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Sample records for kangaroo island south

  1. Multi-proxy monitoring approaches at Kangaroo Island, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Bronwyn; Drysdale, Russell; Tyler, Jonathan; Goodwin, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Interpretations of geochemical signals preserved in young speleothems are greatly enhanced by comprehensive cave-site monitoring. In the light of this, a cave monitoring project is being conducted concurrently with the development of a new palaeoclimate record from Kelly Hill Cave (Kangaroo Island, South Australia). The site is strategically located because it is situated between longer-lived monitoring sites in southeastern and southwestern Australia, as well as being climatically 'upstream' from major population and agricultural centres. This study aims to understand possible controls on speleothem δ18O in Kelly Hill Cave through i. identification of local and regional δ18O drivers in precipitation; and ii. preservation and modification of climatic signals within the epikarst as indicated by dripwater δ18O. These aims are achieved through analysis of a five-year daily rainfall (amount and δ18O) dataset in conjunction with in-cave drip monitoring. Drivers of precipitation δ18O were identified through linear regression between δ18O values and local meteorological variables, air-parcel back trajectories, and synoptic-typing. Synoptically driven moisture sources were identified through the use of NCEP/NCAR climate reanalysis sea-level pressure, precipitable moisture, and outgoing longwave radiation data in order to trace moisture sources and travel mechanisms from surrounding ocean basins. Local controls on δ18O at Kelly Hill Cave are consistent with published interpretations of southern Australia sites, with oxygen isotopes primarily controlled by rainfall amount on both daily and monthly time scales. Back-trajectory analysis also supports previous observations that the Southern Ocean is the major source for moisture-bearing cold-front systems. However, synoptic typing of daily rainfall δ18O and amount extremes reveals a previously unreported tropical connection and moisture source. This tropical connection appears to be strongest in summer and autumn, but

  2. Diatexite Deformation and Magma Extraction on Kangaroo Island, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasalova, Pavlina; Weinberg, Roberto; Ward, Lindsay; Fanning, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Migmatite terranes are structurally complex because of strong rheological contrast between layers with different melt contents and because of magma migration leading to volume changes. Migmatite deformation is intimately linked with magma extraction and the origin of granitoids. We investigate here the relationships between an evolving deformation and magma extraction in migmatites formed during the ca. 500Ma Delamerian orogeny, exposed on Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Here, several phases of deformation occurred in the presence of melt. During an early upright, non-cylindrical folding event, magma was channeled towards the hinge zones of antiforms. Funnel-shaped networks of leucosomes form a root zone that link up towards a central axial planar channel, forming the main magma extraction paths during folding. Extraction was associated with fold limb collapse, and antiformal hinge disruption by magma accumulation and transfer. During a later deformation phase, melt-rich diatexites were deformed, and schollen were disaggregated into smaller blocks and schlieren, and deformed into asymmetric, sigmoidal shapes indicative of dextral shearing flow. During flow, magma accumulated preferentially along shear planes, indicating a dilatational component during shearing (transtension) and in strain shadows of schollen. As deformation waned, magma extraction from these diatexites gave rise to N-trending, steeply dipping, funnel-shaped channels not associated to any deformational feature. The funnel-shape of these structures indicates the direction of magma flow. Structures developed during this phase are comparable with those formed during dewatering of soft sediments. Despite a high degree of complexity, magma migration and extraction features record distinct responses to the evolving deformation which can be used to understand deformation, and nature and direction of melt extraction. The oldest and youngest magmatic rocks from migmatites were dated (U-Pb monazite, SHRIMP

  3. Diatexite Deformation and Magma Extraction on Kangaroo Island, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasalova, P.; Weinberg, R. F.; Ward, L.; Fanning, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    Migmatite terranes are structurally complex. We have investigated the relationships between deformation and magma extraction in migmatites formed during the Delamerian orogeny on Kangaroo Island. Several phases of deformation occurred in the presence of melt (D1-D4) and we describe how magma segregation, accumulation and extraction changes with deformation style. During an early upright folding event (D2), magma was channelled towards the hinge of antiforms. Funnel-shaped networks of leucosomes form a root that link towards a central axial planar channel, marking the main magma extraction paths. Extraction was associated with limb collapse, and antiformal hinge disruption. During a later deformation phase (D4), diatexites were sheared so that schollen were disaggregated into smaller blocks and schlieren, and deformed into asymmetric, sigmoidal shapes. Foliations in the magmatic matrix and schollen asymmetry indicate dextral shearing. During flow, magma accumulated in shear planes, indicating a dilational component during shearing (transtension) and on strain shadows of schollen. As deformation waned (post-D4), magma extraction from these diatexites gave rise to steeply dipping, funnel-shaped channels, similar to those developed during folding. The funnel-shape networks are interpreted as magma extraction networks and indicate magma flow direction. Structures developed during this phase are comparable with those developed during dewatering of soft sediments. The magmatic rocks from migmatites formed early, during folding, and formed late after deformation waned were dated. Both have two monazite (U-Pb, SHRIMP) age groups of ~490Ma and ~505-520Ma. The older sample has a well-defined peak at 505-510Ma and trails into the younger ages. The younger sample has the opposite, with few old spots and a well-defined young peak at ~490Ma. The age range indicates the duration of anatexis, and well-defined peaks are interpreted to mark the age of individual magma batch

  4. Bothriocroton concolor (Acari: Ixodidae) on the Kangaroo Island kangaroo: a new host-parasite relationship.

    PubMed

    Oorebeek, M; Rismiller, P

    2007-09-01

    In 2006, we examined Kangaroo Island kangaroos, Macropusfuliginosusfuliginosus, for ticks. We collected three tick species: Ixodes hirsti Hassall, Hemaphysalis bancrofti Nuttall & Warburton, and Bothriocroton concolor (Neumann). Surprisingly, the specimens included eight females and one nymph of B. concolor, which had previously been considered strictly host specific to the echidna (Tachyglossus sp.). This is the first record of B. concolor on the Kangaroo Island kangaroo.

  5. Thorough assessment of DNA preservation from fossil bone and sediments excavated from a late Pleistocene-Holocene cave deposit on Kangaroo Island, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haouchar, Dalal; Haile, James; McDowell, Matthew C.; Murray, Dáithí C.; White, Nicole E.; Allcock, Richard J. N.; Phillips, Matthew J.; Prideaux, Gavin J.; Bunce, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Fossils and sediments preserved in caves are an excellent source of information for investigating impacts of past environmental changes on biodiversity. Until recently studies have relied on morphology-based palaeontological approaches, but recent advances in molecular analytical methods offer excellent potential for extracting a greater array of biological information from these sites. This study presents a thorough assessment of DNA preservation from late Pleistocene-Holocene vertebrate fossils and sediments from Kelly Hill Cave Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Using a combination of extraction techniques and sequencing technologies, ancient DNA was characterised from over 70 bones and 20 sediment samples from 15 stratigraphic layers ranging in age from >20 ka to ˜6.8 ka. A combination of primers targeting marsupial and placental mammals, reptiles and two universal plant primers were used to reveal genetic biodiversity for comparison with the mainland and with the morphological fossil record for Kelly Hill Cave. We demonstrate that Kelly Hill Cave has excellent long-term DNA preservation, back to at least 20 ka. This contrasts with the majority of Australian cave sites thus far explored for ancient DNA preservation, and highlights the great promise Kangaroo Island caves hold for yielding the hitherto-elusive DNA of extinct Australian Pleistocene species.

  6. Early palaeozoic palaeomagnetism in Australia I. Cambrian results from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia II. Late Early Cambrian results from Kangaroo Island, South Australia III. Middle to early-Late Cambrian results from the Amadeus Basin, Northern Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klootwijk, C. T.

    1980-04-01

    I. Cambrian results from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia A total of 460 samples from six sequences spanning the Cambrian succession of the Flinders Ranges (Adelaide "Geosyncline", South Australia) has been analyzed through thermal demagnetization studies. All samples showed a recent field component, generally constituting more than 50% of the initial intensity, which in most cases was removed by 200-400°C. Two characteristic magnetic components have been identified: (A) A secondary magnetic component of Cambro-Ordovician age (S-pole at 75.3°E 26.0°N, α95 = 7.4°, N = 5 localities) interpreted as having been induced by thermochemical activity during a period of enhanced heat flux prior to the Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician diastrophistic phases of the Delamarian Orogeny. (B) A primary magnetic component, which indicates rapid polar motion during the Early Cambrian and a much reduced polar motion during the Middle Cambrian. Representative palaeomagnetic pole positions for the primary component are: (1) Basal Hawker Group (earliest Cambrian): S-pole at 2.3°E 26.7°S, d p = 8.1°, d m = 14.3°, N = 10 (sites). (2) Billy Creek Formation— Wirrealpa Limestone— Aroona Creek Limestone (late Early Cambrian to early Middle Cambrian): S-pole at 20.1°E 37.4°S, d p = 7.2°, dm = 14.4°, N = 11(sites). (3) Basal Lake Frame Group (Middle Cambrian): S-pole at 26.1°E 29.3°S, d p = 6.6°, d m = 13.1°, N =10 (sites). (4) Pantapinna Formation (late Middle Cambrian?): S-pole at 29.2°E 36.4°S, d p = 8.4°, dm = 16.7°, N = 4 (sites). Available data suggest that deposition of the Lake Frome Group beds probably did not continue into the Late Cambrian. II. Late Early Cambrian results from Kangaroo Island, South Australia A total of 108 block samples from a late Early Cambrian red-bed sequence on Kangaroo Island (Adelaide "Geosyncline", South Australia) has been analysed through thermal demagnetization studies. All samples contained a recent field component of

  7. Effects of Kangaroo Care on Neonatal Pain in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Seo, Young Sun; Lee, Joohyun; Ahn, Hye Young

    2016-06-01

    Blood sampling for a newborn screening test is necessary for all neonates in South Korea. During the heel stick, an appropriate intervention should be implemented to reduce neonatal pain. This study was conducted to identify the effectiveness of kangaroo care (KC), skin contact with the mother, on pain relief during the neonatal heel stick. Twenty-six neonates undergoing KC and 30 control neonates at a university hospital participated in this study. Physiological responses of neonates, including heart rate, oxygen saturation, duration of crying and Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) scores were measured and compared before, during and 1 min and 2 min after heel sticks. The heart rate of KC neonates was lower at both 1 and 2 min after sampling than those of the control group. Also, PIPP scores of KC neonates were significantly lower both during and after sampling. The duration of crying for KC neonates was around 10% of the duration of the control group. In conclusion, KC might be an effective intervention in a full-term nursery for neonatal pain management.

  8. Hosts of the exotic ornate kangaroo tick, Amblyomma triguttatum triguttatum Koch, on southern Yorke Peninsula, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Waudby, Helen P; Petit, Sophie; Dixon, Bruce; Andrews, Ross H

    2007-10-01

    Amblyomma triguttatum triguttatum is assumed to be endemic to south-western Western Australia (including Barrow Island), Queensland (excluding Cape York Peninsula), and New South Wales, south to Dubbo and Barham. The species has been recorded on a range of mammalian hosts including macropods and domestic animals. In Queensland, A. triguttatum triguttatum is implicated in the epidemiology of Q fever. In 2000, the species was detected on southern Yorke Peninsula in South Australia. We aimed to identify A. triguttatum triguttatum's hosts through trapping, sampling of carcasses, and opportunistic capture of vertebrates on Yorke Peninsula. A. triguttatum triguttatum was removed from black rats (Rattus rattus), wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus), Tammar wallabies (M. eugenii eugenii), domesticated cats and dogs, and humans. Before this study, A. triguttatum triguttatum had not been found on black rats or rabbits in the wild. This research has implications for the management of wildlife, livestock, and visitors on Yorke Peninsula. The potential for A. triguttatum triguttatum to spread to other areas of Yorke Peninsula and South Australia is considerable, as visitors (tourists) to southern Yorke Peninsula report the presence of ticks both on themselves and among camping equipment on arriving home.

  9. Henderson Island, South Pacific

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-15

    Uninhabited Henderson Island is part of the United Kingdom's Pitcairn Islands group in the South Pacific. According to a study by the University of Tasmania published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, the island has the highest density of plastic waste anywhere in the world, an estimated 38 million pieces of rubbish. The island is near the center of an ocean current, so it collects rubbish from boats and South America. The image was acquired February 7, 2012, covers an area of 10.3 by 12.3 km, and is located at 24.3 degrees south, 128.3 degrees west. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21691

  10. A sedge plant as the source of Kangaroo Island propolis rich in prenylated p-coumarate ester and stilbenes.

    PubMed

    Duke, Colin C; Tran, Van H; Duke, Rujee K; Abu-Mellal, Abdallah; Plunkett, George T; King, Douglas I; Hamid, Kaiser; Wilson, Karen L; Barrett, Russell L; Bruhl, Jeremy J

    2017-02-01

    Propolis samples from Kangaroo Island, South Australia, were investigated for chemical constituents using high-field nuclear magnetic resonance spectral profiling. A type of propolis was found containing a high proportion of prenylated hydroxystilbenes. Subsequently, the botanical origin of this type of propolis was identified using a beehive propolis depletion method and analysis of flora. Ligurian honey bees, Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola, were found to produce propolis from resin exuded by the Australian native sedge plant Lepidosperma sp. Montebello (Cyperaceae). The plants, commonly known as sword sedge, were found to have resin that matched with the propolis samples identified as the most abundant propolis type on the island containing C- and O-prenylated tetrahydroxystilbenes (pTHOS) in addition to a small amount of prenylated p-coumarate. The isolation of five pTHOS not previously characterized are reported: (E)-4-(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-3,4',5-trihydroxy-3'-methoxystilbene, (E)-2,4-bis(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-3,3',4',5-tetrahydroxystilbene, (E)-2-(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyloxy)-3',4',5-trihydroxystilbene, (E)-2,6-bis(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-3,3',5,5'-tetrahydroxystilbene and (E)-2,6-bis(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-3,4',5-trihydroxy-3'-methoxystilbene. A National Cancer Institute 60 human cell line anticancer screen of three of these compounds showed growth inhibitory activity. The large Australasian genus Lepidosperma is identified as a valuable resource for the isolation of substances with medicinal potential. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Taking kangaroo mother care forward in South Africa: The role of district clinical specialist teams.

    PubMed

    Feucht, Ute Dagmar; van Rooyen, Elise; Skhosana, Rinah; Bergh, Anne-Marie

    2015-11-20

    The global agenda for improved neonatal care includes the scale-up of kangaroo mother care (KMC) services. The establishment of district clinical specialist teams (DCSTs) in South Africa (SA) provides an excellent opportunity to enhance neonatal care at district level and ensure translation of policies, including the requirement for KMC implementation, into everyday clinical practice. Tshwane District in Gauteng Province, SA, has been experiencing an increasing strain on obstetric and neonatal services at central, tertiary and regional hospitals in recent years as a result of growing population numbers and rapid up-referral of patients, with limited down-referral of low-risk patients to district-level services. We describe a successful multidisciplinary quality improvement initiative under the leadership of the Tshwane DCST, in conjunction with experienced local KMC implementers, aimed at expanding the district's KMC services. The project subsequently served as a platform for improvement of other areas of neonatal care by means of a systematic approach.

  12. A survey to detect the presence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Kangaroo Island macropods.

    PubMed

    Cleland, P C; Lehmann, D R; Phillips, P H; Cousins, D V; Reddacliff, L A; Whittington, R J

    2010-10-26

    The aim of this study was to determine whether Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. a. paratuberculosis) infection was present in macropods grazing with infected sheep on Kangaroo Island in 2001-2002, and to assess the likely role of such infection in the epidemiology of ovine paratuberculosis. Ileum and associated lymphatics from 482 macropods were examined using radiometric culture followed by PCR for IS900 and restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) for species identification, and isolates were strain typed using PCR for IS1311 and REA. Ileum and mesenteric lymph nodes from animals with positive tissue cultures or gross lesions suggestive of paratuberculosis were examined histologically. Faeces from a total of 840 animals were cultured in pools of 20, and individual faecal cultures were done from tissue culture positive animals, from those with microscopic lesions, and from selected animals with gross lesions. Eight animals (1.7%) yielded positive tissue cultures, and all isolates were the sheep (S) strain. Two animals that were tissue culture positive also had histopathological evidence of paratuberculosis. Twelve culture negative animals had microscopic lesions consistent with mycobacterial infection, and M. genavense was identified by PCR from a paraffin block from one of these animals. All faecal cultures were negative. These results indicate that a small proportion of macropods can become infected with M. a. paratuberculosis when grazing with infected sheep. However, excretion of large numbers of viable organisms is rare in macropods, and it is unlikely that macropods provide a wildlife reservoir of infection that would seriously compromise control efforts for paratuberculosis in sheep. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Stress in an Island kangaroo? The Barrow Island euro, Macropus robustus isabellinus.

    PubMed

    King, J M; Bradshaw, S D

    2010-05-15

    Selected physiological parameters were monitored over a 4-year period in the Barrow Island euro, Macropus robustus isabellinus, in Western Australia in a study of this species' homeostatic capabilities in an extremely arid habitat where individuals are exposed to high environmental temperatures and a lack of free water for much of the year. Evidence was found of a significant change in the animal's milieu intérieur on only one occasion on Barrow Island: in November 1994, following a protracted 8-month drought. Euros had significantly elevated levels of plasma osmolality, cortisol, anti-diuretic hormone (lysine vasopressin - LVP), and a reduced eosinophil count. This suggests that these animals may have been dehydrated, despite the operation of appropriate physiological responses to water deprivation. Lower eosinophil counts also suggest that immune function may have been suppressed as a result of the elevated corticosteroid levels. Comparisons with the mainland sub-species of the euro revealed the presence of a non-generative normocytic hypochromic anaemia in Barrow Island euros that potentially compromises their aerobic capacity. Barrow Island is Australia's most important A Class Reserve, harbouring 8 species of marsupials, 4 of which are now extinct, or virtually so, on the adjacent mainland. This study reveals the remarkable effectiveness of the euro's homeostatic capacities, however, its future conservation depends on ensuring that potential stress due to declining water availability and environmental change is avoided. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular detection of hybridization between sympatric kangaroo species in south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Neaves, L E; Zenger, K R; Cooper, D W; Eldridge, M D B

    2010-05-01

    Introgressive hybridization has traditionally been regarded as rare in many vertebrate groups, including mammals. Despite a propensity to hybridize in captivity, introgression has rarely been reported between wild sympatric macropodid marsupials. Here we investigate sympatric populations of western (Macropus fuliginosus) and eastern (Macropus giganteus) grey kangaroos through 12 autosomal microsatellite loci and 626 bp of the hypervariable mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region. M. fuliginosus and M. giganteus within the region of sympatry corresponded, both genetically and morphologically, to their respective species elsewhere in their distributions. Of the 223 grey kangaroos examined, 7.6% displayed evidence of introgression, although no F1 hybrids were detected. In contrast to captive studies, there was no evidence for unidirectional hybridization in sympatric grey kangaroos. However, a higher portion of M. giganteus backcrosses existed within the sample compared with M. fuliginosus. Hybridization in grey kangaroos is reflective of occasional breakdowns in species boundaries, occurring throughout the region and potentially associated with variable conditions and dramatic reductions in densities. Such rare hybridization events allow populations to incorporate novel diversity while still retaining species integrity.

  15. 2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and east sides - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  16. 11. VIEW NORTH, WOODLYNNE AVENUE ISLAND FROM 130 SOUTH ISLAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW NORTH, WOODLYNNE AVENUE ISLAND FROM 130 SOUTH ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  17. 3. Light tower, view northwest, south side Ram Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Light tower, view northwest, south side - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  18. Cool-water Eocene-Oligocene carbonate sedimentation on a paleobathymetric high, Kangaroo Island, southern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Noel P.; Matenaar, Joanne; Bone, Yvonne

    2016-07-01

    The Kingscote Limestone is a thin, biofragmental 41 m thick Paleogene subtropical to cool-temperate carbonate interpreted to have accumulated in a seaway developed between a series of mid-shelf islands. It is a pivotal section that allows interpretation of a region in which there is little exposure of early Cenozoic shelf sediments. Sedimentation occurred on part of the shelf along the northern margin of an extensive Eocene embayment that evolved into a narrow Oligocene ocean following collapse of the Tasman Gateway. Eocene strata are subtropical echinoid-rich floatstones with conspicuous bryozoans, and mollusks, together with large and small benthic foraminifers. Numerous echinoid rudstone storm deposits punctuate the succession. Correlation with coeval Eocene strata across southern Australia supports a regional facies model wherein inner neritic biosiliceous spiculitic sediments passed outboard into calcareous facies. The silica was derived from land covered by a thriving subtropical forest and attendant deep weathering. Oligocene rocks are distinctively cooler cyclic cross-bedded bryozoan rudstones and floatstones with a similar benthic biota but dominated by bryozoans and containing no large benthic foraminifers. These deposits are interpreted as flood-dominated tidal subaqueous dunes that formed in a flood-tide dominated inter-island strait. Omission surfaces at the top of the Eocene and at the top of most Oligocene cycles are Fe-stained hardgrounds that underwent extensive multigeneration seafloor and meteoric diagenesis prior to deposition of the next cycle. Cycles in the Kingscote Limestone, although mostly m-scale and compositionally distinct are similar to those across the region and point to a recurring cycle motif controlled by icehouse eustasy and local paleogeography.

  19. Bone fluoride concentrations of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) resident near an aluminium smelter in south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Hufschmid, J; Beveridge, I; Coulson, G; Gould, J

    2011-08-01

    Lesions of skeletal and dental fluorosis have been described recently in eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus). The present study further examined the epidemiology of skeletal fluorosis in this species. Bone fluoride concentrations were obtained from a range of skeletal sites of animals from a high (Portland Aluminium) and a low (Cape Bridgewater) fluoride environment in Victoria, Australia. Age, but not sex, affected the mean bone fluoride concentration of kangaroos. For a given age, bone fluoride concentrations were significantly higher in kangaroos from Portland than Cape Bridgewater. Concentrations varied between skeletal sites examined, with samples containing cancellous bone having higher fluoride concentrations than those containing only cortical bone.

  20. 9. VIEW SOUTH, ROUTE 130 SOUTH FROM WOODLYNNE AVENUE ISLAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW SOUTH, ROUTE 130 SOUTH FROM WOODLYNNE AVENUE ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  1. Kangaroos in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borst, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Describes a kangaroo simulation which can be adapted for use with radio tracking activities for other animals. Outlines procedures and information to help implement the activity. Provides a map of Australia, calculations, and sample kangaroo movement data. (RT)

  2. Kangaroos in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borst, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Describes a kangaroo simulation which can be adapted for use with radio tracking activities for other animals. Outlines procedures and information to help implement the activity. Provides a map of Australia, calculations, and sample kangaroo movement data. (RT)

  3. Kangaroo mother care.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Sarah

    2012-05-01

    Kangaroo mother care is a safe, simple method to care for low birth weight infants. This article looks at its origins, what is involved in kangaroo mother care and reviews the evidence for improved outcomes resulting from its implementation.

  4. Ambae Island, Vanuatu (South Pacific)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The recently active volcano Mt. Manaro is the dominant feature in this shaded relief image of Ambae Island, part of the Vanuatu archipelago located 1400 miles northeast of Sydney, Australia. About 5000 inhabitants, half the island's population, were evacuated in early December from the path of a possible lahar, or mud flow, when the volcano started spewing clouds of steam and toxic gases 10,000 feet into the atmosphere.

    Last active in 1996, the 1496 meter (4908 ft.) high Hawaiian-style basaltic shield volcano features two lakes within its summit caldera, or crater. The ash and gas plume is actually emerging from a vent at the center of Lake Voui (at left), which was formed approximately 425 years ago after an explosive eruption.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion

  5. Ambae Island, Vanuatu (South Pacific)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The recently active volcano Mt. Manaro is the dominant feature in this shaded relief image of Ambae Island, part of the Vanuatu archipelago located 1400 miles northeast of Sydney, Australia. About 5000 inhabitants, half the island's population, were evacuated in early December from the path of a possible lahar, or mud flow, when the volcano started spewing clouds of steam and toxic gases 10,000 feet into the atmosphere.

    Last active in 1996, the 1496 meter (4908 ft.) high Hawaiian-style basaltic shield volcano features two lakes within its summit caldera, or crater. The ash and gas plume is actually emerging from a vent at the center of Lake Voui (at left), which was formed approximately 425 years ago after an explosive eruption.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion

  6. South Georgia Island in the South Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1974-02-28

    SL4-142-4577 (28 Jan. 1974) --- Two large ice islands in the vicinity of South Georgia Island in the South Atlantic Ocean, as photographed from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit by one of the Skylab 4 crewmen. The camera used was a hand-held 70mm Hasselblad, with SO-368 medium-speed Ektachrome. One of the ice islands is partially obscured by clouds. Ice islands were observed as large as 45 by 60 kilometers (27 x 37 miles) and as far north as 45 degrees south latitude. The size and distribution of the "small" icebergs (to a ship they would look very large) can be used to study the local winds and currents. Recent research has suggested the possibility of towing such Antarctic icebergs to selected areas and using them as water supplies. One such iceberg would contain many times the water as in Lake Powell. Photo credit: NASA

  7. SeaWinds - South Georgia Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Winds are blocked by an island mountain barrier that produces a long 'shadow' of low winds on the downwind side of the island stretching for hundreds of kilometers (about 500 miles long) in this image produced from data from NASA's SeaWinds instrument on the QuikScat satellite.

    South Georgia Island, in the South Atlantic Ocean (approximately 1,500 kilometers, or miles, east of the Falkland/Malvinas Islands, is only 170 kilometers long (about 106 miles) and 30 kilometers (about 19 miles)wide, but contains 13 peaks exceeding 2,000 meters (more than 6,500 feet) in height. The island thus acts as a significant barrier to the surface winds in this forbidding part of the world oceans.

    Mountainous islands and steep coastal topography can modify the surface wind field for many hundreds of kilometers seaward. The detailed air-sea-land interaction processes involved are not well understood, largely because of a lack of accurate, high-resolution, extensive wind speed and direction measurements. The broad-swath, all-weather SeaWinds instrument on NASA's QuikScat satellite is providing unique measurements of ocean winds, revealing previously unknown wind patterns caused by island topography and allowing development of improved models for coastal ocean winds.

    This image shows QuikScat measurements of wind speed and direction during a single pass over South Georgia Island on September 13, 1999. The island itself is shown as black (for heights less than 750 meters(less than half a mile), green (for heights between 750 and 1,500 meters (less than half a mile to about one mile), and red (for regions greater than 1,500 meters, or about one mile in altitude). The white area surrounding the island represents the region where land contamination does not allow wind measurements to be made. The horizontal and vertical coordinates are in kilometers, with origin on the island at latitude 54.5 degrees south, longitude 30 degrees east.

    This large-scale view shows regions of

  8. VIEW OF NORTH ELEVATION; CAMERA FACING SOUTH Mare Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTH ELEVATION; CAMERA FACING SOUTH - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Transportation Building & Gas Station, Third Street, south side between Walnut Avenue & Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  9. VIEW OF SOUTH ELEVATION; CAMERA FACING NORTH Mare Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTH ELEVATION; CAMERA FACING NORTH - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Transportation Building & Gas Station, Third Street, south side between Walnut Avenue & Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  10. Island wake produced by Antipodes Islands south of New Zealand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-12-16

    SL4-137-3655 (16 Dec. 1973) --- An island wake produced by the Antipodes Islands in the ocean current south of New Zealand is seen in this photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. A Skylab 4 crewmen took the picture with a hand-held 70mm Hasselblad camera. The bow wave pattern is quite evident and can be used to determine the current speed from the angle of the bow wave if the propagation speed of the surface wave is known. Also, evident is the darker band extending downstream from the island tens of miles. This is the actual wake of the island. The existence of water color differences from within to outside a turbulent island wake may indicate a temperature difference, with cooler water being stirred to the surface in the wake. This temperature difference could be used to drive a thermo-electric type generator to reduce small islands' dependence on imported oil for power generation. Photo credit: NASA

  11. South Central California Coastline and Channel Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This distant and very oblique image of the south Central California Coastline and Channel Islands (35.0N, 119.0W) offers a spectacular and scenic view of the southern west coast, the central San Joaquin Valley, the entire Sierra Nevada Range and across the southwest to the Rocky Mountains on the horizon.

  12. The kangaroo genome

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Matthew J.; Graves, Jennifer A. Marshall

    2003-01-01

    The kangaroo genome is a rich and unique resource for comparative genomics. Marsupial genetics and cytology have made significant contributions to the understanding of gene function and evolution, and increasing the availability of kangaroo DNA sequence information would provide these benefits on a genomic scale. Here we summarize the contributions from cytogenetic and genetic studies of marsupials, describe the genomic resources currently available and those being developed, and explore the benefits of a kangaroo genome project. PMID:12612602

  13. Volcanic hazard on Deception Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolini, S.; Geyer, A.; Martí, J.; Pedrazzi, D.; Aguirre-Díaz, G.

    2014-09-01

    Deception Island is the most active volcano in the South Shetland Islands and has been the scene of more than twenty identified eruptions over the past two centuries. In this contribution we present the first comprehensive long-term volcanic hazard assessment for this volcanic island. The research is based on the use of probabilistic methods and statistical techniques to estimate volcanic susceptibility, eruption recurrence and the most likely future eruptive scenarios. We perform a statistical analysis of the time series of past eruptions and the spatial extent of their products, including lava flows, fallout, pyroclastic density currents and lahars. The Bayesian event tree statistical method HASSET is applied to calculate eruption recurrence, while the QVAST tool is used in an analysis of past activity to calculate the possibility that new vents will open (volcanic susceptibility). On the basis of these calculations, we identify a number of significant scenarios using the GIS-based VORIS 2.0.1 and LAHARZ software and evaluate the potential extent of the main volcanic hazards to be expected on the island. This study represents a step forward in the evaluation of volcanic hazard on Deception Island and the results obtained are potentially useful for long-term emergency planning.

  14. Kangaroo care on premature infant growth and maternal attachment and post-partum depression in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hye Young; Lee, Joohyun; Shin, Hwa-Jin

    2010-10-01

    After births, premature infants need a high level of medical treatments for their survivals in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). This separation deprives mothers of the chance to initiate an attachment process. Kangaroo care (KC) can be one of the ways to reunite mothers and their infants in the NICU and improve health outcomes. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of KC on both premature infants and their mothers. Ten sessions of 60-min KC for 3 weeks were practiced at a level III NICU at E university hospital. Infants' body weight, height and head circumference (HC), maternal attachment and depression were measured. As a result, premature infants in KC showed higher in their height and bigger in their HC than infants in control. Maternal attachment scores were higher among the KC mothers. The results supported the beneficial effects of KC on Korean premature infants and their mothers.

  15. Men's Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviours on Kangaroo Island, South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Murray; Elliott, Sam; Drummond, Claire; Lewis, Felicity

    2017-01-01

    Background: Men's health has been subjected to diverse approaches to research over the past two decades. Much of the literature has focused on specific medical and health issues. Other contributions have focused more broadly on masculinities and its relationship to health. It is arguable that there has not been a lot of attention paid to…

  16. Men's Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviours on Kangaroo Island, South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Murray; Elliott, Sam; Drummond, Claire; Lewis, Felicity

    2017-01-01

    Background: Men's health has been subjected to diverse approaches to research over the past two decades. Much of the literature has focused on specific medical and health issues. Other contributions have focused more broadly on masculinities and its relationship to health. It is arguable that there has not been a lot of attention paid to…

  17. SPRINGING OF THE ARCH, SOUTH END OF BRIDGE, STATEN ISLAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SPRINGING OF THE ARCH, SOUTH END OF BRIDGE, STATEN ISLAND SIDE (CONTACT PRINT MADE FROM 5 1/4" X 4 1/2" NEGATIVE) - Bayonne Bridge, Spanning Kill Van Kull between Bayonne & Staten Island, Bayonne, Hudson County, NJ

  18. 29. Aerial photograph (1973) looking south across Gould Island. Firing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Aerial photograph (1973) looking south across Gould Island. Firing pier (still possessing third and fourth levels) in foreground. Pitched roof extending from south end of firing pier marks location of frame approach between pier and shop building (center rear) and power plant (to right of shop). Photo courtesy of Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, Rhode Island. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  19. Fires, East Falkland Island, South Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This near-nadir image (looking almost straight down) of the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic was acquired at the southernmost extent of the International Space Station's latitudinal orbit range of approximately 52 degrees north to 52 degrees south relative to the surface of the Earth. The windy and relatively dry climate, which includes roughly 600 millimeters (24 inches) of precipitation annually, has given rise to natural vegetation comprised of treeless grassland with scattered bogs. The grasslands are ideal for sheep rearing--the dominant occupation until recent decades, when fishing (mainly squid for Spain) and tourism became the mainstays of the economy. These expanses of grassland provide ready fuel for fires, as indicated by the several long smoke plumes visible in this astronaut photograph. Astronaut photograph ISS015-E-30526 was acquired on September 25, 2007, with a Kodak 760C digital camera fitted with a 58 mm lens. The image was taken by the Expedition 15 crew, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations experiment and Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center. The image in this article has been cropped and enhanced to improve contrast. Lens artifacts have been removed.

  20. Fires, East Falkland Island, South Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This near-nadir image (looking almost straight down) of the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic was acquired at the southernmost extent of the International Space Station's latitudinal orbit range of approximately 52 degrees north to 52 degrees south relative to the surface of the Earth. The windy and relatively dry climate, which includes roughly 600 millimeters (24 inches) of precipitation annually, has given rise to natural vegetation comprised of treeless grassland with scattered bogs. The grasslands are ideal for sheep rearing--the dominant occupation until recent decades, when fishing (mainly squid for Spain) and tourism became the mainstays of the economy. These expanses of grassland provide ready fuel for fires, as indicated by the several long smoke plumes visible in this astronaut photograph. Astronaut photograph ISS015-E-30526 was acquired on September 25, 2007, with a Kodak 760C digital camera fitted with a 58 mm lens. The image was taken by the Expedition 15 crew, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations experiment and Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center. The image in this article has been cropped and enhanced to improve contrast. Lens artifacts have been removed.

  1. Small population size and extremely low levels of genetic diversity in island populations of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus

    PubMed Central

    Furlan, Elise; Stoklosa, J; Griffiths, J; Gust, N; Ellis, R; Huggins, R M; Weeks, A R

    2012-01-01

    Genetic diversity generally underpins population resilience and persistence. Reductions in population size and absence of gene flow can lead to reductions in genetic diversity, reproductive fitness, and a limited ability to adapt to environmental change increasing the risk of extinction. Island populations are typically small and isolated, and as a result, inbreeding and reduced genetic diversity elevate their extinction risk. Two island populations of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, exist; a naturally occurring population on King Island in Bass Strait and a recently introduced population on Kangaroo Island off the coast of South Australia. Here we assessed the genetic diversity within these two island populations and contrasted these patterns with genetic diversity estimates in areas from which the populations are likely to have been founded. On Kangaroo Island, we also modeled live capture data to determine estimates of population size. Levels of genetic diversity in King Island platypuses are perilously low, with eight of 13 microsatellite loci fixed, likely reflecting their small population size and prolonged isolation. Estimates of heterozygosity detected by microsatellites (HE= 0.032) are among the lowest level of genetic diversity recorded by this method in a naturally outbreeding vertebrate population. In contrast, estimates of genetic diversity on Kangaroo Island are somewhat higher. However, estimates of small population size and the limited founders combined with genetic isolation are likely to lead to further losses of genetic diversity through time for the Kangaroo Island platypus population. Implications for the future of these and similarly isolated or genetically depauperate populations are discussed. PMID:22837830

  2. Small population size and extremely low levels of genetic diversity in island populations of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Elise; Stoklosa, J; Griffiths, J; Gust, N; Ellis, R; Huggins, R M; Weeks, A R

    2012-04-01

    Genetic diversity generally underpins population resilience and persistence. Reductions in population size and absence of gene flow can lead to reductions in genetic diversity, reproductive fitness, and a limited ability to adapt to environmental change increasing the risk of extinction. Island populations are typically small and isolated, and as a result, inbreeding and reduced genetic diversity elevate their extinction risk. Two island populations of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, exist; a naturally occurring population on King Island in Bass Strait and a recently introduced population on Kangaroo Island off the coast of South Australia. Here we assessed the genetic diversity within these two island populations and contrasted these patterns with genetic diversity estimates in areas from which the populations are likely to have been founded. On Kangaroo Island, we also modeled live capture data to determine estimates of population size. Levels of genetic diversity in King Island platypuses are perilously low, with eight of 13 microsatellite loci fixed, likely reflecting their small population size and prolonged isolation. Estimates of heterozygosity detected by microsatellites (H(E)= 0.032) are among the lowest level of genetic diversity recorded by this method in a naturally outbreeding vertebrate population. In contrast, estimates of genetic diversity on Kangaroo Island are somewhat higher. However, estimates of small population size and the limited founders combined with genetic isolation are likely to lead to further losses of genetic diversity through time for the Kangaroo Island platypus population. Implications for the future of these and similarly isolated or genetically depauperate populations are discussed.

  3. [Dengue fever in the Reunion Island and in South Western islands of the Indian Ocean].

    PubMed

    D'Ortenzio, E; Balleydier, E; Baville, M; Filleul, L; Renault, P

    2011-09-01

    South Western islands of the Indian Ocean are permanently threatened by dengue fever outbreaks. On the Reunion Island, two dengue outbreaks were biologically documented (1977-1978 and 2004). And since July 2004 there has been an inter-epidemic period for the island with sporadic cases and clusters. Between January 1, 2007 and October 5, 2009, the epidemiologic surveillance system detected five confirmed autochthonous cases, five confirmed imported cases (South-East Asia), and 71 probable cases. All the five autochthonous confirmed cases occurred in Saint-Louis during two consecutive clusters. In other South Western islands of the Indian Ocean, several dengue fever outbreaks have been reported. Importation of dengue virus from South-East Asia is a major risk for a new outbreak on the island. The introduction of a new serotype could lead to the emergence of new and severe clinical forms, including dengue hemorrhagic fever.

  4. 16. AERIAL VIEW OF GOOSE ISLAND, LOOKING SOUTH, CIRCA 1960. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. AERIAL VIEW OF GOOSE ISLAND, LOOKING SOUTH, CIRCA 1960. BRIDGE No. Z-2 AT LOWER LEFT OF FRAME. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-2, Spanning North Branch Canal at North Cherry Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  5. Dengue virus type 3, South Pacific Islands, 2013.

    PubMed

    Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai; Roche, Claudine; Musso, Didier; Mallet, Henri-Pierre; Dalipanda, Tenneth; Dofai, Alfred; Nogareda, Francisco; Nilles, Eric J; Aaskov, John

    2014-06-01

    After an 18-year absence, dengue virus serotype 3 reemerged in the South Pacific Islands in 2013. Outbreaks in western (Solomon Islands) and eastern (French Polynesia) regions were caused by different genotypes. This finding suggested that immunity against dengue virus serotype, rather than virus genotype, was the principal determinant of reemergence.

  6. 78 FR 64002 - South Farallon Islands Invasive House Mouse Eradication Project; Farallon National Wildlife...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service South Farallon Islands Invasive House Mouse Eradication Project; Farallon... Environmental Impact Statement (revised DEIS) for the South Farallon Islands Invasive House Mouse Eradication... invasive house mice from the South Farallon Islands, part of the Farallon National Wildlife Refuge off...

  7. Electromagnetic induction in the New Zealand South Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Dosso, H. W.; Ingham, M.

    1993-12-01

    Laboratory magnetic field measurements for a scaled analogue model of New Zealand and the surrounding oceans are used to provide induction arrows for simulated geomagnetic variations of 5-120 min periods for a series of traverses over the South Island. As the island is relatively narrow, the field responses for all on-land locations show significant effects of the surrounding oceans. The model simulates a uniformly resistive island, the oceans, and a conductive asthenosphere at depth, and thus discrepancies between the model and field results for sites on the island are attributed to anomalous geological structures not simulated in the model. Removing the coast effects before interpretation, by subtracting the model induction arrows from the field site arrows at Eyrewell permits an obvious reinterpretation that attributes a significant component of the field responses to the nearby Alpine and Marlborough Faults, rather than to the channelled current in Cook Strait.

  8. Continental crust under compression: A seismic refraction study of South Island Geophysical Transect I, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Avendonk, Harm J. A.; Holbrook, W. Steven; Okaya, David; Austin, Jeffrey K.; Davey, Fred; Stern, Tim

    2004-06-01

    The 1996 South Island Geophysical Transect (SIGHT) active source seismic survey was designed to show the style of lithospheric thickening due to late Cenozoic oblique convergence across the Australian-Pacific plate boundary in New Zealand. As part of this study, two seismic refraction lines were shot across central South Island and offshore extensions of the continental crust in the Tasman Sea and Pacific Ocean. We present the data and a 603 km long seismic velocity profile of the crust and uppermost mantle along one of these seismic transects. A tomographic inversion of 62,563 travel times from crustal and upper mantle refractions and wide-angle reflections resulted in a model with a two-layer crust. Upper crustal velocities were between 5.9 and 6.3 km/s, and lower crustal velocities were between 6.5 and 7.0 km/s. Continental compression has locally reduced the seismic velocities in the Pacific plate crust by 0.2-0.3 km/s, a possible effect of high strain and fluids in the crust. The thickening of the crust from 28 km at the east coast of South Island to 37 km beneath the Southern Alps can account for about 25% of the 80-110 km shortening of Pacific plate crust, while the rest must be accounted for by rapid erosion of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks on the west side of the orogen. In our model the lower crust forms a continuous 2-6 km thick layer beneath central South Island. The asymmetric topography of the Southern Alps is reflected in the crustal root which has a steeper flank at the west coast. This observation is consistent with westward underthrusting of Pacific lower lithosphere beneath South Island that has been suggested in earlier studies.

  9. Population Size and Decadal Trends of Three Penguin Species Nesting at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Michael J; Jackson, Jennifer A; Adlard, Stacey; Lynnes, Amanda S; Briggs, Dirk R; Fox, Derren; Waluda, Claire M

    2016-01-01

    We report long-term changes in population size of three species of sympatrically breeding pygoscelid penguins: Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica) and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua ellsworthii) over a 38 year period at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, based on annual counts from selected colonies and decadal all-island systematic counts of occupied nests. Comparing total numbers of breeding pairs over the whole island from 1978/79 to 2015/16 revealed varying fortunes: gentoo penguin pairs increased by 255%, (3.5% per annum), chinstrap penguins declined by 68% (-3.6% per annum) and Adélie penguins declined by 42% (-1.5% per annum). The chinstrap population has declined steadily over the last four decades. In contrast, Adélie and gentoo penguins have experienced phases of population increase and decline. Annual surveys of selected chinstrap and Adélie colonies produced similar trends from those revealed by island-wide surveys, allowing total island population trends to be inferred relatively well. However, while the annual colony counts of chinstrap and Adélie penguins showed a trend consistent in direction with the results from all-island surveys, the magnitude of estimated population change was markedly different between colony wide and all island counts. Annual population patterns suggest that pair numbers in the study areas partly reflect immigration and emigration of nesting birds between different parts of the island. Breeding success for all three species remained broadly stable over time in the annually monitored colonies. Breeding success rates in gentoo and chinstrap penguins were strongly correlated, despite the differing trends in population size. This study shows the importance of effective, standardised monitoring to accurately determine long-term population trajectories. Our results indicate significant declines in the Adélie and chinstrap penguin populations at Signy Island over the last five decades, and a gradual

  10. Population Size and Decadal Trends of Three Penguin Species Nesting at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Michael J.; Jackson, Jennifer A.; Adlard, Stacey; Lynnes, Amanda S.; Briggs, Dirk R.; Fox, Derren; Waluda, Claire M.

    2016-01-01

    We report long-term changes in population size of three species of sympatrically breeding pygoscelid penguins: Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica) and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua ellsworthii) over a 38 year period at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, based on annual counts from selected colonies and decadal all-island systematic counts of occupied nests. Comparing total numbers of breeding pairs over the whole island from 1978/79 to 2015/16 revealed varying fortunes: gentoo penguin pairs increased by 255%, (3.5% per annum), chinstrap penguins declined by 68% (-3.6% per annum) and Adélie penguins declined by 42% (-1.5% per annum). The chinstrap population has declined steadily over the last four decades. In contrast, Adélie and gentoo penguins have experienced phases of population increase and decline. Annual surveys of selected chinstrap and Adélie colonies produced similar trends from those revealed by island-wide surveys, allowing total island population trends to be inferred relatively well. However, while the annual colony counts of chinstrap and Adélie penguins showed a trend consistent in direction with the results from all-island surveys, the magnitude of estimated population change was markedly different between colony wide and all island counts. Annual population patterns suggest that pair numbers in the study areas partly reflect immigration and emigration of nesting birds between different parts of the island. Breeding success for all three species remained broadly stable over time in the annually monitored colonies. Breeding success rates in gentoo and chinstrap penguins were strongly correlated, despite the differing trends in population size. This study shows the importance of effective, standardised monitoring to accurately determine long-term population trajectories. Our results indicate significant declines in the Adélie and chinstrap penguin populations at Signy Island over the last five decades, and a gradual

  11. Influence of Wave Refraction on Coastal Geomorphology-Bull Island to Isle of Palms, South Carolina.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    coast from Bull Island to the Isle of Palms . REFRAC, a computerized wave-refracti program developed for this study, generates refraction diagrams...Geomorphology Bull Island to Isle of Palms , South Carolina Cary Fico Coastal Research Division Department of Geology Uo 0O University of South Carolina Columnbia...South Carolina 29208 80 :i1 13 U23 INFLUENCE OF WAVE REFRACTION ON COASTAL GEOMORPHOLOGY -- BULL ISLAND TO ISLE OF PALMS , SOUTH CAROLINA by Cary Fico

  12. Phylogeography of the dark kangaroo mouse, Microdipodops megacephalus: cryptic lineages and dispersal routes in North America's Great Basin.

    PubMed

    Hafner, John C; Upham, Nathan S

    2011-06-01

    AIM: The rodent genus Microdipodops (kangaroo mice) includes two sand-obligate endemics of the Great Basin Desert: M. megacephalus and M. pallidus. The dark kangaroo mouse, M. megacephalus, is distributed throughout the Great Basin and our principal aims were to formulate phylogenetic hypotheses for this taxon and make phylogeographical comparisons with its congener. LOCATION: The Great Basin Desert of western North America. METHODS: DNA sequence data from three mitochondrial genes were examined from 186 individuals of M. megacephalus, representing 47 general localities. Phylogenetic inference was used to analyse the sequence data. Directional analysis of phylogeographical patterns was used to examine haplotype sharing patterns and recover routes of gene exchange. Haplotype-area curves were constructed to evaluate the relationship between genetic variation and distributional island size for M. megacephalus and M. pallidus. RESULTS: Microdipodops megacephalus is a rare desert rodent (trapping success was 2.67%). Temporal comparison of trapping data shows that kangaroo mice are becoming less abundant in the study area. The distribution has changed slightly since the 1930s but many northern populations now appear to be small, fragmented, or locally extinct. Four principal phylogroups (the Idaho isolate and the western, central and eastern clades) are evident; mean sequence divergence between phylogroups for cytochrome b is c. 8%. Data from haplotype sharing show two trends: a north-south trend and a web-shaped trend. Analyses of haplotype-area curves reveal significant positive relationships. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: The four phylogroups of M. megacephalus appear to represent morphologically cryptic species; in comparison, a companion study revealed two cryptic lineages in M. pallidus. Estimated divergence times of the principal clades of M. megacephalus (c. 2-4 Ma) indicate that these kangaroo mice were Pleistocene invaders into the Great Basin coincident with the formation

  13. Phylogeography of the dark kangaroo mouse, Microdipodops megacephalus: cryptic lineages and dispersal routes in North America's Great Basin

    PubMed Central

    Hafner, John C; Upham, Nathan S

    2011-01-01

    Aim The rodent genus Microdipodops (kangaroo mice) includes two sand-obligate endemics of the Great Basin Desert: M. megacephalus and M. pallidus. The dark kangaroo mouse, M. megacephalus, is distributed throughout the Great Basin and our principal aims were to formulate phylogenetic hypotheses for this taxon and make phylogeographical comparisons with its congener. Location The Great Basin Desert of western North America. Methods DNA sequence data from three mitochondrial genes were examined from 186 individuals of M. megacephalus, representing 47 general localities. Phylogenetic inference was used to analyse the sequence data. Directional analysis of phylogeographical patterns was used to examine haplotype sharing patterns and recover routes of gene exchange. Haplotype–area curves were constructed to evaluate the relationship between genetic variation and distributional island size for M. megacephalus and M. pallidus. Results Microdipodops megacephalus is a rare desert rodent (trapping success was 2.67%). Temporal comparison of trapping data shows that kangaroo mice are becoming less abundant in the study area. The distribution has changed slightly since the 1930s but many northern populations now appear to be small, fragmented, or locally extinct. Four principal phylogroups (the Idaho isolate and the western, central and eastern clades) are evident; mean sequence divergence between phylogroups for cytochrome b is c. 8%. Data from haplotype sharing show two trends: a north–south trend and a web-shaped trend. Analyses of haplotype–area curves reveal significant positive relationships. Main conclusions The four phylogroups of M. megacephalus appear to represent morphologically cryptic species; in comparison, a companion study revealed two cryptic lineages in M. pallidus. Estimated divergence times of the principal clades of M. megacephalus (c. 2–4 Ma) indicate that these kangaroo mice were Pleistocene invaders into the Great Basin coincident with the

  14. Coastal Erosion in a Coral Reef Island, Taiping Island, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, S.; Ma, G.; Liang, M.; Chu, J.

    2011-12-01

    Reef flats surrounding islands are known to dissipate much offshore wave energy, and thereby protect beaches from erosion. Taiping Island, the largest coral reef islands of the Spratly Islands in the South China Sea, has been observed the shorelines erosion on the southwest coast over past decades. It is recognized that wave and current processes across coral reefs affect reef-island development and morphology. A number of studies suggest effects of climate changes, sea-level rise and storm-intensity increase, determine the magnitude of wave energy on the reef platform and will likely intensify the erosion. The topographical change in the local region, the southwest reef flat was dredged a channel for navigation, may be a significant factor in influencing current characteristics. Numerical modeling is used to describe both hydrodynamics and sediment dynamics because there are no field measurements available around the reef flat. Field observations off the island conducted in August 2004 and November 2005 provides offshore wave characteristics of the predominant wind seasons. Numerical simulations perform the spatial and temporal variation of waves and current patterns and coastal erosion potential on the reef platform.

  15. Ambient seismic noise tomography of Jeju Island, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. J.; Rhie, J.; Kim, S.; Kang, T. S.; Kim, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Jeju Island, formed by Cenozoic basaltic eruptions, is an island off the southern coast of the Korean Peninsula. This volcanic island is far from the plate boundaries and the fundamental cause of the volcanic activity in this region is not understood well. To understand the origin of the island, resolving the detailed seismic velocity structures is crucial. Therefore, we applied ambient noise tomography to study the velocity structures of the island. Continuous waveform data recorded at 20 temporary and 3 permanent broad-band seismic stations are used. The group and phase velocity dispersion curves of the fundamental mode Rayleigh waves are extracted from cross-correlograms for 253 station pairs by adopting multiple filter technique. The fast marching method and the subspace method are jointly applied to construct 2-D group and phase velocity maps for periods ranging between 1 and 15 s. 1-D shear wave velocity models and their uncertainties are estimated by the Bayesian technique. The optimal number of the layers are determined at the end of the burn-in period based on the Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC). Final 3-D velocity model of the island is constructed by compiling 1-D models. In our 3-D model, a distinct low velocity anomaly appears beneath Mt. Halla from surface to about 6 km depth. The surficial extent of the anomaly is more or less consistent with the surface geologic feature of the third-stage basaltic eruption reported by previous studies but the vertical extension of the anomaly is not well constrained. To improve the velocity model, especially enhance the vertical resolution of the anomaly, we will apply joint analysis of the surface wave dispersions and teleseismic receiver functions. The improved model will provide more information to infer the tectonic or volcanic implications of the anomaly and unravel the origin of the strange volcanic island in South Korea.

  16. Flows in the Tasman Front south of Norfolk Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Philip J. H.; Bowen, Melissa

    2014-05-01

    The Tasman Front is a narrow band of eastward flowing subtropical water crossing the Tasman Sea from Australia to North Cape, New Zealand. It is the link between the two subtropical western boundary currents of the South Pacific, the East Australian Current (EAC) off eastern Australia, and the East Auckland Current (EAUC) off northeastern New Zealand. Here we report the first direct measurements of flow in the Tasman Front from a moored array deployed across gaps in the submarine ridges south of Norfolk Island and hydrographic and ADCP measurements during the deployment and recovery voyages. The mean flow through the array over July 2003 to August 2004 was found to be eastward only in the upper 800 m with a transport of ˜6 Sv. Below 800 m a weak westward mean flow (˜1.5 Sv) was measured, associated with Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW). Using sea surface height to account for additional transport south of the moored array results in a total mean eastward transport between Norfolk Island and North Cape, New Zealand of ˜8 Sv, varying between -4 and 18 Sv. The measurements show that the Tasman Front is much shallower than either the EAC or EAUC, both of which extend below 2000 m depth, has less transport than either the EAC or EAUC and has instances of flow reversal. Thus, the Tasman Front is a weaker connection between the EAC and EAUC than the paradigm of a contiguous South Pacific western boundary current system would suggest.

  17. Paleomagnetism of King George Island, South Shetlands, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slotznick, S. P.; Kirschvink, J. L.; Raub, T. D.; Swanson-Hysell, N.; Edgar, L.

    2011-12-01

    During December of 2009 when the US R/V Lawrence M. Gould was iced out of the Antarctic Peninsula, we collected core and block samples from 17 different flows and dikes at three sampling areas on Weaver Peninsula and Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Two of the three sampling areas on Weaver Peninsula and Fildes Peninsula were near dikes with Ar-Ar ages of 54.6 ± 3.8 Ma and 57.4 ± 2.1 Ma respectively, close in age to the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) (Kraus 2005, Kraus et al. 2007). After removal of significant magnetically soft components by low-temperature cycling and weak AF demagnetization, the basaltic flows from the Weaver Peninsula preserve a dual-polarity characteristic remanence isolated by higher-field AF demagnetization with an in-situ magnetization of D = 166.3, I= 65.4 (n/N = 24/30, α95 = 6.31). This direction, prior to correction for bedding tilt, is indistinct from a plausible Cenozoic reversed polarity magnetization for the site, while correcting for bedding tilt results in anomalously shallow inclinations. This result implies a post-tilting thermochemical remagnetization origin for the characteristic remanence. Analyses of the baked contact, dikes, and conglomerate tests help constrain the age of this event in context of subsequent Cenozoic magmatism on King George Island. Rock magnetic and Kappabridge experiments show that the magnetic mineralogy of the samples is often dominated by magnetite, with titanomagnetite and hematite present in some flows. The results of this multi-site study of Weaver and Fildes Peninsulas add to a growing paleomagnetic database for volcanic rocks from King George Island (Valencio et al. 1979, Kraus et al. 2010, Watts et al. 1984, Nawrocki et al. 2010) and contribute to a better understanding of the complex tectonic and magmatic activity of the South Shetland Islands.

