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Sample records for kanamycin

  1. 21 CFR 522.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Kanamycin sulfate injection. 522.1204 Section 522.1204 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....1204 Kanamycin sulfate injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of kanamycin sulfate injection...

  2. 21 CFR 522.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Kanamycin sulfate injection. 522.1204 Section 522.1204 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....1204 Kanamycin sulfate injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of kanamycin sulfate injection...

  3. 21 CFR 522.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Kanamycin sulfate injection. 522.1204 Section 522.1204 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....1204 Kanamycin sulfate injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of kanamycin sulfate injection...

  4. 21 CFR 522.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kanamycin sulfate injection. 522.1204 Section 522.1204 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....1204 Kanamycin sulfate injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of kanamycin sulfate injection...

  5. 21 CFR 522.1204 - Kanamycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... kanamycin sulfate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 054771 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in dogs and cats—(1) Amount. Administer by subcutaneous or intramuscular injection 5 mg per pound of body... of bacterial infections due to kanamycin sensitive organisms in dogs and cats. (3) Limitations...

  6. 21 CFR 862.3520 - Kanamycin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862... diagnosis and treatment of kanamycin overdose and in monitoring levels of kanamycin to ensure appropriate...

  7. Mechanism of alpha-lipoic acid in attenuating kanamycin-induced ototoxicity☆

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Aimei; Hou, Ning; Bao, Dongyan; Liu, Shuangyue; Xu, Tao

    2012-01-01

    In view of the theory that alpha-lipoic acid effectively prevents cochlear cells from injury caused by various factors such as cisplatin and noise, this study examined whether alpha-lipoic acid can prevent kanamycin-induced ototoxicity. To this end, healthy BALB/c mice were injected subcutaneously with alpha-lipoic acid and kanamycin for 14 days. Auditory brainstem response test showed that increased auditory brainstem response threshold shifts caused by kanamycin were significantly inhibited. Immunohistochemical staining and western blot analysis showed that the expression of phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase in mouse cochlea was significantly decreased. The experimental findings suggest that phosphorylated p38 and phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase mediated kanamycin-induced ototoxic injury in BALB/c mice. Alpha-lipoic acid effectively attenuated kanamycin ototoxicity by inhibiting the kanamycin-induced high expression of phosphorylated p38 and phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase. PMID:25317129

  8. Topical kanamycin: an effective therapeutic option in aerobic vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Tempera, G; Abbadessa, G; Bonfiglio, G; Cammarata, E; Cianci, A; Corsello, S; Raimondi, A; Ettore, G; Nicolosi, D; Furneri, P M

    2006-08-01

    Eighty-one patients with clinical diagnosis of aerobic vaginitis (AV) were included in the study. The patients were randomized for treatment, 45 with kanamycin (100 mg vaginal ovules for 6 days, consecutively) and 36 with meclocycline (35 mg vaginal ovules for 6 days, consecutively). The patients were examined before starting the study, 1-2 days after treatment and 30 days after the end of the study. At the first follow-up the patients showed different levels of symptom reduction. Reduction in the presence of leukocytes, vaginal mucosa burning and itching were statistically significant in the group treated with kanamycin with respect to the group treated with meclocycline. Moreover, there was also reduced isolation of Enterobacteriaeae (97%) in the group treated with kanamycin versus those treated with meclocycline (76%). At the second follow-up, vaginal homeostasis (normalization of pH and presence of lactobacilli) was more evident in the kanamycin-treated group. In conclusion, our data suggest that the topical use of kanamycin could be considered a specific antibiotic for the therapy of this new pathology.

  9. 21 CFR 524.1200a - Kanamycin ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... kanamycin. For prophylaxis in traumatic conditions, removal of foreign bodies, and intraocular surgery. (3... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Kanamycin ophthalmic ointment. 524.1200a Section 524.1200a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  10. 21 CFR 524.1200b - Kanamycin ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sensitive to kanamycin. For prophylaxis in traumatic conditions, removal of foreign bodies, and intraocular... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Kanamycin ophthalmic solution. 524.1200b Section 524.1200b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  11. 21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin, amphomycin, and hydrocortisone ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Kanamycin, amphomycin, and hydrocortisone ointment... ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1204 Kanamycin, amphomycin, and hydrocortisone ointment. (a) Specifications. Each gram... activity as the calcium salt, and 10 milligrams of hydrocortisone acetate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 054771 in...

  12. Kill rate of mastitis pathogens by a combination of cefalexin and kanamycin.

    PubMed

    Maneke, E; Pridmore, A; Goby, L; Lang, I

    2011-01-01

    To assess the bacterial killing rate produced by a combination of cefalexin and kanamycin at two different concentration ratios. Time-kill kinetics of cefalexin and kanamycin, individually and in combination, were determined against one strain each of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus uberis. The combination was tested using two fixed ratios (cefalexin : kanamycin ratios of 1·25 : 1 and 1 : 2·3) and two concentrations of each ratio. Time-kill curves produced with either ratio were quite similar. Against most bacterial species, higher concentrations produced faster kill. In all cases, the combination of cefalexin and kanamycin showed faster and greater kill at lower antibiotic concentrations than those observed with either drug alone. The combination of cefalexin and kanamycin results in a fast initial killing of major mastitis pathogens at both concentration ratios. The combination of cefalexin and kanamycin achieved rapid bacterial kill at concentrations and ratios that can be achieved in vivo following intramammary infusion of a mastitis treatment. © 2010 Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica GmbH. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Ultra-sensitive detection of kanamycin for food safety using a reduced graphene oxide-based fluorescent aptasensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Na-Reum; Jung, In-Pil; La, Im-Joung; Jung, Ho-Sup; Yoon, Moon-Young

    2017-01-01

    Overuse of antibiotics has caused serious problems, such as appearance of super bacteria, whose accumulation in the human body through the food chain is a concern. Kanamycin is a common antibiotic used to treat diverse infections; however, residual kanamycin can cause many side effects in humans. Thus, development of an ultra-sensitive, precise, and simple detection system for residual kanamycin in food products is urgently needed for food safety. In this study, we identified kanamycin-binding aptamers via a new screening method, and truncated variants were analyzed for optimization of the minimal sequence required for target binding. We found various aptamers with high binding affinity from 34.7 to 669 nanomolar Kdapp values with good specificity against kanamycin. Furthermore, we developed a reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-based fluorescent aptasensor for kanamycin detection. In this system, kanamycin was detected at a concentration as low as 1 pM (582.6 fg/mL). In addition, this method could detect kanamycin accurately in kanamycin-spiked blood serum and milk samples. Consequently, this simple, rapid, and sensitive kanamycin detection system with newly structural and functional analysis aptamer exhibits outstanding detection compared to previous methods and provides a new possibility for point of care testing and food safety.

  14. KatG-Mediated Oxidation Leading to Reduced Susceptibility of Bacteria to Kanamycin

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Resistance to antibiotics has become a serious problem for society, and there are increasing efforts to understand the reasons for and sources of resistance. Bacterial-encoded enzymes and transport systems, both innate and acquired, are the most frequent culprits for the development of resistance, although in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the catalase-peroxidase, KatG, has been linked to the activation of the antitubercular drug isoniazid. While investigating a possible link between aminoglycoside antibiotics and the induction of oxidative bursts, we observed that KatG reduces susceptibility to aminoglycosides. Investigation revealed that kanamycin served as an electron donor for the peroxidase reaction, reducing the oxidized ferryl intermediates of KatG to the resting state. Loss of electrons from kanamycin was accompanied by the addition of a single oxygen atom to the aminoglycoside. The oxidized form of kanamycin proved to be less effective as an antibiotic. Kanamycin inhibited the crystallization of KatG, but the smaller, structurally related glycoside maltose did cocrystallize with KatG, providing a suggestion as to the possible binding site of kanamycin. PMID:29732452

  15. Microiontophoresis of kanamycin from micropipettes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Echeverria, E L; Gonzalez, L Q

    1986-01-01

    1. Currents ranging between 10 and 50 nA were passed during ten minutes through 0,02 M kanamycin (KM) filled micropipettes with tips submerged in 25 microliters of KCl 0,15 M. 2. The amount of KM released was measured by radioimmunoassay. 3. It was found that the amount of kanamycin released could be computed by the equation y = 0,16x + 0,59; where "x" stands for charge passed in micro Coulombs and "y" stands for the amount released in nanograms. 4. When Faraday's law was used to fit the experimental data, it was found that the electrodes behave in an acceptable linear fashion. The range of the transport number for KM was 0,089 to 0,142 for six electrodes.

  16. Label-free detection of kanamycin based on a G-quadruplex DNA aptamer-based fluorescent intercalator displacement assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Yun-Peng; Liu, Chun; Zhou, Xiao-Hong; Shi, Han-Chang

    2015-01-01

    This work was the first to report that the kanamycin-binding DNA aptamer (5'-TGG GGG TTG AGG CTA AGC CGA-3') can form stable parallel G-quadruplex DNA (G4-DNA) structures by themselves and that this phenomenon can be verified by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Based on these findings, we developed a novel label-free strategy for kanamycin detection based on the G4-DNA aptamer-based fluorescent intercalator displacement assay with thiazole orange (TO) as the fluorescence probe. In the proposed strategy, TO became strongly fluorescent upon binding to kanamycin-binding G4-DNA. However, the addition of kanamycin caused the displacement of TO from the G4-DNA-TO conjugate, thereby resulting in decreased fluorescent signal, which was inversely related to the kanamycin concentration. The detection limit of the proposed assay decreased to 59 nM with a linear working range of 0.1 μM to 20 μM for kanamycin. The cross-reactivity against six other antibiotics was negligible compared with the response to kanamycin. A satisfactory recovery of kanamycin in milk samples ranged from 80.1% to 98.0%, confirming the potential of this bioassay in the measurement of kanamycin in various applications. Our results also served as a good reference for developing similar fluorescent G4-DNA-based bioassays in the future.

  17. 21 CFR 862.3520 - Kanamycin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Kanamycin test system. 862.3520 Section 862.3520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862...

  18. 21 CFR 862.3520 - Kanamycin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Kanamycin test system. 862.3520 Section 862.3520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862...

  19. 21 CFR 862.3520 - Kanamycin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Kanamycin test system. 862.3520 Section 862.3520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862...

  20. 21 CFR 862.3520 - Kanamycin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Kanamycin test system. 862.3520 Section 862.3520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862...

  1. Comparison of gentamicin and kanamycin alone and in combination with ampicillin in experimental Escherichia coli bacteremia and meningitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, K S

    1985-11-01

    The conventional antimicrobial therapy of gram-negative infection in the newborn is the combination of ampicillin and an aminoglycoside, usually gentamicin or kanamycin. Although gentamicin and kanamycin have been used interchangeably, efficacies of the two drugs have not been carefully compared. In addition, the contribution of ampicillin to the outcome of neonatal gram-negative meningitis is controversial. We evaluated the activity of gentamicin and kanamycin alone and in combinations with ampicillin in vitro and in vivo against a K1 Escherichia coli strain. In vitro, the E. coli strain was relatively sensitive to ampicillin, gentamicin, and kanamycin, with the minimal inhibitory and minimal bactericidal concentrations of 2 and 4, 2 and 2, and 4 and 8 micrograms/ml, respectively. Checkerboard determinations of minimal inhibitory and minimal bactericidal concentrations of drug combinations exhibited an indifferent response for both ampicillin + gentamicin and ampicillin + kanamycin. However, in vivo studies using an experimental E. coli bacteremia and meningitis model in newborn rats suggested that gentamicin was more effective than kanamycin. This was shown by more rapid bacterial clearance from the blood, a decreased incidence of meningitis in bacteremic animals, and improved survival. Furthermore, the addition of ampicillin improved the outcome of kanamycin, but not gentamicin, suggesting that the contribution of ampicillin may vary depending on the type of aminoglycoside used. These findings suggest that kanamycin is less effective than gentamicin in vivo against E. coli and should be used in combination with ampicillin to achieve an outcome comparable to that of gentamicin in this model of E. coli infection.

  2. Functional characterization of KanP, a methyltransferase from the kanamycin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces kanamyceticus.

    PubMed

    Nepal, Keshav Kumar; Yoo, Jin Cheol; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2010-09-20

    KanP, a putative methyltransferase, is located in the kanamycin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces kanamyceticus ATCC12853. Amino acid sequence analysis of KanP revealed the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine binding motifs, which are present in other O-methyltransferases. The kanP gene was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) to generate the E. coli KANP recombinant strain. The conversion of external quercetin to methylated quercetin in the culture extract of E. coli KANP proved the function of kanP as S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyltransferase. This is the first report concerning the identification of an O-methyltransferase gene from the kanamycin gene cluster. The resistant activity assay and RT-PCR analysis demonstrated the leeway for obtaining methylated kanamycin derivatives from the wild-type strain of kanamycin producer. 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Melanine value in the stria vascularis of pigmented guinea-pigs treated by kanamycin.

    PubMed

    Attard, A; Gratacap, B; Charachon, R; Stoebner, P; Laurent, A

    1988-01-01

    In a previous report, kanamycin (400 mg/kg/d) seemed to increase the number of melanine granulations in intermediate cells of the stria vascularis, especially in the second and third turns. To precise these data, melanine was studied in those turns by ultrastructural morphometry in a control group with 12 animals. We observed a large intra-individual and inter-individual variation before intoxication. Thus, the meaning of melanine modifications by kanamycin must be carefully evaluated.

  4. 21 CFR 524.1200a - Kanamycin ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... prophylactic in traumatic conditions, removal of foreign bodies, and intraocular surgery. Apply a thin film to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Kanamycin ophthalmic ointment. 524.1200a Section 524.1200a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  5. 21 CFR 524.1200a - Kanamycin ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... prophylactic in traumatic conditions, removal of foreign bodies, and intraocular surgery. Apply a thin film to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Kanamycin ophthalmic ointment. 524.1200a Section 524.1200a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  6. Bicarbonate enhances the in vitro antibiotic activity of kanamycin in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Huante, M; Martínez, H; Bustamante, V H; Puente, J L; Sánchez, J

    2015-05-01

    Growth of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli E2348/69 was inhibited by bicarbonate in a dose-dependent manner, showing approximately 5% growth reduction at 5 mmol l(-1) while kanamycin at 3·12 μg ml(-1) inhibited growth by 15%, yet when kanamycin and bicarbonate were combined at these concentrations, inhibition increased to 80%. Unexpectedly, at bicarbonate concentrations >20 mmol l(-1) enhancement of the antibiotic activity virtually disappeared, i.e. there was a paradoxical Eagle-like effect. How bicarbonate acts is unclear, but neutral or alkaline pH also enhanced the activity of kanamycin. However, several differences indicated a separate effect of bicarbonate. First, bicarbonate inhibited growth more than the corresponding increments in pH. Second, at low concentration, the antibiotic enhancing effect of bicarbonate was stronger than the effect of pH alone. Third, 5 mmol l(-1) bicarbonate significantly enhanced the activity of kanamycin while the corresponding pH had no effect. Fourth, the Eagle-like effect was exclusive of bicarbonate because changes in pH did not induce an analogous behaviour. Notwithstanding the mechanism, the enhancing effect of bicarbonate was indubitable. Consequently, it seems worthwhile to explore further its potential to improve the efficacy of aminoglycosides and maybe even other antibiotics. Bicarbonate at a low concentration enhanced the in vitro antibiotic activity of kanamycin and gentamicin. Even though the action mechanism of bicarbonate is hitherto unknown, it seems worthwhile to explore further its capacity to improve the efficacy of aminoglycosides. Clearly, the well-known harmful side-effects of aminoglycosides are a concern. However, it has recently been shown in a fish model that bicarbonate may protect ciliary cells against the damage caused by aminoglycosides. So, it seems possible that bicarbonate could help reduce aminoglycoside dosage at the same time that it might help lessen the damage to auditory ciliary cells in

  7. Glutamate co-transmission from developing medial nucleus of the trapezoid body - Lateral superior olive synapses is cochlear dependent in kanamycin-treated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jae Ho; Pradhan, Jonu; Maskey, Dhiraj

    Research highlights: {yields} Glutamate co-transmission is enhanced in kanamycin-treated rats. {yields} VGLUT3 expression is increased in kanamycin-treated rats. {yields} GlyR expression is decreased in kanamycin-treated rats. {yields} GlyR, VGLUT3 expression patterns are asymmetric in unilaterally cochlear ablated rat. -- Abstract: Cochlear dependency of glutamate co-transmission at the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) - the lateral superior olive (LSO) synapses was investigated using developing rats treated with high dose kanamycin. Rats were treated with kanamycin from postnatal day (P) 3 to P8. A scanning electron microscopic study on P9 demonstrated partial cochlear hair cell damage. A whole cell voltagemore » clamp experiment demonstrated the increased glutamatergic portion of postsynaptic currents (PSCs) elicited by MNTB stimulation in P9-P11 kanamycin-treated rats. The enhanced VGLUT3 immunoreactivities (IRs) in kanamycin-treated rats and asymmetric VGLUT3 IRs in the LSO of unilaterally cochlear ablated rats supported the electrophysiologic data. Taken together, it is concluded that glutamate co-transmission is cochlear-dependent and enhanced glutamate co-transmission in kanamycin-treated rats is induced by partial cochlear damage.« less

  8. 21 CFR 524.1200a - Kanamycin ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for use in dogs in various eye infections due to kanamycin sensitive bacteria. It is used treating... the affected eye three or four times daily or more frequently if deemed advisable. Treatment should be continued for at least 48 hours after the eye appears normal. For use only by or on the order of a licensed...

  9. 21 CFR 524.1200a - Kanamycin ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for use in dogs in various eye infections due to kanamycin sensitive bacteria. It is used treating... the affected eye three or four times daily or more frequently if deemed advisable. Treatment should be continued for at least 48 hours after the eye appears normal. For use only by or on the order of a licensed...

  10. Microbiological/clinical characteristics and validation of topical therapy with kanamycin in aerobic vaginitis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tempera, G; Bonfiglio, G; Cammarata, E; Corsello, S; Cianci, A

    2004-07-01

    The term 'aerobic vaginitis' defines a 'new' vaginal pathology that is neither classifiable as specific vaginitis nor as bacterial vaginosis. We studied a sample of 30 women with a clinical and microbiological diagnosis of aerobic vaginitis and compared the efficacy and tolerability of kanamycin and meclocycline, two products commercially available in Italy in the form of vaginal pessaries. In chronological order of enrollment, the patients were alternately treated with kanamycin or meclocycline; the dose of administration in both groups was of one pessary per day for 6 days. The evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy was carried out both at the first check-up (7th-8th day) and at a second check-up (13th-16th day). At the first follow-up carried out immediately at the end of therapy, the percentage of normalisation of clinical signs and symptoms was increased independently of the type of treatment in the case of moderate grade aerobic vaginitis, while kanamycin was produced a better effect in the group with severe aerobic vaginitis. Furthermore, at the second follow-up, a direct correlation with recovery of vaginal homeostasis was demonstrated by the normalisation of the vaginal pH and by the presence of lactobacilli, only in kanamycin treated group. In conclusion, our results showed the validity of the treatment with kanamycin intravaginally in this recently recognised disease.

  11. A Highly Thermostable Kanamycin Resistance Marker Expands the Tool Kit for Genetic Manipulation of Caldicellulosiruptor bescii

    PubMed Central

    Lipscomb, Gina L.; Conway, Jonathan M.; Blumer-Schuette, Sara E.; Kelly, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Caldicellulosiruptor bescii, an anaerobic Gram-positive bacterium with an optimal growth temperature of 78°C, is the most thermophilic cellulose degrader known. It is of great biotechnological interest, as it efficiently deconstructs nonpretreated lignocellulosic plant biomass. Currently, its genetic manipulation relies on a mutant uracil auxotrophic background strain that contains a random deletion in the pyrF genome region. The pyrF gene serves as a genetic marker to select for uracil prototrophy, and it can also be counterselected for loss via resistance to the compound 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA). To expand the C. bescii genetic tool kit, kanamycin resistance was developed as a selection for genetic manipulation. A codon-optimized version of the highly thermostable kanamycin resistance gene (named Cbhtk) allowed the use of kanamycin selection to obtain transformants of either replicating or integrating vector constructs in C. bescii. These strains showed resistance to kanamycin at concentrations >50 μg · ml−1, whereas wild-type C. bescii was sensitive to kanamycin at 10 μg · ml−1. In addition, placement of the Cbhtk marker between homologous recombination regions in an integrating vector allowed direct selection of a chromosomal mutation using both kanamycin and 5-FOA. Furthermore, the use of kanamycin selection enabled the targeted deletion of the pyrE gene in wild-type C. bescii, generating a uracil auxotrophic genetic background strain resistant to 5-FOA. The pyrE gene functioned as a counterselectable marker, like pyrF, and was used together with Cbhtk in the ΔpyrE background strain to delete genes encoding lactate dehydrogenase and the CbeI restriction enzyme. IMPORTANCE Caldicellulosiruptor bescii is a thermophilic anaerobic bacterium with an optimal growth temperature of 78°C, and it has the ability to efficiently deconstruct nonpretreated lignocellulosic plant biomass. It is, therefore, of biotechnological interest for genetic

  12. 21 CFR 524.1200b - Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., removal of foreign bodies, and intraocular surgery. Instill a few drops into the affected eye every 3... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution. 524.1200b Section 524.1200b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  13. 21 CFR 524.1200b - Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., removal of foreign bodies, and intraocular surgery. Instill a few drops into the affected eye every 3... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution. 524.1200b Section 524.1200b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  14. Targeting biofilms and persisters of ESKAPE pathogens with P14KanS, a kanamycin peptide conjugate.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mohamed F; Brezden, Anna; Mohammad, Haroon; Chmielewski, Jean; Seleem, Mohamed N

    2017-04-01

    The worldwide emergence of antibiotic resistance represents a serious medical threat. The ability of these resistant pathogens to form biofilms that are highly tolerant to antibiotics further aggravates the situation and leads to recurring infections. Thus, new therapeutic approaches that adopt novel mechanisms of action are urgently needed. To address this significant problem, we conjugated the antibiotic kanamycin with a novel antimicrobial peptide (P14LRR) to develop a kanamycin peptide conjugate (P14KanS). Antibacterial activities were evaluated in vitro and in vivo using a Caenorhabditis elegans model. Additionally, the mechanism of action, antibiofilm activity and anti-inflammatory effect of P14KanS were investigated. P14KanS exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against ESKAPE pathogens. P14KanS demonstrated a ≥128-fold improvement in MIC relative to kanamycin against kanamycin-resistant strains. Mechanistic studies confirmed that P14KanS exerts its antibacterial effect by selectively disrupting the bacterial cell membrane. Unlike many antibiotics, P14KanS demonstrated rapid bactericidal activity against stationary phases of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. Moreover, P14KanS was superior in disrupting adherent bacterial biofilms and in killing intracellular pathogens as compared to conventional antibiotics. Furthermore, P14KanS demonstrated potent anti-inflammatory activity via the suppression of LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines. Finally, P14KanS protected C. elegans from lethal infections of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. The potent in vitro and in vivo activity of P14KanS warrants further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent for bacterial infections. This study demonstrates that equipping kanamycin with an antimicrobial peptide is a promising method to tackle bacterial biofilms and address bacterial resistance to aminoglycosides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Exogenous alanine and/or glucose plus kanamycin kills antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Peng, Bo; Su, Yu-Bin; Li, Hui; Han, Yi; Guo, Chang; Tian, Yao-Mei; Peng, Xuan-Xian

    2015-02-03

    Multidrug-resistant bacteria are an increasingly serious threat to human and animal health. However, novel drugs that can manage infections by multidrug-resistant bacteria have proved elusive. Here we show that glucose and alanine abundances are greatly suppressed in kanamycin-resistant Edwardsiella tarda by GC-MS-based metabolomics. Exogenous alanine or glucose restores susceptibility of multidrug-resistant E. tarda to killing by kanamycin, demonstrating an approach to killing multidrug-resistant bacteria. The mechanism underlying this approach is that exogenous glucose or alanine promotes the TCA cycle by substrate activation, which in turn increases production of NADH and proton motive force and stimulates uptake of antibiotic. Similar results are obtained with other Gram-negative bacteria (Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive bacterium (Staphylococcus aureus), and the results are also reproduced in a mouse model for urinary tract infection. This study establishes a functional metabolomics-based strategy to manage infection by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... hydrocortisone acetate. 524.1204 Section 524.1204 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1204 Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate... activity as the calcium salt, and 10.0 milligrams of hydrocortisone acetate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in...

  17. 21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... hydrocortisone acetate. 524.1204 Section 524.1204 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1204 Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate... activity as the calcium salt, and 10.0 milligrams of hydrocortisone acetate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in...

  18. 21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... hydrocortisone acetate. 524.1204 Section 524.1204 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1204 Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate... activity as the calcium salt, and 10.0 milligrams of hydrocortisone acetate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in...

  19. 21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... hydrocortisone acetate. 524.1204 Section 524.1204 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1204 Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate... activity as the calcium salt, and 10.0 milligrams of hydrocortisone acetate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in...

  20. The aminoglycoside antibiotic kanamycin damages DNA bases in Escherichia coli: caffeine potentiates the DNA-damaging effects of kanamycin while suppressing cell killing by ciprofloxacin in Escherichia coli and Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Tina Manzhu; Yuan, Jessica; Nguyen, Angelyn; Becket, Elinne; Yang, Hanjing; Miller, Jeffrey H

    2012-06-01

    The distribution of mutants in the Keio collection of Escherichia coli gene knockout mutants that display increased sensitivity to the aminoglycosides kanamycin and neomycin indicates that damaged bases resulting from antibiotic action can lead to cell death. Strains lacking one of a number of glycosylases (e.g., AlkA, YzaB, Ogt, KsgA) or other specific repair proteins (AlkB, PhrB, SmbC) are more sensitive to these antibiotics. Mutants lacking AlkB display the strongest sensitivity among the glycosylase- or direct lesion removal-deficient strains. This perhaps suggests the involvement of ethenoadenine adducts, resulting from reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation, since AlkB removes this lesion. Other sensitivities displayed by mutants lacking UvrA, polymerase V (Pol V), or components of double-strand break repair indicate that kanamycin results in damaged base pairs that need to be removed or replicated past in order to avoid double-strand breaks that saturate the cellular repair capacity. Caffeine enhances the sensitivities of these repair-deficient strains to kanamycin and neomycin. The gene knockout mutants that display increased sensitivity to caffeine (dnaQ, holC, holD, and priA knockout mutants) indicate that caffeine blocks DNA replication, ultimately leading to double-strand breaks that require recombinational repair by functions encoded by recA, recB, and recC, among others. Additionally, caffeine partially protects cells of both Escherichia coli and Bacillus anthracis from killing by the widely used fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin.

  1. Kanamycin and its derivative, arbekacin: significance and impact.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Kunimoto; Kondo, Shinichi

    2018-03-01

    On the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the discovery (1957) of kanamycin (KM), a series of research achievements on KM and its semisynthetic derivative Arbekacin (ABK) are outlined. KM was first used clinically in 1958 and was appreciated for its remarkable curing effect on various bacterial infections, especially tuberculosis. ABK is a KM derivative rationally semisynthesized to overcome KM resistance due to enzymatic phosphorylation and acetylation. Since its approval in 1990 as an anti-MRSA drug, ABK has been and still is effectively used in chemotherapy because MRSA rarely develops high ABK-resistance. Research that illuminated the unique features of ABK enabling it to resist the development of resistance by MRSA are also described.

  2. [Morphologic studies of the protective role of catechin on kanamycin otoneurotoxicity in SD rats].

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo-hui; Xie, Ding-hua; Wu, Wei-jing

    2002-12-28

    To determine the protection of catechin on aminoglycoside antibiotics otoneurotoxicity in SD rats, and observe the morphologic changes of cochlear efferent nerve terminals and outer hair cells after the injection of kanamycin and the feeding of catechin by the stomach tube. Thirty-eight SD rats were randomly assigned into three experimental groups (KM-treated, catechin-treated, KM and catechin in combination) and one control group. The KM-treated group was given kanamycin in a dose of 500 mg.(kg.d)-1 for 14 days. The catechin-treated group was given catechin once by the stomach tube in a dose of 400 mg.(kg.d)-1. Two kinds of medicine were simultaneously given in the KM+ catechin group. Transmission electron microscopy was utilized to observe the subcellular structure of efferent nerve fibers and outer hair cells. The densities of efferent nerve fibers and terminals were examined and the numbers of efferent nerve fibers and terminals were numerated by the surface preparation using modified histochemical staining for acetylcholinesterase (AchE). The damage in the group protected by catechin was relieved compared with the unprotected group. No damage was found in the catechin-treated alone group and controls. The densities and numbers of efferent nerve fibers and terminals were obviously fewer in the unprotected group than in the protected group and controls(P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the numbers of efferent nerve fibers and terminals of the group protected by catechin compared with the controls and the catechin-treated group (P > 0.05). Catechin significantly protects MOC efferent nerves in kanamycin otoneurotoxicity.

  3. Modification of kanamycin-esculin-azide agar to improve selectivity in the enumeration of fecal streptococci from water samples.

    PubMed

    Audicana, A; Perales, I; Borrego, J J

    1995-12-01

    Kanamycin-esculin-azide agar was modified by increasing the concentration of sodium azide to 0.4 g liter-1 and replacing kanamycin sulfate with 5 mg of oxolinic acid liter-1. The modification, named oxolinic acid-esculin-azide (OAA) agar, was compared with Slanetz-Bartley and KF agars by using drinking water and seawater samples. The OAA agar showed higher specificity, selectivity, and recovery efficiencies than those obtained by using the other media. In addition, no confirmation of typical colonies was needed when OAA agar was used, which significantly shortens the time of sample processing and increases the accuracy of the method.

  4. Aptamer-mediated 'turn-off/turn-on' nanozyme activity of gold nanoparticles for kanamycin detection.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Tarun Kumar; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Weerathunge, Pabudi; Mohammadtaheri, Mahsa; Daima, Hemant Kumar; Shukla, Ravi; Bansal, Vipul

    2014-12-28

    A new ultrafast and highly sensitive 'turn-off/turn-on' biosensing approach that combines the intrinsic peroxidase-like activity of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with the high affinity and specificity of a ssDNA aptamer is presented for the efficient detection of a model small molecule kanamycin.

  5. Modification of kanamycin-esculin-azide agar to improve selectivity in the enumeration of fecal streptococci from water samples.

    PubMed Central

    Audicana, A; Perales, I; Borrego, J J

    1995-01-01

    Kanamycin-esculin-azide agar was modified by increasing the concentration of sodium azide to 0.4 g liter-1 and replacing kanamycin sulfate with 5 mg of oxolinic acid liter-1. The modification, named oxolinic acid-esculin-azide (OAA) agar, was compared with Slanetz-Bartley and KF agars by using drinking water and seawater samples. The OAA agar showed higher specificity, selectivity, and recovery efficiencies than those obtained by using the other media. In addition, no confirmation of typical colonies was needed when OAA agar was used, which significantly shortens the time of sample processing and increases the accuracy of the method. PMID:8534085

  6. MAPLE fabrication of thin films based on kanamycin functionalized magnetite nanoparticles with anti-pathogenic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grumezescu, Valentina; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Holban, Alina Maria; Mogoantă, Laurenţiu; Mogoşanu, George Dan; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Stănculescu, Anca; Socol, Gabriel; Iordache, Florin; Maniu, Horia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen

    2015-05-01

    In this study we aimed to evaluate the biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity of kanamycin functionalized 5 nm-magnetite (Fe3O4@KAN) nanoparticles thin films deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. A laser deposition regime was established in order to stoichiometrically transfer Fe3O4@KAN thin films on silicone and glass substrates. Morphological and physico-chemical properties of powders and coatings were characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM, AFM and IR microscopy (IRM). Our nanostructured thin films have proved efficiency in the prevention of microbial adhesion and mature biofilms development as a result of antibiotic release in its active form. Furthermore, kanamycin functionalized nanostructures exhibit a good biocompatibility, both in vivo and in vitro, demonstrating their potential for implants application. This is the first study reporting the assessment of the in vivo biocompatibility of a magnetite-antimicrobial thin films produced by MAPLE technique.

  7. Novel plasmid conferring kanamycin and tetracycline resistance in turkey-derived Campylobacter jejuni strain 11601MD

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In Campylobacter spp., resistance to the antibiotics kanamycin and tetracycline is frequently associated with plasmid-borne genes. However, relatively few plasmids of Campylobacter jejuni have been fully characterized to date. A novel plasmid (p11601MD; 44,095 bp.) harboring tet(O) was identified in...

  8. Investigation of porous silicon nanopowders functionalized by antibiotic Kanamycin, fluorophore Indocyanine Green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bespalova, K.; Somov, P. A.; Spivak, Yu M.

    2017-11-01

    Porous silicon nanopowders for target drug delivery were obtained by electrochemical anodic etching in a hydrofluoric acid solution using the monocrystalline silicon n-type conductivity. Porous silicon powders were obtained by sonification of porous silicon layers. The powders were functionalized by antibiotic Kanamycin and fluorophore Indocyanine Green by the passive adsorption method. The peculiarities of absorption spectra in 190-600 nm region were revealed for functionalized porous silicon powders dispersions in water.

  9. Transformation of Acinetobacter sp. Strain BD413(pFG4ΔnptII) with Transgenic Plant DNA in Soil Microcosms and Effects of Kanamycin on Selection of Transformants

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Kaare M.; van Elsas, Jan D.; Smalla, Kornelia

    2000-01-01

    Here we show that horizontal transfer of DNA, extracted from transgenic sugar beets, to bacteria, based on homologous recombination, can occur in soil. Restoration of a 317-bp-deleted nptII gene in Acinetobacter sp. strain BD413(pFG4) cells incubated in sterile soil microcosms was detected after addition of nutrients and transgenic plant DNA encoding a functional nptII gene conferring bacterial kanamycin resistance. Selective effects of the addition of kanamycin on the population dynamics of Acinetobacter sp. cells in soil were found, and high concentrations of kanamycin reduced the CFU of Acinetobacter sp. cells from 109 CFU/g of soil to below detection. In contrast to a chromosomal nptII-encoded kanamycin resistance, the pFG4-generated resistance was found to be unstable over a 31-day incubation period in vitro. PMID:10698801

  10. Julian Davies and the discovery of kanamycin resistance transposon Tn5.

    PubMed

    Berg, Douglas E

    2017-04-01

    This paper recounts some of my fond memories of a collaboration between Julian Davies and myself that started in 1974 in Geneva and that led to our serendipitous discovery of the bacterial kanamycin resistance transposon Tn5, and aspects of the lasting positive impact of our interaction and discovery on me and the community. Tn5 was one of the first antibiotic resistance transposons to be found. Its analysis over the ensuing decades provided valuable insights into mechanisms and control of transposition, and led to its use as a much-valued tool in diverse areas of molecular genetics, as also will be discussed here.

  11. Dual Targeting of Intracellular Pathogenic Bacteria with a Cleavable Conjugate of Kanamycin and an Antibacterial Cell-Penetrating Peptide.

    PubMed

    Brezden, Anna; Mohamed, Mohamed F; Nepal, Manish; Harwood, John S; Kuriakose, Jerrin; Seleem, Mohamed N; Chmielewski, Jean

    2016-08-31

    Bacterial infection caused by intracellular pathogens, such as Mycobacterium, Salmonella, and Brucella, is a burgeoning global health epidemic that necessitates urgent action. However, the therapeutic value of a number of antibiotics, including aminoglycosides, against intracellular pathogenic bacteria is compromised due to their inability to traverse eukaryotic membranes. For this significant problem to be addressed, a cleavable conjugate of the antibiotic kanamycin and a nonmembrane lytic, broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptide with efficient mammalian cell penetration, P14LRR, was prepared. This approach allows kanamycin to enter mammalian cells as a conjugate linked via a tether that breaks down in the reducing environment within cells. Potent antimicrobial activity of the P14KanS conjugate was demonstrated in vitro, and this reducible conjugate effectively cleared intracellular pathogenic bacteria within macrophages more potently than that of a conjugate lacking the disulfide moiety. Notably, successful clearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within macrophages was observed with the dual antibiotic conjugate, and Salmonella levels were significantly reduced in an in vivo Caenorhabditis elegans model.

  12. Therapeutic effect of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated ADNF-9 expression on cochlea of kanamycin-deafened guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guoxi; Zhu, Zhu; Zhu, Kang; Wei, Junrong; Jing, Yang; Duan, Maoli

    2013-10-01

    rAAV-NT4-ADNF-9 could ameliorate the damage to auditory function and repair previous impairment of cochlear hair cell loss induced by kanamycin. To investigate the therapeutic effect of ADNF-9 on cochlear hair cells using the recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) carrying fusion gene NT4-ADNF-9 and the kanamycin-deafened guinea pig model. Forty white guinea pigs with normal auricle reflex and normal auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were randomly divided into four groups. Kanamycin was administered to the animals in groups A, B, and C to establish the deafened guinea pig model. rAAV-NT4-ADNF-9, vector only, and artificial perilymph were then delivered to the cochlear tissue of animals in groups A, B, and C, respectively, through the round window membrane. Animals in group D did not receive any treatment and acted as normal controls. The hearing thresholds on the surgery side were recorded before and after the transfection treatment. Fourteen days after treatment, cochleae were removed for paraffin slide preparation and cochlear surface preparation. A phase contrast microscope was used to observe the protective effect of ADNF-9 on hair cells. Significant reduction of the ABR threshold was observed after rAAV-NT4-ADNF-9 treatment (p < 0.05). After 14 days of treatment, the ABR threshold was also significantly different between the rAAV-NT4-ADNF-9-infected group and the non-infected group. Moreover, phase contrast microscopy showed significantly less hair cell damage or hair cell loss in the group treated with rAAV-NT4-ADNF-9 than in the groups treated with vector only or artificial perilymph (p < 0.05).

  13. Isolation and characterization of two novel groups of Kanamycin-resistance ColE1-like plasmids in Salmonella enterica serotypes from food animals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    While antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica is largely attributed to large plasmids, small plasmids may also harbor antimicrobial resistance genes. Previously, three major groups of ColE1-like plasmids conferring kanamycin-resistance (KanR) in various S. enterica serotypes from diagnostic...

  14. Influence of tra genes of IncP and F plasmids on the mobilization of small Kanamycin resistance ColE1-Like plasmids in bacterial biofilms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Horizontal gene transfer is a mechanism for movement of antibiotic resistance genes among bacteria. Some small kanamycin resistance (KanR) ColE1-like plasmids isolated from different serotypes of Salmonella enterica were shown to carry mobilization genes; although not self-transmissibl...

  15. Modulation of Global Transcriptional Regulatory Networks as a Strategy for Increasing Kanamycin Resistance of the Translational Elongation Factor-G Mutants in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Mogre, Aalap; Veetil, Reshma T.; Seshasayee, Aswin Sai Narain

    2017-01-01

    Evolve and resequence experiments have provided us a tool to understand bacterial adaptation to antibiotics. In our previous work, we used short-term evolution to isolate mutants resistant to the ribosome targeting antibiotic kanamycin, and reported that Escherichia coli develops low cost resistance to kanamycin via different point mutations in the translation Elongation Factor-G (EF-G). Furthermore, we had shown that the resistance of EF-G mutants could be increased by second site mutations in the genes rpoD/cpxA/topA/cyaA. Mutations in three of these genes had been discovered in earlier screens for aminoglycoside resistance. In this work, we expand our understanding of these second site mutations, the goal being to understand how these mutations affect the activities of the mutated gene products to confer resistance. We show that the mutation in cpxA most likely results in an active Cpx stress response. Further evolution of an EF-G mutant in a higher concentration of kanamycin than what was used in our previous experiments identified the cpxA locus as a primary target for a significant increase in resistance. The mutation in cyaA results in a loss of catalytic activity and probably results in resistance via altered CRP function. Despite a reduction in cAMP levels, the CyaAN600Y mutant has a transcriptome indicative of increased CRP activity, pointing to an unknown role for CyaA and / or cAMP in gene expression. From the transcriptomes of double and single mutants, we describe the epistasis between the mutation in EF-G and these second site mutations. We show that the large scale transcriptomic changes in the topoisomerase I (FusAA608E-TopAS180L) mutant likely result from increased negative supercoiling in the cell. Finally, genes with known roles in aminoglycoside resistance were present among the misregulated genes in the mutants. PMID:29046437

  16. Sulfonamide-Based Inhibitors of Aminoglycoside Acetyltransferase Eis Abolish Resistance to Kanamycin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Garzan, Atefeh; Willby, Melisa J.; Green, Keith D.

    A two-drug combination therapy where one drug targets an offending cell and the other targets a resistance mechanism to the first drug is a time-tested, yet underexploited approach to combat or prevent drug resistance. By high-throughput screening, we identified a sulfonamide scaffold that served as a pharmacophore to generate inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis acetyltransferase Eis, whose upregulation causes resistance to the aminoglycoside (AG) antibiotic kanamycin A (KAN) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Rational systematic derivatization of this scaffold to maximize Eis inhibition and abolish the Eis-mediated KAN resistance of M. tuberculosis yielded several highly potent agents. A crystal structure of Eis inmore » complex with one of the most potent inhibitors revealed that the inhibitor bound Eis in the AG-binding pocket held by a conformationally malleable region of Eis (residues 28–37) bearing key hydrophobic residues. These Eis inhibitors are promising leads for preclinical development of innovative AG combination therapies against resistant TB.« less

  17. Genetic and DNA sequence analysis of the kanamycin resistance transposon Tn903.

    PubMed Central

    Grindley, N D; Joyce, C M

    1980-01-01

    The kanamycin resistance transposon Tn903 consists of a unique region of about 1000 base pairs bounded by a pair of 1050-base-pair inverted repeat sequences. Each repeat contains two Pvu II endonuclease cleavage sites separated by 520 base pairs. We have constructed derivatives of Tn903 in which this 520-base-pair fragment is deleted from one or both repeats. Those derivatives that lack both 520-base-pair fragments cannot transpose, whereas those that lack just one remain transposition proficient. One such transposable derivative, Tn903 delta I, has been selected for further study. We have determined the sequence of the intact inverted repeat. The 18 base pairs at each end are identical and inverted relative to one another, a structure characteristic of insertion sequences. Additional experiments indicate that a single inverted repeat from Tn903 can, in fact, transpose; we propose that this element be called IS903. To correlate the DNA sequence with genetic activities, we have created mutations by inserting a 10-base-pair DNA fragment at several sites within the intact repeat of Tn903 delta 1, and we have examined the effect of such insertions on transposability. The results suggest that IS903 encodes a 307-amino-acid polypeptide (a "transposase") that is absolutely required for transposition of IS903 or Tn903. Images PMID:6261245

  18. Amplification of the entire kanamycin biosynthetic gene cluster during empirical strain improvement of Streptomyces kanamyceticus.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Koji; Murakami, Takeshi; Bibb, Mervyn

    2006-06-20

    Streptomyces kanamyceticus 12-6 is a derivative of the wild-type strain developed for industrial kanamycin (Km) production. Southern analysis and DNA sequencing revealed amplification of a large genomic segment including the entire Km biosynthetic gene cluster in the chromosome of strain 12-6. At 145 kb, the amplifiable unit of DNA (AUD) is the largest AUD reported in Streptomyces. Striking repetitive DNA sequences belonging to the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats family were found in the AUD and may play a role in its amplification. Strain 12-6 contains a mixture of different chromosomes with varying numbers of AUDs, sometimes exceeding 36 copies and producing an amplified region >5.7 Mb. The level of Km production depended on the copy number of the Km biosynthetic gene cluster, suggesting that DNA amplification occurred during strain improvement as a consequence of selection for increased Km resistance. Amplification of DNA segments including entire antibiotic biosynthetic gene clusters might be a common mechanism leading to increased antibiotic production in industrial strains.

  19. Results of an ultrastructural study comparing stria vascularis with organ of Corti in guinea pigs treated with kanamycin.

    PubMed

    Gratacap, B; Charachon, R; Stoebner, P

    1985-01-01

    Ultrastructural study of ototoxicity is well documented with two points of interest: organ of Corti for aminoglycosides and stria vascularis for loop diuretics. As a previous study suggested initial lesions of stria vascularis, an attempt of comparison and of chronological study was made between the organ of Corti and stria vascularis lesions by kanamycin intoxication. The method was devised by J. M. ARAN, with electrophysiological control. We failed to find in the stria vascularis a radial or longitudinal pattern of lesions. We could not discern a chronological injury between the organ of Corti and stria vascularis because both were damaged even in the less deafened animals. Nevertheless, two facts were clarified: hair cell lesions are lysosomial as for the kidney lesions, while stria vascularis lesions are mitochondrial, melanine granulations play a part in drug metabolism (increased number, secretory aspect) and deserve further study.

  20. Neuronal erythropoietin overexpression is protective against kanamycin-induced hearing loss in mice.

    PubMed

    Bächinger, David; Horvath, Lukas; Eckhard, Andreas; Goosmann, Madeline M; Honegger, Tim; Gassmann, Max; Vogel, Johannes; Naldi, Arianne Monge

    2018-07-01

    Aminoglycosides have detrimental effects on the hair cells of the inner ear, yet these agents indisputably are one of the cornerstones in antibiotic therapy. Hence, there is a demand for strategies to prevent aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity, which are not available today. In vitro data suggests that the pleiotropic growth factor erythropoietin (EPO) is neuroprotective against aminoglycoside-induced hair cell loss. Here, we use a mouse model with EPO-overexpression in neuronal tissue to evaluate whether EPO could also in vivo protect from aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds were measured in 12-weeks-old mice before and after treatment with kanamycin for 15 days, which resulted in both C57BL/6 and EPO-transgenic animals in a high-frequency hearing loss. However, ABR threshold shifts in EPO-transgenic mice were significantly lower than in C57BL/6 mice (mean difference in ABR threshold shift 13.6 dB at 32 kHz, 95% CI 3.8-23.4 dB, p = 0.003). Correspondingly, quantification of hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons by immunofluorescence revealed that EPO-transgenic mice had a significantly lower hair cell and spiral ganglion neuron loss than C57BL/6 mice. In conclusion, neuronal overexpression of EPO is protective against aminoglycoside-induce hearing loss, which is in accordance with its known neuroprotective effects in other organs, such as the eye or the brain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Conformational Response of 30S-bound IF3 to A-Site Binders Streptomycin and Kanamycin

    PubMed Central

    Chulluncuy, Roberto; Espiche, Carlos; Nakamoto, Jose Alberto; Fabbretti, Attilio; Milón, Pohl

    2016-01-01

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics are widely used to treat infectious diseases. Among them, streptomycin and kanamycin (and derivatives) are of importance to battle multidrug-resistant (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Both drugs bind the small ribosomal subunit (30S) and inhibit protein synthesis. Genetic, structural, and biochemical studies indicate that local and long-range conformational rearrangements of the 30S subunit account for this inhibition. Here, we use intramolecular FRET between the C- and N-terminus domains of the flexible IF3 to monitor real-time perturbations of their binding sites on the 30S platform. Steady and pre-steady state binding experiments show that both aminoglycosides bring IF3 domains apart, promoting an elongated state of the factor. Binding of Initiation Factor IF1 triggers closure of IF3 bound to the 30S complex, while both aminoglycosides revert the IF1-dependent conformation. Our results uncover dynamic perturbations across the 30S subunit, from the A-site to the platform, and suggest that both aminoglycosides could interfere with prokaryotic translation initiation by modulating the interaction between IF3 domains with the 30S platform. PMID:27983590

  2. Prevalence of ColE1-like plasmids and kanamycin resistance genes in Salmonella enterica serovars.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Yi; Lindsey, Rebecca L; Strobaugh, Terence P; Frye, Jonathan G; Meinersmann, Richard J

    2010-10-01

    Multi-antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella enterica strains frequently carry resistance genes on plasmids. Recent studies focus heavily on large conjugative plasmids, and the role that small plasmids play in resistance gene transfer is largely unknown. To expand our previous studies in assessing the prevalence of the isolates harboring ColE1-like plasmids carrying the aph gene responsible for kanamycin resistance (Kan(r)) phenotypes, 102 Kan(r) Salmonella isolates collected through the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) in 2005 were screened by PCR using ColE1 primer sets. Thirty isolates were found to be positive for ColE1-like replicon. Plasmids from 23 isolates were able to propagate in Escherichia coli and were subjected to further characterization. Restriction mapping revealed three major plasmid groups found in three or more isolates, with each group consisting of two to three subtypes. The aph genes from the Kan(r) Salmonella isolates were amplified by PCR, sequenced, and showed four different aph(3')-I genes. The distribution of the ColE1 plasmid groups in association with the aph gene, Salmonella serovar, and isolate source demonstrated a strong linkage of the plasmid with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104. Due to their high copy number and mobility, the ColE1-like plasmids may play a critical role in transmission of antibiotic resistance genes among enteric pathogens, and these findings warrant a close monitoring of this plasmid incompatibility group.

  3. Comparative study of kanamycin sulphate microparticles and nanoparticles for intramuscular administration: preparation in vitro release and preliminary in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Sanaul; Devi, V Kusum; Pai, Roopa S

    2016-11-01

    Kanamycin sulphate (KS) is a Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein synthesis inhibitor. KS is polycationic, a property responsible for KS poor oral absorption half-life (2.5 h) and rapid renal clearance, which results in serious nephrotoxicity/ototoxicity. The current study aimed to develop KS-loaded PLGA vitamin-E-TPGS microparticles (MPs) and nanoparticles (NPs) to reduce the dosing frequency and dose-related adverse effect. In vitro release was sustained up to 10 days for KS PLGA-TPGS MPs and 13 days for KS PLGA-TPGS NPs in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) pH 7.4. The in vivo pharmacokinetic test in Wistar rats showed that the AUC 0-∞ of KS PLGA-TPGS NPs (280.58 μg/mL*min) was about 1.62-fold higher than that of KS PLGA-TPGS MPs (172.30 μg/mL*min). Further, in vivo protein-binding assay ascribed 1.20-fold increase in the uptake of KS PLGA-TPGS NPs through the alveolar macrophage (AM). The studies, therefore, could provide another useful tool for successful development of KS MPs and NPs.

  4. Detection of kanamycin and gentamicin residues in animal-derived food using IgY antibody based ic-ELISA and FPIA.

    PubMed

    Li, Cui; Zhang, Yaoyao; Eremin, Sergei A; Yakup, Omar; Yao, Gang; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2017-07-15

    Our aim in this study is to show that IgY antibody based immunoassays could be used to detect antibiotic residues in animal-derived food. Briefly, full antigens of gentamicin (Gent) and kanamycin (Kana) were used to immunize the laying chickens to prepare IgY antibodies. Then, these antibodies were evaluated by FPIA and ic-ELISA to detect Gent/Kana in animal-derived samples. The IC 50 of FPIA and ic-ELISA based anti-Gent IgY were 7.70±0.6μg/mL and 0.32±0.06μg/mL, respectively. The IC 50 of FPIA and ic-ELISA based anti-Kana IgY were 7.97±0.9μg/mL and 0.15±0.01μg/mL. The limits of detection (LOD, IC 10 ) for FPIA based anti-Gent/Kana IgY were 0.17 and 0.007μg/mL, respectively. The LOD for ic-ELISA were both 0.001μg/mL. These results indicated that the ic-ELISA might more suitable for antibiotic residues detection than FPIA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of ColE1-Like Plasmids and Kanamycin Resistance Genes in Salmonella enterica Serovars ▿

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chin-Yi; Lindsey, Rebecca L.; Strobaugh, Terence P.; Frye, Jonathan G.; Meinersmann, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Multi-antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella enterica strains frequently carry resistance genes on plasmids. Recent studies focus heavily on large conjugative plasmids, and the role that small plasmids play in resistance gene transfer is largely unknown. To expand our previous studies in assessing the prevalence of the isolates harboring ColE1-like plasmids carrying the aph gene responsible for kanamycin resistance (Kanr) phenotypes, 102 Kanr Salmonella isolates collected through the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) in 2005 were screened by PCR using ColE1 primer sets. Thirty isolates were found to be positive for ColE1-like replicon. Plasmids from 23 isolates were able to propagate in Escherichia coli and were subjected to further characterization. Restriction mapping revealed three major plasmid groups found in three or more isolates, with each group consisting of two to three subtypes. The aph genes from the Kanr Salmonella isolates were amplified by PCR, sequenced, and showed four different aph(3′)-I genes. The distribution of the ColE1 plasmid groups in association with the aph gene, Salmonella serovar, and isolate source demonstrated a strong linkage of the plasmid with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104. Due to their high copy number and mobility, the ColE1-like plasmids may play a critical role in transmission of antibiotic resistance genes among enteric pathogens, and these findings warrant a close monitoring of this plasmid incompatibility group. PMID:20693446

  6. Central Nervous Activity upon Systemic Salicylate Application in Animals with Kanamycin-Induced Hearing Loss - A Manganese-Enhanced MRI (MEMRI) Study

    PubMed Central

    Gröschel, Moritz; Götze, Romy; Müller, Susanne; Ernst, Arne; Basta, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of systemic salicylate on central auditory and non-auditory structures in mice. Since cochlear hair cells are known to be one major target of salicylate, cochlear effects were reduced by using kanamycin to remove or impair hair cells. Neuronal brain activity was measured using the non-invasive manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging technique. For all brain structures investigated, calcium-related neuronal activity was increased following systemic application of a sodium salicylate solution: probably due to neuronal hyperactivity. In addition, it was shown that the central effect of salicylate was not limited to the auditory system. A general alteration of calcium-related activity was indicated by an increase in manganese accumulation in the preoptic area of the anterior hypothalamus, as well as in the amygdala. The present data suggest that salicylate-induced activity changes in the auditory system differ from those shown in studies of noise trauma. Since salicylate action is reversible, central pharmacological effects of salicylate compared to those of (permanent) noise-induced hearing impairment and tinnitus might induce different pathophysiologies. These should therefore, be treated as different causes with the same symptoms. PMID:27078034

  7. Kanamycin Sulphate Loaded PLGA-Vitamin-E-TPGS Long Circulating Nanoparticles Using Combined Coating of PEG and Water-Soluble Chitosan

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Sanaul

    2017-01-01

    Kanamycin sulphate (KS) is a Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein synthesis inhibitor. Due to its intense hydrophilicity, KS is cleared from the body within 8 h. KS has a very short plasma half-life (2.5 h). KS is used in high concentrations to reach the therapeutic levels in plasma, which results in serious nephrotoxicity/ototoxicity. To overcome aforementioned limitations, the current study aimed to develop KS loaded PLGA-Vitamin-E-TPGS nanoparticles (KS-PLGA-TPGS NPs), to act as an efficient carrier for controlled delivery of KS. To achieve a substantial extension in blood circulation, a combined design, affixation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to KS-PLGA-TPGS NPs and adsorption of water-soluble chitosan (WSC) (cationic deacetylated chitin) to particle surface, was raised for surface modification of NPs. Surface modified NPs (KS-PEG-WSC NPs) were prepared to provide controlled delivery and circulate in the bloodstream for an extended period of time, thus minimizing dosing frequency. In vivo pharmacokinetics and in vivo biodistribution following intramuscular administration were investigated. NPs surface charge was close to neutral +3.61 mV and significantly affected by the WSC coating. KS-PEG-WSC NPs presented striking prolongation in blood circulation, reduced protein binding, and long drew-out the blood circulation half-life with resultant reduced kidney sequestration vis-à-vis KS-PLGA-TPGS NPs. The studies, therefore, indicate the successful formulation development of KS-PEG-WSC NPs with reduced frequency of dosing of KS indicating low incidence of nephrotoxicity/ototoxicity. PMID:28352475

  8. Isolation and characterization of two novel groups of kanamycin-resistance ColE1-like plasmids in Salmonella enterica serotypes from food animals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Yi; Strobaugh, Terence P; Nguyen, Ly-Huong T; Abley, Melanie; Lindsey, Rebecca L; Jackson, Charlene R

    2018-01-01

    While antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica is mainly attributed to large plasmids, small plasmids may also harbor antimicrobial resistance genes. Previously, three major groups of ColE1-like plasmids conferring kanamycin-resistance (KanR) in various S. enterica serotypes from diagnostic samples of human or animals were reported. In this study, over 200 KanR S. enterica isolates from slaughter samples, collected in 2010 and 2011 as a part of the animal arm of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System, were screened for the presence of ColE1-like plasmids. Twenty-three KanR ColE1-like plasmids were successfully isolated. Restriction fragment mapping revealed five major plasmid groups with subgroups, including two new groups, X (n = 3) and Y/Y2/Y3 (n = 4), in addition to the previously identified groups A (n = 7), B (n = 6), and C/C3 (n = 3). Nearly 75% of the plasmid-carrying isolates were from turkey and included all the isolates carrying X and Y plasmids. All group X plasmids were from serotype Hadar. Serotype Senftenberg carried all the group Y plasmids and one group B plasmid. All Typhimurium isolates (n = 4) carried group A plasmids, while Newport isolates (n = 3) each carried a different plasmid group (A, B, or C). The presence of the selection bias in the NARMS strain collection prevents interpretation of findings at the population level. However, this study demonstrated that KanR ColE1-like plasmids are widely distributed among different S. enterica serotypes in the NARMS isolates and may play a role in dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes.

  9. Isolation and characterization of two novel groups of kanamycin-resistance ColE1-like plasmids in Salmonella enterica serotypes from food animals

    PubMed Central

    Strobaugh, Terence P.; Nguyen, Ly-Huong T.; Abley, Melanie; Lindsey, Rebecca L.; Jackson, Charlene R.

    2018-01-01

    While antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica is mainly attributed to large plasmids, small plasmids may also harbor antimicrobial resistance genes. Previously, three major groups of ColE1-like plasmids conferring kanamycin-resistance (KanR) in various S. enterica serotypes from diagnostic samples of human or animals were reported. In this study, over 200 KanR S. enterica isolates from slaughter samples, collected in 2010 and 2011 as a part of the animal arm of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System, were screened for the presence of ColE1-like plasmids. Twenty-three KanR ColE1-like plasmids were successfully isolated. Restriction fragment mapping revealed five major plasmid groups with subgroups, including two new groups, X (n = 3) and Y/Y2/Y3 (n = 4), in addition to the previously identified groups A (n = 7), B (n = 6), and C/C3 (n = 3). Nearly 75% of the plasmid-carrying isolates were from turkey and included all the isolates carrying X and Y plasmids. All group X plasmids were from serotype Hadar. Serotype Senftenberg carried all the group Y plasmids and one group B plasmid. All Typhimurium isolates (n = 4) carried group A plasmids, while Newport isolates (n = 3) each carried a different plasmid group (A, B, or C). The presence of the selection bias in the NARMS strain collection prevents interpretation of findings at the population level. However, this study demonstrated that KanR ColE1-like plasmids are widely distributed among different S. enterica serotypes in the NARMS isolates and may play a role in dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes. PMID:29513730

  10. Enzyme- and label-free electrochemical aptasensor for kanamycin detection based on double stir bar-assisted toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction for dual-signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Hong, Feng; Chen, Xixue; Cao, Yuting; Dong, Youren; Wu, Dazhen; Hu, Futao; Gan, Ning

    2018-07-30

    It is critically important to detect antibiotic residues for monitoring food safety. In this study, an enzyme- and label-free electrochemical aptasensor for antibiotics, with kanamycin (Kana) as a typical analyte, was developed based on a double stir bar-assisted toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction (dSB-TMSDR) for dual-signal amplification. First, we modified two gold electrodes (E-1 and E-2) with different DNA probes (S1/S2 hybrid probe in E-1 and DNA fuel strand S3 in E-2). In the presence of Kana, an S1/S2 probe can be disassembled from E-1 to form an S2/Kana complex in supernatant. The S2/Kana could react with S3 on E-2 to form S2/S3 hybrid and release Kana through TMSDR. After then, the target recycling was triggered. Subsequently, the formed S2/S3 hybrid can also trigger a hybridization chain reaction (HCR). Consequently, the dual-signal amplification strategy was established, which resulted in many long dsDNA chains on E-2. The chains can associate with methylene blue (MB) as redox probes to produce a current response for the quantification of Kana. The assay exhibited high sensitivity and specificity with a detection limit at 16 fM Kana due to the dual-signal amplification. The double stir bars system can both increase phase separation and prevent leakage of DNA fuel to reduce background interference. Moreover, it allows flexible sequence design of the TMSDR probes. The assay was successfully employed to detect Kana residues in food and showed potential application value in food safety detection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Selection of genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis upregulated during residence in lungs of infected mice.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Vikas; Jain, Anamika; Srivastava, Brahm S; Srivastava, Ranjana

    2008-05-01

    In sequel to previous report [Srivastava V, Rouanet C, Srivastava R, Ramalingam B, Locht C, Srivastava BS. Macrophage-specific Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes: identification by green fluorescent protein and kanamycin resistance selection. Microbiology 2007;153:659-66], the genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis upregulated during residence in lungs of infected mice were identified in an in vivo expression system based on kanamycin resistance. A promoter library of M. tuberculosis was constructed in a promoter trap shuttle vector pLL192 containing an artificial bicistronic operon composed of promoterless green fluorescent protein gene followed by kanamycin resistance gene. The library was introduced in M. bovis BCG and then infected in mice by intravenous route. Mice were treated twice daily with 40 mg/kg dose of kanamycin by intramuscular route for 21 days. Recombinant BCG recovered from the lungs were reinfected in mice to enrich clones surviving kanamycin treatment in the lung but sensitive to killing by kanamycin in vitro. After nucleotide sequencing of inserts from these clones, 20 genes belonging to fatty acids metabolism, membrane transport, nitric oxide defence and PE_PGRS/PPE family were identified. Real-time PCR analysis using RNA isolated from M. tuberculosis grown in vitro and from the lungs, confirmed upregulation of genes from 2 to 20-fold in vivo compared to growth in vitro. Several of these select 20 genes were also found upregulated ex vivo in macrophage-like cell line J774A.1, thus, suggesting a correlation in mycobacterial gene expression between ex vivo and in vivo conditions.

  12. Transformation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Michelmore, R; Marsh, E; Seely, S; Landry, B

    1987-12-01

    Lactuca sativa can be routinely transformed using Ti plasmids of Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing a chimeric kanamycin resistance gene (NOS.NPTII.NOS). Critical experimental variables were plant genotype, bacterial concentration, presence of a nurse culture and timing of transfers between tissue culture media. Transformation was confirmed by the ability to callus and root in the presence of kanamycin, nopaline production, and by hybridization in Southern blots. Transformation has been achieved with several Ti vectors. Several hundred transformed plants have been regenerated. Kanamycin resistance was inherited monogenically. Homozygotes can be selected by growing R2 seedlings on media containing G418.

  13. [Construction and characterization of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 ppk- deleted strain].

    PubMed

    Han, Peng; Sun, Qi; Zhao, Suhui; Zhang, Qiwei; Wan, Chengsong

    2014-06-01

    To construct enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157: H7 ppk gene deletion strains and study its biological characteristics. The gene fragment of kanamycin resistance was amplified using a pair of homologous arm primers whose 5' and 3' ends were homologous with ppk gene and kanamycin resistance gene, respectively. EHEC O157: H7 EDL933w competent strains were prepared and transformed via electroporation with the amplification products. The ppk gene was replaced by kanamycin resistance gene using pKD46-mediated Red recombination system. The recombinant strain was confirmed by PCR and sequencing, and its morphology, growth ability and adhesion were assessed using Gram staining, OD600 value and Giemsa staining. We established a ppk-deleted EHEC O157:H7 EDL933w strain with kanamycin resistance and compared the biological characteristics of the wild-type and mutant strains, which may facilitate further study of the regulatory mechanism of ppk gene.

  14. Highly sensitive aptasensor based on synergetic catalysis activity of MoS2-Au-HE composite using cDNA-Au-GOD for signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Song, Hai-Yan; Kang, Tian-Fang; Lu, Li-Ping; Cheng, Shui-Yuan

    2017-03-01

    Single or few-layer nanosheets of MoS 2 (MoS 2 nanosheets) and a composite composed of MoS 2 nanosheets, Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) and hemin (HE) (denoted as MoS 2 -Au-HE) were prepared. The composites possessed high synergetic catalysis activity towards the electroreduction of hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, glucose oxidase (GOD) and AuNPs were used as marker of the complementary DNA (cDNA) strand of kanamycin aptamer to prepare a conjugate (reffered as cDNA-Au-GOD) that was designed as the signal probe. Both cDNA-Au-GOD and MoS 2 -Au-HE were applied to fabricate aptasensor for kanamycin. MoS 2 -Au-HE acted as solid platform for kanamycin aptamer and signal transmitters. AuNPs were employed as the supporter of cDNA and GOD which catalyze dissolved oxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide in the presence of glucose. Then cathodic peak current of H 2 O 2 was recorded by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The electrochemical reduction of H 2 O 2 was catalyzed by MoS 2 -Au-HE that was modified onto the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The cathodic peak current of H 2 O 2 was highly linearly decreased with an increase of kanamycin concentrations from 1.0ng/L to 1.0×10 5 ng/L, with a detection limit of 0.8ng/L. This aptasensor can be used to detect kanamycin in milk with high specificity, sensitivity and selectivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Genomic Analysis Reveals Distinct Concentration-Dependent Evolutionary Trajectories for Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Mogre, Aalap; Sengupta, Titas; Veetil, Reshma T.; Ravi, Preethi; Seshasayee, Aswin Sai Narain

    2014-01-01

    Evolution of bacteria under sublethal concentrations of antibiotics represents a trade-off between growth and resistance to the antibiotic. To understand this trade-off, we performed in vitro evolution of laboratory Escherichia coli under sublethal concentrations of the aminoglycoside kanamycin over short time durations. We report that fixation of less costly kanamycin-resistant mutants occurred earlier in populations growing at lower sublethal concentration of the antibiotic, compared with those growing at higher sublethal concentrations; in the latter, resistant mutants with a significant growth defect persisted longer. Using deep sequencing, we identified kanamycin resistance-conferring mutations, which were costly or not in terms of growth in the absence of the antibiotic. Multiple mutations in the C-terminal end of domain IV of the translation elongation factor EF-G provided low-cost resistance to kanamycin. Despite targeting the same or adjacent residues of the protein, these mutants differed from each other in the levels of resistance they provided. Analysis of one of these mutations showed that it has little defect in growth or in synthesis of green fluorescent protein (GFP) from an inducible plasmid in the absence of the antibiotic. A second class of mutations, recovered only during evolution in higher sublethal concentrations of the antibiotic, deleted the C-terminal end of the ATP synthase shaft. This mutation confers basal-level resistance to kanamycin while showing a strong growth defect in the absence of the antibiotic. In conclusion, the early dynamics of the development of resistance to an aminoglycoside antibiotic is dependent on the levels of stress (concentration) imposed by the antibiotic, with the evolution of less costly variants only a matter of time. PMID:25281544

  16. DNA-aptamers binding aminoglycoside antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Nikolaus, Nadia; Strehlitz, Beate

    2014-02-21

    Aptamers are short, single stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotides that are able to bind specifically and with high affinity to their non-nucleic acid target molecules. This binding reaction enables their application as biorecognition elements in biosensors and assays. As antibiotic residues pose a problem contributing to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens and thereby reducing the effectiveness of the drug to fight human infections, we selected aptamers targeted against the aminoglycoside antibiotic kanamycin A with the aim of constructing a robust and functional assay that can be used for water analysis. With this work we show that aptamers that were derived from a Capture-SELEX procedure targeting against kanamycin A also display binding to related aminoglycoside antibiotics. The binding patterns differ among all tested aptamers so that there are highly substance specific aptamers and more group specific aptamers binding to a different variety of aminoglycoside antibiotics. Also the region of the aminoglycoside antibiotics responsible for aptamer binding can be estimated. Affinities of the different aptamers for their target substance, kanamycin A, are measured with different approaches and are in the micromolar range. Finally, the proof of principle of an assay for detection of kanamycin A in a real water sample is given.

  17. Unusual regioversatility of acetyltransferase Eis, a cause of drug resistance in XDR-TB

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wenjing; Biswas, Tapan; Porter, Vanessa R.

    2011-09-06

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) is a serious global threat. Aminoglycoside antibiotics are used as a last resort to treat XDR-TB. Resistance to the aminoglycoside kanamycin is a hallmark of XDR-TB. Here, we reveal the function and structure of the mycobacterial protein Eis responsible for resistance to kanamycin in a significant fraction of kanamycin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates. We demonstrate that Eis has an unprecedented ability to acetylate multiple amines of many aminoglycosides. Structural and mutagenesis studies of Eis indicate that its acetylation mechanism is enabled by a complex tripartite fold that includes two generalmore » control non-derepressible 5 (GCN5)-related N-acetyltransferase regions. An intricate negatively charged substrate-binding pocket of Eis is a potential target of new antitubercular drugs expected to overcome aminoglycoside resistance.« less

  18. Biosynthesis of Enterobacterial Common Antigen: The ECA-Trace Phenotype of Salmonella Typhimurium and The Role of the rfe Gene in 08 Side-Chain Synthesis in Escherichia Coli

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-18

    malachite green, 2mg/ml; erythromycin, 2mg/ml; bacitracin, 20mg/ml; streptomycin, 50mg/ml; crystal violet, 100mg/ml; novobiocin, Smg/ml; rifamycin...cephalosporin C, ISug/ml; actinomycin D, 37Sug/ml; kanamycin, S.6ug/ml; chlorotetracycline, 3.8ug/ml; vancomycin, 900ug/ml; malachite green, 60ug...carbenicillin; Ceph, cephalosporin C; AcID, actinomycin D; ((an, kanamycin; Ctet, chlorotetracycline; Van, vancomycin; MalG, malachite green; Eryth

  19. A Lactuca universal hybridizer, and its use in creation of fertile interspecific somatic hybrids.

    PubMed

    Chupeau, M C; Maisonneuve, B; Bellec, Y; Chupeau, Y

    1994-10-28

    A Lactuca sativa cv. Ardente line heterozygous for a gene encoding resistance to kanamycin, a positive and dominant trait, was crossed with cv. Girelle, which is heterozygous for a recessive albinism marker. The resulting seeds yielded 25% albino seedlings, of which 50% were also resistant to kanamycin. Such plantlets (KR, a) grown in vitro were used for preparation of universal hybridizer protoplasts, since green buds that can develop on kanamycin containing-medium should result from fusion with any wild-type protoplast. To test the practicability of this selection scheme, we fused L. sativa KR, a protoplasts with protoplasts derived from various wild Lactuca as well as various other related species. Protoplast-derived cell colonies were selected for resistance to kanamycin at the regeneration stage. Green buds were regenerated after fusion with protoplasts of L. tatarica and of L. perennis. So far, 9 interspecific hybrid plants have been characterized morphologically. In addition, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis with selected primers confirmed that these plants are indeed interspecific hybrids. Some plants are female-fertile and production of backcross progenies with L. sativa is in progress. Since many desirable traits such as resistances to viruses, bacteria and fungi (Bremia lactucae) have been characterized in wild Lactuca species, the use of somatic hybridization in breeding programmes now appears a practical possibility.

  20. Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    PubMed

    Petri, César; Alburquerque, Nuria; Burgos, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated stable transformation of whole leaf explants of the apricot (Prunus armeniaca) cultivars 'Helena' and 'Canino' is described. Regenerated buds were selected using a two-step selection strategy with paromomycin sulfate and transferred to bud multiplication medium 1 week after they were detected for optimal survival. After buds were transferred to bud multiplication medium, antibiotic was changed to kanamycin and concentration increased gradually at each transfer to fresh medium in order to eliminate possible escapes and chimeras. Transformation efficiency, based on PCR analysis of individual putative transformed shoots from independent lines, was 5.6%. Green and healthy buds, surviving high kanamycin concentration, were transferred to shoot multiplication medium where they elongated in shoots and proliferated. Elongated transgenic shoots were rooted in a medium containing 70 μM kanamycin. Rooted plants were acclimatized following standard procedures. This constitutes the only transformation protocol described for apricot clonal tissues and one of the few of Prunus.

  1. [Antibacterial prevention of suppurative complications after operations on the large intestine].

    PubMed

    Kuzin, M I; Pomelov, V S; Vandiaev, G K; Ialgashev, T Ia; Blatun, L A

    1983-05-01

    The data on comparative study of complications after operations on the large intestine are presented. During the preoperative period, 62 patients of the control group were treated with phthalylsulfathiazole, nevigramon and nystatin. Thirty-nine patients of the test group were treated with metronidazole and kanamycin monosulfate. Kanamycin monosulfate was used 3 days before the operation in a dose of 0.5 g orally 4 times a day whereas metronidazole in a dose of 0.5 g 3 times a day. The last doses of the drugs were administered 4-5 hours before the operation. After the operations the patients were treated with kanamycin sulfate for 3-5 days in a daily dose of 2 g intramuscularly. The number of the postoperative suppurative complications decreased from 22 to 5 per cent. No lethal outcomes were registered in the test group. The number of lethal outcomes in the control group amounted to 8 per cent.

  2. [Joint action of aminoglycoside antibiotics and nitrofurans with bile on bacteria of the genus Proteus].

    PubMed

    Sytnik, I A; Puzakova, E V

    1980-06-01

    The combined effect of monomycin, kanamycin, neomycin and nitrofurans, such as furacillin, furagin, nitrofurantoin and furazolidone with bovine bile was studied on 36 strains of Proteus mirabilis and 14 strains of Proteus vulgaris. It was found that sub-bacteriostatic doses of the bile significantly increased the antiproteus activity of the aminoglycoside antibiotics and nitrofurans. The combinations of the bile with monomycin and kanamycin and the bile with furazolidone and nitrofurantoin proved to be most effective. Clinical trials of the drugs in treatment of inflammatory diseases of the biliferous system of the Proteus etiology are recommended.

  3. Wild-type MIC distributions for aminoglycoside and cyclic polypeptide antibiotics used for treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections.

    PubMed

    Juréen, P; Angeby, K; Sturegård, E; Chryssanthou, E; Giske, C G; Werngren, J; Nordvall, M; Johansson, A; Kahlmeter, G; Hoffner, S; Schön, T

    2010-05-01

    The aminoglycosides and cyclic polypeptides are essential drugs in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, underscoring the need for accurate and reproducible drug susceptibility testing (DST). The epidemiological cutoff value (ECOFF) separating wild-type susceptible strains from non-wild-type strains is an important but rarely used tool for indicating susceptibility breakpoints against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this study, we established wild-type MIC distributions on Middlebrook 7H10 medium for amikacin, kanamycin, streptomycin, capreomycin, and viomycin using 90 consecutive clinical isolates and 21 resistant strains. Overall, the MIC variation between and within runs did not exceed +/-1 MIC dilution step, and validation of MIC values in Bactec 960 MGIT demonstrated good agreement. Tentative ECOFFs defining the wild type were established for all investigated drugs, including amikacin and viomycin, which currently lack susceptibility breakpoints for 7H10. Five out of seven amikacin- and kanamycin-resistant isolates were classified as susceptible to capreomycin according to the current critical concentration (10 mg/liter) but were non-wild type according to the ECOFF (4 mg/liter), suggesting that the critical concentration may be too high. All amikacin- and kanamycin-resistant isolates were clearly below the ECOFF for viomycin, and two of them were below the ECOFF for streptomycin, indicating that these two drugs may be considered for treatment of amikacin-resistant strains. Pharmacodynamic indices (peak serum concentration [Cmax]/MIC) were more favorable for amikacin and viomycin compared to kanamycin and capreomycin. In conclusion, our data emphasize the importance of establishing wild-type MIC distributions for improving the quality of drug susceptibility testing against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  4. Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography of Aminoglycosides.

    PubMed

    Holzgrabe, Ulrike; Schmitt, Stefanie; Wienen, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The components of the aminoglycosides, e.g., gentamicin, sisomicin, netilmicin, kanamycin, amikacin, and tobramycin, and related impurities of these antibiotics can be separated by means of micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). Derivatization with o-phthaldialdehyde and thioglycolic acid is found to be appropriate for these antibiotics. The background electrolyte was composed of sodium tetraborate (100 mM), sodium deoxycholate (20 mM), and β-cyclodextrin (15 mM) having a pH value of 10.0. This method is valid for evaluation of gentamicin, kanamycin, and tobramycin. It has to be adopted for amikacin, paromomycin, neomycin, and netilmicin.

