers living in more egalitarian prefectures (low Gini coefficients), although preterm births were not significantly associated with income distribution. Parental educational level, but not household income, was significantly associated with the z score of birth weight for gestational age and small-for-gestational-age status. Higher income inequality at the prefectural level and parental educational level, rather than household income, were associated with intrauterine growth but not with shorter gestational age at delivery.

  3. Annual variation in the atmospheric radon concentration in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuka; Yasuoka, Yumi; Omori, Yasutaka; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Sanada, Tetsuya; Muto, Jun; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Homma, Yoshimi; Ihara, Hayato; Kubota, Kazuhito; Mukai, Takahiro

    2015-08-01

    Anomalous atmospheric variations in radon related to earthquakes have been observed in hourly exhaust-monitoring data from radioisotope institutes in Japan. The extraction of seismic anomalous radon variations would be greatly aided by understanding the normal pattern of variation in radon concentrations. Using atmospheric daily minimum radon concentration data from five sampling sites, we show that a sinusoidal regression curve can be fitted to the data. In addition, we identify areas where the atmospheric radon variation is significantly affected by the variation in atmospheric turbulence and the onshore-offshore pattern of Asian monsoons. Furthermore, by comparing the sinusoidal regression curve for the normal annual (seasonal) variations at the five sites to the sinusoidal regression curve for a previously published dataset of radon values at the five Japanese prefectures, we can estimate the normal annual variation pattern. By fitting sinusoidal regression curves to the previously published dataset containing sites in all Japanese prefectures, we find that 72% of the Japanese prefectures satisfy the requirements of the sinusoidal regression curve pattern. Using the normal annual variation pattern of atmospheric daily minimum radon concentration data, these prefectures are suitable areas for obtaining anomalous radon variations related to earthquakes.

  4. Histopathological effects of the adult digenetic trematode Proctoeces ichiharai on the kidney of top shell Batillus cornutus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimura, S.

    1980-03-01

    The histopathological effects of the adult digenetic trematode Proctoeces ichiharai (Fellodistomatidae) on the renal tissue of the marine gastropod Batillus cornutus (Turbinidae) collected from Misaki (Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan) were examined. The infected top shells showed such pathological changes as (1) discoloration of the kidney, (2) metaplasia and hyperplasia in the epithelium and subepithelial tissue of the renal coelom, (3) cyst formation by accumulation of excretory materials in the collecting ducts and renal tubules, and (4) appearance of eosinophilic granular cells.

  5. The Role of Social Trust in Reducing Long-Term Truancy and Forming Human Capital in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamamura, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine how social trust influences human capital formation using prefectural level data in Japan. To this end, I constructed a proxy for social trust, based on the Japanese General Social Surveys. After controlling for socioeconomic factors, I found that social trust plays an important role in reducing the rate of long-term…

  6. Evaluation of the Monkey-Persimmon Environmental Education Program for Reducing Human-Wildlife Conflicts in Nagano, Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakurai, Ryo; Jacobson, Susan K.

    2011-01-01

    Co-existing with wildlife and maintaining rural livelihoods are common challenges in remote villages in Japan. The authors assess the effects of the Monkey-Persimmon Environmental Education Program developed to reduce wildlife conflicts and to revitalize a community in Nagano Prefecture. Development of a logic model helped guide interviews with…

  7. The Relationship between Attitudes toward Suicide and Family History of Suicide in Nagano Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Teruomi; Arai, Hiroaki; Kamijo, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Yoshikiyo; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Arito, Heihachiro; Nomiyama, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Certain attitudes toward suicide may be a risk factor for suicide among the bereaved. To explore this possibility, we examined the relationship between attitudes toward suicide and family history of suicide. We focused on two specific attitudes indicating resignation in a survey: #1 "When a person chooses to die by suicide, the suicide is inevitable" (i.e., inevitability belief); and #2 "A suicide cannot be stopped by any person, because suicide is unpreventable" (i.e., unpreventable belief). The data of 5117 fully completed questionnaires were analyzed. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the two attitudes of resignation were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. The adjusted odds ratio for #1 was 1.39 (95% CI, 1.07-1.79) for individuals having experienced suicide by a family member or relative, while that for #2 was 1.57 (95% CI, 1.27-1.95) for experiencing a suicide by a family member or relative and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.05-1.49) for experiencing a suicide by a friend, business associate, partner or other. These two attitudes of resignation toward suicide were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. These attitudes might increase suicide risk among the bereaved. PMID:27338441

  8. Mass Balance Estimation from the Gravity Change at the Takigami Geothermal Reservoir, Oita Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, D.; Fujimitsu, Y.; Nishijima, J.; Fukuda, Y.; Taniguchi, M.

    2012-04-01

    In Takigami geothermal field, we have continued the geothermal reservoir monitoring by using gravity change from 1991, in order to monitor the mass transfer caused by production and reinjection of geothermal fluid. We, however, had measured only relative gravity measurements by using relative gravimeters (SCINTREX CG-3, CG-3M and CG-5), so we haven't been able to evaluate the gravity change at the reference station of the relative gravity measurements. Therefore, we introduced an A10 absolute gravimeter (Micro-g LaCoste, Inc.) in 2008. We used the A10 gravimeter for not only the assessment of the gravity changes at the reference station, but also the detection of the absolute gravity change caused by the subsurface fluid mass changes at some other measurement stations. However, it was impossible that the A10 absolute gravimeter was applied at all of the stations, because the measurement condition for the A10 is strict. We selected 4 stations (T13, T19, T26 and T27) to conduct the repeat absolute gravity measurement. Therefore we have applied the relative gravimeters for the stations where we couldn't measure gravity by using the A10. Thus both absolute gravimeter and relative gravimeter can complement each other. As a result of absolute gravity measurements, the gravity change at the reference station (T1) of the relative gravity measurements is small enough for this evaluation, within about 10 µgal. So we estimated that this reference station is appropriate for the relative gravity measurements. Because we judged that the gravity change detected by the relative and absolute gravity measurements illustrated the mass transfer in the geothermal reservoir, we divide the Takigami geothermal field into 3 areas from the pattern of the gravity change after the commencement of the Takigami geothermal power plant, and we estimated the 4 stages of geothermal fluid flow pattern from temporal gravity change. Based on these classifications, we led the conceptual reservoir model of the Takigami geothermal field. We have detected the gravity changes which were consistent with the changes in mass balance in the geothermal reservoir. We inferred that the current fluid mass in the Takigami geothermal field has recovered to the level as much as that before production and reinjection had started.

  9. Dynamics of Centrocestus armatus Transmission in Endemic River in Hyogo Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Shintaro; Kimura, Daisuke; Paller, Vachel Gay V; Uga, Shoji

    2014-03-01

    Centrocestus armatus is an intestinal parasite belonging to the family Heterophyidae. We developed an apparatus for recovering cercariae and clarified the infection dynamics of this parasite. To clarify the circadian rhythm of cercarial shedding in the summer season, we filtrated 30 l of river water every 2 h for 24 h. Cercariae were first detected between 06:00 and 08:00 h, increased over time to reach peak at 16:00 h and decreased thereafter, thus showing a single-peak pattern. In a survey of seasonal change, approximately 200 cercariae were contained in 1 l of river water during the summer season, while none were found during the winter. This cercarial shedding pattern appeared to be related to sunrise/sunset and water/atmosphere temperature. Therefore, we examined whether cercarial shedding was affected by light or temperature changes under laboratory conditions, and confirmed that both light and temperature were important factors for cercarial shedding. Light was a stronger factor than water temperature. Cercarial shedding of C. armatus occurred in response to temperature and light. The change in the number of juvenile metacercariae detected in fish brain corresponded with monthly detection rates of cercariae; however, the incidence of new infections decreased in August. This suggests that Nipponocypris temminkii contains a defense mechanism against new infections that may have hindered the increase in parasite infectivity. These results clarified the smooth infection from the first to the second intermediate host of C. armatus in the endemic river. Throughout the study period, fecal samples were collected from 19 kites, 114 herons, and three unidentified species. However, our results using C. armatus showed a low value of 1% in herons and 5% in kites. The infection dynamics of final host to first intermediate host need to be further investigated.

  10. The Relationship between Attitudes toward Suicide and Family History of Suicide in Nagano Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Teruomi; Arai, Hiroaki; Kamijo, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Yoshikiyo; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Arito, Heihachiro; Nomiyama, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Certain attitudes toward suicide may be a risk factor for suicide among the bereaved. To explore this possibility, we examined the relationship between attitudes toward suicide and family history of suicide. We focused on two specific attitudes indicating resignation in a survey: #1 "When a person chooses to die by suicide, the suicide is inevitable" (i.e., inevitability belief); and #2 "A suicide cannot be stopped by any person, because suicide is unpreventable" (i.e., unpreventable belief). The data of 5117 fully completed questionnaires were analyzed. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the two attitudes of resignation were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. The adjusted odds ratio for #1 was 1.39 (95% CI, 1.07-1.79) for individuals having experienced suicide by a family member or relative, while that for #2 was 1.57 (95% CI, 1.27-1.95) for experiencing a suicide by a family member or relative and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.05-1.49) for experiencing a suicide by a friend, business associate, partner or other. These two attitudes of resignation toward suicide were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. These attitudes might increase suicide risk among the bereaved.

  11. Dynamics of Centrocestus armatus Transmission in Endemic River in Hyogo Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Shintaro; Kimura, Daisuke; Paller, Vachel Gay V.; Uga, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    Centrocestus armatus is an intestinal parasite belonging to the family Heterophyidae. We developed an apparatus for recovering cercariae and clarified the infection dynamics of this parasite. To clarify the circadian rhythm of cercarial shedding in the summer season, we filtrated 30 l of river water every 2 h for 24 h. Cercariae were first detected between 06:00 and 08:00 h, increased over time to reach peak at 16:00 h and decreased thereafter, thus showing a single-peak pattern. In a survey of seasonal change, approximately 200 cercariae were contained in 1 l of river water during the summer season, while none were found during the winter. This cercarial shedding pattern appeared to be related to sunrise/sunset and water/atmosphere temperature. Therefore, we examined whether cercarial shedding was affected by light or temperature changes under laboratory conditions, and confirmed that both light and temperature were important factors for cercarial shedding. Light was a stronger factor than water temperature. Cercarial shedding of C. armatus occurred in response to temperature and light. The change in the number of juvenile metacercariae detected in fish brain corresponded with monthly detection rates of cercariae; however, the incidence of new infections decreased in August. This suggests that Nipponocypris temminkii contains a defense mechanism against new infections that may have hindered the increase in parasite infectivity. These results clarified the smooth infection from the first to the second intermediate host of C. armatus in the endemic river. Throughout the study period, fecal samples were collected from 19 kites, 114 herons, and three unidentified species. However, our results using C. armatus showed a low value of 1% in herons and 5% in kites. The infection dynamics of final host to first intermediate host need to be further investigated. PMID:24808745

  12. The Relationship between Attitudes toward Suicide and Family History of Suicide in Nagano Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Tsukahara, Teruomi; Arai, Hiroaki; Kamijo, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Yoshikiyo; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Arito, Heihachiro; Nomiyama, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Certain attitudes toward suicide may be a risk factor for suicide among the bereaved. To explore this possibility, we examined the relationship between attitudes toward suicide and family history of suicide. We focused on two specific attitudes indicating resignation in a survey: #1 “When a person chooses to die by suicide, the suicide is inevitable” (i.e., inevitability belief); and #2 “A suicide cannot be stopped by any person, because suicide is unpreventable” (i.e., unpreventable belief). The data of 5117 fully completed questionnaires were analyzed. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the two attitudes of resignation were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. The adjusted odds ratio for #1 was 1.39 (95% CI, 1.07–1.79) for individuals having experienced suicide by a family member or relative, while that for #2 was 1.57 (95% CI, 1.27–1.95) for experiencing a suicide by a family member or relative and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.05–1.49) for experiencing a suicide by a friend, business associate, partner or other. These two attitudes of resignation toward suicide were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. These attitudes might increase suicide risk among the bereaved. PMID:27338441

  13. Knowing the people who come to public astronomical observatories: The case of Akita prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, N.

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to know and gain a better understanding of people who come to astronomical observatories and to find out more about their experiences and thoughts on astronomy. To find some of the issues about science communication in astronomy, the author carried out questionnaire research studies involving high school students and junior high school and elementary school teachers.

  14. Outbreak of Culex inatomii in disaster areas of the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami in 2011, with ecological notes on their larval habitats, biting behavior, and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Yoshio; Kim, Kyeong Soon

    2013-03-01

    Outbreaks of Culex inatomii occurred widely in disaster areas of the tsunami caused by the Great East Japan earthquake in March 2011. Mosquitoes were collected in southern Miyagi Prefecture and northern Fukushima Prefecture in August and September 2011, respectively. In southern Miyagi Prefecture, the average number of adult Cx. inatomii collected by a suction trap baited with 1 kg of dry ice ranged between 69.3 and 132.8 per day in locations within 2.6 km from the coast in tsunami areas, while no Cx. inatomii individuals were collected 8.3 km from the coast, where seawater did not reach, and which therefore escaped the tsunami disaster. There were many ground pools of brackish water of various sizes, and larvae of Cx. inatomii were collected in 48% and 36% of the pools examined in Miyagi Prefecture and Fukushima Prefecture, respectively. Ecological notes on the larval habitats, biting behavior, seasonal prevalence, and reproduction of Cx. inatomii are presented for reference based on ecological studies conducted in Sakata Wetland, Niigata Prefecture, central Japan, in June and August 2011. Ecological factors relating to the current outbreak and the potential medical importance of Cx. inatomii are discussed.

  15. Surveys of postpartum depression in Miyagi, Japan, after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Nishigori, Hidekazu; Sugawara, Junichi; Obara, Taku; Nishigori, Toshie; Sato, Kineko; Sugiyama, Takashi; Okamura, Kunihiro; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2014-12-01

    This study explores the correlation between the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the incidence of postpartum depression in Miyagi prefecture, Japan. The design used was a cross-sectional study with self-administered questionnaires, 6-9 months after the disaster. The results showed the prevalence of postnatal women with Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score of ≥9 to be 21.3 %. Multivariate analysis showed that exposure to tsunami (odds ratio, 1.80; 95 % confidence interval, 1.16-2.78) was significantly and independently associated with an EPDS score of ≥9. Postnatal women and their children should be treated as a vulnerable population, and a protective framework must be established to prepare for future devastating disasters. PMID:25204487

  16. Japan: Tsunami

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... tsunami triggered by the March 11, 2011, magnitude 8.9 earthquake centered off Japan's northeastern coast about 130 kilometers (82 ... inland from the eastern shoreline is visible in the post-earthquake image. The white sand beaches visible in the pre-earthquake view are ...

  17. Prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibody in domestic horses in Japan.

    PubMed

    Masatani, Tatsunori; Takashima, Yasuhiro; Takasu, Masaki; Matsuu, Aya; Amaya, Tomohiko

    2016-04-01

    The present study is the first report that investigated the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic horses in various prefectures of Japan and analyzed risk factors for seropositivity. We performed a latex agglutination test for riding/racing horses from 11 prefectures in Japan (783 samples) and 4 groups of Japanese native horses (254 samples). The total seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii antibody in horses examined in this study was 4.24% (44/1037). As for riding/racing horses, we did not find a statistically different T. gondii seroprevalence between sampling prefectures. In contrast, seroprevalence of T. gondii in older horses (>21 years) was significantly higher than that in younger horses (<5 years and 11-15 years). There was no significant difference in T. gondii seroprevalence between riding/racing horses and Japanese native horses. Logistical regression analysis revealed that age, but not sex and usage, is a significant risk factor of T. gondii infection for domestic horses in Japan. These findings suggest that domesticated horses in Japan can be horizontally infected with T. gondii by ingestion of food or water contaminated with oocysts.

  18. Change in climate and nature over Toyama prefecture due to global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatsushika, H.; Kawasaki, K.; Oritani, T.; Kondo, T.; Mizoguchi, T.; Kido, M.; Tsuchihara, Y.; Wada, N.; Horikawa, K.

    2007-12-01

    Toyama prefecture is located in the center of the mainland of Japan and is surrounded by steep mountains called Tateyama at about 3,000m above sea level and by the deep Toyama bay at about 1,000m depth. In summer, since Pacific high covers mainland of Japan and East Asian summer monsoon brings a lot of rainfalls, climate in Toyama is suitable for cropping the highest qualified rice and vegetables. In winter, the dominant East Asian winter monsoon brings water from the Japan Sea by heavy snowfalls onto Tateyama. As the snow melts gradually from spring to early autumn, the abundant pure water is utilized for generating hydroelectric power and for a variety of other purposes, making it a vital resource for industries, agriculture, fishery, and human life as well as for wildlife on both sides of the plains and the mountains of Toyama. In recent, by the IPCC-AR4, influence of global warming is reported in many aspects of nature and human lives all over the world. However, we have yet to realize whether these signs are also appeared in Toyama. Therefore, we carried out statistical analyses to investigate change of nature, climate, and human lives in Toyama by global warming. Some of main results are as follows. Using the phenological data of a sample maple (Acer palmatum) tree growing at the garden in Toyama Local Meteorological Observatory, we analyzed that the leaf-color-change date is delayed ca. 20 days and the leaf-falling date is delayed ca. 10 days during recent 30 years. Using daily snowfall data between 1958 and 2007, we found that snow amounts and snowfall days are decreased significantly on the plains, while there is no trend on the mountain side. Using AMeDAS's hourly temperature data between 1978 and 2006, we detected increases in winter time minimum temperature, summer time maximum temperature, and "typical summer days" which is defined as total days that the daily maximum temperature exceeds 30 degree C. It can be inferred from these findings that the

  19. Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The southern half of the island of Okinawa, Japan (26.5N, 128.0E) can be seen in this nearly cloud free view. Okinawa is part of the Ryuku Islands which extend from Taiwan northeastward to Kyushu, southernmost of the Japanese Home Islands. The large military base at Kadena, with large runways, is visible near the center of the scene. Kadena is one of several emergency landing sites around the world for the space shuttle.

  20. Mortality in the 2011 Tsunami in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, Shinji; Ichikawa, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Introduction On 11 March 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake caused a huge tsunami that struck Northeast Japan, resulting in nearly 20 000 deaths. We investigated mortality patterns by age, sex, and region in the 3 most severely affected prefectures. Methods Using police data on earthquake victims in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures, mortality rates by sex, age group, and region were calculated, and regional variability in mortality rates across age groups was compared using rate ratios (RRs), with the rates in Iwate as the reference. Results In all regions, age-specific mortality showed a tendency to increase with age; there were no sex differences. Among residents of Iwate, mortality was markedly lower among school-aged children as compared with other age groups. In northern Miyagi and the southern part of the study area, RRs were higher among school-aged children than among other age groups. Conclusions The present study could not address the reasons for the observed mortality patterns and regional differences. To improve preparedness policies, future research should investigate the reasons for regional differences. PMID:23089585

  1. Estimating rotavirus vaccine effectiveness in Japan using a screening method

    PubMed Central

    Araki, Kaoru; Hara, Megumi; Sakanishi, Yuta; Shimanoe, Chisato; Nishida, Yuichiro; Matsuo, Muneaki; Tanaka, Keitaro

    2016-01-01

    abstract Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a highly contagious, acute viral disease that imposes a significant health burden worldwide. In Japan, rotavirus vaccines have been commercially available since 2011 for voluntary vaccination, but vaccine coverage and effectiveness have not been evaluated. In the absence of a vaccination registry in Japan, vaccination coverage in the general population was estimated according to the number of vaccines supplied by the manufacturer, the number of children who received financial support for vaccination, and the size of the target population. Patients with rotavirus gastroenteritis were identified by reviewing the medical records of all children who consulted 6 major hospitals in Saga Prefecture with gastroenteritis symptoms. Vaccination status among these patients was investigated by reviewing their medical records or interviewing their guardians by telephone. Vaccine effectiveness was determined using a screening method. Vaccination coverage increased with time, and it was 2-times higher in municipalities where the vaccination fee was supported. In the 2012/13 season, vaccination coverage in Saga Prefecture was 14.9% whereas the proportion of patients vaccinated was 5.1% among those with clinically diagnosed rotavirus gastroenteritis and 1.9% among those hospitalized for rotavirus gastroenteritis. Thus, vaccine effectiveness was estimated as 69.5% and 88.8%, respectively. This is the first study to evaluate rotavirus vaccination coverage and effectiveness in Japan since vaccination began. PMID:26680277

  2. "Shool Biotope" as science and environment educational tools in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, K.; Matsumoto, I.

    2011-12-01

    We have very small artificial pond in elementary school and junior high school in Japan. There are small fish, aquatic insect, and plant, and we can easily check and study. Recently, this type very small artificial pond that we call "Biotope" has been reconsidered as educational tool for study about biology and ecology. We introduce the some cases of the elementary school in Shimane Prefecture, Japan. And then, we pick up some important good educational materials and methods and their problems. Shimane prefecture is the place where relatively much nature is left even in Japan, and children are favored in the opportunity which usually touches nature and study it. It thought about use for Biotope in the inside of school of such from the viewpoint of science and environment education. It is possible with Biotope in the inside of school that a fish, aquatic insect, and plant in Biotope and that's environment are observed for every day and for a long time. As for the teacher of the elementary and junior high schools, it is important to make a plan of Biotope corresponding to the subject and those contents of learning through the year. We define School-Biotope as a thing that a teacher recognizes that educational importance and to make the most of as an education subject intentionally.

  3. Spatial analysis of the Chania prefecture: Crete triangulation network quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achilleos, Georgios

    2016-08-01

    The network of trigonometric points of a region is the basis upon which any form of cartographic work is attached to the national geodetic coordinate system (data collection, processing, output presentations) and not only. The products of the cartographic work (cartographic representations), provide the background which is used in cases of spatial planning and development strategy. This trigonometric network, except that, provides to a single cartographic work, the ability to exist within a unified official state geodetic reference system, simultaneously determines the quality of the result, since the trigonometric network data that are used, have their own quality. In this paper, we present the research of spatial quality of the trigonometric network of Chania Prefecture in Crete. This analysis examines the triangulation network points, both with respect to their spatial position (distribution in space), and in their accuracy (horizontally and vertically).

  4. Isotopic investigations for the origin of relic from the Matsusaki site, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakano-Ohta, T; Kubota, T; Ando, A; Fujii, T; Fukutani, S; Nakata, E; Nakano, T; Mahara, Y

    2009-01-01

    We measured the environmental radioactivity and isotope ratio, (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio, (234)U/(238)U, delta(13)C, and (228)Ra/(226)Ra activity ratio, of adhesion that adhered to a wooden tubing vessel obtained from the Matsusaki site, one of the salt-production sites where Moshio is manufactured, in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. The environmental radioactivity and isotope ratio verified that the adhesion originated from the seaweed and/or sea grass.

  5. Experience of boron neutron capture therapy in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanda, Keiji

    1997-02-01

    In Japan the boron neutron capture therapy has been applied to more than 200 patients, mostly brain tumors and some melanomas. For brain tumors, Kyoto University, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Tsukuba University and National Kagawa Children's Hospital accept patients, and for melanomas, Kobe University and Mishima Institute of Dermatological Research accept patients so far. Recently the heavy water facility of Kyoto University Reactor has been upgraded for epithermal neutron as well as thermal neutron irradiations, and for the patient treatment during the continuous operation of the KUR.

  6. Thallium contamination in wild ducks in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Mariko; Mori, Makoto; Akinaga, Mayumi; Yugami, Kyoko; Oya, Chika; Hondo, Ryo; Ueda, Fukiko

    2005-07-01

    Although thallium (Tl) is toxic to both humans and animals, there is little information on contamination in wildlife. In this study, Tl contents in wild ducks in Japan were determined. Contents of Tl in kidney and liver ranged from 0.42 to 119.61 and 0.10 to 33.94 microg/g dry weight, respectively. Significant correlations between Tl contents in kidney and liver were observed for all dabbling ducks except mallard (Anas platyrhynchos); similar correlations were not observed in diving ducks. Variation in Tl content was observed between sampling locations with the highest mean Tl content in the Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope) collected in Ibaraki Prefecture. PMID:16244083

  7. Regional Differences in Hepatitis C Treatment with Peginterferon and Ribavirin in Japan in Both Genotype 1 and Genotype 2: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Ide, Kazuki; Kawasaki, Yohei; Akutagawa, Maiko; Yamada, Hiroshi; Masaki, Naohiko

    2016-09-01

    There has been no report on the genotype-dependent regional, especially prefectural, differences in hepatitis C treatment in Japan. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the nationwide database. The registration period of the database was from December 2009 to April 2013. Individuals with chronic hepatitis C were identified from the database. The sustained virologic response (SVR) rates in each prefecture were calculated stratified by genotype. Confounding variables were identified using stepwise logistic regression analysis. The range of the point estimate of the adjusted odds ratio explained prefectural differences in treatment outcomes. During the registration period, 36 prefectures registered cases to the database. A total of 16349 cases were registered and 11653 cases were included in the analysis. The mean age was 57.9±10.5 years; 7950 (68.2%) had hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 and 3703 (31.8%) had HCV genotype 2. The range in SVR rates was 30.0 to 63.0% for genotype 1 and 55.0 to 100.0% for genotype 2. In the multivariate analysis, the ranges of the adjusted odds ratio of each prefecture were 0.658 to 2.125 for genotype 1 and 0.364 to 2.630 for genotype 2. Our results suggest that regional, particularly prefectural, differences in chronic hepatitis C treatment with peg-interferon (IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) exist in Japan and that these regional differences may similarly exist both in HCV genotypes 1 and 2. Additional studies using these methods, considering medical situations in each prefecture and new treatments regimens, could greatly contribute to improving and standardizing chronic hepatitis C treatment. PMID:27384444

  8. ANALYSIS FOR HOUSE DAMAGE PROPERTY OF 2007 MID-NIIGATA PREFECTURE OFFSHORE EARTHQUAKE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochiai, Hirokazu; Yamada, Kento; Ohtsuka, Satoru; Isobe, Koichi

    This paper reports the result of correlation analysis for house damage in 2007 Mid-piigata prefecture offshore earthquake by focusing geomorphological land classification and other factors as landform and ground properties with organizing the house damage data of disaster victim certificate conducted by public administrations. In former part of the paper, the features of house damage at 2007 Mid-Niigata prefecture offshore earthquake were analyzed for various influencing factors. The authors discussed the affrecting factors to houses at earthquake. In latter part, the features of house damage at 2007 Mid-Niigata prefecture offshore earthquake was discussed with that at 2004 Mid-Niigata prefecture earthquake. The house damage function of distance from the epicenter was proposed based on the analysis on house damage ratio recorded in two earthquakes.

  9. Start and initial results of the Fukushima Prefecture acute myocardial infarction registration survey.

    PubMed

    Nakazato, Kazuhiko; Yamaki, Takayoshi; Kijima, Mikihiro; Komatsu, Nobuo; Sugi, Masafumi; Seita, Hiroshi; Kanke, Michito; Saito, Tomiyoshi; Owada, Takayuki; Ono, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Masaharu; Abe, Yukihiko; Sato, Masahiko; Watanabe, Masayuki; Suzuki, Shigebumi; Tsuda, Akihiro; Chiba, Katsumi; Honda, Tsuneo; Tamagawa, Kazuaki; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Abe, Wataru; Maeyama, Tadami; Sagawa, Keiichi; Takahira, Hiroshi; Sodenaga, Yasumori; Ohara, Naoto; Kobayashi, Toshio; Hisa, Shinichi; Suzuki, Sakae; Saito, Yasutoshi; Shineha, Ryuzaburo; Suzuki, Fumio; Matsui, Junichiro; Tsuboi, Masao; Yui, Tokuo; Abe, Satoshi; Nagasawa, Shuichi; Takaya, Yuzou; Maehara, Kazuhira; Maruyama, Yukio; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2013-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains one of the most serious heart diseases and elucidation of its pathogenesis and advances in treatment strategies have been desired. In 2009, to understand the status of AMI in Fukushima Prefecture for improving treatment outcomes, a new AMI registration survey system was conducted throughout the prefecture. A total of 1,556 cases were registered in the initial 2 years from 2009 to 2010. The hospital-based overall incidence of AMI in Fukushima Prefecture was 37.9 people per population of 100,000 per year. Mortality from AMI within 30 days of onset was 10.2%. We report herein the actual situation of AMI onset and treatment in Fukushima Prefecture based on the initial results of the survey.

  10. Epidemiology of Epidemic Ebola Virus Disease in Conakry and Surrounding Prefectures, Guinea, 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Debra; Coronado, Fátima; Rondy, Marc; Fiebig, Lena; Carcelen, Andrea; Deyde, Varough M.; Mesfin, Samuel; Retzer, Kyla D.; Bilivogui, Pepe; Keita, Sakoba; Dahl, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa was first reported during March in 3 southeastern prefectures in Guinea; from there, the disease rapidly spread across West Africa. We describe the epidemiology of EVD cases reported in Guinea’s capital, Conakry, and 4 surrounding prefectures (Coyah, Dubreka, Forecariah, and Kindia), encompassing a full year of the epidemic. A total of 1,355 EVD cases, representing ≈40% of cases reported in Guinea, originated from these areas. Overall, Forecariah had the highest cumulative incidence (4× higher than that in Conakry). Case-fatality percentage ranged from 40% in Conakry to 60% in Kindia. Cumulative incidence was slightly higher among male than female residents, although incidences by prefecture and commune differed by sex. Over the course of the year, Conakry and neighboring prefectures became the EVD epicenter in Guinea. PMID:26812047

  11. Temperature deviation index and elderly mortality in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Youn-Hee; Reid, Colleen E.; Honda, Yasushi; Kim, Ho

    2016-07-01

    Few studies have examined how the precedence of abnormal temperatures in previous neighboring years affects the population's health. In the present study, we attempted to quantify the health effects of abnormal weather patterns by creating a metric called the temperature deviation index (TDI) and estimated the effects of TDI on mortality in Japan. We used data from 47 prefectures in Japan to compute the TDI on days between May and September from 1966 to 2010. The TDI is a summed product of an indicator of absence of high temperatures in the neighboring years, and more weights were assigned to the years closest to the current year. To estimate the TDI effects on elderly mortality, we used generalized linear modeling with a Poisson distribution after adjusting for apparent temperature, barometric pressure, day of the week, and time trend. For each prefecture, we estimated the TDI effects and pooled the estimates to yield a national average for 1991-2010 in Japan. The estimated effects of TDI in middle- or high-latitude prefectures were greater than in low-latitude prefectures. The estimated national average of TDI effects was a 0.5 % (95 % confidence intervals [CI], 0.1, 1.0) increase in elderly mortality per 1-unit (around 1 standard deviation) increase in the TDI. The significant pooled estimation of TDI effects was mainly due to the TDI effects on summer days with moderate temperature (25th-49th percentile, mean temperature 22.9 °C): a 1.9 % (95 % CI, 1.1, 2.6) increase in elderly mortality per 1-unit increase in the TDI. However, TDI effects were insignificant in other temperature ranges. These findings suggest that elderly deaths increased on moderate temperature days in the summer that differed substantially from days during that time window in the neighboring years. Therefore, not only high temperature itself but also temperature deviation compared to previous years could be considered to be a risk factor for elderly mortality in the summer.

  12. Temperature deviation index and elderly mortality in Japan.

    PubMed

    Lim, Youn-Hee; Reid, Colleen E; Honda, Yasushi; Kim, Ho

    2016-07-01

    Few studies have examined how the precedence of abnormal temperatures in previous neighboring years affects the population's health. In the present study, we attempted to quantify the health effects of abnormal weather patterns by creating a metric called the temperature deviation index (TDI) and estimated the effects of TDI on mortality in Japan. We used data from 47 prefectures in Japan to compute the TDI on days between May and September from 1966 to 2010. The TDI is a summed product of an indicator of absence of high temperatures in the neighboring years, and more weights were assigned to the years closest to the current year. To estimate the TDI effects on elderly mortality, we used generalized linear modeling with a Poisson distribution after adjusting for apparent temperature, barometric pressure, day of the week, and time trend. For each prefecture, we estimated the TDI effects and pooled the estimates to yield a national average for 1991-2010 in Japan. The estimated effects of TDI in middle- or high-latitude prefectures were greater than in low-latitude prefectures. The estimated national average of TDI effects was a 0.5 % (95 % confidence intervals [CI], 0.1, 1.0) increase in elderly mortality per 1-unit (around 1 standard deviation) increase in the TDI. The significant pooled estimation of TDI effects was mainly due to the TDI effects on summer days with moderate temperature (25th-49th percentile, mean temperature 22.9 °C): a 1.9 % (95 % CI, 1.1, 2.6) increase in elderly mortality per 1-unit increase in the TDI. However, TDI effects were insignificant in other temperature ranges. These findings suggest that elderly deaths increased on moderate temperature days in the summer that differed substantially from days during that time window in the neighboring years. Therefore, not only high temperature itself but also temperature deviation compared to previous years could be considered to be a risk factor for elderly mortality in the summer. PMID

  13. Ecological study of solar radiation and cancer mortality in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2004-11-01

    Geographic observation of the increased mortality of some cancers at higher latitudes has led to a hypothesis that vitamin D produced after exposure to solar radiation has anti-carcinogenic effects. However, it is unclear whether such association would be observed in countries like Japan, where fish consumption, and therefore dietary vitamin D intake, is high. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between averaged annual solar radiation levels for the period from 1961 through 1990 and cancer mortality in the year 2000 in 47 prefectures in Japan, with adjustments for regional per capita income and dietary factors. A moderate, inverse correlation with solar radiation was observed for cancers of the esophagus, stomach, colon, rectum, pancreas, and gallbladder and bile ducts in both sexes (correlation coefficient, ranging from -0.6 to -0.3). The results of this study support the hypothesis that increased exposure to solar radiation reduces the risk of cancers of the digestive organs. PMID:15551791

  14. Japan: Tradition and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellington, Lucien

    This textbook is designed to increase students' awareness of Japan. The study of Japan is worthwhile because Japan currently is and likely will continue to be one of the world's most important countries. U.S. knowledge of Japan is still quite limited compared to the level of understanding most Japanese exhibit about the United States. It is hoped…

  15. [Cooperation and support activities of infection control after the Great East Japan Earthquake].

    PubMed

    Hatta, Masumitsu; Kaku, Mitsuo

    2013-12-01

    On 11 March 2011, an earthquake measuring 9.0 on the Richter scale occurred off the northeast coast of Honshu Island, Japan, produced a devastating tsunami that destroyed many towns and villages near the coast in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures. Miyagi Prefecture was the area most severely devastated by the tsunami, with extensive loss of life and property; hundreds of thousands of people lost their houses and were forced to move to evacuation areas. In the days and weeks following devastating natural disasters, the threat of infectious disease outbreak is high. We initiated cooperation and support activities in terms of infection control at evacuation centers in the aftermath of the disaster. For example, we assessed sanitary and infectious risk factors in evacuation centers, in collaboration with Miyagi Prefectural Government and public health centers in the devastated area, to prevent the transmission of infectious diseases among evacuees. We also supported the control of two outbreaks of influenza A, which occurred in different centers in Miyagi Prefecture in the early period after the disaster. Both outbreaks subsided without any complicated or fatal cases of influenza as a result of the prompt implementation of a systemic approach with a bundle of control measures. PMID:24605551

  16. Shiga Toxin (Verotoxin)-Producing Escherichia coli in Japan.

    PubMed

    Terajima, Jun; Iyoda, Sunao; Ohnishi, Makoto; Watanabe, Haruo

    2014-10-01

    A series of outbreaks of infection with Shiga toxin (verocytotoxin)-producing Escherichia coli or enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O157:H7 occurred in Japan in 1996, the largest outbreak occurring in primary schools in Sakai City, Osaka Prefecture, where more than 7,500 cases were reported. Although the reason for the sudden increase in the number of reports of EHEC isolates in 1996 is not known, the number of reports has grown to more than 3,000 cases per year since 1996, from an average of 105 reports each year during the previous 5-year period (1991-1995). Despite control measures instituted since 1996, including designating Shiga toxin-producing E. coli infection as a notifiable disease, and nationwide surveillance effectively monitoring the disease, the number of reports remains high, around 3,800 cases per year. Serogroup O157 predominates over other EHEC serogroups, but isolation frequency of non-O157 EHEC has gone up slightly over the past few years. Non-O157 EHEC has recently caused outbreaks where consumption of a raw beef dish was the source of the infection, and some fatal cases occurred. Laboratory surveillance comprised prefectural and municipal public health institutes, and the National Institute of Infectious Diseases has contributed to finding not only multiprefectural outbreaks but recognizing sporadic cases that could have been missed as an outbreak without the aid of molecular subtyping of EHEC isolates. This short overview presents recent information on the surveillance of EHEC infections in Japan. PMID:26104366

  17. Internal radiation exposure dose in Iwaki city, Fukushima prefecture after the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Orita, Makiko; Hayashida, Naomi; Nukui, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Naoko; Kudo, Takashi; Matsuda, Naoki; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Takamura, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) on 11 March 2011, a huge amount of radionuclides, including radiocesium, was released and spread over a wide area of eastern Japan. Although three years have passed since the accident, residents around the FNPP are anxious about internal radiation exposure due to radiocesium. In this study, we screened internal radiation exposure doses in Iwaki city of Fukushima prefecture, using a whole-body counter. The first screening was conducted from October 2012 to February 2013, and the second screening was conducted from May to November 2013. Study participants were employees of ALPINE and their families who underwent examination. A total of 2,839 participants (1,366 men and 1,473 women, 1-86 years old) underwent the first screening, and 2,092 (1,022 men and 1,070 women, 1-86 years old) underwent the second screening. The results showed that 99% of subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the first screening, and all subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the second screening. The committed effective dose ranged from 0.01-0.06 mSv in the first screening and 0.01-0.02 mSv in the second screening. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to avoid unnecessary chronic internal exposure and to reduce anxiety among the residents by communicating radiation health risks.

  18. Molecular epidemiology of subgenus F adenoviruses associated with pediatric gastroenteritis during eight years in Hiroshima Prefecture as a limited area.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, S; Kuwayama, M; Takao, S; Shimazu, Y; Miyazaki, K

    2006-12-01

    We have studied the prevalence of the subgenus F adenoviruses and the molecular characteristics of adenovirus type 41 in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan, as a limited area during the period of 1997-2004. Subgenus F adenoviruses were detected in 30 (3.4%) of 892 fecal specimens by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and 80.0% (24 of 30) of positive patients were <36 months old. One (3.3%) and 29 (96.7%) of the 30 EIA-positive specimens were adenoviruses type 40 (Ad40) and 41 (Ad41), respectively. The genomes of Ad41 strains amplified by PCR were divided into two genomic type clusters (GTC1 and GTC2) based on the hexon gene as described by Li et al. (J Clin Microbiol 42: 4032-4039, 2004.). Twenty-one (95.5%) of 22 Ad41 strains detected between 2000 and 2004 belonged to GTC1, whereas all seven strains detected between 1997 and 1999 belonged to GTC2. These genomic typings were the same for the hexon and fiber genes except for one strain. This strain contained a hexon gene belonging to GTC1 and a fiber gene belonging to GTC2 and was considered to be a recombinant between adenoviruses of these types. PMID:16847553

  19. Internal Radiation Exposure Dose in Iwaki City, Fukushima Prefecture after the Accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Orita, Makiko; Hayashida, Naomi; Nukui, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Naoko; Kudo, Takashi; Matsuda, Naoki; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Takamura, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) on 11 March 2011, a huge amount of radionuclides, including radiocesium, was released and spread over a wide area of eastern Japan. Although three years have passed since the accident, residents around the FNPP are anxious about internal radiation exposure due to radiocesium. In this study, we screened internal radiation exposure doses in Iwaki city of Fukushima prefecture, using a whole-body counter. The first screening was conducted from October 2012 to February 2013, and the second screening was conducted from May to November 2013. Study participants were employees of ALPINE and their families who underwent examination. A total of 2,839 participants (1,366 men and 1,473 women, 1–86 years old) underwent the first screening, and 2,092 (1,022 men and 1,070 women, 1–86 years old) underwent the second screening. The results showed that 99% of subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the first screening, and all subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the second screening. The committed effective dose ranged from 0.01–0.06 mSv in the first screening and 0.01–0.02 mSv in the second screening. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to avoid unnecessary chronic internal exposure and to reduce anxiety among the residents by communicating radiation health risks. PMID:25478794

  20. Internal radiation exposure dose in Iwaki city, Fukushima prefecture after the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Orita, Makiko; Hayashida, Naomi; Nukui, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Naoko; Kudo, Takashi; Matsuda, Naoki; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Takamura, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) on 11 March 2011, a huge amount of radionuclides, including radiocesium, was released and spread over a wide area of eastern Japan. Although three years have passed since the accident, residents around the FNPP are anxious about internal radiation exposure due to radiocesium. In this study, we screened internal radiation exposure doses in Iwaki city of Fukushima prefecture, using a whole-body counter. The first screening was conducted from October 2012 to February 2013, and the second screening was conducted from May to November 2013. Study participants were employees of ALPINE and their families who underwent examination. A total of 2,839 participants (1,366 men and 1,473 women, 1-86 years old) underwent the first screening, and 2,092 (1,022 men and 1,070 women, 1-86 years old) underwent the second screening. The results showed that 99% of subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the first screening, and all subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the second screening. The committed effective dose ranged from 0.01-0.06 mSv in the first screening and 0.01-0.02 mSv in the second screening. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to avoid unnecessary chronic internal exposure and to reduce anxiety among the residents by communicating radiation health risks. PMID:25478794

  1. Advances in Japanese pear breeding in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is one of the most widely grown fruit trees in Japan, and it has been used throughout Japan's history. The commercial production of pears increased rapidly with the successive discoveries of the chance seedling cultivars 'Chojuro' and 'Nijisseiki' around 1890, and the development of new cultivars has continued since 1915. The late-maturing, leading cultivars 'Niitaka' and 'Shinko' were released during the initial breeding stage. Furthermore, systematic breeding by the Horticultural Research Station (currently, NARO Institute of Fruit Tree Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NIFTS)) began in 1935, which mainly aimed to improve fruit quality by focusing on flesh texture and black spot disease resistance. To date, 22 cultivars have been released, including 'Kosui', 'Hosui', and 'Akizuki', which are current leading cultivars from the breeding program. Four induced mutant cultivars induced by gamma irradiation, which exhibit some resistance to black spot disease, were released from the Institute of Radiation Breeding. Among these cultivars, 'Gold Nijisseiki' has become a leading cultivar. Moreover, 'Nansui' from the Nagano prefectural institute breeding program was released, and it has also become a leading cultivar. Current breeding objectives at NIFTS mainly combine superior fruit quality with traits related to labor and cost reduction, multiple disease resistance, or self-compatibility. Regarding future breeding, marker-assisted selection for each trait, QTL analyses, genome-wide association studies, and genomic selection analyses are currently in progress. PMID:27069390

  2. [Descriptive epidemiology of mushroom poisoning in Japan].