  18. Venereal diseases in the islands of the South Pacific.

    PubMed Central

    Willcox, R R

    1980-01-01

    The island territories of the South Pacific vary considerably in area and in size of population; Pitcairn has a population of 100 in two square miles whereas Papua New Guinea has a population of 2,990,000 in approximately 175,000 square miles. Today the whole ocean is traversed by air routes. Recently, the prevalence of gonorrhoea has decreased in the northern region but increased in the eastern and western; in all these regions the reported prevalence exceeds 200 cases per 100,00 population. In an area where yaws was once widespread, syphilis is being increasingly recognised. Although the figures for syphilis are clearly higher because of the greater use of serological screening, many of the reported cases are of early infection. Yaws has been eliminated from most of the South Pacific Islands but is still present in the western region--more than 99% of the reported cases occurring in Papua New Guinea, particularly in the offshore islands. PMID:7427693

  19. Kangaroo Network. Annual Report, 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seumahu, E. Steve

    This extensive report describes activities of the PEACESAT AUSTRALIA Project (the Kangaroo Network) which parallels, on the Australian continent, the endeavors of PEACESAT (Pacific Educational and Communication Experiment by SATellite), and other Pacific Basin ATS-1 networks. An executive summary reviews the development of the project and its…

  20. Kangaroo Network. Annual Report, 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seumahu, E. Steve

    This extensive report describes activities of the PEACESAT AUSTRALIA Project (the Kangaroo Network) which parallels, on the Australian continent, the endeavors of PEACESAT (Pacific Educational and Communication Experiment by SATellite), and other Pacific Basin ATS-1 networks. An executive summary reviews the development of the project and its…

  1. STS-56 ESC Earth observation of New Zealand (South Island)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 electronic still camera (ESC) Earth observation image shows New Zealand (South Island) as recorded on the 45th orbit of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Westport is easily delineated in the image, which was recorded by the Hand-held, Earth-oriented, Real-time, Cooperative, User-friendly, Location-targeting and Environmental System (HERCULES). HERCULES is a device that makes it simple for shuttle crewmembers to take pictures of Earth as they merely point a modified 35mm camera and shoot any interesting feature, whose latitude and longitude are automatically determined in real-time. Center coordinates are 41.836 degrees south latitude and 171.641 degrees east longitude. (300mm lens, no filter). Digital file name is ESC07007.IMG.

  2. 76 FR 20706 - South Farallon Islands Nonnative Mouse Eradication Project; Farallon National Wildlife Refuge...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service South Farallon Islands Nonnative Mouse Eradication Project; Farallon National... project to eradicate nonnative mice from the South Farallon Islands, part of the Farallon National... the eradication of the house mouse and the prevention of future human introduction of mice. We...

  3. 33 CFR 334.220 - Chesapeake Bay, south of Tangier Island, Va.; naval firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay, south of Tangier Island, Va.; naval firing range. 334.220 Section 334.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....220 Chesapeake Bay, south of Tangier Island, Va.; naval firing range. (a) The danger zone. Beginning...

  4. 33 CFR 334.220 - Chesapeake Bay, south of Tangier Island, Va.; naval firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay, south of Tangier Island, Va.; naval firing range. 334.220 Section 334.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....220 Chesapeake Bay, south of Tangier Island, Va.; naval firing range. (a) The danger zone. Beginning...

  5. 33 CFR 334.220 - Chesapeake Bay, south of Tangier Island, Va.; naval firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay, south of Tangier Island, Va.; naval firing range. 334.220 Section 334.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....220 Chesapeake Bay, south of Tangier Island, Va.; naval firing range. (a) The danger zone. Beginning...

  6. Monitoring the evolution of Deception Island volcano from magnetic anomaly data (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalán, Manuel; Martos, Yasmina M.; Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Funaki, Minoru

    2014-12-01

    Deception Island is a young and active volcano located in the south-western part of Bransfield back-arc basin. During the last twenty years the Royal Observatory of the Spanish Navy has carried out geophysical surveys in the area. In addition, an unmanned aerial vehicle flight was conducted in 2011 at 800 m height on the northern half of Deception Island. Analysing and comparing magnetic grids obtained in different periods and tie point readings allow us to detect temporal changes and isolate signals of volcanic origin. Magnetic survey cruises performed in Deception Island's inner bay (1988, 1999 and 2008), and the study of its outer area's magnetic anomaly changes, point to a period of high variations concentrated between December 1989 and December 1999 that may be related to the two main recent periods of seismic activity (1992 and January 1999). From December 1999 to December 2008, there were no significant changes in seismic activity; nevertheless, our data show some magnetic alterations, which might signal the slow progress of a volcanic environment towards equilibrium. Interpreting these magnetic changes called for the construction of several forward models. Additionally, we put forth this kind of study as a suitable, economical and easy method for monitoring an active volcanic system whenever it is possible to measure the magnetic field with accurate positioning, and if the external field components are removed correctly.

  7. How Does a Hopping Kangaroo Breathe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a model to demonstrate how a hopping kangaroo breathes. Interestingly, a kangaroo uses less energy to breathe while hopping than while standing still. This occurs, in part, because rather than using muscle power to move air into and out of the lungs, air is pulled into (inspiration) and pushed out of (expiration) the lungs as the…

  8. How Does a Hopping Kangaroo Breathe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a model to demonstrate how a hopping kangaroo breathes. Interestingly, a kangaroo uses less energy to breathe while hopping than while standing still. This occurs, in part, because rather than using muscle power to move air into and out of the lungs, air is pulled into (inspiration) and pushed out of (expiration) the lungs as the…

  9. The oroclinal bend in the South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortimer, N.

    2014-07-01

    Most of the South Island of New Zealand lies within an Eocene-Recent continental shear zone related to Pacific-Australia plate motion. Macroscopic finite strain in this shear zone has, in the past, been tracked through the deformation of the Dun Mountain Ophiolite Belt. This paper identifies additional sub-vertical basement strain markers including: Buller-Takaka Terrane boundary, Darran Suite and Jurassic volcanic belt within the Median Batholith, Taieri-Wakatipu-Goulter Synform axial trace, Esk Head Melange and bedding form surfaces within the Buller, Takaka and Torlesse terranes. An analysis of the oroclinal bend over the entire Zealandia continent shows that it is a composite feature involving pre- as well as post-Eocene bending of basement structures. Satisfactory paleogeographic reconstructions of Zealandia cannot be made without the use of substantial regional scale, non-rigid intracontinental deformation.

  10. Geodetic implications on block formation and geodynamic domains in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrocoso, M.; Fernández-Ros, A.; Prates, G.; García, A.; Kraus, S.

    2016-01-01

    The South Shetland Islands archipelago is dynamically complex due to its tectonic surroundings. Most islands are part of a formerly active volcanic arc, although Deception, Penguin and Bridgeman Islands, as well as several submarine volcanoes, are characterized by active back-arc volcanism. Geodetic benchmarks were deployed and the movement of the lithosphere to which they were fixed measured to provide geodynamic insight for the South Shetland Islands, Bransfield Basin and Antarctic Peninsula area based on surface deformation. These benchmarks' data add spatial and temporal coverage to previous results. The results reveal two different geodynamic patterns, each confined to a distinct part of the South Shetland Islands archipelago. The inferred absolute horizontal velocity vectors for the benchmarks in the northeastern part of the archipelago are consistent with the opening of the Bransfield Basin, while benchmark vectors in the southwestern part of the archipelago are similar to those of the benchmarks on the Antarctic Peninsula. In between, Snow, Deception and Livingston Islands represent a transition zone. In this area, the horizontal velocity vectors relative to the Antarctic plate shift northeastwards from N to NW. Furthermore, the South Shetland Islands benchmarks, except for that at Gibbs (Elephant) Islands, indicate subsidence, which might be a consequence of the slab roll-back at the South Shetland Trench. In contrast, the uplift revealed by the Antarctic Peninsula benchmarks suggests glacial isostatic adjustment after the Larson B ice-shelf breakup.

  11. Sea-floor geology in central Rhode Island Sound south of Sakonnet Point, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Ackerman, S.D.; Worley, C.R.; Nadeau, M.A.; Van Hoy, M. V.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) are working together to study the sea floor along the northeastern coast of the United States. NOAA collected multibeam-echosounder data during hydrographic survey H11995 in a 63-square-kilometer area in central Rhode Island Sound, south of Sakonnet Point, Rhode Island. The USGS collected sediment samples, bottom video, and still photographs from 27 stations in this study area to verify an interpretation of the bathymetric data. Collected data are used to map areas of scour depressions and erosional outliers, megaripples, boulders, and relatively undisturbed modern marine sediments. In general, much of the eastern part of the study area, a submerged segment of the Harbor Hill-Roanoke Point-Charlestown-Buzzards Bay moraine, is bouldery. Bottom photography shows boulders are generally encrusted with hydrozoans, algae, and anemone. Scour depressions, presumably formed by long-period storm waves, and erosional outliers of Holocene sediments dominate the western part of the study area and several large areas in the east. The scour depressions tend to have coarser grained sediment than intervening erosional outliers. The coarseness likely creates turbulence in the water over these areas, which prevents fine-grained sediment deposition. Several small areas of megaripples are visible in the bathymetry data in the west. Other sandy areas are typically rippled, with burrows, worm tubes, and starfish present.

  12. Occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Marisângela V; Pereira, Elismara A; Cury, Juliano C; Carneiro, Marco A C

    2017-08-17

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi make up an important ecological niche in ecosystems, and knowledge of their diversity in extreme environments is still incipient. The objective of this work was to evaluate the density and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the soil of King George Island in the South Shetland Islands archipelago, Antarctica. For that, soil and roots of Deschampsia antarctica were collected at the brazilian research station in Antarctica. The spore density, species diversity and mycorrhizal colonization in the roots were evaluated. There was a low density of spores (27.4 ± 17.7) and root mycorrhizal colonization (6 ± 5.1%), which did not present statistical difference. Four species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were identified, distributed in two genera: three species of the genus Glomus (Glomus sp1, Glomus sp2 and Glomus sp3) and one of the genus Acaulospora, which was identified at species level (Acaulospora mellea). Greater soil diversity was verified with pH 5.9 and phosphorus concentration of 111 mg dm-3, occurring two species of genus Glomus and A. mellea. Based on literature data, this may be the first record of this species of Acaulospora mellea in Antarctic soils, colonizing D. antarctica plants.

  13. Reconstructing palaeo-volcanic geometries using a Geodynamic Regression Model (GRM): Application to Deception Island volcano (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrecillas, C.; Berrocoso, M.; Felpeto, A.; Torrecillas, M. D.; Garcia, A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a reconstruction made of the palaeo-volcanic edifice on Deception Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica) prior to the formation of its present caldera. Deception Island is an active Quaternary volcano located in the Bransfield Strait, between the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula. The morphology of the island has been influenced mainly by the volcanic activity but geodynamics and volcanic deformation have also contributed. A volcanic reconstruction method, the Geodynamic Regression Model (GRM), which includes a terrain deformation factor, is proposed. In the case of Deception Island, the directions of this deformation are NW-SE and NE-SW, and match both the observed deformation of the Bransfield Strait and the volcanic deformation monitored over the last 20 years in the island, using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) techniques. Based on these data, possible volcanic deformation values of 5-15 mm/yr in these directions have been derived. A possible coastline derived from a current bathymetry is transformed, according to values for the chosen date, to obtain the palaeo-coastline of Deception Island of 100 k years ago. Topographic, geomorphologic, volcanological and geological data in a GIS system have been considered, for computation of the outside caldera slope, palaeo-coastline, palaeo-summit height and palaeo digital elevation model (DEM). The result is a 3D palaeo-geomorphological surface model of a volcano, reaching 640 m in height, with an increase of 4 km3 in volume compared to the current edifice, covering 4 km2 more surface area and the method reveals the previous existence of parasite volcanoes. Two photorealistic images of the island are obtained by superposition of textures extracted from a current Quick Bird satellite image also. This technique for reconstructing the terrain of an existing volcano could be useful for analysing the past and future geomorphology of this island and similar locations.

  14. Energy audit data for a resort island in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Basir Khan, M Reyasudin; Jidin, Razali; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh

    2016-03-01

    The data consists of actual generation-side auditing including the distribution of loads, seasonal load profiles, and types of loads as well as an analysis of local development planning of a resort island in the South China Sea. The data has been used to propose an optimal combination of hybrid renewable energy systems that able to mitigate the diesel fuel dependency on the island. The resort island selected is Tioman, as it represents the typical energy requirements of many resort islands in the South China Sea. The data presented are related to the research article "Optimal Combination of Solar, Wind, Micro-Hydro and Diesel Systems based on Actual Seasonal Load Profiles for a Resort Island in the South China Sea" [1].

  15. Energy audit data for a resort island in the South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Basir Khan, M. Reyasudin; Jidin, Razali; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh

    2015-01-01

    The data consists of actual generation-side auditing including the distribution of loads, seasonal load profiles, and types of loads as well as an analysis of local development planning of a resort island in the South China Sea. The data has been used to propose an optimal combination of hybrid renewable energy systems that able to mitigate the diesel fuel dependency on the island. The resort island selected is Tioman, as it represents the typical energy requirements of many resort islands in the South China Sea. The data presented are related to the research article “Optimal Combination of Solar, Wind, Micro-Hydro and Diesel Systems based on Actual Seasonal Load Profiles for a Resort Island in the South China Sea” [1]. PMID:26900590

  16. Pi'ilani Highway side on south side of island, Manawainui Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pi'ilani Highway side on south side of island, Manawainui Bridge, constructed in 1993 to modern ASHTO standards; note difference in scale with historic Hana Belt Road bridges - Hana Belt Road, Between Haiku and Kaipahulu, Hana, Maui County, HI

  17. The continental collision zone, South Island, New Zealand: Comparison of geodynamical models and observations

    SciTech Connect

    Beaumont, C.; Hamilton, J.; Fullsack, P.; Kamp, P.J.J.

    1996-02-10

    In this report geodynamical models are used to test the applicability of the mantle subduction model to the compressional character and evaluation of the South Island continental convergence zone of New Zealand.

  18. Data from renewable energy assessments for resort islands in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Basir Khan, M Reyasudin; Jidin, Razali; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh

    2016-03-01

    Renewable energy assessments for resort islands in the South China Sea were conducted that involves the collection and analysis of meteorological and topographic data. The meteorological data was used to assess the PV, wind and hydropower system potentials on the islands. Furthermore, the reconnaissance study for hydro-potentials were conducted through topographic maps in order to determine the potential sites suitable for development of run-of-river hydropower generation. The stream data was collected for 14 islands in the South China Sea with a total of 51 investigated sites. The data from this study are related to the research article "Optimal combination of solar, wind, micro-hydro and diesel systems based on actual seasonal load profiles for a resort island in the South China Sea" published in Energy (Khan et al., 2015) [1].

  19. Data from renewable energy assessments for resort islands in the South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Basir Khan, M. Reyasudin; Jidin, Razali; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy assessments for resort islands in the South China Sea were conducted that involves the collection and analysis of meteorological and topographic data. The meteorological data was used to assess the PV, wind and hydropower system potentials on the islands. Furthermore, the reconnaissance study for hydro-potentials were conducted through topographic maps in order to determine the potential sites suitable for development of run-of-river hydropower generation. The stream data was collected for 14 islands in the South China Sea with a total of 51 investigated sites. The data from this study are related to the research article “Optimal combination of solar, wind, micro-hydro and diesel systems based on actual seasonal load profiles for a resort island in the South China Sea” published in Energy (Khan et al., 2015) [1]. PMID:26779562

  20. Lithospheric shear velocity structure of South Island, New Zealand, from amphibious Rayleigh wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Justin S.; Sheehan, Anne F.; Stachnik, Joshua C.; Lin, Fan-Chi; Yeck, William L.; Collins, John A.

    2016-05-01

    We present a crust and mantle 3-D shear velocity model extending well offshore of New Zealand's South Island, imaging the lithosphere beneath the South Island as well as the Campbell and Challenger Plateaus. Our model is constructed via linearized inversion of both teleseismic (18-70 s period) and ambient noise-based (8-25 s period) Rayleigh wave dispersion measurements. We augment an array of 4 land-based and 29 ocean bottom instruments deployed off the South Island's east and west coasts in 2009-2010 by the Marine Observations of Anisotropy Near Aotearoa experiment with 28 land-based seismometers from New Zealand's permanent GeoNet array. Major features of our shear wave velocity (Vs) model include a low-velocity (Vs < 4.4 km/s) body extending from near surface to greater than 75 km depth beneath the Banks and Otago Peninsulas and high-velocity (Vs~4.7 km/s) mantle anomalies underlying the Southern Alps and off the northwest coast of the South Island. Using the 4.5 km/s contour as a proxy for the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, our model suggests that the lithospheric thickness of Challenger Plateau and central South Island is substantially greater than that of the inner Campbell Plateau. The high-velocity anomaly we resolve at subcrustal depths (>50 km) beneath the central South Island exhibits strong spatial correlation with upper mantle earthquake hypocenters beneath the Alpine Fault. The ~400 km long low-velocity zone we image beneath eastern South Island and the inner Bounty Trough underlies Cenozoic volcanics and the locations of mantle-derived helium measurements, consistent with asthenospheric upwelling in the region.

  1. Tsunami range long wave measurements near the South Kurils Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, B. V.; Chernov, A. G.; Shevchenko, G. V.; Kovalev, P. D.; Kovalev, D. P.; Kurkin, A. A.; Likhacheva, O. N.; Shishkin, A. A.

    2009-04-01

    The results of long wave measurements data analysis are provided. Autonomous bottom pressure gauges were installed in the Tsrekovnaya bay (Shikotan Island), near the Lovtscova cape (Kunashir Island), Van-Der-Linda cape and Kastrikum cape (Urup Island). The results of three month observations show complicated and ambiguous type of long waves changeability in the different points of the Kuril's islands affected by meteorological and seismological sources. Essential distinctions in the spectral characteristics of long waves `on the different gauges under influence of cyclone and weak tsunami of September 11, 2008 were exposed. It happens because of frequency-selective properties of the ocean area.

  2. How does a hopping kangaroo breathe?

    PubMed

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J; Lujan, Heidi L; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E

    2010-12-01

    We developed a model to demonstrate how a hopping kangaroo breathes. Interestingly, a kangaroo uses less energy to breathe while hopping than while standing still. This occurs, in part, because rather than using muscle power to move air into and out of the lungs, air is pulled into (inspiration) and pushed out of (expiration) the lungs as the abdominal organs "flop" within the kangaroo's body. Specifically, as the kangaroo hops upward, the abdominal organs lag behind, and the insertion of the diaphragm is pulled toward its origin, flattening the dome and increasing the vertical dimension of the thoracic cavity (the thoracic cavity and lungs enlarge). Increasing the volume of the thoracic cavity reduces alveolar pressure below atmospheric pressure (barometric pressure), and air moves into the alveoli by bulk flow. In contrast, the impact of the organs against the diaphragm at each landing causes expiration. Specifically, upon landing, the abdominal organs flop into the diaphragm, causing it to return to its dome shape and decreasing the vertical dimension of the thoracic cavity. This compresses the alveolar gas volume and elevates alveolar pressure above barometric pressure, so air is expelled. To demonstrate this phenomenon, the plunger of a syringe model of the respiratory system was inserted through a compression spring. Holding the syringe and pressing the plunger firmly against a hard surface expels air from the lungs (the balloon within the syringe deflates) and compresses the spring. This models the kangaroo landing after a hop forward. Subsequently, the compression spring provides the energy for the "kangaroo" to "hop" forward upon the release of the syringe, and air enters the lungs (the balloon within the syringe inflates). The model accurately reflects how a hopping kangaroo breathes. A model was chosen to demonstrate this phenomenon because models engage and inspire students as well as significantly enhance student understanding.

  3. A Brief History of Kangaroos (and Lesser Mammals).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Bernard N.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a new hypothesis regarding the origin of bulungamayine kangaroos. Suggests that this group of Oglio-Miocene kangaroos independently evolved adaptations for herbivory and are likely to be ancestral to modern and recently extinct plant-eating kangaroos. (Contains 17 references.) (Author/WRM)

  4. A Brief History of Kangaroos (and Lesser Mammals).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Bernard N.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a new hypothesis regarding the origin of bulungamayine kangaroos. Suggests that this group of Oglio-Miocene kangaroos independently evolved adaptations for herbivory and are likely to be ancestral to modern and recently extinct plant-eating kangaroos. (Contains 17 references.) (Author/WRM)

  5. Island building in the South China Sea: detection of turbidity plumes and artificial islands using Landsat and MODIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Brian B.; Hu, Chuanmin

    2016-09-01

    The South China Sea is currently in a state of intense geopolitical conflict, with six countries claiming sovereignty over some or all of the area. Recently, several countries have carried out island building projects in the Spratly Islands, converting portions of coral reefs into artificial islands. Aerial photography and high resolution satellites can capture snapshots of this construction, but such data are lacking in temporal resolution and spatial scope. In contrast, lower resolution satellite sensors with regular repeat sampling allow for more rigorous assessment and monitoring of changes to the reefs and surrounding areas. Using Landsat-8 data at ≥15-m resolution, we estimated that over 15 km2 of submerged coral reef area was converted to artificial islands between June 2013 and December 2015, mostly by China. MODIS data at ≥250-m resolution were used to locate previously underreported island building activities, as well as to assess resulting in-water turbidity plumes. The combined spatial extent of observed turbidity plumes for island building activities at Mischief, Subi, and Fiery Cross Reefs was over 4,300 km2, although nearly 40% of this area was only affected once. Together, these activities represent widespread damage to coral ecosystems through physical burial as well as indirect turbidity effects.

  6. Island building in the South China Sea: detection of turbidity plumes and artificial islands using Landsat and MODIS data

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Brian B.; Hu, Chuanmin

    2016-01-01

    The South China Sea is currently in a state of intense geopolitical conflict, with six countries claiming sovereignty over some or all of the area. Recently, several countries have carried out island building projects in the Spratly Islands, converting portions of coral reefs into artificial islands. Aerial photography and high resolution satellites can capture snapshots of this construction, but such data are lacking in temporal resolution and spatial scope. In contrast, lower resolution satellite sensors with regular repeat sampling allow for more rigorous assessment and monitoring of changes to the reefs and surrounding areas. Using Landsat-8 data at ≥15-m resolution, we estimated that over 15 km2 of submerged coral reef area was converted to artificial islands between June 2013 and December 2015, mostly by China. MODIS data at ≥250-m resolution were used to locate previously underreported island building activities, as well as to assess resulting in-water turbidity plumes. The combined spatial extent of observed turbidity plumes for island building activities at Mischief, Subi, and Fiery Cross Reefs was over 4,300 km2, although nearly 40% of this area was only affected once. Together, these activities represent widespread damage to coral ecosystems through physical burial as well as indirect turbidity effects. PMID:27628096

  7. Island building in the South China Sea: detection of turbidity plumes and artificial islands using Landsat and MODIS data.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Brian B; Hu, Chuanmin

    2016-09-15

    The South China Sea is currently in a state of intense geopolitical conflict, with six countries claiming sovereignty over some or all of the area. Recently, several countries have carried out island building projects in the Spratly Islands, converting portions of coral reefs into artificial islands. Aerial photography and high resolution satellites can capture snapshots of this construction, but such data are lacking in temporal resolution and spatial scope. In contrast, lower resolution satellite sensors with regular repeat sampling allow for more rigorous assessment and monitoring of changes to the reefs and surrounding areas. Using Landsat-8 data at ≥15-m resolution, we estimated that over 15 km(2) of submerged coral reef area was converted to artificial islands between June 2013 and December 2015, mostly by China. MODIS data at ≥250-m resolution were used to locate previously underreported island building activities, as well as to assess resulting in-water turbidity plumes. The combined spatial extent of observed turbidity plumes for island building activities at Mischief, Subi, and Fiery Cross Reefs was over 4,300 km(2), although nearly 40% of this area was only affected once. Together, these activities represent widespread damage to coral ecosystems through physical burial as well as indirect turbidity effects.

  8. The Paracel Islands and U.S. Interests and Approaches in the South China Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Islands. The naval base on Woody Island is an artificial harbor with a concrete dock 500-m long and capable of accommodating destroyer and frigate...conflicting views on the South Chi- na Sea disputes with the “policy of reactive assertive- ness, characterised by strong reactions to provocations by other...and the soil con- sists primarily of coral, shells, and bird guano in the form of brown powder or white nodules, at one time averaging a quarter

  9. Elements in the hair of South-east Asian islanders.

    PubMed

    Foo, S C; Tan, T C

    1998-01-19

    Mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) in hair samples from Singapore island (85 samples) and two islands off Batam, Indonesia (68 samples) were analysed to assess the environmental uptake of elements. Hair samples were washed with 0.1% Triton X-100 solution for 20 min in an ultrasonic bath, rinsed five times with de-ionized water and air dried. Ten to 20 mg of hair samples were digested with 1 ml of ultra-pure concentrated nitric acid in Parr bombs at 120 degrees C for 2 h. Hair digests were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Hg was determined by the cold vapour AAS method and Pb, Cd and Cu by the electro-thermal graphite furnace AAS method. For Singapore hair, the contents of Cd (in microgram/g) averaged 0.17 (range 0.02-1.81); Cu 13.2 (range 3.1-70.1); Hg 5.92 (range 1.14-35.52); and Pb 6.74 (range 0.06-107.8). For the islands off Batam, Cd was 0.32 (range 0.06-1.80); Cu 21.1 (range 3.8-143.6); Hg 5.59 (range 0.78-60.86); and Pb 15.1 (range 0.13-116.6). Statistically significant differences in Cd, Pb and Hg contents were observed between the hair samples from Singapore and those of the islands off Batam in cumulative logit analysis. Hair from Singapore contained more Hg, but less Cd and Pb compared to hair from the islands off Batam. For Pb in hair, significant differences were also observed between the two islands off Batam (island 1, 18.9; and island 2, 10.2). These differences in hair metal contents are due to differences in community lifestyle (dietary, environmental or occupational intake).

  10. Phylogeography of Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, Suggests a Mesic Refugium in Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Phylogeographic studies around the world have identified refugia where fauna were able to persist during unsuitable climatic periods, particularly during times of glaciation. In Australia the effects of Pleistocene climate oscillations on rainforest taxa have been well studied but less is known about the effects on mesic-habitat fauna, such as the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). The eastern grey kangaroo is a large mammal that is common and widespread throughout eastern Australia, preferring dry mesic habitat, rather than rainforest. As pollen evidence suggests that the central-eastern part of Australia (southeast Queensland and northern New South Wales) experienced cycles of expansion in mesic habitat with contraction in rainforests, and vice versa during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, we hypothesise that the distribution of the eastern grey kangaroo was affected by these climate oscillations and may have contracted to mesic habitat refugia. From 375 mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from across the distribution of eastern grey kangaroos we obtained 108 unique haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clades in Queensland, one of which is newly identified and restricted to a small coastal region in southern Queensland north of Brisbane, known as the Sunshine Coast. The relatively limited geographic range of this genetically isolated clade suggests the possibility of a mesic habitat refugium forming during rainforest expansion during wetter climate cycles. Other potential, although less likely, reasons for the genetic isolation of the highly distinct clade include geographic barriers, separate northward expansions, and strong local adaptation. PMID:26024370

  11. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from South Brother Island Channel, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, E.S.; Gardiner, W.W.; Antrim, L.D.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.; Tokos, J.J.S.

    1996-09-01

    South Brother Island Channel was one of seven waterways that the US Army Crops of Engineers-New York District requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal. Tests and analyses were conducted on South Brother Island Channel sediment core samples and evaluations were performed. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from South Brother Island Channel included bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Individual sediment core samples collected from Souther Brother Island Channel were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. a composite sediment sample, representing the entire area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Site water and elutriate water, prepared from the suspended-particle phase of South Brother Island Channel sediment, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

  12. The critical role of islands for waterbird breeding and foraging habitat in managed ponds of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Hartman, C. Alex; Herzog, Mark P.; Smith, Lacy M.; Moskal, Stacy M.; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Yee, Julie L.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2014-01-01

    The South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project aims to restore 50–90 percent of former salt evaporation ponds into tidal marsh in South San Francisco Bay, California. However, large numbers of waterbirds use these ponds annually as nesting and foraging habitat. Islands within ponds are particularly important habitat for nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds. To maintain current waterbird populations, the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project plans to create new islands within former salt ponds in South San Francisco Bay. In a series of studies, we investigated pond and individual island attributes that are most beneficial to nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds.

  13. The South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands MPA: protecting a biodiverse oceanic island chain situated in the flow of the antarctic circumpolar current.

    PubMed

    Trathan, Philip N; Collins, Martin A; Grant, Susie M; Belchier, Mark; Barnes, David K A; Brown, Judith; Staniland, Iain J

    2014-01-01

    South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (SGSSI) are surrounded by oceans that are species-rich, have high levels of biodiversity, important endemism and which also support large aggregations of charismatic upper trophic level species. Spatial management around these islands is complex, particularly in the context of commercial fisheries that exploit some of these living resources. Furthermore, management is especially complicated as local productivity relies fundamentally upon biological production transported from outside the area. The MPA uses practical management boundaries, allowing access for the current legal fisheries for Patagonian toothfish, mackerel icefish and Antarctic krill. Management measures developed as part of the planning process designated the whole SGSSI Maritime Zone as an IUCN Category VI reserve, within which a number of IUCN Category I reserves were identified. Multiple-use zones and temporal closures were also designated. A key multiple-use principle was to identify whether the ecological impacts of a particular fishery threatened either the pelagic or benthic domain.

  14. A new species of Paraproto (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Phtisicidae) collected from the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2015-12-01

    A new species of amphipod crustacean (Amphipoda: Phtisicidae), Paraproto mccaini n. sp. is described based on specimens collected from south of Elephant Island, the South Shetland Islands near the Antarctic Peninsula. This species was first reported as Paraproto condylata (Haswell, 1885) [sensu lato], recorded from a temperate region of Australia. P. mccaini n. sp. is distinct from P. condylata [sensu stricto] by an elongated head with pereonite 1, presence of a mid-lateral projection on pereonites 2-4, and lack of a distal round projection on the propodus of gnathopod 2. Paraproto differs from Pseudoprotomima, the most phylogenetically similar genus, in having gills on pereonites 3 and 4.

  15. Origin and evolution of silicic magmas at ocean islands: Perspectives from a zoned fall deposit on Ascension Island, South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, K. J.; Barclay, J.; Preece, K.; Brown, R. J.; Davidson, J. P.

    2016-11-01

    Ascension Island, in the south Atlantic is a composite ocean island volcano with a wide variety of eruptive styles and magmatic compositions evident in its 1 million year subaerial history. In this paper, new observations of a unique zoned fall deposit on the island are presented; the deposit gradationally changes from trachytic pumice at the base, through to trachy-basaltic andesite scoria at the top of the deposit. The key features of the eruptive deposits are described and are coupled with whole rock XRF data, major and trace element analyses of phenocrysts, groundmass glass and melt inclusions from samples of the compositionally-zoned fall deposit to analyse the processes leading up to and driving the explosive eruption. Closed system crystal fractionation is the dominant control on compositional zonation, with the fractionating assemblage dominated by plagioclase feldspar and olivine. This fractionation from the trachy-basaltic andesite magma occurred at pressures of 250 MPa. There is no evidence for multiple stages of evolution involving changing magmatic conditions or the addition of new magmatic pulses preserved within the crystal cargo. Volatile concentrations range from 0.5 to 4.0 wt.% H2O and progressively increase in the more-evolved units, suggesting crystal fractionation concentrated volatiles into the melt phase, eventually causing internal overpressure of the system and eruption of the single compositionally-zoned magma body. Melt inclusion data combined with Fe-Ti oxide modelling suggests that the oxygen fugacity of Ascension Island magmas is not affected by degree of evolution, which concentrates H2O into the liquid phase, and thus the two systems are decoupled on Ascension, similar to that observed in Iceland. This detailed study of the zoned fall deposit on Ascension Island highlights the relatively closed-system evolution of felsic magmas at Ascension Island, in contrast to many other ocean islands, such as Tenerife and Iceland.

  16. Understanding groundwater dynamics on barrier islands using geochronological data: An example from North Stradbroke Island, South-east Queensland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Harald; Newborn, Dean; Cartwright, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Freshwater lenses underneath barrier islands are dynamic systems affected by changing sea levels and groundwater use. They are vulnerable to contamination and over-abstraction. Residence times of fresh groundwater in barrier islands are poorly understood and have mostly been assessed by modelling approaches and estimates without fundamental validation with geochronological data. Assessing residence time and recharge rates will improve significantly our understanding of hydrological processes of coastal environments that will in turn allow us to make informed decisions on groundwater use and environmental protection. This project focused on groundwater recharge rates and residence times of the fresh water aquifer system of North Stradbroke Island, south-east Queensland, Australia. Groundwater bores, wetlands and submarine groundwater discharge points in the tidal areas (wonky holes) were sampled along a transect across the island and were analysed for major ion chemistry and stable isotopes (δ2H, δ18O, δ13C) in combination with 3H and 14C analysis. Calculated 3H using a 95% exponential-piston flow model and 14C ages range from 12 to >100 years and modern to 3770 years, respectively, indicating a highly heterogeneous aquifer system with mixing from low and high conductive areas. The major ion chemistry in combination with stable and radiogenic isotopes suggests that a significant groundwater component derives from the fractured rock basement and older sedimentary formations underlying the sand dunes of the island. The results help refining the conceptual and numerical groundwater flow model for North Stradbroke island in this particular case but also demonstrate the possible complexity of barrier island hydrogeology.

  17. 33 CFR 334.840 - Waters of Lake Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Waters of Lake Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger zone adjacent to airport on... Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger zone...

  18. 33 CFR 334.840 - Waters of Lake Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Waters of Lake Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger zone adjacent to airport on... Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger zone...

  19. 33 CFR 334.840 - Waters of Lake Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waters of Lake Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger zone adjacent to airport on... Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger zone...

  20. 33 CFR 334.840 - Waters of Lake Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Waters of Lake Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger zone adjacent to airport on... Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger zone...

  1. 33 CFR 334.650 - Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range. 334.650 Section 334.650 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....650 Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range. (a) The danger zone. A fan...

  2. 33 CFR 334.650 - Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range. 334.650 Section 334.650 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....650 Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range. (a) The danger zone. A fan...

  3. 33 CFR 334.650 - Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range. 334.650 Section 334.650 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....650 Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range. (a) The danger zone. A fan...

  4. 33 CFR 334.650 - Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range. 334.650 Section 334.650 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....650 Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range. (a) The danger zone. A fan...

  5. 33 CFR 334.650 - Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range. 334.650 Section 334.650 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....650 Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range. (a) The danger zone. A fan...

  6. 33 CFR 334.840 - Waters of Lake Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Waters of Lake Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger zone adjacent to airport on... Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger zone...

  7. Precursory seismicity associated with the May 29, 2010 undersea eruption south of Sarigan Island, Northern Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Searcy, C. K.; Power, J. A.; Webley, P.

    2010-12-01

    On May 29, 2010 at approximately 1148 UTC, an undersea volcano south of Sarigan Island in the Northern Marianna Islands erupted sending an ash plume to 40,000 feet (12.2 km) ASL. Pre-eruptive seismicity associated with this event was recorded on three short-period seismic stations, SARN located on Sarigan Island, ANNE and ANA2, both located on the island of Anatahan. The presumed vent location is about 16 km south east of Sarigan Island and about 30 km north east of Anatahan. Small volcano tectonic earthquakes were recorded on SARN in early April at a rate of 0-1 per day. S-P phase arrivals for these earthquakes place the source of the VT’s between 12.3 km to 16.8 km from station SARN. VT activity continued to increase into May with a maximum of 20 earthquakes per day occurring on May 12. The largest VT’s associated with this eruption occurred on May 20, with most events on this day having coda lengths of 20 to 30 seconds. On May 27 tremor-like waveforms began to show up on Sarigan and Anatahan stations. These events had durations of 3 to 7 minutes with emergent arrivals and no clear S phase. The frequency content of these waveforms is variable with some events showing low frequency content (below 5 HZ) with higher frequency banding and others having a broadband signal. At about 2252 UTC on May 28, these events merged into a continuous signal lasting nearly 30 minutes. A roughly 4 hour period of relative quiescence followed punctuated by individual low frequency events. Another burst of continuous tremor then began at about 0305 UTC on May 29, which lasted about 4.5 hours. During the tail end of this activity a mixture of VT’s and low frequency events are seen. Another period of relative quiescence with the occurrence of very small VT’s then followed for about 4.5 hours. A ramp up of activity began about 11 minutes before the plume producing event occurred at approximately 1148 UTC on May 29. Based on eye witness observations of water discoloration and

  8. Functional morphology of the forelimb of living and extinct tree-kangaroos (Marsupialia: Macropodidae).

    PubMed

    Warburton, Natalie M; Harvey, Kathryn J; Prideaux, Gavin J; O'Shea, James E

    2011-10-01

    Tree-kangaroos are a unique group of arboreal marsupials that evolved from terrestrial ancestors. The recent discovery of well-preserved specimens of extinct tree-kangaroo species (genus Bohra) within Pleistocene cave deposits of south-central Australia provides a unique opportunity to examine adaptive evolution of tree-kangaroos. Here, we provide the first detailed description of the functional anatomy of the forelimb, a central component of the locomotor complex, in the extant Dendrolagus lumholtzi, and compare its structure and function with representatives of other extant marsupial families. Several features were interpreted as adaptations for coping with a discontinuous, uneven and three-dimensional arboreal substrate through enhanced muscular strength and dexterity for propulsion, grasping, and gripping with the forelimbs. The forelimb musculoskeletal anatomy of Dendrolagus differed from terrestrial kangaroos in the following principal ways: a stronger emphasis on the development of muscles groups responsible for adduction, grasping, and gripping; the enlargement of muscles that retract the humerus; and modified shape of the scapula and bony articulations of the forelimb bones to allow improved mobility. Many of these attributes are convergent with other arboreal marsupials. Tree-kangaroos, however, still retain the characteristic bauplan of their terrestrial ancestors, particularly with regard to skeletal morphology, and the muscular anatomy of the forelimb highlights a basic conservatism within the group. In many instances, the skeletal remains of Bohra have similar features to Dendrolagus that suggest adaptations to an arboreal habit. Despite the irony of their retrieval from deposits of the Nullarbor "Treeless" Plain, forelimb morphology clearly shows that the species of Bohra were well adapted to an arboreal habitat. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Geothermal Gradient Drilling and Measurements Ascension Island, South Atlantic Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Sibbett, B.S.; Nielson, D.L.; Adams, M.C.

    1984-07-01

    This technical report on the Phase II geothermal exploration of Ascension Island documents the data collected during thermal gradient drilling and the subsequent thermal and fluid chemical investigations. It also documents the completion of the Phase II exploration strategy which was proposed at the end of the Phase I--Preliminary Examination of Ascension Island. The thermal gradient drilling resulted in seven holes which range from 206 to 1750 ft (53-533 m) deep, with a cumulative footage of 6563 ft (2000 m). The drilling procedure and the problems encountered during the drilling have been explained in detail to provide information valuable for any subsequent drilling program on the island. In addition, the subsurface geology encountered in the holes has been documented and, where possible, correlated with other holes or the geology mapped on the surface of the island. Temperatures measured in the holes reach a maximum of 130 F (54.4 C) at 1285 ft (391.7 m) in hole GH-6. When the temperatures of all holes are plotted against elevation, the holes can be classed into three distinct groups, those which have no thermal manifestations, those with definite geothermal affinities, and one hole which is intermediate between the other two. From consideration of this information, it is clear that the highest geothermal potential on the island is in the Donkey Flat area extending beneath Middleton Ridge, and in the Cricket Valley area. Because of the greater drilling depths and the remote nature of the Cricket Valley area, it is recommended that future exploration concentrate in the area around Middleton Ridge.

  10. The Pacific Way: Sustainability in Higher Education in the South Pacific Island Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Peter Blaze; Koshy, Kanayathu Chacko

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to create an area profile of significant activity and possibility in higher education for sustainable development (ESD) in the island nations of the South Pacific Ocean. Design/methodology/approach: This is a descriptive research paper on philosophy, policy, and practice according to a methodology of…

  11. The Pacific Way: Sustainability in Higher Education in the South Pacific Island Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Peter Blaze; Koshy, Kanayathu Chacko

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to create an area profile of significant activity and possibility in higher education for sustainable development (ESD) in the island nations of the South Pacific Ocean. Design/methodology/approach: This is a descriptive research paper on philosophy, policy, and practice according to a methodology of…

  12. New Cultural Economies of Marginality: Revisiting the West Coast, South Island, New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conradson, David; Pawson, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Marginal regions have been the subject of political concern and remedial action in western states for several decades now. The West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand is an interesting case study in this regard, for recent economic growth has confounded earlier expectations of post-restructuring decline, while also contradicting several of…

  13. New Cultural Economies of Marginality: Revisiting the West Coast, South Island, New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conradson, David; Pawson, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Marginal regions have been the subject of political concern and remedial action in western states for several decades now. The West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand is an interesting case study in this regard, for recent economic growth has confounded earlier expectations of post-restructuring decline, while also contradicting several of…

  14. Preliminary study on pisionids (Annelida: Polychaeta Pisionidae) from Hainan Island coastal waters, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bao-Ling; Ding, Zhi-Hu; Huang, Feng-Peng

    1998-06-01

    Of the four species of Pisione Grube (1856) collected from the coastal waters of Hainan Island, the South China Sea, and described in this paper, Pisione hainanensis n. sp. is new to science; Pisione oerstedii Grube, 1857; Pisione complexa Alikunhi, 1947, and Pisione levisetosa Zhao, Westheide & Wu, 1991 are reported for the first time from this area.

  15. Kangaroo Mother Care--a review.

    PubMed

    Hall, D; Kirsten, G

    2008-04-01

    Kangaroo Mother Care is a simple and beneficial intervention for the care of low birth weight infants. Although initially conceived for use in developing countries with limited resources, its use has expanded worldwide as clinicians, administrators and parents become familiar with the psychological, physiological, clinical and cost benefits associated with the practice. A recently documented benefit has specific relevance to blood transfusion medicine.

  16. Quantitative distribution and functional groups of intertidal macrofaunal assemblages in Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoshou; Wang, Lu; Li, Shuai; Huo, Yuanzi; He, Peimin; Zhang, Zhinan

    2015-10-15

    To evaluate spatial distribution pattern of intertidal macrofauna, quantitative investigation was performed in January to February, 2013 around Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, South Shetland Islands. A total of 34 species were identified, which were dominated by Mollusca, Annelida and Arthropoda. CLUSTER analysis showed that macrofaunal assemblages at sand-bottom sites belonged to one group, which was dominated by Lumbricillus sp. and Kidderia subquadrata. Macrofaunal assemblages at gravel-bottom sites were divided into three groups while Nacella concinna was the dominant species at most sites. The highest values of biomass and Shannon-Wiener diversity index were found in gravel sediment and the highest value of abundance was in sand sediment of eastern coast. In terms of functional group, detritivorous and planktophagous groups had the highest values of abundance and biomass, respectively. Correlation analysis showed that macrofaunal abundance and biomass had significant positive correlations with contents of sediment chlorophyll a, phaeophorbide and organic matter.

  17. Quaternary Uplift History of Wingham Island, South-Central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, James B.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Pavlis, Terry L.

    2009-01-01

    Marine terraces cut into Pleistocene deposits on Wingham Island in the Gulf of Alaska provide new constraints on the position of sea level, ice thickness and total glacioisostatic rebound at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum. A radiocarbon age of 13.9 +- 0.15 ka on the most prominent terrace is coincident with the end of meltwater pulse 1A, possibly suggestive of a link between changes in relative sea level and terrace formation. Isostatic modeling suggests a local ice thickness of 600 to 700 m with high (~10 cm/yr) initial rates of postglacial rebound. In addition to the unique ties to meltwater pulse 1A, the timing of emergence for Wingham Island following the Last Glacial Maximum has implications for the early migration of humans into North America.

  18. Momentum Flux Estimates for South Georgia Island Mountain Waves in the Stratosphere Observed via Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, M. Joan; Eckermann, Stephen D.; Broutman, Dave; Ma, Jun

    2009-01-01

    We show high-resolution satellite observations of mountain wave events in the stratosphere above South Georgia Island in the remote southern Atlantic Ocean and compute the wave momentum fluxes for these events. The fluxes are large, and they imply important drag forces on the circulation. Small island orography is generally neglected in mountain wave parameterizations used in global climate models because limited model resolution treats the grid cell containing the island as ocean rather than land. Our results show that satellite observations can be used to quantitatively constrain mountain wave momentum fluxes, and they suggest that mountain waves from island topography may be an important missing source of drag on the atmospheric circulation.

  19. Momentum Flux Estimates for South Georgia Island Mountain Waves in the Stratosphere Observed via Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, M. Joan; Eckermann, Stephen D.; Broutman, Dave; Ma, Jun

    2009-01-01

    We show high-resolution satellite observations of mountain wave events in the stratosphere above South Georgia Island in the remote southern Atlantic Ocean and compute the wave momentum fluxes for these events. The fluxes are large, and they imply important drag forces on the circulation. Small island orography is generally neglected in mountain wave parameterizations used in global climate models because limited model resolution treats the grid cell containing the island as ocean rather than land. Our results show that satellite observations can be used to quantitatively constrain mountain wave momentum fluxes, and they suggest that mountain waves from island topography may be an important missing source of drag on the atmospheric circulation.

  20. Geomorphology of Two Seamounts Offshore Ascension Island, South Atlantic Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    comprise a transitional to mildly alkaline basalt -hawiite- mugearite-benmoreite-trachyte-rhyolite series lava flows, trachytic domes, scoria cones...age from 1.2 Ma to 0.56 Ma, mafic volcanic rocks range from 0.47 Ma to 0.12 Ma, and basaltic dikes are 0.80 Ma [11]. There have been no historic...hundred million years [28]. The isotopic combinations for Ascension Island are also significantly distinct from MAR basalt samples and 40

  1. Small unmanned aerial vehicles for aeromagnetic surveys and their flights in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funaki, Minoru; Higashino, Shin-Ichiro; Sakanaka, Shinya; Iwata, Naoyoshi; Nakamura, Norihiro; Hirasawa, Naohiko; Obara, Noriaki; Kuwabara, Mikio

    2014-12-01

    We developed small computer-controlled unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, Ant-Plane) using parts and technology designed for model airplanes. These UAVs have a maximum flight range of 300-500 km. We planned aeromagnetic and aerial photographic surveys using the UAVs around Bransfield Basin, Antarctica, beginning from King George Island. However, we were unable to complete these flights due to unsuitable weather conditions and flight restrictions. Successful flights were subsequently conducted from Livingston Island to Deception Island in December 2011. This flight covered 302.4 km in 3:07:08, providing aeromagnetic and aerial photographic data from an altitude of 780 m over an area of 9 × 18 km around the northern region of Deception Island. The resulting magnetic anomaly map of Deception Island displayed higher resolution than the marine anomaly maps published already. The flight to South Bay in Livingston Island successfully captured aerial photographs that could be used for assessment of glacial and sea-ice conditions. It is unclear whether the cost-effectiveness of the airborne survey by UAV is superior to that of manned flight. Nonetheless, Ant-Plane 6-3 proved to be highly cost-effective for the Deception Island flight, considering the long downtime of the airplane in the Antarctic storm zone.

  2. The role of the foehn effect in the record maximum temperature (+19.8 degC) observed at Signy Island (South Orkney Islands) on 30 January 1982.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, John; Bannister, Daniel; Hosking, Scott; Colwell, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Signy Island (60.7S, 45.6W) is one of the smaller islands in the South Orkney Islands group. A UK research station was established on the island in 1947 and operated as a year-round station until 1996, when it reverted to summer-only operation. A near-unbroken daily series of basic climatological observations is available for the period 1947-1996. Signy Island is low-lying, but is situated just a few km south of the much larger Coronation Island, which rises to over 1200 m elevation. On 30 January 1982, a record daily maximum temperature of +19.8 degC was reported by the station. The average monthly maximum temperature for January at Signy Island is +9.9 degC and a maximum January temperature of +13 degC has only been exceeded in one year apart from 1982, making the 1982 record truly exceptional. Examination of global reanalysis fields shows that this record temperature was associated with southward advection of an exceptionally warm air mass from the subtropical South Atlantic. However, during the southward passage of this air mass over the cold Southern Ocean, there was rapid cooling of the lowest kilometre of the atmosphere, leading to the formation of a deep stable layer with near-surface temperatures that were not exceptional for this region. At the time of the observed record temperature, the wind at 1 km had a strong northerly component and was thus blowing across the high topography of Coronation Island towards Signy Island. Using a high-resolution (1 km horizontal grid spacing) simulation made with the WRF model, we demonstrate that the flow across Coronation Island generated a foehn flow in the lee of Coronation Island that brought relatively unmodified warm air down towards the surface over Signy Island. We discuss this event within the context of the long-term climate records from this region.

  3. Continuous resistivity profiling data from Great South Bay, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, V.A.; Bratton, J.F.; Kroeger, K.D.; Crusius, John; Worley, C.R.

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York was conducted to assess the importance of submarine groundwater discharge as a potential nonpoint source of nitrogen delivery to Great South Bay. Over 200 kilometers of continuous resistivity profiling data were collected to image the fresh-saline groundwater interface in sediments beneath the bay. In addition, groundwater sampling was performed at sites (1) along the north shore of Great South Bay, particularly in Patchogue Bay, that were representative of the developed Long Island shoreline, and (2) at sites on and adjacent to Fire Island, a 50-kilometer-long barrier island on the south side of Great South Bay. Other field activities included sediment coring, stationary electrical resistivity profiling, and surveys of in situ pore water conductivity. Results of continuous resistivity profiling surveys are described in this report. The onshore and offshore shallow hydrostratigraphy of the Great South Bay shorelines, particularly the presence and nature of submarine confining units, appears to exert primary control on the dimensions and chemistry of the submarine groundwater flow and discharge zones. Sediment coring has shown that the confining units commonly consist of drowned and buried peat layers likely deposited in salt marshes. Low-salinity groundwater extends from 10 to 100 meters offshore along much of the north and south shores of Great South Bay based on continuous resistivity profiling data, especially off the mouths of tidal creeks and beneath shallow flats to the north of Fire Island adjacent to modern salt marshes. Human modifications of much of the shoreline and nearshore areas along the north shore of the bay, including filling of salt marshes, construction of bulkheads and piers, and dredging of navigation channels, has substantially altered the natural hydrogeology of the bay's shorelines by truncating confining units and increasing

  4. Deformational evolution of a Cretaceous subduction complex: Elephant Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trouw, Rudolph A. J.; Passchier, Cees W.; Valeriano, Claudio M.; Simões, Luiz Sérgio A.; Paciullo, Fabio V. P.; Ribeiro, André

    2000-03-01

    New structural data from Elephant Island and adjacent islands are presented with the objective to improve the understanding of subduction kinematics in the area northeast of the Antarctic Peninsula. On the island, a first deformation phase, D 1, produced a strong SL fabric with steep stretching and mineral lineations, partly defined by relatively high pressure minerals, such as crossite and glaucophane. D 1 is interpreted to record southward subduction along an E-W trench with respect to the present position of the island. A second phase, D 2, led to intense folding with steep E-W-trending axial surfaces. The local presence of sinistral C'-type shear bands related to this phase and the oblique inclination of the L 2 stretching lineations are the main arguments to interpret this phase as representing oblique sinistral transpressive shear along steep, approximately E-W-trending shear zones, with the northern (Pacific) block going down with respect to the southern (Antarctic Peninsula) block. The sinistral strike-slip component may represent a trench-linked strike-slip movement as a consequence of oblique subduction. Lithostatic pressure decreased and temperature increased to peak values during D 2, interpreted to represent the collision of thickened oceanic crust with the active continental margin. The last deformation phase, D 3, is characterised by post-metamorphic kink bands, partially forming conjugate sets consistent with E-W shortening and N-S extension. The rock units that underlie the island probably rotated during D 3, in Cenozoic times, together with the trench, from an NE-SW to the present ENE-WSW position, during the progressive opening of the Scotia Sea. The similarity between the strain orientation of D 3 and that of the sinistral NE-SW Shackleton Fracture Zone is consistent with this interpretation.

  5. Evidence utilization project: implementation of kangaroo care at neonatal ICU.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Su He; Yip, Wai Kin; Lim, Priscilla Fong Chien; Goh, Micki Zhen Yi

    2014-06-01

    Kangaroo care is no longer performed for the initial purpose of maintaining a small baby's body temperature in the developed countries where there are now sufficient medical equipments to keep babies warm. The objectives of kangaroo care in advanced neonatal ICUs have changed to provide benefits such as bonding and attachment, physiologic stability of newborn babies, successful breastfeeding and positive effects on infant development. Kangaroo care is not new to many neonatal nurses, but not every neonatal center is routinely practicing kangaroo care in Singapore. Inadequate nurses' knowledge and lack of guidelines on kangaroo care hinder its practice. The aim of this project was to implement kangaroo care in very low birth weight babies in a systematic and structured approach. The team followed Larrabee's The Model For Evidence-Based Practice Change, used the available evidence on kangaroo care to develop guideline that was specific and suitable for the local setting. The team organized kangaroo care road shows for nurses and parents to create and enhance awareness. Evaluation of the project was done through two audits. The audit tool consisted of correct baby positioning and nursing documentation, with a sample size of 30 episodes. The ages of the babies audited were from 24 to 34 weeks of gestation with their weight ranging from 850 to 1500 g. The compliance rate for correct baby positioning during kangaroo care was 100% for both audits. The compliance rate for nursing documentation improved from 93% in the first post-implementation audit to 96.7% in the second post-implementation audit. The systematic and structured approach in kangaroo care implementation has created awareness among nurses and led to improvements in their knowledge and practices of kangaroo care. The implementation process of kangaroo care has also aided in training the ward Evidence-Based Nursing Unit team members to engage in critical thinking, which ultimately benefited the babies and

  6. Holocene carbonate sedimentation in Aitutaki Lagoon, Cook Islands, South Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, B.M.; Hein, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    Aitutaki, an almost-atoll in the Southern Cook Islands, is characterized by a shallow enclosed lagoon. Sediment distribution within the lagoon can be broadly placed into three sedimentary-bathymetric provinces. (1) A low-relief reef rim (< 2 m deep), including sand flats and washover fans, is comprised mostly of clean sand and gravel. (2) The majority of the lagoon floor, which lies between 3 and 6 m water depth, is dominated by sand and silt; coral-algal patch reefs are common with densities greater than 500 reefs/km/sup 2/. Sediment commonly is coarser grained near the patch reefs. (3) Enclosed and elongate-sinuous topographic lows (basins) up to 10 m deep are marked by coral-algal reef growth along their margins. These features are typically narrow, less than 100 m wide, and are U-shaped in cross section and infilled by carbonate and terrigenous muds. High-resolution continuous seismic profiling and limited drilling indicate that differences in thickness of Holocene sediment result from primary irregularities in the pre-Holocene basement surface. Aitutaki was formed by late Miocene volcanism, with a post-edifice building mid-Pleistocene (0.77 Ma) volcanic episode. Two islets within the lagoon are also of volcanic origin, and sinuous coral ridges which extend for several kilometers probably developed on Quaternary lava flows. The coral ridges and meandering enclosed basins appear to be unique to Aitutaki in the Cook Islands.