  5. Two dose Augmentin treatment of acute gonorrhoea in men.

    PubMed Central

    Lim, K B; Rajan, V S; Giam, Y C; Lui, E O; Sng, E H; Yeo, K L

    1984-01-01

    We studied 192 men with acute gonococcal urethritis, 97 of whom received two oral doses of Augmentin (amoxycillin 3 g and clavulanic acid 250 mg) separated by a four hour interval; the remaining 95 received 2 g kanamycin in a single intramuscular injection. Of the patients treated with Augmentin, 93 (95.9%) were cured, which was significantly more than the 83 (87.4%) patients treated with kanamycin. Augmentin was equally effective in the treatment of penicillinase producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG) and non-PPNG infections, the cure rates for which were 96.6% and 95.6% respectively. PMID:6428699

  6. Wild-Type MIC Distributions for Aminoglycoside and Cyclic Polypeptide Antibiotics Used for Treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infections▿

    PubMed Central

    Juréen, P.; Ängeby, K.; Sturegård, E.; Chryssanthou, E.; Giske, C. G.; Werngren, J.; Nordvall, M.; Johansson, A.; Kahlmeter, G.; Hoffner, S.; Schön, T.

    2010-01-01

    The aminoglycosides and cyclic polypeptides are essential drugs in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, underscoring the need for accurate and reproducible drug susceptibility testing (DST). The epidemiological cutoff value (ECOFF) separating wild-type susceptible strains from non-wild-type strains is an important but rarely used tool for indicating susceptibility breakpoints against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this study, we established wild-type MIC distributions on Middlebrook 7H10 medium for amikacin, kanamycin, streptomycin, capreomycin, and viomycin using 90 consecutive clinical isolates and 21 resistant strains. Overall, the MIC variation between and within runs did not exceed ±1 MIC dilution step, and validation of MIC values in Bactec 960 MGIT demonstrated good agreement. Tentative ECOFFs defining the wild type were established for all investigated drugs, including amikacin and viomycin, which currently lack susceptibility breakpoints for 7H10. Five out of seven amikacin- and kanamycin-resistant isolates were classified as susceptible to capreomycin according to the current critical concentration (10 mg/liter) but were non-wild type according to the ECOFF (4 mg/liter), suggesting that the critical concentration may be too high. All amikacin- and kanamycin-resistant isolates were clearly below the ECOFF for viomycin, and two of them were below the ECOFF for streptomycin, indicating that these two drugs may be considered for treatment of amikacin-resistant strains. Pharmacodynamic indices (peak serum concentration [Cmax]/MIC) were more favorable for amikacin and viomycin compared to kanamycin and capreomycin. In conclusion, our data emphasize the importance of establishing wild-type MIC distributions for improving the quality of drug susceptibility testing against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:20237102

  7. Bacteriophages Isolated from Chicken Meat and the Horizontal Transfer of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes

    PubMed Central

    Shousha, Amira; Awaiwanont, Nattakarn; Sofka, Dmitrij; Smulders, Frans J. M.; Paulsen, Peter; Szostak, Michael P.; Humphrey, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in microbes poses a global and increasing threat to public health. The horizontal transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes was thought to be due largely to conjugative plasmids or transposons, with only a minor part being played by transduction through bacteriophages. However, whole-genome sequencing has recently shown that the latter mechanism could be highly important in the exchange of antimicrobial resistance genes between microorganisms and environments. The transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes by phages could underlie the origin of resistant bacteria found in food. We show that chicken meat carries a number of phages capable of transferring antimicrobial resistance. Of 243 phages randomly isolated from chicken meat, about a quarter (24.7%) were able to transduce resistance to one or more of the five antimicrobials tested into Escherichia coli ATCC 13706 (DSM 12242). Resistance to kanamycin was transduced the most often, followed by that to chloramphenicol, with four phages transducing tetracycline resistance and three transducing ampicillin resistance. Phages able to transduce antimicrobial resistance were isolated from 44% of the samples of chicken meat that we tested. The statistically significant (P = 0.01) relationship between the presence of phages transducing kanamycin resistance and E. coli isolates resistant to this antibiotic suggests that transduction may be an important mechanism for transferring kanamycin resistance to E. coli. It appears that the transduction of resistance to certain antimicrobials, e.g., kanamycin, not only is widely distributed in E. coli isolates found on meat but also could represent a major mechanism for resistance transfer. The result is of high importance for animal and human health. PMID:25934615

  8. Transformation of pickling cucumber with chitinase-encoding genes using Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Raharjo, S H; Hernandez, M O; Zhang, Y Y; Punja, Z K

    1996-04-01

    Transformation of cucumber cv. Endeavor was attempted using three Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains (a supervirulent leucinopine type, an octopine type and a nopaline type), each harbouring one of three binary vectors which contained an acidic chitinase gene from petunia, and basic chitinase genes from tobacco and bean, respectively, driven by the CaMV 35S promoter. Petiole explants were inoculated with a bacterial suspension (10(8) cells·ml(-1)), cocultivated for 48-96 h and placed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 5.0 μM each of 2,4-D and BA, 50 mg·l(-1) kanamycin and 500 mg·l(-1) carbenicillin. The frequency of embryogenic callus formation ranged from 0 to 12%, depending on strains/vectors used and length of cocultivation, with the highest being obtained using the leucinopine strain with petunia acidic chitinase gene. The kanamycin-resistant embryogenic calli were used to initiate suspension cultures (in liquid MS medium with 1.0/1.0 μM 2,4-D/BA, 50 mg·l(-1) kanamycin) for multiplication of embryogenic cell aggregates. Upon plating of cell aggregates onto solid MS medium with 1.0/1.0 μM NAA/BA and 50 mg·l(-1) kanamycin, calli continued to grow and later differentiated into plantlets. Transformation by the leucinopine strain and all three vectors was confirmed by PCR amplification of the NPT II gene in transgenic calli and plants, in addition to Southern analysis. Expression of the acidic chitinase gene (from petunia) and both basic chitinase genes (from tobacco and bean) in different transgenic cucumber lines was confirmed by Western analyses.

  9. Transport across the outer membrane porin of mycolic acid containing actinomycetales: Nocardia farcinica.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pratik Raj; Bajaj, Harsha; Benz, Roland; Winterhalter, Mathias; Mahendran, Kozhinjampara R

    2015-02-01

    The role of the outer-membrane channel from a mycolic acid containing Gram-positive bacteria Nocardia farcinica, which forms a hydrophilic pathway across the cell wall, was characterized. Single channel electrophysiology measurements and liposome swelling assays revealed the permeation of hydrophilic solutes including sugars, amino acids and antibiotics. The cation selective N. farcinica channel exhibited strong interaction with the positively charged antibiotics; amikacin and kanamycin, and surprisingly also with the negatively charged ertapenem. Voltage dependent kinetics of amikacin and kanamycin interactions were studied to distinguish binding from translocation. Moreover, the importance of charged residues inside the channel was investigated using mutational studies that revealed rate limiting interactions during the permeation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Metabolomic approach to optimizing and evaluating antibiotic treatment in the axenic culture of cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme.

    PubMed

    Han, Pei-pei; Jia, Shi-ru; Sun, Ying; Tan, Zhi-lei; Zhong, Cheng; Dai, Yu-jie; Tan, Ning; Shen, Shi-gang

    2014-09-01

    The application of antibiotic treatment with assistance of metabolomic approach in axenic isolation of cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme was investigated. Seven antibiotics were tested at 1-100 mg L(-1), and order of tolerance of N. flagelliforme cells was obtained as kanamycin > ampicillin, tetracycline > chloromycetin, gentamicin > spectinomycin > streptomycin. Four antibiotics were selected based on differences in antibiotic sensitivity of N. flagelliforme and associated bacteria, and their effects on N. flagelliforme cells including the changes of metabolic activity with antibiotics and the metabolic recovery after removal were assessed by a metabolomic approach based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with multivariate analysis. The results showed that antibiotic treatment had affected cell metabolism as antibiotics treated cells were metabolically distinct from control cells, but the metabolic activity would be recovered via eliminating antibiotics and the sequence of metabolic recovery time needed was spectinomycin, gentamicin > ampicillin > kanamycin. The procedures of antibiotic treatment have been accordingly optimized as a consecutive treatment starting with spectinomycin, then gentamicin, ampicillin and lastly kanamycin, and proved to be highly effective in eliminating the bacteria as examined by agar plating method and light microscope examination. Our work presented a strategy to obtain axenic culture of N. flagelliforme and provided a method for evaluating and optimizing cyanobacteria purification process through diagnosing target species cellular state.

  11. Isolation and identification of Salmonella from curry samples and its sensitivity to commercial antibiotics and aqueous extracts of Camelia sinensis (L.) and Trachyspermum ammi (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Gunasegaran, Thanes; Rathinam, Xavier; Kasi, Marimuthu; Sathasivam, Kathiresan; Sreenivasan, Sasidharan; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan

    2011-01-01

    Objective To isolate Salmonella from curry samples and to evaluate the drug sensitivity of the food-borne Salmonella and its susceptibility to specific plant extracts. Methods Salmonella was isolated from the curry samples by standard microbiological methods and was confirmed by biochemical tests. The antibiotic susceptibility test was conducted by disc diffusion method using commercially available antibiotics such as ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, and penicillin. In addition, the susceptibility of the food-borne Salmonella was also evaluated against the aqueous extracts of Camelia sinensis (L.) Theaceae (tea leaves) and the Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Apiaceae ( ajwain or omum seeds). Results Out of fifty curry samples, only seven samples were identified to have Salmonella contamination. The Salmonella isolates showed a significant drug resistance pattern except for kanamycin. The plant extracts showed a considerable antibacterial activity against the isolates, indicating the presence of antimicrobial principle which can be exploited after complete pharmacological investigations. Conclusions The present study demonstrates the occurrence of Salmonella in the curry samples, and shows significant drug resistance against most of the commercially available antibiotics, except kanamycin. Antimicrobial effect of the plant extracts against the food-bone Salmonella suggests that dietary including medicinal herbs would be one strategy to manage food borne pathogens. PMID:23569772

  12. 21 CFR 524.1200b - Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. It is indicated for use in dogs in various eye infections due..., removal of foreign bodies, and intraocular surgery. Instill a few drops into the affected eye every 3... least 48 hours after the eye appears normal. For use only by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian...

  13. 21 CFR 524.1200b - Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. It is indicated for use in dogs in various eye infections due..., removal of foreign bodies, and intraocular surgery. Instill a few drops into the affected eye every 3... least 48 hours after the eye appears normal. For use only by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian...

  14. 21 CFR 520.1204 - Kanamycin, bismuth subcarbonate, activated attapulgite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... No. 000856 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in dogs—(1) Amount. 5 mL of... every 8 hours. Dogs under 10 pounds: 2.5 mL of suspension or 1/2 tablet every 8 hours. A recommended... the associated diarrhea. (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of...

  15. 21 CFR 520.1204 - Kanamycin, bismuth subcarbonate, activated attapulgite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... No. 000856 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in dogs—(1) Amount. 5 mL of... every 8 hours. Dogs under 10 pounds: 2.5 mL of suspension or 1/2 tablet every 8 hours. A recommended... the associated diarrhea. (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of...

  16. 21 CFR 520.1204 - Kanamycin, bismuth subcarbonate, activated attapulgite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... No. 000856 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in dogs—(1) Amount. 5 mL of... every 8 hours. Dogs under 10 pounds: 2.5 mL of suspension or 1/2 tablet every 8 hours. A recommended... the associated diarrhea. (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1204 - Kanamycin, bismuth subcarbonate, activated attapulgite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... No. 000856 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in dogs—(1) Amount. 5 mL of... every 8 hours. Dogs under 10 pounds: 2.5 mL of suspension or 1/2 tablet every 8 hours. A recommended... the associated diarrhea. (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1204 - Kanamycin, bismuth subcarbonate, activated attapulgite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... No. 000856 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in dogs—(1) Amount. 5 mL of... every 8 hours. Dogs under 10 pounds: 2.5 mL of suspension or 1/2 tablet every 8 hours. A recommended... the associated diarrhea. (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of...

  19. Production of herbicide-resistant transgenic Panax ginseng through the introduction of the phosphinothricin acetyl transferase gene and successful soil transfer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y E; Jeong, J H; In, J K; Yang, D C

    2003-02-01

    Herbicide-resistant transgenic Panax ginseng plants were produced by introducing the phosphinothricin acetyl transferase (PAT) gene that confers resistance to the herbicide Basta (bialaphos) through Agrobacterium tumefaciens co-cultivation. Embryogenic callus gathered from cotyledon explants of P. ginseng were pre-treated with 0.5 M sucrose or 0.05 M MgSO(4 )before Agrobacterium infection. This pre-treatment process markedly enhanced the transient expression of the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene. Embryogenic callus was initially cultured on MS medium supplemented with 400 mg/l cefotaxime for 3 weeks and subsequently subcultured five times to a medium containing 25 mg/l kanamycin and 300 mg/l cefotaxime. Somatic embryos formed on the surfaces of kanamycin-resistant callus. Upon development into the cotyledonary stage, these somatic embryos were transferred to a medium containing 50 mg/l kanamycin and 5 mg/l gibberellic acid to induce germination and strong selection. Integration of the transgene into the plants was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and Southern analyses. Transfer of the transgenic ginseng plantlets to soil was successfully accomplished via acclimatization in autoclaved perlite. Not all of the plantlets survived in soil that had not been autoclaved because of fungal infection, particularly in the region between the roots and leaves. Transgenic plants growing in soil were observed to be strongly resistant to Basta application.

  20. Effects of low intensity electromagnetic irradiation of 70.6 and 73 GHz frequencies and antibiotics on energy-dependent proton and potassium ion transport by E. coli.

    PubMed

    Torgomyan, H

    2012-12-01

    The effects of low intensity (flux capacity 0.06 mW/cm2) coherent electromagnetic irradiation (EMI) of 70.6 and 73 GHz frequencies and their combined effects with antibiotics--ceftriaxone or kanamycin (0.4 or 15 microM, correspondingly) on E. coli K12 growth and survival have been reported previously. To further study the effects of EMI and antibiotics and mechanisms, decrease in overall energy (glucose)-dependent H+ and K+ fluxes across the cell membrane was investigated in E. coli. The depression of H+ and K+ fluxes rate was maximally achieved with the 73 GHz frequency. The EMI strengthened the effect of N,N'-dicyclohexycarbodiimide (DCCD, an inhibitor of the F0F1-ATPase). The 73 GHz EMI had more influence on H+ efflux inhibition, whereas 70.6 GHz on K+ influx. Also, EMI strengthened the depressive effects of ceftriaxone and kanamycin on the overall and DCCD-inhibited H+ and K+ fluxes. The 73 GHz EMI strengthened the effect of ceftriaxone on both ions fluxes. Kanamycin depressed H+ efflux more as compared to ceftriaxone, which was also strengthened with EMI. The results of E. coli H+ and K+ transport systems activities depression by irradiation and the irradiation effect on DCCD and antibiotics action indicated the EMI and antibiotics causing primary changes in the bacterial membrane.

  1. The LE1 Bacteriophage Replicates as a Plasmid within Leptospira biflexa: Construction of an L. biflexa-Escherichia coli Shuttle Vector

    PubMed Central

    Girons, Isabelle Saint; Bourhy, Pascale; Ottone, Catherine; Picardeau, Mathieu; Yelton, David; Hendrix, Roger W.; Glaser, Philippe; Charon, Nyles

    2000-01-01

    We have discovered that LE1, one of the plaque-forming phages previously described as lytic for the Leptospira biflexa saprophytic spirochete (I. Saint Girons, D. Margarita, P. Amouriaux, and G. Baranton, Res. Microbiol. 141:1131–1138, 1990), was indeed temperate. LE1 was found to be unusual, as Southern blot analysis indicated that it is one of the few phages to replicate in the prophage state as a circular plasmid. The unavailability of such small endogenous replicons has hindered genetic experimentation in Leptospira. We have developed a shuttle vector with DNA derived from LE1. Random LE1 DNA fragments were cloned into a pGEM 7Zf(+) derivative devoid of most of the bla gene but carrying a kanamycin resistance marker from the gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus (Streptococcus) faecalis. These constructs were transformed into L. biflexa strain Patoc 1 by electroporation, giving rise to kanamycin-resistant transformants. A 2.2-kb fragment from LE1 was responsible for replication of the vector in L. biflexa. However, a larger region including an intact parA gene homologue was necessary for the stability of the shuttle vector. Direct repeats and AT-rich regions characterized the LE1 origin of replication. Our data indicate that the replicon derived from the LE1 leptophage, together with the kanamycin resistance gene, is a promising tool with which to develop the genetics of Leptospira species. PMID:11004167

  2. Metal coated colloidosomes as carriers for an antibiotic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qian; Zhao, Ziyan; Hall, Elizabeth A. H.; Routh, Alexander F.

    2018-06-01

    Colloidosomes are polymer shell microcapsules. They are stable and easy to prepare and have been used to encapsulate drugs for release at specific areas in the body. Traditional polymer shell capsules cannot totally seal drugs, since they are porous and small molecules diffuse through the polymer shell. In this paper, we report a method for encapsulating an antibiotic kanamycin using gold or silver coated colloidosomes. The colloidosomes are impermeable and can be triggered using ultrasound. To investigate the application of the capsules in a biological system, Escherichia Coli (E.coli) was chosen as a model organism. After triggering, the released antibiotic, as well as the metal shell fragments, kill E.coli. Both the silver and gold shells colloidosomes are toxic to this bacterial system and the gold coated colloidosomes can load a higher concentration of kanamycin.

  3. Genetic transformation of Begonia tuberhybrida by Ri rol genes.

    PubMed

    Kiyokawa, S; Kikuchi, Y; Kamada, H; Harada, H

    1996-04-01

    We have developed an Agrobacterium -mediated transformation system for commercial Begonia species. The leaf explants of Begonia semperflorens, Begonia x hiemalis and B. tuberhybrida were inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 harboring a binary vector pBI121 which contains rolA, B and C genes of an agropine type Ri plasmid (pRiA4b). Kanamycin resistant shoots of B. tuberhybrida were obtained on MS agar medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/l NAA, 0.5 mg/l BA, 500 mg/l claforan and 100 mg/l kanamycin. These shoots exhibited GUS activity and Southern analysis showed a single copy insertion into the genome. When the transgenic plants were transferred to soil, they displayed the phenotype specific to the transgenic plants by A. rhizogenes such as dwarfness, delay of flowering, and wrinkled leaves and petals.

  4. Genetic transformation of black walnut (Juglans nigra)

    Treesearch

    Michael J. Bosela; Gurpreet S. Smagh; Charles H. Michler

    2004-01-01

    Disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains with binary vectors carrying transgenes for kanamycin resistance (npt II) and β-glucuronidase (GUS, uidA) were used for the genetic transformation of Eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra) somatic embryos. In total, explants from 16 embryo lines...

  5. Effect of selection agents to Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) callus growth after Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjahril, R.; Jamaluddin, I.; Nadir, M.; Asman; Dungga, N. E.

    2018-05-01

    Genetic transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens requires an efficient selection method for successful progress of transformation. This study aims to determine the concentration and kind of antibiotics and selection agents used during transformation to formulate standard protocol of chrysanthemum in the process of propagating disease resistant Chrysanthemum mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 (pEKB-WD). The experiments were performed by planting chrysanthemum explants leaf cutting (5 mm diameter on NAA medium 2 mg L-1 BAP 2 mg L-1) with addition of Kanamycin: 25, 50, 100, 150 and 200 (mg L-1); Hygromycin: 5, 10, 25, 50 and 75 (mg L-1); Paromomycin: 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 (mg L-1). Experiment was arranged in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Each treatment was repeated five times thus 75 bottles of culture were used; each bottle consists of 5 pieces of leaf cuttings, resulted in total of 375 pieces. The results showed that selection agent had a critical value for Hygromycin 25 mg L-1 and Kanamycin 100 mg L-1 which can make explant experienced necrosis better than Paromomycin. Paromomycin at 100 mg L-1 was only able to kill explant’s periphery. Remained callus stayed fresh more than 50% so that when used as the selection agent could produce more escape cell. The optimum transformation with concentration of 10% Agrobacterium (vol/vol) with 30 minutes co-cultivation can produce more efficient transformed callus. Considering the high price of Hygromycin, it was best to use Kanamycin as selective agents.

  6. Patch-testing for the management of hypersensitivity reactions to second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs: a case report.

    PubMed

    Khan, Samsuddin; Andries, Aristomo; Pherwani, Asha; Saranchuk, Peter; Isaakidis, Petros

    2014-08-15

    The second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs used in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis often cause adverse events, especially in patients co-infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Severe hypersensitivity reactions due to these drugs are rare and there is little published experience to guide their management. A 17-year old Indian female multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patient co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus developed a hypersensitivity reaction after starting second-line anti-tuberculosis treatment in Mumbai, India. The patient was being treated with kanamycin, moxifloxacin, para-aminosalicylic acid, cycloserine, clofazimine, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Twenty-four hours later, the patient developed generalized urticaria, morbilliform rash and fever. All drugs were suspended and the patient was hospitalised for acute management. Skin patch-testing was used to identify drugs that potentially caused the hypersensitivity reaction; results showed a strong reaction to clofazimine, moderate reaction to kanamycin and mild reaction to cycloserine. An interim second-line anti-tuberculosis regimen was prescribed; cycloserine and kanamycin were then re-challenged one-by-one using incremental dosing, an approach that allowed clinicians to re-introduce these drugs promptly and safely. The patient is currently doing well. This is the first case-report of a multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patient co-infected with the human immunodeficiency virus with hypersensitivity reaction to multiple second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. Skin patch-testing and controlled re-challenge can be a useful management strategy in such patients. There is an urgent need for second-line anti-tuberculosis regimens that are more effective, safe and better tolerated.

  7. Lactic Acid Bacteria Improves Peyer's Patch Cell-Mediated Immunoglobulin A and Tight-Junction Expression in a Destructed Gut Microbial Environment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Hwan; Jeung, Woonhee; Choi, Il-Dong; Jeong, Ji-Woong; Lee, Dong Eun; Huh, Chul-Sung; Kim, Geun-Bae; Hong, Seong Soo; Shim, Jae-Jung; Lee, Jung Lyoul; Sim, Jae-Hun; Ahn, Young-Tae

    2016-06-28

    To evaluate the effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on Peyer's patch cells, mice were treated with a high dose of kanamycin to disturb the gut microbial environment. The overarching goal was to explore the potential of LAB for use as a dietary probiotic that buffers the negative consequences of antibiotic treatment. In vitro, LAB stimulated the production of immunoglobulin A (IgA) from isolated Peyer's patch cells. Inflammation-related genes (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-8) were up-regulated in Caco-2 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), while tight-junction-related genes (ZO-1 and occludin) were down-regulated; the effects of LPS on inflammatory gene and tight-junction gene expression were reversed by treatment with LAB. Mice treated with a high dose of kanamycin showed increased serum IgE levels and decreases in serum IgA and fecal IgA levels; the number of Peyer's patch cells decreased with kanamycin treatment. However, subsequent LAB treatment was effective in reducing the serum IgE level and recovering the serum IgA and fecal IgA levels, as well as the number of Peyer's patch cells. In addition, ZO-1 and occludin mRNA levels were up-regulated in the ileum tissues of mice receiving LAB treatment. Lactic acid bacteria can enhance the intestinal immune system by improving the integrity of the intestinal barrier and increasing the production of IgA in Peyer's patches. Lactic acid bacteria should be considered a potential probiotic candidate for improving intestinal immunity, particularly in mitigating the negative consequences of antibiotic use.

  8. Increasing resistant coagulase negative staphylococci in bovine clinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Moniri, R; Dastehgoli, K; Akramian, A

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS) and other bacteria for their resistance to antimicrobial agents approved for the control of pathogens involved in clinical bovine mastitis. This descriptive study was done on 106 milk samples obtained from clinical mastitis in dairy cattle husbandry from April 2006 through August 2006 in Kashan, Iran. From the total of 106 milk samples collected from clinical mastitis, 96 (90.6%) lead to positive culture. Coagulase negative Staphylococci isolated in 51 out of 96 samples (53.1%), Staphylococcus aureus isolated in 21 out of 96 (21.9%), gram negative bacilli isolated in 14 out of 96 (14.6%) and Enterococci isolated in 4 (4.2%). The highest rate of resistant CNS observed to penicillin (56.6%) and the highest rate of sensitivity to enrofloxacin 100%, followed by kanamycin, streptomycin and neomycin, 92.2, 82.3 and 82.3%, respectively. The highest rate of resistance S. aureus exhibited to penicillin (66.6%); while the highest rate of sensitivity showed to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxasole (81%), followed by kanamycin and enrofloxacin both at 76.2%. The highest rate of resistance gram negative bacilli exhibited to ampicillin and erythromycin at 71.4%. Their highest rate of sensitivity observed to enrofloxacin (78.6%), followed by kanamycin, (71.4%). In recent years, CNS is emerging as important minor mastitis pathogens and can be the cause of substantial economic losses. The high resistance rate to penicillin and other antibiotics found in this study emphasize the importance of identification of CNS when a bovine clinical mastitis is present.

  9. Increased Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and rooting efficiencies in canola (Brassica napus L.) from hypocotyl segment explants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardoza, V.; Stewart, C. N.

    2003-01-01

    An efficient protocol for the production of transgenic Brassica napus cv. Westar plants was developed by optimizing two important parameters: preconditioning time and co-cultivation time. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was performed using hypocotyls as explant tissue. Two variants of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-encoding gene--mGFP5-ER and eGFP--both under the constitutive expression of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, were used for the experiments. Optimizing the preconditioning time to 72 h and co-cultivation time with Agrobacterium to 48 h provided the increase in the transformation efficiency from a baseline of 4% to 25%. With mGFP5-ER, the transformation rate was 17% and with eGFP it was 25%. Transgenic shoots were selected on 200 mg/l kanamycin. Rooting efficiency was 100% on half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium with 10 g/l sucrose and 0.5 mg/l indole butyric acid in the presence of kanamycin.

  10. PubMed Central

    Bilodeau, Marcel; Roy, Joseph

    1963-01-01

    This paper describes the results obtained in 200 patients with bronchopulmonary suppurative diseases who received kanamycin aerosol therapy under intermittent positive pressure and in whom bacterial sensitivity study (antibiogram) was favourable. This method of treatment was well tolerated and was practically free of side effects. In most cases the improvement was rapid, was maintained and was often life-saving. The first series contained nine patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and a constant finding of sputum positive for Koch bacillus; four of these became negative after eight weeks of treatment. This suggested that kanamycin aerosol therapy had some effect on the Koch bacillus and that the study should be continued with a much larger group of patients with tuberculous suppurative pulmonary diseases to determine the efficacy of this antibiotic. ImagesFig. 1aFig. 1bFig. 2aFig. 2bFig. 3aFig. 3bFig. 4aFig. 4bFig. 5aFig. 5b PMID:14045345

  11. Adaptation of the neutral bacterial comet assay to assess antimicrobial-mediated DNA double-strand breaks in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    SOLANKY, DIPESH; HAYDEL, SHELLEY E.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the mechanism of action of a natural antibacterial clay mineral mixture, designated CB, by investigating the induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in Escherichia coli. To quantify DNA damage upon exposure to soluble antimicrobial compounds, we modified a bacterial neutral comet assay, which primarily associates the general length of an electrophoresed chromosome, or comet, with the degree of DSB-associated DNA damage. To appropriately account for antimicrobial-mediated strand fragmentation, suitable control reactions consisting of exposures to water, ethanol, kanamycin, and bleomycin were developed and optimized for the assay. Bacterial exposure to the CB clay resulted in significantly longer comet lengths, compared to water and kanamycin exposures, suggesting that the induction of DNA DSBs contributes to the killing activity of this antibacterial clay mineral mixture. The comet assay protocol described herein provides a general technique for evaluating soluble antimicrobial-derived DNA damage and for comparing DNA fragmentation between experimental and control assays. PMID:22940101

  12. Plasmid ColE1 as a Molecular Vehicle for Cloning and Amplification of DNA

    PubMed Central

    Hershfield, Vickers; Boyer, Herbert W.; Yanofsky, Charles; Lovett, Michael A.; Helinski, Donald R.

    1974-01-01

    DNA fragments obtained from EcoRI endonuclease digestion of bacteriophage ϕ80pt190 (trp+) and the plasmid ColE1 were covalently joined with polynucleotide ligase. Transformation of Escherichia coli trp- strains to tryptophan independence with the recombined DNA selected for reconstituted ColE1 plasmids containing the tryptophan operon and the ϕ80 immunity region. Similarly, an EcoRI endonuclease generated fragment of plasmid pSC105 DNA containing the genetic determinant of kanamycin resistance was inserted into the ColE1 plasmid and recovered in E. coli. The plasmids containing the trp operon (ColE1-trp) and the kanamycin resistance gene were maintained under logarithmic growth conditions at a level of 25-30 copies per cell and accumulate to the extent of several hundred copies per cell in the presence of chloramphenicol. Cells carrying the ColE1-trp plasmid determined the production of highly elevated levels of trp operon-specific mRNA and tryptophan biosynthetic enzymes. Images PMID:4610576

  13. [Sensitivity of clinical Proteus strains to antibiotics and their combinations].

    PubMed

    Sheina, E P; Arutcheva, A A

    1978-05-01

    In 1976 isolation of Proteus from wounds of patients with various purulent processes amounted to 14.5 per cent. Serotypes 0-10, 0-3 and H-3 predominated among the isolates. Sensitivity of 35 clinical strains of Proteus to 10 antibiotics, furagin and nevigramone was studied by the method of serial dilutions in liquid media. All the isolates were highly resistant to the antibiotics except gentamicin, furagin and nevigramone, the MIC of which for most of the strains was 3.12, 1.6-3.12 and 6.25-12.5 gamma/ml, respectively. The effect of 14 combinations of chemotherapeutics was also studied. The combinations of gentamicin with carbenicillin, gentamicin with ampicillin and monomycin with ampicillin proved to be most effective against the Proteus strains tested. The following combinations may be of practical value: monomycin + carbenicillin, kanamycin + ampicillin, kanamycin + carbenicillin, ampicillin + furagin, gentamicin + nevigramone. The combinations of carbenicillin with furagin and gentamicin with furagin were also rational.

  14. Low light and low ammonium are key factors for guayule leaf tissue shoot organogenesis and transformation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Niu; Montanez, Belen; Creelman, Robert A; Cornish, Katrina

    2006-02-01

    A new method has been developed for guayule tissue culture and transformation. Guayule leaf explants have a poor survival rate when placed on normal MS medium and under normal culture room light conditions. Low light and low ammonium treatment greatly improved shoot organogenesis and transformation from leaf tissues. Using this method, a 35S promoter driven BAR gene and an ubiquitin-3 promoter driven GUS gene (with intron) have been successfully introduced into guayule. These transgenic guayule plants were resistant to the herbicide ammonium-glufosinate and were positive to GUS staining. Molecular analysis showed the expected band and signal in all GUS positive transformants. The transformation efficiency with glufosinate selection ranged from 3 to 6%. Transformation with a pBIN19-based plasmid containing a NPTII gene and then selection with kanamycin also works well using this method. The ratio of kanamycin-resistant calli to total starting explants reached 50% in some experiments.

  15. Killing of Serratia marcescens biofilms with chloramphenicol.

    PubMed

    Ray, Christopher; Shenoy, Anukul T; Orihuela, Carlos J; González-Juarbe, Norberto

    2017-03-29

    Serratia marcescens is a Gram-negative bacterium with proven resistance to multiple antibiotics and causative of catheter-associated infections. Bacterial colonization of catheters mainly involves the formation of biofilm. The objectives of this study were to explore the susceptibility of S. marcescens biofilms to high doses of common antibiotics and non-antimicrobial agents. Biofilms formed by a clinical isolate of S. marcescens were treated with ceftriaxone, kanamycin, gentamicin, and chloramphenicol at doses corresponding to 10, 100 and 1000 times their planktonic minimum inhibitory concentration. In addition, biofilms were also treated with chemical compounds such as polysorbate-80 and ursolic acid. S. marcescens demonstrated susceptibility to ceftriaxone, kanamycin, gentamicin, and chloramphenicol in its planktonic form, however, only chloramphenicol reduced both biofilm biomass and biofilm viability. Polysorbate-80 and ursolic acid had minimal to no effect on either planktonic and biofilm grown S. marcescens. Our results suggest that supratherapeutic doses of chloramphenicol can be used effectively against established S. marcescens biofilms.

  16. In Vitro Structural and Functional Evaluation of Gold Nanoparticles Conjugated Antibiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Biswarup; Bhattacharya, Jaydeep; Mukherjee, Ananda; Ghosh, Anup Kumar; Santra, Chitta Ranjan; Dasgupta, Anjan K.; Karmakar, Parimal

    2007-12-01

    Bactericidal efficacy of gold nanoparticles conjugated with ampicillin, streptomycin and kanamycin were evaluated. Gold nanoparticles (Gnps) were conjugated with the antibiotics during the synthesis of nanoparticles utilizing the combined reducing property of antibiotics and sodium borohydride. The conjugation of nanoparticles was confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and electron microscopic (EM) studies. Such Gnps conjugated antibiotics showed greater bactericidal activity in standard agar well diffusion assay. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of all the three antibiotics along with their Gnps conjugated forms were determined in three bacterial strains, Escherichia coli DH5α, Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus. Among them, streptomycin and kanamycin showed significant reduction in MIC values in their Gnps conjugated form whereas; Gnps conjugated ampicillin showed slight decrement in the MIC value compared to its free form. On the other hand, all of them showed more heat stability in their Gnps conjugated forms. Thus, our findings indicated that Gnps conjugated antibiotics are more efficient and might have significant therapeutic implications.

  17. Two-dimensional combinatorial screening enables the bottom-up design of a microRNA-10b inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Velagapudi, Sai Pradeep; Disney, Matthew D

    2014-03-21

    The RNA motifs that bind guanidinylated kanamycin A (G Kan A) and guanidinylated neomycin B (G Neo B) were identified via two-dimensional combinatorial screening (2DCS). The results of these studies enabled the "bottom-up" design of a small molecule inhibitor of oncogenic microRNA-10b.

  18. Are biting fly larvae biological reservoirs of Salmonella?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A Salmonella Montevideo strain that is resistant to ampicillin and kanamycin and that expresses the green fluorescent protein (S Montevideo-GFP) was utilized to inoculate sterile and non-sterile cattle manure (1 x 105 CFU/gram manure) onto which sterilized horn fly embryos were placed and held for e...

  19. Novel “Superspreader” Bacteriophages Promote Horizontal Gene Transfer by Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Bliskovsky, Valery V.; Malagon, Francisco; Baker, James D.; Prince, Jeffrey S.; Klaus, James S.; Adhya, Sankar L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteriophages infect an estimated 1023 to 1025 bacterial cells each second, many of which carry physiologically relevant plasmids (e.g., those encoding antibiotic resistance). However, even though phage-plasmid interactions occur on a massive scale and have potentially significant evolutionary, ecological, and biomedical implications, plasmid fate upon phage infection and lysis has not been investigated to date. Here we show that a subset of the natural lytic phage population, which we dub “superspreaders,” releases substantial amounts of intact, transformable plasmid DNA upon lysis, thereby promoting horizontal gene transfer by transformation. Two novel Escherichia coli phage superspreaders, SUSP1 and SUSP2, liberated four evolutionarily distinct plasmids with equal efficiency, including two close relatives of prominent antibiotic resistance vectors in natural environments. SUSP2 also mediated the extensive lateral transfer of antibiotic resistance in unbiased communities of soil bacteria from Maryland and Wyoming. Furthermore, the addition of SUSP2 to cocultures of kanamycin-resistant E. coli and kanamycin-sensitive Bacillus sp. bacteria resulted in roughly 1,000-fold more kanamycin-resistant Bacillus sp. bacteria than arose in phage-free controls. Unlike many other lytic phages, neither SUSP1 nor SUSP2 encodes homologs to known hydrolytic endonucleases, suggesting a simple potential mechanism underlying the superspreading phenotype. Consistent with this model, the deletion of endonuclease IV and the nucleoid-disrupting protein ndd from coliphage T4, a phage known to extensively degrade chromosomal DNA, significantly increased its ability to promote plasmid transformation. Taken together, our results suggest that phage superspreaders may play key roles in microbial evolution and ecology but should be avoided in phage therapy and other medical applications. PMID:28096488

  20. Resistance to antimicrobial agents among Salmonella isolates recovered from layer farms and eggs in the Caribbean region.

    PubMed

    Adesiyun, Abiodun; Webb, Lloyd; Musai, Lisa; Louison, Bowen; Joseph, George; Stewart-Johnson, Alva; Samlal, Sannandan; Rodrigo, Shelly

    2014-12-01

    This investigation determined the frequency of resistance of 84 isolates of Salmonella comprising 14 serotypes recovered from layer farms in three Caribbean countries (Trinidad and Tobago, Grenada, and St. Lucia) to eight antimicrobial agents, using the disc diffusion method. Resistance among isolates of Salmonella was related to the country of recovery, type of sample, size of layer farms, and isolate serotype. Overall, all (100.0%) of the isolates exhibited resistance to one or more of seven antimicrobial agents tested, and all were susceptible to chloramphenicol. The resistance detected ranged from 11.9% to sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SXT) to 100.0% to erythromycin. The difference was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.23). Across countries, for types of samples that yielded Salmonella, significant differences in frequency of resistance were detected only to SXT (P = 0.002) in Trinidad and Tobago and to gentamycin (P = 0.027) in St. Lucia. For the three countries, the frequency of resistance to antimicrobial agents was significantly different for ampicillin (P = 0.001) and SXT (P = 0.032). A total of 83 (98.8%) of the 84 isolates exhibited 39 multidrug resistance patterns. Farm size significantly (P = 0.032) affected the frequency of resistance to kanamycin across the countries. Overall, among the 14 serotypes of Salmonella tested, significant (P < 0.05) differences in frequency of resistance were detected to kanamycin, ampicillin, and SXT. Results suggest that the relatively high frequency of resistance to six of the antimicrobial agents (erythromycin, streptomycin, gentamycin, kanamycin, ampicillin, and tetracycline) tested and the multidrug resistance detected may pose prophylactic and therapeutic concerns for chicken layer farms in the three countries studied.

  1. Emergency Medical Response Capability Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    Analgesics, non-narcotic Anesthesia aooaratus Antibiotics and anti-bacterials Basin, qash, solution Antidiabetic Agents (Oral) Blade, surgical Knife...for replace- Holder, suture needle nent therapy Inhaler, anesthesia , Yankauer (atner fask) Local anesthetics Intravenous injection sets Lubricant...Medium-Spectrum Erythromycin Kanamycin Clindamycin Narrow-Spectrum Penicillins Oxacillin Methicillin Streptomycin Gentamicin Other Amphotericin B Nystatin

  2. Detection of Specific Solvent Rearrangement Regions of an Enzyme: NMR and ITC Studies with Aminoglycoside Phosphotransferase(3??)-IIIa

    SciTech Connect

    Ozen, C.; Norris, Adrianne; Land, Miriam L

    2008-01-01

    This work describes differential effects of solvent in complexes of the aminoglycoside phosphotransferase(3¢)-IIIa (APH) with different aminoglycosides and the detection of change in solvent structure at specific sites away from substrates. Binding of kanamycins to APH occurs with a larger negative ¢H in H2O relative to D2O (¢¢H(H2O-D2O) < 0), while the reverse is true for neomycins. Unusually large negative ¢Cp values were observed for binding of aminoglycosides to APH. ¢Cp for the APHneomycin complex was -1.6 kcalâmol-1âdeg-1. A break at 30 C was observed in the APH-kanamycin complex yielding ¢Cp values of -0.7 kcalâmol-1âdeg-1 and -3.8 kcalâmol-1âdeg-1 below andmore » above 30 C, respectively. Neither the change in accessible surface area (¢ASA) nor contributions from heats of ionization were sufficient to explain the large negative ¢Cp values. Most significantly, 15N-1H HSQC experiments showed that temperature-dependent shifts of the backbone amide protons of Leu 88, Ser 91, Cys 98, and Leu143 revealed a break at 30 C only in the APH-kanamycin complex in spectra collected between 21 C and 38 C. These amino acids represent solVent reorganization sites that experience a change in solvent structure in their immediate environment as structurally different ligands bind to the enzyme. These residues were away from the substrate binding site and distributed in three hydrophobic patches in APH. Overall, our results show that a large number of factors affect ¢Cp and binding of structurally different ligand groups cause different solvent structure in the active site as well as differentially affecting specific sites away from the ligand binding site.« less

  3. Mechanistic studies of copper(II)-aminoglycoside mediated DNA damage and magnesium catalyzed nuclease activity of hammerhead ribozyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patwardhan, Anjali A.

    The antibacterial activity of aminoglycosides stems from their high affinity binding to the 16S rRNA in bacteria resulting in inhibition of protein synthesis. Used to treat acute bacterial infections these antibiotics have limited applications due to their high dosage requirements and the emergence of resistant strains. We have synthesized and characterized Cu(II) derivatives of the aminoglycosides, kanamycin A, tobramycin, neamine, kanamycin B, neomycin B, and paromomycin. The first three exhibit preferential and tight binding to Cu(II) as against neomycin B and kanamycin B and paromomycin. EPR of frozen solutions and UV-visible spectroscopy suggest a change in geometry around the Cu(II) but the stabilities of the complexes in water differ. These copper derivatives efficiently cleave plasmid DNA at micromolar concentrations (hydrolytic) and at nanomolar concentrations in the presence co-reactants like hydrogen peroxide or ascorbic acid. Hydrolysis is multi turnover and exhibits Michelis-Menten kinetics with enzyme-like behavior whereas oxidative cleavage is highly specific with C-4' H abstraction resulting in characteristic base propenal and nucleotide base products. Hydroxyl radicals generated are copper based and are generated in close proximity of the substrate. Hammerhead ribozymes are selectively hydrolyzed in the presence of divalent ions with Mg2+ being the metal ion of choice in vivo . Our studies with complex ions like cobalt hexaammine and fac-triamminetriaquochromium(III) establish outer sphere interactions of Mg2+ with the hammerhead in the catalytic site. There are two sets of sites, one structural and one catalytic. Complex ions in the catalytic site and divalent ions in the structural site result in a slow but active hammerhead ribozyme suggesting that the complex ions are not inhibitory, contrary to what was suggested previously.

  4. Antimicrobial Sensitivity of Avibacterium paragallinarum Isolates from Four Latin American Countries.

    PubMed

    Luna-Galaz, G A; Morales-Erasto, V; Peñuelas-Rivas, C G; Blackall, P J; Soriano-Vargas, E

    2016-09-01

    The antimicrobial sensitivity of 11 reference strains and 66 Avibacterium paragallinarum isolates from four Latin American countries was investigated. All 11 reference strains were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, fosfomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, penicillin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The 11 reference strains were all resistant to lincomycin. All isolates (100%) from Mexico, Panama, and Peru were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, and fosfomycin. The Ecuadorian isolates showed some level of resistance to all 16 agents tested. The Ecuadorian isolates were significantly more sensitive to erythromycin, lincomycin, and streptomycin, and significantly more resistant to gentamicin, kanamycin, penicillin, and tetracycline, than the Mexican isolates. A total of 57.5% (38/66) of tested isolates were multi-drug resistant (MDR), with 16 MDR patterns detected in 88.4% (23/26) of the antimicrobial-resistant isolates from Ecuador, and 8 MDR patterns detected in 42.8% (15/35) of the antimicrobial-resistant isolates from Mexico. In conclusion, the variation in antimicrobial sensitivity patterns between isolates from Ecuador and Mexico emphasizes the importance of active, ongoing monitoring of A. paragallinarum isolates.

  5. Apple (Malus x domestica).

    PubMed

    Dandekar, Abhaya M; Teo, Gianni; Uratsu, Sandra L; Tricoli, David

    2006-01-01

    Apple (Malus x domestica) is one of the most consumed fruit crops in the world. The major production areas are the temperate regions, however, because of its excellent storage capacity it is transported to distant markets covering the four corners of the earth. Transformation is a key to sustaining this demand - permitting the potential enhancement of existing cultivars as well as to investigate the development of new cultivars resistant to pest, disease, and storage problems that occur in the major production areas. In this paper we describe an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol that utilizes leaf tissues from in vitro grown plants. Shoot regeneration is selected with kanamycin using the selectable kanamycin phosphotransferase (APH(3)II) gene and the resulting transformants confirmed using the scorable uidA gene encoding the bacterial beta-glucuronidase (GUS) enzyme via histochemical staining. Transformed shoots are propagated, rooted to create transgenic plants that are then introduced into soil, acclimatized and transferred to the greenhouse from where they are taken out into the orchard for field-testing.

  6. Transformation of pecan and regeneration of transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    McGranahan, G H; Leslie, C A; Dandekar, A M; Uratsu, S L; Yates, I E

    1993-09-01

    A gene transfer system developed for walnut (Juglans regia L.) was successfully applied to pecan (Carya illinoensis [Wang] K. Koch). Repetitively embryogenic somatic embryos derived from open-pollinated seed of 'Elliott', 'Wichita', and 'Schley' were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium strain EHA 101/pCGN 7001, which contains marker genes for beta-glucuronidase activity and resistance to kanamycin. Several modifications of the standard walnut transformation techniques were tested, including a lower concentration of kanamycin and a modified induction medium, but these treatments had no measurable effect on efficiency of transformation. Nineteen of the 764 viable inoculated embryos produced transgenic subclones; 13 of these were from the line 'Elliott'6, 3 from 'Schley'5/3, and 3 from 'Wichita'9. Transgenic embryos of 'Wichita'9 germinated most readily and three subclones were successfully micropropagated. Three transgenic plants of one of these subclones were obtained by grafting the tissue cultured shoots to seedling pecan rootstock in the greenhouse. Gene insertion, initially detected by GUS activity, was confirmed by detection of integrated T-DNA sequences using Southern analysis.

  7. Cloning of the nptII gene of Escherichia coli and construction of a recombinant strain harboring functional recA and nptII antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Ghanem, S

    2011-01-01

    In an attempt to clone the ORF of the nptII gene of Escherichia coli K12 (ATCC 10798), two degenerate primers were designed based on the nptII sequence of its Tn5 transposon. The nptII ORF was placed under the control of the E. coli hybrid trc promoter, in the pKK388-1 vector, transformed into E. coli DH5α ΔrecA (recombinant, deficient strain). Transferred cells were tested for ampicillin, tetracycline, kanamycin, neomycin, geneticin, paromomycin, penicillin, and UV resistance. The neomycin phosphotransferase gene of E. coli was cloned successfully and conferred kanamycin, neomycin, geneticin, and paromomycin resistance to recombinant DH5α; this did not inhibit insertion of additional antibiotic resistance against ampicillin and tetracycline, meaning the trc promoter can express two different genes carried by two different plasmids harbored in the same cell. This resistance conferral process could be considered as an emulation of horizontal gene transfer occurring in nature and would be a useful tool for understanding mechanisms of evolution of multidrug-resistant strains.

  8. Constitutive non-inducible expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana Nia 2 gene in two nitrate reductase mutants of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia.

    PubMed

    Kaye, C; Crawford, N M; Malmberg, R L

    1997-04-01

    We have isolated a haploid cell line of N. plumbaginifolia, hNP 588, that is constitutive and not inducible for nitrate reductase. Nitrate reductase mutants were isolated from hNP 588 protoplasts upon UV irradiation. Two of these nitrate reductase-deficient cell lines, nia 3 and nia 25, neither of which contained any detectable nitrate reductase activity, were selected for complementation studies. A cloned Arabidopsis thaliana nitrate reductase gene Nia 2 was introduced into each of the two mutants resulting in 56 independent kanamycin-resistant cell lines. Thirty of the 56 kanamycin-resistant cell lines were able to grow on nitrate as the sole nitrogen source. Eight of these were further analyzed for nitrate reductase enzyme activity and nitrate reductase mRNA production. All eight lines had detectable nitrate reductase activity ranging from 7% to 150% of wild-type hNP 588 callus. The enzyme activity levels were not influenced by the nitrogen source in the medium. The eight lines examined expressed a constitutive, non-inducible 3.2 kb mRNA species that was not present in untransformed controls.

  9. Detection of E. coli O157:H7 with a reporter phage containing the luxCDABE cassette

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacteriophage and reporter phage are used for typing and/or detection of pathogens. The temperate tailed phage fV10 has been utilized for phage-typing E. coli O157:H7. By modifying fV10 to transduce kanamycin resistance and the a luxCDABE cassette, we developed a reporter bacteriophage (fV10-lux) p...

  10. Development of a Gene Cloning System in Methanogens.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-27

    Genetic transfer via DNA-dependent natural transformation was achieved for two markers, 5-fluorouracil-resistance, and 6- mercaptopurine resistance...resistance genes, and genes coding for enzymes that produce colored products will be tested as markers for plasmid transformation. A functional plasmid...clones, which include resistances to mercaptopurine , azahypoxanthine, diazauracil, kanamycin, mitomycin C, and fluorouracil- mercaptopurine and

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Nafulsella turpanensis ZLM-10T, a Novel Member of the Family Flammeovirgaceae

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Si, Meiru; Zhu, Lingfang; Li, Changfu; Wei, Yahong

    2014-01-01

    Nafulsella turpanensis ZLM-10T is a slightly halophilic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, gliding, pale-pink-pigmented bacterium in the family Flammeovirgaceae, and it shows resistance to gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, and streptomycin. Here, we report the genome sequence of N. turpanensis strain ZLM-10T, which has a 4.8-Mb genome and a G+C content of 45.67%. PMID:24699960

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Nafulsella turpanensis ZLM-10T, a Novel Member of the Family Flammeovirgaceae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Si, Meiru; Zhu, Lingfang; Li, Changfu; Wei, Yahong; Shen, Xihui

    2014-04-03

    Nafulsella turpanensis ZLM-10(T) is a slightly halophilic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, gliding, pale-pink-pigmented bacterium in the family Flammeovirgaceae, and it shows resistance to gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, and streptomycin. Here, we report the genome sequence of N. turpanensis strain ZLM-10(T), which has a 4.8-Mb genome and a G+C content of 45.67%.

  13. [Construction of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains with espF gene deletion and complementation].

    PubMed

    Hua, Ying; Sun, Qi; Wang, Xiangyu; DU, Yanli; Shao, Na; Zhang, Qiwei; Zhao, Wei; Wan, Chengsong

    2015-11-01

    To construct enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 strains with delection espF gene and its nucleotide fragment and with espF gene complementation. A pair of homologous arm primers was designed to amplify the gene fragment of kanamycin resistance, which was transformed into EHEC O157:H7 EDL933w strain via the PKD46 plasmid by electroporation. The replacement of the espF gene by kanamycin resistance gene through the PKD46-mediated red recombination system was confirmed by PCR and sequencing. The entire coding region of espF along with its nucleotide fragment was amplified by PCR and cloned into pBAD33 plasmid, which was transformed into a mutant strain to construct the strain with espF complementation. RT-PCR was used to verify the transcription of espF and its nucleotide fragment in the complemented mutant strain. We established EHEC O157:H7 EDL933w strains with espF gene deletion and with espF gene complementation. Both espF and its nucleotide fragment were transcribed in the complemented mutant strain. The two strains provide a basis for further study of the regulatory mechanism of espF.

  14. Electromagnetic irradiation of Enterococcus hirae at low-intensity 51.8- and 53.0-GHz frequencies: changes in bacterial cell membrane properties and enhanced antibiotics effects.

    PubMed

    Torgomyan, Heghine; Ohanyan, Vahe; Blbulyan, Syuzanna; Kalantaryan, Vitaly; Trchounian, Armen

    2012-04-01

    Exposure to electromagnetic irradiation (EMI) of 51.8 and 53.0 GHz and low intensity (flux capacity of 0.06 mW cm(-2) ) for 1 h markedly decreased the energy-dependent H(+) and K(+) transport across membranes of Enterococcus hirae ATCC 9790. After EMI, there was also a significant decrease of overall and N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD)-sensitive ATPase activity of the membrane vesicles. These measures were considerably lower at 53.0 GHz. EMI in combination with different antibiotics, such as ceftriaxone and kanamycin at their minimal inhibitory concentrations (100 and 200 μM, respectively), enhanced bacterial cell growth and altered their membrane transport properties. Total H(+) efflux was most sensitive to ceftriaxone but DCCD-inhibited H(+) efflux and total K(+) influx were sensitive to kanamycin. The results indicate that cell membrane proteins could be a target in the action of EMI and enhanced antibacterial effects in combination with antibiotics. The DCCD-sensitive F(0) F(1) -ATPase or this ATPase in combination with K(+) uptake protein probably plays a key role in these effects. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biochemical characters and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolates.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Subhankari Prasad; Mahapatra, Santanu Kar; Roy, Somenath

    2011-06-01

    To observe the biochemical characters and antibiotic susceptibility of isolated Staphylococcus aureus (S. auerus) strains against some conventional and traditional antibiotics. Thirty post operative pathogenic isolated S. aureus strains were used in this study. Bacterial culture was done in Mueller-Hinton broth at 37 °C. Characters of these strains were determined by traditional biochemical tests such as hydrolysis test of gelatin, urea, galactose, starch and protein, and fermentation of lactose and sucrose. Antibiotic susceptibility were carried out by minimum inhibitory concentration test, minium bactericidal concentration test, disc agar diffusion test and brain heart infusion oxacillin screening agar. From this study, it was observed that 100% S. aureus isolates showed positive results in gelatin, urea and galactose hydrolysis test, 50% isolates were positive in starch hydrolysis test, 35% in protein hydrolysis test, 100% isolates in lactose fermenting test, but no isolate was positive in sucrose fermenting test. Antibiotic susceptibility testing suggested that 20% of isolates were resistant to kanamycin and 46.67% were resistant to oxacillin. These findings show that all these isolates have gelatin, urea, galactose hydrolysis and lactose fermenting activity. 20% of these isolates were resistant to kanamycin and 46.67% were resistant to oxacillin.

  16. Dissemination of Genes Encoding Aminoglycoside-Modifying Enzymes and armA Among Enterobacteriaceae Isolates in Northwest Iran.

    PubMed

    Ghotaslou, Reza; Yeganeh Sefidan, Fatemeh; Akhi, Mohammad Taghi; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Mohammadzadeh Asl, Yalda

    2017-10-01

    Enzymatic inactivation is one of the most important mechanisms of resistance to aminoglycosides. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of armA and diversity of the genes encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs) and their associations with resistance phenotypes in Enterobacteriaceae isolates. Three hundred and seven Enterobacteriaceae isolates were collected from five hospitals in northwest Iran. The disk diffusion method for amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, kanamycin, and streptomycin, as well as the minimum inhibitory concentration for amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, and kanamycin were done for susceptibility testing. Thirteen AME genes and armA methylase were screened using the PCR and sequencing assays. Two hundred and twenty (71.7%) of isolates were resistant to aminoglycosides and 155 (70.5%) of them were positive for aminoglycoside resistance genes. The most prevalent AME genes were ant(3″)-Ia and aph(3″)-Ib with the frequency 35.9% and 30.5%, respectively. Also, 21 (9.5%) of resistant isolates were positive for armA methylase gene. The prevalence of resistance to aminoglycoside is high and AME genes frequently are disseminated in Enterobacteriaceae isolates. There is an association between phenotypic resistance and the presence of some aminoglycoside genes.

  17. Axenic culture of free-living conchocelis of Porphyra yezoensis and Porphyra haitanensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui-Lian; Shuai, Li; Duan, De-Lin; Xu, Huai-Shu

    2002-03-01

    After discarding marine microorganisms from conchocelis of Porphyra yezoensis and Porphyra haitanensis, their axenic cultures were obtained through treatment with antibiotics. Antibiotic disc tests were carried out to determine the effectiveness of each antibiotic in eliminating contaminating microorganisms. Five of 12 antibiotics tested were selected and used to produce the axenic cultures in this study, which showed that 200 μg/mL streptomycin, 250 μg/mL penicillin, 252 μg/mL kanamycin, 30 μg/mL chloramphenicol were effective concentrations for eliminating microorganisms from conchocelis when antibiotics were added singly step by step; whereas simultaneous combination of 150 μg/mL streptomycin, 250 (or 350) μg/mL penicillin, 150 (or 250) μg/mL kanamycin, 70 μg/mL neomycin and 200 μg/mL chloramphenicol was also effective for producing the axenic cultures. However, it seemed that the treatments with antibiotics applied individually were more feasible than those will all antibiotics added at the same time. This may be due to the combined inhibiting effect of antibiotics on the growth and development of conchocelis.

  18. Complexation of anionic copolymers of acrylamide and N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide with aminoglycoside antibiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovskii, M. V.; Tarabukina, E. B.; Amirova, A. I.; Zakharova, N. V.; Smirnova, M. Yu.; Gavrilova, I. I.

    2014-03-01

    The complexation of aminoglycoside antibiotics neomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, and amikacin in the form of free bases with carboxyl- and sulfo-containing copolymers of acrylamide and N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) in water and water-salt solutions is studied by means of viscometry, equilibrium dialysis, potentiometric titration, and molecular hydrodynamics. Factors influencing the stability of formed copolymer-antibiotic complexes and determinations of their toxicity are established.

  19. [Preliminary investigation of the in vitro inhibitory effect of antibiotics on algae of the genus Prototheca].

    PubMed

    Casal, M; Gutierrez, J

    1981-07-10

    We investigated the possible inhibitory action 'in vitro' by antibiotic containing discs against microscopic alga that are potential human pathogens of the genus Prototheca especially P. wickerhamii. The results indicated that inhibitors in vitro included amikacin, colistin, dibecacin, framicetin, gentamycin, kanamycin, lividomycin, neomycin, polymyxin, paromomycin, ribostamycin, sisomycin and tobramycin. We emphasize the interest in the effectiveness at these drugs in a case of human protothecosis.

  20. Molecular Biology and Physiology of Methanogenic Archaebacteria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-27

    anaerobic food chains, the methanogens contribute to the mineralization of large amounts of organic matter. The end product of their metabolism...of radiolabelled substrate to product [8; Worrell and Nagle, in preparation]. Strain RT103, a formate auxotroph was isolated from the kanamycin...methylmercaptopurine riboside 0. 16 Bacteriocidald 8-aza-2, 6-diaminopurine 0.0011 6-thioguanine 0.0004 8-azaguanine 0.0004 6- mercaptopurine 0 8

  1. [Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents of 2,060 strains of different bacteria isolated in infectious processes in children].

    PubMed

    Filloy, L; Borjas, E; Sierra, A

    1981-01-01

    Susceptibility to antibiotics of 2060 strains of the following bacteria was studied: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella, Shigella, Proteus, Staphylococcus aureus that were isolated in 1978-79 from different infections in children hospitalized at the Hospital Infantil de Mexico. The antimicrobials submitted to the test of susceptibility were: ampicillin, amikacin, carbenicillin, cephalothin, cefoxitin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. Present results are compared with previous studies.

  2. Non-invasive determination of conjugative transfer of plasmids bearing antibiotic-resistance genes in biofilm-bound bacteria: effects of substrate loading and antibiotic selection

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hongyan; Bryers, James D.

    2012-01-01

    Biofilms cause much of all human microbial infections. Attempts to eradicate biofilm-based infections rely on disinfectants and antibiotics. Unfortunately, biofilm bacteria are significantly less responsive to antibiotic stressors than their planktonic counterparts. Sublethal doses of antibiotics can actually enhance biofilm formation. Here, we have developed a non-invasive microscopic image analyses to quantify plasmid conjugation within a developing biofilm. Corroborating destructive samples were analyzed by a cultivation-independent flow cytometry analysis and a selective plate count method to cultivate transconjugants. Increases in substrate loading altered biofilm 3-D architecture and subsequently affected the frequency of plasmid conjugation (decreases at least two times) in the absence of any antibiotic selective pressure. More importantly, donor populations in biofilms exposed to a sublethal dose of kanamycin exhibited enhanced transfer efficiency of plasmids containing the kanamycin resistance gene, up to tenfold. However, when stressed with a different antibiotic, imipenem, transfer of plasmids containing the kanR+ gene was not enhanced. These preliminary results suggest biofilm bacteria “sense” antibiotics to which they are resistant, which enhances the spread of that resistance. Confocal scanning microscopy coupled with our non-invasive image analysis was able to estimate plasmid conjugative transfer efficiency either averaged over the entire biofilm landscape or locally with individual biofilm clusters. PMID:22669634

  3. Gene disruption in Salmonella typhimurim by modified λ Red disruption system.

    PubMed

    Ahani Azari, A; Zahraei Salehi, T; Nayeri Fasaei, B; Alebouyeh, M

    2015-01-01

    There are many techniques to knock out directed genes in bacteria, some of which have been described in Salmonella species. In this study, a combination of SOEing PCR method and the λ Red disruption system were used to disrupt phoP gene in wild type and standard strains of Salmonella typhimurium. Three standards PCR and one fusion PCR reactions were performed to construct a linear DNA including upstream and downstream of phoP gene and Kanamycin cassette. As a template plasmid, we used pKD4 which carries kanamycin gene flanked by FRT (FLP recognition target) sites. The resulting construct was electroporated into prepared competent cells of S. typhimurium. The transformants colonies related to the standard strain appeared on the LB-Km-agar plates after incubation, but there was no colony on LB-Km-agar plates corresponding to the wild type strain. The failure in transformation of the wild type strain may be because of inflexibility of the λ Red disruption system in this strain or its unique restriction-modification system. However, by this construct we are able to generate phoP mutant in many of the Salmonella species due to high homology of the phoP gene which exists in different species.

  4. Pattern of secondary acquired drug resistance to antituberculosis drug in Mumbai, India--1991-1995.

    PubMed

    Chowgule, R V; Deodhar, L

    1998-01-01

    A retrospective observational study was conducted to find out whether secondary acquired drug resistance to isoniazid and ethambutol is high and to rifamycin and pyrazinamide is low, as is commonly believed in India. There were 2033 patients, whose sputum samples (6099) were reviewed from a specimen registry of the microbiology laboratory for the years 1991 to 1995. Of these, 521 (25.6%) patients [335 males and 186 females; age ranged from 11 to 75 years] had sputum positive culture and sensitivity for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). The drug resistance patterns in our study were: isoniazid (H) 15%, rifamycin (R) 66.8%, pyrazinamide (Z) 72.2%, ethambutol (E) 8.4%, streptomycin (S) 53.6%, cycloserine (C) 39.2% kanamycin (K) 25.1% and ethionamide (Eth) 65.3%. The resistance to streptomycin showed a significant fall over a year while there was a rise in resistance to cycloserine and kanamycin which is significant. The rate of secondary acquired resistance of isoniazid and ethambutol was low, and the rate of secondary acquired resistance to rifamycin and pyrazinamide was high, which is contarary to the common belief regarding these drugs in India. This implies that isoniazid is still a valuable drug in the treatment of multidrug resistance in India.

  5. Using phenotype microarrays in the assessment of the antibiotic susceptibility profile of bacteria isolated from wastewater in on-site treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Jałowiecki, Łukasz; Chojniak, Joanna; Dorgeloh, Elmar; Hegedusova, Berta; Ejhed, Helene; Magnér, Jörgen; Płaza, Grażyna

    2017-11-01

    The scope of the study was to apply Phenotype Biolog MicroArray (PM) technology to test the antibiotic sensitivity of the bacterial strains isolated from on-site wastewater treatment facilities. In the first step of the study, the percentage values of resistant bacteria from total heterotrophic bacteria growing on solid media supplemented with various antibiotics were determined. In the untreated wastewater, the average shares of kanamycin-, streptomycin-, and tetracycline-resistant bacteria were 53, 56, and 42%, respectively. Meanwhile, the shares of kanamycin-, streptomycin-, and tetracycline-resistant bacteria in the treated wastewater were 39, 33, and 29%, respectively. To evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility of the bacteria present in the wastewater, using the phenotype microarrays (PMs), the most common isolates from the treated wastewater were chosen: Serratia marcescens ss marcescens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila, Microbacterium flavescens, Alcaligenes faecalis ss faecalis, Flavobacterium hydatis, Variovorax paradoxus, Acinetobacter johnsonii, and Aeromonas bestiarum. The strains were classified as multi-antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Most of them were resistant to more than 30 antibiotics from various chemical classes. Phenotype microarrays could be successfully used as an additional tool for evaluation of the multi-antibiotic resistance of environmental bacteria and in preliminary determination of the range of inhibition concentration.

  6. Isolation of a gene encoding a novel spectinomycin phosphotransferase from Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    Suter, T M; Viswanathan, V K; Cianciotto, N P

    1997-06-01

    A gene capable of conferring spectinomycin resistance was isolated from Legionella pneumophila, the agent of Legionnaires' disease. The gene (aph) encoded a 36-kDa protein which has similarity to aminoglycoside phosphotransferases. Biochemical analysis confirmed that aph encodes a phosphotransferase which modifies spectinomycin but not hygromycin, kanamycin, or streptomycin. The strain that was the source of aph demonstrated resistance to spectinomycin, and Southern hybridizations determined that aph also exists in other legionellae.

  7. Isolation of a gene encoding a novel spectinomycin phosphotransferase from Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed Central

    Suter, T M; Viswanathan, V K; Cianciotto, N P

    1997-01-01

    A gene capable of conferring spectinomycin resistance was isolated from Legionella pneumophila, the agent of Legionnaires' disease. The gene (aph) encoded a 36-kDa protein which has similarity to aminoglycoside phosphotransferases. Biochemical analysis confirmed that aph encodes a phosphotransferase which modifies spectinomycin but not hygromycin, kanamycin, or streptomycin. The strain that was the source of aph demonstrated resistance to spectinomycin, and Southern hybridizations determined that aph also exists in other legionellae. PMID:9174205

  8. Engineering Transgenic Plants for the Sustained Containment and In Situ Treatment of Energetic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    yielding nitrite, formaldehyde and 4-nitro- 2,4-diazabutanal (Figure 2) [37, 38]. So far, xplA and xplB, a reductase encoded adjacently to xplA have been...increase transformation frequencies of recalcitrant plants, including rice and maize . This plasmid carries kanamycin resistance for selection in...5 and 12 kb was extracted from all samples, as confirmed by gel electrophoresis (Figure 24). Typical yields were 4 ± 1 μg/g soil. Denaturing

  9. 2-Deoxystreptamine Conjugates by Truncation–Derivatization of Neomycin

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, M. Waqar; Tabares, Leandro C.; Andreoni, Alessio; Canters, Gerard W.; Rutjes, Floris P.J.T.; van Delft, Floris L.

    2010-01-01

    A small library of truncated neomycin-conjugates is prepared by consecutive removal of 2,6-diaminoglucose rings, oxidation-reductive amination of ribose, oxidation-conjugation of aminopyridine/aminoquinoline and finally dimerization. The dimeric conjugates were evaluated for antibacterial activity with a unique hemocyanin-based biosensor. Based on the outcome of these results, a second-generation set of monomeric conjugates was prepared and found to display significant antibacterial activity, in particular with respect to kanamycin-resistant E. coli. PMID:27713274

  10. Properties of an R Factor from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Naomi; Hedges, R. W.; Shaw, Elizabeth J.; Sykes, R. B.; Richmond, M. H.

    1971-01-01

    An R factor from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which confers resistance to penicillins, kanamycin, and tetracycline, was studied in Escherichia coli K-12. The R factor could coexist with F-like or I-like plasmids and therefore constituted a novel compatibility group. The R factor was transferable from E. coli to bacterial genera outside the Enterobacteriaceae (Pseudomonas and members of the Rhizobiaceae) to which transfer of F-like and I-like plasmids could not be demonstrated. PMID:4945193

  11. Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Gram-Negative Psychrotrophic Bacteria from Bulk Tank Milk.

    PubMed

    Decimo, Marilù; Silvetti, Tiziana; Brasca, Milena

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a major global health problem and resistance of Pseudomonadaceae and Enterobacteriaceae is a serious concern. We investigated the prevalence of drug-resistance in a total of 80 psychrotrophic strains from bulk milk belonging to Pseudomonas genus (n. 63) and Enterobacteriaceae group (n. 17). All the strains were tested against 16 antibiotics. Pseudomonas were further investigated for their sensitivity against 12 additional antibiotics. Pseudomonas showed a high susceptibility toward fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and piperacillin and, to a lesser extent, to imipenem, ceftazidime, cefepime. Thirty-five out of 63 Pseudomonas strains were susceptible to meropenem, while among antibiotics for which recommended breakpoints are not yet available, 55% of Pseudomonas strains had no inhibition halo in presence of nitrofurantoin, highlighting a resistance toward this drug. The results obtained in this study indicate a high efficiency of fluoroquinolones, chloramphenicol (94%), and kanamycin (76%) for Enterobacteriaceae while a high prevalence of resistant strains was found to ampicillin (13/17). Serratia marcescens is highly susceptible to fluoroquinolones, chloramphenicol, and kanamycin. Moreover, mupirocin seems to be the new antibiotic with the less efficacy for Enterobacteriaceae, with 41% of strains without halo, pointing out an important resistance. Further knowledge on resistance to known and new antibiotics among Pseudomonas species and Enterobacteriaceae of milk origin was acquired. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Plasmid Frequency Fluctuations in Bacterial Populations from Chemically Stressed Soil Communities

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, Gene S.; Atlas, Ronald M.

    1988-01-01

    The frequency of plasmids in chemically stressed bacterial populations was investigated by individually adding various concentration of kanamycin, ampicillin, and mercuric chloride to soil samples. Viable bacterial populations were enumerated, soil respiration was monitored for up to 6 weeks as an indicator of physiological stress, and bacterial isolates from stressed and control soils were screened for the presence of plasmids. Low levels of the chemical stress factors did not for the most part significantly alter population viability, soil respiration, or plasmid frequency. Exposure to high stress levels of mercury and ampicillin, however, resulted in altered numbers of viable organisms, soil respiration, and plasmid frequency. Plasmid frequency increased in response to ampicillin exposure but was not significantly changed after exposure to kanamycin. In mercuric chloride-stressed soils, there was a decrease in plasmid frequency despite an increase in overall mercury resistance of the isolates, suggesting that mercury resistance in these populations is largely, if not completely, chromosome encoded. Chemical stress did not cause an increase in plasmid-mediated multiple resistance. A genetic response (change in plasmid frequency) was not found unless a physiological (phenotypic) response (change in viable cells and respiratory activity) was also observed. The results indicate that a change in plasmid frequency is dependent on both the amount and type of chemical stress. PMID:16347730

  13. Zero-magnetic field effect in pathogen bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creanga, D. E.; Poiata, A.; Morariu, V. V.; Tupu, P.

    2004-05-01

    Two lots of Gram-negative bacterial strains were tested for antibiotic drug resistance after exposure to zero-magnetic field. We found that the magneto-sensitive strains represent half of the analyzed samples (three Pseudomonas and five Enterobacter strains), some of them presenting two-three times modified resistance to antibiotic, while others revealed eight or 16 times changed resistance. Pseudomonas strain magnetic sensitivity is revealed better by ampicillin and tetracycline, while Enterobacter strain magnetic sensitivity is revealed better by ampicillin, kanamycin and ofloxacin.

  14. Inhibition of bacterial multidrug resistance by celecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kalle, Arunasree M; Rizvi, Arshad

    2011-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major problem in the treatment of infectious diseases and cancer. Accumulating evidence suggests that the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-specific inhibitor celecoxib would not only inhibit COX-2 but also help in the reversal of drug resistance in cancers by inhibiting the MDR1 efflux pump. Here, we demonstrate that celecoxib increases the sensitivity of bacteria to the antibiotics ampicillin, kanamycin, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin by accumulating the drugs inside the cell, thus reversing MDR in bacteria.

  15. Dimethyl Sulfoxide Protects Escherichia coli from Rapid Antimicrobial-Mediated Killing

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Hongfei; Wang, Dai; Xue, Yunxin; Zhang, Zhi; Hong, Yuzhi; Drlica, Karl

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to antimicrobial lethality was examined by treating Escherichia coli with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), an antioxidant solvent frequently used in antimicrobial studies. DMSO inhibited killing by ampicillin, kanamycin, and two quinolones and had little effect on MICs. DMSO-mediated protection correlated with decreased ROS accumulation and provided evidence for ROS-mediated programmed cell death. These data support the contribution of ROS to antimicrobial lethality and suggest caution when using DMSO-dissolved antimicrobials for short-time killing assays. PMID:27246776

  16. Prevalence of multiple drug resistant Streptococcus suis in and around Guwahati, India.

    PubMed

    Devi, Mrinalee; Dutta, Jyoti B; Rajkhowa, Swaraj; Kalita, Dhireswar; Saikia, Girindra Kumar; Das, Bipin Chandra; Hazarika, Razibuddin Ahmed; Mahato, Gauranga

    2017-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus suis and their resistance patterns isolated from both clinically healthy carriers and diseased pigs in and around Guwahati, Assam, India. A total of 497 samples were collected during October, 2012, to April, 2014, from clinically healthy (n=67) and diseased (n=230) pigs of varying age and either sex maintained under organized and unorganized farming systems. Samples were processed for isolation and identification of S. suis by biochemical characterization and polymerase chain reaction targeting the housekeeping gene glutamate dehydrogenase. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of the recovered isolates against nine antibiotic groups comprising 17 antimicrobial agents was studied by standard method. Of the 497 samples examined, 7 (1.41%) isolates were confirmed to be S. suis of which 5 (1.87%) and 2 (0.87%) were derived from clinically healthy and diseased pigs, respectively. All the isolates were susceptible to gentamicin, amikacin, and erythromycin (100%) followed by the penicillin group and enrofloxacin (85.71%), ceftriaxone, doxycycline HCL, ofloxacin and chloramphenicol (71.43%), to kanamycin, clindamycin and co-trimoxazole (42.85%). The isolates showed least susceptibility to cefalexin, tetracycline and streptomycin (28.57%). All the five S. suis isolates from clinically healthy pigs were susceptible to penicillin G, amoxyclav, doxycycline HCl, gentamicin, amikacin and erythromycin, 80.00% isolates susceptible to ampicillin, enrofloxacin and ofloxacin, 60.00% to ceftriaxone, kanamycin and chloramphenicol, 40% to cefalexin, tetracycline, clindamycin and co-trimoxazole, respectively. Only 20.00% isolates were susceptible to streptomycin. Both the isolates recovered from diseased pigs were susceptible to ampicillin, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, amikacin, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, and clindamycin. On the other hand, both the isolates were resistant to cefalexin

  17. Identification and elimination of bacterial contamination during in vitro propagation of Guadua angustifolia Kunth.

    PubMed

    Nadha, Harleen Kaur; Salwan, Richa; Kasana, Ramesh Chand; Anand, Manju; Sood, Anil

    2012-04-01

    Guadua angustifolia Kunth is a very important bamboo species with significant utility in pharmaceutical, paper, charcoal, and construction industries. Microbial contamination is a major problem encountered during establishment of in vitro cultures of Guadua. This study has been designed to analyze the identity of contaminating bacteria and to develop the strategy to eliminate them during micropropagation of Guadua. We isolated and consequently analyzed partial sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene to identify two contaminating bacteria as (1) Pantoea agglomerans and (2) Pantoea ananatis. In addition, we also- performed antibiotic sensitivity testing on these bacterial isolates. We identified kanamycin and streptomycin sulfate as potentially useful antibiotics in eliminating the contaminating bacteria. We grew shoots on multiplication medium containing BAP (2 mg/l) and adenine sulfate (10 mg/l) supplemented with kanamycin (10 μg/ml) for 10 days and transferred them to fresh medium without antibiotics and found that bacterial growth was inhibited. Moreover, we observed intensive formation of high-quality shoots. Streptomycin sulfate also inhibited bacterial growth but at higher concentration. We also demonstrated that shoots grown in streptomycin sulfate tended to be shorter and had yellow leaves. Thus, we have developed a novel strategy to identify and inhibit intriguing microbial contaminations of (1) Pantoea agglomerans and (2) Pantoea ananatis during establishment of in vitro cultures of Guadua. This would improve in vitro establishment of an important bamboo, Guadua angustifolia Kunth for large scale propagation.