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Y; Yamaura, Y

    1992-02-01

    The Incidence of mushroom poisoning was surveyed statistically from 1959 to 1988 in Japan. The results are summarized as follows: 1. During the past three decades, the total number of incidents of mushroom poisoning was 2,096, which involved 10,924 patients and 72 deaths. The average number of incidents was 70 cases per year, involving 364 patients and 2.4 deaths, and the number of incidents decreased gradually every year. Mushroom poisoning usually happened most frequently in September and October. 2. Considering regional differences, the incidence of mushroom poisoning was more frequent in the northeastern part of Japan than in the southwestern part. The incidences of mushroom poisoning in the prefectures of Nagano, Hokkaido, Niigata, Iwate and Fukushima were relatively high. 3. Three species of mushrooms, L. japonicus, R. rhodopolius (R. sinuatus) and T. ustale caused the majority of all poisonings. 4. The rates of total patients and fatalities for each type of poisoning, which were classified according to the symptoms caused, were 90.3% and 10.7% in the type with cholera-like symptoms, 90.2% and 0.2% in that with gastro-intestinal irritation, and 74.1% and 0% in that with neurological symptoms, respectively. PMID:1556831

  3. Two species of Nilothauma Kieffer (Diptera, Chironomidae) from Japan, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Niitsuma, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    The male and female adults and pupa of Nilothauma niidaense n. sp. are described and illustrated on the basis of the material collected from a fontal stream in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. N. sasai Adam & Sæther is treated as a junior synonym of N. hibaratertium Sasa, of which the male is redescribed. The Adam & Sæther key to Nilothauma males is revised. PMID:27394209

  4. Spiroxys hanzaki n. sp. (Nematoda: Gnathostomatidae) collected from the giant salamander, Andrias japonicus (Caudata: Cryptobranchidae), in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, H; Miyata, A; Doi, T

    1998-08-01

    Spiroxys hanzaki n. sp. (Nematoda: Gnathostomatidae) taken from the giant salamander, Andrias japonicus (Temminck, 1836) (Caudata: Cryptobranchidae) from Hyogo Prefecture, Japan, is described. It closely resembles Spiroxys allegheniensis Walton, 1930, from the hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis (Daudin, 1803) (Cryptobranchidae), of North America, in that it has minute dorsal and ventral lobes of the pseudolabium and a reduced gubernaculum but is readily distinguished by a pseudolabium with 2 apical, 1 dorsal, and 1 ventral tooth on the median lobe. PMID:9714220

  5. Decomposing Cost Efficiency in Regional Long-term Care Provision in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Many developed countries face a growing need for long-term care provision because of population ageing. Japan is one such example, given its population's longevity and low birth rate. In this study, we examine the efficiency of Japan's regional long-term care system in FY2010 by performing a data envelopment analysis, a non-parametric frontier approach, on prefectural data and separating cost efficiency into technical, allocative, and price efficiencies under different average unit costs across regions. In doing so, we elucidate the structure of cost inefficiency by incorporating a method for restricting weight flexibility to avoid unrealistic concerns arising from zero optimal weight. The results indicate that technical inefficiency accounts for the highest share of losses, followed by price inefficiency and allocation inefficiency. Moreover, the majority of technical inefficiency losses stem from labor costs, particularly those for professional caregivers providing institutional services. We show that the largest share of allocative inefficiency losses can also be traced to labor costs for professional caregivers providing institutional services, while the labor provision of in-home care services shows an efficiency gain. However, although none of the prefectures gains efficiency by increasing the number of professional caregivers for institutional services, quite a few prefectures would gain allocative efficiency by increasing capital inputs for institutional services. These results indicate that preferred policies for promoting efficiency might vary from region to region, and thus, policy implications should be drawn with care.

  6. Decomposing Cost Efficiency in Regional Long-term Care Provision in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Many developed countries face a growing need for long-term care provision because of population ageing. Japan is one such example, given its population's longevity and low birth rate. In this study, we examine the efficiency of Japan's regional long-term care system in FY2010 by performing a data envelopment analysis, a non-parametric frontier approach, on prefectural data and separating cost efficiency into technical, allocative, and price efficiencies under different average unit costs across regions. In doing so, we elucidate the structure of cost inefficiency by incorporating a method for restricting weight flexibility to avoid unrealistic concerns arising from zero optimal weight. The results indicate that technical inefficiency accounts for the highest share of losses, followed by price inefficiency and allocation inefficiency. Moreover, the majority of technical inefficiency losses stem from labor costs, particularly those for professional caregivers providing institutional services. We show that the largest share of allocative inefficiency losses can also be traced to labor costs for professional caregivers providing institutional services, while the labor provision of in-home care services shows an efficiency gain. However, although none of the prefectures gains efficiency by increasing the number of professional caregivers for institutional services, quite a few prefectures would gain allocative efficiency by increasing capital inputs for institutional services. These results indicate that preferred policies for promoting efficiency might vary from region to region, and thus, policy implications should be drawn with care. PMID:26493427

  7. [Medical pots of Yakushi Buddha in Japan].

    PubMed

    Okuda, Jun; Noro, Yukio; Ito, Shiro

    2005-01-01

    The origin of Yakushi buddha (Bhaisajyaguru in Sanscrit, buddha of healing) is not clearly known. It has been proposed the original statue of Yakushi buddha may have been conceived from Varna, a god in Brahminism, believed to be a god of justice who possessed medicines and prolonged life. It is believed that Yakushi buddha appeared in Japan when the buddhism was imported from Korea and China in VI century, Yakushi buddha was believed more profoundly in Japan, compared with Korea and China.The reasons are probably as follows: Yakushi buddha is buddha of healing, Emperor Temmu (672-685) built Yakushi-ji temple in Nara, Emperor Shomu (724-749) built Kokubun-ji temples at principal towns. The principal statues of buddha in these temples are Yakushi buddha. In Japan, there are 252 Yakushi Buddha statues in Buddhistical Temples, which are listed in Important Cultural Property including 14 National Treasures. Belief in Yakushi Buddha was especially prevalent from the 7th to the 13th centuries in Japan. The oldest wooden Yakushi Buddha statue is in the Horin-ji temple in Nara. Among the 252 Yakushi Buddha statues, 224 are in wood, 15 are in copper, 6 are in picture and etc. 212 (84,1%) have medicinal pots (or rarely, a bowl) on the palm of left hand. However, these medicinal containers are wooden blocks. Very recently, it was found that Yakushi Buddha statue in the Suho-Kokubun-ji temple (Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan) has a medicinal pot on the palm of the left hand in which an offering (220 g materials) was found. The date on the reverse side of lid places the offering at October 12, 1699. The offering is composed of five cereals (rice, barley, wheat, soybean, adzuki bean), five medicinal plants (Acori Graminei, Acori Calami, Radix Ginseng, Flos Caryophylli, Lignum Santali Albi), and five minerals (rock crystals, purple and blue glasse, CaCO3, particles, silver and golden foils). DNA analysis proved those three randomly selected seeds of rice all belongs to the template

  8. [Medical pots of Yakushi Buddha in Japan].

    PubMed

    Okuda, Jun; Noro, Yukio; Ito, Shiro

    2005-01-01

    The origin of Yakushi buddha (Bhaisajyaguru in Sanscrit, buddha of healing) is not clearly known. It has been proposed the original statue of Yakushi buddha may have been conceived from Varna, a god in Brahminism, believed to be a god of justice who possessed medicines and prolonged life. It is believed that Yakushi buddha appeared in Japan when the buddhism was imported from Korea and China in VI century, Yakushi buddha was believed more profoundly in Japan, compared with Korea and China.The reasons are probably as follows: Yakushi buddha is buddha of healing, Emperor Temmu (672-685) built Yakushi-ji temple in Nara, Emperor Shomu (724-749) built Kokubun-ji temples at principal towns. The principal statues of buddha in these temples are Yakushi buddha. In Japan, there are 252 Yakushi Buddha statues in Buddhistical Temples, which are listed in Important Cultural Property including 14 National Treasures. Belief in Yakushi Buddha was especially prevalent from the 7th to the 13th centuries in Japan. The oldest wooden Yakushi Buddha statue is in the Horin-ji temple in Nara. Among the 252 Yakushi Buddha statues, 224 are in wood, 15 are in copper, 6 are in picture and etc. 212 (84,1%) have medicinal pots (or rarely, a bowl) on the palm of left hand. However, these medicinal containers are wooden blocks. Very recently, it was found that Yakushi Buddha statue in the Suho-Kokubun-ji temple (Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan) has a medicinal pot on the palm of the left hand in which an offering (220 g materials) was found. The date on the reverse side of lid places the offering at October 12, 1699. The offering is composed of five cereals (rice, barley, wheat, soybean, adzuki bean), five medicinal plants (Acori Graminei, Acori Calami, Radix Ginseng, Flos Caryophylli, Lignum Santali Albi), and five minerals (rock crystals, purple and blue glasse, CaCO3, particles, silver and golden foils). DNA analysis proved those three randomly selected seeds of rice all belongs to the template

  9. The role of temperature in reported chickenpox cases from 2000 to 2011 in Japan.

    PubMed

    Harigane, K; Sumi, A; Mise, K; Kobayashi, N

    2015-09-01

    Annual periodicities of reported chickenpox cases have been observed in several countries. Of these, Japan has reported a two-peaked, bimodal annual cycle of reported chickenpox cases. This study investigated the possible underlying association of the bimodal cycle observed in the surveillance data of reported chickenpox cases with the meteorological factors of temperature, relative humidity and rainfall. A time-series analysis consisting of the maximum entropy method spectral analysis and the least squares method was applied to the chickenpox data and meteorological data of 47 prefectures in Japan. In all of the power spectral densities for the 47 prefectures, the spectral lines were observed at the frequency positions corresponding to the 1-year and 6-month cycles. The optimum least squares fitting (LSF) curves calculated with the 1-year and 6-month cycles explained the underlying variation of the chickenpox data. The LSF curves reproduced the bimodal and unimodal cycles that were clearly observed in northern and southern Japan, respectively. The data suggest that the second peaks in the bimodal cycles in the reported chickenpox cases in Japan occurred at a temperature of approximately 8·5 °C.

  10. Body size distributions of the pale grass blue butterfly in Japan: Size rules and the status of the Fukushima population.

    PubMed

    Taira, Wataru; Iwasaki, Mayo; Otaki, Joji M

    2015-07-22

    The body size of the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha, has been used as an environmental indicator of radioactive pollution caused by the Fukushima nuclear accident. However, geographical and temporal size distributions in Japan and temperature effects on size have not been established in this species. Here, we examined the geographical, temporal, and temperature-dependent changes of the forewing size of Z. maha argia in Japan. Butterflies collected in 2012 and 2013 from multiple prefectures throughout Japan demonstrated an inverse relationship of latitude and forewing size, which is the reverse of Bergmann's cline. The Fukushima population was significantly larger than the Aomori and Miyagi populations and exhibited no difference from most of the other prefectural populations. When monitored at a single geographic locality every other month, forewing sizes were the largest in April and the smallest in August. Rearing larvae at a constant temperature demonstrated that forewing size followed the temperature-size rule. Therefore, the converse Bergmann's rule and the temperature-size rule coexist in this multivoltine species. Our study establishes this species as a useful environmental indicator and supports the idea that the size reduction observed only in Fukushima Prefecture in 2011 was caused by the environmental stress of radioactive pollution.

  11. Body size distributions of the pale grass blue butterfly in Japan: Size rules and the status of the Fukushima population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taira, Wataru; Iwasaki, Mayo; Otaki, Joji M.

    2015-07-01

    The body size of the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha, has been used as an environmental indicator of radioactive pollution caused by the Fukushima nuclear accident. However, geographical and temporal size distributions in Japan and temperature effects on size have not been established in this species. Here, we examined the geographical, temporal, and temperature-dependent changes of the forewing size of Z. maha argia in Japan. Butterflies collected in 2012 and 2013 from multiple prefectures throughout Japan demonstrated an inverse relationship of latitude and forewing size, which is the reverse of Bergmann’s cline. The Fukushima population was significantly larger than the Aomori and Miyagi populations and exhibited no difference from most of the other prefectural populations. When monitored at a single geographic locality every other month, forewing sizes were the largest in April and the smallest in August. Rearing larvae at a constant temperature demonstrated that forewing size followed the temperature-size rule. Therefore, the converse Bergmann’s rule and the temperature-size rule coexist in this multivoltine species. Our study establishes this species as a useful environmental indicator and supports the idea that the size reduction observed only in Fukushima Prefecture in 2011 was caused by the environmental stress of radioactive pollution.

  12. Body size distributions of the pale grass blue butterfly in Japan: Size rules and the status of the Fukushima population

    PubMed Central

    Taira, Wataru; Iwasaki, Mayo; Otaki, Joji M.

    2015-01-01

    The body size of the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha, has been used as an environmental indicator of radioactive pollution caused by the Fukushima nuclear accident. However, geographical and temporal size distributions in Japan and temperature effects on size have not been established in this species. Here, we examined the geographical, temporal, and temperature-dependent changes of the forewing size of Z. maha argia in Japan. Butterflies collected in 2012 and 2013 from multiple prefectures throughout Japan demonstrated an inverse relationship of latitude and forewing size, which is the reverse of Bergmann’s cline. The Fukushima population was significantly larger than the Aomori and Miyagi populations and exhibited no difference from most of the other prefectural populations. When monitored at a single geographic locality every other month, forewing sizes were the largest in April and the smallest in August. Rearing larvae at a constant temperature demonstrated that forewing size followed the temperature-size rule. Therefore, the converse Bergmann’s rule and the temperature-size rule coexist in this multivoltine species. Our study establishes this species as a useful environmental indicator and supports the idea that the size reduction observed only in Fukushima Prefecture in 2011 was caused by the environmental stress of radioactive pollution. PMID:26197998

  13. Body size distributions of the pale grass blue butterfly in Japan: Size rules and the status of the Fukushima population.

    PubMed

    Taira, Wataru; Iwasaki, Mayo; Otaki, Joji M

    2015-01-01

    The body size of the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha, has been used as an environmental indicator of radioactive pollution caused by the Fukushima nuclear accident. However, geographical and temporal size distributions in Japan and temperature effects on size have not been established in this species. Here, we examined the geographical, temporal, and temperature-dependent changes of the forewing size of Z. maha argia in Japan. Butterflies collected in 2012 and 2013 from multiple prefectures throughout Japan demonstrated an inverse relationship of latitude and forewing size, which is the reverse of Bergmann's cline. The Fukushima population was significantly larger than the Aomori and Miyagi populations and exhibited no difference from most of the other prefectural populations. When monitored at a single geographic locality every other month, forewing sizes were the largest in April and the smallest in August. Rearing larvae at a constant temperature demonstrated that forewing size followed the temperature-size rule. Therefore, the converse Bergmann's rule and the temperature-size rule coexist in this multivoltine species. Our study establishes this species as a useful environmental indicator and supports the idea that the size reduction observed only in Fukushima Prefecture in 2011 was caused by the environmental stress of radioactive pollution. PMID:26197998

  14. Association of Ocean Energy Exploitation of Resources Promotion Sea of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, C.; Aoyama, S.

    2014-12-01

    Nine prefectures of 1 local government prefecture of the Sea of Japan side established "Association of Ocean Energy Exploitation of Resources Promotion Sea of Japan" (the following, Association of Sea of Japan) in September, 2012. They support methane hydrate exploitation of resources of the government and aim at the local activation and job creation. Niigata and Hyogo that were members of the association of Sea of Japan carried out a prefecture original methane hydrate investigation. They appeal to the government for development promotion of the government by showing the result. On the other hand, Wakayama located on the Pacific side wants to appeal to the government for the reexamination of the development sea area by showing that outer layer type methane hydrate exists to the sea area that is nearer the landside than the sea area that the government develops. The Independent Institute carried out collaborative investigation each with Niigata, Hyogo and Wakayama in 2013. I show the results of research. In the joint investigation with Niigata, plural plumes were observed in Mogami trough east slope (from depth of the water 200m 600m) . In the joint investigation with Hyogo, I carried out observation of a methane plume and the structure and the seafloor topography under the sea bottom in Oki east sea area. Furthermore, I performed a piston core ring and gathered five samples and confirmed plural traces of the methane hydrate. In the joint investigation with Wakayama, plural plumes were observed in Shionomisaki canyon (from depth of the water 1,700m 2,200m). There is hardly the report of the plume on the Pacific side so far. Therefore I want to continue observing it in future.

  15. Thyroid Cancer Detection by Ultrasound Among Residents Ages 18 Years and Younger in Fukushima, Japan: 2011 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Tokinobu, Akiko; Yamamoto, Eiji; Suzuki, Etsuji

    2016-01-01

    Background: After the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami in March 2011, radioactive elements were released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Based on prior knowledge, concern emerged about whether an increased incidence of thyroid cancer among exposed residents would occur as a result. Methods: After the release, Fukushima Prefecture performed ultrasound thyroid screening on all residents ages ≤18 years. The first round of screening included 298,577 examinees, and a second round began in April 2014. We analyzed the prefecture results from the first and second round up to December 31, 2014, in comparison with the Japanese annual incidence and the incidence within a reference area in Fukushima Prefecture. Results: The highest incidence rate ratio, using a latency period of 4 years, was observed in the central middle district of the prefecture compared with the Japanese annual incidence (incidence rate ratio = 50; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 25, 90). The prevalence of thyroid cancer was 605 per million examinees (95% CI = 302, 1,082) and the prevalence odds ratio compared with the reference district in Fukushima Prefecture was 2.6 (95% CI = 0.99, 7.0). In the second screening round, even under the assumption that the rest of examinees were disease free, an incidence rate ratio of 12 has already been observed (95% CI = 5.1, 23). Conclusions: An excess of thyroid cancer has been detected by ultrasound among children and adolescents in Fukushima Prefecture within 4 years of the release, and is unlikely to be explained by a screening surge. PMID:26441345

  16. Japan: Shikoku Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    ... deploying instruments aboard several ships, aircraft, and island stations in the waters surrounding Japan and Korea. They characterized ... These MISR images, centered just north of Shikoku Island in southwest Japan, were acquired on April 13, 2001 during Terra orbit ...

  17. Environmental Education from a Kindergarten to a University student, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, I.

    2013-12-01

    Importance of the environmental and disaster prevention education on the basis of science is increasing since the disaster by the Tohoku-Earthquake and Tsunami at the 11th March 2011, in Japan. Effective enforcement of the environmental education from a kindergarten to a University student is very important educational tool for protecting future earth's environment. This research reports the present situation and the practice example of environmental education of Japan. Particularly, I report practice of the environmental education in a class of Shimane University. In addition, I explain the actual situation of the environmental education for student from kindergarten to junior high school in Shimane Prefecture. I point out that 'Consciousness (In)', 'knowledge (About)', and 'action (For)' are important three factors based on my practice of the environmental education (e.g. UNESCO-Finland, 1974). That is 'consciousness (In)' means education in (or through) the environment. 'knowledge (About)' means education about environment. 'Action (FOR)' means education for environment. According to the present condition of the environmental education of a Japan, I arranged and redefined such three factors. That is three factors consist of two axis that are 'me' and 'others'. And National exists between them. condition of the environmental education of a Japan, I arranged and redefined such three factors. That is three factors consist of two axis that are 'me' and 'others'. And National exists between them.

  18. Get Oriented: Study Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parramore, Barbara M.

    1981-01-01

    Recommends that students in social studies classes be exposed to a study of Japan because of the wide array of contrasts possible between Japan and the United States. Information is presented on Japan's modernization, global status, language, decision-making processes, and ancient traditions. (DB)

  19. Academic Libraries in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki

    2008-01-01

    Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

  20. The role of medicine in the decline of post-War infant mortality in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Tanihara, Shinichi; Inoue, Sachiko; Takao, Soshi; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2011-11-01

    The infant mortality rate (IMR) in Japan declined dramatically in the immediate post-War period (1947-60) in Japan. We compared the time trends in Growth Domestic Product (GDP) in Japan against declines in IMR. We then conducted a prefecture-level ecological analysis of the rate of decline in IMR and post-neonatal mortality from 1947 to 1960, focusing on variations in medical resources and public health strategies. IMR in Japan started to decline after World War II, even before the era of rapid economic growth and the introduction of a universal health insurance system in the 1960s. The mortality rates per 1000 infants in 2009 were 2.38 for IMR, 1.17 for neonatal mortality and 1.21 for post-neonatal mortality. The rate of decline in IMR and preventable IMR (PIMR) during the post-War period was strongly correlated with prefectural variations in medical resources (per capita physicians, nurses, and proportion of in-hospital births). The correlation coefficients comparing the number of physicians in 1955 with the declines in IMR and PIMR from 1947 to 1960 were 0.46 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.19, 0.66] and 0.39 [95% CI 0.11, 0.61], respectively. By contrast, indicators of public health strategies were not associated with IMR decline. The IMR in Japan has been decreasing and seems to be entering a new era characterised by lower neonatal compared with post-neonatal mortality. Furthermore, the post-War history of Japan illustrates that improvement in infant mortality is attributable to the influence of medical care, even in the absence of rapid economic development.

  1. Foreign Language Curricula in Japanese High Schools: A Case Study in Miyagi Prefecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the foreign language curricula in Japanese high schools for the purpose of gaining insight into alternative views of foreign language education. Teachers, administrators, and staff at two high schools in Miyagi Prefecture were interviewed. Teachers were asked about testing, placement procedures, standards,…

  2. Aftershocks Associated With Impaired Health Caused by the Great East Japan Disaster Among Youth Across Japan: A National Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Miyamoto, Yuki

    2013-01-01

    Background The Great East Japan earthquake, subsequent tsunamis and the Fukushima nuclear incident had a tremendous impact on Japanese society. Although small-scale surveys have been conducted in highly affected areas, few have elucidated the disaster’s effect on health from national perspective, which is necessary to prepare national policy and response. Objective The aim of the present study was to describe prefecture-level health status and investigate associations with number of aftershocks, seismic intensity, a closer geographical location to the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant, or higher reported radiation dose in each prefecture even after adjusting for individual socioeconomic factors, by utilizing individual-level data acquired from a national cross-sectional Internet survey as well as officially reported prefecture-level data. Methods A Japanese government research institute obtained 12,000 participants by quota sampling and 7335 participants were eligible for the analysis in an age range between 17 and 27 years old. We calculated the percentage of people with decreased subjective health in each prefecture after the earthquake. Variability introduced by a small sample size for some prefectures was smoothed using empirical Bayes estimation with a random-intercept logistic model, with and without demographic factors. Multilevel logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for change of subjective health associated with prefecture-level and individual-level factors. Results Adjusted empirical Bayes estimates were higher for respondents commuting in the northeast region (Iwate 14%, Miyagi 19%, and Fukushima 28%), which faces the Pacific Ocean, while the values for Akita (10%) and Yamagata (8%) prefectures, which do not face the Pacific Ocean, were lower than those of Tokyo (12%). The values from the central to the western region were clearly lower. The number of aftershocks was coherently associated with decreased health (OR 1.05 per

  3. Analysis of 129I in the soils of Fukushima Prefecture: preliminary reconstruction of 131I deposition related to the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP).

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Toyama, Chiaki; Ohno, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Iodine-131 is one of the most critical radionuclides to be monitored after release from reactor accidents due to the tendency for this nuclide to accumulate in the human thyroid gland. However, there are not enough data related to the reactor accident in Fukushima, Japan to provide regional information on the deposition of this short-lived nuclide (half-life = 8.02 d). In this study we have focused on the long-lived iodine isotope, (129)I (half-life of 1.57 × 10(7) y), and analyzed it by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for surface soil samples collected at various locations in Fukushima Prefecture. In order to obtain information on the (131)I/(129)I ratio released from the accident, we have determined (129)I concentrations in 82 soil samples in which (131)I concentrations were previously determined. There was a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.84) between the two nuclides, suggesting that the (131)I levels in soil samples following the accident can be estimated through the analysis of (129)I. We have also examined the possible influence from (129m)Te on (129)I, and found no significant effect. In order to construct a deposition map of (131)I, we determined the (129)I concentrations (Bq/kg) in 388 soil samples collected from different locations in Fukushima Prefecture and the deposition densities (Bq/m(2)) of (131)I were reconstructed from the results. PMID:24930438

  4. Analysis of 129I in the soils of Fukushima Prefecture: preliminary reconstruction of 131I deposition related to the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP).

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Toyama, Chiaki; Ohno, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Iodine-131 is one of the most critical radionuclides to be monitored after release from reactor accidents due to the tendency for this nuclide to accumulate in the human thyroid gland. However, there are not enough data related to the reactor accident in Fukushima, Japan to provide regional information on the deposition of this short-lived nuclide (half-life = 8.02 d). In this study we have focused on the long-lived iodine isotope, (129)I (half-life of 1.57 × 10(7) y), and analyzed it by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for surface soil samples collected at various locations in Fukushima Prefecture. In order to obtain information on the (131)I/(129)I ratio released from the accident, we have determined (129)I concentrations in 82 soil samples in which (131)I concentrations were previously determined. There was a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.84) between the two nuclides, suggesting that the (131)I levels in soil samples following the accident can be estimated through the analysis of (129)I. We have also examined the possible influence from (129m)Te on (129)I, and found no significant effect. In order to construct a deposition map of (131)I, we determined the (129)I concentrations (Bq/kg) in 388 soil samples collected from different locations in Fukushima Prefecture and the deposition densities (Bq/m(2)) of (131)I were reconstructed from the results.

  5. Comparative analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing strains isolated in three remote areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Eiji; Hachisu, Yushi; Iwamoto, Tomotada; Nakanishi, Noriko; Arikawa, Kentaro; Wada, Takayuki; Seto, Junji; Kishida, Kazunori

    2015-08-01

    A quantitative and qualitative comparison was carried out of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing strains isolated in three remote areas of Japan. A total of 452 strains from Chiba Prefecture, 75 from Yamagata Prefecture, and 315 from Kobe City were analyzed for 24 loci by variable number of tandem repeats typing (24(Beijing)-VNTR). All strains were classified in six Beijing subgroups (B(SUB)), B1 to B5 and T, based on a minimum spanning tree reconstructed using data of a standard set of 15 VNTR loci. No significant difference was found in the distribution of strains in the B(SUB) in the three areas, with one exception due to a B5 outbreak in Yamagata, indicating no significant quantitative difference in the B(SUB) in the three areas (P<0.01, Chi-square test). In addition, when strains in each B(SUB) isolated in the three areas were mixed and standardized index of association (I(A)(s)) and variance (Φ(PT)) values were calculated, no significant qualitative difference in the B(SUB) in the three areas was found. These results suggested that the B(SUB) diverged prior to the introduction of M. tuberculosis Beijing strains into Japan. Differences in the distribution of strains in each B(SUB) between Japan and continental Asian countries suggested there had been genetic drift in the continental Asian countries in which B4 had been dominant. PMID:26096775

  6. Comparative analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing strains isolated in three remote areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Eiji; Hachisu, Yushi; Iwamoto, Tomotada; Nakanishi, Noriko; Arikawa, Kentaro; Wada, Takayuki; Seto, Junji; Kishida, Kazunori

    2015-08-01

    A quantitative and qualitative comparison was carried out of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing strains isolated in three remote areas of Japan. A total of 452 strains from Chiba Prefecture, 75 from Yamagata Prefecture, and 315 from Kobe City were analyzed for 24 loci by variable number of tandem repeats typing (24(Beijing)-VNTR). All strains were classified in six Beijing subgroups (B(SUB)), B1 to B5 and T, based on a minimum spanning tree reconstructed using data of a standard set of 15 VNTR loci. No significant difference was found in the distribution of strains in the B(SUB) in the three areas, with one exception due to a B5 outbreak in Yamagata, indicating no significant quantitative difference in the B(SUB) in the three areas (P<0.01, Chi-square test). In addition, when strains in each B(SUB) isolated in the three areas were mixed and standardized index of association (I(A)(s)) and variance (Φ(PT)) values were calculated, no significant qualitative difference in the B(SUB) in the three areas was found. These results suggested that the B(SUB) diverged prior to the introduction of M. tuberculosis Beijing strains into Japan. Differences in the distribution of strains in each B(SUB) between Japan and continental Asian countries suggested there had been genetic drift in the continental Asian countries in which B4 had been dominant.

  7. Current situation and issues using maternal and child health-related information in the "Healthy parents and children 21" campaign across municipalities in Japan.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Ritei; Shinohara, Ryoji; Akiyama, Yuka; Ichikawa, Kaori; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Tamakoshi, Koji; Matsuura, Kencho; Yamazaki, Yoshihisa; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The use of maternal and child health-related information is an issue faced by the "Healthy parents and children 21" campaign, a national campaign to improve the health standards of mothers and children in Japan. This study described the current situation and issues faced by municipalities across Japan that use this information.Methods Data across municipalities selected for the current survey of promoting the "Healthy parents and children 21" campaign in 2013 were analyzed in this study. First, we chose prefectures where collected and analyzed maternal and child health-related information was provided by the municipalities. Then, we divided the municipalities according to those prefectures where the municipalities regularly reported the maternal and child health-related information and those that did not report it regularly. Finally, the characteristics about maternal and child health in those municipalities were investigated.Results Of the 47 prefectures analyzed, 35 prefectures (74.5%) collected and analyzed maternal and child health-related information provided by the municipalities. The 35 prefectures included 1,242 municipalities, of which 700 (56.4%) regularly reported maternal and child health-related information, and 542 (43.6%) did not report it regularly. The proportion of municipalities, where information about smoking during pregnancy, immunization, or low birth weight in infants was positively used, was significantly lower among municipalities that did not regularly report maternal and child health-related information than among those that regularly reported it (P<0.001). The proportion of municipalities that coordinated projects on prevention of child abuse or low birth weight in infants with the prefectures was significantly lower among municipalities that did not regularly report maternal and child health-related information than among those that regularly reported it.Conclusion Among municipalities that did not regularly report

  8. Current Status of Infant Mental Health in Day-Care Centres in Japan: An Investigation of Okinawa and Aomori Prefectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takizawa, Tohru; Kondo, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Osamu; Wake, Norie; Naka, Kuoichi; Todoriki, Hidemi; Ishizu, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Grasping both the extent and the actual situation of psychosomatic disorders, neurotic habits and developmental disorders of infancy and childhood is vital for their prevention and for taking appropriate measures to deal with the current situation. The purpose of this study is to explore the current situation of infant mental health in Japanese…

  9. Investigation of cadmium contamination using hair of the Japanese macaque, Macaca fuscata, from Shimokita Peninsula, Aomori Prefecture in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Mariko; Anahara, Reiko; Mano, Tomoki; Nakayama, Yuri; Kobori, Mutsumi; Omi, Toshinori; Matsuoka, Shiro; Ueda, Fukiko

    2012-09-01

    The cadmium (Cd) contents in hair of macaques (n = 45, Macaca fuscata) living on the Shimokita Peninsula were investigated. The mean Cd contents in the hair of Japanese (n = 34, 5.01 μg/g) and macaques (3.05 μg/g) tendency to be higher than those of animals living other areas. The Cd contents of hair of wild macaques were significantly (p < 0.01) lower than that of humans, although three were no significant difference between Cd contents of humans and that of the macaque in captivity. The hair of the macaque was suggested as a useful sample for measurement of Cd contamination in the environment.

  10. Low serum LDL cholesterol levels are associated with elevated mortality from liver cancer in Japan: the Ibaraki Prefectural health study.

    PubMed

    Saito, Nobue; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Irie, Fujiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Iimura, Kyoko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Muto, Takashi; Ota, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Liver cancer a global public health concern and well known for poor prognosis. The association between low total cholesterol level and liver cancer has been reported. However, the association between low low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and liver cancer is still unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between LDL cholesterol level and liver cancer mortality. A total of 16,217 persons (5,551 men and 10,666 women) aged 40-79 years in 1993 were followed until 2008. LDL cholesterol levels were divided into four categories (<80 mg/dl, 80-99 mg/dl, 100-119 mg/dl, and ≥120 mg/dl). Hazard ratio of LDL cholesterol level for liver cancer mortality was calculated using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model. Covariates were age, sex, alanine transaminase, body mass index, alcohol intake and smoking status, all of which were correlated with LDL cholesterol levels. There were 51 deaths (32 men and 19 women) from liver cancer. Multivariable hazard ratios of liver cancer deaths for LDL cholesterol levels of <80 mg/dl was 4.33 (95% confident interval [CI]: 1.94, 9.68), for LDL cholesterol levels of 80-99 mg/dl was 1.03 (95% CI: 0.42, 2.53), and for LDL cholesterol levels of ≥120 mg/dl was 0.43 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.92) compared with LDL cholesterol levels of 100-199 mg/dl (p for trend<0.01). Therefore, low LDL cholesterol levels are associated with elevated risk of liver cancer mortality. Low LDL cholesterol may be a predictive marker for death due to liver cancer.

  11. Discovery of a bird-parasitic fly, Carnus orientalis (Diptera: Carnidae), in Japan, with bionomic remarks and a key to Carnus species.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Mitsuhiro; Sakamoto, Hironori; Asahi, Kento

    2014-03-01

    A bird-parasitic fly, Carnus orientalis Maa, 1968, is recorded for the first time from Japan, and it is taxonomically reexamined on the basis of specimens collected in Okinawa Prefecture. Adult flies were found from nestlings of Ryukyu scops owl (Otus elegans Cassin, 1852), which is a new host for C. orientalis. Bionomic remarks regarding C. orientalis are presented, and akey to the world species of Carnus is also provided. PMID:24724300

  12. Discovery of a bird-parasitic fly, Carnus orientalis (Diptera: Carnidae), in Japan, with bionomic remarks and a key to Carnus species.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Mitsuhiro; Sakamoto, Hironori; Asahi, Kento

    2014-03-01

    A bird-parasitic fly, Carnus orientalis Maa, 1968, is recorded for the first time from Japan, and it is taxonomically reexamined on the basis of specimens collected in Okinawa Prefecture. Adult flies were found from nestlings of Ryukyu scops owl (Otus elegans Cassin, 1852), which is a new host for C. orientalis. Bionomic remarks regarding C. orientalis are presented, and akey to the world species of Carnus is also provided.

  13. Nagoya, Ise Bay, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This view of Nagoya, Ise Bay and nearby Kyoto, on the main island of Honshu, Japan (35.0N, 137.0E) combines in a single photo both the political, cultural and educational centers of early Japan as well as one of the main educational and business centers of modern Japan. Besides being a business, cultural and educational center, Nagoya is near the geographic center of the Japanese home islands.

  14. Measurement of Indoor Radon-222 and Radon-220 Concentrations in Central Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Oka, Mitsuaki; Shimo, Michikuni; Tokonami, Shinji; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Takahashi, Hiromichi; Ishikawa, Tetsuo

    2008-08-07

    A passive-type radon/thoron detector was used for measuring indoor radon and thoron concentrations at 90 dwellings in Aichi and Gifu prefectures in central Japan during 90 days from December, 2006 to March, 2007. The radon and thoron concentrations were 21.1 Bq/m3 and 25.1 Bq/m3, respectively. The dose due to radon and thoron in dwellings was roughly evaluated as 0.7 mSv/y and 2.4 mSv/y, respectively. The examination of the geological factor and house condition having an effect on indoor radon concentration was performed.

  15. [Three Cases of Tsutsugamushi Disease in Miyakojima Island, Okinawa, Japan].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kei; Shinzato, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    Tsutsugamushi disease (Scrub thyphus) has been reported from all over Japan except the Hokkaido area. In Okinawa, only one patient was reported in 2001, who was infected outside Okinawa Prefecture. The first case infected in Okinawa was reported at Miyakojima Island in 2008. We report herein on the second case diagnosed in 2010, and the third and fourth in 2011, and all three patients were suspected to have been infected at Ikemajima Island adjacent to the island of Miyakojima. The patients recovered without any severe complications after antibiotic therapy with tetracyclines. We should take Tsutsugamushi disease into consideration in the differential diagnosis for a patient with fever, skin rash, and/or eschar even in the Okinawa area. Implementation of appropriate information and education about the disease should be carried out for local residents and tourists.

  16. Radon and Thoron exhalation rate map in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Masahiro, Hosoda; Michikuni, Shimo; Kazuyuki, Minami; Kazutaka, Ejiri; Masato, Sugino; Masahide, Furukawa; Masahiro, Fukushi

    2008-08-07

    Measurements of radon and thoron exhalation rates have been done using the radon and thoron exhalation rate measuring instrument adopting the accumulation method. We obtained the 111 data in the 40 sites of the 14 prefectures in Japan. The arithmetic average value of the radon and thoron exhalation rates by all 111 data were obtained to be 8.6 mBq{center_dot}m{sup -2}{center_dot}s{sup -1} and 0.80 Bq{center_dot}m{sup -2}{center_dot}s{sup -1}, respectively, and we have reported the radon and thoron exhalation rates in relation to the geological features. The relation between the exhalation rate and geology was shown that the exhalation rate had an increasing tendency in order of basic rock, neutral rock and acidic rock. We made the nationwide exhalation-rate map using the survey data of exhalation-rate of radon and thoron and the geological distribution map.

  17. Palliative care for advanced dementia in Japan: knowledge and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Miharu; Miyamoto, Yuki

    This study examined factors contributing to the knowledge and attitudes of nursing home staff regarding palliative care for advanced dementia in Japan. A cross-sectional survey of 275 nurses and other care workers from 74 long-term care facilities was conducted across three prefectures in August 2014. The Japanese versions of the Questionnaire on Palliative Care for Advanced Dementia (qPAD) and Frommelt Attitudes Toward Care of the Dying scale, Form B (FATCOD-B-J) were used. Greater knowledge was exhibited among nursing home staff in facilities that established a manual for end-of-life care. Higher levels of positive attitudes were observed among nursing home staff in facilities that had established a manual and those in facilities with a physician's written opinions on end-of-life care. An organisational effort should be explored to establish end-of-life care policies among nursing home staff for advanced dementia.

  18. Fallout sup 3 H in human tissue at Akita, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Hisamatsu, S.; Takizawa, Y.; Itoh, M.; Ueno, K.; Katsumata, T.; Sakanoue, M. )

    1989-10-01

    The {sup 3}H concentration in Japanese human tissue samples is reported in this paper. Four brain, 10 liver, and nine lung samples from 11 cases were collected from Akita Prefecture in northern Japan from January to July 1986. The median of free-water {sup 3}H concentration was similar in these tissues and agreed well with the concentrations in the diet, including tap water. The median specific activity ratio of tissue-bound {sup 3}H to free-water {sup 3}H was 1.1 and was slightly lower than that in the diet. The specific activity ratio was also lower than that reported in the United States and significantly lower than in Italy.

  19. Profiling psychiatric inpatient suicide attempts in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ikeshita, Katsumi; Shimoda, Shigero; Norimoto, Kazunobu; Arita, Keisuke; Shimamoto, Takuya; Murata, Kiyoshi; Makinodan, Manabu; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is an adverse event that can occur even when patient are hospitalized in psychiatric facilities. This study delineates the demographic characteristics of suicide attempts in mental hospitals and psychiatric wards of general hospitals in Japan, a country where the suicide rate is remarkably high. Analyses of incident reports on serious suicide attempts in psychiatric inpatients were performed using prefectural incident records between April 1, 2001, and December 31, 2012. Suicide reports were included for 35 incidents that occurred over 11 years, and demonstrated that 83% of patients (n = 29) committed suicide and 17% (n = 6) survived their attempt with serious aftereffects, such as cognitive impairment or persistent vegetative state. The male/female ratio of inpatient suicide was 1.5:1. The mean age of the attempters was 50.5 years (SD = 18.2). The most common psychiatric diagnoses for those with suicide incident reports were schizophrenia spectrum disorders (51.4%) and affective disorders (40%). Hanging (60%) was the most common method of suicide attempt, followed by jumping in front of moving objects (14.3%) and jumping from height (11.4%). Fifty-four percent of suicides (n = 19) occurred within hospital sites and the remainder (46%; n = 16) occurred outside hospital sites (e.g., on medical leave or elopement) while they were still inpatients. PMID:25345233

  20. Factors affecting death at home in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sauvaget, C; Tsuji, I; Li, J H; Hosokawa, T; Fukao, A; Hisamichi, S

    1996-10-01

    Despite the wish of the Japanese people to spend their final moments at home, the percentage of deaths at home among elderly is decreasing. Moreover, large variations in this rate were observed over the country. The present ecological study analyzed the relationship between the percentage of deaths at home for decedents aged 70 and over, and demographic, medical and socioeconomic characteristics. The data published in 1990 by the Japanese National Government were analyzed by correlation, principal-component, and multiple linear regression analyses. The results showed that the percentage of deaths at home for decedents aged 70 and over was positively associated with the number of persons per household, and the area of floor space per house. The divorce rate, the national tax per capita, and the mean length of hospitalization for stroke showed a negative association with the percentage of deaths at home. In the prefectures where the crude death rates of stroke and senility were high, elderly were more likely to die at home. These results suggested the importance of the number of family caregivers, and the housing conditions for terminal care at home. This research may lead to improve home medical assistance which is still underdeveloped in Japan.