  7. Wildlife species composition in various forest types on Sebuku Island, South Kalimantan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusmana, C.; Manshur, A.; Rusdian, O.; Putro, H. R.; Hakim, F.; Ermyanyla, M.

    2017-01-01

    Sebuku is one of the small islands in South Kalimantan Provincehaving various forest types with high potential economic in mining sector. Based on it’s business permit, the island has been divided up into several mining concessions. So that biological diversity studies in this island is an interesting in order to serve biological baseline data if someday this island to be extractedfor mining. This research was conducted on 28th November to 5th December 2015 aims to explore wildlife species inhabit mangrove forest, beach forest, and lowland forest usinga rectangle transect (40 x 1000 meter) in each forest type. The results show there are 90 wildlife species identified in Sebuku Island. The beach forest has the highest wildlife species richness (36 species), while the area having the highest protected wildlife species isthe lowland forest. Mangrove forests generally have a lower wildlife species richness. Nevertheless, in Sebuku Island, can be found mangrove forest that have a quite high wildlife species richness (28 species, 50% protected). It is due to silt sedimentation in the estuary area, so that this area become feeding ground for shore and migratory birds.

  8. Intermittent kangaroo mother care: a NICU protocol.

    PubMed

    Davanzo, Riccardo; Brovedani, Pierpaolo; Travan, Laura; Kennedy, Jacqueline; Crocetta, Anna; Sanesi, Cecilia; Strajn, Tamara; De Cunto, Angela

    2013-08-01

    The practice of kangaroo mother care (KMC) is steadily increasing in high-tech settings due to its proven benefits for both infants and parents. In spite of that, clear guidelines about how to implement this method of care are lacking, and as a consequence, some restrictions are applied in many neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), preventing its practice. Based on recommendations from the Expert Group of the International Network on Kangaroo Mother Care, we developed a hospital protocol in the neonatal unit of the Institute for Maternal and Child Health in Trieste, Italy, a level 3 unit, aimed to facilitate and promote KMC implementation in high-tech settings. Our guideline is therefore proposed, based both on current scientific literature and on practical considerations and experience. Future adjustments and improvements would be considered based on increasing clinical KMC use and further knowledge.

  9. Hydrogeology of south-central St Croix, US Virgin Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graves, R.P.

    1995-01-01

    The subsurface geology of south-central St. Croix consists of alluvium and underlying carbonate rocks. The alluvial deposits consist of sand and gravel with cobbles and boulders and, locally, thin lenses of silt and clay. The carbonate rocks consist of the Oligocene to Middle Miocene age Jealousy formation, the Miocene and Pliocene are Kingshill Limestone, and the Pliocene and younger age Post-Kingshill Carbonates. Ground water occurs under water-table conditions in the alluvial, Post-Kingshill Carbonates, and Kingshill Limestone deposits. These deposits are hydraulically connected and are considered to be a single hydrologic unit. The top of the water-table aquifer can range from 5 to 68 feet below land surface. The top of the Jealousy Formation is considered to be the bottom of the water- table aquifer and generally is from 85 to greater than 120 feet below land surface. Aquifer yields in south- central St. Croix can range from less than 5 gallons per minute to 80 gallons per minute. The ground- water in the study area is of the sodium-chloride type. Ground-water samples collected from selected wells had chloride concentrations ranging from 64 to 4,400 milligrams per liter, and dissolved solid concen- trations ranging from 619 to 7,540 milligrams per liter. Connate water is suspected as being the source of sodium chloride in the ground water.

  10. The May 2010 submarine eruption from South Sarigan seamount, Northern Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGimsey, R. G.; Neal, C. A.; Searcy, C. K.; Camacho, J. T.; Aydlett, W. B.; Embley, R. W.; Trusdell, F.; Paskievitch, J. F.; Schneider, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    A sudden submarine explosive eruption occurred on May 29, 2010, from a seamount south of Sarigan Island in the Northern Mariana Islands, propelling a diffuse steam and ash cloud to high altitude. Pre-eruptive seismicity was recorded in early April by stations located on Sarigan and Anatahan Island, 42 km to the south, and indicated a source ~12-16 km south of Sarigan. On May 27-28, a change in seismicity—the appearance of tremor-like waveforms—may have marked the onset of volcanic activity. Also on May 27, an elongate patch of discolored ocean water and possible light-colored floating debris about 8-11 km south of Sarigan was observed from a helicopter. This material was likely produced during low-intensity eruptive activity, and an Information Statement from the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) Emergency Management Office (EMO) and USGS issued at 2353 UTC May 28 described the observation. The Guam Weather Forecast Office of the National Weather Service reported that the area of discoloration, visible on satellite images at 2313 and 2330 UTC on May 28, was about 10 km2, about twice the size of Sarigan Island. Pulses of tremor merged into a nearly continuous signal by 0305 UTC on May 29, lasting for ~4.5 hours followed by nearly 4.5 hours of quiescence. The EMO issued a declaration closing the region south of Sarigan to all local boating traffic and issued an advisory to aircraft. The explosive onset of the main plume-producing event occurred at ~1148 UTC as confirmed by seismic records on Anatahan Island, with the strongest phase ending ~1200 UTC. Soon after, the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center reported an eruption cloud reaching an estimated 40,000 feet (12 km) ASL that diminished rapidly on satellite imagery suggesting it was water-vapor dominated. Winds carried the cloud southwest over Guam, and although no ash fall was reported, the cloud was visible and was detected in Aura/OMI aerosol index imagery. Biologists on Sarigan Island

  11. View of portion of South Island, New Zealand as seen from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A near vertical view of a portion of South Island, New Zealand (43.0S, 171.5E) as seen from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. Cape Foulwind is at the upper left. The City of Christchurch is under clouds at the center right margin. Note the movement of sediment of alongside currents, especially on the east (right) side of the island, the Alpine Fault, which is part of the circu-Pacific volcanic-tectonic belt, is clearly visible on the left side of the island. The fault line is marked by a scarp which appears very distinct from orbital altitude. Differences in topography and vegetation on either side of the fault are also sharp.

  12. A new Starlight Reserve for the central South Island of New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearnshaw, John

    2015-03-01

    The Aoraki Mackenzie International Dark Sky Reserve is a new reserve created in 2012 by the International Dark-Sky Association in the central South Island of New Zealand, and covers over 4300 square kilometres around Mt John University Observatory. It is the first such reserve to be recognized at gold tier level and is the largest dark sky reserve in the world. Astro-tourism in the new reserve will be a prominent activity in the coming years.

  13. Hydrography of Potter Cove, a Small Fjord-like Inlet on King George Island (South Shetlands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klöser, Heinz; Ferreyra, Gustavo; Schloss, Irene; Mercuri, Guillermo; Laturnus, Frank; Curtosi, Antonio

    1994-05-01

    The hydrography of Potter Cove (King George Island, South Shetlands) is described in detail for one summer season. Recorded data are wind, air temperature, water temperature, salinity and water colour. From these, information on surface circulation patterns and dynamics of suspended sediments are derived. Possible sources of sediment input are discussed. As a result, a complex interaction between wind forcing, circulation and seasonal melt of high glacier surfaces emerges.

  14. Massive Microbiological Groundwater Contamination Associated with a Waterborne Outbreak in Lake Erie, South Bass Island, Ohio

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Theng-Theng; Mansfield, Linda S.; Wilson, David L.; Schwab, David J.; Molloy, Stephanie L.; Rose, Joan B.

    2007-01-01

    Background A groundwater-associated outbreak affected approximately 1,450 residents and visitors of South Bass Island, Ohio, between July and September 2004. Objectives To examine the microbiological quality of groundwater wells located on South Bass Island, we sampled 16 wells that provide potable water to public water systems 15–21 September 2004. Methods We tested groundwater wells for fecal indicators, enteric viruses and bacteria, and protozoa (Cryptosporidium and Giardia). The hydrodynamics of Lake Erie were examined to explore the possible surface water–groundwater interactions. Results All wells were positive for both total coliform and Escherichia coli. Seven wells tested positive for enterococci and Arcobacter (an emerging bacterial pathogen), and F+-specific coliphage was present in four wells. Three wells were positive for all three bacterial indicators, coliphages, and Arcobacter; adenovirus DNA was recovered from two of these wells. We found a cluster of the most contaminated wells at the southeast side of the island. Conclusions Massive groundwater contamination on the island was likely caused by transport of microbiological contaminants from wastewater treatment facilities and septic tanks to the lake and the subsurface, after extreme precipitation events in May–July 2004. This likely raised the water table, saturated the subsurface, and along with very strong Lake Erie currents on 24 July, forced a surge in water levels and rapid surface water–groundwater interchange throughout the island. Landsat images showed massive influx of organic material and turbidity surrounding the island before the peak of the outbreak. These combinations of factors and information can be used to examine vulnerabilities in other coastal systems. Both wastewater and drinking water issues are now being addressed by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency and the Ohio Department of Health. PMID:17589591

  15. Massive microbiological groundwater contamination associated with a waterborne outbreak in Lake Erie, South Bass Island, Ohio.

    PubMed

    Fong, Theng-Theng; Mansfield, Linda S; Wilson, David L; Schwab, David J; Molloy, Stephanie L; Rose, Joan B

    2007-06-01

    A groundwater-associated outbreak affected approximately 1,450 residents and visitors of South Bass Island, Ohio, between July and September 2004. To examine the microbiological quality of groundwater wells located on South Bass Island, we sampled 16 wells that provide potable water to public water systems 15-21 September 2004. We tested groundwater wells for fecal indicators, enteric viruses and bacteria, and protozoa (Cryptosporidium and Giardia). The hydrodynamics of Lake Erie were examined to explore the possible surface water-groundwater interactions. All wells were positive for both total coliform and Escherichia coli. Seven wells tested positive for enterococci and Arcobacter (an emerging bacterial pathogen), and F(+)-specific coliphage was present in four wells. Three wells were positive for all three bacterial indicators, coliphages, and Arcobacter; adenovirus DNA was recovered from two of these wells. We found a cluster of the most contaminated wells at the southeast side of the island. Massive groundwater contamination on the island was likely caused by transport of microbiological contaminants from wastewater treatment facilities and septic tanks to the lake and the subsurface, after extreme precipitation events in May-July 2004. This likely raised the water table, saturated the subsurface, and along with very strong Lake Erie currents on 24 July, forced a surge in water levels and rapid surface water-groundwater interchange throughout the island. Landsat images showed massive influx of organic material and turbidity surrounding the island before the peak of the outbreak. These combinations of factors and information can be used to examine vulnerabilities in other coastal systems. Both wastewater and drinking water issues are now being addressed by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency and the Ohio Department of Health.

  16. Characteristics of the 29th September 2009 South Pacific tsunami as observed at Niuatoputapu Island, Tonga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Kate; Power, William; Nishimura, Yuichi; 'Atelea Kautoke, Richard; Vaiomo'unga, Rennie; Pongi, 'Aleki; Fifita, Makameone

    2011-07-01

    Niuatoputapu Island, Tonga, lies at the northern end of the Tongan trench, approximately 190 km east of the epicentre of the earthquake that produced the 29th September, 2009, South Pacific tsunami. The tsunami inundated 46% of the land area of Niuatoputapu, maximum inundation of 1100 m occurred along the southeastern coastline of the island while inundation distances in the villages were typically 200-500 m. Flow direction indicators show that the strongest flow of the tsunami came from a northeast to east direction; the tsunami refracted around the northern and southern points of the island and inundated the west coast from variable directions. Maximum runup of 4.7 m above mean sea level was recorded at the village of Falehau in the northwest of Niuatoputapu. The flow height of the tsunami reached a maximum of 16.9 m above mean sea level at Toma, on the southeast coast of Niuatoputapu. Flow heights were typically between 8 and 15 m along the eastern, uninhabited coastline of Niuatoputapu and decreased by about half, to between 4 and 7 m above mean sea level along the western, inhabited coastline. With no prior knowledge or education to prompt self-evacuation, its remote location hampering recovery efforts, and high tsunami flow heights, Niuatoputapu suffered severe tsunami impacts in the social, economic and physical realms. We discuss aspects of the tsunami impacts and the implications of the event on our understanding of South Pacific tsunami hazard and how tsunami hazards can be managed on small, remote islands.

  17. Offshore Rayleigh group velocity observations of the South Island, New Zealand, from ambient noise data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeck, William L.; Sheehan, Anne F.; Stachnik, Joshua C.; Lin, Fan-Chi

    2017-05-01

    We present azimuthally anisotropic Rayleigh group velocity models from 8 to 35 s both offshore and onshore of the South Island of New Zealand. We use MOANA (Marine Observations of Anisotropy Near Aotearoa) broad-band ocean seismic data in combination with on land data from the New Zealand National Seismography Network to investigate the seismic structure of the flanks of the Australian-Pacific plate boundary. At 8 s, we observe low offshore group velocities best explained by the influence of the water layer and thick water-laden sediments. At long periods (20-30 s), group velocities are lower on the South Island relative to its offshore flanks, due to thickened crust beneath the island, with the lowest velocities primarily beneath the Southern Alps. Group velocity azimuthal anisotropy fast directions near the Alpine Fault align with the direction of relative plate motion between the Australian and Pacific plates. In the southern portion of the island, fast directions rotate anticlockwise, likely in response to a decrease in dextral shearing away from the plate boundary. Azimuthal anisotropy fast directions align with absolute plate motion offshore on the Pacific plate. Based on the depth sensitivity of our observations, we suggest diffuse deformation occurs throughout the crust. Our observations match trends in previous Pn anisotropy and SKS shear wave splitting observations, and therefore suggest a consistent pattern of distributed deformation throughout the lithosphere.

  18. Offshore Rayleigh Group Velocity Observations of the South Island, New Zealand, from Ambient Noise Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeck, William L.; Sheehan, Anne F.; Stachnik, Joshua C.; Lin, Fan-Chi

    2017-02-01

    We present azimuthally anisotropic Rayleigh group velocity models from 8 - 35 s both offshore and onshore of the South Island of New Zealand. We use MOANA (Marine Observations of Anisotropy Near Aotearoa) broadband ocean seismic data in combination with on land data from the New Zealand National Seismography Network (NZNSN) to investigate the seismic structure of the flanks of the Australian-Pacific plate boundary. At 8 s, we observe low offshore group velocities best explained by the influence of the water layer and thick water-laden sediments. At long periods (20-30 s), group velocities are lower on the South Island relative to its offshore flanks, due to thickened crust beneath the island, with the lowest velocities primarily beneath the Southern Alps. Group velocity azimuthal anisotropy fast directions near the Alpine Fault align with the direction of relative plate motion between the Australian and Pacific plates. In the southern portion of the island, fast directions rotate anticlockwise, likely in response to a decrease in dextral shearing away from the plate boundary. Azimuthal anisotropy fast directions align with absolute plate motion offshore on the Pacific plate. Based on the depth sensitivity of our observations, we suggest diffuse deformation occurs throughout the crust. Our observations match trends in previous Pn anisotropy and SKS shear wave splitting observations, and therefore suggest a consistent pattern of distributed deformation throughout the lithosphere.

  19. Solomon Islands: Summary Report. Educational Experience Survey: Education, Language and Literacy Experience. Asia-South Pacific Education Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Sylvia

    2007-01-01

    The Education Watch initiative is being implemented in the Solomon Islands by the Coalition on Education Solomon Islands (COESI) in partnership with Asian South Pacific Bureau of Adult Education (ASPBAE). COESI aims to generate a reliable body of information that will: (1) Accurately explain how much the national government has done and can do to…

  20. Where was the 1898 Mare Island Earthquake? Insights from the 2014 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 South Napa earthquake provides an opportunity to reconsider the Mare Island earthquake of 31 March 1898, which caused severe damage to buildings at a Navy yard on the island. Revising archival accounts of the 1898 earthquake, I estimate a lower intensity magnitude, 5.8, than the value in the current Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF) catalog (6.4). However, I note that intensity magnitude can differ from Mw by upwards of half a unit depending on stress drop, which for a historical earthquake is unknowable. In the aftermath of the 2014 earthquake, there has been speculation that apparently severe effects on Mare Island in 1898 were due to the vulnerability of local structures. No surface rupture has ever been identified from the 1898 event, which is commonly associated with the Hayward-Rodgers Creek fault system, some 10 km west of Mare Island (e.g., Parsons et al., 2003). Reconsideration of detailed archival accounts of the 1898 earthquake, together with a comparison of the intensity distributions for the two earthquakes, points to genuinely severe, likely near-field ground motions on Mare Island. The 2014 earthquake did cause significant damage to older brick buildings on Mare Island, but the level of damage does not match the severity of documented damage in 1898. The high intensity files for the two earthquakes are more over spatially shifted, with the centroid of the 2014 distribution near the town of Napa and that of the 1898 distribution near Mare Island, east of the Hayward-Rodgers Creek system. I conclude that the 1898 Mare Island earthquake was centered on or near Mare Island, possibly involving rupture of one or both strands of the Franklin fault, a low-slip-rate fault sub-parallel to the Rodgers Creek fault to the west and the West Napa fault to the east. I estimate Mw5.8 assuming an average stress drop; data are also consistent with Mw6.4 if stress drop was a factor of ≈3 lower than average for California earthquakes. I

  1. UAV-based detection and spatial analyses of periglacial landforms on Demay Point (King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dąbski, Maciej; Zmarz, Anna; Pabjanek, Piotr; Korczak-Abshire, Małgorzata; Karsznia, Izabela; Chwedorzewska, Katarzyna J.

    2017-08-01

    High-resolution aerial images allow detailed analyses of periglacial landforms, which is of particular importance in light of climate change and resulting changes in active layer thickness. The aim of this study is to show possibilities of using UAV-based photography to perform spatial analysis of periglacial landforms on the Demay Point peninsula, King George Island, and hence to supplement previous geomorphological studies of the South Shetland Islands. Photogrammetric flights were performed using a PW-ZOOM fixed-winged unmanned aircraft vehicle. Digital elevation models (DEM) and maps of slope and contour lines were prepared in ESRI ArcGIS 10.3 with the Spatial Analyst extension, and three-dimensional visualizations in ESRI ArcScene 10.3 software. Careful interpretation of orthophoto and DEM, allowed us to vectorize polygons of landforms, such as (i) solifluction landforms (solifluction sheets, tongues, and lobes); (ii) scarps, taluses, and a protalus rampart; (iii) patterned ground (hummocks, sorted circles, stripes, nets and labyrinths, and nonsorted nets and stripes); (iv) coastal landforms (cliffs and beaches); (v) landslides and mud flows; and (vi) stone fields and bedrock outcrops. We conclude that geomorphological studies based on commonly accessible aerial and satellite images can underestimate the spatial extent of periglacial landforms and result in incomplete inventories. The PW-ZOOM UAV is well suited to gather detailed geomorphological data and can be used in spatial analysis of periglacial landforms in the Western Antarctic Peninsula region.

  2. Pn tomography of South China Sea, Taiwan Island, Philippine archipelago, and adjacent regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xibing; Song, Xiaodong; Li, Jiangtao

    2017-02-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) and its surrounding areas are geologically highly heterogeneous from the interactions of multiple plates in Southeast Asia (Eurasian plate, Indian-Australian plate, Philippine Sea plate, and Pacific plate). To understand the tectonics at depth, here we combined bulletin and handpicked data to conduct Pn tomography of the region. The results show distinct features that are correlated with the complex geology at surface, suggesting a lithosphere-scale tectonics of the region. Low Pn velocities are found along a belt of the western Pacific transpressional system from the Okinawa Trough and eastern East China Sea, across central and eastern Taiwan orogeny, to the island arcs of the Luzon Strait and the entire Philippine Islands, as well as under the Palawan Island and part of the continental margin north of the Pearl River Basin. High velocities are found under Ryukyu subduction zone, part of the Philippine subduction zone, part of the Eurasian subduction beneath the southwestern Taiwan, and the continent-ocean boundary between the south China and the SCS basin. The Taiwan Strait, the Mainland SE coast, and the main SCS basin sea are relatively uniform with average Pn values. Crustal thicknesses show large variations in the study region but also coherency with tectonic elements. The Pn pattern in Taiwan shows linear trends of surface geology and suggests strongly lithosphere-scale deformation of the young Taiwan orogenic belt marked by the deformation boundary under the Western Foothill and the Western Coastal Plain at depth, and the crustal thickness shows a complex pattern from the transpressional collision. Our observations are consistent with rifting and extension in the northern margin of the SCS but are not consistent with mantle upwelling as a mechanism for the opening and the subsequent closing of the SCS. The Philippine island arc is affected by volcanisms from both the Asian and Philippine Sea subductions in the south but mainly from

  3. Geomorphological processes and frozen ground conditions in Elephant Point (Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, Marc; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús

    2017-09-01

    Elephant Point is an ice-free area in the SW corner of Livingston Island (Maritime Antarctica). The retreat of Rotch Dome glacier during the Holocene has exposed a land area of 1.16 km2. Up to 17.3% of this surface has become ice-free between 1956 and 2010. A detailed geomorphological mapping of this ice-free environment was conducted in late January 2014. A wide range of active periglacial landforms show that periglacial processes are widespread. From the glacier to the coast four different geomorphological areas are identified: proglacial environment, moraine complex, bedrock plateaus and marine terraces. In situ measurements of the thawed soil depth show evidence of the widespread frozen ground conditions in the area. Field observations of permafrost exposures suggest that these frost conditions may be related to a soil permafrost regime, almost down to sea level. The activity of penguin colonies and elephant seals has created minor geomorphological features in the raised marine terraces. Here, several archaeological sites related to early human colonization of Antarctica were also found in natural shelters.

  4. Crustal structure north of the Taiping Island (Itu Aba Island), southern margin of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jih-Hsin; Hsieh, Hsien-Hsiang; Mirza, Arif; Chang, Sung-Ping; Hsu, Ho-Han; Liu, Char-Shine; Su, Chih-Chieh; Chiu, Shye-Donq; Ma, Yu-Fang; Chiu, Ying-Hui; Hung, Hau-Ting; Lin, Yen-Chun; Chiu, Chien-Hsuan

    2017-07-01

    Based on the multi-channel seismic (MCS) and gravity data offshore north of Taiping Island (Itu Aba Island) in the Spratly Islands (Nansha Islands), we revisited the crustal structures in the northern part of the southern margin of the Southwest (SW) Sub-basin of the South China Sea (SCS). The MCS data suggest that the basement structural highs in the southwest margin of the SCS are dominated by both fault blocks and volcanic basement structures that probably formed along with the basement faults. The gravity modeling results reveal that these volcanic basement structures were probably associated with the high velocity or density lower crust (HVDLC), suggesting that the southern margin of the SW Sub-basin serves as an intermediate margin. Based on the tectonic features in the SCS margins, including (1) the transition between the magma-poor margins of the Northwest (NW) Sub-basin and intermediate margins of the East and SW Sub-basins; (2) the cessation of the seafloor spreading in the NW Sub-basin being succeeded by a major ridge jump event, which was very likely to reflect an active mantle upwelling event; (3) the extensive distribution of the HVDLC beneath in the well-investigated northern margin of the East Sub-basin and as explored in the SW Sub-basin in this study; and (4) basement faulting and volcanism shown in this study that may be related to the HVDLC and hyper-extension, we proposed a conceptual model to interpret the origin of the HVDLC in the southern margin of the SW Sub-basin. The margin of the SCS basin was magma-poor at the time it occurred. An active mantle upwelling event caused by small-scale mantle convection, possibly related to the influence of the nascent Hainan mantle plume, was formed subsequently, resulting in a southward ridge jump and the HVDLC beneath the current margins of the East and SW Sub-basins. The East and SW Sub-basins continued to spread, latitudinally dividing their HVDLCs as the margins separated accordingly. Afterwards, the

  5. Mehetia Island, South Pacific: geology and petrology of the emerged part of the Society hot spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binard, N.; Maury, R. C.; Guille, G.; Talandier, J.; Gillot, P. Y.; Cotten, J.

    1993-03-01

    Mehetia is the youngest island of the Society hot-spot chain, representing the summit of a large submarine volcanic edifice (4035 m in height). Its conical shape results from strombolian-type eruptions. Mehetia comprises two major volcanic formations. The "old edifice" made up of interbedded pyroclastic rocks and lava flows, forms the main part of the island. The base of its stratigraphic pile is dated at 70,000-75,000 yr B.P. by K/Ar. Younger events (⩽ 31,000 yr B.P.) have built up a volcanic cone, with a summit hydromagmatic crater, and emplaced lava flows extending south of the island where they overlie coral reef limestones. Between the two eruptive periods, an erosional phase caused the partial destruction of the old edifice. Six successive stages of construction of the island are described from stratigraphic relations. Mehetia does not show any indication of present-day volcanic or fumarolic activity but should be considered as an active volcano as evidenced by the 1981 volcanoseismic crisis. Mehetia lavas include oceanites, primitive and evolved alkali basalts and basanites together with rare hawaiites and mugearites. Two main petrogenetic processes (i.e. accumulation and crystal fractionation) are inferred from bulk-rock composition and microprobe data on phenocrysts. Oceanites are derived from basalts through accumulation of olivine and clinopyroxene. Major and trace elements trends suggest evolution through crystal fractionation processes involving olivine, clinopyroxene, and Fe-Ti oxides.

  6. Serologic-based investigation of leptospirosis in a population of free-ranging eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) indicating the presence of Leptospira weilii serovar Topaz.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Michael W; Smythe, Lee; Dohnt, Michael; Symonds, Meegan; Slack, Andrew

    2010-04-01

    Eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) are one of the most abundant large macropodids sharing the landscape with humans. Despite this, little is known about the prevalence of Leptospira carriage within this species and the role that they may partake in the transmission of this disease in Australia. The sera of 87 free-ranging eastern grey kangaroos, captured in the Warragamba Catchment Area, Sydney, Australia, from June 2004 to November 2006, were screened against a reference panel of 22 Leptospira serovars using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Leptospiral antibodies were detected in 47% (41 of 87) of serum samples collected. Leptospira weilii Topaz, a newly emergent serovar in Australia, was detected in all seropositive kangaroos (41 of 41; 100%). The sex and tail-fat body condition index of kangaroos appeared to have no significant effect on the exposure to the disease. This serologic-based study is the first reported for L. weilii serovar Topaz in New South Wales, to our knowledge, having previously been isolated only in humans and two other animal species (bovine and long-nosed bandicoot [Perameles nasuta]) in Western Australia and Queensland. The potential role of eastern grey kangaroos in the maintenance and zoonotic spread of the disease to livestock and humans is discussed.

  7. Large-scale impact of the island mass effect through nitrogen fixation in the western South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiozaki, Takuhei; Kodama, Taketoshi; Furuya, Ken

    2014-04-01

    We describe a new mechanism for the island mass effect fueled by nitrogen fixation. The nitrogen fixation activities and δ15N of suspended particles in the surface water in the South Pacific were examined. Active nitrogen fixation and abundant Trichodesmium spp. were observed near islands in the western subtropical region, which was attributable to the material supplied by land runoff. High primary production was extensively centered around the islands and was characterized by low δ15N of suspended particles and a reduction in phosphate concentrations at the surface compared with the subtropical gyre and eastern equatorial upwelling. This suggested that Trichodesmium spp. were advected to areas remote from these islands, and consequently, the elevated primary production fueled by nitrogen fixation extended over a large area around them. Because the proposed island mass effect is triggered by a terrigenous nutrient supply, this ecosystem is potentially vulnerable to human activity on small islands.

  8. Kangaroo mother care: a systematic review of barriers and enablers

    PubMed Central

    Labar, Amy S; Wall, Stephen; Atun, Rifat

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate factors influencing the adoption of kangaroo mother care in different contexts. Methods We searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science and the World Health Organization’s regional databases, for studies on “kangaroo mother care” or “kangaroo care” or “skin-to-skin care” from 1 January 1960 to 19 August 2015, without language restrictions. We included programmatic reports and hand-searched references of published reviews and articles. Two independent reviewers screened articles and extracted data on carers, health system characteristics and contextual factors. We developed a conceptual model to analyse the integration of kangaroo mother care in health systems. Findings We screened 2875 studies and included 112 studies that contained qualitative data on implementation. Kangaroo mother care was applied in different ways in different contexts. The studies show that there are several barriers to implementing kangaroo mother care, including the need for time, social support, medical care and family acceptance. Barriers within health systems included organization, financing and service delivery. In the broad context, cultural norms influenced perceptions and the success of adoption. Conclusion Kangaroo mother care is a complex intervention that is behaviour driven and includes multiple elements. Success of implementation requires high user engagement and stakeholder involvement. Future research includes designing and testing models of specific interventions to improve uptake. PMID:26908962

  9. Kangaroo mother care: a systematic review of barriers and enablers.

    PubMed

    Chan, Grace J; Labar, Amy S; Wall, Stephen; Atun, Rifat

    2016-02-01

    To investigate factors influencing the adoption of kangaroo mother care in different contexts. We searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science and the World Health Organization's regional databases, for studies on "kangaroo mother care" or "kangaroo care" or "skin-to-skin care" from 1 January 1960 to 19 August 2015, without language restrictions. We included programmatic reports and hand-searched references of published reviews and articles. Two independent reviewers screened articles and extracted data on carers, health system characteristics and contextual factors. We developed a conceptual model to analyse the integration of kangaroo mother care in health systems. We screened 2875 studies and included 112 studies that contained qualitative data on implementation. Kangaroo mother care was applied in different ways in different contexts. The studies show that there are several barriers to implementing kangaroo mother care, including the need for time, social support, medical care and family acceptance. Barriers within health systems included organization, financing and service delivery. In the broad context, cultural norms influenced perceptions and the success of adoption. Kangaroo mother care is a complex intervention that is behaviour driven and includes multiple elements. Success of implementation requires high user engagement and stakeholder involvement. Future research includes designing and testing models of specific interventions to improve uptake.

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild kangaroos using an ELISA

    PubMed Central

    Parameswaran, N.; O'Handley, RM.; Grigg, ME.; Fenwick, SG.; Thompson, RCA.

    2009-01-01

    Infection with Toxoplasma gondii is a significant problem in Australian marsupials, and can lead to devastating disease and predispose animals to predation. T. gondii infection in kangaroos is also of public health significance due to the kangaroo meat trade. A moderate seroprevalence of T. gondii was observed in a study of western grey kangaroos located in the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. Of 219 kangaroos tested, 15.5% (95%CI: 10.7-20.3) were positive for T. gondii antibodies using an ELISA developed to detect T. gondii IgG in macropod marsupials. When compared with the commercially available MAT (modified agglutination test), the ELISA developed was in absolute agreement and yielded a κ coefficient of 1.00. Of 18 kangaroos tested for the presence of T. gondii DNA by PCR, the 9 ELISA positive kangaroos tested PCR positive and the 9 ELISA negative kangaroos tested PCR negative indicating the ELISA protocol was both highly specific and sensitive and correlated 100% with the more labour intensive PCR assay. PMID:19567231

  11. Soil processes in recently deglaciated environments in Maritime Antarctica: a study case from Elephant Point (Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, Marc; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Quijano, Laura; Palazón, Leticia; Navas, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Many ice-free environments in the northern Antarctic Peninsula are undergoing rapid and substantial environmental changes in response to reent climate trends. This is the case of Elephant Point (Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands), where the glacier retreat recorded during the second half of the XX century, has exposed 17% of this small peninsula (1.16 km2). Glacier retreat has exposed new ice-free land surface in the northern part of Elephant Point: a moraine extending from the western to the eastern coastlines and a relatively flat proglacial surface. Besides, a sequence of present-day beach, Holocece marine terraces and bedrock plateaus are also distributed in the southern margin of the peninsula. Periglacial processes are widespread in all the peninsula, but the type and characteristics of soils depen on the timing of glacier retreat. In this research we aim to assess how the glacier retreat affects the recently formed soils. Ten sites were sampled along a transect crossing different geomorphological units (beach, raised beaches, moraine, proglacial environment), following the direction of glacier retreat. To this purpose the upper part of selected soil profiles was sectioned in 3 cm depth interval increments to examine main soil properties, grain size distribution, soil organic carbon and pH. Besides, elemental composition and patterns of fallout (FRNs) and environmental radionuclides (ERNs) were analysed to assess if soil profile characteristics within the active layer are affected by glacier retreat. The results obtained confirm the potential for using geomorphological, edaphic and geochemical data to derive information for assessing the influence of different stages of glacier retreat in the study soils.

  12. Planning and installation of the 138 kV South Padre Island submarine cable

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.H. ); Polasek, M.J. )

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes the planning, design and installation phases of a 138 kV submarine cable project which was recently completed by Central Power and Light (CPL) to improve the service reliability of South Padre Island and the town of Port Isabel. The project presented unique installation problems due to the shallow water depths combined with the necessity to minimize the environmental impact to sea grasses during the cable installation. This project resulted in the longest 138 kV extruded dielectric submarine cable circuit in the US.

  13. Drilling a deep geologic test well at Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schultz, Arthur P.; Seefelt, Ellen L.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), is drilling a deep geologic test well at Hilton Head Island, S.C. The test well is scheduled to run between mid-March and early May 2011. When completed, the well will be about 1,000 feet deep. The purpose of this test well is to gain knowledge about the regional-scale Floridan aquifer, an important source of groundwater in the Hilton Head area. Also, cores obtained during drilling will enable geologists to study the last 60 million years of Earth history in this area.

  14. A new species of Eunice (Polychaeta: Eunicidae) from Hainan Island, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xuwen; Sun, Ruiping; Liu, Ruiyu

    2013-01-01

    A taxonomic survey of benthic marine animals from coastal regions of Hainan Island, South China Sea, revealed specimens of a new species of Eunice (Polychaeta: Eunicida: Eunicidae), Eunice uschakovi n. sp., collected from the intertidal zone. The species belongs to the group of Eunice that has yellow tridentate subacicular hooks and branchiae scattered over an extensive region of the body. It resembles E. miurai and E. havaica in having both bidentate and tridentate falcigers, but can be readily distinguished by branchial features. Comparisons between E. uschakovi and the two related species are presented.

  15. HYPOALDOSTERONISM IN A MATSCHIE'S TREE KANGAROO (DENDROLAGUS MATSCHIEI).

    PubMed

    Whoriskey, Sophie T; Bartlett, Susan L; Baitchman, Eric

    2016-06-01

    A 20-yr-old female Matschie's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus matschiei) was diagnosed with hypoaldosteronism, a rare condition in which the body fails to produce normal amounts of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone. Aldosterone plays a key role in body salt homeostasis, increasing sodium reabsorption and promoting excretion of potassium. Hypoaldosteronism resulted in decreased appetite, lethargy, and weight loss in conjunction with hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, and hypercalcemia in this tree kangaroo. The animal was successfully managed with mineralocorticoid replacement using desoxycorticosterone pivalate. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of hypoaldosteronism in a tree kangaroo and one of the few reports in the veterinary literature in any species.

  16. Age and correlation of volcanism in central Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands: K-Ar and geochemical constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smellie, J. L.; Pallàs, R.; Sàbat, F.; Zheng, X.

    1996-07-01

    Volcanic sequences in central Livingston Island can be divided into two broad groups. The older group consists of basalt-dacite lavas, clastic rocks and associated hypabyssal intrusions. The lavas are lithologically and compositionally similar to other pre-Pliocene, volcanic arc lavas in the South Shetland Islands. The outcrops vary from relatively fresh (at Cape Shirreff, Hannah Point and Siddons Point) to indurated and pervasively altered (at Mount Bowles, Burdick Peak and Hurd Peninsula). Samples from the fresh outcrops yielded Late Cretaceous ages for eruption or intrusion, ranging from 90.2 ± 5.6 Ma at Cape Shirreff, to 73.0 ± 2.3 at Siddons Point. Chemical analyses of the lavas suggest that the sequences at these two outcrops can probably be correlated stratigraphically with the Byers Group and Coppermine Formation, respectively. Two samples from Hannah Point yielded conflicting ages of 87.9 ± 2.6 Ma and 67.5 ± 2.5 Ma from the centre and top of the sequence, respectively. The stratigraphical affinities of the Hannah Point sequence cannot yet be determined unambiguously but it is unlikely to be part of the Byers Group. All of the samples from the altered outcrops (which correspond to the Mount Bowles Formation) yielded Eocene-Oligocene K-Ar ages (44.4 to 35.0 Ma), interpreted as reset ages related to the emplacement and cooling of a nearby Eocene tonalite pluton responsible for much of the alteration, and also dated in this study (43.3 ± 2.8 Ma). A Cretaceous eruptive age (possibly Late Cretaceous) for the altered outcrops is likely but cannot yet be proven. By contrast, the younger group consists of degraded basalt lava flows, tuff cone and tuff ring remnants, which are part of the Inott Point Formation. The lavas are very fresh and Pleistocene or Recent in age (≤ 1 Ma). They are compositionally distinctive and are indistinguishable from supra-subduction alkali basalts preserved elsewhere in Livingston, Greenwich and Penguin islands.

  17. Microclimatic, chemical, and mineralogical evidence for tafoni weathering processes on the Miaowan Island, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rihui; Wang, Wei

    2017-02-01

    Tafoni were widely distributed around the world; however, their processes of development remain unclear. In this study, the roles of microclimatic, geochemical and mineralogical processes on tafoni development along the subtropical coastline of the Miaowan Island, south China, are investigated. Field observations were carried out during three visits to the island over a four-year period (2011-2015). The orientation of 184 tafoni openings were measured, and micrometeorological changes of three tafoni on opposite sides of the island were monitored by pocket weather trackers (Kestrel 4500) in two periods. Samples of residual debris inside three tafoni hosted in a large boulder, the parent rock of the tafoni, and from the weathering profile of a nearby bedrock outcrop were collected for X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The field observations showed that tafoni were of different sizes and constantly produced flakes and debris inside the tafoni caves, indicating their on-going active development. An increase in Na in residual debris in tafoni caves on the Miaowan Island is the most obvious evidence of salt weathering. Salt weathering inside tafoni caves is not intense and does not match the salt-rich environment outside the caves, indicating that the influence of salt is not strong. The loss of K, Ca, and Mg in the residue samples, and the appearance of the clay mineral montmorillonite are caused by chemical weathering. Most of the tafoni openings face mountains, demonstrating the effect of humidity in tafoni weathering. Tafoni cave shapes are related to the distribution of humid water vapour, which tends to collect at the top of the cave, and leads to more intensive development here than in other parts. Drastic daily changes in relative humidity inside tafoni caves accelerate mechanical weathering owing to swelling and shrinking of salt and clay minerals. The Miaowan Island tafoni are formed by weathering, but they cannot be simply

  18. Unravelling the magmatic processes behind zoned fall units on Ascension Island, South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, K. J.; Barclay, J.; Preece, K.; Brown, R. J.; Davidson, J.

    2015-12-01

    Ascension Island, an isolated composite volcano in the south Atlantic, has a wide spectrum of explosive and effusive deposits. Eruptions on the island have produced ash and pumice fall deposits, ignimbrites, scoria cones, lava flows and lava domes, which vary in composition from basalt to rhyolite. We report, for the first time, the presence of multiple, zoned pumice fall deposits. These deposits grade upwards (stepwise or gradationally) from pumice to scoria. We present detailed observations of two key deposits which typify the range in zonation observed in the unusual fall units. Forensic examination of these deposits and their petrological and geochemical characteristics provide critical information about the interactions and processes behind the wide spectrum of magma compositions and past eruptive behaviour on Ascension Island. The first deposit changes gradationally from fayalite-bearing trachytic pumice fall (61.1 wt.% SiO2) at the base, to basaltic trachy-andesite scoria fall (54.5 wt.% SiO2) at the top. The second deposit is more complex. It contains mingled pumice-scoria clasts, has a rapid transition from pumice to scoria and no intermediate clasts were observed. New analyses of H2O, CO2 and key trace elements within melt inclusions combined with systematic whole rock and phenocryst analyses enable us to probe the relationship of these co-erupted magmas to other deposits on the island. This has yielded insights into the magma plumbing system; and improved understanding of the roles that fractional crystallisation and magma mixing play in generating the range in compositions observed at this unique ocean island volcano.

  19. A Reproductive Management Program for an Urban Population of Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus)

    PubMed Central

    Tribe, Andrew; Hanger, Jon; McDonald, Ian J.; Loader, Jo; Nottidge, Ben J.; McKee, Jeff J.; Phillips, Clive J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary We designed a programme to control free-ranging kangaroos on a Queensland golf course, using contraceptive implants in females and vasectomisation or testicle removal in males. This reduced the numbers of pouch young to about one half of pre-intervention levels and controlled the population over a 2–4 year period. However, the necessary darting caused a mortality rate of 5–10% of captured animals, mainly due to complications before and after anaesthesia. It is concluded that population control is possible but careful management of kangaroos around the time of anaesthesia induction and recovery is important in such programmes to minimise losses. Abstract Traditionally, culling has been the expedient, most common, and in many cases, the only tool used to control free-ranging kangaroo populations. We applied a reproductive control program to a population of eastern grey kangaroos confined to a golf course in South East Queensland. The program aimed to reduce fecundity sufficiently for the population to decrease over time so that overgrazing of the fairways and the frequency of human–animal conflict situations were minimised. In 2003, 92% of the female kangaroos above 5 kg bodyweight were implanted with the GnRH agonist deslorelin after darting with a dissociative anaesthetic. In 2007, 86% of the females above 5 kg were implanted with deslorelin and also 87% of the males above 5 kg were sterilised by either orchidectomy or vasectomy. In 2005, 2008 and 2009, the population was censused to assess the effect of each treatment. The 2003 deslorelin program resulted in effective zero population growth for approximately 2.5 years. The combined deslorelin–surgery program in 2007 reduced the birth rate from 0.3 to 0.06%/year for 16 months, resulting in a 27% population reduction by November 2009. The results were consistent with implants conferring contraception to 100% of implanted females for at least 12 months. The iatrogenic mortality rates for each

  20. The motilin gene evolved a new function in kangaroo rats and kangaroo mice (Dipodomyinae).

    PubMed

    He, Jing; Zhou, Taicheng; Irwin, David M; Shen, Yongyi; Zhang, Yaping

    2012-10-01

    The motilin receptor gene was lost in the ancestral lineage of rodents. Subsequently, the gene encoding its ligand, motilin, has experienced different evolutionary fates. Previous genomic analyses had shown that the motilin gene (MLN) became a pseudogene independently in the lineages leading to the guinea pig and the common ancestor of the mouse and rat, yet an intact, and thus potentially functional, open reading frame for the MLN was preserved in the Dipodomys ordii genome. As only a single MLN haplotype from D. ordii was available, and this sequence is from a low coverage draft genome, it is possible that the intact MLN found in the draft kangaroo rat genome is an artifact, or represents an intermediate in the process of becoming a pseudogene. In order to establish whether an intact MLN is retained in kangaroo rats despite the loss of its specific receptor, and to investigate the evolutionary mechanisms underlying the retention of this gene sequence, we isolated MLN sequences from species that represent the diversity of the Dipodomyinae [the monophyletic Dipodomyinae subfamily consists of two genera: Dipodomys (kangaroo rats) and Microdipodops (kangaroo mice)]. The results demonstrate that the MLN sequence is well conserved in Dipodomyinae, and it codes for a predicted motilin peptide sequence possessing a conserved N-terminal pharmacophore and the potential to be processed and secreted as a hormone. The observations that the MLN evolved as a functional gene during the radiation of the Dipodomyinae, species that have lost their original motilin receptor, suggest that the MLN has undergone a lineage-specific physiological adaptation to a new function.

  1. Mosquito biodiversity patterns around urban environments in South-central okinawa island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Tomonori; Imanishi, Nozomi; Higa, Yukiko; Chaves, Luis Fernando

    2014-12-01

    Okinawa is the largest, most urbanized, and densely populated island in the Ryukyus Archipelago, where mosquito species diversity has been thoroughly studied. However, the south-central Okinawa mosquito fauna has been relatively poorly studied. Here, we present results from a mosquito faunal survey in urban environments of Nishihara city, south-central Okinawa. Mosquitoes were sampled biweekly, from April 2007 to March 2008, at 3 different environments: a forest preserve, an animal farm, and a water reservoir. We employed 4 mosquito collection methods: 1) oviposition traps; 2) light traps; 3) sweep nets; and 4) larval surveys of tree holes, leaf axils, and artificial water containers. We collected a total of 568 adults and 10,270 larvae belonging to 6 genera and 13 species, including 6 species of medical importance: Aedes albopictus, Armigeres subalbatus, Anopheles Hyrcanus group, Culex bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. Mosquito species composition was similar to data from previous studies in Okinawa Island. The flattening of the species accumulation curve suggests that our diversity sampling was exhaustive with light and oviposition traps, as well as the coincidence between the species richness we found in the field and estimates from the Chao2 index, a theoretical estimator of species richness based on species abundance. This study highlights the importance of combining several sampling techniques to properly characterize regional mosquito fauna and to monitor changes in the presence of mosquito species.

  2. Occurrence of persistent organic pollutants in marine fish from the Natuna Island, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Hao, Qing; Sun, Yu-Xin; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Yao, Zi-Wei; Wang, You-Shao; Zhang, Zai-Wang; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-08-15

    Five marine fish species were collected from the Natuna Island, South China Sea to investigate the occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs). Concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs in marine fish ranged from 2.85 to 7.82, 14.3 to 48.1, and 7.99 to 40.3 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Higher concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs were observed in Snakefish (Trachinocephalus myops), which might be attributed to their different feeding and living habits. PCBs were the predominant POPs in all marine fish, followed by DDTs and PBDEs. BDE 47 and PCB 153 were the predominant congener of PBDEs and PCBs, respectively. Compositional distribution of DDTs indicated the possible presence of fresh input sources around the Natuna Island. The ratios of o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT being less than 1 in fish samples suggested that DDT contributions from dicofol seemed considerably low. New input sources of DDT in South China Sea are worth further research.

  3. Conditions for lower lithosphere exhumation from continental collision: South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunje, A.; Pysklywec, R. N.

    2013-12-01

    The South Island of New Zealand provides a unique opportunity for the investigation of active deep crustal dynamics and the effects of surface processes during collision, as a fairly young and relatively well-constrained convergent plate boundary. One of the uncertainties of the orogenesis is the fate of the lower crust during the continental collision: portions of the crust are exhumed along the Alpine Fault, but the lowermost crust does not seem to follow. This work focuses on the fate of the mid- and lower-crust during the collision, investigating several of the primary controls - rheology, boundary conditions, temperature - that regulate the behaviour of the crust during an idealized continental collision event. We use forward thermo-mechanical numerical modelling of the mantle and lithosphere, with variable surface boundary conditions of erosion and deposition, to explore the deformation of the crust and mantle lithosphere via the collision; the 2D models are configured for a South Island-type system using available observational constraints. The models show several end member modes of behaviour of the lower crust from complete exhumation, to 'ponding'/ accumulation at the base of the orogen, to subduction and deep entrainment. The rheology of the lower crust is the dominant factor controlling these behaviours, although there is also modification of the dynamics depending on the rates of continental convergence, the presence of active and varying degrees of erosion, and the effects of differing ratios of deposition.

  4. Elemental composition of different air masses over Jeju Island, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jeongwon; Choi, Man-Sik; Yi, Hi-Il; Jeong, Kap-Sik; Chae, Jung-Sun; Cheong, Chang-Sik

    2013-03-01

    We investigated the characteristics (concentrations and compositional changes) of atmospheric elements in total suspended particulates through source-receptor relationships using cluster analyses to classify air mass back-trajectories arriving at Gosan, Jeju Island, South Korea, from October 2003 to December 2008. Five trajectory clusters were chosen to explain the transport regimes. Continental outflows of natural and anthropogenic aerosols from Asian dust source regions and eastern China during the colder period could increase element concentrations at Gosan. Elemental levels at Gosan decreased in air masses that passed over marine regions (East China Sea, Pacific Ocean/southern side of Kyushu Island in Japan, and East Sea/southern side of South Korea) during the warmer rainy period due to lower source intensity and dilution by the marine air mass. Anthropogenic pollutants were often major components in air masses passing over marine regions. Air mass characterization by elemental concentration and composition revealed that enrichment by non-sea-salt sulfur in the air mass originated from eastern China, indicative of the main sulfur emitter in northeast Asia. The apportionment of V and Ni by principal component analysis as a marker of heavy oil combustion suggested different residence times and deposition rates from other anthropogenic components in the air. Regionally intermediate concentrations of pollutants were found in the atmosphere over the Korean peninsula.

  5. Accommodation of compressional inversion in north-western South Island (New Zealand): Old faults versus new?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisetti, F. C.; Sibson, R. H.

    2006-11-01

    In the NW South Island, New Zealand, high-angle faults inherited from episodes of Late Cretaceous-Paleocene and Eocene extension have, since the early Miocene, undergone compressional inversion in association with right-lateral shearing and transpression on the Alpine Fault. Active reverse faulting and large historical earthquakes occur along N-S to NNE-SSW trending faults which at the surface dip 45-75° to both the east and west. The faults truncate subparallel folds that deform the Tertiary sequence overlying a composite Paleozoic-Mesozoic crystalline basement. However, the deep geometry of these faults, their penetration into the middle-to-lower crust and their relationship to the Alpine Fault are poorly understood. The tectonic architecture of this compressional inversion province is analysed by reconstructing structural contours at the base of the Oligocene carbonate sequence in the north-west of the South Island. Deformation of the Oligocene carbonate sequence, structural analyses in the field and subsurface data indicate a mixed style of inversion with (1) reactivation of some high-angle normal faults and (2) thrusting on new, moderate-dipping cross-cutting faults that detach slivers of basement and cause flexural folding in the sedimentary cover. These faults may remain blind or concealed beneath cover sequences but are likely to control seismic rupturing in the basement at depths of ˜10-15 km.

  6. Monitoring trace elements in Antarctic penguin chicks from South Shetland Islands, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Jerez, Silvia; Motas, Miguel; Benzal, Jesús; Diaz, Julia; Barbosa, Andrés

    2013-04-15

    The concentration of human activities in the near-shore ecosystems from the northern Antarctic Peninsula area can cause an increasing bioavailability of pollutants for the vulnerable Antarctic biota. Penguin chicks can reflect this potential impact in the rookeries during the breeding season. They also can reflect biomagnification phenomena since they are on the top of the Antarctic food chain. The concentrations of Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb were measured by ICP-MS in samples of liver, kidney, muscle, bone, feather and stomach content of gentoo, chinstrap and Adélie penguin chicks (n=15 individuals) collected opportunistically in the Islands of King George and Deception (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). The detected levels of some trace elements were not as low as it could be expected in the isolated Antarctic region. Penguin chicks can be useful indicators of trace elements abundance in the study areas. Carcasses of Antarctic penguin chicks were used to evaluate the bioavailability of trace elements in the Islands of King George and Deception. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Wave characteristics and hydrodynamics at a reef island on Dongsha Atoll in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Shih-Feng; Chiang, Te-Yun; Lin, Yi-Hao; Chen, Jia-Lin

    2017-04-01

    An inhabited coral reef island, located at the Dongsha Atoll in the northern South China Sea, is frequently attacked by typhoon waves. Coastline has suffered severe erosion and coastal inundation during certain typhoon paths. Groins were therefore built surround the island to stabilize the shoreline. However, the engineering structures redistributed the characteristics of hydrodynamics, which resulted in the disappearance of seasonal sediment movements on the reef flat. Additionally, infragravity waves (20-200 sec) on reefs have be found to generate strong resonance during energetic wave events. To understand wave characteristics and nearshore circulations around the reef under typical waves and typhoon waves, a phase-averaged and a phase-resolving wave models validated with previous field experiments are used to simulate significant wave height, wave setup and reef circulations. The phase-resolving model is specially applied to investigate infragravity motions around the island. Model results will illustrate the spatial variations of infragravity-wave field and wave-induced nearshore circulation and can provide information for coastal management and protection.

  8. Middle to late Holocene coastal evolution along the south coast of Upolu Island, Samoa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodwin, I.D.; Grossman, E.E.

    2003-01-01

    Stratigraphic surveys and sedimentological analyses of coastal sediments and reef cores along the south coast of Upolu Island, Samoa, reveal that during the middle Holocene this coast was characterised by barrier spits, open lagoons, and estuaries. These estuarine systems matured during the late Holocene, with progressive sedimentation and inlet closure, leading to the dominance of mangrove swamps in the past 1000 years. Contemporaneous with the transition of open estuaries to mangrove swamps was the aggradation and progradation of coastal plains. The coastal progradation since 700-1000 years BP is best explained by increased sediment availability and reduced incident wave energy at the shore resulting from the shallowing and subsequent cessation of reef crest accretion following the mid-Holocene sea-level highstand ca. ???4500 yr BP. A small relative sea-level (RSL) lowering since 700-1000 years may have contributed to the positive sediment budget. This study highlights the need for island-wide coastal surveys to assess the relative roles of RSL, sediment budgets, and hydrodynamics on coastal evolution and stability. Differences in coastal evolution around Upolu Island may also be influenced by differential tectonic movements associated with late Holocene volcanism, coseismicity, and/ or submarine landslides. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Coral reef recovery status in south Andaman Islands after the bleaching event 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marimuthu, N.; Jerald Wilson, J.; Vinithkumar, N. V.; Kirubagaran, R.

    2013-03-01

    The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are one of the Union Territories of India, located in the eastern part of the Bay of Bengal. In 2010 summer, the increment in sea surface water temperature (up to 34°C) resulted in the bleaching of about 74% to 77% of corals in the South Andaman. During this event, coral species such as Acropora cerealis, A. humilis, Montipora sp., Favia pallida, Diploastrea sp., Goniopora sp. Fungia concinna, Gardineroseries sp., Porites sp., Favites abdita and Lobophyllia robusta were severely affected. This study is to assess the recovery status of the reef ecosystem by estimating the percentage of Live Coral cover, Bleached coral cover, Dead coral with algae, Rubble, Sandy flat, Algal assemblage and other associated organisms. The sedimentation rate (mg cm-2 d-1) and coral coverage (%) were assessed during this study period. The average sedimentation rate was ranged between 0.27 and 0.89 mg cm-2 d-1. The observed post bleaching recovery of coral cover was 21.1% at Port Blair Bay and 13.29% at Havelock Island. The mortality rate of coral cover due to this bleaching was estimated as 2.05% at Port Blair Bay and 9.82% at Havelock Island. Once the sea water temperature resumed back to the normal condition, most of the corals were found recovered.