  18. [Construction of transgenic tobacco expressing tomato GGPS2 gene and analysis of its low light tolerance].

    PubMed

    Li, Cuiping; Dong, Weihua; Zhang, Xingguo

    2015-05-01

    To explore the influence of low light on the synthesis of carotenoids, chlorophyll and the adaptability of transgenic plants with tomato Solanum lycopersicon L. GGPS2 gene, we constructed a vector containing a GGPS2 gene with green fluorescent protein (GFP) as report gene under the control of a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and introduced it into tobacco Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Wisconsin 38 by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. PCR analysis of the DNA from kanamycin resistant tobacco indicated that the transgenic tobacco containing the nptII gene, SlaGGPS2 gene and without contamination of Agrobacterium. We also detected the root tip of kanamycin resistant tobacco showing characteristic fluorescence. The contents of carotenoid, chlorophyll and photosynthesis of transgenic tobacco increased in comparison with wild tobacco after low light treatment. In addition, leaf mass per unit area, total dry weight, ratio of root to shoot in transgenic tobacco were all higher than that of the wild tobacco, which proved that the transgenic tobacco could increase the accumulation of biomass and promote it transport to root. The transgenic tobacco with SlaGGPS2 gene can increase the contents of carotenoid, chlorophyll, enhance the photosynthetic rate, promote the biomass accumulation and its distribution to root. Hence, the transgenic tobacco with SlaGGPS2 gene had increased low light tolerance and the SlaGGPS2 gene maybe can be used in other crops.

  19. Clinical and molecular epidemiology of hospital Enterococcus faecium isolates in eastern France. Members of Réseau Franc-Comtois de Lutte contr les Infections Nosocomiales.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, X; Thouverez, M; Bailly, P; Cornette, C; Talon, D

    2000-06-01

    We carried out a surveillance study of Enterococcus faecium isolates in the Franche-Comtéregion of France over three years. Clinical and epidemiological strains were characterized by antibiotype and genotype (pulsed field gel electrophoresis, PFGE). Three case-control studies were performed to identify risk factors for colonization/infection with three defined resistant phenotypes (amoxycillin, high-level gentamicin and high-level kanamycin). The crude incidence of colonization/infection was 0.156%, and 68.8% of cases were classified as hospital-acquired. Incidence did not differ according to the type of hospitalization (middle term or acute care). The urinary tract was the major site of infection. Resistance rates were: 45.8% (amoxycillin), 18.7% (high-level gentamicin), 61.4% (high-level kanamycin) and 3.1% (vancomycin). No isolate produced b-lactamase and one isolate carried the vanA gene. PFGE revealed two major epidemic patterns each including resistant strains isolated in different hospitals and during different periods in the study. Previous antimicrobial treatment was not identified as a risk factor for colonization/infection with any resistant phenotype. Despite the low frequency of vancomycin-resistant isolates in this study, resistant strains were widely disseminated and had characteristics enabling them to persist and spread. If these strains acquired the vanA gene, the risk of an outbreak would be large. So, the prevalence of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium in hospitals should be carefully monitored in the future. Copyright 2000 The Hospital Infection Society.

  20. Integration of E. coli aroG-pheA tandem genes into Corynebacterium glutamicum tyrA locus and its effect on L-phenylalanine biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dong-Xin; Fan, Chang-Sheng; Tao, Ju-Hong; Liang, Guo-Xin; Gao, Shan-E; Wang, Hai-Jiao; Li, Xin; Song, Da-Xin

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of integration of tandem aroG-pheA genes into the tyrA locus of Corynebacterium glutamicum (C. glutamicum) on the production of L-phenylalanine. METHODS: By nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis, five p-fluorophenylalanine (FP)-resistant mutants of C.glutamicum FP were selected. The tyrA gene encoding prephenate dehydrogenase (PDH) of C.glutamicum was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cloned on the plasmid pPR. Kanamycin resistance gene (Km) and the PBF-aroG-pheA-T (GA) fragment of pGA were inserted into tyrA gene to form targeting vectors pTK and pTGAK, respectively. Then, they were transformed into C.glutamicum FP respectively by electroporation. Cultures were screened by a medium containing kanamycin and detected by PCR and phenotype analysis. The transformed strains were used for L-phenylalanine fermentation and enzyme assays. RESULTS: Engineering strains of C.glutamicum (Tyr-) were obtained. Compared with the original strain, the transformed strain C. glutamicum GAK was observed to have the highest elevation of L-phenylalanine production by a 1.71-fold, and 2.9-, 3.36-, and 3.0-fold in enzyme activities of chorismate mutase, prephenate dehydratase and 3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase, respectively. CONCLUSION: Integration of tandem aroG-pheA genes into tyrA locus of C. glutamicum chromosome can disrupt tyrA gene and increase the yield of L-phenylalanine production. PMID:15534933

  1. Rapid molecular screening for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in a resource-limited region of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dan; Liu, Beizhong; Wang, Yufeng; Pang, Yu

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the molecular characteristics of MDR and XDR strains circulating in Chongqing, China. The drug target genes conferring for rifampicin (RIF), isoniazid (INH), ethambutol (EMB), ofloxacin (OFLX) and kanamycin (KAN) resistance were screened by DNA sequencing to determine the mutation frequencies in this area. Drug susceptibility of 208 MDR isolates revealed that 132 (63.46%) were resistant to streptomycin (SM), 96 (46.15%) to ethambutol (EMB), 51 (24.52%) to ofloxacin (OFLX), and 26 (12.50%) to kanamycin (KAN); six (2.88%) isolates had XDR profiles. In comparison with the drug susceptibility phenotype, the sensitivity of drug resistance by DNA sequencing was 91.83% for RIF, 87.50% for INH, 66.67% for EMB, 74.51% for OFLX and 53.85% for KAN resistance. 12.50% of EMB- and 1.27% of OFLX-susceptible isolates were harboured genetic mutations in embB and gyrA, respectively. Our findings demonstrate that the hot-spot regions localised in rpoB, katG and inhA genes serve as excellent markers for the corresponding drug resistance, while EMB, OFLX or KAN drug-resistant TB cases may not be identifiable by scanning embB, gyrA, rrs and eis promoter in Chongqing, indicating that further studies on the drug resistance mechanisms of EMB, OFLX and KAN are urgently needed to elucidate the low sensitivity between genomic substitutions and drug-resistant phenotype. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Optimization of factors influencing microinjection method for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of tomato.

    PubMed

    Vinoth, S; Gurusaravanan, P; Jayabalan, N

    2013-02-01

    A simple and efficient protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of tomato was developed using combination of non-tissue culture and micropropagation systems. Initially, ESAM region of 1-day-old germinated tomato seeds were microinjected for one to five times with Agrobacterium inoculums (OD(600) = 0.2-1.0). The germinated seeds were cocultivated in the MS medium fortified with (0-200 mM) acetosyringone and minimal concentrations of (0-20 mg L(-1)) kanamycin, and the antibiotic concentration was doubled during the second round of selection. Bacterial concentration of OD(600) = 0.6 served as an optimal concentration for infection and the transformation efficiency was significantly higher of about 46.28 %. In another set of experiment, an improved and stable regeneration system was adapted for the explants from the selection medium. Four-day-old double cotyledonary nodal explants were excised from the microinjected seedlings and cultured onto the MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg L(-1) thidiazuron, 1.5 mg L(-1) indole-3-butyric acid, 30 mg L(-1) kanamycin, and 0-1.5 mg L(-1) adenine sulphate. Maximum of 9 out of 13 micropropagated shoots were shown positive to GUS assay. By this technique, the transformation efficiency was increased from 46.28 to 65.90 %. Thus, this paper reports the successful protocol for the mass production of transformants using microinjection and micropropagation techniques.

  3. A prospective study on evaluation of pathogenesis, biofilm formation, antibiotic susceptibility of microbial community in urinary catheter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younis, Khansa Mohammed; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

    2015-09-01

    This study is aimed to isolate, detect biofilm formation ability and antibiotic susceptibility of urinary catheter adherent microorganisms from elderly hospitalized patient at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center. Microorganisms were isolated from three samples of urinary catheters (UC) surface; one of the acute vascular rejection patient (UCB) and two from benign prostate hyperplasia patients (UCC and UCD). A total of 100 isolates was isolated with 35 from UCB, 38 (UCC) and 28 (UCD). Ninety six were identified as Gram-negative bacilli, one Gram-positive bacilli and three yeasts. Results of biofilm forming on sterile foley catheter showed that all the isolates can form biofilm at different degrees; strong biofilm forming: 32% from the 35 isolates (UCB), 25% out of 38 isolates (UCC), 26% out of 28 isolates (UCD). As for moderate biofilm forming; 3% from UCB, 10% from UCC and 2% from UCD. Weak biofilm forming in UCC (3%). The antibiotic susceptibility for (UCB) isolates showed highly resistant to ampicillin, novobiocin and penicillin 100 (%), kanamycin (97%), tetracycline (94%), chloramphenicol (91%), streptomycin (77%) and showed low level of resistance to gentamycin (17%), while all the isolates from (UCC-D) showed high resistant towards ampicillin and penicillin, novobiocin (94%), tetracycline (61%), streptomycin (53%), gentamycin (50%) and low level of resistance to kanamycin (48%), chloramphenicol (47%). The findings indicate that these isolates can spread within the community on urinary catheters surface and produce strong biofilm, therefore, monitoring antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria isolated in the aggregation is recommended.

  4. Screen of FDA-approved drug library reveals compounds that protect hair cells from aminoglycosides and cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Vlasits, Anna L.; Simon, Julian A.; Raible, David W.; Rubel, Edwin W; Owens, Kelly N.

    2012-01-01

    Loss of mechanosensory hair cells in the inner ear accounts for many hearing loss and balance disorders. Several beneficial pharmaceutical drugs cause hair cell death as a side effect. These include aminoglycoside antibiotics, such as neomycin, kanamycin and gentamicin, and several cancer chemotherapy drugs, such as cisplatin. Discovering new compounds that protect mammalian hair cells from toxic insults is experimentally difficult because of the inaccessibility of the inner ear. We used the zebrafish lateral line sensory system as an in vivo screening platform to survey a library of FDA-approved pharmaceuticals for compounds that protect hair cells from neomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin and cisplatin. Ten compounds were identified that provide protection from at least two of the four toxins. The resulting compounds fall into several drug classes, including serotonin and dopamine-modulating drugs, adrenergic receptor ligands, and estrogen receptor modulators. The protective compounds show different effects against the different toxins, supporting the idea that each toxin causes hair cell death by distinct, but partially overlapping, mechanisms. Furthermore, some compounds from the same drug classes had different protective properties, suggesting that they might not prevent hair cell death by their known target mechanisms. Some protective compounds blocked gentamicin uptake into hair cells, suggesting that they may block mechanotransduction or other routes of entry. The protective compounds identified in our screen will provide a starting point for studies in mammals as well as further research discovering the cellular signaling pathways that trigger hair cell death. PMID:22967486

  5. Dimethyl Sulfoxide Protects Escherichia coli from Rapid Antimicrobial-Mediated Killing.

    PubMed

    Mi, Hongfei; Wang, Dai; Xue, Yunxin; Zhang, Zhi; Niu, Jianjun; Hong, Yuzhi; Drlica, Karl; Zhao, Xilin

    2016-08-01

    The contribution of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to antimicrobial lethality was examined by treating Escherichia coli with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), an antioxidant solvent frequently used in antimicrobial studies. DMSO inhibited killing by ampicillin, kanamycin, and two quinolones and had little effect on MICs. DMSO-mediated protection correlated with decreased ROS accumulation and provided evidence for ROS-mediated programmed cell death. These data support the contribution of ROS to antimicrobial lethality and suggest caution when using DMSO-dissolved antimicrobials for short-time killing assays. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Lyme disease: a selective medium for isolation of the suspected etiological agent, a spirochete.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, S E; Klein, G C; Schmid, G P; Bowen, G S; Feeley, J C; Schulze, T

    1984-01-01

    A simple procedure with a new selective culture medium for the isolation of the suspected etiological agent of Lyme disease from ticks is described. Live ticks (Ixodes dammini) were ground with a mortar and pestle, and the suspensions were inoculated into a selective and nonselective medium. The selective medium, which contained kanamycin and 5-fluorouracil, yielded positive spirochete cultures from 100% of the pooled ticks and from 79% of the single tick specimens. The isolation rate for the nonselective medium was 0% from the tick pools and 58% from the single tick specimens. PMID:6361065

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility and serotypes of Actinobacillus (Haemophilus) pleuropneumoniae recovered from Missouri swine.

    PubMed

    Fales, W H; Morehouse, L G; Mittal, K R; Bean-Knudsen, C; Nelson, S L; Kintner, L D; Turk, J R; Turk, M A; Brown, T P; Shaw, D P

    1989-01-01

    The antimicrobial susceptibility of 73 Actinobacillus (Haemophilus) pleuropneumoniae isolates from swine in Missouri was determined with a microdilution minimal inhibitory concentration test system. Serotyping was accomplished by means of co-agglutination. Serotype 1 (39/73) and serotype 5 (30/73) were commonly found, whereas serotype 7 (4/73) was infrequently encountered. Most isolates (MIC90) were found susceptible to ampicillin (amoxicillin), cephalothin, penicillin, erythromycin, gentamicin, and kanamycin. Marked resistance was found with oxytetracycline, tylosin, and sulfadimethoxine. The data indicate that use of ampicillin (amoxicillin) or penicillin may correlate well with the favorable outcome of treatment.

  8. Transfected Cell Microarrays for the Expression of Membrane-Displayed Single-Chain Antibodies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    v) yeast extract, 0.005% (w/v) NaCl, and 50 μg/ml kanamycin. The broth was stored at 4◦C for up to 3 months. 4. QIAGEN Plasmid Midi kit (Qiagen) or...ampi- cillin. The broth was stored at 4◦C for up to 3 months. 16. QIAprep spin miniprep kit and QIAGEN Plasmid Midi kit (Qiagen) or PureYield Plasmid...was stored at 4◦C for up to 3 months. 8. QIAGEN Plasmid Midi kit (Qiagen) or PureYield Plasmid Midiprep System (Promega Corp.) was stored at room tem

  9. Characterization of multiple antibiotic resistance of culturable microorganisms and metagenomic analysis of total microbial diversity of marine fish sold in retail shops in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Naik, Onkar A; Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Rath, Devashish; Bandekar, Jayant R; Rath, Archana

    2018-03-01

    Marine fish species were analyzed for culturable and total metagenomic microbial diversity, antibiotic resistance (AR) pattern, and horizontal gene transfer in culturable microorganisms. We observed a high AR microbial load of 3 to 4 log CFU g -1 . Many fish pathogens like Providencia, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter, Vagococcus, and Aeromonas veronii were isolated. Photobacterium and Vibrio were two major fish and human pathogens which were identified in the fish metagenome. Other pathogens that were identified were Shewanella, Acinetobacter, Psychrobacter, and Flavobacterium. Most of these pathogens were resistant to multiple antibiotics such as erythromycin, kanamycin, neomycin, streptomycin, penicillin, cefotaxime, bacitracin, rifampicin, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, and doxycycline with a high multiple antibiotic resistance index of 0.54-0.77. The fish microflora showed high prevalence of AR genes like bla TEM , Class I integron, tetA, aph(3')-IIIa, ermB, aadA, and sul1. Nineteen of 26 AR isolates harbored Class I integrons showing high co-resistance to trimethoprim, kanamycin, doxycycline, and cefotaxime. Mobile R-plasmids from 6 of the 12 AR pathogens were transferred to recipient E. coli after conjugation. The transconjugants harbored the same R-plasmid carrying bla CTX-M , dfr1, tetA, bla TEM , and cat genes. This study confirms that fish is a potential carrier of AR pathogens which can enter the human gut via food chain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in the Indian subcontinent reporting a direct evidence of spread of AR pathogens to humans from specific marine fish consumption.

  10. Transgenic loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plants expressing a modified delta-endotoxin gene of Bacillus thuringiensis with enhanced resistance to Dendrolimus punctatus Walker and Crypyothelea formosicola Staud.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei; Tian, Yingchuan

    2003-02-01

    A synthetic version of the CRY1Ac gene of Bacillus thuringiensis has been used for the transformation of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) using particle bombardment. Mature zygotic embryos were used to be bombarded and to generate organogenic callus and transgenic regenerated plants. Expression vector pB48.215 DNA contained a synthetic Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) CRY1Ac coding sequence flanked by the double cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator sequences, and the neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) gene controlled by the promoter of the nopaline synthase gene was introduced into loblolly pine tissues by particle bombardment. The transformed tissues were proliferated and selected on media with kanamycin. Shoot regeneration was induced from the kanamycin-resistant calli, and transgenic plantlets were then produced. More than 60 transformed plants from independent transformation events were obtained for each loblolly pine genotype tested. The integration and expression of the introduced genes in the transgenic loblolly pine plants was confirmed by polymerase chain reactions (PCR) analysis, by Southern hybridization, by Northern blot analysis, and by Western blot analysis. Effective resistance of transgenic plants against Dendrolimus punctatus Walker and Crypyothelea formosicola Staud was verified in feeding bioassays with the insects. The transgenic plants recovered could represent a good opportunity to analyse the impact of genetic engineering of pine for sustainable resistance to pests using a B. thuringiensis insecticidal protein. This protocol enabled the routine transformation of loblolly pine plants that were previously difficult to transform.

  11. Evaluation of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST Kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl Test for Detecting Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis Cases.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Kemal; Albay, Ali; Simsek, Hulya; Sig, Ali Korhan; Guney, Mustafa

    2017-10-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the performances of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl test for detecting second-line antituberculosis drug resistance in Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases. Forty-six MDR-TB strains were studied. Second-line antituberculosis drug resistances were detected using the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl test. The Middlebrook 7H10 agar proportion method was used as the reference test. The sensitivity and specificity values for the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit were both 100% for amikacin, kanamycin, capreomycin (4 µg/mL), and ofloxacin; 100% and 95.3%, respectively, for capreomycin (10 µg/mL); and 85.7% and 100%, respectively, for moxifloxacin (0.5 µg/mL). The sensitivity and specificity values for the GenoType MTBDRsl test to detect fluoroquinolone and aminoglycoside/cyclic peptide resistance were 88.9% and 100%, respectively, for ofloxacin and 85.7% and 94.9%, respectively, for moxifloxacin (0.5 µg/mL). The accuracy of the GenoType MTBDRsl assay for kanamycin, capreomycin, ofloxacin, and moxifloxacin was lower than that of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST. The BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl were successful in detecting second-line antituberculosis drug resistance. Preliminary results of the GenoType MTBDRsl are very valuable for early treatment decisions, but we still recommend additional BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit usage in the routine evaluation of drug-resistant tuberculosis.

  12. Evaluation of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST Kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl Test for Detecting Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis Cases

    PubMed Central

    Tekin, Kemal; Albay, Ali; Simsek, Hulya; Sig, Ali Korhan; Guney, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the performances of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl test for detecting second-line antituberculosis drug resistance in Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases. Materials and Methods: Forty-six MDR-TB strains were studied. Second-line antituberculosis drug resistances were detected using the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl test. The Middlebrook 7H10 agar proportion method was used as the reference test. Results: The sensitivity and specificity values for the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit were both 100% for amikacin, kanamycin, capreomycin (4 µg/mL), and ofloxacin; 100% and 95.3%, respectively, for capreomycin (10 µg/mL); and 85.7% and 100%, respectively, for moxifloxacin (0.5 µg/mL). The sensitivity and specificity values for the GenoType MTBDRsl test to detect fluoroquinolone and aminoglycoside/cyclic peptide resistance were 88.9% and 100%, respectively, for ofloxacin and 85.7% and 94.9%, respectively, for moxifloxacin (0.5 µg/mL). The accuracy of the GenoType MTBDRsl assay for kanamycin, capreomycin, ofloxacin, and moxifloxacin was lower than that of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST. Conclusion: The BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl were successful in detecting second-line antituberculosis drug resistance. Preliminary results of the GenoType MTBDRsl are very valuable for early treatment decisions, but we still recommend additional BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit usage in the routine evaluation of drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:29123441

  13. Evidence on Possible Mycoplasma Etiology of Aster Yellows Disease II. Suppression of Aster Yellows in Insect Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Whitcomb, R. F.; Davis, R. E.

    1970-01-01

    Chlortetracycline or chloramphenicol (but not kanamycin, penicillin, or erythromycin), when administered in hydroponic solution to diseased aster, reduced the availability of the aster yellows (AY) agent to nymphs of Macrosteles fascifrons (Stål). Insects exposed to healthy plants whose roots were immersed in chlortetracycline were able to acquire AY agent from diseased plants the day after removal from the antibiotic-treated plants, but the latent period of the ensuing disease in the insects was prolonged. Chlortetracycline or tylosin tartrate blocked AY infection in nymphs injected with a mixture of antibiotic and the AY agent, but polymyxin, neomycin, vancomycin, penicillin, carbomycin, or chloramphenicol did not. All tetracyclines tested, methacycline, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline, produced a dramatic reduction in the ability of infected vectors to transmit AY agent. Tylosin tartrate also reduced transmission when injected into AY-transmitting vectors, but carbomycin, spectinomycin, cycloserine, penicillin, erythromycin, or kanamycin had no such effect. During the first 10 days after injection of tylosin tartrate or oxytetracycline into transmitting vectors, ability of the insects to transmit AY decayed rapidly. Transmission by insects injected with buffer alone, after decreasing the first day after injection, gradually returned to its normal level in less than 1 week. By 2 to 3 weeks after injection with tylosin or oxytetracycline, ability to transmit AY was regained by vectors. The results suggest that tetracycline antibiotics and tylosin tartrate inhibit multiplication of AY agent in the insect. The spectrum of antibiotic activity in the insect is consistent with the hypothesis that AY and other plant yellows diseases are caused by mycoplasma-like organisms. PMID:16557821

  14. Sub-inhibitory concentrations of gentamicin triggers the expression of aac(6')Ie-aph(2″)Ia, chaperons and biofilm related genes in Lactobacillus plantarum MCC 3011.

    PubMed

    George, Jaimee; Halami, Prakash Motiram

    2017-10-01

    The study aimed to analyze the effects of sub-inhibitory concentrations of gentamicin on the expressions of high level aminoglycoside resistant (HLAR) bifunctional aac(6')Ie-aph(2″)Ia, biofilm and chaperone genes in Lactobacillus plantarum. The analysis of the biofilm formation in five isolates obtained from chicken sausages indicated their role in exhibiting phenotypic resistance based on the varied MIC values despite carrying the bifunctional gene. The biofilm formation significantly increased when L. plantarum MCC 3011 was grown in sub-inhibitory concentrations of gentamicin (4 μg/ml), kanamycin (8 μg/ml) and streptomycin (2 μg/ml). Thirty day gentamicin selection increased minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values from 4 to 64 and 2 to 256 fold for gentamicin and kanamycin, respectively when compared to the parental cultures. Expression studies revealed that constant exposure to gentamicin had induced chaperon [groEL] and the bifunctional gene, aac(6')Ie-aph(2″)Ia upto nine fold. Induction of groEL, groES and lamC genes in gentamicin (4 μg/ml) preincubated MCC 3011 indicated their significant role in aminoglycoside mediated response. Our study indicates that constant exposure to sub inhibitory concentrations of gentamicin allows L. plantarum to adapt against higher doses of aminoglycosides. This highlights the risks and food safety issues associated with the use of aminoglycosides in livestock and consumption of farm oriented fermented food products. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Improved Yield of High Molecular Weight Hyaluronic Acid Production in a Stable Strain of Streptococcus zooepidemicus via the Elimination of the Hyaluronidase-Encoding Gene.

    PubMed

    Pourzardosht, Navid; Rasaee, Mohammad Javad

    2017-06-01

    Despite the significant potential of Streptococcus zooepidemicus for hyaluronic acid (HA) production with high molecular weight (MW), the HA degrading properties of hyaluronidase prevents the bacteria to achieve enhanced HA yield with high MW. In the present study, we aim to knockout the hyaluronidase enzyme and assess its effects on the yield and MW of the produced HA. The kanamycin resistance gene between the left and right arms of hyaluronidase gene was inserted into pUC18 plasmid to construct pUC18-L-kana r -R as a recombinant suicide plasmid. The construct was then transferred into S. zooepidemicus to induce the homologous recombination between the hyaluronidase gene and the kanamycin resistance gene. Gene deletion was confirmed by PCR and enzyme assay. The product was cultured on selectable medium in which the MW of HA was increased from 1.5 to 3.8 MDa. The yield of HA production using the mutant strain was higher in all different concentrations of glucose from 40 to 120 g/l. Moreover, glucose increase results in higher HA production within both wild-type and recombinant strains. However, the growth rate of HA concentration (the slope of the plot), as a consequence of increased glucose concentration, is always higher for the recombinant strain. Unlike the wild-type strain, there was no sharp HA production drop approaching the 6 g/l HA concentration. In conclusion, hyaluronidase activity and HA concentration and MW exhibited a mutual control on each other. Based on our results, deletion of the hyaluronidase gene positively affects the yield and MW of HA.

  16. [Changes in ion transport through membranes, ATPase activity and antibiotics effects in Enterococcus hirae after low intensity electromagnetic irradiation of 51,8 and 53,0 GHz frequencies].

    PubMed

    Torgomian, É; Oganian, V; Blbulian, C; Trchunian, A

    2013-01-01

    It was ascertained that one-hour exposure of Enterococcus hirae ATCC9790 bacteria grown under anaerobe condition during sugar (glucose) fermentation to coherent electromagnetic irradiation (EMI) of 51,8 and 53,0 GHz frequencies or millimeter waves (5,79 and 5,66 mm wavelengths) of low-intensity (flux capacity of 0,06 mW/sm2) caused a significant decrease in energy-dependent H+ and K+ transports across the membranes of whole cells. Therewith, K+ influx into cells was appreciably less at the frequency of 53,0 GHz. Likewise, a significant decrease of total and N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-sensitive ATPase activity of the membrane vesicles occurred after EMI of 51,8 and 53,0 GHz. These results indicated the input of membranous changes in bacterial action of low intensity extremely high frequency EMI, when the F0F1-ATPase was probably playing a key role. Additionally, the enhancement of the effects of antibiotics--ceftriaxone, kanamycin and ampicillin at their minimal inhibitory concentrations (100, 200 and 1,4 microM, correspondingly) on the bacterial growth by these irradiations was shown. Also, combined action of EMI and antibiotics depressed strongly H+ and K+ fluxes across membrane. Especially, H+ flux was more sensitive to the action of ceftriaxone, but K+ flux was sensitive to kanamycin. All these made the assumption that EMI of 51,8 and 53,0 GHz frequencies, especially 53,0 GHz, was followed by change in bacterial sensitivity toward antibiotics that was more obvious with ceftriaxone and ampicillin.

  17. Prevalence of resistance to second-line tuberculosis drug among multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients in Viet Nam, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Huong Thi Giang; Bui, Quyen Thi Tu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) represents an emerging public health problem worldwide. According to the World Health Organization, an estimated 9.7% of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases are defined as XDR-TB globally. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of drug resistance to second-line TB drugs among MDR-TB cases detected in the Fourth National Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Survey in Viet Nam. Methods Eighty clusters of TB cases were selected using a probability-proportion-to-size approach. To identify MDR-TB cases, drug susceptibility testing (DST) was performed for the four major first-line TB drugs. DST of second-line drugs (ofloxacin, amikacin, kanamycin, capreomycin) was performed on isolates from MDR-TB cases to identify pre-XDR and XDR cases. Results A total of 1629 smear-positive TB cases were eligible for culture and DST. Of those, DST results for first-line drugs were available for 1312 cases, and 91 (6.9%) had MDR-TB. Second-line DST results were available for 84 of these cases. Of those, 15 cases (17.9%) had ofloxacin resistance and 6.0% were resistant to kanamycin and capreomycin. Five MDR-TB cases (6.0%) met the criteria of XDR-TB. Conclusion This survey provides the first estimates of the proportion of XDR-TB among MDR-TB cases in Viet Nam and provides important information for local policies regarding second-line DST. Local policies and programmes that are geared towards TB prevention, early diagnosis and treatment with effective regimens are of high importance. PMID:27508089

  18. Prevalence of resistance to second-line tuberculosis drug among multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients in Viet Nam, 2011.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hoa Binh; Nguyen, Nhung Viet; Tran, Huong Thi Giang; Nguyen, Hai Viet; Bui, Quyen Thi Tu

    2016-01-01

    Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) represents an emerging public health problem worldwide. According to the World Health Organization, an estimated 9.7% of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases are defined as XDR-TB globally. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of drug resistance to second-line TB drugs among MDR-TB cases detected in the Fourth National Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Survey in Viet Nam. Eighty clusters of TB cases were selected using a probability-proportion-to-size approach. To identify MDR-TB cases, drug susceptibility testing (DST) was performed for the four major first-line TB drugs. DST of second-line drugs (ofloxacin, amikacin, kanamycin, capreomycin) was performed on isolates from MDR-TB cases to identify pre-XDR and XDR cases. A total of 1629 smear-positive TB cases were eligible for culture and DST. Of those, DST results for first-line drugs were available for 1312 cases, and 91 (6.9%) had MDR-TB. Second-line DST results were available for 84 of these cases. Of those, 15 cases (17.9%) had ofloxacin resistance and 6.0% were resistant to kanamycin and capreomycin. Five MDR-TB cases (6.0%) met the criteria of XDR-TB. This survey provides the first estimates of the proportion of XDR-TB among MDR-TB cases in Viet Nam and provides important information for local policies regarding second-line DST. Local policies and programmes that are geared towards TB prevention, early diagnosis and treatment with effective regimens are of high importance.

  19. Clinical investigation of vestibular damage by antituberculous drugs.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, M; Natori, Y; Tachi, H; Yoshizawa, M; Takayama, S; Miura, H; Kanayama, M; Kamei, T

    1986-01-01

    Vestibular function testing was done regularly on the cases given streptomycin, kanamycin, or enviomycin and a method to detect the cases of vestibular dysfunction at an early stage was discussed, as well as the time these drugs should be discontinued. Subjects were 85 cases of tuberculosis treated with streptomycin, kanamycin, or enviomycin who were admitted to our hospital from December 1984 to May 1986. The method of equilibrium examination performed at regular intervals is as follows: standing test (Romberg test), stepping test, and Meyer zum Gottesberge's head-shaking test were done once a week for a month after starting antituberculous injections and they were re-examined once every 2 weeks for at least 3 months after beginning the injections. After the 3 months these tests were done once a month. Eight cases of vestibular damage due to streptomycin or enviomycin could be easily detected at an early stage by performing Meyer zum Gottesberge's head-shaking test, together with the standing test and the stepping test. Vestibular dysfunction is apt to occur after about 1 month or within a month from the start of daily injections especially with streptomycin. Therefore, the method of equilibrium examination, we suggest, is that the Meyer zum Gottesberge's head-shaking test, the standing test (Romberg test), and the stepping test should be performed once a week during the first month after the start of this drug. When the result of the Meyer zum Gottesberge's head-shaking test is less than 50% and swaying and/or rotation occur in the stepping test, the drugs being given should be discontinued.

  20. Antimicrobial Resistance Percentages of Salmonella and Shigella in Seafood Imported to Jordan: Higher Percentages and More Diverse Profiles in Shigella.

    PubMed

    Obaidat, Mohammad M; Bani Salman, Alaa E

    2017-03-01

    This study determined the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of human-specific ( Shigella spp.) and zoonotic ( Salmonella enterica ) foodborne pathogens in internationally traded seafood. Sixty-four Salmonella and 61 Shigella isolates were obtained from 330 imported fresh fish samples from Egypt, Yemen, and India. The pathogens were isolated on selective media, confirmed by PCR, and tested for antimicrobial resistance. Approximately 79 and 98% of the Salmonella and Shigella isolates, respectively, exhibited resistance to at least one antimicrobial, and 8 and 49% exhibited multidrug resistance (resistance to three or more antimicrobial classes). Generally, Salmonella exhibited high resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cephalothin, streptomycin, and ampicillin; very low resistance to kanamycin, tetracycline, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and ciprofloxacin; and no resistance to ceftriaxone. Meanwhile, Shigella spp. exhibited high resistance to tetracycline, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cephalothin, streptomycin, and ampicillin; low resistance to kanamycin, nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and ceftriaxone; and very low resistance to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. Salmonella isolates exhibited 14 resistance profiles, Shigella isolates 42. This study is novel in showing that a human-specific pathogen has higher antimicrobial resistance percentages and more diverse profiles than a zoonotic pathogen. Thus, the impact of antimicrobial use in humans is as significant as, if not more significant than, it is in animals in spreading antibiotic resistance through food. This study also demonstrates that locally derived antimicrobial resistance can spread and pose a public health risk worldwide through seafood trade and that high resistance would make a possible outbreak difficult to control. So, capacity building and monitoring harvest water areas are encouraged in fish producing countries.

  1. Deciphering the details of RNA aminoglycoside interactions: from atomistic models to biotechnological applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ilgu, Muslum

    A detailed study was done of the neomycin-B RNA aptamer for determining its selectivity and binding ability to both neomycin– and kanamycin-class aminoglycosides. A novel method to increase drug concentrations in cells for more efficiently killing is described. To test the method, a bacterial model system was adopted and several small RNA molecules interacting with aminoglycosides were cloned downstream of T7 RNA polymerase promoter in an expression vector. Then, the growth analysis of E. coli expressing aptamers was observed for 12-hour period. Our analysis indicated that aptamers helped to increase the intracellular concentration of aminoglycosides thereby increasing their efficacy.

  2. High Efficiency Transformation of Cultured Tobacco Cells 1

    PubMed Central

    An, Gynheung

    1985-01-01

    Tobacco calli were transformed at levels up to 50% by cocultivation of tobacco cultured cells with Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring the binary transfer-DNA vector, pGA472, containing a kanamycin resistance marker. Transformation frequency was dependent on the physiological state of the tobacco cells, the nature of Agrobacterium strain and, less so, on the expression of the vir genes of the tumor-inducing plasmid. Maximum transformation frequency was obtained with exponentially growing plant cells, suggesting that rapid growth of plant cells is an essental factor for efficient transformation of higher plants. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16664453

  3. Prophylactic non-absorbable antibiotics in leukaemic patients.

    PubMed Central

    King, K.

    1980-01-01

    A regimen of oral non-absorbable prophylactic antibiotics (kanamycin-vancomycin-nystatin) was given to nine severely neutropaenic leukaemic patients on cytotoxic therapy (11 courses), in conjunction with isolation procedures. An appreciable decrease in faecal organisms, especially anaerobes, was apparent after 48 h of commencing the course, and most bacteria had disappeared from the stool after five days. There were three episodes of septicaemia, all with enteric organisms, whilst on these antibiotics; one proved fatal. The emergence of resistance to aminoglycosides in faecal flora, notably Klebsiella, in 6/11 courses constituted a major problem in the use of such prophylaxis. PMID:7052229

  4. Prophylactic non-absorbable antibiotics in leukaemic patients.

    PubMed

    King, K

    1980-08-01

    A regimen of oral non-absorbable prophylactic antibiotics (kanamycin-vancomycin-nystatin) was given to nine severely neutropaenic leukaemic patients on cytotoxic therapy (11 courses), in conjunction with isolation procedures. An appreciable decrease in faecal organisms, especially anaerobes, was apparent after 48 h of commencing the course, and most bacteria had disappeared from the stool after five days. There were three episodes of septicaemia, all with enteric organisms, whilst on these antibiotics; one proved fatal. The emergence of resistance to aminoglycosides in faecal flora, notably Klebsiella, in 6/11 courses constituted a major problem in the use of such prophylaxis.

  5. Serotyping, Genotyping, and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale Isolates from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Peña-Vargas, Edgar Rafael; Vega-Sánchez, Vicente; Morales-Erasto, Vladimir; Trujillo-Ruíz, Héctor Hugo; Talavera-Rojas, Martín; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2016-09-01

    The bacterium Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale is associated with respiratory disease and septicemia in poultry. In this study, 9 reference strains and a total of 23 isolates of O. rhinotracheale from respiratory diseased poultry from Mexico were serotyped and genotyped. Furthermore, the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates and reference strains of O. rhinotracheale were determined. All isolates belong to serotype A and showed a clonal relationship. All reference strains and isolates were resistant to colistin, fosfomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. These results should eventually be helpful in planning strategies for the control of O. rhinotracheale infections in poultry in Mexico.

  6. Streptomycin interference in Jaffe reaction - possible false positive creatinine estimation in excessive dose exposure.

    PubMed

    Syal, Kirtimaan; Srinivasan, Anand; Banerjee, Dibyajyoti

    2013-01-01

    To study the potential of commonly used aminoglycoside antibiotics to form non-creatinine chromogen with alkaline picrate reagent. We studied the non-creatinine chromogen formation of various concentrations of streptomycin, amikacin, kanamycin, netilmicin, gentamicin and tobramycin added to known creatinine concentrations by the Jaffe reaction based creatinine estimation. Only streptomycin above therapeutic concentrations of 10mg/mL interfered in the Jaffe reaction and acted as non-creatinine chromogen. Therapeutic doses of the aminoglycosides do not form non-creatinine chromogens. Copyright © 2012 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Conjugal transfer of aac(6')Ie-aph(2″)Ia gene from native species and mechanism of regulation and cross resistance in Enterococcus faecalis MCC3063 by real time-PCR.

    PubMed

    Jaimee, G; Halami, P M

    2017-09-01

    High level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) in the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) derived from food animals is detrimental. The aim of this study was to investigate the localization and conjugal transfer of aminoglycoside resistance genes, aac(6')Ie-aph(2″)Ia and aph(3')IIIa in different Enterococcus species. The cross resistance patterns in Enterococcus faecalis MCC3063 to clinically important aminoglycosides by real time PCR were also studied. Southern hybridization experiments revealed the presence of aac(6')Ie-aph(2 ″ )Ia and aph(3')IIIa genes conferring HLAR in high molecular weight plasmids except in Lactobacillus plantarum. The plasmid encoded bifunctional aac(6')Ie-aph(2″)Ia gene was transferable from Enterococcus avium (n = 2), E. cecorum (n = 1), E. faecalis (n = 1) and Pediococcus lolii (n = 1) species into the recipient strain; E. faecalis JH2-2 by filter mating experiments thus indicating the possible risks of gene transfer into pathogenic strains. Molecular analysis of cross resistance patterns in native isolate of E. faecalis MCC3063 carrying aac(6')Ie-aph(2″)Ia and aph(3')IIIa gene was displayed by quantification of the mRNA levels in this study. For this, the culture was induced with increasing concentrations of gentamicin, kanamycin and streptomycin (2048, 4096, 8192, 16384 μg/mL) individually. The increasing concentrations of gentamicin and kanamycin induced the expression of the aac(6')Ie-aph(2″)Ia and aph(3')IIIa resistance genes, respectively. Interestingly, it was observed that induction with streptomycin triggered a significant fold increase in the expression of the aph(3')IIIa gene which otherwise was not known to modify the aminoglycoside. This is noteworthy as streptomycin was found to confer cross resistance to structurally unrelated kanamycin. Also, expression of the aph(3')IIIa gene when induced with streptomycin, revealed that bacteria harbouring this gene will be able to overcome streptomycin bactericidal action at

  8. Increasing Prevalence of Aminoglycoside-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis Isolates Due to the aac(6')-aph(2") Gene: A Therapeutic Problem in Kermanshah, Iran.

    PubMed

    Khani, Mitra; Fatollahzade, Mahdie; Pajavand, Hamid; Bakhtiari, Somaye; Abiri, Ramin

    2016-03-01

    Enterococci are important pathogens in nosocomial infections. Various types of antibiotics, such as aminoglycosides, are used for treatment of these infections. Enterococci can acquire resistant traits, which can lead to therapeutic problems with aminoglycosides. This study was designed to identify the prevalence of, and to compare, the aac(6')-aph(2") and aph(3)-IIIa genes and their antimicrobial resistance patterns among Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium isolates from patients at Imam Reza hospital in Kermanshah in 2011 - 2012. One hundred thirty-eight clinical specimens collected from different wards of Imam Reza hospital were identified to the species level by biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests against kanamycin, teicoplanin, streptomycin, imipenem, ciprofloxacin, and ampicillin were performed by the disk diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of gentamicin, streptomycin, kanamycin, and amikacin were evaluated with the microbroth dilution method. The aminoglycoside resistance genes aac(6')-aph(2") and aph(3")-IIIa were analyzed with multiplex PCR. The prevalence of isolates was 33 (24.1%) for E. faecium and 63 (46%) for E. faecalis. Eighty-nine percent of the isolates were high-level gentamicin resistant (HLGR), and 32.8% of E. faecium isolates and 67.2% of E. faecalis isolates carried aac(6')-aph(2"). The prevalence of aph(3")-IIIa among the E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates was 22.7% and 77.3%, respectively. Remarkably increased incidence of aac(6')-aph(2") among HLGR isolates explains the relationship between this gene and the high level of resistance to aminoglycosides. As the resistant gene among enterococci can be transferred, the use of new-generation antibiotics is necessary.

  9. A Novel Prokaryotic Green Fluorescent Protein Expression System for Testing Gene Editing Tools Activity Like Zinc Finger Nuclease.

    PubMed

    Sabzehei, Faezeh; Kouhpayeh, Shirin; Dastjerdeh, Mansoureh Shahbazi; Khanahmad, Hossein; Salehi, Rasoul; Naderi, Shamsi; Taghizadeh, Razieh; Rabiei, Parisa; Hejazi, Zahra; Shariati, Laleh

    2017-01-01

    Gene editing technology has created a revolution in the field of genome editing. The three of the most famous tools in gene editing technology are zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), and CRISPR-associated systems. As their predictable nature, it is necessary to assess their efficiency. There are some methods for this purpose, but most of them are time labor and complicated. Here, we introduce a new prokaryotic reporter system, which makes it possible to evaluate the efficiency of gene editing tools faster, cheaper, and simpler than previous methods. At first, the target sites of a custom ZFN, which is designed against a segment of ampicillin resistance gene, were cloned on both sides of green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene to construct pPRO-GFP. Then pPRO-GFP was transformed into Escherichia coli TOP10F' that contains pZFN (contains expression cassette of a ZFN against ampicillin resistant gene), or p15A-KanaR as a negative control. The transformed bacteria were cultured on three separate media that contained ampicillin, kanamycin, and ampicillin + kanamycin; then the resulted colonies were assessed by flow cytometry. The results of flow cytometry showed a significant difference between the case (bacteria contain pZFN) and control (bacteria contain p15A, KanaR) in MFI (Mean Fluorescence Intensity) ( P < 0.0001). According to ZFN efficiency, it can bind and cut the target sites, the bilateral cutting can affect the intensity of GFP fluorescence. Our flow cytometry results showed that this ZFN could reduce the intensity of GFP color and colony count of bacteria in media containing amp + kana versus control sample.

  10. Koserella trabulsii, a new genus and species of Enterobacteriaceae formerly known as Enteric Group 45.

    PubMed Central

    Hickman-Brenner, F W; Huntley-Carter, G P; Fanning, G R; Brenner, D J; Farmer, J J

    1985-01-01

    The name Koserella trabulsii is proposed for a group of Enterobacteriaceae formerly called Enteric Group 45. This group consists of 12 strains that were originally identified as atypical Hafnia alvei. K. trabulsii strains were negative for indole production, Voges-Proskauer, H2S production, urea hydrolysis, phenylalanine deaminase, and acid production from glycerol, lactose, sucrose, and D-sorbitol; they were positive for methyl red, citrate (Simmons), lysine and ornithine decarboxylases, arginine dihydrolase (negative in 1 to 2 days and positive in 3 to 7 days), and acid production from cellobiose and melibiose; and they were resistant to the Hafnia-specific bacteriophage of Guinée and Valkenburg. They were tested for DNA relatedness by the hydroxyapatite method with 32PO4-labeled DNA from the designated type strain (CDC 3349-72, ATCC 35313). The 12 strains were 87 to 99% related in 60 degrees C reactions. Relatedness of K. trabulsii to 71 DNA hybridization reference strains of representative species of Enterobacteriaceae was 4 to 37%. It was 15 to 16% related to H. alvei. All strains were susceptible to nalidixic acid, sulfadiazine, gentamicin, kanamycin, and chloramphenicol, and 83% were susceptible to nalidixic acid, sulfadiazine, gentamicin, kanamycin, and chloramphenicol, and 83% were susceptible to tetracycline. Most of the strains were resistant or intermediate to penicillin, ampicillin, carbenicillin, colistin, and cephalothin. Five of the strains were isolated from wounds, three were from the respiratory tract, and one each was from a stool, knee fluid, water, and an unknown source. The clinical significance of this organism is not known; therefore, future studies should focus on its isolation and its relationship to human disease. PMID:3968202

  11. [Interrelation of the antibiotic sensitivity (resistance) of staphylococci, clinical forms of the infection and production of protein A].

    PubMed

    Fomenko, G A

    1984-06-01

    Two hundred and thirty-two strains of Staph. aureus isolated from patients with staphylococcal infections were studied. The strains were isolated from the blood of patients with sepsis, from the purulent foci on the skin and in the subcutaneous fat, from the nasopharyngeal mucosa of patients with tonsillitis and inflammation of the upper respiratory tract, from the sputum of patients with the pneumonia signs and from the pus of patients with otitis. The pathogens were identified with the routine methods. The quantitative content of protein A in the strains was determined by the method of indirect hemagglutination with red blood cells sensitized with the hemolytic serum. The data obtained were analysed with regard to the strain group and characteristics of the strain resistance or sensitivity to benzylpenicillin, erythromycin, oleandomycin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, neomycin, kanamycin, monomycin, ristomycin and furagin K. Statistically significant differences in the protein A content in certain strain groups were observed. These differences might be correlated with the strain antibiotic resistance but not sensitivity. Pronounced changes in the levels of protein A were detected in the staphylococcal hemocultures resistant to erythromycin and streptomycin. The cultures resistant to erythromycin were characterized by decreased content of protein A and those resistant to streptomycin were characterized by increased content of protein A. Comparison of the antibiotic sensitivity of the strains of 5 groups by variation statistics revealed significant differences in the levels of sensitivity to streptomycin, neomycin, kanamycin, monomycin, ristomycin and furagin K but not to erythromycin, oleandomycin and chloramphenicol in the strains of certain groups. The staphylococcal hemocultures isolated from patients with sepsis proved to be the most sensitive to the antibiotics.

  12. Resveratrol Antagonizes Antimicrobial Lethality and Stimulates Recovery of Bacterial Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuanli; Zhou, Jinan; Qu, Yilin; Yang, Xinguang; Shi, Guojing; Wang, Xiuhong; Hong, Yuzhi; Drlica, Karl; Zhao, Xilin

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS; superoxide, peroxide, and hydroxyl radical) are thought to contribute to the rapid bactericidal activity of diverse antimicrobial agents. The possibility has been raised that consumption of antioxidants in food may interfere with the lethal action of antimicrobials. Whether nutritional supplements containing antioxidant activity are also likely to interfere with antimicrobial lethality is unknown. To examine this possibility, resveratrol, a popular antioxidant dietary supplement, was added to cultures of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus that were then treated with antimicrobial and assayed for bacterial survival and the recovery of mutants resistant to an unrelated antimicrobial, rifampicin. Resveratrol, at concentrations likely to be present during human consumption, caused a 2- to 3-fold reduction in killing during a 2-hr treatment with moxifloxacin or kanamycin. At higher, but still subinhibitory concentrations, resveratrol reduced antimicrobial lethality by more than 3 orders of magnitude. Resveratrol also reduced the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) characteristic of treatment with quinolone (oxolinic acid). These data support the general idea that the lethal activity of some antimicrobials involves ROS. Surprisingly, subinhibitory concentrations of resveratrol promoted (2- to 6-fold) the recovery of rifampicin-resistant mutants arising from the action of ciprofloxacin, kanamycin, or daptomycin. This result is consistent with resveratrol reducing ROS to sublethal levels that are still mutagenic, while the absence of resveratrol allows ROS levels to high enough to kill mutagenized cells. Suppression of antimicrobial lethality and promotion of mutant recovery by resveratrol suggests that the antioxidant may contribute to the emergence of resistance to several antimicrobials, especially if new derivatives and/or formulations of resveratrol markedly increase bioavailability. PMID:27045517

  13. Prevalence and Diversity of Salmonella Serotypes in Ecuadorian Broilers at Slaughter Age

    PubMed Central

    Cevallos, María; Ron-Garrido, Lenin; Bertrand, Sophie; De Zutter, Lieven

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella is frequently found in poultry and represent an important source for human gastrointestinal infections worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, genotypes and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella serotypes in broilers from Ecuador. Caeca content from 388 at random selected broiler batches were collected in 6 slaughterhouses during 1 year and analyzed by the ISO 6579/Amd1 protocol for the isolation for Salmonella. Isolates were serotyped and genotypic variation was acceded by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. MIC values for sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, tetracycline, streptomycin, trimethropim, chloramphenicol, colistin, florfenicol, kanamycin and nalidixic acid were obtained. Presence of blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCMY; and mcr-1 plasmid genes was investigated in resistant strains to cefotaxime and colistin respectively. Prevalence at batch level was 16.0%. The most common serotype was S. Infantis (83.9%) followed by S. Enteritidis (14.5%) and S. Corvallis (1.6%). The pulsed field gel electrophoresis analysis showed that S. Corvallis, S. Enteritidis and S. Infantis isolates belonged to 1, 2 and 12 genotypes respectively. S. Infantis isolates showed high resistance rates to 12 antibiotics ranging from 57.7% (kanamycin) up to 98.1% (nalidixic acid and sulfamethoxazole). All S. Enteritidis isolates showed resistance to colistin. High multiresistant patterns were found for all the serotypes. The blaCTX-M gene was present in 33 S. Infantis isolates while mcr-1 was negative in 10 colistin resistant isolates. This study provides the first set of scientific data on prevalence and multidrug-resistant Salmonella coming from commercial poultry in Ecuador. PMID:27414038

  14. High-level aminoglycoside resistance and virulence characteristics among Enterococci isolated from recreational beaches in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Dada, Ayokunle Christopher; Ahmad, Asmat; Usup, Gires; Heng, Lee Yook; Hamid, Rahimi

    2013-09-01

    We report the first study on the occurrence of high-level aminoglycoside-resistant (HLAR) Enterococci in coastal bathing waters and beach sand in Malaysia. None of the encountered isolates were resistant to high levels of gentamicin (500 μg/mL). However, high-level resistance to kanamycin (2,000 μg/mL) was observed in 14.2 % of tested isolates, the highest proportions observed being among beach sand isolates. High-level resistance to kanamycin was higher among Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium than Enterococcus spp. Chi-square analysis showed no significant association between responses to tested antibiotics and the species allocation or source of isolation of all tested Enterococci. The species classification of encountered Enterococci resistance to vancomycin was highest among Enterococcus spp. (5.89 %) followed by E. faecium (4.785) and least among E. faecalis. A total of 160 isolates were also tested for virulence characteristics. On the whole, caseinase production was profoundly highest (15.01 %) while the least prevalent virulence characteristic observed among tested beach Enterococci was haemolysis of rabbit blood (3.65 %). A strong association was observed between the source of isolation and responses for each of caseinase (C = 0.47, V = 0.53) and slime (C = 0.50, V = 0.58) assays. Analysis of obtained spearman's coefficient showed a strong correlation between caseinase and each of the slime production (p = 0.04), gelatinase (p = 0.0035) and haemolytic activity on horse blood (p = 0.004), respectively. Suggestively, these are the main virulent characteristics of the studied beach Enterococci. Our findings suggest that recreational beaches may contribute to the dissemination of Enterococci with HLAR and virulence characteristics.

  15. Antibiotic resistances of intestinal lactobacilli isolated from wild boars.

    PubMed

    Klose, Viviana; Bayer, Katharina; Kern, Corinna; Goelß, Florian; Fibi, Silvia; Wegl, Gertrude

    2014-01-10

    Acquired antibiotic resistances have been reported in lactobacilli of various animal and food sources, but there are no data from wild boar. The objective was a preliminary examination of the antibiotic resistance prevalence of intrinsically vancomycin-resistant lactobacilli isolated from wild boar intestines and analysis of the genetic determinants implicated. Out of three wild boars, 121 lactobacilli were recovered and grouped according to their whole cell protein patterns. Initial phenotypic screening revealed that all were susceptible to erythromycin (2 μg/ml), but 30 were resistant to tetracycline (32 μg/ml). Based on Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR clustering, 64 strains were selected as representative genotypes for identification and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified four species: (i) L. mucosae (n=57), (ii) L. reuteri (n=47), (iii) L. fermentum (n=12), and (iv) L. murinus (n=5). Most heterofermentative strains displayed low MICs for ampicillin (AMP), chloramphenicol (CHL), streptomycin (STR), kanamycin (KAN), gentamicin (GEN), erythromycin (ERY), quinupristin/dalfopristin (Q/D), and clindamycin (CLI). Atypical MICs were found mainly in L. mucosae and L. reuteri for TET, KAN, STR, AMP and CHL, but except the TET MICs of L. mucosae mostly at low level. L. murinus strains revealed atypical MICs for aminoglycosides, and/or CHL, AMP, CLI. PCR screening detected tet(W) in 12 and tet(M) in one of heterofermentative strains, as well as the aph(3')-III kanamycin gene in L. murinus. This is the first report showing acquired antibiotic resistance determinants in intestinal lactobacilli of wild boar origin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility, serotypes and genotypes of Pasteurella multocida isolates associated with swine pneumonia in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Jih-Ching; Lo, Dan-Yuan; Chang, Shao-Kuang; Chou, Chi-Chung; Kuo, Hung-Chih

    2017-09-21

    Pasteurella multocida (PM) can cause progressive atrophic rhinitis and suppurative bronchopneumonia in pigs. The present study performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing and serotype and genotype identification on the 62 PM strains isolated from the lungs of diseased pigs with respiratory symptoms. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing examined 13 antimicrobial agents (amoxicillin, cefazolin, doxycycline, flumequine, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, kanamycin, lincomycin, Linco-Spectin (lincomycin and spectinomycin), erythromycin, tylosin, tilmicosin and tiamulin). Antimicrobial resistance ratios were over 40% in all of the antimicrobial agents except for cefazolin. The highest levels of resistance (100%) were found for kanamycin, erythromycin and tylosin. The majority of isolated strains was serotype D:L6 (n=35) followed by A:L3 (n=17). Comparison of the antimicrobial resistance levels between the two serotypes showed that the antimicrobial resistance rates were higher in D:L6 than in A:L3 for all the tested antimicrobials except for tylosin and tilmicosin. For PM with erm (B), erm (T) or erm (42), the results showed no significant difference compared with non-resistance gene strains in phenotype. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genotyping using Apa I restriction digestion of the genomic DNA demonstrated that there were 17 distinct clusters with a similarity of 85% or more, and the genotyping result was similar to that of serotyping. The results of the present study demonstrated that the PM isolated from diseased pigs in Taiwan was resistant to multiple antimicrobials, and the distribution of antimicrobial resistance was associated with pulsotype and serotype. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Fu, Chunxiang; Hernandez, Timothy; Zhou, Chuanen; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a high-quality forage crop widely grown throughout the world. This chapter describes an efficient protocol that allows for the generation of large number of transgenic alfalfa plants by sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Binary vectors carrying different selectable marker genes that confer resistance to phosphinothricin (bar), kanamycin (npt II), or hygromycin (hph) were used to generate transgenic alfalfa plants. Intact trifoliates collected from clonally propagated plants in the greenhouse were sterilized with bleach and then inoculated with Agrobacterium strain EHA105. More than 80 % of infected leaf pieces could produce rooted transgenic plants in 4-5 months after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

  18. High throughput selection of antibiotic-resistant transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Yukihiro; Koiwa, Hisashi

    2017-05-15

    Kanamycin resistance is the most frequently used antibiotic-resistance marker for Arabidopsis transformations, however, this method frequently causes escape of untransformed plants, particularly at the high seedling density during the selection. Here we developed a robust high-density selection method using top agar for Arabidopsis thaliana. Top agar effectively suppressed growth of untransformed wild-type plants on selection media at high density. Survival of the transformed plants during the selection were confirmed by production of green true leaves and expression of a firefly luciferase reporter gene. Top agar method allowed selection using a large amount of seeds in Arabidopsis transformation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Plasmid-encoded amikacin resistance in multiresistant strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from neonates with meningitis.

    PubMed Central

    Woloj, M; Tolmasky, M E; Roberts, M C; Crosa, J H

    1986-01-01

    Two multiresistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of human neonates were analyzed for their plasmid content. Two of the plasmids harbored by these strains, pJHCMW1 (11 kilobase pairs) and pJHCMW4 (75 kilobase pairs), carried genetic determinants for amikacin resistance. These plasmids also encoded resistance to kanamycin, tobramycin, and ampicillin which could be transferred to Escherichia coli by conjugation. Extracts from transconjugant derivatives carrying pJHCMW4 produced an acetyltransferase activity that acetylated all three aminoglycosides. Transconjugant derivatives carrying pJHCMW1 encoded both acetylating and phosphorylating activities. Southern blot hybridization analysis indicated considerable DNA homology between these two plasmids. Images PMID:3521478

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolated from feces of wild cranes migrating to Kagoshima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kitadai, Noriyuki; Obi, Takeshi; Yamashita, Shogo; Murase, Toshiyuki; Takase, Kozo

    2012-03-01

    Susceptibility to 13 antimicrobial agents was examined for 138 Escherichia coli isolates obtained from 192 fecal samples of wild cranes that migrated for wintering to the Izumi plain, Kagoshima prefecture in Japan. The numbers of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobials used in this study are as follows: oxytetracycline (OTC), 22 isolates; minocycline, 7 isolates; ampicillin (ABPC), 4 isolates; nalidixic acid, 4 isolates; enrofloxacin, 2 isolates; kanamycin, one isolate. Multidrug resistant isolates exhibiting 2-4 drug resistances were obtained. All of the OTC-resistant isolates carried either the tet (A) or tet(B) gene. The bla(TEM) gene was found in all of the ABPC-resistant isolates.

  1. Sweet Potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam].

    PubMed

    Song, Guo-qing; Yamaguchi, Ken-ichi

    2006-01-01

    Among the available transformation methods reported on sweet potato, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is more successful and desirable. Stem explants have shown to be ideal for the transformation of sweet potato because of their ready availability as explants, the simple transformation process, and high-frequency-regeneration via somatic embryogenesis. Under the two-step kanamycin-hygromycin selection method and using the appropriate explants type (stem explants), the efficiency of transformation can be considerably improved in cv. Beniazuma. The high efficiency in the transformation of stem explants suggests that the transformation protocol described in this chapter warrants testing for routine stable transformation of diverse varieties of sweet potato.

  2. Outbreak of mastitis in sheep caused by multi-drug resistant Enterococcus faecalis in Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Sanciu, G; Marogna, G; Paglietti, B; Cappuccinelli, P; Leori, G; Rappelli, P

    2013-03-01

    An outbreak of infective mastitis due to Enterococcus faecalis occurred in an intensive sheep farm in north Sardinia (Italy). E. faecalis, which is only rarely isolated from sheep milk, was unexpectedly found in 22·3% of positive samples at microbiological examination. Forty-five out of the 48 E. faecalis isolates showed the same multi-drug resistance pattern (cloxacillin, streptomycin, kanamycin, clindamycin, oxytetracycline). E. faecalis isolates were analysed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and all 45 multi-drug resistant strains showed an indistinguishable macrorestiction profile, indicating their clonal origin. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an outbreak of mastitis in sheep caused by E. faecalis.

  3. Antibiotic Sensitivity of Micrococcus radiodurans

    PubMed Central

    Hawiger, J.; Jeljaszewicz, J.

    1967-01-01

    A wild-type strain of Micrococcus radiodurans and its nonpigmented mutant W1 were tested for sensitivity to 10 antibiotics selected from the standpoint of their mechanism of action. Representatives of groups of antibiotics inhibiting deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis, DNA-dependent ribonucleic acid synthesis, protein synthesis, and cell wall synthesis were selected. M. radiodurans and its mutant exhibited full susceptibility to all antibiotics tested (mitomycin C, actinomycin D, chloramphenicol, dihydrostreptomycin, erythromycin, neomycin, kanamycin, benzylpenicillin, bacitracin, and vancomycin), the degree of susceptibility being of the same order as that of a standard strain of Staphylococcus aureus 209 P, with the exception of dihydrostreptomycin. PMID:4166078

  4. Panton-valentine leukocidin-positive and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a French multicenter prospective study in 2008.

    PubMed

    Robert, Jérôme; Tristan, Anne; Cavalié, Laurent; Decousser, Jean-Winoc; Bes, Michèle; Etienne, Jerome; Laurent, Frédéric

    2011-04-01

    The epidemiology of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) differs from country to country. We assess the features of the ST80 European clone, which is the most prevalent PVL-positive CA-MRSA clone in Europe, and the TSST-1 ST5 clone that was recently described in France. In 2008, all MRSA strains susceptible to fluoroquinolones and gentamicin and resistant to fusidic acid that were isolated in 104 French laboratories were characterized using agr alleles, spa typing, and the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element and PCR profiling of 21 toxin genes. Three phenotypes were defined: (i) kanamycin resistant, associated with the ST80 clone; (ii) kanamycin and tobramycin resistant, associated with the ST5 clone; and (iii) aminoglycoside susceptible, which was less frequently associated with the ST5 clone. Among the 7,253 MRSA strains isolated, 91 (1.3%) were ST80 CA-MRSA (89 phenotype 1) and 190 (2.6%) were ST5 CA-MRSA (146 phenotype 2, 42 phenotype 3). Compared to the latter, ST80 CA-MRSAs were more likely to be community acquired (80% versus 46%) and found in young patients (median age, 26.0 years versus 49.5 years) with deep cutaneous infections (48% versus 6%). They were less likely to be tetracycline susceptible (22% versus 85%) and to be isolated from respiratory infections (6% versus 27%). The TSST-1 ST5 clone has rapidly emerged in France and has become even more prevalent than the ST80 European clone, whose prevalence has remained stable. The epidemiological and clinical patterns of the two clones differ drastically. Given the low prevalence of both among all staphylococcal infections, no modification of antibiotic recommendations is required yet.

  5. Increasing Prevalence of Aminoglycoside-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis Isolates Due to the aac(6’)-aph(2”) Gene: A Therapeutic Problem in Kermanshah, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khani, Mitra; Fatollahzade, Mahdie; Pajavand, Hamid; Bakhtiari, Somaye; Abiri, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Enterococci are important pathogens in nosocomial infections. Various types of antibiotics, such as aminoglycosides, are used for treatment of these infections. Enterococci can acquire resistant traits, which can lead to therapeutic problems with aminoglycosides. Objectives: This study was designed to identify the prevalence of, and to compare, the aac(6’)-aph(2”) and aph(3)-IIIa genes and their antimicrobial resistance patterns among Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium isolates from patients at Imam Reza hospital in Kermanshah in 2011 - 2012. Patients and Methods: One hundred thirty-eight clinical specimens collected from different wards of Imam Reza hospital were identified to the species level by biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests against kanamycin, teicoplanin, streptomycin, imipenem, ciprofloxacin, and ampicillin were performed by the disk diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of gentamicin, streptomycin, kanamycin, and amikacin were evaluated with the microbroth dilution method. The aminoglycoside resistance genes aac(6’)-aph(2”) and aph(3”)-IIIa were analyzed with multiplex PCR. Results: The prevalence of isolates was 33 (24.1%) for E. faecium and 63 (46%) for E. faecalis. Eighty-nine percent of the isolates were high-level gentamicin resistant (HLGR), and 32.8% of E. faecium isolates and 67.2% of E. faecalis isolates carried aac(6’)-aph(2”). The prevalence of aph(3”)-IIIa among the E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates was 22.7% and 77.3%, respectively. Conclusions: Remarkably increased incidence of aac(6’)-aph(2”) among HLGR isolates explains the relationship between this gene and the high level of resistance to aminoglycosides. As the resistant gene among enterococci can be transferred, the use of new-generation antibiotics is necessary. PMID:27217920

  6. A Novel Prokaryotic Green Fluorescent Protein Expression System for Testing Gene Editing Tools Activity Like Zinc Finger Nuclease

    PubMed Central

    Sabzehei, Faezeh; Kouhpayeh, Shirin; Dastjerdeh, Mansoureh Shahbazi; Khanahmad, Hossein; Salehi, Rasoul; Naderi, Shamsi; Taghizadeh, Razieh; Rabiei, Parisa; Hejazi, Zahra; Shariati, Laleh

    2017-01-01

    Background: Gene editing technology has created a revolution in the field of genome editing. The three of the most famous tools in gene editing technology are zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), and CRISPR-associated systems. As their predictable nature, it is necessary to assess their efficiency. There are some methods for this purpose, but most of them are time labor and complicated. Here, we introduce a new prokaryotic reporter system, which makes it possible to evaluate the efficiency of gene editing tools faster, cheaper, and simpler than previous methods. Materials and Methods: At first, the target sites of a custom ZFN, which is designed against a segment of ampicillin resistance gene, were cloned on both sides of green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene to construct pPRO-GFP. Then pPRO-GFP was transformed into Escherichia coli TOP10F’ that contains pZFN (contains expression cassette of a ZFN against ampicillin resistant gene), or p15A-KanaR as a negative control. The transformed bacteria were cultured on three separate media that contained ampicillin, kanamycin, and ampicillin + kanamycin; then the resulted colonies were assessed by flow cytometry. Results: The results of flow cytometry showed a significant difference between the case (bacteria contain pZFN) and control (bacteria contain p15A, KanaR) in MFI (Mean Fluorescence Intensity) (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: According to ZFN efficiency, it can bind and cut the target sites, the bilateral cutting can affect the intensity of GFP fluorescence. Our flow cytometry results showed that this ZFN could reduce the intensity of GFP color and colony count of bacteria in media containing amp + kana versus control sample. PMID:29285485

  7. Site-Directed Disruption of the fimA and fimF Fimbrial Genes of Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Feil, Helene; Feil, William S; Detter, John C; Purcel, Alexander H; Lindow, Steven E

    2003-06-01

    ABSTRACT Xylella fastidiosa causes Pierce's disease, a serious disease of grape, citrus variegated chlorosis, almond and oleander leaf scorches, and many other similar diseases. Although the complete genome sequences of several strains of this organism are now available, the function of most genes in this organism, especially those conferring virulence, is lacking. Attachment of X. fastidiosa to xylem vessels and insect vectors may be required for virulence and transmission; therefore, we disrupted fimA and fimF, genes encoding the major fimbrial protein FimA and a homolog of the fimbrial adhesin MrkD, to determine their role in the attachment process. Disruption of the fimA and fimF genes in Temecula1 and STL grape strains of X. fastidiosa was obtained by homologous recombination using plasmids pFAK and pFFK, respectively. These vectors contained a kanamycin resistance gene cloned into either the fimA or fimF genes of X. fastidiosa grape strains Temecula1 or STL. Efficiency of transformation was sufficiently high ( approximately 600 transformants per mug of pFFK DNA) to enable selection of rare recombination events. Polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analyses of the mutants indicated that a double crossover event had occurred exclusively within the fimA and fimF genes, replacing the chromosomal gene with the disrupted gene and abolishing production of the corresponding proteins, FimA or FimF. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that fimbriae size and number, cell aggregation, and cell size were reduced for the FimA or FimF mutants of X. fastidiosa when compared with the parental strain. FimA or FimF mutants of X. fastidiosa remained pathogenic to grapevines, with bacterial populations slightly reduced compared with those of the wild-type X. fastidiosa cells. These mutants maintained their resistance to kanamycin in planta for at least 6 months in the greenhouse.

  8. Enhanced iron and zinc accumulation in genetically engineered pineapple plants using soybean ferritin gene.

    PubMed

    Mhatre, Minal; Srinivas, Lingam; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2011-12-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr., cv. "Queen") leaf bases were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 105 harboring the pSF and pEFESF plasmids with soybean ferritin cDNA. Four to eight percent of the co-cultivated leaf bases produced multiple shoots 6 weeks after transfer to Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with α-naphthalene acetic acid 1.8 mg/l, indole-3-butyric acid 2.0 mg/l, kinetin 2.0 mg/l, cefotaxime 400 mg/l, and kanamycin 50 mg/l. Putatively transformed shoots (1-2 cm) were selected and multiplied on medium of the same composition and elongated shoots (5 cm) were rooted on liquid rooting medium supplemented with cefotaxime 400 mg/l and kanamycin 100 mg/l. The rooted plants were analyzed through PCR, genomic Southern analysis, and reverse transcription PCR. The results clearly confirmed the integration and expression of soybean ferritin gene in the transformed plants. Atomic absorption spectroscopic analysis carried out with six independently transformed lines of pSF and pEFE-SF revealed a maximum of 5.03-fold increase in iron and 2.44-fold increase in zinc accumulation in the leaves of pSF-transformed plants. In pEFE-SF-transformed plants, a 3.65-fold increase in iron and 2.05-fold increase in zinc levels was observed. Few of the transgenic plants were hardened in the greenhouse and are being grown to maturity to determine the enhanced iron and zinc accumulation in the fruits. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the transformation of pineapple with soybean ferritin for enhanced accumulation of iron and zinc content in the transgenic plants.

  9. Altered vesicular glutamate transporter distributions in the mouse cochlear nucleus following cochlear insult

    PubMed Central

    Heeringa, Amarins N.; Stefanescu, Roxana A.; Raphael, Yehoash; Shore, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 (VGLUT1 and VGLUT2) have distinct distributions in the cochlear nucleus that correspond to the sources of the labeled terminals. VGLUT1 is mainly associated with terminals of auditory nerve fibers, whereas VGLUT2 is mainly associated with glutamatergic terminals deriving from other sources that project to the cochlear nucleus (CN), including somatosensory and vestibular terminals. Previous studies in guinea pig have shown that cochlear damage results in a decrease of VGLUT1-labeled puncta and an increase in VGLUT2-labeled puncta. This indicates cross-modal compensation that is of potential importance in somatic tinnitus. To examine whether this effect is consistent across species and to provide a background for future studies, using transgenesis, the current study examines VGLUT expression profiles upon cochlear insult by intracochlear kanamycin injections in the mouse. Intracochlear kanamycin injections abolished ipsilateral ABR responses in all animals and reduced ipsilateral spiral ganglion neuron densities in animals that were sacrificed after four weeks, but not in animals that were sacrificed after three weeks. In all unilaterally deafened animals, VGLUT1 density was decreased in CN regions that receive auditory nerve fiber terminals, i.e. in the deep layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), in the interstitial region where the auditory nerve enters the CN, and in the magnocellular region of the antero- and posteroventral CN. In contrast, density of VGLUT2 expression was upregulated in the fusiform cell layer of the DCN and in the granule cell lamina, which are known to receive somatosensory and vestibular terminals. These results show that a cochlear insult induces cross-modal compensation in the cochlear nucleus of the mouse, confirming previous findings in guinea pig, and that these changes are not dependent on the occurrence of spiral ganglion neuron degeneration. PMID:26705736

  10. Altered vesicular glutamate transporter distributions in the mouse cochlear nucleus following cochlear insult.

    PubMed

    Heeringa, A N; Stefanescu, R A; Raphael, Y; Shore, S E

    2016-02-19

    Vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 (VGLUT1 and VGLUT2) have distinct distributions in the cochlear nucleus that correspond to sources of the labeled terminals. VGLUT1 is mainly associated with terminals of auditory nerve fibers, whereas VGLUT2 is mainly associated with glutamatergic terminals deriving from other sources that project to the cochlear nucleus (CN), including somatosensory and vestibular terminals. Previous studies in guinea pig have shown that cochlear damage results in a decrease of VGLUT1-labeled puncta and an increase in VGLUT2-labeled puncta. This indicates cross-modal compensation that is of potential importance in somatic tinnitus. To examine whether this effect is consistent across species and to provide a background for future studies, using transgenesis, the current study examines VGLUT expression profiles upon cochlear insult by intracochlear kanamycin injections in the mouse. Intracochlear kanamycin injections abolished ipsilateral ABR responses in all animals and reduced ipsilateral spiral ganglion neuron densities in animals that were sacrificed after four weeks, but not in animals that were sacrificed after three weeks. In all unilaterally deafened animals, VGLUT1 density was decreased in CN regions that receive auditory nerve fiber terminals, i.e., in the deep layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), in the interstitial region where the auditory nerve enters the CN, and in the magnocellular region of the antero- and posteroventral CN. In contrast, density of VGLUT2 expression was upregulated in the fusiform cell layer of the DCN and in the granule cell lamina, which are known to receive somatosensory and vestibular terminals. These results show that a cochlear insult induces cross-modal compensation in the cochlear nucleus of the mouse, confirming previous findings in guinea pig, and that these changes are not dependent on the occurrence of spiral ganglion neuron degeneration. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  11. Class 1 integrons and plasmid-mediated multiple resistance genes of the Campylobacter species from pediatric patient of a university hospital in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi-Chih; Tien, Ni; Yang, Jai-Sing; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Huang, Tsurng-Juhn; Wang, I-Kuan

    2017-01-01

    The Campylobacter species usually causes infection between humans and livestock interaction via livestock breeding. The studies of the Campylobacter species thus far in all clinical isolates were to show the many kinds of antibiotic phenomenon that were produced. Their integrons cause the induction of antibiotic resistance between bacterial species in the Campylobacter species. The bacterial strains from the diarrhea of pediatric patient which isolated by China Medical University Hospital storage bank. These isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The anti-microbial susceptibility test showed that Campylobacter species resistant to cefepime, streptomycin, tobramycin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (all C. jejuni and C. coli isolates), ampicillin (89% of C. jejuni ; 75% of C. coli ), cefotaxime (78% of C. jejuni ; 100% of C. coli ), nalidixic acid (78% of C. jejuni ; 100% of C. coli ), tetracycline (89% of C. jejuni ; 25% C. coli ), ciprofloxacin (67% of C. jejuni ; 50% C. coli ), kanamycin (33% of C. jejuni ; 75% C. coli ) and the C. fetus isolate resisted to ampicillin, cefotaxime, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, kanamycin by disc-diffusion method. The effect for ciprofloxacin and tetracycline of the Campylobacter species was tested using an E-test. The tet, erm , and integron genes were detected by PCR assay. According to the sequencing analysis (type I: dfr12 - gcuF - aadA2 genes and type II: dfrA7 gene), the cassette type was identified. The most common gene cassette type (type I: 9 C. jejuni and 2 C. coli isolates; type II: 1 C. coli isolates) was found in 12 class I integrase-positive isolates. Our results suggested an important information in the latency of Campylobacter species with resistance genes, and irrational antimicrobial use should be concerned.

  12. Labeled Azospirillum brasilense wild type and excretion-ammonium strains in association with barley roots.

    PubMed

    Santos, Adrian Richard Schenberger; Etto, Rafael Mazer; Furmam, Rafaela Wiegand; Freitas, Denis Leandro de; Santos, Karina Freire d'Eça Nogueira; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi de; Pedrosa, Fábio de Oliveira; Ayub, Ricardo Antônio; Steffens, Maria Berenice Reynaud; Galvão, Carolina Weigert

    2017-09-01

    Soil bacteria colonization in plants is a complex process, which involves interaction between many bacterial characters and plant responses. In this work, we labeled Azospirillum brasilense FP2 (wild type) and HM053 (excretion-ammonium) strains by insertion of the reporter gene gusA-kanamycin into the dinitrogenase reductase coding gene, nifH, and evaluated bacteria colonization in barley (Hordeum vulgare). In addition, we determined inoculation effect based on growth promotion parameters. We report an uncommon endophytic behavior of A. brasilense Sp7 derivative inside the root hair cells of barley and highlight the promising use of A. brasilense HM053 as plant growth-promoting bacterium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Complete genome sequence of Marivirga tractuosa type strain (H-43).