  1. [The basic plan to promote cancer control in Japan].

    PubMed

    Monden, Morito

    2013-05-01

    Cancer has been the leading cause of death in Japan since 1981. The Japanese government implemented the Comprehensive 10-year Strategy for Cancer Control in 1984, following which the Second- and Third-term Comprehensive 10-year Strategy for Cancer Control have been implemented every 10years to promote cancer research and disseminate high-quality cancer medical services. The Cancer Control Act was approved in June 2006, and the law has been implemented since April 2007. Based on this law, the Basic Plan to Promote Cancer Control program was discussed by the Cancer Control Promotion Council and approved by the Cabinet of Japan in June 2007. This plan was launched in June 2007, and covered 5 fiscal years from 2007 to 2011. It also provides a model for developing the Prefectural Plan to Promote Cancer Control. The Basic Plan needs to be updated at least every 5 years under the Cancer Control Act; therefore, the Phase Two Basic Plan was approved by the Japanese Cabinet in June 2012. Although the first plan was limited to medicine or medical care, the second plan was broadened to include social undertakings such as patient support in terms of job acquisition or student education for an indepth understanding of cancer. This paper includes the history of cancer control promotion in Japan and viewpoints on the basic plan for cancer control.

  2. Impact of the Fukushima nuclear accident on obesity of children in Japan (2008-2014).

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Eiji

    2016-05-01

    This study used prefecture-level panel data from Japan for the period 2008-2014 to investigate the influence of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident on the body mass index (BMI) z-score and obesity rates of children over time. I adopted a difference-in-differences approach and found the following: (1) for the cohort aged 5-7 years in 2010, the BMI z-score and obesity rates in disaster-affected areas were higher than in other areas, although this was not observed for the other cohorts; (2) for the cohort aged 5-7 years in 2010, the influence of the accident persisted even after 3 years; and (3) the differences in the BMI z-score and obesity rate before and after the accident were greater for Fukushima Prefecture than for the other affected areas (Iwate and Miyagi prefectures). I infer that health-conscious parents, whose children had lower BMIs, may have moved from Fukushima, thereby increasing the BMI z-score of the child population living in Fukushima by around 0.05 for the cohort aged 5-7 years. The enforced reduction in physical activity increased the BMI z-score of children living in Fukushima by around 0.19 for that cohort.

  3. Palynofloras from the upper Barremian-Aptian Nishihiro Formation (Outer Zone of southwest Japan) and the appearance of angiosperms in Japan.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Julien; Yamada, Toshihiro; Nishida, Harufumi

    2014-03-01

    Palynomorphs are reported for the first time from the Nishihiro Formation (Wakayama Prefecture, Outer Zone of southwest Japan). The Nishihiro Formation consists of brackish to shallow marine deposits, dated as late Barremian to Aptian from geological correlations. Spores prevail in the assemblage, representing Filicopsida (mainly Cyatheaceae and Anemiaceae), Marchantiopsida and Lycopsida. The pollen assemblage is dominated by Coniferales, whereas Gnetales and Bennettitales/Cycadales are only rarely observed. Moreover, we report angiosperm pollen grains of the genus Retimonocolpites for the first time in the Early Cretaceous sediments of Japan. Pollen grains of the Retimonocolpites Group are typical of early angiosperms and commonly found in assemblages from the early to mid-Cretaceous of all paleofloristic provinces. Until this paper, the oldest angiosperm fossils in Japan were represented by a single seed and a wood reported from the Albian of Hokkaido. The oldest reliable angiosperm pollen grains were reported in Hokkaido from the Cenomanian, and in Honshu from the Coniacian. Thus, Retimonocolpites pollen grains reported in the present study represent the oldest record of angiosperms in Japan. They indicate an appearance of the angiosperms in Japan older than thought until now, which is consistent with that proposed elsewhere in eastern Asia.

  4. [Contribution of the rapid diagnostic tests for infectious diseases to the patient management in the Great East Japan earthquake].

    PubMed

    Hatta, Masumitsu; Kaku, Mitsuo

    2012-01-01

    On 11 March 2011, an earthquake measuring 9.0 on the Richter scale off the northeast coast of Honshu Island, Japan, produced a devastating tsunami that destroyed many towns and villages near the coast in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures. Miyagi Prefecture was the area most severely devastated by the tsunami, with extensive loss of life and property; hundreds of thousands of people lost their houses and were forced to move to evacuation areas. In the days and weeks following devastating natural disasters, the threat of infectious disease outbreak is high. Rapid diagnostic tests can be performed at or near the site of patient care and the tests were very useful in this disaster, because they enabled us to manage patients appropriately in the settings where medical resources were limited. Here we report actual cases where the rapid diagnostic tests for infectious diseases were useful in the patient management. PMID:23547484

  5. Journey to Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfrey, Lorraine

    1978-01-01

    Create a variety of activities related to the country you are studying--Japan, for example--and arrange them by such subjects as art, games, creative writing, maps, dress and greetings. These activities can be tied in with classroom learning centers or stations. Here students make passports, learn about traditional styles of dress in Japan, learn…

  6. Teaching English in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitao, Kenji, Ed.; And Others

    English language instruction, which is considered very important in Japan, is offered in 90 percent of all secondary schools and is studied by almost all students, even though it is an elective subject. English is considered a cultural and commercial link with the western world and has been taught in Japan since the mid-nineteenth century. Most…

  7. A Cultural Experience: Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Robert W.; And Others

    This activities unit for teaching about Japan is designed for use with elementary students. The activities reflect the growing importance of Japan in today's world, and the belief that the social studies curriculum should reflect principles of global education. The unit is intended to explore seven major goals included in the social studies…

  8. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  9. [The Regional Health Care Strategic Plan in Nagano Prefecture: process and principles].

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Noriaki

    2014-01-01

    The Regional Health Care Strategic Plan has included mental disorders as the fifth "priority disease". Nagano Prefecture should develop its own mental health care plan. The Community Mental Health and Welfare Center is expected to support municipalities and collaborate with medical care institutions and other resources in the community. Adding mental disorders to the Regional Health Care Strategic Plan will help integrate mental health care into general health care, to improve access to psychiatric care including emergency psychiatry, and facilitate the accountability of community mental health care. The new Regional Health Care Strategic Plan plays a pivotal role in the development of community mental health care in Nagano Prefecture, with improved access to care and standardized treatment.

  10. Population-based sexual behavior surveys in China: Liuzhou compared with other prefectural cities

    PubMed Central

    Yingying, Huang; Abler, Laurie; Suiming, Pan; Henderson, Gail E.; Xin, Wang; Xingliang, Yao; Parish, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual behaviors in China are rapidly changing; simultaneously, STI/HIV prevalence is increasing in the general population. To investigate these major shifts, we examined sexual behaviors and self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STI) in one prefectural city in southern China, Liuzhou, and compared it to other prefectural cities throughout China. We used adults age 18-39 from two sets of population-based surveys that paralleled each other in both content and method. The first set was the Liuzhou survey conducted in 2008 (n=398). The second set consisted of two national surveys collected in 2006 and 2010 (n=2186). Liuzhou respondents reported more active social and sexual behaviors than their national counterparts, including more socializing, dancing, drinking excessively, sexual activity among never married men and women, purchasing commercial sex among men, one-night stands among men, multiple sexual partnerships and self-reported STI among both men and women. Women in Liuzhou reported greater sexual risk behavior than their national counterparts, although overall they reported less than their male counterparts; they were also more likely to have had an abortion than women in other prefectural cities. Our findings provide a comprehensive overview of the sexual context of Liuzhou among the general population, which may help explain the greater STI/HIV prevalence in Liuzhou. PMID:24174289

  11. Microelectronics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulton, William R.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this JTEC study is to evaluate Japan's electronic manufacturing and packaging capabilities within the context of global economic competition. To carry out this study, the JTEC panel evaluated the framework of the Japanese consumer electronics industry and various technological and organizational factors that are likely to determine who will win and lose in the marketplace. This study begins with a brief overview of the electronics industry, especially as it operates in Japan today. Succeeding chapters examine the electronics infrastructure in Japan and take an in-depth look at the central issues of product development in order to identify those parameters that will determine future directions for electronic packaging technologies.

  12. Groundwater contamination in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tase, Norio

    1992-07-01

    Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed.

  13. Molecular epidemiology of human metapneumovirus from 2009 to 2011 in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nidaira, Minoru; Taira, Katsuya; Hamabata, Hirotsune; Kawaki, Tatsuyoshi; Gushi, Kazuo; Mahoe, Youko; Maeshiro, Noriyuki; Azama, Yasuhito; Okano, Shou; Kyan, Hisako; Kudaka, Jun; Tsukagoshi, Hiroyuki; Noda, Masahiro; Kimura, Hirokazu

    2012-07-01

    To clarify the molecular epidemiology of human metapneumovirus (HMPV) in Okinawa Prefecture, located in a subtropical region of Japan, we performed genetic analysis of the F gene in HMPV from patients with acute respiratory infection from January 2009 to December 2011. HMPV was detected in 18 of 485 throat swabs (3.7%). Phylogenetic analysis showed that 17 strains belonged to subgroup A2 and 1 strain belonged to subgroup B1. We did not observe seasonal prevalence of HMPV during the investigation period. A high level of sequence identity was observed in the strains belonging to subgroup A2 (>95%), and no amino acid substitution was found compared with other strains detected in Japan and other countries. The pairwise distance values among the present strains belonging to subgroup A2 were short. Our results suggest that the predominant HMPV strains belonging to A2 are highly homologous and seasonal epidemics were not seen in Okinawa during the investigation period.

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in cattle, horses, pigs and chickens in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Kayoko; Kamai, Rika; Uetsu, Hirona; Goto, Hanyu; Takashima, Yasuhiro; Nagamune, Kisaburo

    2014-08-01

    The presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in livestock and poultry was investigated by latex agglutination tests; samples that agglutinated at dilutions of 1:64 or higher were regarded as positive. Sera were collected from fattening beef cattle (102 Japanese black, 105 crossbreeds and 114 castrated Holstein), culled dairy cattle (101 Holstein), 100 horses, 115 fattening pigs and 235 chickens (163 free-range and 72 broilers) at abattoirs in Gifu Prefecture, Japan, from August 2012 to August 2013. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 7.3% (31/422) in cattle, 5.2% (8/155) in pigs, but not in horses or chickens. These results suggest that toxoplasmosis may be transmitted to humans via consumption of T. gondii-infected raw beef in Japan. PMID:24780140

  15. Bathymetry Mapping Using Hyperspectral Data: a Case Study of Yamada Bay, Northeast Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariyasu, E.; Kakuta, S.; Takeda, T.

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to examine if the inversion method using hyperspectral data is applicable in Japan. Nowadays, overseas researchers are mainly applied an inversion method for accurately estimating water depth. It is able to gain not only water depth, but also benthic spectral reflection and inherent optical properties (IOPs) at the same time, based on physics-based radiative transfer theory for hyperspectral data. It is highly significant to understand the possibility to develop the application in future for coastal zone of main island, which is a common water quality in Japan, but there is not any case study applied this method in Japan. The study site of Yamada bay in Iwate Prefecture is located in northeast of Japan. An existed analytical model was optimized for mapping water depth in Yamada bay using airborne hyperspectral image and ground survey data which were simultaneously acquired in December, 2015. The retrieved remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs) is basically qualitatively appropriate result. However, when compared with all ground survey points, the retrieved water depth showed low correlation, even though ground points which are selected sand bottom indicates high relationship. Overall, we could understand the inversion method is applicable in Japan. However, it needs to challenge to improve solving error-caused problems.

  16. Community Revitalization by Geotourism: Tourism Study with Geoscience in Wakayama, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakakushi, T.; Hisatomi, K.; Konomatsu, M.; Furukubo, A.

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents our community-revitalization project in Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. Wakayama Prefecture is the southwestern part of the Kii Peninsula. The Kii Peninsula, especially its southern part, has many geoscientifically important natural heritages such as the volcano-plutonic complex including well exposed ring dyke in the Kumano region. Those geoheritages have been considered just as on-site educational tools, and not received enough attentions as contents for geotours. UNESCO defines that a Geopark is a geographical area where geological heritage sites are part of a holistic concept of protection, education and sustainable development. UNESCO also describes that it is necessary to also include and highlight sites of ecological, archaeological, historical and cultural value within each Geopark. In many societies, natural, cultural and social history are inextricably linked and cannot be separated. We plan to have the region registered as a geopark by Japan (or Global) Geopark Network. In the context of community-revitalization, a "regional brand" has drawn attention for its potential to attract tourists. A Geopark may contribute to establish a regional brand.

  17. Filicide and fatal abuse in Japan, 1994-2005: temporal trends and regional distribution.

    PubMed

    Yasumi, Katsuhiro; Kageyama, Jinsuke

    2009-02-01

    To describe the recent filicide features in Japan, data were collected from newspaper databases between 1994 and 2005 and compared with several official statistics. From this dataset, 933 cases and 1084 victims under age 15 were identified. Fatal abuse cases were most prevalent (309 cases, or 33.1%), followed by filicide-suicide cases (303, or 32.5%) and unwanted child cases (225, or 24.1%). Infants under the age of one were most at risk (filicide rate: 2.72 per 100,000 for the same aged infants). Annual filicide numbers showed an upward trend between 1994 and 2001 and the average filicide rate per year was 0.42 per 100,000 for children under age 15. Both the number of cases over the period and the filicide rate per year by prefecture ranged widely. Furthermore, the annual filicide rates over the period were strongly correlated with both suicide rates and unemployment rates for the general population (r=.884 and .926, respectively; p<.001 for both). The measure of filicide per region and the predominating category in a prefecture provides direction for filicide prevention. Result suggests that recent socioeconomic situations have a significant effect on not only filicide-suicide but also the overall filicide rate in Japan. PMID:19135001

  18. Burden of disease in Japan: using national and subnational data to inform local health policy.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, Stuart; Liao, Yi; Bilano, Ver; Shibuya, Kenji

    2014-05-01

    The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study has been instrumental in guiding global health policy development since the early 1990s. The GBD 2010 project provided rich information about the key causes of mortality, disability-adjusted life years, and their associated risk factors in Japan and provided a unique opportunity to incorporate these data into health planning. As part of the latest update of this project, GBD 2013, the Japanese GBD collaborators plan to update and refine the available burden of disease data by incorporating sub-national estimates of the burden of disease at the prefectural level. These estimates will provide health planners and policy makers at both the national and prefectural level with new, more refined tools to adapt local public health initiatives to meet the health needs of local populations. Moreover, they will enable the Japanese health system to better respond to the unique challenges in their rapidly aging population and as a complex combination of non-communicable disease risk factors begin to dominate the policy agenda. Regional collaborations will enable nations to learn from the experiences of other nations that may be at different stages of the epidemiological transition and have different exposure profiles and associated health effects. Such analyses and improvements in the data collection systems will further improve the health of the Japanese, maintain Japan's excellent record of health equity, and provide a better understanding of the direction of health policy in the region.

  19. Isolation and characterization of a novel Rhabdovirus from a wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kouji; Hagiwara, Katsuro; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Hamasaki, Chinami; Kuwata, Ryusei; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kazuo; Endoh, Daiji; Nagata, Noriyo; Nagai, Makoto; Katayama, Yukie; Oba, Mami; Kurane, Ichiro; Saijo, Masayuki; Morikawa, Shigeru; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Maeda, Ken

    2015-09-30

    A novel rhabdovirus was isolated from the serum of a healthy Japanese wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax) and identified using the rapid determination system for viral nucleic acid sequences (RDV), next-generation sequencing, and electron microscopy. The virus was tentatively named wild boar rhabdovirus 1 (WBRV1). Phylogenetic analysis of the entire genome sequence indicated that WBRV1 is closely related to Tupaia rhabdovirus (TRV), which was isolated from cultured cells of hepatocellular carcinoma tissue of tree shrew. TRV has not been assigned to any genus of Rhabdoviridae till date. Analysis of the L gene indicated that WBRV1 belongs to the genus Vesiculovirus. These observations suggest that both TRV and WBRV1 belong to a new genus of Rhabdoviridae. Next-generation genome sequencing of WBRV1 revealed 5 open reading frames of 1329, 765, 627, 1629, and 6336 bases in length. The WBRV1 gene sequences are similar to those of other rhabdoviruses. Epizootiological analysis of a population of wild boars in Wakayama prefecture in Japan indicated that 6.5% were positive for the WBRV1 gene and 52% were positive for WBRV1-neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, such viral neutralizing antibodies were found in domestic pigs in another prefecture. WBRV1 was inoculated intranasally and intraperitoneally into SCID and BALB/c mice and viral RNA was detected in SCID mice, suggesting that WBRV1 can replicate in immunocompromised mice. These results indicate this novel virus is endemic in wild animals and livestock in Japan.

  20. Investigating the health care delivery system in Japan and reviewing the local public hospital reform.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xing; Oyama, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    Japan's health care system is considered one of the best health care systems in the world. Hospitals are one of the most important health care resources in Japan. As such, we investigate Japanese hospitals from various viewpoints, including their roles, ownership, regional distribution, and characteristics with respect to the number of beds, staff, doctors, and financial performance. Applying a multivariate analysis and regression model techniques, we show the functional differences between urban populated prefectures and remote ones; the equality gap among all prefectures with respect to the distribution of the number of beds, staff, and doctors; and managerial differences between private and public hospitals. We also review and evaluate the local public hospital reform executed in 2007 from various financial aspects related to the expenditure and revenue structure by comparing public and private hospitals. We show that the 2007 reform contributed to improving the financial situation of local public hospitals. Strategic differences between public and private hospitals with respect to their management and strategy to improve their financial situation are also quantitatively analyzed in detail. Finally, the remaining problems and the future strategy to further improve the Japanese health care system are described. PMID:27051323

  1. GPM Arrives in Japan

    NASA Video Gallery

    An international satellite that will set a new standard for global precipitation measurements from space has completed a 7,300-mile journey from the United States to Japan, where it now will underg...

  2. Prison psychiatry in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakuta, T

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses and provides statistics, on a comparative basis, of crime trends in Japan with special reference to mentally disordered offenders. It also highlights some of the problems experienced by prison psychiatrists.

  3. Possible Prevention of Neonatal Death: A Regional Population-Based Study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yanagi, Takahide; Ono, Tetsuo; Tsuji, Shunichiro; Takahashi, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The neonatal mortality rate in Japan has currently been at the lowest level in the world. However, it is unclear whether there are still some potentially preventable neonatal deaths. We, therefore, aimed to examine the backgrounds of neonatal death and the possibilities of prevention in a region of Japan. Materials and Methods This is a population-based study of neonatal death in Shiga Prefecture of Japan. Results The 103 neonatal deaths in our prefecture between 2007 and 2011 were included. After reviewing by a peer-review team, we classified the backgrounds of these neonatal deaths and analyzed end-of-life care approaches associated with prenatal diagnosis. Furthermore, we evaluated the possibilities of preventable neonatal death, suggesting specific recommendations for its prevention. We analyzed 102 (99%) of the neonatal deaths. Congenital malformations and extreme prematurity were the first and the second most common causes of death, respectively. More than half of the congenital abnormalities (59%) including malformations and chromosome abnormality had been diagnosed before births. We had 22 neonates with non-intensive care including eighteen cases with congenital abnormality and four with extreme prematurity. Twenty three cases were judged to have had some possibility of prevention with one having had a strong possibility of prevention. Among specific recommendations of preventable neonatal death, more than half of them were for obstetricians. Conclusion There is room to reduce neonatal deaths in Japan. Prevention of neonatal death requires grater prenatal care by obstetricians before birth rather than improved neonatal care by neonatologists after birth. PMID:26847296

  4. Geographical distribution of radiotherapy resources in Japan: investigating the inequitable distribution of human resources by using the Gini coefficient.

    PubMed

    Tanikawa, Takumi; Ohba, Hisateru; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko; Okuda, Yasuo; Ando, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    This is a pilot study that aims to elucidate regional disparities in the distribution of medical resources in Japan. For this purpose, we employed the Gini coefficient (GC) in order to analyze the distribution of radiotherapy resources, which are allocated to each prefecture in Japan depending on the size of its population or physical area. Our study used data obtained from the 2005 and 2007 national surveys on the structure of radiation oncology in Japan, conducted by the Japanese Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (JASTRO). Our analysis showed that the regional disparities regarding the radiation oncologists and radiotherapy technologists were small, and concluded that such resources were almost equitably distributed. However, medical physicists are inequitably distributed. Thus, policymakers should create and implement measures to train and retain medical physicists in areas with limited radiotherapy resources. Further, almost 26% of the secondary medical service areas lacked radiotherapy institutions. We attribute this observation to the existence of tertiary medical service areas, and almost all of prefectures face a shortage of such resources. Therefore, patients' accessibility to these resources in such areas should be improved.

  5. [Historical research of cinchona cultivation in Japan (1): first trial cultivation in Japan in the early Meiji period recorded in Nomutenmatsu].

    PubMed

    Nagumo, Seiji; Sasaki, Yohei; Izawa, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Cinchona is known as a magic bullet for malaria and its cultivation was dominated by Java on a global scale in the 19th century. In 1875, in accordance with a suggestion by Takeaki Enomoto, the Meiji government made a request to the Dutch government that cinchona seedlings be distributed to Japan. In response to that request, in 1876, 42 cinchona seedlings arrived in Yokohama from Java. It was the first time cinchona seedlings were shipped to Japan. After that, cinchona seeds and seedlings were shipped to Japan a total of three times between 1876 and 1883. The seeds shipped in 1878 were raised at the Nishigahara Agricultural Experiment Station and then planted at nine places in both Okinawa and Kagoshima Prefectures in 1882. The planter was Yasusada Tashiro. However, all of the planted seedlings had died by 1884. The first national farming plan of cinchona in Japan ended in failure. These matters were found in documents included in Nomutenmatsu compiled by the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce of the Meiji government in 1888.

  6. Nationwide Distribution of Bovine Influenza D Virus Infection in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Horimoto, Taisuke; Hiono, Takahiro; Mekata, Hirohisa; Odagiri, Tomoha; Lei, Zhihao; Kobayashi, Tomoya; Norimine, Junzo; Inoshima, Yasuo; Hikono, Hirokazu; Murakami, Kenji; Sato, Reiichiro; Murakami, Hironobu; Sakaguchi, Masahiro; Ishii, Kazunori; Ando, Takaaki; Otomaru, Kounosuke; Ozawa, Makoto; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Murakami, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Cattle are major reservoirs of the provisionally named influenza D virus, which is potentially involved in the bovine respiratory disease complex. Here, we conducted a serological survey for the influenza D virus in Japan, using archived bovine serum samples collected during 2010–2016 from several herds of apparently healthy cattle in various regions of the country. We found sero-positive cattle across all years and in all the prefectural regions tested, with a total positivity rate of 30.5%, although the positivity rates varied among regions (13.5–50.0%). There was no significant difference in positivity rates for Holstein and Japanese Black cattle. Positivity rates tended to increase with cattle age. The herds were clearly divided into two groups: those with a high positive rate and those with a low (or no) positive rate, indicating that horizontal transmission of the virus occurs readily within a herd. These data demonstrate that bovine influenza D viruses have been in circulation for at least 5 years countrywide, emphasizing its ubiquitous distribution in the cattle population of Japan. PMID:27682422

  7. Blood Donor Deferral among Students in Northern Japan: Challenges Ahead

    PubMed Central

    Ngoma, Alain Mayindu; Goto, Aya; Nollet, Kenneth E.; Sawamura, Yoshihiro; Ohto, Hitoshi; Yasumura, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background As Japan's aging society needs more blood, young students comprise a progressively smaller portion of the donor pool. To ensure a safe and sustainable blood supply, it is crucial to select suitable donors. This study aims to evaluate donor deferral rates, causes of deferral, and characteristics of deferred Japanese students. Methods Computerized records of blood centers in northern Japan (Miyagi and Fukushima Prefectures) from March 2010 through March 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Results Among 231,361 individuals visiting during the 12-month period, 24,778 were students. Of these, 19,193 (77%) attempted donation, and 5,585 (23%) were deferred. Low hemoglobin, questionnaire-based interview decisions, and medication were the main reasons for temporary deferral. Age, sex, and blood center location were associated with low hemoglobin; donation history and blood center location were associated with medication-based deferral. The odds ratio among female students deferred for low hemoglobin was 35.48 with a 95% CI of 27.74–45.38. Conclusions These results suggest that continued efforts are needed to motivate deferred potential donors to return, to prevent low hemoglobin especially among females, and to review medical interview decisions, while paying close attention to regional differences. PMID:25254020

  8. PRESENT CONDITION AND MEASURES TO EXPAND OF VOLUNTARY AGREEMENT ON PLASTIC SHOPPING BAGS REDUCTION AT THE PREFECTURAL LEVEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Mayuka; Kanaya, Ken

    Purpose of this research is to clear present condition and measures to expand of voluntary agreement on plastic shopping bags reduction at the prefectural level. Methods of this research are questionnaire survey to prefectures implementing the agreement and survey by i town page to the number of stores of companies and the number of companies in the prefectures. Findings of this research are as follows: 1. The refusal rate of plastic shopping bags was 10-40% before the implementation of voluntary agreements. And the rate is approximately 70-90% after the implementation. Therefore, before and after the implementation of voluntary agreements, the refusal rate of plastic shopping bags is approximately 40-70% less. 2. It is suggested that the time and number of meetings from proposal to conclusion of the agreement are related in some way, to the ratio of stores participating. On the participation of administration, the ratio of stores participating in the case in which prefecture and cities participate is higher than in the case in which prefecture participates.

  9. Immigrants' experiences of maternity care in Japan.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Yukari; Horiuchi, Shigeko; Porter, Sarah E

    2013-08-01

    Language and cultural differences can negatively impact immigrant women's birth experience. However, little is known about their experiences in Japan's highly homogenous culture. This cross-sectional study used survey data from a purposive sampling of immigrant women from 16 hospitals in several Japanese prefectures. Meeting the criteria and recruited to this study were 804 participants consisting of 236 immigrant women: Chinese (n = 83), Brazilian (n = 62), Filipino (n = 43), South Korean (n = 29) and from variety of English speaking nations (n = 19) and 568 Japanese women. The questionnaire was prepared in six languages: Japanese (kana syllables), Chinese, English, Korean, Portuguese, and Tagalog (Filipino). Associations among quality of maternity care, Japanese literacy level, loneliness and care satisfaction were explored using analysis of variance and multiple linear regression. The valid and reliable instruments used were Quality of Care for Pregnancy, Delivery and Postpartum Questionnaire, Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine Japanese version, the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale-Japanese version and Care satisfaction. Care was evaluated across prenatal, labor and delivery and post-partum periods. Immigrant women scored higher than Japanese women for both positive and negative aspects. When loneliness was strongly felt, care satisfaction was lower. Some competence of Japanese literacy was more likely to obstruct positive communication with healthcare providers, and was associated with loneliness. Immigrant women rated overall care as satisfactory. Japanese literacy decreased communication with healthcare providers, and was associated with loneliness presumably because some literacy unreasonably increased health care providers' expectations of a higher level of communication.

  10. Natural disasters and suicide: evidence from Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Tetsuya; Sawada, Yasuyuki; Ueda, Michiko

    2013-04-01

    Previous research shows no consensus as to whether and how natural disasters affect suicide rates in their aftermath. Using prefecture-level panel data of natural disasters and suicide in Japan between 1982 and 2010, we estimate both contemporaneous and lagged effects of natural disasters on the suicide rates of various demographic groups. We find that when the damage caused by natural disasters is extremely large, as in the case of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in 1995, suicide rates tend to increase in the immediate aftermath of the disaster and several years later. However, when the damage by natural disasters is less severe, suicide rates tend to decrease after the disasters, especially one or two years later. Thus, natural disasters affect the suicide rates of affected populations in a complicated way, depending on the severity of damages as well as on how many years have passed since the disaster. We also find that the effects of natural disasters on suicide rates vary considerably across demographic groups, which suggests that some population subgroups are more vulnerable to the impact of natural disasters than others. We then test the possibility that natural disasters enhance people's willingness to help others in society, an effect that may work as a protective factor against disaster victims' suicidal risks. We find that natural disasters increase the level of social ties in affected communities, which may mitigate some of the adverse consequence of natural disasters, resulting in a decline in suicide rates. Our findings also indicate that when natural disasters are highly destructive and disruptive, such protective features of social connectedness are unlikely to be enough to compensate for the severe negative impact of disasters on health outcomes.

  11. Advances in Japanese pear breeding in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is one of the most widely grown fruit trees in Japan, and it has been used throughout Japan’s history. The commercial production of pears increased rapidly with the successive discoveries of the chance seedling cultivars ‘Chojuro’ and ‘Nijisseiki’ around 1890, and the development of new cultivars has continued since 1915. The late-maturing, leading cultivars ‘Niitaka’ and ‘Shinko’ were released during the initial breeding stage. Furthermore, systematic breeding by the Horticultural Research Station (currently, NARO Institute of Fruit Tree Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NIFTS)) began in 1935, which mainly aimed to improve fruit quality by focusing on flesh texture and black spot disease resistance. To date, 22 cultivars have been released, including ‘Kosui’, ‘Hosui’, and ‘Akizuki’, which are current leading cultivars from the breeding program. Four induced mutant cultivars induced by gamma irradiation, which exhibit some resistance to black spot disease, were released from the Institute of Radiation Breeding. Among these cultivars, ‘Gold Nijisseiki’ has become a leading cultivar. Moreover, ‘Nansui’ from the Nagano prefectural institute breeding program was released, and it has also become a leading cultivar. Current breeding objectives at NIFTS mainly combine superior fruit quality with traits related to labor and cost reduction, multiple disease resistance, or self-compatibility. Regarding future breeding, marker-assisted selection for each trait, QTL analyses, genome-wide association studies, and genomic selection analyses are currently in progress. PMID:27069390

  12. Geo-Demography of HIV/AIDS in Japan from 1985 to 2011: Incidence and Transmission Mode under Influence of Population Size/Density.

    PubMed

    Yoshikura, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    A stable relation was found between number of HIV/AIDS patients (P) and population size (N) and between HIV/AIDS incidence (I) and population density (D). The relation could be expressed as P = kN(m) or I = hD(n), where k, h, m, and n are constants. For "AIDS"/"AIDS diagnosis", the constant m was 1.5 for Japan and 1.3 for the United States of America (USA); n was 0.38 for both Japan and the USA. These observations indicated that larger population sizes related to disproportionately larger numbers of HIV/AIDS patients, and denser populations had disproportionately higher incidences of HIV/AIDS. Considering the wide geo-demographic difference between the two countries, it was striking that the same equations with constants within a narrow range were applicable to both Japan and the USA. Modes of HIV transmission appeared to be variable among prefectures in Japan. Homosexual transmission was suggested as being more predominant in more populated prefectures.

  13. Recent trends in population-based cancer registries in Japan: the Act on Promotion of Cancer Registries and drastic changes in the historical registry.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Tomohiro; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2015-02-01

    Cancer registration in Japan has a long history spanning over 60 years; the first population-based cancer registry was established in Miyagi prefecture in 1951. The progress made in the regional population-based cancer registries in terms of standardization and quality improvement during the 10 years of the third comprehensive strategy for cancer control was highlighted in the history of cancer registration in Japan. However, there were still weak points regarding local government-oriented cancer registries that remained, e.g., the reporting of cancer cases to the population-based cancer registries was not a mandatory task for medical institutions. After the Cancer Control Act in 2006, the Act on Promotion of Cancer Registries was finally enacted in Japan on December 6, 2013. According to that Act, hospital managers must report information on any primary cancer that was first diagnosed in their institutions from January 1, 2016 to the prefectural governors. Given the increasing number of cases and amount of information recorded, it would have been almost impossible to maintain our cancer registries using the same system, and changes were required to obtain reliable cancer statistics. This was particularly important in Japan, because the country is facing a hyper-aging society, with two to three million cancer patients requiring entry of detailed information. We appreciate the long history of the Japanese cancer registry, but it is necessary to make dramatic changes to bring the registry up to date and to be able to track the increasing amount of information.

  14. Reintroduction of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus by migratory water birds, causing poultry outbreaks in the 2010-2011 winter season in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Ito, Hiroshi; Uchida, Yuko; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Soda, Kosuke; Nomura, Naoki; Kuribayashi, Saya; Shichinohe, Shintaro; Sunden, Yuji; Umemura, Takashi; Usui, Tatsufumi; Ozaki, Hiroichi; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Murase, Toshiyuki; Ito, Toshihiro; Saito, Takehiko; Takada, Ayato; Kida, Hiroshi

    2012-03-01

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) was reintroduced and caused outbreaks in chickens in the 2010-2011 winter season in Japan, which had been free from highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) since 2007 when HPAI outbreaks occurred and were controlled. On 14 October 2010 at Lake Ohnuma, Wakkanai, the northernmost part of Hokkaido, Japan, H5N1 HPAIVs were isolated from faecal samples of ducks flying from their nesting lakes in Siberia. Since then, in Japan, H5N1 HPAIVs have been isolated from 63 wild birds in 17 prefectures and caused HPAI outbreaks in 24 chicken farms in nine prefectures by the end of March in 2011. Each of these isolates was genetically closely related to the HPAIV isolates at Lake Ohnuma, and those in China, Mongolia, Russia and Korea, belonging to genetic clade 2.3.2.1. In addition, these isolates were genetically classified into three groups, suggesting that the viruses were transmitted by migratory water birds through at least three different routes from their northern territory to Japan. These isolates were antigenic variants, which is consistent with selection in poultry under the immunological pressure induced by vaccination. To prevent the perpetuation of viruses in the lakes where water birds nest in summer in Siberia, prompt eradication of HPAIVs in poultry is urgently needed in Asian countries where HPAI has not been controlled.

  15. Specific needs for telestroke networks for thrombolytic therapy in Japan.

    PubMed

    Imai, Takeshi; Sakurai, Kenzo; Hagiwara, Yuta; Mizukami, Heisuke; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    The concept of telestroke networks has been proposed to overcome regional disparities in stroke treatment. Such networks do not yet operate in Japan. We aimed to determine the specific needs for telestroke networks and to estimate the effects on the number of thrombolytic therapies. Five of the 47 Japanese prefectures with various population densities to estimate the nationwide effect of telestroke networks were selected. The questionnaire survey was administered at hospitals in these prefectures that are authorized to admit patients with acute stroke. Low-volume hospitals that annually treated fewer than 12 patients with acute stroke had never used tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). The number of days when telestroke support might have been needed varied depending on the size of the population aged 65 years or older within a 30-minute-driving-time area of a hospital and the annual number of patients treated within 3 hours of onset. The geographic information system analysis showed that .6%-8.3% of the population lived in areas where they could not reach a hospital for acute stroke treatment within 60 minutes. If 24/7 full telestroke support was introduced to the existing hospitals, 6.8-69.3 more patients could be treated by intravenous (IV) tPA annually. These numbers exceeded the estimated annual increases of .8-13.7 more patients if a drip-and-ship telestroke network was introduced into an underserved area outside the 60-minute-driving-time area. This study uncovered that many Japanese stroke hospitals, especially low-volume facilities located in rural areas, do not perform IV tPA therapy in 24/7 fashion and telestroke support to these hospitals may be highly effective compared with the drip-and-ship network in an underserved area.

  16. Space robotics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittaker, William; Lowrie, James W.; Mccain, Harry; Bejczy, Antal; Sheridan, Tom; Kanade, Takeo; Allen, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Japan has been one of the most successful countries in the world in the realm of terrestrial robot applications. The panel found that Japan has in place a broad base of robotics research and development, ranging from components to working systems for manufacturing, construction, and human service industries. From this base, Japan looks to the use of robotics in space applications and has funded work in space robotics since the mid-1980's. The Japanese are focusing on a clear image of what they hope to achieve through three objectives for the 1990's: developing long-reach manipulation for tending experiments on Space Station Freedom, capturing satellites using a free-flying manipulator, and surveying part of the moon with a mobile robot. This focus and a sound robotics infrastructure is enabling the young Japanese space program to develop relevant systems for extraterrestrial robotics applications.

  17. Cultural Astronomy in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renshaw, Steven L.

    While Japan is known more for its contributions to modern astronomy than its archaeoastronomical sites, there is still much about the culture's heritage that is of interest in the study of cultural astronomy. This case study provides an overview of historical considerations necessary to understand the place of astronomy in Japanese society as well as methodological considerations that highlight traditional approaches that have at times been a barrier to interdisciplinary research. Some specific areas of study in the cultural astronomy of Japan are discussed including examples of contemporary research based on interdisciplinary approaches. Japan provides a fascinating background for scholars who are willing to go beyond their curiosity for sites of alignment and approach the culture with a desire to place astronomical iconography in social context.

  18. The internationalization of Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Kuroki, T.E.

    1989-01-01

    There are growing tensions and frictions between the U.S. and Japan. Among them are science and technology issues that relate to the development of superconductor technology, as well as economic, trade and agricultural issues. The structure of this friction is very complex. There are many interconnected issues that cannot be resolved one by one. This article focuses on the relationship between the U.S. and Japan. Some of the complexities behind the issues are discussed by defining different notions of internationalization and by presenting the positive and negative aspects of the Japanese approach that affects the future cooperation and competition between our nations in the area of superconductivity.

  19. Measurement and comparison of individual external doses of high-school students living in Japan, France, Poland and Belarus-the 'D-shuttle' project.

    PubMed

    Adachi, N; Adamovitch, V; Adjovi, Y; Aida, K; Akamatsu, H; Akiyama, S; Akli, A; Ando, A; Andrault, T; Antonietti, H; Anzai, S; Arkoun, G; Avenoso, C; Ayrault, D; Banasiewicz, M; Banaśkiewicz, M; Bernardini, L; Bernard, E; Berthet, E; Blanchard, M; Boreyko, D; Boros, K; Charron, S; Cornette, P; Czerkas, K; Dameron, M; Date, I; De Pontbriand, M; Demangeau, F; Dobaczewski, Ł; Dobrzyński, L; Ducouret, A; Dziedzic, M; Ecalle, A; Edon, V; Endo, K; Endo, T; Endo, Y; Etryk, D; Fabiszewska, M; Fang, S; Fauchier, D; Felici, F; Fujiwara, Y; Gardais, C; Gaul, W; Gurin, L; Hakoda, R; Hamamatsu, I; Handa, K; Haneda, H; Hara, T; Hashimoto, M; Hashimoto, T; Hashimoto, K; Hata, D; Hattori, M; Hayano, R; Hayashi, R; Higasi, H; Hiruta, M; Honda, A; Horikawa, Y; Horiuchi, H; Hozumi, Y; Ide, M; Ihara, S; Ikoma, T; Inohara, Y; Itazu, M; Ito, A; Janvrin, J; Jout, I; Kanda, H; Kanemori, G; Kanno, M; Kanomata, N; Kato, T; Kato, S; Katsu, J; Kawasaki, Y; Kikuchi, K; Kilian, P; Kimura, N; Kiya, M; Klepuszewski, M; Kluchnikov, E; Kodama, Y; Kokubun, R; Konishi, F; Konno, A; Kontsevoy, V; Koori, A; Koutaka, A; Kowol, A; Koyama, Y; Kozioł, M; Kozue, M; Kravtchenko, O; Kruczała, W; Kudła, M; Kudo, H; Kumagai, R; Kurogome, K; Kurosu, A; Kuse, M; Lacombe, A; Lefaillet, E; Magara, M; Malinowska, J; Malinowski, M; Maroselli, V; Masui, Y; Matsukawa, K; Matsuya, K; Matusik, B; Maulny, M; Mazur, P; Miyake, C; Miyamoto, Y; Miyata, K; Miyata, K; Miyazaki, M; Molȩda, M; Morioka, T; Morita, E; Muto, K; Nadamoto, H; Nadzikiewicz, M; Nagashima, K; Nakade, M; Nakayama, C; Nakazawa, H; Nihei, Y; Nikul, R; Niwa, S; Niwa, O; Nogi, M; Nomura, K; Ogata, D; Ohguchi, H; Ohno, J; Okabe, M; Okada, M; Okada, Y; Omi, N; Onodera, H; Onodera, K; Ooki, S; Oonishi, K; Oonuma, H; Ooshima, H; Oouchi, H; Orsucci, M; Paoli, M; Penaud, M; Perdrisot, C; Petit, M; Piskowski, A; Płocharski, A; Polis, A; Polti, L; Potsepnia, T; Przybylski, D; Pytel, M; Quillet, W; Remy, A; Robert, C; Sadowski, M; Saito, M; Sakuma, D; Sano, K; Sasaki, Y; Sato, N; Schneider, T; Schneider, C; Schwartzman, K; Selivanov, E; Sezaki, M; Shiroishi, K; Shustava, I; Śniecińska, A; Stalchenko, E; Staroń, A; Stromboni, M; Studzińska, W; Sugisaki, H; Sukegawa, T; Sumida, M; Suzuki, Y; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, R; Suzuki, H; Suzuki, K; Świderski, W; Szudejko, M; Szymaszek, M; Tada, J; Taguchi, H; Takahashi, K; Tanaka, D; Tanaka, G; Tanaka, S; Tanino, K; Tazbir, K; Tcesnokova, N; Tgawa, N; Toda, N; Tsuchiya, H; Tsukamoto, H; Tsushima, T; Tsutsumi, K; Umemura, H; Uno, M; Usui, A; Utsumi, H; Vaucelle, M; Wada, Y; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, S; Watase, K; Witkowski, M; Yamaki, T; Yamamoto, J; Yamamoto, T; Yamashita, M; Yanai, M; Yasuda, K; Yoshida, Y; Yoshida, A; Yoshimura, K; Żmijewska, M; Zuclarelli, E

    2016-03-01

    Twelve high schools in Japan (of which six are in Fukushima Prefecture), four in France, eight in Poland and two in Belarus cooperated in the measurement and comparison of individual external doses in 2014. In total 216 high-school students and teachers participated in the study. Each participant wore an electronic personal dosimeter 'D-shuttle' for two weeks, and kept a journal of his/her whereabouts and activities. The distributions of annual external doses estimated for each region overlap with each other, demonstrating that the personal external individual doses in locations where residence is currently allowed in Fukushima Prefecture and in Belarus are well within the range of estimated annual doses due to the terrestrial background radiation level of other regions/countries. PMID:26613195

  20. Measurement and comparison of individual external doses of high-school students living in Japan, France, Poland and Belarus-the 'D-shuttle' project.