  10. Bryozoan diversity around the Falkland and South Georgia Islands: Overcoming Antarctic barriers.

    PubMed

    Figuerola, Blanca; Barnes, David K A; Brickle, Paul; Brewin, Paul E

    2017-05-01

    There are a number of remote archipelagos distributed between 45 and 60 °S. The biota of these islands provide useful information to describe and understand patterns in biodiversity and biogeography as well as potential impacts of climate change on marine ecosystems. They are in key locations either side of the Polar Front but also have limited influence from human activities. Here we investigate one taxon, bryozoans, on South Atlantic shelf habitats of the Falkland (FI) and the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia (SG). We present new data on spatial distribution in these islands, as well as an analysis of the bryozoological similarities between these and neighbouring regions. A total of 85 species of cheilostome bryozoans (351 samples) were found, belonging to 33 genera, including 18 potentially new genera and 23 new species. Remarkably 65% and 41% of species were reported for the first time at FI and SG, respectively. The highest and the lowest value of species richness and species/genus ratio were found at East (EFI) and West Falkland (WFI), respectively, likely showing a tendency for stronger intrageneric competition. New data from this study were jointly analysed with data from the literature and existing databases, revealing new bathymetric ranges in 32 species. The biogeographic affinities of the bryozoans found give further evidence of the hypothesis of sequential separation of Gondwana and support the changing concept that although the Polar Front acts as a circumpolar biogeographic barrier it is not as impermeable as originally thought. Potential dispersal mechanisms are also discussed.

  11. Prevalence and Diversity of Leptospires in Different Ecological Niches of Urban and Rural Areas of South Andaman Island

    PubMed Central

    Lall, Chandan; Kumar, K. Vinod; Raj, R. Vimal; Vedhagiri, K.; Vijayachari, P.

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an emerging disease around the globe. South Andaman Island is an endemic region for leptospirosis. We herein compared the prevalence of leptospires in urban and rural areas of South Andaman Island. The PCR detection and isolation of Leptospira revealed that pathogenic leptospires were prevalent in sewage water and household drainage water in urban areas and in paddy fields, vegetable field water, and stream water in rural areas. These results demonstrate that intermediates are ubiquitously present in the environment and may be responsible for asymptomatic infections, and also provide an insight into disease ecology. PMID:26936796

  12. Populations and productivity of seabirds at South Marble Island, Glacier Bay, Alaska, during May-July, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zador, Stephani G.; Piatt, John F.

    1999-01-01

    In the course of directed research on glaucous-winged gulls, we investigated the numbers and activities of all breeding and non-breeding seabirds associated with South Marble Island in Glacier Bay, Alaska, during mid-May to late July, 1999. Most observations were made from the island; additional observations were made during transportation to and from the island. Data were collected on the presence and numbers of all seabirds observed. Detailed information on breeding chronology and productivity were also collected for glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens), pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba), black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), and black oystercatchers (Haemantopus bachmani).

  13. View of portion of South Island, New Zealand as seen from Skylab

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-12-22

    SL4-137-3700 (22 Dec. 1973) --- A near vertical view of a portion of South Island, New Zealand, as see from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. This picture was taken by one of the Skylab 4 crew members with a handheld 70mm Hasselblad camera using a 100mm lens. The picture should be held with the largest body of water (Tasman Sea) on the left. Cape Foulwind is at the upper left. The City of Christchurch is under clouds at the center right margin. Note the movement of sediment by alongshore currents, especially on the east (right) side of the island. The Alpine Fault, which is part of the circum-Pacific volcanic-tectonic belt, is clearly visible on the left (west) side of the island. The fault line is marked by a scarp, which appears very distinct from orbital altitude. Differences in topography and vegetation on either side of the fault are also sharp. Streams change direction at the fault line, and the change in slope at the fault line is evident in the widening of stream channels. The left side of the fault has moved northeast (upward) relative to the right side; some stream offsets indicate the direction of relative movement, but others are controlled by local topography. The Alpine Fault, which also transects New Zealand's North Island, was photographed and described more than a dozen times by the Skylab 4 crewmen. The circum-Pacific volcanic-tectonic belt is a feature of the Earth's crust which is related to sea floor spreading and continental drift. Though the Alpine Fault is sharply delineated in this photograph, other major crustal features are subtle that their existence was unknown before their observation from orbit. The distance from top to bottom is about 290 kilometers (175 miles). Photo credit: NASA

  14. New data regarding distribution of cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands.

    PubMed

    Stachurski, Frédéric; Tortosa, Pablo; Rahajarison, Patrick; Jacquet, Stéphanie; Yssouf, Amina; Huber, Karine

    2013-09-09

    Recent studies have produced new insight into the origin and distribution of some cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, introduced from Tanzania in 2002, is now well established on Grande Comore but has not yet reached the other islands of the archipelago (Mohéli, Anjouan and Mayotte). Only one of the two clades identified in Africa has settled so far. Amblyomma variegatum, which was not supposed to be able to persist in the Antananarivo region (1300 m) nor in other Malagasy regions of high altitude without regular introductions of ticks by infested cattle, is now endemic as a general rule up to 1600 m although other regions of lower altitude (1400 m) are still free of the tick. This species remains confined in a small area of the west coast on La Reunion Island. On the contrary, Hyalomma dromedarii could not settle on Madagascar where it was introduced in 2008 and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi is not yet present in Grande Comore despite regular introductions by infested cattle from Tanzania. A phylogeographic approach has been carried out at an intra-specific level for A. variegatum. This study has led to the identification of two main lineages, one covering all species distribution and one restricted to East Africa and the Indian Ocean area. These two lineages are in sympatry in Madagascar where a high genetic diversity has been described, whereas a lower genetic diversity is observed on other islands. These results seem to agree with the historical data concerning the introduction of the tick in the Indian Ocean area.

  15. New data regarding distribution of cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have produced new insight into the origin and distribution of some cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, introduced from Tanzania in 2002, is now well established on Grande Comore but has not yet reached the other islands of the archipelago (Mohéli, Anjouan and Mayotte). Only one of the two clades identified in Africa has settled so far. Amblyomma variegatum, which was not supposed to be able to persist in the Antananarivo region (1300 m) nor in other Malagasy regions of high altitude without regular introductions of ticks by infested cattle, is now endemic as a general rule up to 1600 m although other regions of lower altitude (1400 m) are still free of the tick. This species remains confined in a small area of the west coast on La Reunion Island. On the contrary, Hyalomma dromedarii could not settle on Madagascar where it was introduced in 2008 and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi is not yet present in Grande Comore despite regular introductions by infested cattle from Tanzania. A phylogeographic approach has been carried out at an intra-specific level for A. variegatum. This study has led to the identification of two main lineages, one covering all species distribution and one restricted to East Africa and the Indian Ocean area. These two lineages are in sympatry in Madagascar where a high genetic diversity has been described, whereas a lower genetic diversity is observed on other islands. These results seem to agree with the historical data concerning the introduction of the tick in the Indian Ocean area. PMID:24016261

  16. [Budget impact of using the Kangaroo Method in neonatal care].

    PubMed

    Entringer, Aline Piovezan; Pinto, Márcia Teixeira; Magluta, Cynthia; Gomes, Maria Auxiliadora de Sousa Mendes

    2013-10-01

    To estimate the budget impact of using the Kangaroo Method in a municipal health care network. An analytical decision model was developed to simulate the costs of the Kangaroo Method and Neonatal Intermediate Care Unit in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, in 2011. The reference population was clinically stable newborns, who may receive either of the two types of care. The budget impact for a hypothetical cohort of 1,000 eligible newborns was estimated for one year. The proportion of eligible infants receiving the two type of care was obtained through data collection in hospitals included in the study. The probabilities of events and resource consumption of health care in the period were incorporated into the model. A scenario analysis was developed to reflect the adoption of the Kangaroo Method on a greater or smaller scale. The use of the second and third stage of Kangaroo Method means a cost reduction of R$ 1,085,379.64 (16.0%) in a year if all eligible infants were assisted in Kangaroo Method. The Kangaroo Method options costs less than the Neonatal Intermediate Care Unit. The analysis of the budget impact of this method on the public health care system showed significant savings in the year long period analyzed.

  17. Population demographic history of a temperate shrub, Rhododendron weyrichii (Ericaceae), on continental islands of Japan and South Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoichi, Watanabe; Tamaki, Ichiro; Sakaguchi, Shota; Song, Jong-Suk; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichi; Tomaru, Nobuhiro

    2016-12-01

    Continental islands provide opportunities for testing the effects of isolation and migration on genetic variation in plant populations. In characteristic of continental islands is that the geographic connections between these islands, which are currently distinguished by seaways, have experienced fluctuations caused by sea-level changes due to climate oscillations during the Quaternary. Plant populations on the islands have migrated between these islands via the exposed seafloors or been isolated. Here, we examined the demographic history of a temperate shrub, Rhododendron weyrichii, which is distributed in the southwestern parts of the Japanese archipelago and on an island of South Korea, using statistical phylogeographic approaches based on the DNA sequences of two chloroplast and eight nuclear loci in samples analyzed from 18 populations on eight continental islands, and palaeodistribution modeling. Time estimates for four island populations indicate that the durations of vicariance history are different between these populations, and these events have continued since the last glacial or may have predated the last glacial. The constancy or expansion of population sizes on the Japanese islands, and in contrast a bottleneck in population size on the Korean island Jeju, suggests that these islands may have provided different conditions for sustaining populations. The result of palaeodistribution modeling indicates that the longitudinal range of the species as a whole has not changed greatly since the last glacial maximum. These results indicate that exposed seafloors during the glacial period formed both effective and ineffective migration corridors. These findings may shed light on the effects of seafloor exposure on the migration of plants distributed across continental islands.

  18. Geohydrologic appraisal of water resources of the South Fork, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nemickas, Bronius; Koszalka, Edward J.

    1982-01-01

    The ground-water resources of the South Fork of Long Island, N.Y., were investigated from April 1974 to September 1977. The study area encompasses 137 square miles and includes the eastern part of the Town of Southampton and the entire Town of East Hampton. The South Fork consists of a Paleozoic basement complex that is overlain by Cretaceous and Pleistocene sediments. The surficial material is composed of Late Wisconsinan glacial and glaciofluvial deposits in association with beach and marsh deposits of Recent age. Till underlies most of the eastern part of the South Fork. Precipitation is the sole source of fresh ground water on the South Fork. Average annual precipitation recorded at Bridgehampton from 1931-76 is 45 inches; about half this amount reaches the ground-water reservoir. It is estimated that overland runoff amounts to 0.5 inches per year, and evapotranspiration is 23 inches per year. Thus, recharge equals approximately 22 inches per year. Hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity of the Magothy (Cretaceous) and upper glacial (Pleistocene) aquifers on the South Fork were estimated from aquifer tests and specific-capacity data. The average horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the Magothy aquifer is 70 feet per day, and of the upper glacial aquifer 350 feet per day. Transmissivity of the Magothy aquifer on the South Fork ranges from 600 to 24,100 feet squared per day; transmissivity of the upper glacial aquifer ranges from 5,400 feet to 22,700 feet squared per day. No potable water is available from the underlying Lloyd aquifer. The position of the freshwater to saline-water interface is depicted in maps. In the southern part of the area, the freshwater reservoir follows the Ghyben-Herzberg principle, but in the northern part, the depth to interface is less than expected owing to a greater degree of anisotropy of the geologic units. Total public-supply pumpage on the South Fork is estimated to be about 3 Mgal/day, (million gallons per day). Public

  19. Barrier Island Elevations Relevant to Storm Impacts: South East U.S. Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elko, N. A.; Sallenger, A. H.

    2001-12-01

    A recently developed storm impact scale considers the elevation of wave runup relative to the elevation of two geomorphic features on barrier islands: 1) the elevation of the first line of defense, either the foredune ridge or if no dune is present, the beach berm, (denoted by DHIGH) and 2) the elevation of the base of the dune, the transition between water-laid sand of the beach and eolian deposits of the dune (denoted by DLOW). When compared to runup, DHIGH and DLOW describe the nature and relative magnitude of coastal change that occurs during severe storms. The longshore variability in these parameters has been determined with outstanding spatial resolution, by analyzing high-density topographic data acquired with airborne scanning laser altimetry using a GIS-based analysis program. By digitizing the parameters in map view, DHIGH and DLOW have been resolved for every meter along the South East U.S. Coast from the Virginia/North Carolina border to Key Biscayne, Florida. Barrier island elevation is one important parameter used to assess the vulnerability of U.S. coasts to severe storms. For example, the dunes in northern North Carolina and northern Florida are less susceptible to overtopping (DHIGH = 5.6 m and 4.9 m, respectively) than those in South Carolina and Georgia (DHIGH = 3.2 for both states). Regional-scale maps illustrate the longshore variability in dune heights between and within states. Comparing DHIGH and DLOW to predicted storm surge values (from NOAA's SLOSH model) for various hurricane categories approximates the relative vulnerability of coastal regions to severe storms. For instance, a Category 2 hurricane moving toward the northwest at 5 mph will impart a 9.2 m storm surge on Myrtle Beach, SC and only a 5.2 m surge on Cape Hatteras, NC. Given the mean dune elevations above, this storm would result in overtopping and inundation of the first line of defense on barrier islands in South Carolina (surge > DHIGH) while dune erosion would likely be

  20. Gastrointestinal parasites in Chinstrap Penguins from Deception Island, South Shetlands, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Vidal, V; Ortiz, J; Diaz, J I; de Ybañez, M R Ruiz; Amat, M T; Palacios, M J; Benzal, J; Valera, F; de la Cruz, C; Motas, M; Barbosa, A

    2012-08-01

    Knowledge about parasites of Antarctic birds is fragmented and scarce. The aim of this work is to contribute to the knowledge of gastrointestinal parasites of the Chinstrap Penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica) from Deception Island (South Shetlands, Antarctica). Gastrointestinal tracts of 64 fresh dead individuals (61 chicks and three adults) were collected from December 2006 to February 2009 and examined for macroparasites. Three adult parasite species were found: two Cestoda species (Parorchites zederi and Tetrabothrius pauliani) and one Nematoda species (Stegophorus macronectes). Also, immature acanthocephalans (Corynosoma sp.) were found in one penguin. The low parasite richness observed could be related to the stenophagic and pelagic diet of the host species. False negatives were found in coprological studies.

  1. Observations on ca. 175-year old human remains from Antarctica (Cape Shirreff, Livingston Island, South Shetlands).

    PubMed

    Torres, D

    1999-04-01

    Information is presented on human remains from Antarctica and the circumstances under which they were found at Cape Shirreff (62 degrees 27' S., 60 degrees 47' W.), Livingston Island, South Shetlands. Support is given to the hypothesis that all the recovered bones belonged to the same person. A thorough anthropometric analysis revealed that the skull belonged to a mestizo female, 21 years of age, who may have hailed from the Chilean southern channels and whose arrival to Antarctica was possible aboard a sealer boat. Death appears to have occurred in the Antarctic during the sealing period (1819-1825). Signs of nutritional stress, anaemia, and an external otitis were identified. It is intended to use DNA analyses to prove that the femurs recovered in 1988 and 1993 belonged to the same person whose skull was found at Cape Shirreff in 1985.

  2. A structural outline of the Yenkahe volcanic resurgent dome (Tanna Island, Vanuatu Arc, South Pacific)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merle, O.; Brothelande, E.; Lénat, J.-F.; Bachèlery, P.; Garaébiti, E.

    2013-12-01

    A structural study has been conducted on the resurgent Yenkahe dome (5 km long by 3 km wide) located in the heart of the Siwi caldera of Tanna Island (Vanuatu arc, south Pacific). This spectacular resurgent dome hosts a small caldera and a very active strombolian cinder cone - the Yasur volcano - in the west and exhibits an intriguing graben in its central part. Detailed mapping and structural observations make it possible to unravel the volcano-tectonic history of the dome. It is shown that, following the early formation of a resurgent dome in the west, a complex collapse (caldera plus graben) occurred and this was associated with the recent uplift of the eastern part of the present dome. Eastward migration of the underlying magma related to regional tectonics is proposed to explain this evolution.

  3. A 700-year record of mercury in avian eggshells of Guangjin Island, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Qiang; Liu, Xiao-Dong; Sun, Li-guang; Chen, Qian-Qian; Yan, Hong; Liu, Yi; Luo, Yu-Han; Huang, Jing

    2011-04-01

    Ancient eggshells over the past 700 years were extracted from an ornithogenic sediment profile on Guangjin Island, South China Sea. Based on SEM and nitrogen isotope analyses, we determined that neither post-depositional processes nor seabirds' dietary changes had a large influence on eggshell Hg levels. The historical change of Hg in these eggshells was reconstructed. Eggshell Hg was a marker for past Hg deposition in marine environment. The eggshell Hg showed three small peaks at around 1300AD, 1600 AD and 1700-1750AD and rapid increase since 1800 AD. Before 1970 AD the Hg deposition in the Xisha area had global distribution characteristics, with increased Hg emissions due to global anthropogenic activities in industrial times. However, after 1970 AD, a further sharp increase up to present day occurred, implying that the Hg production center had gradually shifted from Europe and America to Asia.

  4. Doctor William Gunn (1804-1890): From the South Pacific Islands to Chatham Royal Dockyard.

    PubMed

    Biddle, Richard

    2016-11-24

    Doctor William Gunn had a long and varied career in the Royal Navy. After spending time on anti-slavery patrols along the west coast of Africa, he was posted to the south Pacific. At Pitcairn Island, he treated the inhabitants during an influenza epidemic, proving himself to be a determined and dedicated practitioner. Subsequently, he was appointed head of the medical department at Chatham Royal Dockyard (1859-1865), an appointment that coincided with the final stages of the Royal Navy's transition from sail and wood to steam and iron. The impact of these changes on the health of dockworkers was quickly felt at Chatham, and Gunn found himself in charge during the building of the first iron warship in a royal dockyard. His story thus offers a window through which to observe a practitioner confronting the health issues and medical uncertainties thrown up by technological change in the Victorian era.

  5. The kinematics of northern South Island, New Zealand, determined from geologic strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, William E.; Haines, A. J.

    1995-09-01

    Relative motions within the distributed plate boundary zone of northern South Island, New Zealand, are determined through an inversion of geologic strain rate estimates. The Quaternary fault slip rate estimates define the shear strain rates, and rock uplift rates provide information on the horizontal divergence rates. An erosion rate to rock uplift rate ratio along with a crustal compensation factor is estimated in order to convert rock uplift rates to horizontal divergence rates. Because of the uncertainty in erosion rates, horizontal divergence rates σ˙ are given a large standard error of ± σ˙. The three horizontal strain rate components obtained from these data completely define the horizontal velocity gradient tensor. Strain rate distributions are matched with spline polynomial functions, which can be constrained to behave rigidly within specified regions, such as the Pacific or Australian plates. Inversion of the strain rate distribution, assuming uniform erosion rates across the northern South Island, yields a velocity field that has small differences in both magnitude (10% larger) and direction with the NUVEL-1A plate motion model between Pacific and Australian plates. A revised strain rate data set, obtained from a variable erosion model in which erosion rates are a linear function of the log of the average annual rainfall magnitudes, yields a velocity field with expected directions that are indistinguishable from the NUVEL-1A plate motion model between Pacific and Australian plates, but velocity magnitudes are still 10-15% higher than the plate motion model. Therefore the average values of slip rate on strike-slip faults in Marlborough, required by the NUVEL-1A plate motion model, are typically close to the low end of the published range of slip values for those structures. The major strike-slip structures within the Marlborough region are accommodating 80-100% of the total plate motion between Australia and Pacific plates on northern South Island; as

  6. Fiscal and monetary policies in the South Pacific Island countries: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, T K

    2000-06-01

    This paper evaluates the fiscal and monetary policies of South Pacific Island Countries (SPICs) in terms of its efficacy on economic growth. To this effect, the backgrounds on the existing fiscal and monetary policies are discussed with emphasis on their inefficiencies and limitations. In addition, the findings of an empirical study conducted in the countries of Fiji, Tonga, Vanatau, and Samoa regarding the efficacy of the policies are presented. The results, which were subjected to various tests of statistical significance, indicate that both policies were ineffective in all four SPICs. However, monetary policy had a positive impact on growth in Fiji, Tonga, and Vanatau. In view of such, several policy implications are cited, including 1) that delays and inefficiencies involved in the execution of public projects should be minimized; 2) quality and components of public expenditures is of critical significance; and 3) financial sectors should be improved.

  7. The genetic rescue of two bottlenecked South Island robin populations using translocations of inbred donors

    PubMed Central

    Heber, S.; Varsani, A.; Kuhn, S.; Girg, A.; Kempenaers, B.; Briskie, J.

    2013-01-01

    Populations forced through bottlenecks typically lose genetic variation and exhibit inbreeding depression. ‘Genetic rescue’ techniques that introduce individuals from outbred populations can be highly effective in reversing the deleterious effects of inbreeding, but have limited application for the majority of endangered species, which survive only in a few bottlenecked populations. We tested the effectiveness of using highly inbred populations as donors to rescue two isolated and bottlenecked populations of the South Island robin (Petroica australis). Reciprocal translocations significantly increased heterozygosity and allelic diversity. Increased genetic diversity was accompanied by increased juvenile survival and recruitment, sperm quality, and immunocompetence of hybrid individuals (crosses between the two populations) compared with inbred control individuals (crosses within each population). Our results confirm that the implementation of ‘genetic rescue’ using bottlenecked populations as donors provides a way of preserving endangered species and restoring their viability when outbred donor populations no longer exist. PMID:23235701

  8. The Impact of Kangaroo Care on Premature Infant Weight Gain.

    PubMed

    Evereklian, Melvina; Posmontier, Bobbie

    Preterm births occur among 11.4% of all live infant births. Without steady weight gain, premature infants may experience lengthy hospitalizations, neurodevelopmental deficits and hospital readmissions, which can increase the financial burden on the health care system and their families. The total U.S. health-related costs linked to preterm infant deliveries are estimated at $4.33 billion. Kangaroo care is a feasible practice that can improve preterm infant weight gain. However, this intervention is utilized less often throughout the U.S. due to numerous barriers including a lack of consistent protocols, inadequate knowledge, and decreased level of confidence in demonstrating the proper kangarooing technique. An integrative review was conducted to evaluate the impact of kangaroo care on premature infant weight gain in order to educate nurses about its efficacy among preterm infants. A literature search was conducted using CINAHL, PubMed, Cochrane Reviews, ClinicalKey and Google Scholar. Large volume searches were restricted using appropriate filters and limiters. Most of the evaluated studies determined that weight gain was greater among the kangarooing premature infants. Kangaroo care is a low-tech low-cost modality that can facilitate improved preterm infant weight gain even in low-resource settings. Despite its current efficacy, kangaroo care is not widely utilized due to several barriers including an absence of standardized protocols and a lack of knowledge about its benefits. Kangaroo care can become a widespread formalized practice after nurses and parents learn about the technique and its numerous benefits for premature infants, including its association with improved weight gain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Modeling interpopulation dispersal by banner-tailed kangaroo rats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skvarla, J.L.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Waser, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    Many metapopulation models assume rules of population connectivity that are implicitly based on what we know about within-population dispersal, but especially for vertebrates, few data exist to assess whether interpopulation dispersal is just within-population dispersal "scaled up." We extended existing multi-stratum mark-release-recapture models to incorporate the robust design, allowing us to compare patterns of within- and between-population movement in the banner-tailed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis). Movement was rare among eight populations separated by only a few hundred meters: seven years of twice-annual sampling captured >1200 individuals but only 26 interpopulation dispersers. We developed a program that implemented models with parameters for capture, survival, and interpopulation movement probability and that evaluated competing hypotheses in a model selection framework. We evaluated variants of the island, stepping-stone, and isolation-by-distance models of interpopulation movement, incorporating effects of age, season, and habitat (short or tall grass). For both sexes, QAICc values clearly favored isolation-by-distance models, or models combining the effects of isolation by distance and habitat. Models with probability of dispersal expressed as linear-logistic functions of distance and as negative exponentials of distance fit the data equally well. Interpopulation movement probabilities were similar among sexes (perhaps slightly biased toward females), greater for juveniles than adults (especially for females), and greater before than during the breeding season (especially for females). These patterns resemble those previously described for within-population dispersal in this species, which we interpret as indicating that the same processes initiate both within- and between-population dispersal.

  10. Gastric trichobezoar in a banner-tailed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis).

    PubMed

    Suckow, M A; Terril-Robb, L A; Grigdesby, C F

    1996-10-01

    A male, wild-caught kangaroo rat developed anorexia and wasting. The animal was euthanized and a gastric trichobezoar found at necropsy. The paucity of information regarding the clinical medicine of this species is a hindrance to those charged with the care of kangaroo rats. Gastric trichobezoar should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of anorexia in kangaroo rats.

  11. Evaluation of fine sediment settling velocity in an ephemeral stream on Jeju Island, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chon, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Jeju Island is a volcanic island of South Korea. Groundwater is a major water source for Jeju, where most streams are intermittent or originate from springs near the coast. To secure sustainable water resources, artificial recharge technology to capture ephemeral stream water has been developed on the island. However, during Typhoon Nari in 2007, severe turbidity led to stream bed disturbance. Understanding the characteristics of fine sediment suspension and settling velocity is important for the success of artificial recharge technology. This study estimated the physicochemical properties of sediments, including their size distribution, organic content, and mineralogical composition. In addition, settling velocity was quantitatively estimated by an experimental settling test using a 2-m-tall settling column. In comparison with soil samples taken near the stream, streambed sediments had lower organic contents and finer size fractions such as clay and silt. A numerical method based on a one-dimensional mass conservation equation governing the vertical settling of mass was used to calculate settling velocity for different concentrations at each elevation and time. Settling velocity is controlled primarily by the water viscosity, the size and shape of particles, and the concentration of suspended material. Most of the suspended sediment concentration was located in part of the flocculation settling range (0.1 < C < 6.53 g/L) with a settling velocity of 0.001 to 0.588 mm/s. Increasing sediment concentration led to increasing inter-particle collisions and consequently enhanced aggregation within the range. There was no distinct difference in the calculated settling velocity curves among the sampling sites. Our results and analysis provide information necessary for evaluating artificial recharge systems affected by turbid water. More detailed study of the hindered settling range with a high suspension concentration is required.

  12. Seismic hazard of American Samoa and neighboring South Pacific Islands--methods, data, parameters, and results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Mark D.; Harmsen, Stephen C.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.; Mueller, Charles S.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Luco, Nicolas; Walling, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    American Samoa and the neighboring islands of the South Pacific lie near active tectonic-plate boundaries that host many large earthquakes which can result in strong earthquake shaking and tsunamis. To mitigate earthquake risks from future ground shaking, the Federal Emergency Management Agency requested that the U.S. Geological Survey prepare seismic hazard maps that can be applied in building-design criteria. This Open-File Report describes the data, methods, and parameters used to calculate the seismic shaking hazard as well as the output hazard maps, curves, and deaggregation (disaggregation) information needed for building design. Spectral acceleration hazard for 1 Hertz having a 2-percent probability of exceedance on a firm rock site condition (Vs30=760 meters per second) is 0.12 acceleration of gravity (1 second, 1 Hertz) and 0.32 acceleration of gravity (0.2 seconds, 5 Hertz) on American Samoa, 0.72 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 2.54 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on Tonga, 0.15 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 0.55 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on Fiji, and 0.89 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 2.77 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on the Vanuatu Islands.

  13. Hydraulic Fracturing In Situ Stress Estimations in a Potential Geothermal Site, Seokmo Island, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chandong; Jo, Yeonguk; Oh, Yangkyun; Lee, Tae Jong; Kim, Kwang-Yeom

    2014-09-01

    We conducted hydraulic fracturing (HF) in situ stress measurements in Seokmo Island, South Korea, to understand the stress state necessary to characterize a potential geothermal reservoir. The minimum horizontal principal stress was determined from shut-in pressures. In order to calculate the maximum horizontal principal stress ( S Hmax) using the classical Hubbert-Willis equation, we carried out hollow cylinder tensile strength tests and Brazilian tests in recovered cores at depths of HF tests. Both tests show a strong pressure rate dependency in tensile strengths, from which we derived a general empirical equation that can be used to convert laboratory determined tensile strength to that suitable for in situ. The determined stress regime (reverse-faulting) and S Hmax direction (ENE-WSW) at depths below ~300 m agrees with the first order tectonic stress. However the stress direction above ~300 m (NE-SW) appears to be interfered by topography effect due to a nearby ridge. The state of stress in Seokmo Island is in frictional equilibrium constrained by optimally oriented natural fractures and faults. However, a severe fluctuation in determined S Hmax values suggests that natural fractures with different frictional coefficients seem to control stress condition quite locally, such that S Hmax is relatively low at depths where natural fractures with low frictional coefficients are abundant, while S Hmax is relatively high at depths where natural fractures with low frictional coefficients are scarce.

  14. A 1400-year terrigenous dust record on a coral island in South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Sun, Liguang; Zhou, Xin; Luo, Yuhan; Huang, Wen; Yang, Chengyun; Wang, Yuhong; Huang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    We present analyses of a lacustrine sediment core (DY6) on Dongdao Island, which provides high-resolution paleoclimate records for the South China Sea (SCS). Results of element analyses indicate that the concentrations of Ti and Al in DY6 are much higher than the background on the island. Morphological characteristics of acidic insoluble particles are similar to aeolian in East China. Sr and Nd isotope compositions in these particles are consistent with those in Asian aeolian dust. We inferred that dust in DY6 may have been transported by East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM) from inland Asia. The continuous dust records for the past 1400 years in North SCS were presented based on the measured Ti flux, which revealed an opposite trend to the variations in the EAWM for the past 50 years. A comparison of wind fields between cold and warm years shows that north surface wind in southeast China was stronger in cold years. However, 850 hPa wind vector along the east coast of China, the key level of wind for long-distance dust transmission, weakened in cold years. We conclude that differences in the EAWM records can be attributed to the 850 hPa wind pattern in different areas. PMID:24845372

  15. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  16. Estimation of lost tourism revenue in Geoje Island from the 2011 marine debris pollution event in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yong Chang; Hong, Sunwook; Lee, Jongmyoung; Lee, Mi Jeong; Shim, Won Joon

    2014-04-15

    Following a period of heavy rainfall in July 2011, a large amount of marine debris was washed up on the beaches of Geoje Island, South Korea, affecting the island's tourism industry. The tourism revenue decreased due to this pollution event and was estimated by multiplying the decreased number of visitors by the average expenditure of visitors to the beaches. Due to the fact that the visitor count at the Island's beaches decreased from 890,435 in 2010 to 330,207 in 2011 (i.e., a reduction of 560,228 persons, 63%), the tourism revenue loss of the island was estimated to be US$29-37 million. This study is one of the few to consider the economic effects of marine debris.

  17. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Kerguelen Island, south Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These two images show exactly the same area, Kerguelen Island in the southern Indian Ocean. The image on the left was created using the best global topographic data set previously available, the U.S. Geological Survey's GTOPO30. In contrast, the much more detailed image on the right was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, which collected enough measurements to map 80 percent of Earth's landmass at this level of precision.

    Discovered in 1772 by French navigator Chevalier Yves deKerguelen-Tremarac, Kerguelen is the largest of a group of 300 islands, islets and reefs that make up the Kerguelen Archipelago. The islands lie atop the Kerguelen-Gaussberg Ridge and are built up of a thick series of lava flows with deposits of fragmented volcanic rock and some granite. Ice covers about one-third of the island, with the large Cook Glacier visible as the tan-colored region at the center-left. The highest point at 1,850 meters (6,068 feet) is glacier-covered Mount Ross, located near the bottom center. The coastline of the main island is highly irregular with a large number of peninsulas linked to the island by narrow isthmuses. Remarkably, although the island is 120 by 140 kilometers (75 by 87 miles) in size no point is more than 20 kilometers (12 miles) from the sea.

    For some parts of the globe, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission measurements are 30 times more precise than previously available topographical information, according to NASA scientists. Mission data will be a welcome resource for national and local governments, scientists, commercial enterprises, and members of the public alike. The applications are as diverse as earthquake and volcano studies, flood control, transportation, urban and regional planning, aviation, recreation, and communications. The data's military applications include mission planning and rehearsal, modeling, and simulation.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

  18. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Kerguelen Island, south Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These two images show exactly the same area, Kerguelen Island in the southern Indian Ocean. The image on the left was created using the best global topographic data set previously available, the U.S. Geological Survey's GTOPO30. In contrast, the much more detailed image on the right was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, which collected enough measurements to map 80 percent of Earth's landmass at this level of precision.

    Discovered in 1772 by French navigator Chevalier Yves deKerguelen-Tremarac, Kerguelen is the largest of a group of 300 islands, islets and reefs that make up the Kerguelen Archipelago. The islands lie atop the Kerguelen-Gaussberg Ridge and are built up of a thick series of lava flows with deposits of fragmented volcanic rock and some granite. Ice covers about one-third of the island, with the large Cook Glacier visible as the tan-colored region at the center-left. The highest point at 1,850 meters (6,068 feet) is glacier-covered Mount Ross, located near the bottom center. The coastline of the main island is highly irregular with a large number of peninsulas linked to the island by narrow isthmuses. Remarkably, although the island is 120 by 140 kilometers (75 by 87 miles) in size no point is more than 20 kilometers (12 miles) from the sea.

    For some parts of the globe, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission measurements are 30 times more precise than previously available topographical information, according to NASA scientists. Mission data will be a welcome resource for national and local governments, scientists, commercial enterprises, and members of the public alike. The applications are as diverse as earthquake and volcano studies, flood control, transportation, urban and regional planning, aviation, recreation, and communications. The data's military applications include mission planning and rehearsal, modeling, and simulation.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

  19. Surface geochemical survey for geothermal exploration in the south-east zone of Tenerife Island, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz Requejo, M.; Marrero, R.; Padron, E.; Melian, G.; Guerrero, V.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Perez, N.; Hidalgo, R.

    2009-12-01

    Water and gas sampling of natural discharges are the most common type of geochemical surveys for geothermal exploration. However, these natural discharges are generally scarces at geothermal exploration areas where the extent of the field is not known. Therefore, soil-volatile (Hg, As, Sb, NH3 and B) and soil-gas surveys (222Rn, CO2, He, H2, CH4, O2, Ar) are becoming a useful geochemical tool to identify permeable areas and potential upflow or boiling zones. These surveys can also help to delineate the margins of a geothermal system, and therefore often complement geophysical surveys particularly where the interpretation of geophysical data shows some difficulties. During July and August, 2008, a surface geochemical survey was undertaken in a ~120 km2 area at the south-east slope of Tenerife Island, Spain. In order to obtain a representative distribution of the whole study area, during the field work a total of 577 sampling points were performed. In-situ measurement of radon (222Rn) and thoron (220Rn) activities together with Hg0 and H2S gas concentration and CO2 and H2S soil effluxes were performed at each sampling point. At the same time, gas samples were taken from the soil atmosphere at 40 cm depth for subsequent chemical analysis by means of micro-gas chromatography and quadrupole mass spectrometry (He, H2, Ne, N2, CO2, CH4, Ar and CO2). At least two geochemical anomalous zones have been identified in the present work: (A) one close to Siete Fuentes-Fasnia historical vents (1704-1705 AD) and (B) located on the southwestern limit of the study area. Relatively high concentrations of H2 and ΔHe as well as high H2/Ar and He/CO2 ratios were observed at both zones, indicating a clear evidence of the existence of an upflow zone with an important contribution of endogenous gases. The existence of a volcanic-hydrothermal system coupled with a vertical permeability structures in both zones could explain these geochemical anomalies observed in the surface environment

  20. Millennial mercury records derived from ornithogenic sediment on Dongdao Island, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hong; Wang, Yuhong; Cheng, Wenhan; Sun, Liguang

    2011-01-01

    Two ornithogenic sediment cores, which have a time span of 1000 years and are influenced by red-footed booby (Sula sula), were collected from Dongdao Islands, South China Sea. The determined mercury concentrations of the two cores show similar and substantial fluctuations during the past millennium, and the fluctuations are most likely caused by the changes in mercury level of the ocean environment and in anthropogenic Hg emission. For the past 500 years, the mercury concentration in the red-footed booby excrement has a striking association with global anthropogenic mercury emission. The mercury concentration increased rapidly after AD 1600 in corresponding to beginning of the unparalleled gold and silver mining in South Central America that left a large volume of anthropogenic mercury pollution. Since the Industrial Revolution, the mercury level has increased at a fast pace, very likely caused by modern coal combustion, chlor-alkali and oil refining industries. The comparison of mercury profiles from different places on earth suggested that anthropogenic mercury pollution after the Industrial Revolution is more severe in Northern Hemisphere than in Antarctica.

  1. Coastal ground water at risk - Saltwater contamination at Brunswick, Georgia and Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krause, Richard E.; Clarke, John S.

    2001-01-01

    IntroductionSaltwater contamination is restricting the development of ground-water supply in coastal Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina and Florida. The principal source of water in the coastal area is the Upper Floridan aquifer—an extremely permeable and high-yielding aquifer—which was first developed in the late 1800s. Pumping from the aquifer has resulted in substantial ground-water-level decline and subsequent saltwater intrusion of the aquifer from underlying strata containing highly saline water at Brunswick, Georgia, and with encroachment of sea-water into the aquifer at the northern end of Hilton Head Island, South Carolina. The saltwater contamination at these locations has constrained further development of the Upper Floridan aquifer in the coastal area and has created competing demands for the limited supply of freshwater. The Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Georgia Environmental Protection Division (GaEPD) has restricted permitted withdrawal of water from the Upper Floridan aquifer in parts of the coastal area (including the Savannah and Brunswick areas) to 1997 rates, and also has restricted additional permitted pumpage in all 24 coastal area counties to 36 million gallons per day above 1997 rates. These actions have prompted interest in alternative management of the aquifer and in the development of supplemental sources of water supply including those from the shallower surficial and upper and lower Brunswick aquifers and from the deeper Lower Floridan aquifer.

  2. Masticatory muscles of the great-gray kangaroo (Macropus giganteus).

    PubMed

    Tomo, Soichiro; Tomo, Ikuko; Townsend, Grant C; Hirata, Kazuaki

    2007-04-01

    The great-gray kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) belongs to the Diprotodontia suborder (herbivorous marsupials of Australia) of the order of marsupials. We dissected the masticatory muscles in the great-gray kangaroo and classified them based on their innervation. Three (two male and one female) adult great-gray kangaroos (M. giganteus), fixed with 10% formalin, were examined. The masseter muscle of the great-gray kangaroo was classified into four layers (superficial layers 1, 2, 3, and a deep layer), all innervated by masseteric nerves. Layer 1 of the masseter muscle was well developed and the deep layer inserted into the masseteric canal. The zygomaticomandibular muscle, which belongs to both the masseter and temporalis muscles, was innervated by both the masseteric nerve and posterior deep temporal nerve, and the temporalis muscle was innervated by the anterior and posterior deep temporal nerves. The medial pterygoid muscle, which was innervated by the medial pterygoid nerve, was divided into superficial and deep portions. The lateral pterygoid muscle was divided into superior and inferior heads by the buccal nerve. We propose that the relationship of the masticatory muscles in the kangaroo has evolved by passive anterior invasion of the deep layer of the masseter by the medial pterygoid muscle via the masseteric canal, associated with the development of an anteroposterior mode of mastication.

  3. Kangaroo Care Education Effects on Nurses' Knowledge and Skills Confidence.

    PubMed

    Almutairi, Wedad Matar; Ludington-Hoe, Susan M

    2016-11-01

    Less than 20% of the 996 NICUs in the United States routinely practice kangaroo care, due in part to the inadequate knowledge and skills confidence of nurses. Continuing education improves knowledge and skills acquisition, but the effects of a kangaroo care certification course on nurses' knowledge and skills confidence are unknown. A pretest-posttest quasi-experiment was conducted. The Kangaroo Care Knowledge and Skills Confidence Tool was administered to 68 RNs at a 2.5-day course about kangaroo care evidence and skills. Measures of central tendency, dispersion, and paired t tests were conducted on 57 questionnaires. The nurses' characteristics were varied. The mean posttest Knowledge score (M = 88.54, SD = 6.13) was significantly higher than the pretest score (M = 78.7, SD = 8.30), t [54] = -9.1, p = .000), as was the posttest Skills Confidence score (pretest M = 32.06, SD = 3.49; posttest M = 26.80, SD = 5.22), t [53] = -8.459, p = .000). The nurses' knowledge and skills confidence of kangaroo care improved following continuing education, suggesting a need for continuing education in this area. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2016;47(11):518-524. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Effect of mesoscale orography on tropical cyclones near Hawai'i's Big Island and in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Christopher R. S.

    This dissertation presents the results of numerical modeling studies of two contrasting examples of tropical cyclones interacting with topography. The first example investigates the effect of the Big Island of Hawai'i on nearby tropical cyclones. The second example investigates the formation of near-equatorial Typhoon Vamei (2001) in the South China Sea. The Big Island simulations produce topographically forced phenomena that occur primarily because the island is strongly rooted in a flow splitting regime caused by its high and broad mountains, and by its shape. Blocking of lower-tropospheric flow leads to a slowing of movement when storms approach from the east. Southward track deviations occur if storms enter enhanced northeasterly flow south of the island. On close southeasterly approach axisymmetrization of core convection and winds occurs primarily because of blocking of the stronger easterly flow to the north of the storm. It is hypothesized that this led to the unexpected eye formation of Hurricane Flossie (2007) as it approached the Big Island. Storms that pass south of the island, deviate northward if they interact with the strong westerly steering anomaly associated with the island wake. The Hurricane Dot simulations suggest that this effect contributed to the deviation to the north that led to its eventual Kauai landfall. Stronger intensities can occur as a storm interacts with the island wake where there is a tendency for weakened vertical wind shear. Landfall produces large intensity decreases as the lower-level circulation is disrupted. Sharp northward track deviations can occur close to the island as the northerly flow west of the storm center is blocked by the island. In the simulation of Typhoon Vamei, strong northerly flow interacts with the regional landmasses to produce regional scale cyclonic flow near the equator. Mesoscale convective vortices develop along the southeastern flank of the northerly surge in a region of strong horizontal shear

  5. Climate signals in Late Holocene sediments from Maxwell Bay and English Strait (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hass, H. Christian; Schröder, Simon; Kuhn, Gerhard

    2017-04-01

    Climate fluctuations of the past two millennia such as the Little Ice Age and the Medieval Warm Period are reported mainly from the Northern Hemisphere. Evidence from Antarctica is comparably sparse and reveals regional and temporal differences, which are particularly evident at the western and eastern sides of the Antarctic Peninsula. High-resolution coastal-marine sediment cores from the northernmost tip of the West Antarctic Peninsula reveal periods dominated by finer sediments between periods that lack the finer sediment component. In Maxwell Bay this fine sediment (grain size mode around 16 µm) has been traced back to sediment related to the occurrence of glacial meltwater. It was found in sheltered places and meltwater creeks of Potter Cove, a small tributary fjord to Maxwell Bay. In the sediment core this sediment occurs predominantly between 600 and 1250 AD (Medieval Warm Period) whereas it is only sparsely affecting the record between 1450 and 1900 AD (Little Ice Age). The temporal pattern is very similar to global-temperature reconstructions and even resembles temperature reconstructions from the Northern Hemisphere. To avoid local effects that may occur in Maxwell Bay more sediment cores were taken from bays and straits further south of King George Island during Cruise PS97 of RV "Polarstern" in 2016. A core from English Strait reveals completely different sedimentary conditions with no detectable meltwater signal (16 µm). However, the mean grain size record resembles that of the cores from Maxwell Bay. The lack of a clear-cut meltwater sediment class as it occurs further north is likely the result of a much smaller hinterland (Greenwich and Robert islands) when compared to Maxwell Bay between Nelson Island and the much bigger King George Island where glaciers and ice sheets discharge large quantities of very turbid meltwater directly into the bay. It is concluded that during the warmer climate periods a large amount of meltwater was released along the

  6. Impacts of earthquake on atoll in Nansha Islands, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lei; Zhan, Wenhuan; Xiong, Lijia; Chen, Wujin; Yao, Yantao; Li, Jian

    2016-04-01

    Coral reef is a kind of rock soil masses. It is a special marine geotechnical medium, which are made up of the reef coral debris undergo very long geological age. Atoll is the predominant type of coral reefs in South China Sea. In recent years, there are more and more construction projects on the reef flat in Nansha Islands, South China Sea. Therefore, it is very important to estimate the stability of coral reefs, especially the atolls. According to the geological structure characters of atoll in Nansha Islands, a model of reef body is presented in this paper to study the influence of earthquake. Meanwhile, Geostudio, which is a popular geotechnical engineering simulation software, is used to stimulate the stress and deformation situation of reef body under different six kinds of earthquake intensity. The factor of safety can be calculated by the limit equilibrium method. And the possible scenario of earthquake-induced landslides and sliding scale can be defined through the Newmark sliding block method. The stress distribution and deformation behavior are studied. The main relations between atoll and earthquake are analyzed as follows: (1) the safety factor of reef slope exceeds 1.993 under self-gravity state; (2) It may cause slope's instability and bring slumping when the safety factor is less than one. The factor of safety decreases with increased earthquake intensity and it may fluctuate around a particular value when earthquake intensity continues to increase; (3) The smaller shallow landslide as new developed part of the reef is subject to collapse under earthquake action and the bigger slope of reef is more stable. The results show that it is feasible to evaluate the stability of coral reef by using geotechnical engineering simulation method, which can help to provide some information for construction on coral reefs in South China Sea. In the meantime,the authers wish to thank the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NO.41376063)and the National

  7. Teleseismic P wave tomography of South Island, New Zealand upper mantle: Evidence of subduction of Pacific lithosphere since 45 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zietlow, Daniel W.; Molnar, Peter H.; Sheehan, Anne F.

    2016-06-01

    A P wave speed tomogram produced from teleseismic travel time measurements made on and offshore the South Island of New Zealand shows a nearly vertical zone with wave speeds that are 4.5% higher than the background average reaching to depths of approximately 450 km under the northwestern region of the island. This structure is consistent with oblique west-southwest subduction of Pacific lithosphere since about 45 Ma, when subduction beneath the region began. The high-speed zone reaches about 200-300 km below the depths of the deepest intermediate-depth earthquakes (subcrustal to ~200 km) and therefore suggests that ~200-300 km of slab below them is required to produce sufficient weight to induce the intermediate-depth seismicity. In the southwestern South Island, high P wave speeds indicate subduction of the Australian plate at the Puysegur Trench to approximately 200 km depth. A band with speeds ~2-3.5% lower than the background average is found along the east coast of the South Island to depths of ~150-200 km and underlies Miocene or younger volcanism; these low speeds are consistent with thinned lithosphere. A core of high speeds under the Southern Alps associated with a convergent margin and mountain building imaged in previous investigations is not well resolved in this study. This could suggest that such high speeds are limited in both width and depth and not resolvable by our data.

  8. Kangaroo Mother Care and Neonatal Outcomes: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dastjerdi, Roya; Spiegelman, Donna; Fawzi, Wafaie W.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Lieberman, Ellice; Kajeepeta, Sandhya; Wall, Stephen; Chan, Grace J.

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is an intervention aimed at improving outcomes among preterm and low birth weight newborns. OBJECTIVE: Conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis estimating the association between KMC and neonatal outcomes. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, African Index Medicus (AIM), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Information System (LILACS), Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (IMEMR), Index Medicus for the South-East Asian Region (IMSEAR), and Western Pacific Region Index Medicus (WPRIM). STUDY SELECTION: We included randomized trials and observational studies through April 2014 examining the relationship between KMC and neonatal outcomes among infants of any birth weight or gestational age. Studies with <10 participants, lack of a comparison group without KMC, and those not reporting a quantitative association were excluded. DATA EXTRACTION: Two reviewers extracted data on study design, risk of bias, KMC intervention, neonatal outcomes, relative risk (RR) or mean difference measures. RESULTS: 1035 studies were screened; 124 met inclusion criteria. Among LBW newborns, KMC compared to conventional care was associated with 36% lower mortality(RR 0.64; 95% [CI] 0.46, 0.89). KMC decreased risk of neonatal sepsis (RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.34, 0.83), hypothermia (RR 0.22; 95% CI 0.12, 0.41), hypoglycemia (RR 0.12; 95% CI 0.05, 0.32), and hospital readmission (RR 0.42; 95% CI 0.23, 0.76) and increased exclusive breastfeeding (RR 1.50; 95% CI 1.26, 1.78). Newborns receiving KMC had lower mean respiratory rate and pain measures, and higher oxygen saturation, temperature, and head circumference growth. LIMITATIONS: Lack of data on KMC limited the ability to assess dose-response. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions to scale up KMC implementation are warranted. PMID:26702029

  9. Three-dimensional lithospheric deformation and gravity anomalies associated with oblique continental collision in South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherwath, Martin; Stern, Tim; Davey, Fred; Davies, Rob

    2006-11-01

    Isostatic considerations exhibit differences between the northern, central and southern parts of the Pacific-Australian plate collision in South Island, New Zealand. In the northern part mean elevations are moderate and the gravity low is small; the central part contains the highest elevations, and gravity and elevations correspond to each other relatively well; and in the southern part the gravity low is strongest whereas the mean elevations are moderate again. These differences indicate changes in the character of the isostatic compensation and are explained by increased thickening and widening of the crustal root from north to south, and also by the long wavelength gravity response to a mantle density anomaly that increases towards the south. A simple 3-D gravity model is derived that includes the detailed crustal structures from the South Island GeopHysical Transect (SIGHT) experiment as well as a high-density anomaly in the mantle inferred from teleseismic data. The model indicates that cold and, therefore, dense upper mantle material penetrates the asthenosphere to a greater extent in the south, similar to the behaviour of an apparently highly ductile lower crust. As plate reconstruction suggests more lithospheric shortening in the north, our model corresponds to lithospheric material escaping laterally to the south, almost perpendicular to the compression caused by lithospheric shortening of the mantle. Therefore, in addition to the prevailing mantle shear in New Zealand, there may also be a component of extrusional mantle creep beneath the Southern Alps orogen, which could have caused some of the observed large seismic anisotropy in this region. We may have also found evidence for submerged Eocene-Miocene oceanic lithosphere beneath the southeastern part of South Island that has been unaccounted for after plate reconstruction.

  10. Deep structure of the central Lesser Antilles Island Arc South of Guadeloupe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinzierl, Wolfgang; Kopp, Heidrun; Flueh, Ernst; Klaeschen, Dirk; Laigle, Mireille; Charvis, Philippe; Evain, Mikael

    2010-05-01

    The central Lesser Antilles arc around 16°N has been the site of a number of previous experiments, which have mainly focused on the accretionary complex and backstop geometry. However, no seismic profile has been acquired traversing the central island arc itself, leaving the arc geometry and basement as well as Moho depth here undetermined. We present the results of a 280 km long regional wide-angle seismic profile conducted south of Guadeloupe between 15.5°N and 16.5°N, trending approximately perpendicular to the deformation front/parallel to convergence. The profile initiates in the Grenada Basin, crosses the active island arc and extends onto the Barbados Ridge accretionary complex, where it terminates approximately 80 km west of the deformation front. On the incoming plate, the wide-angle results reveal an eight km thick oceanic crust below the accretionary prism. Underneath the island arc crust the slab dips at an angle of ~14.5°, steadily increasing underneath the island arc. Velocities of the incoming oceanic crust rise from 5.5 km/s at the oceanic basement to 7.3 km/s above the crust-mantle boundary. A distinction between oceanic layers 2 and 3 is not imaged. A décollement and subduction channel is resolved in the reflection profile as well as on selected wide-angle record sections and is characterized by low seismic velocities (~3.6 km/s) and a thickness of approximately 1200 m. Due to the thick accumulation of sediment on top of the incoming North American oceanic crust, seismic energy penetration along our profile is not sufficient to resolve the velocity structure of the oceanic mantle. The structure and seismic velocities of the incoming oceanic crust show typical values for mature, unaltered oceanic crust. We speculate that upper mantle velocities follow this trend and are in the range of 7.9-8.1 km/s associated with an anhydrous condition of peridotite in the upper mantle. As inferred from low seismic velocities of < 3.0 km/s, the island arc is

  11. Seasonal variation in kangaroo tooth enamel oxygen and carbon isotopes in southern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookman, Tom H.; Ambrose, Stanley H.

    2012-09-01

    Serial sampling of tooth enamel growth increments for carbon and oxygen isotopic analyses of Macropus (kangaroo) teeth was performed to assess the potential for reconstructing paleoseasonality. The carbon isotope composition of tooth enamel apatite carbonate reflects the proportional intake of C3 and C4 vegetation. The oxygen isotopic composition of enamel reflects that of ingested and metabolic water. Tooth enamel forms sequentially from the tip of the crown to the base, so dietary and environmental changes during the tooth's formation can be detected. δ13C and δ18O values were determined for a series of enamel samples drilled from the 3rd and 4th molars of kangaroos that were collected along a 900 km north-south transect in southern Australia. The serial sampling method did not yield pronounced seasonal isotopic variation patterns in Macropus enamel. The full extent of dietary isotopic variation may be obscured by attenuation of the isotopic signal during enamel mineralisation. Brachydont (low-crowned) Macropus teeth may be less sensitive to seasonal variation in isotopic composition due to time-averaging during mineralisation. However, geographic variations observed suggest that there may be potential for tracking latitudinal shifts in vegetation zones and seasonal environmental patterns in response to climate change.

  12. Spatial memory in the desert kangaroo rat (Dipodomys deserti).

    PubMed

    Langley, C M

    1994-03-01

    Desert kangaroo rats (Dipodomys deserti) forage for seed distributed in patches in the desert environment and may remember patch locations. In Experiment 1, 7 desert kangaroo rats that had discovered the location of a plastic token in 1 box accurately dug for a token hidden in the same location in a 2nd identical box. Results of Experiment 2 indicated that the rats primarily remembered the spatial location of the token within the box in relation to extramaze objects and the walls of the experimental box. Female rats also remembered the chip's location in relation to objects inside the box, but males did not. Experiment 3 demonstrated that the rats' ability to locate the buried token did not depend on detection of the odor of the token. In the discussion I propose that spatial memory in kangaroo rats may have evolved as a result of an overall change in the ontogeny of the species rather than as a specialized adaptation for foraging efficiency.

  13. Morphology of the lingual papillae in the eastern grey kangaroo.

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi

    2016-01-01

    We examined the dorsal lingual surface of an adult eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus gigantues) by scanning electron microscopy. The filiform papillae on the lingual apex and anterior body consisted of a main papilla and secondary papillae. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae on the lingual apex had several processes. The filiform papillae on the lingual posterior body were thread-like in shape. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae on the lingual posterior body consisted of many slender processes. The fungiform papillae were round in shape. Three vallate papillae with the apex of the triangle directed posteriorly consisted of a groove and pad. Several conical papillae derived from the posterolateral margin of the tongue where foliate papillae have been shown to be distributed in many other animal species. The surface structure of the tongue in the eastern grey kangaroo resembles that of the red kangaroo.

  14. Barrier Crossing and Transport Activated by Kangaroo Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostur, M.; Luczka, J.

    1999-01-01

    We study barrier crossing of Brownian particles in a bistable symmetric potential and transport of Brownian particles in spatially periodic structures, driven by both kangaroo fluctuations and thermal equilibrium noise of zero mean values. We consider exponentially and algebraically correlated kangaroo fluctuations. Starting with the full Newton--Langevin equation for the Brownian particle and by introducing scaling as well as dimensionless variables, we show that the equation is very well approximated by overdamped dynamics in which inertial effects can be neglected. We analyze properties of selected macroscopic characteristics of the system such as the mean first passage time (MFPT) of particles from one minimum of the bistable potential to the other and mean stationary velocity of particles moving in a spatially periodic potential. In dependence upon statistics of kangaroo fluctuations and temperature of the system, macroscopic characteristics exhibit distinctive non-monotonic behavior. Accordingly, there exist optimal statistics of fluctuations optimizing macroscopic characteristics.