    PubMed

    Pagani, Ioanna; Chertkov, Olga; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Tice, Hope; Copeland, Alex; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Nolan, Matt; Saunders, Elizabeth; Pitluck, Sam; Held, Brittany; Goodwin, Lynne; Liolios, Konstantinos; Ovchinikova, Galina; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Jeffries, Cynthia D; Detter, John C; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Ngatchou-Djao, Olivier D; Rohde, Manfred; Göker, Markus; Spring, Stefan; Sikorski, Johannes; Woyke, Tanja; Bristow, Jim; Eisen, Jonathan A; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2011-04-29

    Marivirga tractuosa (Lewin 1969) Nedashkovskaya et al. 2010 is the type species of the genus Marivirga, which belongs to the family Flammeovirgaceae. Members of this genus are of interest because of their gliding motility. The species is of interest because representative strains show resistance to several antibiotics, including gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, polymixin and streptomycin. This is the first complete genome sequence of a member of the family Flammeovirgaceae. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 4,511,574 bp long chromosome and the 4,916 bp plasmid with their 3,808 protein-coding and 49 RNA genes are a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  14. Effect of antibiotics on growth and laccase production from Cyathus bulleri and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Shikha; Lal, Rup; Hanspal, Manjit; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2005-08-01

    The effect of nine different antibiotics (chloramphenicol, ampicillin trihydrate, kanamycin A monosulfate, neomycin sulfate, erythromycin, thiostrepton, tetracycline, apramycin sulfate and streptomycin sulfate) on growth and laccase production from Cyathus bulleri and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus has been investigated. All the antibiotics tested at a concentration of 200 mg/l affected the fungal growth, release of protein and laccase production to different extent. Inhibition in fungal growth was found to be positively correlated with increase in laccase production. Interestingly, apramycin sulfate inhibited biomass production (14.9-26.2%), nevertheless, it stimulated maximum laccase production (18.2 U/ml) in both the fungi. Increasing concentrations of apramycin sulfate enhanced laccase production from P. cinnabarinus but not from C. bulleri.

  15. In vitro sensitivities to antimicrobial drugs of ureaplasmas isolated from the bovine respiratory tract, genital tract and eye.

    PubMed

    Kishima, M; Hashimoto, K

    1979-09-01

    The sensitivity to 18 antimicrobial drugs was examined for 66 strains of Ureaplasma sp isolated from respiratory tracts of calves suffering from enzootic pneumonia, urinary tracts of bulls and eyes of cows suffering from infectious bovine kerato-conjunctivitis. Furamizole, tiamulin fumarate, erythromycin lactobionate, malidomycin C, doxycycline hydrochloride, kitasamycin tartrate, tylosin tartrate, T-2636C, tetracycline hydrochloride, oxytetracycline hydrochloride, chlortetracycline hydrochloride, oleandomycin phosphate, furazolidone, spiramycin adipate, chloramphenicol and thiophenicol showed strong inhibiting activity on all the test strains. Among them, furamizole, tiamulin fumarate and erythromycin lactobionate were most active. Kanamycin sulphate showed weak activity on all the strains tested. The differences in origin of the test strains did not affect their sensitivity to any of the drugs.

  16. [Effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa melanin on antibiotic activity].

    PubMed

    Rozhavin, M A

    1978-08-01

    The properties of microbial melanines are very diverse. Melanine of P. aeruginosa is little studied. The pigment was isolated from a strain of P. aeruginosa possessing all characteristic properties of the species. Interaction of P. aeruginosa melanine with various antibiotics was determined by the method of serial dilutions in beaf-peptone broth, using Staph. aureus 209 as a test-microbe, which was added to the medium in an amount of 10(6) cells to each tube. It was found that P. aeruginosa melanine differed from DOPA-melanine in a concentration of 1 mg/ml and did not change the activity of penicillin, tetracycline, oleandomycin, kanamycin and gentamicin with respect to Staph. aureus.

  17. [Genetic transformation of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) with chimeric GFP-TUA6 gene for visualisation of microtubules].

    PubMed

    Shisha, E N; Korkhovoĭ, V I; Baer, G Ia; Guzenko, E V; Lemesh, V A; Kartel', N A; Emets, A I; Blium, Ia B

    2013-01-01

    The data of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of some Linum usitatissimum cultivars zoned on the territories of Belarus and Ukraine with the plasmid carrying chimeric GFP-TUA6 gene and nptII gene as selectable marker conferring resistance to kanamycin are presented in this study. Transformation was affected by a number of factors including optical density (OD600), time of inoculation of explants with Agrobacterium and co-culture conditions. Transgenic nature of obtained lines was confirmed by PCR analysis. Expression of GFP-TUA6 gene was detected with confocal laser scanning microscopy. The obtained transgenic lines can be used for further functional studies the role of microtubules in the processes of building the flax fibres and resistance to wind.

  18. The enhanced effects of antibiotics irradiated of extremely high frequency electromagnetic field on Escherichia coli growth properties.

    PubMed

    Torgomyan, Heghine; Trchounian, Armen

    2015-01-01

    The effects of extremely high frequency electromagnetic irradiation and antibiotics on Escherichia coli can create new opportunities for applications in different areas—medicine, agriculture, and food industry. Previously was shown that irradiated bacterial sensitivity against antibiotics was changed. In this work, it was presented the results that irradiation of antibiotics and then adding into growth medium was more effective compared with non-irradiated antibiotics bactericidal action. The selected antibiotics (tetracycline, kanamycin, chloramphenicol, and ceftriaxone) were from different groups. Antibiotics irradiation was performed with low intensity 53 GHz frequency during 1 h. The E. coli growth properties—lag-phase duration and specific growth rate—were markedly changed. Enhanced bacterial sensitivity to irradiated antibiotics is similar to the effects of antibiotics of higher concentrations.

  19. Complete genome sequence of Marivirga tractuosa type strain (H-43T)

    PubMed Central

    Pagani, Ioanna; Chertkov, Olga; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Tice, Hope; Copeland, Alex; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Nolan, Matt; Saunders, Elizabeth; Pitluck, Sam; Held, Brittany; Goodwin, Lynne; Liolios, Konstantinos; Ovchinikova, Galina; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Jeffries, Cynthia D.; Detter, John C.; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Ngatchou-Djao, Olivier D.; Rohde, Manfred; Göker, Markus; Spring, Stefan; Sikorski, Johannes; Woyke, Tanja; Bristow, Jim; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2011-01-01

    Marivirga tractuosa (Lewin 1969) Nedashkovskaya et al. 2010 is the type species of the genus Marivirga, which belongs to the family Flammeovirgaceae. Members of this genus are of interest because of their gliding motility. The species is of interest because representative strains show resistance to several antibiotics, including gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, polymixin and streptomycin. This is the first complete genome sequence of a member of the family Flammeovirgaceae. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 4,511,574 bp long chromosome and the 4,916 bp plasmid with their 3,808 protein-coding and 49 RNA genes are a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project. PMID:21677852

  20. Peach (Prunus persica L.).

    PubMed

    Sabbadini, Silvia; Pandolfini, Tiziana; Girolomini, Luca; Molesini, Barbara; Navacchi, Oriano

    2015-01-01

    Until now, the application of genetic transformation techniques in peach has been limited by the difficulties in developing efficient regeneration and transformation protocols. Here we describe an efficient regeneration protocol for the commercial micropropagation of GF677 rootstock (Prunus persica × Prunus amygdalus). The method is based on the production, via organogenesis, of meristematic bulk tissues characterized by a high competence for shoot regeneration. This protocol has also been used to obtain GF677 plants genetically engineered with an empty hairpin cassette (hereafter indicated as hp-pBin19), through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. After 7-8 months of selection on media containing kanamycin, we obtained two genetically modified GF677 lines. PCR and Southern blot analyses were performed to confirm the genetic status.

  1. Differential Identification of Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium marinum

    PubMed Central

    Silcox, Vella A.; David, Hugo L.

    1971-01-01

    This report deals with the differential diagnosis between Mycobacterium marinum and M. kansasii. We found that the two species could be differentiated by using six main tests, namely, the nitrate reduction test, the arylsulfatase test, the ability to grow in the presence of 10.0 μg of amithiazone per ml, the ability to grow in the presence of 5.0 μg of kanamycin per ml, the temperature-ratio test, and the rate of growth on solid medium. In contrast to M. kansasii, considerable variation was observed among strains of M. marinum. However, the evidence obtained was not considered sufficient to justify the conclusion that more than one species was represented among the strains identified as M. marinum. PMID:4925535

  2. [Analysis on the antimicrobial resistance of lactic acid bacteria isolated from the yogurt sold in China].

    PubMed

    Fan, Qin; Liu, Shuliang; Li, Juan; Huang, Tingting

    2012-05-01

    To analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from yogurt, and to provide references for evaluating the safety of LAB and screening safe strains. The sensitivity of 43 LAB strains, including 14 strains of Streptococcus thermophilus, 12 strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus, 9 strains of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and 8 strains of Bifidobacterium, to 22 antibiotics were tested by agar plate dilution method. All 43 LAB strains were resistant to trimethoprim, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, danofloxacin and polymyxin E. Their resistances to kanamycin, tetracycline, clindamycin, doxycycline and cephalothin were varied. The sensitivity to other antibiotics were sensitive or moderate. All isolates were multidrug-resistant. The antimicrobial resistance of tested LAB strains was comparatively serious, and continuously monitoring their antimicrobial resistance and evaluating their safety should be strengthened.

  3. Morning glory resin glycosides as modulators of antibiotic activity in multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Corona-Castañeda, Berenice; Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-six microbiologically inactive (MIC > 512 µg/mL) convolvulaceous resin glycosides ( 1- 26) were tested for resistance modulatory activity in vitro against Escherichia coli Rosetta-gami and two nosocomial pathogens, Salmonella typhi and Shigella flexneri. These compounds exerted a potentiation effect of the clinically useful antibiotics tetracycline, kanamycin, and chloramphenicol against the tested gram-negative bacteria by increasing antibiotic susceptibility up to 32-fold at concentrations of 25 µg/mL. Therefore, the oligosaccharides from the morning glory family (Convolvulaceae) represent metabolites that reverse microbial resistance mechanisms, favoring an increase in the strength and effectiveness of current antibiotics that are not effective in the treatment of refractive infections caused by multidrug-resistant strains. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Enhanced Antimicrobial Activity Of Antibiotics Mixed With Metal Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kumar, Neeraj; Bhanjana, Gaurav; Thakur, Rajesh; Dilbaghi, Neeraj

    2011-12-01

    Current producers of antimicrobial technology have a long lasting, environmentally safe, non-leaching, water soluble solution that will eventually replace all poisons and heavy metals. The transition metal ions inevitably exist as metal complexes in biological systems by interaction with the numerous molecules possessing groupings capable of complexation or chelation. Nanoparticles of metal oxides offer a wide variety of potential applications in medicine due to the unprecedented advances in nanobiotechnology research. the bacterial action of antibiotics like penicillin, erythryomycin, ampicillin, streptomycin, kanamycin etc. and that of a mixture of antibiotics and metal and metal oxide nanoparticles like zinc oxide, zirconium, silver and gold on microbes was examined by the agar-well-diffusion method, enumeration of colony-forming units (CFU) and turbidimetry.

  5. Novel depsides as potential anti-inflammatory agents with potent inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli-induced interleukin-8 production.

    PubMed

    Lv, Peng-Cheng; Xiong, Jing; Chen, Jin; Wang, Kai-Rui; Mao, Wen-Jun; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2010-08-01

    Sixteen novel depsides were synthesized for the first time. Their chemical structures were clearly determined by (1)H NMR, ESI mass spectra, and elemental analyses. All the compounds were assayed for antibacterial activities against three Gram-positive bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, and Streptococcus faecalis ATCC 9790) and three Gram-negative bacterial strains (Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 13525, and Enterobacter cloacae ATCC 13047) by the MTT method. Compound 2-(2-methoxy-2-oxoethyl)phenyl 5-bromonicotinate (5) exhibited significant antibacterial activities against E. coli ATCC 35218 with an MIC of 0.78 microg/mL, which was superior to the positive control kanamycin B. In addition, compound 5 showed potent inhibitory activity against E. coli-induced interleukin-8 production.

  6. Petunia (Petunia hybrida).

    PubMed

    Lutke, W Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Petunia hybrida genetic transformation continues to be a valuable tool for genetic research into biochemical pathways and gene expression, as well as generating commercial products with varying floral colors. In this chapter, we describe a simple and reproducible genetic transformation protocol for generating transgenic petunia plants harboring a gene of interest and selectable marker. The system utilizes Agrobacterium tumefaciens for transgene integration with plant recovery via shoot organogenesis from leaf explant material. Selection for transgenic plants is achieved using the bar gene conferring resistance to glufosinate or nptII gene for resistance to kanamycin. Transformation efficiencies of around 10% are achievable with shoots being recovered about 8 wk after transgene insertion and rooted plants transferred to the greenhouse about twelve weeks after inoculation.

  7. Antibiotics for treating septic abortion.

    PubMed

    Udoh, Atim; Effa, Emmanuel E; Oduwole, Olabisi; Okusanya, Babasola O; Okafo, Obiamaka

    2016-07-01

    ). The evidence for this was of moderate quality. "Response to treatment was evaluated by the patient's 'fever index' expressed in degree-hour and defined as the total quantity of fever under the daily temperature curve with 99°F (37.2°C) as the baseline".There was no difference in duration of hospitalisation between clindamycin and penicillin plus chloramphenicol. The mean duration of hospital stay for women in each group was 5 days (MD 0.00, 95% CI -0.54 to 0.54; women = 77; studies = 1).One study evaluated the effect of penicillin plus chloramphenicol versus cephalothin plus kanamycin before and after D&C. Response to therapy was evaluated by "the time from start of antibiotics until fever lysis and time from D&C until patients become afebrile". Low-quality evidence suggested that the effect of penicillin plus chloramphenicol on fever did not differ from that of cephalothin plus kanamycin (MD -2.30, 95% CI -17.31 to 12.71; women = 56; studies = 1). There was no significant difference between penicillin plus chloramphenicol versus cephalothin plus kanamycin when D&C was performed during antibiotic therapy (MD -1.00, 95% CI -13.84 to 11.84; women = 56; studies = 1). The quality of evidence was low.A study with unclear risk of bias showed that the time for fever resolution (MD -5.03, 95% CI -5.77 to -4.29; women = 100; studies = 1) as well as time for resolution of leukocytosis (MD -4.88, 95% CI -5.98 to -3.78; women = 100; studies = 1) was significantly lower with tetracycline plus enzymes compared with intravenous penicillin G.Treatment failure and adverse events occurred infrequently, and the difference between groups was not statistically significant. We found no strong evidence that intravenous clindamycin alone was better than penicillin plus chloramphenicol for treating women with septic abortion. Similarly, available evidence did not suggest that penicillin plus chloramphenicol was better than cephalothin plus kanamycin for the treatment of women with septic

  8. Characterization of resistance to tetracyclines and aminoglycosides of sheep mastitis pathogens: study of the effect of gene content on resistance.

    PubMed

    Lollai, S A; Ziccheddu, M; Duprè, I; Piras, D

    2016-10-01

    Mastitis causes economic losses and antimicrobials are frequently used for mastitis treatment. Antimicrobial resistance surveys are still rare in the ovine field and characterization of strains is important in order to acquire information about resistance and for optimization of therapy. Bacterial pathogens recovered in milk samples from mastitis-affected ewes were characterized for resistance to tetracyclines and aminoglycosides, members of which are frequently used antimicrobials in small ruminants. A total of 185 strains of staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci, common mastitis pathogens, were tested for minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) to tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, and for resistance genes by PCR. Effects of different tet genes arrangements on MICs were also investigated. Staphylococci expressed the lowest MIC for tetracycline and tet(K) was the most common gene recovered; tet(M) and tet(O) were also found. Gene content was shown to influence the tetracycline MIC values. Enterococci and streptococci showed higher MICs to tetracyclines and nonsusceptible strains always harboured at least one ribosomal protection gene (MIC above 8 μg ml(-1) ). Streptococci often harboured two or more tet determinants. As regards the resistance to aminoglycosides, staphylococci showed the lowest gentamicin and kanamycin median MIC along with streptomycin high level resistant (HLR) strains (MIC >1024 μg ml(-1) ) all harbouring str gene. The resistance determinant aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia was present in few strains. Streptococci were basically nonsusceptible to aminoglycosides but neither HLR isolates nor resistance genes were detected. Enterococci revealed the highest MICs for gentamicin; two str harbouring isolates were shown to be HLR to streptomycin. Evidence was obtained for the circulation of antimicrobial-resistant strains and genes in sheep dairy farming. Tetracycline MIC of 64 μg ml(-1) and high

  9. Phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer of both prophage and heterologous DNA by ϕBB-1, a bacteriophage of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Eggers, Christian H; Gray, Carlie M; Preisig, Alexander M; Glenn, Danielle M; Pereira, Jessica; Ayers, Ryan W; Alshahrani, Mohammad; Acabbo, Christopher; Becker, Maria R; Bruenn, Kimberly N; Cheung, Timothy; Jendras, Taylor M; Shepley, Aron B; Moeller, John T

    2016-12-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent, is likely mediated by bacteriophage. Studies of the B. burgdorferi phage, ϕBB-1 and its role in HGT have been hindered by the lack of an assay for readily characterizing phage-mediated DNA movement (transduction). Here we describe an in vitro assay in which a clone of B. burgdorferi strain CA-11.2A encoding kanamycin resistance on a ϕBB-1 prophage is co-cultured with different clones encoding gentamicin resistance on a shuttle vector; transduction is monitored by enumerating colonies selected in the presence of both kanamycin and gentamicin. When both clones used in the assay were derived from CA-11.2A, the frequency of transduction was 1.23 × 10 -6 transductants per cell, and could be increased 5-fold by exposing the phage-producing strain to 5% ethanol. Transduction was also demonstrated between the CA-11.2A clone and clones of both high-passage B. burgdorferi strain B31 and low-passage, virulent B. burgdorferi strain 297, although with lower transduction frequencies. The transductant in the 297 background produced phage capable of transducing another B. burgdorferi clone: this is the first experimental demonstration of transduction from a clone of a virulent strain. In addition to prophage DNA, small Escherichia coli-derived shuttle vectors were also transduced between co-cultured B. burgdorferi strains, suggesting both a broad role for the phage in the HGT of heterologous DNA and a potential use of the phage as a molecular tool. These results enhance our understanding of phage-mediated transduction as a mechanism of HGT in the Lyme disease spirochetes. Furthermore, the reagents and techniques developed herein will facilitate future studies of phage-mediated HGT, especially within the tick vector and vertebrate host. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Mutations That Stimulate flhDC Expression in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Fahrner, Karen A; Berg, Howard C

    2015-10-01

    Motility is a beneficial attribute that enables cells to access and explore new environments and to escape detrimental ones. The organelle of motility in Escherichia coli is the flagellum, and its production is initiated by the activating transcription factors FlhD and FlhC. The expression of these factors by the flhDC operon is highly regulated and influenced by environmental conditions. The flhDC promoter is recognized by σ(70) and is dependent on the transcriptional activator cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein complex (cAMP-CRP). A number of K-12 strains exhibit limited motility due to low expression levels of flhDC. We report here a large number of mutations that stimulate flhDC expression in such strains. They include single nucleotide changes in the -10 element of the promoter, in the promoter spacer, and in the cAMP-CRP binding region. In addition, we show that insertion sequence (IS) elements or a kanamycin gene located hundreds of base pairs upstream of the promoter can effectively enhance transcription, suggesting that the topology of a large upstream region plays a significant role in the regulation of flhDC expression. None of the mutations eliminated the requirement for cAMP-CRP for activation. However, several mutations allowed expression in the absence of the nucleoid organizing protein, H-NS, which is normally required for flhDC expression. The flhDC operon of Escherichia coli encodes transcription factors that initiate flagellar synthesis, an energetically costly process that is highly regulated. Few deregulating mutations have been reported thus far. This paper describes new single nucleotide mutations that stimulate flhDC expression, including a number that map to the promoter spacer region. In addition, this work shows that insertion sequence elements or a kanamycin gene located far upstream from the promoter or repressor binding sites also stimulate transcription, indicating a role of regional topology in the regulation of flh

  11. Zinc Finger Nuclease: A New Approach to Overcome Beta-Lactam Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi Dastjerdeh, Mansoureh; Kouhpayeh, Shirin; Sabzehei, Faezeh; Khanahmad, Hossein; Salehi, Mansour; Mohammadi, Zahra; Shariati, Laleh; Hejazi, Zahra; Rabiei, Parisa; Manian, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Background: The evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) has been accelerated recently by the indiscriminate application of antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance has challenged the success of medical interventions and therefore is considered a hazardous threat to human health. Objectives: The present study aimed to describe the use of zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) technology to target and disrupt a plasmid-encoded β-lactamase, which prevents horizontal gene transfer-mediated evolution of ARBs. Materials and Methods: An engineered ZFN was designed to target a specific sequence in the ampicillin resistance gene (ampR) of the pTZ57R plasmid. The Escherichia coli bacteria already contained the pZFN kanamycin-resistant (kanaR) plasmid as the case or the pP15A, kanaR empty vector as the control, were transformed with the pTZ57R; the ability of the designed ZFN to disrupt the β-lactamase gene was evaluated with the subsequent disturbed ability of the bacteria to grow on ampicillin (amp) and ampicillin-kanamycin (amp-kana)-containing media. The effect of mild hypothermia on the ZFN gene targeting efficiency was also evaluated. Results: The growth of bacteria in the case group on the amp and amp-kana-containing media was significantly lower compared with the control group at 37°C (P < 0.001). Despite being more efficient in hypothermic conditions at 30°C (P < 0.001), there were no significant associations between the incubation temperature and the ZFN gene targeting efficiency. Conclusions: Our findings revealed that the ZFN technology could be employed to overcome ampicillin resistance by the targeted disruption of the ampicillin resistance gene, which leads to inactivation of β-lactam synthesis. Therefore, ZFN technology could be engaged to decrease the antibiotic resistance issue with the construction of a ZFN archive against different ARGs. To tackle the resistance issue at the environmental level, recombinant phages

  12. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in enterococci from wild game meat in Spain.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Ramos, Emilia; Cordero, Jorge; Molina-González, Diana; Poeta, Patrícia; Igrejas, Gilberto; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos; Capita, Rosa

    2016-02-01

    A total of 55 enterococci (45 Enterococcus faecium, 7 Enterococcus faecalis, and three Enterococcus durans) isolated from the meat of wild game animals (roe deer, boar, rabbit, pheasant, and pigeon) in North-Western Spain were tested for susceptibility to 14 antimicrobials by the disc diffusion method. All strains showed a multi-resistant phenotype (resistance to between three and 10 antimicrobials). The strains exhibited high percentages of resistance to erythromycin (89.1%), tetracycline (67.3%), ciprofloxacin (92.7%), nitrofurantoin (67.3%), and quinupristin-dalfopristin (81.8%). The lowest values (9.1%) were observed for high-level resistance to gentamicin, kanamycin, and streptomycin. The average number of resistances per strain was 5.8 for E. faecium isolates, 7.9 for E. faecalis, and 5.7 for E. durans. Genes encoding antimicrobial resistance and virulence were studied by polymerase chain reaction. A total of 15 (57.7%) of the 26 vancomycin-resistant isolates harboured the vanA gene. Other resistance genes detected included vanB, erm(B) and/or erm(C), tet(L) and/or tet(M), acc(6')-aph(2″), and aph(3')-IIIa in strains resistant to vancomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, gentamicin, and kanamycin, respectively. Specific genes of the Tn5397 transposon were detected in 54.8% of the tet(M)-positive enterococci. Nine virulence factors (gelE, agg, ace, cpd, frs, esp, hyl, efaAfs and efaAfm) were studied. All virulence genes, with the exception of the frs gene, were found to be present in the enterococcal isolates. At least one virulence gene was detected in 20.0% of E. faecium, 71.4% of E. faecalis and 33.3% of E. durans isolates, with ace and cpd being the most frequently detected genes (6 isolates each). This suggests that wild game meat might play a role in the spreading through the food chain of enterococci with antimicrobial resistance and virulence determinants to humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Control of photosynthetic membrane assembly in Rhodobacter sphaeroides mediated by puhA and flanking sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Sockett, R E; Donohue, T J; Varga, A R; Kaplan, S

    1989-01-01

    A reaction center H- strain (RCH-) of Rhodobacter sphaeroides, PUHA1, was made by in vitro deletion of an XhoI restriction endonuclease fragment from the puhA gene coupled with insertion of a kanamycin resistance gene cartridge. The resulting construct was delivered to R. sphaeroides wild-type 2.4.1, with the defective puhA gene replacing the wild-type copy by recombination, followed by selection for kanamycin resistance. When grown under conditions known to induce intracytoplasmic membrane development, PUHA1 synthesized a pigmented intracytoplasmic membrane. Spectral analysis of this membrane showed that it was deficient in B875 spectral complexes as well as functional reaction centers and that the level of B800-850 spectral complexes was greater than in the wild type. The RCH- strain was photosythetically incompetent, but photosynthetic growth was restored by complementation with a 1.45-kilobase (kb) BamHI restriction endonuclease fragment containing the puhA gene carried in trans on plasmid pRK404. B875 spectral complexes were not restored by complementation with the 1.45-kb BamHI restriction endonuclease fragment containing the puhA gene but were restored along with photosynthetic competence by complementation with DNA from a cosmid carrying the puhA gene, as well as a flanking DNA sequence. Interestingly, B875 spectral complexes, but not photosynthetic competence, were restored to PUHA1 by introduction in trans of a 13-kb BamHI restriction endonuclease fragment carrying genes encoding the puf operon region of the DNA. The effect of the puhA deletion was further investigated by an examination of the levels of specific mRNA species derived from the puf and puc operons, as well as by determinations of the relative abundances of polypeptides associated with various spectral complexes by immunological methods. The roles of puhA and other genetic components in photosynthetic gene expression and membrane assembly are discussed. Images PMID:2644200

  14. Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiles of Dairy Leuconostoc, Analysis of the Genetic Basis of Atypical Resistances and Transfer of Genes In Vitro and in a Food Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Susana; Alegría, Ángel; Salvetti, Elisa; Felis, Giovanna E.; Mayo, Baltasar; Torriani, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    In spite of a global concern on the transfer of antibiotic resistances (AR) via the food chain, limited information exists on this issue in species of Leuconostoc and Weissella, adjunct cultures used as aroma producers in fermented foods. In this work, the minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for 16 antibiotics in 34 strains of dairy origin, belonging to Leuconostoc mesenteroides (18), Leuconostoc citreum (11), Leuconostoc lactis (2), Weissella hellenica (2), and Leuconostoc carnosum (1). Atypical resistances were found for kanamycin (17 strains), tetracycline and chloramphenicol (two strains each), and erythromycin, clindamycin, virginiamycin, ciprofloxacin, and rifampicin (one strain each). Surprisingly, L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides LbE16, showed resistance to four antibiotics, kanamycin, streptomycin, tetracycline and virginiamycin. PCR analysis identified tet(S) as responsible for tetracycline resistance in LbE16, but no gene was detected in a second tetracycline-resistant strain, L. mesenteroides subsp. cremoris LbT16. In Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum LbE15, erythromycin and clindamycin resistant, an erm(B) gene was amplified. Hybridization experiments proved erm(B) and tet(S) to be associated to a plasmid of ≈35 kbp and to the chromosome of LbE15 and LbE16, respectively. The complete genome sequence of LbE15 and LbE16 was used to get further insights on the makeup and genetic organization of AR genes. Genome analysis confirmed the presence and location of erm(B) and tet(S), but genes providing tetracycline resistance in LbT16 were again not identified. In the genome of the multi-resistant strain LbE16, genes that might be involved in aminoglycoside (aadE, aphA-3, sat4) and virginiamycin [vat(E)] resistance were further found. The erm(B) gene but not tet(S) was transferred from Leuconostoc to Enterococcus faecalis both under laboratory conditions and in cheese. This study contributes to the characterization of AR in the

  15. Construction of broad-host-range cosmid cloning vectors: identification of genes necessary for growth of Methylobacterium organophilum on methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, L.N.; Hanson, R.S.

    Four new cloning vectors have been constructed from the broad-host-range cloning vector pRK290. These vectors, pLA2901, pLA2905, pLA2910, and pLA2917, confer resistance to kanamycin and tetracycline. The latter two are cosmid derivatives of pLA2901. The new vectors can be mobilized into, and are stably maintained in, a variety of gram-negative bacteria. A Sau3A genomic bank of Methylobacterium organophilum strain xx DNA has been constructed in pLA2917, and complementation analysis, with a variety of mutants unable to grow on methanol, revealed at least five separate regions necessary for growth on methanol. Complementation analysis and Tn5 mutagenesis data suggest that at leastmore » three genes are responsible for expression of active methanol dehydrogenase.« less

  16. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Haemophilus parainfluenzae

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Joan B.; McCarthy, Laurence R.

    1977-01-01

    Fifty random clinical isolates of Haemophilus parainfluenzae were tested for their susceptibility to 10 antibiotics by a microtiter broth dilution method. Three of the strains tested were resistant to ampicillin, whereas eight were resistant to tetracycline. All strains tested were susceptible to chloramphenicol, kanamycin, gentamicin, cephalothin, and colistin. The ranges of minimal inhibitory concentrations for the three remaining antibiotics were: 0.5 to ≥128 μg of penicillin G per ml, 0.03 to 4 μg of carbenicillin per ml, and 1 to 16 μg of erythromycin per ml. Elevated minimal inhibitory concentrations for penicillin and carbenicillin were noted for the three ampicillin-resistant strains. Tests for beta-lactamase production demonstrated the presence of this enzyme in each of the three ampicillin-resistant strains. PMID:587028

  17. [Antibacterial preparation sensitivity of staphylococcal strains isolated from patients with inflammatory diseases of the male genitalia].

    PubMed

    Dobrovol'skaia, L I

    1981-12-01

    The data on the drug sensitivity of 517 staphylococcal strains isolated from the prostate secretion, separate contents of the right and left seminal vesicles, ejaculate and urine of 250 male patients with inflammatory diseases of the genitalia are presented. It is shown that aminoglycoside antibiotics, rifampicin, lincomycin and nitrofurans are the drugs of choice in the treatment of such patients. The resistance of the staphylococcal strains to 14 main antibacterial drugs widely used in the clinical practice was studied for a period of 1971--1978. It was found that the number of the staphylococcal cultures resistant to the drugs except furagin increased. The increase in the resistance level to ampicillin, erythromycin oleandomycin, kanamycin, nevigramon and biseptol was the highest. 95.7 +/- 2.2 per cent of the staphylococcal strains were polyresistant.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of hygromycin B phosphotransferase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Iino, Daisuke; Takakura, Yasuaki; Kuroiwa, Mika; Kawakami, Ryouta; Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Hoshino, Takayuki; Ohsawa, Kanju; Nakamura, Akira; Yajima, Shunsuke

    2007-08-01

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics, such as hygromycin, kanamycin, neomycin, spectinomycin and streptomycin, inhibit protein synthesis by acting on bacterial and eukaryotic ribosomes. Hygromycin B phosphotransferase (Hph; EC 2.7.1.119) converts hygromycin B to 7''-O-phosphohygromycin using a phosphate moiety from ATP, resulting in the loss of its cell-killing activity. The Hph protein has been crystallized for the first time using a thermostable mutant and the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystal provided diffraction data to a resolution of 2.1 A and belongs to space group P3(2)21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 71.0, c = 125.0 A. Crystals of complexes of Hph with hygromycin B and AMP-PNP or ADP have also been obtained in the same crystal form as that of the apoprotein.

  19. Antibiotic resistance of native and faecal bacteria isolated from rivers, reservoirs and sewage treatment facilities in Victoria, south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Boon, P I; Cattanach, M

    1999-03-01

    The incidence of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, neomycin and streptomycin was significantly greater (P < 0.001) in native heterotrophic bacteria than in Escherichia coli isolated from a range of sites along the Yarra River in south-eastern Australia. There was no significant difference in the incidence of resistance between native and faecal bacteria to tetracycline. Both groups were almost totally resistant to penicillin. Multivariate analyses indicated little clear spatial pattern in the incidence of resistance in native bacteria from upstream vs downstream sites along the Yarra River. In contrast, E. coli isolated from upstream (rural) sites tended to have a lower incidence of resistance than isolates from downstream (urban) sites. These findings have implications for the use of antibiotic resistance as a bacteriological water quality parameter.

  20. In-vitro inhibiton of Pantoea ananatis by antagonistic bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagöz, Kenan

    2017-04-01

    Like most cultivated crops, onions (Allium cepa L.) are plagued by phytopathogenic bacteria. Although bacterial diseases of onion occur sporadically, they can cause loss of yield, in the range of a few percent up to 40%. Center rot of onion caused by Pantoea ananatis is the one of the major bacterial disease. Cultural methods and copper compounds often are recommended for control of bacterial diseases, but these are insufficient and the use of some chemicals has adverse effects. For these reasons, biological control is important manner for control of plant disease. In this study; it was researched that in-vitro inhibition effect of 271bacterial strains on P. ananatis in-vitro. Commercially available streptomycin, kanamycin and tetracycline disks were used as control. In consequence; three isolates show more or less inhibitory effect against P. ananatis.

  1. Antioxidative, antibrowning and antibacterial activities of sixteen floral honeys.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xin; Wang, Jiehua; Yang, Shaohui; Chen, Shan; Song, Yingjin

    2011-09-01

    Commonly consumed honeys from sixteen different single floral sources were analyzed for their in vitro antioxidant capacities by several methods including DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, SASR and MDA assays. The total polyphenol contents varied among the tested honeys and were highly correlated to their antioxidant capacity values. The antioxidant capacity of Chinese milk vetch flower honeys was significantly higher than those of other flower honeys. All honeys tested were active in inhibiting the browning of apple homogenate and linden honey displayed the highest inhibition rate as 85%. When the antimicrobial activity of the investigated honeys was screened using Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli), clover honey exhibited the strongest antibacterial activity as 2.2 mg mL(-1) kanamycin equivalent inhibition. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  2. Novel Random Mutagenesis Method for Directed Evolution.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hong; Wang, Hai-Yan; Zhao, Hong-Yan

    2017-01-01

    Directed evolution is a powerful strategy for gene mutagenesis, and has been used for protein engineering both in scientific research and in the biotechnology industry. The routine method for directed evolution was developed by Stemmer in 1994 (Stemmer, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91, 10747-10751, 1994; Stemmer, Nature 370, 389-391, 1994). Since then, various methods have been introduced, each of which has advantages and limitations depending upon the targeted genes and procedure. In this chapter, a novel alternative directed evolution method which combines mutagenesis PCR with dITP and fragmentation by endonuclease V is described. The kanamycin resistance gene is used as a reporter gene to verify the novel method for directed evolution. This method for directed evolution has been demonstrated to be efficient, reproducible, and easy to manipulate in practice.

  3. The zntA gene of Escherichia coli encodes a Zn(II)-translocating P-type ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Rensing, Christopher; Mitra, Bharati; Rosen, Barry P.

    1997-01-01

    The first Zn(II)-translocating P-type ATPase has been identified as the product of o732, a potential gene identified in the sequencing of the Escherichia coli genome. This gene, termed zntA, was disrupted by insertion of a kanamycin gene through homologous recombination. The mutant strain exhibited hypersensitivity to zinc and cadmium salts but not salts of other metals, suggesting a role in zinc homeostasis in E. coli. Everted membrane vesicles from a wild-type strain accumulated 65Zn(II) and 109Cd(II) by using ATP as an energy source. Transport was sensitive to vanadate, an inhibitor of P-type ATPases. Membrane vesicles from the zntA∷kan strain did not accumulate those metal ions. Both the sensitive phenotype and transport defect of the mutant were complemented by expression of zntA on a plasmid. PMID:9405611

  4. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Radonic, Laura M; Lewi, Dalia M; López, Nilda E; Hopp, H Esteban; Escandón, Alejandro S; Bilbao, Marisa López

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is still considered as a recalcitrant species to in vitro culture and transformation in spite of the publication of different protocols. Here we describe a routine transformation system of this crop which requires mature HA89 genotype seeds and Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 strain for gene delivery, being both easily available. Selection of transformed shoots depends on root development in kanamycin-selective media, instead of shoot color, avoiding selection of escapes. The establishment of this protocol proved successful for the incorporation of both reporter and agronomic important genes and also for the evaluation of the specific expression patterns of different promoters in transgenic sunflower plants. Stable expression of the incorporated transgenes was confirmed by RT-PCR and GUS reporter gene visualization. Stable inheritance of transgenes was successfully followed until T2 generation in several independent lines.

  5. Anti-MRSA Activities of Enterocins DD28 and DD93 and Evidences on Their Role in the Inhibition of Biofilm Formation.

    PubMed

    Al Atya, Ahmed K; Belguesmia, Yanath; Chataigne, Gabrielle; Ravallec, Rozenn; Vachée, Anne; Szunerits, Sabine; Boukherroub, Rabah; Drider, Djamel

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a worrisome superbug. This work aimed at studying the effects of two class IIb bacteriocins, enterocins DD28 and DD93 as anti-MRSA agents. Thus, these bacteriocins were purified, from the cultures supernatants of Enterococcus faecalis 28 and 93, using a simplified purification procedure consisting in a cation exchange chromatography and a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The anti-Staphylococcal activity was shown in vitro by the assessment of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), followed by a checkerboard and time-kill kinetics experiments. The data unveiled a clear synergistic effect of enterocins DD28 and DD93 in combination with erythromycin or kanamycin against the clinical MRSA-S1 strain. Besides, these combinations impeded as well the MRSA-S1 clinical strain to setup biofilms on stainless steel and glace devices.

  6. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of hygromycin B phosphotransferase from Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Iino, Daisuke; Takakura, Yasuaki; Kuroiwa, Mika; Kawakami, Ryouta; Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Hoshino, Takayuki; Ohsawa, Kanju; Nakamura, Akira; Yajima, Shunsuke

    2007-01-01

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics, such as hygromycin, kanamycin, neomycin, spectinomycin and streptomycin, inhibit protein synthesis by acting on bacterial and eukaryotic ribosomes. Hygromycin B phosphotransferase (Hph; EC 2.7.1.119) converts hygromycin B to 7′′-O-phosphohygromycin using a phosphate moiety from ATP, resulting in the loss of its cell-killing activity. The Hph protein has been crystallized for the first time using a thermostable mutant and the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystal provided diffraction data to a resolution of 2.1 Å and belongs to space group P3221, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 71.0, c = 125.0 Å. Crystals of complexes of Hph with hygromycin B and AMP-PNP or ADP have also been obtained in the same crystal form as that of the apoprotein. PMID:17671368

  7. Hydraphiles enhance antimicrobial potency against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mohit B; Garrad, Evan C; Stavri, Ariel; Gokel, Michael R; Negin, Saeedeh; Meisel, Joseph W; Cusumano, Zachary; Gokel, George W

    2016-06-15

    Hydraphiles are synthetic amphiphiles that form ion-conducting pores in liposomal membranes. These pores exhibit open-close behavior when studied by planar bilayer conductance techniques. In previous work, we showed that when co-administered with various antibiotics to the DH5α strain of Escherichia coli, they enhanced the drug's potency. We report here potency enhancements at low concentrations of hydraphiles for the structurally and mechanistically unrelated antibiotics erythromycin, kanamycin, rifampicin, and tetracycline against Gram negative E. coli (DH5α and K-12) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as well as Gram positive Bacillus subtilis. Earlier work suggested that potency increases correlated to ion transport function. The data presented here comport with the function of hydraphiles to enhance membrane permeability in addition to, or instead of, their known function as ion conductors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Complexation induced fluorescence and acid-base properties of dapoxyl dye with γ-cyclodextrin: a drug-binding application using displacement assays.

    PubMed

    Pal, Kaushik; Mallick, Suman; Koner, Apurba L

    2015-06-28

    Host-guest complexation of dapoxyl sodium sulphonate (DSS), an intramolecular charge transfer dye with water-soluble and non-toxic macrocycle γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD), has been investigated in a wide pH range. Steady-state absorption, fluorescence and time-resolved fluorescence measurements confirm the positioning of DSS into the hydrophobic cavity of γ-CD. A large fluorescence enhancement ca. 30 times, due to 1 : 2 complex formation and host-assisted guest-protonation have been utilised for developing a method for the utilisation of CD based drug-delivery applications. A simple fluorescence-displacement based approach is implemented at physiological pH for the assessment of binding strength of pharmaceutically useful small drug molecules (ibuprofen, paracetamol, methyl salicylate, salicylic acid, aspirin, and piroxicam) and six important antibiotic drugs (resazurin, thiamphenicol, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, kanamycin, and sorbic acid) with γ-CD.

  9. Extremely high frequency electromagnetic irradiation in combination with antibiotics enhances antibacterial effects on Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Torgomyan, Heghine; Tadevosyan, Hasmik; Trchounian, Armen

    2011-03-01

    Antibacterial effects of the electromagnetic irradiation (EMI) of 51.8 and 53 GHz frequencies with low intensity (the flux capacity of 0.06 mW/cm(2)) and non-thermal action were investigated upon direct irradiation of E. coli K12. Significant decrease in bacterial growth rate and in the number of viable cells, marked change in H(+) and K(+) transport across membrane were shown. Subsequent addition of kanamycin or ceftriaxone (15 or 0.4 μM, respectively) enhanced the effects of irradiation. This was maximally achieved at the frequency of 53 GHz. These all might reveal membrane as probable target for antibacterial effects. Apparently, the action of EMI on bacteria might lead to changed membrane properties and to antibiotic resistance. The results should improve using extremely high frequency EMI in combination with antibiotics in biotechnology, therapeutic practice, and food industry.

  10. [Controlled study of oral administration of antibiotics in the preparation of digestive surgery (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Mendes da Costa, P; Klastersky, J; Gérard, A

    1977-01-01

    Between November 30, 1971 and March 15, 1976, 46 patients underwent surgery on the colon or rectum. They were randomized into 2 groups, one receiving a mechanical preparation together with lincomycline, neomycine, polymyxine, kanamycine, bacitracine and nystatine, the other a mechanical preparation alone. Analysis of results reveals no statistically significant difference in the frequency of infections, neither local (11/24 with antibiotics vis 13/22 without; chi2 = 0.25) neither general (16/24 and 9/22; chi2 = 0.92). Nor was the postoperative use of antibiotics for local or general infection different in the 2 groups. No influence of age or preoperative radio-therapy could be shown. This randomized trial suggests that there is little advantage in associating antibiotics to mechanical preparation before colorectal surgery. The authors contemplate a new randomized trial in high-risk patients suffering from cancer.

  11. Anti-MRSA Activities of Enterocins DD28 and DD93 and Evidences on Their Role in the Inhibition of Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Al Atya, Ahmed K.; Belguesmia, Yanath; Chataigne, Gabrielle; Ravallec, Rozenn; Vachée, Anne; Szunerits, Sabine; Boukherroub, Rabah; Drider, Djamel

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a worrisome superbug. This work aimed at studying the effects of two class IIb bacteriocins, enterocins DD28 and DD93 as anti-MRSA agents. Thus, these bacteriocins were purified, from the cultures supernatants of Enterococcus faecalis 28 and 93, using a simplified purification procedure consisting in a cation exchange chromatography and a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The anti-Staphylococcal activity was shown in vitro by the assessment of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), followed by a checkerboard and time-kill kinetics experiments. The data unveiled a clear synergistic effect of enterocins DD28 and DD93 in combination with erythromycin or kanamycin against the clinical MRSA-S1 strain. Besides, these combinations impeded as well the MRSA-S1 clinical strain to setup biofilms on stainless steel and glace devices. PMID:27303396

  12. A transgenic apple callus showing reduced polyphenol oxidase activity and lower browning potential.

    PubMed

    Murata, M; Nishimura, M; Murai, N; Haruta, M; Homma, S; Itoh, Y

    2001-02-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is responsible for enzymatic browning of apples. Apples lacking PPO activity might be useful not only for the food industry but also for studies of the metabolism of polyphenols and the function of PPO. Transgenic apple calli were prepared by using Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying the kanamycin (KM) resistant gene and antisense PPO gene. Four KM-resistant callus lines were obtained from 356 leaf explants. Among these transgenic calli, three calli grew on the medium containing KM at the same rate as non-transgenic callus on the medium without KM. One callus line had an antisense PPO gene, in which the amount and activity of PPO were reduced to half the amount and activity in non-transgenic callus. The browning potential of this line, which was estimated by adding chlorogenic acid, was also half the browning potential of non-transgenic callus.

  13. The fate of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli C600φ3538(Δvtx2 ::cat) and its vtx2 prophage during grass silage preparation.

    PubMed

    Nyambe, S; Burgess, C; Whyte, P; O'Kiely, P; Bolton, D

    2017-05-01

    Silage is grass, preserved by fermentation and used as winter feed for cattle. The impact of a range of current grass silage preparation practices on the survival of Escherichia coli C600φ3538(Δvtx 2 ::cat) and on the induction, release and infectivity of free phage were investigated. Wilted and fresh grass samples, from plots with and without slurry application, were ensiled with or without formic acid. Each treatment combination was inoculated with approximately 6 log 10 CFU per g E. coli C600φ3538(Δvtx 2 ::cat) (donor strain) and E. coli C600::kanamycin R (recipient strain) in test-tube model silos and incubated in the dark at 15°C. The physico-chemical (pH, ammonia, ethanol, lactic acid and volatile fatty acids) and microbiological (total viable counts, TVC, total Enterobacteriaceae counts, TEC, E. coli counts, ECC and lactic acid bacteria, LAB) properties of each fermentation were monitored throughout the experiment as were the concentrations of E. coli C600φ3538(Δvtx 2 ::cat), E. coli C600::kanamycin R , free phage and transductants, using culture and PCR-based methods. Over the course of the experiment the pH of the grass samples typically decreased by 2 pH units. TVC, TEC and ECC decreased by up to 2·3, 6·4 and 6·2 log 10 CFU per g, respectively, while the LAB counts remained relatively stable at 5·2-7·1 log 10 CFU per g. Both donor and recipient strains decreased by approximately 5 log 10 CFU per g. Free phages were detected in all treatments and transductants were detected and confirmed by PCR in the silo containing wilted grass, pretreated with slurry and ensiled without formic acid. Verocytotoxigenic E. coli may survive the ensiling process and the conditions encountered are sufficient to induce vtx 2 bacteriophage leading to low levels of phage-mediated vtx 2 gene transfer. These studies suggest that the ensiling of grass may create an environment which facilitates the emergence of new verocytotoxigenic E. coli. © 2017 The Society

  14. Characterization of the cryptic plasmid pOfk55 from Legionella pneumophila and construction of a pOfk55-derived shuttle vector.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenta; Tachibana, Masato; Shimizu, Takashi; Watarai, Masahisa

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a cryptic plasmid pOfk55 from Legionella pneumophila was isolated and characterized. pOfk55 comprised 2584bp with a GC content of 37.3% and contained three putative open reading frames (ORFs). orf1 encoded a protein of 195 amino acids and the putative protein shared 39% sequence identity with a putative plasmid replication protein RepL. ORF1 was needed for replication in L. pneumophila but pOfk55 did not replicate in Escherichia coli. orf2 and orf3 encoded putative hypothetical proteins of 114 amino acids and 78 amino acids, respectively, but the functions of the putative proteins ORF2 and OFR3 are not clear. The transfer mechanism for pOfk55 was independent on the type IVB secretion system in the original host. A L. pneumophila-E. coli shuttle vector, pNT562 (5058bp, Km R ), was constructed by In-Fusion Cloning of pOfk55 with a kanamycin-resistance gene from pUTmini-Tn5Km and the origin of replication from pBluescript SK(+) (pNT561). Multiple cloning sites from pBluescript SK(+) as well as the tac promoter region and lacI gene from pAM239-GFP were inserted into pNT561 to construct pNT562. The transformation efficiency of pNT562 in L. pneumophila strains ranged from 1.6×10 1 to 1.0×10 5 CFU/ng. The relative number of pNT562 was estimated at 5.7±1.0 copies and 73.6% of cells maintained the plasmid after 1week in liquid culture without kanamycin. A green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression vector, pNT563, was constructed by ligating pNT562 with the gfpmut3 gene from pAM239-GFP. pNT563 was introduced into L. pneumophila Lp02 and E. coli DH5α, and both strains expressed GFP successfully. These results suggest that the shuttle vector is useful for genetic studies in L. pneumophila. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Drug-sensitivity of El Tor vibrio strains isolated in the Philippines in 1964 and 1965*

    PubMed Central

    Kuwahara, Shogo; Goto, Sachiko; Kimura, Masatake; Abe, Hisao

    1967-01-01

    About 1500 strains of El Tor vibrios, isolated in 1964 and 1965 in the Philippines, were examined for their susceptibilities to 17 drugs. All the strains tested were highly sensitive to dihydroxymethyl-furalazine, and most were highly sensitive to tetracycline hydrochloride, chloramphenicol and erythromycin, and moderately sensitive to novobiocin, dihydrostreptomycin sulfate, kanamycin and neomycin. They showed a remarkable fluctuation of sensitivity to ampicillin, cefaloridine, cefalotin and sulfafurazole, and a high resistance to benzylpenicillin sodium, oleandomycin and spiramycin. Experimental confirmation was provided of the fact that El Tor vibrios and non-agglutinable vibrios can be distinguished from classical cholera vibrios by their resistance to polymyxin B and colistin. Highly streptomycin-resistant strains, and to a lesser extent ampicillin- and sulfafurazole-resistant strains, were relatively often isolated from cholera patients who had been treated with antibiotics. One patient yielded a strain resistant to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, streptomycin and sulfafurazole. PMID:4870079

  16. [Examination of processed vegetable foods for the presence of common DNA sequences of genetically modified tomatoes].

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Mamiko; Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Ubukata, Shoji; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The contamination of processed vegetable foods with genetically modified tomatoes was investigated by the use of qualitative PCR methods to detect the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (P35S) and the kanamycin resistance gene (NPTII). DNA fragments of P35S and NPTII were detected in vegetable juice samples, possibly due to contamination with the genomes of cauliflower mosaic virus infecting juice ingredients of Brassica species and soil bacteria, respectively. Therefore, to detect the transformation construct sequences of GM tomatoes, primer pairs were designed for qualitative PCR to specifically detect the border region between P35S and NPTII, and the border region between nopaline synthase gene promoter and NPTII. No amplification of the targeted sequences was observed using genomic DNA purified from the juice ingredients. The developed qualitative PCR method is considered to be a reliable tool to check contamination of products with GM tomatoes.

  17. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Are Protective in Acute but Not in Chronic Models of Ototoxicity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao-Hui; Liu, Zhiqi; Dong, Deanna; Schacht, Jochen; Arya, Dev; Sha, Su-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that modification of histones alters aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death and hearing loss. In this study, we investigated three FDA-approved histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (vorinostat/SAHA, belinostat, and panobinostat) as protectants against aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity in murine cochlear explants and in vivo in both guinea pigs and CBA/J mice. Individually, all three HDAC inhibitors reduced gentamicin (GM)-induced hair cell loss in a dose-dependent fashion in explants. In vivo , however, treatment with SAHA attenuated neither GM-induced hearing loss and hair cell loss in guinea pigs nor kanamycin (KM)-induced hearing loss and hair cell loss in mice under chronic models of ototoxicity. These findings suggest that treatment with the HDAC inhibitor SAHA attenuates aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity in an acute model, but not in chronic models, cautioning that one cannot rely solely on in vitro experiments to test the efficacy of otoprotectant compounds.

  18. Incidence of antibiotic resistance in coliforms from drinking water and their identification using the Biolog and the API identification systems.

    PubMed

    Tokajian, S; Hashwa, F

    2004-02-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were common in samples collected from an intermittent water distribution system in Lebanon. Multiply-resistant isolates were also present and most commonly to amoxycillin, cephalexin and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. The aminoglycosides (amikacin, gentamicin and kanamycin) were the most effective, with almost all tested strains showing susceptibility to these antimicrobial agents. Both the Biolog GN MicroPlates and the API 20E strips can be used for the identification of coliform bacteria isolated from potable water, but the outcome of the identification should be viewed with caution. 51% of isolates were assigned similar identities by both the Biolog MicroPlates and the API 20E strips. The similarity at the species level was lower (33%) compared to that at the genus level (67%). The identification of Escherichia coli strains, which represented 30% of all tested organisms, showed 95% similarity in the assigned genus and species using both identification schemes.

  19. Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.).

    PubMed

    Maravi, Devendra Kumar; Mazumdar, Purabi; Alam, Shamsher; Goud, Vaibhav V; Sahoo, Lingaraj

    2015-01-01

    The seed oil of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) as a source of biodiesel fuel is gaining worldwide importance. Commercial-scale exploration of Jatropha has not succeeded due to low and unstable seed yield in semiarid lands unsuitable for the food production and infestation to diseases. Genetic engineering is promising to improve various agronomic traits in Jatropha and to understand the molecular functions of key Jatropha genes for molecular breeding. We describe a protocol routinely followed in our laboratory for stable and efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Jatropha using cotyledonary leaf as explants. The 4-day-old explants are infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring pBI121 plant binary vector, which contains nptII as plant selectable marker and gus as reporter. The putative transformed plants are selected on kanamycin, and stable integration of transgene(s) is confirmed by histochemical GUS assay, polymerase chain reaction, and Southern hybridization.

  20. Deep Sequencing-Identified Kanamycin-Resistant Paenibacillus sp. Strain KS1 Isolated from Epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish Moss) in Central Florida, USA

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, Subramaniam S.; Qi, Feng; Li, Jian-Liang; Sahoo, Malaya K.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Paenibacillus sp. strain KS1 was isolated from an epiphyte, Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish moss), in central Florida, USA. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of this strain, which consists of a total of 398 contigs spanning 6,508,195 bp, with a G+C content of 46.5% and comprising 5,401 predicted coding sequences. PMID:28153888

  1. Deep Sequencing-Identified Kanamycin-Resistant Paenibacillus sp. Strain KS1 Isolated from Epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish Moss) in Central Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Lata, Pushpa; Govindarajan, Subramaniam S; Qi, Feng; Li, Jian-Liang; Sahoo, Malaya K

    2017-02-02

    Paenibacillus sp. strain KS1 was isolated from an epiphyte, Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish moss), in central Florida, USA. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of this strain, which consists of a total of 398 contigs spanning 6,508,195 bp, with a G+C content of 46.5% and comprising 5,401 predicted coding sequences. Copyright © 2017 Lata et al.

  2. Biochemical and molecular characterization of a rhizobitoxine-producing Bradyrhizobium from pigeon pea plants.

    PubMed

    Kanika; Dogra, Tripti; Lata

    2010-05-01

    Out of a total of 8 bacterial strains isolated from the root nodules of pigeon pea plants grown in arid region, five were identified as rhizobia based on biochemical test and confirmed by 16S rDNA sequencing. PCR based screening for the rtxA gene (involved in biosynthesis of rhizobitoxine) revealed that the gene was present in one strain identified biochemically and genetically as belonging to species Bradyrhizobium (BS KT-24). The strain was resistant to phosphomycin, nalidixic acid, kanamycin, gentamicin and neomycin but sensitive towards streptomycin and spectinomycin. Bioinformatic-tool-guided phylogenetic analysis of rtxA gene revealed its distinctiveness from other known rtxA genes (present in B. japonicum, B. elkanii and Xanthomonas oryzae). The rhizobitoxine producing strain BS KT-24 is considered to exhibit better survival and nodulation protection besides competitiveness for pigeon pea and other legumes grown under abiotic stress and, thus, be a candidate in practical aspect of rhizobitoxine production by rhizobium and its application as rhizobial inoculants.

  3. Distribution and Diversity of Symbiotic Thermophiles, Symbiobacterium thermophilum and Related Bacteria, in Natural Environments

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Kenji; Ohno, Michiyo; Yamamoto, Kaori; Nara, Hanae; Mori, Yujiro; Shimada, Masafumi; Hayashi, Masahiko; Oida, Hanako; Terashima, Yuko; Nagata, Mitsuyo; Beppu, Teruhiko

    2001-01-01

    Symbiobacterium thermophilum is a tryptophanase-positive thermophile which shows normal growth only in coculture with its supporting bacteria. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene (rDNA) indicated that the bacterium belongs to a novel phylogenetic branch at the outermost position of the gram-positive bacterial group without clustering to any other known genus. Here we describe the distribution and diversity of S. thermophilum and related bacteria in the environment. Thermostable tryptophanase activity and amplification of the specific 16S rDNA fragment were effectively employed to detect the presence of Symbiobacterium. Enrichment with kanamycin raised detection sensitivity. Mixed cultures of thermophiles containing Symbiobacterium species were frequently obtained from compost, soil, animal feces, and contents in the intestinal tracts, as well as feeds. Phylogenetic analysis and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the specific 16S rDNA amplicons revealed a diversity of this group of bacteria in the environment. PMID:11525967

  4. Antibiotic resistance of vibrio cholerae: special considerations of R-plasmids.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, S

    1978-09-01

    Studies on the transmission of R plasmid by conjugation between enterobacteria and vibrio or related bacteria were reviewed. The majority of the reports confirmed successful transmission from enterobacteria to Vibrio cholerae and related species, although the transmission frequencies were extremely low and the transmitted R plasmid was very unstable except for thermosensitive kanamycin plasmid and usual R plasmid coexisting with P plasmid. Strains of V. cholerae and Aeromonas liquefaciens as well as A. salmonicida bearing R plasmid were detected in nature. R plasmid was relatively unstable in V. cholerae strains with which transmission of R plasmid to enterobacteria was confirmed. At present, only 3 R plasmids have been obtained from naturally occurring strains of V. cholerae. Although the 2 European plasmids belong to the C incompatibility group with 98 megadalton closed covalent circular DNA molecule, one plasmid belongs to the J group with more than 25 megadalton molecular weight, and no CCC of satelite DNA was detected in bacteria harboring this plasmid.

  5. Antimicrobial constituents of peel and seeds of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia).

    PubMed

    Kaneshima, Tai; Myoda, Takao; Toeda, Kazuki; Fujimori, Takane; Nishizawa, Makoto

    2017-08-01

    Various antimicrobial constituents of camu-camu fruit were isolated. Acylphloroglucinol (compound 1) and rhodomyrtone (compound 2) were isolated from the peel of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) fruit, while two other acylphloroglucinols (compounds 3 and 4) were obtained from camu-camu seeds. The structures of the isolated compounds were characterized by spectrophotometric methods. Compounds 1 and 4 were confirmed to be new acylphloroglucinols with different substituents at the C7 or C9 position of 2, and were named myrciarone A and B, respectively. Compound 3 was determined to be isomyrtucommulone B. This is the first report of the isolation of 3 from a natural resource. The antimicrobial activities of compounds 1, 3, and 4 were similar to those of 2, and the minimum inhibitory concentrations were either similar to or lower than that of kanamycin. These results suggest that the peel and seeds of camu-camu fruit could be utilized for therapeutic applications.

  6. Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Plasmids Allow Scalable,
PCR-Mediated DNA Manipulation and Near-Zero Background Cloning

    PubMed Central

    Arnak, Remigiusz; Altun, Burcin; Tosato, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Summary We have constructed two plasmids that can be used for cloning as templates for PCR- -based gene disruption, mutagenesis and the construction of DNA chromosome translocation cassettes. To our knowledge, these plasmids are the first vectors that confer resistance to ampicillin, kanamycin and hygromycin B in bacteria, and to geneticin (G418) and hygromycin B in Saccharomyces cerevisiae simultaneously. The option of simultaneously using up to three resistance markers provides a highly stringent control of recombinant selection and the almost complete elimination of background resistance, while unique restriction sites allow easy cloning of chosen genetic material. Moreover, we successfully used these new vectors as PCR templates for the induction of chromosome translocation in budding yeast by the bridge-induced translocation system. Cells in which translocation was induced carried chromosomal rearrangements as expected and exhibited resistance to both, G418 and hygromycin B. These features make our constructs very handy tools for many molecular biology applications. PMID:27956856

  7. Finding the Right Candidate for the Right Position: A Fast NMR-Assisted Combinatorial Method for Optimizing Nucleic Acids Binders.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Moreno, Ester; Montalvillo-Jiménez, Laura; Santana, Andrés G; Gómez, Ana M; Jiménez-Osés, Gonzalo; Corzana, Francisco; Bastida, Agatha; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Cañada, Francisco Javier; Gómez-Pinto, Irene; González, Carlos; Asensio, Juan Luis

    2016-05-25

    Development of strong and selective binders from promiscuous lead compounds represents one of the most expensive and time-consuming tasks in drug discovery. We herein present a novel fragment-based combinatorial strategy for the optimization of multivalent polyamine scaffolds as DNA/RNA ligands. Our protocol provides a quick access to a large variety of regioisomer libraries that can be tested for selective recognition by combining microdialysis assays with simple isotope labeling and NMR experiments. To illustrate our approach, 20 small libraries comprising 100 novel kanamycin-B derivatives have been prepared and evaluated for selective binding to the ribosomal decoding A-Site sequence. Contrary to the common view of NMR as a low-throughput technique, we demonstrate that our NMR methodology represents a valuable alternative for the detection and quantification of complex mixtures, even integrated by highly similar or structurally related derivatives, a common situation in the context of a lead optimization process. Furthermore, this study provides valuable clues about the structural requirements for selective A-site recognition.

  8. Two-Photon-Active Organotin(IV) Complexes for Antibacterial Function and Superresolution Bacteria Imaging.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lei; Wang, Hui; Xia, Tingting; Fang, Bin; Shen, Yu; Zhang, Qiong; Tian, Xiaohe; Zhou, Hongping; Wu, Jieying; Tian, Yupeng

    2018-06-04

    Antibacterial agents with two-photon absorption are expected to play a significant role in biomedical science. Herein, two novel organotin complexes, HLSn1 and HLSn2, based on coumarin were designed, synthesized, and systematically investigated. It was found that these complexes possessed suitable two-photon-active cross sections in the near-infrared region. Moreover, complex HLSn1 could efficiently inhibit the growth of Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, especially the latter with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC; 90%) of 2 ± 0.14 μg mL -1 , which is lower than that of Kanamycin (Kana, 8 ± 0.42 μg mL -1 ). Importantly, two-photon imaging and superresolution development of bacterial stain revealed that complex HLSn1 can react with bacterial membranes, producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and leading to cell death. These outcomes provide promising applications in the superresolution bacteria imaging, diagnostics, and treatment of bacterial infectious.

  9. Management of aerobic vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Tempera, Gianna; Furneri, Pio Maria

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic vaginitis is a new nonclassifiable pathology that is neither specific vaginitis nor bacterial vaginosis. The diversity of this microbiological peculiarity could also explain several therapeutic failures when patients were treated for infections identified as bacterial vaginosis. The diagnosis 'aerobic vaginitis' is essentially based on microscopic examinations using a phase-contrast microscope (at ×400 magnification). The therapeutic choice for 'aerobic vaginitis' should take into consideration an antibiotic characterized by an intrinsic activity against the majority of bacteria of fecal origin, bactericidal effect and poor/absent interference with the vaginal microbiota. Regarding the therapy for aerobic vaginitis when antimicrobial agents are prescribed, not only the antimicrobial spectrum but also the presumed ecological disturbance on the anaerobic and aerobic vaginal and rectal microbiota should be taken into a consideration. Because of their very low impact on the vaginal microbiota, kanamycin or quinolones are to be considered a good choice for therapy. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Membrane-Targeting DCAP Analogues with Broad-Spectrum Antibiotic Activity against Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We performed a structure–activity relationship study of 2-((3-(3,6-dichloro-9H-carbazol-9-yl)-2-hydroxypropyl)amino)-2-(hydroxymethyl)propane-1,3-diol (DCAP), which is an antibacterial agent that disrupts the membrane potential and permeability of bacteria. The stereochemistry of DCAP had no effect on the biological activity of DCAP. The aromaticity and electronegativity of the chlorine-substituted carbazole was required for activity, suggesting that its planar and dipolar characteristics orient DCAP in membranes. Increasing the hydrophobicity of the tail region of DCAP enhanced its antibiotic activity. Two DCAP analogues displayed promising antibacterial activity against the BSL-3 pathogens Bacillus anthracis and Francisella tularensis. Codosing DCAP analogues with ampicillin or kanamycin increased their potency. These studies demonstrate that DCAP and its analogues may be a promising scaffold for developing chemotherapeutic agents that bind to bacterial membranes and kill strains of slow-growing or dormant bacteria that cause persistent infections. PMID:25941556

  11. The activity of aminoglycoside antibiotics against Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Maina, N W; Kinyanjui, B; Onyango, J D; Auma, J E; Croj, S

    1998-01-01

    The trypanocidal activity of four aminoglycosides was determined against Trypanosoma brucei in vitro. The drug activity in descending order, was as follows; paromomycin kanamycin>gentamycin > neomycin. Paromomycin bad the highest activity and the concentration that inhibited 50% of trypanosome growth (IC50) was 11.4microM. The effect of paromomycin on the causative agents of the East African form of sleeping sickness - T.b. rhodesiense KETRI 265, 2285, 2545, 2562 and EATRO 110,112, 1152 was subsequently assessed. Variations sensitivities between the trypanosome populations were observed and IC50 values ranging from 13.01 to 43.06 microM recorded. However, when paromomycin was administered intraperitoneally (i.p) at 500 mg/kg, it was not effective in curing mice infected with T. b. rhodesienseKETRI 2545 the most drug-sensitive isolate in vitro. Lack of in vivo activity may be because the trypanosome is an extracellular parasite. The pharmacokinetics of paromomycin in the mouse model need to be determined.

  12. Antibiotic Therapy of Staphylococcal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Hawks, Gordon H.

    1965-01-01

    The antibiotic treatment of staphylococcal infections remains a problem. Isolation of the organism and sensitivity testing are necessary in the choice of antibiotic. Penicillin G is the most effective penicillin against non-penicillinase-producing staphy-lococci; for the penicillinase producers there is very little to choose between the semisynthetic penicillins, methicillin, cloxacillin, nafcillin and oxacillin. For patients who are hypersensitive to penicillin, the bacteriostatic drugs (erythromycin, novobiocin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, oleandomycin) are useful for mild infections, while for more severe illness the bactericidal drugs (vancomycin, ristocetin, kanamycin, bacitracin, neomycin) have been used successfully. Acute staphylococcal enterocolitis is probably best treated by a semisynthetic penicillin. Other antibiotics which have been found useful, with clinical trials, for staphylococcal infections are cephalosporin, fucidin, cephaloridine and lincomycin. The latter drug has been reported of value in the treatment of osteomyelitis. There is little justification for the prophylactic use of antibiotics to prevent staphylococcal infection. Surgical drainage is still an important adjunct in the treatment of many staphylococcal infections. PMID:5318575

  13. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of hygromycin B phosphotransferase from Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Iino, Daisuke; Takakura, Yasuaki; Kuroiwa, Mika

    2007-08-01

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of the aminoglycoside antibiotic-modifying enzyme hygromycin B phosphotransferase from E. coli are reported. Aminoglycoside antibiotics, such as hygromycin, kanamycin, neomycin, spectinomycin and streptomycin, inhibit protein synthesis by acting on bacterial and eukaryotic ribosomes. Hygromycin B phosphotransferase (Hph; EC 2.7.1.119) converts hygromycin B to 7′′-O-phosphohygromycin using a phosphate moiety from ATP, resulting in the loss of its cell-killing activity. The Hph protein has been crystallized for the first time using a thermostable mutant and the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystal provided diffraction data to a resolution of 2.1 Å and belongs to space group P3{submore » 2}21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 71.0, c = 125.0 Å. Crystals of complexes of Hph with hygromycin B and AMP-PNP or ADP have also been obtained in the same crystal form as that of the apoprotein.« less

  14. Antimicrobial drug resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cattle in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M S; Siqueira-Júnior, J P

    1995-06-01

    Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus obtained from apparently healthy cattle in the State of Paraiba, Brazil were characterized in relation to resistance to 21 antimicrobial agents. Among the 46 isolates obtained, resistance to penicillin was most frequent, followed by resistance to cadmium, streptomycin, arsenate, tetracycline, mercury, erythromycin and kanamycin/neomycin. All isolates were susceptible to fusidic acid, ethidium bromide, cetrimide, chloramphenicol, benzalkonium chloride, doxycycline, gentamicin, methicillin, minocycline, novobiocin, rifamycin, tylosin and vancomycin. Only six isolates were susceptible to all the drugs tested. With respect to the antibiotics, multi-resistant isolates were uncommon. These results are probably a consequence of the peculiarities of local drug usage pressures. In relation to metal ions, resistance to mercury was rare while resistance to arsenate was relatively frequent, which contrasts with the situation for human Staph. aureus strains. After treatment with ethidium bromide, elimination of resistance to penicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin, erythromycin and cadmium was observed, which was consistent with the genetic determinants being plasmid-borne.

  15. Targeted mutagenesis of the psbE and psbF genes blocks photosynthetic electron transport: evidence for a functional role of cytochrome b559 in photosystem II.

    PubMed Central

    Pakrasi, H B; Williams, J G; Arntzen, C J

    1988-01-01

    The genes encoding the two subunits (alpha and beta) of the cytochrome b559 (cyt b559) protein, psbE and psbF, were cloned from the unicellular, transformable cyanobacterium, Synechocystis 6803. Cyt b559, an intrinsic membrane protein, is a component of photosystem II, a membrane-protein complex that catalyzes photosynthetic oxygen evolution. However, the role of cyt b559 in photosynthetic electron transport is yet to be determined. A high degree of homology was found between the cyanobacterial and green plant chloroplastidic psbE and psbE genes and in the amino acid sequences of their corresponding protein products. Cartridge mutagenesis techniques were used to generate a deletion mutant of Synechocystis 6803 in which the psbE and psbF genes were replaced by a kanamycin-resistance gene cartridge. Physiological analyses indicated that the PSII complexes of the mutant were inactivated. We conclude that cyt b559 is an essential component of PSII. Images PMID:3130246

  16. Antibiotic resistance monitoring in Vibrio spp. isolated from rearing environment and intestines of abalone Haliotis diversicolor.

    PubMed

    Wang, R X; Wang, J Y; Sun, Y C; B L Yang; A L Wang

    2015-12-30

    546 Vibrio isolates from rearing seawater (292 strains) and intestines of abalone (254 strains) were tested to ten antibiotics using Kirby-Bauer diffusion method. Resistant rates of abalone-derived Vibrio isolates to chloramphenicol (C), enrofloxacin (ENX) and norfloxacin (NOR) were <28%, whereas those from seawater showed large fluctuations in resistance to each of the tested antibiotics. Many strains showed higher resistant rates (>40%) to kanamycin (KNA), furazolidone (F), tetracycline (TE), gentamicin (GM) and rifampin (RA). 332 isolates from seawater (n=258) and abalone (n=74) were resistant to more than three antibiotics. Peaked resistant rates of seawater-derived isolates to multiple antibiotics were overlapped in May and August. Statistical analysis showed that pH had an important effect on resistant rates of abalone-derived Vibrio isolates to RA, NOR, and ENX. Salinity and dissolved oxygen were negatively correlated with resistant rates of seawater-derived Vibrio isolates to KNA, RA, and PG. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evidence on Possible Mycoplasma Etiology of Aster Yellows Disease I. Suppression of Symptom Development in Plants by Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Davis, R. E.; Whitcomb, R. F.

    1970-01-01

    Antibiotics suppressed development of aster yellows (AY) disease symptoms in plants of china aster [Callistephus chinensis (L.) Nees.] and annual chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum carinatum, Schousb.). When inoculated chrysanthemum plants were treated by any of several techniques with tetracycline antibiotics or chloramphenicol, symptoms failed to appear during treatment but appeared 1 to 4 weeks after treatments were terminated. Under continuous administration of chlortetracycline, aster plants with AY symptoms developed symptomless axillary growth, including flowers. Streptomycin, oleandomycin, kanamycin, tylosin, carbomycin, polymyxin, bacitracin, neomycin, sulfanilamide, penicillin, vancomycin, or cycloserine had no discernible effect on development of AY symptoms. Treatment of plants with tetracycline antibiotics before exposure to inoculative (pathogen-transmitting) vectors delayed the appearance of symptoms or prevented AY infection. Remission of AY symptoms in inoculated plants treated with chlortetracycline was correlated with an inhibition of multiplication of AY agent, as measured by bioassay of extracts. The data give additional support to the hypothesis that aster yellows disease is caused by a mycoplasma-like microorganism. Images PMID:16557820

  18. [Strategy for choosing antibiotics for treating bacterial infections associated with chronic tick-borne encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Malenko, G V; Pogodina, V V; Frolova, M P; Ivannikova, T A

    1996-01-01

    The capacity of wide-spectrum antibiotics kefzol and ristomycin to activate the persisting tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus and cause an exacerbation of chronic process was investigated in Syrian hamsters in whom a prolonged (77 to 270 days) persistent TBE infection was induced by three TBE strains: Vasilchenko, V-383, and 205. The degree of antibiotic-induced activation was assessed using the criteria characterizing the reproduction and peculiarities of persisting TBE virus, immunodepression, and morphologic changes in the central nervous system. Effects of kefzol and ristomycin were compared with those of 8 antibiotics studied previously. Ristomycin, levomycetin (chloramphycin), penicillin, ampicillin (ampital), and levoridan were referred to drugs devoid of evident provoking effect. Kefzol (cefamezin), florimycin (viomycin), and kanamycin (kanamytrex) were characterized as weak activators and streptomycin and tetracycline as potent activators of the persisting TBE virus. These data may be used when selecting alternative agents for therapy of secondary bacterial infections concomitant with TBE.

  19. Flavonoid production in transgenic hop (Humulus lupulus L.) altered by PAP1/MYB75 from Arabidopsis thaliana L.

    PubMed

    Gatica-Arias, A; Farag, M A; Stanke, M; Matoušek, J; Wessjohann, L; Weber, G

    2012-01-01

    Hop is an important source of secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids. Some of these are pharmacologically active. Nevertheless, the concentration of some classes as flavonoids in wild-type plants is rather low. To enhance the production in hop, it would be interesting to modify the regulation of genes in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. For this purpose, the regulatory factor PAP1/AtMYB75 from Arabidopsis thaliana L. was introduced into hop plants cv. Tettnanger by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Twenty kanamycin-resistant transgenic plants were obtained. It was shown that PAP1/AtMYB75 was stably incorporated and expressed in the hop genome. In comparison to the wild-type plants, the color of female flowers and cones of transgenic plants was reddish to pink. Chemical analysis revealed higher levels of anthocyanins, rutin, isoquercitin, kaempferol-glucoside, kaempferol-glucoside-malonate, desmethylxanthohumol, xanthohumol, α-acids and β-acids in transgenic plants compared to wild-type plants.

  20. Gynecomastia caused by ethionamide

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Parveen K.; Bansal, Rekha

    2012-01-01

    A 43 year old male patient, known case of multidrug resistant tuberculosis, was prescribed antitubercular drugs: kanamycin, levofloxacin, ethionamide, terizidone, Para-Aminosalicylate Sodium (PAS), pyrazinamide and pyridoxine. After 4 months of treatment, the patient developed a lump in the right breast which was approximately around 3 × 3 cm in size, tender on palpation, and not fixed to the underlying tissues. Ultrasonography (USG) revealed a hypoechoic mass of size 2.5 × 0.92 × 2.6 cm in the right breast region behind the nipple without any infiltration to the deeper structures. Gynecomastia due to ethionamide was suspected and the patient was advised anti-inflammatory drugs for 5 days without any change in drug therapy. The pain subsided; however, the nodule remained. Treatment was continued without any change till the patient stopped using the drugs on his own and without doctor's consent. Within a week of stopping of treatment the nodule also disappeared. PMID:23112434

  1. Stability of antimycobacterial drugs in susceptibility testing.

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, M E; Bodily, H L

    1992-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of 0.02% isoniazid, 0.2% streptomycin, 0.2% para-aminosalicylate, and 0.5% ethambutol and ethylene glycol solutions of 0.5% ethionamide stored at 3 to 7 degrees C remained stable for 1 year, as did aqueous solutions of 0.05% ethionamide hydrochloride, 0.05% kanamycin, 0.05% viomycin, and 0.1% capreomycin stored at -20 degrees C. The ethambutol and capreomycin solutions were tested by microbiologic methods; the other solutions were tested by both spectrophotometric and microbiologic methods. Prepared susceptibility testing media made with cycloserine, rifampin, and the above solutions incorporated into Middlebrook 7H10 medium showed acceptable stability when stored at 3 to 7 degrees C for 1 month. During incubation of the test medium at 37 degrees C, approximately half of the activity of isoniazid, ethionamide, ethambutol, cycloserine, and rifampin was lost after periods ranging from 2 to 4 days for ethambutol to 2 weeks for rifampin. PMID:1489183

  2. Further characterization of ribosome binding to thylakoid membranes. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Hurewitz, J.; Jagendorf, A.T.