    PubMed

    Adachi, N; Adamovitch, V; Adjovi, Y; Aida, K; Akamatsu, H; Akiyama, S; Akli, A; Ando, A; Andrault, T; Antonietti, H; Anzai, S; Arkoun, G; Avenoso, C; Ayrault, D; Banasiewicz, M; Banaśkiewicz, M; Bernardini, L; Bernard, E; Berthet, E; Blanchard, M; Boreyko, D; Boros, K; Charron, S; Cornette, P; Czerkas, K; Dameron, M; Date, I; De Pontbriand, M; Demangeau, F; Dobaczewski, Ł; Dobrzyński, L; Ducouret, A; Dziedzic, M; Ecalle, A; Edon, V; Endo, K; Endo, T; Endo, Y; Etryk, D; Fabiszewska, M; Fang, S; Fauchier, D; Felici, F; Fujiwara, Y; Gardais, C; Gaul, W; Gurin, L; Hakoda, R; Hamamatsu, I; Handa, K; Haneda, H; Hara, T; Hashimoto, M; Hashimoto, T; Hashimoto, K; Hata, D; Hattori, M; Hayano, R; Hayashi, R; Higasi, H; Hiruta, M; Honda, A; Horikawa, Y; Horiuchi, H; Hozumi, Y; Ide, M; Ihara, S; Ikoma, T; Inohara, Y; Itazu, M; Ito, A; Janvrin, J; Jout, I; Kanda, H; Kanemori, G; Kanno, M; Kanomata, N; Kato, T; Kato, S; Katsu, J; Kawasaki, Y; Kikuchi, K; Kilian, P; Kimura, N; Kiya, M; Klepuszewski, M; Kluchnikov, E; Kodama, Y; Kokubun, R; Konishi, F; Konno, A; Kontsevoy, V; Koori, A; Koutaka, A; Kowol, A; Koyama, Y; Kozioł, M; Kozue, M; Kravtchenko, O; Kruczała, W; Kudła, M; Kudo, H; Kumagai, R; Kurogome, K; Kurosu, A; Kuse, M; Lacombe, A; Lefaillet, E; Magara, M; Malinowska, J; Malinowski, M; Maroselli, V; Masui, Y; Matsukawa, K; Matsuya, K; Matusik, B; Maulny, M; Mazur, P; Miyake, C; Miyamoto, Y; Miyata, K; Miyata, K; Miyazaki, M; Molȩda, M; Morioka, T; Morita, E; Muto, K; Nadamoto, H; Nadzikiewicz, M; Nagashima, K; Nakade, M; Nakayama, C; Nakazawa, H; Nihei, Y; Nikul, R; Niwa, S; Niwa, O; Nogi, M; Nomura, K; Ogata, D; Ohguchi, H; Ohno, J; Okabe, M; Okada, M; Okada, Y; Omi, N; Onodera, H; Onodera, K; Ooki, S; Oonishi, K; Oonuma, H; Ooshima, H; Oouchi, H; Orsucci, M; Paoli, M; Penaud, M; Perdrisot, C; Petit, M; Piskowski, A; Płocharski, A; Polis, A; Polti, L; Potsepnia, T; Przybylski, D; Pytel, M; Quillet, W; Remy, A; Robert, C; Sadowski, M; Saito, M; Sakuma, D; Sano, K; Sasaki, Y; Sato, N; Schneider, T; Schneider, C; Schwartzman, K; Selivanov, E; Sezaki, M; Shiroishi, K; Shustava, I; Śniecińska, A; Stalchenko, E; Staroń, A; Stromboni, M; Studzińska, W; Sugisaki, H; Sukegawa, T; Sumida, M; Suzuki, Y; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, R; Suzuki, H; Suzuki, K; Świderski, W; Szudejko, M; Szymaszek, M; Tada, J; Taguchi, H; Takahashi, K; Tanaka, D; Tanaka, G; Tanaka, S; Tanino, K; Tazbir, K; Tcesnokova, N; Tgawa, N; Toda, N; Tsuchiya, H; Tsukamoto, H; Tsushima, T; Tsutsumi, K; Umemura, H; Uno, M; Usui, A; Utsumi, H; Vaucelle, M; Wada, Y; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, S; Watase, K; Witkowski, M; Yamaki, T; Yamamoto, J; Yamamoto, T; Yamashita, M; Yanai, M; Yasuda, K; Yoshida, Y; Yoshida, A; Yoshimura, K; Żmijewska, M; Zuclarelli, E

    2016-03-01

    Twelve high schools in Japan (of which six are in Fukushima Prefecture), four in France, eight in Poland and two in Belarus cooperated in the measurement and comparison of individual external doses in 2014. In total 216 high-school students and teachers participated in the study. Each participant wore an electronic personal dosimeter 'D-shuttle' for two weeks, and kept a journal of his/her whereabouts and activities. The distributions of annual external doses estimated for each region overlap with each other, demonstrating that the personal external individual doses in locations where residence is currently allowed in Fukushima Prefecture and in Belarus are well within the range of estimated annual doses due to the terrestrial background radiation level of other regions/countries.

  1. Current Measures on Radioactive Contamination in Japan: A Policy Situation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gilmour, Stuart; Miyagawa, Shoji; Kasuga, Fumiko; Shibuya, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Background The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11th March 2011 and the subsequent Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant disaster caused radioactive contamination in the surrounding environment. In the immediate aftermath of the accident the Government of Japan placed strict measures on radio-contamination of food, and enhanced radio-contamination monitoring activities. Japan is a pilot country in the WHO Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG), and through this initiative has an opportunity to report on policy affecting chemicals and toxins in the food distribution network. Nuclear accidents are extremely rare, and a policy situation analysis of the Japanese government’s response to the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident is a responsibility of Japanese scientists. This study aims to assess Japan government policies to reduce radio-contamination risk and to identify strategies to strengthen food policies to ensure the best possible response to possible future radiation accidents. Methods and Findings We conducted a hand search of all publicly available policy documents issued by the Cabinet Office, the Food Safety Commission, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW), the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery (MAFF) and prefectural governments concerning food safety standards and changes to radiation and contamination standards since March 11th, 2011. We extracted information on food shipment and sales restrictions, allowable radio-contamination limits, monitoring activities and monitoring results. The standard for allowable radioactive cesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) of 100 Bq/Kg in general food, 50 Bq/Kg in infant formula and all milk products, and 10 Bq/Kg in drinking water was enforced from April 2012 under the Food Sanitation Law, although a provisional standard on radio-contamination had been applied since the nuclear accident. Restrictions on the commercial sale and distribution of specific meat, vegetable and fish products

  2. The convenience of temporary housing complexes in Iwate Prefecture constructed after the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibutani, Risa; Endo, Noriaki

    2014-06-01

    This study compares the convenience of temporary housing complexes in the Iwate Prefecture following the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake. The study was targeted at three major cities in the southern coastal area of Iwate Prefecture, namely, Kamaishi, Ofunato, and Rikuzen- Takata, that were most heavily struck by the earthquake-triggered tsunami. We conducted a network analysis in geographical information system software using the coordinate data of several daily infrastructures. Temporary housing complexes within the defined service area of each infrastructure were assigned a score of 1.00. The main findings are summarized below: 1) The temporary housing complexes in Rikuzen-Takata City were less accessible to infrastructures (as evidenced by the low coverage area of 1.00 scores) than the other investigated cities. 2) The scores of Kamaishi City and Ofunato City were statistically similar, but complexes in Ofunato City were surrounded by slightly more infrastructures (greater coverage area of 1.00 scores) than Kamaishi City. 3) We identified more than the predicted number of blank areas in the targeted areas. Thus, we consider that support services for people living in such areas are urgently required, especially in the realms of daily shopping, banking, and healthcare.

  3. Nuclear accident-derived (3)H in river water of Fukushima Prefecture during 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Shinji; Hasegawa, Hidenao; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Ochiai, Shinya; Akata, Naofumi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2015-08-01

    During 2011-2014, we measured (3)H concentrations in river water samples collected during base flow conditions and during several flood events from two small rivers in a mountainous area in Fukushima Prefecture, which received deposition of (137)Cs from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. (3)H concentrations above background levels were found in water samples collected during both base flow conditions and flood events in 2011. The (3)H concentrations during flood events were generally higher than those during base flow conditions. The (3)H concentrations in both rivers during base flow conditions and flood events decreased with time after the accident and reached almost background levels in 2013. We also measured (3)H concentrations in freshwater samples from 16 other rivers and one dam in eastern Fukushima Prefecture from 2012 to 2014 during base flow conditions. The measured (3)H concentrations were higher than the background level in 2012 and decreased with time. The (137)Cs inventory in the catchment area at each sampling point was estimated from air-borne monitoring results in the literature and compared with the (3)H concentrations. We found surprisingly good correlations between (137)Cs inventories in the catchment areas and (3)H concentrations in the water samples. Further studies will be necessary to clarify the reason for the good correlation.

  4. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol,...

  5. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol,...

  6. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol,...

  7. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol,...

  8. Neighborhood Characteristics and Cardiovascular Risk among Older People in Japan: Findings from the JAGES Project

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Yosuke; Stickley, Andrew; Yazawa, Aki; Shirai, Kokoro; Amemiya, Airi; Kondo, Naoki; Kondo, Katsunori; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Hanazato, Masamichi; Suzuki, Norimichi; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found an association between neighborhood characteristics (i.e., aspects of the physical and social environment) and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and elevated CVD risk. This study investigated the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and CVD risk among older people in Japan where research on this association is scarce. Data came from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study project; questionnaire data collected from 3,810 people aged 65 years or older living in 20 primary school districts in Aichi prefecture, Japan, was linked to a computed composite CVD risk score based on biomarker data (i.e., hemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and estimated glomerular filtration rate). A sex-stratified multilevel linear regression analysis revealed that for male participants, living in neighborhoods with a higher perceived occurrence of traffic accidents and reduced personal safety was associated with an elevated CVD risk (coefficient = 1.08 per interquartile range increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30 to 1.86) whereas males living in neighborhoods with a higher perceived proximity of exercise facilities had a lower risk (coefficient = −1.00, 95% CI = −1.78 to −0.21). For females, there was no statistically significant association between neighborhood characteristics and CVD risk. This study suggests that aspects of the neighborhood environment might be important for CVD morbidity and mortality in Japan, particularly among men. PMID:27716825

  9. Epidemiological studies of Fukushima residents exposed to ionising radiation from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant prefecture--a preliminary review of current plans.

    PubMed

    Akiba, Suminori

    2012-03-01

    It is now more than six months since the beginning of the accident on 11 March 2011 at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan. The Japanese government and local health authorities have started to collect the information necessary to estimate radiation doses received by those living in the area around the plant, drafted plans for the health care of residents, and started to implement some of them. This paper reviews and discusses the studies necessary for risk evaluation of cancer and non-cancer diseases, including those already planned, mainly from the view point of evaluating health risk using epidemiological approaches. In the long run, it is important to establish a cohort with a control group. Even if the cumulative doses are estimated to be so low that it is difficult to evaluate the risk of cancer and non-cancer diseases, it is necessary to conduct such a study to reassure residents. The health care programme of the Fukushima Prefecture government, including health check-ups of residents, will help to assess indirect effects of radiation exposure, including psychological problems. The success of any studies of radiation epidemiology depends on the collection of accurate information on radiation doses received by the study subjects. However, some of the dosimetry surveys were not conducted in a timely manner. (It should be recognised, though, that such a problem might have been inevitable, considering the chaotic condition after the nuclear accident.) Accurate estimation of the radiation dose received by each resident is not only important for scientific risk evaluation but also to inform each resident about his or her potential risk. Otherwise, residents will bear an undue psychological burden from uncertainties regarding their radiation exposure and its health consequences. One of other important tasks in Fukushima is the improvement of the quality of the regional cancer registry in this prefecture. It is also important to start thyroid cancer

  10. Industry Speed Bumps on Local Tobacco Control in Japan? The Case of Hyogo

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Keiko; Mori, Nagisa; Kashiwabara, Mina; Yasuda, Sakiko; Horie, Rumi; Yamato, Hiroshi; Garçon, Loic; Armada, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite being a signatory since 2004, Japan has not yet fully implemented Article 8 of the World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control regarding 100% protection against exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS). The Japanese government still recognizes designated smoking rooms (DSRs) in public space as a valid control measure. Furthermore, subnational initiatives for tobacco control in Japan are of limited effectiveness. Through an analysis of the Hyogo initiative in 2012, we identified key barriers to the achievement of a smoke-free environment. Methods Using a descriptive case-study approach, we analyzed the smoke-free policy development process. The information was obtained from meeting minutes and other gray literature, such as public records, well as key informant interviews. Results Hyogo Prefecture established a committee to propose measures against SHS, and most committee members agreed with establishing completely smoke-free environments. However, the hospitality sector representatives opposed regulation, and tobacco companies were allowed to make a presentation to the committee. Further, political power shifted against completely smoke-free environments in the context of upcoming local elections, which was an obvious barrier to effective regulation. Throughout the approving process, advocacy by civil society for stronger regulation was weak. Eventually, the ordinance approved by the Prefectural Assembly was even weaker than the committee proposal and included wide exemptions. Conclusions The analysis of Hyogo’s SHS control initiative shed light on three factors that present challenges to implementing tobacco control regulations in Japan, from which other countries can also draw lessons: incomplete national legislation, the weakness of advocacy by the civil society, and the interference of the tobacco industry. PMID:26155758

  11. Molecular characterization of pig epidemic diarrhoea viruses isolated in Japan from 2013 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tohru; Murakami, Satoshi; Takahashi, Osamu; Kodera, Aya; Masuda, Tsuneyuki; Itoh, Sakie; Miyazaki, Ayako; Ohashi, Seiichi; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2015-12-01

    Since October 2013, approximately 1000 outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhoea (PED) have occurred, spanning almost all prefectures of Japan, after a period of seven years without a reported case. In order to consider occurrence factor of PED outbreaks, we determined the whole-genome sequences of 38 PED virus (PEDV) strains from diarrheal samples collected at swine farms in 18 prefectures between 2013 and 2014 using next-generation sequencing technology. Using these data, we investigated genetic variation among the recent Japanese PEDV strains and the genetic relationships between these strains and global PEDV strains isolated recently from multiple swine-industrial countries. Eleven out of 38 PEDV strains were isolated successfully on Vero cells with trypsin treatment and subjected to genome sequence analysis. In a comparative genome analysis, we detected two novel PEDV variants, TTR-2/JPN/2014 and MYG-1/JPN/2014, with large deletions in the spike and ORF3 genes, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis based on the spike gene showed that the 38 Japanese PEDV strains were classified into two PEDV types: the North American type with high virulence (n=34) and the INDEL type (n=4). In addition, the recent Japanese PEDV isolates had a close relationship to global PEDV strains isolated in recent years than to the classical PEDV strains detected in Japan the past decades ago. Moreover, the phylogenetic dendrogram of the complete genomes also indicated that the 38 Japanese PEDV strains, including the two novel PEDV variants discovered in this study, are closely related to the PEDV strains that were widespread in the United States and Korea in 2013-2014. These findings suggest that the re-emergence of PED outbreaks since the last reported case in 2006 was caused by the introduction of recent PEDV strains to Japan from overseas.

  12. Design of the Nationwide Nursery School Survey on Child Health Throughout the Great East Japan Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, Hiroko; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Chida, Shoichi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Ono, Atsushi; Kato, Noriko; Yokoya, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yamagata, Zentaro; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Kure, Shigeo

    2016-01-01

    Background The Great East Japan Earthquake inflicted severe damage on the Pacific coastal areas of northeast Japan. Although possible health impacts on aged or handicapped populations have been highlighted, little is known about how the serious disaster affected preschool children’s health. We conducted a nationwide nursery school survey to investigate preschool children’s physical development and health status throughout the disaster. Methods The survey was conducted from September to December 2012. We mailed three kinds of questionnaires to nursery schools in all 47 prefectures in Japan. Questionnaire “A” addressed nursery school information, and questionnaires “B1” and “B2” addressed individuals’ data. Our targets were children who were born from April 2, 2004, to April 1, 2005 (those who did not experience the disaster during their preschool days) and children who were born from April 2, 2006, to April 1, 2007 (those who experienced the disaster during their preschool days). The questionnaire inquired about disaster experiences, anthropometric measurements, and presence of diseases. Results In total, 3624 nursery schools from all 47 prefectures participated in the survey. We established two nationwide retrospective cohorts of preschool children; 53 747 children who were born from April 2, 2004, to April 1, 2005, and 69 004 children who were born from April 2, 2006, to April 1, 2007. Among the latter cohort, 1003 were reported to have specific personal experiences with the disaster. Conclusions With the large dataset, we expect to yield comprehensive study results about preschool children’s physical development and health status throughout the disaster. PMID:26460382

  13. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  14. Photovoltaics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, K.

    1985-01-01

    Report surveys status of research and development on photovoltaics in Japan. Report based on literature searches, private communications, and visits by author to Japanese facilities. Included in survey are Sunshine Project, national program to develop energy sources; industrial development at private firms; and work at academic institutions.

  15. Film Resources on Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. Audio-Visual Education Center.

    Sixteen millimeter motion pictures dealing with Japan are listed alphabetically by title and annotated. Length of film, whether color or black and white, and name of producer or distributor is given for each, and a subject index is provided. Films produced before 1960, "sponsored" films, and 35 mm filmstrips are listed without annotations. A list…

  16. [Films: China and Japan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumport, Roberta H.

    The history of filmmaking in China and Japan and film usage in teaching are considered in this document. Pointing out how films describe historical context and culture, the document also describes various techniques of film making. Films in China were heavily influenced by western models and have tended to be tools of the power structure, as…

  17. Political Corruption in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Steven R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of political corruption and its place in Japanese culture and society. Discusses recent scandals and efforts at political reform. These efforts are moving Japan from a "boss-patronage" system to a "civic-culture." Includes a table of post-war Japanese prime ministers and corruption scandals. (MJP)

  18. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-02-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  19. The Graying of Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Linda G.

    1989-01-01

    Japan's rapidly aging population has become a top policy issue, especially as the increasing costs of pensions and medical care are debated. With the highest life expectancy on earth, the Japanese potentially face long periods of retirement, as well as the possibility of long periods of disability. Although family support of the elderly is thought…

  20. Japan's Landscape in Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchetti, Bethany

    1993-01-01

    Presents an interdisciplinary approach combining geography and children's literature to teach about Japanese culture. Describes classroom activities that link the Five Fundamental Themes of Geography to literature and art. Includes 11 figures, 9 summaries of children's books about Japan, and a 15-item annotated bibliography. (CFR)

  1. Nuclear Power in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, John W.

    1983-01-01

    Energy consumption in Japan has grown at a faster rate than in any other major industrial country. To maintain continued prosperity, the government has embarked on a crash program for nuclear power. Current progress and issues/reactions to the plan are discussed. (JN)

  2. Advanced composites in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diefendorf, R. Judd; Hillig, William G.; Grisaffe, Salvatore J.; Pipes, R. Byron; Perepezko, John H.; Sheehan, James E.

    1994-01-01

    The JTEC Panel on Advanced Composites surveyed the status and future directions of Japanese high-performance ceramic and carbon fibers and their composites in metal, intermetallic, ceramic, and carbon matrices. Because of a strong carbon and fiber industry, Japan is the leader in carbon fiber technology. Japan has initiated an oxidation-resistant carbon/carbon composite program. With its outstanding technical base in carbon technology, Japan should be able to match present technology in the U.S. and introduce lower-cost manufacturing methods. However, the panel did not see any innovative approaches to oxidation protection. Ceramic and especially intermetallic matrix composites were not yet receiving much attention at the time of the panel's visit. There was a high level of monolithic ceramic research and development activity. High temperature monolithic intermetallic research was just starting, but notable products in titanium aluminides had already appeared. Matrixless ceramic composites was one novel approach noted. Technologies for high temperature composites fabrication existed, but large numbers of panels or parts had not been produced. The Japanese have selected aerospace as an important future industry. Because materials are an enabling technology for a strong aerospace industry, Japan initiated an ambitious long-term program to develop high temperature composites. Although just starting, its progress should be closely monitored in the U.S.

  3. Language Testing in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James Dean, Ed.; Yamashita, Sayoko Okada, Ed.

    Papers on second language testing in Japan include: "Differences Between Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests" (James Dean Brown); "Criterion-Referenced Test Construction and Evaluation" (Dale T. Griffe); "Behavioral Learning Objectives as an Evaluation Tool" (Judith A. Johnson); "Developing Norm- Referenced Tests for Program-Level…

  4. "Hands on" Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borries, Richard

    Cultural learning kits designed by Evansville, Indiana teachers, supervisors, and community advisory groups were compiled to provide information about Japan to community organizations and students. This document provides a key to the contents of the kits. The kits contain teaching materials and information about food, school materials, language…

  5. Globalization and Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohkura, Kentaro; Shibata, Masako

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the authors contend that globalization in Japan is the gradual process in which Japan's positioning of "self" within international relations, which had formerly been dominated by the West, has changed. Accordingly, Japan's relationships with the West and the rest of the world, for example, Asia, have also been reviewed and modified.…

  6. Detailed Distribution of the Helium Isotope Ratios in Northeastern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiguchi, K.; Ueki, S.; Sano, Y.; Takahata, N.; Hasegawa, A.

    2007-12-01

    The geographical distribution of helium isotope ratios (3He/4He ratios) is characterized by high values of 4 to 8RA (where RA is the atmospheric 3He/4He ratio of 1.39×10-6) along the volcanic front and in the back-arc region at Tohoku district, northeastern Japan. In contrast forearc region shows low values less than 1RA. On the other hand, there is no clear contrast of the 3He/4He ratios except at the central region (e.g., Sano and Wakita, 1985). We perform the helium isotope ratio analysis in northeastern Japan, and around the source region of the Niigataken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007 (M6.8) where 3He/4He ratios data were reported. We have collected 41 samples of gases from hot springs, mineral springs, and deep wells, distributing mainly in the forearc region at Tohoku district. In addition, we also collected 19 samples of gases from hot springs, volcanoes and natural gas fields around the source region of the Niigataken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007. We measured 3He/4He ratios by noble gas mass spectrometers (Helix and VG5400) of Ocean Research Institute (ORI), the University of Tokyo. The 4He/20Ne were measured by a quadruple mass spectrometer to evaluate air contamination in the samples. δ13C (CO2) values were measured by using a mass spectrometer (DELTA plus XP) of ORI. Main features of our results for Tohoku region are as follows: 1) The 3He/4He ratios in the forearc region are less than 1RA. 2) The 3He/4He ratios vary along the volcanic front. In Miyagi prefecture [38-39N], the ratios range from 2 to 5 RA. On the other hand, the ratios are less than 1RA in and around the southern boundary of Iwate and Akita prefectures [39-39.5N]. The distribution of 3He/4He ratios in Niigata plans to be discussed by comparing with the well-studied seismotectonics and the structure of the crust and upper mantle.

  7. First record of Unicapsula seriolae (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida) from the muscle of Malabar grouper Epinephelus malabaricus in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Abe, Niichiro; Maehara, Tomofumi; Suzuki, Jun

    2014-06-01

    Unicapsula seriolae (Myxozoa; Multivalvulida) was found in the trunk muscle of Malabar grouper Epinephelus malabaricus caught off Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. Numerous filamentous or sesamoid brown to black lesions were observed in the skeletal muscle. Histopathological observation indicated that the lesions were myxosporean plasmodia encapsulated by a fibrous layer, accompanied by melanin deposition. Spores having one large and two rudimentary polar capsules were subspherical in shape and 6.6 × 6.9 μm in size. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that spores were composed of three spore valves. Morphological characteristics were consistent with U. seriolae, which is reported to cause myoliquefaction in yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi in Australia. Molecular analysis of the SSU and LSU rDNA supported identification of the species as U. seriolae. This is the first report of Unicapsula in Japan. PMID:24632098

  8. A new species of Dactylogyrus (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) parasitic on an endangered freshwater fish, Rhodeus atremius atremius, endemic to Japan.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Masato; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2016-10-01

    A new dactylogyrid monogenean Dactylogyrus bicorniculus sp. nov. is described from the gills of the kazetoge bitterling, Rhodeus atremius atremius (Jordan and Thompson, 1914), an endemic species in Japan, from Saga Prefecture, northern Kyūshū. D. bicorniculus sp. nov. resembles Dactylogyrus bicornis Malevitskaja, 1941 and Dactylogyrus lophogonus Zhang and Ji, 1980 because they have two common features, a large V-shaped ventral bar and well-developed second marginal hooks. However, the new species is distinguished from these congeners by a shorter penis and an accessory piece. A phylogenetic analysis of 28S rDNA shows that D. bicorniculus sp. nov. is a basal species with the T-shaped ventral bar in the genus. The new species has strict host-specificity to R. a. atremius, one of the endangered freshwater fishes in Japan, and may face the danger of co-extinction with its host. PMID:27377236

  9. A new species of Dactylogyrus (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) parasitic on an endangered freshwater fish, Rhodeus atremius atremius, endemic to Japan.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Masato; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2016-10-01

    A new dactylogyrid monogenean Dactylogyrus bicorniculus sp. nov. is described from the gills of the kazetoge bitterling, Rhodeus atremius atremius (Jordan and Thompson, 1914), an endemic species in Japan, from Saga Prefecture, northern Kyūshū. D. bicorniculus sp. nov. resembles Dactylogyrus bicornis Malevitskaja, 1941 and Dactylogyrus lophogonus Zhang and Ji, 1980 because they have two common features, a large V-shaped ventral bar and well-developed second marginal hooks. However, the new species is distinguished from these congeners by a shorter penis and an accessory piece. A phylogenetic analysis of 28S rDNA shows that D. bicorniculus sp. nov. is a basal species with the T-shaped ventral bar in the genus. The new species has strict host-specificity to R. a. atremius, one of the endangered freshwater fishes in Japan, and may face the danger of co-extinction with its host.

  10. Mental health care reforms in Asia: the regional health care strategic plan: the growing impact of mental disorders in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroto; Frank, Richard G; Nakatani, Yukiko; Fukuda, Yusuke

    2013-07-01

    In April 2013 Japan designated mental disorders as the fifth "priority disease" for national medical services, after cancer, stroke, acute myocardial infarction, and diabetes. All prefectures will be required to assess local mental health needs and develop necessary service components. This column provides an overview of the Regional Health Care Strategic Plan in the context of mental health and welfare reforms. The goals of the plan are to alter the balance between institutional and community-based care for patients with severe and persistent mental disorders, integrate general medical and mental health care, and support greater independence for people with mental disorders. It is a political challenge for Japan to reallocate resources to rebalance care services while maintaining free access to care.

  11. A Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 outbreak associated with consumption of rice cakes in 2011 in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nabae, K; Takahashi, M; Wakui, T; Kamiya, H; Nakashima, K; Taniguchi, K; Okabe, N

    2013-09-01

    In May 2011, an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 was reported from Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. Investigations, including a case-control study, revealed that the outbreak was linked to two varieties of rice cakes produced by a local manufacturer between 2 and 7 May. Active and passive surveillance identified 136 suspected cases, 142 confirmed cases, 26 asymptomatic cases, and 25 secondary cases. While no environmental samples taken from the manufacturing premises tested positive for STEC, other than a stool sample taken from one employee, on-site and epidemiological investigations indicated that STEC was introduced during the manufacturing process of rice cakes rather than through contamination of raw materials. This was the first reported outbreak of STEC associated with cakes and confectionery in Japan, which indicates that contamination and outbreaks of STEC can occur in any food unless proper precautions are taken.

  12. Roles of National and Local Governments and the Dietetic Association in Nutrition Assistance Response to Natural Disasters: Systems and Experiences in Japan and the USA.

    PubMed

    Sudo, Noriko

    2015-01-01

    In the first half of this symposium, the disaster response system in Japan will be introduced. The ultimate aim of nutrition assistance is to keep people in disaster areas healthy. This is a task for the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and the health departments of prefectural governments. Our first speaker, Dr. Yasuhiro Kanatani, National Institute of Public Health, will briefly overview the disaster response system in Japan and its related laws. He will also mention how the Ministry responded to the Great East Japan Earthquake. In the second presentation, I will play one chapter of DVD that we released in last September. In that chapter, Ms. Makiko Sawaguchi, a registered dietitian working for a public health center in the area affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake, talks about her experience in supporting disaster victims. As an employee of Iwate Prefectural Government, she helped affected municipal governments and coordinated outside support. One type of outside support was registered dietitians dispatched by the Japan Dietetic Association (JDA). Dr. Nobuyo Tsuboyama-Kasaoka will report what those dietitians did in the affected areas. She will also explain the aim and training of the JDA-Disaster Assistance Team. Provision of food is essential in nutrition assistance. This is a task for the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Our fourth speaker, Mr. Kunihiro Doi, analyzed the government procurement data and will discuss the limitations of government emergency food supplies and lessons learned from the Great East Japan Earthquake. As for the systems and experiences in the US, we invited Ms. Toni Abernathy from the Office of Emergency Management, Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), United States Department of Agriculture.

  13. Anaplasma marginale infection in a Japanese Black cow 13 years after eradication of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ooshiro, Mamoru; Zakimi, Satoshi; Matsukawa, Yoshimasa; Yafuso, Makoto; Katagiri, Yoshito; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2009-03-23

    In October 2007, a 15-year-old Japanese Black cow on Ishigaki Island, Okinawa, Japan, was diagnosed with Anaplasma marginale infection based on clinical symptoms, blood examination, smear observation, 16S rRNA and groEL gene sequence analysis, and the result of a CF test. The cow was introduced into the farm from mainland Japan as a calf in 1993, one year before the eradication of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, the main vector of A. marginale in Okinawa Prefecture. It is possible that the cow was first infected with A. marginale as a calf in Ishigaki Island and had been persistently infected since then. This is the first reported clinical case of A. marginale infection of cattle since the eradication of R. microplus in Okinawa Prefecture. Additional analysis of major surface protein 1alpha amino acid sequences revealed that the A. marginale Okinawa strain presented four new repeat forms which were not seen in other strains. This indicates that the Okinawa strain may be a unique geographical variant of A. marginale.

  14. Marine reservoir effect deduced from 14C dates on marine shells and terrestrial remains at archeological sites in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Toshio; Nishida, Iwao; Takada, Hideki; Okuno, Mitsuru; Minami, Masayo; Oda, Hirotaka

    2007-06-01

    Paired marine and terrestrial samples were collected at archeological shell mounds in Kagoshima, Saga and Aichi prefectures and selected from sediment samples bored at the Mawaki archeological site in Ishikawa prefecture, to evaluate the local marine reservoir effect in Japan. The local reservoir corrections, ΔR, were evaluated to be 8 ± 110 and -178 ± 113 14C years for Miyasaka shell mound, -125 ± 50 to -45 ± 49 and -86 ± 48 to -21 ± 50 14C years for Higashimyo shell mound, -46 ± 52, 40 ± 44, -136 ± 44 and 100 ± 44 14C years for Yoshigo shell mound, -255 ± 38 and -146 ± 46 14C years for Kuzubasama shell mound, -71 ± 33, -30 ± 85 and -78 ± 74 14C years on average for C4, C5 and C6 cores, respectively, from the Mawaki site. The existing data along with the present results suggest that the ΔR values obtained for central to southern part of Japan are consistent with zero or a bit negative, but are different from the ΔR values of 200 to 500 14C years for the northern parts of the Japanese archipelago.

  15. Mathematical Modeling of Radiocesium Migration and Air Dose Rate Changes in Eastern Fukushima Prefecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, A.; Sakuma, K.; Kurikami, H.; Malins, A.; Okumura, M.; Itakura, M.; Yamada, S.; Machida, M.

    2015-12-01

    Radioactive cesium that was deposited over Fukushima Prefecture after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant station is one of the major concerns regarding health physics today. Its migration is primarily by soil erosion and sediment transport within surface water during times of heavy rainfall and flooding. In order to predict the future distribution of radioactive cesium and resulting air dose rate at any location in Fukushima, we have integrated a number of mathematical models covering different time and spatial scales. In this presentation we report our overall scheme of prediction starting from sediment and radioactive cesium movement and resulting long term air dose rate changes. Specifically, we present simulation results of sediment movement and radioactive cesium migration using semi-empirical and physics based watershed models, and that of sediment and radioactive cesium behavior in a dam reservoir using one and two dimensional river simulation models. The model's results are compared with ongoing field monitoring.

  16. Surveillance of Radioactive Cesium in Meats of Wild Animals Caught in Chiba Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Chieko; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Hongo, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Harada, Rie; Nakanishi, Kiyoko; Ishii, Toshiyasu

    2016-01-01

    From fiscal year 2012 to 2014, we surveyed the concentration of radioactive cesium in 39 wild animal meats obtained from 20 wild boars and 19 deer caught in Chiba prefecture, using a germanium semiconductor detector. Four wild boar meats in the fiscal years 2012 and 2013 exceeded the radioactive cesium limit in general foods (100 Bq/kg), whereas none of the deer meats exceeded the limit. The left side of the wild boar that showed a radioactive cesium concentration above 100 Bq/kg was divided into 14 parts. We compared the radioactive cesium concentration in the ham used for the screening test with those in other parts. The concentration was highest in ham, among the edible parts. PMID:27211916

  17. Surveillance of Radioactive Cesium in Meats of Wild Animals Caught in Chiba Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Chieko; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Hongo, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Harada, Rie; Nakanishi, Kiyoko; Ishii, Toshiyasu

    2016-01-01

    From fiscal year 2012 to 2014, we surveyed the concentration of radioactive cesium in 39 wild animal meats obtained from 20 wild boars and 19 deer caught in Chiba prefecture, using a germanium semiconductor detector. Four wild boar meats in the fiscal years 2012 and 2013 exceeded the radioactive cesium limit in general foods (100 Bq/kg), whereas none of the deer meats exceeded the limit. The left side of the wild boar that showed a radioactive cesium concentration above 100 Bq/kg was divided into 14 parts. We compared the radioactive cesium concentration in the ham used for the screening test with those in other parts. The concentration was highest in ham, among the edible parts.

  18. Scientific ballooning in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Fumiyoshi

    Activities in scientific ballooning in Japan during 1998-1999 are reported. The total number of scientific balloons flown in Japan in 1998 and 1999 was sixteen, eight flights in each year. The scientific objectives were observations of high energy cosmic electrons, air samplings at various altitudes, monitoring of atmospheric ozone density, Galactic infrared observations, and test flights of new type balloons. Balloon expeditions were conducted in Antarctica by the National Institute of Polar Research, in Russia, in Canada and in India in collaboration with foreign countries' institutes to investigate cosmic rays, Galactic infrared radiation, and Earth's atmosphere. There were three flights in Antarctica, four flights in Russia, three flights in Canada and two flights in India. Four test balloons were flown for balloon technology, which included pumpkin-type super-pressure balloon and a balloon made with ultra-thin polyethylene film of 3.4 μm thickness.

  19. DPAL activities in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Masamori; Wani, Fumio

    2015-02-01

    Activities on diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) in Japan is reviewed. We have started alkali laser works in 2011, and currently, we are the only players in Japan. Our interests are application oriented, and it is not only defense but also industrial. DPAL is a good candidate as a source of remote laser machining, thanks to its scalability and extremely good beam quality. We are studying on scientific and engineering problems of Cs DPAL with a small-scale apparatus. A commercial diode laser with volume Bragg grating outcoupler is used to pump the gain cell longitudinally. A 6.5 W continuous-wave output with optical to optical efficiency of 56% (based on the absorbed power) has been achieved. Numerical simulation codes are developed to understand the physics of DPAL and to help future developments.

  20. Diagnosis and Characters of Non-Specific Low Back Pain in Japan: The Yamaguchi Low Back Pain Study

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hidenori; Kanchiku, Tsukasa; Imajo, Yasuaki; Yoshida, Yuichiro; Nishida, Norihiro; Taguchi, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Cross sectional data from the Yamaguchi low back pain study conducted in Yamaguchi prefecture, Japan, was used for this analysis. Methods A total of 320 patients were recruited from walk-in orthopedic clinics in Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. Patients visited the clinics primarily for low back pain (LBP) and sought treatment between April and May 2015. A self-questionnaire was completed by patients, while radiographic testing and neurological and physical examination was performed by the orthopedist in each hospital. The cause and characters of LBP was determined following examination of the data, regional anesthesia and block injection. Results ‘Specific LBP’ was diagnosed in 250 (78%) patients and non-diagnosable, ‘non-specific LBP’ in 70 (22%) patients. The VAS scores of patients were: LBP, 5.8±0.18; leg pain, 2.9±0.18 and the intensity of leg numbness was 1.9±0.16. Item scores for SF-8 were: general health, 46.6±0.40; physical function, 43.5±0.51; physical limitations, 42.8±0.53; body pain, 42.1±0.52; vitality, 48.4±0.37; social function, 46.9±0.53; emotional problems, 48.9±0.43; mental health, 46.9±0.43. Conclusions The incidence of non-specific LBP in Japan was lower than previous reports from western countries, presumably because of variation in the diagnosis of LBP between different health care systems. In Japan, 78% of cases were classified as ‘specific LBP’ by orthopedists. Identification of the definitive cause of LBP should help to improve the quality of LBP treatment. PMID:27548658

  1. Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The city of Sapporo on the northernmost of the Japanese Home Island of Hokkaido (43.5N, 141.5E), host to the 1986 Winter Olympic Games is situated along the margin of a large valley which extends across the island from the Sea of Japan to the Pacific Ocean. The Valley is largely cultivated (the lighter green of the cultivated land distinguishes it from the gray urban development of Sapporo), but much of the island remains heavily forested.

  2. Rainfall erosivity in the Fukushima Prefecture: implications for radiocesium mobilization and migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laceby, J. Patrick; Chartin, Caroline; Degan, Francesca; Onda, Yuichi; Evrard, Olivier; Cerdan, Olivier; Ayrault, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 led to the fallout of predominantly radiocesium (137Cs and 134Cs) on soils of the Fukushima Prefecture. This radiocesium was primarily fixated to fine soil particles. Subsequently, rainfall and snow melt run-off events result in significant quantities of radiocesium being eroded and transported throughout the coastal catchments and ultimately exported to the Pacific Ocean. Erosion models, such as the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), relate rainfall directly to soil erosion in that an increase in rainfall one month will directly result in a proportional increase in sediment generation. Understanding the rainfall regime of the region is therefore fundamental to modelling and predicting long-term radiocesium export. Here, we analyze rainfall data for ~40 stations within a 100 km radius of the FDNPP. First we present general information on the rainfall regime in the region based on monthly and annual rainfall totals. Second we present general information on rainfall erosivity, the R-factor of the USLE equation and its relationship to the general rainfall data. Third we examine rainfall trends over the last 100 years at several of the rainfall stations to understand temporal trends and whether ~20 years of data is sufficient to calculate the R-factor for USLE models. Fourth we present monthly R-factor maps for the Fukushima coastal catchments impacted by the FDNPP accident. The variability of the rainfall in the region, particularly during the typhoon season, is likely resulting in a similar variability in the transfer and migration of radiocesium throughout the coastal catchments of the Fukushima Prefecture. Characterizing the region's rainfall variability is fundamental to modelling sediment and the concomitant radiocesium migration and transfer throughout these catchments and ultimately to the Pacific Ocean.