  15. Implementation of a Regional Wave Measurement and Modeling System, South Shore of Long Island, New York

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    km from Montauk Point on the east to Norton Point, which is west of Coney Island , Brooklyn. This coastal reach contains six permanent inlets, and...Westhampton (near Moriches Inlet), Fire Island Inlet, Jones Inlet, and Coney Island . Most instruments provide the data in near-real time (within 15 min...Jones Inlet, and Coney Island . The Shinnecock, Jones and Fire Island are pressure gauge-current meter (PUV) gauges and the Westhampton and Coney

  16. Pyroclast textures of the Ilchulbong ‘wet’ tuff cone, Jeju Island, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtagh, Rachel M.; White, James D. L.; Sohn, Young Kwan

    2011-04-01

    Jeju Island is a Quaternary shield volcano situated approximately 95 km south of the Korean Peninsula, comprising Holocene-Late Pleistocene phreatomagmatic deposits and shield-forming basaltic to trachytic lavas that overlie Early-Mid Pleistocene marine sedimentary and hydrovolcanic deposits. Ilchulbong tuff cone is among the youngest hydrovolcanic centres on the island, formed along the shoreline from a Surtseyan-style eruption involving interaction of magma with external water. We have analysed lapilli from selected sites on the volcanic edifice, in terms of vesicle population, texture, shape and size, and quantitatively, with reference to bulk vesicularity, vesicle number density, vesicle dimensions and distributions. The lapilli range in total vesicularity from low (15-35%) to high (50-80%) values, and show a modest range of vesicle number densities (N V, number of vesicles per unit rock volume) between 2.26 × 10 3 and 6.97 × 10 3 vesicles mm - 3 . Such vesicle number densities are higher than those typical of Strombolian (N V between 9.3 × 10 1 and 1.3 × 10 3 vesicles mm - 3 , Stromboli 2002, Lautze and Houghton, 2007) and Hawaiian eruptions, and more similar to those of Plinian (N V between 1.5 and 2.5 × 10 3 vesicles mm - 3 , Tarawera, Sable et al., 2009) eruptions. The lapilli studied were not strongly quenched, and we infer that the high vesicle number densities reflect a late-nucleated bubble population related in origin and formed in response to high levels of microlite growth in the Ilchulbong magma prior to final ascent.

  17. First LiDAR images of the Alpine Fault, central South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langridge, R. M.; Toy, V. G.; Barth, N.; de Pascale, G. P.; Sutherland, R.; Farrier, T.

    2010-12-01

    In central South Island, New Zealand, the dextral-reverse Alpine fault forms the principal component of the Australia-Pacific plate boundary. The fault typically accommodates slip rates of the order of ~27-29 mm/yr (dextral) and up to 6-11 mm/yr (reverse), mostly uplifting Pacific plate rocks that form the Southern Alps. However, the associated high relief, rapid uplift and erosion and high rainfall and accompanying dense temperate rainforest along the western side of the island has typically hampered geological efforts to better understand the neotectonics of the Alpine fault. LiDAR data have been acquired over a 34 km stretch of the fault between Whataroa in the northeast and Franz Josef in the southwest to test the viability of this technique under dense vegetation and in steep, dissected terrain. LiDAR has been collected from a fixed wing base (1300m above ground level) at a frequency of 70k Hz, with 33.5 Hz scan frequency and a 39° field of view. We employed a strategy of flying a dense pattern of 6 flight lines across a swath width of 1.3 km. This creates areas of both single and double overlap coverage that have allowed for accurate landscape models to be created. Results show that this strategy has provided an optimum level of forest penetration and ground returns. Initial results show remarkable level of detail in DEM’s of the landscape along the Alpine fault. Examples of results presented here include: Franz Josef, where the fault traverses the township; and Gaunt Creek, where a Deep Fault Drilling Project will be sited in early 2011.

  18. Coral communities of the remote atoll reefs in the Nansha Islands, southern South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Zhao, M X; Yu, K F; Shi, Q; Chen, T R; Zhang, H L; Chen, T G

    2013-09-01

    During the months of May and June in the year 2007, a survey was conducted regarding coral reef communities in the remote atolls (Zhubi Reef and Meiji Reef) of Nansha Islands, southern South China Sea. The goals of the survey were to: (1) for the first time, compile a scleractinian coral check-list; (2) estimate the total richness, coral cover, and growth forms of the community; and (3) describe preliminary patterns of community structure according to geomorphological units. Findings of this survey revealed a total of 120 species of scleractinia belonging to 40 genera, while the average coral cover was 21 %, ranging from less than 10 % to higher than 50 %. Branching and massive corals were also found to be the most important growth forms of the whole coral community, while Acropora, Montipora, and Porites were the three dominant genera in the overall region, with their contributions to total coral cover measuring 21, 22, and 23 %, respectively. Overall, coral communities of the Nansha Islands were in a relative healthy condition with high species diversity and coral cover. Spatial pattern of coral communities existed among various geomorphological units. Mean coral cover was highest in the patch reef within the lagoon, followed by the fore reef slope, reef flat, and lagoon slope. The greatest contributors to total coral cover were branching Acropora (45 %) in the lagoon slope, branching Montipora (44 %) in the reef flat, and massive Porites (51 %) in the patch reef. Coral cover in the fore reef revealed a greater range of genera than in other habitats. The leeward fore reef slope had higher coral cover (> 50 %) when compared with the windward slope (< 10 %). The coral communities of the inner reef flat were characterized by higher coral cover (27 %) and dominant branching Montipora corals, while lower coral cover (4 %) was dominated by Psammocora with massive growth forms on the outer reef flat. Destructive fishing and coral bleaching were two major threats to

  19. Habitat selection of two island-associated dolphin species from the south-west Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condet, Manon; Dulau-Drouot, Violaine

    2016-08-01

    Identifying suitable habitats of protected species is an essential question in ecology and conservation planning. Modelling approaches have been widely used to identify environmental features that contribute to a species' ecological requirements and distribution. On Reunion Island, a fast-growing French territory located in the south-western Indian Ocean, anthropogenic impacts are mainly concentrated along the coast, representing a potential threat for Indo-Pacific bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus) and spinner (Stenella longirostris) dolphins, two resident coastal species. Beside coastal development, commercial and recreational dolphin-watching are growing, particularly along the west coast. To promote effective local management, habitat modelling was applied using presence-only data collected from 2008 to 2012 on the west coast of the island. Ecological Niche Factor Analyses were used to investigate the effect of physiographic variables on the distribution of these two dolphin species and delineate suitable habitats. It was found that the core habitat of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins was mainly restricted by depth and confined to coastal waters ranging from 4.7 to 75.8 m deep. The species preferentially used soft substrates (sand and mud) and tended to be ubiquitous in terms of substrate type/color used. Foraging activities were significantly related to soft substrates. The diurnal core habitat of spinner dolphins was confined to one discrete area, on the flat portion of the insular shelf, between 45.1 m and 70.7 m of depth. Suitable habitat was mainly related to soft and light-colored substrates, with a clear avoidance of dark-colored substrates. The core habitats of both species were very restrained spatially and therefore vulnerable to human activities. The fine scale habitat mapping achieved in this study represents baseline data to conduct ad hoc impact assessment and support conservation actions.

  20. Gene flow and hybridization between numerically imbalanced populations of two duck species on the subantarctic island of South Georgia.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Kevin G; Wilson, Robert E; Martin, Anthony R

    2013-01-01

    Hybridization is common between species of animals, particularly in waterfowl (Anatidae). One factor shown to promote hybridization is restricted mate choice, which can occur when 2 species occur in sympatry but one is rare. According to the Hubbs principle, or "desperation hypothesis," the rarer species is more likely to mate with heterospecifics. We report the second of 2 independent examples of hybridization between 2 species of ducks inhabiting island ecosystems in the Subantarctic and South Atlantic Ocean. Yellow-billed pintails (Anas georgica) and speckled teal (Anas flavirostris) are abundant in continental South America, where they are sympatric and coexist in mixed flocks. But on South Georgia, an isolated island in the Subantarctic, the pintail population of approximately 6000 pairs outnumbers a small breeding population of speckled teal 300∶1. Using 6 genetic loci (mtDNA and 5 nuclear introns) and Bayesian assignment tests coupled with coalescent analyses, we identified hybrid-origin speckled teal alleles in 2 pintails on South Georgia. While it is unclear whether introgression has also occurred into the speckled teal population, our data suggest that this hybridization was not a recent event, but occurred some time ago. We also failed to identify unequivocal evidence of introgression in a much larger sample of pintails and speckled teal from Argentina using a 3-population "Isolation-with-Migration" coalescent analysis. Combined with parallel findings of hybridization between these same 2 duck species in the Falkland Islands, where population ratios are reversed and pintails are outnumbered by speckled teal 1:10, our results provide further support for the desperation hypothesis, which predicts that scarcity in one population and abundance of another will often lead to hybridization. While the South Georgia pintail population appears to be thriving, it's possible that low density of conspecific mates and inverse density dependence (Allee effect) may be

  1. Gene Flow and Hybridization between Numerically Imbalanced Populations of Two Duck Species on the Subantarctic Island of South Georgia

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, Kevin G.; Wilson, Robert E.; Martin, Anthony R.

    2013-01-01

    Hybridization is common between species of animals, particularly in waterfowl (Anatidae). One factor shown to promote hybridization is restricted mate choice, which can occur when 2 species occur in sympatry but one is rare. According to the Hubbs principle, or "desperation hypothesis," the rarer species is more likely to mate with heterospecifics. We report the second of 2 independent examples of hybridization between 2 species of ducks inhabiting island ecosystems in the Subantarctic and South Atlantic Ocean. Yellow-billed pintails (Anas georgica) and speckled teal (Anas flavirostris) are abundant in continental South America, where they are sympatric and coexist in mixed flocks. But on South Georgia, an isolated island in the Subantarctic, the pintail population of approximately 6000 pairs outnumbers a small breeding population of speckled teal 300∶1. Using 6 genetic loci (mtDNA and 5 nuclear introns) and Bayesian assignment tests coupled with coalescent analyses, we identified hybrid-origin speckled teal alleles in 2 pintails on South Georgia. While it is unclear whether introgression has also occurred into the speckled teal population, our data suggest that this hybridization was not a recent event, but occurred some time ago. We also failed to identify unequivocal evidence of introgression in a much larger sample of pintails and speckled teal from Argentina using a 3-population "Isolation-with-Migration" coalescent analysis. Combined with parallel findings of hybridization between these same 2 duck species in the Falkland Islands, where population ratios are reversed and pintails are outnumbered by speckled teal 1:10, our results provide further support for the desperation hypothesis, which predicts that scarcity in one population and abundance of another will often lead to hybridization. While the South Georgia pintail population appears to be thriving, it's possible that low density of conspecific mates and inverse density dependence (Allee effect) may be

  2. The effect of intertidal ice in the shore platform evolution. Results from South Shetland Islands (Antarctica).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Mario; Vieira, Gonçalo; Ramos, Miguel; Batista, Vanessa

    2010-05-01

    The genesis and the evolution of shore platforms on sub-polar regions, in areas sheltered from wave action, has been mainly imputed to ice erosion caused by the movement of floating ice forced by tide levels variation. Nevertheless, this process has never been accurately studied. This research aims to clearly identify shore platforms that evolve by floating ice erosion process and assess the downwearing rate of those platforms. To achieve this purpose, we used a TMEM (Traversing Micro-Erosion Meter), which is one of the few field equipments that can supply very precise (accuracy of 0.001 mm) erosion data of rock surfaces for periods of one month to several years. Two experimental areas were chosen in Deception and Livingston islands (South Shetland Group - Maritime Antarctica) at places where sea wave's action is meaningless. Deception Island is an active shield volcano with 109 km2 located between latitudes 62° 54' - 63° 01' S and longitudes 60° 29' - 60° 45' W. This island has a horseshoe shape that almost totally encloses a 7-10 km in diameter bay known as Port Foster with a narrow (500m wide) and thin (less than 20m deep) connection to the open sea. A TMEM station was installed in 30 January 2007, at 1.3m above chart data, in the inner part of the bay, near Punta Murature. Cut in the Pendulum Cove Formation, mainly composed of tuff cone and maar deposits, locally the shore platform shows a well consolidated stratified lapilli tuffs with abundant accessory clasts forming an almost flat, but very irregular in the detail, rock surface. Livingstone Island has 845 km2 and is located between latitudes 62° 27' - 62°48' S and longitudes 59° 45' - 61° 15' W, around 25 km north of Deception Island. A TMEM station was installed in the NW sector of the Hurd Peninsula in 5 February 2007 at Punta Polaca, at 1.4m above chart datum, on a very smooth rock surface with an inclination of 5.5°, cut in quartzites of the Miers Bluff formation. The 2008 campaign achieved the

  3. Role of inlets in geomorphic evolution of the south shore barriers of Long Island, New York, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leatherman, Stephen P.

    1989-01-01

    A study of historical storm-induced changes along the south shore barriers of Long Island (Fire Island Inlet to Southampton), New York, USA, was undertaken in an effort to determine the relative roles of different transport processes in barrier migration. Inlets were found to have a profound effect on the barrier system, largely controlling its landward migration, based upon maps, charts, and aerial photographs from the seventeenth century to the present. Salt marshes became established principally on the broad intertidal bay shoals left by a closed or slowly migrating inlet. Inlets along this microtidal coast are now stabilized by jetties, which may have a negative effect on long-term barrier-island migration.

  4. Historical ecology in Beringia: The south land bridge coast at St. Paul Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colinvaux, Paul

    1981-07-01

    A 14-m core of lake sediments from St. Paul Island yields a long environmental history of the south coast of the Bering land bridge. Tritium assay demonstrates that sands in the bottom 8 m of deposit are injected with modern water, suggesting that a radiocarbon anomaly is the result of modern carbon introduced in groundwater. The remaining radiocarbon chronology, coupled with a time-stratigraphic pollen-zone boundary suggests that the record penetrates to the mid-Wisconsin interstadial. Pollen percentage data, Picea pollen influx, and pollen species lists allow reconstruction of the land bridge vegetation, which was tundra, without shrubs or trees, with bare ground, and comparable to Bering land bridge tundras found further north. There was no coastal mild or wet strip. Plant associations comparable to those of the modern Aleutians or Pribilofs probably did not exist along the land bridge coast and the region was probably not suitable for breeding by fur seals and other marine mammals. A cold, dry, continental air-mass system reached to the coast itself. The south land bridge coast did not offer an environment to aboriginal human populations that was significantly milder than that of the land bridge plains to the north. At about 11,000 yr B.P. the Wisconsin dry climate was replaced by a regimen comparable to that at the modern tree line of the interior, and this climate in turn was replaced with the modern system at about 9500 yr B.P. Climatic change was independent of fluctuating sea level.

  5. Unprovoked fatal shark attack in Lifou Island (Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia, South Pacific) by a great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias.

    PubMed

    Clua, Eric; Séret, Bernard

    2010-09-01

    The case of a fatal, unprovoked shark attack is reported and analyzed. The incident took place on the 30th of September 2007, in the lagoon of Luengoni Bay, Lifou Island (Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia). A young French woman who was snorkeling was severely bitten on the right thigh and died of hemorrhage. An analysis based in particular on the size and color of the shark, the characteristics of the wounds, and the behavior of the shark before and after the bite suggests that the aggressor was a great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias.

  6. Lithospheric Shear Velocity Structure of South Island, New Zealand from Rayleigh Wave Tomography of Amphibious Array Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, J. S.; Sheehan, A. F.; Stachnik, J. C.; Lin, F. C.; Collins, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    We present the first 3D shear velocity model extending well offshore of New Zealand's South Island, imaging the lithosphere beneath Campbell and Challenger plateaus. Our model is constructed via linearized inversion of both teleseismic (18 -70 s period) and ambient noise-based (8 - 25 s period) Rayleigh wave dispersion measurements. We augment an array of 29 ocean-bottom instruments deployed off the South Island's east and west coasts in 2009-2010 with 28 New Zealand land-based seismometers. The ocean-bottom seismometers and 4 of the land seismometers were part of the Marine Observations of Anisotropy Near Aotearoa (MOANA) experiment, and the remaining land seismometers are from New Zealand's permanent GeoNet array. Major features of our shear wave velocity (Vs) model include a low-velocity (Vs<4.3km/s) body extending to at least 75km depth beneath the Banks and Otago peninsulas, a high-velocity (Vs~4.7km/s) upper mantle anomaly underlying the Southern Alps to a depth of 100km, and discontinuous lithospheric velocity structure between eastern and western Challenger Plateau. Using the 4.5km/s contour as a proxy for the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, our model suggests that the lithospheric thickness of Challenger Plateau is substantially greater than that of Campbell Plateau. The high-velocity anomaly we resolve beneath the central South Island exhibits strong spatial correlation with subcrustal earthquake hypocenters along the Alpine Fault (Boese et al., 2013). The ~400km-long low velocity zone we image beneath eastern South Island underlies Cenozoic volcanics and mantle-derived helium observations (Hoke et al., 2000) on the surface. The NE-trending low-velocity zone dividing Challenger Plateau in our model underlies a prominent magnetic discontinuity (Sutherland et al., 1999). The latter feature has been interpreted to represent a pre-Cretaceous crustal boundary, which our results suggest may involve the entire mantle lithosphere.

  7. Persistent organic pollutants in marine fish from Yongxing Island, South China Sea: levels, composition profiles and human dietary exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-Xin; Hao, Qing; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Shuai-Long; Zhang, Zai-Wang; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-03-01

    Little data is available on the bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in marine organisms from South China Sea (SCS). Five marine fish species were collected from Yongxing Island, SCS to investigate the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs). PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs concentrations ranged from 2.0-117, 6.3-199, and 9.7-5831 ng g(-1) lw, respectively. In general, contaminants measured in this study were at the lower end of the global range. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs were significantly correlated in fish samples, implying that PBDEs are as prevalent as PCBs in Yongxing Island. Among the five fish species studied, yellow striped goatfish had the highest concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs, probably attributed to its different living and feeding habits. The contaminant distribution pattern indicated that agrochemical source is more important than industrial source in Yongxing Island, SCS. The average estimated daily intakes of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs via fish consumption by local residents in the coastal areas of South China ranged from 1.42-5.91, 3.20-13.3, and 8.08-33.6 ng d(-1), which were lower than those in previous studies, suggesting that consumption of marine fish in Yongxing Island, SCS, might not subject local residents to significant health risk as far as POPs are concerned. This is the first study to report the occurrence of POPs in marine biota from SCS.

  8. Yams (Dioscorea spp.) from the South Pacific Islands contain many novel badnaviruses: implications for international movement of yam germplasm.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Lawrence; Lebas, B S M; Seal, S E

    2008-01-01

    Yam (Dioscorea spp.) samples (n = 690) from seven South Pacific Islands were screened for badnavirus infection by ELISA using two antisera to African badnaviruses. Positive readings were obtained for 26.4-34.6% of samples representing both known (D. bulbifera, D. nummularia and D. pentaphylla) and unreported host species (D. alata, D. esculenta, D. rotundata and D. trifida) in this region. Total DNAs were extracted from 25 ELISA-positive plants and 4 ELISA-negative controls and subjected to PCR amplification with badnavirus-specific primers targeting the reverse transcriptase (RT)-RNaseH genes. All 29 samples yielded the expected size PCR-product for badnaviruses, which were cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses of the resulting 45 partial (500-527 bp) RT-RNaseH sequences revealed 11 new sequence groups with <79% nucleotide identity to each other or any EMBL sequence. Three sequences (two groups) were highly divergent to the other nine new South Pacific yam badnavirus groups (47.9-57.2% identity) and probably represent either new Caulimoviridae genera or endogenous pararetrovirus sequences. Some sequence groups appeared specific to particular Dioscorea host species. Four 99.9% identical RT-RNaseH sequences possessing nine amino acid deletions from D. esculenta from three islands represent a putative integrated sequence group. The distribution of sequence groups across the islands indicates that badnaviruses have spread extensively between islands and continents through infected germplasm.

  9. Jejuia marina nov., isolated from gravel adjacent to Geommeolle beach on Udo Island, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyangmi; Yang, Jae-Hyung; Cha, Hyung-Kee; Lee, Jae-Bong; Suh, Seok-Jong; Bae, Kyung Sook; Park, Doo-Sang

    2015-11-01

    A bacterial strain, JH03(T), was isolated from gravel adjacent to Geommeolle beach on Udo Island, South Korea. The cells were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-motile and rod shaped. The ranges of temperature, pH and NaCl concentration for growth of the bacterium were 10-45 °C, pH 6.0-9.5 and 0.5-5.0 % (w/v), respectively. The major fatty acids of the bacterium were iso-C(15:0) (15.4 %), iso-C(15:1) G (14.1 %), iso-C(16:0) 3-OH (14.1 %), iso-C(17:0) 3-OH (11.5 %) and anteiso-C(15:0) (11.3 %). The major isoprenoid quinone was MK-6. The polar lipids included phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified amino lipids and three unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C content was 34.2 mol%. The phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain JH03(T) was most closely related to Jejuia pallidilutea EM39(T) (96.5 % sequence similarity). Based on the polyphasic analysis, strain JH03(T) is a novel species of the genus Jejuia, for which the name Jejuia marina sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JH03(T) (= KCTC 42342(T) = JCM 30601(T)).

  10. Yeasts from macroalgae and lichens that inhabit the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Alysson Wagner Fernandes; Passarini, Michel Rodrigo Zambrano; Delforno, Tiago Palladino; Pellizzari, Franciane Maria; Cipro, Caio Vinicius Zecchin; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela; Petry, Maria Virginia; Putzke, Jair; Rosa, Luiz Henrique; Sette, Lara Durães

    2016-08-12

    Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems are largely dominated by lichens, while shallow coastal environments are mainly covered by macroalgae. The aim of this study was to isolate and to evaluate the diversity of yeasts in different species of macroalgae and lichens collected in South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. A total of 405 yeasts were recovered (205 from macroalgae and 200 from lichens). The yeast community from macroalgae was most diversity than the yeast community from lichen. The dominance index was similar for both substrates. A total of 24 taxa from macroalgae and 18 from lichens were identified, and only 5 were common to both substrates. Metschnikowia australis, Mrakia sp., Rhodotorula glacialis and Glaciozyma litorale were the most abundant yeasts in macroalgae and Cryptococcus victoriae, Rhodotorula laryngis, Rhodotorula arctica, Trichosporon sp. 1 and Mrakia sp. were the most abundant in lichens. Based on molecular and phylogenetic analyses, four yeast from macroalgae and six from lichens were considered potential new species. This is the first study to report the yeast communities from the Antarctic macroalgae Himantothallus grandifolius and lichen Ramalina terebrata. Results suggest that Antarctic phyco and lichensphere represent a huge substrate for cold-adapted yeasts and enhanced the knowledge of the microbiota from extreme environments.

  11. Do great earthquakes occur on the Alpine Fault in central South Island, New Zealand?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, R.; Eberhart-Phillips, D.; Harris, R. A.; Stern, T.; Beavan, J.; Ellis, S.; Henrys, S.; Cox, S.; Norris, R. J.; Berryman, K. R.; Townend, J.; Bannister, S.; Pettinga, J.; Leitner, B.; Wallace, L.; Little, T. A.; Cooper, A. F.; Yetton, M.; Stirling, M.

    Geological observations require that episodic slip on the Alpine fault averages to a long-term displacement rate of 2-3 cm/yr. Patterns of seismicity and geodetic strain suggest the fault is locked above a depth of 6-12 km and will probably fail during an earthquake. High pore-fluid pressures in the deeper fault zone are inferred from low seismic P-wave velocity and high electrical conductivity in central South Island, and may limit the seismogenic zone east of the Alpine fault to depths as shallow as 6 km. A simplified dynamic rupture model suggests an episode of aseismic slip at depth may not inhibit later propagation of a fully developed earthquake rupture. Although it is difficult to resolve surface displacement during an ancient earthquake from displacements that occurred in the months and years that immediately surround the event, sufficient data exist to evaluate the extent of the last three Alpine fault ruptures: the 1717 AD event is inferred to have ruptured a 300-500 km length of fault; the 1620 AD event ruptured 200-300 km; and the 1430 AD event ruptured 350-600 km. The geologically estimated moment magnitudes are 7.9±0.3, 7.6±0.3, and 7.9±0.4, respectively. We conclude that large earthquakes (Mw>7) on the Alpine fault will almost certainly occur in future, and it is realistic to expect some great earthquakes (Mw≥8).

  12. Occurrence of tar balls on the beaches of Fernando de Noronha Island, South Equatorial Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Baptista Neto, José Antônio; da Costa Campos, Thomas Ferreira; de Andrade, Carala Danielle Perreira; Sichel, Susanna Eleonora; da Fonseca, Estefan Monteiro; Motoki, Akihisa

    2014-12-01

    This work reports on the widespread occurrence of tar balls on a pebble beach of Sueste Bay on Fernando de Noronha Island, a Brazilian national marine park and a preserve in the South Equatorial Atlantic. Environmental regulations preclude regular visitors to the Sueste Bay beach, and the bay is a pristine area without any possible or potential sources of petroleum in the coastal zone. In this work, these tar balls were observed for the first time as they occurred as envelopes around beach pebbles. They are black in color, very hard, have a shell and coral fragment armor, and range in average size from 2 to 6 cm. The shape of the majority of the tar balls is spherical, but some can also be flattened ellipsoids. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon analyses of the collected samples revealed the characteristics of a strongly weathered material, where only the most persistent compounds were detected: chrysene, benzo(b,k)fluoranthene, dibenzo(a,h)antracene and benzo(a)pyrene.

  13. Food-limited growth of Euphausia superba in Admiralty Bay, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClatchie, S.

    1988-04-01

    Length-frequency data for Euphausia superba and chlorophyll a concentrations from Admiralty Bay, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica over 1 year were used to test the hypothesis that krill growth is limited by food concentration. Growth rates calculated using the ELEFAN computer program yielded values comparable with laboratory rates, but gave slow positive growth rather than negative or zero growth during winter. Seasonal growth rates closely followed water column pigment concentration, and indicated that both krill age class and food concentration should be included in models of krill growth. Growth rate of Group 0, I and II age classes was a hyperbolic function of food concentration. Maximum growth rates varied with age class and occurred only at concentrations greater than about 50 μg Chl a m -2. Age class specific thresholds for zero growth occurred at water column concentrations of 9.2-17.5 μg Chl a m -2 or 0.06-0.1 μg Chl a l -1 with homogeneous pigment concentration. Negative growth is expected at concentrations below these thresholds. The analysis demonstrates that krill growth was food limited for six months of the year, but also shows that krill can often meet their minimum requirements for growth at the low concentrations of phytoplankton characterizing offshore Southern Ocean waters.

  14. Symbiodinium spp. associated with high-latitude scleractinian corals from Jeju Island, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Palmas, S.; Denis, V.; Ribas-Deulofeu, L.; Loubeyres, M.; Woo, S.; Hwang, S. J.; Song, J. I.; Chen, C. A.

    2015-09-01

    Most studies on endosymbiotic dinoflagellate algae (genus Symbiodinium) associated with scleractinian corals focus on tropical and sub-tropical reefs. Their diversity in outlying, non-reef coral communities at high latitudes is still not fully documented. In this study, we analyzed the Symbiodinium diversity associated with five scleractinian species collected at eight sites around Jeju Island (South Korea, 33.4°N) between 5 and 15 m depth. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified internal transcribed spacer region 2 distinguished five Symbiodinium types. We observed a high level of specificity between host genera and Symbiodinium spp. despite existing in an environment with large seasonal oscillations in temperature and light. Psammocora albopicta and Psammocora profundacella were associated with C1 and Montipora millepora with C17. Alveopora japonica was associated exclusively with an unusual F-type, the only known clade F representative functionally important to a scleractinian coral. Oulastrea crispata was associated with Symbiodinium boreum (type D15), occasionally co-occurring with type C3 (in 4 % of specimens). In addition to increasing the knowledge of Symbiodinium diversity in high-latitude coral communities, this study constitutes an important baseline upon which the effects of projected environmental change in the near future can be assessed. A better understanding of high-latitude coral communities is critical for understanding how a warming planet will affect the tempo and mode of shifts in the composition of temperate marine communities.

  15. Polycyclic hydrocarbon biomarkers confirm selective incorporation of petroleum in kangaroo rat liver samples near oil well blowout site

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, I.; Lu, Shan-tan; Lee, Ru-po; Warrick, G.

    1996-12-31

    In June 1994, a well blowout occurred at an oil field in the western, part of the San Joaquin Valley, resulting in deposition of crude oil south of the well. Some light oil spray was found up to 13.6 km from the well, but the most heavily affected area was within 0.8 km of the site. Because the location contains habitats for several threatened and endangered species, an evaluation of damages to natural resources was initiated soon after the well was capped. As part of the assessment of damages to wildlife, an investigation was conducted to determine whether kangaroo rats had ingested crude oil hydrocarbons from the spill.

  16. The Story behind "Quest for the Tree Kangaroo"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Terrell A.; Ward, Barbara A.

    2007-01-01

    The National Council of Teachers of English awarded the coveted nonfiction prize to "Quest for the Tree Kangaroo: An Expedition to the Cloud Forest of New Guinea." Written by Sy Montgomery, with photographs by Nic Bishop, the book was further honored as a Robert F. Sibert Informational Book Medal Honor recipient by the Association for…

  17. The Story behind "Quest for the Tree Kangaroo"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Terrell A.; Ward, Barbara A.

    2007-01-01

    The National Council of Teachers of English awarded the coveted nonfiction prize to "Quest for the Tree Kangaroo: An Expedition to the Cloud Forest of New Guinea." Written by Sy Montgomery, with photographs by Nic Bishop, the book was further honored as a Robert F. Sibert Informational Book Medal Honor recipient by the Association for…

  18. [Kangaroo Mother Care and conventional care: a review of literature].

    PubMed

    Bulfone, Giampiera; Nazzi, Elisa; Tenore, Alfred

    2011-01-01

    Low birth weight is one of the major health problems throughout the world. All such neonates can benefit from an effective and efficient human care model - Kangaroo Mother Care. A review of the literature was performed to compare the short and long-term outcome of Kangaroo Mother Care to those of conventional care (incubator). Short-term outcome considered heart and breathing frequency, percutaneous oxygen saturation , transcutaneous oxygen pressure , body temperature, sleep-wake cycles, stress and pain. Long-term outcome considered mortality, somatic, psycho-motor and cognitive development, the incidence of infections and duration of hospitalization. Studies including pre-term neonates were also included. 19 of the 80 studies corresponded to the study criteria and demonstrated that Kangaroo Mother Care is important because it reduces pain and infections, shortens hospitalization, favors breast-feeding: in comparison to neonates treated conventionally, this method results in an earlier and better cognitive and motor development . Concerning body temperature, there were no differences with respect to traditional care. The literature shows that the Kangaroo Mother Care method can be a useful "adjunctive" strategy although further studies are necessary to clarify aspects such as heart and breathing rate and oxygen saturation that appear contradictory.

  19. Features of Heart Rate Variability Capture Regulatory Changes During Kangaroo Care in Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Kommers, Deedee R; Joshi, Rohan; van Pul, Carola; Atallah, Louis; Feijs, Loe; Oei, Guid; Bambang Oetomo, Sidarto; Andriessen, Peter

    2017-03-01

    To determine whether heart rate variability (HRV) can serve as a surrogate measure to track regulatory changes during kangaroo care, a period of parental coregulation distinct from regulation within the incubator. Nurses annotated the starting and ending times of kangaroo care for 3 months. The pre-kangaroo care, during-kangaroo care, and post-kangaroo care data were retrieved in infants with at least 10 accurately annotated kangaroo care sessions. Eight HRV features (5 in the time domain and 3 in the frequency domain) were used to visually and statistically compare the pre-kangaroo care and during-kangaroo care periods. Two of these features, capturing the percentage of heart rate decelerations and the extent of heart rate decelerations, were newly developed for preterm infants. A total of 191 kangaroo care sessions were investigated in 11 preterm infants. Despite clinically irrelevant changes in vital signs, 6 of the 8 HRV features (SD of normal-to-normal intervals, root mean square of the SD, percentage of consecutive normal-to-normal intervals that differ by >50 ms, SD of heart rate decelerations, high-frequency power, and low-frequency/high-frequency ratio) showed a visible and statistically significant difference (P <.01) between stable periods of kangaroo care and pre-kangaroo care. HRV was reduced during kangaroo care owing to a decrease in the extent of transient heart rate decelerations. HRV-based features may be clinically useful for capturing the dynamic changes in autonomic regulation in response to kangaroo care and other changes in environment and state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Kangaroo vs. porcine aortic valves: calcification potential after glutaraldehyde fixation.

    PubMed

    Narine, K; Chéry, Cyrille C; Goetghebeur, Els; Forsyth, R; Claeys, E; Cornelissen, Maria; Moens, L; Van Nooten, G

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the calcification potential of kangaroo and porcine aortic valves after glutaraldehyde fixation at both low (0.6%) and high (2.0%) concentrations of glutaraldehyde in the rat subcutaneous model. To our knowledge this is the first report comparing the time-related, progressive calcification of these two species in the rat subcutaneous model. Twenty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were each implanted with two aortic valve leaflets (porcine and kangaroo) after fixation in 0.6% glutaraldehyde and two aortic valve leaflets (porcine and kangaroo) after fixation in 2% glutaraldehyde respectively. Animals were sacrificed after 24 h and thereafter weekly for up to 10 weeks after implantation. Calcium content was determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and confirmed histologically. Mean calcium content per milligram of tissue (dry weight) treated with 0.6 and 2% glutaraldehyde was 116.2 and 110.4 microg/mg tissue for kangaroo and 95.0 and 106.8 microg/mg tissue for porcine valves. Calcium content increased significantly over time (8.8 microg/mg tissue per week) and was not significantly different between groups. Regression analysis of calcification over time showed no significant difference in calcification of valves treated with 0.6 or 2% glutaraldehyde within and between the two species. Using the subcutaneous model, we did not detect a difference in calcification potential between kangaroo and porcine aortic valves treated with either high or low concentrations of glutaraldehyde. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Analysis of recent surface deformation at Ischia Island Volcano (South Italy) via multi-platform monitoring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzo, Mariarosaria; De Martino, Prospero; Castaldo, Raffaele; De Luca, Claudio; Dolce, Mario; Scarpato, Giovanni; Tizzani, Pietro; Zinno, Ivana; Lanari, Riccardo

    2017-04-01

    Ischia Island is a densely populated volcanic area located in the North-Western sector of the Gulf of Napoli (South Italy), whose activity is characterized by eruptions (the last one occurred in 1302 A.D.), earthquakes (the most disastrous ones occurred in 1881 and in 1883), fumarolic-hydrothermal manifestations and ground deformation. In this work we carry out the surface deformation time-series analysis occurring at the Island by jointly exploiting data collected via two different monitoring systems. In particular, we take advantage from the large amount of periodic and continuous geodetic measurements collected by the GPS (campaign and permanent) stations deployed on the Island and belonging to the INGV-OV monitoring network. Moreover, we benefit from the large, free and open archive of C-band SAR data acquired over the Island by the Sentinel-1 constellation of the Copernicus Program, and processed via the advanced Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) technique referred to as Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) algorithm [Berardino et al., 2002]. We focus on the 2014-2017 time period to analyze the recent surface deformation phenomena occurring on the Island, thus extending a previous study, aimed at investigating the temporal evolution of the ground displacements affecting the Island and limited to the 1992-2003 time interval [Manzo et al., 2006]. The performed integrated analysis provides relevant spatial and temporal information on the Island surface deformation pattern. In particular, it reveals a rather complex deformative scenario, where localized phenomena overlap/interact with a spatially extended deformation pattern that involves many Island sectors, with no evidence of significant uplift phenomena. Moreover, it shows a good agreement and consistency between the different kinds of data, thus providing a clear picture of the recent dynamics at Ischia Island that can be profitably exploited to deeply investigate the physical processes behind the observed

  2. On the detection of thermohygrometric differences of Juniperus turbinata habitat between north and south faces in the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salva-Catarineu, Montserrat; Salvador-Franch, Ferran; Lopez-Bustins, Joan A.; Padrón-Padrón, Pedro A.; Cortés-Lucas, Amparo

    2016-04-01

    The current extent of Juniperus turbinata in the island of El Hierro is very small due to heavy exploitation for centuries. The recovery of its natural habitat has such a high environmental and scenic interest since this is a protected species in Europe. The study of the environmental factors that help or limit its recovery is indispensable. Our research project (JUNITUR) studied the populations of juniper woodlands in El Hierro from different environments. These environments are mainly determined by their altitude and exposure to north-easterly trade winds. The main objective of this study was to compare the thermohygrometric conditions of three juniper woodlands: La Dehesa (north-west face at 528 m a.s.l.), El Julan (south face at 996 m a.s.l.) and Sabinosa (north face at 258 m a.s.l.). They are located at different altitude and orientation in El Hierro and present different recovery rates. We used air sensor data loggers fixed to tree branches for recording hourly temperature and humidity data in the three study areas. We analysed daily data of three annual cycles (from September 2012 to August 2015). Similar thermohygrometric annual cycles among the three study areas were observed. We detected the largest differences in winter temperature and summer humidity between the north (to windward) (Sabinosa and La Dehesa) and south (to leeward) (El Julan) faces of the island. The juniper woodland with a highest recovery rate (El Julan) showed the most extreme temperature conditions in both winter and summer seasons. The results of this project might contribute to the knowledge of the juniper bioclimatology in El Hierro, where there is the biggest population of Juniperus turbinata throughout the Canary Islands.

  3. Assessing landslide movements in volcanic islands using near-shore marine geophysical data: south Pico island, Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, N. C.; Quartau, R.; Madeira, J.

    2011-12-01

    Marine geophysical data can help to resolve whether large-scale instability of an edifice has been geologically recently active. We study such data from the coast of Pico Island where a major slump of Topo volcano has been interpreted from arcuate escarpments and a rugged irregular topography above sea-level. Multibeam sonar data collected immediately offshore show little evidence for slump fault movements, in particular on the island shelf. As the shelf rock platform will have been last modified by surf during the postglacial sea-level transgression, it provides a reference surface of intermediate age (7-19 ky) that can potentially reveal any pre-historic movements. Where the arcuate escarpments are continued offshore, no evidence for active faults are observed where the shelf rock platform crops out in the multibeam data. Elsewhere, mobile shelf sediments may disguise evidence for active faulting so we examined boomer profiles able to image the rock platform beneath them. The data reveal a platform that is steep (6.6 degrees) compared with the dips of platforms around the coast of adjacent Faial Island and steeper than the platform outside the proposed slump. This suggests that it was created by coastal erosion over a shorter period and hence is consistent with a younger coastline age. As with the multibeam data, where escarpments are continued offshore, the rock surface imaged with these boomer data also shows no clear evidence of major slump-related fault displacements. This study therefore illustrates how high-resolution boomer seismic and multibeam data could usefully contribute to hazard assessment of volcanic islands, by helping to evaluate areas with no historical movements.

  4. Volatiles in Submarine HIMU Basalts from the Austral Islands, South Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, A. R.; Hanyu, T.; Shimizu, K.; Dosso, L.

    2014-12-01

    Submarine basalts have been collected from the slopes of Rurutu and Tubuai in the Austral Islands, South Pacific with the manned submersible Shinkai 6500. Previous work on the bulk radiogenic isotope and trace element chemistry of these samples suggests that the basalts were generated from a HIMU reservoir derived from an ancient subducted slab that was entrained and mixed with the depleted asthenospheric mantle. Olivines and glasses from the submarine basalts show lower 3He/4He than MORB, similar to subaerial basalts from these islands. Sixteen glass chips from the same submarine samples have now undergone in-situ analysis for major elements (including S and Cl) by EPMA, trace elements by LA-ICP-MS, H2O and CO2 by FTIR, and bulk volatile analysis (S, Cl, F) by ion chromatography combined with pyrohydrolysis. H2O ranges from 0.62-2.44 wt%, while CO2 is below detection (<20 ppm). S measured by EPMA ranges from 612-1889 ppm and by bulk analysis from 582-1301 ppm and, with the exception of one sample, concentrations agree well. Cl measured by EPMA ranges from 151-538 ppm, and by bulk analysis from 188-980 ppm. The higher values suggest that the bulk samples may be contaminated by seawater; otherwise Cl correlates strongly with incompatible elements. F measured in the bulk samples ranges from 221-1243 ppm. S correlates positively with FeO and Cu, but not with incompatible elements, suggesting sulfide saturation. While the highest H2O contents may reflect late-stage hydration and are oversaturated at the depth of collection, the low H2O contents (11 samples with 0.62-0.96 wt%) are undersaturated, and there is a positive correlation between the H2O contents of all chips and their incompatible element concentrations. This suggests that H2O/Ce and Cl/Ce filtered for shallow level processes may reflect source compositions, providing constraints on volatiles in the sources of Rurutu and Tubuai, and indications about the efficiency of subduction-related volatile-loss in the

  5. Locomotion energetics and gait characteristics of a rat-kangaroo, Bettongia penicillata, have some kangaroo-like features.

    PubMed

    Webster, K N; Dawson, T J

    2003-09-01

    The locomotory characteristics of kangaroos and wallabies are unusual, with both energetic costs and gait parameters differing from those of quadrupedal running mammals. The kangaroos and wallabies have an evolutionary history of only around 5 million years; their closest relatives, the rat-kangaroos, have a fossil record of more than 26 million years. We examined the locomotory characteristics of a rat-kangaroo, Bettongia penicillata. Locomotory energetics and gait parameters were obtained from animals exercising on a motorised treadmill at speeds from 0.6 m s(-1) to 6.2 m s(-1). Aerobic metabolic costs increased as hopping speed increased, but were significantly different from the costs for a running quadruped; at the fastest speed, the cost of hopping was 50% of the cost of running. Therefore B. penicillata can travel much faster than quadrupedal runners at similar levels of aerobic output. The maximum aerobic output of B. penicillata was 17 times its basal metabolism. Increases in speed during hopping were achieved through increases in stride length, with stride frequency remaining constant. We suggest that these unusual locomotory characteristics are a conservative feature among the hopping marsupials, with an evolutionary history of 20-30 million years.

  6. Balancing the plate motion budget in the South Island, New Zealand using GPS, geological and seismological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Laura M.; Beavan, John; McCaffrey, Robert; Berryman, Kelvin; Denys, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The landmass of New Zealand exists as a consequence of transpressional collision between the Australian and Pacific plates, providing an excellent opportunity to quantify the kinematics of deformation at this type of tectonic boundary. We interpret GPS, geological and seismological data describing the active deformation in the South Island, New Zealand by using an elastic, rotating block approach that automatically balances the Pacific/Australia relative plate motion budget. The data in New Zealand are fit to within uncertainty when inverted simultaneously for angular velocities of rotating tectonic blocks and the degree of coupling on faults bounding the blocks. We find that most of the plate motion budget has been accounted for in previous geological studies, although we suggest that the Porter's Pass/Amberley fault zone in North Canterbury, and a zone of faults in the foothills of the Southern Alps may have slip rates about twice that of the geological estimates. Up to 5 mm yr-1 of active deformation on faults distributed within the Southern Alps <100 km to the east of the Alpine Fault is possible. The role of tectonic block rotations in partitioning plate boundary deformation is less pronounced in the South Island compared to the North Island. Vertical axis rotation rates of tectonic blocks in the South Island are similar to that of the Pacific Plate, suggesting that edge forces dominate the block kinematics there. The southward migrating Chatham Rise exerts a major influence on the evolution of the New Zealand plate boundary; we discuss a model for the development of the Marlborough fault system and Hikurangi subduction zone in the context of this migration.

  7. High-energy deposits newly recognized in Hawaii Island (South Point): a catastrophic tsunami generated by South Kona or Kalae flank collapse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, F. O.; Hildenbrand, A.; McMurtry, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    Most of the population and economic activity on Earth is concentrated in coastal areas. Tsunamis, in particular, represent a major threat, because they can travel great distances and impact the far surrounding shorelines within a few hours and cause considerable damage. Two main geological processes can generate destructive tsunamis: (1) high-magnitude earthquakes within the oceans, mostly along active margins, which can generate long-wavelength, low amplitude waves; and (2) giant mass-movements, such as catastrophic flank failure at oceanic volcanoes, which can instantaneously mobilize great amounts of material (several hundreds of km3) and generate high amplitude, medium-wavelength tsunamis. The Hawaiian volcanic chain has been affected by the largest landslides on Earth. Big Island, especially, has faced several catastrophic episodes of flank destabilization, the number, the amplitude and the age of which remain controversial. Knowing that there were flank collapses in South Kona and Kalae, we went to South Point to look for onland evidence of the collapse(s) and related tsunami(s), and found a deposit composed of polygenetic clasts, from mm3 to several m3 in size, mostly angular to sub-rounded, with a sandy to silty matrix. The deposit is covered by pyroclasts (the Pahala ash?), which seem to have been locally remobilized to fill in the spaces in the underlying conglomeratic deposit. The absence of a continuous indurate cement precludes an inland origin for the sedimentary deposit. Moreover, the South Point deposit lies on a flat platform far from the main topographic relief of the Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes. Emplacement of the ash layers covering the deposits requires a highly explosive eruption, which we attribute to pressure release driven by the collapse. Presently the deposit is lying at an altitude of ca. 10 m, but in the past it was higher, since the island has experienced significant ongoing subsidence. From previous estimates of the age of the

  8. Groundwater circulation and geochemistry of a karstified bank marginal fracture system, South Andros Island, Bahamas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, Fiona F.; Smart, Peter L.

    1997-10-01

    On the east coast of South Andros Island, Bahamas, a major bank-marginal fracture system characterised by vertically extensive cavern systems (blue holes) is developed sub-parallel to the steep-sided deep-water re-entrant of the Tongue of the Ocean. In addition to providing a discharge route for meteoric, mixed and geochemically evolved saline groundwaters, a strong local circulation occurs along the fracture system. This generates enhanced vertical mixing within voids of the fracture system, evidenced by the increasing mixing zone thickness, and the thinning and increasing salinity of brackish lens waters from north to south along the fracture system. Furthermore, tidally driven pumping of groundwaters occurs between the fracture and adjacent carbonate aquifer affecting a zone up to 200 m either side of the fracture. The resultant mixing of groundwaters of contrasting salinity and PCO 2 within and along the fracture system and with the surrounding aquifer waters, together with bacterial oxidation of organic matter, generates significant potential for locally enhanced diagenesis. Undersaturation with respect to calcite within the fresh (or brackish)-salt water mixing zone is observed in the fracture system and predicted in the adjacent aquifer, while mixing between the brackish fracture lens and surrounding high PCO 2 fresh waters causes dissolution of aragonite but not calcite. The latter gives rise to considerable secondary porosity development, because active tidal pumping ensures continued renewal of dissolutional potential. This is evidenced by calcium and strontium enrichment in the brackish lens which indicates porosity generation by aragonite dissolution at a maximum rate of 0.35% ka -1, up to twice the average estimated for the fresh water lens. In contrast saline groundwaters are depleted in calcium relative to open ocean waters suggesting the formation of calcite cements. The development of a major laterally continuous cavernous fracture zone along the

  9. The vegetation and climate during the Last Glacial Cold Period, northern South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callard, S. Louise; Newnham, Rewi M.; Vandergoes, Marcus J.; Alloway, Brent V.; Smith, Carol

    2013-08-01

    Pollen assemblages from Howard Valley, South Island, New Zealand, were used to reconstruct the palaeovegetation and infer past climate during the period ca 38-21 cal. ka, which encompasses the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3/2 transition and Last Glacial Cold Period (LGCP). A glacier occupied the upper Howard Valley during the Last Glacial, whilst extensive glaciofluvial outwash surfaces were constructed in the lower valley. Episodic periods of fluvial aggradation and incision have produced a complex sequence of terraces flanking the main Howard River and its tributaries. Sedimentary sequences from three exposed valley fills, sampled for palynological analysis and radiocarbon dating, consist of a complex vertical and lateral arrangement of coarse textured cobbly sandy gravels interbedded with organic-rich silt deposits. Palynology of these organic-rich horizons was directly compared to an existing beetle record from these same horizons. During late MIS 3 the site was dominated by marshy shrubland vegetation interspersed with mixed beech forest, indicating temperatures ˜2-3 °C cooler than present. Climate cooling began as early as 35.7 cal. ka and coincides with evidence of cooling from other sites in New Zealand, South America and with an Antarctic cooling signature. A three phase vegetation and inferred climate pattern occurs at the site during the LGCP beginning with a transition to an alpine/sub-alpine grassland comparable to communities growing near treeline today marking the change to glacial conditions before 31 cal. ka. A small increase in tree abundance between ca 25.8 and 22.7 cal. ka suggests minor climate amelioration during the mid-LGCP. During this phase, a possible volcanically induced vegetation disruption caused by the deposition of the Kawakawa Tephra at 25 cal. ka is evident in the pollen record. This is followed by a further decline in tree pollen and increase in alpine grassland and herb pollen indicating further deterioration of conditions and a

  10. New host and distributional records for Cryptosporidium sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) from lizards (Sauria: Gekkonidae, Scincidae) from the Cook Islands and Vanuatu, South Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Between 1991 and 1993, 295 lizards, comprising 21 species in 2 families (Gekkonidae, Scincidae) from the Cook Islands, Fiji, Palau, Takapoto, and Vanuatu in the South Pacific, were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Only 6 lizards (2%) were found to be passing Cryptosporidium oocysts in their feces, including 2 of 30 (7%) Oceania geckos, Gehyra oceanica, from Rarotonga, Cook Islands, and 4 of 26 (15%) Pacific blue-tailed skinks, Emoia caeruleocauda, from Efate Island, Vanuatu. This represents the largest survey for Cryptosporidium in Pacific island lizards, and we document 2 new host and 2 new locality records for this parasite genus.

  11. Rapid landscape transformation in South Island, New Zealand, following initial Polynesian settlement

    PubMed Central

    McWethy, David B.; Whitlock, Cathy; Wilmshurst, Janet M.; McGlone, Matt S.; Fromont, Mairie; Li, Xun; Dieffenbacher-Krall, Ann; Hobbs, William O.; Fritz, Sherilyn C.; Cook, Edward R.

    2010-01-01

    Humans have altered natural patterns of fire for millennia, but the impact of human-set fires is thought to have been slight in wet closed-canopy forests. In the South Island of New Zealand, Polynesians (Māori), who arrived 700–800 calibrated years (cal y) ago, and then Europeans, who settled ∼150 cal y ago, used fire as a tool for forest clearance, but the structure and environmental consequences of these fires are poorly understood. High-resolution charcoal and pollen records from 16 lakes were analyzed to reconstruct the fire and vegetation history of the last 1,000 y. Diatom, chironomid, and element concentration data were examined to identify disturbance-related limnobiotic and biogeochemical changes within burned watersheds. At most sites, several high-severity fire events occurred within the first two centuries of Māori arrival and were often accompanied by a transformation in vegetation, slope stability, and lake chemistry. Proxies of past climate suggest that human activity alone, rather than unusually dry or warm conditions, was responsible for this increased fire activity. The transformation of scrub to grassland by Europeans in the mid-19th century triggered further, sometimes severe, watershed change, through additional fires, erosion, and the introduction of nonnative plant species. Alteration of natural disturbance regimes had lasting impacts, primarily because native forests had little or no previous history of fire and little resilience to the severity of burning. Anthropogenic burning in New Zealand highlights the vulnerability of closed-canopy forests to novel disturbance regimes and suggests that similar settings may be less resilient to climate-induced changes in the future. PMID:21149690

  12. Retrogradational fluvio-paralic coal-forming environments, South Island, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, R.M. ); Sykes, R. )

    1990-06-01

    The West Coast Region of South Island, New Zealand, records Paleogene history of peneplanation, fluvio-paralic aggradation, and marine transgression. At Buller coalfield, Eocene Brunner coal measures rest unconformably on Paleozoic to Cretaceous basement rocks and interfinger upward with Eocene, marine Kaiata Formation. During Eocene, rising sea level controlled the architecture of fluvio-paralic deposits and strongly influenced the origin and properties of Brunner coals. The Brunner coal measures contain as much as 40-ft thick, high to low volatile bituminous coal beds with 0.5-16% ash and 1-9% sulfur that is greatest in the upper coal beds. The Brunner can be divided informally into lower and upper coal measures. The lower coal measures are dominated by pebble conglomerates and multierosional, trough-crossbedded conglomeratic sandstones; the upper coal measures by stacked, multilateral, trough crossbedded, granular sandstones with subordinate siltstones and mudstones. Bioturbated sandstones with brackish-marine Ophiomorpha-like trace fossils are common in the upper coal measures. The lower coal measures were deposited in exhumed paleovalleys of the peneplain surface. These valleys, as deep as 50 ft, were initially aggraded by gravelly braided streams. Raised bogs formed in abandoned braid valleys and extended onto surrounding basement highs. The upper coal measures were deposited in sandy bedload, meandering streams with paralic wave-reworked deltas, and attached barriers. Peat bogs in the paralic environments accumulated thin coals, whereas bogs that developed on abandoned meander ridges formed thick, lenticular coals. Sea-level rise resulted in inundation introducing sulfur into the peat and resulted in high sinuosity fluvial architecture. Gradual incursion of brackish-marine waters favored bioturbation of paralic sediments along retrograding coastlines.

  13. Coral reefs as buffers during the 2009 South Pacific tsunami, Upolu Island, Samoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAdoo, Brian G.; Ah-Leong, Joyce Samuelu; Bell, Lui; Ifopo, Pulea; Ward, Juney; Lovell, Edward; Skelton, Posa

    2011-07-01

    The coral reef bordering the coastline of Samoa affected by the 29 September 2009 tsunami provides a variety of ecosystem services — from nurseries for fisheries and inshore source of food for local communities, to aesthetics for tourists, and the width of the lagoon may have been a factor in reducing the onshore wave height. To understand the complex interactions between the onshore human population and the offshore coral, we formed an interdisciplinary survey team to document the effects the tsunami had on the nearshore coral reef, and how these changes might affect local inhabitants. The scale of reef damage varied from severe, where piles of freshly-killed coral fragments and mortality were present, to areas that exhibited little impact, despite being overrun by the tsunami. We found that many coral colonies were impacted by tsunami-entrained coral debris, which had been ripped up and deposited on the fore reef by repeated cyclones and storm waves. In other places, large surface area tabular coral sustained damage as the tsunami velocity increased as it was funneled through channels. Areas that lacked debris entrained by the waves as well as areas in the lee of islands came through relatively unscathed, with the exception of the delicate corals that lived on a sandy substrate. In the lagoon on the south coast with its steep topography, coral colonies were damaged by tsunami-generated debris from onshore entrained in the backwash. Despite the potential for severe tsunami-related damage, there were no noticeable decreases in live coral cover between successive surveys at two locations, although algal cover was higher with the increased nutrients mobilized by the tsunami. While there was an immediate decrease in fish takes in the month following the tsunami, when supporting services were likely impacted, both volume and income have rapidly increased to pre-tsunami levels. Long-term monitoring should be implemented to determine if nursery services were

  14. Provenance analysis of the Oligocene turbidites (Andaman Flysch), South Andaman Island: A geochemical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandopadhyay, P. C.; Ghosh, Biswajit

    2015-07-01

    The Oligocene-aged sandstone-shale turbidites of the Andaman Flysch are best exposed along the east coast of the South Andaman Island. Previously undocumented sandstone-shale geochemistry, investigated here, provides important geochemical constraints on turbidite provenance. The average 70.75 wt% SiO2, 14.52 wt% Al2O3, 8.2 wt% FeMgO and average 0.20 Al2O3/SiO2 and 1.08 K2O/Na2O ratios in sandstones, compare with quartzwackes. The shale samples have average 59.63 wt% SiO2, 20.29 wt% Al2O3, 12.63 wt% FeMgO and average 2.42 K2O/Na2O and 0.34 Al2O3/SiO2 ratios. Geochemical data on CaO-Na2O-K2O diagram fall close to a granite field and on K2O/Na2O-SiO2 diagram within an active continental margin tectonic setting. The range and average values of Rb and Rb/Sr ratios are consistent with acid-intermediate igneous source rocks, while the values and ratios for Cr and Ni are with mafic rocks. Combined geochemical, petrographic and palaeocurrent data indicate a dominantly plutonic-metamorphic provenance with a lesser contribution from sedimentary and volcanic source, which is possibly the Shan-Thai continental block and volcanic arc of the north-eastern and eastern Myanmar. Chemical index of alteration (CIA) values suggests a moderate range of weathering of a moderate relief terrane under warm and humid climate.