    1987-05-01

    Previous work indicated more polysomes bound to pea (Pisum sativum cv Progress No. 9) thylakoids in light than in the dark, in vivo. With isolated intact chloroplasts incubated in darkness, addition of MgATP had no effect but 24 to 74% more RNA was thylakoid-bound at pH 8.3 than at pH 7. Thus, the major effect of light on ribosome-binding in vivo may be due to higher stroma pH. In isolated pea chloroplasts, initiation inhibitors (pactamycin and kanamycin) decreased the extent of RNA binding, and elongation inhibitors (lincomycin and streptomycin) increased it. Thus, cycling of ribosomes is controlled by translation, initiation,more » and termination. Bound RNA accounted for 19 to 24% of the total chloroplast RNA and the incorporation of (/sup 3/H)leucine into thylakoids was proportional to the amount of this bound RNA. These data support the concept that stroma ribosomes are recruited into thylakoid polysomes, which are active in synthesizing thylakoid proteins.« less

  3. Molecular Characteristics and Drug Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Patients Co-infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Hui Zhu; Lian, Lu Lu; Yu, Yan Hua; Zhao, Xiu Qin; Guo, Cai Ping; Liu, Hai Can; Liu, Shu Mei; Zhao, Hui; Zeng, Zhao Ying; Zhao, Xiu Ying; Wan, Kang Lin

    2015-03-01

    70 clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from AIDS patients in two HIV/AIDS referral hospitals in Beijing were used in this study. M. tuberculosis and non-tuberculosis mycobacterium (NTM) were identified by using multi-locus PCR. M. tuberculosis was genotyped by using 15-locus MIRU-VNTR technique and spoligotyping afterwards. Meanwhile, the drug susceptibilities of the strains to the four first-line anti TB drugs (rifampin, isoniazid, streptomycin, and ethambutol) and the four second-line anti-TB drugs (capreomycin, kanamycin, ofloxacin, and ethionanide) were tested with proportional method. In this study, M. tuberculosis and NTM strains isolated from AIDS patients with TB-like symptoms were identified and genotyping analysis indicated that Beijing genotype was the predominant genotype. In addition, the prevalence of drug-resistant TB, especially the prevalence of XDR-TB, was higher than that in TB patients without HIV infection. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  4. Genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of aminoglycoside-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Latvia.

    PubMed

    Bauskenieks, Matiss; Pole, Ilva; Skenders, Girts; Jansone, Inta; Broka, Lonija; Nodieva, Anda; Ozere, Iveta; Kalvisa, Adrija; Ranka, Renate; Baumanis, Viesturs

    2015-03-01

    Mutations causing resistance to aminoglycosides, such as kanamycin (KAN), amikacin (AMK), and streptomycin, are not completely understood. In this study, polymorphisms of aminoglycoside resistance influencing genes such as rrs, eis, rpsL, and gidB in 41 drug-resistant and 17 pan-sensitive Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates in Latvia were analyzed. Mutation A1400G in rrs gene was detected in 92% isolates with high resistance level to KAN and diverse MIC level to AMK. Mutations in promoter region of eis were detected in 80% isolates with low-level MIC of KAN. The association of K43R mutation in rpsL gene, a mutation in the rrs gene at position 513, and various polymorphisms in gidB gene with distinct genetic lineages of M. tuberculosis was observed. The results of this study suggest that association of different controversial mutations of M. tuberculosis genes to the drug resistance phenotype should be done in respect to genetic lineages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Transformation of antimicrobial peptide fusion gene of cecropin B and rabbit NP-1 to Houttuynia cordata].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yan; Zhang, Ying; Yi, Lang; Lai, Huili; Zhang, Yaming; Zhou, Lian; Wang, Peixun

    2010-07-01

    To transform the antimicrobial peptide fusion gene of cecropin B and rabbit NP-1(CN) into Houttuynia cordata to improve its antimicrobic capability. The fusion gene of CN designed and synthesized artificially was recombined with expression vector pBI121. The recombined vector was transformed to Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404, by which CN gene was transformed to the explants of H. cordata. The transgenic regeneration plantlets were selected by kanamycin and rapid screening PCR. The transgenic plants were identified by PCR-Southern of genomic DNA and RT-PCR. The disease resistances were detected by antibacterial zone trail of leaf extracts to E. coli K12 and infection by Rhizoctonia solani. Gene of interesting CN was inserted into genomic DNA and expressed in transformed H, cordata, whose resistance to E. coli K12 and Rh. solani was stronger than that of the non-transformed control. The fusion gene CN can improve antimicrobic capability of transformed H. cordata.

  6. [Hospital infection due to Serratia marcescens and its sensitivity to antibiotics].

    PubMed

    Filloy, L; Serrano, D; Borjas, E

    1980-01-01

    A total of 164 isolations of Serratia marcescens achieved during 1978-1979 at the Hospital Infantil de México in children with various pathology due to this bacteria were studied. Most of the cases were debilitated patients from the newborns and prematures wards and contagious and surgery departments. The most frequent isolations were from wounds and abscesses (76 cases), the same as from meningitis (22 cases) and sepsis (12 patients). Serratia marcescens showed a high degree of resistance (87-100%) to the following antibiotics: carbenicillin, colimycin, chloramphenicol, phosphomicin, ampicillin and cephalothin. To gestamicin and kanamycin, 42% of strains were sensitive. Amikacin was the most effective drug with 92% of strains susceptible to it. The history of this bacteria, its mode of transmission, frequency of infections and resistance to antibiotics found in foreign institutions are commented. Likewise, the difficulty for the precision bacteriologic diagnosis is emphasized as the possible main cause for the ignorance in Mexico of infections due to this bacteria.

  7. Identification of antibiotic resistant bacteria community and a GeoChip based study of resistome in urban watersheds.

    PubMed

    Low, Adrian; Ng, Charmaine; He, Jianzhong

    2016-12-01

    Urban watersheds from point sources are potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). However, few studies have investigated urban watersheds of non-point sources. To understand the type of ARGs and bacteria that might carry such genes, we investigated two non-point source urban watersheds with different land-use profiles. Antibiotic resistance levels of two watersheds (R1, R3) were examined using heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) as a culturing method to obtain counts of bacteria resistant to seven antibiotics belonging to different classes (erythromycin, kanamycin, lincomycin, norfloxacin, sulfanilamide, tetracycline and trimethoprim). From the HPC study, 239 antibiotic resistant bacteria were characterized for resistance to more antibiotics. Furthermore, ARGs and antimicrobial biosynthesis genes were identified using GeoChip version 5.0 to elucidate the resistomes of surface waters in watersheds R1 and R3. The HPC study showed that water samples from R1 had significantly higher counts of bacteria resistant to erythromycin, kanamycin, norfloxacin, sulfanilamide, tetracycline and trimethoprim than those from R3 (Analysis of Similarity (ANOSIM), R = 0.557, p < 0.01). Of the seven antibiotics tested, lincomycin and trimethoprim resistant bacteria are greater in abundances. The 239 antibiotic resistant isolates represent a subset of resistant bacterial populations, including bacteria not previously known for resistance. Majority of the isolates had resistance to ampicillin, vancomycin, lincomycin and trimethoprim. GeoChip revealed similar ARGs in both watersheds, but with significantly higher intensities for tetX and β-lactamase B genes in R1 than R3. The genes with the highest average normalized intensities in R1 and R3 were tetracycline (tet) and fosfomycin (fosA) resistance genes, respectively. The higher abundance of tetX genes in R1 is congruent with the higher abundance of tetracycline resistant HPC observed in R1 samples. Strong correlations

  8. Gene doctoring: a method for recombineering in laboratory and pathogenic Escherichia coli strains.

    PubMed

    Lee, David J; Bingle, Lewis E H; Heurlier, Karin; Pallen, Mark J; Penn, Charles W; Busby, Stephen J W; Hobman, Jon L

    2009-12-09

    Homologous recombination mediated by the lambda-Red genes is a common method for making chromosomal modifications in Escherichia coli. Several protocols have been developed that differ in the mechanisms by which DNA, carrying regions homologous to the chromosome, are delivered into the cell. A common technique is to electroporate linear DNA fragments into cells. Alternatively, DNA fragments are generated in vivo by digestion of a donor plasmid with a nuclease that does not cleave the host genome. In both cases the lambda-Red gene products recombine homologous regions carried on the linear DNA fragments with the chromosome. We have successfully used both techniques to generate chromosomal mutations in E. coli K-12 strains. However, we have had limited success with these lambda-Red based recombination techniques in pathogenic E. coli strains, which has led us to develop an enhanced protocol for recombineering in such strains. Our goal was to develop a high-throughput recombineering system, primarily for the coupling of genes to epitope tags, which could also be used for deletion of genes in both pathogenic and K-12 E. coli strains. To that end we have designed a series of donor plasmids for use with the lambda-Red recombination system, which when cleaved in vivo by the I-SceI meganuclease generate a discrete linear DNA fragment, allowing for C-terminal tagging of chromosomal genes with a 6xHis, 3xFLAG, 4xProteinA or GFP tag or for the deletion of chromosomal regions. We have enhanced existing protocols and technologies by inclusion of a cassette conferring kanamycin resistance and, crucially, by including the sacB gene on the donor plasmid, so that all but true recombinants are counter-selected on kanamycin and sucrose containing media, thus eliminating the need for extensive screening. This method has the added advantage of limiting the exposure of cells to the potential damaging effects of the lambda-Red system, which can lead to unwanted secondary alterations to

  9. The complete genome sequence of Streptomyces albolongus YIM 101047, the producer of novel bafilomycins and odoriferous sesquiterpenoids.

    PubMed

    Yin, Min; Li, Guiding; Jiang, Yi; Han, Li; Huang, Xueshi; Lu, Tao; Jiang, Chenglin

    2017-11-20

    Streptomyces albolongus YIM 101047 produces novel bafilomycins and odoriferous sesquiterpenoids with cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of S. albolongus YIM 101047, which consists of an 8,027,788bp linear chromosome. Forty-six putative biosynthetic gene clusters of secondary metabolites were found. The sesquiterpenoid gene cluster was on the left arm (0.09-0.10Mb), and the bafilomycin biosynthetic gene cluster was on the right arm (7.46-7.64Mb) of the chromosome. Twenty-two putative gene clusters with high or moderate similarity to important antibiotic biosynthetic gene clusters were found, including the antitumor agents bafilomycin, epothilone and hedamycin; the antibacterial/antifungal agents clavulanic acid, collismycin A, frontalamides, kanamycin, streptomycin and streptothricin; the protein phosphatase inhibitor RK-682; and the acute iron poisoning medication desferrioxamine B. The genome sequence reported here will enable us to study the biosynthetic mechanism of these important antibiotics and will facilitate the discovery of novel secondary metabolites with potential applications to human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Increased incidence of resistance to antimicrobials by urinary pathogens isolated at Tikur Anbessa Hospital.

    PubMed

    Wolday, D; Erge, W

    1997-04-01

    A retrospective analysis of 2209 urine samples submitted for culture to the Microbiology Laboratory of the Tikur Anbessa Hospital (TAH), Addis Ababa, between January 1992 and December 1994 was made. Significant bacteriuria (colony count > 10(5) colony forming units/ml urine) was detected in 672 (30%). Pure culture was obtained in 510 (23%) of all samples and polymicrobial growth was detected in the remaining 162 (7%). Gram-negative bacteria comprised 95% of all isolates. The commonest organisms being Escherichia coli (39%) and Klebsiella species (26%). Among the gram-positives, Staphylococcus aureus (57%) was the most common pathogen isolated. Most of the organisms were resistant to multiple drugs. Ampicillin, carbenicillin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole were effective in less than 30% of all cases. There was also a significant resistance to cephalothin, gentamicin and kanamycin. Only nalidixic acid and nitrofurantoin were effective for most of the organisms. Compared to previous studies, there is an indication of reduced effectiveness of the commonly prescribed antibiotics. The rational use of drugs should be practiced in order to prevent the emergence of multi-drug resistant microorganisms.

  11. An enhancer peptide for membrane-disrupting antimicrobial peptides

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background NP4P is a synthetic peptide derived from a natural, non-antimicrobial peptide fragment (pro-region of nematode cecropin P4) by substitution of all acidic amino acid residues with amides (i.e., Glu → Gln, and Asp → Asn). Results In the presence of NP4P, some membrane-disrupting antimicrobial peptides (ASABF-α, polymyxin B, and nisin) killed microbes at lower concentration (e.g., 10 times lower minimum bactericidal concentration for ASABF-α against Staphylococcus aureus), whereas NP4P itself was not bactericidal and did not interfere with bacterial growth at ≤ 300 μg/mL. In contrast, the activities of antimicrobial agents with a distinct mode of action (indolicidin, ampicillin, kanamycin, and enrofloxacin) were unaffected. Although the membrane-disrupting activity of NP4P was slight or undetectable, ASABF-α permeabilized S. aureus membranes with enhanced efficacy in the presence of NP4P. Conclusions NP4P selectively enhanced the bactericidal activities of membrane-disrupting antimicrobial peptides by increasing the efficacy of membrane disruption against the cytoplasmic membrane. PMID:20152058

  12. The safety of antituberculosis medications during breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Tran, J H; Montakantikul, P

    1998-12-01

    Most antituberculosis drugs appear to be safe for use with breastfeeding. These agents are excreted in breast milk at relatively small concentrations. No adverse effects have been reported to date. The percentages of the therapeutic dose of antituberculosis agents that potentially may be delivered to the nursing infants range from 0.05% to 28%. Currently isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, streptomycin (first-line agents), kanamycin and cycloserine (second-line agents) are the only agents considered by the AAP to be compatible with breastfeeding. Unfortunately, there are still no clear data on the safety of pyrazinamide, ethionamide, and capreomycin during breastfeeding. If the mother chooses to breastfeed, it may be prudent to examine the infant for signs and symptoms of toxicity. In infants requiring treatment with antituberculosis agents, it is important to use therapeutic doses since drug concentrations in breast milk are not adequate as effective therapy for treatment or prevention. However, dosing at the lower end of the therapeutic range should be prescribed (i.e., 10 mg/kg/day of isoniazid) to decrease the risk of toxicity.

  13. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Strains from Europe and Africa

    PubMed Central

    Piot, Peter; Van Dyck, Eddy; Colaert, Jan; Ursi, Jean-Paul; Bosmans, Eugène; Meheus, André

    1979-01-01

    The in vitro activities of 16 antimicrobial agents were tested by a plate dilution method against 268 unselected isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from Belgium, Rwanda, Swaziland, and Zaire. Fifteen β-lactamase-producing strains isolated in Europe from various origins were also tested. There were significant regional variations in antimicrobial agent susceptibility, even among the African isolates, with the Rwandan and Zairean strains being most resistant. Benzylpenicillin and ampicillin were equally active in all but the β-lactamase-producing strains. Among the cephalosporins, cefotaxime was by far the most active, followed by cefuroxime, cefamandole, cefoxitin, and cefaclor, in that order. All strains were susceptible to spectinomycin, thiamphenicol, kanamycin, and rifampin, with the exception of one highly rifampin-resistant isolate and a moderately thiamphenicol-resistant strain. Twenty-six percent of the isolates were highly resistant to streptomycin. Six percent of the gonococci had a minimal inhibitory concentration for tetracycline greater than 2 μg/ml. Clavulanic acid inhibited the β-lactamase activity of the gonococci tested and improved markedly the activities of ampicillin and amoxicillin against β-lactamase-producing strains. PMID:111615

  14. Micrometric periodic assembly of magnetotactic bacteria and magnetic nanoparticles using audio tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godoy, M.; Moreno, A. J.; Jorge, G. A.; Ferrari, H. J.; Antonel, P. S.; Mietta, J. L.; Ruiz, M.; Negri, R. M.; Pettinari, M. J.; Bekeris, V.

    2012-02-01

    We report micrometric periodic assembly of live and dead magnetotactic bacteria, Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1, which synthesize chains of magnetic nanoparticles inside their bodies, and of superparamagnetic Fe3O4 and ferromagnetic CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in aqueous suspensions using periodically magnetized audio tapes. The distribution of the stray magnetic field at the surface of the tapes was determined analytically and experimentally by magneto-optic imaging. Calculations showed that the magnetic field close to the tape surface was of the order of 100 mT, and the magnetic field gradient was larger than 1 T mm-1. Drops of aqueous solutions were deposited on the tapes, and bacteria and particles were trapped at locations where magnetic energy is minimized, as observed using conventional optical microscopy. Suspensions of M. magneticum AMB-1 treated with formaldehyde and kanamycin were studied, and patterns of trapped dead bacteria indicated that magnetic forces dominate over self-propelling forces in these experiments, in accordance with calculated values. The behavior of the different types of samples is discussed.

  15. Multidrug-resistant Commensal Escherichia coli in Children, Peru and Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Pallecchi, Lucia; Benedetti, Marta; Fernandez, Connie; Vallejos, Yolanda; Guzman, Elisa; Villagran, Ana Liz; Mantella, Antonia; Lucchetti, Chiara; Bartalesi, Filippo; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Bechini, Angela; Gamboa, Herlan; Rodríguez, Hugo; Falkenberg, Torkel; Kronvall, Göran; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Paradisi, Franco; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2006-01-01

    Using a rapid screening method, we investigated the prevalence of fecal carriage of antimicrobial drug–resistant Escherichia coli in 3,174 healthy children from 4 urban settings in Peru and Bolivia. High resistance rates were observed for ampicillin (95%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (94%), tetracycline (93%), streptomycin (82%), and chloramphenicol (70%). Lower resistance rates were observed for nalidixic acid (35%), kanamycin (28%), gentamicin (21%), and ciprofloxacin (18%); resistance to ceftriaxone and amikacin was uncommon (<0.5%). In a random sample of 1,080 resistant E. coli isolates, 90% exhibited a multidrug-resistance (MDR) phenotype. The 2 most common MDR phenotypes (ampicillin/tetracycline/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ampicillin/tetracycline/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole/chloramphenicol) could be transferred en bloc in conjugation experiments. The most common acquired resistance genes were blaTEM, tet(A), tet(B), drfA8, sul1, sul2, and catI. These findings underscore the magnitude of the problem of antimicrobial drug resistance in low-resource settings and the urgent need for surveillance and control of this phenomenon. PMID:16707045

  16. Ultraviolet light and laser irradiation enhances the antibacterial activity of glucosamine-functionalized gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Govindaraju, Saravanan; Ramasamy, Mohankandhasamy; Baskaran, Rengarajan; Ahn, Sang Jung; Yun, Kyusik

    2015-01-01

    Here we report a novel method for the synthesis of glucosamine-functionalized gold nanoparticles (GlcN-AuNPs) using biocompatible and biodegradable glucosamine for antibacterial activity. GlcN-AuNPs were prepared using different concentrations of glucosamine. The synthesized AuNPs were characterized for surface plasmon resonance, surface morphology, fluorescence spectroscopy, and antibacterial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the AuNPs, GlcN-AuNPs, and GlcN-AuNPs when irradiated by ultraviolet light and laser were investigated and compared with the MIC of standard kanamycin using Escherichia coli by the microdilution method. Laser-irradiated GlcN-AuNPs exhibited significant bactericidal activity against E. coli. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopic analysis supported the cell death mechanism in the presence of GlcN-AuNP-treated bacteria. Further, morphological changes in E. coli after laser treatment were investigated using atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The overall results of this study suggest that the prepared nanoparticles have potential as a potent antibacterial agent for the treatment of a wide range of disease-causing bacteria. PMID:26345521

  17. Characterization of extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Poudel, Ajay; Maharjan, Bhagwan; Nakajima, Chie; Fukushima, Yukari; Pandey, Basu D; Beneke, Antje; Suzuki, Yasuhiko

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has raised public health concern for global control of TB. Although molecular characterization of drug resistance-associated mutations in multidrug-resistant isolates in Nepal has been made, mutations in XDR isolates and their genotypes have not been reported previously. In this study, we identified and characterized 13 XDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from clinical isolates in Nepal. The most prevalent mutations involved in rifampicin, isoniazid, ofloxacin, and kanamycin/capreomycin resistance were Ser531Leu in rpoB gene (92.3%), Ser315Thr in katG gene (92.3%), Asp94Gly in gyrA gene (53.9%) and A1400G in rrs gene (61.5%), respectively. Spoligotyping and multilocus sequence typing revealed that 69% belonged to Beijing family, especially modern types. Further typing with 26-loci variable number of tandem repeats suggested the current spread of XDR M. tuberculosis. Our result highlights the need to reinforce the TB policy in Nepal with regard to control and detection strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Resistance to drugs and heavy metals, colicin production, and biochemical characteristics of selected bovine and porcine Escherichia coli strains.

    PubMed Central

    Harnett, N M; Gyles, C L

    1984-01-01

    A study was made of resistance to heavy metals and antibiotics, biochemical characteristics, and colicinogeny in selected strains of Escherichia coli of O serogroups 8, 9, 20, 64, 101, and X46. Of 42 strains that were investigated, 26 were porcine enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), 8 were porcine non-enterotoxigenic E. coli (NETEC), and 8 were bovine ETEC. Multiple resistance to antimicrobial agents was common among the strains, and resistance to chloramphenicol and kanamycin was less common than resistance to other drugs, possibly reflecting the lower frequency of use of these agents in pigs and calves. Colicin production was a more common property of porcine ETEC (80.8%) than of porcine NETEC (25%), and all porcine ETEC of O serogroups 101 and 64 were colicinogenic. Equal numbers of bovine ETEC strains were colicinogenic as were non-colicinogenic. Resistance of bovine and porcine strains to sodium arsenate, mercury, and tellerium was 90, 16, and 5%, respectively. There was a close relationship between serogroup and biochemical reactions among the E. coli strains tested. PMID:6391383

  19. Genetic transformation of tobacco NT1 cells with Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Kristin J; Gonzales, Barbara J; Mason, Hugh S

    2006-01-01

    This protocol is used to produce stably transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) NT1 cell lines, using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated DNA delivery of a binary vector containing a gene encoding hepatitis B surface antigen and a gene encoding the kanamycin selection marker. The NT1 cultures, at the appropriate stage of growth, are inoculated with A. tumefaciens containing the binary vector. A 3-day cocultivation period follows, after which the cultures are rinsed and placed on solid selective medium. Transformed colonies ('calli') appear in approximately 4 weeks; they are subcultured until adequate material is obtained for analysis of antigen production. 'Elite' lines are selected based on antigen expression and growth characteristics. The time required for the procedure from preparation of the plant cell materials to callus development is approximately 5 weeks. Growth of selected calli to sufficient quantities for antigen screening may require 4-6 weeks beyond the initial selection. Creation of the plasmid constructs, transformation of the A. tumefaciens line, and ELISA and Bradford assays to assess protein production require additional time.

  20. In vitro comparison of the activity of various antibiotics and drugs against new Taiwan isolates and standard strains of avian mycoplasma.

    PubMed

    Lin, M Y

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-nine antibiotics or drugs were incorporated individually into mycoplasma agar to evaluate their inhibitory activity against avian mycoplasmas: 100 recent Taiwan isolates of 7 serotypes and 10 standard strains of 7 serotypes were tested. All of the standard strains were very sensitive to erythromycin, chlorotetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline, and tetracycline, but the local isolates were highly resistant to these antibiotics. The drugs or antibiotics that possessed an MIC90 of 50 micrograms/ml or less against the local isolates were tiamulin (less than 0.4 micrograms/ml), lincospectin (2.7), josamycin (2.7), lincomycin (3.0), spectinomycin (4.8), tylosin (6.0), kanamycin (6.0), chloramphenicol (6.0), gentamicin (7.5), apramycin (24.5), doxycycline (27.4), minocycline (29.0), spiramycin (30.0), colistin (44.3), leucomycin (45.0), and streptomycin (50.0). The MIC90 of the other antibiotics or drugs was greater than 50 micrograms/ml. None of the isolates or strains were sensitive to nalidixic acid, ronidazole, penicillin, ampicillin, cephalexin, carbadox, or four sulfa drugs at a concentration about 5 times the therapeutic level.

  1. Genetic relatedness of a rarely isolated Salmonella: Salmonella enterica serotype Niakhar from NARMS animal isolates.

    PubMed

    Tankson, J D; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Jackson, C R; Headrick, M

    2006-02-01

    In the United States, Salmonella enterica serotype Niakhar is infrequently isolated. Between 1997 and 2000, the animal arm of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System-Enteric Bacteria (NARMS) assayed a total of 22,383 Salmonella isolates from various animal sources (swine, cattle, chickens, turkeys, cats, horses, exotics and dogs) for antimicrobial susceptibility. Isolates originated from diagnostic and non-diagnostic submissions. To study the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Salmonella Niakhar. Only five (0.02%) of the 22,383 isolates were identified as Salmonella Niakhar. Antimicrobial resistance testing indicated that three isolates were pan-susceptible, one isolate was resistant to ampicillin and one isolate was resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. RAPD-PCR analysis, PFGE and ribotyping indicated that two pan-susceptible isolates were genetically similar, whereas the three remaining isolates were genetically different. The one Salmonella Niakhar isolate that was multiresistant harboured a class I integron, intI1 and two large plasmids. This study represents the first report of a ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella isolate from the animal arm of NARMS.

  2. ☆DNA assembly technique simplifies the construction of infectious clone of fowl adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiao-Hui; Bi, Zhi-Xiang; Guo, Xiao-Juan; Zhang, Zun; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Min; Zhu, Ya-Lu; Jie, Hong-Ying; Yu, Yang; Hung, Tao; Lu, Zhuo-Zhuang

    2018-07-01

    Plasmid bearing adenovirus genome is generally constructed with the method of homologous recombination in E. coli BJ5183 strain. Here, we utilized Gibson gene assembly technique to generate infectious clone of fowl adenovirus 4 (FAdV-4). Primers flanked with partial inverted terminal repeat (ITR) sequence of FAdV-4 were synthesized to amplify a plasmid backbone containing kanamycin-resistant gene and pBR322 origin (KAN-ORI). DNA assembly was carried out by combining the KAN-ORI fragment, virus genomic DNA and DNA assembly master mix. E. coli competent cells were transformed with the assembled product, and plasmids (pKFAV4) were extracted and confirmed to contain viral genome by restriction analysis and sequencing. Virus was successfully rescued from linear pKFAV4-transfected chicken LMH cells. This approach was further verified in cloning of human adenovirus 5 genome. Our results indicated that DNA assembly technique simplified the construction of infectious clone of adenovirus, suggesting its possible application in virus traditional or reverse genetics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Symbiotic maple saps minimize disruption of the mice intestinal microbiota after oral antibiotic administration.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Riadh; Ben Abdallah, Nour; Barbeau, Julie; Fliss, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the in vivo impact of new symbiotic products based on liquid maple sap or its concentrate. Sap and concentrate, with or without inulin (2%), were inoculated with Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG valio at initial counts of 2-4 × 10(8) cfu mL(-1). The experiments started with intra-gastric administration of antibiotic (kanamycin 40 mg in 0.1 cc) (to induce microbiota disturbance and/or diarrhea) to 3-to-5-week-old C57BL/6 female mice followed by a combination of prebiotic and probiotics included in the maple sap or its concentrate for a week. The combination inulin and probiotics in maple sap and concentrate appeared to minimize the antibiotic-induced breakdown of mice microbiota with a marked effect on bifidobacterium and bacteroides levels, thus permitting a more rapid re-establishment of the baseline microbiota levels. Results suggest that maple sap and its concentrate represent good candidates for the production of non-dairy functional foods.

  4. Phenotypic and Genotypic Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Cattle, Sheep, and Free-Range Poultry Faeces

    PubMed Central

    Oporto, Beatriz; Juste, Ramón A.; Hurtado, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 13 antimicrobial agents were determined by broth microdilution for 72 Campylobacter jejuni strains from livestock. Twenty-three (31.9%) isolates were fully susceptible; all isolates were susceptible to erythromycin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, gentamicin, sulfamethoxazole, and meropenem, and all but one to kanamycin. Resistance to quinolones was highest (52.8%), reaching similar values among poultry, dairy cattle, and sheep, but lower in beef cattle. Resistance to tetracyclines (48.6%) was mainly associated to dairy cattle and β-lactams (26.4%) to poultry. Multidrug resistance was mainly detected in dairy cattle (28.6%) and poultry (21.0%), whereas beef cattle had the highest percentage of fully susceptible isolates. Two real-time PCR assays to detect point mutations associated to quinolone (C257T in the gyrA gene) and macrolide (A2075G in the 23S rRNA genes) resistance were developed and validated on these strains. The analysis of a further set of 88 isolates by real-time PCR confirmed the absence of macrolide resistance and demonstrated the reproducibility and processability of the assay. PMID:20224816

  5. Mass mortality in ornamental fish, Cyprinus carpio koi caused by a bacterial pathogen, Proteus hauseri.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Raj; Swaminathan, T Raja; Kumar, Rahul G; Dharmaratnam, Arathi; Basheer, V S; Jena, J K

    2015-09-01

    Moribund koi carp, Cyprinus carpio koi, from a farm with 50% cumulative mortality were sampled with the aim of isolating and detecting the causative agent. Three bacterial species viz., Citrobacter freundii (NSCF-1), Klebsiella pneumoniae (NSKP-1) and Proteus hauseri [genomospecies 3 of Proteus vulgaris Bio group 3] (NSPH-1) were isolated, identified and characterized on the basis of biochemical tests and sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene using universal bacterial primers. Challenge experiments with these isolates using healthy koi carp showed that P. hauseri induced identical clinical and pathological states within 3 d of intramuscular injection. The results suggest P. hauseri (NSPH-1) was the causative agent. In phylogenetic analysis, strain NSPH-1 formed a distinct cluster with other P. hauseri reference strains with ≥99% sequence similarity. P. hauseri isolates were found sensitive to Ampicillin, Cefalexin, Ciprofloxacin and Cefixime and resistant to Gentamycin, Oxytetracycline, Chloramphenicol, and Kanamycin. The affected fish recovered from the infection after ciprofloxacin treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Distribution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in chicken manure and manure-fertilized vegetables.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingxiang; Ren, Siwei; Niu, Tianqi; Guo, Yuhui; Qi, Shiyue; Han, Xinkuan; Liu, Dong; Pan, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Veterinary manure is an important pollution reservoir of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB). However, little is known of the distribution of ARB in plant endophytic bacteria and the number/types of ARB in chicken manure. In this study, 454-pyrosequencing was used to investigate the distribution and composition of ARBs in chicken manure and fertilized vegetables. The prevalence of ARB in the samples of the chicken manure compost recovered from farms on which amoxicillin, kanamycin, gentamicin, and cephalexin were used was 20.91-65.9% for ARBs and 8.24-20.63% simultaneously resistant to two or more antibiotics (multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria (MARB)). Antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria were widely detected in celery, pakchoi, and cucumber with the highest rate of resistance to cephalexin. The pyrosequencing indicated that the chicken manure dominantly harbored Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Synergistetes, and Proteobacteria and that Bacteroidetes was significantly enhanced in farms utilizing antibiotics. In the total cultivable colonies, 62.58-89.43% ARBs and 95.29% MARB were clustered in Bacteroidetes with the dominant species (Myroides ordoratimimus and Spningobacterium spp., respectively) related to human clinical opportunistic pathogens.

  7. Stability of Bradyrhizobium japonicum Inoculants after Introduction into Soil

    PubMed Central

    Brunel, Brigitte; Cleyet-Marel, Jean-Claude; Normand, Philippe; Bardin, Rene

    1988-01-01

    Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 125-Sp, USDA 138, and USDA 138-Sm had been used as inoculants for soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in soils previously free of B. japonicum. At 8 to 13 years after their release, these strains were reisolated from soil samples. A total of 115 isolates were obtained through nodules, and seven colonies were obtained directly by a serological method. The stability of the inoculants was confirmed by comparing the reisolated cultures with their respective parental strains which had been preserved by being lyophilized or stored on a yeast extract-mannitol agar slant at 4°C. Comparisons were made on morphological and serological characters, carbon compound utilization (8 tested), intrinsic antibiotic resistance (9 tested), and enzymatic activity (19 tested). Mucous and nonmucous isolates of serogroup 125 were analyzed for symbiotic effectiveness and restriction fragment hybridization with a DNA probe. Our data suggest that the B. japonicum inoculants have survived for up to 13 years in the soils without significant mutation except for two reisolates with a slightly increased kanamycin resistance level. Images PMID:16347768

  8. T-DNA-genome junctions form early after infection and are influenced by the chromatin state of the host genome

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Pooja; Muth, Theodore R.

    2017-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated T-DNA integration is a common tool for plant genome manipulation. However, there is controversy regarding whether T-DNA integration is biased towards genes or randomly distributed throughout the genome. In order to address this question, we performed high-throughput mapping of T-DNA-genome junctions obtained in the absence of selection at several time points after infection. T-DNA-genome junctions were detected as early as 6 hours post-infection. T-DNA distribution was apparently uniform throughout the chromosomes, yet local biases toward AT-rich motifs and T-DNA border sequence micro-homology were detected. Analysis of the epigenetic landscape of previously isolated sites of T-DNA integration in Kanamycin-selected transgenic plants showed an association with extremely low methylation and nucleosome occupancy. Conversely, non-selected junctions from this study showed no correlation with methylation and had chromatin marks, such as high nucleosome occupancy and high H3K27me3, that correspond to three-dimensional-interacting heterochromatin islands embedded within euchromatin. Such structures may play a role in capturing and silencing invading T-DNA. PMID:28742090

  9. Emerging Technologies for Monitoring Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis at the Point-of-Care

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Vigneshwaran; Wang, ShuQi; Inci, Fatih; De Libero, Gennaro; Singhal, Amit; Demirci, Utkan

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Among them, tuberculosis (TB) remains a major threat to public health, exacerbated by the emergence of multiple drug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). MDR-Mtb strains are resistant to first-line anti-TB drugs such as isoniazid and rifampicin; whereas XDR-Mtb strains are resistant to additional drugs including at least to any fluoroquinolone and at least one of the second-line anti-TB injectable drugs such as kanamycin, capreomycin, or amikacin. Clinically, these strains have significantly impacted the management of TB in high-incidence developing countries, where systemic surveillance of TB drug resistance is lacking. For effective management of TB on-site, early detection of drug resistance is critical to initiate treatment, to reduce mortality, and to thwart drug-resistant TB transmission. In this review, we discuss the diagnostic challenges to detect drug-resistant TB at the point-of-care (POC). Moreover, we present the latest advances in nano/microscale technologies that can potentially detect TB drug resistance to improve on-site patient care. PMID:24882226

  10. [MOLECULAR CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MULTIDRUG-RESISTANT MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS STRAINS IN THE NORTHWEST RUSSIA].

    PubMed

    Vyazovaya, A A; Mokrousov, I V; Zhuravlev, V Yu; Solovieva, N S; Otten, T F; Manicheva, O A; Vishnevsky, B I; Narvskaya, O V

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work was to study the genotypic characteristics of the multidrug-resistant (MDR, i.e., resistant to at least rifampicine and isoniazid) Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated in 2011-2012 from tuberculosis (TB) patients in the Northwest Russia. Spoligotyping of 195 M. tuberculosis isolates identified 14 different spoligotypes and assigned isolates to the genetic families Beijing (n = 162, 83%), LAM (n = 15), H3/URAL (n = 14), as well as T, Haarlem and X. Spoligotypes SIT1 (Beijing), SIT42 (LAM) and SIT262 (H3/URAL) were the most prevalent. Irrespective to the genotype, all the isolates were resistant to streptomycin. The multidrug resistance was accompanied by the resistance to ethionamide (56%), amikacin (31%), kanamycin (40%), and capreomycin (33%). The ethambutol resistance was found in 71% (n = 115) and 42% (n = 14) of the Beijing and non-Beijing strains, respectively (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the multidrug resistant M. tuberculosis population circulating in the Northwest Russia continues to be dominated by the Beijing family strains.

  11. Detection of Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Engström, Anna; Juréen, Pontus

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health problem. The increasing prevalence of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of TB, demands new measures to combat the situation. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of the pathogen and its drug susceptibility pattern is essential for timely initiation of optimal treatment, and, ultimately, control of the disease. We have developed a molecular method for detection of first- and second-line drug resistance in M. tuberculosis by Pyrosequencing(®). The method consists of seven Pyrosequencing assays for the detection of mutations in the genes or promoter regions, which are most commonly responsible for resistance to the drugs rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, amikacin, kanamycin, capreomycin, and fluoroquinolones. The method was validated on clinical isolates and it was shown that the sensitivity and specificity of the method were comparable to those of Sanger sequencing. In the protocol in this chapter we describe the steps necessary for setting up and performing Pyrosequencing for M. tuberculosis. The first part of the protocol describes the assay development and the second part of the protocol describes utilization of the method.

  12. Herd-level relationship between antimicrobial use and presence or absence of antimicrobial resistance in gram-negative bovine mastitis pathogens on Canadian dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Saini, Vineet; McClure, J T; Scholl, Daniel T; DeVries, Trevor J; Barkema, Herman W

    2013-08-01

    Concurrent data on antimicrobial use (AMU) and resistance are needed to contain antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria. The present study examined a herd-level association between AMU and AMR in Escherichia coli (n=394) and Klebsiella species (n=139) isolated from bovine intramammary infections and mastitis cases on 89 dairy farms in 4 regions of Canada [Alberta, Ontario, Québec, and Maritime Provinces (Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick)]. Antimicrobial use data were collected using inventory of empty antimicrobial containers and antimicrobial drug use rate was calculated to quantify herd-level AMU. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined using Sensititre National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) gram-negative MIC plate (Trek Diagnostic Systems Inc., Cleveland, OH). Isolates were classified as susceptible, intermediate, or resistant. Intermediate and resistant category isolates were combined to form an AMR category, and multivariable logistic regression models were built to determine herd-level odds of AMR to tetracycline, ampicillin, cefoxitin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination, sulfisoxazole, streptomycin and kanamycin in E. coli isolates. In the case of Klebsiella species isolates, logistic regression models were built for tetracycline and sulfisoxazole; however, no associations between AMU and AMR in Klebsiella species were observed. Ampicillin-intermediate or -resistant E. coli isolates were associated with herds that used intramammarily administered cloxacillin, penicillin-novobiocin combination, and cephapirin used for dry cow therapy [odds ratios (OR)=26, 32, and 189, respectively], and intramammary ceftiofur administered for lactating cow therapy and systemically administered penicillin (OR=162 and 2.7, respectively). Use of systemically administered penicillin on a dairy farm was associated with tetracycline and streptomycin-intermediate or -resistant E. coli isolates (OR=5

  13. Gene ercA, encoding a putative iron-containing alcohol dehydrogenase, is involved in regulation of ethanol utilization in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Hempel, Niels; Görisch, Helmut; Mern, Demissew S

    2013-09-01

    Several two-component regulatory systems are known to be involved in the signal transduction pathway of the ethanol oxidation system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 17933. These sensor kinases and response regulators are organized in a hierarchical manner. In addition, a cytoplasmic putative iron-containing alcohol dehydrogenase (Fe-ADH) encoded by ercA (PA1991) has been identified to play an essential role in this regulatory network. The gene ercA (PA1991) is located next to ercS, which encodes a sensor kinase. Inactivation of ercA (PA1991) by insertion of a kanamycin resistance cassette created mutant NH1. NH1 showed poor growth on various alcohols. On ethanol, NH1 grew only with an extremely extended lag phase. During the induction period on ethanol, transcription of structural genes exa and pqqABCDEH, encoding components of initial ethanol oxidation in P. aeruginosa, was drastically reduced in NH1, which indicates the regulatory function of ercA (PA1991). However, transcription in the extremely delayed logarithmic growth phase was comparable to that in the wild type. To date, the involvement of an Fe-ADH in signal transduction processes has not been reported.

  14. Gene ercA, Encoding a Putative Iron-Containing Alcohol Dehydrogenase, Is Involved in Regulation of Ethanol Utilization in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Hempel, Niels; Görisch, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Several two-component regulatory systems are known to be involved in the signal transduction pathway of the ethanol oxidation system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 17933. These sensor kinases and response regulators are organized in a hierarchical manner. In addition, a cytoplasmic putative iron-containing alcohol dehydrogenase (Fe-ADH) encoded by ercA (PA1991) has been identified to play an essential role in this regulatory network. The gene ercA (PA1991) is located next to ercS, which encodes a sensor kinase. Inactivation of ercA (PA1991) by insertion of a kanamycin resistance cassette created mutant NH1. NH1 showed poor growth on various alcohols. On ethanol, NH1 grew only with an extremely extended lag phase. During the induction period on ethanol, transcription of structural genes exa and pqqABCDEH, encoding components of initial ethanol oxidation in P. aeruginosa, was drastically reduced in NH1, which indicates the regulatory function of ercA (PA1991). However, transcription in the extremely delayed logarithmic growth phase was comparable to that in the wild type. To date, the involvement of an Fe-ADH in signal transduction processes has not been reported. PMID:23813731

  15. SciTech Connect

    Lang, F.S.; Oesterhelt, D.

    Rhodopseudomonas viridis was grown in liquid culture at 30 degrees C anaerobically in light (generation time, 13 h) and under microaerophilic growth conditions in the dark (generation time, 24 h). The bacterium could be cloned at the same temperature anaerobically in light (1 week) and aerobically in the dark (3 to 4 weeks) if oxygen was limited to 0.1%. Oxygen could not be replaced by dimethyl sulfoxide, potassium nitrate, or sodium nitrite as a terminal electron acceptor. No growth was observed anaerobically in darkness or in the light when air was present. A variety of additional carbon sources were usedmore » to supplement the standard succinate medium, but enhanced stationary-phase cell density was observed only with glucose. Conditions for induction of the photosynthetic reaction center upon the change from microaerophilic to phototrophic growth conditions were investigated and optimized for a mutant functionally defective in phototrophic growth. R. viridis consumed about 20-fold its cell volume of oxygen per hour during respiration. The MICs of ampicillin, kanamycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, 1-methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine, and terbutryn were determined.« less

  16. Antibacterial potential of silver nanoparticles against isolated urinary tract infectious bacterial pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob Inbaneson, Samuel; Ravikumar, Sundaram; Manikandan, Nachiappan

    2011-12-01

    The silver nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical reduction method and the nanoparticles were characterized using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were investigated to evaluate the antibacterial activity against urinary tract infectious (UTIs) bacterial pathogens. Thirty-two bacteria were isolated from mid urine samples of 25 male and 25 female patients from Thondi, Ramanathapuram District, Tamil Nadu, India and identified by conventional methods. Escherichia coli was predominant (47%) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (19%), Enterobacter sp. (6%), Proteus morganii (3%) and Staphylococcus aureus (3%). The antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was evaluated by disc diffusion assay. P. aeruginosa showed maximum sensitivity (11 ± 0.58 mm) followed by Enterobacter sp. (8 ± 0.49 mm) at a concentration of 20 μg disc-1 and the sensitivity was highly comparable with the positive control kanamycin and tetracycline. K. pneumoniae, E. coli, P. morganii and S. aureus showed no sensitivity against all the tested concentrations of silver nanoparticles. The results provided evidence that, the silver nanoparticles might indeed be the potential sources to treat urinary tract infections caused by P. aeruginosa and Enterobacter sp.

  17. Visible Light-Induced Photocatalytic and Antibacterial Activity of Li-Doped Bi0.5Na0.45K0.5TiO3-BaTiO3 Ferroelectric Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushwaha, H. S.; Halder, Aditi; Jain, D.; Vaish, Rahul

    2015-11-01

    The visible light-active ferroelectric photocatalyst Bi0.5Na0.45Li0.05K0.5TiO3-BaTiO3 (BNKLBT) was synthesized by a solid-state method and its photocatalytic, photoelectrochemical, and antibacterial properties were investigated. In a chronoamperometric study the current density under visible light was 30 μA/cm2, which is three times more than that observed under dark conditions. The compound's visible light photocatalytic activity was investigated for degradation of an organic dye (methyl orange) and an estrogenic pollutant (estriol).The kinetic rate constants calculated for photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange and estriol were 0.007 and 0.056 min-1, respectively. High photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical activity was a result of effective separation of photo-generated charge carriers, because of the ferroelectric nature of the catalyst. The effect of different charge-trapping agents on photocatalytic degradation was studied to investigate the effect of active species and the degradation pathway. Antimicrobial activity was investigated for Escherichia coli and Aspergillus flavus. The anti-bacterial action of BNKLBT was compared with that of the commercial antibiotic kanamycin (k30).

  18. Transferring cucumber mosaic virus-white leaf strain coat protein gene into Cucumis melo L. and evaluating transgenic plants for protection against infections

    SciTech Connect

    Gonsalves, C.; Xue, B.; Yepes, M.

    1994-03-01

    A single regeneration procedure using cotyledon examples effectively regenerated five commercially grown muskmelon cultivars. This regeneration scheme was used to facilitate gene transfers using either Agrobacterium tumefaciens or microprojectile bombardment methods. In both cases, the transferred genes were from the T-DNA region of the binary vector plasmid pGA482GG/cp cucumber mosaic virus-white leaf strain (CMV-WL), which contains genes that encode neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPT II), [beta]-glucuronidase (GUS), and the CMV-WL coat protein (CP). Explants treated with pGA482GG/cpCMV-WL regenerated shoots on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 4.4 [mu]m 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), kanamycin (Km) at 150 mg[center dot]liter[sup [minus]1] and carbenicillin (Cb) at 500more » mg[center dot]liter[sup [minus]1]. The authors' comparison of A. tumefaciens- and microprojectile-mediated gene transfer procedures shows that both methods effectively produce nearly the same percentage of transgenic plants. R[sub 0] plants were first tested for GUS or NPT II expression, then the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and other tests were used to verify the transfer of the NPT II, GUS, and CMV-WL CP genes.« less

  19. A method of batch-purifying microalgae with multiple antibiotics at extremely high concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jichang; Wang, Song; Zhang, Lin; Yang, Guanpin; Zhao, Lu; Pan, Kehou

    2016-01-01

    Axenic microalgal strains are highly valued in diverse microalgal studies and applications. Antibiotics, alone or in combination, are often used to avoid bacterial contamination during microalgal isolation and culture. In our preliminary trials, we found that many microalgae ceased growing in antibiotics at extremely high concentrations but could resume growth quickly when returned to an antibiotics-free liquid medium and formed colonies when spread on a solid medium. We developed a simple and highly efficient method of obtaining axenic microalgal cultures based on this observation. First, microalgal strains of different species or strains were treated with a mixture of ampicillin, gentamycin sulfate, kanamycin, neomycin and streptomycin (each at a concentration of 600 mg/L) for 3 days; they were then transferred to antibiotics-free medium for 5 days; and finally they were spread on solid f/2 media to allow algal colonies to form. With this method, five strains of Nannochloropsis sp. (Eustigmatophyceae), two strains of Cylindrotheca sp. (Bacillariophyceae), two strains of Tetraselmis sp. (Chlorodendrophyceae) and one strain of Amphikrikos sp. (Trebouxiophyceae) were purified successfully. The method shows promise for batch-purifying microalgal cultures.

  20. Diagnostic and therapeutic advancements for aerobic vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Han, Cha; Wu, Wenjuan; Fan, Aiping; Wang, Yingmei; Zhang, Huiying; Chu, Zanjun; Wang, Chen; Xue, Fengxia

    2015-02-01

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is a newly defined clinical entity that is distinct from candidiasis, trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis (BV). Because of the poor recognition of AV, this condition can lead to treatment failures and is associated with severe complications, such as pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, preterm birth and foetal infections. This review describes the diagnosis and treatment of AV and the relationship between AV and pregnancy. The characteristics of AV include severely depressed levels of lactobacilli, increased levels of aerobic bacteria and an inflamed vagina. The diagnosis is made by microscopy on wet mounts of fresh vaginal fluid, and some distinct clinical features are recognized. Vaginal suppositories that contain kanamycin or clindamycin have shown curative effects in nonpregnant women. Additionally, the application of topical probiotics can restore the vaginal flora and reduce the recurrence of AV. Clindamycin vaginal suppositories and probiotics may be a better choice for gravida with AV than metronidazole. AV requires prompt attention, and the early diagnosis and treatment of AV during pregnancy significantly improves perinatal outcomes. Further research is needed to define the pathogenesis, diagnostic criteria and standard treatment guidelines for AV.

  1. [Seven cases of tuberculous otitis media].

    PubMed

    Nishiike, S; Irifune, M; Kubo, T

    2000-12-01

    Tuberculous otitis media (TOM) is a variable and puzzling infectious disease that is sometimes confused with other chronic middle ear diseases. A series of 7 cases (9 ears) of TOM recently treated at Osaka Prefectural Habikino Hospital is reviewed to assess the recent features of the disease. In most cases, the pathogenetic mechanism was probably aspiration of tubercle bacilli through the eustachian tube. In most cases, abundant granulations were observed in the middle and external ears, but multiple perforations of the tympanic membrane were not seen. The manifestations were variable, such as otorrhea from the perforation and otitis media with effusion. In their early stage, most cases of TOMs due to transmission via the eustachian tube are tend to resemble otitis media with effusion. Smear tests, culture, PCR, and histopathological examinations, each of which has advantages and disadvantages, must be repeated to achieve a definitive diagnosis. Tuberculin tests can be unreliable, but a chest x-ray is indispensable whenever TOM is suspected. Antitubercular chemotherapy and 2% kanamycin earwash yielded good results. Since the classical criteria for the diagnosis of TOM are no longer valid, we propose a new criterion for diagnosis in the early stage of the disease.

  2. φ(2)GFP10, a high-intensity fluorophage, enables detection and rapid drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis directly from sputum samples.

    PubMed

    Jain, Paras; Hartman, Travis E; Eisenberg, Nell; O'Donnell, Max R; Kriakov, Jordan; Govender, Karnishree; Makume, Mantha; Thaler, David S; Hatfull, Graham F; Sturm, A Willem; Larsen, Michelle H; Moodley, Preshnie; Jacobs, William R

    2012-04-01

    The difficulty of diagnosing active tuberculosis (TB) and lack of rapid drug susceptibility testing (DST) at the point of care remain critical obstacles to TB control. This report describes a high-intensity mycobacterium-specific-fluorophage (φ(2)GFP10) that for the first time allows direct visualization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical sputum samples. Engineered features distinguishing φ(2)GFP10 from previous reporter phages include an improved vector backbone with increased cloning capacity and superior expression of fluorescent reporter genes through use of an efficient phage promoter. φ(2)GFP10 produces a 100-fold increase in fluorescence per cell compared to existing reporter phages. DST for isoniazid and oxofloxacin, carried out in cultured samples, was complete within 36 h. Use of φ(2)GFP10 detected M. tuberculosis in clinical sputum samples collected from TB patients. DST for rifampin and kanamycin from sputum samples yielded results after 12 h of incubation with φ(2)GFP10. Fluorophage φ(2)GFP10 has potential for clinical development as a rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive point-of-care diagnostic tool for M. tuberculosis infection and for rapid DST.

  3. High-efficiency Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenck, A. R.; Quinn, M.; Whetten, R. W.; Pullman, G.; Sederoff, R.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is the method of choice for many plant biotechnology laboratories; however, large-scale use of this organism in conifer transformation has been limited by difficult propagation of explant material, selection efficiencies and low transformation frequency. We have analyzed co-cultivation conditions and different disarmed strains of Agrobacterium to improve transformation. Additional copies of virulence genes were added to three common disarmed strains. These extra virulence genes included either a constitutively active virG or extra copies of virG and virB, both from pTiBo542. In experiments with Norway spruce, we increased transformation efficiencies 1000-fold from initial experiments where little or no transient expression was detected. Over 100 transformed lines expressing the marker gene beta-glucuronidase (GUS) were generated from rapidly dividing embryogenic suspension-cultured cells co-cultivated with Agrobacterium. GUS activity was used to monitor transient expression and to further test lines selected on kanamycin-containing medium. In loblolly pine, transient expression increased 10-fold utilizing modified Agrobacterium strains. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is a useful technique for large-scale generation of transgenic Norway spruce and may prove useful for other conifer species.

  4. A new high-frequency Agrobacterium-mediated transformation technique for Sesamum indicum L. using de-embryonated cotyledon as explant.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Supriyo; Basu, Arpita; Kundu, Surekha

    2014-09-01

    In spite of the economic importance of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and the recent availability of its genome sequence, a high-frequency transformation protocol is still not available. The only two existing Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocols that are available have poor transformation efficiencies of less than 2%. In the present study, we report a high-frequency, simple, and reproducible transformation protocol for sesame. Transformation was done using de-embryonated cotyledons via somatic embryogenic stages. All the critical parameters of transformation, like incubation period of explants in pre-regeneration medium prior to infection by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, cocultivation period, concentrations of acetosyringone in cocultivation medium, kanamycin concentration, and concentration of plant hormones, including 6-benzylaminopurine, have been optimized. This protocol is superior to the two existing protocols in its high regeneration and transformation efficiencies. The transformed sesame lines have been tested by PCR, RT-PCR for neomycin phosphotransferase II gene expression, and β-glucuronidase (GUS) assay. The regeneration frequency and transformation efficiency are 57.33 and 42.66%, respectively. T0 and T1 generation transgenic plants were analyzed, and several T1 plants homozygous for the transgenes were obtained.

  5. Construction and Analysis of Two Genome-Scale Deletion Libraries for Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Koo, Byoung-Mo; Kritikos, George; Farelli, Jeremiah D; Todor, Horia; Tong, Kenneth; Kimsey, Harvey; Wapinski, Ilan; Galardini, Marco; Cabal, Angelo; Peters, Jason M; Hachmann, Anna-Barbara; Rudner, David Z; Allen, Karen N; Typas, Athanasios; Gross, Carol A

    2017-03-22

    A systems-level understanding of Gram-positive bacteria is important from both an environmental and health perspective and is most easily obtained when high-quality, validated genomic resources are available. To this end, we constructed two ordered, barcoded, erythromycin-resistance- and kanamycin-resistance-marked single-gene deletion libraries of the Gram-positive model organism, Bacillus subtilis. The libraries comprise 3,968 and 3,970 genes, respectively, and overlap in all but four genes. Using these libraries, we update the set of essential genes known for this organism, provide a comprehensive compendium of B. subtilis auxotrophic genes, and identify genes required for utilizing specific carbon and nitrogen sources, as well as those required for growth at low temperature. We report the identification of enzymes catalyzing several missing steps in amino acid biosynthesis. Finally, we describe a suite of high-throughput phenotyping methodologies and apply them to provide a genome-wide analysis of competence and sporulation. Altogether, we provide versatile resources for studying gene function and pathway and network architecture in Gram-positive bacteria. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Isolation of the opdE gene that encodes for a new hydrolase of Enterobacter sp. capable of degrading organophosphorus pesticides.

    PubMed

    Chino-Flores, Concepción; Dantán-González, Edgar; Vázquez-Ramos, Alejandra; Tinoco-Valencia, Raunel; Díaz-Méndez, Rafael; Sánchez-Salinas, Enrique; Castrejón-Godínez, Maria Luisa; Ramos-Quintana, Fernando; Ortiz-Hernández, Maria Laura

    2012-06-01

    Microbial enzymes that can hydrolyze organophosphorus compounds have been isolated, identified and characterized from different microbial species in order to use them in biodegradation of organophosphorus compounds. We isolated a bacterial strain Cons002 from an agricultural soil bacterial consortium, which can hydrolyze methyl-parathion (MP) and other organophosphate pesticides. HPLC analysis showed that strain Cons002 is capable of degrading pesticides MP, parathion and phorate. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA amplification were performed for strain characterization and identification, respectively, showing that the strain Cons002 is related to the genus Enterobacter sp. which has a single chromosome of 4.6 Mb and has no plasmids. Genomic library was constructed from DNA of Enterobacter sp. Cons002. A gene called opdE (Organophosphate Degradation from Enterobacter) consists of 753 bp and encodes a protein of 25 kDa, which was isolated using activity methods. This gene opdE had no similarity to any genes reported to degrade organophosphates. When kanamycin-resistance cassette was placed in the gene opdE, hydrolase activity was suppressed and Enterobacter sp. Cons002 had no growth with MP as a nutrients source.

  7. Prevotella massiliensis sp. nov. isolated from human blood.

    PubMed

    Berger, Pierre; Adékambi, Toïdi; Mallet, Marie-Noelle; Drancourt, Michel

    2005-12-01

    We report a bacterial isolate (Marseille isolate) recovered from the blood of a patient hospitalized in an intensive care unit, presenting with severe trauma, fever and mechanical ventilation. Colonies appeared at 37 degrees C on blood agar after 72 h incubation. This isolate was a strictly anaerobic, Gram-negative rod phenotypically related to other Prevotella species described to date: non-motile, catalase-negative, oxidase-positive, non-glucose fermenting, resistant to vancomycin and susceptible to kanamycin. Cells exhibited a trilamellar membrane under electron microscopy. The fatty acid methyl ester profile was marginally related to that of Clostridium botulinum group A (distance: 26.27%) and Bifidobacterium bifidum GC subgroup B (distance: 26.38%). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was 90.0% with that of Prevotella oris and 89.1% with that of Prevotella melaninogenica. Partial rpoB gene sequence similarity was 84.5 and 86.4% with P. oris and P. melaninogenica, respectively. According to current standards, phenotypic traits, 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequence analyses indicated that the Marseille isolate belonged to a previously unrecognized species of the genus Prevotella, and we propose classifying it in the new taxon "Prevotella massiliensis" sp. nov.

  8. Engineering more stable, selectable marker-free autoluminescent mycobacteria by one step.

    PubMed

    Yang, Feng; Njire, Moses M; Liu, Jia; Wu, Tian; Wang, Bangxing; Liu, Tianzhou; Cao, Yuanyuan; Liu, Zhiyong; Wan, Junting; Tu, Zhengchao; Tan, Yaoju; Tan, Shouyong; Zhang, Tianyu

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, we demonstrated that the use of the autoluminescent Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a reporter strain had the potential to drastically reduce the time, effort, animals and costs consumed in evaluation of the activities of drugs and vaccines in live mice. However, the strains were relatively unstable and lost reporter with time without selection. The kanamycin selection marker used wasn't the best choice as it provides resistance to amino glycosides which are an important class of second line drugs used in tuberculosis treatment. In addition, the marker could limit utility of the strains for screening of new potential drugs or evaluating drug combinations for tuberculosis treatment. Limited selection marker genes for mycobacterial genetic manipulation is a major drawback for such a marker-containing strain in many research fields. Therefore, selectable marker-free, more stable autoluminescent mycobacteria are highly needed. After trying several strategies, we created such mycobacterial strains successfully by using an integrative vector and removing both the resistance maker and integrase genes by Xer site-specific recombination in one step. The corresponding plasmid vectors developed in this study could be very convenient in constructing other selectable marker-free, more stable reporter mycobacteria with diverse applications.

  9. Mimicking an Enzyme-Based Colorimetric Aptasensor for Antibiotic Residue Detection in Milk Combining Magnetic Loop-DNA Probes and CHA-Assisted Target Recycling Amplification.

    PubMed

    Luan, Qian; Gan, Ning; Cao, Yuting; Li, Tianhua

    2017-07-19

    A mimicking-enzyme-based colorimetric aptasensor was developed for the detection of kanamycin (KANA) in milk using magnetic loop-DNA-NMOF-Pt (m-L-DNA) probes and catalytic hairpin assembly (CHA)-assisted target recycling for signal amplification. The m-L-DNA probes were constructed via hybridization of hairpin DNA H1 (containing aptamer sequence) immobilized magnetic beads (m-H1) and signal DNA (sDNA, partial hybridization with H1) labeled nano Fe-MIL-88NH 2 -Pt (NMOF-Pt-sDNA). In the presence of KANA and complementary hairpin DNA H2, the m-L-DNA probes decomposed and formed an m-H1/KANA intermediate, which triggered the CHA reaction to form a stable duplex strand (m-H1-H2) while releasing KANA again for recycling. Consequently, numerous NMOF-Pt-sDNA as mimicking enzymes can synergistically catalyze 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) for color development. The aptasensor exhibited high selectivity and sensitivity for KANA in milk with a detection limit of 0.2 pg mL -1 within 30 min. The assay can be conveniently extended for on-site screening of other antibiotics in foods by simply changing the base sequence of the probes.

  10. The Interplay Between Predation, Competition, and Nutrient Levels Influences the Survival of Escherichia coli in Aquatic Environments.

    PubMed

    Wanjugi, P; Fox, G A; Harwood, V J

    2016-10-01

    Nutrient levels, competition from autochthonous microorganisms, and protozoan predation may all influence survival of fecal microorganisms as they transition from the gastrointestinal tract to aquatic habitats. Although Escherichia coli is an important indicator of waterborne pathogens, the effects of environmental stressors on its survival in aquatic environments remain poorly understood. We manipulated organic nutrient, predation, and competition levels in outdoor microcosms containing natural river water, sediments, and microbial populations to determine their relative contribution to E. coli survival. The activities of predator (protozoa) and competitor (indigenous bacteria) populations were inhibited by adding cycloheximide or kanamycin. We developed a statistical model of E. coli density over time that fits with the data under all experimental conditions. Predation and competition had significant negative effects on E. coli survival, while higher nutrient levels increased survival. Among the main effects, predation accounted for the greatest variation (40 %) compared with nutrients (25 %) or competition (15 %). The highest nutrient level mitigated the effect of predation on E. coli survival. Thus, elevated organic nutrients may disproportionately enhance the survival of E. coli, and potentially that of other enteric bacteria, in aquatic habitats.

  11. Sepsis associated with hematological malignancies: prophylaxis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, M; Saruta, K; Nakazawa, Y; Shindo, N; Maezawa, H; Yoshikawa, K; Yoshida, M; Shiba, K; Sakai, O; Saito, A

    1996-02-01

    Underlying diseases, pathogenic bacteria, clinical background and outcome were studied during 91 febrile episodes complicated by sepsis in 55 patients with hematological malignancies, who had been admitted to our hospital (Jikei University Kashiwa Hospital) between January 1990 and December 1994. Particularly in patients with P. aeruginosa sepsis, we compared the prophylactic effect of ciprofloxacin (CPFX) alone with that of the combination of polymyxin B (PL-B) plus kanamycin (KM). The major underlying diseases were acute myelocytic leukemia and malignant lymphoma, followed by myelodysplastic syndrome, acute lymphocytic leukemia and chronic myelocytic leukemia. Nearly two-thirds of the pathogenic microorganisms isolated were gram-positive bacteria (including coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus); approximately one-quarter were gram-negative bacteria (such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and the remainder were fungi. These microorganisms usually induced sepsis when granulocyte counts were decreased. Sepsis was a direct cause of death in about 60% of the patients and P. aeruginosa sepsis had the worst outcome. Oral administration of CPFX was more effective than PL-B plus KM in preventing P. aeruginosa sepsis. The difference in effectiveness might depend on the absorption profile of the drugs.

  12. Astrobiology as a framework for investigating antibiotic susceptibility: a study of Halomonas hydrothermalis

    PubMed Central

    Cockell, Charles S.

    2017-01-01

    Physical and chemical boundaries for microbial multiplication on Earth are strongly influenced by interactions between environmental extremes. However, little is known about how interactions between multiple stress parameters affect the sensitivity of microorganisms to antibiotics. Here, we assessed how 12 distinct permutations of salinity, availability of an essential nutrient (iron) and atmospheric composition (aerobic or microaerobic) affect the susceptibility of a polyextremotolerant bacterium, Halomonas hydrothermalis, to ampicillin, kanamycin and ofloxacin. While salinity had a significant impact on sensitivity to all three antibiotics (as shown by turbidimetric analyses), the nature of this impact was modified by iron availability and the ambient gas composition, with differing effects observed for each compound. These two parameters were found to be of particular importance when considered in combination and, in the case of ampicillin, had a stronger combined influence on antibiotic tolerance than salinity. Our data show how investigating microbial responses to multiple extremes, which are more representative of natural habitats than single extremes, can improve our understanding of the effects of antimicrobial compounds and suggest how studies of habitability, motivated by the desire to map the limits of life, can be used to systematically assess the effectiveness of antibiotics. PMID:28123098

  13. Biotechnology and genetic optimization of fast-growing hardwoods

    SciTech Connect

    Garton, S.; Syrkin-Wurtele, E.; Griffiths, H.

    1991-02-01

    A biotechnology research program was initiated to develop new clones of fast-growing Populus clones resistant to the herbicide glyphosate and resistant to the leaf-spot and canker disease caused by the fungus Septoria musiva. Glyphosate-resistant callus was selected from stem segments cultured in vitro on media supplemented with the herbicide. Plants were regenerated from the glyphosate-resistant callus tissue. A portion of plants reverted to a glyphosate susceptible phenotype during organogenesis. A biologically active filtrate was prepared from S. musiva and influenced fresh weight of Populus callus tissue. Disease-resistant plants were produced through somaclonal variation when shoots developed on stem internodes culturedmore » in vitro. Plantlets were screened for disease symptoms after spraying with a suspension of fungal spores. A frequency of 0.83 percent variant production was observed. Genetically engineered plants were produced after treatment of plant tissue with Agrobacterium tumefasciens strains carrying plasmid genes for antibiotic resistance. Transformers were selected on media enriched with the antibiotic, kanamycin. Presence of foreign DNA was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Protoplasts of popular were produced but did not regenerate into plant organs. 145 refs., 12 figs., 36 tabs.« less

  14. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Campanula carpatica: factors affecting transformation and regeneration of transgenic shoots.

    PubMed

    Sriskandarajah, Sridevy; Frello, Stefan; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Serek, Margrethe

    2004-08-01

    An efficient transformation system for Campanula carpatica was developed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains LBA4404 (harbouring the plasmid pBI121), and AGL0 (harbouring the plasmid pBEO210). This is the first report on the transformation of C. carpatica. Various factors affecting the transformation efficiency and subsequent regeneration were identified. The age of seedlings from which the explants for transformation studies were taken, and the growth conditions under which the seedlings were grown had a significant influence on the production of transformed shoots. Hypocotyls taken from 12-day-old seedlings grown in the dark were the most productive, with up to 25% of hypocotyls producing transformed shoots. Explants taken from 5-week-old seedlings produced only transformed callus. The medium used for co-cultivation and incubation also had a significant influence on transformation frequency and shoot regeneration. The cultivar "Blue Uniform" was more responsive than "White Uniform". Both bacterial strains and plasmids were equally effective in producing transformed tissue. Transformed shoots were selected on kanamycin medium, and the presence of the uidA and nptII genes in those selected shoots was confirmed by beta-glucuronidase and ELISA analyses, respectively.

  15. Surface activation of graphene oxide nanosheets by ultraviolet irradiation for highly efficient anti-bacterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veerapandian, Murugan; Zhang, Linghe; Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan; Yun, Kyusik

    2013-10-01

    A comprehensive investigation of anti-bacterial properties of graphene oxide (GO) and ultraviolet (UV) irradiated GO nanosheets was carried out. Microscopic characterization revealed that the GO nanosheet-like structures had wavy features and wrinkles or thin grooves. Fundamental surface chemical states of GO nanosheets (before and after UV irradiation) were investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) results revealed that UV irradiated GO nanosheets have more pronounced anti-bacterial behavior than GO nanosheets and standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The MIC of UV irradiated GO nanosheets was 0.125 μg ml-1 for Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, 0.25 μg ml-1 for Bacillus subtilis and 0.5 μg ml-1 for Enterococcus faecalis, ensuring its potential as an anti-infective agent for controlling the growth of pathogenic bacteria. The minimum bactericidal concentration of normal GO nanosheets was determined to be two-fold higher than its corresponding MIC value, indicating promising bactericidal activity. The mechanism of anti-bacterial action was evaluated by measuring the enzymatic activity of β-d-galactosidase for the hydrolysis of o-nitrophenol-β-d-galactopyranoside.

  16. An efficient system for the generation of marked genetic mutants in members of the genus Burkholderia.

    PubMed

    Shastri, Sravanthi; Spiewak, Helena L; Sofoluwe, Aderonke; Eidsvaag, Vigdis A; Asghar, Atif H; Pereira, Tyrone; Bull, Edward H; Butt, Aaron T; Thomas, Mark S

    2017-01-01

    To elucidate the function of a gene in bacteria it is vital that targeted gene inactivation (allelic replacement) can be achieved. Allelic replacement is often carried out by disruption of the gene of interest by insertion of an antibiotic-resistance marker followed by subsequent transfer of the mutant allele to the genome of the host organism in place of the wild-type gene. However, due to their intrinsic resistance to many antibiotics only selected antibiotic-resistance markers can be used in members of the genus Burkholderia, including the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). Here we describe the construction of improved antibiotic-resistance cassettes that specify resistance to kanamycin, chloramphenicol or trimethoprim effectively in the Bcc and related species. These were then used in combination with and/or to construct a series enhanced suicide vectors, pSHAFT2, pSHAFT3 and pSHAFT-GFP to facilitate effective allelic replacement in the Bcc. Validation of these improved suicide vectors was demonstrated by the genetic inactivation of selected genes in the Bcc species Burkholderia cenocepacia and B. lata, and in the non-Bcc species, B. thailandensis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Gene Expression Profiling of Transcription Factors of Helicobacter pylori under Different Environmental Conditions.

    PubMed

    De la Cruz, Miguel A; Ares, Miguel A; von Bargen, Kristine; Panunzi, Leonardo G; Martínez-Cruz, Jessica; Valdez-Salazar, Hilda A; Jiménez-Galicia, César; Torres, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the human gastric mucosa and causes peptic ulcers and gastric carcinoma. H. pylori strain 26695 has a small genome (1.67 Mb), which codes for few known transcriptional regulators that control bacterial metabolism and virulence. We analyzed by qRT-PCR the expression of 16 transcriptional regulators in H. pylori 26695, including the three sigma factors under different environmental conditions. When bacteria were exposed to acidic pH, urea, nickel, or iron, the sigma factors were differentially expressed with a particularly strong induction of fliA . The regulatory genes hrcA, hup , and crdR were highly induced in the presence of urea, nickel, and iron. In terms of biofilm formation fliA, flgR, hp1021, fur, nikR , and crdR were induced in sessile bacteria. Transcriptional expression levels of rpoD, flgR, hspR, hp1043 , and cheY were increased in contact with AGS epithelial cells. Kanamycin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline increased or decreased expression of regulatory genes, showing that these antibiotics affect the transcription of H. pylori . Our data indicate that environmental cues which may be present in the human stomach modulate H. pylori transcription.

  18. The protective effect of olfactory ensheathing cells on post-injury spiral ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qi; Zhang, Zhicun; Liu, Quan; Yu, Hongmeng

    2016-11-01

    Transplantation of OECs into the cochlea may protect and increase the survival of SGCs. To investigate the protective effect of the transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) on injured spiral ganglion cells (SGCs) in rats. OECs were transplanted into the cochlea in rats with SGCs that were injured by kanamycin sulfate (KM). An equal volume of D-Hanks was injected into the cochlea of control rats. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were recorded from the rats in both groups to monitor changes in hearing thresholds. Immunofluorescence was employed to examine the density and morphology of SGCs to assess the ototoxic condition of the cochlea. There was no significant difference in the ABR threshold at each frequency between the control and experimental groups. Notably, in the experimental group, a number of Hoechst 3334-labeled nuclei were detected from the apex to the basal turn of the cochlea, demonstrating that the OECs were successfully transplanted and survived in the cochlea. In the experimental group, most of the SGCs were tightly arranged, and the nuclear membrane, chromatin, and nucleolus were all clear. The SGCs in the control group were loosely arranged, and only a few normal SGCs were observed in this group.

  19. Prevalence, distribution, and diversity of Escherichia coli in plants manufacturing goat milk powder in Shaanxi, China.

    PubMed

    Xi, Meili; Feng, Yuqing; Li, Qiong; Yang, Qinnan; Zhang, Baigang; Li, Guanghui; Shi, Chao; Xia, Xiaodong

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence, distribution, and diversity of Escherichia coli in goat-milk-powder plants in Shaanxi, China. Three plants manufacturing goat milk powder in Shaanxi province were visited once for sampling during 2012 and 2013. Samples were taken for isolation of E. coli. Isolates were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing and detection of virulence genes. All isolates were further examined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. In total, 53 E. coli strains were isolated from 32 positive samples out of 534 samples. Among E. coli isolates, resistance was most frequently observed to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (75.5%), whereas all isolates were sensitive to gatifloxacin, kanamycin, amikacin, and amoxicillin-clavulanate. The 6 virulence genes of pathogenic E. coli were not detected. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis results showed that E. coli strains in plants were genetically diverse and milk storage tank could be an important contamination source. This study could provide useful information for plants manufacturing goat milk powder to establish proper management practices that help minimize the chance of microbial contamination. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Short-term intravenous antimicrobial prophylaxis for elective rectal cancer surgery: results of a prospective randomized non-inferiority trial.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Ishida, Hideyuki; Kuwabara, Kouki; Ohsawa, Tomonori; Okada, Norimichi; Yokoyama, Masaru; Kumamoto, Kensuke

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the non-inferiority of postoperative single-dose intravenous antimicrobial prophylaxis to multiple-dose intravenous antimicrobial prophylaxis in terms of the incidence of surgical site infections (SSIs) in patients undergoing elective rectal cancer surgery by a prospective randomized study. Patients undergoing elective surgery for rectal cancer were randomized to receive a single intravenous injection of flomoxef (group 1) or five additional doses (group 2) of flomoxef after the surgery. All the patients had received preoperative oral antibiotic prophylaxis (kanamycin and erythromycin) after mechanical cleansing within 24 h prior to surgery, and had received intravenous flomoxef during surgery. A total of 279 patients (including 139 patients in group 1 and 140 in group 2) were enrolled in the study. The incidence of SSIs was 13.7% in group 1 and 13.6% in group 2 (difference [95% confidence interval]: -0.2% [-0.9 to 0.7%]). The incidence of SSIs was not significantly different in patients undergoing elective rectal surgery who were treated using a single dose of postoperative antibiotics compared to those treated using multiple-dose antibiotics when preoperative mechanical and chemical bowel preparations were employed.

  1. Antibiotic resistance marker genes as environmental pollutants in GMO-pristine agricultural soils in Austria.

    PubMed

    Woegerbauer, Markus; Zeinzinger, Josef; Gottsberger, Richard Alexander; Pascher, Kathrin; Hufnagl, Peter; Indra, Alexander; Fuchs, Reinhard; Hofrichter, Johannes; Kopacka, Ian; Korschineck, Irina; Schleicher, Corina; Schwarz, Michael; Steinwider, Johann; Springer, Burkhard; Allerberger, Franz; Nielsen, Kaare M; Fuchs, Klemens

    2015-11-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes may be considered as environmental pollutants if anthropogenic emission and manipulations increase their prevalence above usually occurring background levels. The prevalence of aph(3')-IIa/nptII and aph(3')-IIIa/nptIII - frequent marker genes in plant biotechnology conferring resistance to certain aminoglycosides - was determined in Austrian soils from 100 maize and potato fields not yet exposed to but eligible for GMO crop cultivation. Total soil DNA extracts were analysed by nptII/nptIII-specific TaqMan real time PCR. Of all fields 6% were positive for nptII (median: 150 copies/g soil; range: 31-856) and 85% for nptIII (1190 copies/g soil; 13-61600). The copy-number deduced prevalence of nptIII carriers was 14-fold higher compared to nptII. Of the cultivable kanamycin-resistant soil bacteria 1.8% (95% confidence interval: 0-3.3%) were positive for nptIII, none for nptII (0-0.8%). The nptII-load of the studied soils was low rendering nptII a typical candidate as environmental pollutant upon anthropogenic release into these ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Emerging technologies for monitoring drug-resistant tuberculosis at the point-of-care.