  3. [Abortion in Japan].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, Y; Hayase, T

    1993-01-01

    In Japan, the artificial abortion is a penal offence; only in the presence of certain conditions it is authorized under the provision of the Eugenic Protection Law which was promulgated in 1948. According to the law, the artificial abortion is restricted to the period, in which the fetus is not viable outside of the uterus. This period is prescribed by notification from the Ministry of Public Welfare; up to now it has been shortened twice (1976, 1991). Due to the introduction of economic reasons in the list of conditions and the simplification of the procedure the artificial abortion in Japan was virtually liberalized. Prosecution for illegal abortion is very rare in recent years. The number of reported artificial abortions decreases; in the about last 30 years it reduced by half. However, the increase in the number of abortions in women younger than 20 years of age is a problem. The abortion in teenagers is late compared with that in other age groups. Although the number of neonaticides does not seem to increase, the increase in the number of abortions in teenagers remains a serious problem in Japan. PMID:8352642

  4. Radiation doses received by adult Japanese populations living outside Fukushima Prefecture during March 2011, following the Fukushima 1 nuclear power plant failures.

    PubMed

    Priest, N D

    2012-12-01

    Data on the concentration of radionuclides in air for March following the reactor failures at the Fukushima NPP were available for Takasaki, Chiba and Tokyo. Gamma dose data for the same/close locations and for fixed locations in other prefectures were also obtained. Gamma dose data was used to calculate the cumulative gamma dose, during 2 weeks (15th-28th March) following the power plant failures. Corresponding doses were calculated for sites in other Japanese prefectures - except Fukushima Prefecture, for which equivalent monitoring data was not published. For Takasaki, Chiba and Tokyo air concentration data and ICRP dose coefficients were used to calculate inhalation committed effective doses (CED, E(50)) and thyroid equivalent doses (H) for adult members of the public. Average ratios of gamma dose to inhalation CED and inhalation CED from iodine isotopes to thyroid equivalent dose, determined for Takasaki, Chiba and Tokyo, were then used to predict these quantities for sites in other prefectures. Cumulative gamma dose profiles were used to identify dose increments that could be attributed to Fukushima releases within 11 prefectures (excluding Fukushima Prefecture). The most impacted of these were located in Gunma, Ibaraki, Tochigi and Saitama Prefectures - to the south of Fukushima - and in Miyagi Prefecture - to the north of Fukushima. Calculated total doses ranged from 16 μSv in Shizuoka (Shizuoka) to 400 μSv in Ibaraki (Mito). The total doses calculated for the major population centres of Tokyo and Chiba were 97 μSv and 80 μSv, respectively. For all prefecture locations the largest calculated contribution to total dose, during the period of assessment, was from inhalation (~80%). Estimated thyroid equivalent doses ranged from 5.9 mSv in Ibaraki to 200 μSv in Shizuoka. All total doses calculated were probably overestimates - since no allowances were made for shielding and shelter during the passage of radioactive clouds. Minor contributions to dose from

  5. School-Based Fluoride Mouth-Rinse Program Dissemination Associated With Decreasing Dental Caries Inequalities Between Japanese Prefectures: An Ecological Study

    PubMed Central

    Matsuyama, Yusuke; Aida, Jun; Taura, Katsuhiko; Kimoto, Kazunari; Ando, Yuichi; Aoyama, Hitoshi; Morita, Manabu; Ito, Kanade; Koyama, Shihoko; Hase, Akihiro; Tsuboya, Toru; Osaka, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Background Dental caries inequalities still severely burden individuals’ and society’s health, even in countries where fluoride toothpastes are widely used and the incidence of dental caries has been decreasing. School-based fluoride mouth-rinse (S-FMR) programs, a population strategy for dental caries prevention, might decrease dental caries inequalities. This study investigated the association between S-FMR and decreasing dental caries prevalence and caries-related inequalities in 12-year-olds by Japanese prefecture. Methods We conducted an ecological study using multi-year prefecture-level aggregated data of children born between 1994 and 2000 in all 47 Japanese prefectures. Using two-level linear regression analyses (birth year nested within prefecture), the association between S-FMR utilization in each prefecture and 12-year-olds’ decayed, missing, or filled permanent teeth (DMFT), which indicates dental caries experience in their permanent teeth, were examined. Variables that could explain DMFT inequalities between prefectures, such as dental caries experience at age 3 years, dentist density, and prefectural socioeconomic circumstances, were also considered. Results High S-FMR utilization was significantly associated with low DMFT at age 12 (coefficient −0.011; 95% confidence interval, −0.018 to −0.005). S-FMR utilization explained 25.2% of the DMFT variance between prefectures after considering other variables. Interaction between S-FMR and dental caries experience at age 3 years showed that S-FMR was significantly more effective in prefectures where the 3-year-olds had high levels of dental caries experience. Conclusions S-FMR, administered to children of all socioeconomic statuses, was associated with lower DMFT. Utilization of S-FMR reduced dental caries inequalities via proportionate universalism. PMID:27108752

  6. Natural occurrence of mycotoxins in forage maize during crop growth in Japan: case study.

    PubMed

    Uegaki, R; Tohno, M; Yamamura, K; Tsukiboshi, T; Uozumi, S

    2015-02-01

    We investigated concentrations of mycotoxins during the growth of four cultivars of forage maize (Zea mays L.) in Nasushiobara, Tochigi prefecture, and their distribution in ears of maize grown in Morioka, Iwate prefecture, Japan. In experiment 1, we measured concentrations of naturally occurring fumonisin, nivalenol, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone at progressive crop growth stages. Concentrations of fumonisin in stems+leaves remained very low or not detectable, but those in ears became detectable at 40 days after heading and increased rapidly after 50 days after heading (DAH) (fumonisin B1+B2<3260 μg/kg; mean value at 50-74 days after heading). Concentrations varied widely within cultivars on the same day. Concentrations of nivalenol, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in stems+leaves and in ears were low or not detectable throughout the experiment. In experiment 2, we collected three ears of each cultivar at the late yellow-ripe stage that showed extreme symptoms of Fusarium ear rot. Concentrations of fumonisin were extremely high in the upper half of ears in all cultivars (fumonisin B1+B2 18,000-25,900 μg/kg) but low in the lower half and bracts. Concentrations of nivalenol, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone were extremely low or not detectable. These results show that fumonisin concentrations in ears increased rapidly after 50 DAH, they were extremely high in ears of all cultivars with symptoms of Fusarium ear rot, and fumonisin was the most common contaminant. These results will help reduce mycotoxin contamination. PMID:25208749

  7. Natural occurrence of mycotoxins in forage maize during crop growth in Japan: case study.

    PubMed

    Uegaki, R; Tohno, M; Yamamura, K; Tsukiboshi, T; Uozumi, S

    2015-02-01

    We investigated concentrations of mycotoxins during the growth of four cultivars of forage maize (Zea mays L.) in Nasushiobara, Tochigi prefecture, and their distribution in ears of maize grown in Morioka, Iwate prefecture, Japan. In experiment 1, we measured concentrations of naturally occurring fumonisin, nivalenol, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone at progressive crop growth stages. Concentrations of fumonisin in stems+leaves remained very low or not detectable, but those in ears became detectable at 40 days after heading and increased rapidly after 50 days after heading (DAH) (fumonisin B1+B2<3260 μg/kg; mean value at 50-74 days after heading). Concentrations varied widely within cultivars on the same day. Concentrations of nivalenol, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in stems+leaves and in ears were low or not detectable throughout the experiment. In experiment 2, we collected three ears of each cultivar at the late yellow-ripe stage that showed extreme symptoms of Fusarium ear rot. Concentrations of fumonisin were extremely high in the upper half of ears in all cultivars (fumonisin B1+B2 18,000-25,900 μg/kg) but low in the lower half and bracts. Concentrations of nivalenol, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone were extremely low or not detectable. These results show that fumonisin concentrations in ears increased rapidly after 50 DAH, they were extremely high in ears of all cultivars with symptoms of Fusarium ear rot, and fumonisin was the most common contaminant. These results will help reduce mycotoxin contamination.

  8. Evaluation of Natural Radioactivity in Subsurface Air, Water and Soil in Western Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Fukui, Masami

    2008-08-07

    Surveys of radon concentrations in western Japan were carried out to estimate the contents not only of waters in the environment but also in soil gas. The maximum concentration measured for drinking water as public supply exceeded the 1991 United States Environmental Protection Agency-recommended limit for drinking water (11 Bq L{sup -1}) but did not exceed that of several European countries (100 Bq L{sup -1}). Overall, the concentrations of radon in subsurface water ranged from 1 to 100 Bq L{sup -1} and those in surface water were below 1 Bq L{sup -1} in a residential area. Fifty nine samples in soil gas at 4 Prefectures of the Kinki district were analyzed together with 19 samples of interest due to karst and uranium mining sites from another two Prefectures to compare with the above samples. The cumulative frequency of the {sup 222}Rn-concentrations both in environmental water and soil gas showed a log-normal distribution. Surveys of natural radioactivity in soils were also carried out with a Ge(Li) detector to determine the concentrations.

  9. Investigating the health care delivery system in Japan and reviewing the local public hospital reform

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xing; Oyama, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    Japan’s health care system is considered one of the best health care systems in the world. Hospitals are one of the most important health care resources in Japan. As such, we investigate Japanese hospitals from various viewpoints, including their roles, ownership, regional distribution, and characteristics with respect to the number of beds, staff, doctors, and financial performance. Applying a multivariate analysis and regression model techniques, we show the functional differences between urban populated prefectures and remote ones; the equality gap among all prefectures with respect to the distribution of the number of beds, staff, and doctors; and managerial differences between private and public hospitals. We also review and evaluate the local public hospital reform executed in 2007 from various financial aspects related to the expenditure and revenue structure by comparing public and private hospitals. We show that the 2007 reform contributed to improving the financial situation of local public hospitals. Strategic differences between public and private hospitals with respect to their management and strategy to improve their financial situation are also quantitatively analyzed in detail. Finally, the remaining problems and the future strategy to further improve the Japanese health care system are described. PMID:27051323

  10. Survey on the health effects of chronic exposure to dioxins and its accumulation on workers of a municipal solid waste incinerator, rural part of Osaka Prefecture, and the results of extended survey afterwards.

    PubMed

    Takata, Tsutomu

    2003-07-01

    In September 1998 the Ministry of Health and Welfare announced that high concentrations of dioxins were detected in the samples of soil near the incinerator and ash, drainage, sludge and others remained in the furnace and air pollution control devices of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) in rural part of Osaka Prefecture. According to the results the Ministry of Labor immediately organized the "Research and investigation committee on the dioxin problem of Toyono-gun Clean Center" under Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association to investigate the health effects of chronic exposure to dioxins and its accumulation on workers of the incinerator plant. The investigation was carried out in Sept 1998 and from the results, the committee concluded that the concentrations of dioxin among the blood of the workers who had engaged in maintenance of the furnace, the electric dust collector, and the wet scrubber of the incinerator were higher compared with those of residents in surrounding areas. However, there were no signs or findings correlating to blood level of dioxns, and the level was not high enough to induce sufficient health effects from the review of published papers. According to the results of this survey the committee understood that the follow-up study of blood dioxins level of group III and IV workers was inevitable and concerned about the other MSWI workers in Japan who might also be exposed to similar level of dioxins. The Ministry of Labor decided to expand the survey to other MSWI workers in Japan as 3-year project from 1999. The summarized report on the project is appended in this paper.

  11. Impact Materials of Takamatsu Crater in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Y.; Okamoto, M.; Fukuchi, T.

    1995-09-01

    Shocked quartz materials have been found in Japanese K.T boundary (Hokkaido) and mountains of middle main-islands of Japan, though there are few direct evidence of "natural circular structure" on the surface in Japan. However circular structure has been recently found as a buried crater(up to 150m deep) [1] which is ca. 4km in diameter with -10 mgal of Bouguer gravity anomaly from surrounding Rhyoke granitic region of the southern part of Takamatsu City, Kagawa Prefecture, northeast Shikoku, Japan [1,2,3]. Two boring cores of 300m deep near small mountains inside the crater could not reach the bottom of the crater so far. From model calculation of the negative gravity anomaly, the Takamatsu crater shows deep basin structure up to 1.4km. If the Takamatsu crater is considered to be only impact crater, it is difficult to discuss only surface materials on the crater. But anomalous minerals are found only around small volcanic intrusions inside the crater, which the mixed minerals are clearly different with those of other volcanic intrusions of the Yashima and Goshikidai outside the crater [1,2,3]. The small volcanic intrusions are not origin of large Takamatsu crater, because the small volcanic intrusions are found on whole areas of Kagawa Prefecture. Major different activity of the small intrusions inside the crater is to bring the brecciated materials of the interior (esp. crater sediments). The xenolith materials around only volcanic intrusion of andesite are divided into the following four major mineral materials:(a) round pebble fragments from the Rhyoke granitic basement (Sampling No.15), (b) rock fragments from intruded biotite andesites (Nos. 2,15), (c) impact-induced fragments of shocked Quartz grains (Nos. 2,3,6,15), diaplectic feldspars (Nos. 2,3,6,15), silica glasses (Nos. 2,15) and small Fe-Ni metallic grains (No.15), and (d) small sedimentary fragments of halite and mordenite, as listed in Table 1. Table I, showing the characterization of surface samples

  12. First report of Cheiloneurus exitiosus (Perkins, 1906) and Helegonatopus dimorphus (Hoffer, 1954) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from Japan, with remarks on their abundance in rice paddies

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Hironobu; Higashiura, Yoshimitsu; Japoshvili, George

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Encyrtid secondary parasitoids of Delphacidae have not been recorded in Japan. However, they may play an important role in the rice ecosystem because they can reduce the number of Dryinidae, the natural enemies of rice planthoppers. New information We found two encyrtid species, Cheiloneurus exitiosus (Perkins, 1906) and Helegonatopus dimorphus (Hoffer, 1954), from rice paddies and the surrounding environment. Haplogonatopus oratorius (Westwood, 1833) and Anteon sp. were newly recognized as hosts of He. dimorphus. Parasitism of C. exitiosus was rare, but He. dimorphus was common in Kumamoto Prefecture. The sex ratio (male proportion) and clutch size of He. dimorphus was estimated as 0.19 and 4.95, respectively.

  13. Outbreak of chronic arsenic poisoning among retired workers from an arsenic mine in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ishinishi, N; Kodama, Y; Nobutomo, K; Inamasu, T; Kunitake, E; Suenaga, Y

    1977-08-01

    Retired former workers of Matsuo Arsenic Mine of Miyazaki prefecture in Japan were subjected to extensive medical examination. The number of retired workers subjected to examination were 61 of 208 workers who were engaged in the works of the mine and were tracked down by the work rolls. These workers left the mine more than 15 years prior to the time of the examination. The main works in the mine were classified as mining, dressing of ores, refining, and clerical work. Several findings such as arsenodermatitis, depigmentation, performation of nasal septum, hyposmia, anosmia, and peripheral nervous disturbance attributed to exposure to arsenic were observed in 9 of 21 roasters who often worked in the arsenic kitchen. No characteristic findings of arsenic poisoning, that is, gastrointestinal disturbance, disorder of the cardiovascular system, hematopoietic disorders, or liver disturbance were observed in the retired workers. Another notable finding was that 8 cases diagnosed as pneumoconiosis were found in 18 miners.

  14. A new species of Jesogammarus from the Iki Island, Japan (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Anisogammaridae)

    PubMed Central

    Tomikawa, Ko

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of anisogammarid amphipod, Jesogammarus (Jesogammarus) ikiensis sp. n., is described from freshwaters in the Iki Island, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan, based on results of morphological and molecular analyses. The new species is distinguished from all members of the genus by the combination of small number of setae on dorsal margins of pleonites 1–3, short and small number of setae on posterior margins of peduncular articles of antennae, mandibular article 1 without setae, well developed posterior lobes of accessory lobes of coxal gills on gnathopod 2 and pereopods 3–5, and pectinate setae on palmar margin of female gnathopod 2. A key to all the species of Jesogammarus is provided. PMID:26692798

  15. Vibrio cholerae non-O1 isolated from ayu fish (Plecoglossus altivelis) in Japan.

    PubMed Central

    Kiiyukia, C; Nakajima, A; Nakai, T; Muroga, K; Kawakami, H; Hashimoto, H

    1992-01-01

    A fish pathogen, Vibrio cholerae non-O1, was isolated from diseased ayu fish (Plecoglossus altivelis) collected from rivers in eight prefectural districts of Japan. This organism was found to have biochemical characteristics similar to those of V. cholerae non-O1, except that our isolates were negative for ornithine decarboxylase. Antiserum against an ayu isolate did not agglutinate with the majority of environmental V. cholerae non-O1 isolates, but a major O antigen was common among the ayu isolates. All strains were hemolytic to sheep erythrocytes, and oral administration of culture supernatants induced fluid accumulation in suckling mice. However, the crude toxin was not lethal to adult mice, and no cholera toxin-like enterotoxins were detected. PMID:1280062

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolated from feces of wild cranes migrating to Kagoshima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kitadai, Noriyuki; Obi, Takeshi; Yamashita, Shogo; Murase, Toshiyuki; Takase, Kozo

    2012-03-01

    Susceptibility to 13 antimicrobial agents was examined for 138 Escherichia coli isolates obtained from 192 fecal samples of wild cranes that migrated for wintering to the Izumi plain, Kagoshima prefecture in Japan. The numbers of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobials used in this study are as follows: oxytetracycline (OTC), 22 isolates; minocycline, 7 isolates; ampicillin (ABPC), 4 isolates; nalidixic acid, 4 isolates; enrofloxacin, 2 isolates; kanamycin, one isolate. Multidrug resistant isolates exhibiting 2-4 drug resistances were obtained. All of the OTC-resistant isolates carried either the tet (A) or tet(B) gene. The bla(TEM) gene was found in all of the ABPC-resistant isolates. PMID:22075707

  17. Detection of avian-like rotavirus A VP4 from a calf in Japan

    PubMed Central

    MITAKE, Hiromichi; ITO, Naoto; OKADERA, Kota; OKADA, Kazuma; NAKAGAWA, Kento; TANAKA, Tomomi; KATSURAGI, Kiyohito; KASAHARA, Kasumi; NIHONGI, Toshihide; TSUNEMITSU, Hiroshi; SUGIYAMA, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    A total of 568 normal feces from calves on a beef farm in Fukui Prefecture, Japan, in 2011–2012 were examined by RT-semi-nested PCR for rotavirus A (RVA) VP4 genes. Through partial sequencing and BLAST analyses of 84 VP4-positive specimens, we identified an avian-like RVA strain, N2342, which shares highest nucleotide identity (80.0%) with known avian-like bovine strain 993/83, in one specimen. Phylogenetic analysis also revealed a close genetic relationship between N2342 and avian RVAs, suggesting bird-to-cattle transmission. We observed frequent contact of wild birds with calves in the farm, suggesting that these birds were the source of the virus. PMID:25311984

  18. A new Early Cretaceous eutherian mammal from the Sasayama Group, Hyogo, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kusuhashi, Nao; Tsutsumi, Yukiyasu; Saegusa, Haruo; Horie, Kenji; Ikeda, Tadahiro; Yokoyama, Kazumi; Shiraishi, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    We here describe a new Early Cretaceous (early Albian) eutherian mammal, Sasayamamylos kawaii gen. et sp. nov., from the ‘Lower Formation’ of the Sasayama Group, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. Sasayamamylos kawaii is characterized by a robust dentary, a distinct angle on the ventral margin of the dentary at the posterior end of the mandibular symphysis, a lower dental formula of 3–4 : 1 : 4 : 3, a robust lower canine, a non-molariform lower ultimate premolar, and a secondarily reduced entoconid on the molars. To date, S. kawaii is the earliest known eutherian mammal possessing only four premolars, which demonstrates that the reduction in the premolar count in eutherians started in the late Early Cretaceous. The occurrence of S. kawaii implies that the relatively rapid diversification of eutherians in the mid-Cretaceous had already started by the early Albian. PMID:23536594

  19. Detection of avian-like rotavirus A VP4 from a calf in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mitake, Hiromichi; Ito, Naoto; Okadera, Kota; Okada, Kazuma; Nakagawa, Kento; Tanaka, Tomomi; Katsuragi, Kiyohito; Kasahara, Kasumi; Nihongi, Toshihide; Tsunemitsu, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Makoto

    2015-02-01

    A total of 568 normal feces from calves on a beef farm in Fukui Prefecture, Japan, in 2011-2012 were examined by RT-semi-nested PCR for rotavirus A (RVA) VP4 genes. Through partial sequencing and BLAST analyses of 84 VP4-positive specimens, we identified an avian-like RVA strain, N2342, which shares highest nucleotide identity (80.0%) with known avian-like bovine strain 993/83, in one specimen. Phylogenetic analysis also revealed a close genetic relationship between N2342 and avian RVAs, suggesting bird-to-cattle transmission. We observed frequent contact of wild birds with calves in the farm, suggesting that these birds were the source of the virus. PMID:25311984

  20. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection in cats in Saitama, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nogami, S; Sato, T

    1997-10-01

    To clarify Dirofilaria immitis infection among cats in Saitama Prefecture, Japan, 1,840 cats were examined postmortem for adult worms and microfilariae in the blood from 1989 to 1995. As a reference control, 500 dogs from the same area were examined in the same way and period. D. immitis worms were found in 15 cats, one of which had microfilariae in the blood. Prevalence rate of D. immitis infection was 0.8% (15/1,840) in cats and 46.8% (234/500) in dogs examined, whereas it was 4.1% and 64.6% in cats and dogs, respectively, aged 2 years and over. Worm burden per positive cat was 1.5 +/- 0.7 (mean +/- SD), the maximum number of worm was 3 in 2 cats, and 10 cats had a single worm each. All the worm-positive cats were tested for antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and antigens of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) in sera. Positive rates of coinfection with D. immitis were 26.7% and 13.3% for FIV and FeLV, respectively. PMID:9362033

  1. Coxiellosis in domestic and wild birds from Japan.

    PubMed

    To, H; Sakai, R; Shirota, K; Kano, C; Abe, S; Sugimoto, T; Takehara, K; Morita, C; Takashima, I; Maruyama, T; Yamaguchi, T; Fukushi, H; Hirai, K

    1998-04-01

    Serological evidence of infection with Coxiella burnetii was found in 41 (2%) of 1,951 domestic birds and in 167 (19%) of 863 wild birds from 17 and 5 prefectures in Japan, respectively, by microagglutination (MA) test. The bacteriological evidence of the infection was found in 17 (41%) of 41 domestic birds and 37 (22%) of 167 wild birds by the nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, C. burnetii was isolated from five each of serum, spleen and fecal specimens from five jungle crows (Corvus macrorhynchos) (whose sera were positive by both the MA test and PCR) by inoculating laboratory mice. Domestic quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) (3%), domestic muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) (3%), domestic chickens (2%), domestic mallards (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) (2%), carrion crows (Corvus corone) (37%), jungle crows (35%), and wild rock doves (Columba livia) (6%) showed serologic evidence of experience with C. burnetii. There was a tendency for a high prevalence among birds living and/or feeding in close proximity to infected livestock. This suggests that these birds are one of the less important links in maintaining the whole cycle of C. burnetii infection.

  2. Regionalization of municipal solid waste management in Japan: balancing the proximity principle with economic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Itaru; Thomson, Vivian E

    2007-07-01

    The proximity principle - disposing of waste close to its origin - has been a central value in municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Japan for the last 30 years and its widespread adoption has helped resolve numerous "Not in My Backyard" issues related to MSW management. However, MSW management costs have soared, in large part because of aggressive recycling efforts and because most MSW is incinerated in a country that has scarce landfill capacity. In addition, smaller, less sophisticated incinerators have been closed because of high dioxin emissions. Rising costs combined with the closure of smaller incinerators have shifted MSW management policy toward regionalization, which is the sharing of waste management facilities across municipalities. Despite the increased use of regionalized MSW facilities, the proximity principle remains the central value in Japanese MSW management. Municipal solid waste management has become increasingly regionalized in the United States, too, but different driving forces are at work in these two countries. The transition to regionalized MSW management in Japan results from strong governmental control at all levels, with the central government providing funds and policy direction and prefectures and municipalities being the primary implementing authorities. By contrast, market forces are a much stronger force with US MSW management, where local governments - with state government oversight - have primary responsibility for MSW management. We describe recent changes in Japan's MSW programs. We examine the connections between MSW facility regionalization, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, the proximity principle, coordination among local governments, central government control, and financing mechanisms. PMID:17530331

  3. [Radiation emergency medical preparedness in Japan--lessons learned from the Fukushima accident].

    PubMed

    Akashi, Makoto; Tominaga, Takako; Takabatake, Takashi; Michikawa, Yuichi; Hachiya, Misao

    2012-03-01

    Although radiation exposure accidents fortunately occur only rarely, potential sources for exposure accidents can be found anywhere. When persons are accidentally exposed to radiation, physicians may be involved in their assessment and care; of course, their early diagnosis and dose assessment are crucial. After the criticality accident at Tokaimura in 1999, the system of radiation emergency medical preparedness has been further strengthened for nuclear facilities in Japan. In the revised system, hospitals involved were classified into three levels, depending on their locations and capabilities. The Great East Japan Earthquake attacked the Pacific coast area of eastern Japan on 11 March 2011. This earthquake and tsunami caused serious damage to the nuclear power plants of Tokyo Electric Power Co.(TEPCO) in Fukushima Prefecture; a large amount of radionuclides such as iodine and cesium were released into the environment. Since the revised system was focused on treatment of heavily exposed patients and knowledge on radiation was not enough for medical staff, many problems were raised at hospitals and fire departments in this disaster.

  4. Astrogeodetic geoid of Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganeko, Y.

    1976-01-01

    Three kinds of astrogeodetic geoid maps for Japan are presented: one referred to the global (18, 18) geoid of the 1973 Smithsonian Standard Earth (III) (SE III), referred to the best-fitting ellipsoid of SE III, and one referred to the reference ellipsoid of the Tokyo datum. Interpolations of the deflection of the vertical are carried out by a least squares estimation method. The geoid height differences obtained are compared with solutions of satellite-derived station positions. Good agreement is found in a comparison with Doppler tracking stations.

  5. Recent topics in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Y

    1996-08-01

    In Japan, the concern about ethical issues in preventive medicine, especially in epidemiological investigation, has been gradually increasing in recent years. In this paper I introduce the following four topics: 1. privacy protection and the computer, 2. informed consent and publication, 3. the attitudes toward ethics among epidemiologists, 4. the attitudes toward epidemiological investigation among examinees. In my opinion, Japanese epidemiologists should give more attention to general ethical principles (Respect for persons, Beneficence) and to the practical methods to apply them in their research works.

  6. Ijime in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Masayoshi; Okada, Kaori; Hamada, Shoko; Asaga, Reiko; Honjo, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the problem of ijime in Japan from a variety of perspectives, primarily through studies conducted in this country. The term ijime is not uniform in concept, open to different interpretations given the disparity in definitions among different circles, making precise assessment of the actual conditions difficult. Such being the case, what is needed is further study on the mechanisms and actual state of ijime accounting for the flow of the times, and compilation of research to enable the creation of ever more effective modes of prevention and intervention. PMID:22909914

  7. Fallen star legends and traditional religion of Japan: an aspect of star lore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Akira

    2015-08-01

    Japanese star lore is a complex mixture of animism, Buddhism, Shinto-ism, Confucianism and folk beliefs. Although some studies have been done on rituals concerning constellation developed in esoteric Buddhism (e.g. Journal Culture and Cosmos, Vol. 10 no 1 and 2), studies on other aspects of Japanese star lore are limited, in particular, to the English audience.In historic literatures, there often mentioned abnormal astronomical phenomena, such as, eclipse, meteors and comets. In this paper, I will discuss the possibility of reference to these astronomical phenomena in order to talk about some historical facts.In western part of Japan, there are Shinto shrines and Buddhistic temples that are said to be built as monuments of fallen stars. Usually fallen stars were divided into three, and a trio of shrines/temples are said to be the remnants of this phenomenon. Similar legends are found in Kudamatsu (that means "fallen pine=pine where stars fallen") of Yamaguchi Prefecture, Bisei-cho (that means "beautiful star") of Okayama Prefecture, Hoshida (that means "rice field or village of star") shrine of Osaka, and also Hoshida shrine of Nagoya.The purpose of this presentation is not to argue whether fallen star legend was truly astronomical phenomenon, such as, meteor or not. Instead, I will discuss why similar legends have been talked concerning the origin of particular shrines or temples. Citing Eliade who related gorge and alchemy producing spark to astronomical phenomena, I will disclose the possibility to relate these astronomical legends to the coming of the naturalized Japanese from Korean Peninsula who introducd forge to Japan abound 5 to 6 centuries.

  8. Role of the Vision Van, a mobile ophthalmic outpatient clinic, in the Great East Japan Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Yuki, Kenya; Nakazawa, Toru; Kurosaka, Daijiro; Yoshida, Tsunehiko; Alfonso, Eduardo C; Lee, Richard K; Takano, Shigeru; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011 triggered powerful tsunami waves off the northeastern Pacific coast of Japan that destroyed almost all of the built-up areas along the coast. The study reported here examined the role played by the Vision Van, a mobile outpatient ophthalmological clinic, in providing eye care to disaster evacuees. Methods This was a retrospective case-series study of 2,070 victims (male: 732, female: 1,338) who visited the Vision Van. The subjects’ medical records were examined retrospectively and analyzed in terms of age, sex, and date of visit to the Vision Van. Information regarding each patient’s chief complaint, diagnosis, medication(s) prescribed, and eyeglasses and contact lenses provided, was also examined. Results The Vision Van was used to conduct medical examinations on 39 days between April 23 and June 29, 2011. The average number of subjects visiting the Vision Van each day was 53±31 (range: 7–135), with examinations carried out in Miyagi Prefecture and Iwate Prefecture. The most frequent complaint was a need for eye drops (871/2,070 [42.1%]). The second and third most frequent complaints, respectively, were the need for contact lenses (294/2,070 [14.2%]) and eyeglasses (280/2,070 [13.5%]). The most frequent ocular disease diagnosis was cataract (497/2,070 [24.0%]). Eye drops were prescribed to 74.1% of the subjects. Conclusion Mobile clinics such as the Vision Van provide valuable care, in this case, particularly to individuals who lost or left behind eyeglasses or contact lenses while escaping a natural disaster, and to subjects with chronic eye disease. PMID:24741288

  9. Strong Quake Strikes Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-03-01

    As Eos was about to go to press, a powerful earthquake with a preliminary estimated magnitude of 8.9 shook the northeast coast of Japan on 11 March at 05:46:23 UTC. It is the largest known earthquake along the Japan Trench subduction zone since 869 A.D. or earlier, Brian Atwater, geologist with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), told Eos. The quake's magnitude would place it fifth in terms of any earthquake magnitude worldwide since at least 1900, according to information from the USGS Earthquake Hazards Program. The amount of energy released in the quake—which occurred 130 kilometers east of Sendai, Honshu, at a depth of 24.4 kilometers—was equivalent to the energy from 30 earthquakes the size of the 1906 quake in San Francisco, Calif., according to David Applegate, USGS senior science advisor for earthquake and geologic hazards. He said the economic losses from the shaking are estimated to be in the tens of billions of dollars.

  10. [Experience of Collaborative Research through Department of Medical Instrumental Research and Technology in Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine].

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Kensuke

    2016-01-01

    Both of Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine which offers high, technical and safe medical treatment and Horiba, Ltd. which has small CBC analyzers in a core product established a joint research institute for development of advanced laboratory test analyzer from January 1, 2012 in Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine as the "advanced treatment hospital" where the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has got approved. Clinical needs about analyzer and reagent for a laboratory test are being investigated to the emergency medical care unit and the intensive care unit as well as the laboratory test part in the affiliated hospital and many medical departments of the pediatrics, the internal medicine and the surgery. Developing the new analyzer based on high technology, evaluating the performance of them and spreading them to a medical examination and treatment site is our main target.

  11. Multiscale Modeling of Radioisotope Transfers in Watersheds, Rivers, Reservoirs and Ponds of Fukushima Prefecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheleznyak, M.; Kivva, S.; Nanba, K.; Wakiyama, Y.; Konoplev, A.; Onda, Y.; Gallego, E.; Papush, L.; Maderych, V.

    2015-12-01

    The highest densities of the radioisotopes in fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP in March 2011 were measured at the north eastern part of Fukushima Prefecture. The post-accidental aquatic transfer of cesium -134/137 includes multiscale processes: wash-off from the watersheds in solute and with the eroded soil, long-range transport in the rivers, deposition and resuspension of contaminated sediments in reservoirs and floodplains. The models of EU decision support system RODOS are used for predicting dynamics of 137Cs in the Fukushima surface waters and for assessing efficiency of the remediation measures. The transfer of 137Cs through the watershed of Niida River was simulated by DHSVM -R model that includes the modified code of the distributed hydrological and sediment transport model DHSVM (Lettenmayer, Wigmosta et al.) and new module of radionuclide transport. DHSMV-R was tested by modelling the wash-off from the USLE experimental plots in Fukushima prefecture. The model helps to quantify the influence of the differentiators of Fukushima and Chernobyl watersheds, - intensity of extreme precipitation and steepness of watershed, on the much higher values of the ratio "particulated cesium /soluted cesium" in Fukushima rivers than in Chernobyl rivers. Two dimensional model COASTOX and three dimensional model THREETOX are used to simulate the fate of 137Cs in water and sediments of reservoirs in the Manogawa River, Otagawa River, Mizunashigawa River, which transport 137Cs from the heavy contaminated watersheds to the populated areas at the Pacific coast. The modeling of the extreme floods generated by typhoons shows the resuspension of the bottom sediments from the heavy contaminated areas in reservoirs at the mouths of inflowing rivers at the peaks of floods and then re-deposition of 137Cs downstream in the deeper areas. The forecasts of 137Cs dynamics in bottom sediments of the reservoirs were calculated for the set of the scenarios of the sequences of the high

  12. Space plane program in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maita, Masataka

    The present paper will discuss perspectives on Japan's spaceplane research and development program. The topics will cover the current activities of Japan's spaceplane concept studies and related technology research program, which were primarily initiated by the National Aerospace Laboratory of the Science and Technology Agency, with an emphasis on the vehicle concept powered by a hypersonic airbreathing propulsion system.

  13. Studying Japan: The Cooperative Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilke, Eileen

    1990-01-01

    Designs an elementary level social studies unit with the focus on Japan. Provides sample units of cooperative learning group projects. Suggests integrating mathematics, language arts, economics, fine arts, and science. Lists resources for obtaining more information and materials about Japan. (NL)

  14. Higher Education Studies in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Motohisa

    2010-01-01

    The rapid development of higher education in the postwar period has given rise to various problems, and higher education studies in Japan have developed in response to them. What have been the major issues, and how did academic research respond to them, in postwar Japan? This article delineates an outline of higher education studies in general,…

  15. Teaching Elementary Students about Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, William P.

    This paper presents a study unit on Japan for elementary students which can be adapted for any level. Lessons include: (1) "Video Traveling Activities To Accompany Students on Their Journey to Japan"; (2) "Travel Brochure"; (3) "Discovering Culture by Using a Realia Kit"; (4) "Comparative Geography Using the Five Fundamental Themes of Geography";…

  16. China and Japan (Theme Issue).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, Henry, Ed.; Pyne, John, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This serial issue is devoted to the theme "China and Japan" and contains six articles that focus on educational, political, and cultural issues in the two Asian countries. In the first article, "China and Japan: A New Era in Relations with the United States," Henry Kiernan and John Pyne provide a brief overview of the history of United States'…

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A REAL-TIME FORECASTING SYSTEM FOR ROAD FACILITIES IN YAMAGUCHI PREFECTURE AND ITS PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamane, Satoru; Yoshimura, Takashi; Miyamoto, Ayaho

    Maintenance strategy for road facilities on the road network which is an essential lifeline supporting our life is becoming a major social concern in safety and securer civil societies for not only Yamaguchi prefecture but also other prefectures in recently. This paper describes a road facilities maintenance man-agement support system combined with the latest information and communication technologies, such as the information function at the position of the GPS cellular phone with web GIS, etc. By using the system, because information can be shared by using location information function, photograph function, e-mail functionality, and web GIS of the GPS cellular phone to its maximum, an efficient, effective maintenance management can be done. From the comparison of the results of applying the system to an actual road network in Yamaguchi prefecture area, the road administrator can in real time confirm the position and the situation of the facilities damage of the road from the Internet, and a quick mending can be done.

  18. Modelling evolution of air dose rates in river basins in Fukushima Prefecture affected by sediment-sorbed radiocesium redistribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malins, A.; Sakuma, K.; Nakanishi, T.; Kurikami, H.; Machida, M.; Kitamura, A.; Yamada, S.

    2015-12-01

    The radioactive 134Cs and 137Cs isotopes deposited over Fukushima Prefecture by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster are the predominant radiological concern for the years following the accident. This is because the energetic gamma radiation they emit on decay constitutes the majority of the elevated air dose rates that now afflict the region. Therefore, we developed a tool for calculating air dose rates from arbitrary radiocesium spatial distributions across the land surface and depth profiles within the ground. As cesium is strongly absorbed by clay soils, its primary redistribution mechanism within Fukushima Prefecture is by soil erosion and water-borne sediment transport. Each year between 0.1~1% of the total radiocesium inventory in the river basins neighboring Fukushima Daiichi is eroded from the land surface and enters into water courses, predominantly during typhoon storms. Although this is a small amount in relative terms, in absolute terms it corresponds to terabecquerels of 134Cs and 137Cs redistribution each year and this can affect the air dose rate at locations of high erosion and sediment deposition. This study inputs the results of sediment redistribution simulations into the dose rate evaluation tool to calculate the locations and magnitude of air dose rate changes due to radiocesium redistribution. The dose rate calculations are supported by handheld survey instrument results taken within the Prefecture.

  19. Risk of haemolytic uraemic syndrome caused by shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli infection in adult women in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujii, J; Mizoue, T; Kita, T; Kishimoto, H; Joh, K; Nakada, Y; Ugajin, S; Naya, Y; Nakamura, T; Tada, Y; Okabe, N; Maruyama, Y; Saitoh, K; Kurozawa, Y

    2016-04-01

    Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections usually cause haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) equally in male and female children. This study investigated the localization of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) in human brain and kidney tissues removed from forensic autopsy cases in Japan. A fatal case was used as a positive control in an outbreak of diarrhoeal disease caused by STEC O157:H7 in a kindergarten in Urawa in 1990. Positive immunodetection of Gb3 was significantly more frequent in female than in male distal and collecting renal tubules. To correlate this finding with a clinical outcome, a retrospective analysis of the predictors of renal failure in the 162 patients of two outbreaks in Japan was performed: one in Tochigi in 2002 and the other in Kagawa Prefecture in 2005. This study concludes renal failure, including HUS, was significantly associated with female sex, and the odds ratio was 4·06 compared to male patients in the two outbreaks. From 2006 to 2009 in Japan, the risk factor of HUS associated with STEC infection was analysed. The number of males and females and the proportion of females who developed HUS were calculated by age and year from 2006 to 2009. In 2006, 2007 and 2009 in adults aged >20 years, adult women were significantly more at risk of developing HUS in Japan.

  20. Risk of haemolytic uraemic syndrome caused by shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli infection in adult women in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujii, J; Mizoue, T; Kita, T; Kishimoto, H; Joh, K; Nakada, Y; Ugajin, S; Naya, Y; Nakamura, T; Tada, Y; Okabe, N; Maruyama, Y; Saitoh, K; Kurozawa, Y

    2016-04-01

    Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections usually cause haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) equally in male and female children. This study investigated the localization of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) in human brain and kidney tissues removed from forensic autopsy cases in Japan. A fatal case was used as a positive control in an outbreak of diarrhoeal disease caused by STEC O157:H7 in a kindergarten in Urawa in 1990. Positive immunodetection of Gb3 was significantly more frequent in female than in male distal and collecting renal tubules. To correlate this finding with a clinical outcome, a retrospective analysis of the predictors of renal failure in the 162 patients of two outbreaks in Japan was performed: one in Tochigi in 2002 and the other in Kagawa Prefecture in 2005. This study concludes renal failure, including HUS, was significantly associated with female sex, and the odds ratio was 4·06 compared to male patients in the two outbreaks. From 2006 to 2009 in Japan, the risk factor of HUS associated with STEC infection was analysed. The number of males and females and the proportion of females who developed HUS were calculated by age and year from 2006 to 2009. In 2006, 2007 and 2009 in adults aged >20 years, adult women were significantly more at risk of developing HUS in Japan. PMID:26470913

  1. Impact of the 2011 earthquake on marriages, births and the secondary sex ratio in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hamamatsu, Yuri; Inoue, Yosuke; Watanabe, Chiho; Umezaki, Masahiro

    2014-11-01

    On 11th March 2011 a magnitude nine earthquake struck the Tohoku region of Japan. The earthquake resulted in a large tsunami and an accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant. Previous studies have suggested that demographic indices relating to reproduction and marriage change after such massive disasters (e.g. large earthquakes). The present study investigated whether the number of births, number of marriages and the secondary sex ratio (SSR) changed after the East Japan Earthquake. The monthly number of births (males and females, separately) and marriages in each prefecture in Japan from January 1997 to June 2012 were obtained from the Demographic Survey of Japan. An analysis was performed for three different geographic boundary units: the disaster-stricken area, the non-disaster-stricken area and the whole of Japan. In each unit, the numbers of births and marriages in a given month during the post-disaster period were predicted based on a regression equation estimated by the numbers of births and marriages in that month during the pre-disaster period. The numbers of observed monthly births and marriages during the post-disaster period were compared with the predicted figures. Differences between the observed and predicted numbers were determined by referring to the 95% confidence limits for the predicted mean number. The observed probability of a male birth in a given month during the post-disaster period was compared with a 95% confidence interval of a binominal distribution. In all three boundary units, the number of births was significantly lower than the predicted number by about 3-8% from nine months after the disaster, while the number of marriages in October 2011 was significantly lower than the predicted number by about 25-28%. In October 2011, the SSR in the whole of Japan had decreased from 104.8 (the predicted SSR) to 102.9. The number of births and marriages and the SSR decreased in Japan after the East Japan Earthquake irrespective of locality.