  15. Steroids in marine aquaculture farms surrounding Hailing Island, South China: occurrence, bioconcentration, and human dietary exposure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan; Chen, Hui; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Sun, Kai-Feng; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence, bioconcentration, and human dietary exposure via seafood consumption of 24 steroids were investigated by rapid resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS) in six typical marine aquaculture farms surrounding Hailing Island, South China. Ten, 9, 10, 15 of 24 steroids were detected at concentrations ranging from <0.1 (testosterone) to 40 ng/L (prednisolone), from 0.1 (4-androstene-3,17-dione) to 2.4 ng/g (progesterone), from 0.3 ng/g (testosterone) to 21.4 ng/g (epi-androsterone), and from <0.1 (testosterone) to 560 ng/g (cortisol) (wet weight) in the water, sediment, feed and biota samples, respectively. Synthetic steroids (androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione, 17α-boldenone, 17β-boldenone, 17β-trenbolone, prednisolone, norgestrel) were detected in the feed samples, clearly demonstrating the illegal use of steroids in the feed. The field bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of steroids calculated in different aquatic organisms ranged from 93.8 to 4000. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of androgens, glucocorticoids, and progestagens via consumption of seafood (i.e., shrimps, crabs, mollusks, and fish) for different age groups were in the range of 33.4-134, 2061-8566, and 40.4-155 ng/d for children (2-5 years), youth (6-18 years), and adults (>18 years), respectively. Even though no significant risk from dietary exposure arises from individual steroid, elevated risk to humans can result from the occurrence of multiple steroids in the seafood raised in the aquaculture farms, especially for the sensitive populations, such as pregnant women and children.

  16. Rapid landscape transformation in South Island, New Zealand, following initial Polynesian settlement.

    PubMed

    McWethy, David B; Whitlock, Cathy; Wilmshurst, Janet M; McGlone, Matt S; Fromont, Mairie; Li, Xun; Dieffenbacher-Krall, Ann; Hobbs, William O; Fritz, Sherilyn C; Cook, Edward R

    2010-12-14

    Humans have altered natural patterns of fire for millennia, but the impact of human-set fires is thought to have been slight in wet closed-canopy forests. In the South Island of New Zealand, Polynesians (Māori), who arrived 700-800 calibrated years (cal y) ago, and then Europeans, who settled ∼150 cal y ago, used fire as a tool for forest clearance, but the structure and environmental consequences of these fires are poorly understood. High-resolution charcoal and pollen records from 16 lakes were analyzed to reconstruct the fire and vegetation history of the last 1,000 y. Diatom, chironomid, and element concentration data were examined to identify disturbance-related limnobiotic and biogeochemical changes within burned watersheds. At most sites, several high-severity fire events occurred within the first two centuries of Māori arrival and were often accompanied by a transformation in vegetation, slope stability, and lake chemistry. Proxies of past climate suggest that human activity alone, rather than unusually dry or warm conditions, was responsible for this increased fire activity. The transformation of scrub to grassland by Europeans in the mid-19th century triggered further, sometimes severe, watershed change, through additional fires, erosion, and the introduction of nonnative plant species. Alteration of natural disturbance regimes had lasting impacts, primarily because native forests had little or no previous history of fire and little resilience to the severity of burning. Anthropogenic burning in New Zealand highlights the vulnerability of closed-canopy forests to novel disturbance regimes and suggests that similar settings may be less resilient to climate-induced changes in the future.

  17. Nitropelagi marinus gen. nov., sp. nov., Isolated From Seawater, Je-bu island, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sun Hwan; Lee, Sang Seob

    2016-09-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-spore forming, non-motile and aerobic strain, designated JB22(T), was isolated from seawater, Je-bu Island, South Korea. Strain JB22(T) was catalase and oxidase positive. Optimal growth of JB22(T) was observed at 30 °C and pH 7.0. NaCl tolerance range was 1-9 % (w/v) with an optimum of 2.0 % concentration. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain JB22(T) showed the highest sequence similarity to those of Pelagicola litorisediminis D1-W8(T) (95.8 %), Roseovarius litoreus GSW-M15(T) (95.2 %), Roseovarius aestuarii SMK-122(T) (95.0 %), Donghicola eburmeus SW-277(T) (95.0 %), and Roseovarius halotolerans HJ50(T) (94.9 %). It contained ubiquine-10 as the major respiratory quinone and C18:1 ω7c (69.3 %), :0 (9.9 %), C18:1 ω7c 11-methyl (9.6 %) as the major fatty acid. The polar lipid profile included phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, and unidentified aminolipid. The DNA G+C content of the strain JB22(T) was 47 mol  %. Based on physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain JB22(T) should be regarded as a new genus of the family Rhodobacteraceae, for which the Nitropelagi marinus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JB22(T) (= KEMB 3001-101(T) = JCM 30822(T)).

  18. Abundance and size patterns of echinoderms in coastal soft-bottoms at Deception Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angulo-Preckler, Carlos; Tuya, Fernando; Avila, Conxita

    2017-04-01

    Deception Island is an active volcano in Antarctic waters under high sedimentation regimes, which may affect the abundance and structure of soft-bottom assemblages. During the summer of 2012-2013, a survey of the shallow water soft-bottom assemblages of Deception Island was carried out to examine patterns of abundance and size structure of the three dominant echinoderms (Ophionotus victoriae, Sterechinus neumayeri and Odontaster validus) at 8 locations encompassing a gradient in proximity from the open ocean, including two depths (5 vs. 15 m) per location. Abundance patterns of the three species varied with depth; organisms were typically more abundant at 15 relative to 5 m depth. Our results partially supported the hypothesis that echinoderms from locations adjacent to the open ocean present larger abundances. Body sizes varied significantly among locations and depths for the three species and some places presented a density-size pattern. High sedimentation rates, combined with low ice-related disturbance, may be the reason behind the large abundances of echinoderms found in this waters.

  19. Morphological characterization of coral reefs by combining lidar and MBES data: A case study from Yuanzhi Island, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Yang, Fanlin; Zhang, Hande; Su, Dianpeng; Li, QianQian

    2017-06-01

    The correlation between seafloor morphological features and biological complexity has been identified in numerous recent studies. This research focused on the potential for accurate characterization of coral reefs based on high-resolution bathymetry from multiple sources. A standard deviation (STD) based method for quantitatively characterizing terrain complexity was developed that includes robust estimation to correct for irregular bathymetry and a calibration for the depth-dependent variablity of measurement noise. Airborne lidar and shipborne sonar bathymetry measurements from Yuanzhi Island, South China Sea, were merged to generate seamless high-resolution coverage of coral bathymetry from the shoreline to deep water. The new algorithm was applied to the Yuanzhi Island surveys to generate maps of quantitive terrain complexity, which were then compared to in situ video observations of coral abundance. The terrain complexity parameter is significantly correlated with seafloor coral abundance, demonstrating the potential for accurately and efficiently mapping coral abundance through seafloor surveys, including combinations of surveys using different sensors.

  20. Methyl mercury concentrations in edible fish and shellfish from Dunedin, and other regions around the South Island, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Sadhu, Ashish K; Kim, Jonathan P; Furrell, Hamish; Bostock, Ben

    2015-12-15

    Methyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations were determined in edible fish and shellfish available in local markets in Dunedin, New Zealand. While most of the fish species were sourced in Dunedin, some specimens of fish were also collected from waters off Picton, around Stewart Island and also off-shore of the South Island in the Puysegur and Subantarctic regions. The concentrations of MeHg were analysed in 25 different fish species and shellfish (103 muscle tissue samples). Total mercury (HgT) levels were also analysed in a few (n=12) selected fish samples. Most of the Hg was in the form of MeHg (≥ 96%). Higher MeHg concentrations were found in fish at higher trophic levels, particularly in predatory fish species such as ling, school shark, spiny dogfish and albacore tuna. Concentrations of MeHg in all samples ranged from 0.002 to 2.515 μg MeHg/g.

  1. Trace elements (Cu, Zn, and Hg) and δ13C/δ15N in seabird subfossils from three islands of the South China Sea and its implications.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liqiang; Liu, Xiaodong; Nie, Yaguang

    2016-05-01

    Seabird subfossils were collected on three islands of the Xisha Archipelago, South China Sea. Via elemental analysis, we identified that bird guano was a significant source for heavy metals Cu, Zn, and Hg. Cu and Zn levels in these guano samples are comparable to their levels in wildbird feces, but guano Hg was lower than previously reported. Trophic positions significantly impacted transfer efficiency of heavy metals by seabirds. Despite of a common source, trace elements, as well as stable isotopes (i.e., guano δ(13)C and collagen δ(15)N), showed island-specific characteristics. Bird subfossils on larger island had relatively greater metal concentrations and revealed higher trophic positions. Partition of element and isotope levels among the islands suggested that transfer efficacy of seabirds on different islands was different, and bird species were probably unevenly distributed among the islets. Island area is possibly a driving factor for distributions of seabird species.

  2. Developing hydrological monitoring system based on HF radar for islands and reefs in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Shi, P.; Chen, J.; Zhu, Y.; Li, B.

    2016-12-01

    There are many islands (or reefs) in the South China Sea. The hydrological properties (currents and waves) around the islands are highly spatially variable compared to those of coastal region of mainland, because the shorelines are more complex with much smaller scale, and the topographies are step-shape with a much sharper slope. The currents and waves with high spatial variations may destroy the buildings or engineering on shorelines, or even influence the structural stability of reefs. Therefore, it is necessary to establish monitoring systems to obtain the high-resolution hydrological information. This study propose a plan for developing a hydrological monitoring system based on HF radar on the shoreline of a typical island in the southern South China Sea: firstly, the HF radar are integrated with auxiliary equipment (such as dynamo, fuel tank, air conditioner, communication facilities) in a container to build a whole monitoring platform; synchronously, several buoys are set within the radar visibility for data calibration and validation; and finally, the current and wave observations collected by the HF radar are assimilated with numerical models to obtain long-term and high-precision reanalysis products. To test the feasibility of this plan, our research group has built two HF radar sites at the western coastal region of Guangdong Province. The collected data were used to extract surface current information and assimilated with an ocean model. The results show that the data assimilation can highly improve the surface current simulation, especially for typhoon periods. Continuous data with intervals between 6 and 12 hour are the most suitable for ideal assimilations. On the other hand, the test also reveal that developing similar monitoring system on island environments need advanced radars that have higher resolutions and a better performance for persistent work.

  3. Ship-wave-shaped wave clouds induced by the Crozet Islands, south Indian Ocean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    There are special places on Earth that sometimes write their personal signature in the clouds. The Crozet Islands are one such place, thanks to the tall volcanic peaks that grace the islands. When air flows around these tall peaks, it gets pushed around the islands as well as up and over the peak. The net effect of the flowing air flowing around the solid, tall peaks is much like the solid bow of a ship cutting through standing water. In each case v-shaped waves are formed behind the motion. In liquid, this is called a wake; in the atmosphere, when clouds are present or created, they are known as ship-wave-shaped clouds. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA’s Terra satellite captured this true-color image as it passed over the Crozet Islands on November 26, 2014. Three distinct waves are seen behind the three largest islands. From west to east these are Pig Island, Possession Island and East Island. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  4. New data on the Late Pleistocene and Holocene glacial, climate and relative sea-level changes at Fildes Peninsula, King George Island (South Shetlands Islands, West Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkulich, Sergey; Pushina, Zina; Tatur, Andrej

    2010-05-01

    New data on the Late Pleistocene and Holocene glacial, climate and relative sea-level changes at Fildes Peninsula, King George Island (South Shetlands Islands, West Antarctica) Verkulich S. R. (Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia) Pushina Z.V. (Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia) Tatur A. (Department of Antarctic Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland) During the 2008-2009 austral summer, co-operative Russian - Polish paleogeographical investigations allowed to refine the understanding of the past environmental events at Fildes Peninsula, King George Island. Old marine deposits (ca. 30000 yrs BP) with shells, whale bones and marine algae in situ were found in the western coastal and northern inland territories at the altitudes of 20-40 m a.s.l. that evidences the covering of considerable part of the peninsula by relatively warm sea waters before the Last Glacial Maximum. Quite good preservation of these deposits supposes relatively small thickness and weak erosional potential of ice masses overlying the area during the LGM. The early Holocene phase of the peninsula deglaciation was caused by both climate warming and marine transgression, which left the deposits with fossil flora and fauna at heights up to 15 m a.s.l. (maximum rise of the relative sea-level 7000-8000 yrs BP). During the middle Holocene, glacier contraction in the area continued (on the whole) due to mainly favorable climatic conditions. The presence of marine and terrestrial deposit blocks (with shells, algae, mosses) in moraine ridges on the surface of Collins Ice Cap signifies that this glacier could vanish from the peninsula during climate optimum (ca. 4000-3000 yrs BP). The processes of new formation and growth of the ice cap started probably ca. 2000 yrs BP; within the last 1000 years the limited advance of the glacier occurred (likely corresponding to the Little Ice Age), and was replaced then by modern process of its decay.

  5. Reproductive strategies of the kangaroo leech, Marsupiobdella africana (Glossiphoniidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Natasha; Du Preez, Louis

    2015-01-01

    The Kangaroo Leech, Marsupiobdella africana, is a hermaphroditic organism, with insemination taking place by the planting of a spermatophore on another leech. Spermatophores are mostly planted on the anterior of the recipient leech, but not always. Several spermatophores may be planted by different leeches on a single recipient. The spermatophore consists of two side by side lobes. Within minutes from planting of the spermatophore, the contents are squeezed out and into the body of the recipient. Sperm are believed to find the way to the ova by following chemical cues. Kangaroo Leeches display advanced parental care by transferring fertilized eggs from the reproductive opening to a brood pouch on the ventral side. Fully developed leeches may copulate after detaching from the amphibian host Xenopus laevis, or from the Cape River Crab Potamonautes perlatus with which it maintains a phoretic association. PMID:25830114

  6. Peters anomaly in a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus).

    PubMed

    Suedmeyer, Wm Kirk; Pearce, Jacqueline; Persky, Meredith; Houck, Marlys L

    2014-09-01

    A 10-mo-old female red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) presented with a unilateral congenital corneal opacity OD. Complete ophthalmic examination revealed a shallow anterior chamber and a focal area of corneal edema with multiple persistent pupillary membranes extending from the iris colarette to the corneal endothelium adjacent to the edematous area of cornea. High-resolution B-scan ultrasound of the anterior segment showed an area consistent with thinning of Descemet's membrane in the area of corneal edema. Ophthalmic examination and ultrasound findings are consistent with a diagnosis of Peters anomaly, a form of anterior segment dysgenesis. An electroretinogram performed on the affected animal did not reveal any specific abnormalities. Karyotype analyses revealed a normal diploid number (2n = 20, -XX), with an abnormal pericentric inversion in the second largest chromosomal pair. The kangaroo exhibits mild compensated vision deficits in the affected eye. The maternal and paternal adult pairing has been discontinued in an effort to prevent future offspring anomalies.

  7. Persistent organic pollutants in blood samples of Southern Giant Petrels (Macronectes giganteus) from the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Colabuono, Fernanda I; Vander Pol, Stacy S; Huncik, Kevin M; Taniguchi, Satie; Petry, Maria V; Kucklick, John R; Montone, Rosalinda C

    2016-09-01

    Seabirds play an important role as top consumers in the food web and can be used as biomonitors of exposure to pollutants. Contamination studies involving non-destructive sampling methods are of considerable importance, allowing better evaluation of the levels of pollutants and their toxic effects. In the present study, organohalogen contaminants were analyzed in 113 blood samples from Southern Giant Petrel (Macronectes giganteus) adults and chicks collected in the austral summer of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 from colonies on Elephant and Livingston Islands, South Shetland, Antarctica. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), mirex, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroetane and derivatives (DDTs) and chlordanes were detected in all birds, whereas polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were not detected in any blood samples. No significant differences were found in organochlorine levels between sampling events. Adults exhibited significantly higher levels than chicks, except for PeCB. PCBs, HCB, mirex and DDTs were statistically similar in males and females from Elephant Island. Females on Livingston Island exhibited higher HCB values than males, but no sex differences were found regarding other organochlorines. The similarity in organochlorine levels between sexes in birds with very marked sexual segregation in feeding habits during the breeding season may indicate that significant amounts of contaminants are acquired during migration to lower latitudes, when the diets of males and females are similar. Birds sampled on Livingston Island exhibited significantly lower levels of PCBs, HCB, DDTs, mirex and chlordanes in comparison to those on Elephant Island, which could be the result of distinct foraging patterns between the two colonies. Organochlorine levels were similar between years in birds captured in two consecutive breeding seasons. Blood samples from Southern Giant Petrels adults and chicks proved to be useful for the comparison

  8. Distribution of pilus islands of group B streptococcus associated with maternal colonization and invasive disease in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Madzivhandila, Mashudu; Adrian, Peter V; Cutland, Clare L; Kuwanda, Locadiah; Madhi, Shabir A

    2013-02-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal sepsis. Sortase-dependent pilus-like structures have been identified on the surface of GBS, and have been found to be important in the adhesion and attachment of GBS to host cells. Three pilus island alleles, PI-1, PI-2a and PI-2b, have been described, and their proteins are being explored as vaccine candidates. The pilus islands from 541 colonization isolates and 284 invasive isolates were characterized by PCR. All isolates carried at least one pilus island, and they were identified alone or in combinations at the following overall frequencies: PI-2a, 29.8 %; PI-2b, 0.2 %; PI-1+PI-2a, 24.8 %; and PI-1+PI-2b, 45.1 %. A combination of PI-1+PI-2a (28.7 vs 17.6 %) was more common among colonizing compared with invasive isolates. Conversely, a combination of PI-1+PI-2b (37.2 vs 60.2 %) was more frequently associated with invasive disease compared to colonization. There was a strong association between pilus islands when adjusted for serotype distribution, PI-2a was identified in 92.6 % of colonizing and 90.0 % of invasive serotype Ia isolates, whereas serotype III was associated with co-expression of a PI-1 and PI-2b among 84.6 % of colonizing and 96.5 % of invasive isolates. Based on this homogeneity of pilus island distribution, a pilus-based vaccine developed for Europe and the USA will have similar coverage in South Africa.

  9. Spatial distributions of earthquake-induced landslides and hillslope preconditioning in northwest South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, R. N.; Hancox, G. T.; Petley, D. N.; Massey, C. I.; Densmore, A. L.; Rosser, N. J.

    2015-01-01

    Current models to explain regional-scale landslide events are not able to account for the possible effects of the legacy of previous earthquakes, which have triggered landslides in the past and are known to drive damage accumulation in brittle hillslope materials. This paper tests the hypothesis that spatial distributions of earthquake-induced landslides are determined by both the conditions at the time of the triggering earthquake (time-independent factors), and also the legacy of past events (time-dependent factors). To explore this, we undertake an analysis of failures triggered by the 1929 Buller and 1968 Inangahua earthquakes, in the northwest South Island of New Zealand. The spatial extent of landslides triggered by these events was in part coincident (overlapping). Spatial distributions of earthquake-triggered landslides are determined by a combination of earthquake and local characteristics, which influence the dynamic response of hillslopes. To identify the influence of a legacy from past events, we use logistic regression to control for the effects of time-independent variables (seismic ground motion, hillslope gradient, lithology, and the effects of topographic amplification caused by ridge- and slope-scale topography), in an attempt to reveal unexplained variability in the landslide distribution. We then assess whether this variability can be attributed to the legacy of past events. Our results suggest that the 1929 Buller earthquake influenced the distribution of landslides triggered by the 1968 Inangahua earthquake. Hillslopes in regions that experienced strong ground motions in 1929 were more likely to fail in 1968 than would be expected on the basis of time-independent factors alone. This effect is consistent with our hypothesis that unfailed hillslopes in the 1929 earthquake were weakened by damage accumulated during this earthquake and its associated aftershock sequence, and this weakening then influenced the performance of the landscape in the

  10. Integrated assessment of phosphorus in the Lake Hayes catchment, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, B. S.

    2000-04-01

    This study illustrates an integrated watershed-based approach for assessment of phosphorus (P) in the Lake Hayes catchment in the South Island of New Zealand. Spatial and temporal variability of total (TP) and dissolved reactive P (DRP) concentrations and loadings were evaluated at key locations including inflow to, within, and outflow from the lake, and in tributaries. Particulate P was the dominant form, and TP was highly correlated with suspended solids. Equivalence tests were used to evaluate differences in TP concentrations among locations and showed differences ≥20% between only two streams. Differences between other locations were not as large but some were still significant. Concentrations were highest at the lake inflow (mean=0.065 and maximum=0.614 mg l-1), and values at the lake surface were low but increased with depth. The lower half of the catchment had the greatest specific TP loading (25.2 g km-2 day-1) and the overall loading at the lake inflow was 13.2 g km-2 day-1. Temporal variability, particularly during a storm, was evaluated in detail at the lake inflow. Seasonality in concentrations for the group of stations was not evident, but values at Fish Trap increased considerably during the storm (81 540 g day-1). Baseflow, snowmelt, and one storm accounted for 47, 30 and 23%, respectively, of the total annual loading. Evaluation of data attributes was performed to assist with interpretation of results and showed that the data were very right-skewed and there was considerable uncertainty. Evaluation of groundwater quality data provided information on potential P sources to and losses from surface water and suggested that P enters groundwater in the upper catchment and is discharged to surface water in the lower reaches. Although concentrations exceeded aquatic ecosystem guidelines in several locations, assessment of aquatic biota suggested that they are not limiting stream benthic communities or causing algal blooms in recent years. The

  11. Potential earthquake triggering in a complex fault network: the northern South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Russell

    2004-11-01

    A synthetic seismicity computer model of multiple, interacting faults has been used to investigate potential earthquake triggering in the Alpine-Marlborough-Buller fault network, northern South Island, New Zealand. Of particular interest is whether large, characteristic earthquakes on the central 300-km-long segment of the Alpine fault (average recurrence time of 240 yr) might trigger events to the north and northeast, possible temporal clustering of other large events and stress shadows. The synthetic seismicity model generates long, homogeneous catalogues that sample a wide range of possible stress interactions and stress states allowing statistical analysis. The catalogues used here include ~1500 central Alpine fault events of M >= 7.8 and approximately 2 000 000 other events of magnitudes down to 4.8. These other events occur on four additional segments of the Alpine fault, on 30 segments of the major Marlborough and Buller faults and on 4650 randomly distributed smaller faults. The synthetic seismicity model is of the quasi-static type, governed by the Coulomb failure criterion, with extensions to better account for rupture propagation and fault healing. True rate and state friction and viscoelastic relaxation are not yet included. Mechanical properties are adjusted so that most events rupture an entire fault segment, i.e. the faults behave characteristically. The regional b-value of ~1 thus arises mainly from the fault size distribution. The driving mechanism and fault properties are iteratively adjusted so that the resulting long-term slip rates, single event displacements and recurrence times match the observed, real world values. The major results are as follows. (i) Large Alpine fault earthquakes, M >= 7.8, on the central segment, have recurrence times with a broad distribution, from 81 to 601 yr (average 234 yr). (ii) The regional moment release rate is constant over periods of ~1000 yr, but is quite variable on scales of a few hundred years. (iii) Large

  12. Glaciomarine sedimentation and landforms in Admiralty Bay, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrani, Fabio; Ayres Neto, Arthur; Vieira, Rosemary

    2015-04-01

    This work consists on the integration and interpretation of high-resolution seismic profiles, geological sampling and multibeam bathymetry in order to analyze and understand the evolution of the deglaciation of Admiralty Bay, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Data were obtained from three expeditions to Antarctica between 2009 and 2013, totaling 500 km of seismic lines and five geological cores. The characterization of the bottom geology was performed by analyzing the echocharacters and the sedimentary thickness of the glaciomarine deposits. Its correlation with the collected samples provided interpretation of the depositional paleoenvironments, allowing the reconstruction and evolution of the glaciers since the LGM and the recognition of glaciomarine processes. Multibeam bathymetry also provided records of submarine landforms related to glacial events and changes in positions of glaciers in the region. In this way, we ought to answer the question: which glaciomarine records are present in Admiralty Bay that can broaden our understanding of the evolution of its deglaciation during the advances and retreats of glaciers that once dominated the fjord, and its sedimentary processes? Four different echocharacters have been identified. Echoes I and II show good resolution and are characterized by continuous and sharp echoes with sub-parallel reflections and the presence of glaciomarine muds. Very prolonged echoes and absence of sub-parallel reflectors characterizes Echoes III and IV. Eco III is associated with the shallower portions of the bay, with little sediment thickness, sandier content and presence of ice rafted debris. Eco IV is associated with morainical banks and grounding zones. Seabed landform features show that the region experienced major glacial advance, with subsequent rapid retreat of the glaciers in the deeper parts of the fjord, followed by slower retreat, with the presence of several recessional moraines in the

  13. Sources, Fluxes, and Effects of Fluids in the Alpine Fault Zone, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzies, C. D.; Teagle, D. A. H.; Niedermann, S.; Cox, S.; Craw, D.; Zimmer, M.; Cooper, M. J.; Erzinger, J.

    2015-12-01

    Historic ruptures on some plate boundary faults occur episodically. Fluids play a key role in modifying the chemical and physical properties of fault zones, which may prime them for repeated rupture by the generation of high pore fluid pressures. Modelling of fluid loss rates from fault zones has led to estimates of fluid fluxes required to maintain overpressure (Faulkner and Rutter, 2001), but fluid sources and fluxes, and permeability evolution in fault zones remain poorly constrained. High mountains in orogenic belts can drive meteoric water to the middle crust, and metamorphic water is generated during rock dehydration. Additionally, fluids from the mantle are transported into the crust when fluid pathways are created by tectonism or volcanism. Here we use geochemical tracers to determine fluid flow budgets for meteoric, metamorphic and mantle fluids at a major compressional tectonic plate boundary. The Alpine Fault marks the transpressional Pacific-Australian plate boundary through South Island of New Zealand, it has historically produced large earthquakes (Mw ~8) and is late in its 329±68 year seismic cycle, having last ruptured in 1717. We present strontium isotope ratios of hot springs and hydrothermal minerals that trace fluid flow paths in and around the Alpine Fault to illustrate that the fluid flow regime is restricted by low cross-fault permeability. Fluid-rock interaction limits cross-fault fluid flow by the precipitating clays and calcite that infill pore spaces and fractures in the Alpine Fault alteration zone. In contrast, helium isotopes ratios measured in hot springs near to the fault (0.15-0.81 RA) indicate the fault acts as a conduit for mantle fluids from below. Mantle fluid fluxes are similar to the San Andreas Fault (<1x10-5 m3m-2/yr) and insufficient to promote fault weakening. The metamorphic fluid flux is of similar magnitude to the mantle flux. The dominant fluid throughout the seismogenic zone is meteoric in origin (secondary mineral

  14. Health assessment for Rose Hill Regional Landfill, South Kingstown, Rhode Island, Region 1. CERCLIS No. RID980521025. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-18

    The Rose Hill Regional Landfill site, South Kingstown, Rhode Island, was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Part of this approximately 70-acre site is owned by the town of South Kingstown and part is owned by a private citizen. The site consists of three separate, inactive disposal areas--a solid waste landfill, a bulky waste disposal area, and a sewage sludge landfill. Disposal operations began in 1967 and ceased in 1983. Ground water has been affected; and municipal water has been extended to most residents in the vicinity of the site. As noted in the Human Exposure Pathways Section, human exposure to heavy metals and VOCs may occur and may have occurred in the past via ingestion of contaminated ground water.

  15. Crustal and upper mantle seismic structure of the Australian Plate, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melhuish, Anne; Holbrook, W. Steven; Davey, Fred; Okaya, David A.; Stern, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Seismic reflection and refraction data were collected west of New Zealand's South Island parallel to the Pacific-Australian Plate boundary. The obliquely convergent plate boundary is marked at the surface by the Alpine Fault, which juxtaposes continental crust of each plate. The data are used to study the crustal and uppermost mantle structure and provide a link between other seismic transects which cross the plate boundary. Arrival times of wide-angle reflected and refracted events from 13 recording stations are used to construct a 380-km long crustal velocity model. The model shows that, beneath a 2-4-km thick sedimentary veneer, the crust consists of two layers. The upper layer velocities increase from 5.4-5.9 km/s at the top of the layer to 6.3 km/s at the base of the layer. The base of the layer is mainly about 20 km deep but deepens to 25 km at its southern end. The lower layer velocities range from 6.3 to 7.1 km/s, and are commonly around 6.5 km/s at the top of the layer and 6.7 km/s at the base. Beneath the lower layer, the model has velocities of 8.2-8.5 km/s, typical of mantle material. The Mohorovicic discontinuity (Moho) therefore lies at the base of the second layer. It is at a depth of around 30 km but shallows over the south-central third of the profile to about 26 km, possibly associated with a southwest dipping detachment fault. The high, variable sub-Moho velocities of 8.2 km/s to 8.5 km/s are inferred to result from strong upper mantle anisotropy. Multichannel seismic reflection data cover about 220 km of the southern part of the modelled section. Beneath the well-layered Oligocene to recent sedimentary section, the crustal section is broadly divided into two zones, which correspond to the two layers of the velocity model. The upper layer (down to about 7-9 s two-way travel time) has few reflections. The lower layer (down to about 11 s two-way time) contains many strong, subparallel reflections. The base of this reflective zone is the Moho. Bi

  16. Geothermal potential of Ascension Island, south Atlantic. Phase I. Preliminary examination

    SciTech Connect

    Sibbett, B.S.; Neilson, D.L.; Ramsthaler, J.H.; Shane, M.K.

    1982-09-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the potential for an economic geothermal resource at Ascension Island was completed. It is concluded that there is a high potential for the presence of a geothermal resource under the Island. A conceptual plant has been designed assuming the resource potential located near Gannet Hill is developed. A 7% discounted payback of 5.9 years was calculated for the baseline geothermal plant. Geothermal development can be easily integrated into the Ascension Island power system in that a selection of small, portable, skid mounted, turn key power geothermal generating systems are commercially available. Geologic findings and plant analysis are summarized.

  17. Factors controlling the geochemical composition of Limnopolar lake sediments (Byers Peninsula, South Shetland Island, Livingston Island, Antarctica) during the last ˜ 1600 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez Cortizas, A.; Rozas Muñiz, I.; Taboada, T.; Toro, M.; Granados, I.; Giralt, S.; Pla-Rabés, S.

    2014-03-01

    We sampled a short (57 cm) sediment core in Limnopolar Lake (Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, South Shetlands Islands), which spans the last ~ 1600 years. The core was sectioned at high resolution and analyzed for elemental and mineralogical composition, and SEM-EDS analysis of glass mineral particles in selected samples. The chemical record was characterized by a contrasted pattern of layers with high Ca, Ti, Zr, and Sr concentrations and layers with higher concentrations of K and Rb. The first also enriched in plagioclase and, occasionally, in zeolites, while the later were relatively enriched in 2:1 phyllosilicates and quartz. This was interpreted as reflecting the abundance of volcaniclastic material (Ca-rich) vs. Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous marine sediments (K-rich) - the dominant geological material in the lake catchment. SEM-EDS analysis revealed the presence of abundant volcanic shards in the Ca-rich layers, pointing to tephras most probably related to the activity of Deception Island volcano (located 30 km to the SE). The ages of the four main peaks of volcanic-rich material (AD ~ 1840-1860 for L1, AD ~ 1570-1650 for L2, AD ~ 1450-1470 for L3, and AD ~ 1300 for L4) matched reasonably well the age of tephra layers (AP1 to AP3) previously identified in lakes of Byers Peninsula. Some of the analyzed metals (Fe, Mn, Cu and Cr) showed enrichments in the most recent tephra layer (L1), suggesting relative changes in the composition of the tephras as found in previous investigations. No evidence of significant human impact on the cycles of most trace metals (Cu, Zn, Pb) was found, probably due to the remote location of Livingston Island and the modest research infrastructures - local contamination was found by other researchers in soils, waters and marine sediments on areas with large, permanent, research stations. Chromium is the only metal showing a steady enrichment in the last 200 years that could be interpreted as recent anthropogenic contamination. At the

  18. Factors controlling the geochemical composition of Limnopolar Lake sediments (Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, South Shetland Island, Antarctica) during the last ca. 1600 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez Cortizas, A.; Rozas Muñiz, I.; Taboada, T.; Toro, M.; Granados, I.; Giralt, S.; Pla-Rabés, S.

    2014-07-01

    We sampled a short (57 cm) sediment core in Limnopolar Lake (Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands), which spans the last ca. 1600 years. The core was sectioned at high resolution and analyzed for elemental and mineralogical composition, and scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS) analysis of glass mineral particles in selected samples. The chemical record was characterized by a contrasted pattern of layers with high Ca, Ti, Zr, and Sr concentrations and layers with higher concentrations of K and Rb. The former were also enriched in plagioclase and, occasionally, in zeolites, while the latter were relatively enriched in 2 : 1 phyllosilicates and quartz. This was interpreted as reflecting the abundance of volcaniclastic material (Ca rich) versus Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous marine sediments (K rich) - the dominant geological material in the lake catchment. SEM-EDS analysis revealed the presence of abundant volcanic shards in the Ca-rich layers, pointing to tephras most probably related to the activity of Deception Island volcano (located 30 km to the SE). The ages of four main peaks of volcanic-rich material (AD ca. 1840-1860 for L1, AD ca. 1570-1650 for L2, AD ca. 1450-1470 for L3, and AD ca. 1300 for L4) matched reasonably well the age of tephra layers (AP1 to AP3) previously identified in lakes of Byers Peninsula. Some of the analyzed metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, and Cr) showed enrichments in the most recent tephra layer (L1), suggesting relative changes in the composition of the tephras as found in previous investigations. No evidence of significant human impact on the cycles of most trace metals (Cu, Zn, Pb) was found, probably due to the remote location of Livingston Island and the modest research infrastructures; local contamination was found by other researchers in soils, waters and marine sediments on areas with large, permanent research stations. Chromium is the only metal showing a steady enrichment in the

  19. Growth and seismic hazard of the Montserrat anticline in the North Canterbury fold and thrust belt, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanderLeest, R. A.; Fisher, D. M.; Oakley, D. O. S.; Gardner, T. W.

    2017-08-01

    Fault-related fold growth is a seismic hazard in North Canterbury, New Zealand. The North Canterbury fold and thrust belt (NCFTB) is located at the southern end of the Hikurangi subduction zone, South Island, New Zealand where the Pacific plate transitions from subduction to transpression along the Alpine fault. Transpression causes shortening beneath the South Island, resulting in basement thrusts generating folds such as the Montserrat anticline. We focus on fault geometry and seismic hazard associated with this structure, exposed along the coast where Pleistocene marine terraces on the backlimb record tectonic uplift. To constrain parameters associated with evolution of this fault-related fold, we model the fold using several trishear kinematic models. A listric fault is most compatible with field and regional geophysical studies. Ages of marine terraces and inner edge elevations constrain uplift rate due to slip on the Glendhu fault to 1.1 ± 0.1 m(ka)-1. An ∼800 year recurrence interval is calculated for the Glendhu fault. Listric fault geometry lengthens the recurrence interval relative to other fault geometry models. An accurate understanding of subsurface fault geometry and kinematics is important for estimating seismic hazard in regions of fault-related folding such as the NCFTB because it affects recurrence interval estimations.

  20. Kangaroo rat bone compared to white rat bone after short-term disuse and exercise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, E.; Reichman, O. J.

    1996-01-01

    Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) were used to study the effects of confinement on mechanical properties of bone with a long range objective of proposing an alternative to the white rat model for the study of disuse osteoporosis. Kangaroo rats exhibit bipedal locomotion, which subjects their limbs to substantial accelerative forces in addition to the normal stress of weight bearing. We subjected groups of kangaroo rats and white rats (Rattus norvegicus) to one of two confinement treatments or to an exercise regime; animals were exercised at a rate calculated to replicate their (respective) daily exercise patterns. White laboratory rats were used as the comparison because they are currently the accepted model used in the study of disuse osteoporosis. After 6 weeks of treatment, rats were killed and the long bones of their hind limbs were tested mechanically and examined for histomorphometric changes. We found that kangaroo rats held in confinement had less ash content in their hind limbs than exercised kangaroo rats. In general, treated kangaroo rats showed morphometric and mechanical bone deterioration compared to controls and exercised kangaroo rats appeared to have slightly “stronger” bones than confined animals. White rats exhibited no significant differences between treatments. These preliminary results suggest that kangaroo rats may be an effective model in the study of disuse osteoporosis.

  1. Kangaroo rat bone compared to white rat bone after short-term disuse and exercise.

    PubMed

    Muths, E; Reichman, O J

    1996-08-01

    Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) were used to study the effects of confinement on mechanical properties of bone with a long range objective of proposing an alternative to the white rat model for the study of disuse osteoporosis. Kangaroo rats exhibit bipedal locomotion, which subjects their limbs to substantial accelerative forces in addition to the normal stress of weight bearing. We subjected groups of kangaroo rats and white rats (Rattus norvegicus) to one of two confinement treatments or to an exercise regime; animals were exercised at a rate calculated to replicate their (respective) daily exercise patterns. White laboratory rats were used as the comparison because they are currently the accepted model used in the study of disuse osteoporosis. After 6 weeks of treatment, rats were killed and the long bones of their hind limbs were tested mechanically and examined for histomorphometric changes. We found that kangaroo rats held in confinement had less ash content in their hind limbs than exercised kangaroo rats. In general, treated kangaroo rats showed morphometric and mechanical bone deterioration compared to controls and exercised kangaroo rats appeared to have slightly "stronger" bones than confined animals. White rats exhibited no significant differences between treatments. These preliminary results suggest that kangaroo rats may be an effective model in the study of disuse osteoporosis.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) with otitis.

    PubMed

    Okeson, Danelle M; Coke, Rob L; Kochunov, Peter; Davis, M Duff

    2008-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on an adult, male Red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) with a history of nonspecific neurologic signs and acute discharge from the left ear. MRI revealed findings consistent with otitis and possible osteomyelitis of the temporal and mastoid bones. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of otitis and MRI findings in a kangaroo.

  3. A Biophysical and Economic Profile of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands as Potential Large-Scale Antarctic Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Alex D; Yesson, Christopher; Gravestock, Pippa

    2015-01-01

    The current hiatus in the establishment of a network of marine protected areas (MPAs) in the Antarctic means that other routes to conservation are required. The protection of overseas territories in the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic represents one way to advance the initiation of such a network. This review of the physical and biological features of the United Kingdom (U.K.) overseas territories of South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands (SGSSI) is undertaken to estimate the importance of the islands in terms of marine conservation in the Southern Ocean and globally. The economy and management of SGSSI are also analysed, and the question of whether the islands already have sufficient protection to constitute part of an Antarctic network of MPAs is assessed. The SGSSI comprise unique geological and physical features, a diverse marine biota, including a significant proportion of endemic species and globally important breeding populations of marine predators. Regardless of past exploitation of biotic resources, such as seals, whales and finfish, SGSSI would make a significant contribution to biological diversity in an Antarctic network of MPAs. At present, conservation measures do not adequately protect all of the biological features that render the islands so important in terms of conservation at a regional and global level. However, a general lack of data on Antarctic marine ecosystems (particularly needed for SGSSSI) makes it difficult to assess this fully. One barrier to achieving more complete protection is the continuing emphasis on fishing effort in these waters by U.K. government. Other non-U.K. Antarctic overseas territories of conservation importance are also compromised as MPAs because of the exploitation of fisheries resources in their waters. The possible non-use values of SGSSI as well as the importance of ecosystem services that are indirectly used by people are outlined in this review. Technology is improving the potential for management of remote MPAs

  4. Occurrence of the diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin littoralis) at South Deer Island in Galveston Bay, Texas, April 2001-May 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hogan, Jennifer L.

    2003-01-01

    One-hundred thirty-five terrapins were captured (116 individuals, 19 recaptures) in occurrence and nesting and basking surveys at South Deer Island in Galveston Bay, Texas, during April 2001–May 2002. Along the southern shore of the island, terrapins were captured in crab traps placed in shallow water offshore; in the lagoon on the island, terrapins were captured by hand while walking along the shore. In the nesting and basking surveys, areas of the island with continuous patches of exposed shell typically were checked twice a day for nesting and basking terrapins, except during the last 2 months of the study, when more intensive monitoring was conducted. The occurrence surveys resulted in 119 terrapins captured in crab traps and nine captured by hand around the lagoon. The nesting and basking surveys yielded seven terrapins. Only one was nesting, although the nest is believed to be the first documented terrapin nest found in Texas. Three terrapins were captured swimming near shell beaches, and three more were captured basking on shell beaches. The most terrapins were captured during April–May 2001 and April–May 2002. Biometric data collected on terrapins captured showed size dimorphism on the basis of sex. The median female straight-line carapace length was 17.8 centimeters, 1.4 times larger than the median male carapace length, 13.1 centimeters. The median female mass was 1,021 grams, 2.9 times larger than the median male mass, 354 grams. Intra-specific variation occurred in the colorations and markings of terrapins captured. Anomalies - lesions, deformities, barnacles, and algae - were common among terrapins captured. Both lesions and deformities were more common among males than females. Dominant vegetation or substrate associated with terrapin habitat included saltwort, slender seapurslane, seabeach orache, shell, and woody debris.

  5. Final Report: Phase II Geothermal Exploration and Geothermal Power Plant Update for Ascension Island, South Atlantic Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, D.L.; Sibbett, B.S.; Shane, M.K.; Whitbeck, J.F.

    1984-07-01

    The Phase I study of the geothermal potential of Ascension Island concluded that the possibility of a geothermal resource existing under the island was excellent. This conclusion was based on the presence of young volcanic rocks (a heat source close to the surface), an ample supply of water from the sea, and high permeability of many of the rocks which make up the island. The assumption was made that the resource would be similar to geothermal systems in the Azores or Japan, and a conceptual design of a power plant to utilize the resource was prepared upon which cost estimates and an economic analysis were subsequently performed. The results of the economic analysis were very favorable, and the Air Force decided to proceed into Phase II of the project. Under Phase II, an exploration program was designed and carried out. The purpose of the program was to ascertain whether or not a geothermal resource existed beneath Ascension island and, to the extent possible, to evaluate the quality of that resource. The exploration involved a detailed aeromagnetic survey of the island, reconnaissance and detailed electrical resistivity surveys, and drilling of holes for the measurement of temperatures. These methods have confirmed the existence of geothermal activity beneath Ascension. Measured temperature gradients and bottom hole temperatures as well as chemical geothermometers indicate temperatures sufficient for the generation of electricity within reasonable drilling depths. This report documents those conclusions and the supporting data. This report also documents the results of the power plant update with new data supplied from the Phase II exploration activities on the island. The power plant scenario has been changed to reflect the fact that the resource temperature may not be as high as that originally assumed in the Phase I study, the location of the production wells will in all likelihood be farther from the existing Air Force facilities--either north of Grazing

  6. Emplacement mechanisms of the South Kona slide complex, Hawaii Island: Sampling and observations by remotely operated vehicle Kaiko

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yokose, H.; Lipman, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    Emplacement of a giant submarine slide complex, offshore of South Kona, Hawaii Island, was investigated in 2001 by visual observation and in-situ sampling on the bench scarp and a megablock, during two dives utilizing the Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Kaiko and its mother ship R/V Kairei. Topography of the bench scarp and megablocks were defined in 3-D perspective, using high-resolution digital bathymetric data acquired during the cruise. Compositions of 34 rock samples provide constraints on the landslide source regions and emplacement mechanisms. The bench scarp consists mainly of highly fractured, vesiculated, and oxidized a-a lavas that slumped from the subaerial flank of ancestral Mauna Loa. The megablock contains three units: block facies, matrix facies, and draped sediment. The block facies contains hyaloclastite interbedded with massive lava, which slid from the shallow submarine flank of ancestral Mauna Loa, as indicated by glassy groundmass of the hyaloclastite, low oxidation state, and low sulfur content. The matrix facies, which directly overlies the block facies and is similar to a lahar deposit, is thought to have been deposited from the water column immediately after the South Kona slide event. The draped sediment is a thin high-density turbidite layer that may be a distal facies of the Alika-2 debris-avalanche deposit; its composition overlaps with rocks from subaerial Mauna Loa. The deposits generated by the South Kona slide vary from debris avalanche deposit to turbidite. Spatial distribution of the deposits is consistent with deposits related to large landslides adjacent to other Hawaiian volcanoes and the Canary Islands. ?? Springer-Verlag 2004.

  7. Hydrogeology, water quality, and saltwater intrusion in the Upper Floridan Aquifer in the offshore area near Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, and Tybee Island, Georgia, 1999-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falls, W. Fred; Ransom, Camille; Landmeyer, James E.; Reuber, Eric J.; Edwards, Lucy E.

    2005-01-01

    To assess the hydrogeology, water quality, and the potential for saltwater intrusion in the offshore Upper Floridan aquifer, a scientific investigation was conducted near Tybee Island, Georgia, and Hilton Head Island, South Carolina. Four temporary wells were drilled at 7, 8, 10, and 15 miles to the northeast of Tybee Island, and one temporary well was drilled in Calibogue Sound west of Hilton Head Island. The Upper Floridan aquifer at the offshore and Calibogue sites includes the unconsolidated calcareous quartz sand, calcareous quartz sandstone, and sandy limestone of the Oligocene Lazaretto Creek and Tiger Leap Formations, and the limestone of the late Eocene Ocala Limestone and middle Avon Park Formation. At the 7-, 10-, and 15-mile sites, the upper confining unit between the Upper Floridan and surficial aquifers correlates to the Miocene Marks Head Formation. Paleochannel incisions have completely removed the upper confining unit at the Calibogue site and all but a 0.8-foot-thick interval of the confining unit at the 8-mile site, raising concern about the potential for saltwater intrusion through the paleochannel-fill sediments at these two sites. The paleochannel incisions at the Calibogue and 8-mile sites are filled with fine- and coarse-grained sediments, respectively. The hydrogeologic setting and the vertical hydraulic gradients at the 7- and 10-mile sites favored the absence of saltwater intrusion during predevelopment. After decades of onshore water use in Georgia and South Carolina, the 0-foot contour in the regional cone of depression of the Upper Floridan aquifer is estimated to have been at the general location of the 7- and 10-mile sites by the mid-1950s and at or past the 15-mile site by the 1980s. The upward vertical hydraulic gradient reversed, but the presence of more than 17 feet of upper confining unit impeded the downward movement of saltwater from the surficial aquifer to the Upper Floridan aquifer at the 7- and 10-mile sites. At the 10

  8. Late Quaternary loess landscape evolution on an active tectonic margin, Charwell Basin, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Matthew W.; Almond, Peter C.; Roering, Joshua J.; Tonkin, Philip J.

    2010-10-01

    Loess deposits constitute an important archive of aeolian deposition reflecting wider patterns of glacial atmospheric circulation, and more localised interactions between riverine source areas, loess trapping efficiency and geomorphic controls on erosion rate. Conceptual models have been formulated to explain the coeval evolution of loess mantles and associated landscapes (loess landscape models) but none apply to areas of tectonically induced base-level lowering. This study uses an age sequence of alluvial fill terraces in the Charwell Basin, north-eastern South Island New Zealand, which straddles the transpressive Hope Fault, to investigate geomorphic controls on loess landscape evolution in an active tectonic region. We hypothesize that the more evolved drainage networks on older terraces will more effectively propagate base-level lowering by way of a greater areal proportion of steep and convex hillslopes and a smaller proportion of non-eroding interfluves. Eventually, as the proportion of interfluves diminishes and hillslope convexity increases, terraces shift from being net loess accumulators to areas of net loess erosion. We investigate the nature of erosion and the geomorphic thresholds associated with this transition. Morphometric analysis of alluvial terraces and terrace remnants of increasing age demonstrated geomorphic evolution through time, with a decrease in extent of original planar terrace tread morphology and an increase in frequency of steeper slopes and convexo-concave land elements. The number of loess sheets and the thickness of loess increased across the three youngest terraces. The next oldest (ca. 150 ka) terrace remnant had the greatest maximum number of loess sheets (3) and loess thickness (8 m) but the loess mantle was highly variable. A detailed loess stratigraphic analysis and the morphometric analysis place this terrace in a transition between dominantly planar, uniformly loess-mantled landforms and loess-free ridge and valley terrain

  9. A Detailed Geochemical Study of Island Arc Crust: The Talkeetna Arc Section, South-central Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, A. R.; Debari, S. M.; Kelemen, P. B.; Clift, P. D.; Blusztajn, J.

    2002-12-01

    The Talkeetna arc section in south-central Alaska is recognized as the exposed upper mantle and crust of an accreted, Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic island arc. Detailed geochemical studies of layered gabbronorite from the middle and lower crust of this arc and a diverse suite of volcanic and plutonic rocks from the middle and upper crust provide crucial data for understanding arc magma evolution. We also present new data on parental magma compositions for the arc. The deepest level of the arc section consists of residual mantle and ultramafic cumulates adjacent to garnet gabbro and basal gabbronorite interlayered with pyroxenite. The middle crust is primarily layered gabbronorite, ranging from anorthosite to pyroxenite in composition, and is the most widespread plutonic lithology. The upper mid crust is a heterogenous assemblage of dioritic to tonalitic rocks mixed with gabbro and intruded by abundant mafic dikes and chilled pillows. The upper crust of the arc is comprised of volcanic rocks of the Talkeetna Formation ranging from basalt to rhyolite. Most of these volcanic rocks have evolved compositions (<5% MgO, Mg# <60) and overlap the composition of intermediate to felsic plutonic rocks (<3.5% MgO, Mg# <45). However, several chilled mafic rocks and one basalt have primitive characteristics (>8% MgO, Mg# >60). Ion microprobe analyses of clinopyroxene in mid-crustal layered gabbronorites have parallel REE patterns with positive-sloping LREE segments (La/Sm(N)=0.05-0.17; mean 0.11) and flat HREE segments (5-25xchondrite; mean 10xchondrite). Liquids in REE equilibrium with the clinopyroxene in these gabbronorite cumulates were calculated in order to constrain parental magmas. These calculated liquids(La/Sm(N)=0.77-1.83; mean 1.26) all fall within the range of dike and volcanic rock(La/Sm(N)=0.78-2.12; mean 1.23) compositions. However, three lavas out of the 44 we have analyzed show strong HREE depletion, which is not observed in any of the liquid compositions

  10. Stratigraphy and chronology of late pleistocene reefs in the Southern Cook Islands, south Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodroffe, Colin D.; Short, Stephen A.; Stoddart, David R.; Spencer, Tom; Harmon, Russell S.

    1991-03-01

    The Makatea Islands in the southern Cook Islands consist of a degraded volcanic core surrounded by emergent "makatea" limestones. While much of this reefal limestone is of Tertiary age, the seawardmost reefs are late Pleistocene. Last-interglacial reefs (oxygen isotope substage 5e) identified by U-series dating reach 12.2 m on Atiu (mean age of three samples 126,000 ± 5000 yr B.P.), 9.8 m on Mitiaro (mean age of five samples 119,000 ± 3000 yr B.P.), 10.0-12.7 m on Mauke (mean age of four samples 128,000 + 5000, -4,000 yr B.P.), and 14.5-20.0 m on Mangaia (mean age of four samples 115,000 ± 7000 yr B.P.). On Atiu, Mauke, and Mitiaro a lower reef unit has been identified, and is separated from the overlying substage 5e reef by a sharp discontinuity, often with a crust of coralline algae. U-series dating from Atiu and Mauke indicates that this is a stage 7 reef formed in the penultimate interglaciation. The Makatea Islands have emerged as a result of flexure of the lithosphere in response to loading by the Pleistocene volcanic island of Rarotonga. Isolated outcrops of makatea limestone on Rarotonga reach 3.5 m and are probably of substage 5e age. Elastic and viscoelastic models of lithospheric flexure predict that much of the compensatory movement should occur shortly after the emplacement of the load. However, the age and elevation of late Quaternary reefs on the southern Cook Islands, where a Pleistocene volcanic island has loaded relatively old ocean floor (>80 myr), indicate that differential uplift has been continuing over the last 250,000 yr.

  11. Holocene palaeoclimate and sea level fluctuation recorded from the coastal Barker Swamp, Rottnest Island, south-western Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouramanis, C.; Dodson, J.; Wilkins, D.; De Deckker, P.; Chase, B. M.

    2012-10-01

    The Holocene palaeoclimatic history of south-western Western Australia (SWWA) has received little attention compared to south-eastern Australia, and this has resulted in conflicting views over the impact of climate variability in the region. We present here a well-dated, high-resolution record from two overlapping sediment cores obtained from the centre of Barker Swamp, Rottnest Island, offshore Perth. The records span the last 8.7 ka, with the main lacustrine phase occurring after 7.4 ka. This site preserves both pollen and several ostracod taxa. The pollen record suggests a long-term shift from the early-mid Holocene to the late Holocene to drier conditions with less shrubland and more low-ground cover and less fire activity. A salinity transfer function was developed from ostracod faunal assemblage data and trace metal ratios (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Na/Ca) and stable isotopes (δ18O and δ13C) analysed on selected ostracod valves. These provide a detailed history of evaporation/precipitation (E/P) differences that clearly shows that the SWWA region was subjected to significant climatic shifts over the last 7.4 ka, with a broad shift towards increased aridity after 5 ka. The swamp ranged from fresh to saline as recorded in the ostracod valve chemistry and the independently-derived salinity transfer function. The ostracod record also indicates that a sea-level highstand occurred between ca. 4.5 and 4.3 ka, with probable step-wise increases at 6.75, 6.2, and 5.6 ka, with the last vestiges of salt water intrusion at ca. 1 ka. After about 2.3 ka, the fresh, groundwater lens that underlies the western portion of the island intersected the swamp depression, influencing the hydrology of the swamp. The broad climatic changes recorded in Barker Swamp are also compared with data from southern South Africa, and it is suggested that the Southern Annular Mode appears to have been the dominant driver in the climate of these regions and that the Indian Ocean Dipole is of little

  12. Simulation of saltwater movement in the Floridan aquifer system, Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bush, Peter W.