    PubMed

    Mani, Vigneshwaran; Wang, ShuQi; Inci, Fatih; De Libero, Gennaro; Singhal, Amit; Demirci, Utkan

    2014-11-30

    Infectious diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Among them, tuberculosis (TB) remains a major threat to public health, exacerbated by the emergence of multiple drug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). MDR-Mtb strains are resistant to first-line anti-TB drugs such as isoniazid and rifampicin; whereas XDR-Mtb strains are resistant to additional drugs including at least to any fluoroquinolone and one of the second-line anti-TB injectable drugs such as kanamycin, capreomycin, or amikacin. Clinically, these strains have significantly impacted the management of TB in high-incidence developing countries, where systemic surveillance of TB drug resistance is lacking. For effective management of TB on-site, early detection of drug resistance is critical to initiate treatment, to reduce mortality, and to thwart drug-resistant TB transmission. In this review, we discuss the diagnostic challenges to detect drug-resistant TB at the point-of-care (POC). Moreover, we present the latest advances in nano/microscale technologies that can potentially detect TB drug resistance to improve on-site patient care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Detection of Salmonella spp. in Retail Raw Food Samples from Vietnam and Characterization of Their Antibiotic Resistance▿

    PubMed Central

    Van, Thi Thu Hao; Moutafis, George; Istivan, Taghrid; Tran, Linh Thuoc; Coloe, Peter J.

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the levels of Salmonella spp. contamination in raw food samples, including chicken, beef, pork, and shellfish, from Vietnam and to determine their antibiotic resistance characteristics. A total of 180 samples were collected and examined for the presence of Salmonella spp., yielding 91 Salmonella isolates. Sixty-one percent of meat and 18% of shellfish samples were contaminated with Salmonella spp. Susceptibility of all isolates to a variety of antimicrobial agents was tested, and resistance to tetracycline, ampicillin/amoxicillin, nalidixic acid, sulfafurazole, and streptomycin was found in 40.7%, 22.0%, 18.7%, 16.5%, and 14.3% of the isolates, respectively. Resistance to enrofloxacin, trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, and gentamicin was also detected (8.8 to 2.2%). About half (50.5%) of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and multiresistant Salmonella isolates, resistant to at least three different classes of antibiotics, were isolated from all food types. One isolate from chicken (serovar Albany) contained a variant of the Salmonella genomic island 1 antibiotic resistance gene cluster. The results show that antibiotic resistance in Salmonella spp. in raw food samples from Vietnam is significant. PMID:17766455

  4. Occurrence of antimicrobial residues in Brazilian food animals in 2008 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, C K V; Oliveira, A M G; Paiva, C R; Almeida, M P; Rezende, C P; Moraes, C G O; Botelho, B G; Souza, L F; Dias, P G

    2012-01-01

    Brazil is one of the most important countries as a producer and exporter of cattle and poultry. In 2009 cattle accounted for 30% of the export market and 41.4% for poultry meat. The Brazilian National Residues and Contaminants Control Plan (PNCRC) follows the guidelines set by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and checks compliance maximum residue limits (MRLs) to ensure the quality of these commodities. Kidney samples (n = 2978) were analysed between January 2008 and December 2009. Fifteen antibiotics of the macrolide and aminoglycoside groups (clindamycin, eritromycin, lincomycin, tylmicosin, tylosin, amikacin, apramycin, dihydrostreptomycin, gentamycin, higromycin, kanamycin, neomycin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, tobramycin) were determined by a microbiological screening method (FAST) and confirmed/quantified using liquid chromatography (LC-MS/MS and UPLC-MS/MS). In 2008, 1459 samples were analysed by a screening test and liquid chromatography with only one sample (0.07%) exceeded Brazilian legislation limits (>MRL). In 2009, 1519 samples were analysed and none exceeding Brazilian legislation limits (>MRL). The slaughterhouses of 16 states were monitored during the year of 2008, and 18 states were monitored in 2009, being the major producing states most sampled by the PNCRC.

  5. Capture-SELEX: Selection of DNA Aptamers for Aminoglycoside Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Small organic molecules are challenging targets for an aptamer selection using the SELEX technology (SELEX—Systematic Evolution of Ligans by EXponential enrichment). Often they are not suitable for immobilization on solid surfaces, which is a common procedure in known aptamer selection methods. The Capture-SELEX procedure allows the selection of DNA aptamers for solute targets. A special SELEX library was constructed with the aim to immobilize this library on magnetic beads or other surfaces. For this purpose a docking sequence was incorporated into the random region of the library enabling hybridization to a complementary oligo fixed on magnetic beads. Oligonucleotides of the library which exhibit high affinity to the target and a secondary structure fitting to the target are released from the beads for binding to the target during the aptamer selection process. The oligonucleotides of these binding complexes were amplified, purified, and immobilized via the docking sequence to the magnetic beads as the starting point of the following selection round. Based on this Capture-SELEX procedure, the successful DNA aptamer selection for the aminoglycoside antibiotic kanamycin A as a small molecule target is described. PMID:23326761

  6. Screening of a thiamine-auxotrophic yeast for alpha-ketoglutaric acid overproduction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jingwen; Zhou, Haiyan; Du, Guocheng; Liu, Liming; Chen, Jian

    2010-09-01

    To obtain a thiamine-auxotrophic yeast strain that overproduces alpha-ketoglutaric acid (alpha-KG) from glycerol and to investigate nutrient effects on alpha-KG production. Yeast strain WSH-Z06, a thiamine auxotroph that gave high yields of alpha-KG from glycerol, was obtained by screening for ampicillin/kanamycin resistance and thiamine auxotrophy. The strain was identified as Yarrowia lipolytica based on physiological, chemical, and phylogenetic analysis. The ability of the strain to convert glycerol to alpha-KG was analysed by investigating the effects of nutritional factors, including thiamine, riboflavin, nitrogen sources, and calcium ion. Thiamine and calcium ion concentration had the greatest effect on alpha-KG accumulation. Under optimal conditions, a yield of 39.2 g l(-1)alpha-KG was obtained from 100 g l(-1) glycerol, with 16.84 g l(-1) pyruvate as a by-product. The current work provides a method for screening for an alpha-KG overproducer. Nutrients have a significant impact on alpha-KG production in the yeast strain presented here. The alpha-KG-overproducing yeast strain Y. lipolytica WSH-Z06 is a promising parent strain for further metabolic engineering to lower by-product accumulation and accelerate glycerol utilization.

  7. Antibiotic resistance phenotypes and virulence-associated genes in Escherichia coli isolated from animals and animal food products in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Badi, Souhir; Cremonesi, Paola; Abbassi, Mohamed Salah; Ibrahim, Chourouk; Snoussi, Majdi; Bignoli, Giulia; Luini, Mario; Castiglioni, Bianca; Hassen, Abdennaceur

    2018-05-01

    Livestock and food products of animal origin constitute important reservoirs of intestinal and extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli including antibiotic-resistant E. coli isolates. To assess potential risks to public health related to E. coli strains of animal origin in Tunisia, 65 E. coli isolates recovered from healthy animals and food products of animal origin were studied. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined according to CLSI guidelines and genes encoding antibiotic resistance as well as virulence factors were investigated by PCR. High rates of antibiotic resistance were observed to kanamycin (78.4%), gentamicin (75.3%) and streptomycin (75.3%, encoded by strA-strB (7 isolates)), amoxicillin (64.6%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (60%), tetracycline (44.6%; tetA (8 isolates) and tetB (7 isolates)), nalidixic acid (27.6%, qnrS (3 isolates), qnrB (2 isolates) and qnrA (one isolate)) and sulfonamides (36.9%; sul1 (1 isolate), sul2 (4 isolates), and sul3 (1 isolate)). Virulotypes classified some isolates as STEC (3%), MNEC (1.5%) and atypical EPEC (1.5%). This study demonstrated high rates of antimicrobial resistance and the presence of some pathogenic pathovars from animal origins that are a cause of concern for public health.

  8. Expression of Cry2Aa, a Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal protein in transgenic pigeon pea confers resistance to gram pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shweta; Kumar, Nikhil Ram; Maniraj, R; Lakshmikanth, R; Rao, K Y S; Muralimohan, N; Arulprakash, T; Karthik, K; Shashibhushan, N B; Vinutha, T; Pattanayak, Debasis; Dash, Prasanta K; Kumar, P Ananda; Sreevathsa, Rohini

    2018-06-11

    Pigeon pea is an important legume infested by a plethora of insect pests amongst which gram pod borer Helicoverpa armigera is very prominent. Imparting resistance to this insect herbivore is of global importance in attaining food security. Expression of insecticidal crystal proteins (ICP) in diverse crops has led to increased resistance to several pests. We report in this paper, expression of Cry2Aa in transgenic pigeon pea and its effectiveness towards H. armigera by employing Agrobacterium-mediated in planta transformation approach. Approximately 0.8% of T 1 generation plants were identified as putative transformants based on screening in the presence of 70 ppm kanamycin as the selection agent. Promising events were further recognized in advanced generations based on integration, expression and bioefficacy of the transgenes. Seven T 3 lines (11.8% of the selected T1 events) were categorized as superior as these events demonstrated 80-100% mortality of the challenged larvae and improved ability to prevent damage caused by the larvae. The selected transgenic plants accumulated Cry2Aa in the range of 25-80 µg/g FW. The transgenic events developed in the study can be used in pigeon pea improvement programmes for pod borer resistance.

  9. A useful method for the detection of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid- and cold agglutinin-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Ozcelik, Fatih; Arslan, Erol; Serdar, Muhittin A; Yiginer, Omer; Oztosun, Muzaffer; Kayadibi, Huseyin; Kurt, Ismail

    2012-11-01

    Pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP), caused by platelet (PLT) aggregation, is usually associated with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-dependent antibodies and cold aggluti-nins against PLT antigens. The aim of this study was to identify the PTCP and discover the most practical method to distinguish it from real thrombocytopenia. This study included 85 patients without hemorrhagic abnormalities and suspected PTCP. Blood samples containing EDTA, citrate and EDTA-kanamycin (KN) were analyzed at room temperature and 37°C. PTCP was detected in 24 of 85 patients. In 23 of 24 patients, EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia (EDTA-PTCP) was detected; 5 of whom had also the cold agglutinin-dependent PTCP. In only 1 of 24 patients, the cold agglu-tinin-dependent PTCP was found. In this study, no significant difference was observed in leukocyte counts comparing EDTA and citrate blood samples in cases with EDTA-PTCP. In clinical laboratories, a significant portion of the cases with low PLT counts was attributable to EDTA-PTCP and, therefore, did not require treatment. Even if these cases can be detected by bringing the blood samples containing EDTA to 37°C or by adding KN to blood samples containing EDTA, the use of blood samples containing citrate taken for erythrocyte sedimentation rate analysis is a more practical priority method.

  10. Phylogenetic Analysis and Antimicrobial Profiles of Cultured Emerging Opportunistic Pathogens (Phyla Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria) Identified in Hot Springs

    PubMed Central

    Jardine, Jocelyn Leonie; Mavumengwana, Vuyo

    2017-01-01

    Hot spring water may harbour emerging waterborne opportunistic pathogens that can cause infections in humans. We have investigated the diversity and antimicrobial resistance of culturable emerging and opportunistic bacterial pathogens, in water and sediment of hot springs located in Limpopo, South Africa. Aerobic bacteria were cultured and identified using 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene sequencing. The presence of Legionella spp. was investigated using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Isolates were tested for resistance to ten antibiotics representing six different classes: β-lactam (carbenicillin), aminoglycosides (gentamycin, kanamycin, streptomycin), tetracycline, amphenicols (chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone), sulphonamides (co-trimoxazole) and quinolones (nalidixic acid, norfloxacin). Gram-positive Kocuria sp. and Arthrobacter sp. and gram-negative Cupriavidus sp., Ralstonia sp., Cronobacter sp., Tepidimonas sp., Hafnia sp. and Sphingomonas sp. were isolated, all recognised as emerging food-borne pathogens. Legionella spp. was not detected throughout the study. Isolates of Kocuria, Arthrobacter and Hafnia and an unknown species of the class Gammaproteobacteria were resistant to two antibiotics in different combinations of carbenicillin, ceftriaxone, nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol. Cronobacter sp. was sensitive to all ten antibiotics. This study suggests that hot springs are potential reservoirs for emerging opportunistic pathogens, including multiple antibiotic resistant strains, and highlights the presence of unknown populations of emerging and potential waterborne opportunistic pathogens in the environment. PMID:28914802

  11. Synthesis and Antibacterial Evaluation of Novel 3-Substituted Ocotillol-Type Derivatives as Leads.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yi; Liu, Xian-Xuan; Zhang, Heng-Yuan; Yang, Xiao; Liu, Ze-Yun; Lu, Jing; Lewis, Peter John; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Xu, Jin-Yi; Meng, Qing-Guo; Ma, Cong; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2017-04-07

    Due to the rapidly growing bacterial antibiotic-resistance and the scarcity of novel agents in development, bacterial infection is still a global problem. Therefore, new types of antibacterial agents, which are effective both alone and in combination with traditional antibiotics, are urgently needed. In this paper, a series of antibacterial ocotillol-type C-24 epimers modified from natural 20( S )-protopanaxadiol were synthesized and evaluated for their antibacterial activity. According to the screening results of Gram-positive bacteria ( B. subtilis 168 and MRSA USA300) and Gram-negative bacteria ( P. aer PAO1 and A. baum ATCC19606) in vitro, the derivatives exhibited good antibacterial activity, particularly against Gram-positive bacteria with an minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) value of 2-16 µg/mL. The subsequent synergistic antibacterial assay showed that derivatives 5c and 6c enhanced the susceptibility of B. subtilis 168 and MRSA USA300 to chloramphenicol (CHL) and kanamycin (KAN) (FICI < 0.5). Our data showed that ocotillol-type derivatives with long-chain amino acid substituents at C-3 were good leads against antibiotic-resistant pathogens MRSA USA300, which could improve the ability of KAN and CHL to exhibit antibacterial activity at much lower concentrations with reduced toxicity.

  12. Molecular characterization of antibiotic resistance in enterococci recovered from seagulls (Larus cachinnans) representing an environmental health problem.

    PubMed

    Radhouani, Hajer; Igrejas, Gilberto; Pinto, Luís; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Coelho, Céline; Rodrigues, Jorge; Poeta, Patrícia

    2011-08-01

    Antimicrobial resistance and the mechanisms implicated were studied in 54 enterococci recovered from 57 seagull fecal samples. Almost 78% of the recovered enterococci showed resistance against one or more antibiotics and these isolates were identified to the species level. E. faecium was the most prevalent species (52.4%). High percentages of erythromycin and tetracycline resistances were found among our isolates (95.2%), and lower percentages were identified to other antibiotics. Most of the tetracycline-resistant strains carried the tet(M) and/or tet(L) genes. Genes associated with Tn916/Tn1545 and/or Tn5397 transposons were detected in 45% of tetracycline-resistant isolates. The erm(B) gene was detected in 65% of erythromycin-resistant isolates. The vat(D) and vat(E) genes were present in 5.9% and 11.8% of quinupristin/dalfopristin-resistant isolates, respectively. The ant(6)-Ia gene was identified in 57.1% of streptomycin-resistant isolates. All nine kanamycin-resistant isolates carried the aph(3)'-IIIa gene. The cat(A) gene was found in two chloramphenicol-resistant isolates. Seagulls should be considered a risk species for spreading in the environment antimicrobial resistant enterococci and can serve as a sentinel for antibiotic pressure from the surrounding farm and urban setting.

  13. Antimicrobial resistance prediction in PATRIC and RAST

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, James J.; Boisvert, Sebastien; Brettin, Thomas

    The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) mechanisms in bacterial pathogens, coupled with the dwindling number of effective antibiotics, has created a global health crisis. Being able to identify the genetic mechanisms of AMR and predict the resistance phenotypes of bacterial pathogens prior to culturing could inform clinical decision-making and improve reaction time. At PATRIC (http://patricbrc.org/), we have been collecting bacterial genomes with AMR metadata for several years. In order to advance phenotype prediction and the identification of genomic regions relating to AMR, we have updated the PATRIC FTP server to enable access to genomes that are binned bymore » their AMR phenotypes, as well as metadata including minimum inhibitory concentrations. Using this infrastructure, we custom built AdaBoost (adaptive boosting) machine learning classifiers for identifying carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii, methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, and beta-lactam and co-trimoxazole resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae with accuracies ranging from 88–99%. We also did this for isoniazid, kanamycin, ofloxacin, rifampicin, and streptomycin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, achieving accuracies ranging from 71–88%. Lastly, this set of classifiers has been used to provide an initial framework for species-specific AMR phenotype and genomic feature prediction in the RAST and PATRIC annotation services.« less

  14. Introduction of a citrus blight-associated gene into Carrizo citrange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbc. x Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.] by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

    PubMed

    Kayim, M; Ceccardi, T L; Berretta, M J G; Barthe, G A; Derrick, K S

    2004-11-01

    The protein p12 accumulates in leaves of trees with citrus blight (CB), a serious decline of unknown cause. The function of p12 is not known, but sequence analysis indicates it may be related to expansins. In studies to determine the function of p12, sense and antisense constructs were used to make transgenic Carrizo citrange using an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system. Homogeneous beta-glucuronidase+ (GUS+) sense and antisense transgenic shoots were regenerated using kanamycin as a selective agent. Twenty-five sense and 45 antisense transgenic shoots were in vivo grafted onto Carrizo citrange for further analyses. In addition, 20 sense and 18 antisense shoots were rooted. The homogeneous GUS+ plants contained either the p12 sense or antisense gene (without the intron associated with the gene in untransformed citrus) as shown by PCR and Southern blotting. Northern blots showed the expected RNA in the sense and antisense plants. A protein of identical size and immunoreactivity was observed in seven of nine sense plants but not in nine antisense or non-transgenic plants. At the current stage of growth, there are no visual phenotypic differences between the transgenic and non-transgenic plants. Selected plants will be budded with sweet orange for field evaluation for resistance or susceptibility to CB and general rootstock performance.

  15. Impact of different antibiotics on methane production using waste-activated sludge: mechanisms and microbial community dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mustapha, Nurul Asyifah; Sakai, Kenji; Shirai, Yoshihito; Maeda, Toshinari

    2016-11-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an effective method for reducing the by-product of waste-activated sludge (WAS) from wastewater treatment plants and for producing bioenergy from WAS. However, only a limited number of studies have attempted to improve anaerobic digestion by targeting the microbial interactions in WAS. In this study, we examined whether different antibiotics positively, negatively, or neutrally influence methane fermentation by evaluating changes in the microbial community and functions in WAS. Addition of azithromycin promoted the microbial communities related to the acidogenic and acetogenic stages, and a high concentration of soluble proteins and a high activity of methanogens were detected. Chloramphenicol inhibited methane production but did not affect the bacteria that contribute to the hydrolysis, acidogenesis, and acetogenesis digestion stages. The addition of kanamycin, which exhibits the same methane productivity as a control (antibiotic-free WAS), did not affect all of the microbial communities during anaerobic digestion. This study demonstrates the simultaneous functions and interactions of diverse bacteria and methanogenic Archaea in different stages of the anaerobic digestion of WAS. The ratio of Caldilinea, Methanosarcina, and Clostridium may correspond closely to the trend of methane production in each antibiotic. The changes in microbial activities and function by antibiotics facilitate a better understanding of bioenergy production.

  16. Heavy metals resistant plasmid-mediated utilization of solar by Pseudomonas aeruginosa AA301.

    PubMed

    Abo-Amer, Aly E; Mohamed, Rehab M

    2006-01-01

    Solar-degrading bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, were isolated from Egyptian soil by Mineral Salt Medium (MSM) supplemented with Solar (motor fuel) from different oil-contaminated sites in Sohag province. The strain AA301 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed appreciable growth in MSM medium containing high concentrations of Solar ranging from 0.5 to 3% (v/v), with optimum concentration at 1.5%. Solar was used as a sole carbon source and a source of energy by the bacterium. The ability to degrade Solar was found to be associated with a single 60-kb plasmid designated pSOL15. The plasmid-cured variant, which was obtained by culturing in LB broth with kanamycin, lost the plasmid indicative the ability to degrade Solar must depend on this plasmid. The wild type isolate, Pseudomonas aeruginosa AA301 and transformant strain, have maximum growth (OD600 = approximately 2) on Solar, however the plasmid-cured variant did not have any significant growth on Solar. Moreover, resistance to a wide range of heavy metals such as Mn2+, Hg2+, Mg2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, and Ni2+ was also 60-kb plasmid-mediated. Therefore, the strain AA301 could be good candidate for remediation of some heavy metals and oil hydrocarbons in heavily polluted sites.

  17. [Transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with increased resistance to the storage pest obtained by Agrobacterium tumefaciens--mediated].

    PubMed

    Bi, Rui-Ming; Jia, Hai-Yan; Feng, De-Shun; Wang, Hong-Gang

    2006-05-01

    The transgenic wheat of improved resistance to the storage pest was production. We have introduced the cowpea trypsin inhibitor gene (CpTI) into cultured embryonic callus cells of immature embryos of wheat elite line by Agrobacterium-mediated method. Independent plantlets were obtained from the kanamycin-resistant calli after screening. PCR and real time PCR analysis, PCR-Southern and Southern blot hybridization indicated that there were 3 transgenic plants viz. transformed- I, II and III (T- I, T-II and T-III). The transformation frequencies were obviously affected by Agrobacterium concentration, the infection duration and transformation treatment. The segregations of CpTI in the transgenic wheat progenies were not easily to be elucidated, and some transgenic wheat lines (T- I and T-III) showed Mendelian segregations. The determinations of insect resistance to the stored grain insect of wheat viz. the grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella Olivier) indicated that the 3 transgenic wheat progeny seeds moth-resistance was improved significantly. The seed moth-eaten ratio of T- I, T-II, T-III and nontransformed control was 19.8%, 21.9%, 32.9% and 58.3% respectively. 3 transgenic wheat T1 PCR-positive plants revealed that the 3 transgenic lines had excellent agronomic traits. They supplied good germplasm resource of insect-resistance for wheat genetic improvement.

  18. The fitness costs and trade-off shapes associated with the exclusion of nine antibiotics by OmpF porin channels.

    PubMed

    Phan, Katherine; Ferenci, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    The trade-off relationship between antibiotic exclusion and nutrient access across the Gram-negative outer membrane is determined by structural constraints in porin channels. The precise nutritional cost of exclusion is unknown for different antibiotics, as are the shapes of the nutrition-susceptibility trade-off. Using a library of 10 engineered isogenic Escherichia coli strains with structural modifications of OmpF porin expressed at a constant level, susceptibilities were measured for nine antibiotics and the nutritional fitness costs estimated by competitions in chemostats. Different antibiotics exhibited a remarkably varied range of geometries in the nutrition-susceptibility trade-off, including convex, concave and sigmoidal trade-off shapes. The trade-off patterns predict the possibility of adaptations in contributing to antibiotic resistance; exclusion of amoxicillin or trimethoprim in ompF mutants can occur with little loss of fitness whereas kanamycin and streptomycin exclusion has a high cost. Some individual OmpF changes even allow positive correlations (trade-ups), resulting in increased fitness and decreased susceptibility specifically to cephalexin or ciprofloxacin. The surprising plasticity of the nutrition-exclusion relationship means that there are no generalisable rules that apply to decreasing susceptibility for all antibiotics. The protein changes are exquisitely specific in determining nutritional fitness and adaptive outcomes in a structural constraint trade-off.

  19. Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay of the Leaves Extract of Dillenia indica Linn

    PubMed Central

    Apu, AS; Muhit, MA; Tareq, SM; Pathan, AH; Jamaluddin, ATM; Ahmed, M

    2010-01-01

    The crude methanolic extract of Dillenia indica Linn. (Dilleniaceae) leaves has been investigated for the evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Organic solvent (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) fractions of methanolic extract and methanolic fraction (aqueous) were screened for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. Besides, the fractions were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. Among the four fractions tested, n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform fractions showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The average zone of inhibition was ranged from 6 to 8 mm at a concentration of 400 µg/disc. But the aqueous fraction was found to be insensitive to microbial growth. Compared to vincristine sulfate (with LC50 of 0.52 µg/ ml), n-hexane and chloroform fractions demonstrated a significant cytotoxic activity (having LC50 of 1.94 µg/ml and 2.13 µg/ml, respectively). The LC50 values of the carbon tetrachloride and aqueous fraction were 4.46 µg/ml and 5.13 µg/ ml, respectively. The study confirms the moderate antimicrobial and potent cytotoxic activities of Dillenia indica leaves extract and therefore demands the isolation of active principles and thorough bioassay. PMID:21331191

  20. Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay of the Leaves Extract of Dillenia indica Linn.

    PubMed

    Apu, As; Muhit, Ma; Tareq, Sm; Pathan, Ah; Jamaluddin, Atm; Ahmed, M

    2010-01-01

    The crude methanolic extract of Dillenia indica Linn. (Dilleniaceae) leaves has been investigated for the evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Organic solvent (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) fractions of methanolic extract and methanolic fraction (aqueous) were screened for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. Besides, the fractions were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. Among the four fractions tested, n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform fractions showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The average zone of inhibition was ranged from 6 to 8 mm at a concentration of 400 µg/disc. But the aqueous fraction was found to be insensitive to microbial growth. Compared to vincristine sulfate (with LC(50) of 0.52 µg/ ml), n-hexane and chloroform fractions demonstrated a significant cytotoxic activity (having LC(50) of 1.94 µg/ml and 2.13 µg/ml, respectively). The LC(50) values of the carbon tetrachloride and aqueous fraction were 4.46 µg/ml and 5.13 µg/ ml, respectively. The study confirms the moderate antimicrobial and potent cytotoxic activities of Dillenia indica leaves extract and therefore demands the isolation of active principles and thorough bioassay.

  1. The cyanobacterial thioredoxin gene is required for both photoautotrophic and heterotrophic growth.

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, F; Florencio, F J

    1996-01-01

    The gene encoding thioredoxin in the facultative heterotrophic cyanobacterium Synechocytis sp. PCC 6803 (trxA) has been cloned by heterologous hybridization using the corresponding gene trxM from the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans as a probe. The deduced amino acid sequence of trxA predicts a protein of relative molecular weight of 11,750 and has strong identity with its cyanobacterial counterparts and other m-type thioredoxins of photo-synthetic eukaryotes. The trxA gene has been expressed Escherichia coli as a functional protein of 12 kD and has been shown by western blot analysis to be the same size as in Synechocystis. The trxA gene is transcribed in Synechocystis as a single transcript of 450 nucleotides and accumulates to the same level under photosynthetic and heterotrophic growth conditions. The trxA gene was inactivated with a kanamycin-resistant cassette, and total segregation of the disrupted trxA gene was obtained only when the trxM gene from A. nidulans (E.D.G. Muller, B.B. Buchanan [1989] J Biol Chem 264: 4008-4014) was simultaneously expressed in Synechocytis. Our results suggest an essential role of thioredoxin not only when cells grow photosynthetically but also under heterotrophic conditions. PMID:8756494

  2. RNA interference of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO1 and ACO2) genes expression prolongs the shelf life of Eksotika (Carica papaya L.) papaya fruit.

    PubMed

    Sekeli, Rogayah; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Muda, Pauziah; Abu Bakar, Umi Kalsom; Yeong, Wee Chien; Pillai, Vilasini

    2014-06-19

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using RNA interference in down regulating the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene in Eksotika papaya. One-month old embryogenic calli were separately transformed with Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404 harbouring the three different RNAi pOpOff2 constructs bearing the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene. A total of 176 putative transformed lines were produced from 15,000 calli transformed, selected, then regenerated on medium supplemented with kanamycin. Integration and expression of the targeted gene in putatively transformed lines were verified by PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confined field evaluation of a total of 31 putative transgenic lines planted showed a knockdown expression of the targeted ACO1 and ACO2 genes in 13 lines, which required more than 8 days to achieve the full yellow colour (Index 6). Fruits harvested from lines pRNAiACO2 L2-9 and pRNAiACO1 L2 exhibited about 20 and 14 days extended post-harvest shelf life to reach Index 6, respectively. The total soluble solids contents of the fruits ranged from 11 to 14° Brix, a range similar to fruits from non-transformed, wild type seed-derived plants.

  3. [Isolation and characterization of a new glyphosate-resistant strain from extremely polluted environment].

    PubMed

    Sh, Jiying; Jin, Dan; Lu, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Chao; Li, Liang; Ma, Ruiqiang; Xiao, Lei; Wang, Yiding; Lin, Min

    2008-06-01

    To isolate and characterize a glyphosate-resistant strain from extremely polluted environment. A glyphosate-resistant strain was isolated from extremely polluted soil taking glyphosate as the selection pressure. Its glyphosate resistance, growth optimal pH and antibiotic sensitivity were detected. Its morphology, cultural characteristics, physiological and biochemical properties, chemotaxonomy and 16S rDNA sequences were studied. Based on these results, the strain was identified according to the ninth edition of Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology. The isolate was named SL06500. It could grow in M9 minimal medium containing up to 500 mmol/L glyphosate. The cell growth optimal pH of SL06500 was 4.0. It was resistant to ampicillin, kanamycin, tetracycline and chloromycetin. The 16S rDNA of SL06500 was amplified by PCR and sequenced. Compared with the published nucleotide sequence of 16S rDNA in NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information), SL06500 showed high identity with Achromobacter and Alcaligenes. Based on morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics, the strain was identified as Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp.xylosoxidans SL06500 according to the ninth edition of Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology. Strain SL06500 is worthy to be studied because of its high glyphosate resistance.

  4. Phenotypical resistance correlation networks for 10 non-typhoidal Salmonella subpopulations in an active antimicrobial surveillance programme.

    PubMed

    Love, W J; Zawack, K A; Booth, J G; Gröhn, Y T; Lanzas, C

    2018-06-01

    Antimicrobials play a critical role in treating cases of invasive non-typhoidal salmonellosis (iNTS) and other diseases, but efficacy is hindered by resistant pathogens. Selection for phenotypical resistance may occur via several mechanisms. The current study aims to identify correlations that would allow indirect selection of increased resistance to ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and azithromycin to improve antimicrobial stewardship. These are medically important antibiotics for treating iNTS, but these resistances persist in non-Typhi Salmonella serotypes even though they are not licensed for use in US food animals. A set of 2875 Salmonella enterica isolates collected from animal sources by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System were stratified in to 10 subpopulations based on serotype and host species. Collateral resistances in each subpopulation were estimated as network models of minimum inhibitory concentration partial correlations. Ceftriaxone sensitivity was correlated with other β-lactam resistances, and less commonly resistances to tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or kanamycin. Azithromycin resistance was frequently correlated with chloramphenicol resistance. Indirect selection for ciprofloxacin resistance via collateral selection appears unlikely. Density of the ACSSuT subgraph resistance aligned well with the phenotypical frequency. The current study identifies several important resistances in iNTS serotypes and further research is needed to identify the causative genetic correlations.

  5. Culture-based identification of pigmented Porphyromonas and Prevotella species in primary endodontic infections

    PubMed Central

    Rajaram, Anuradha; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S.; Somannavar, Pradeep D.; Ingalagi, Preeti; Bhat, Kishore

    2016-01-01

    Background. The most common species isolated from primary endodontic infections are black-pigmented bacteria. These species are implicated in apical abscess formation due to their proteolytic activity and are fastidious in nature. Therefore, the present study was carried out to evaluate the presence and identification of various pigmented Porphyromonas and Prevotella species in the infected root canal through culture-based techniques. Methods. Thirty-one patients with primary endodontic infections were selected. Using sterile paper points, samples were collected from the root canals after access opening and prior to obturation, which were cultured using blood and kanamycin blood agar. Subsequently, biochemical test was used to identify the species and the results were analyzed using percentage comparison analysis, McNemar and chi-squared tests, Wilcoxon match pair test and paired t-test. Results. Out of 31 samples 26 were positive for black-pigmented organisms; the predominantly isolated species were Prevotella followed by Porphyromonas. In Porphyromonas only P. gingivalis was isolated. One of the interesting features was isolation of P. gingivalis through culture, which is otherwise very difficult to isolate through culture. Conclusion. The presence of Prevotella and Porphyromonas species suggests that a significant role is played by these organisms in the pathogenesis of endodontic infections. PMID:27651878

  6. Antimicrobial Resistance Prediction in PATRIC and RAST.

    PubMed

    Davis, James J; Boisvert, Sébastien; Brettin, Thomas; Kenyon, Ronald W; Mao, Chunhong; Olson, Robert; Overbeek, Ross; Santerre, John; Shukla, Maulik; Wattam, Alice R; Will, Rebecca; Xia, Fangfang; Stevens, Rick

    2016-06-14

    The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) mechanisms in bacterial pathogens, coupled with the dwindling number of effective antibiotics, has created a global health crisis. Being able to identify the genetic mechanisms of AMR and predict the resistance phenotypes of bacterial pathogens prior to culturing could inform clinical decision-making and improve reaction time. At PATRIC (http://patricbrc.org/), we have been collecting bacterial genomes with AMR metadata for several years. In order to advance phenotype prediction and the identification of genomic regions relating to AMR, we have updated the PATRIC FTP server to enable access to genomes that are binned by their AMR phenotypes, as well as metadata including minimum inhibitory concentrations. Using this infrastructure, we custom built AdaBoost (adaptive boosting) machine learning classifiers for identifying carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii, methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, and beta-lactam and co-trimoxazole resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae with accuracies ranging from 88-99%. We also did this for isoniazid, kanamycin, ofloxacin, rifampicin, and streptomycin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, achieving accuracies ranging from 71-88%. This set of classifiers has been used to provide an initial framework for species-specific AMR phenotype and genomic feature prediction in the RAST and PATRIC annotation services.

  7. Potent insect gut binding lectin from Sclerotium rolfsii impart resistance to sucking and chewing type insects in cotton.

    PubMed

    Vanti, Gulamnabi L; Katageri, Ishwarappa S; Inamdar, Shashikala R; Hiremathada, Vamadevaiah; Swamy, Bale M

    2018-04-30

    Cotton is an important crop that is continuously cultivated around the world. However, its production has decreased in recent times due to wide ranging insects and also current practices of using synthetic insecticides that are not precise and their residues impairing the biodiversity. Hence, the search for newer classes of efficient entomotoxic proteins continues. Genetically modified cotton crops with cry genes from Bacillus thuringiensis, have been cultivated across the world, which overcome the chewing type insect menace. In the present study, we assess the development of transgenic cotton plants by Agrobacterium, wherein the confirmed kanamycin resistant T 0 plants were advanced to T 1 generation and the gene integration was studied by molecular analysis. Western blot and ELISA assays demonstrated the expression of 0.46% lectin of the total soluble leaf proteins. In planta bioassay showed 69% of aphid, Aphis gossypii population reduction with T 1 generation plants. Whereas 100% insect mortality is occurred in Spodoptera litura larvae by 96 h. Present findings shows the potent insecticidal effect of Sclerotium rolfsii lectin on sucking (homopteran) and chewing (lepidopteron) insects, underlining its significance and strengthening genetic resources in cotton breeding against different order insect pests. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A new series of yeast shuttle vectors for the recovery and identification of multiple plasmids from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Frazer, LilyAnn Novak; O'Keefe, Raymond T

    2007-09-01

    The availability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains with multiple auxotrophic markers allows the stable introduction and selection of more than one yeast shuttle vector containing marker genes that complement the auxotrophic markers. In certain experimental situations there is a need to recover more than one shuttle vector from yeast. To facilitate the recovery and identification of multiple plasmids from S. cerevisiae, we have constructed a series of plasmids based on the pRS series of yeast shuttle vectors. Bacterial antibiotic resistance genes to chloramphenicol, kanamycin and zeocin have been combined with the yeast centromere sequence (CEN6), the autonomously replicating sequence (ARSH4) and one of the four yeast selectable marker genes (HIS3, TRP1, LEU2 or URA3) from the pRS series of vectors. The 12 plasmids produced differ in antibiotic resistance and yeast marker gene within the backbone of the multipurpose plasmid pBluescript II. The newly constructed vectors show similar mitotic stability to the original pRS vectors. In combination with the ampicillin-resistant pRS series of yeast shuttle vectors, these plasmids now allow the recovery and identification in bacteria of up to four different vectors from S. cerevisiae. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Safety Characterization and Antimicrobial Properties of Kefir-Isolated Lactobacillus kefiri

    PubMed Central

    Carasi, Paula; Racedo, Silvia M.; De Antoni, Graciela; Urdaci, María C.

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacilli are generally regarded as safe; however, certain strains have been associated with cases of infection. Our workgroup has already assessed many functional properties of Lactobacillus kefiri, but parameters regarding safety must be studied before calling them probiotics. In this work, safety aspects and antimicrobial activity of L. kefiri strains were studied. None of the L. kefiri strains tested caused α- or β-hemolysis. All the strains were susceptible to tetracycline, clindamycin, streptomycin, ampicillin, erythromycin, kanamycin, and gentamicin; meanwhile, two strains were resistant to chloramphenicol. On the other hand, all L. kefiri strains were able to inhibit both Gram(+) and Gram(−) pathogens. Regarding the in vitro results, L. kefiri CIDCA 8348 was selected to perform in vivo studies. Mice treated daily with an oral dose of 108 CFU during 21 days showed no signs of pain, lethargy, dehydration, or diarrhea, and the histological studies were consistent with those findings. Moreover, no differences in proinflammatory cytokines secretion were observed between treated and control mice. No translocation of microorganisms to blood, spleen, or liver was observed. Regarding these findings, L. kefiri CIDCA 8348 is a microorganism isolated from a dairy product with a great potential as probiotic for human or animal use. PMID:24955346

  10. Safety characterization and antimicrobial properties of kefir-isolated Lactobacillus kefiri.

    PubMed

    Carasi, Paula; Díaz, Mariángeles; Racedo, Silvia M; De Antoni, Graciela; Urdaci, María C; Serradell, María de los Angeles

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacilli are generally regarded as safe; however, certain strains have been associated with cases of infection. Our workgroup has already assessed many functional properties of Lactobacillus kefiri, but parameters regarding safety must be studied before calling them probiotics. In this work, safety aspects and antimicrobial activity of L. kefiri strains were studied. None of the L. kefiri strains tested caused α- or β-hemolysis. All the strains were susceptible to tetracycline, clindamycin, streptomycin, ampicillin, erythromycin, kanamycin, and gentamicin; meanwhile, two strains were resistant to chloramphenicol. On the other hand, all L. kefiri strains were able to inhibit both Gram(+) and Gram(-) pathogens. Regarding the in vitro results, L. kefiri CIDCA 8348 was selected to perform in vivo studies. Mice treated daily with an oral dose of 10(8) CFU during 21 days showed no signs of pain, lethargy, dehydration, or diarrhea, and the histological studies were consistent with those findings. Moreover, no differences in proinflammatory cytokines secretion were observed between treated and control mice. No translocation of microorganisms to blood, spleen, or liver was observed. Regarding these findings, L. kefiri CIDCA 8348 is a microorganism isolated from a dairy product with a great potential as probiotic for human or animal use.

  11. Functional Screening of Antibiotic Resistance Genes from a Representative Metagenomic Library of Food Fermenting Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Devirgiliis, Chiara; Barile, Simona; Perozzi, Giuditta

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) represent the predominant microbiota in fermented foods. Foodborne LAB have received increasing attention as potential reservoir of antibiotic resistance (AR) determinants, which may be horizontally transferred to opportunistic pathogens. We have previously reported isolation of AR LAB from the raw ingredients of a fermented cheese, while AR genes could be detected in the final, marketed product only by PCR amplification, thus pointing at the need for more sensitive microbial isolation techniques. We turned therefore to construction of a metagenomic library containing microbial DNA extracted directly from the food matrix. To maximize yield and purity and to ensure that genomic complexity of the library was representative of the original bacterial population, we defined a suitable protocol for total DNA extraction from cheese which can also be applied to other lipid-rich foods. Functional library screening on different antibiotics allowed recovery of ampicillin and kanamycin resistant clones originating from Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus genomes. We report molecular characterization of the cloned inserts, which were fully sequenced and shown to confer AR phenotype to recipient bacteria. We also show that metagenomics can be applied to food microbiota to identify underrepresented species carrying specific genes of interest. PMID:25243126

  12. Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO to nalidixic acid and low levels of beta-lactam antibiotics: mapping of chromosomal genes.

    PubMed Central

    Rella, M; Haas, D

    1982-01-01

    Resistance to high concentrations of nalidixic acid in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO was due to mutations in one locus designated nalA, which was mapped by transduction between hex-9001 and leu-10. The nalA mutants were cross-resistant to pipemidic acid, a nalidixic acid analog, at relatively low concentrations. Replicative DNA synthesis was resistant to both drugs in permeabilized cells of nalA mutants. A locus coding for low-level resistance to nalidixic acid, nalB, was cotransducible with pyrB, proC, and met-28. The nalB mutants were also resistant to low levels of pipemidic acid, novobiocin, and beta-lactam antibiotics (e.g., carbenicillin, azlocillin, and cefsulodin), but not to other drugs, such as gentamicin, rifampin, kanamycin, or tetracycline. In nalB mutants, DNA replication showed wild-type sensitivity to nalidixic acid, whereas carbenicillin-induced filamentation required higher drug levels than in the wild-type strain. Thus, nalB mutations appear to decrease cell permeability to some antibiotics. The sensitivity of replicative DNA synthesis to nalidixic acid and novobiocin was very similar in P. aeruginosa and Escherichia coli; by contrast, the concentrations of these drugs needed to inhibit growth of P. aeruginosa were higher than those reported for E. coli by one or two orders of magnitude. PMID:6821455

  13. A Case Study on Soil Antibiotic Resistome in an Urban Community Garden.

    PubMed

    Mafiz, Abdullah Ibn; Perera, Liyanage Nirasha; He, Yingshu; Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Shujie; Hao, Weilong; Sun, Shi; Zhou, Kequan; Zhang, Yifan

    2018-05-29

    Urban agricultural soils can be an important reservoir of antibiotic resistance and have great food safety and public health indications. This study was to investigate antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes in urban agricultural soils using phenotypic and metagenomic tools. A total of 207 soil bacteria were recovered from 41 soil samples collected from an urban agricultural garden in Detroit, USA. The most prevalent antibiotic resistance phenotypes demonstrated by Gram-negative bacteria was the resistance to ampicillin (94.2%), followed by chloramphenicol (80.0%), cefoxitin (79.5%), gentamicin (78.4%), and ceftriaxone (71.1%). Gram-positive bacteria were all resistant to gentamicin, kanamycin, and penicillin. Genes encoding resistance to quinolone, β-lactam, and tetracycline were the most prevalent and abundant in the soil. qepA and tetA, both encoding efflux pumps, predominated in quinolone and tetracycline resistance genes tested, respectively. Positive correlation (p < 0.05) was identified among groups of antibiotic resistance genes and between antibiotic resistance genes and metal resistance genes. The data demonstrated a diverse population of antibiotic resistance in urban agricultural soils. Phenotypic determination together with soil metagenomics proved to be a valuable tool to study the nature and extent of antibiotic resistance in the environment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Medicinal plant extracts variously modulate susceptibility of Escherichia coli to different antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Samoilova, Zoya; Smirnova, Galina; Muzyka, Nadezda; Oktyabrsky, Oleg

    2014-04-01

    Antioxidant activity of green and black tea and extracts of medicinal plants and their ability to modulate antibiotic susceptibility in Escherichia coli were studied. Among a number of extracts tested the maximal capacity to scavenge DPPH radicals and chelate iron in chemical tests was found in green and black tea, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and Vaccinium vitis-idaea. These extracts contained high level of polyphenols and in aerobic conditions exhibited prooxidant features, producing H2O2 and inducing expression of the katG gene encoding catalase HPI in E. coli cells. A good correlation between the polyphenol content and the ability of extracts to protect bacteria against peroxide stress was observed (r = 0.88). Polyphenol-rich extracts and iron chelators demonstrated the highest modulating effect on the antibiotic susceptibility by changing the time period before lysis started and by influencing the colony-forming ability of bacteria. The direction of the modulating effect was dependent on nature of antibiotic applied: under treatment with ciprofloxacin and ampicillin the extracts predominantly provided protective effects, while under treatment with kanamycin a bactericidal action was enhanced. Mechanism of modulating action of extracts on bacterial antibiotic susceptibility probably involves antioxidant, preferentially iron-chelating, or prooxidant properties of polyphenols. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Astrobiology as a framework for investigating antibiotic susceptibility: a study of Halomonas hydrothermalis.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Jesse P; Angel, Roey; Cockell, Charles S

    2017-01-01

    Physical and chemical boundaries for microbial multiplication on Earth are strongly influenced by interactions between environmental extremes. However, little is known about how interactions between multiple stress parameters affect the sensitivity of microorganisms to antibiotics. Here, we assessed how 12 distinct permutations of salinity, availability of an essential nutrient (iron) and atmospheric composition (aerobic or microaerobic) affect the susceptibility of a polyextremotolerant bacterium, Halomonas hydrothermalis, to ampicillin, kanamycin and ofloxacin. While salinity had a significant impact on sensitivity to all three antibiotics (as shown by turbidimetric analyses), the nature of this impact was modified by iron availability and the ambient gas composition, with differing effects observed for each compound. These two parameters were found to be of particular importance when considered in combination and, in the case of ampicillin, had a stronger combined influence on antibiotic tolerance than salinity. Our data show how investigating microbial responses to multiple extremes, which are more representative of natural habitats than single extremes, can improve our understanding of the effects of antimicrobial compounds and suggest how studies of habitability, motivated by the desire to map the limits of life, can be used to systematically assess the effectiveness of antibiotics. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. Clinical and molecular epidemiology of hospital Enterococcus faecalis isolates in eastern France.

    PubMed

    Mulin, Blandine; Bailly, Pascale; Thouverez, Michelle; Cailleaux, Vincent; Cornette, Christian; Dupont, Marie-Jeanne; Talon, Daniel

    1999-03-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report on the occurrence of Enterococcus faecalis hospital isolates obtained during 1 year in hospitals in the Franche-Comté region of France. METHODS: Clinical isolates of E. faecalis of different antibiotic susceptibility phenotypes from hospitalized patients were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Patients with positive cultures were investigated by three case-control studies to identify risk factors for colonization/infection. RESULTS: The crude incidence of colonization/infection was 2.37%, and 4-day and 7-day colonization rates after admission were 10.0% and 6.36%, respectively. The rates of high-level resistance to kanamycin (HLKR) and to gentamicin (HLGR) were 47.1% and 7.1%, respectively. No isolate was resistant to glycopeptides or produced beta-lactamase. The 209 hospital isolates obtained during the study yielded 98 major DNA patterns, of which two were major epidemic patterns including HLKR isolates. No single factor was significantly associated with colonization/infection by HLKR isolates. The length of hospitalization before isolation was associated with colonization by HLGR isolates. CONCLUSIONS: The isolation frequency of E. faecalis strains with acquired resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics, and the wide dissemination of resistant strains with characteristics that allow them to persist and spread, argue for further large prospective surveys of clinical isolates of E. faecalis in hospitals.

  17. [Phenotypic variations of susceptibility in Klebsiella pneumoniae strains of nosocomial origin and their association with biofilm formation].

    PubMed

    Barreto, Silvio; Zambrano, María; Araque, María

    2009-06-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is the principal opportunist pathogen associated with nosocomial infections. The morbidity and mortality produced by this microorganism is related mostly to antimicrobial resistance and its capacity to form biofilms. In this study, the phenotypic variations of susceptibility in 50 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains (26 betaLEE-producer and 24 no betaLEE-producer) isolated from pediatric patients with nosocomial septicemia at the High-risk Neonatal Unit of the Instituto Aut6nomo Hospital Universitario de Los Andes, Mérida, Venezuela and their associations with biofilm formation were analyzed. These strains were biochemically identified by standard microbiology methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by minimal inhibitory concentration and biofilm formation was detected by spectrophotometric techniques. Most of betaLEE strains were frequently associated with resistance markers such as tobramycin, kanamycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol (38% each), streptomycin (36%) and netilmicin (34%). The predominant multiresistent phenotype was composed of betaLEE+ -AMG-TET-CLF (30%). 18% of K. pneumoniae strains were sensible to the antibiotics tested. Formation of biofilm was observed in 77.8% and 96.2% of sensible and resistent strains, respectively. There was no statistic relation between phenotipic variations of susceptibility and biofilm formation (p > = 0.05). However, both characteristics of K. pneumoniae should be evaluated to determine the therapeutic conduct to treat patients with nosocomial infection.

  18. Assessment of the Mobilizable Vector Plasmids pSUP202 and pSUP404.2 as Genetic Tools for the Predatory Bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus

    PubMed Central

    Roschanski, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) form the group of predatory bacteria which require Gram-negative bacteria as prey. Genetic studies with Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus can be performed with vectors which are introduced into the predator via conjugation. The usefulness of the two vectors pSUP202 and pSUP404.2 as genetic tools were assessed. Both vectors were transferable into B. bacteriovorus by conjugative matings with an Escherichia coli K12 strain as donor. The transfer frequency was higher for vector pSUP404.2 (approx. 10−1–10−4) as for pSUP202 (approx. 10−5–10−6). Vector pSUP202 with a pMB1 origin is unstable in the predatory bacterium, whereas pSUP404.2 is stably maintained in the absence of selective antibiotics. pSUP404.2 harbors two plasmid replicons, the p15A ori and the RSF1010 replication region The copy number of pSUP404.2 was determined by quantitative PCR in B. bacteriovorus and averages seven copies per genome. pSUP404.2 harbors two resistance genes (chloramphenicol and kanamycin) which can be used for cloning either by selection for transconjugants or by insertional inactivation. PMID:20824276

  19. Endophytic Herbaspirillum seropedicae expresses nif genes in gramineous plants.

    PubMed

    Roncato-Maccari, Lauren D B; Ramos, Humberto J O; Pedrosa, Fabio O; Alquini, Yedo; Chubatsu, Leda S; Yates, Marshall G; Rigo, Liu U; Steffens, Maria Berenice R; Souza, Emanuel M

    2003-07-01

    Abstract The interactions between maize, sorghum, wheat and rice plants and Herbaspirillum seropedicae were examined microscopically following inoculation with the H. seropedicae LR15 strain, a Nif(+) (Pnif::gusA) mutant obtained by the insertion of a gusA-kanamycin cassette into the nifH gene of the H. seropedicae wild-type strain. The expression of the Pnif::gusA fusion was followed during the association of the diazotroph with the gramineous species. Histochemical analysis of seedlings of maize, sorghum, wheat and rice grown in vermiculite showed that strain LR15 colonized root surfaces and inner tissues. In early steps of the endophytic association, H. seropedicae colonized root exudation sites, such as axils of secondary roots and intercellular spaces of the root cortex; it then occupied the vascular tissue and there expressed nif genes. The expression of nif genes occurred in roots, stems and leaves as detected by the GUS reporter system. The expression of nif genes was also observed in bacterial colonies located in the external mucilaginous root material, 8 days after inoculation. Moreover, the colonization of plant tissue by H. seropedicae did not depend on the nitrogen-fixing ability, since similar numbers of cells were isolated from roots or shoots of the plants inoculated with Nif(+) or Nif(-) strains.

  20. Superwetting and aptamer functionalized shrink-induced high surface area electrochemical sensors.

    PubMed

    Hauke, A; Kumar, L S Selva; Kim, M Y; Pegan, J; Khine, M; Li, H; Plaxco, K W; Heikenfeld, J

    2017-08-15

    Electrochemical sensing is moving to the forefront of point-of-care and wearable molecular sensing technologies due to the ability to miniaturize the required equipment, a critical advantage over optical methods in this field. Electrochemical sensors that employ roughness to increase their microscopic surface area offer a strategy to combatting the loss in signal associated with the loss of macroscopic surface area upon miniaturization. A simple, low-cost method of creating such roughness has emerged with the development of shrink-induced high surface area electrodes. Building on this approach, we demonstrate here a greater than 12-fold enhancement in electrochemically active surface area over conventional electrodes of equivalent on-chip footprint areas. This two-fold improvement on previous performance is obtained via the creation of a superwetting surface condition facilitated by a dissolvable polymer coating. As a test bed to illustrate the utility of this approach, we further show that electrochemical aptamer-based sensors exhibit exceptional signal strength (signal-to-noise) and excellent signal gain (relative change in signal upon target binding) when deployed on these shrink electrodes. Indeed, the observed 330% gain we observe for a kanamycin sensor is 2-fold greater than that seen on planar gold electrodes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhancement of antibiotic effect via gold:silver-alloy nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Margarida Moreira; Queiroz, Margarida João; Baptista, Pedro V.

    2012-05-01

    A strategy for the development of novel antimicrobials is to combine the stability and pleiotropic effects of inorganic compounds with the specificity and efficiency of organic compounds, such as antibiotics. Here we report on the use of gold:silver-alloy (Au:Ag-alloy) nanoparticles, obtained via a single-step citrate co-reduction method, combined to conventional antibiotics to enhance their antimicrobial effect on bacteria. Addition of the alloy nanoparticles considerably decreased the dose of antibiotic necessary to show antimicrobial effect, both for bacterial cells growing in rich medium in suspension and for bacterial cells resting in a physiological buffer on a humid cellulose surface. The observed effect was more pronounced than the sum of the individual effects of the nanoparticles and antibiotic. We demonstrate the enhancement effect of Au:Ag-alloy nanoparticles with a size distribution of 32.5 ± 7.5 nm mean diameter on the antimicrobial effect of (i) kanamycin on Escherichia coli (Gram-negative bacterium), and (ii) a β-lactam antibiotic on both a sensitive and resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacterium). Together, these results may pave the way for the combined use of nanoparticle-antibiotic conjugates towards decreasing antibiotic resistance currently observed for certain bacteria and conventional antibiotics.

  2. Acclimatization of Pisum sativum L., grown in soil contaminated with veterinary antibiotics, an attribute of dose hormetic response of root metabolites.

    PubMed

    Tasho, R P; Shin, W T; Cho, J Y

    2018-09-01

    Plant-veterinary antibiotic interaction has been widely studied, however, to the best of our knowledge acclimatization studies with regard to changes in plant root metabolites has not been reported so far. The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in the metabolome of pea roots under antibiotic stress and their role in acclimatization. Pisum sativum L. was grown in soil contaminated with three commonly used veterinary antibiotics - kanamycin (KA), sulfamethazine (SA), and tetracycline (TC). In response to antibiotic stress, plants accumulated different types of low molecular weight compounds that provided protection from stress by contributing to ROS detoxification, protection of membrane integrity, efficient signaling, cell wall function, and cellular osmotic adjustment (glucose, galactose, myo-inositol, stigmasterol, octadecadienoic acid, l-proline). The concentration of amino acid, sugar, and triglyceride metabolites in KA and TC samples showed a dose-dependent biphasic (hormesis) fluctuation. This was mirrored in the metabolite abundance as well as the physiological attributes (mycorrhizal colonization, GST function, nutrient assimilation), which helped in the acclimatization without the loss of normal plant function. SA, on the other hand, had progressive toxic effects with increasing concentration. PCA revealed the differences to be due to SA treatments and in sterol and terpenoid metabolites. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Defined single-gene and multi-gene deletion mutant collections in Salmonella enterica sv Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Porwollik, Steffen; Santiviago, Carlos A; Cheng, Pui; Long, Fred; Desai, Prerak; Fredlund, Jennifer; Srikumar, Shabarinath; Silva, Cecilia A; Chu, Weiping; Chen, Xin; Canals, Rocío; Reynolds, M Megan; Bogomolnaya, Lydia; Shields, Christine; Cui, Ping; Guo, Jinbai; Zheng, Yi; Endicott-Yazdani, Tiana; Yang, Hee-Jeong; Maple, Aimee; Ragoza, Yury; Blondel, Carlos J; Valenzuela, Camila; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene; McClelland, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We constructed two collections of targeted single gene deletion (SGD) mutants and two collections of targeted multi-gene deletion (MGD) mutants in Salmonella enterica sv Typhimurium 14028s. The SGD mutant collections contain (1), 3517 mutants in which a single gene is replaced by a cassette containing a kanamycin resistance (KanR) gene oriented in the sense direction (SGD-K), and (2), 3376 mutants with a chloramphenicol resistance gene (CamR) oriented in the antisense direction (SGD-C). A combined total of 3773 individual genes were deleted across these SGD collections. The MGD collections contain mutants bearing deletions of contiguous regions of three or more genes and include (3), 198 mutants spanning 2543 genes replaced by a KanR cassette (MGD-K), and (4), 251 mutants spanning 2799 genes replaced by a CamR cassette (MGD-C). Overall, 3476 genes were deleted in at least one MGD collection. The collections with different antibiotic markers permit construction of all viable combinations of mutants in the same background. Together, the libraries allow hierarchical screening of MGDs for different phenotypic followed by screening of SGDs within the target MGD regions. The mutants of these collections are stored at BEI Resources (www.beiresources.org) and publicly available.

  4. Molecular cloning of Brevundimonas diminuta for efficacy assessment of reverse osmosis devices.

    PubMed

    Donofrio, Robert; Saha, Ratul; Bestervelt, Lori; Bagley, Susan

    2012-06-01

    Brevundimonas diminuta is the test organism specified in the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) reverse osmosis (RO) treatment device verification protocol. As non-selective growth medium is employed, enumeration of B. diminuta may be impaired due to interference by indigenous heterotrophic bacteria. Thus the microbial removal capability of the filtration system may be incorrectly assessed. As these treatment devices are used in emergency situations, the health of the public could be compromised. The objective of this study was to develop selective approaches for enumerating viable B. diminuta in test water. Two molecular approaches were investigated: expression of a kanamycin resistance gene and expression of a fluorescent protein gene. The USEPA protocol specifies a 0.3 μm cell size, so the expression of the selective markers were assessed following growth on media designed to induce this small cell diameter. The kan(R) strain was demonstrated to be equivalent to the wild type in cell dimension and survival following exposure to the test water. The kan(R) strain showed equivalent performance to the wild type in the RO protocol indicating that it is a viable alternative surrogate. By utilizing this strain, a more accurate validation of the RO system can be achieved.

  5. MazEF toxin-antitoxin proteins alter Escherichia coli cell morphology and infrastructure during persister formation and regrowth.

    PubMed

    Cho, Junho; Carr, Anita Nicole; Whitworth, Lisa; Johnson, Brent; Wilson, Kevin Scott

    2017-03-01

    When exposed to antibiotics, many bacteria respond by activating intracellular 'toxin' proteins, which arrest cell growth and induce formation of persister cells that survive antibiotics. After antibiotics are removed, persisters can regrow by synthesizing 'antitoxin' proteins that sequester toxin proteins. In Escherichia coli, MazE antitoxin sequesters the activity of MazF toxin, which extensively cleaves cellular RNAs. Although the functions of MazEF proteins are well characterized, there is surprisingly little known about their effects on cell structure. Here, using a combination of microscopy techniques, we visualized the effects of MazEF and three bactericidal antibiotics on E. coli cell morphology and infrastructure. When ectopically expressed in E. coli, MazF temporarily stalled cell growth and induced persister formation, but only mildly elevated DNA mutagenesis. Viewed by electron microscopy, MazF-expressing persister cells were arrested in cell growth and division. Their chromosomal DNAs were compacted into thread-like structures. Their ribosomes were excluded from their nucleoids. After exposure to ciprofloxacin, persister regrowth was activated by MazE. Cell division remained inhibited while cells became extraordinarily elongated, then divided multiple times during stationary growth phase. This extreme filamentation during persister regrowth was unique to ciprofloxacin-treated persisters, likely caused by inhibition of cell division during regrowth, and was not observed with kanamycin-treated persisters.

  6. Second-line drug susceptibility breakpoints for Mycobacterium tuberculosis using the MODS assay.

    PubMed

    Trollip, A P; Moore, D; Coronel, J; Caviedes, L; Klages, S; Victor, T; Romancenco, E; Crudu, V; Ajbani, K; Vineet, V P; Rodrigues, C; Jackson, R L; Eisenach, K; Garfein, R S; Rodwell, T C; Desmond, E; Groessl, E J; Ganiats, T G; Catanzaro, A

    2014-02-01

    To establish breakpoint concentrations for the fluoroquinolones (moxifloxacin [MFX] and ofloxacin [OFX]) and injectable second-line drugs (amikacin [AMK], kanamycin [KM] and capreomycin [CPM]) using the microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS) assay. A multinational study conducted between February 2011 and August 2012 in Peru, India, Moldova and South Africa. In the first phase, breakpoints for the fluoroquinolones and injectable second-line drugs (n = 58) were determined. In the second phase, MODS second-line drug susceptibility testing (DST) as an indirect test was compared to MGIT™ DST (n = 89). In the third (n = 30) and fourth (n = 156) phases, we determined the reproducibility and concordance of MODS second-line DST directly from sputum. Breakpoints for MFX (0.5 μg/ml), OFX (1 μg/ml), AMK (2 μg/ml), KM (5 μg/ml) and CPM (2.5 μg/ml) were determined. In all phases, MODS results were highly concordant with MGIT DST. The few discrepancies suggest that the MODS breakpoint concentrations for some drugs may be too low. MODS second-line DST yielded comparable results to MGIT second-line DST, and is thus a promising alternative. Further studies are needed to confirm the accuracy of the drug breakpoints and the reliability of MODS second-line DST as a direct test.

  7. Simultaneous inhibition assay for human and microbial kinases via MALDI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Smith, Anne Marie E; Brennan, John D

    2014-03-03

    Selective inhibition of one kinase over another is a critical issue in drug development. For antimicrobial development, it is particularly important to selectively inhibit bacterial kinases, which can phosphorylate antimicrobial compounds such as aminoglycosides, without affecting human kinases. Previous work from our group showed the development of a MALDI-MS/MS assay for the detection of small molecule modulators of the bacterial aminoglycoside kinase APH3'IIIa. Herein, we demonstrate the development of an enhanced kinase MALDI-MS/MS assay involving simultaneous assaying of two kinase reactions, one for APH3'IIIa, and the other for human protein kinase A (PKA), which leads to an output that provides direct information on selectivity and mechanism of action. Specificity of the respective enzyme substrates were verified, and the assay was validated through generation of Z'-factors of 0.55 for APH3'IIIa with kanamycin and 0.60 for PKA with kemptide. The assay was used to simultaneously screen a kinase-directed library of mixtures of ten compounds each against both enzymes, leading to the identification of selective inhibitors for each enzyme as well as one non-selective inhibitor following mixture deconvolution. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Incidence of gonorrhoea due to penicillinase producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Japan 1981-3 and treatment using a new antibiotic combination, BRL25000 (amoxycillin and clavulanic acid).

    PubMed Central

    Osato, K; Tsugami, H; Harada, K; Maruyama, J

    1986-01-01

    During the three years 1981-3, 134 (9.1%) of 1473 patients presenting at our clinics were found to be infected with penicillinase producing strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of benzylpenicillin and ampicillin against these PPNG strains were 8 mg/l or more, whereas against non-PPNG strains they were consistently 4 mg/l or less. In contrast, the MIC of BRL25000 (two parts amoxycillin and one part clavulanic acid, the beta lactamase inhibitor) was 4 mg/l or less even against PPNG strains. MICs of a number of other drugs commonly used to treat gonorrhoea, such as cephaloridine, cefoxitin, tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline, kanamycin, and spectinomycin, showed no appreciable differences between non-PPNG and PPNG strains and the MIC of cephaloridine in particular was relatively high. BRL25000 proved to be very effective in the treatment of PPNG infection and cured all of 121 patients treated. A daily dose of 2.25g, cured 105 patients in two days, 11 patients in three days, four patients in four days, and one patient in five days. A new rapid diagnostic method for detecting PPNG strains, capable of application at an outpatient clinic and providing a result on the following day, is described. Images PMID:3089905

  9. Serogroups, atypical biochemical characters, colicinogeny and antibiotic resistance pattern of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from diarrhoeic calves in Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Arya, G; Roy, A; Choudhary, V; Yadav, M M; Joshi, C G

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the antibiotic resistance, colicinogeny, serotyping and atypical biochemical characteristics of 41 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains detected using polymerase chain reaction from 90 E. coli strains isolated from 46 diarrhoeic calves. The STEC strains belonged to 14 different serogroups. Seventeen per cent of the STEC strains carried the eaeA gene while 14.28% of the 49 non-STEC strains were eaeA positive. Twenty eight (68.29%) of the 41 STEC strains were rhamnose non-fermentors. All the STEC strains revealed resistance to at least three of the antibiotics tested. 100% resistance was found against kanamycin and cephalexin followed by cephaloridine, enrofloxacin, amikacin, ampicillin, tetracycline, ceftiofur, ciprofloxacin, colistin and co-trimoxazole. Eighteen (44%) of the STEC strains produced colicin and all these colicinogenic strains were resistant to three or more antibiotics. Eleven STEC strains (26.82%) showed urease activity. The results of this study suggest that diarrhoeic calves are an important reservoir of STEC strains that are potentially pathogenic for farm animals and humans. Moreover, rhamnose fermentation, colicinogeny and atypical biochemical behaviour, such as urease activity, may serve as important markers or diagnostic tools for epidemiological surveys to trace the source of infection in disease outbreaks.

  10. Analysis of enterococci using portable testing equipment for developing countries--variance of Azide NutriDisk medium under variable time and temperature.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, S; Watkins, J; Toop, K; Francis, C

    2006-01-01

    This report compares the enterococci count on samples obtained with Azide NutriDisk (AND) (sterile, dehydrated culture medium) and Slanetz and Bartley (SB) medium when exposed to a variable in incubation time and temperature. Three experiments were performed to examine the recovery of enterococci on AND and SB media using membrane filtration with respect to: (a) incubation time; (b) incubation temperature; and (c) a combination of the two. Presumptive counts were observed at 37, 41, 46 and 47 degrees C and at 20, 24, 28 and 48 h. These were compared to AWWA standard method 9230 C (44 degrees C, 44 h). Samples were confirmed using Kanamycin Aesculin Azide (KAA) agar. Friedman's ANOVA and Students t-test analysis indicated higher enumeration of enterococci when grown on AND (p = 0.45) than SB (p = < 0.001) at all temperatures with a survival threshold at 47 degrees C. Significant results for AND medium were noted at 20 h (p = 0.021), 24 h (p = 0.278) and 28 h (p = 0.543). The study concluded that the accuracy of the AND medium at a greater time and temperature range provided flexibility in incubator technology making it an appropriate alternative to SB medium for monitoring drinking water using field testing kits in developing countries.

  11. Research note: Molecular subtyping of Salmonella enterica serovar Tshiongwe recently isolated in Malaysia during 2001-2002.

    PubMed

    Thong, Kwai Lin; Bakeri, Shamsilawani Ahmad; Lai, Kin Seng; Koh, Yin Tee; Taib, Mohd Zainuldin; Lim, V K E; Yasin, Rohani Md

    2004-03-01

    Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility analysis were undertaken on twenty-three strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Tshiongwe, an unusual serovar, which recently emerged in Malaysia. Antimicrobial susceptibility analysis showed that all the strains were sensitive to ampicilin, chloramphenicol, cotrimoxazole, and kanamycin. Twenty (87%) and 8 (3.5%) strains had resistance to tetracycline and streptomycin respectively. PFGE analysis subtyped 23 strains into 10 profiles (Dice coefficient of similarity, F = 0.7-1.0). The predominant profile, X1 was found in both clinical and environmental isolates and was widely distributed in different parts of Malaysia during the study period. In addition, isolates recovered from food, a hand-towel, apron and the surface of a table-top in one particular location had unique, indistinguishable profiles (X4/4a) and identical antibiograms. Similarly, isolates from cooked meat and a chopping board had PFGE profiles similar to some human isolates. These probably indicated cross-contamination and poor hygiene in food practices, hence contributing to Salmonellosis. Factors causing the emergence of this rare Salmonella serovar being responsible for food poisoning episodes during the study period remained unclear. The study reiterated the usefulness and versatility of PFGE in the molecular subtyping of this rare Salmonella serovar in Malaysia.

  12. Antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation of some bacteria isolated from sediment, water and fish farms in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faja, Orooba Meteab; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

    2018-04-01

    A total of 90 isolates of bacteria were isolated, from sediment (10) samples, water (10) samples and fish (12) samples (Sea bass, Snapper, Grouper and Tilapia). These include 22 isolates of bacteria from sediment, 28 isolates from water and 40 isolates from fish. All the isolates were tested for sensitivity to 13 antibiotics using disc diffusion method. The isolates showed high resistance to some antibiotics based on samples source. Isolates from sediment showed highest resistance toward novobiocin, kanamycin, ampicillin and streptomycin while isolates from water showed highest resistance against vancomycin, penicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline, in contrast, in fish sample showed highest resistance toward vancomycin, ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline. Most of the isolates showed biofilm formation ability with different degrees. Out of 22 bacteria isolates from water, two isolates were weak biofilm formers, six isolates moderate biofilm formers and fourteen isolates strong biofilm formers. While, out of 28 bacteria isolates from water one isolate was weak biofilm former, five isolates moderate biofilm formers and 22 strong biofilm formers Fish isolate showed three isolates (8%) moderate biofilm formers and 27 isolates strong biofilm formers. Biofilm formation was one of the factors that lead to antibiotic resistance of the bacterial isolates from these samples.

  13. Antimicrobial resistance prediction in PATRIC and RAST

    DOE PAGES

    Davis, James J.; Boisvert, Sebastien; Brettin, Thomas; ...

    2016-06-14

    The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) mechanisms in bacterial pathogens, coupled with the dwindling number of effective antibiotics, has created a global health crisis. Being able to identify the genetic mechanisms of AMR and predict the resistance phenotypes of bacterial pathogens prior to culturing could inform clinical decision-making and improve reaction time. At PATRIC (http://patricbrc.org/), we have been collecting bacterial genomes with AMR metadata for several years. In order to advance phenotype prediction and the identification of genomic regions relating to AMR, we have updated the PATRIC FTP server to enable access to genomes that are binned bymore » their AMR phenotypes, as well as metadata including minimum inhibitory concentrations. Using this infrastructure, we custom built AdaBoost (adaptive boosting) machine learning classifiers for identifying carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii, methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, and beta-lactam and co-trimoxazole resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae with accuracies ranging from 88–99%. We also did this for isoniazid, kanamycin, ofloxacin, rifampicin, and streptomycin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, achieving accuracies ranging from 71–88%. Lastly, this set of classifiers has been used to provide an initial framework for species-specific AMR phenotype and genomic feature prediction in the RAST and PATRIC annotation services.« less

  14. Spirochaeta americana sp. nov.: A New Haloalkaliphilic, Obligately Anaerobic Spirochete Isolated from Soda Mono Lake, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Pikuta, Elena V.; Marsic, Damien; Whitman, William B.; Tang, Jane; Krader, Paul; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A novel obligately anaerobic, mesophilic, haloalkaliphilic spirochete, strain ASpG1, was isolated from sediments of the alkaline, hypersaline Mono Lake in California, U.S.A. The gram-negative cells are motile and spirochete-shaped with sizes of 0.22 x 10-15 micron. Growth was observed over the temperature range of 10 C to 44 C (optimum 37 C), NaCl concentration range of greater than 1 - 12 % (wt/vol) (optimum 3%), and pH range 7.5 - 10.5 (optimum pH 9.5). The novel isolate is strictly alkaliphilic, requires high concentrations of carbonate in the medium, and is capable of utilizing D-glucose, fructose, maltose, sucrose, starch, and D-mannitol. Main end products of glucose fermentation are: H2, acetate, ethanol, and formate. Strain AspG1 is resistant to kanamycin, but sensitive to chloramphenicol, gentamycin and tetracycline. The G+C content of its DNA is 58.5 mol%. On the basis of its physiological and molecular properties, the isolate appears to be a novel species among the genus Spirochaeta; and the name Spirochaeta americana sp. nov., is proposed for the taxon (type strain ASpG1(sup T) = ATCC BAA_392(sup T) = DSMZ 14872(sup T)).

  15. Antibiotic resistance patterns and genetic relatedness of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from military working dogs in Korea.

    PubMed

    Bang, Kiman; An, Jae-Uk; Kim, Woohyun; Dong, Hee-Jin; Kim, Junhyung; Cho, Seongbeom

    2017-06-30

    Enterococcus spp. are normally present in the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans, but can cause opportunistic infections that can be transmitted to other animals or humans with integrated antibiotic resistance. To investigate if this is a potential risk in military working dogs (MWDs), we analyzed antibiotic resistance patterns and genetic relatedness of Enterococcus spp. isolated from fecal samples of MWDs of four different age groups. Isolation rates of Enterococcus spp., Enterococcus ( E. ) faecalis , and E. faecium , were 87.7% (57/65), 59.6% (34/57), and 56.1% (32/57), respectively, as determined by bacterial culture and multiplex PCR. The isolation rate of E. faecalis gradually decreased with age (puppy, 100%; adolescent, 91.7%; adult, 36.4%; and senior, 14.3%). Rates of resistance to the antibiotics ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, imipenem, and kanamycin among Enterococcus spp. increased in adolescents and adults and decreased in senior dogs, with some isolates having three different antibiotic resistance patterns. There were indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns among the age groups. The results suggest that Enterococcus is horizontally transferred, regardless of age. As such, periodic surveillance studies should be undertaken to monitor changes in antibiotic resistance, which may necessitate modification of antibiotic regimens to manage antibiotic resistance transmission.

  16. Improved control of multiple-antibiotic-resistance-related microbial risk in swine manure wastes by autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Han, Il; Congeevaram, Shankar; Park, Joonhong

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we microbiologically evaluated antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity in livestock (swine) manure as well as its biologically stabilized products. One of new livestock manure stabilization techniques is ATAD (Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion). Because of its high operation temperature (60-65 degrees C), it has been speculated to have effective microbial risk control in livestock manure. This hypothesis was tested by evaluating microbial risk in ATAD-treated swine manure. Antibiotic resistance, multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR), and pathogenicity were microbiologically examined for swine manure as well as its conventionally stabilized (anaerobically fermented) and ATAD-stabilized products. In the swine manure and its conventionally stabilized product, antibiotic resistant (tetracycline-, kanamycine-, ampicillin-, and rifampicin-resistant) bacteria and the pathogen indicator bacteria were detected. Furthermore, approximately 2-5% of the Staphylococcus and Salmonella colonies from their selective culture media were found to exhibit a MAR-phenotypes, suggesting a serious level of microbe induced health risk. In contrast, after the swine manure was stabilized with a pilot-scale ATAD treatment for 3 days at 60-65 degrees C, antibiotic resistant bacteria, pathogen indicator bacteria, and MAR-exhibiting pathogens were all undetected. These findings support the improved control of microbial risk in livestock wastes by ATAD treatment.

  17. Differential Effects of AAV.BDNF and AAV.Ntf3 in the Deafened Adult Guinea Pig Ear

    PubMed Central

    Budenz, Cameron L.; Wong, Hiu Tung; Swiderski, Donald L.; Shibata, Seiji B.; Pfingst, Bryan E.; Raphael, Yehoash

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear hair cell loss results in secondary regression of peripheral auditory fibers (PAFs) and loss of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). The performance of cochlear implants (CI) in rehabilitating hearing depends on survival of SGNs. Here we compare the effects of adeno-associated virus vectors with neurotrophin gene inserts, AAV.BDNF and AAV.Ntf3, on guinea pig ears deafened systemically (kanamycin and furosemide) or locally (neomycin). AAV.BDNF or AAV.Ntf3 was delivered to the guinea pig cochlea one week following deafening and ears were assessed morphologically 3 months later. At that time, neurotrophins levels were not significantly elevated in the cochlear fluids, even though in vitro and shorter term in vivo experiments demonstrate robust elevation of neurotrophins with these viral vectors. Nevertheless, animals receiving these vectors exhibited considerable re-growth of PAFs in the basilar membrane area. In systemically deafened animals there was a negative correlation between the presence of differentiated supporting cells and PAFs, suggesting that supporting cells influence the outcome of neurotrophin over-expression aimed at enhancing the cochlear neural substrate. Counts of SGN in Rosenthal's canal indicate that BDNF was more effective than NT-3 in preserving SGNs. The results demonstrate that a transient elevation in neurotrophin levels can sustain the cochlear neural substrate in the long term. PMID:25726967

  18. Phylogenetic Analysis and Antimicrobial Profiles of Cultured Emerging Opportunistic Pathogens (Phyla Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria) Identified in Hot Springs.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Jocelyn Leonie; Abia, Akebe Luther King; Mavumengwana, Vuyo; Ubomba-Jaswa, Eunice

    2017-09-15

    Hot spring water may harbour emerging waterborne opportunistic pathogens that can cause infections in humans. We have investigated the diversity and antimicrobial resistance of culturable emerging and opportunistic bacterial pathogens, in water and sediment of hot springs located in Limpopo, South Africa. Aerobic bacteria were cultured and identified using 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene sequencing. The presence of Legionella spp. was investigated using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Isolates were tested for resistance to ten antibiotics representing six different classes: β-lactam (carbenicillin), aminoglycosides (gentamycin, kanamycin, streptomycin), tetracycline, amphenicols (chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone), sulphonamides (co-trimoxazole) and quinolones (nalidixic acid, norfloxacin). Gram-positive Kocuria sp. and Arthrobacter sp. and gram-negative Cupriavidus sp., Ralstonia sp., Cronobacter sp., Tepidimonas sp., Hafnia sp. and Sphingomonas sp. were isolated, all recognised as emerging food-borne pathogens. Legionella spp. was not detected throughout the study. Isolates of Kocuria , Arthrobacter and Hafnia and an unknown species of the class Gammaproteobacteria were resistant to two antibiotics in different combinations of carbenicillin, ceftriaxone, nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol. Cronobacter sp. was sensitive to all ten antibiotics. This study suggests that hot springs are potential reservoirs for emerging opportunistic pathogens, including multiple antibiotic resistant strains, and highlights the presence of unknown populations of emerging and potential waterborne opportunistic pathogens in the environment.