  2. [Buddhist mummies in Japan].

    PubMed

    Morimoto, I

    1993-08-01

    The mummy of priest Kochi (preserved at Saishoji Temple, Teradomari, Niigata Pref.) has become famous, since it appeared in the book "Snow Country Tales" written by Bokushi Suzuki in 1841 (Fig. 1). In a country of high humidity, such as Japan, the belief that mummification could not, and did not, exist would not be altogether unfounded, but rather more a matter of common sense. There are two dozen Buddhist mummies in this country. It was not known until 1961 that a reliable source of artificial mummification has existed in Japan. The Japanese Buddhist mummies, apart from those of the Fujiwara family, a powerful clan of northeast Japan in the 12th century, dated mostly from the 17th to the 19th century as given in Table 1. Three principal types of mummification described by Vreeland, Jr. and Cockburn (1980) could be identified in the Japanese Buddhist mummies: type I, natural mummification; type II, intentional natural; and type III, artificial. Matsumoto (1990) classified the mummies into four groups, based on their ideological backgrounds: group A, mummies of the priests having faith in the Amitabha (the Supreme Buddha presiding over the Pure Land in the West); group B, sokushin-butsu mummies of the priests belonging to the Shingon sect of Japanese Buddhism founded by Kukai (Kobo-daishi); group C, nyujo mummies of the priests having faith in the Maitreya (the Buddha presiding over the Pure Land in the North, or the Buddha of the future); and group D, other mummies. These mummies of groups A, B, C and D are respectively listed in Table 2. Previous papers have shown that the mummies of the groups A, C and D belonged to the mummification of type I (natural mummification) or type II (intentional natural), whereas those of only the group B were of type III (artificial). The mummies of groups A to D were given as follows. a) Mummies of group A. The four mummies of the Fujiwara family in the Amitabha faith (preserved at Chusonji Temple, Hiraizumi, Iwate Pref.), which

  3. Detection of Legionella spp. from Domestic Water in the Prefecture of Arta, Greece

    PubMed Central

    Dimitriadi, Dimitra; Velonakis, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was the isolation of Legionella spp. from domestic water supply networks in the Prefecture of Arta. A total of 100 water samples, from 25 houses, were collected. Half of the samples concerned the cold water and half the hot water supply. Purpose was to detect colonization of the water networks with Legionella spp. >500 cfu/L by using the method of filtration (ISO 11731). Out of 100 samples, 6 samples from 3 houses were positive for Legionella spp. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 2–14 was isolated in 5 of 6 samples, whereas in the sixth sample Legionella anisa was identified. Only three of the samples had residual chloride over 0.2 mg/L, rate which is necessary for potable water, according to the Greek hygienic practice. Concerning the temperature of hot water, the mean temperature of the negative for Legionella samples was higher compared to the mean temperature of the positive for Legionella samples (49.9°C versus 45.5°C). It is estimated that there is risk of infection through the use of showers. The low concentration of chloride and the temperature, which was found within the limits favorable to developing Legionella spp. (20–45°C), provide fertile ground for proliferation of the bacteria. PMID:24744922

  4. The Fukushima Health Management Survey: estimation of external doses to residents in Fukushima Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Yasumura, Seiji; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kobashi, Gen; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Makoto; Akahane, Keiichi; Yonai, Shunsuke; Ohtsuru, Akira; Sakai, Akira; Sakata, Ritsu; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-08-04

    The Fukushima Health Management Survey (including the Basic Survey for external dose estimation and four detailed surveys) was launched after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The Basic Survey consists of a questionnaire that asks Fukushima Prefecture residents about their behavior in the first four months after the accident; and responses to the questionnaire have been returned from many residents. The individual external doses are estimated by using digitized behavior data and a computer program that included daily gamma ray dose rate maps drawn after the accident. The individual external doses of 421,394 residents for the first four months (excluding radiation workers) had a distribution as follows: 62.0%, <1 mSv; 94.0%, <2 mSv; 99.4%, <3 mSv. The arithmetic mean and maximum for the individual external doses were 0.8 and 25 mSv, respectively. While most dose estimation studies were based on typical scenarios of evacuation and time spent inside/outside, the Basic Survey estimated doses considering individually different personal behaviors. Thus, doses for some individuals who did not follow typical scenarios could be revealed. Even considering such extreme cases, the estimated external doses were generally low and no discernible increased incidence of radiation-related health effects is expected.

  5. The Fukushima Health Management Survey: estimation of external doses to residents in Fukushima Prefecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Yasumura, Seiji; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kobashi, Gen; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Makoto; Akahane, Keiichi; Yonai, Shunsuke; Ohtsuru, Akira; Sakai, Akira; Sakata, Ritsu; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-08-01

    The Fukushima Health Management Survey (including the Basic Survey for external dose estimation and four detailed surveys) was launched after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The Basic Survey consists of a questionnaire that asks Fukushima Prefecture residents about their behavior in the first four months after the accident; and responses to the questionnaire have been returned from many residents. The individual external doses are estimated by using digitized behavior data and a computer program that included daily gamma ray dose rate maps drawn after the accident. The individual external doses of 421,394 residents for the first four months (excluding radiation workers) had a distribution as follows: 62.0%, <1 mSv 94.0%, <2 mSv 99.4%, <3 mSv. The arithmetic mean and maximum for the individual external doses were 0.8 and 25 mSv, respectively. While most dose estimation studies were based on typical scenarios of evacuation and time spent inside/outside, the Basic Survey estimated doses considering individually different personal behaviors. Thus, doses for some individuals who did not follow typical scenarios could be revealed. Even considering such extreme cases, the estimated external doses were generally low and no discernible increased incidence of radiation-related health effects is expected.

  6. Statistical characterization of radiation doses from external exposures and relevant contributors in Fukushima prefecture.

    PubMed

    Takahara, Shogo; Abe, Tatsuya; Iijima, Masashi; Shimada, Kazumasa; Shiratori, Yoshitake

    2014-10-01

    In areas contaminated by radioactive materials, well designed dose assessment is necessary in order to protect people from radiation exposure and manage the exposure situation appropriately. Probabilistic dose assessment is a useful method for providing a more complete characterization of information on dose distributions in the population and requires statistically characterized data on pathway-relevant contributors. The objective of this paper is to determine statistical features of contributors to external exposures, as well as to identify causes of variabilities of individual doses to the populations living in areas contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. To achieve these objectives, measurements of individual doses and ambient dose rates, as well as surveys of behavioral patterns, were performed between February and April 2012. These were made with the cooperation of indoor workers, outdoor workers, and pensioners living in Fukushima prefecture. On the basis of these results, statistical analyses were performed in order to identify variabilities of contributors. In addition, a multi-regression analysis was done to explore a significant relationship between individual doses and relevant contributors. Results showed that the ambient dose equivalent rate also distributed with lognormal form, and it had variabilities attributable to the spatial distribution of deposited radionuclides. The distribution form of time spent outdoors depends on the characteristics of occupation, and the distributions for indoor workers and outdoor workers were lognormal and normal, respectively. Results of a multiple-regression analysis suggested that such variabilities of contributors give rise to significant differences in individual doses among the populations.

  7. [Statistical studies on suicides in Shiga Prefecture during the 15-year period, 1974 to 1988].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Y; Yamada, M; Fukunaga, T; Tatsuno, Y

    1990-04-01

    The authors examined 3,335 cases of suicides among the unnatural deaths in Shiga Prefecture during the 15-year period, 1974 to 1988. The results obtained were as follows: The number of suicides in a year amounted to 200 during the period from 1974 to 1982, and increased to 280 in 1983 at maximum. The cases of suicide were more in male than in female. The incidence of suicide was higher in March to July and the peak of incidence was observed in April. The highest frequency of suicides was in 40-49 year age group in male, and 70-79 year group in female. Among various procedures of suicide, hanging was most frequent during the past 15 years in both sexes, and the following procedure was carbon monoxide poisoning in male and drowning in female. As to the occupation, housewives and person without a regular occupation constituted 53.1% of the total suicidal cases, and products makers and laborers were found in 11.1%. With regarded to the causative factors, "suffering from illness" was the most frequent factor, and followed by "insanity or mental disorder", "problems of economic distress", "disagreement with family" and others.

  8. Current status of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Beyla and Macenta Prefectures, Forest Guinea.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Mary; Koroma, Manso M; Baldé, Mamadou S; Turay, Hamid; Fofanah, Ibrahim; Divall, Mark J; Winkler, Mirko S; Zhang, Yaobi

    2011-11-01

    A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in children aged 9-14 years in Beyla and Macenta Prefectures, Forest Guinea. Stool samples were examined by Kato-Katz and urine samples were examined by the centrifugation method. The overall prevalence and intensity of infection was 66.2% and 462.4 eggs per gram of faeces (epg) for Schistosoma mansoni, 21.0% and 17.8 eggs per 10ml of urine for S. haematobium, 51.2% and 507.5 epg for hookworm, 8.1% and 89.1 epg for Ascaris lumbricoides and 2.4% and 16.7 epg for Trichuris trichiura. The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis (S. mansoni and/or S. haematobium) was 70.7%. The prevalence of schistosomiasis was similar to those reported in the 1990s in the region; however, the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths has since fallen. These findings illustrate the need for schistosomiasis control in Guinea. PMID:21871646

  9. ROAD SLOPE RISK-MANAGEMENT OF HIDA REGION IN GIFU PREFECTURE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Akiyoshi; Honjo, Yusuke; Kurauchi, Fumitaka; Asano, Norio; Hara, Takashi; Sawada, Kazuhide; Moriguchi, Shuji; Kitaura, Koji; Yashima, Atsushi

    Gifu University research group has studied on a comprehensive risk-management method for infrastructures. As a first step, this study presents a prototype of the risk-management system of rockfall countermeasures. In the prototype system, Hida area located in Gifu prefecture was selected as a target area. There are more than 3000 slopes in the target area. Value of the risk at each slope was estimated by multiplying the obtained probability and the economic loss. In the evaluation process of rockfall provability, a relative probability was calculated using results of a slope observation based on the logistic regression analysis. Then, the absolute probability of the rockfall was calculated using history data of rockfall occurrence. In a evaluation process of the economic loss, the physical loss, the human loss, the circumvention loss, the emergency medical service loss and the isolated colony loss were taken into consideration. It was confirmed the results obtained in this study are in good agreement with the reality. It is also found the obtained results are useful information to make decision of the rockfall risk-management.

  10. The Fukushima Health Management Survey: estimation of external doses to residents in Fukushima Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Yasumura, Seiji; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kobashi, Gen; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Makoto; Akahane, Keiichi; Yonai, Shunsuke; Ohtsuru, Akira; Sakai, Akira; Sakata, Ritsu; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima Health Management Survey (including the Basic Survey for external dose estimation and four detailed surveys) was launched after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The Basic Survey consists of a questionnaire that asks Fukushima Prefecture residents about their behavior in the first four months after the accident; and responses to the questionnaire have been returned from many residents. The individual external doses are estimated by using digitized behavior data and a computer program that included daily gamma ray dose rate maps drawn after the accident. The individual external doses of 421,394 residents for the first four months (excluding radiation workers) had a distribution as follows: 62.0%, <1 mSv; 94.0%, <2 mSv; 99.4%, <3 mSv. The arithmetic mean and maximum for the individual external doses were 0.8 and 25 mSv, respectively. While most dose estimation studies were based on typical scenarios of evacuation and time spent inside/outside, the Basic Survey estimated doses considering individually different personal behaviors. Thus, doses for some individuals who did not follow typical scenarios could be revealed. Even considering such extreme cases, the estimated external doses were generally low and no discernible increased incidence of radiation-related health effects is expected. PMID:26239643

  11. Current status of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Beyla and Macenta Prefectures, Forest Guinea.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Mary; Koroma, Manso M; Baldé, Mamadou S; Turay, Hamid; Fofanah, Ibrahim; Divall, Mark J; Winkler, Mirko S; Zhang, Yaobi

    2011-11-01

    A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in children aged 9-14 years in Beyla and Macenta Prefectures, Forest Guinea. Stool samples were examined by Kato-Katz and urine samples were examined by the centrifugation method. The overall prevalence and intensity of infection was 66.2% and 462.4 eggs per gram of faeces (epg) for Schistosoma mansoni, 21.0% and 17.8 eggs per 10ml of urine for S. haematobium, 51.2% and 507.5 epg for hookworm, 8.1% and 89.1 epg for Ascaris lumbricoides and 2.4% and 16.7 epg for Trichuris trichiura. The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis (S. mansoni and/or S. haematobium) was 70.7%. The prevalence of schistosomiasis was similar to those reported in the 1990s in the region; however, the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths has since fallen. These findings illustrate the need for schistosomiasis control in Guinea.

  12. Statistical characterization of radiation doses from external exposures and relevant contributors in Fukushima prefecture.

    PubMed

    Takahara, Shogo; Abe, Tatsuya; Iijima, Masashi; Shimada, Kazumasa; Shiratori, Yoshitake

    2014-10-01

    In areas contaminated by radioactive materials, well designed dose assessment is necessary in order to protect people from radiation exposure and manage the exposure situation appropriately. Probabilistic dose assessment is a useful method for providing a more complete characterization of information on dose distributions in the population and requires statistically characterized data on pathway-relevant contributors. The objective of this paper is to determine statistical features of contributors to external exposures, as well as to identify causes of variabilities of individual doses to the populations living in areas contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. To achieve these objectives, measurements of individual doses and ambient dose rates, as well as surveys of behavioral patterns, were performed between February and April 2012. These were made with the cooperation of indoor workers, outdoor workers, and pensioners living in Fukushima prefecture. On the basis of these results, statistical analyses were performed in order to identify variabilities of contributors. In addition, a multi-regression analysis was done to explore a significant relationship between individual doses and relevant contributors. Results showed that the ambient dose equivalent rate also distributed with lognormal form, and it had variabilities attributable to the spatial distribution of deposited radionuclides. The distribution form of time spent outdoors depends on the characteristics of occupation, and the distributions for indoor workers and outdoor workers were lognormal and normal, respectively. Results of a multiple-regression analysis suggested that such variabilities of contributors give rise to significant differences in individual doses among the populations. PMID:25162423

  13. The trial edition of historical earthquake data base in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, A.; Satake, K.; Yata, T.; Urabe, A.; Maejima, Y.

    2012-04-01

    There are many historical documents in Japan and these are analyzed by historical researchers. The descriptions of the occurrence times and damage of historical earthquakes in and around Japan are included in these historical documents. However, the analyses of these historical documents require technical knowledge and therefore, it is not straightforward for unprofessional researchers to directly utilize these historical documents. A historical earthquake document data base was made by Ishibashi et al. for ancient and medieval ages (until around AD 1600). For early modern, or Edo, period, the amount of historical documents is significantly larger and quality of documents is variable, hence quality check is important. We are making historical earthquake data base, which is composed of the historical earthquake document data base and seismic intensity data base, for a few earthquakes in Edo period. The 1751 Echigo-Takada and 1828 Echigo-Sanjo earthquakes, which occurred in Echigo (the present Niigata Prefecture) and caused extensive damage, were selected for the trial edition of historical earthquake data base. We selected historical records with high reliability, formatted them as XML data, and created historical earthquake record data base. Incidentally, pictures which describe damage of these historical earthquakes are also contained in this data base, and the damage can be visually shown. From the reliable documents, we estimated a ratio of collapsed houses and seismic intensity, and created the trial edition of seismic intensity data base by using Google Earth as a platform. We selected historical records which describe both the total number of houses and the number of collapsed houses in each village or town at the occurrence time of these earthquakes because the number of houses varies in time. Then, we calculated the ratio of collapsed houses and estimated seismic intensities in the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) scale based on Usami (1986)'s table as

  14. The effects of dementia and long-term care services on the deterioration of care-needs levels of the elderly in Japan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huei-Ru; Otsubo, Tetsuya; Imanaka, Yuichi

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the associations between dementia, the use of long-term care (LTC) services, and the deterioration of care-needs levels of elderly persons in Japan. Using a retrospective cohort study, we analyzed 50,268 insurance beneficiaries aged 65 years and older who had utilized LTC services between 2010 and 2011 in Kyoto prefecture, Japan. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of care-needs level deterioration. Dementia, facility care services, the male sex, older age, and lower baseline care-needs levels were associated with care-needs level deterioration. The disparity between odds ratios of home care services, dementia diagnoses, and facility care services on care-needs level deterioration diminished with increasing baseline care-needs levels. The other risk factors of care-needs level deterioration showed stronger associations as care-needs levels and age increased. The effects of baseline care-needs levels and dementia should be considered when developing LTC policies.

  15. [Promotion plan for the promotion of cancer: coping measures at Matsuyama Red Cross Hospital in Ehime prefecture - the current state of affairs at the hospital's cancer treatment promotion office].

    PubMed

    Fujii, Motohiro

    2013-05-01

    Recent cancer control strategies in Japan have been aimed at lowering morbidity and mortality rates, based on the Thirdterm Comprehensive 10-year Strategy for Cancer Control initiated by the Japanese government. In April 2007, the Cancer Control Basic Law was promulgated to necessitate promotion of cancer control by national and local authorities. In June 2007, the Japanese Health Ministry released a plan for the promotion of measures to cope with cancer. The cancer control measures adopted by the Matsuyama Red Cross Hospital(MRCH)in Ehime Prefecture were as follows: ·Progress in the promotion of measures to cope with cancer in Ehime, including a review of 2012, problems with new treatment methods for childhood cancer, employment of cancer patients, and promotion of home care. ·Cancer treatment measures adopted by MRCH as a hub medical institution for the past 5 years. ·The distinctive efforts of the intensive professionals team at the Cancer Treatment Promotion Office for cancer treatment at MRCH, and its work on cancer care from the 4 perspectives of the balanced scorecard in accordance with the basic policy of MRCH. PMID:23863580

  16. Human parechovirus infections and child myositis cases associated with genotype 3 in Osaka City, Japan, 2014.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Seiji P; Kaida, Atsushi; Naito, Takuto; Hosaka, Taisuke; Miyazato, Yusuke; Sumimoto, Shin-ichi; Kohdera, Urara; Ono, Atsushi; Kubo, Hideyuki; Iritani, Nobuhiro

    2015-11-01

    Human parechovirus (HPeV) infects humans early in life and typically causes asymptomatic or mild diseases such as gastrointestinal and respiratory illness but sometimes leads to more serious consequences in neonates and young infants. In 2014, we detected HPeV from 38 patients by real-time reverse transcription-PCR in Osaka City, Japan, and 33 HPeV strains were genotyped based on their VP1 sequences. HPeV genotype 3 (HPeV-3) was the most prevalent and accounted for 22 cases (66.7%) followed by nine HPeV-1 (27.3%), one HPeV-2 (3.0%) and one HPeV-4 (3.0%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that detected HPeV-3 strains were divided into three genetically distinct groups. One was characterized by a novel single amino acid deletion mutation at the N terminus of the 2A protein as well as the VP1 sequence, whereas the others were closely related to HPeV-3 strains detected in Japan in either 2008 or 2011. These HPeV-3 groups were detected from patients with various symptoms including three myositis cases. Recent papers have demonstrated that HPeV-3 was the aetiological agent for epidemic myalgia exclusively among adults from Yamagata Prefecture in Japan. Here, we provide clinical details and episodes of three myositis patients including an adult and two children in Osaka City, Japan. Our results suggest that HPeV-3 is a causative agent of myositis not only in adults but also in children.

  17. Teaching about Japan in the Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogan, John J.

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on ideas for teaching about Japan which elementary school classroom teachers can use to supplement a textbook unit on Japan. Suggestions are intended to allow for reflection by students on their own culture, as well as the culture of Japan. Topics are children's perceptions of Japan and the Japanese, developing a geographical perspective,…

  18. Future Estimation of Convenience Living Facilities Withdrawal due to Population Decline all Over Japan from 2010 TO 2040 - Focus on Supermarkets, Convenience Stores and Drugstores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimoto, Yuka; Akiyama, Yuki; Shibasaki, Ryosuke

    2016-06-01

    Population explosion is considered to be one of the most crucial problems in the world. However, in Japan, the opposite problem: population decline has become serious now. Japanese population is estimated to decrease by twenty millions in 2040. This negative situation will cause to increase areas where many residents cannot make a daily living all over Japan because many convenience living facilities such as supermarkets, convenience stores and drugstores will be difficult to maintain their market area population due to future population decline. In our research, we used point data of convenience living facilities developed by address geocoding of digital telephone directory and point data of future population projection developed by distribution of Japanese official population projection data proportionally among the building volume of digital residential map, which can monitor building volumes all over Japan. In conclusion, we estimated that various convenience living facilities in Japan will shrink and close by population decline in near future. In particular, it is cleared that approximately 14.7% of supermarkets will be possible to withdraw all over Japan by 2040. In addition, it is cleared that over 40% of supermarkets in some countryside prefectures will be possible to withdraw by 2040. Thus, we estimated future distributions of convenience living facilities that cannot maintain their market area population due to future population decline. Moreover, we estimated the number of people that they will become inconvenience in buying fresh foods.

  19. Field and Laboratory Studies of Radiocesium Transfers in Soil-Water Environment at Fukushima Prefecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanba, K.; Zheleznyak, M.; Konoplev, A.; Wakiyama, Y.; Golosov, V.; Wada, T.; Tsukada, H.

    2015-12-01

    The systematic monitoring studies of radiocesium concentrations in suspended sediments and water of the Abukuma River, the largest river of Fukushima prefecture, and its tributaries at the vicinity of Fukushima city have started in Fukushima University at the end of 2011. The scale of these field studies was extended after establishment in 2013 new Institute of Environmental Radioactivity at Fukushima University which posses the comprehensive laboratory base. The field measurements of hydrochemical water parameters and concentrations of radiocesium in water and sediments are provided in the rivers of northern coastal zone of Fukushima province with the most comprehensive program for Niida River basin. The radiocesium dynamics is studied in Sakashita Reservoir and heavily contaminated irrigation ponds of Okuma town in the vicinity of FDNPP, Takanokura Reservoir, Inawashiro Lake, Hibara Lake. Comparative analysis is provided for radiocaesium wash-off parameters and distribution coefficient in rivers and surface runoff on Fukushima and Chernobyl contaminated areas for the first years after the accidents. It is found that radiocaesium distribution coefficient in rivers of Fukushima is essentially higher (1-2 orders of magnitude) than correspondent values for rivers and surface runoff of the Chernobyl zone. Normalized dissolved wash-off coefficients for watersheds of Fukushima are at least 1 order of magnitude lower correspondent values for Chernobyl zone. Normalized particulate wash-off coefficients are comparable for Fukushima and Chernobyl. Presented are results of the investigation of radiocesium vertical distribution in soils of the close-in area of the FDNPP: Okuma town and Niida River basin. It is shown that radiocesium dispersion in undisturbed forest and grassland soils at Fukushima contaminated area is significantly faster as compared to the Chernobyl 30-km zone during the first three years after the accidents.

  20. The Social Sciences in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanuki, Joji

    1975-01-01

    This article relates a brief historical background of social sciences in Japan, the institutional framework of social science education and research, and major issues and perspectives for the development of the social scinces. (ND)

  1. [Canine histoplasmosis in Japan].

    PubMed

    Sano, Ayako; Miyaji, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum and is distributed a worldwide. Although the disease has been treated as an imported mycosis, some autochthonous human, 1 equine and 4 canine cases suggested that the disease is endemic. Histoplasmosis is classified depending on the variety of causative agent. Histoplasmosis farciminosi known as pseudofarcy, is manifested only in Perissodactyla where it invades lymph nodes and lymph ducts, and is recognized by isolation from horses. Historically, Japan was one of the endemic areas of pseudofarcy before World War II, and more than 20,000 cases were recorded in horses used by the military. Interestingly, Japanese canine histoplasmosis uniformly showed skin ulcers and granulomatous lesions on the skin without pulmonary or gastrointestinal involvement, both of which were very similar to pseudofarcy. It was diagnosed as histoplasmosis by the detection of internal transcribed spacer legions of rRNA gene of H. capsulatum from paraffin embedded tissue samples. Furthermore, the fungal isolate from the human case with no history of going abroad or immigrating was identified as H. capsulatum var. farciminosum by a gene sequence. These facts indicated that pseudofarcy is not only an infectious disease in horses, but also a zoonotic fungal infection. Japanese autochthonous canine histoplasmosis might be a heteroecism of pseudofarcy because of its likeness to the human case, the similarity of clinical manifestations and the historical background at this stage.

  2. Fusion Studies in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Yuichi

    2016-05-01

    A new strategic energy plan decided by the Japanese Cabinet in 2014 strongly supports the steady promotion of nuclear fusion development activities, including the ITER project and the Broader Approach activities from the long-term viewpoint. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in Japan formulated the Third Phase Basic Program so as to promote an experimental fusion reactor project. In 2005 AEC has reviewed this Program, and discussed on selection and concentration among many projects of fusion reactor development. In addition to the promotion of ITER project, advanced tokamak research by JT-60SA, helical plasma experiment by LHD, FIREX project in laser fusion research and fusion engineering by IFMIF were highly prioritized. Although the basic concept is quite different between tokamak, helical and laser fusion researches, there exist a lot of common features such as plasma physics on 3-D magnetic geometry, high power heat load on plasma facing component and so on. Therefore, a synergetic scenario on fusion reactor development among various plasma confinement concepts would be important.

  3. High definition systems in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkus, Richard J., Jr.; Cohen, Robert B.; Dayton, Birney D.; Messerschmitt, David G.; Schreiber, William F.; Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Shelton, Duane

    1991-01-01

    The successful implementation of a strategy to produce high-definition systems within the Japanese economy will favorably affect the fundamental competitiveness of Japan relative to the rest of the world. The development of an infrastructure necessary to support high-definition products and systems in that country involves major commitments of engineering resources, plants and equipment, educational programs and funding. The results of these efforts appear to affect virtually every aspect of the Japanese industrial complex. The results of assessments of the current progress of Japan toward the development of high-definition products and systems are presented. The assessments are based on the findings of a panel of U.S. experts made up of individuals from U.S. academia and industry, and derived from a study of the Japanese literature combined with visits to the primary relevant industrial laboratories and development agencies in Japan. Specific coverage includes an evaluation of progress in R&D for high-definition television (HDTV) displays that are evolving in Japan; high-definition standards and equipment development; Japanese intentions for the use of HDTV; economic evaluation of Japan's public policy initiatives in support of high-definition systems; management analysis of Japan's strategy of leverage with respect to high-definition products and systems.

  4. Change in habitat selection by Japanese macaques ( Macaca fuscata) and habitat fragmentation analysis using temporal remotely sensed data in Niigata Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Shota; Murakami, Takuhiko

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in macaque habitat selection during a 29-year period. We focused on the 1970s, when little crop damage was caused by Japanese macaques ( Macaca fuscata), and the 2000s, when the damage became remarkable. Landsat/MSS from 1978 and ALOS/AVNIR-2 from 2007 were employed for land-cover mapping. For the 2007 land-cover classification, we applied an object-oriented image classification and a classification and regression tree. The Kappa coefficient of the 2007 land-cover map was 0.89. For the 1978 land-cover classification, change detection using principal component analysis and object-oriented image classification were applied to reduce resolution difference errors. The Kappa coefficient of the 1978 land-cover map was 0.84. We applied a Random Forest model for machine learning and data mining to predict the habitat selection of macaques. Several important environmental factors were identified for macaque habitat selection: the ratio of coniferous forest to farmland, distance to farmland, and maximum snow depth. The Random Forest model was extrapolated to the 1978 land-cover map. Over the 29-year period, coniferous forest changed to broad-leaved forest and/or mixed forest within the macaque habitat area. Coniferous forests were not selected as food resources by Japanese macaques. Furthermore, large-scale patches of farmland were used as food resources over the 29-year period. These changes indicated that habitat selection by Japanese macaques changed over the study period. The results show that the home range of macaques expanded, and macaques may now be distributed over a wider area as a result of changes in landscape configuration. Thus, forest planning, such as sustainable management of artificial conifer forests, is important for reducing crop damage.

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Nocardia seriolae Strain N-2927 (NBRC 110360), Isolated as the Causal Agent of Nocardiosis of Yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) in Kochi Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Imajoh, Masayuki; Fukumoto, Yoichi; Yamane, Jin; Sukeda, Masaki; Shimizu, Masato; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Oshima, Syun-Ichirou

    2015-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Nocardia seriolae strain N-2927 (NBRC 110360), isolated from cultured yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata. RAST annotation of the genome revealed 117 genes involved in the virulence, disease, and defense subsystem. Eleven of these genes were predicted as antibiotic resistance genes. PMID:25767227

  6. Arum- and Paris-type arbuscular mycorrhizas in a mixed pine forest on sand dune soil in Niigata Prefecture, central Honshu, Japan.

    PubMed

    Matekwor Ahulu, Evelyn; Nakata, Makoto; Nonaka, Masanori

    2005-03-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) are the most widespread mycorrhiza in nature and form two morphologies, Arum- and Paris-type. The determining factors defining the two different morphologies are not well understood. In this study, the distribution of Arum- and Paris-type AM was determined in a mixed pine forest. A total of 35 plant species belonging to 20 families and 32 genera were identified and examined for AM colonization and morphological types. AM morphological types in 14 families were confirmed as follows: Arum-type in Rosaceae, Oleaceae, Lauraceae, Vitaceae and Compositae, Paris-type in Aquifoliaceae, Ulmaceae, Araliaceae, Theaceae, Magnoliaceae, Rubiaceae and Dioscoraceae, and both and/or intermediate types in Caprifoliaceae and Gramineae. Plant families whose AM morphological status was previously unknown were clarified as follows: Polygonaceae and Commelinaceae showed Arum-type morphology; Celastraceae, Menispermaceae and Elaeagnaceae had typical Paris-type morphology. The proportion of Arum-type to Paris-type species decreased in the following order: annuals > perennials > deciduous species > evergreen species, and pioneer group > early successional group > late successional group. Evergreen plants had a higher tendency to form Paris-type AM than annuals, perennials and deciduous plants. The results indicate that environmental changes, such as shade during plant succession, control the distribution of plant growth forms in mixed pine forest and may also play a part in the distribution of Arum- and Paris-type morphology. The identity of the plant seems to strongly influence AM morphology, though control by the fungal genome cannot be ruled out.

  7. Prediction and prevention of silica scaling at low levels of oversaturation: Case studies, and calculations for Uenotai Geothermal Field, Akita Prefecture, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Christopher W.; Iwata, Shun; Takeuchi, Rituo; Naka, Tohsaku

    1991-01-01

    Production system design studies often include site-specific silica scaling field experiments, conducted because the onset and rate of scaling are believed difficult to predict, particularly at relatively low levels of oversaturation such as may exist in separators, flowlines, and injection wells. However, observed scaling occurrences (Cerro Prieto, Dixie Valley, Svartsengi, Otake, Hatchobaru, Milos, experimental work) actually conform fairly well to existing theory and rate equations. It should be possible to predict low level scaling with sufficient confidence for production and injection system design and, in cases where oversaturation is allowed, to design systems with foresight to suppress or manage the scale which develops. A promising suppression technology is fluid pH reduction by mixing with non-condensible gases and/or condensate. Calculations for injection lines at Uenotai geothermal field indicate molecular deposition at rates of 0.1 to 1 mm/yr, and some potential for particle deposition at points of turbulence, which can be suppressed by an order of magnitude with about 500 ppm CO{sub 2}. Further improvements of predictive technique will benefit from more uniformity in designing experiments, reporting results, and reporting measurements of scaling in actual production systems.

  8. The Great East-Japan Earthquake and devastating tsunami: an update and lessons from the past Great Earthquakes in Japan since 1923.

    PubMed

    Ishigaki, Akemi; Higashi, Hikari; Sakamoto, Takako; Shibahara, Shigeki

    2013-01-01

    Japan has a long history of fighting against great earthquakes that cause structural damage/collapses, fires and/or tsunami. On March 11, 2011 at 14:46 (Friday), the Great East-Japan Earthquake (magnitude 9.0) attacked the Tohoku region (northeastern Japan), which includes Sendai City. The earthquake generated a devastating tsunami, leading to unprecedented disasters (~18,500 victims) in coastal areas of Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures, despite the fact that people living in the Tohoku region are well trained for tsunami-evacuation procedures, with the mindset of "Tsunami, ten-den-ko." This code means that each person should evacuate individually upon an earthquake. Sharing this rule, children and parents can escape separately from schools, houses or workplaces, without worrying about each other. The concept of ten-den-ko (individual evacuation) is helpful for people living in coastal areas of earthquake-prone zones around the world. It is also important to construct safe evacuation centers, because the March 11(th) tsunami killed people who had evacuated to evacuation sites. We summarize the current conditions of people living in the disaster-stricken areas, including the consequences of the Fukushima nuclear accident. We also describe the disaster responses as the publisher of the Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (TJEM), located in Sendai, with online support from Tokyo. In 1923, the Great Kanto Earthquake (magnitude 7.9) evoked a massive fire that destroyed large areas of Tokyo (~105,000 victims), including the print company for TJEM, but the Wistar Institute printed three TJEM issues in 1923 in Philadelphia. Mutual aid relationships should be established between distant cities to survive future disasters.

  9. The Great East-Japan Earthquake and devastating tsunami: an update and lessons from the past Great Earthquakes in Japan since 1923.

    PubMed

    Ishigaki, Akemi; Higashi, Hikari; Sakamoto, Takako; Shibahara, Shigeki

    2013-01-01

    Japan has a long history of fighting against great earthquakes that cause structural damage/collapses, fires and/or tsunami. On March 11, 2011 at 14:46 (Friday), the Great East-Japan Earthquake (magnitude 9.0) attacked the Tohoku region (northeastern Japan), which includes Sendai City. The earthquake generated a devastating tsunami, leading to unprecedented disasters (~18,500 victims) in coastal areas of Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures, despite the fact that people living in the Tohoku region are well trained for tsunami-evacuation procedures, with the mindset of "Tsunami, ten-den-ko." This code means that each person should evacuate individually upon an earthquake. Sharing this rule, children and parents can escape separately from schools, houses or workplaces, without worrying about each other. The concept of ten-den-ko (individual evacuation) is helpful for people living in coastal areas of earthquake-prone zones around the world. It is also important to construct safe evacuation centers, because the March 11(th) tsunami killed people who had evacuated to evacuation sites. We summarize the current conditions of people living in the disaster-stricken areas, including the consequences of the Fukushima nuclear accident. We also describe the disaster responses as the publisher of the Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (TJEM), located in Sendai, with online support from Tokyo. In 1923, the Great Kanto Earthquake (magnitude 7.9) evoked a massive fire that destroyed large areas of Tokyo (~105,000 victims), including the print company for TJEM, but the Wistar Institute printed three TJEM issues in 1923 in Philadelphia. Mutual aid relationships should be established between distant cities to survive future disasters. PMID:23583960

  10. Critical contribution of sanitation infrastructure and primary medical care to child health status in Japan from 1955 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Ishitani, Seiko; Nakamura, Keiko; Fukuda, Yoshiharu; Kizuki, Masashi; Seino, Kaoruko; Inose, Tomoko

    2005-12-01

    We examined the associations between prefectural health status of children and sanitation infrastructure, medical care services and socioeconomic status in Japan during 1955-2000. Four indicators of child health status: infant mortality rate (IMR), Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence and height and weight of elementary school children, and five prefectural social indicators: water supply, sewerage, number of physicians, income and women's education, were calculated over five-year intervals and examined by correlation and panel data analyses. Associations between paediatric health and five social indicators were significant (p<0.001) until 1970. After adjustment for income or education, water supply diffusion rate showed a significantly negative association with IMR until the 1980s. A significantly positive correlation was observed between the number of physician and paediatric health from 1955-70 after adjustment for income. Water supply development showed a positive association with paediatric health after adjustment for economic or educational impact during the phases of rapid and steady economic growth, while medical care showed a positive correlation with paediatric health after adjustment for income during only the phase of rapid economic growth. Relationships between child health status and social indicators have changed over time with stage of economic development.

  11. [Human Resource Development for Tohoku Region after Great East Japan Earthquake: Remarks of the Chairperson].

    PubMed

    Shimura, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    In order to promote further advances of medical systems in the Tohoku region where the Great East Japan Earthquake and the subsequent accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant occurred, the requirement of human resources in clinical laboratory medicine has increased. Therefore, the symposium entitled "Human resource development for Tohoku region after Great East Japan Earthquake" was held in The 47th Tohoku Regional Congress of Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine. In Fukushima Prefecture, the Thyroid Ultrasound Examination program has been conducted since Oct. 2011. Educational courses and certification programs for thyroid ultrasound examiners were established for medical doctors and technologists in Fukushima. The need for certified sonographers has also increased because deep venous thrombosis is also one of the health problems in the earthquake-hit area. Human resource development of sonographers was discussed in this symposium. In addition, further advances in clinical laboratory medicine are dependent on the development of specified medical technologists and certified physicians. Projects of human resource development currently performed in the Tohoku region were introduced and future actions were discussed. PMID:27192801

  12. First report of Xiphinema brevicolle Lordello et Costa, 1961 (Nematoda, Longidoridae) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiromichi; Takeda, Ai; Mizukubo, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    Mixed populations of Xiphinema americanum-group species were detected from a root zone soil sample of Japanese holly, Ilex crenata, during a survey for plant-parasitic nematodes of commercial ornamental plant nurseries in Chiba Prefecture, Japan. From the result of the morphological study, the species were identified as Xiphinema brevicolle and Xiphinema sp. This is the first record of Xiphinema brevicolle in Japan. Morphometrics of Xiphinema brevicolle generally agree with those of the type specimens and the topotype specimens. Xiphinema sp. morphometrically resembles Xiphinema paramonovi except for tail length. The mitochondrial COI region, the nuclear 18S rDNA and the nuclear large subunit rDNA D2/D3 region of the species were sequenced and compared in the molecular study. For the COI region, PCR primers were newly designed to obtain longer sequences, ca. 900 bp, than previously used. Sequence identities of COI, 18S and D2/D3 regions between these two populations were 84.0-84.1%, 99.9% and 98.1-98.2%, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of maximum likelihood trees were carried out to compare genetic relationships among the group and some suggestions were made on the Xiphinema brevicolle-subgroup.

  13. Social Cohesion and Mortality: A Survival Analysis of Older Adults in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Takao, Soshi; Doi, Hiroyuki; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association between social cohesion and mortality in a sample of older adults in Japan. Methods. Data were derived from a cohort study of elderly individuals (65–84 years) in Shizuoka Prefecture; 14 001 participants were enrolled at baseline (1999) and followed up in 2002, 2006, and 2009. Among the 11 092 participants for whom we had complete data, 1427 had died during follow-up. We examined the association between social cohesion (assessed at both the community and individual levels) and subsequent mortality after control for baseline and time-varying covariates. We used clustered proportional hazard regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs). Results. After control for individual characteristics, individual perceptions of community cohesion were associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.73, 0.84) as well as mortality from cardiovascular disease (HR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.67, 0.84), pulmonary disease (HR = 0.66; 95% CI = 0.58, 0.75), and all other causes (HR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.66, 0.89). However, no statistically significant relationship was found between community cohesion and mortality risk. Conclusions. Among the elderly in Japan, more positive individual perceptions of community cohesion are associated with reduced risks of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. PMID:24134379

  14. [Human Resource Development for Tohoku Region after Great East Japan Earthquake: Remarks of the Chairperson].

    PubMed

    Shimura, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    In order to promote further advances of medical systems in the Tohoku region where the Great East Japan Earthquake and the subsequent accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant occurred, the requirement of human resources in clinical laboratory medicine has increased. Therefore, the symposium entitled "Human resource development for Tohoku region after Great East Japan Earthquake" was held in The 47th Tohoku Regional Congress of Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine. In Fukushima Prefecture, the Thyroid Ultrasound Examination program has been conducted since Oct. 2011. Educational courses and certification programs for thyroid ultrasound examiners were established for medical doctors and technologists in Fukushima. The need for certified sonographers has also increased because deep venous thrombosis is also one of the health problems in the earthquake-hit area. Human resource development of sonographers was discussed in this symposium. In addition, further advances in clinical laboratory medicine are dependent on the development of specified medical technologists and certified physicians. Projects of human resource development currently performed in the Tohoku region were introduced and future actions were discussed.

  15. Overview of active cesium contamination of freshwater fish in Fukushima and Eastern Japan.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Toshiaki; Kubo, Hideya

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on an overview of radioactive cesium 137 (quasi-Cs137 included Cs134) contamination of freshwater fish in Fukushima and eastern Japan based on the data published by the Fisheries Agency of the Japanese Government in 2011. In the area north and west of the Fukushima Nuclear plant, freshwater fish have been highly contaminated. For example, the mean of active cesium (quasi-Cs137) contamination of Ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) is 2,657 Bq/kg at Mano River, 20-40 km north-west from the plant. Bioaccumulation is observed in the Agano river basin in Aizu sub-region, 70-150 km west from the plant. The active cesium (quasi-Cs137) contamination of carnivorous Salmondae is around 2 times higher than herbivorous Ayu. The extent of active cesium (quasi-Cs137) contamination of Ayu is observed in the entire eastern Japan. The some level of the contamination is recognized even in Shizuoka prefecture, 400 km south-west from the plant.