    1988-01-01

    Freshwater to supply Hilton Head Island, S.C., is obtained from the upper permeable zone of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Long-term pumping at Savannah, Ga., and the steadily increasing pumping on Hilton Head Island, have lowered Upper Floridan heads near the center of the island from about 10 feet above sea level to about 6 to 7 feet below sea level. The seaward hydraulic gradient that existed before pumping began has been reversed, thus increasing the potential for saltwater intrusion. Simulations of predevelopment, recent, and future ground-water flow in the Floridan aquifer system beneath the north end of Hilton Head Island and Port Royal Sound are presented. A finite-element model for fluid-density-dependent ground-water flow and solute transport was used in cross section. The general configuration of the simulated predevelopment flowfield is typical of a coastal aquifer having a seaward gradient in the freshwater. The freshwater flows toward Port Royal Sound over an intruding wedge of saltwater. The simulated flowfield at the end of 1983 shows that ground water in the Floridan aquifer system beneath most of Hilton Head Island has reversed its predevelopment direction and is moving toward Savannah. The distribution of chloride concentrations, based on simulation at the end of 1983, is about the same as the predevelopment distribution of chloride concentrations obtained from simulation. Results of two 50-year simulations from 1983 to 2034 suggest that there will be no significant threat of saltwater intrusion into the upper permeable zone of the Upper Floridan aquifer if heads on Hilton Head Island remain at current levels for the next 45 to 50 years. However, if head decline continues at the historical rate, any flow that presently occurs from the north end of the island toward Port Royal Sound will cease, allowing lateral intrusion of saltwater to proceed. Even under these conditions, chloride concentrations in the upper permeable zone of the Upper Floridan

  13. Brunfelsia (Solanaceae): a genus evenly divided between South America and radiations on Cuba and other Antillean islands.

    PubMed

    Filipowicz, Natalia; Renner, Susanne S

    2012-07-01

    Hallucinogenic or toxic species of Brunfelsia (Solanaceae: Petunieae) are important in native cultures throughout South America, and the genus also contains several horticulturally important species. An earlier morphological revision of the c. 50 species recognized three main groups, one consisting of the 23 Antillean species, another of southern South American and Andean species, and a third of species from the Amazon Basin and Guiana Shield. Based on plastid and nuclear DNA sequences from up to 65 accessions representing 80% of the species, we generated a phylogeny and a calibrated chronogram for Brunfelsia to infer clade expansion and shifts in pollinators and fruit types. Brunfelsia flowers offer nectar, and attract lepidoptera, hummingbirds, or bees; the fruits are dry or fleshy. Our results imply that Brunfelsia is 16-21 Myr old and entered the Antilles from South America early during its history, with subsequent expansion along the island arc. The ancestor of the Antillean clade was hawk-moth-pollinated and had fleshy capsules, perhaps facilitating dispersal by birds. The only shift to hummingbird pollination occurred on Cuba, which also harbors the largest single radiation, with 11 species (10 included in our study) that apparently arose over the past 4 Myr. Jamaica, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico each sustained smaller radiations. The data also reveal at least one new species.

  14. Population genomic analysis uncovers African and European admixture in Drosophila melanogaster populations from the south-eastern United States and Caribbean Islands.

    PubMed

    Kao, Joyce Y; Zubair, Asif; Salomon, Matthew P; Nuzhdin, Sergey V; Campo, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is postulated to have colonized North America in the past several 100 years in two waves. Flies from Europe colonized the east coast United States while flies from Africa inhabited the Caribbean, which if true, make the south-east US and Caribbean Islands a secondary contact zone for African and European D. melanogaster. This scenario has been proposed based on phenotypes and limited genetic data. In our study, we have sequenced individual whole genomes of flies from populations in the south-east US and Caribbean Islands and examined these populations in conjunction with population sequences from the west coast US, Africa, and Europe. We find that west coast US populations are closely related to the European population, likely reflecting a rapid westward expansion upon first settlements into North America. We also find genomic evidence of African and European admixture in south-east US and Caribbean populations, with a clinal pattern of decreasing proportions of African ancestry with higher latitude. Our genomic analysis of D. melanogaster populations from the south-east US and Caribbean Islands provides more evidence for the Caribbean Islands as the source of previously reported novel African alleles found in other east coast US populations. We also find the border between the south-east US and the Caribbean island to be the admixture hot zone where distinctly African-like Caribbean flies become genomically more similar to European-like south-east US flies. Our findings have important implications for previous studies examining the generation of east coast US clines via selection.

  15. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of genetic variation in Labiostrongylus longispicularis from kangaroos.

    PubMed

    Huby-Chilton, F; Beveridge, I; Gasser, R B; Chilton, N B

    2001-06-01

    Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis was employed to screen for sequence heterogeneity in the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of ribosomal (r) DNA of Labiostrongylus longispicularis, a parasitic strongylid nematode occuring in some species of kangaroo in different geographical regions of Australia. The results showed that most of the nematodes screened had different SSCP profiles, which were subsequently shown to correspond to polymorphisms and/or an indel in the ITS-2 sequence. These variable sites related mainly to unpaired regions of the predicted secondary structure of the precursor rRNA molecule. SSCP profiles could be used to distinguish L. longispicularis in Macropus robustus robustus (New South Wales) from L. longispicularis in Macropus robustus erubescens and Macropus rufus (South Australia). This difference corresponded to a transversional change in the ITS-2 sequence at alignment position 82. The study demonstrated clearly the effectiveness of SSCP analysis for future large-scale population genetic studies of L. longispicularis in order to test the hypothesis that L. longispicularis from different geographical regions represents multiple sibling species.

  16. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment, National Summary: South Dakota-Virgin Islands. Volume Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report is one in a four-volume National Summary which presents existing workforce levels, training programs and career potentials for each of the states, Washington, D.C., Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Each individual state program summary is followed by a depiction of the current and projected (1976-1981) workforce figures for the…

  17. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment, National Summary: South Dakota-Virgin Islands. Volume Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report is one in a four-volume National Summary which presents existing workforce levels, training programs and career potentials for each of the states, Washington, D.C., Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Each individual state program summary is followed by a depiction of the current and projected (1976-1981) workforce figures for the…

  18. Reef fish structure and distribution in a south-western Atlantic Ocean tropical island.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, H T; Ferreira, C E L; Joyeux, J-C; Santos, R G; Horta, P A

    2011-12-01

    The community structure of the reef fish fauna of Trindade Island, a volcanic oceanic island located 1160 km off the coast of Brazil, is described based on intensive visual censuses. Seventy-six species were encountered in 252 censuses, with mean ± S.E. of 99 ± 3 individuals and 15.7 ± 0.3 species 40 m(-2) transect. The average fish biomass, calculated from length-class estimation, was 22.1 kg 40 m(-2) transect. The species contributing most to biomass were, in decreasing order, Melichthys niger, Cephalopholis fulva, Kyphosus spp., Holocentrus adscensionis, Sparisoma amplum, Sparisoma axillare, Acanthurus bahianus and Epinephelus adscensionis. Carnivorous fishes were the largest trophic group in terms of biomass, followed by omnivores and roving herbivores. The two predominant types of reef habitat, fringing reefs built by coralline algae and rocky reefs made of volcanic boulders, showed significant differences in the biomass and the abundance of the trophic guilds. Within each habitat type, significant differences in species richness, density and biomass were detected among crest, slope and interface zones. Although similar in overall species composition to coastal reefs in Brazil, the fish fauna of Trindade Island shares certain characteristics, such as a high abundance of planktivores, with other Brazilian oceanic islands. Despite comparatively high fish biomass, including the macro-carnivorous species habitually targeted by fisheries, signs of overfishing were evident. These findings highlight the urgency for a conservation initiative for this isolated, unique and vulnerable reef system.

  19. Provenance and depositional setting of Lower Silurian siliciclastic rocks on Hainan Island, South China: Implications for a passive margin environment of South China in Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Shaohao; Wu, Chuanjun; Xu, Deru; Shan, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaowen; Hollings, Pete; Hou, Maozhou

    2016-06-01

    Diverse models have been proposed for interpreting the early Paleozoic tectonic setting of the Cathaysia Block in South China. However, few of them undertook a comprehensive study of clastic sedimentary rocks in the Cathaysia Block. This study reports the petrography and sedimentary facies, the whole-rock geochemistry and Sm-Nd isotopic data, and the LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages of detrital zircon from the Lower Silurian meta-siliciclastics on Hainan Island in order to constrain the early Paleozoic tectonic setting. The source rocks for the Lower Silurian meta-siliciclastics have suffered moderate to intense weathering, indicated by the weathering indices, like Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), Plagioclase Index of Alteration (PIA) and Weathering Index (W index). The Lower Silurian rocks have high Th/Sc (generally between 1.1 and 2.0) and Th/U (generally between 4 and 6) ratios, LREE-enriched REE patterns with negative Eu anomalies (avg. 0.55), and low εNd(t) values (-16.2 to -8.5), suggesting a continental margin basin receiving detritus mostly derived from a recycled-orogen or cratonic provenance. This Early Silurian turbiditic succession with rhythmic flysch and incomplete Bouma sequences also reveals a neritic to abyssal facies, continental shelf to continental slope depositional setting. The geochemical features like the pattern of REEs, the ratios of trace elements (e.g., Th/Sc, Th/Co, La/Sc, Cr/Th, La/Th), and the binary plots and ternary diagrams (e.g., A-CN-K and FMW diagram), demonstrate that the source-areas are dominated by felsic rocks. Together with the two-stage Nd depleted mantle model age (TDM-2) (ca. 2.3 Ga), the detrital zircon U-Pb age populations with peaks mainly at ca. 1635 Ma confirm that the source rocks are dominated by the Paleo- to Mesoproterozoic Baoban Group and ca. 1430 Ma granitoids on Hainan Island. Linked to the early Paleozoic tectonic development of South China, the Lower Silurian siliciclastic rocks on Hainan Island can be interpreted

  20. What is kangaroo mother care? Systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Grace J; Valsangkar, Bina; Kajeepeta, Sandhya; Boundy, Ellen O; Wall, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background Kangaroo mother care (KMC), often defined as skin–to–skin contact between a mother and her newborn, frequent or exclusive breastfeeding, and early discharge from the hospital has been effective in reducing the risk of mortality among preterm and low birth weight infants. Research studies and program implementation of KMC have used various definitions. Objectives To describe the current definitions of KMC in various settings, analyze the presence or absence of KMC components in each definition, and present a core definition of KMC based on common components that are present in KMC literature. Methods We conducted a systematic review and searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and the World Health Organization Regional Databases for studies with key words “kangaroo mother care”, “kangaroo care” or “skin to skin care” from 1 January 1960 to 24 April 2014. Two independent reviewers screened articles and abstracted data. Findings We screened 1035 articles and reports; 299 contained data on KMC and neonatal outcomes or qualitative information on KMC implementation. Eighty–eight of the studies (29%) did not define KMC. Two hundred and eleven studies (71%) included skin–to–skin contact (SSC) in their KMC definition, 49 (16%) included exclusive or nearly exclusive breastfeeding, 22 (7%) included early discharge criteria, and 36 (12%) included follow–up after discharge. One hundred and sixty–seven studies (56%) described the duration of SSC. Conclusions There exists significant heterogeneity in the definition of KMC. A large number of studies did not report definitions of KMC. Skin–to–skin contact is the core component of KMC, whereas components such as breastfeeding, early discharge, and follow–up care are context specific. To implement KMC effectively development of a global standardized definition of KMC is needed. PMID:27231546

  1. 76 FR 31851 - Safety Zone; Put-in-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock Pier; South Bass Island, Put-in-Bay, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Put-in-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock Pier; South Bass Island, Put-in-Bay, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The..., Put-in-Bay, Ohio. This Zone is intended to restrict vessels from portions of Lake Erie for the...

  2. Lens growth and protein changes in the eastern grey kangaroo

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Development in marsupials takes place predominantly ex utero while the young is attached to a nipple in the mother’s pouch, very different from that in other species. This study was undertaken to examine whether this affects lens growth and the production of lens proteins in kangaroos. Methods Fresh lenses were obtained at official culls from eastern gray kangaroos (Macropus giganteus). Wet weights were recorded for all and protein contents were determined for one lens from each animal. Dry weights, after fixation were obtained for 20 lenses. Ages were determined using both molar progression and total lens protein content. Lenses were divided into concentric layers by controlled dissolution using phosphate buffered saline. Samples were taken for determination of protein contents and dry weights, which were then used to determine the age of the layer removed. Soluble crystallin distributions were determined by fractionation of the centrifuged extracts using HPLC-GPC and the polypeptide contents of both soluble and insoluble proteins were assessed by SDS–PAGE. Results Lens growth is continuous from birth throughout adulthood and the increases in wet weight and fixed dry weight can be described with a single logistic growth functions for the whole life span. Three major crystallin classes, α-, β-, and γ-crystallins, were identified in the immature pouch-young animals aged around 60 days after birth. Adult lenses contain, in addition, the taxon-specific μ-crystallin. The proportions of these vary with the age of the lens tissue due to age related insolubilization as well as changes in the synthesis patterns. During early lactation (birth to 190 days), the α-, β-, and γ-crystallins represent 25, 53, and 20% of the total protein, respectively. After the pouch-young first releases the nipple (190 days), there is a rapid decrease in the production of γ-crystallins to around 5% of the total and a corresponding increase in μ-crystallin, from 0.5% to 15

  3. Lens growth and protein changes in the eastern grey kangaroo.

    PubMed

    Augusteyn, Robert C

    2011-01-01

    Development in marsupials takes place predominantly ex utero while the young is attached to a nipple in the mother's pouch, very different from that in other species. This study was undertaken to examine whether this affects lens growth and the production of lens proteins in kangaroos. Fresh lenses were obtained at official culls from eastern gray kangaroos (Macropus giganteus). Wet weights were recorded for all and protein contents were determined for one lens from each animal. Dry weights, after fixation were obtained for 20 lenses. Ages were determined using both molar progression and total lens protein content. Lenses were divided into concentric layers by controlled dissolution using phosphate buffered saline. Samples were taken for determination of protein contents and dry weights, which were then used to determine the age of the layer removed. Soluble crystallin distributions were determined by fractionation of the centrifuged extracts using HPLC-GPC and the polypeptide contents of both soluble and insoluble proteins were assessed by SDS-PAGE. Lens growth is continuous from birth throughout adulthood and the increases in wet weight and fixed dry weight can be described with a single logistic growth functions for the whole life span. Three major crystallin classes, α-, β-, and γ-crystallins, were identified in the immature pouch-young animals aged around 60 days after birth. Adult lenses contain, in addition, the taxon-specific μ-crystallin. The proportions of these vary with the age of the lens tissue due to age related insolubilization as well as changes in the synthesis patterns. During early lactation (birth to 190 days), the α-, β-, and γ-crystallins represent 25, 53, and 20% of the total protein, respectively. After the pouch-young first releases the nipple (190 days), there is a rapid decrease in the production of γ-crystallins to around 5% of the total and a corresponding increase in μ-crystallin, from 0.5% to 15%. These changes were complete

  4. Overcoming the barriers to using kangaroo care in neonatal settings.

    PubMed

    Penn, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    Skin-to-skin contact, or kangaroo care (KC), has benefits for babies and parents, improving clinical outcomes, temperature control, breastfeeding rates and child-parent bonding; it reduces morbidity and mortality. Barriers to KC for neonates may include a lack of training for nurses, lack of time, maternal or child physical or mental ill health, and inappropriate settings. With education and helpful management, neonatal nurses can advocate for KC for all babies. Parents may need information and encouragement to begin with. Therefore, nurses can improve the experiences of their patients and, in the long run, free time to perform clinical procedures.

  5. The Andaman Islanders in a regional genetic context: reexamining the evidence for an early peopling of the archipelago from South Asia.

    PubMed

    Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Endicott, Phillip

    2013-01-01

    The indigenous inhabitants of the Andaman Islands were considered by many early anthropologists to be pristine examples of a "negrito" substrate of humanity that existed throughout Southeast Asia. Despite over 150 years of research and study, questions over the extent of shared ancestry between Andaman Islanders and other small-bodied, gracile, dark-skinned populations throughout the region are still unresolved. This shared phenotype could be a product of shared history, evolutionary convergence, or a mixture of both. Recent population genetic studies have tended to emphasize long-term physical isolation of the Andaman Islanders and an affinity to ancestral populations of South Asia. We reexamine the genetic evidence from genome-wide autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for a shared history between the tribes of Little Andaman (Onge) and Great Andaman, and between these two groups and the rest of South and Southeast Asia (both negrito and non-negrito groups).

  6. Studying and Dating Indian Ocean Tsunamis by Using Benthic Foraminifera in the Sediment Stratigraphy of South Andaman Islands, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, F. C.

    2015-12-01

    We analyzed the foraminifera and dated them to identify the sea level fluctuations in the coastal sediment stratigraphy of Andaman Islands. Our recent paleotsunami investigations are specially focused on unusual large magnitude earthquake and tsunamis in the south coast of Andaman. Our detailed study on the foraminifers preserved in the near sub surface stratigraphy and AMS ages show a strong signature of the tsunami event very much similar to the modern tsunami of December 2004. We found that foraminifer is an ideal geological key to bracket paleotsunami events. The AMS ages of these foraminifers supports the ages given by corals of Sumatra with a small error bar. The recent research approach to identify the ruptures and tsunami based on the corals of south Sumatra suggests a large time span of 1000 years for such mega events. Our foraminiferal archives obtained from 10g soil samples from the 2.5m deep Holocene stratigraphy suggests four seismic predecessors similar to the 2004 event with ~Mw9 with huge rupture. Huge foraminiferal population in the sedimentary stratigraphy is an indicative of sea level changes and the signatures of abrasion in the foraminifer's test (180µm) indicate strong wave surges and bead load transport during tsunami events. Spontaneous death of organisms due to tsunami waves gives an exact time frame with a narrow age limit than the charcoal. Sediment stratigraphy of south Andaman had such changes in each millennium. Sediment stratigraphy sections shows the huge population and assemblages and the AMS dates of this foraminifera in south Andaman shows four mega events. This kind of fossil assemblages are commonly associated with the sea regression and transgressions in the geological time scale. Tamil 'Sangam literatures' one of the oldest literature available in Indian main land and the corals ages from Sumatra are also emphasizes the predecessors of such unusual large magnitude earthquakes and tsunamis in the Indian Ocean. All these

  7. Implications of kangaroo care for growth and development in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Virginia L

    2005-01-01

    To review research on kangaroo care with implications for growth and development in preterm infants. Nursing, medical, and child development research literature was searched through PubMed through 2003 using the search terms kangaroo Care, skin-to-skin, growth/development, and premature infants. Randomized controlled trials, pretest-posttest designs, and other comparative studies of kangaroo care were reviewed. Reports exploring parent perspectives were examined for attachment and parent-infant interaction findings. Theory and research regarding growth in preterm infants were explored. Research on topics of kangaroo care, skin-to-skin contact, preterm infant growth, preterm infant weight gain, and failure to thrive was evaluated. Research on kangaroo care reports physiologic safety for preterm infants and increased attachment for parents. Attachment promotes nurturing behaviors that support growth and development. Weight gain as a benefit of kangaroo care remains in question. Kangaroo care is safe for preterm infants and may have important benefits for growth and development. Suggestions are made for future research on effects of KC on preterm infants.

  8. Mechanisms for the keystone status of kangaroo rats: graminivory rather than granivory?

    PubMed

    Kerley, Graham I H; Whitford, Walter G; Kay, Fenton R

    1997-07-01

    Graminivory by kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.) was investigated as a potential mechanism for the keystone role of these rodents in the dynamics of desert grasslands. Experiments confirmed that Ord's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) cut and consumed a large proportion of the tillers of three Chihuahuan Desert tussock-forming grass species. Field observations indicated that the characteristically cut grass tillers were absent from all-rodent and medium-sized kangaroo rat exclosures, but were frequent in large-sized kangaroo rat and rabbit exclosures, indicating that the medium-sized kangaroo rats (D. ordii, D. merriami) were responsible for grass cutting. Tiller waste as a percentage of peak standing crop ranged from 7% in grassland habitats to 0.7% in Flourensia cernua shrubland. Of the 13 species of perennial, tussock-forming grasses measured, only one, Muhlenbergia porteri, had no tillers cut by kangaroo rats. This study demonstrates that the keystone role of kangaroo rats in Chihuahuan Desert grassland ecosystems is probably the result of their graminivory.

  9. Purification, amino acid sequence and characterisation of kangaroo IGF-I.

    PubMed

    Yandell, C A; Francis, G L; Wheldrake, J F; Upton, Z

    1998-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-II have been purified to homogeneity from kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus) serum, thus this represents the first report of the purification, sequencing and characterisation of marsupial IGFs. N-Terminal protein sequencing reveals that there are six amino acid differences between kangaroo and human IGF-I. Kangaroo IGF-II has been partially sequenced and no differences were found between human and kangaroo IGF-II in the 53 residues identified. Thus the IGFs appear to be remarkably structurally conserved during mammalian radiation. In addition, in vitro characterisation of kangaroo IGF-I demonstrated that the functional properties of human, kangaroo and chicken IGF-I are very similar. In an assay measuring the ability of the proteins to stimulate protein synthesis in rat L6 myoblasts, all IGF-I proteins were found to be equally potent. The ability of all three proteins to compete for binding with radiolabelled human IGF-I to type-1 IGF receptors in L6 myoblasts and in Sminthopsis crassicaudata transformed lung fibroblasts, a marsupial cell line, was comparable. Furthermore, kangaroo and human IGF-I react equally in a human IGF-I RIA using a human reference standard, radiolabelled human IGF-I and a polyclonal antibody raised against recombinant human IGF-I. This study indicates that not only is the primary structure of eutherian and metatherian IGF-I conserved, but also the proteins appear to be functionally similar.

  10. HTLV-I infection in the South West Indian Ocean islands, particularly in La Réunion and the Seychelles.

    PubMed

    Aubry, P; Bovet, P; Vitrac, D; Schooneman, F; Hollanda, J; Malvy, D; Gaüzère, B-A

    2013-10-01

    Data on HTLV-I are scarce in several Southwest Indian Ocean islands except for La Réunion and The Seychelles. The two cases of HTLV-I have been confirmed by Western-Blot in La Réunion, among blood donors. In Seychelles (87 400 inhabitants in 2012), where blood donors and some other cases are screened, HTLV-I was confirmed with a line immune assay in 43 persons and at least 10-20 patients are known to have tropical spastic paraparesia or adult T-cell lymphoma associated with HTLV-I. In the south-west Indian Ocean, a possibly important other issue may be co-infection of HTLV-1 with the Strongyloides stercoralis roundworm, which is endemic in all countries of the region and which can sometimes lead to severe symptomatic infestation.

  11. Food habits of fishes on an exposed sandy beach at Fukiagehama, South-West Kyushu Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakane, Yukinori; Suda, Yusuke; Sano, Mitsuhiko

    2011-06-01

    To clarify the feeding habits and major food sources of sandy beach fishes, the gut contents of 55 fish species collected on a sandy beach at Fukiagehama, South-West Kyushu Island, Japan, were examined. Ontogenetic changes in food preference were recognized in nine species ( Hypoatherina valenciennei, Lateolabrax japonicus, Trachurus japonicus, Sillago japonica, Sphyraena japonica, Paralichthys olivaceus, Heteromycteris japonica, Paraplagusia japonica, and Takifugu niphobles). A cluster analysis based on dietary overlaps showed that the sandy beach fish assemblage comprised six trophic groups (mysid, amphipod, zooplankton, juvenile fish, terrestrial insect, and mollusk feeders). Of these, the first three groups were the most abundantly represented, whereas the last two were represented by only a single species. These results indicated that epibenthic macrofauna, such as mysids and gammaridean amphipods, and zooplankton, were important food resources for the fish assemblage at the study site, but infaunal macrobenthos, such as polychaetes and bivalves, being relatively unimportant.

  12. A great volcanic eruption around AD 1300 recorded in lacustrine sediment from Dongdao Island, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhongkang; Long, Nanye; Wang, Yuhong; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Yi; Sun, Liguang

    2017-02-01

    The contents of Ti, Al and Fe 2 O 3 in a lacustrine sediment core (DY6) collected from Dongdao Island, South China Sea (SCS), were determined to be much higher than those in the three major sediment end-members (coral sand, guano and plants), and their likely sources include terrigenous dust and volcanic ash. At 61 cm (˜AD 1300), the contents of Ti, Al and Fe 2 O 3 have an abnormally high spike, which cannot be explained by terrigenous dust. The Sr and Nd isotope compositions at 61 cm are in excellent agreement with those in volcanic materials, but they are significantly different from those in terrigenous dust, implying a possible material input from historical volcanic eruptions in the lacustrine sediment DY6. The documented great Samalas volcanic eruption at AD 1257 in Indonesia is likely the candidate for this volcanic eruption.

  13. Shear wave speed structure beneath the South Pacific superswell using broadband data from ocean floor and islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isse, Takehi; Suetsugu, Daisuke; Shiobara, Hajime; Sugioka, Hiroko; Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Kanazawa, Toshihiko; Fukao, Yoshio

    2006-08-01

    We determined three-dimensional shear wave speed structure beneath the South Pacific superswell down to a depth of 200 km by analyzing Rayleigh wave records from broadband ocean bottom seismograph stations and island stations in the Pacific Ocean. The ocean bottom stations were deployed from 2003 to 2005 on the seafloor in the French Polynesian region, which enabled us to study the upper mantle structure beneath the Superswell with unprecedentedly high resolution. We measured the dispersions of fundamental mode Rayleigh waves at periods between 40 and 140 seconds by the two-station method. We found pronounced slow anomalies near the hot spots and in the Lau Basin. The slow anomalies beneath the hot spots have deeper-rooted than those associated with the Lau basin. The slow anomalies near the Society, Macdonald, Marquesas, and Pitcairn hot spots continue down to at least 200 km depth.

  14. Sewers as a source and sink of chlorinated-solvent groundwater contamination, Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, D.A.; Petkewich, M.D.; Lowery, M.A.; Landmeyer, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater contamination by tetrachloroethene and its dechlorination products is present in two partially intermingled plumes in the surficial aquifer near a former dry-cleaning facility at Site 45, Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, South Carolina. The northern plume originates from the vicinity of former above-ground storage tanks. Free-phase tetrachloroethene from activities in this area entered the groundwater. The southern plume originates at a nearby, new dry-cleaning facility, but probably was the result of contamination released to the aquifer from a leaking sanitary sewer line from the former dry-cleaning facility. Discharge of dissolved groundwater contamination is primarily to leaking storm sewers below the water table. The strong influence of sanitary sewers on source distribution and of storm sewers on plume orientation and discharge at this site indicates that groundwater-contamination investigators should consider the potential influence of sewer systems at their sites. ?? 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  15. 7. Outhouse and shed, view west northwest, south and east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Outhouse and shed, view west northwest, south and east sides - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  16. Coastal Sedimentation Associated with the Tohoku Tsunami of 11 March 2011 in South Kuril Islands, NW Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razjigaeva, N. G.; Ganzey, L. A.; Grebennikova, T. A.; Ivanova, E. D.; Kharlamov, A. A.; Kaistrenko, V. M.; Shishkin, A. A.

    2013-06-01

    Sediment deposited by the Tohoku tsunami of March 11, 2011 in the Southern Kurils (Kunashir, Shikotan, Zeleniy, Yuri, Tanfiliev islands) was radically different from sedimentation during local strong storms and from tsunamis with larger runup at the same location. Sediments from the 2011 Tohoku tsunami were surveyed in the field, immediately and 6 months after the event, and analyzed in the laboratory for sediment granulometry, benthos Foraminifa assemblages, and diatom algae. Run-up elevation and inundation distance were calculated from the wrackline (accumulations of driftwood, woody debris, grass, and seaweed) marking the distal edge of tsunami inundation. Run-up of the tsunami was 5 m at maximum, and 3-4 m on average. Maximum distance of inundation was recorded in river mouths (up to 630 m), but was generally in the range of 50-80 m. Although similar to the local strong storms in runup height, the tsunami generally did not erode the coast, nor leave a deposit. However, deposits uncharacteristic of tsunami, described as brown aleuropelitic (silty and clayey) mud rich in organic matter, were found in closed bays facing the South Kuril Strait. These closed bays were covered with sea ice at the time of tsunami. As the tsunami waves broke the ice, the ice floes enhanced the bottom erosion on shoals and destruction of low-lying coastal peatland even at modest ranges of runup. In the muddy tsunami deposits, silt comprised up to 64 % and clay up to 41.5 %. The Foraminifera assemblages displayed features characteristic of benthic microfauna in the near-shore zone. Deep-sea diatoms recovered from tsunami deposits in two closely situated bays, namely Krabovaya and Otradnaya bays, had different requirements for environmental temperature, suggesting these different diatoms were brought to the bays by the tsunami wave entraining various water masses when skirting the island from the north and from the south.

  17. Theoretical design and field deployment of a dense strong motion instrument network for the Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francois, C.; Berril, J.; Pettinga, J.

    2003-04-01

    A dense network of strong motion seismometers is being developed in order to investigate the complexities of the upper crustal rupture process and propagation of major seismogenic sources such as the Alpine Fault and strands of the Marlborough Fault System defining the South Island sector of the Australia-Pacific plate boundary zone. The proposed network is designed as a dense array of approximately 20 accelerographs using the University of Canterbury 12-bit CUSP instrument, now nearing development completion. It will be deployed straddling the Alpine Fault in the central West Coast region of the South Island, and coverage will extend across the region at the Alpine-Hope Fault junction also. The array layout is being designed utilizing the frequency-analysis MUSIC method (Multiple Signal Characterization) developed by Goldstein and Archuleta (1991a&b). Synthetic strong-motion records were computed using an empirical Green's function synthetic seismogram program EMPSYN (Hutchings, 1987). The process of finding an optimal network configuration is dependent on the geometry of the array (study of the frequency analysis performance of the modelled earthquake data for various proposed array configurations), and on the instrument site conditions (geology, communications, accessibility, isolation etc). References Goldstein, P. and R. J. Archuleta (1991a). "Deterministic frequency-wavenumber methods and direct measurements of rupture propagation during earthquakes using a dense array; data analysis." Journal of Geophysical Research, B, Solid Earth and Planets 96(4): 6187-6198. Goldstein, P. and R. J. Archuleta (1991b). "Deterministic frequency-wavenumber methods and direct measurements of rupture propagation during earthquakes using a dense array; theory and methods." Journal of Geophysical Research, B, Solid Earth and Planets 96(4): 6173-6185. Hutchings, L. J. (1987). "Modelling strong earthquake ground motion with empirical Green's function", Ph.D. thesis, Department of

  18. Occurrence of Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba) concentrations in the vicinity of the South Shetland Islands . relationship to environmental parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichii, T.; Katayama, K.; Obitsu, N.; Ishii, H.; Naganobu, M.

    1998-08-01

    The influences of abiotic and biotic parameters on the occurrence of Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba) concentrations were studied in the waters north of the South Shetland Islands, a major krill fishing ground in the Antarctic, during the 1990/1991 austral summer. From early to mid-summer krill density increased and showed distinct offshore-inshore differences in abundance and maturity stages. In mid-summer, krill density was low in the oceanic zone (8 g m -2) and higher in the slope frontal zone (36 g m -2), being highest along the shelf break (131 g m -2) in the inshore zone. Krill were in the reproductive stage in the oceanic and frontal zones, but non-reproductive in the inshore zone. Water circulation, food and frontal features were considered important environmental factors determining the occurrence of high krill concentrations in these waters. Drifting buoys indicated that the surface water circulation in areas of krill concentrations was characterized by a sluggish current with eddies along the shelf break in the inshore zone and a shear current in the frontal zone, thus enhancing the residence time for krill. Diatom abundance in both the frontal and inshore zones increased from early to mid-summer, improving krill feeding conditions. Gravid females were closely associated with the frontal zone, showing that the latter may also be a favored spawning area because of the higher probability of survival for embryos and larvae, in addition to enhanced opportunities for their transport to nursery grounds by prevailing currents. In the waters north of the South Shetland Islands, krill appeared to be highly adapted for exploitation of the rich food resources of the frontal/inshore zone, taking advantage of oceanographic features that led to their retention in these zones.

  19. Late Pleistocene glacial stratigraphy of the Kumara-Moana region, West Coast of South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrows, Timothy T.; Almond, Peter; Rose, Robert; Keith Fifield, L.; Mills, Stephanie C.; Tims, Stephen G.

    2013-08-01

    On the South Island of New Zealand, large piedmont glaciers descended from an ice cap on the Southern Alps onto the coastal plain of the West Coast during the late Pleistocene. The series of moraine belts and outwash plains left by the Taramakau glacier are used as a type section for interpreting the glacial geology and timing of major climatic events of New Zealand and also as a benchmark for comparison with the wider Southern Hemisphere. In this paper we review the chronology of advances by the Taramakau glacier during the last or Otira Glaciation using a combination of exposure dating using the cosmogenic nuclides 10Be and 36Cl, and tephrochronology. We document three distinct glacial maxima, represented by the Loopline, Larrikins and Moana Formations, separated by brief interstadials. We find that the Loopline Formation, originally attributed to Oxygen Isotope Chronozone 4, is much younger than previously thought, with an advance culminating around 24,900 ± 800 yr. The widespread late Pleistocene Kawakawa/Oruanui tephra stratigraphically lies immediately above it. This Formation has the same age previously attributed to the older part of the Larrikins Formation. Dating of the Larrikins Formation demonstrates there is no longer a basis for subdividing it into older and younger phases with an advance lasting about 1000 years between 20,800 ± 500 to 20,000 ± 400 yr. The Moana Formation represents the deposits of the last major advance of ice at 17,300 ± 500 yr and is younger than expected based on limited previous dating. The timing of major piedmont glaciation is restricted to between ˜25,000 and 17,000 yr and this interval corresponds to a time of regionally cold sea surface temperatures, expansion of grasslands at the expense of forest on South Island, and hemisphere wide glaciation.

  20. Temporal variations in latest Quaternary slip across the Australian-Pacific Plate Boundary, northeastern South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuepfer, Peter L. K.

    1992-06-01

    Rates of latest Quaternary slip from stream terraces and moraines displaced by faults of the Alpine shear system in NE South Island, New Zealand, vary in space and time. Detailed histories of fault slip are obtained from combining displacement data with estimates of the age of the surface from weathering characteristics. Precision in surface ages is 5-20% using rock weathering rinds and 15-50% using soil properties. The oldest surfaces examined are 15-20 ka and have right-lateral fault offsets up to 400-600 m. The main faults of the in the NE South Island (the Wairau, Awatere, Clarence, Hope, Kekerengu, and Porters Pass faults) have average latest Quaternary right-lateral slip rates of 3-10, 5-10, 7-10, 25-40, 5-7, and 3-4 mm/yr respectively. Every fault has undergone a substantial decrease in lateral slip rate in the last 3-5 kyr. Summed across the plate boundary, the average latest Quaternary slip rates are comparable to long-term rates of horizontal slip across the Australian-Pacific plate boundary (around 40 mm/yr parallel to the boundary) and rates of geodetic strain and seismic moment release over the last 50-100 years (approximately the same). However, sums of lateral fault-slip rates over the interval from 15 to 5 ka exceed the plate motions, whereas late Holocene lateral fault-slip rates are less than half the long-term average. The best explanation of these variations is slip across the plate boundary is episodic, varying over perhaps 5-kyr intervals. This implies that 15-20 kyr is the time interval necessary to average out shorter, 5-kyr episodic variations in plate boundary motions.

  1. Thermoregulation in juvenile red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) after pouch exit: higher metabolism and evaporative water requirements.

    PubMed

    Munn, A J; Dawson, T J

    2001-01-01

    The population dynamics of red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) in the Australian arid zone is tightly linked with environmental factors, which partly operate via the survival of juvenile animals. A crucial stage is the young-at-foot (YAF) stage when kangaroos permanently exit the pouch. We have examined the thermal biology of YAF red kangaroos during ages from permanent pouch exit until weaning. Over a wide range of environmental temperatures (ambient temperature [T(a)] -5 degrees to 45 degrees C), YAF red kangaroos had a mass-specific metabolism that was generally twice that of adults, considerably higher than would be expected for an adult marsupial of their body size. The total energy requirements of YAF red kangaroos were 60%-70% of those of adult females, which were three times their size. Over the same range in T(a), YAF red kangaroos also had total evaporative water losses equal to those of adult females. At the highest T(a) (45 degrees C), differences were noted in patterns of dry heat loss (dry conductance) between YAF red kangaroos and adult females, which may partially explain the relatively high levels of evaporative cooling by YAF. By weaning age, young kangaroos showed little change in their basal energy and water requirements (at T(a) 25 degrees C) but did show reduced mass-specific costs in terms of energy and water use at extremes of T(a) (-5 degrees and 45 degrees C, respectively). In their arid environment, typified by unpredictable rainfall and extremes of T(a), young red kangaroos may need to remain close to water points, which, in turn, may restrict their ability to find the high-quality forage needed to meet their high energy demands.

  2. Investigating Rainfall Variability in the South Pacific Convergence Zone using the Geochemistry of Stalagmites from the Solomon Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekhon, N.; Quinn, T. M.; Partin, J. W.; Edwards, R. L.; Cheng, H.

    2015-12-01

    The South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ), which extends southeastward from New Guinea to Tahiti, is the largest perennial rainfall feature in the Southern Hemisphere. The position of the SPCZ and its associated rainfall varies significantly on multidecadal timescales, as documented by instrumental and climate proxy data. For example, stalagmite δ18O records (rainfall proxy) from Espiritu Santo, Vanuatu (Partin et al., 2013) and Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands (Maupin et al., 2014), document large (~1‰), abrupt changes in stalagmite δ18O on multidecadal timescales over the past 600 years that arise from internal variability in the climate system. The proxy data agree with the type of rainfall changes observed in the instrumental record, such as the change across 1976/77, but the older changes are larger in relative magnitude. We expand on these earlier studies of rainfall variability in the SPCZ system using stable isotope variations in stalagmites from two other locations in the Solomon Islands (Munda, New Georgia, 8.3°S, 157.3°E; Suku, Nggela Pile (9.8° S, 160.2° E). These stalagmites range in age from about 400 CE to 1850 CE, based on U-Th dating, and have relatively fast growth rates (60 to 300 µm/yr). Stalagmite δ18O time series were generated from sub-samples milled every 500 µm, or approximately 1 to 8 years per data point. Initial results from these two new Solomon Island stalagmites not only confirm the presence of multidecadal variability in stalagmite δ18O identified in previous studies, but suggest that the same amplitude of variability has occurred over several windows of time during the past 1600 years. When complete, these new proxy rainfall records from Munda and Suku will further constrain the pattern and mechanism of SPCZ rainfall variability in western tropical Pacific region.

  3. Multiple sulfur isotope studies of the oldest rocks in South Korea: Possibility of recycling of ancient sulfur in Daeijak Island.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W.; Lee, I.; KIM, Y.; Farquhar, J.

    2015-12-01

    Mass-independent fractionation processes of sulfur isotopes are reported from the rocks older than 2.0 Ga in Earth history. In those old rocks, large Δ33S anomalies and the variations are reported: before 2.45 Ga, the variations of values are greater than ±1‰; between 2.45 Ga and 2.0 Ga, the variations have a range from -0.1 to 0.5‰; after 2.0 Ga the variations have more smaller range from -0.1 to 0.2‰. Sulfur isotope values from the rocks before 2.0 Ga may show anomalous Δ33S values from the ancient sulfur reservoir. In South Korea, the oldest rocks (ca. 2.5 Ga) are found in Daeijak Island. Major lithology of island consists of gabbroic amphibolite, tonalitic and granodioritic gneiss, and leucocratic granite, which belongs to the Gyeonggi massif. The oldest age was measured in the core of the zircon from the tonalitic protolith. Some sulfide minerals are found in amphibolite and small amount of sulfur is also included in other rocks. As a preliminary study of Δ33S analysis in sulfides from the oldest rock in Korea, analysis of samples from Daeijak Island was conducted. The samples used for the analysis were amphibolite, gneiss, and leucocratic granite. Sulfur components were extracted from the each whole rock samples using CRS and thode solution. Then it was converted to SF6 to measure sulfur isotope ratios at the mass spectrometer. Δ33S values of samples are measured to give the range from -0.009 to 0.014‰. Multiple sulfur isotopes were examined for the tracers of sulfur source and sulfur cycles in ancient times.

  4. The measurement of Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in the regional background marine boundary air, Baengyeong Island, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, G.; Choi, H.; Lee, T.; Lee, D.; Park, J.; Jang, S.

    2010-12-01

    Concurrent measurements of Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), other photochemically reactive species including O3, CO, NO, NOy, selected species of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), and aerosol chemical (water soluble ionic species, OC/EC, trace metals) compositions were made in an atmospheric monitoring station in Baengyeong Island from Aug. 2nd to 14th of 2010. This island is located at the far western part of Korea in the middle of Yellow Sea between China and Korea. PAN was determined every 3 minutes by a fast chromatograph with luminol-based chemiluminescence detection. Mixing ratios of PAN ranged from the below the detection limit of 0.005 to 1.04 ppb with an average of 0.09 ppb. Over the same period, hourly averaged O3 ranged from 0 to 63 ppb (average of 32 ppb). Although our measurements were made over the relatively clean marine boundary air, significant and rapid increases of PAN were frequently observed. These increases of PAN were coincided with increases of its precursors and wind pattern changes. After detailed analysis of aerosol compositions using local wind variation, back-trajectory and synoptic analysis of air masses, the degree of influences and chemistry related with PAN from surrounding land areas, China, South Korea and North Korea will be identified. Also, the role of PAN and other reactive nitrogen species to ozone formation and its transport over the Yellow Sea are planned to be addressed.

  5. Formation and transportation of high-salinity water produced in polynyas south of the St. Lawrence Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Hongli; Zhao, Jinping; Shi, Jiuxin; Jiao, Yutian

    2010-12-01

    The authors studied variations of temperature and salinity in seawater under sea ice using hydrologic data collected from polynyas south of the St. Lawrence Island during March of 2008 and 2009. The results indicate that the high-salinity water found during the cruises of 2008 and 2009 was due to the formation of polynyas. The salinity observed in 2008 was higher than that in 2009 as a result of higher salt production in 2008. The spatial distributions of high-salinity cores differed between the two cruises. In March 2008, a southeastward flow was formed under the persistent northerly wind in the observation region, which transported the high-salinity water produced by the polynyas to the southeast. The similar flow, however, did not exist in March 2009 because the northerly wind over the study area was interrupted by a southerly wind. Accordingly, the polynyas and the high-salinity water produced by them existed for a short time. As a result, the high-salinity water in 2009 did not spread very far, and stayed within the polynyas. In addition, during the 2009 cruise, two stages of observations in the polynyas showed the core of high-salinity water was shifted to the southwest of the St. Lawrence Island. This result suggested that a southwestward flow might have existed in the area at the onset of the northerly wind, which was consistent with the alongshore and/or offshore flows caused by the northerly wind.

  6. Kelp and dolphin gulls cause perineal wounds in South American fur seal pups (Arctocephalus australis) at Guafo Island, Chilean Patagonia

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Francisco; Montalva, Felipe; Perez-Venegas, Diego; Pavés, Héctor; Gottdenker, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    During five reproductive seasons, we documented the presence, extent and origin of perineal wounds in South American fur seal pups (Arctocephalus australis) on Guafo Island, Northern Chilean Patagonia. The seasonal prevalence of perineal wounds ranged from 5 to 9%, and new cases were more common at the end of the breeding season (February), when pups were on average two months old and were actively expelling hookworms (Uncinaria sp). Histologically, wounds corresponded to marked ulcerative lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic dermatitis with granulation tissue and mixed bacterial colonies. In 2015 and 2017, kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus) and dolphin gulls (Leucophaeus scoresbii) were observed picking and wounding the perineal area of marked pups. This behaviour occurred more frequently after the pups' defecation, when sea gulls engaged in consumption of pups' faeces. The affected pups usually had moderate to marked hookworm infections along with bloody diarrhoea and anaemia. Pups with severe wounds (23% of affected animals) had swollen perineal areas and signs of secondary systemic bacterial infection. We propose that seagulls on Guafo Island have learned to consume remains of blood and parasites in the faeces of pups affected by hookworm infection, causing perineal wounds during this process. We conclude that this perineal wounding is an unintentional, occasional negative effect of an otherwise commensal gull–fur seal relationship. PMID:28791178

  7. Kelp and dolphin gulls cause perineal wounds in South American fur seal pups (Arctocephalus australis) at Guafo Island, Chilean Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Seguel, Mauricio; Muñoz, Francisco; Montalva, Felipe; Perez-Venegas, Diego; Pavés, Héctor; Gottdenker, Nicole

    2017-07-01

    During five reproductive seasons, we documented the presence, extent and origin of perineal wounds in South American fur seal pups (Arctocephalus australis) on Guafo Island, Northern Chilean Patagonia. The seasonal prevalence of perineal wounds ranged from 5 to 9%, and new cases were more common at the end of the breeding season (February), when pups were on average two months old and were actively expelling hookworms (Uncinaria sp). Histologically, wounds corresponded to marked ulcerative lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic dermatitis with granulation tissue and mixed bacterial colonies. In 2015 and 2017, kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus) and dolphin gulls (Leucophaeus scoresbii) were observed picking and wounding the perineal area of marked pups. This behaviour occurred more frequently after the pups' defecation, when sea gulls engaged in consumption of pups' faeces. The affected pups usually had moderate to marked hookworm infections along with bloody diarrhoea and anaemia. Pups with severe wounds (23% of affected animals) had swollen perineal areas and signs of secondary systemic bacterial infection. We propose that seagulls on Guafo Island have learned to consume remains of blood and parasites in the faeces of pups affected by hookworm infection, causing perineal wounds during this process. We conclude that this perineal wounding is an unintentional, occasional negative effect of an otherwise commensal gull-fur seal relationship.

  8. Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  9. SECTION G FROM SOUTH DRIVE, SHOWING UPRIGHT HEADSTONES. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SECTION G FROM SOUTH DRIVE, SHOWING UPRIGHT HEADSTONES. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rock Island National Cemetery, Rock Island Arsenal, 0.25 mile north of southern tip of Rock Island, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  10. A report on the outbreak of Zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific, 2014.

    PubMed

    Tognarelli, J; Ulloa, S; Villagra, E; Lagos, J; Aguayo, C; Fasce, R; Parra, B; Mora, J; Becerra, N; Lagos, N; Vera, L; Olivares, B; Vilches, M; Fernández, J

    2016-03-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In 2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May, 2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9% nt and 100% aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia.

  11. The phylogenetic position of the musky rat-kangaroo and the evolution of bipedal hopping in kangaroos (Macropodidae: Diprotodontia).

    PubMed

    Burk, A; Westerman, M; Springer, M

    1998-09-01

    Kangaroos and their relatives (family Macropodidae) are divided into the subfamilies Macropodinae (kangaroos, wallabies, pademelons) and Potoroinae (rat-kangaroos, potoroos, bettongs). The musky rat-kangaroo, Hypsiprymnodon moschatus, is traditionally allied with other potoroines, based primarily on the basis of osteological characters and aspects of the female reproductive system. Unlike other macropodids, however, which are capable of bipedal hopping, Hypsiprymnodon is a quadrupedal bounder and lacks several derived features of the pes and tarsus that are presumably adaptations for bipedal hopping. Other derived features, such as a complex stomach, loss of P2 with the eruption of P3, and reduction of litter size to one, are also lacking in Hypsiprymnodon but occur in all other macropodids. Thus, available evidence suggests that Hypsiprymnodon either is part of a monophyletic Potoroinae or is a sister taxon to other living macropodids. To test these hypotheses, we sequenced 1,170 bp base pairs of the mitochondrial genome for 16 macropodids. Maximum parsimony, minimum evolution, maximum likelihood, and quartet puzzling all support the hypothesis that macropodines and potoroines are united to the exclusion of Hypsiprymnodon. This hypothesis implies that characters such as bipedal hopping evolved only once in macropodid evolution. Aside from Hypsiprymnodon, the remaining macropodids separate into the traditional Macropodinae and Potoroinae. Macropodines further separate into two clades: one containing the New Guinean forest wallabies Dorcopsis and Dorcopsulus, and one consisting of the genera Macropus, Setonix, Thylogale, Onychogalea, Wallabia, Dendrolagus, Peradorcas, and Lagorchestes. Among potoroines, there is moderate support for the association of Bettongia and Aepyprymnus to the exclusion of Potorous. Divergence times were estimated by using 12S ribosomal RNA transversions. At the base of the macropodid radiation, Hypsiprymnodon diverged from other macropodids

  12. Adoption in Eastern Grey Kangaroos: A Consequence of Misdirected Care?

    PubMed Central

    King, Wendy J.; Forsyth, David M.; Coulson, Graeme; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Adoption is rare in animals and is usually attributed to kin selection. In a 6-year study of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), 11 of 326 juveniles were adopted. We detected eight adoptions by observing behavioural associations and nursing between marked mothers and young and three more by analysing the relatedness of mothers and young using microsatellite DNA. Four adoptions involved reciprocal switches and three were by mothers whose own pouch young were known to subsequently disappear. Adoptive mothers were not closely related to each other or to adoptees but adoptive mothers and young associated as closely as did biological pairs, as measured by half-weight indices. Switch mothers did not associate closely. Maternal age and body condition did not influence the likelihood of adoption but females were more likely to adopt in years with high densities of females with large pouch young. Adoption did not improve juvenile survival. We conclude that adoptions in this wild population were potentially costly and likely caused by misdirected care, suggesting that eastern grey kangaroos may have poorly developed mother-offspring recognition mechanisms. PMID:25970624

  13. Adoption in eastern grey kangaroos: a consequence of misdirected care?

    PubMed

    King, Wendy J; Forsyth, David M; Coulson, Graeme; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Adoption is rare in animals and is usually attributed to kin selection. In a 6-year study of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), 11 of 326 juveniles were adopted. We detected eight adoptions by observing behavioural associations and nursing between marked mothers and young and three more by analysing the relatedness of mothers and young using microsatellite DNA. Four adoptions involved reciprocal switches and three were by mothers whose own pouch young were known to subsequently disappear. Adoptive mothers were not closely related to each other or to adoptees but adoptive mothers and young associated as closely as did biological pairs, as measured by half-weight indices. Switch mothers did not associate closely. Maternal age and body condition did not influence the likelihood of adoption but females were more likely to adopt in years with high densities of females with large pouch young. Adoption did not improve juvenile survival. We conclude that adoptions in this wild population were potentially costly and likely caused by misdirected care, suggesting that eastern grey kangaroos may have poorly developed mother-offspring recognition mechanisms.

  14. Seismic communication between the burrows of kangaroo rats, Dipodomys spectabilis.

    PubMed

    Randall, J A; Lewis, E R

    1997-11-01

    Banner-tailed kangaroo rats, Dipodomys spectabilis, footdrum to produce substrate-borne and airborne acoustic energy. Previous studies show that they communicate territorial ownership via airborne footdrumming signals. The research reported here used simulated footdrum patterns generated by an artificial 'thumper' to address the question of whether kangaroo rats communicate through seismic components of these acoustic signals. With microphones suspended in sealed burrows, we found that airborne sounds were attenuated by approximately 40 dB as they passed through the burrow wall into the burrow chamber. The substrate-borne vibrations from the thumper yielded sound approximately 40 dB greater in peak amplitude than the attenuated airborne sound. Thus, 99.9% of the peak power of the thumper was transmitted directly through the substrate into the burrow. The rats in sealed burrows timed their responses to playbacks of footdrums from the thumper and a loudspeaker so they did not initiate a drumming sequence during either the seismic or airborne signals. When these signals were masked by loud noise, the rats continued to drum to the seismic signal but drummed randomly during the airborne playback. These results suggest that the sealed burrow provides a quiet place in which D. spectabilis can listen for substrate-borne communications from conspecifics.

  15. Kangaroo rats change temperature when investigating rattlesnake predators.

    PubMed

    Schraft, Hannes A; Clark, Rulon W

    2017-05-01

    Predator presence causes acute stress in mammals. A prey animal's stress response increases its chance of survival during life-threatening situations through adaptive changes in behavior and physiology. Some components of the physiological stress response can lead to changes in body surface temperatures. Body temperature changes in prey could provide information about prey state to predators that sense heat, such as pit vipers. We determined whether wild rodents undergo a stress-induced change in body surface temperature upon detecting and investigating rattlesnake predators. We staged encounters between free-ranging Merriam's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys merriami) and tethered Mojave rattlesnakes (Crotalus scutulatus) at baited feeding stations, and recorded interactions with a thermal-imaging camera. Kangaroo rats showed a significant change in maximum head temperature, snout temperature, and hind leg temperature during interactions with rattlesnakes. This supports the hypothesis that presence of a predator induces body temperature changes in prey animals. If changes in prey heat signature are detectable by heat-sensitive rattlesnakes, rattlesnakes could use this information to evaluate prey vigilance or arousal before striking; however, more detailed information on the sensory ecology of the pit organ under field conditions is needed to evaluate this possibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Inferring Kangaroo Phylogeny from Incongruent Nuclear and Mitochondrial Genes

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Matthew J.; Haouchar, Dalal; Pratt, Renae C.; Gibb, Gillian C.; Bunce, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The marsupial genus Macropus includes three subgenera, the familiar large grazing kangaroos and wallaroos of M. (Macropus) and M. (Osphranter), as well as the smaller mixed grazing/browsing wallabies of M. (Notamacropus). A recent study of five concatenated nuclear genes recommended subsuming the predominantly browsing Wallabia bicolor (swamp wallaby) into Macropus. To further examine this proposal we sequenced partial mitochondrial genomes for kangaroos and wallabies. These sequences strongly favour the morphological placement of W. bicolor as sister to Macropus, although place M. irma (black-gloved wallaby) within M. (Osphranter) rather than as expected, with M. (Notamacropus). Species tree estimation from separately analysed mitochondrial and nuclear genes favours retaining Macropus and Wallabia as separate genera. A simulation study finds that incomplete lineage sorting among nuclear genes is a plausible explanation for incongruence with the mitochondrial placement of W. bicolor, while mitochondrial introgression from a wallaroo into M. irma is the deepest such event identified in marsupials. Similar such coalescent simulations for interpreting gene tree conflicts will increase in both relevance and statistical power as species-level phylogenetics enters the genomic age. Ecological considerations in turn, hint at a role for selection in accelerating the fixation of introgressed or incompletely sorted loci. More generally the inclusion of the mitochondrial sequences substantially enhanced phylogenetic resolution. However, we caution that the evolutionary dynamics that enhance mitochondria as speciation indicators in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting may also render them especially susceptible to introgression. PMID:23451266

  17. Inferring kangaroo phylogeny from incongruent nuclear and mitochondrial genes.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Matthew J; Haouchar, Dalal; Pratt, Renae C; Gibb, Gillian C; Bunce, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The marsupial genus Macropus includes three subgenera, the familiar large grazing kangaroos and wallaroos of M. (Macropus) and M. (Osphranter), as well as the smaller mixed grazing/browsing wallabies of M. (Notamacropus). A recent study of five concatenated nuclear genes recommended subsuming the predominantly browsing Wallabia bicolor (swamp wallaby) into Macropus. To further examine this proposal we sequenced partial mitochondrial genomes for kangaroos and wallabies. These sequences strongly favour the morphological placement of W. bicolor as sister to Macropus, although place M. irma (black-gloved wallaby) within M. (Osphranter) rather than as expected, with M. (Notamacropus). Species tree estimation from separately analysed mitochondrial and nuclear genes favours retaining Macropus and Wallabia as separate genera. A simulation study finds that incomplete lineage sorting among nuclear genes is a plausible explanation for incongruence with the mitochondrial placement of W. bicolor, while mitochondrial introgression from a wallaroo into M. irma is the deepest such event identified in marsupials. Similar such coalescent simulations for interpreting gene tree conflicts will increase in both relevance and statistical power as species-level phylogenetics enters the genomic age. Ecological considerations in turn, hint at a role for selection in accelerating the fixation of introgressed or incompletely sorted loci. More generally the inclusion of the mitochondrial sequences substantially enhanced phylogenetic resolution. However, we caution that the evolutionary dynamics that enhance mitochondria as speciation indicators in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting may also render them especially susceptible to introgression.