  19. Infrequent transposition of Ac in lettuce, Lactuca sativa.

    PubMed

    Yang, C H; Ellis, J G; Michelmore, R W

    1993-08-01

    The maize transposable element Activator (Ac) is being used to develop a transposon mutagenesis system in lettuce, Lactuca sativa. Two constructs containing the complete Ac from the waxy-m7 locus of maize were introduced into lettuce and monitored for activity using Southern analysis and PCR amplification of the excision site. No transposition of Ac was detected in over 32 transgenic R1 plants, although these constructs were known to provide frequent transposition in other species. Also, no transposition was observed in later generations. In subsequent experiments, transposition was detected in lettuce calli using constructs that allowed selection for excision events. In these constructs, the neomycin phosphotransferase II gene was interrupted by either Ac or Ds. Excision was detected as the ability of callus to grow on kanamycin. Synthesis of the transposase from the cDNA of Ac expressed from the T-DNA 2' promoter resulted in more frequent excision of Ds than was observed with the wild-type Ac. No excision was observed with Ds in the absence of the transposase. The excision events were confirmed by amplification of the excision site by PCR followed by DNA sequencing. Excision and reintegration were also confirmed by Southern analysis. Ac/Ds is therefore capable of transposition in at least calli of lettuce.

  20. Occurrence of antibiotics in pharmaceutical industrial wastewater, wastewater treatment plant and sea waters in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Tahrani, Leyla; Van Loco, Joris; Ben Mansour, Hedi; Reyns, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Antibiotics are among the most commonly used group of pharmaceuticals in human medicine. They can therefore reach surface and groundwater bodies through different routes, such as wastewater treatment plant effluents, surface runoff, or infiltration of water used for agricultural purposes. It is well known that antibiotics pose a significant risk to environmental and human health, even at low concentrations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of aminoglycosides and phenicol antibiotics in municipal wastewaters, sea water and pharmaceutical effluents in Tunisia. All analysed water samples contained detectable levels of aminoglycoside and phenicol antibiotics. The highest concentrations in wastewater influents were observed for neomycin and kanamycin B (16.4 ng mL(-1) and 7.5 ng mL(-1), respectively). Chloramphenicol was found in wastewater influents up to 3 ng mL(-1). It was observed that the waste water treatment plants were not efficient in completely removing these antibiotics. Chloramphenicol and florfenicol were found in sea water samples near aquaculture sites at levels up to, respectively, 15.6 ng mL(-1) and 18.4 ng mL(-1). Also aminoglycoside antibiotics were found near aquaculture sites with the highest concentration of 3.4 ng mL(-1) for streptomycin. In pharmaceutical effluents, only gentamycin was found at concentrations up to 19 ng mL(-1) over a sampling period of four months.

  1. The drinking water treatment process as a potential source of affecting the bacterial antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiaohui; Ma, Xiaolin; Xu, Fengming; Li, Jing; Zhang, Hang; Xiao, Xiang

    2015-11-15

    Two waterworks, with source water derived from the Huangpu or Yangtze River in Shanghai, were investigated, and the effluents were plate-screened for antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) using five antibiotics: ampicillin (AMP), kanamycin (KAN), rifampicin (RFP), chloramphenicol (CM) and streptomycin (STR). The influence of water treatment procedures on the bacterial antibiotic resistance rate and the changes that bacteria underwent when exposed to the five antibiotics at concentration levels ranging from 1 to 100 μg/mL were studied. Multi-drug resistance was also analyzed using drug sensitivity tests. The results indicated that bacteria derived from water treatment plant effluent that used the Huangpu River rather than the Yangtze River as source water exhibited higher antibiotic resistance rates against AMP, STR, RFP and CM but lower antibiotic resistance rates against KAN. When the antibiotic concentration levels ranged from 1 to 10 μg/mL, the antibiotic resistance rates of the bacteria in the water increased as water treatment progressed. Biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration played a key role in increasing the antibiotic resistance rate of bacteria. Chloramine disinfection can enhance antibiotic resistance. Among the isolated ARB, 75% were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Ozone oxidation, BAC filtration and chloramine disinfection can greatly affect the relative abundance of bacteria in the community. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Intracochlear electrical stimulation suppresses apoptotic signaling in rat spiral ganglion neurons after deafening in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kopelovich, Jonathan C; Cagaanan, Alain P; Miller, Charles A; Abbas, Paul J; Green, Steven H

    2013-11-01

    To establish the intracellular consequences of electrical stimulation to spiral ganglion neurons after deafferentation. Here we use a rat model to determine the effect of both low and high pulse rate acute electrical stimulation on activation of the proapoptotic transcription factor Jun in deafferented spiral ganglion neurons in vivo. Experimental animal study. Hearing research laboratories of the University of Iowa Departments of Biology and Otolaryngology. A single electrode was implanted through the round window of kanamycin-deafened rats at either postnatal day 32 (P32, n = 24) or P60 (n = 22) for 4 hours of stimulation (monopolar, biphasic pulses, amplitude twice electrically evoked auditory brainstem response [eABR] threshold) at either 100 or 5000 Hz. Jun phosphorylation was assayed by immunofluorescence to quantitatively assess the effect of electrical stimulation on proapoptotic signaling. Jun phosphorylation was reliably suppressed by 100 Hz stimuli in deafened cochleae of P32 but not P60 rats. This effect was not significant in the basal cochlear turns. Stimulation frequency may be consequential: 100 Hz was significantly more effective than was 5 kHz stimulation in suppressing phospho-Jun. Suppression of Jun phosphorylation occurs in deafferented spiral ganglion neurons after only 4 hours of electrical stimulation. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that electrical stimulation can decrease spiral ganglion neuron death after deafferentation.

  3. Screening of Indigenous Oxalate Degrading Lactic Acid Bacteria from Human Faeces and South Indian Fermented Foods: Assessment of Probiotic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Kavitha, Murugan; Selvi, M. S.; Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have the potential to degrade intestinal oxalate and this is increasingly being studied as a promising probiotic solution to manage kidney stone disease. In this study, oxalate degrading LAB were isolated from human faeces and south Indian fermented foods, subsequently assessed for potential probiotic property in vitro and in vivo. Based on preliminary characteristics, 251 out of 673 bacterial isolates were identified as LAB. A total of 17 strains were found to degrade oxalate significantly between 40.38% and 62.90% and were subjected to acid and bile tolerance test. Among them, nine strains exhibited considerable tolerance up to pH 3.0 and at 0.3% bile. These were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus salivarius using 16S rDNA sequencing. Three strains, Lactobacillus fermentum TY5, Lactobacillus fermentum AB1, and Lactobacillus salivarius AB11, exhibited good adhesion to HT-29 cells and strong antimicrobial activity. They also conferred resistance to kanamycin, rifampicin, and ampicillin, but were sensitive to chloramphenicol and erythromycin. The faecal recovery rate of these strains was observed as 15.16% (TY5), 6.71% (AB1), and 9.3% (AB11) which indicates the colonization ability. In conclusion, three efficient oxalate degrading LAB were identified and their safety assessments suggest that they may serve as good probiotic candidates for preventing hyperoxaluria. PMID:24723820

  4. Glycine-rich loop encompassing active site at interface of hexameric M. tuberculosis Eis protein contributes to its structural stability and activity.

    PubMed

    Anand, Shashi; Sharma, Charu

    2018-04-01

    RvEis is a crucial thermostable hexameric aminoglycoside acetyltransferase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, overexpression of which confers Kanamycin resistance in clinical strains. The thermostability associated with hexameric RvEis is important for the enhanced intracellular survival of mycobacteria. However, the structural determinants responsible for its thermal stability remain unexplored. In this study, we have assessed the role of glycines of conserved glycine-rich motif (G 123 GIYG 127 ) present at the oligomeric interface in the hydrophobic core of RvEis in sustenance of its structural stability, oligomerization and functional activity. Substitution of glycines to alanine (G123A/G127A) result in significant decrease in melting temperature (T m ), reduction in the oligomerization with concomitant increase in the monomeric form and higher susceptibility towards the denaturants like GdmCl and urea relative to wild type. G123A/G127A mutant displayed lower catalytic efficiency (k cat /K m ) and is completely inactive at 60 °C. ANS binding assay and the complete dissociation of hexameric complex into monomers at lower concentration of urea in G123A/G127A relative to wtRvEis suggests that altered hydrophobic environment could be the reason for its instability. In sum, these results demonstrate the role of G 123 GIYG 127 motif in structural stability and activity of RvEis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluating the Frequency of aac(6')-IIa, ant(2″)-I, intl1, and intl2 Genes in Aminoglycosides Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates Obtained from Hospitalized Patients in Yazd, Iran.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Hesam; Eslami, Gilda; Zandi, Hengameh; Dehghan-Banadkouki, Amin; Vakili, Mahmood

    2018-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) is an opportunistic pathogen that could be resistant to many antimicrobial agents. Resistance genes can be carried among gram-negative bacteria by integrons. Enzymatic inactivation is the most important mechanism of resistance to aminoglycosides. In this study, the frequencies of two important resistance gene aac(6')-II a and ant(2″)-I, and genes coding integrase I and II, in K. pneumoniae isolates resistant to aminoglycosides were evaluated. In this cross-sectional study, an attempt was made to assess the antibiotic susceptibility of 130 K. pneumoniae isolates obtained from different samples of patients hospitalized in training hospitals of Yazd evaluated by disk diffusion method. The frequencies of aac(6')-II a, ant(2″)-I, intl1 , and intl2 genes were determined by PCR method. Data were analyzed by chi-square method using SPSS software (Ver. 16). our results showed that resistance to gentamicin, tobramycin, kanamycin, and amikacin were 34.6, 33.8, 43.8, and 14.6%, respectively. The frequencies of aac (6')-II a, ant(2″)-I, intl1 , and intl2 genes were 44.6, 27.7, 90, and 0%, respectively. This study showed there are high frequencies of genes coding aminoglycosides resistance in K. pneumoniae isolates. Hence, it is very important to monitor and inhibit the spread of antibiotic resistance genes.

  6. Use of the cryptogein gene to stimulate the accumulation of Bacopa saponins in transgenic Bacopa monnieri plants.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Sukanya; Garai, Saraswati; Jha, Sumita

    2012-10-01

    Genetic transformation of the Indian medicinal plant, Bacopa monnieri, using a gene encoding cryptogein, a proteinaceous elicitor, via Ri and Ti plasmids, were established and induced bioproduction of bacopa saponins in crypt-transgenic plants were obtained. Transformed roots obtained with A. rhizogenes strain LBA 9402 crypt on selection medium containing kanamycin (100 mg l(-1)) dedifferentiated forming callus and redifferentiated to roots which, spontaneously showed shoot bud induction. Ri crypt-transformed plants thus obtained showed integration and expression of rol genes as well as crypt gene. Ti crypt-transformed B. monnieri plants were established following transformation with disarmed A. tumefaciens strain harboring crypt. Transgenic plants showed significant enhancement in growth and bacopa saponin content. Bacopasaponin D (1.4-1.69 %) was maximally enhanced in transgenic plants containing crypt. In comparison to Ri-transformed plants, Ri crypt-transformed plants showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) enhanced accumulation of bacoside A(3), bacopasaponin D, bacopaside II, bacopaside III and bacopaside V. Produced transgenic lines can be used for further research on elicitation in crypt-transgenic plants as well as for large scale production of saponins. Key message The cryptogein gene, which encodes a proteinaceous elicitor is associated with increase in secondary metabolite accumulation-either alone or in addition to the increases associated with transformation by A. rhizogenes.

  7. A population-based study of first and second-line drug-resistant tuberculosis in a high-burden area of the Mexico/United States border.

    PubMed

    Becerril-Montes, Pola; Said-Fernández, Salvador; Luna-Herrera, Julieta; Caballero-Olín, Guillermo; Enciso-Moreno, José Antonio; Martínez-Rodríguez, Herminia Guadalupe; Padilla-Rivas, Gerardo; Nancy-Garza-Treviño, Elsa; Molina-Salinas, Gloria María

    2013-04-01

    The resistance of 139 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates from the city of Monterrey, Northeast Mexico, to first and second-line anti-TB drugs was analysed. A total of 73 isolates were susceptible and 66 were resistant to anti-TB drugs. Monoresistance to streptomycin, isoniazid (INH) and ethambutol was observed in 29 cases. Resistance to INH was found in 52 cases and in 29 cases INH resistance was combined with resistance to two or three drugs. A total of 24 isolates were multidrug-resistant (MDR) resistant to at least INH and rifampicin and 11 MDR cases were resistant to five drugs. The proportion of MDR-TB among new TB cases in our target population was 0.72% (1/139 cases). The proportion of MDR-TB among previously treated cases was 25.18% (35/139 cases). The 13 polyresistant and 24 MDR isolates were assayed against the following seven second-line drugs: amikacin (AMK), kanamycin (KAN), capreomycin (CAP), clofazimine (CLF), ethionamide (ETH), ofloxacin (OFL) and cycloserine (CLS). Resistance to CLF, OFL or CLS was not observed. Resistance was detected to ETH (10.80%) and to AMK (2.70%), KAN (2.70%) and CAP (2.70%). One isolate of MDR with primary resistance was also resistant to three second-line drugs. Monterrey has a high prevalence of MDR-TB among previously treated cases and extensively drug-resistant-MTB strains may soon appear.

  8. Efflux pump-deficient mutants as a platform to search for microbes that produce antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Santiago, Carlos; Udaondo, Zulema; Daddaoua, Abdelali; Roca, Amalia; Martín, Jesús; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Reyes, Fernando; Ramos, Juan-Luis

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E-18 is a strain deficient in the major antibiotic efflux pump (TtgABC) that exhibits an overall increased susceptibility to a wide range of drugs when compared with the wild-type strain. We used this strain as a platform to search for microbes able to produce antibiotics that inhibit growth. A collection of 2400 isolates from soil, sediments and water was generated and a drop assay developed to identify, via growth inhibition halos, strains that prevent the growth of DOT-T1E-18 on solid Luria–Bertani plates. In this study, 35 different isolates that produced known and unknown antibiotics were identified. The most potent inhibitor of DOT-T1E-18 growth was an isolate named 250J that, through multi-locus sequence analysis, was identified as a Pseudomonas sp. strain. Culture supernatants of 250J contain four different xantholysins that prevent growth of Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative and fungi. Two of the xantholysins were produced in higher concentrations and purified. Xantholysin A was effective against Bacillus, Lysinibacillus and Rhodococcus strains, and the effect against these microbes was enhanced when used in combination with other antibiotics such as ampicillin, gentamicin and kanamycin. Xantholysin C was also efficient against Gram-positive bacteria and showed an interesting antimicrobial effect against Pseudomonas strains, and a synergistic inhibitory effect with ampicillin, chloramphenicol and gentamicin. PMID:26059350

  9. Enhanced resistance to stripe rust disease in transgenic wheat expressing the rice chitinase gene RC24.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuan; Wang, Jian; Du, Zhen; Zhang, Chen; Li, Lan; Xu, Ziqin

    2013-10-01

    Stripe rust is a devastating fungal disease of wheat worldwide which is primarily caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp tritici. Transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) expressing rice class chitinase gene RC24 were developed by particle bombardment of immature embryos and tested for resistance to Puccinia striiformis f.sp tritici. under greenhouse and field conditions. Putative transformants were selected on kanamycin-containing media. Polymease chain reaction indicated that RC24 was transferred into 17 transformants obtained from bombardment of 1,684 immature embryos. Integration of RC24 was confirmed by Southern blot with a RC24-labeled probe and expression of RC24 was verified by RT-PCR. Nine transgenic T1 lines exhibited enhanced resistance to stripe rust infection with lines XN8 and BF4 showing the highest level of resistance. Southern blot hybridization confirmed the stable inheritance of RC24 in transgenic T1 plants. Resistance to stripe rust in transgenic T2 and T3 XN8 and BF4 plants was confirmed over two consecutive years in the field. Increased yield (27-36 %) was recorded for transgenic T2 and T3 XN8 and BF4 plants compared to controls. These results suggest that rice class I chitinase RC24 can be used to engineer stripe rust resistance in wheat.

  10. A population-based study of first and second-line drug-resistant tuberculosis in a high-burden area of the Mexico/United States border

    PubMed Central

    Becerril-Montes, Pola; Said-Fernández, Salvador; Luna-Herrera, Julieta; Caballero-Olín, Guillermo; Enciso-Moreno, José Antonio; Martínez-Rodríguez, Herminia Guadalupe; Padilla-Rivas, Gerardo; Nancy-Garza-Treviño, Elsa; Molina-Salinas, Gloria María

    2013-01-01

    The resistance of 139 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates from the city of Monterrey, Northeast Mexico, to first and second-line anti-TB drugs was analysed. A total of 73 isolates were susceptible and 66 were resistant to anti-TB drugs. Monoresistance to streptomycin, isoniazid (INH) and ethambutol was observed in 29 cases. Resistance to INH was found in 52 cases and in 29 cases INH resistance was combined with resistance to two or three drugs. A total of 24 isolates were multidrug-resistant (MDR) resistant to at least INH and rifampicin and 11 MDR cases were resistant to five drugs. The proportion of MDR-TB among new TB cases in our target population was 0.72% (1/139 cases). The proportion of MDR-TB among previously treated cases was 25.18% (35/139 cases). The 13 polyresistant and 24 MDR isolates were assayed against the following seven second-line drugs: amikacin (AMK), kanamycin (KAN), capreomycin (CAP), clofazimine (CLF), ethionamide (ETH), ofloxacin (OFL) and cycloserine (CLS). Resistance to CLF, OFL or CLS was not observed. Resistance was detected to ETH (10.80%) and to AMK (2.70%), KAN (2.70%) and CAP (2.70%). One isolate of MDR with primary resistance was also resistant to three second-line drugs. Monterrey has a high prevalence of MDR-TB among previously treated cases and extensively drug-resistant-MTB strains may soon appear. PMID:23579794

  11. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon nardus citronella essential oil against systemic bacteria of aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lee Seong; Wee, Wendy

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon nardus citronella essential oil against Edwardsiella spp. (n = 21), Vibrio spp. (n = 6), Aeromonas spp. (n = 2), Escherichia coli (n = 2), Salmonella spp. (n = 2), Flavobacterium spp. (n = 1), Pseudomonas spp. (n = 1) and Streptococcus spp. (n = 1) isolated from internal organs of aquatic animals. Due to the ban of antibiotics for aquaculture use, this study was carried out to evaluate the potential of citronella essential oil as alternative to commercial antibiotic use against systemic bacteria in cultured aquatic animals. The essential oil of C. nardus was prepared by using the steam distillation method and the chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil tested against bacterial isolates from various aquatic animals and ATCC type strains were determined using two-fold broth micro dilution method with kanamycin and eugenol as positive controls. A total of 22 chemical compounds were detected in C. nardus essential oil with 6-octenal, 3, 7-dimethyl- or citronellal representing the major compounds (29.6%). The MIC values of the citronella oil ranged from 0.244 µg/ml to 0.977 µg/ml when tested against the bacterial isolates. The results of the present study revealed the potential of C. nardus essential oil as alternative to commercial antibiotics for aquaculture use.

  12. Metal and antibiotic resistance of bacteria isolated from the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Moskot, Marta; Kotlarska, Ewa; Jakóbkiewicz-Banecka, Joanna; Gabig-Cimińska, Magdalena; Fari, Karolina; Wegrzyn, Grzegorz; Wróbel, Borys

    2012-09-01

    The resistance of 49 strains of bacteria isolated from surface Baltic Sea waters to 11 antibiotics was analyzed and the resistance of selected strains to three metal ions (Ni2+, Mn2+, Zn2+) was tested. Most isolates belonged to Gammaproteobacteria (78%), while Alphaproteobacteria (8%), Actinobacteria (10%), and Bacteroidetes (4%) were less abundant. Even though previous reports suggested relationships between resistance and the presence of plasmids or the ability to produce pigments, no compelling evidence for such relationships was obtained for the strains isolated in this work. In particular, strains resistant to multiple antibiotics did not carry plasmids more frequently than sensitive strains. A relation between resistance and the four aminoglycosides tested (gentamycin, kanamycin, neomycin, and streptomycin), but not to spectinomycin, was demonstrated. This observation is of interest given that spectinomycin is not always classified as an aminoglycoside because it lacks a traditional sugar moiety. Statistical analysis indicated relationships between resistance to some antibiotics (ampicillin and erythromycin, chloramphenicol and erythromycin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline, erythromycin and tetracycline), suggesting the linkage of resistance genes for antibiotics belonging to different classes. The effects of NiSO4, ZnCl2 and MnCl2 on various media suggested that the composition of Marine Broth might result in low concentrations of Mn2+ due to chemical interactions that potentially lead to precipitation.

  13. Rational design of bioactive, modularly assembled aminoglycosides targeting the RNA that causes myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    PubMed

    Childs-Disney, Jessica L; Parkesh, Raman; Nakamori, Masayuki; Thornton, Charles A; Disney, Matthew D

    2012-12-21

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused when an expanded r(CUG) repeat (r(CUG)(exp)) binds the RNA splicing regulator muscleblind-like 1 protein (MBNL1) as well as other proteins. Previously, we reported that modularly assembled small molecules displaying a 6'-N-5-hexynoate kanamycin A RNA-binding module (K) on a peptoid backbone potently inhibit the binding of MBNL1 to r(CUG)(exp). However, these parent compounds are not appreciably active in cell-based models of DM1. The lack of potency was traced to suboptimal cellular permeability and localization. To improve these properties, second-generation compounds that are conjugated to a d-Arg(9) molecular transporter were synthesized. These modified compounds enter cells in higher concentrations than the parent compounds and are efficacious in cell-based DM1 model systems at low micromolar concentrations. In particular, they improve three defects that are the hallmarks of DM1: a translational defect due to nuclear retention of transcripts containing r(CUG)(exp); pre-mRNA splicing defects due to inactivation of MBNL1; and the formation of nuclear foci. The best compound in cell-based studies was tested in a mouse model of DM1. Modest improvement of pre-mRNA splicing defects was observed. These studies suggest that a modular assembly approach can afford bioactive compounds that target RNA.

  14. Molecular Recognition of 6′-N-5-Hexynoate Kanamyin A and RNA 1×1 Internal Loops Containing CA Mismatches

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Tuan; Disney, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    In our previous study to identify the RNA internal loops that bind an aminoglycoside derivative, we determined that 6′-N-5-hexynoate kanamycin A prefers to bind 1×1 nucleotide internal loops containing C•A mismatches. In this present study, the molecular recognition between a variety of RNAs that are mutated around the C•A loop and the ligand was investigated. Studies show that both loop nucleotides and loop closing pairs affect binding affinity. Most interestingly, it was shown that there is a correlation between the thermodynamic stability of the C•A internal loops and ligand affinity. Specifically, C•A loops that had relatively high or low stability bound the ligand most weakly whereas loops with intermediate stability bound the ligand most tightly. In contrast, there is no correlation between the likelihood that a loop forms a C-A+ pair at lower pH and ligand affinity. It was also found that a 1×1 nucleotide C•A loop that bound to the ligand with the highest affinity is identical to the consensus site in RNAs that are edited by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA type 2 (ADAR2). These studies provide a detailed investigation of factors affecting small molecule recognition of internal loops containing C•A mismatches, which are present in a variety of RNAs that cause disease. PMID:21207945

  15. Rational Design of Bioactive, Modularly Assembled Aminoglycosides Targeting the RNA that Causes Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Childs-Disney, Jessica L.; Parkesh, Raman; Nakamori, Masayuki; Thornton, Charles A.; Disney, Matthew D.

    2012-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused when an expanded r(CUG) repeat (r(CUG)exp) binds the RNA splicing regulator muscleblind-like 1 protein (MBNL1) as well as other proteins. Previously, we reported that modularly assembled small molecules displaying a 6′-N-5-hexynoate kanamycin A RNA-binding module (K) on a peptoid backbone potently inhibit the binding of MBNL1 to r(CUG)exp. However, these parent compounds are not appreciably active in cell-based models of DM1. The lack of potency was traced to suboptimal cellular permeability and localization. To improve these properties, second-generation compounds that are conjugated to a D-Arg9 molecular transporter were synthesized. These modified compounds enter cells in higher concentrations than the parent compounds and are efficacious in cell-based DM1 model systems at low micromolar concentrations. In particular, they improve three defects that are the hallmarks of DM1: a translational defect due to nuclear retention of transcripts containing r(CUG)exp; pre-mRNA splicing defects due to inactivation of MBNL1; and the formation of nuclear foci. The best compound in cell-based studies was tested in a mouse model of DM1. Modest improvement of pre-mRNA splicing defects was observed. These studies suggest that a modular assembly approach can afford bioactive compounds that target RNA. PMID:23130637

  16. Tetracycline improved the efficiency of other antimicrobials against Gram-negative multidrug-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mawabo, Isabelle K; Noumedem, Jaurès A K; Kuiate, Jules R; Kuete, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of infectious diseases with antimicrobials constituted a great achievement in the history of medicine. Unfortunately, the emergence of resistant strains of bacteria to all classes of antimicrobials limited their efficacy. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effect of combinations of antibiotics on multi-drug resistant Gram-negative (MDRGN) bacteria. A liquid micro-broth dilution method was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of 10 different classes of antimicrobials on 20 bacterial strains belonging to six different species. The antimicrobials were associated with phenylalanine β-naphthylamide (PAβN), an efflux pump inhibitor, and with other antimicrobials at their sub-inhibitory concentrations. The effectiveness of each combination was monitored using the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC). Most of the antimicrobials tested showed low antibacterial activity with a MIC value of 128 mg/L on a majority of the bacterial strains, justifying their multidrug-resistant (MDR) profile. Synergistic effects were mostly observed (FIC≤0.5) when ampicillin (AMP), cloxacillin (CLX), erythromycin (ERY), chloramphenicol (CHL), kanamycin (KAN) and streptomycin (STR) were combined with tetracycline (TET) at the sub-inhibitory concentration of MIC/5 or MIC/10. The results of the present work suggest that the association of several antimicrobials with TET could improve the fight against MDRGN bacterial species. Copyright © 2014 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli in two species of invasive alien mammals in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Ichiro; Obi, Takeshi; Sakemi, Yoko; Nakayama, Ayano; Miyazaki, Kei; Ogura, Go; Tamaki, Masanobu; Oka, Tatsuzo; Takase, Kozo; Miyamoto, Atsushi; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro

    2011-08-01

    The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in 128 Escherichia coli isolates was investigated in two species of invasive alien mammals (IAMs): the small Asian mongoose (SAM) and Japanese weasel (JW). The SAM is found on the main island of Okinawa, Japan, where a large number of livestock is available, and the JW is present on a small island, where is isolated from the main island, and have a small number of livestock. We focused on the two IAMs, inhabiting under the different environments, and compared their prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli. In the comparison of the frequencies of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli isolates between the SAM and JW, JW showed significantly higher prevalence of resistance against three drugs, ampicillin, chlortetracycline and nalidixic acid, compared with SAM's test results (P<0.05). The bla(TEM) gene and the aph1 gene were detected in 35 subjects (91%) of ampicillin-resistant isolates and 6 subjects (100%) of kanamycin-resistant isolates, respectively. The tet (A) gene was detected in 62 subjects (46%) of CTC-resistant isolates, and the tet (B) gene was detected in 25 subjects (8%) of those in IAM. The present results suggest that some IAMs were the carrier of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and their genes, and the frequencies of these resistances were different between two IAM species.

  18. The comparative effects of aminoglycoside antibiotics and muscle relaxants on electrical field stimulation response in rat bladder smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Min, Chang Ho; Min, Young Sil; Lee, Sang Joon; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2016-06-01

    It has been reported that several aminoglycoside antibiotics have a potential of prolonging the action of non-depolarizing muscle relaxants by drug interactions acting pre-synaptically to inhibit acetylcholine release, but antibiotics itself also have a strong effect on relaxing the smooth muscle. In this study, four antibiotics of aminoglycosides such as gentamicin, streptomycin, kanamycin and neomycin were compared with skeletal muscle relaxants baclofen, tubocurarine, pancuronium and succinylcholine, and a smooth muscle relaxant, papaverine. The muscle strips isolated from the rat bladder were stimulated with pulse trains of 40 V in amplitude and 10 s in duration, with pulse duration of 1 ms at the frequency of 1-8 Hz, at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 Hz respectively. To test the effect of four antibiotics on bladder smooth muscle relaxation, each of them was treated cumulatively from 1 μM to 0.1 mM with an interval of 5 min. Among the four antibiotics, gentamicin and neomycin inhibited the EFS response. The skeletal muscle relaxants (baclofen, tubocurarine, pancuronium and succinylcholine) and inhibitory neurotransmitters (GABA and glycine) did not show any significant effect. However, papaverine, had a significant effect in the relaxation of the smooth muscle. It was suggested that the aminoglycoside antibiotics have inhibitory effect on the bladder smooth muscle.

  19. An ultrasensitive fluorescence method suitable for quantitative analysis of mung bean nuclease and inhibitor screening in vitro and vivo.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lan; Fan, Jialong; Tong, Chunyi; Xie, Zhenhua; Zhao, Chuan; Liu, Xuanming; Zhu, Yonghua; Liu, Bin

    2016-09-15

    Mung bean nuclease is a single stranded specific DNA and RNA endonuclease purified from mung bean sprouts. It yields 5'-phosphate terminated mono- and oligonucleotides. The activity level of this nuclease can act as a marker to monitor the developmental process of mung bean sprouts. In order to facilitate the activity and physiological analysis of this nuclease, we have developed a biosensing assay system based on the mung bean nuclease-induced single-stranded DNA scission and the affinity difference of graphene oxide for single-stranded DNA containing different numbers of bases. This end-point measurement method can detect mung bean nuclease in a range of 2×10(-4) to 4×10(-2) with a detection limit of 1×10(-4) unit/mL. In addition, we demonstrate the utility of the assay for screening chemical antibiotics and metal ions, resulting in the identification of several inhibitors of this enzyme in vitro. Furthermore, we firstly report that inhibiting mung bean nuclease by gentamycin sulfate and kanamycin in vivo can suppress mung bean sprouts growth. In summary, this method provides an alternative tool for the biochemical analysis for mung bean nuclease and indicates the feasibility of high-throughput screening specific inhibitors of this nuclease in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Helicobacter pylori Urease Activity is Influenced by Ferric Uptake Regulator

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong Seung; Lee, Ji Hyuk; Lee, Hye Jin; Lee, Jee Hyun; Choi, Young Ok

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The role of the Ferric Uptake Regulator (FUR) in the acid resistance of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been thought to be independent of urease. However, we demonstrated in this study that Fur influences urease activity. Materials and Methods A fur knockout mutant of H. pylori was constructed by replacing the Fur gene with a kanamycin resistant marker gene. The wild-type H. pylori and fur mutant were compared for survival. The integrity of the inner membrane of the bacteria was evaluated by confocal microscopy using membrane-permeant and -impermeant fluorescent DNA probes. Urease activity of intact H. pylori was measured between pH 3 and 8. Real time PCR of both strains was performed for urease genes including ureI, ureE, ureF, ureG, and ureH. Results The fur deletion affected the survival of H. pylori at pH 4. The urease activity curve of the intact fur mutant showed the same shape as the wild-type but was 3-fold lower than the wild-type at a pH of less than 5. Real time PCR revealed that the expression of all genes was consistently down-regulated in the fur mutant. Conclusion The results of this study showed that fur appears to be involved in acid resistant H. pylori urease activity. PMID:20046512

  1. Readthrough of stop codons by use of aminoglycosides in cells from xeroderma pigmentosum group C patients.

    PubMed

    Kuschal, Christiane; Khan, Sikandar G; Enk, Benedikt; DiGiovanna, John J; Kraemer, Kenneth H

    2015-04-01

    Readthrough of premature termination (stop) codons (PTC) is a new approach to treatment of genetic diseases. We recently reported that readthrough of PTC in cells from some xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XP-C) patients could be achieved with the aminoglycosides geneticin or gentamicin. We found that the response depended on several factors including the PTC sequence, its location within the gene and the aminoglycoside used. Here, we extended these studies to investigate the effects of other aminoglycosides that are already on the market. We reasoned that topical treatment could deliver much higher concentrations of drug to the skin, the therapeutic target, and thus increase the therapeutic effect while reducing renal or ototoxicity in comparison with systemic treatment. Our prior clinical studies indicated that only a few percent of normal XPC expression was associated with mild clinical disease. We found minimal cell toxicity in the XP-C cells with several aminoglycosides. We found increased XPC mRNA expression in PTC-containing XP-C cells with G418, paromomycin, neomycin and kanamycin and increased XPC protein expression with G418. We conclude that in selected patients with XP, topical PTC therapy can be investigated as a method of personalized medicine to alleviate their cutaneous symptoms. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae isolated from pigs with swine erysipelas in Japan, 1988-1998.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Kijima, M; Yoshimura, H; Takahashi, T

    2001-03-01

    The susceptibility to 21 antimicrobial agents of 214 strains of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae isolated from pigs affected with swine erysipelas in Japan between 1988 and 1998 was determined. Ampicillin, cloxacillin, benzylpenicillin, ceftiofur, tylosin, enrofloxacin and danofloxacin were the most active agents [minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs); < or = 0.025-0.78 microgram/ml], followed by cefazolin, virginiamycin, tiamulin, chloramphenicol, florphenicol and oxolinic acid (MICs; 0.1-25 micrograms/ml). Activity was poor or absent with kanamycin and sulfadimethoxine. Strains resistant to dihydrostreptomycin, erythromycin, clindamycin, lincomycin, oxytetracycline and doxycycline were detected. The susceptibilities to dihydrostreptomycin and oxytetracycline tended to decrease. Investigation of the differences in antimicrobial susceptibility of the 214 strains according to their serotypes, sources, isolation years and regions, showed that the strains resistant to dihydrostreptomycin were most frequently found in the strains of serotype 1a and in strains from septicaemic cases. Strains resistant to oxytetracycline were detected in all serotypes and all sources, and most of the strains resistant to erythromycin were detected in the strains of serotype 2. The frequency of strains resistant to dihydrostreptomycin gradually increased from 1988 to 1996, but then decreased between 1997 and 1998. The frequency of strains resistant to oxytetracycline was remained more than 38% from 1988 to 1998. It was suggested that the strains resistant to dihydrostreptomycin and oxytetracycline were distributed over almost all districts of Japan.

  3. Microbioassay of Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Harold J.; Yin, E. Jong

    1970-01-01

    A previously described agar-diffusion technique for microbioassay of antimicrobial agents has been modified to increase sensitivity of the technique and to extend the range of antimicrobial agents to which it is applicable. This microtechnique requires only 0.02 ml of an unknown test sample for assay, and is capable of measuring minute concentrations of antibiotics in buffer, serum, and urine. In some cases, up to a 20-fold increase in sensitivity is gained relative to other published standardized methods and the error of this method is less than ±5%. Buffer standard curves have been established for this technique, concurrently with serum standard curves, yielding information on antimicrobial serum-binding and demonstrating linearity of the data points compared to the estimated regression line for the microconcentration ranges covered by this technique. This microassay technique is particularly well suited for pediatric research and for other investigations where sample volumes are small and quantitative accuracy is desired. Dilution of clinical samples to attain concentrations falling with the range of this assay makes the technique readily adaptable and suitable for general clinical pharmacological studies. The microassay technique has been standardized in buffer solutions and in normal human serum pools for the following antimicrobials: ampicillin, methicillin, penicillin G, oxacillin, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, cephaloglycin, cephalexin, cephaloridine, cephalothin, erythromycin, rifamycin amino methyl piperazine, kanamycin, neomycin, streptomycin, colistin, polymyxin B, doxycycline, minocycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol. PMID:4986725

  4. Mutation in the peb1A Locus of Campylobacter jejuni Reduces Interactions with Epithelial Cells and Intestinal Colonization of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Zhiheng; Burucoa, Christophe; Grignon, Bernadette; Baqar, Shahida; Huang, Xiao-Zhe; Kopecko, Dennis J.; Bourgeois, A. L.; Fauchere, Jean-Louis; Blaser, Martin J.

    1998-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading causes of bacterial diarrhea throughout the world. We previously found that PEB1 is a homolog of cluster 3 binding proteins of bacterial ABC transporters and that a C. jejuni adhesin, cell-binding factor 1 (CBF1), if not identical to, contains PEB1. A single protein migrating at approximately 27 to 28 kDa was recognized by anti-CBF1 and anti-PEB1. To determine the role that the operon encoding PEB1 plays in C. jejuni adherence, peb1A, the gene encoding PEB1, was disrupted in strain 81-176 by insertion of a kanamycin resistance gene through homologous recombination. Inactivation of this operon completely abolished expression of CBF1, as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting. In comparison to the wild-type strain, the mutant strain showed 50- to 100-fold less adherence to and 15-fold less invasion of epithelial cells in culture. Mouse challenge studies showed that the rate and duration of intestinal colonization by the mutant were significantly lower and shorter than with the wild-type strain. In summary, PEB1 is identical to a previously identified cell-binding factor, CBF1, in C. jejuni, and the peb1A locus plays an important role in epithelial cell interactions and in intestinal colonization in a mouse model. PMID:9488379

  5. Antimicrobial resistance, serotypes, and virulence factors of Streptococcus suis isolates from diseased pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu-Lu; Liao, Xiao-Ping; Sun, Jian; Yang, Yu-Rong; Liu, Bao-Tao; Yang, Shou-Shen; Zhao, Dong-Hao; Liu, Ya-Hong

    2012-07-01

    Streptococcus suis isolates from diseased pigs were examined for susceptibility to nine antimicrobials, possession of virulence-associated factors (VFs), and distribution of serotypes. The association between antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and serotypes as well as VFs was subsequently assessed. Among the isolates investigated, serotype 2 (66.04%) was mostly prevalent, followed by serotypes 1 (23.27%), 9 (1.26%), and 7 (0.63%), whereas 14 isolates were untypable by the polymerase chain reaction typing method used. Analysis with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed the isolates had diverse DNA macrorestriction patterns. The frequency of antimicrobial resistance among the S. suis isolates was higher than that reported from other countries. It is notable that multiple antimicrobial resistance (three or more antimicrobials) was observed with 98.73% of the S. suis isolates, and the dominant resistance phenotype was erythromycin-tilmicosin-clindamycin-chloramphenicol-levofloxacin-ceftiofur-kanamycin-tetracycline-penicillin (35.85%). The most prevalent VFs were those encoded by muramidase-released protein (61.64%), followed by suilysin (56.60%) and extracellular factor (46.54%). Presence of VFs and the possession of certain AMR phenotypes were significantly associated as determined by statistical analysis. Together, these findings indicate that the clinical S. suis isolates obtained from diseased pigs in China are genetically diverse, are resistant to multiple antibiotics of clinical importance, and carry known virulence factors.

  6. Practical use of CMC-amended rhizobial inoculant for Mucuna pruriens cultivation to enhance the growth and protection against Macrophomina phaseolina.

    PubMed

    Aeron, Abhinav; Khare, Ekta; Kumar Arora, Naveen; Kumar Maheshwari, Dinesh

    2012-01-01

    In many parts of the world Mucuna pruriens is used as an important medicinal, forage and green manure crop. In the present investigation the effect of the addition of CMC in carrier during development of bioformulation on shelflife, plant growth promotive and biocontrol activity against Macrophomina phaseolina was screened taking M. pruriens as a test crop. Ensifer meliloti RMP6(Ery+Kan+) and Bradyrhizobium sp. BMP7(Tet+Kan+) (kanamycin resistance engineered by Tn5 transposon mutagenesis) used in the study showed production of siderophore, IAA, solubilizing phosphate and biocontrol of M. phaseolina. RMP6(Ery+Kan+) also showed ACC deaminase activity. The survival of both the strains in sawdust-based bioformulation was enhanced with an increase in the concentration of CMC from 0 to 1%. At 0% CMC Bradyrhizobium sp. BMP7(Tet+Kan+) showed more increase in nodule number/plant (500.00%) than E. meliloti RMP6(Ery+Kan+) (52.38%), over the control in M. phaseolina-infested soil. There was 185.94% and 59.52% enhancement in nodule number/plant by RMP6(Ery+Kan+) and BMP7(Tet+Kan+) with an increase in the concentration of CMC from 0% to 1% in the bioformulations. However further increase in concentration of CMC did not result in enhancement in survival of either the strains or nodule number/plant.

  7. Antibacterial activities of multi drug resistant Myroides odoratimimus bacteria isolated from adult flesh flies (Diptera: sarcophagidae) are independent of metallo beta-lactamase gene

    PubMed Central

    Dharne, M.S.; Gupta, A.K.; Rangrez, A.Y.; Ghate, H.V.; Patole, M.S.; Shouche, Y.S.

    2008-01-01

    Flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) are well known cause of myiasis and their gut bacteria have never been studied for antimicrobial activity against bacteria. Antimicrobial studies of Myroides spp. are restricted to nosocomial strains. A Gram-negative bacterium, Myroides sp., was isolated from the gut of adult flesh flies (Sarcophaga sp.) and submitted to evaluation of nutritional parameters using Biolog GN, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, susceptibility to various antimicrobials by disc diffusion method and detection of metallo β-lactamase genes (TUS/MUS). The antagonistic effects were tested on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria isolated from human clinical specimens, environmental samples and insect mid gut. Bacterial species included were Aeromonas hydrophila, A. culicicola, Morganella morganii subsp. sibonii, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Weissella confusa, Escherichia coli, Ochrobactrum sp., Serratia sp., Kestersia sp., Ignatzschineria sp., Bacillus sp. The Myroides sp. strain was resistant to penicillin-G, erythromycin, streptomycin, amikacin, kanamycin, gentamycin, ampicillin, trimethoprim and tobramycin. These strain showed antibacterial action against all bacterial strains except W. confusa, Ignatzschineria sp., A. hydrophila and M. morganii subsp. sibonii. The multidrug resistance of the strain was similar to the resistance of clinical isolates, inhibiting growth of bacteria from clinical, environmental and insect gut samples. The metallo β-lactamase (TUS/MUS) genes were absent, and resistance due to these genes was ruled out, indicating involvement of other secretion machinery. PMID:24031236

  8. Simple, direct drug susceptibility testing technique for diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis in resource-poor settings.

    PubMed

    Kim, C-K; Joo, Y-T; Lee, E P; Park, Y K; Kim, H-J; Kim, S J

    2013-09-01

    The Korean Institute of Tuberculosis, Seoul, Republic of Korea. To develop a simple, direct drug susceptibility testing (DST) technique using Kudoh-modified Ogawa (KMO) medium. The critical concentrations of isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP), kanamycin (KM) and ofloxacin (OFX) for KMO medium were calibrated by comparing the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on KMO with those on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ). The performance of the direct KMO DST technique was evaluated on 186 smear-positive sputum specimens and compared with indirect LJ DST. Agreement of MICs on direct vs. indirect DST was high for INH, RMP and OFX. KM MICs on KMO were ∼10 g/ml higher than those on LJ. The critical concentrations of INH, RMP, OFX and KM for KMO were therefore set at 0.2, 40.0, 2.0, and 40.0 g/ml. The evaluation of direct DST of smear-positive sputum specimens showed 100% agreement with indirect LJ DST for INH and RMP. However, the respective susceptible and resistant predictive values were 98.8% and 100% for OFX, and 100% and 80% for KM. Direct DST using KMO is useful, with clear advantages of a shorter turnaround time, procedural simplicity and low cost compared to indirect DST. It may be most indicated in resource-poor settings for programmatic management of drug-resistant tuberculosis.

  9. The influence of glycyrrhiza and antibiotics on the purgative action of sennoside a from Daiokanzoto in mice.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Emi; Takayama, Kento; Sato, Eiji; Okamura, Nobuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Daiokanzoto (DKT), a Kampo medicine that includes the combination of two crude drugs (rhubarb and glycyrrhiza), is clinically effective for constipation. The aim of this study is to clarify the influence of glycyrrhiza, three glycyrrhiza constituents (glycyrrhizin, liquiritin, and liquiritin apioside), and eight antibiotics on the purgative action of DKT, rhubarb, or sennoside A, a constituent of rhubarb, in mice. The purgative actions of rhubarb and sennoside A were significantly intensified when glycyrrhiza was co-administered orally to mice. Liquiritin and liquiritin apioside but not glycyrrhizin showed significant amplification of the purgative action in a dose-dependent manner. The purgative actions of DKT and sennoside A were significantly reduced by the pre-administration of ampicillin, cefcapene pivoxil, faropenem, fosfomycin, or kanamycin, but were not affected by the pre-administration of clarithromycin or levofloxacin. On the other hand, the purgative action of sennoside A was significantly reduced by the pre-administration of minocycline, whereas that of DKT was not affected. The effect of minocycline on the purgative action of sennoside A was lost when glycyrrhiza was co-administered. These results suggest that liquiritin and liquiritin apioside contribute as active substances for the purgative action of DKT, and some antibiotics reduce the purgative action of DKT and sennoside A. Furthermore, glycyrrhiza has the ability to recover the purgative action of sennoside A suppressed by minocycline via an unknown mechanism.

  10. Association of Antibiotic Resistance in Agricultural Escherichia coli Isolates with Attachment to Quartz▿

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ping; Soupir, Michelle L.; Zwonitzer, Martha; Huss, Bridgette; Jarboe, Laura R.

    2011-01-01

    Surface water can be contaminated by bacteria from various sources, including manure from agricultural facilities. Attachment of these bacteria to soil and organic particles contributes to their transport through the environment, though the mechanism of attachment is unknown. As bacterial attachment to human tissues is known to be correlated with antibiotic resistance, we have investigated here the relationship between bacterial attachment to environmental particles and antibiotic resistance in agricultural isolates. We evaluated 203 Escherichia coli isolates collected from swine facilities for attachment to quartz, resistance to 13 antibiotics, and the presence of genes encoding 13 attachment factors. The genes encoding type I, EcpA, P pili, and Ag43 were detected, though none was significantly related to attachment. Quartz attachment was positively and significantly (P < 0.0038) related to combined resistance to amoxicillin/streptomycin/tetracycline/sulfamethazine/tylosin/chlortetracycline and negatively and significantly (P < 0.0038) related to combined resistance to nalidixic acid/kanamycin/neomycin. These results provide clear evidence for a link between antibiotic resistance and attachment to quartz in agricultural isolates. We propose that this may be due to encoding by the responsible genes on a mobile genetic element. Further exploration of the relationship between antibiotic resistance and attachment to environmental particles will improve the understanding and modeling of environmental transport processes, with the goal of preventing human exposure to antibiotic-resistant or virulent microorganisms. PMID:21821756

  11. Association of antibiotic resistance in agricultural Escherichia coli isolates with attachment to quartz.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Soupir, Michelle L; Zwonitzer, Martha; Huss, Bridgette; Jarboe, Laura R

    2011-10-01

    Surface water can be contaminated by bacteria from various sources, including manure from agricultural facilities. Attachment of these bacteria to soil and organic particles contributes to their transport through the environment, though the mechanism of attachment is unknown. As bacterial attachment to human tissues is known to be correlated with antibiotic resistance, we have investigated here the relationship between bacterial attachment to environmental particles and antibiotic resistance in agricultural isolates. We evaluated 203 Escherichia coli isolates collected from swine facilities for attachment to quartz, resistance to 13 antibiotics, and the presence of genes encoding 13 attachment factors. The genes encoding type I, EcpA, P pili, and Ag43 were detected, though none was significantly related to attachment. Quartz attachment was positively and significantly (P < 0.0038) related to combined resistance to amoxicillin/streptomycin/tetracycline/sulfamethazine/tylosin/chlortetracycline and negatively and significantly (P < 0.0038) related to combined resistance to nalidixic acid/kanamycin/neomycin. These results provide clear evidence for a link between antibiotic resistance and attachment to quartz in agricultural isolates. We propose that this may be due to encoding by the responsible genes on a mobile genetic element. Further exploration of the relationship between antibiotic resistance and attachment to environmental particles will improve the understanding and modeling of environmental transport processes, with the goal of preventing human exposure to antibiotic-resistant or virulent microorganisms.

  12. Potential public health significance of faecal contamination and multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella serotypes in a lake in India.

    PubMed

    Abhirosh, C; Sherin, V; Thomas, A P; Hatha, A A M; Mazumder, A

    2011-06-01

    To assess the prevalence of faecal coliform bacteria and multiple drug resistance among Escherichia coli and Salmonella serotypes from Vembanadu Lake. Systematic microbiological testing. Monthly collection of water samples were made from ten stations on the southern and northern parts of a salt water regulator constructed in Vembanadu Lake in order to prevent incursion of seawater during certain periods of the year. Density of faecal colifrom bacteria was estimated. E. coli and Salmonella were isolated and their different serotypes were identified. Antibiotic resistance analysis of E. coli and Salmonella serotypes was done and the MAR index of individual isolates was calculated. Density of faecal coliform bacteria ranged from mean MPN value 2900 -7100/100ml. Results showed multiple drug resistance pattern among the bacterial isolates. E. coli showed more than 50% resistance to amickacin, oxytetracycline, streptomycin, tetracycline and kanamycin while Salmonella showed high resistance to oxytetracycline, streptomycin, tetracycline and ampicillin. The MAR indexing of the isolates showed that they have originated from high risk source such as humans, poultry and dairy cows. The high density of faecal coliform bacteria and prevalence of multi drug resistant E. coli and Salmonella serotypes in the lake may pose severe public health risk through related water borne and food borne outbreaks. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Integrate genome-based assessment of safety for probiotic strains: Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 as a case study.

    PubMed

    Salvetti, Elisa; Orrù, Luigi; Capozzi, Vittorio; Martina, Alessia; Lamontanara, Antonella; Keller, David; Cash, Howard; Felis, Giovanna E; Cattivelli, Luigi; Torriani, Sandra; Spano, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Probiotics are microorganisms that confer beneficial effects on the host; nevertheless, before being allowed for human consumption, their safety must be verified with accurate protocols. In the genomic era, such procedures should take into account the genomic-based approaches. This study aims at assessing the safety traits of Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 integrating the most updated genomics-based procedures and conventional phenotypic assays. Special attention was paid to putative virulence factors (VF), antibiotic resistance (AR) genes and genes encoding enzymes responsible for harmful metabolites (i.e. biogenic amines, BAs). This probiotic strain was phenotypically resistant to streptomycin and kanamycin, although the genome analysis suggested that the AR-related genes were not easily transferrable to other bacteria, and no other genes with potential safety risks, such as those related to VF or BA production, were retrieved. Furthermore, no unstable elements that could potentially lead to genomic rearrangements were detected. Moreover, a workflow is proposed to allow the proper taxonomic identification of a microbial strain and the accurate evaluation of risk-related gene traits, combining whole genome sequencing analysis with updated bioinformatics tools and standard phenotypic assays. The workflow presented can be generalized as a guideline for the safety investigation of novel probiotic strains to help stakeholders (from scientists to manufacturers and consumers) to meet regulatory requirements and avoid misleading information.

  14. An end-point method based on graphene oxide for RNase H analysis and inhibitors screening.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chuan; Fan, Jialong; Peng, Lan; Zhao, Lijian; Tong, Chunyi; Wang, Wei; Liu, Bin

    2017-04-15

    As a highly conserved damage repair protein, RNase H can hydrolysis DNA-RNA heteroduplex endonucleolytically and cleave RNA-DNA junctions as well. In this study, we have developed an accurate and sensitive RNase H assay based on fluorophore-labeled chimeric substrate hydrolysis and the differential affinity of graphene oxide on RNA strand with different length. This end-point measurement method can detect RNase H in a range of 0.01 to 1 units /mL with a detection limit of 5.0×10 -3 units/ mL under optimal conditions. We demonstrate the utility of the assay by screening antibiotics, resulting in the identification of gentamycin, streptomycin and kanamycin as inhibitors with IC 50 of 60±5µM, 70±8µM and 300±20µM, respectively. Furthermore, the assay was reliably used to detect RNase H in complicated biosamples and found that RNase H activity in tumor cells was inhibited by gentamycin and streptomycin sulfate in a concentration-dependent manner. The average level of RNase H in serums of HBV infection group was similar to that of control group. In summary, the assay provides an alternative tool for biochemical analysis for this enzyme and indicates the feasibility of high throughput screening inhibitors of RNase H in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Tag Array gene chip rapid diagnosis anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in pulmonary tuberculosis -a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenjie; Cheng, Peng; Lyu, Jingtong; Zhang, Zehua; Xu, Jianzhong

    2018-05-01

    We developed a Tag Array chip for detecting first- and second-line anti tuberculosis drug resistance in pulmonary tuberculosis and compared the analytical performance of the gene chip to that of phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST). From November 2011 to April 2016.234 consecutive culture-confirmed, clinically and imaging diagnosed patients with pulmonary tuberculosis from Southwest Hospital, Chongqing were enrolled into the study. Specimens collected during sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from the pulmonary tuberculosis patients were subjected to M. tuberculosis species identification and drug-resistance detection by the Tag Array gene chip, and evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of chip. A total of 186 patients was diagnosed drug-resistant tuberculosis. The detection of rifampicin (RFP), isoniazid (INH), fluoroquinolones (FQS), streptomycin (SM) resistance genes was highly sensitive and specific: however, for detection of amikacin (AMK), capreomycin (CPM), Kanamycin (KM), specificity was higher, but sensitivity was lower. Sensitivity for the detection of a mutation in the eis promoter region could be improved. The detection sensitivity of the EMB resistance gene was low, therefore it is easy to miss a diagnosis of EMB drug resistance, but its specificity was high. Tag Array chip can achieve rapid, accurate and high-throughput detection of tuberculosis resistance in pulmonary tuberculosis, which has important clinical significance and feasibility. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Novel AroA from Pseudomonas putida Confers Tobacco Plant with High Tolerance to Glyphosate

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hai-Qin; Chang, Su-Hua; Tian, Zhe-Xian; Zhang, Le; Sun, Yi-Cheng; Li, Yan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yi-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Glyphosate is a non-selective broad-spectrum herbicide that inhibits 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS, also designated as AroA), a key enzyme in the aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathway in microorganisms and plants. Previously, we reported that a novel AroA (PpAroA1) from Pseudomonas putida had high tolerance to glyphosate, with little homology to class I or class II glyphosate-tolerant AroA. In this study, the coding sequence of PpAroA1 was optimized for tobacco. For maturation of the enzyme in chloroplast, a chloroplast transit peptide coding sequence was fused in frame with the optimized aroA gene (PparoA1optimized) at the 5′ end. The PparoA1optimized gene was introduced into the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. W38) genome via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The transformed explants were first screened in shoot induction medium containing kanamycin. Then glyphosate tolerance was assayed in putative transgenic plants and its T1 progeny. Our results show that the PpAroA1 from Pseudomonas putida can efficiently confer tobacco plants with high glyphosate tolerance. Transgenic tobacco overexpressing the PparoA1optimized gene exhibit high tolerance to glyphosate, which suggest that the novel PpAroA1 is a new and good candidate applied in transgenic crops with glyphosate tolerance in future. PMID:21611121

  17. Expression and characterization of a recombinant single-domain monoclonal antibody against MUC1 mucin in tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Rajabi-Memari, H; Jalali-Javaran, M; Rasaee, M J; Rahbarizadeh, F; Forouzandeh-Moghadam, M; Esmaili, A

    2006-08-01

    A promising alternative to conventional antibodies is the single-domain antibody fragment of the Camelidae (V(HH)), which (because of features such as small length, high expression, solubility, and stability) is preferred to other antibody derivatives. In this report, a recombinant single-domain antibody (V(HH)) against MUC1 mucin in the tobacco plant, which may be considered as a suitable and economical alternative expression system, was produced. This antibody was expressed under the control of a strong constitutive promoter, CaMV35S, and NOS terminator. A plant high-expression sequence (Kozak sequence) was linked at the 5' end for overexpression of the V(HH) gene. The constructed cassette (pBIV(HH)) was transferred to agrobacterium, and the VHH gene was inserted into the plant genome by agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgenic lines were selected on kanamycin (100 mg/L) and maintained in soil, and subsequent generations were obtained. The presence and expression of the transgene was confirmed in the transformants by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Western blot. Tobacco transgenic lines leave expressed V(HH) at levels varying from 1.12% to 1.63% of the total soluble protein. This report examines the transformation and expression of recombinant single-domain antibody (V(HH)) against antigen-associated tumor in tobacco plants.

  18. SXT/R391 integrative and conjugative elements in Proteus species reveal abundant genetic diversity and multidrug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinyue; Du, Yu; Du, Pengcheng; Dai, Hang; Fang, Yujie; Li, Zhenpeng; Lv, Na; Zhu, Baoli; Kan, Biao; Wang, Duochun

    2016-01-01

    SXT/R391 integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are self-transmissible mobile genetic elements that are found in most members of Enterobacteriaceae. Here, we determined fifteen SXT/R391 ICEs carried by Proteus isolates from food (4.2%) and diarrhoea patients (17.3%). BLASTn searches against GenBank showed that the fifteen SXT/R391 ICEs were closely related to that from different Enterobacteriaceae species, including Proteus mirabilis. Using core gene phylogenetic analysis, the fifteen SXT/R391 ICEs were grouped into six distinct clusters, including a dominant cluster and three clusters that have not been previously reported in Proteus isolates. The SXT/R391 ICEs shared a common structure with a set of conserved genes, five hotspots and two variable regions, which contained more foreign genes, including drug-resistance genes. Notably, a class A β-lactamase gene was identified in nine SXT/R391 ICEs. Collectively, the ICE-carrying isolates carried resistance genes for 20 tested drugs. Six isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol, kanamycin, streptomycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxazole and tetracycline, which are drug resistances commonly encoded by ICEs. Our results demonstrate abundant genetic diversity and multidrug resistance of the SXT/R391 ICEs carried by Proteus isolates, which may have significance for public health. It is therefore necessary to continuously monitor the antimicrobial resistance and related mobile elements among Proteus isolates. PMID:27892525

  19. Antisense expression of the peptide transport gene AtPTR2-B delays flowering and arrests seed development in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed Central

    Song, W; Koh, S; Czako, M; Marton, L; Drenkard, E; Becker, J M; Stacey, G

    1997-01-01

    Previously, we identified a peptide transport gene, AtPTR2-B, from Arabidopsis thaliana that was constitutively expressed in all plant organs, suggesting an important physiological role in plant growth and development. To evaluate the function of this transporter, transgenic Arabidopsis plants were constructed expressing antisense or sense AtPTR2-B. Genomic Southern analysis indicated that four independent antisense and three independent sense AtPTR2-B transgenic lines were obtained, which was confirmed by analysis of the segregation of the kanamycin resistance gene carried on the T-DNA. RNA blot data showed that the endogenous AtPTR2-B mRNA levels were significantly reduced in transgenic leaves and flowers, but not in transgenic roots. Consistent with this reduction in endogenous AtPTR2-B mRNA levels, all four antisense lines and one sense line exhibited significant phenotypic changes, including late flowering and arrested seed development. These phenotypic changes could be explained by a defect in nitrogen nutrition due to the reduced peptide transport activity conferred by AtPTR2-B. These results suggest that AtPTR2-B may play a general role in plant nutrition. The AtPTR2-B gene was mapped to chromosome 2, which is closely linked to the restriction fragment length polymorphism marker m246. PMID:9232875

  20. The thin-layer agar method for direct phenotypic detection of multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ardizzoni, E; Mulders, W; Kotrikadze, T; Aspindzelashvili, R; Goginashvili, L; Pangtey, H; Varaine, F; Bastard, M; Rigouts, L; de Jong, B C

    2015-12-01

    Molecular techniques rapidly detect resistance to rifampicin (RMP) and isoniazid (INH), but do not eliminate the need for culture-based drug susceptibility testing (DST) against other drugs. The thin-layer agar (TLA) test, a non-commercial direct DST method, has demonstrated good performance for INH and RMP; however, evidence is still limited, and its applicability for DST of ofloxacin (OFX) and kanamycin (KM) is unknown. We compared 279 TLA DST results with those of MGIT for INH and RMP, and 280 results for OFX and KM with those of the 7H11 agar proportion method, obtained from 320 smear-positive samples from 165 Georgian TB patients. Discrepancies were solved by comparison with a composite reference standard. The prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) was 30 of 164 patients (18.3%), 2 (6.7%) of whom had extensively drug-resistant TB. TLA showed 94.7%, 98.2%, 100% and 78.9% sensitivity, respectively, for INH, RMP, OFX and KM, with 100% specificity. Average time to results was 7 days in TLA, 23 in MGIT and 49 for 7H11 agar. In low-resource settings, TLA can be applied for the rapid detection of resistance to INH, RMP and fluoroquinolones. Further studies are necessary to improve sensitivity to KM and further assess its performance for OFX and other drugs and its applicability in field conditions.

  1. Plasmid incidence in bacteria from deep subsurface sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Fredrickson, J.K.; Hicks, R.J.; Li, S.W.

    Bacteria were isolated from deep terrestrial subsurface sediments underlying the coastal plain of South Carolina. A total of 163 isolates from deep sediments, surface soil, and return drill muds were examined for plasmid DNA content and resistance to the antibiotics penicillin, ampicillin, carbenicillin, streptomycin, kanamycin, and tetracycline. MICs of Cu{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+}, and Hg{sup 2+} for each isolate were also determined. The overall frequency of plasmid occurrence in the subsurface bacteria was 33%. Resistance was most frequent to penicillin (70% of all isolates), ampicillin (49%), and carbenicillin (32%) and was concluded to be related to the concentrations of themore » individual antibiotics in the disks used for assaying resistance and to the production of low levels of {beta}-lactamase. The frequencies of resistance to penicillin and ampicillin were significantly greater for isolates bearing plasmids than for plasmidless isolates; however, resistance was not transferable to penicillin-sensitive Escherichia coli. Hybridization of subsurface bacterial plasmids and chromosomal DNA with a whole-TOL-plasmid (pWWO) probe revealed some homology of subsurface bacterial plasmid and chromosomal DNAs, indicating a potential for those bacterial to harbor catabolic genes on plasmids or chromosomes. The incidences of antibiotic resistance and MICs of metals for subsurface bacteria were significantly different from those drill mud bacteria, ruling out the possibility that bacteria from sediments were derived from drill muds.« less

  2. Identification of cis-elements conferring high levels of gene expression in non-green plastids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiang; Ruf, Stephanie; Hasse, Claudia; Childs, Liam; Scharff, Lars B; Bock, Ralph

    2012-10-01

    Although our knowledge about the mechanisms of gene expression in chloroplasts has increased substantially over the past decades, next to nothing is known about the signals and factors that govern expression of the plastid genome in non-green tissues. Here we report the development of a quantitative method suitable for determining the activity of cis-acting elements for gene expression in non-green plastids. The in vivo assay is based on stable transformation of the plastid genome and the discovery that root length upon seedling growth in the presence of the plastid translational inhibitor kanamycin is directly proportional to the expression strength of the resistance gene nptII in transgenic tobacco plastids. By testing various combinations of promoters and translation initiation signals, we have used this experimental system to identify cis-elements that are highly active in non-green plastids. Surprisingly, heterologous expression elements from maize plastids were significantly more efficient in conferring high expression levels in root plastids than homologous expression elements from tobacco. Our work has established a quantitative method for characterization of gene expression in non-green plastid types, and has led to identification of cis-elements for efficient plastid transgene expression in non-green tissues, which are valuable tools for future transplastomic studies in basic and applied research. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Spirochaeta americana sp. nov., a new haloalkaliphilic, obligately anaerobic spirochaete isolated from soda Mono Lake in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Pikuta, Elena V.; Bej, Asim K.; Marsic, Damien; Whitman, William B.; Tang, Jane; Krader, Paul

    2003-01-01

    A novel, obligately anaerobic, mesophilic, haloalkaliphilic spirochaete, strain ASpG1(T), was isolated from sediments of the alkaline, hypersaline Mono Lake in California, USA. Cells of the Gram-negative strain were motile and spirochaete-shaped with sizes of 0.2-0.22 x 8-18 microm. Growth of the strain was observed between 10 and 44 degrees C (optimum 37 degrees C), in 2-12% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 3% NaCl) and between pH 8 and 10.5 (optimum pH 9.5). The novel strain was strictly alkaliphilic, required high concentrations of carbonates in the medium and was capable of utilizing D-glucose, fructose, maltose, sucrose, starch and D-mannitol. End products of glucose fermentation were H2, acetate, ethanol and formate. Strain ASpG(T) was resistant to kanamycin and rifampicin, but sensitive to gentamicin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol. The G + C content of its DNA was 58.5 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization analysis of strain ASpG1(T) with its most closely related species, Spirochaeta alkalica Z-7491(T), revealed a hybridization value of only 48.7%. On the basis of its physiological and molecular properties, strain ASpG1(T) appears to represent a novel species of the genus Spirochaeta, for which the name Spirochaeta americana is proposed (type strain ASpG1(T) =ATCC BAA-392(T) = DSM 14872(T)).

  4. Dental plaque bacteria with reduced susceptibility to chlorhexidine are multidrug resistant.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Hafiz Ghulam Murtaza; Seers, Christine Ann; Sabri, Anjum Nasim; Reynolds, Eric Charles

    2016-09-15

    Chlorhexidine (CHX) is used in oral care products to help control dental plaque. In this study dental plaque bacteria were grown on media containing 2 μg/ml chlorhexidine gluconate to screen for bacteria with reduced CHX susceptibility. The isolates were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and antibiotic resistance profiles were determined using the disc diffusion method. The isolates were variably resistant to multiple drugs including ampicillin, kanamycin, gentamicin and tetracycline. Two species, Chryseobacterium culicis and Chryseobacterium indologenes were able to grow planktonically and form biofilms in the presence of 32 μg/ml CHX. In the CHX and multidrug resistant C. indologenes we demonstrated a 19-fold up-regulation of expression of the HlyD-like periplasmic adaptor protein of a tripartite efflux pump upon exposure to 16 μg/ml CHX suggesting that multidrug resistance may be mediated by this system. Exposure of biofilms of these resistant species to undiluted commercial CHX mouthwash for intervals from 5 to 60 s indicated that the mouthwash was unlikely to eliminate them from dental plaque in vivo. The study highlights the requirement for increased vigilance of the presence of multidrug resistant bacteria in dental plaque and raises a potential risk of long-term use of oral care products containing antimicrobial agents for the control of dental plaque.

  5. Intramammary expression and therapeutic effect of a human lysozyme-expressing vector for treating bovine mastitis*

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Huai-Chang; Xue, Fang-Ming; Qian, Ke; Fang, Hao-Xia; Qiu, Hua-Lei; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Yin, Zhao-Hua

    2006-01-01

    To develop a gene therapy strategy for treating bovine mastitis, a new mammary-specific vector containing human lysozyme (hLYZ) cDNA and kanamycin resistance gene was constructed for intramammary expression and clinical studies. After one time acupuncture or intracisternal infusion of healthy cows with 400 μg of the p215C3LYZ vector, over 2.0 μg/ml of rhLYZ could be detected by enzymatic assay for about 3 weeks in the milk samples. Western blotting showed that rhLYZ secreted into milk samples from the vector-injected cows had molecular weight similar to that of the natural hLYZ in human colostrums. Twenty days after the primary injection, the quarters were re-injected with the same vector by quarter acupuncture and even higher concentrations of rhLYZ could be detected. Indirect competitive ELISA of milk samples showed that the vector injection did not induce detectable humoral immune response against hLYZ. Clinical studies showed that twice acupuncture of quarters with the p215C3LYZ vector had overt therapeutic effect on clinical and subclinical mastitis previously treated with antibiotics, including disappearance of clinical symptoms and relatively high microbiological cure rates. These data provide a solid rationale for using the vector to develop gene therapy for treating bovine mastitis. PMID:16532537

  6. Gut microbiota of Tenebrio molitor and their response to environmental change.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaejoon; Heo, Aram; Park, Yong Woo; Kim, Ye Ji; Koh, Hyelim; Park, Woojun

    2014-07-01

    A bacterial community analysis of the gut of Tenebrio molitor larvae was performed using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. A predominance of genus Spiroplasma species in phylum Tenericutes was observed in the gut samples, but there was variation found in the community composition between T. molitor individuals. The gut bacteria community structure was not significantly affected by the presence of antibiotics or by the exposure of T. molitor larvae to a highly diverse soil bacteria community. A negative relationship was identified between bacterial diversity and ampicillin concentration; however, no negative relationship was identified with the addition of kanamycin. Ampicillin treatment resulted in a reduction in the bacterial community size, estimated using the 16S rRNA gene copy number. A detailed phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Spiroplasma-associated sequences originating from the T. molitor larvae were distinct from previously identified Spiroplasma type species, implying the presence of novel Spiroplasma species. Some Spiroplasma species are known to be insect pathogens; however, the T. molitor larvae did not experience any harmful effects arising from the presence of Spiroplasma species, indicating that Spiroplasma in the gut of T. molitor larvae do not act as a pathogen to the host. A comparison with the bacterial communities found in other insects (Apis and Solenopsis) showed that the Spiroplasma species found in this study were specific to T. molitor.

  7. Gelidivirgula Patagoniensis Gen. Nov., Sp. Nov., A Novel Psychrotolerant, Sporeforming Anaerobe Isolated from Magellanic Penguin Guano in Patagonia, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Marsic, Damien; Whitman, William B.; Tang, Jane; Krader, Paul

    2003-01-01

    A novel obligately anaerobic, psychrotrophic bacterium, strain PPP2(sup T), was isolated from guano of the Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) in Patagonia, Chile. The Gram-positive, sporeforming, straight rods with sizes 0.6-0.9 x 3.0-5.0 microns, are motile by peritrichous flagella. Growth was observed to occur within the pH range 6.0-9.5 (optimum pH x), and temperature range 2-28 C (optimum 20 C). The novel isolate does not require NaCl for growth, but is halotolerant and growth was observed between 0 and 7 % NaCl (w/v) with optimum at 0.5 % (w/v). The new isolate is a catalase negative chemoorganohetherotroph with fermentative metabolism and uses as substrates: peptone, Bacto-tryptone, Casamino acids, and yeast extract. The major metabolic products are: acetate, butyrate, ethanol, and hydrogen is a minor gas product.. Strain PPP2 was sensitive to ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, rifampin, kanamycin, and gentamycin. The G+C content of the DNA is 43.6 mol%. On the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequences and phenotypic characteristics, it is proposed that the strain PPP2(sup T) (= ATCC BAA-755(sup T) = JSM ...(sup T)) is assigned to the new genus Gelidivirgula gen. nov., as a representative of the new species, Gelidivirgula patagonensis sp. nov.

  8. Carnobacterium pleistocenium sp. nov., a novel psychrotolerant, facultative anaerobe isolated from permafrost of the Fox Tunnel in Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Marsic, Damien; Bej, Asim; Tang, Jane; Krader, Paul; Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-01-01

    A novel, psychrotolerant, facultative anaerobe, strain FTR1T, was isolated from Pleistocene ice from the permafrost tunnel in Fox, Alaska. Gram-positive, motile, rod-shaped cells were observed with sizes 0.6-0.7 x 0.9-1.5 microm. Growth occurred within the pH range 6.5-9.5 with optimum growth at pH 7.3-7.5. The temperature range for growth of the novel isolate was 0-28 degrees C and optimum growth occurred at 24 degrees C. The novel isolate does not require NaCl; growth was observed between 0 and 5 % NaCl with optimum growth at 0.5 % (w/v). The novel isolate was a catalase-negative chemoorganoheterotroph that used as substrates sugars and some products of proteolysis. The metabolic end products were acetate, ethanol and CO2. Strain FTR1T was sensitive to ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, rifampicin, kanamycin and gentamicin. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed 99.8 % similarity between strain FTR1T and Carnobacterium alterfunditum, but DNA-DNA hybridization between them demonstrated 39+/-1.5 % relatedness. On the basis of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, it is proposed that strain FTR1T (=ATCC BAA-754T=JCM 12174T=CIP 108033T) be assigned to the novel species Carnobacterium pleistocenium sp. nov.

  9. Carnobacterium Pleistocaenium sp. nov.: A Novel Psychrotolerant, Facultative Anaerobe Isolated from Permafrost of the Fox Tunnel in Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Marsic, Damien; Bej, Asim; Tang, Jane; Krader, Paul; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-01-01

    A novel, psychrotolerant, facultative anaerobe, strain FTRIT1(sup T), was isolated from Pleistocene ice from the permafrost tunnel in Fox, Alaska. Gram-positive, motile, rod-shaped cells with sizes 0.6-0.7 x 0.9-1.5 micrometers were observed. Growth occurred within the pH range 6.5-9.5 and optimum at pH 7.3-7.5. The temperature range of the new isolate was 0-28 C and optimum growth occurred at 24 C. The novel isolate requires NaCl (growth absent at 0 %) and growth was observed between 0 and 5% NaCl with optimum at 0.5% (w/v). The new isolate was a catalase-negative chemoorganoheterotroph that used as substrates sugars and some products of proteolysis. The metabolic end products were: acetate, ethanol and CO2. Strain FTRl was sensitive to ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, rifampin, kanamycin, and gentamycin. The 16S rDNA sequence analysis showed 99.8% similarity of strain FTR1 with Carnobacterium alterfunditum, but the DNA-DNA hybridization between them demonstrated 39 plus or minus 5% homology. On the basis of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, it is proposed that the strain FTR1(sup T) (= ATCC BAA-754(sup T) = JSM 12174(sup T) is assigned to the new species of the genus Carnobacterium with proposed name Carnobacterium pleistocaenium sp. nov.