  16. Dissolved platinum in rainwater, river water and seawater around Tokyo Bay and Otsuchi Bay in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashio, Asami Suzuki; Obata, Hajime; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Tsutsumi, Makoto; Ferrer i Santos, Antoni; Gamo, Toshitaka

    2016-10-01

    Platinum, among the rarest elements in the earth's crust, is now widely used in various products such as catalytic converters in automobiles and anticancer drugs. Consequently, the concentration of Pt in urban aquatic environments might be increasing. However, little is known about the distributions and geochemical cycles of Pt in aquatic environments because its overall concentration remains low. In this study, we examined dissolved Pt in river water and seawater around Tokyo Bay and Otsuchi Bay (Iwate Prefecture, Japan) and rainwater in the Tokyo area. To determine sub-picomolar levels of dissolved Pt, we used isotope-dilution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) after column preconcentration with an anion exchange resin. We observed seasonal variation in the dissolved Pt concentrations in Tokyo rainwater in 2002; higher concentrations were found from January to March, which might be related to the pH of rainwaters. At the source of the Arakawa River in the greater Tokyo area, the dissolved Pt concentration was found to be similar to that in rainwater. Further downstream, the dissolved Pt concentration increased sharply, which seemingly reflects the anthropogenic input of Pt into the river. In a rural area in Japan (Otsuchi Bay), the dissolved Pt concentrations were lower than in Tokyo Bay. In this area, a sharp increase in dissolved Pt concentrations was observed in a high salinity region. Contrasting Pt distribution patterns between urban and rural areas indicate that strong anthropogenic Pt sources exist in urban estuaries and that geochemical processes within estuaries affect the Pt distribution.

  17. Prevalence and characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in bovine colostrum in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Megumi; Iwabuchi, Eriko; Yamamoto, Shiori; Esaki, Hidetake; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko; Ito, Masahiko; Hirai, Katsuya

    2013-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in bovine colostrum in Japan. We collected bovine colostrum samples from 210 dams from 21 dairy farms in Hokkaido prefecture (Japan) between March and June 2009. L. monocytogenes was detected in samples from 6 (28.6%) of the 21 farms. Of the 210 samples, 16 (7.6%) were positive for L. monocytogenes. We recovered 80 L. monocytogenes isolates; 44 (55%) isolates were classified as serotype 1/2b and 36 (45%) were classified as serotype 4b. The isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, erythromycin, vancomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) characterization of the 80 isolates revealed six PFGE types. Two PFGE types corresponded to human listeriosis cases. Most L. monocytogenes isolates possessed virulence-associated genes (actA, hly, iap, inlA, inlC, mpl, plcA, plcB, opuCA, prfA, and clpC). One PFGE type isolate possessed an epidemic clone II marker. Our findings suggest that isolates from bovine colostrum have the potential to cause human and animal listeriosis. This is the first study on the prevalence and characteristics of L. monocytogenes isolated from bovine colostrum obtained from dairy farms. Our results have important implications for improving public health and elucidating the epidemiology of L. monocytogenes in bovine colostrum. PMID:23433372

  18. Overview of active cesium contamination of freshwater fish in Fukushima and Eastern Japan

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Toshiaki; Kubo, Hideya

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on an overview of radioactive cesium 137 (quasi-Cs137 included Cs134) contamination of freshwater fish in Fukushima and eastern Japan based on the data published by the Fisheries Agency of the Japanese Government in 2011. In the area north and west of the Fukushima Nuclear plant, freshwater fish have been highly contaminated. For example, the mean of active cesium (quasi-Cs137) contamination of Ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) is 2,657 Bq/kg at Mano River, 20–40 km north-west from the plant. Bioaccumulation is observed in the Agano river basin in Aizu sub-region, 70–150 km west from the plant. The active cesium (quasi-Cs137) contamination of carnivorous Salmondae is around 2 times higher than herbivorous Ayu. The extent of active cesium (quasi-Cs137) contamination of Ayu is observed in the entire eastern Japan. The some level of the contamination is recognized even in Shizuoka prefecture, 400 km south-west from the plant. PMID:23625055

  19. Satellite tracking of the migration of Whooper Swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shimada, Tetsuo; Yamaguchi, Noriyuki M.; Hijikata, N.; Hiraoka, Emiko N.; Hupp, Jerry; Flint, Paul L.; Tokita, Ken-ichi; Fujita, Go; Uchida, Kiyoshi; Sato, F.; Kurechi, Masayuki; Pearce, John M.; Ramey, Andy M.; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We satellite-tracked Whooper Swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in northern Japan to document their migration routes and timing, and to identify breeding areas. From 47 swans that we marked at Lake Izunuma-Uchinuma, Miyagi Prefecture, northeast Honshu, and at Lake Kussharo, east Hokkaido, we observed 57 spring and 33 autumn migrations from 2009-2012. In spring, swans migrated north along Sakhalin Island from eastern Hokkaido using stopovers in Sakhalin, at the mouth of the Amur River and in northern coastal areas of the Sea of Okhotsk. They ultimately reached molting/breedmg areas along the Indigirka River and the lower Kolyma River in northern Russia. In autumn, the swans basically reversed the spring migration routes. We identified northern Honshu, eastern Hokkaido, coastal areas in Sakhalin, the lower Amur River and northern coastal areas of the Sea of Okhotsk as the most frequent stopover sites, and the middle reaches of the Indigirka and the lower Kolyma River as presumed breeding sites. Our results are helpful in understanding the distribution of the breeding and stopover sites of Whooper Swans wintering in Japan and in identifying their major migration habitats. Our findings contribute to understanding the potential transmission process of avian influenza viruses potentially carried by swans, and provide information necessary to conserve Whooper Swans in East Asia.

  20. Surveillance of avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 in migratory waterfowls in Japan between 2011 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Mase, Masaji; Kanehira, Katsushi

    2015-03-01

    To further understand the epidemiology of avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1) in migratory waterfowls in Japan, we conducted the surveillance of this virus from feces derived from the migratory waterfowls collected in 41 Japanese prefectures between October 2011 and March 2013. Six APMV-1 viruses were isolated from total 661 samples. All isolates were identified as the avirulent (lentogenic) type on the basis of intracerebral pathogenicity tests. Genetic analysis showed that these viruses possessed the deduced amino acid sequence of 112GKQGR-L117 or 112ERQER-L117 at the cleavage site of the F0 protein, which was identical to the motif in the avirulent type. Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial fusion protein gene classified these APMV-1 isolates into 2 major genetic groups. Four isolates were classified as class II genotype I, and they were genetically closely related to strains isolated in Asian countries, including Japan. In contrast, two isolates were classified as class I, and they were genetically closely related to strains mainly isolated in the U.S.A.

  1. Fungal infection of mantis shrimp (Oratosquilla oratoria) caused by two anamorphic fungi found in Japan.

    PubMed

    Duc, Pham Minh; Hatai, Kishio; Kurata, Osamu; Tensha, Kozue; Yoshitaka, Uchida; Yaguchi, Takashi; Udagawa, Shun-ichi

    2009-05-01

    Two fungal pathogens of the mantis shrimp (Oratosquilla oratoria) in Yamaguchi and Aichi Prefectures, Japan are described as the new species Plectosporium oratosquillae and Acremonium sp. (a member of the Emericellopsis marine clade). Both fungi infect the gills of the mantis shrimp, which become brown or black due to melanization. The former species is characterized by its slow growth on artificial seawater yeast extract peptone glucose (PYGS) agar, pale yellow to pale orange or grayish yellow colonies, short cylindrical solitary phialides with a wavy tip, and one-celled ellipsoidal conidia. Although lacking the two-celled conidia demonstrated by the type species Plectosporium tabacinum, the taxonomic placement of the new species was confirmed by DNA sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA (ITS1, 5.8S rDNA and ITS2). Acremonium sp., the other causal pathogen, differs from P. oratosquillae by its fast growth on PYGS agar, pale orange to salmon-colored colonies, long, slender conidiophores consisting of solitary phialides with tips lacking an undulate outline, and typically cylindrical conidia. Analysis of ITS and beta-tubulin gene sequences placed this fungus within the phylogenetically distinct Emericellopsis (anam. Acremonium) marine clade. Various physiological characteristics of both pathogens were also investigated. This is the first report of a fungal infection found on the mantis shrimp in Japan. PMID:19169846

  2. Report on disaster medical operations with acupuncture/massage therapy after the great East Japan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Shin; Kamiya, Tetsuharu; Watanabe, Masashi; Hirano, Atsushi; Matsuda, Ayane; Monma, Yasutake; Numata, Takehiro; Kusuyama, Hiroko; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2012-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake inflicted immense damage over a wide area of eastern Japan with the consequent tsunami. Department of Traditional Asian Medicine, Tohoku University, started providing medical assistance to the disaster-stricken regions mainly employing traditional Asian therapies.We visited seven evacuation centers in Miyagi and Fukushima Prefecture and provided acupuncture/massage therapy. While massage therapy was performed manually, filiform needles and press tack needles were used to administer acupuncture. In total, 553 people were treated (mean age, 54.0 years; 206 men, 347 women). Assessment by interview showed that the most common complaint was shoulder/back stiffness. The rate of therapy satisfaction was 92.3%. Many people answered that they experienced not only physical but also psychological relief.At the time of the disaster, acupuncture/massage therapy, which has both mental and physical soothing effects, may be a therapeutic approach that can be effectively used in combination with Western medical practices. PMID:22563235

  3. Survey of volatile organic compounds found in indoor and outdoor air samples from Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanaka-Kagawa, Toshiko; Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Matsushima, Erika; Sasaki, Akira; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Hiromi; Yagi, Masahiro; Tsuno, Masahiko; Arao, Masa; Ikemoto, Kazumi; Yamasaki, Makoto; Nakashima, Ayako; Shimizu, Yuri; Otsubo, Yasufumi; Ando, Masanori; Jinno, Hideto; Tokunaga, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    Indoor air quality is currently a growing concern, mainly due to the incidence of sick building syndrome and building related illness. To better understand indoor air quality in Japan, both indoor and outdoor air samples were collected from 50 residences in Iwate, Yamanashi, Shiga, Hyogo, Kochi and Fukuoka Prefectures. More than 100 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method. The most abundant class of compounds present in the indoor air samples were identified (i.e. alkanes, alkylbenzenes and terpenes). For 30% of the indoor air samples, the sum of each VOC exceeded the current provisional guideline value for total VOC (TVOC, 400 microg/m3). The major component of these samples included linear and branched-chain alkanes (possibly derived from fossil fuels), 1,4-dichlorobenzene (a moth repellent), alpha-pinene (emission from woody building materials) and limonene (probably derived from aroma products). As an unexpected result, one residence was polluted with an extremely high concentration of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (720 microg/m3), suggesting accidental leakage from a household appliance such as a refrigerator. The results presented in this paper are important in establishing the Japanese target compound list for TVOC analysis, as well as defining the current status of indoor air quality in Japan.

  4. Science education in Elementary school by using of "Geopark", Oki Islands, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oku, S.; Matsumoto, I.

    2012-12-01

    The Oki islands are located at Japan sea coast side of southwest Japan and belonging to Shimane Prefecture. And there is rich Nature which is consist of mainly alkaline volcanic rocks and metamorphic rocks. Aiming at authorization "Geopark" authorization of Oki Islands, Geologist, Biologist, and residents of Oki Islands are doing investigation and advertisement. Promotion of the science education which utilized the precious Nature, or environmental education is very important in the viewpoint of the science literacy which can protect a Nature and the earth. In this presentation, we mainly propose activity at an elementary school about how to advance the science education by using of this precious Nature. Children learn about the geology which constitutes the ground, and its petro-genesis in the Science of the sixth grade of elementary school. The viewpoint of having been formed by volcano, Earthquake, etc, in long global time is important for the precious and beautiful geology which constitutes the ground. It is at the same time important for a global change to teach also about often doing serious damage to human beings or a living thing with an Earthquake, a volcano, tsunami, etc. That is, we can push (teaching beautiful geology and a precious living thing using "Geopark"), and can learn about the blessing and disaster of a Nature. Moreover, teaching materials and teaching tools like a local textbook or a signboard with which a teacher and a resident can teach them to a child are required.

  5. Mt. Fuji, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the movie

    The nearly perfectly conical profile of Fuji soars 3,776 meters (12,388 feet) above sea level on southern Honshu, near Tokyo. The highest mountain in Japan, Fuji is the country's most familiar symbol. The summit of this graceful, dormant volcano is broken by a crater 610 meters (2,000 feet) in diameter. The crater is ringed by eight jagged peaks. The five Fuji Lakes lie on the northern slopes of the mountain, all formed in the wake of lava flows. Mirrored in the still waters of Kawaguchi-ko, the most beautiful of the five lakes, is a reflection of Fuji. Part of Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, Fuji last erupted for a two-month period starting in November 1707, covering Tokyo, some 100 kilometers (60 miles) away, with a layer of ash. According to legend, Fuji arose from the plain during a single night in 286 BC. Geologically, the mountain is much older than this.

    Considered sacred by many, Fuji is surrounded by temples and shrines. Thousands of pilgrims climb the mountain each year as part of their religious practice, hoping to reach the summit by dawn to watch the sunrise. This animated fly-by was created by draping visible and near infrared image data over a digital topography model, created from ASTER's stereo bands. The spatial resolution of both the image and topography is 15 m. The image is centered at 35.3 degrees north latitude, 138.7 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  6. Quo Vadis, Japan. [Status of Japan's Nuclear Power Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    A pile of plutonium - 1.4 tonnes in all - was on board Japanese nuclear transport ship Akatsuki Maru when it left France on November 8, 1992 for Japan. Alongside it were Greenpeace's hostile and ever-vigilant boats and the great swells of public protest from around the world. Transports like this are likely to follow. But more to the tune of 30 to 40 tonnes of plutonium cargo is expected from the Japanese spent fuel that is separated at European reprocessing plants. Both Japanese utilities and governmental agencies have agreed that plutonium is to be fabricated into mixed oxide fuel (MOX) before being returned to Japan. But in the meantime, critics are accusing Japan of being one of the greatest threats to international safety. After the Akatsuki Maru spectacle, the Japanese civil nuclear program is awash in criticism and can not escape the watchful eye of the international community. Now, with Japan's parliamentary elections over and a review of its nuclear program just around the corner, the question is: Quo vadis, Japan

  7. Recognition of change in the reform of forensic mental health by clinical practitioners: a questionnaire survey in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shiina, Akihiro; Iyo, Masaomi; Yoshizumi, Akira; Hirabayashi, Naotsugu

    2014-01-01

    In Japan, new legislation regarding forensic mental health, namely, the Act on Medical Care and Treatment for Persons Who Have Caused Serious Cases under the Condition of Insanity (Medical Treatment and Supervision Act (MTS Act)) was enforced in 2005, although community mental health care remains largely unchanged. We surveyed local clinical psychiatrists by questionnaire to gather information on the influence of the MTS Act on clinical mental health practice. We sent a paper questionnaire to almost all the psychiatrists in the Chiba prefecture, 56% of whom (N = 306) responded. The participants felt that the MTS Act had minimal direct impact on community mental health care. However, some relatively new schemes such as a multiple disciplinary team approach or supervised outpatient care are given more attention than before. These results suggest that this new forensic mental health legislation may assist in the spread of new paradigms into clinical practice.

  8. Molecular epidemiological analyses of Cryptosporidium parvum virus 1 (CSpV1), a symbiotic virus of Cryptosporidium parvum, in Japan.

    PubMed

    Murakoshi, Fumi; Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Aita, Junya; Yaita, Seiko; Kinami, Aiko; Fujimoto, Katsuhisa; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Murakami, Shin; Horimoto, Taisuke; Kato, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    We show that Cryptosporidium parvum virus 1 (CSpV1), a member of the family Partitiviridae, genus Cryspovirus that can infect Cryptosporidium parvum, is a new candidate for high-resolution tool for tracing C. parvum. CSpV1 was detected in all C. parvum-positive samples tested. Phylogenetic analysis of dsRNA1 sequence from CSpV1 can distinguish infected areas of C. parvum on the national level. Sequences detected in samples from Iwate prefecture and other islands (Tanegashima, and Okinawa) belonged to a single clade. This system can differentiate the samples from Hokkaido and south part of Japan as well as from other countries. Samples from Iwate, Tanegashima, and Okinawa belonged to a single subclade, respectively. Therefore, the CSpV1 dsRNA sequences reflect the regional distribution of their host and have potential as a high-resolution tool to trace C. parvum IIaA15G2R1 subtype.

  9. Recognition of change in the reform of forensic mental health by clinical practitioners: a questionnaire survey in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shiina, Akihiro; Iyo, Masaomi; Yoshizumi, Akira; Hirabayashi, Naotsugu

    2014-01-01

    In Japan, new legislation regarding forensic mental health, namely, the Act on Medical Care and Treatment for Persons Who Have Caused Serious Cases under the Condition of Insanity (Medical Treatment and Supervision Act (MTS Act)) was enforced in 2005, although community mental health care remains largely unchanged. We surveyed local clinical psychiatrists by questionnaire to gather information on the influence of the MTS Act on clinical mental health practice. We sent a paper questionnaire to almost all the psychiatrists in the Chiba prefecture, 56% of whom (N = 306) responded. The participants felt that the MTS Act had minimal direct impact on community mental health care. However, some relatively new schemes such as a multiple disciplinary team approach or supervised outpatient care are given more attention than before. These results suggest that this new forensic mental health legislation may assist in the spread of new paradigms into clinical practice. PMID:24678884

  10. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, January 28, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-28

    ;Partial Contents: Japan: AIST`s Frontier Carbon Technology Research Project Under Way; Japan: Sumitomo Electric Develops Aluminum Nitride Substrate; Japan: NASDA To Develop Small, High Performance, Low Cost Satellite; Japan to Haive Rocket Launch Cost; Japan: Combined-Cycle Technology for Higher Thermal Efficiency Using Various Fuels; Japan: S&T Corporation Develops Carbon Thin Film Solar Cell; Japan: Atomic Energy Commission of Japan Suports Using ITER for Japan`s Experimental Reactor; Japan: NO New Nuclear Power Plant Construction in Sight; and Japan: Mitsubishi Electric Executive on Guided Missile Development.

  11. Sociodemographic patterning of long-term diabetes mellitus control following Japan's 3.11 triple disaster: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Leppold, Claire; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Ozaki, Akihiko; Nomura, Shuhei; Shimada, Yuki; Morita, Tomohiro; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Kami, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Yukio; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the sociodemographic patterning of changes in glycaemic control of patients with diabetes affected by the 2011 triple disaster in Japan (earthquake, tsunami and nuclear accident). Methods A retrospective cohort study was undertaken with 404 patients with diabetes at a public hospital in Minamisoma City, Fukushima Prefecture. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were measured in 2010, 2011 and 2012 to capture changes in glycaemic control postdisaster. Age, sex, urban/rural residency, evacuation status and medication use were also assessed. Results There was an overall deterioration in glycaemic control after the disaster, with the mean HbA1c rising from 6.77% in 2010 to 6.90% in 2012 (National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program, NGSP). Rural residency was associated with a lower likelihood of deteriorating control (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.84), compared with urban residency. Older age (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.91 to 0.98) was also slightly protective against increased HbA1c. Evacuation and sex were not significant predictors. Conclusions Patients with diabetes who were affected by Japan's triple disaster experienced a deterioration in their glycaemic control following the disasters. The extent of this deterioration was mediated by sociodemographic factors, with rural residence and older age protective against the effects of the disaster on glycaemic control. These results may be indicative of underlying social determinants of health in rural Japan. PMID:27388360

  12. Changes in the Factors Influencing Public Acceptance of Nuclear Power Generation in Japan Since the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster.

    PubMed

    Tsujikawa, Norifumi; Tsuchida, Shoji; Shiotani, Takamasa

    2016-01-01

    Public support for nuclear power generation has decreased in Japan since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011. This study examines how the factors influencing public acceptance of nuclear power changed after this event. The influence factors examined are perceived benefit, perceived risk, trust in the managing bodies, and pro-environmental orientation (i.e., new ecological paradigm). This study is based on cross-sectional data collected from two online nationwide surveys: one conducted in November 2009, before the nuclear accident, and the other in October 2011, after the accident. This study's target respondents were residents of Aomori, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures in the Tohoku region of Japan, as these areas were the epicenters of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the locations of nuclear power stations. After the accident, trust in the managing bodies was found to have a stronger influence on perceived risk, and pro-environmental orientation was found to have a stronger influence on trust in the managing bodies; however, perceived benefit had a weaker positive influence on public acceptance. We also discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. PMID:26224041

  13. Changes in the Factors Influencing Public Acceptance of Nuclear Power Generation in Japan Since the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster.

    PubMed

    Tsujikawa, Norifumi; Tsuchida, Shoji; Shiotani, Takamasa

    2016-01-01

    Public support for nuclear power generation has decreased in Japan since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011. This study examines how the factors influencing public acceptance of nuclear power changed after this event. The influence factors examined are perceived benefit, perceived risk, trust in the managing bodies, and pro-environmental orientation (i.e., new ecological paradigm). This study is based on cross-sectional data collected from two online nationwide surveys: one conducted in November 2009, before the nuclear accident, and the other in October 2011, after the accident. This study's target respondents were residents of Aomori, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures in the Tohoku region of Japan, as these areas were the epicenters of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the locations of nuclear power stations. After the accident, trust in the managing bodies was found to have a stronger influence on perceived risk, and pro-environmental orientation was found to have a stronger influence on trust in the managing bodies; however, perceived benefit had a weaker positive influence on public acceptance. We also discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

  14. Psychotropic dose equivalence in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inada, Toshiya; Inagaki, Ataru

    2015-08-01

    Psychotropic dose equivalence is an important concept when estimating the approximate psychotropic doses patients receive, and deciding on the approximate titration dose when switching from one psychotropic agent to another. It is also useful from a research viewpoint when defining and extracting specific subgroups of subjects. Unification of various agents into a single standard agent facilitates easier analytical comparisons. On the basis of differences in psychopharmacological prescription features, those of available psychotropic agents and their approved doses, and racial differences between Japan and other countries, psychotropic dose equivalency tables designed specifically for Japanese patients have been widely used in Japan since 1998. Here we introduce dose equivalency tables for: (i) antipsychotics; (ii) antiparkinsonian agents; (iii) antidepressants; and (iv) anxiolytics, sedatives and hypnotics available in Japan. Equivalent doses for the therapeutic effects of individual psychotropic compounds were determined principally on the basis of randomized controlled trials conducted in Japan and consensus among dose equivalency tables reported previously by psychopharmacological experts. As these tables are intended to merely suggest approximate standard values, physicians should use them with discretion. Updated information of psychotropic dose equivalence in Japan is available at http://www.jsprs.org/en/equivalence.tables/. [Correction added on 8 July 2015, after first online publication: A link to the updated information has been added.].

  15. Complete nucleotide sequences of attenuated and severe isolates of Leek yellow stripe virus from garlic in northern Japan: identification of three distinct virus types in garlic and leek world-wide.

    PubMed

    Takaki, F; Sano, T; Yamashita, K; Fujita, T; Ueda, K; Kato, T

    2005-06-01

    We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of three isolates (two severe and one attenuated) of the potyvirus Leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV), the main causal agent of the garlic mosaic disease that is prevalent in Aomori prefecture, northern Japan. They contained 10,296-10,297 nucleotides and encoded a deduced polyprotein of 3,215 amino acids. Sequence variation among the three isolates was 1.5% at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels. Surprisingly, the sequences of all three isolates were quite different from that of recently described garlic isolate of LYSV from China. Sequence similarities among the 5'-UTR and P1 regions were only 56-57% and 52-53%, respectively, raising the possibility that these isolates may actually be distinct virus species. Phylogenetic analyses using 5'-UTR, P1 protein and coat protein revealed that all LYSV isolates described to date can be divided into three groups; i.e., those from leek, those from garlic in northern Japan, and those from garlic in southern Japan, China, and other parts of the world. The garlic isolates from northern Japan were more closely related to LYSV isolates from leek than to garlic isolates from southern Japan and China, suggesting a different origin for the garlic cultivars now cultivated in northern Japan.

  16. Epidemiological factors associated to spread of porcine epidemic diarrhea in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yosuke; Alvarez, Julio; Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Sueyoshi, Masuo; Otake, Satoshi; Perez, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is an emerging disease of pigs that has recently led to large numbers of piglet deaths in a number of countries of Eastern Asia and The Americas. The objective of the present study was to identify and compare risk factors associated with PED infection in locally and non-locally PED-exposed farms in Japan. A questionnaire was administered to a convenience selection of pig farms located throughout Japan. Questionnaires were administered between November 2013 (when the first case was reported in Japan) and August 2014. PED-positive farms (cases, n=124) were asked to provide information on their status (positive or negative) and select herd management practices for the two weeks prior to onset of PED clinical signs. Negative farms (controls, n=128) were given the same questionnaire and asked herd management practices for the two weeks prior to a given reference date. This date was assigned based on the date of PED occurrence in the town/prefecture in which the farm was located. Case and control farms were categorized as "locally exposed" if they were located within a 5km radius from a PED-infected farm and "non-locally exposed", otherwise. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with PED infection. Two separate regressions were done for locally exposed and non-locally exposed farms using PED status (positive/negative) as the dependent variable. PED in locally-exposed farms was associated (P<0.05) with increased farm size (in 100 pig increments), shorter distances to the closest PED-positive farm (less than1,001m), and a disinfectant contact time of less than 20min. In non-locally exposed farms, PED was associated (P<0.05) with increased feed truck visits to the farm, no visit of the veterinarian, and again a disinfectant contact time of less than 20min. These findings suggest that the mechanisms of PED spread in Japan were different for farms closer to case-farms compared to farms that were further away from

  17. Epidemiological factors associated to spread of porcine epidemic diarrhea in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yosuke; Alvarez, Julio; Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Sueyoshi, Masuo; Otake, Satoshi; Perez, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is an emerging disease of pigs that has recently led to large numbers of piglet deaths in a number of countries of Eastern Asia and The Americas. The objective of the present study was to identify and compare risk factors associated with PED infection in locally and non-locally PED-exposed farms in Japan. A questionnaire was administered to a convenience selection of pig farms located throughout Japan. Questionnaires were administered between November 2013 (when the first case was reported in Japan) and August 2014. PED-positive farms (cases, n=124) were asked to provide information on their status (positive or negative) and select herd management practices for the two weeks prior to onset of PED clinical signs. Negative farms (controls, n=128) were given the same questionnaire and asked herd management practices for the two weeks prior to a given reference date. This date was assigned based on the date of PED occurrence in the town/prefecture in which the farm was located. Case and control farms were categorized as "locally exposed" if they were located within a 5km radius from a PED-infected farm and "non-locally exposed", otherwise. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with PED infection. Two separate regressions were done for locally exposed and non-locally exposed farms using PED status (positive/negative) as the dependent variable. PED in locally-exposed farms was associated (P<0.05) with increased farm size (in 100 pig increments), shorter distances to the closest PED-positive farm (less than1,001m), and a disinfectant contact time of less than 20min. In non-locally exposed farms, PED was associated (P<0.05) with increased feed truck visits to the farm, no visit of the veterinarian, and again a disinfectant contact time of less than 20min. These findings suggest that the mechanisms of PED spread in Japan were different for farms closer to case-farms compared to farms that were further away from

  18. Clinical Features and Treatment Modes of Mandibular Fracture at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shimane University Hospital, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nakatani, Eiji; Kagimura, Tatsuo; Sekine, Joji

    2015-01-01

    Background The number of elderly patients with maxillofacial trauma is rapidly increasing due to active lifestyles and longevity. Shimane prefecture has the fastest growing proportion of elderly individuals in Japan. The aim of this study was to reveal the distinctive features and treatment modes of mandibular fracture treatment mode in patients requiring hospitalization at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shimane University Hospital, Japan. Patients and Methods Patient age, sex, period between injury and first consultation, years since injury, cause of injury, fracture site, treatment, and duration of hospitalization were evaluated. Univariate Poisson regression, relative risk with 95% confidence interval based on the Wald test, Fisher’s exact test, and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to explore associations among clinical and demographic variables. Results In total, 305 patients were diagnosed with and hospitalized for mandibular fracture from 1980 to 2010. Younger age increased the risk for mandibular fracture. Incidence was higher in males than females, particularly in the young, but the male to female ratio decreased with age. The period until first hospital consultation decreased progressively over the study period. Fall was a much more frequent cause in patients aged ≥60 than in those aged <60 years. Mandibular fracture with condyle, symphysis, and angle involvement were most common and were associated with sex, age, and treatment mode. Length of hospitalization has decreased since 1980. Conclusion In our department, patients aged ≥60 years accounted for a greater proportion of mandibular fracture cases than in many previous studies, reflecting the greater proportion of elderly residents in Shimane prefecture. PMID:26334627

  19. Increasing Incidence of Tuberculosis Infection in the Coastal Region of Northern Miyagi after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Masahiro; Takahashi, Tatsuya; Ohuchi, Miyako; Terui, Yuki; Kiryu, Kouji; Shikano, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake struck off the northeast coast of Japan. Within an hour of the earthquake, devastating tsunamis swept over the coastal region of the Miyagi Prefecture, facing Pacific Ocean. Accordingly, more than 400,000 residents were forced to stay at evacuation shelters. We investigated the changes in tuberculosis prevalence after the disaster. Annual data for all tuberculosis patients between April 1, 2009 and March 31, 2013 were extracted from the database of the Miyagi Prefectural Government. In the coastal region of Northern Miyagi, the number of tuberculosis patients increased in the post-disaster period (p < 0.001, 9.6 vs.19.1 per 100,000 people), compared to the pre-disaster period. In contrast, its prevalence did not change in the inland region of Northern Miyagi and the coastal and inland regions of Southern Miyagi. Importantly, in the inland and coastal regions of Northern Miyagi, the number of patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) increased in the post-disaster period (p < 0.001). Furthermore, in the coastal shelters, 11 evacuees with the history of contacting tuberculosis patients were diagnosed with LTBI, whereas no cases of LTBI patients were observed in the inland shelters. Thus, staying in the coastal shelters was a risk factor for contracting tuberculosis (OR: 19.31, 95% CI: 1.11-334.80); indeed, twice as many evacuees visited each coastal shelter on April 1, 2011, compared to the inland region. We should prepare the shelters to avoid overcrowding, and long-term observation is required to detect the prevalence of tuberculosis infection. PMID:26936409

  20. The effect of fertilization on cesium concentration of rice grown in a paddy field in Fukushima Prefecture in 2011 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Ohmori, Yoshihiro; Kajikawa, Masataka; Nishida, Sho; Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Kobayashi, Natsuko I; Tanoi, Keitaro; Furukawa, Jun; Fujiwara, Toru

    2014-01-01

    After the accident of the Fukushima 1 nuclear power plant in March 2011, radioactive cesium was released and paddy field in a wide area of Fukushima Prefecture was contaminated. To reduce radioactive Cs uptake by rice, it is important to understand factors that affect Cs uptake in rice. Here we describe our study in 2011 and 2012 to investigate Cs concentration in two rice cultivars, Koshihikari and Hitomebore, the top two cultivars in Fukushima prefecture, grown under different fertilizer conditions in the contaminated paddy field. Our study demonstrated that high nitrogen and low potassium conditions increase Cs concentrations both in straw and brown rice.

  1. SURFACE RUPTURE OF THE NORMAL SEISMIC FAULTS AND SLOPE FAILURES APPEARED IN APRIL 11th, 2011 FUKUSHIMA-PREFECTURE HAMADOORI EARTHQUAKE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazmi, Zaheer Abbas; Konagai, Kazuo; Kyokawa, Hiroyuki; Tetik, Cigdem

    On April 11th, 2011, Iwaki region of Fukushima prefecture was jolted by Fukushima-Prefecture Hamadoori Earthquake. Surface ruptures were observed along causative Idosawa and Yunotake normal faults. In addition to numerous small slope failures, a coherent landslide and building structures of Tabito Junior High School, bisected by Idosawa Fault, were found along the causative faults. A precise digital elevation model of the coherent landslide was obtained through the ground and air-born LiDAR surveys. The measurements of perimeters of the gymnasium building and the swimming pool of Tabito Junior High School have shown that ground undergoes a slow and steady/continual deformation.

  2. Evaluation of ambient dose equivalent rates influenced by vertical and horizontal distribution of radioactive cesium in soil in Fukushima Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Malins, Alex; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Nakama, Shigeo; Saito, Tatsuo; Okumura, Masahiko; Machida, Masahiko; Kitamura, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    The air dose rate in an environment contaminated with (134)Cs and (137)Cs depends on the amount, depth profile and horizontal distribution of these contaminants within the ground. This paper introduces and verifies a tool that models these variables and calculates ambient dose equivalent rates at 1 m above the ground. Good correlation is found between predicted dose rates and dose rates measured with survey meters in Fukushima Prefecture in areas contaminated with radiocesium from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. This finding is insensitive to the choice for modeling the activity depth distribution in the ground using activity measurements of collected soil layers, or by using exponential and hyperbolic secant fits to the measurement data. Better predictions are obtained by modeling the horizontal distribution of radioactive cesium across an area if multiple soil samples are available, as opposed to assuming a spatially homogeneous contamination distribution. Reductions seen in air dose rates above flat, undisturbed fields in Fukushima Prefecture are consistent with decrement by radioactive decay and downward migration of cesium into soil. Analysis of remediation strategies for farmland soils confirmed that topsoil removal and interchanging a topsoil layer with a subsoil layer result in similar reductions in the air dose rate. These two strategies are more effective than reverse tillage to invert and mix the topsoil.

  3. Evaluation of ambient dose equivalent rates influenced by vertical and horizontal distribution of radioactive cesium in soil in Fukushima Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Malins, Alex; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Nakama, Shigeo; Saito, Tatsuo; Okumura, Masahiko; Machida, Masahiko; Kitamura, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    The air dose rate in an environment contaminated with (134)Cs and (137)Cs depends on the amount, depth profile and horizontal distribution of these contaminants within the ground. This paper introduces and verifies a tool that models these variables and calculates ambient dose equivalent rates at 1 m above the ground. Good correlation is found between predicted dose rates and dose rates measured with survey meters in Fukushima Prefecture in areas contaminated with radiocesium from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. This finding is insensitive to the choice for modeling the activity depth distribution in the ground using activity measurements of collected soil layers, or by using exponential and hyperbolic secant fits to the measurement data. Better predictions are obtained by modeling the horizontal distribution of radioactive cesium across an area if multiple soil samples are available, as opposed to assuming a spatially homogeneous contamination distribution. Reductions seen in air dose rates above flat, undisturbed fields in Fukushima Prefecture are consistent with decrement by radioactive decay and downward migration of cesium into soil. Analysis of remediation strategies for farmland soils confirmed that topsoil removal and interchanging a topsoil layer with a subsoil layer result in similar reductions in the air dose rate. These two strategies are more effective than reverse tillage to invert and mix the topsoil. PMID:26408835

  4. [An analysis of factors associated with the increase of in-patient medical expenditures for the elderly in Fukuoka Prefecture].

    PubMed

    Matsuda, S; Tsutsui, Y; Murata, H; Funatani, F

    1997-12-01

    In order to evaluate factors associated with the increase in the in-patient medical expenditures for the elderly in Fukuoka prefecture during the period from 1987 to 1991, an analysis was conducted based on the data of 10 Health Care Regions. According to the results, there were two patterns in the increase. The first was the pattern observed in the southern part of the prefecture, where most of the increase in the in-patient medical expenditures for the elderly was explained by the increase of medical expenditures per capita. Furthermore, this increase per capita was due to the increase in utilization rate. This pattern is considered to be associated with the increase of general hospital beds as well as with the increase of the dependent elderly in the regions. The second pattern was observed in urban regions, such as Fukuoka and Kitakyushu, where the increase of in-patient medical expenditures for the elderly was mainly due to the increase in the number of elderly in the regions. This pattern is considered to be associated with the increase in the population categorized as the aged household. The present result suggests that in order to control the medical expenditures for the elderly, different service-mix strategies will be necessary, respecting the socio-economic characteristics of each region.

  5. Japan's national waste recovery plan

    SciTech Connect

    Baller, J.

    1982-08-01

    The national program in Japan for waste recovery is reviewed. Japan's particular needs (relatively small area, large population, virtually no native energy or raw material sources) are discussed and the urgency of the program is stressed. Specific programs are described as well as government, citizen, and industrial contributions. Initiated in the early 1960's, primarily from environmental factors, the program has expanded to produce energy, fertilizers, pulp, rubber, cements, and other products. Research activities are summarized with emphasis on the Stardust Project (a national demonstration project to show that municipal wastes can be separated into garbage, paper, and plastics and each group can be processed to produce materials or energy). Clean Japan Center, an incorporated foundation, has functions of public education, surveys, demonstration plants and waste collection activities. An integrated system to process both urban and rural wastes in Toyohashi City is described. (MJJ)

  6. Takotsubo Syndrome: Insights from Japan.

    PubMed

    Akashi, Yoshihiro J; Ishihara, Masaharu

    2016-10-01

    We report the history and new insights of takotsubo syndrome based on the achievements that Japanese researchers have contributed and summarize the evidence originally presented from Japan. Takotsubo syndrome is a newly described heart failure characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction. We should be aware of this entity as a syndrome, not actual cardiomyopathy. Japanese researchers focus on the experimental approaches for clinical diagnosis and treatment of takotsubo syndrome. As representatives from a country originally naming this syndrome takotsubo, a global registry for takotsubo syndrome including Japan should be established.

  7. The educational system in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    The rapid economic growth of Japan since World War II has resulted in Japan becoming a reference point for developing nations and the West. This remarkable growth results from a combination of factors, one of which has been unyielding attention to education in order to cultivate the human talent necessary to provide the productivity for economic growth. The Japanese education system emphasizes quality of instruction and rewards hard work. Some of the principles of the system are outlined together with a summary of the content of the curriculum, the quantity and quality of instruction, and the influence of culture and environment.

  8. Takotsubo Syndrome: Insights from Japan.

    PubMed

    Akashi, Yoshihiro J; Ishihara, Masaharu

    2016-10-01

    We report the history and new insights of takotsubo syndrome based on the achievements that Japanese researchers have contributed and summarize the evidence originally presented from Japan. Takotsubo syndrome is a newly described heart failure characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction. We should be aware of this entity as a syndrome, not actual cardiomyopathy. Japanese researchers focus on the experimental approaches for clinical diagnosis and treatment of takotsubo syndrome. As representatives from a country originally naming this syndrome takotsubo, a global registry for takotsubo syndrome including Japan should be established. PMID:27638028

  9. Prospective safety monitoring of Haemophilus influenzae type b and heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in Kagoshima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Junichiro; Tokuda, Koichi; Imuta, Naoko; Minami, Taketsugu; Kawano, Yoshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine (PRP-T) and heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) were introduced in Japan in December 2008 and February 2010, respectively. The concurrent administration of these vaccines is routinely performed worldwide. However, the safety of the simultaneous administration of these vaccines has not been fully evaluated in Japan, because it has rarely been performed thus far. We conducted a 2-year prospective, observational, multicenter study on PRP-T and PCV7 safety from February 2009 through January 2011 in 29 facilities located in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. Objective severe adverse events included anaphylactoid reaction, encephalitis/encephalopathy, neurological events, severe focal reactions, systemic eruption/urticaria, fever above 39℃ within 2 days after inoculation, and other complications requiring hospitalization. The incidences of these events for PRP-T and PCV7 administration were 0.68% (76/11,197) and 0.92% (28/3,049), respectively. No deaths or subsequent complications were reported during the course of the study. There was no significant difference in the incidence of severe adverse events between the single and co-administration groups for both vaccines: PRP-T, 0.55% (31/5,662) versus 0.81% (45/5,535; P = 0.11); PCV7, 0.88% (11/1,247) versus 0.94% (17/1,802; P = 0.86). These results suggest that the simultaneous administration of vaccines including PRP-T and/or PCV7 does not increase the incidence of severe adverse events in Japanese children.

  10. Effects of the Great East Japan Earthquake on Secondary Sex Ratio and Perinatal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Kohta; Yamagata, Zentaro; Kawado, Miyuki; Hashimoto, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    Background The effect of natural disasters on secondary sex ratio (SSR) and perinatal outcomes has been suggested. This study aimed to examine effects of the Great East Japan Earthquake on perinatal outcomes using vital statistics of Japan. Methods Birth registration data from vital statistics of Japan between March 2010 and March 2012 were used. Pregnant women who experienced the earthquake were categorized according to their gestational period as of March 11, 2011, as follows: gestational weeks 4–11, 12–19, 20–27, and 28–36 (2011 group). Similarly, pregnant women who did not experience the earthquake were categorized according to their gestational period as of March 11, 2010 and used as controls (2010 group). We also categorized prefectures as “extremely affected”, “moderately affected”, and “slightly or unaffected” regions. SSR, birth weight, and gestational period were compared between both groups. Results The number of singleton births was 688 479 in the 2010 group and 679 131 in the 2011 group. In the extremely affected region, the SSR among women at 4–11 weeks of gestation was significantly lower in the 2011 group compared with the 2010 group (49.8% vs 52.1%, P = 0.009). In the extremely affected region, children born to women who experienced the earthquake at 28–36 weeks of gestation had significantly lower birth weights. Conclusions The SSR declined among women who experienced the earthquake during early pregnancy, particularly in the extremely affected region. However, no apparent negative effect of the earthquake on perinatal outcomes was observed, although birth weight of infants who were born to women who experienced the earthquake at 28–36 weeks of gestation were lower. PMID:26639751

  11. Kumano Geopark Project: Community Regeneration by Interconnecting Tourism Study with Geoscience in Wakayama, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakakushi, T.; Hisatomi, K.; Takasu, H.; Konomatsu, M.