  10. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Ennassiri, Wifak; Jaouhari, Sanae; Cherki, Wafa; Charof, Reda; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim; Lahlou, Ouafae

    2017-12-01

    Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has recently been identified as a major global health threat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of XDR-TB among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Morocco and its association with demographic, clinical and epidemiological features. A total of 524 patients from the Moroccan National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, representative of all of the geographic regions, were subject to first-line drug susceptibility testing (DST). Subsequently, 155 isolates found to be multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) underwent second-line DST. Moreover, to enhance our understanding of the genetic basis of these drug-resistant strains, drug resistance-associated mutations were investigated in isolates either identified as pre-XDR- and XDR-TB or suspected resistant using the GenoType ® MTBDRsl V1.0 assay. In this study, 4 (2.6%) XDR-TB and 18 (11.6%) pre-XDR-TB isolates were identified. Agreement between the MTBDRsl assay results and phenotypic DST was 95.2% for ofloxacin, 81.0% for kanamycin and 95.2% for amikacin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the frequency of XDR-TB in Morocco. These results highlight the need to reinforce the TB management policy in Morocco with regard to control and detection strategies in order to prevent further spread of XDR-TB isolates. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Monitoring of microbial cell viability using nanostructured electrodes modified with Graphene/Alumina nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Rabeay Y A; Mekawy, Moataz M; Ramnani, Pankaj; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2017-05-15

    Microbial infections are rapidly increasing; however most of the existing microbiological and molecular detection methods are time consuming and/or cannot differentiate between the viable and dead cells which may overestimate the risk of infections. Therefore, a bioelectrochemical sensing platform with a high potential to the microbial-electrode interactions was designed based on decorated graphene oxide (GO) sheet with alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) nanocrystals. GO-Al 2 O 3 nanocomposite was synthesized using self-assembly of GO and Al 2 O 3 and characterized using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman-spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Enhancement of electrocatalytic activity of the composite-modified electrode was demonstrated. Thus, using the GO-Al 2 O 3 nanocomposite modified electrode, the cell viability was determined by monitoring the bioelectrochemical response of the living microbial cells (bacteria and yeast) upon stimulation with carbon source. The bioelectrochemical assay was optimized to obtain high sensitivity and the method was applied to monitor cell viability and screen susceptibility of metabolically active cells (E. coli, B. subtilis, Enterococcus, P. aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi) to antibiotics such as ampicillin and kanamycin. Therefore, the developed assay is suitable for cell proliferation and cytotoxicity testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Trees Containing Built-In Pulping Catalysts - Final Report - 08/18/1997 - 08/18/2000

    SciTech Connect

    Pullman, G.; Dimmel, D.; Peter, G.

    2000-08-18

    DNA sequencing project carried out with Arabidopsis thaliana. We used this putative plant ICS gene fragment to isolate and sequence a full-length ICS cDNA from Arabidopsis thaliana. The putative full-length cDNA encodes for a 569 amino acid protein of {approximately}62kDa. This sequence represents the first full-length ICS cDNA isolated from a plant. When inserted into E. coli, our isolated cDNA over-expressed ICS protein in the insoluble inclusion bodies. A plant expression vector containing the ICS cDNA, NP II for selection on the antibiotic kanamycin, and duplicated 35S-cauliflower mosaic virus promoter were inserted into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV3101. Transformation experiments for insertion of these foreign genes into Populus deltoides 'C175' resulted in eight lines able to regenerate shoots and grow roots in the presence of kanamycin. Plants from these eight lines have acclimated to growth in sterile soil and will be moved to a greenhouse environment in spring 2001. Non rooted shoots from each line are currently being multiplied by shoot culture. When enough shoot tissue and/or greenhouse plant stem tissue is available, AQ analysis will be done and compared with non transformed control tissue.« less

  13. Streptococcus agalactiae Causing Neonatal Infections in Portugal (2005-2015): Diversification and Emergence of a CC17/PI-2b Multidrug Resistant Sublineage.

    PubMed

    Martins, Elisabete R; Pedroso-Roussado, Cristiano; Melo-Cristino, José; Ramirez, Mário

    2017-01-01

    The molecular characterization of 218 GBS isolates recovered from neonatal invasive infections in Portugal in 2005-2015 revealed the existence of a small number of genetically distinct lineages that were present over a significant time-span. Serotypes III and Ia were dominant in the population, together accounting for >80% of the isolates. Clonal complex 17 included 50% of all isolates, highlighting the importance of the hypervirulent genetic lineage represented by serotype III ST17/ rib /PI-1+PI-2b. Serotype Ia was represented mainly by ST23, previously reported as dominant among invasive disease in non-pregnant adults in Portugal, but also by ST24, showing an increased frequency among late-onset disease. Overall erythromycin resistance was 16%, increasing during the study period ( p < 0.001). Macrolide resistance was overrepresented among CC1 and CC19 isolates ( p < 0.001 and p = 0.008, respectively). While representatives of the hypervirulent CC17 lineage were mostly susceptible to macrolides, we identified for the first time in Europe a recently emerging sublineage characterized by the loss of PI-1 (CC17/PI-2b), simultaneously resistant to macrolides, lincosamides, and tetracycline, also exhibiting high-level resistance to streptomycin and kanamycin. The stability and dominance of CC17 among neonatal invasive infections in the past decades indicates that it is extremely well adapted to its niche; however emerging resistance in this genetic background may have significant implications for the prevention and management of GBS disease.

  14. Survey of tuberculosis drug resistance among Tibetan refugees in India.

    PubMed

    Salvo, F; Dorjee, K; Dierberg, K; Cronin, W; Sadutshang, T D; Migliori, G B; Rodrigues, C; Trentini, F; Di Serio, C; Chaisson, R; Cirillo, D M

    2014-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major health problem among Tibetans living in exile in India. Although drug-resistant TB is considered common in clinical practice, precise data are lacking. To determine the proportion of drug-resistant cases among new and previously treated Tibetan TB patients. In a drug resistance survey in five Tibetan settlements in India, culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST) for first-line drugs were performed among all consecutive new and previously treated TB cases from April 2010 to September 2011. DST against kanamycin (KM), ethionamide, para-aminosalicylic acid and ofloxacin (OFX) was performed on multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) isolates. Of 307 patients enrolled in the study, 264 (193 new and 71 previously treated) were culture-positive and had DST available. All patients tested for the human immunodeficiency virus (n = 250) were negative. Among new TB cases, 14.5% had MDR-TB and 5.7% were isoniazid (INH) monoresistant. Among previously treated cases, 31.4% had MDR-TB and 12.7% were INH-monoresistant. Of the MDR-TB isolates, 28.6% of new and 26.1% of previously treated cases were OFX-resistant, while 7.1% of new cases and 8.7% of previously treated cases were KM-resistant. Three patients had extensively drug-resistant TB. MDR-TB is common in new and previously treated Tibetans in India, who also show additional complex resistance patterns. Of particular concern is the high percentage of MDR-TB strains resistant to OFX, KM or both.

  15. Structure of the bifunctional aminoglycoside-resistance enzyme AAC(6')-Ie-APH(2'')-Ia revealed by crystallographic and small-angle X-ray scattering analysis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Clyde A; Toth, Marta; Weiss, Thomas M; Frase, Hilary; Vakulenko, Sergei B

    2014-10-01

    Broad-spectrum resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics in clinically important Gram-positive staphylococcal and enterococcal pathogens is primarily conferred by the bifunctional enzyme AAC(6')-Ie-APH(2'')-Ia. This enzyme possesses an N-terminal coenzyme A-dependent acetyltransferase domain [AAC(6')-Ie] and a C-terminal GTP-dependent phosphotransferase domain [APH(2'')-Ia], and together they produce resistance to almost all known aminoglycosides in clinical use. Despite considerable effort over the last two or more decades, structural details of AAC(6')-Ie-APH(2'')-Ia have remained elusive. In a recent breakthrough, the structure of the isolated C-terminal APH(2'')-Ia enzyme was determined as the binary Mg2GDP complex. Here, the high-resolution structure of the N-terminal AAC(6')-Ie enzyme is reported as a ternary kanamycin/coenzyme A abortive complex. The structure of the full-length bifunctional enzyme has subsequently been elucidated based upon small-angle X-ray scattering data using the two crystallographic models. The AAC(6')-Ie enzyme is joined to APH(2'')-Ia by a short, predominantly rigid linker at the N-terminal end of a long α-helix. This α-helix is in turn intrinsically associated with the N-terminus of APH(2'')-Ia. This structural arrangement supports earlier observations that the presence of the intact α-helix is essential to the activity of both functionalities of the full-length AAC(6')-Ie-APH(2'')-Ia enzyme.

  16. Comparative Study on Antibiotic Resistance and DNA Profiles of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Isolated from Humans, Retail Foods, and the Environment in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zengfeng; Cao, Chenyang; Liu, Bin; Xu, Xuebin; Yan, Yanfei; Cui, Shenghui; Chen, Sheng; Meng, Jianghong; Yang, Baowei

    2018-05-09

    We characterized antibiotic resistance profiles, antibiotic resistance-associated genes, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of 145 Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium isolates from human infections and retail foods that were possibly responsible for salmonellosis outbreaks from 2008 to 2012 in Shanghai, China. Resistance to at least three antibiotics was found in 66.7% of chicken isolates, 76.5% of duck isolates, 77.8% of pork isolates, and 80.5% of human isolates. Seven antibiotic resistance phenotypes were detected in chicken isolates, 16 in pork isolates, 17 in duck isolates, and 50 in human isolates. No significant difference (p > 0.05) was found between Salmonella isolates derived from human salmonellosis and from retail foods in terms of the percent resistance of ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, sulfisoxazole, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. PFGE using XbaI and BlnI showed that some Salmonella isolates recovered from human infections and retail foods had same or highly similar genetic profile. Same or similar antibiotic resistance profiles, antibiotic resistance associated genes (i.e., qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, aac(6')-Ib, and oqxAB), gene cassettes (i.e., aadA2, dfrA12-aadA2, and aadA1), and mutations were detected in those isolates that exhibited high genetic similarities. These findings highlighted the frequent presence of Salmonella Typhimurium in retail chicken, pork, duck, and humans.

  17. A second gene for type I signal peptidase in Bradyrhizobium japonicum, sipF, is located near genes involved in RNA processing and cell division.

    PubMed

    Bairl, A; Müller, P

    1998-11-01

    The TnphoA-induced Bradyrhizobium japonicum mutant 184 shows slow growth and aberrant colonization of soybean nodules. Using a DNA fragment adjacent to the transposon insertion site as a probe, a 3.4-kb BglII fragment of B. japonicum 110spc4 DNA was identified and cloned. Sequence analysis indicated that two truncated ORFs and three complete ORFs were encoded on this fragment. A database search revealed homologies to several other prokaryotic proteins: PdxJ (an enzyme involved in vitamin B6 biosynthesis), AcpS (acyl carrier protein synthase), Lep or Sip (prokaryotic type I signal peptidase), RNase III (an endoribonuclease which processes double-stranded rRNA precursors and mRNA) and Era (a GTP-binding protein required for cell division). The mutation in strain 184 was found to lie within the signal peptidase gene, which was designated sipF. Therefore, sipF is located in a region that encodes gene products involved in posttranscriptional and posttranslational processing processes. By complementation of the lep(ts) E. coli mutant strain IT41 it was demonstrated that sipF indeed encodes a functional signal peptidase, and genetic complementation of B. japonicum mutant 184 by a 2.8-kb SalI fragment indicated that sipF is expressed from a promoter located directly upstream of sipF. Using a non-polar kanamycin resistance cassette, a specific sipF mutant was constructed which exhibited defects in symbiosis similar to those of the original mutant 184.

  18. Antimicrobial activities of the rhizome extract of Zingiber zerumbet Linn.

    PubMed

    Kader, Golam; Nikkon, Farjana; Rashid, Mohammad Abdur; Yeasmin, Tanzima

    2011-10-01

    To investigate antimicrobial effects of ethanolic extract of Zingiber zerumbet (Z. zerumbet) (L.) Smith and its chloroform and petroleum ether soluble fractions against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The fresh rhizomes of Zingiber zerumbet were extracted in cold with ethanol (4.0 L) after concentration. The crude ethanol extract was fractionated by petroleum ether and chloroform to form a suspension of ethanol extract (15.0 g), petroleum ether fraction (6.6 g) and chloroform soluble fraction (5.0 g). The crude ethanol extract and its petroleum ether and chloroform fractions were evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activity against thirteen pathogenic bacteria and three fungi by the disc diffusion method. Commercially available kanamycin (30 µg/disc) was used as standard disc and blank discs impregnated with the respective solvents were used as negative control. At a concentration of 400 µg/disc, all the samples showed mild to moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity and produced the zone of inhibition ranging from 6 mm to 10 mm. Among the tested samples, the crude ethanol extract showed the highest activity against Vibrio parahemolyticus (V. parahemolyticus). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the crude ethanol extract and its fractions were within the value of 128-256 µg/mL against two Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria and all the samples showed the lowest MIC value against V. parahemolyticus (128 µg/mL). It can be concluded that, potent antibacterial and antifungal phytochemicals are present in ethanol extract of Z. zerumbet (L).

  19. A Droplet Microfluidic Platform for Automating Genetic Engineering.

    PubMed

    Gach, Philip C; Shih, Steve C C; Sustarich, Jess; Keasling, Jay D; Hillson, Nathan J; Adams, Paul D; Singh, Anup K

    2016-05-20

    We present a water-in-oil droplet microfluidic platform for transformation, culture and expression of recombinant proteins in multiple host organisms including bacteria, yeast and fungi. The platform consists of a hybrid digital microfluidic/channel-based droplet chip with integrated temperature control to allow complete automation and integration of plasmid addition, heat-shock transformation, addition of selection medium, culture, and protein expression. The microfluidic format permitted significant reduction in consumption (100-fold) of expensive reagents such as DNA and enzymes compared to the benchtop method. The chip contains a channel to continuously replenish oil to the culture chamber to provide a fresh supply of oxygen to the cells for long-term (∼5 days) cell culture. The flow channel also replenished oil lost to evaporation and increased the number of droplets that could be processed and cultured. The platform was validated by transforming several plasmids into Escherichia coli including plasmids containing genes for fluorescent proteins GFP, BFP and RFP; plasmids with selectable markers for ampicillin or kanamycin resistance; and a Golden Gate DNA assembly reaction. We also demonstrate the applicability of this platform for transformation in widely used eukaryotic organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger. Duration and temperatures of the microfluidic heat-shock procedures were optimized to yield transformation efficiencies comparable to those obtained by benchtop methods with a throughput up to 6 droplets/min. The proposed platform offers potential for automation of molecular biology experiments significantly reducing cost, time and variability while improving throughput.

  20. Isolation and Characterization of Corynebacteria from Burned Children

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rodney F.; Blasi, Dianna; Dayton, Sandra L.

    1973-01-01

    A total of 221 strains of corynebacteria were isolated and characterized by methods which included tests encompassing five schemes proposed for grouping cutaneous diphtheroids. Seventy-one strains (group I) were isolated from the hospital air in patient areas and from the normal skins of children admitted for reconstructive surgery of old healed burns and from the normal skins of nursing personnel. One hundred and fifty strains (group II) were isolated from various clinical specimens and from normal skins of a population of acutely burned children. The majority of the strains in group I were lipophilic and contained the largest number of fluorescent strains. Among the group II strains, there was a subgroup which was nonsusceptible to oxacillin, lincomycin, erythromycin, and kanamycin and also had in common the fermentation of glucose and galactose, reduction of both nitrate and nitrite, and growth on 40% bile agar. These strains were the most commonly recognized types isolated from acutely burned patients and possibly originated from the patient's intestinal tract. Data indicated that the air was not a means of transmission for these corynebacteria among acute patients. Corynebacteria were isolated from 11% of the burn wound cultures by using a selective medium but were found in 66% of the acute patients. Over 90% of the strains in groups I and II did not conform sufficiently with described characteristics of common human indigenous corynebacteria to be accurately speciated. PMID:4356469

  1. [Detection of auditory impairment in the offsprings caused by drug treatment of the dams].

    PubMed

    Kameyama, T; Nabeshima, T; Itoh, J

    1982-12-01

    To study the auditory impairment induced by prenatal administration of aminoglycosides in the offspring, the shuttle box method to measure the auditory threshold of rats (Kameyama et al., Folia pharmacol. japon. 77, 15, 1981) was employed. Four groups of pregnant rats were administered 200 mg/kg kanamycin sulfate (KM), 200 mg/kg dihydrostreptomycin sulfate (DHSM), 100 mg/kg neomycin sulfate (NM), or 1 ml/kg saline intramuscularly from the 10th to the 19th day of pregnancy. The auditory threshold of the offspring could be measured by the shuttle box method in about 90% of the live born rats at the age of 100 days. The auditory thresholds of the groups were as follows (mean +/- S.E.): saline group, 53.8 +/- 0.6 dB (N = 36); KM group, 63.8 +/- 1.1 dB (N = 34); DHSM group, 60.0 +/- 1.2 dB (N = 29); NM group, 62.4 +/- 1.2 dB (N = 24). Auditory thresholds of drug-treated groups were significantly higher than that of the saline group. However, no increase in the auditory threshold of the mother rat was detected after treatment with aminoglycosides. In addition, the experimental procedure of the shuttle box method is very easy, and the auditory threshold of a large number of rats could be measured in a short period. These findings suggest that this method is a very useful one for screening for auditory impairment induced by prenatal drug treatment in rat offspring.

  2. Effects of Antibiotics on Shiga Toxin 2 Production and Bacteriophage Induction by Epidemic Escherichia coli O104:H4 Strain

    PubMed Central

    Bielaszewska, Martina; Idelevich, Evgeny A.; Zhang, Wenlan; Bauwens, Andreas; Schaumburg, Frieder; Mellmann, Alexander; Peters, Georg

    2012-01-01

    The role of antibiotics in treatment of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infections is controversial because of concerns about triggering hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) by increasing Shiga toxin (Stx) production. During the recent large EHEC O104:H4 outbreak, antibiotic therapy was indicated for some patients. We tested a diverse panel of antibiotics to which the outbreak strain is susceptible to interrogate the effects of subinhibitory antibiotic concentrations on induction of stx2-harboring bacteriophages, stx2 transcription, and Stx2 production in this emerging pathogen. Ciprofloxacin significantly increased stx2-harboring phage induction and Stx2 production in outbreak isolates (P values of <0.001 to <0.05), while fosfomycin, gentamicin, and kanamycin insignificantly influenced them (P > 0.1) and chloramphenicol, meropenem, azithromycin, rifaximin, and tigecycline significantly decreased them (P ≤ 0.05). Ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol significantly upregulated and downregulated stx2 transcription, respectively (P < 0.01); the other antibiotics had insignificant effects (P > 0.1). Meropenem, azithromycin, and rifaximin, which were used for necessary therapeutic or prophylactic interventions during the EHEC O104:H4 outbreak, as well as tigecycline, neither induced stx2-harboring phages nor increased stx2 transcription or Stx2 production in the outbreak strain. These antibiotics might represent therapeutic options for patients with EHEC O104:H4 infection if antibiotic treatment is inevitable. We await further analysis of the epidemic to determine if usage of these agents was associated with an altered risk of developing HUS. PMID:22391549

  3. PROPOSAL OF ANTI-TUBERCULOSIS REGIMENS BASED ON SUSCEPTIBILITY TO ISONIAZID AND RIFAMPICIN

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Ticona, Alberto; Moore, David AJ; Alarcón, Valentina; Samalvides, Frine; Seas, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Objective To elaborate optimal anti-tuberculosis regimens following drug susceptibility testing (DST) to isoniazid (H) and rifampicin (R). Design 12 311 M. tuberculosis strains (National Health Institute of Peru 2007-2009) were classified in four groups according H and R resistance. In each group the sensitivity to ethambutol (E), pirazinamide (Z), streptomycin (S), kanamycin (Km), capreomycin (Cm), ciprofloxacin (Cfx), ethionamide (Eto), cicloserine (Cs) and p-amino salicilic acid (PAS) was determined. Based on resistance profiles, domestic costs, and following WHO guidelines, we elaborated and selected optimal putative regimens for each group. The potential efficacy (PE) variable was defined as the proportion of strains sensitive to at least three or four drugs for each regimen evaluated. Results Selected regimes with the lowest cost, and highest PE of containing 3 and 4 effective drugs for TB sensitive to H and R were: HRZ (99,5%) and HREZ (99,1%), respectively; RZECfx (PE=98,9%) and RZECfxKm (PE=97,7%) for TB resistant to H; HZECfx (96,8%) and HZECfxKm (95,4%) for TB resistant to R; and EZCfxKmEtoCs (82.9%) for MDR-TB. Conclusion Based on resistance to H and R it was possible to select anti-tuberculosis regimens with high probability of success. This proposal is a feasible alternative to tackle tuberculosis in Peru where the access to rapid DST to H and R is improving progressively. PMID:23949502

  4. Cell suspension culture-mediated incorporation of the rice bel gene into transgenic cotton.

    PubMed

    Ke, Liping; Liu, RuiE; Chu, Bijue; Yu, Xiushuang; Sun, Jie; Jones, Brian; Pan, Gang; Cheng, Xiaofei; Wang, Huizhong; Zhu, Shuijin; Sun, Yuqiang

    2012-01-01

    Cotton plants engineered for resistance to the herbicides, glyphosate or glufosinate have made a considerable impact on the production of the crop worldwide. In this work, embryogenic cell cultures derived from Gossypium hirsutum L. cv Coker 312 hypocotyl callus were transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens with the rice cytochrome P450 gene, CYP81A6 (bel). In rice, bel has been shown to confer resistance to both bentazon and sulfanylurea herbicides. Transformed cells were selected on a liquid medium supplemented alternately or simultaneously with kanamycin (50mg/L) and bentazon (4.2 µmol). A total of 17 transgenic cotton lines were recovered, based on the initial resistance to bentazon and on PCR detection of the bel transgene. Bel integration into the cotton genome was confirmed by Southern blot and expression of the transgene was verified by RT-PCR. In greenhouse and experimental plot trials, herbicide (bentazon) tolerance of up to 1250 mg/L was demonstrated in the transgenic plants. Transgenic lines with a single copy of the bel gene showed normal Mendelian inheritance of the characteristic. Importantly, resistance to bentazon was shown to be stably incorporated in the T1, T2 and T3 generations of self-fertilised descendents and in plants outcrossed to another upland cotton cultivar. Engineering resistance to bentazon in cotton through the heterologous expression of bel opens the possibility of incorporating this trait into elite cultivars, a strategy that would give growers a more flexible alternative to weed management in cotton crops.

  5. Insertion Mutation of the Form I cbbL Gene Encoding Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase (RuBisCO) in Thiobacillus neapolitanus Results in Expression of Form II RuBisCO, Loss of Carboxysomes, and an Increased CO2 Requirement for Growth

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Stefanie H.; Jin, Songmu; Aldrich, Henry C.; Howard, Gary T.; Shively, Jessup M.

    1998-01-01

    It has been previously established that Thiobacillus neapolitanus fixes CO2 by using a form I ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO), that much of the enzyme is sequestered into carboxysomes, and that the genes for the enzyme, cbbL and cbbS, are part of a putative carboxysome operon. In the present study, cbbL and cbbS were cloned and sequenced. Analysis of RNA showed that cbbL and cbbS are cotranscribed on a message approximately 2,000 nucleotides in size. The insertion of a kanamycin resistance cartridge into cbbL resulted in a premature termination of transcription; a polar mutant was generated. The mutant is able to fix CO2, but requires a CO2 supplement for growth. Separation of cellular proteins from both the wild type and the mutant on sucrose gradients and subsequent analysis of the RuBisCO activity in the collected fractions showed that the mutant assimilates CO2 by using a form II RuBisCO. This was confirmed by immunoblot analysis using antibodies raised against form I and form II RuBisCOs. The mutant does not possess carboxysomes. Smaller, empty inclusions are present, but biochemical analysis indicates that if they are carboxysome related, they are not functional, i.e., do not contain RuBisCO. Northern analysis showed that some of the shell components of the carboxysome are produced, which may explain the presence of these inclusions in the mutant. PMID:9696760

  6. Efflux pump-deficient mutants as a platform to search for microbes that produce antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Molina-Santiago, Carlos; Udaondo, Zulema; Daddaoua, Abdelali; Roca, Amalia; Martín, Jesús; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Reyes, Fernando; Ramos, Juan-Luis

    2015-07-01

    Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E-18 is a strain deficient in the major antibiotic efflux pump (TtgABC) that exhibits an overall increased susceptibility to a wide range of drugs when compared with the wild-type strain. We used this strain as a platform to search for microbes able to produce antibiotics that inhibit growth. A collection of 2400 isolates from soil, sediments and water was generated and a drop assay developed to identify, via growth inhibition halos, strains that prevent the growth of DOT-T1E-18 on solid Luria-Bertani plates. In this study, 35 different isolates that produced known and unknown antibiotics were identified. The most potent inhibitor of DOT-T1E-18 growth was an isolate named 250J that, through multi-locus sequence analysis, was identified as a Pseudomonas sp. strain. Culture supernatants of 250J contain four different xantholysins that prevent growth of Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative and fungi. Two of the xantholysins were produced in higher concentrations and purified. Xantholysin A was effective against Bacillus, Lysinibacillus and Rhodococcus strains, and the effect against these microbes was enhanced when used in combination with other antibiotics such as ampicillin, gentamicin and kanamycin. Xantholysin C was also efficient against Gram-positive bacteria and showed an interesting antimicrobial effect against Pseudomonas strains, and a synergistic inhibitory effect with ampicillin, chloramphenicol and gentamicin. © 2015 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Production, Optimization, and Characterization of Organic Solvent Tolerant Cellulases from a Lignocellulosic Waste-Degrading Actinobacterium, Promicromonospora sp. VP111.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Lebin; Ram, Hari; Kumar, Alok; Singh, Ved Pal

    2016-07-01

    High costs of natural cellulose utilization and cellulase production are an industrial challenge. In view of this, an isolated soil actinobacterium identified as Promicromonospora sp. VP111 showed potential for production of major cellulases (CMCase, FPase, and β-glucosidase) utilizing untreated agricultural lignocellulosic wastes. Extensive disintegration of microcrystalline cellulose and adherence on it during fermentation divulged true cellulolytic efficiency of the strain. Conventional optimization resulted in increased cellulase yield in a cost-effective medium, and the central composite design (CCD) analysis revealed cellulase production to be limited by cellulose and ammonium sulfate. Cellulase activities were enhanced by Co(+2) (1 mM) and retained up to 60 °C and pH 9.0, indicating thermo-alkaline tolerance. Cellulases showed stability in organic solvents (25 % v/v) with log P ow  ≥ 1.24. Untreated wheat straw during submerged fermentation was particularly degraded and yielded about twofold higher levels of cellulases than with commercial cellulose (Na-CMC and avicel) which is especially economical. Thus, this is the first detailed report on cellulases from an efficient strain of Promicromonospora that was non-hemolytic, alkali-halotolerant, antibiotic (erythromycin, kanamycin, rifampicin, cefaclor, ceftazidime) resistant, multiple heavy metal (Mo(+6) = W(+6) > Pb(+2) > Mn(+2) > Cr(+3) > Sn(+2)), and organic solvent (n-hexane, isooctane) tolerant, which is industrially and environmentally valuable.

  8. DNA Inversion on Conjugative Plasmid pVT745

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinbiao; Leblanc, Donald J.; Galli, Dominique M.

    2002-01-01

    Plasmid pVT745 from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans strain VT745 can be transferred to other A. actinomycetemcomitans strains at a frequency of 10−6. Screening of transconjugants revealed that the DNA of pDMG21A, a pVT745 derivative containing a kanamycin resistance gene, displayed a structural rearrangement after transfer. A 9-kb segment on the plasmid had switched orientation. The inversion was independent of RecA and required the activity of the pVT745-encoded site-specific recombinase. This recombinase, termed Inv, was highly homologous to invertases of the Din family. Two recombination sites of 22 bp, which are arranged in opposite orientation and which function as DNA crossover sequences, were identified on pVT745. One of the sites was located adjacent to the 5′ end of the invertase gene, inv. Inversion of the 9-kb segment on pVT745 derivatives has been observed in all A. actinomycetemcomitans strains tested except for the original host, VT745. This would suggest that a host factor that is either inactive or absent in VT745 is required for efficient recombination. Inactivation of the invertase in the donor strain resulted in a 1,000-fold increase in the number of transconjugants upon plasmid transfer. It is proposed that an activated invertase causes the immediate loss of the plasmid in most recipient cells after mating. No biological role has been associated with the invertase as of yet. PMID:12374826

  9. Construction of small plasmid vectors for use in genetic improvement of the extremely acidophilic Acidithiobacillus caldus.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jianzhou; Wang, Huiyan; Liu, Xiangmei; Lin, Jianqun; Pang, Xin; Lin, Jianqiang

    2013-10-01

    The genetic improvement of biomining bacteria including Acidithiobacillus caldus could facilitate the bioleaching process of sulfur-containing minerals. However, the available vectors for use in A. caldus are very scanty and limited to relatively large broad-host-range IncQ plasmids. In this study, a set of small, mobilizable plasmid vectors (pBBR1MCS-6, pMSD1 and pMSD2) were constructed based on plasmid pBBR1MCS-2, which does not belong to the IncQ, IncW, or IncP groups. The function of the tac promoter on 5.8-kb pMSD2 was determined by inserting a kanamycin-resistant reporter gene. The resulting recombinant pMSD2-Km was successfully transferred by conjugation into A. caldus MTH-04 with transfer frequency of 1.38±0.64×10(-5). The stability and plasmid copy number of pMSD2-Km in A. caldus MTH-04 were 75±2.7% and 5-6 copies per cell, respectively. By inserting an arsABC operon into pMSD2, an arsenic-resistant recombinant pMSD2-As was constructed and transferred into A. caldus MTH-04 by conjugation. The arsenic tolerance of A. caldus MTH-04 containing pMSD2-As was obviously increased up to 45mM of NaAsO2. These vectors could be applied in genetic improvement of A. caldus as well as other bioleaching bacteria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Simultaneous Determination of 11 Aminoglycoside Residues in Honey, Milk, and Pork by Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Solid Phase Extraction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bixia; Wang, Lian; Luo, Chunying; Wang, Xixi; Sun, Chengjun

    2017-11-01

    An analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 11 aminoglycoside (AG) antibiotics, including amikacin, paromomycin, dihydrostreptomycin, gentamicin C1a, hygromycin, kanamycin, netilmicin, spectinomycin, sisomicin, streptomycin, and tobramycin in honey, milk, and pork samples by LC with tandem MS and molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) SPE. The AG antibiotics in milk and homogenated meat samples were extracted with a solution composed of 10 mmol/L potassium dihydrogen phosphate, 0.4 mmol/L EDTA-Na2, and 2% trichloroacetic acid. For honey samples, the extractant was 50 mmol/L potassium dihydrogen phosphate. The extracts were cleaned up with MIP SPE cartridges. The separation was performed on a zwitter ionic-HILIC column (50 × 2.1 mm, 3.5 μm), with the mobile phase consisting of methanol, 0.3% formic acid, and 175 mmol/L ammonium formate at 0.50 mL/min in gradient elution. A triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source, which was operated in positive mode, was used for detection. The quantification was based on matrix-matched calibration curves. The method was applied to real samples with three different matrixes. The LODs of the method were 2-30 μg/kg and the LOQs were 7-100 μg/kg; the average recovery ranged from 78.2 to 94.8%; intraday RSDs and interday RSDs were ≤15 and ≤18%, respectively; and the absolute values of matrix effect for all AGs were RSDs ≤23%.

  11. A novel suicide shuttle plasmid for Streptococcus suis serotype 2 and Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus gene mutation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Zhang, Ping; Su, Yiqi; Lin, Huixing; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Lei; Ma, Zhe; Fan, Hongjie

    2016-01-01

    The mariner-based Himar1 system has been utilized for creating mutant libraries of many Gram-positive bacteria. Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) and Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) are primary pathogens of swine that threaten the swine industry in China. To provide a forward-genetics technology for finding virulent phenotype-related genes in these two pathogens, we constructed a novel temperature-sensitive suicide shuttle plasmid, pMar4s, which contains the Himar1 system transposon, TnYLB-1, and the Himar1 C9 transposase from pMarA and the repTAs temperature-sensitive fragment from pSET4s. The kanamycin (Kan) resistance gene was in the TnYLB-1 transposon. Temperature sensitivity and Kan resistance allowed the selection of mutant strains and construction of the mutant library. The SS2 and SEZ mutant libraries were successfully constructed using the pMar4s plasmid. Inverse-Polymerase Chain Reaction (Inverse-PCR) results revealed large variability in transposon insertion sites and that the library could be used for phenotype alteration screening. The thiamine biosynthesis gene apbE was screened for its influence on SS2 anti-phagocytosis; likewise, the sagF gene was identified to be a hemolytic activity-related gene in SEZ. pMar4s was suitable for mutant library construction, providing more information regarding SS2 and SEZ virulence factors and illustrating the pathogenesis of swine streptococcosis. PMID:27256117

  12. Adaptation Genomics of a Small-Colony Variant in a Pseudomonas chlororaphis 30-84 Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Dorosky, Robert J.; Han, Cliff S.; Lo, Chien-chi; Dichosa, Armand E. K.; Chain, Patrick S.; Yu, Jun Myoung; Pierson, Leland S.

    2014-01-01

    The rhizosphere-colonizing bacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis 30-84 is an effective biological control agent against take-all disease of wheat. In this study, we characterize a small-colony variant (SCV) isolated from a P. chlororaphis 30-84 biofilm. The SCV exhibited pleiotropic phenotypes, including small cell size, slow growth and motility, low levels of phenazine production, and increased biofilm formation and resistance to antimicrobials. To better understand the genetic alterations underlying these phenotypes, RNA and whole-genome sequencing analyses were conducted comparing an SCV to the wild-type strain. Of the genome's 5,971 genes, transcriptomic profiling indicated that 1,098 (18.4%) have undergone substantial reprograming of gene expression in the SCV. Whole-genome sequence analysis revealed multiple alterations in the SCV, including mutations in yfiR (cyclic-di-GMP production), fusA (elongation factor), and cyoE (heme synthesis) and a 70-kb deletion. Genetic analysis revealed that the yfiR locus plays a major role in controlling SCV phenotypes, including colony size, growth, motility, and biofilm formation. Moreover, a point mutation in the fusA gene contributed to kanamycin resistance. Interestingly, the SCV can partially switch back to wild-type morphologies under specific conditions. Our data also support the idea that phenotypic switching in P. chlororaphis is not due to simple genetic reversions but may involve multiple secondary mutations. The emergence of these highly adherent and antibiotic-resistant SCVs within the biofilm might play key roles in P. chlororaphis natural persistence. PMID:25416762

  13. [Construction of transgenic tobacco expressing popW and analysis of its biological phenotype].

    PubMed

    Wang, Cui; Liu, Hongxia; Cao, Jing; Wang, Chao; Guo, Jianhua

    2014-04-01

    In a previous study, we cloned popW from Ralstonia solanacearum strain ZJ3721, coding PopW, a new harpin protein. The procaryotically expressed PopW can induce resistance to Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), enhance growth and improve quality of tobacco, when sprayed onto tobacco leaves. Here, we constructed an expression vector pB- popW by cloning popW into the bionary vector pBI121 and transformed it into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 via freeze-thaw method. Tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum cv. Xanthi nc.) transformation was conducted by infection of tobacco leaf discs with recombinant A. tumefaciens. After screening on MS medium containing kanamycin, PCR and RT-PCR analysis, 21 T3 lines were identified as positive transgenic. Genomic intergration and expression of the transferred gene were determined by PCR and RT-PCR. And GUS staining analysis indicated that the protein expressed in transgenic tobacco was bioactive and exhibited different expression levels among lines. Disease bioassays showed that the transgenic tobacco had enhanced resistance to TMV with biocontrol efficiency up to 54.25%. Transgenic tobacco also exhibited enhanced plant growth, the root length of 15 d old seedlings was 1.7 times longer than that of wild type tobacco. 60 d after transplanting to pots, the height, fresh weight and dry weight of transgenic tobacco were 1.4, 1.7, 1.8 times larger than that of wild type tobacco, respectively.

  14. In vitro activity of flumequine in comparison with several other antimicrobial agents against five pathogens isolated in calves in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Mevius, D J; Breukink, H J; van Miert, A S

    1990-10-01

    The in vitro activity of flumequine in comparison with several other drugs was tested against 17 P. multocida, 16 P. haemolytica, 21 S. dublin, 21 S. typhimurium and 21 E. coli strains, isolated in (veal) calves in the Netherlands. The MIC50 of flumequine for the respective pasteurellas was 0.25 and 1 microgram/ml, for the salmonellas and E. coli 0.5 micrograms/ml. In comparison with flumequine, enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin showed higher in vitro activity, with MIC50 less than or equal to 0.008 micrograms/ml for ciprofloxacin. Decreased susceptibility of the pasteurellas was found for kanamycin, neomycin, streptomycin, gentamicin, oxytetracycline and doxycycline. The MIC50 of minocycline for P. multocida was 0.5 micrograms/ml and there was no cross resistance with the other tetracyclines. P. multocida was very susceptible to ampicillin (MIC50 less than or equal to 0.03 micrograms/ml), P. haemolytica, however, was 100% resistant to this drug. Both pasteurellas were susceptible to cephalothin and approximately 50% of the strains of both bacteria were resistant to chloramphenicol. The MIC50 of either spiramycin or tylosin was greater than or equal to their respective breakpoint-MIC values. Both pasteurellas were susceptible to the combination of trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole. However, for P. multocida, the addition of sulphamethoxazole to trimethoprim had no synergistic effect on its MIC. In comparison with trimethorpim, aditoprim was less potent. Therefore only P. multocida was susceptible to aditoprim.

  15. Plasmid-mediated resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains isolated from female sex workers in North Sumatra, Indonesia, 1996.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaohong; Hutapea, Namyo; Tapsall, John W; Lind, Inga

    2003-02-01

    Sentinel surveillance of the antimicrobial resistance of strains isolated from female sex workers in North Sumatra, Indonesia, has been carried out since 1975. In 1996 a high prevalence of strains with plasmid-mediated resistance to tetracycline and penicillin was observed. The goal was to further characterize strains isolated from a core group of patients in Indonesia with sexually transmitted infections in 1996. The strains were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, plasmid analysis, subtype of the determinant, and analysis of genomic DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). A total 161 strains obtained from 592 female sex workers in 10 different places in North Sumatra, Indonesia, in 1996 were investigated. All strains exhibited plasmid-mediated resistance to penicillin (PPNG: penicillinase-producing ) and/or tetracycline (TRNG: tetracycline-resistant ); 115 strains were PPNG/TRNG (71%), 45 were TRNG (28%), and 1 was PPNG. All strains were susceptible to ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, kanamycin, and spectinomycin. All PPNG strains tested carried the 7.2-kb (Asian type) plasmid except one, which carried the 4.9-kb (Toronto type) plasmid. All TRNG strains except one contained the Dutch-type gene. PFGE analysis of 156 strains documented that a diversity of strains existed and that certain genotypes had spread in a defined area or between different areas in North Sumatra. Our results underline the importance of continuous surveillance of the changing patterns of antimicrobial resistance of in high-risk populations.

  16. High-efficiency induction of soybean hairy roots and propagation of the soybean cyst nematode.

    PubMed

    Cho, H J; Farrand, S K; Noel, G R; Widholm, J M

    2000-01-01

    Cotyledon explants of 10 soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars were inoculated with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain K599 with and without binary vectors pBI121 or pBINm-gfp5-ER possessing both neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) and beta-glucuronidase (gus) or nptII and green fluorescent protein (gfp) genes, respectively. Hairy roots were produced from the wounded surface of 54-95% of the cotyledon explants on MXB selective medium containing 200 microg ml(-1) kanamycin and 500 microg ml(-1) carbenicillin. Putative individual transformed hairy roots were identified by cucumopine analysis and were screened for transgene incorporation using polymerase chain reaction. All of the roots tested were found to be co-transformed with T-DNA from the Ri-plasmid and the transgene from the binary vectors. Southern blot analysis confirmed the presence of the 35S-gfp5 gene in the plant genomes. Transgene expression was also confirmed by histochemical GUS assay and Western blot analysis for the GFP. Attempts to induce shoot formation from the hairy roots failed. Infection of hairy roots of the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe)-susceptible cultivar, Williams 82, with eggs of H. glycines race 1, resulted in the development of mature cysts about 4-5 weeks after inoculation. Thus the soybean cyst nematode could complete its entire life cycle in transformed soybean hairy-root cultures expressing GFP. This system should be ideal for testing genes that might impart resistance to soybean cyst nematode.

  17. Antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria and Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from dairy and pharmaceutical products.

    PubMed

    D'Aimmo, Maria Rosaria; Modesto, Monica; Biavati, Bruno

    2007-04-01

    The outlines of antibiotic resistance of some probiotic microorganisms were studied. This study was conducted with the double purpose of verifying their ability to survive if they are taken simultaneously with an antibiotic therapy and to increase the selective properties of suitable media for the isolation of samples containing mixed bacterial populations. We isolated from commercial dairy and pharmaceutical products, 34 strains declared as probiotics, belonging to the genera Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, and 21 strains of starter culture bacteria. All the microorganisms have been compared by electrophoresis of the soluble proteins for the purpose of identifying them. A Multiplex-PCR with genus- and species-specific primers was used to detect for Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis presence. All bifidobacteria were B. animalis subsp. lactis except one Bifidobacterium longum. Sometimes the identification showed that the used strain was not the one indicated on the label. The lactobacilli were Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. The streptococci were all Streptococcus thermophilus. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 24 common antibiotic substances has been valued by the broth microdilution method. All tested strains were susceptible to ampicillin, bacitracin, clindamycin, dicloxacillin, erytromycin, novobiocin, penicillin G, rifampicin (MIC(90) ranging from 0.01 to 4 microg/ml); resistant to aztreonam, cycloserin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, polymyxin B and spectinomycin (MIC(90) ranging from 64 to >1000 microg/ml). The susceptibility to cephalothin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, lincomycin, metronidazole, neomycin, paromomycin, streptomycin, tetracycline and vancomycin was variable and depending on the species.

  18. Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Other Staphylococcus Species in Raw Meat Samples Intended for Human Consumption in Benin City, Nigeria: Implications for Public Health.

    PubMed

    Igbinosa, Etinosa O; Beshiru, Abeni; Akporehe, Lucy U; Oviasogie, Faith E; Igbinosa, Owen O

    2016-09-24

    The present study was designed to characterize methicillin-resistant staphylococci from raw meat. A total of 126 meat samples were obtained from open markets between February and April, 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out using the disc diffusion method. Molecular profiling was conducted using 16S rRNA, mecA, nuc, and PVL gene signatures were detected by polymerase chain reaction assay. Fifty isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. were detected in 26 (52%) pork, 14 (28%) beef and 10 (20%) chicken samples. The staphylococcal isolates were identified through partial 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (16S rRNA) nucleotide sequencing, and BLAST analysis of the gene sequence revealed 98%-100% staphylococcal similarity. All isolates from beef and chicken samples amplified the mecA gene, while 100% of the MRSA isolates amplified the PVL gene. The multidrug resistance profile (resistant to ≥1 antimicrobial agent in ≥3 classes of antimicrobial agents) of the staphylococcal isolates showed that 7 isolates were resistant to methicillin, penicillin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, kanamycin, amoxicillin, cloxacillin, erythromycin, vancomycin, and gentamycin. There was a significant regression effect from the multidrug-resistant profile on the number of isolates (p < 0.05) suggesting a consequence of the dissemination of resistant strains within bacterial populations. The findings of the present study indicate that raw meats in the Benin metropolis were possibly contaminated with pathogenic and multi-drug resistant staphylococci strains and therefore could constitute a risk to public health communities.

  19. SEROVARS AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF Salmonella spp. ISOLATED FROM TURKEY AND BROILER CARCASSES IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL BETWEEN 2004 AND 2006

    PubMed Central

    PALMEIRA, Andre; dos SANTOS, Luciana Ruschel; BORSOI, Anderlise; RODRIGUES, Laura Beatriz; CALASANS, Max; do NASCIMENTO, Vladimir Pinheiro

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella spp. causes diseases in fowls, when species-specific serovars (Salmonella Pullorum and S.Gallinarum) are present in flocks, and public health problems, when non-typhoid serovars are isolated, as well as possible bacterial resistance induced by the preventive and therapeutic use of antimicrobials in animal production. This study describes the serovars and bacterial resistance of 280Salmonella spp. strains isolated from turkey and broiler carcasses in Southern Brazil between 2004 and 2006. SalmonellaEnteritidis was the most prevalent serovar (55.7%), followed by Heidelberg (5.0%), Agona (4.3%), Bredeney (3.9%), Hadar (3.2%), and Typhimurium (2.9%). Tennessee and S. Enterica subspecies enterica(O: 4.5) were isolated only in turkeys, and Hadar (18.6%) was the most prevalent serovar in this species. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed in 178 isolates (43 from turkeys and 135 from broilers). All isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, polymyxin B, ciprofloxacin, and norfloxacin, and were resistant to bacitracin and penicillin. Broiler carcass isolates showed resistance to nalidixic acid (48.9%), nitrofurantoin (34.3%), neomycin (9.6%), tetracycline (5.2%), and kanamycin (8.9%); and turkey carcass isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid (62.8%), tetracycline (34.9%), and neomycin (30.2%), with a significant difference in turkeys when compared to broiler carcass isolates. These results indicate the need for judicious use of antimicrobials in livestock production, given that the serovars identified are potential causes of food poisoning. PMID:27007562

  20. Application of a bacteriophage lysin to disrupt biofilms formed by the animal pathogen Streptococcus suis.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangpeng; Shi, Yibo; Ji, Wenhui; Meng, Xueling; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Hengan; Lu, Chengping; Sun, Jianhe; Yan, Yaxian

    2011-12-01

    Bacterial biofilms are crucial to the pathogenesis of many important infections and are difficult to eradicate. Streptococcus suis is an important pathogen of pigs, and here the biofilm-forming ability of 32 strains of this species was determined. Significant biofilms were completely formed by 10 of the strains after 60 h of incubation, with exopolysaccharide production in the biofilm significantly higher than that in the corresponding planktonic cultures. S. suis strain SS2-4 formed a dense biofilm, as revealed by scanning electron microscopy, and in this state exhibited increased resistance to a number of antibiotics (ampicillin, amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, kanamycin, and rifampin) compared to that of planktonic cultures. A bacteriophage lysin, designated LySMP, was used to attack biofilms alone and in combination with antibiotics and bacteriophage. The results demonstrated that the biofilms formed by S. suis, especially strains SS2-4 and SS2-H, could be dispersed by LySMP and with >80% removal compared to a biofilm reduction by treatment with either antibiotics or bacteriophage alone of less than 20%; in addition to disruption of the biofilm structure, the S. suis cells themselves were inactivated by LySMP. The efficacy of LySMP was not dose dependent, and in combination with antibiotics, it acted synergistically to maximize dispersal of the S. suis biofilm and inactivate the released cells. These data suggest that bacteriophage lysin could form part of an effective strategy to treat S. suis infections and represents a new class of antibiofilm agents.

  1. Effects of Menthol Supplementation in Feedlot Cattle Diets on the Fecal Prevalence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Aperce, C. C.; Amachawadi, R.; Van Bibber-Krueger, C. L.; Nagaraja, T. G.; Scott, H. M.; Vinasco-Torre, J.; Drouillard, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    The pool of antimicrobial resistance determinants in the environment and in the gut flora of cattle is a serious public health concern. In addition to being a source of human exposure, these bacteria can transfer antibiotic resistance determinants to pathogenic bacteria and endanger the future of antimicrobial therapy. The occurrence of antimicrobial resistance genes on mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids, facilitates spread of resistance. Recent work has shown in vitro anti-plasmid activity of menthol, a plant-based compound with the potential to be used as a feed additive to beneficially alter ruminal fermentation. The present study aimed to determine if menthol supplementation in diets of feedlot cattle decreases the prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria in feces. Menthol was included in diets of steers at 0.3% of diet dry matter. Fecal samples were collected weekly for 4 weeks and analyzed for total coliforms counts, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and the prevalence of tet genes in E. coli isolates. Results revealed no effect of menthol supplementation on total coliforms counts or prevalence of E. coli resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, azithromycin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and sulfamethoxazole; however, 30 days of menthol addition to steer diets increased the prevalence of tetracycline-resistant E. coli (P < 0.02). Although the mechanism by which menthol exerts its effects remains unclear, results of our study suggest that menthol may have an impact on antimicrobial resistance in gut bacteria. PMID:28030622

  2. Analgesic, antibacterial and central nervous system depressant activities of Albizia procera leaves

    PubMed Central

    Khatoon, Mst. Mahfuza; Khatun, Mst. Hajera; Islam, Md. Ekramul; Parvin, Mst. Shahnaj

    2014-01-01

    Objective To ascertain analgesic, antibacterial and central nervous system (CNS) depressant activities of ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and carbon tetrachloride fractions of methanol extract of Albizia procera (A. procera) leaves. Methods Leaves extracts of A. procera were tested for analgesic activity by acetic acid induced and formalin test method in mice. The in vitro antibacterial activity was performed by agar well diffusion method. CNS depressant activity was evaluated by hole cross and open field tests. Results All the extracts at 200 mg/kg exhibited significant (P<0.01) analgesic activity in acetic acid induced and formalin tests method in mice. Analgesic activity of the ethyl acetate fraction was almost same like as standard drug indomethacin in acetic acid induced method. The CNS depressant activity of the extracts at 500 mg/kg was comparable to the positive control diazepam as determined by hole cross and open field test method. The extracts exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity against all the tested microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Esherichia coli, Shigella soneii, Shigella boydii) at concentration of 0.8 mg/disc. The measured diameter of zone of inhibition for the extracts was within the range of 7 to 12 mm which was less than the standard kanamycin (16-24 mm). Conclusions It is concluded that all the extracts possess potential analgesic and CNS depressants activity. This study also showed that different fractions of methanol extract could be potential sources of new antimicrobial agents. PMID:25182551

  3. Analgesic, antibacterial and central nervous system depressant activities of Albizia procera leaves.

    PubMed

    Khatoon, Mst Mahfuza; Khatun, Mst Hajera; Islam, Md Ekramul; Parvin, Mst Shahnaj

    2014-04-01

    To ascertain analgesic, antibacterial and central nervous system (CNS) depressant activities of ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and carbon tetrachloride fractions of methanol extract of Albizia procera (A. procera) leaves. Leaves extracts of A. procera were tested for analgesic activity by acetic acid induced and formalin test method in mice. The in vitro antibacterial activity was performed by agar well diffusion method. CNS depressant activity was evaluated by hole cross and open field tests. All the extracts at 200 mg/kg exhibited significant (P<0.01) analgesic activity in acetic acid induced and formalin tests method in mice. Analgesic activity of the ethyl acetate fraction was almost same like as standard drug indomethacin in acetic acid induced method. The CNS depressant activity of the extracts at 500 mg/kg was comparable to the positive control diazepam as determined by hole cross and open field test method. The extracts exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity against all the tested microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Esherichia coli, Shigella soneii, Shigella boydii) at concentration of 0.8 mg/disc. The measured diameter of zone of inhibition for the extracts was within the range of 7 to 12 mm which was less than the standard kanamycin (16-24 mm). It is concluded that all the extracts possess potential analgesic and CNS depressants activity. This study also showed that different fractions of methanol extract could be potential sources of new antimicrobial agents.

  4. Factors potentially influencing aminoglycoside use and expenditure

    SciTech Connect

    DiPiro, J.T.; Kilsdonk, G.F.; Amerson, A.B.

    1982-07-01

    Factors that may have influenced aminoglycoside use and expenditure in one hospital were examined. Factors that were evaluated as to their influence on aminoglycoside-use patterns were: (1) formulary status; (2) bacterial susceptibility patterns; (3) identified or perceived differences in toxicity; (4) changes in patient population; (5) price paid by the hospital for aminoglycosides; (6) distribution of newsletters or memoranda; (7) advertising and detailing; and (8) pharmacy policies. For FY 1976-77 to 1979-80, the largest proportion of aminoglycoside expense was for gentamicin. During FY 1980-81, the expenditure for gentamicin decreased and tobramycin accounted for the largest proportion of total expenditure. Monthlymore » gentamicin use decreased 20% during FY 1980-81 from the previous year. Tobramycin use increased from January 1979 to November 1980 and decreased from December 1980 to June 1981. Kanamycin use and amikacin use were fairly constant during the study period. Based on temporal relationships, the following factors appeared to influence aminoglycoside use and expenditure: (1) a study conducted at the institution from June 1977 to June 1979 comparing gentamicin and tobramycin nephrotoxicity; (2) a comparative nephrotoxicity study published in a widely circulated medical journal in May 1980; and (3) an intramural newsletter and memorandum distributed in March 1981 encouraging selective aminoglycoside use. The identification of factors that potentially influenced aminoglycoside use can be used to anticipate the future impact of similar events and to devise strategies to influence antimicrobial use.« less

  5. Sonication, Vacuum Infiltration and Thiol Compounds Enhance the Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation Frequency of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal

    PubMed Central

    Sivanandhan, Ganeshan; Kapil Dev, Gnajothi; Theboral, Jeevaraj; Selvaraj, Natesan; Ganapathi, Andy; Manickavasagam, Markandan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we have established a stable transformation protocol via Agrobacterium tumafacines for the pharmaceutically important Withania somnifera. Six day-old nodal explants were used for 3 day co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harbouring the vector pCAMIBA2301. Among the different injury treatments, sonication, vacuum infiltration and their combination treatments tested, a vacuum infiltration for 10 min followed by sonication for 10 sec with A. tumefaciens led to a higher transient GUS expression (84% explants expressing GUS at regenerating sites). In order to improve gene integration, thiol compounds were added to co-cultivation medium. A combined treatment of L-Cys at 100 mg/l, STS at 125 mg/l, DTT at 75 mg/l resulted in a higher GUS expression (90%) in the nodal explants. After 3 days of co-cultivation, the explants were subjected to three selection cycles with increasing concentrations of kanamycin [100 to 115 mg/l]. The integration and expression of gusA gene in T0 and T1 transgenic plants were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and Southern blott analysis. These transformed plants (T0 and T1) were fertile and morphologically normal. From the present investigation, we have achieved a higher transformation efficiency of (10%). Withanolides (withanolide A, withanolide B, withanone and withaferin A) contents of transformed plants (T0 and T1) were marginally higher than control plants. PMID:25927703

  6. Proteocatella sphenisci gen. nov., sp. nov., a psychrotolerant, spore-forming anaerobe isolated from penguin guano.

    PubMed

    Pikuta, Elena V; Hoover, Richard B; Marsic, Damien; Whitman, William B; Lupa, Boguslaw; Tang, Jane; Krader, Paul

    2009-09-01

    A novel, obligately anaerobic, psychrotolerant bacterium, designated strain PPP2T, was isolated from guano of the Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) in Chilean Patagonia. Cells were Gram-stain-positive, spore-forming, straight rods (0.7-0.8x3.0-5.0 microm) that were motile by means of peritrichous flagella. Growth was observed at pH 6.7-9.7 (optimum pH 8.3) and 2-37 degrees C (optimum 29 degrees C). Growth was observed between 0 and 4% (w/v) NaCl with optimum growth at 0.5% (w/v). Strain PPP2T was a catalase-negative chemo-organoheterotroph that was capable of fermentative metabolism. Peptone, bacto-tryptone, Casamino acids, oxalate, starch, chitin and yeast extract were utilized as substrates. The major metabolic products were acetate, butyrate and ethanol. Strain PPP2T was resistant to ampicillin, but sensitive to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, rifampicin, kanamycin, vancomycin and gentamicin. The DNA G+C content of strain PPP2T was 39.5 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that strain PPP2T was related most closely to Clostridium sticklandii SR (approximately 90% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). On the basis of phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic characteristics, strain PPP2T is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Proteocatella sphenisci gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Proteocatella sphenisci is PPP2T (=ATCC BAA-755T=JCM 12175T=CIP 108034T).

  7. Assessment of genetically engineered Trabulsiella odontotermitis as a 'Trojan Horse' for paratransgenesis in termites.

    PubMed

    Tikhe, Chinmay Vijay; Martin, Thomas M; Howells, Andréa; Delatte, Jennifer; Husseneder, Claudia

    2016-09-05

    The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus is an invasive urban pest in the Southeastern USA. Paratransgenesis using a microbe expressed lytic peptide that targets the termite gut protozoa is currently being developed for the control of Formosan subterranean termites. In this study, we evaluated Trabulsiella odontotermitis, a termite-specific bacterium, for its potential to serve as a 'Trojan Horse' for expression of gene products in termite colonies. We engineered two strains of T. odontotermitis, one transformed with a constitutively expressed GFP plasmid and the other engineered at the chromosome with a Kanamycin resistant gene using a non- disruptive Tn7 transposon. Both strains were fed to termites from three different colonies. Fluorescent microscopy confirmed that T. odontotermitis expressed GFP in the gut and formed a biofilm in the termite hindgut. However, GFP producing bacteria could not be isolated from the termite gut after 2 weeks. The feeding experiment with the chromosomally engineered strain demonstrated that T. odontotermitis was maintained in the termite gut for at least 21 days, irrespective of the termite colony. The bacteria persisted in two termite colonies for at least 36 days post feeding. The experiment also confirmed the horizontal transfer of T. odontotermitis amongst nest mates. Overall, we conclude that T. odontotermitis can serve as a 'Trojan Horse' for spreading gene products in termite colonies. This study provided proof of concept and laid the foundation for the future development of genetically engineered termite gut bacteria for paratransgenesis based termite control.

  8. Carboxydocella sporoproducens sp. nov., a novel anaerobic CO-utilizing/H2-producing thermophilic bacterium from a Kamchatka hot spring.

    PubMed

    Slepova, Tatiana V; Sokolova, Tatyana G; Lysenko, Anatoly M; Tourova, Tatyana P; Kolganova, Tatyana V; Kamzolkina, Olga V; Karpov, Genady A; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A

    2006-04-01

    A novel anaerobic, thermophilic, CO-utilizing bacterium, strain KarT, was isolated from a hot spring of Karymskoe Lake, Kamchatka Peninsula. The cells of the novel isolate were Gram-positive, spore-forming, short rods. The bacterium grew chemolithoautotrophically on CO, producing equimolar quantities of H2 and CO2 (according to the equation CO + H2O --> CO2 + H2), and in the absence of CO, under N2 in the gas phase, chemoorganoheterotrophically with yeast extract, sucrose or pyruvate. Growth was observed in the temperature range 50-70 degrees C, with an optimum at 60 degrees C, and in the pH range 6.2-8.0, with an optimum at pH 6.8. The micro-organism did not grow on solid media; it was able to grow only in semi-solid medium containing 0.5 % agar. The generation time under optimal conditions for chemolithoautotrophic growth was 1 h. The G+C content of the DNA was 46.5+/-1 mol%. Growth was completely inhibited by penicillin, novobiocin, streptomycin, kanamycin and neomycin. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that the isolate should be assigned to the genus Carboxydocella. On the basis of the results of DNA-DNA hybridization and morphological and physiological analyses, strain KarT represents a novel species of the genus Carboxydocella, for which the name Carboxydocella sporoproducens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KarT (=DSM 16521T = VKM B-2358T).

  9. Assessment of the in vitro bioactive properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from native ecological niches of Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Ana B; Ulcuango, Mario; Yépez, Lucía; Tenea, Gabriela N

    Lactic acid bacteria are known for their biotechnological potential. In various regions of Ecuador numerous indigenous biological resources are largely undocumented. In this study, we evaluated the potential probiotic characteristics and antagonistic in vitro properties of some lactic acid bacteria from native niches of the subtropical rain forests of Ecuador. These isolates were identified according to their morphological properties, standard API50CH fermentation profile and RAPD-DNA polymorphism pattern. The selected isolates were further evaluated for their probiotic potential. The isolates grew at 15°C and 45°C, survived at a pH ranging from 2.5 to 4.5 in the presence of 0.3% bile (>90%) and grew under sodium chloride conditions. All selected isolates were sensitive to ampicillin, amoxicillin and cefuroxime and some showed resistance to gentamicin, kanamycin and tetracycline. Moreover, the agar well diffusion assay showed that the supernatant of each strain at pH 3.0 and pH 4.0, but not at pH 7.0 exhibited increased antimicrobial activity (inhibition zone >15mm) against two foodborne pathogens, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the antagonistic activity against two foodborne pathogens and the probiotic in vitro potential of lactic acid bacteria isolated from native biota of Ecuador. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Isolation and characterization of Keratinibaculum paraultunense gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel thermophilic, anaerobic bacterium with keratinolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Sun, Yingjie; Ma, Shichun; Chen, Lu; Zhang, Hui; Deng, Yu

    2013-08-01

    A novel thermophilic, anaerobic, keratinolytic bacterium designated KD-1 was isolated from grassy marshland. Strain KD-1 was a spore-forming rod with a Gram-positive type cell wall, but stained Gram-negative. The temperature, pH, and NaCl concentration range necessary for growth was 30-65 °C (optimum 55 °C), 6.0-10.5 (optimum 8.0-8.5), and 0-6% (optimum 0.2%) (w/v), respectively. Strain KD-1 possessed extracellular keratinase, and the optimum activity of the crude enzyme was pH 8.5 and 70 °C. The enzyme was identified as a thermostable serine-type protease. The strain was sensitive to rifampin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, and tetracycline and was resistant to erythromycin, neomycin, penicillin, and streptomycin. The main cellular fatty acid was predominantly C15:0 iso (64%), and the G+C content was 28 mol%. Morphological and physiological characterization, together with phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified KD-1 as a new species of a novel genus of Clostridiaceae with 95.3%, 93.8% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Clostridium ultunense BS(T) (DSM 10521(T)) and Tepidimicrobium xylanilyticum PML14(T) (= JCM 15035(T)), respectively. We propose the name Keratinibaculum paraultunense gen. nov., sp. nov., with KD-1 (=JCM 18769(T) =DSM 26752(T)) as the type strain. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Structure of AadA from Salmonella enterica: a monomeric aminoglycoside (3′′)(9) adenyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yang; Näsvall, Joakim; Wu, Shiying

    The crystal structure of the aminoglycoside-adenylating enzyme AadA is reported together with functional experiments providing insights into its oligomeric state, ligand binding and catalysis. Aminoglycoside resistance is commonly conferred by enzymatic modification of drugs by aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes such as aminoglycoside nucleotidyltransferases (ANTs). Here, the first crystal structure of an ANT(3′′)(9) adenyltransferase, AadA from Salmonella enterica, is presented. AadA catalyses the magnesium-dependent transfer of adenosine monophosphate from ATP to the two chemically dissimilar drugs streptomycin and spectinomycin. The structure was solved using selenium SAD phasing and refined to 2.5 Å resolution. AadA consists of a nucleotidyltransferase domain and an α-helical bundlemore » domain. AadA crystallizes as a monomer and is a monomer in solution as confirmed by small-angle X-ray scattering, in contrast to structurally similar homodimeric adenylating enzymes such as kanamycin nucleotidyltransferase. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments show that ATP binding has to occur before binding of the aminoglycoside substrate, and structure analysis suggests that ATP binding repositions the two domains for aminoglycoside binding in the interdomain cleft. Candidate residues for ligand binding and catalysis were subjected to site-directed mutagenesis. In vivo resistance and in vitro binding assays support the role of Glu87 as the catalytic base in adenylation, while Arg192 and Lys205 are shown to be critical for ATP binding.« less

  12. PFGE, Lior serotype, and antimicrobial resistance patterns among Campylobacter jejuni isolated from travelers and US military personnel with acute diarrhea in Thailand, 1998-2003

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. In Thailand, several strains of C. jejuni have been isolated and identified as major diarrheal pathogens among adult travelers. To study the epidemiology of C. jejuni in adult travelers and U.S. military personnel with acute diarrhea in Thailand from 1998-2003, strains of C. jejuni were isolated and phenotypically identified, serotyped, tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, and characterized using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results A total of 312 C. jejuni isolates were obtained from travelers (n = 46) and U.S. military personnel (n = 266) in Thailand who were experiencing acute diarrhea. Nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin resistance was observed in 94.9% and 93.0% of the isolates, respectively. From 2001-2003, resistance to tetracycline (81.9%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (57.9%), ampicillin (28.9%), kanamycin (5.9%), sulfisoxazole (3.9%), neomycin (2.0%), and streptomycin (0.7%) was observed. Combined PFGE analysis showed considerable genetic diversity among the C. jejuni isolates; however, four PFGE clusters included isolates from the major Lior serotypes (HL: 36, HL: 11, HL: 5, and HL: 28). The PFGE analysis linked individual C. jejuni clones that were obtained at U.S. military exercises with specific antimicrobial resistance patterns. Conclusions In summary, most human C. jejuni isolates from Thailand were multi-resistant to quinolones and tetracycline. PFGE detected spatial and temporal C. jejuni clonality responsible for the common sources of Campylobacter gastroenteritis. PMID:21062505

  13. Target Site Recognition by a Diversity-Generating Retroelement

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Huatao; Tse, Longping V.; Nieh, Angela W.; Czornyj, Elizabeth; Williams, Steven; Oukil, Sabrina; Liu, Vincent B.; Miller, Jeff F.

    2011-01-01

    Diversity-generating retroelements (DGRs) are in vivo sequence diversification machines that are widely distributed in bacterial, phage, and plasmid genomes. They function to introduce vast amounts of targeted diversity into protein-encoding DNA sequences via mutagenic homing. Adenine residues are converted to random nucleotides in a retrotransposition process from a donor template repeat (TR) to a recipient variable repeat (VR). Using the Bordetella bacteriophage BPP-1 element as a prototype, we have characterized requirements for DGR target site function. Although sequences upstream of VR are dispensable, a 24 bp sequence immediately downstream of VR, which contains short inverted repeats, is required for efficient retrohoming. The inverted repeats form a hairpin or cruciform structure and mutational analysis demonstrated that, while the structure of the stem is important, its sequence can vary. In contrast, the loop has a sequence-dependent function. Structure-specific nuclease digestion confirmed the existence of a DNA hairpin/cruciform, and marker coconversion assays demonstrated that it influences the efficiency, but not the site of cDNA integration. Comparisons with other phage DGRs suggested that similar structures are a conserved feature of target sequences. Using a kanamycin resistance determinant as a reporter, we found that transplantation of the IMH and hairpin/cruciform-forming region was sufficient to target the DGR diversification machinery to a heterologous gene. In addition to furthering our understanding of DGR retrohoming, our results suggest that DGRs may provide unique tools for directed protein evolution via in vivo DNA diversification. PMID:22194701

  14. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon nardus citronella essential oil against systemic bacteria of aquatic animals

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Lee Seong; Wee, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Background & Objectives This paper describes chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon nardus citronella essential oil against Edwardsiella spp. (n = 21), Vibrio spp. (n = 6), Aeromonas spp. (n = 2), Escherichia coli (n = 2), Salmonella spp. (n = 2), Flavobacterium spp. (n = 1), Pseudomonas spp. (n = 1) and Streptococcus spp. (n = 1) isolated from internal organs of aquatic animals. Due to the ban of antibiotics for aquaculture use, this study was carried out to evaluate the potential of citronella essential oil as alternative to commercial antibiotic use against systemic bacteria in cultured aquatic animals. Materials & Methods The essential oil of C. nardus was prepared by using the steam distillation method and the chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil tested against bacterial isolates from various aquatic animals and ATCC type strains were determined using two-fold broth micro dilution method with kanamycin and eugenol as positive controls. Results A total of 22 chemical compounds were detected in C. nardus essential oil with 6-octenal, 3, 7-dimethyl- or citronellal representing the major compounds (29.6%). The MIC values of the citronella oil ranged from 0.244 µg/ml to 0.977 µg/ml when tested against the bacterial isolates. Conclusion The results of the present study revealed the potential of C. nardus essential oil as alternative to commercial antibiotics for aquaculture use. PMID:23825733

  15. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of pineapple (Ananas comosus L., Merr.).

    PubMed

    Mhatre, Minal

    2013-01-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus L., Merr.) is a commercially important crop, grown in the tropical and subtropical regions. However, the crop is faced with postharvest damage and poor varietal and nutritional improvement. Being a vegetatively propagated crop, conventional breeding programs take longer time for genetic improvement, which may not necessarily successfully develop an improved cultivar. Hence, the genetic modification of pineapple is an alternative handy approach to improve pineapple. We have established an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system using leaf bases from in vitro-grown pineapple plants. Being a monocot, acetosyringone is added to the culture medium for overnight growth of Agrobacterium and transformation to transfer a gene of interest MSI99 soybean ferritin. Leaf bases isolated from in vitro shoot cultures are treated with Agrobacterium suspension at two dilutions, 10× and 20×, for 30 min. Explants are subsequently blot dried and cultured on gelrite solidified hormone-free Pin1 medium for 2 days (cocultivation). Periodic transfer is first done to the regeneration medium (Pin1) containing cefotaxime for the suppression of Agrobacterium growth. The transformants are selected by culturing on Pin1 medium containing cefotaxime and kanamycin. Multiple shoots, regenerated in leaf bases, are further multiplied and individually rooted in the liquid RM medium amended with antibiotics to recover plants. Putative transformants are analyzed for transgene integration and expression using standard molecular biological methods of PCR, RT-PCR, and genomic Southern.

  16. Biogenic nanoparticles bearing antibacterial activity and their synergistic effect with broad spectrum antibiotics: Emerging strategy to combat drug resistant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Baker, Syed; Pasha, Azmath; Satish, Sreedharamurthy

    2017-01-01

    The present study emphasizes on synthesis of bimetallic silver-gold nanoparticles from cell free supernatant of Pseudomonas veronii strain AS41G inhabiting Annona squamosa L. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using hyphenated techniques with UV-Visible spectra ascertained absorbance peak between 400 and 800 nm. Possible interaction of biomolecules in mediating and stabilization of nanoparticles was depicted with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). X-ray diffraction (XRD) displayed Bragg's peak conferring the 1 0 0, 1 1 1, 2 0 0, and 2 2 0 facets of the face centered cubic symmetry of nanoparticles suggesting that these nanoparticles were crystalline in nature. Size and shape of the nanoparticles were determined using Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) microgram with size ranging from 5 to 50 nm forming myriad shapes. Antibacterial activity of nanoparticles against significant human pathogens was conferred with well diffusion assay and its synergistic effect with standard antibiotics revealed 87.5% fold increased activity with antibiotic "bacitracin" against bacitracin resistant strains Bacillus subtilis , Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae followed by kanamycin with 18.5%, gentamicin with 11.15%, streptomycin with 10%, erythromycin with 9.7% and chloramphenicol with 9.4%. Thus the study concludes with biogenic and ecofriendly route for synthesizing nanoparticles with antibacterial activity against drug resistant pathogens and attributes growing interest on endophytes as an emerging source for synthesis of nanoparticles.

  17. Cloning and characterization of an autonomous replication sequence from Coxiella burnetii.

    PubMed Central

    Suhan, M; Chen, S Y; Thompson, H A; Hoover, T A; Hill, A; Williams, J C

    1994-01-01

    A Coxiella burnetii chromosomal fragment capable of functioning as an origin for the replication of a kanamycin resistance (Kanr) plasmid was isolated by use of origin search methods utilizing an Escherichia coli host. The 5.8-kb fragment was subcloned into phagemid vectors and was deleted progressively by an exonuclease III-S1 technique. Plasmids containing progressively shorter DNA fragments were then tested for their capability to support replication by transformation of an E. coli polA strain. A minimal autonomous replication sequence (ARS) was delimited to 403 bp. Sequencing of the entire 5.8-kb region revealed that the minimal ARS contained two consensus DnaA boxes, three A + T-rich 21-mers, a transcriptional promoter leading rightwards, and potential integration host factor and factor of inversion stimulation binding sites. Database comparisons of deduced amino acid sequences revealed that open reading frames located around the ARS were homologous to genes often, but not always, found near bacterial chromosomal origins; these included identities with rpmH and rnpA in E. coli and identities with the 9K protein and 60K membrane protein in E. coli and Pseudomonas species. These and direct hybridization data suggested that the ARS was chromosomal and not associated with the resident plasmid QpH1. Two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis did not reveal the presence of initiating intermediates, indicating that the ARS did not initiate chromosome replication during laboratory growth of C. burnetii. Images PMID:8071197

  18. Characterisation of Phenotypic and Genotypic Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Enterococci from Cheeses in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kürekci, Cemil; Önen, Sevda Pehlivanlar; Yipel, Mustafa; Aslantaş, Özkan; Gündoğdu, Aycan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of enterococci in cheese samples and to characterize their antimicrobial resistance profiles as well as the associated resistance genes. A total of 139 enterococci were isolated from 99 cheese samples, the isolates were identified as E. faecalis (61.2%), E. faecium (15.1%), E. gallinarum (12.9%), E. durans (5.0%), E. casseliflavis (2.9%) and E. avium (2.9%). The most frequent antimicrobial resistance observed in enterococci isolates was to lincomycin (88.5%), followed by kanamycin (84.2%), gentamycin (low level, 51.1%), rifampin (46.8%) and tetracycline (33.8%). Among the isolates, the frequencies of high level gentamycin and streptomycin resistant enterococci strains were 2.2% and 5.8%, respectively. Apart from the mentioned antibiotics, low levels of resistance to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and chloramphenicol were found. Moreover no resistance was observed against penicillin and ampicillin. The antimicrobial resistance genes including tetM, tetL, ermB, cat, aph(3')-IIIa, ant(6)-Ia and aac(6')-Ieaph(2")-Ia were found in enterococci from Turkish cheese samples. In the current study, we provided data for antibiotic resistance and the occurrence of resistance genes among enterococci. Regulatory and quality control programs for milk and other dairy products from farms to retail outlets has to be established and strengthened to monitor trends in antimicrobial resistance among emerging food borne pathogens in Turkey.

  19. Desulfonatronum paiuteum sp. nov.: A New Alkaliphilic, Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium, Isolated from Soda Mono Lake, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena; Hoover, Richard B.; Marsic, Damien; Whitman, William; Cleland, David; Krader, Paul; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A novel alkaliphilic, sulfate reducing bacterium strain MLF1(sup T) was isolated from sediments of soda Mono Lake, California. Gram-negative vibrion cells, motile by singular polar flagellum, with sizes 0.5 - 0.6x 1.2 - 2.0 micron occurred singly, in pairs or short spirilla. Growth was observed over the temperature range of +15 C to +48 C (optimum +37 C), NaCl concentration range is greater than 1 - 7 %, wt/vol (optimum 3 %, wt/vol) and pH range 7.8 - 10.5 (optimum pH 9.0 - 9.4). The novel isolate is strictly alkaliphilic, requires high carbonate concentration in medium, obligately anaerobic and catalase negative. As electron donors strain MLF1(sup T) uses hydrogen, formate, ethanol. Sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate (but not sulfur or nitrate) can be used as electron acceptors. The sole end product of growth on formate was H2S. Strain MLF1(sup T) is resistant to kanamycin and gentamycin, but sensitive to chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Na2MoO4 inhibits growth of strain MLF1(sup T). The sum of G+C in DNA is 63.1 mol% (by HPLC method). On the basis of physiological and molecular properties, the isolate was considered as novel species of genus Desulfonatronum; and the name Desulfonatronum paiuteum sp. nov., is proposed (type strain MLF1(sup T) = ATCC BAA-395(sup T) = DSMZ 14708(sup T).

  20. Tindallia Californiensis sp. nov.: A New Halo-Alkaliphilic Primary Anaerobe, Isolated from Meromictic soda Mono Lake in California and the Correction of Diagnosis for Genus Tindallia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena; Marsic, Damien; Hoover, Richard B.; Kevbrin, Vadim; Whitman, William B.; Krader, Paul; Cleland, Dave; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A novel extremely halo-alkaliphilic, bacterium strain APO (sup T) was isolated from sediments of the athalassic, meromictic, soda Mono Lake in California. Gram positive, spore-forming, slightly curved rods with sizes 0.6-0.7x 2.5-4.0 micrometers which occur singly, in pairs or short curved chains. Cells, are motile by singular subcentral flagellum. Strain APO (sup T) is mesophilic: growth was observed over the temperature range of +10 C to +48 C (optimum +37 C), NaCl concentration range 1-20 %, wt/vol (optimum 3-5%, wt/vol) and pH range 8.0-11.0 (optimum pH 9.5). The novel isolate is strictly halo-alkaliphilic, requires sodium chloride in medium, obligately anaerobic and catalase-negative. Strain APO (sup T) is organo-heterotroph with fermentative type of metabolism, and uses as substrates: peptone, badotryptone, casamino acids, yeast extract, L-serine, L-lysine, L-histidine, L-arginine, and pyruvate. The main end products of growth on peptone medium were: lactate, acetate, propionate, and ethanol. Strain APO (sup T) is resistant to kanamycin, but sensitive to chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and gentamycin. The sum of G+C in DNA is 44.4 mol% (by HPLC method). On the bait of physiological and molecular properties, the isolate was considered as novel species of genus Tindallia; and the name Tindallia californiensis sp. nov., is proposed for new isolate (type strain APO (sup T) - ATCC BAA_393(sup T) = DSMZ 14871 (sup T)).