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents our community-regeneration project in Wakayama, Japan. Wakayama Prefecture is the southwestern part of the Kii Peninsula. The Kumano region is the southern part of Wakayama. The Kii Peninsula has a UNESCO World Heritage (cultural heritage), registered in 2004 July as Sacred Sites and Pilgrimage Routes in the Kii Mountain Range. The Heritage has been widely utilized to attract tourists to the region. However, the Kii Peninsula has not only the cultural heritage but many geoscientifically important natural heritages such as the volcano-plutonic complex including well exposed ring dyke in the Kumano region. A Geopark can be described as a region which has a system to apply the Earth's heritages so that people can enjoy and scientifically understand Earth. Authorization by the Global Geoparks Network (GGN) enables a region to claim as Global Geopark. Similarly, Japan Geoparks Network enables it domestically in Japan. To be authorized, there are some important factors, for example; the importance and conservation of the Earth's heritage (geophysical, geological, etc.); devices to communicate mechanism, structure, origin, and history of Earth plainly and interestingly with visitors; sustainable and cooperative systems linking the administrative organizations, residents, researchers, tourism bureaus, and so on. Our goal is to be officially authorized the Kii Peninsula as Kumano Geopark by JGN (and furthermore, by GGN if possible). We also try to discuss this issue in the light of tourism management. The authorization by JGN (or GGN) may work as regional branding. By raising the value of the Kumano regional brand (or the ``brand equity'' of Kumano), we may contribute the community regeneration.

  12. Evacuation and Risk of Hypertension After the Great East Japan Earthquake: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Tetsuya; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yasumura, Seiji; Satoh, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Sakai, Akira; Ohtsuru, Akira; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Takahashi, Atsushi; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kobashi, Gen; Hashimoto, Shigeatsu; Kamiya, Kenji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Abe, Masafumi

    2016-09-01

    On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred in Japan, with a nuclear accident subsequently occurring at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The disaster forced many evacuees to change particular aspects of their lifestyles. This study assessed the hypothesis that evacuation may have increased the risk of hypertension among residents in Fukushima. A longitudinal study examined data collected from 31 252 Japanese participants aged 40 to 74 years sourced from general health checkups conducted in 13 communities between 2008 and 2010. Follow-up examinations were conducted from 2011 through 2013. A total of 21 989 participants (follow-up proportion, 70.4%) received follow-up examinations. Mean blood pressure significantly increased in both evacuees and nonevacuees after the disaster, with greater changes in blood pressure among the former. The changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure among the evacuees and nonevacuees were +5.8/3.4 versus +4.6/2.1 mm Hg (P<0.01/P<0.0001) for men and +4.4/2.8 versus +4.1/1.7 mm Hg (P=0.33/P<0.0001) for women, respectively. Evacuation was associated with an increased risk of hypertension among men, and the age-adjusted hazard ratios of evacuation for incidence of hypertension were 1.24 (95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.39; P<0.001) for men and 1.05 (95% confidence interval, 0.94-1.17; P=0.37) for women, respectively. For men, after adjustment for confounding variables, the hazard ratio slightly decreased to 1.20, but the association was essentially unchanged. Blood pressure increased among residents, especially evacuees, in the evacuation zone of Fukushima prefecture after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Evacuation may be associated with an increased risk of hypertension among men in the 2 years after the disaster. PMID:27480836

  13. Evacuation and Risk of Hypertension After the Great East Japan Earthquake: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Tetsuya; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yasumura, Seiji; Satoh, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Sakai, Akira; Ohtsuru, Akira; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Takahashi, Atsushi; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kobashi, Gen; Hashimoto, Shigeatsu; Kamiya, Kenji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Abe, Masafumi

    2016-09-01

    On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred in Japan, with a nuclear accident subsequently occurring at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The disaster forced many evacuees to change particular aspects of their lifestyles. This study assessed the hypothesis that evacuation may have increased the risk of hypertension among residents in Fukushima. A longitudinal study examined data collected from 31 252 Japanese participants aged 40 to 74 years sourced from general health checkups conducted in 13 communities between 2008 and 2010. Follow-up examinations were conducted from 2011 through 2013. A total of 21 989 participants (follow-up proportion, 70.4%) received follow-up examinations. Mean blood pressure significantly increased in both evacuees and nonevacuees after the disaster, with greater changes in blood pressure among the former. The changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure among the evacuees and nonevacuees were +5.8/3.4 versus +4.6/2.1 mm Hg (P<0.01/P<0.0001) for men and +4.4/2.8 versus +4.1/1.7 mm Hg (P=0.33/P<0.0001) for women, respectively. Evacuation was associated with an increased risk of hypertension among men, and the age-adjusted hazard ratios of evacuation for incidence of hypertension were 1.24 (95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.39; P<0.001) for men and 1.05 (95% confidence interval, 0.94-1.17; P=0.37) for women, respectively. For men, after adjustment for confounding variables, the hazard ratio slightly decreased to 1.20, but the association was essentially unchanged. Blood pressure increased among residents, especially evacuees, in the evacuation zone of Fukushima prefecture after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Evacuation may be associated with an increased risk of hypertension among men in the 2 years after the disaster.

  14. Dissemination in Japan of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates producing IMP-type metallo-β-lactamases and AAC(6')-Iae/AAC(6')-Ib.

    PubMed

    Tojo, Masayoshi; Tada, Tatsuya; Shimojima, Masahiro; Tanaka, Masashi; Narahara, Kenji; Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru; Kirikae, Teruo; Ohmagari, Norio

    2014-09-01

    The spread throughout Japan of antibiotic-resistance factors in multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates was investigated epidemiologically, using immunochromatographic assays specific for IMP-type metallo-β-lactamases (IMPs) and aminoglycoside 6'-N-acetyltransferase [AAC(6')]-Iae and -Ib. Three hundred MDR P. aeruginosa isolates were obtained during each of two years, 2011 and 2012, from 190 hospitals in 39 prefectures in Japan. The percentage of P. aeruginosa isolates producing IMPs, AAC(6')-Iae or AAC(6')-Ib increased significantly from 170/300 (56.7%) in 2011 to 230/300 (76.7%) in 2012, with 134/170 (78.8%) in 2011 and 179/230 (77.8%) in 2012 producing both IMP and either AAC(6')-Iae or AAC(6')-Ib. The MICs of antibiotics, including cephalosporins and carbapenems, were markedly higher for isolates that did than did not produce these resistance factors. These results indicated that MDR P. aeruginosa producing IMPs, AAC(6')-Iae or AAC(6')-Ib have spread throughout Japan and that these antibiotic-resistance factors are useful markers for monitoring MDR P. aeruginosa in Japan.

  15. Incidence of hip fracture in Niigata, Japan in 2004 and 2010 and the long-term trends from 1985 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Miyasaka, Dai; Endo, Naoto; Endo, Einosuke; Sakuma, Mayumi; Yamamoto, Noriaki; Tanabe, Naohito; Imai, Norio; Suda, Ken

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the incidence of hip fracture in a population of patients ≥50 years old in 2004 and 2010 in Niigata City, Niigata Prefecture, Japan. We also investigated the long-term trends in the incidence of hip fracture from 1985 to 2010, using our previously reported survey results obtained from 1985 to 1999. In 2004 and 2010, the survey found 2,368 and 3,218 proximal femur fractures, respectively. The crude hip fracture incidence rates in 2004 and 2010 were 215.8 and 281.5 per 100,000 of population per year, respectively. For males, the incidence rates were 99.9 in 2004 and 126.3 in 2010; for females, the incidence rates were 311.0 and 410.7, respectively. In males aged 80-84 years, the incidence rate since 1999 has been decreasing, while that for males >85 years peaked in 2004. In females of all ages, the incidence rate was higher in 2010 than in all other survey periods, and in females >85 years, the incidence has increased the fastest. Additionally, the long-term changes in the age- and sex-standardized incidence each year using the 1985 population structure in Japan in females has been increasing, although it decreased in 1999. However, in males, the incidence in 2010 was not significantly different from that in 1994, although it has been increasing since 1999. Our study findings indicate that the age-specific incidence of hip fractures in the Niigata Prefecture of Japan has not plateaued in females, but that it may have done so in males; in addition, the number and incidence of hip fractures has been increasing.

  16. Crustal architecture of the eastern margin of Japan Sea: back-arc basin opening and contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    No, T.; Sato, T.; Takahashi, N.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.; Ishiyama, T.; Sato, H.

    2012-12-01

    Basin and Japan Basin; however, the development of an asymmetric anticline and its associated reverse fault was observed off Akita prefecture, which could indicate a very recent growth structure. This development is associated with an active structure on the southern extension of the fault that caused the 1983 Nihonkai-Chubu Earthquake. On the other hand, the results from the seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection imaging using OBSs indicated that the area from the basin to the continental shelf, including the source area of the 1964 Niigata Earthquake, and the island arc crust had a large lateral variation in the upper and middle crust. In contrast, beneath the source area of the 1983 Nihonkai-Chubu Earthquake, the crustal structure is interpreted as a transitional crust between oceanic and island arc crusts, with larger variation in the P-wave velocity than those of the surrounding areas. Furthermore, the crust of the Yamato Basin area is thicker than a typical oceanic crust, whereas the crust of the Japan Basin area is similar to a typical oceanic crust.

  17. Japan's Eco-School Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new…

  18. How Japan Supports Novice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    When U.S. educators first hear that Japanese teacher preparation programs require only four weeks of formal student teaching at the end of the credential program, they're appalled: How can this be? More surprising still, few new teachers in Japan (1.35 percent) leave the profession during their first year. So where are these beginning…

  19. Innovative shotcreting system in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Takashi

    1995-12-31

    Robotization of shotcreting has advanced remarkably in Japan in a short span of time for the purpose of avoiding exposure of human workers to adverse conditions. This paper provides an overview of various devices used in shotcreting and discusses the development of improved systems which ensure higher safety and larger productivity.

  20. [Marriage and divorce in Japan].

    PubMed

    Haderka, J

    1986-01-01

    Marriage patterns in Japan are analyzed using data from secondary sources. The author notes that although legislation affecting marriage and the family is derived from European models, traditional Japanese attitudes concerning the subservient role of women have a significant impact. The problems faced by women experiencing divorce are noted. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  1. Japan Studies Association Journal, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speaker, Richard B., Jr., Ed.; Kawada, Louise Myers, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This journal presents new perspectives and materials on Japan that are engaging, relatively jargon-free, and shaped so that their usefulness in a college classroom is readily apparent. The journal represents an example of the potential for genuine scholarship that lies within interdisciplinary studies. Articles are divided among three thematic…

  2. Japan and America: Culture Counts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooney, Barry D.

    1989-01-01

    Cultural distinctions in the approach to social relationships, access to information, personal motivation, and hierarchy make Japan an effective economic power. U.S. business can learn from the Japanese ways to create more information-based organizations, think in global terms, foster links between business and education, and develop internal…

  3. Direct Broadcasting Satellites in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, Jiro

    The development and use of broadcasting satellites in Japan are discussed in this paper. The paper describes the medium-scale experimental broadcasting satellite, YURI, launched by NASA in 1978, and reports that experiments with YURI in the areas of basic technologies in the broadcasting satellite system, experiments on satellite control…

  4. Resources for Teaching about Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    This book lists resources for materials and ideas for teaching about Japan. The resource listings are not intended to be encyclopedic and are not intended to be a comprehensive listing of every useful curriculum item. The attempt has been made to highlight especially those organizations that work with kindergarten through grade 12 teachers,…

  5. The Japan of Today, 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tokyo (Japan).

    Following an introduction which discusses the history and geography of Japan, this book focuses on topics related to this country's government, economy, social conditions, and cultural life. Topics related to government include: constitution and emperor; legislature; executive power; judiciary system; foreign relations; and defense. Topics related…

  6. Teaching and Learning in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohlen, Thomas P., Ed.; LeTendre, Gerald K., Ed.

    The essays gathered in this volume are united by the common goal of understanding teaching and learning in Japan as it actually occurs. The essays seek to answer questions about the actual conduct of learning in different settings and at different points in the life cycle. This volume explores the expectations and associations found in specific…

  7. AERIAL MEASURING SYSTEM IN JAPAN

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, Craig; Colton, David

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Agency’s Aerial Measuring System deployed personnel and equipment to partner with the U.S. Air Force in Japan to conduct multiple aerial radiological surveys. These were the first and most comprehensive sources of actionable information for U.S. interests in Japan and provided early confirmation to the government of Japan as to the extent of the release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Generation Station. Many challenges were overcome quickly during the first 48 hours; including installation and operation of Aerial Measuring System equipment on multiple U.S. Air Force Japan aircraft, flying over difficult terrain, and flying with talented pilots who were unfamiliar with the Aerial Measuring System flight patterns. These all combined to make for a dynamic and non-textbook situation. In addition, the data challenges of the multiple and on-going releases, and integration with the Japanese government to provide valid aerial radiological survey products that both military and civilian customers could use to make informed decisions, was extremely complicated. The Aerial Measuring System Fukushima response provided insight in addressing these challenges and gave way to an opportunity for the expansion of the Aerial Measuring System’s mission beyond the borders of the US.

  8. Superconducting magnet development in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Yasukochi, K.

    1983-05-01

    The present state of R and D works on the superconducting magnet and its applications in Japan are presented. On electrical rotating machines, 30 MVA superconducting synchronous rotary condenser (Mitsubishi and Fuji) and 50 MVA generator are under construction. Two ways of ship propulsion by superconducting magnets are developing. A superconducting magnetically levitated and linear motor propelled train ''MAGLEV'' was developed by the Japan National Railways (JNR). The superconducting magnet development for fusion is the most active field in Japan. The Cluster Test program has been demonstrated on a 10 T Nb/sub 3/Sn coil and the first coil of Large Coil Task in IEA collaboration has been constructed and the domestic test was completed in JAERI. These works are for the development of toroidal coils of the next generation tokamak machine. R and D works on superconducting ohmic heating coil are in progress in JAERI and ETL. The latter group has constructed 3.8 MJ pulsed coil. A high ramp rate of changing field in pulsed magnet, 200 T/s, has been tested successfully. High Energy Physics Laboratory (KEK) are conducting active works. The superconducting ..mu.. meson channel and ..pi.. meson channel have been constructed and are operating successfully. KEK has also a project of big accelerator named ''TRISTAN'', which is similar to ISABELLE project of BNL. Superconducting synchrotron magnets are developed for this project. The development of superconducting three thin wall solenoid has been started. One of them, CDF, is progressing under USA-Japan collaboration.

  9. Japan Studies Association Journal, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichel, Philip L., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This journal presents new perspectives and materials on Japan that are engaging, relatively jargon-free, and shaped so that their usefulness in a college classroom is readily apparent. The journal represents an example of the potential for genuine scholarship that lies within interdisciplinary studies. Articles grouped under the topic of "Minority…

  10. The US Occupation and Japan's New Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumano, Ruriko

    2007-01-01

    During the US Occupation of Japan (1945-1952), a victorious America attempted to reform Japanese education by replacing Japan's tradition system of values with one that promoted American democratic values. The United States had considered the source of Japan's militarism to lie in the selfless loyalty and love of country that many older Japanese…

  11. Recent meteor observing activities in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, M.

    2005-02-01

    The meteor train observation (METRO) campaign is described as an example of recent meteor observing activity in Japan. Other topics of meteor observing activities in Japan, including Ham-band radio meteor observation, the ``Japan Fireball Network'', the automatic video-capture software ``UFOCapture'', and the Astro-classroom programme are also briefly introduced.

  12. Teaching about Japan: Lessons and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernson, Mary Hammond, Ed.; Wojtan, Linda S., Ed.

    This document is a revised and updated version of two publications: "Modern Japan: An Idea Book for K-12 Teachers" and "Resources for Teaching About Japan." These lesson plans were developed by teachers who participated in a summer institute on Japan, sponsored by the East Asia Resource Center at the Jackson School of International Studies,…

  13. History Textbook Controversies in Japan. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masalski, Kathleen Woods

    Currently, there is a controversy in Japan about textbook treatments of Japanese military actions during World War II. This digest examines: (1) the importance of history textbooks in schools in Japan and the United States; (2) the context of history textbook controversies in Japan; (3) the current issues and contending positions in the Japanese…

  14. Some Aspects of Higher Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teichler, Ulrich

    1972-01-01

    Contemporary Japanese higher education is reviewed, taking into account German influences especially. Three main objectives of post-war reforms are discussed along with the entrance examination system in Japan. Available from: Japan Cultural Society, 101018, Shirokane-dai, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan. (LBH)

  15. Historical Characteristics of Adult Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyasaka, Kosaku

    In its modern sense, adult education in Japan began after the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Until 1945, adult education functioned as an agent to indoctrinate the nationalistic and military ideology. Since World War II, Japan has adopted the democratic social system and has become a capitalist society like the West. In Japan, social education is the…

  16. 75 FR 38119 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... from Japan (38 FR 33593). Following five-year reviews by the Department of Commerce (``Commerce'') and... imports of polychloroprene rubber from Japan (64 FR 47765, September 1, 1999). Following second five-year... antidumping duty finding on imports of polychloroprene rubber from Japan (70 FR 44893). The Commission is...

  17. Education and Youth Employment in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Hidetoshi

    The education/employment situation of young people in Japan is examined as part of a project to broaden perspectives on social, educational, and employment issues in contemporary societies. Youth problems in Japan stem from the incredibly rapid industrialization and social change that have taken place in Japan since World War II. In spite of this…

  18. Current Measures on Radioactive Contamination in Japan: A Policy Situation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gilmour, Stuart; Miyagawa, Shoji; Kasuga, Fumiko; Shibuya, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Background The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11th March 2011 and the subsequent Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant disaster caused radioactive contamination in the surrounding environment. In the immediate aftermath of the accident the Government of Japan placed strict measures on radio-contamination of food, and enhanced radio-contamination monitoring activities. Japan is a pilot country in the WHO Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG), and through this initiative has an opportunity to report on policy affecting chemicals and toxins in the food distribution network. Nuclear accidents are extremely rare, and a policy situation analysis of the Japanese government’s response to the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident is a responsibility of Japanese scientists. This study aims to assess Japan government policies to reduce radio-contamination risk and to identify strategies to strengthen food policies to ensure the best possible response to possible future radiation accidents. Methods and Findings We conducted a hand search of all publicly available policy documents issued by the Cabinet Office, the Food Safety Commission, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW), the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery (MAFF) and prefectural governments concerning food safety standards and changes to radiation and contamination standards since March 11th, 2011. We extracted information on food shipment and sales restrictions, allowable radio-contamination limits, monitoring activities and monitoring results. The standard for allowable radioactive cesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) of 100 Bq/Kg in general food, 50 Bq/Kg in infant formula and all milk products, and 10 Bq/Kg in drinking water was enforced from April 2012 under the Food Sanitation Law, although a provisional standard on radio-contamination had been applied since the nuclear accident. Restrictions on the commercial sale and distribution of specific meat, vegetable and fish products

  19. Factors that Facilitate and Barriers towards the Implementation of Health Educational Programmes in Primary Education Schools of the Prefecture of Achaia, Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cholevas, Nikolaos K.; Loucaides, Constantinos A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to explore the factors that facilitate and barriers towards the implementation of health education programmes in primary education schools of the prefecture of Achaia, Greece. Methods: The sample of the study included 141 educators from a total population of 218 educators who dealt with the implementation of…

  20. Live birth prevalence of Down syndrome in Tottori, Japan, 1980-1999.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Ariko; Ehara, Hiroaki; Ohtani, Kyoichi; Maegaki, Yoshihiro; Nanba, Yukiko; Nagata, Ikuo; Toyoshima, Mitsuo; Kondo, Akiko; Nakai, Shoji; Takeshita, Kenzo; Ohno, Kousaku

    2008-06-01

    One hundred sixty-four patients with Down syndrome (DS) were confirmed in Tottori Prefecture, Japan, from 1980 to 1999. The sex ratio of 1.52 (99 males and 65 females) was comparable to that reported in previous studies. The live birth prevalence per 1,000 was 1.52 (95% CI: 1.29-1.75) from 1980 to 1999, with a prevalence of 1.34 (95% CI: 1.05-1.63) recorded between 1980 and 1989, and 1.74 (95% CI: 1.37-2.11) between 1990 and 1999. There was no statistically significant change between these two decades (chi(2)-test). Live birth prevalence in these two decades showed a significant increase (chi(2)-test, P < 0.005) compared with that recorded in 1969-1978 in Tottori Prefecture (0.803, 95% CI: 0.677-0.929). Mean ages of mothers at the birth of a DS patient were 31.0 years in 1980-1989 and 32.4 years in 1990-1999 (t-test, no significant difference). Dispersion analysis on the mean age of mothers at birth for patients born between 1969-1978, 1980-1989, and 1990-1999 showed a significant difference (t-test, P < 0.005), while comparing the mean age of mothers in 1969-1978 to those in 1990-1999 also revealed a significant difference (t-test, P < 0.001). Live birth prevalence has increased due to the rise in fertility rates among older women, although maternal age-specific risk rates remain unchanged. The widespread introduction of induced abortion following prenatal diagnosis decreased live birth prevalence of DS largely in European (and a few Asian) countries after 1990, or kept prevalence steady, despite increasing fertility rates among women aged 30 and over. In contrast, all published studies have reported an increase in live birth prevalence of this syndrome in Japan, probably resulting from the fact that prenatal diagnoses are used only exceptionally in this country (due to the negative attitude toward selection of life in Japanese culture).

  1. The fir trees have moved

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Y.; Otaka, S.

    1988-01-01

    Two minutes before noon on the morning of September 1, 1923, the Great Kanto earthquake occurred with a magnitude of 7.9 in the northern part of Mizukuma in Sagmi Prefecture, Japan. Fires broke out immediately following the earthquake, causing great damage in Tokyo and in Kanagawa. Deaths totaled 99,331 persons, with 43,476 missing; 128,266 houses partially destroyed, and 447,128 houses were destroyed by fire. Large earth movements occurred and there were innumerable landslides. Along the Kanto coastline, waves came crashing into the harbors; at Misaki the height of the waves was six meters, and 8.1 meters at Sunozaki. At Tokyo the amplitude of the vibrations renged from 14 to 20 centimeters and at Odawara they were estimated to have reached 80 centimeters. 

  2. Property of Fluctuations of Sales Quantities by Product Category in Convenience Stores

    PubMed Central

    Fukunaga, Gaku; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2016-01-01

    The ability to ascertain the extent of product sale fluctuations for each store and locality is indispensable to inventory management. This study analyzed POS data from 158 convenience stores in Kawasaki City, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan and found a power scaling law between the mean and standard deviation of product sales quantities for several product categories. For the statistical domains of low sales quantities, the power index was 1/2; for large sales quantities, the power index was 1, so called Taylor’s law holds. The value of sales quantities with changing power indixes differed according to product category. We derived a Poissonian compound distribution model taking into account fluctuations in customer numbers to show that the scaling law could be explained theoretically for most of items. We also examined why the scaling law did not hold in some exceptional cases. PMID:27310915

  3. Property of Fluctuations of Sales Quantities by Product Category in Convenience Stores.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, Gaku; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2016-01-01

    The ability to ascertain the extent of product sale fluctuations for each store and locality is indispensable to inventory management. This study analyzed POS data from 158 convenience stores in Kawasaki City, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan and found a power scaling law between the mean and standard deviation of product sales quantities for several product categories. For the statistical domains of low sales quantities, the power index was 1/2; for large sales quantities, the power index was 1, so called Taylor's law holds. The value of sales quantities with changing power indixes differed according to product category. We derived a Poissonian compound distribution model taking into account fluctuations in customer numbers to show that the scaling law could be explained theoretically for most of items. We also examined why the scaling law did not hold in some exceptional cases. PMID:27310915

  4. Determinants of Electricity Consumption Intensity in China: Analysis of Cities at Subprovince and Prefecture Levels in 2009

    PubMed Central

    Xia, X. H.; Hu, Yi

    2012-01-01

    China has experienced great social and economic vicissitudes that caused the vast complexity and uncertainty for electricity consumption. This paper attempts to identify the main determinants of the electricity consumption intensity by using the data from Chinese cities at subprovince and prefecture levels in 2009. The key category factors, including urban morphology, industrial structure, regulation context, urbanization degree, price, natural condition, and resource endowment, are abstracted and the influence of these determinants is evaluated by adopting the finite mixture models. The variation of each determinant across regions, the comparative weights of all the factors, and the detailed classifications of the cities are reported for facilitating the understanding of electricity consumption in China. The corresponding policies for electricity administration are addressed as well. PMID:22927781

  5. [Ecological service assessment of human-dominated freshwater ecosystem with a case study in Yangzhou Prefecture, China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ya-Ping; Wang, Ru-Song; Ren, Jing-Ming; Hu, Dan; Yuan, Shao-Jun; Wang, Min

    2004-01-01

    Freshwater ecosystems provide a host of services to humanity. These services are now rapidly being lost, not least because of the inability of making the impacts measurable. To overcome this obstacle, assessment frameworks for freshwater ecosystem services are needed. A simple water equivalent framework to assess the ecological services provided by freshwater ecosystems was developed in this study. It translated the occupation of freshwater ecosystem services into biologically freshwater volumes and then compares this consumption to the freshwater throughput, that is, the ecological capacity available in this region. In this way, we use the example of Yangzhou Prefecture, to account the main categories of human occupation of water ecosystem services. The result showed that there is a huge gap between the consumption and the supply of freshwater ecosystem services. This must encourage local government to make land-use and water management decisions both economically rational and environmentally sound.

  6. [A Survey of School Lunch Provision for Elementary School Students with Food Allergy in Seven Cities of Osaka Prefecture].

    PubMed

    Kiyota, Kyohei; Takemoto, Akiko; Okajima, Saori; Morino, Shizuka; Kakoi, Satoru; Sakuma, Junko; Yoshimitsu, Masato; Akutsu, Kazuhiko; Kajimura, Keiji

    2015-01-01

    The number of students with food allergy is currently increasing. Moreover, the unintentional mixing or accidental ingestion of allergy-causing food materials in school lunches has attracted great attention. The aim of this study was to verify the current status of elementary school lunch provision for students with food allergy. We investigated the elementary school lunch services in seven cities in Osaka prefecture. The egg elimination diet was provided in five of the seven cities. In four of these five cities, we did not detect the presence of egg residue either on the surface of various cookware used to prepare the egg elimination diet or in the food itself. In this investigation, the egg elimination diet was provided properly, but we observed differences among the cities in the manual preparation of foods for food allergy diets. To step up these efforts, our results suggest the necessity of preparing a manual to consider individual conditions of school lunch services. PMID:26346859

  7. Difference in cesium accumulation among rice cultivars grown in the paddy field in Fukushima Prefecture in 2011 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Ohmori, Yoshihiro; Inui, Yayoi; Kajikawa, Masataka; Nakata, Atsumi; Sotta, Naoyuki; Kasai, Koji; Uraguchi, Shimpei; Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Nishida, Sho; Hasegawa, Takahiro; Sakamoto, Takuya; Kawara, Yuko; Aizawa, Kayoko; Fujita, Haruka; Li, Ke; Sawaki, Naoya; Oda, Koshiro; Futagoishi, Ryuichiro; Tsusaka, Takahiro; Takahashi, Satomi; Takano, Junpei; Wakuta, Shinji; Yoshinari, Akira; Uehara, Masataka; Takada, Shigeki; Nagano, Hayato; Miwa, Kyoko; Aibara, Izumi; Ojima, Takuya; Ebana, Kaoru; Ishikawa, Satoru; Sueyoshi, Kuni; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Mimura, Tetsuro; Mimura, Mari; Kobayashi, Natsuko I; Furukawa, Jun; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Okouchi, Toshiyasu; Tanoi, Keitaro; Fujiwara, Toru

    2014-01-01

    After the accident of the Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant in March 2011, radioactive cesium was released and paddy fields in a wide area including Fukushima Prefecture were contaminated. To estimate the levels of radioactive Cs accumulation in rice produced in Fukushima, it is crucial to obtain the actual data of Cs accumulation levels in rice plants grown in the actual paddy field in Fukushima City. We herein conducted a two-year survey in 2011 and 2012 of radioactive and non-radioactive Cs accumulation in rice using a number of rice cultivars grown in the paddy field in Fukushima City. Our study demonstrated a substantial variation in Cs accumulation levels among the cultivars of rice.

  8. Land-use and land-cover change and farmer vulnerability in Xishuangbanna prefecture in southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Jianchu, Xu; Fox, Jefferson; Vogler, John B; Yongshou, Zhang Peifang Fu; Lixin, Yang; Jie, Qian; Leisz, Stephen

    2005-09-01

    This study investigated land-use and land-cover change in three hamlets and two state rubber farms in the Nan-e watershed of the Xishuangbanna prefecture of Yunnan province in Southwestern China. The overall objective of the study was to understand how state policies affected land use and land cover and how changes in these variables affected farmer vulnerability to economic, social, and political events. Emphasis was placed on the cultivation of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), promoted in southern Yunnan province since the 1950s as a means to meet the demands of rapid economic development. The study combined remote sensing analysis with secondary data and in-field interviews in order to understand the coupling between land-use and land-cover change and farmer vulnerability in light of the geographic, historical, and sociopolitical situation. PMID:15995894

  9. Determinants of electricity consumption intensity in China: analysis of cities at subprovince and prefecture levels in 2009.

    PubMed

    Xia, X H; Hu, Yi

    2012-01-01

    China has experienced great social and economic vicissitudes that caused the vast complexity and uncertainty for electricity consumption. This paper attempts to identify the main determinants of the electricity consumption intensity by using the data from Chinese cities at subprovince and prefecture levels in 2009. The key category factors, including urban morphology, industrial structure, regulation context, urbanization degree, price, natural condition, and resource endowment, are abstracted and the influence of these determinants is evaluated by adopting the finite mixture models. The variation of each determinant across regions, the comparative weights of all the factors, and the detailed classifications of the cities are reported for facilitating the understanding of electricity consumption in China. The corresponding policies for electricity administration are addressed as well.

  10. [Prognosis of patient with intractable diseases in Wakayama Prefecture--a follow-up study based on medical care certificates].

    PubMed

    Kasamatsu, T; Yoshimura, N; Ueda, A; Morioka, S; Sugita, K; Hashimoto, T

    1994-04-01

    To clarify the prognosis of patients with intractable diseases, a baseline survey of patients who received financial aid for intractable disease treatment between April 1984 and March 1985 was performed in Wakayama Prefecture, followed by a follow-up survey over a period of 8 years. Based on public welfare-subsidized system in Wakayama Prefecture, all patients with intractable diseases were checked up annually their certificates of financial aid for treatment. The results obtained were as follows: Parkinson's disease had the highest rate of discontinuation of medical care at 65%, followed by idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) at 64%, aplastic anemia at 55%, ulcerative colitis (UC) at 54%, and Behcet's disease at 50%. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) had the lowest rate of discontinuation of medical care at 32%. Discontinuation was due to death in approximately 50% of the patients with SLE, scleroderma, dermatomyositis and polymyositis, and aplastic anemia. Of these, the causes of death in more than 50% were directly related to the primary diseases. However, in patients with SLE and aplastic anemia, 25% discontinued care because of cure or alleviation. Some patients remained in remission even though the prognosis for these diseases is not generally considered to be favorable. Transfer of jurisdiction to the Disabled Persons Welfare Act was seen in 28% of patients with Parkinson's disease, 24% with Behcet's disease, and 23% with ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament, diseases which are believed to cause restriction in daily activities of patients in some cases. On the other hand, cure or alleviation was the reason for discontinuation in 60-70% of patients with Buerger's disease, UC and ITP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8025309

  11. A cluster of human T-lymphotropic virus type-I carriers found in the southern district of Tokushima Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, M; Iishi, Y; Horiuchi, N; Nakao, K; Okagawa, K; Saito, S; Minami, Y; Katoh, K

    1989-03-01

    Since we had experience of eight patients with adult T-cell leukemia lymphoma from 130 cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma between 1978 and 1986, a sero-epidemiological survey of anti human lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-I) antibody was performed using a gelatin particle agglutination test, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and an indirect immunofluorescence assay for 2,190 adults (768 men and 1,422 women) aged between 21 and 86 years, in the southern district of Tokushima Prefecture. The inconclusive data obtained using the above mentioned methods have been re-examined by western blotting analysis using enzyme-labelled anti IgM and anti IgG. There was an overall prevalence rate of 6.0% (132/2, 190) but higher rate were found in village C (10.9%) and village D (14.2%). These two villages together with town K (6.1% seropositive) form one community unit with a small population in a mountain area, which could be prone to producing a cluster of HTLV-I carriers. Town G with 8.0% sero-positivity is on the Pacific Ocean coast neighboring one of the endemic areas in the eastern section of Kohchi Prefecture. Interestingly, only IgM antibody was detected in 17 of 137 carriers (13%), all females who had never had a blood transfusion, suggesting them to h ave been in a sort of immunodeficient state, as reported in cases of HTLV-I infection. In 13 of 29 HTLV-I carriers (44.8%) from villages C and D, the viral antigen was detected in 1-9% (0.41 +/- 0.19%) of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells after being cultured with phytohemagglutinin for three days. The data indicate that those carriers had evidently been infected with the HTLV-I virus.

  12. Horticultural therapy as a measure for recovery support of regional community in the disaster area: a preliminary experiment for forty five women who living certain region in the coastal area of Miyagi Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Kotozaki, Yuka

    2014-01-01

    Three years have passed since the earthquake, in the coastal areas in the disaster area, by population transfer or the like from the temporary housing, the importance of the regeneration and revitalization of the local community has been pointed out. This study performed a preliminary study to aim at the psychological inspection about an effect of the horticultural therapy as the means of the local community reproduction support of the disaster area. Forty five women who are living in the coastal area of Miyagi Prefecture participated in this study. They experienced the Great East Japan earthquake in 2011 and suffered some kind of damage caused by the earthquake. The participants were assigned to two groups, the intervention group and the control group, via a random draw using a computer. The HI group attended the horticultural therapy intervention (HT intervention) sessions for 16 weeks. The HT intervention was designed in collaboration with a horticultural therapist and clinical psychologists. This intervention comprised a total of 16 weekly sessions (120 min each) at the community center and 15 minutes per day at participants' homes. We used five psychological measures for an intervention evaluation. The HI group showed a significant increase in post- intervention SCI-2 total scores, post- intervention SCI-2 membership scores, post-intervention SCI-2 influence scores, post- intervention SCI-2 meeting needs scores, post- intervention SCI-2 shared emotional connection scores, and post- intervention RSES score. We believe that these results suggest the effectiveness of the horticultural therapy as the means of the local community reproduction.

  13. Tracing the dispersion of contaminated sediment with plutonium isotope measurements in coastal catchments of Fukushima Prefecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evrard, Olivier; Pointurier, Fabien; Onda, Yuichi; Chartin, Caroline; Hubert, Amélie; Lepage, Hugo; Pottin, Anne-Claire; Lefèvre, Irène; Bonté, Philippe; Laceby, J. Patrick; Ayrault, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident led to important releases of radionuclides into the environment, and trace levels of plutonium (Pu) were detected in northeastern Japan. However, measurement of Pu isotopic atom and activity ratios is required to differentiate between the contributions of global nuclear test fallout and FDNPP emissions. In this study, we measured Pu isotopic ratios in recently deposited sediments along rivers draining the most contaminated part of the inland radioactive plume. To this end, we carried out a thorough chemical purification and concentration of Pu from sediment samples (5 g dry material) and precise isotopic measurements using a double-focusing sector field ICP-MS. Results showed that the entire range of measured Pu isotopes (i.e., 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, and 242Pu) were detected in all samples, although in extremely low concentrations. The 241Pu/239Pu atom ratios measured in sediment deposits (0.0017-0.0884) were significantly higher than the corresponding values attributed to the global fallout (0.00113±0.00008 on average in the Northern Hemisphere between 31°-71°N). The results indicated the presence of Pu from FDNPP, in slight excess compared to the Pu background from global fallout, representing up to ca. 60% of Pu in the analyzed samples. These results demonstrate that this radionuclide has been transported relatively long distances (45 km) from FDNPP and deposited in rivers representing a potential source of Pu to the ocean.

  14. Fruit harvesting robots in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kondo, N; Monta, M; Fujiura, T

    1996-01-01

    We have developed harvesting robots for tomato, petty-tomato, cucumber and grape in Japan. These robots mainly consist of manipulators, end-effectors, visual sensors and traveling devices. These mechanisms of the robot components were developed based on the physical properties of the work objects. The robots must work automatically by themselves in greenhouses or fields, since we are considering for one operator to tend several robots in the production system. The system is modeled after Japanese agriculture which is commonly seen to produce many kinds of crops in greenhouses and in many small fields intensively. Bioproduction in space is somewhat similar to the agricultural system in Japan, because few operators have to work in a small space. Employing robots for bioproduction in space is considered desirable in near future. The following is a description of the harvesting robots.

  15. Fruit harvesting robots in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, N.; Monta, M.; Fujiura, T.

    We have developed harvesting robots for tomato /1/, petty-tomato, cucumber /2/ and grape /3/ in Japan. These robots mainly consist of manipulators, end-effectors, visual sensors and traveling devices. These mechanisms of the robot components were developed based on the physical properties of the work objects. The robots must work automatically by themselves in greenhouses or fields, since we are considering for one operator to tend several robots in the production system. The system is modeled after Japanese agriculture which is commonly seen to produce many kinds of crops in greenhouses and in many small fields intensively. Bioproduction in space is somewhat similar to the agricultural system in Japan, because few operators have to work in a small space. Employing robots for bioproduction in space is considered desirable in near future. The following is a description of the harvesting robots.

  16. Clandestine migrant workers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, T

    1992-01-01

    The author assesses the problem of illegal labor migration to Japan. "Labor policies, regulations, types of immigration violations, and the role of the recruitment industry are described. Most of the estimated 200,000 illegal workers are employed in small and medium sized enterprises, especially construction and manufacturing, which pay them wages well below the normal rate. A key issue is the infringement of human rights of these illegal workers, who lack the protection of labor laws and the social security system."

  17. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, December 3, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-03

    Contents (selected articles): Japan: Nissan To Use Nickel-Hydrogen Battery in EV; Japan: Takii To Commercialize Cauliflower-Broccoli Hybrid; Japan: Kawasaki Steel Improves Recovery of Metals from Furnace Residue; Japan: Japan`s NEC Corp. To Develop Cost-Effective Photodection Chip; Japan: Japanese Companies Establish Research Association to Develop 16-gigabit DRAMS; Japan: Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants, Actual Achievements; Japan: Future for Nuclear Fuel Recycle as a Result of Monju Accident; Japan: Superconducting Magnet System Using No Liquid Helium; Japan: Hitachi`s MULTI Network Security Technologies; Japan: Defense Bureau Chief Tokita Interviewed; Japan: DRC Executive on GSDF, High Technology; and Japan: Retired Admiral on Post-Cold War MSDF Strategy.

  18. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, December 10, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-10

    Contents (partial): Japan: Fabrication of Diamond Single Crystal Thin Film by Ion Beam Deposition; Japan: Hitachi Metal Develops New Semi Solid Metal Processing Technology; Japan: NTT Develops Fuel Cell System That Uses Both City Gas, LPG; Japan: Daihatsu Motor Completes Prototype EV; Japan: NIRIM Announces Success With Synthetic Bone Development; Japan: Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Plans Clinical Trials of Gene Therapy to Cerebral Tumor in Japan; Japan: MITI To Provide Aid for Residential Solar Power Generation Systems; Japan: MELCO To Provide Satellite Solar Cell Panel for SSL, USA; Japan: Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Leads Nuclear Research; Japan: Kobe Steel`s Superconducting Magnet Ready to Go Fast; Japan: MPT To Begin Validation Test for Electric Money Implementation; and Japan: Defense Agency to Send ASDF`s Pilots to Russia for Training.

  19. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, May 7, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-07

    ;Partial Contents: Japan: FH1 Aerospace Division Executive on UAV R&D; JapaN: MHI Delivers First F-2 Flight Test Model; Nuclear Technologies; Japan: Nuclear Material Research in Cross-Over Research Project; Japan: MITI To Subsidize Development of Cryptography; Defense Industries; Japan: JADI Announces FY96 Major Events Schedule; Japan: Rollout Ceremony Held for First OH-X Flight Test Model; and Japan: KHI Weapons Designer OH-X Development.

  20. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, February 20, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-20

    ;Partial Contents: Energy (Japan: MHI Discovers Maritime Photo Plankton that Produces Ethanol from CO2, Japan: Tokyo Electric Power Co.`s PAFC Development); Telecommunications (Japan: Report on 1st Asian Telecommunications Industry Exchange, Japan: MPT Reports Test Evaluation Results for PHS); Defense Industries (Japan: Expert on Shipbuilding, Welding Technology, Japan: Komatsu R&D Chief on Dream of Ground Robots; Japan: Defense Simulator Series, Part 7: Torpedo Simulator).