  18. Selected diagnostic ophthalmic tests in the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus).

    PubMed

    Takle, Ginger L; Suedmeyer, W Kirk; Hunkeler, Amy

    2010-06-01

    The following tests were performed on a total of 20 eyes: Schirmer tear test, intraocular pressure (IOP), assessment of conjunctival flora, and pupillary diameter with application of topical tropicamide in 10 healthy captive red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) under manual restraint. The mean Schirmer tear test value was 22.6 +/- 6.07 mm/min. The mean intraocular pressure was 17.45 +/- 7.23 mm Hg. Values did not differ between eyes or gender for either test, but significant differences were identified for IOP values according to age. The most common bacteria isolated from the conjunctival fornix were Staphylococcus epidermidis (54.5%) and Corynebacterium sp. (18.2%). The mean onset of mydriasis after instillation of 1% tropicamide ophthalmic solution was 16.7 +/- 3.34 min and the mean duration of effect was 17.6 +/- 8.26 hr. The data obtained in this investigation will aid veterinary ophthalmologists and zoo veterinarians to diagnose ocular diseases in the red kangaroo accurately.

  19. Influence of ENSO and IOD to Variability of Sea Surface Height in the North and South of Java Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadlan, Ahmad; Nugroho Sugianto, Denny; Kunarso; Zainuri, Muhammad

    2017-02-01

    Indonesia is one of the largest archipelagic countries in the world. Besides being in the tropics, these waters are also located between two continents and two oceans that making this area are heavily influenced by the global atmospheric phenomena such as El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). Sea level rise is one of the main threats faced by Indonesia and other island countries in the world. Not only global warming, sea level rise in the tropics also caused by inter annual variability such as ENSO and IOD. This research has been aimed to determine the influence of ENSO and IOD to variability of sea surface height in the north and south of Java. This research used Satellite altimetry data were constructed by multi-mission satellite. These results showed that the sea level anomaly generally inversely related to ENSO and Dipole Mode Index. The phenomenon that most influence a decrease sea level anomaly in the study area is a phenomenon IOD + and the phenomenon that most influenced the increase sea level anomaly is La Niña. South of Java is area that has the large effect of changes in sea levels than north of Java. During La Niña, sea level anomaly can be increase up to 0.3 m and sea level anomaly can be decrease up to -0.28 m during IOD+.

  20. Professional Development across the Islands of the South Pacific: A Perspective of a Blended Learning Facilitator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffmann-Dumienski, Kamila

    2016-01-01

    Access to information and communication technology (ICT) is becoming an increasingly important factor for education and training in the South Pacific region. While many studies have examined the attitudes and understanding of educators towards using ICT in their profession and for their professional development, studies that specifically deal with…

  1. A retrospective study of Babesia macropus associated with morbidity and mortality in eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) and agile wallabies (Macropus agilis).

    PubMed

    Donahoe, Shannon L; Peacock, Christopher S; Choo, Ace Y L; Cook, Roger W; O'Donoghue, Peter; Crameri, Sandra; Vogelnest, Larry; Gordon, Anita N; Scott, Jenni L; Rose, Karrie

    2015-08-01

    This is a retrospective study of 38 cases of infection by Babesia macropus, associated with a syndrome of anaemia and debility in hand-reared or free-ranging juvenile eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) from coastal New South Wales and south-eastern Queensland between 1995 and 2013. Infection with B. macropus is recorded for the first time in agile wallabies (Macropus agilis) from far north Queensland. Animals in which B. macropus infection was considered to be the primary cause of morbidity had marked anaemia, lethargy and neurological signs, and often died. In these cases, parasitised erythrocytes were few or undetectable in peripheral blood samples but were sequestered in large numbers within small vessels of visceral organs, particularly in the kidney and brain, associated with distinctive clusters of extraerythrocytic organisms. Initial identification of this piroplasm in peripheral blood smears and in tissue impression smears and histological sections was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy and molecular analysis. Samples of kidney, brain or blood were tested using PCR and DNA sequencing of the 18S ribosomal RNA and heat shock protein 70 gene using primers specific for piroplasms. The piroplasm detected in these samples had 100% sequence identity in the 18S rRNA region with the recently described Babesia macropus in two eastern grey kangaroos from New South Wales and Queensland, and a high degree of similarity to an unnamed Babesia sp. recently detected in three woylies (Bettongia penicillata ogilbyi) in Western Australia.

  2. A retrospective study of Babesia macropus associated with morbidity and mortality in eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) and agile wallabies (Macropus agilis)

    PubMed Central

    Donahoe, Shannon L.; Peacock, Christopher S.; Choo, Ace Y.L.; Cook, Roger W.; O'Donoghue, Peter; Crameri, Sandra; Vogelnest, Larry; Gordon, Anita N.; Scott, Jenni L.; Rose, Karrie

    2015-01-01

    This is a retrospective study of 38 cases of infection by Babesia macropus, associated with a syndrome of anaemia and debility in hand-reared or free-ranging juvenile eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) from coastal New South Wales and south-eastern Queensland between 1995 and 2013. Infection with B. macropus is recorded for the first time in agile wallabies (Macropus agilis) from far north Queensland. Animals in which B. macropus infection was considered to be the primary cause of morbidity had marked anaemia, lethargy and neurological signs, and often died. In these cases, parasitised erythrocytes were few or undetectable in peripheral blood samples but were sequestered in large numbers within small vessels of visceral organs, particularly in the kidney and brain, associated with distinctive clusters of extraerythrocytic organisms. Initial identification of this piroplasm in peripheral blood smears and in tissue impression smears and histological sections was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy and molecular analysis. Samples of kidney, brain or blood were tested using PCR and DNA sequencing of the 18S ribosomal RNA and heat shock protein 70 gene using primers specific for piroplasms. The piroplasm detected in these samples had 100% sequence identity in the 18S rRNA region with the recently described Babesia macropus in two eastern grey kangaroos from New South Wales and Queensland, and a high degree of similarity to an unnamed Babesia sp. recently detected in three woylies (Bettongia penicillata ogilbyi) in Western Australia. PMID:26106576

  3. Why is the South Orkney Island shelf (the world's first high seas marine protected area) a carbon immobilization hotspot?

    PubMed

    Barnes, David K A; Ireland, Louise; Hogg, Oliver T; Morley, Simon; Enderlein, Peter; Sands, Chester J

    2016-03-01

    The Southern Ocean archipelago, the South Orkney Islands (SOI), became the world's first entirely high seas marine protected area (MPA) in 2010. The SOI continental shelf (~44 000 km(2) ), was less than half covered by grounded ice sheet during glaciations, is biologically rich and a key area of both sea surface warming and sea-ice losses. Little was known of the carbon cycle there, but recent work showed it was a very important site of carbon immobilization (net annual carbon accumulation) by benthos, one of the few demonstrable negative feedbacks to climate change. Carbon immobilization by SOI bryozoans was higher, per species, unit area and ice-free day, than anywhere-else polar. Here, we investigate why carbon immobilization has been so high at SOI, and whether this is due to high density, longevity or high annual production in six study species of bryozoans (benthic suspension feeders). We compared benthic carbon immobilization across major regions around West Antarctica with sea-ice and primary production, from remotely sensed and directly sampled sources. Lowest carbon immobilization was at the northernmost study regions (South Georgia) and southernmost Amundsen Sea. However, data standardized for age and density showed that only SOI was anomalous (high). High immobilization at SOI was due to very high annual production of bryozoans (rather than high densities or longevity), which were 2x, 3x and 5x higher than on the Bellingshausen, South Georgia and Amundsen shelves, respectively. We found that carbon immobilization correlated to the duration (but not peak or integrated biomass) of phytoplankton blooms, both in directly sampled, local scale data and across regions using remote-sensed data. The long bloom at SOI seems to drive considerable carbon immobilization, but sea-ice losses across West Antarctica mean that significant carbon sinks and negative feedbacks to climate change could also develop in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas.

  4. H2O2 levels in rainwater collected in south Florida and the Bahama Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zika, R.; Saltzman, E.; Chameides, W. L.; Davis, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of H2O2 in rainwater collected in Miami, Florida, and the Bahama Islands area indicate the presence of H2O2 concentration levels ranging from 100,000 to 700,000 M. No systematic trends in H2O2 concentration were observed during an individual storm, in marked contrast to the behavior of other anions for example, NO3(-), SO4(-2), and Cl(-). The data suggest that a substantial fraction of the H2O2 found in precipitation is generated by aqueous-phase reactions within the cloudwater rather than via rainout and washout of gaseous H2O2.

  5. H2O2 levels in rainwater collected in south Florida and the Bahama Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zika, R.; Saltzman, E.; Chameides, W. L.; Davis, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of H2O2 in rainwater collected in Miami, Florida, and the Bahama Islands area indicate the presence of H2O2 concentration levels ranging from 100,000 to 700,000 M. No systematic trends in H2O2 concentration were observed during an individual storm, in marked contrast to the behavior of other anions for example, NO3(-), SO4(-2), and Cl(-). The data suggest that a substantial fraction of the H2O2 found in precipitation is generated by aqueous-phase reactions within the cloudwater rather than via rainout and washout of gaseous H2O2.

  6. A micro case study of the legal and administrative arrangements for river health in the Kangaroo River (NSW).

    PubMed

    Mooney, C; Farrier, D

    2002-01-01

    Kangaroo Valley is a drinking water supply catchment for Kangaroo Valley village, parts of the Southern Highlands and Sydney. It is also a popular recreation area both for swimming and canoeing. Land use has traditionally been dominated by dairy farming but there has been significant and continuing development of land for hobby farms and rural residential subdivision. Dairy industry restructuring has affected the viability of some farms in the Valley and created additional pressure for subdivision. River health is a function of flows, water quality, riparian vegetation, geomorphology and aquatic habitat and riverine biota. River flows in the Kangaroo River are affected by water extraction and storage for urban water supply and extraction by commercial irrigators and riparian land holders which have a significant impact at low flows. Current water quality often does not meet ANZECC Guidelines for primary contact and recreation and the river is a poor source of raw drinking water. Key sources of contaminants are wastewater runoff from agriculture, and poorly performing on-site sewage management systems. Riparian vegetation, which is critical to the maintenance of in-stream ecosystems suffers from uncontrolled stock access and weed infestation. The management of land use and resulting diffuse pollution sources is critical to the long term health of the river. The Healthy Rivers Commission of New South Wales Independent Inquiry into the Shoalhaven River System Final Report July, 1999 found that the longer term protection of the health of the Kangaroo River is contingent upon achievement of patterns of land use that have regard to land capability and also to the capability of the river to withstand the impacts of inappropriate or poorly managed land uses. This micro case study of Kangaroo Valley examines the complex legal and administrative arrangements with particular reference to the management of diffuse pollution for river health. In the past, diffuse pollution has

  7. Beyond barcodes: complex DNA taxonomy of a South Pacific Island radiation

    PubMed Central

    Monaghan, Michael T; Balke, Michael; Pons, Joan; Vogler, Alfried P

    2005-01-01

    DNA barcodes can provide rapid species identification and aid species inventories in taxonomically unstudied groups. However, the approach may fail in recently diverged groups with complex gene histories, such as those typically found on oceanic islands. We produced a DNA-based inventory of taxonomically little known diving beetles (genus Copelatus) in the Fiji archipelago, where they are a dominant component of the aquatic invertebrate fauna. Sampling from 25 localities on five islands and analysis of sequences from one nuclear (328 bp histone 3) and three mitochondrial (492 bp rrnL, 786 bp cox1, 333 bp cob) gene regions revealed high haplotype diversity, mainly originated since the Pleistocene, and subdivided into three major phylogenetic lineages and 22 statistical parsimony networks. A traditional taxonomic study delineated 25 morphologically defined species that were largely incongruent with the DNA-based groups. Haplotype diversity and their spatial arrangement demonstrated a continuum of relatedness in Fijian Copelatus, with evidence for introgression at various hierarchical levels. The study illustrates the difficulties for formal classification in evolutionarily complex lineages, and the potentially misleading conclusions obtained from either DNA barcodes or morphological traits alone. However, the sequence profile of Fijian Copelatus provides an evolutionary framework for the group and a DNA-based reference system for the integration of ecological and other biodiversity data, independent of the Linnaean naming system. PMID:16618684

  8. The effect of formal, neonatal communication-intervention training on mothers in kangaroo care

    PubMed Central

    van Rooyen, Elise

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Due to low-birth-weight, preterm birth, HIV and/or AIDS and poverty-related factors, South Africa presents with an increased prevalence of infants at risk of language delay. A Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) unit offers unique opportunities for training. Aim The aim of the present study was to determine if formal, neonatal communication-intervention training had an effect on mothers’ knowledge and communication interaction with their high-risk infants. Methods Three groups of mothers participated: Group 1 was trained whilst practicing KMC; Group 2 was not trained but practiced KMC; and Group 3 was also not trained but practiced sporadic KMC. Ten mothers per group were matched for age, education level and birth order of their infants. The individual training was based on graded sensory stimulation and responsive mother-infant communication interaction, which emphasised talking and singing by the mother. Results Significant differences were found in mother-infant communication interaction between all three groups, which indicated a positive effect on Group 1 with training. Group 2, KMC without training, also had a positive effect on interaction. However, Group 1 mothers with training demonstrated better knowledge of their infants and were more responsive during interaction than the other two groups. Conclusion The present study suggests that neonatal communication-intervention training adds value to a KMC programme. PMID:26245414

  9. Beaded-chain collars: A new method to radiotag kangaroo rats for short-term studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harker, M.B.; Rathbun, G.B.; Langtimm, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    To study burrow use by small mammals, we needed to develop a simple, non-invasive radiotag for the endangered giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens). We designed and tested a radiocollar made of beaded-chain on 4 captive Heermann's kangaroo rats (D. heermanii). Attachment of the collar required no anesthesia, the collar was easily fitted in 1-2 minutes, and it caused minimal stress to the animals. Once the collar design and attachment technique were perfected on the surrogate animals, we fitted radiocollars on 48 giant kangaroo rats for about 15 days. Upon recapture, 12 animals showed some minor fur or skin abrasion on the neck. Overall, the attachment performed as expected and proved to be a reliable method to radiotrack kangaroo rats during our short-term field study.

  10. Successful management of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a Matschie's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus matschiei).

    PubMed

    Fredholm, Daniel V; Jones, Ashley E; Hall, Natalie H; Russell, Kathleen; Heard, Darryl J

    2015-03-01

    A 3-yr-old, intact male Matschie's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus matschiei) was examined for a 1-wk history of intermittent lethargy and tachypnea. An echocardiogram revealed concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricular free wall and interventricular septum. These findings were compared to measurements from healthy Matschie's tree kangaroos, supporting a diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. At the time of publication, the patient has been managed for over 11.5 yr, using a combination of enalapril, furosemide, diltiazem, and diet modifications. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy should be considered as a differential diagnosis in tree kangaroos exhibiting signs of cardiovascular or respiratory distress. This case represents the first report of antemortem diagnosis and successful management of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a Matschie's tree kangaroo.

  11. Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  12. Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  13. South Toto Acoustic Measurement Facility (STAFAC) In-Water Systems Installation AUTEC Andros Island, Bahamas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    INTREPID using the ship’s bow roller, gantry system, two cable drums, two capstans, and two bow cranes (Figure 21). The mooring anchors were initially...lease of cable winches, cranes , and deployment/retrieval vessels and associated equipment • Shore landing, cable stabilization, and beaching systems...stern crane . The Umbilical Cables were installed beginning with the North system, followed by the South System. The installation began at the J-Box

  14. Locomotion in extinct giant kangaroos: were sthenurines hop-less monsters?

    PubMed

    Janis, Christine M; Buttrill, Karalyn; Figueirido, Borja

    2014-01-01

    Sthenurine kangaroos (Marsupialia, Diprotodontia, Macropodoidea) were an extinct subfamily within the family Macropodidae (kangaroos and rat-kangaroos). These "short-faced browsers" first appeared in the middle Miocene, and radiated in the Plio-Pleistocene into a diversity of mostly large-bodied forms, more robust than extant forms in their build. The largest (Procoptodon goliah) had an estimated body mass of 240 kg, almost three times the size of the largest living kangaroos, and there is speculation whether a kangaroo of this size would be biomechanically capable of hopping locomotion. Previously described aspects of sthenurine anatomy (specialized forelimbs, rigid lumbar spine) would limit their ability to perform the characteristic kangaroo pentapedal walking (using the tail as a fifth limb), an essential gait at slower speeds as slow hopping is energetically unfeasible. Analysis of limb bone measurements of sthenurines in comparison with extant macropodoids shows a number of anatomical differences, especially in the large species. The scaling of long bone robusticity indicates that sthenurines are following the "normal" allometric trend for macropodoids, while the large extant kangaroos are relatively gracile. Other morphological differences are indicative of adaptations for a novel type of locomotor behavior in sthenurines: they lacked many specialized features for rapid hopping, and they also had anatomy indicative of supporting their body with an upright trunk (e.g., dorsally tipped ischiae), and of supporting their weight on one leg at a time (e.g., larger hips and knees, stabilized ankle joint). We propose that sthenurines adopted a bipedal striding gait (a gait occasionally observed in extant tree-kangaroos): in the smaller and earlier forms, this gait may have been employed as an alternative to pentapedal locomotion at slower speeds, while in the larger Pleistocene forms this gait may have enabled them to evolve to body sizes where hopping was no longer

  15. Locomotion in Extinct Giant Kangaroos: Were Sthenurines Hop-Less Monsters?

    PubMed Central

    Janis, Christine M.; Buttrill, Karalyn; Figueirido, Borja

    2014-01-01

    Sthenurine kangaroos (Marsupialia, Diprotodontia, Macropodoidea) were an extinct subfamily within the family Macropodidae (kangaroos and rat-kangaroos). These “short-faced browsers” first appeared in the middle Miocene, and radiated in the Plio-Pleistocene into a diversity of mostly large-bodied forms, more robust than extant forms in their build. The largest (Procoptodon goliah) had an estimated body mass of 240 kg, almost three times the size of the largest living kangaroos, and there is speculation whether a kangaroo of this size would be biomechanically capable of hopping locomotion. Previously described aspects of sthenurine anatomy (specialized forelimbs, rigid lumbar spine) would limit their ability to perform the characteristic kangaroo pentapedal walking (using the tail as a fifth limb), an essential gait at slower speeds as slow hopping is energetically unfeasible. Analysis of limb bone measurements of sthenurines in comparison with extant macropodoids shows a number of anatomical differences, especially in the large species. The scaling of long bone robusticity indicates that sthenurines are following the “normal” allometric trend for macropodoids, while the large extant kangaroos are relatively gracile. Other morphological differences are indicative of adaptations for a novel type of locomotor behavior in sthenurines: they lacked many specialized features for rapid hopping, and they also had anatomy indicative of supporting their body with an upright trunk (e.g., dorsally tipped ischiae), and of supporting their weight on one leg at a time (e.g., larger hips and knees, stabilized ankle joint). We propose that sthenurines adopted a bipedal striding gait (a gait occasionally observed in extant tree-kangaroos): in the smaller and earlier forms, this gait may have been employed as an alternative to pentapedal locomotion at slower speeds, while in the larger Pleistocene forms this gait may have enabled them to evolve to body sizes where hopping was

  16. Electroretinography in the western gray kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus).

    PubMed

    Labelle, Amber L; Hamor, Ralph E; Narfström, Kristina; Breaux, Carrie B

    2010-09-01

    To perform electroretinography on normal anesthetized western gray kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus). Animals studied  Six captive western gray kangaroos. The kangaroos were anesthetized using a combination of ketamine and medetomidine via a remote drug delivery system, then were maintained on isoflurane after endotracheal intubation and reversal of the medetomidine with atipamazole. After a minimum of 20 min of dark adaptation, electroretinograms were obtained using a handheld electroretinography (ERG) machine using a single flash protocol at three light intensities: 10 mcd.s/m(2), 3000 mcd.s/m(2), 10 000 mcd.s/m(2). At 10 mcd.s/m(2) the mean b-wave amplitude and implicit time was 102.0 μV (SD ± 41.3 and 95% CI 68.9-135.1) and 78.4 ms (SD ± 8.3 and 95% CI 71.8-85.0). At 3000 mcd.s/m(2) the mean a-wave amplitude and implicit time was 69.9 μV (SD ± 20.5 and 95% CI 53.5-86.3) and 17.6 ms (SD ± 1.5 and 95% CI 16.4-18.8) and the mean b-wave amplitude and implicit time was 175.4 μV (SD ± 35.9 and 95% CI 146.7-204.1) and 74.1 ms (SD ± 3.5 and 95% CI 71.2-76.9). At 10 000 mcd.s/m(2) the mean a-wave amplitude and implicit time was 89.1 μV (SD ± 27.1 and 95% CI 67.5-110.8) and 16.8 ms (SD ± 1.0 and 95% CI 16.0-17.0) and the mean b-wave amplitude and implicit time was 203.7 μV (SD ± 41.4 and 95% CI 170.6-236.8) and 75.4 ms (SD ± 3.3 and 95% CI 72.8-78.1). Electroretinography outside of the typical clinical setting is feasible using a portable ERG system and allows for quick analysis of retinal function in exotic species.

  17. Nurses' adherence to the Kangaroo Care Method: support for nursing care management1

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Laura Johanson; Leite, Josete Luzia; Scochi, Carmen Gracinda Silvan; da Silva, Leila Rangel; da Silva, Thiago Privado

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: construct an explanatory theoretical model about nurses' adherence to the Kangaroo Care Method at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, based on the meanings and interactions for care management. METHOD: qualitative research, based on the reference framework of the Grounded Theory. Eight nurses were interviewed at a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The comparative analysis of the data comprised the phases of open, axial and selective coding. A theoretical conditional-causal model was constructed. RESULTS: four main categories emerged that composed the analytic paradigm: Giving one's best to the Kangaroo Method; Working with the complexity of the Kangaroo Method; Finding (de)motivation to apply the Kangaroo Method; and Facing the challenges for the adherence to and application of the Kangaroo Method. CONCLUSIONS: the central phenomenon revealed that each nurse and team professional has a role of multiplying values and practices that may or may not be constructive, potentially influencing the (dis)continuity of the Kangaroo Method at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The findings can be used to outline management strategies that go beyond the courses and training and guarantee the strengthening of the care model. PMID:26155013

  18. Evaluation of the neonatal outcomes of the kangaroo mother method in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lamy Filho, Fernando; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da; Lamy, Zeni Carvalho; Gomes, Maria Auxiliadora Sousa Mendes; Moreira, Maria Elizabeth Lopes

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the results of the kangaroo mother method in Brazil. A prospective cohort study comparing 16 units that have or do not have the second phase of the kangaroo mother method: eight were national centers of excellence for the kangaroo mother method (study group) and eight were part of the Brazilian Neonatal Research Network (control group). A total of 985 newborn infants with birth weights of 500 to 1,749 g were enrolled. Multivariate analyses employed multiple linear regression and Poisson regression with robust adjustment. The adjusted analysis (controlled for birth weight, gestational age, Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology Perinatal Extension II, Neonatal Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System, and maternal age and educational level) demonstrated that mean length of hospital stay (p = 0.14) and intercurrent clinical conditions in the intermediate or kangaroo unit were equal for both groups. Weight (p = 0.012), length (p = 0.039) and head circumference (p = 0.006) at 36 weeks' corrected gestational age were all lower at the kangaroo units. The kangaroo units exhibited superior performance in relation to exclusive breastfeeding at discharge (69.2 vs. 23.8%, p = 0.022). The evidence suggests that the humanization strategy adopted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health is a safe alternative to conventional treatment and a good strategy for promoting breastfeeding.

  19. Evaluation of kangaroo pericardium as an alternative substitute for reconstructive cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Neethling, W M L; Cooper, S; Van Den Heever, J J; Hough, J; Hodge, A J

    2002-06-01

    Bioprosthetic materials (human, bovine and porcine) are used in various cardio-thoracic repair and replacement procedures because of excellent performance and low thrombogenicity. These bioprosthetic substitutes fail due to degeneration and calcification. This study examines the morphology, tensile properties and calcification potential of kangaroo pericardium in vitro and in vivo. Bovine (control tissue) and kangaroo pericardium, fixed in 0.625% buffered glutaraldehyde, were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. A standard method was used for biaxial testing. Pericardial strips (10 x 5 mm) were implanted subcutaneously into male Wistar rats and retrieved after 4, 6 and 8 weeks and examined by Von Kossa's stain technique and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Histology revealed serosa and fibrosa cell layers in both tissues. Electron microscopy showed a densely arranged collagen matrix in kangaroo pericardium. Kangaroo pericardium calcified significantly less than bovine pericardium at 4 weeks (0.80+/-0.28 versus 21.60+/-4.80 microg/mg) at 6 weeks (0.48+/-0.08 versus 32.80+/-14.4 microg/mg) and at 8 weeks (2.40+/-1.20 versus 30.40+/-17.20 microg/mg), respectively. Kangaroo pericardium has a densely arranged collagen matrix with a higher extensibility and significantly lower calcification potential. Therefore, kangaroo pericardium could be used as an alternative substitute in cardiac surgery because of its low calcification potential.

  20. Merriam's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys merriami) voluntarily select temperatures that conserve energy rather than water.

    PubMed

    Banta, Marilyn R

    2003-01-01

    Desert endotherms such as Merriam's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys merriami) use both behavioral and physiological means to conserve energy and water. The energy and water needs of kangaroo rats are affected by their thermal environment. Animals that choose temperatures within their thermoneutral zone (TNZ) minimize energy expenditure but may impair water balance because the ratio of water loss to water gain is high. At temperatures below the TNZ, water balance may be improved because animals generate more oxidative water and reduce evaporative water loss; however, they must also increase energy expenditure to maintain a normal body temperature. Hence, it is not possible for kangaroo rats to choose thermal environments that simultaneously minimize energy expenditure and increase water conservation. I used a thermal gradient to test whether water stress, energy stress, simultaneous water and energy stress, or no water/energy stress affected the thermal environment selected by D. merriami. During the night (i.e., active phase), animals in all four treatments chose temperatures near the bottom of their TNZ. During the day (i.e., inactive phase), animals in all four treatments settled at temperatures near the top of their TNZ. Thus, kangaroo rats chose thermal environments that minimized energy requirements, not water requirements. Because kangaroo rats have evolved high water use efficiency, energy conservation may be more important than water conservation to the fitness of extant kangaroo rats.

  1. Glutaraldehyde-fixed kangaroo aortic wall tissue: histology, crosslink stability and calcification potential.

    PubMed

    Neethling, W M L; Hodge, A J; Glancy, R

    2003-07-15

    Stentless aortic heart valve substitutes, manufactured from biological tissues, are fixed with glutaraldehyde to cross-link collagen, reduce antigenicity, and sterilize the tissue. Despite improved cross linking, reduced antigenicity, and various anticalcification measures, the aortic wall tissue present in these prostheses tends to calcify. The aim of this study was to assess the morphology, collagen cross-link stability, and calcification potential of glutaraldehyde-preserved kangaroo aortic wall tissue as opposed to porcine aortic wall tissue. Porcine and kangaroo aortic wall tissues were fixed in 0.625% buffered glutaraldehyde. Histology and cross-link stability were examined. Calcification potential was determined in the subcutaneous rat model. Kangaroo aortic wall tissue was significantly (p < 0.01) less calcified than porcine aortic wall tissue (26.67 +/- 6.53 versus 41.959 +/- 2.75 microg/mg tissue) at 8 weeks. In conclusion, the histological differences between kangaroo and porcine aortic wall tissue correlate well with the reduced calcification potential of kangaroo aortic wall tissue. The reduced calcification potential could result in improved long-term durability of stentless kangaroo heart valves as bioprostheses. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater 66B: 356-363, 2003

  2. State of the art and recommendations. Kangaroo mother care: application in a high-tech environment.

    PubMed

    Nyqvist, K H; Anderson, G C; Bergman, N; Cattaneo, A; Charpak, N; Davanzo, R; Ewald, U; Ludington-Hoe, S; Mendoza, S; Pallás-Allonso, C; Peláez, J G; Sizun, J; Widström, A-M

    2010-06-01

    Since Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) was developed in Colombia in the 1970s, two trends in clinical application emerged. In low income settings, the original KMC model is implemented. This consists of continuous (24 h/day, 7 days/week) and prolonged mother/parent-infant skin-to-skin contact; early discharge with the infant in the kangaroo position; (ideally) exclusive breastfeeding; and, adequate follow-up. In affluent settings, intermittent KMC with sessions of one or a few hours skin-to-skin contact for a limited period is common. As a result of the increasing evidence of the benefits of KMC for both infants and families in all intensive care settings, KMC in a high-tech environment was chosen as the topic for the first European Conference on KMC, and the clinical implementation of the KMC model in all types of settings was discussed at the 7th International Workshop on KMC. Kangaroo Mother Care protocols in high-tech Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) should specify criteria for initiation, kangaroo position, transfer to/from KMC, transport in kangaroo position, kangaroo nutrition, parents' role, modification of the NICU environment, performance of care in KMC, and KMC in case of infant instability. Implementation of the original KMC method, with continuous skin-to-skin contact whenever possible, is recommended for application in high-tech environments, although scientific evaluation should continue.

  3. The effect of kangaroo care on neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Head, Lauren M

    2014-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with long-term deficits in executive functioning and cognitive performance. As advances in neonatal care enable more preterm infants to survive, development of strategies to address high rates of neurodevelopmental disabilities and poor academic achievement in preterm infants are crucial. Evidence suggests that infants' brains are plastic in nature and, therefore, can be shaped by the environment. Kangaroo care has become popularized as a means of modifying the stress of the NICU environment. However, few studies have examined whether kangaroo care affects neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants. This review examined available literature that investigated the effect of kangaroo care on cognition in preterm infants. Current evidence suggests that short-term benefits of kangaroo care are associated with improved neurodevelopment. However, few studies have examined the long-term impact of kangaroo care on cognitive outcomes in preterm infants. To address neurological disparities in children born preterm, research using kangaroo care as a strategy to improve neurodevelopment in preterm infants is warranted.

  4. Nurses' adherence to the Kangaroo Care Method: support for nursing care management.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Laura Johanson; Leite, Josete Luzia; Scochi, Carmen Gracinda Silvan; da Silva, Leila Rangel; da Silva, Thiago Privado

    2015-01-01

    construct an explanatory theoretical model about nurses' adherence to the Kangaroo Care Method at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, based on the meanings and interactions for care management. qualitative research, based on the reference framework of the Grounded Theory. Eight nurses were interviewed at a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The comparative analysis of the data comprised the phases of open, axial and selective coding. A theoretical conditional-causal model was constructed. four main categories emerged that composed the analytic paradigm: Giving one's best to the Kangaroo Method; Working with the complexity of the Kangaroo Method; Finding (de)motivation to apply the Kangaroo Method; and Facing the challenges for the adherence to and application of the Kangaroo Method. the central phenomenon revealed that each nurse and team professional has a role of multiplying values and practices that may or may not be constructive, potentially influencing the (dis)continuity of the Kangaroo Method at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The findings can be used to outline management strategies that go beyond the courses and training and guarantee the strengthening of the care model.

  5. [Humane care for low-weight newborns (kangaroo mother method): mother's perceptions].

    PubMed

    Neves, Priscila Nicoletti; Ravelli, Ana Paula Xavier; Lemos, Juliana Regina Dias

    2010-03-01

    Breastfeeding is one of the key practices which promote health, being associated with a reduction of diseases and mortality in childhood. Thus, from the course conclusive work, the present article was structured, which aimed to recognize the perceptions of mothers in the face of the use of the mother kangaroo method. With a qualitative, descriptive and field approach, it was held at the Philanthropic Hospital of Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil, by the months of August to October 2006, in which six mothers were included in the kangaroo mother method during the admission of the baby. For the gathering, semi-structured interviews were made and data were analyzed by the content analysis. This article analyzed two categories, maternal experience with the mother kangaroo method, with the subcategories: mother kangaroo method and maternal breastfeeding and experiences at the kangaroo practice; and knowing the kangaroo method. As a conclusion, nursing plays an essential role in the insertion of the family to the method, from the provided cares.

  6. A new species of Phyllochaetopterus Grube, 1863 (Polychaeta: Chaetopteridae) from Hainan Island, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yueyun; Li, Xinzheng

    2017-03-01

    Phyllochaetopterus species are widely distributed on the coast of China. Here, Phyllochaetopterus hainanensis n. sp., a new species collected from Hainan Island (China), is reported. It is characterized by having a V-shaped peristomium, two eyespots covered by a pair of large curved peristomial notopodia (cirri located beneath the palps), 13-14 chaetigers in the anterior body region, with three enlarged modified chaetae on the fourth notopodium, and more than five chaetigers in the middle body region. The modified chaeta has a slightly inflated head with an obliquely truncate end. The new species resembles Phyllochaetopterus socialis Claparède, 1869, but differs in the shape of peristomial notopodia and peristomium. Twelve species of Phyllochaetopterus have been described from the Pacific Ocean, including the new species described here. An identification key to the known Pacific species is provided together with a brief discussion of the taxonomic value of the eyespots for the genus.

  7. Multivariate and geo-spatial approach for seawater quality of Chidiyatappu Bay, south Andaman Islands, India.

    PubMed

    Jha, Dilip Kumar; Vinithkumar, Nambali Valsalan; Sahu, Biraja Kumar; Dheenan, Palaiya Sukumaran; Das, Apurba Kumar; Begum, Mehmuna; Devi, Marimuthu Prashanthi; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam

    2015-07-15

    Chidiyatappu Bay is one of the least disturbed marine environments of Andaman & Nicobar Islands, the union territory of India. Oceanic flushing from southeast and northwest direction is prevalent in this bay. Further, anthropogenic activity is minimal in the adjoining environment. Considering the pristine nature of this bay, seawater samples collected from 12 sampling stations covering three seasons were analyzed. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed 69.9% of total variance and exhibited strong factor loading for nitrite, chlorophyll a and phaeophytin. In addition, analysis of variance (ANOVA-one way), regression analysis, box-whisker plots and Geographical Information System based hot spot analysis further simplified and supported multivariate results. The results obtained are important to establish reference conditions for comparative study with other similar ecosystems in the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Polar gravel beach-ridge systems as archive of climate variations (South Shetland Islands / Western Antarctic Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindhorst, Sebastian; Schutter, Ilona; Betzler, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The architecture of polar gravel beach-ridge systems is presented and their potential as archive of past wave-climate conditions is evaluated. Raised beaches are common on paraglacial coasts which experienced a net uplift during the Holocene as the result of postglacial isostatic rebound. Ground-penetrating radar data obtained along the coasts of Potter Peninsula (King George Island) show that beach ridges unconformably overlie seaward-dipping strata of the strand plain. Whereas strand-plain progradation is the result of swash sedimentation at the beach face under enduring calm conditions, ridge construction reflects enhanced wave action at the beach as the result of increased storminess or reduced nearshore sea ice. The number of individual ridges which are preserved from a given time interval varies along the coast depending on the morphodynamic setting: Sheltered coasts are characterized by numerous small ridges, whereas fewer but larger ridges develop on exposed beaches. The sedimentary architecture of individual beach ridges is interpreted to reflect maximum wave-runup height during the time of ridge construction. Ridges at sheltered parts of the coast exhibit either seaward-dipping beds, interpreted to result from swash deposition, or an aggradational stacking pattern being the result of wave overtopping. At exposed beaches, larger ridges develop composed of seaward- as well as landward-dipping beds. Radiocarbon data indicate that the frequency of ridge building ranges from decades in low-energy settings to more than 1500 years under high-energy conditions. In the study area, beach ridges group into four distinct levels: up to 4 m, 5.5 m, 7.5 m, and 10 m above the present day storm beach. Hence, these levels are interpreted to reflect periods of increased wave activity in the area of the South Shetland Islands at about 4.3, 3.1, 1.9, and 0.35 ka cal BP.

  9. Nutrient dynamics in tropical rivers, lagoons, and coastal ecosystems of eastern Hainan Island, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R. H.; Liu, S. M.; Li, Y. W.; Zhang, G. L.; Ren, J. L.; Zhang, J.

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient dynamics based on field observations made along the eastern Hainan Island during the period 2006-2009 were investigated to understand nutrient biogeochemical processes, and to provide an overview of human perturbations of coastal ecosystems in this tropical region. The rivers showed seasonal variations in nutrient concentrations, with enrichment of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and dissolved silicate, and depletion of PO43-. High riverine concentrations of nitrate mainly originated from agricultural fertilizer inputs. The DIN : PO43- ratios ranged from 37 to 1063, suggesting preferential depletion of PO43- relative to nitrogen in rivers. Chemical weathering in the drainage area might explain the high levels of dissolved silicate. Aquaculture ponds contained high concentrations of NH4+ and dissolved organic nitrogen. The particulate phosphorus concentrations in the study area were lower than those reported for estuaries worldwide. The particulate silicate levels in rivers and lagoons were lower than the global average level. Nutrient biogeochemistry in coastal areas was affected by human activities (e.g., aquaculture, agriculture), and by natural phenomena including typhoons. The nutrient concentrations in coastal waters were low because of dispersion of land-derived nutrients in the sea. Nutrient budgets were built based on a steady-state box model, which showed that riverine fluxes are magnified by estuarine processes (e.g., regeneration, desorption) in estuaries and Laoyehai Lagoon, but not in Xiaohai Lagoon. Riverine and groundwater inputs were the major sources of nutrients to Xiaohai and Laoyehai lagoons, respectively, and riverine inputs and aquaculture effluents were the major sources for the eastern coast of Hainan Island. Nutrient inputs to the coastal ecosystem increased with typhoon-induced runoff of rainwater, elucidating the important influence of typhoons on small tropical rivers.

  10. Aleutian Islands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Remote, rugged and extraordinarily beautiful, Alaska’s Aleutian Islands are best known for wildlife reserves, military bases, fishing, furs and fog. The sprawling volcanic archipelago was brought into the spotlight by the Russian-supported expedition of Alexey Chirikov and Vitus Bering in 1741, and soon became controlled by the Russian-American Fur Company. In 1867 the United States purchased Alaska, including the Aleutian Islands, from Russia. By 1900 the port in Unalaska was well established as a shipping port for Alaska gold. The archipelago sweeps about 1,200 miles (1,800 km) from the tip of the Alaskan Peninsula to Attu, the most westward island. Four major island groups hold 14 large islands, about 55 smaller islands, and a large number of islets, adding up to roughly 150 islands/islets in total. This chain separates the Bering Sea (north) from the Pacific Ocean (south) and the islands are connected by the Marine Highway Ferry – at least as far as Unalaska. For the most remote islands, such as birding paradise of Attu, the western-most Aleutian Island, travel becomes trickier and relies primarily on custom charter. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flew over the region and captured this spectacular true-color image of the eastern Aleutian Islands on May 15, 2014. In this image, the Alaskan Peninsula protrudes from the mainland and sweeps to the southwest. The first set of islands are called the Fox Island group. Unalaska Island is part of this group and can be identified, with some imagination, as an island formed in the shape of a flying cherub, with two arms (peninsulas) outstretched towards the northeast, seemingly reaching for the round “balls” of Akutan and Akun Islands. The smallest islands in the west of the image belong to the group known as the Islands of Four Mountains. The Aleutians continue far to the west of this image. Fog surrounds the Aleutians, stretching from just off the southwestern Alaska mainland to the

  11. Considerations for implementation of a neonatal kangaroo care protocol.

    PubMed

    DiMenna, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    Kangaroo care (KC) is skin-to-skin contact between an infant and parent, where the infant is usually held chest-to-chest in an upright prone position. It is a very simple, beneficial developmental intervention for both baby and parent, as demonstrated in the literature, but many parents and health care professionals are not aware of KC, its benefits, or how to perform it. The purpose of this article is (1) to inform health care professionals about the research literature on KC and its benefits and (2) to develop a list of evidence-based KC guidelines for the use of all infants and their parents. Increased knowledge of and education on KC for healthcare providers should lead to increased, routine use of this beneficial intervention.

  12. Virtopsy in a red kangaroo with oral osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki-Ja; Sasaki, Motoki; Miyauchi, Aki; Kishimoto, Miori; Shimizu, Junichiro; Iwasaki, Toshiroh; Miyake, Yoh-Ichi; Yamada, Kazutaka

    2011-03-01

    This report describes the use of computed tomography (CT) in a nondomestic species. Postmortem CT was performed on a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) and a diagnosis of oral osteomyelitis was made. CT examination revealed bony remodeling of the right mandible, an intraosseous lesion of the right temporal bone, muscle necrosis around the right mandible, and the absence of the right, first, upper molar tooth. Cardiac and intrahepatic gas and a distended intestine due to postmortem gas accumulation were also seen. All the lesions identified with CT were also identified by conventional necropsy, except the cardiac and intrahepatic gases. Virtopsy may be a useful procedure for the noninvasive identification of cause of death and as a guide for necropsy in animals.

  13. Boundary-layer turbulence as a kangaroo process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, H.; de Leeuw, G.; Maassen van den Brink, A.

    1995-09-01

    A nonlocal mixing-length theory of turbulence transport by finite size eddies is developed by means of a novel evaluation of the Reynolds stress. The analysis involves the contruct of a sample path space and a stochastic closure hypothesis. The simplifying property of exhange (strong eddies) is satisfied by an analytical sampling rate model. A nonlinear scaling relation maps the path space onto the semi-infinite boundary layer. The underlying near-wall behavior of fluctuating velocities perfectly agrees with recent direct numerical simulations. The resulting integro-differential equation for the mixing of scalar densities represents fully developed boundary-layer turbulence as a nondiffusive (Kubo-Anderson or kangaroo) type of stochastic process. The model involves a scaling exponent ɛ (with ɛ-->∞ in the diffusion limit). For the (partly analytical) solution for the mean velocity profile, excellent agreement with the experimental data yields ɛ~=0.58.

  14. Calcium carbonate obstructive urolithiasis in a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus).

    PubMed

    Lindemann, Dana M; Gamble, Kathryn C; Corner, Sarah

    2013-03-01

    A 6-yr-old male red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) presented for a history of inappetance, abnormal behavior, and unconfirmed elimination for 6 hr prior to presentation. Based on abdominal ultrasound, abdominocentesis, and cystocentesis, a presumptive diagnosis of urinary tract obstruction with uroabdomen and hydronephrosis was reached. Abdominal radiographs did not assist in reaching an antemortem diagnosis. Postmortem examination confirmed a urinary bladder rupture secondary to urethral obstruction by a single urethrolith. Bilateral hydronephrosis and hydroureter were identified and determined to be a result of bilateral ureteroliths. Urolith analysis revealed a composition of 100% calcium carbonate. A dietary analysis was performed, implicating an increased Ca:P ratio from a food preparation miscommunication as a contributing factor. Appropriate husbandry changes were made, and mob surveillance procedures were performed, which resolved the urolithiasis risk for the remaining five animals.

  15. Kangaroo care for the preterm infant and family.

    PubMed

    Jefferies, Ann L

    2012-03-01

    Kangaroo care (KC) is the practice of skin-to-skin contact between infant and parent. In developing countries, KC for low-birthweight infants has been shown to reduce mortality, severe illness, infection and length of hospital stay. KC is also beneficial for preterm infants in high-income countries. Cardiorespiratory and temperature stability, sleep organization and duration of quiet sleep, neurodevelopmental outcomes, breastfeeding and modulation of pain responses appear to be improved for preterm infants who have received KC during their hospital stay. No detrimental effects on physiological stability have been demonstrated for infants as young as 26 weeks' gestational age, including those on assisted ventilation. Mothers show enhanced attachment behaviours and describe an increased sense of their role as a mother. The practice of KC should be encouraged in nurseries that care for preterm infants. Information is available to assist in developing guidelines and protocols.

  16. Aerobic endospore-forming bacteria from geothermal environments in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica, and Candlemas Island, South Sandwich archipelago, with the proposal of Bacillus fumarioli sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Logan, N A; Lebbe, L; Hoste, B; Goris, J; Forsyth, G; Heyndrickx, M; Murray, B L; Syme, N; Wynn-Williams, D D; De Vos, P

    2000-09-01

    Aerobic endospore-forming bacteria were isolated from soils taken from active fumaroles on Mount Rittmann and Mount Melbourne in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica, and from active and inactive fumaroles on Candlemas Island, South Sandwich archipelago. The Mt Rittmann and Mt Melbourne soils yielded a dominant, moderately thermophilic and acidophilic, aerobic endospore-former growing at pH 5.5 and 50 degrees C, and further strains of the same organism were isolated from a cold, dead fumarole at Clinker Gulch, Candlemas Island. Amplified rDNA restriction analysis, SDS-PAGE and routine phenotypic tests show that the Candlemas Island isolates are not distinguishable from the Mt Rittmann strains, although the two sites are 5600 km apart, and 16S rDNA sequence comparisons and DNA relatedness data support the proposal of a new species, Bacillus fumarioli, the type strain of which is LMG 17489T.

  17. 13. VIEW SOUTH, ROUTE 130 SOUTH FROM ROUTE 130 SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW SOUTH, ROUTE 130 SOUTH FROM ROUTE 130 SOUTH ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  18. Chikungunya fever: a clinical and virological investigation of outpatients on Reunion Island, South-West Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Thiberville, Simon-Djamel; Boisson, Veronique; Gaudart, Jean; Simon, Fabrice; Flahault, Antoine; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is responsible for acute febrile polyarthralgia and, in a proportion of cases, severe complications including chronic arthritis. CHIKV has spread recently in East Africa, South-West Indian Ocean, South-Asia and autochthonous cases have been reported in Europe. Although almost all patients are outpatients, medical investigations mainly focused on hospitalised patients. Here, we detail clinico-biological characteristics of Chikungunya (CHIK) outpatients in Reunion Island (2006). 76 outpatients with febrile arthralgia diagnosed within less than 48 hours were included by general practitioners during the CuraChik clinical trial. CHIK was confirmed in 54 patients and excluded in 22. A detailed clinical and biological follow-up was organised, that included analysis of viral intrahost diversity and telephone survey until day 300. The evolution of acute CHIK included 2 stages: the 'viral stage' (day 1-day 4) was associated with rapid decrease of viraemia and improvement of clinical presentation; the 'convalescent stage' (day 5-day 14) was associated with no detectable viraemia but a slower clinical improvement. Women and elderly had a significantly higher number of arthralgia at inclusion and at day 300. Based on the study clinico-biological dataset, scores for CHIK diagnosis in patients with recent febrile acute polyarthralgia were elaborated using arthralgia on hands and wrists, a minor or absent myalgia and the presence of lymphopenia (<1G/L) as major orientation criteria. Finally, we observed that CHIKV intra-host genetic diversity increased over time and that a higher viral amino-acid complexity at the acute stage was associated with increased number of arthralgia and intensity of sequelae at day 300. This study provided a detailed picture of clinico-biological CHIK evolution at the acute phase of the disease, allowed the elaboration of scores to assist CHIK diagnosis and investigated for the first time the impact of viral intra-host genetic

  19. Simulation modelling as a tool for evaluating surveillance programmes for detection of the Asian honeybee mite ( Varroa destructor ) in the South Island of New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Sanson, R L

    2007-12-01

    To use a simulation model of the spread of the Asian honeybee mite (Varroa destructor) amongst apiaries, to evaluate a series of detection surveillance programmes for the South Island of New Zealand. Five potential incursion sites into the South Island were selected. A stochastic spatial simulation model, Varroa_ sim, was adapted to simulate spread of the mite from these sites as a series of silent-phase propagating epidemics. The study population comprised all apiaries in the South Island registered in the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry's (MAF's) apiary database in 2003. Six different surveillance programmes were simulated to try and detect the mite. Three of these were the actual multi-stage sampling plans conducted during the autumn (March-May) of 2001, 2002 and 2003, and the other three involved simple random sampling with sampling fractions equivalent to the actual numbers of apiaries tested in each of those years. The relative performances of the different surveillance plans were evaluated in terms of their ability to detect the mite early before it had spread too far and whilst there might still be a chance of eradication. There were 13,798 registered apiaries in the South Island with valid map coordinates in the apiary database at the time of the study. The model generated 50 epidemics against which the various surveillance programmes were evaluated. The actual surveillance programmes conducted during the autumn of 2001 and 2002 generally performed fairly well in detecting the mite. The programme conducted in autumn 2003 detected the mite reasonably well in high-risk areas, but was very poor in low-risk areas. The simple random sampling strategies performed surprisingly well, and their relative rankings were proportional to the sampling fractions employed. This study showed the value in using a spatial simulation model to generate plausible silent-phase epidemics, against which detection surveillance programmes could be evaluated, in ways that would

  20. 33 CFR 165.T09-0417 - Safety Zone; Put-In-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock Pier, South Bass Island; Put-In-Bay, OH.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety Zone; Put-In-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock Pier, South Bass Island; Put-In-Bay, OH. 165.T09-0417 Section 165.T09-0417 Navigation... Limited Access Areas Ninth Coast Guard District § 165.T09-0417 Safety Zone; Put-In-Bay Fireworks,...

  1. Under the Dragon’s Wing: A Strategic Approach to China’s Militarization Efforts of its Artificial Islands in the South China Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-09

    OF MILITARY ART AND SCIENCE Strategic Studies by JUSTIN L. REDDICK, LIEUTENANT COMMANDER, U.S. NAVY B.S., University of New Mexico...in the SCS. 15. SUBJECT TERMS China, Artificial Island, Strategy , A2AD, Navy, National Security, South China Sea. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...not necessarily represent the views of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College or any other governmental agency. (References to this study

  2. Spatial requirements of free-ranging Huon tree kangaroos, Dendrolagus matschiei (Macropodidae), in upper montane forest.

    PubMed

    Porolak, Gabriel; Dabek, Lisa; Krockenberger, Andrew K

    2014-01-01

    Tree kangaroos (Macropodidae, Dendrolagus) are some of Australasia's least known mammals. However, there is sufficient evidence of population decline and local extinctions that all New Guinea tree kangaroos are considered threatened. Understanding spatial requirements is important in conservation and management. Expectations from studies of Australian tree kangaroos and other rainforest macropodids suggest that tree kangaroos should have small discrete home ranges with the potential for high population densities, but there are no published estimates of spatial requirements of any New Guinea tree kangaroo species. Home ranges of 15 Huon tree kangaroos, Dendrolagus matschiei, were measured in upper montane forest on the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea. The home range area was an average of 139.6±26.5 ha (100% MCP; n = 15) or 81.8±28.3 ha (90% harmonic mean; n = 15), and did not differ between males and females. Home ranges of D. matschiei were 40-100 times larger than those of Australian tree kangaroos or other rainforest macropods, possibly due to the impact of hunting reducing density, or low productivity of their high altitude habitat. Huon tree kangaroos had cores of activity within their range at 45% (20.9±4.1 ha) and 70% (36.6±7.5 ha) harmonic mean isopleths, with little overlap (4.8±2.9%; n = 15 pairs) between neighbouring females at the 45% isopleth, but, unlike the Australian species, extensive overlap between females (20.8±5.5%; n = 15 pairs) at the complete range (90% harmonic mean). Males overlapped each other and females to a greater extent than did pairs of females. From core areas and overlap, the density of female D. matschiei was one per 19.4 ha. Understanding the cause of this low density is crucial in gaining greater understanding of variations in density of tree kangaroos across the landscape. We consider the potential role of habitat fragmentation, productivity and hunting pressure in limiting tree kangaroo density in New

  3. Spatial Requirements of Free-Ranging Huon Tree Kangaroos, Dendrolagus matschiei (Macropodidae), in Upper Montane Forest

    PubMed Central

    Porolak, Gabriel; Dabek, Lisa; Krockenberger, Andrew K.

    2014-01-01

    Tree kangaroos (Macropodidae, Dendrolagus) are some of Australasia's least known mammals. However, there is sufficient evidence of population decline and local extinctions that all New Guinea tree kangaroos are considered threatened. Understanding spatial requirements is important in conservation and management. Expectations from studies of Australian tree kangaroos and other rainforest macropodids suggest that tree kangaroos should have small discrete home ranges with the potential for high population densities, but there are no published estimates of spatial requirements of any New Guinea tree kangaroo species. Home ranges of 15 Huon tree kangaroos, Dendrolagus matschiei, were measured in upper montane forest on the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea. The home range area was an average of 139.6±26.5 ha (100% MCP; n = 15) or 81.8±28.3 ha (90% harmonic mean; n = 15), and did not differ between males and females. Home ranges of D. matschiei were 40–100 times larger than those of Australian tree kangaroos or other rainforest macropods, possibly due to the impact of hunting reducing density, or low productivity of their high altitude habitat. Huon tree kangaroos had cores of activity within their range at 45% (20.9±4.1 ha) and 70% (36.6±7.5 ha) harmonic mean isopleths, with little overlap (4.8±2.9%; n = 15 pairs) between neighbouring females at the 45% isopleth, but, unlike the Australian species, extensive overlap between females (20.8±5.5%; n = 15 pairs) at the complete range (90% harmonic mean). Males overlapped each other and females to a greater extent than did pairs of females. From core areas and overlap, the density of female D. matschiei was one per 19.4 ha. Understanding the cause of this low density is crucial in gaining greater understanding of variations in density of tree kangaroos across the landscape. We consider the potential role of habitat fragmentation, productivity and hunting pressure in limiting tree kangaroo density in New

  4. From policy to action: access to essential drugs for the treatment of hypertension in the Small Island States (SIS) of the South Pacific.

    PubMed

    Bailey, M C; Azam, A A; Galea, G; Rotem, A

    2001-03-01

    The existing acquisition cost for essential drugs in the Cook Islands, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Niue, Tuvalu, is sufficiently high to compromise equitable access to quality drug therapy. The difficulty of access is further compounded by problems of distance from drug manufacturers and suppliers, associated with inadequate transport and communication links. In some of the Small Island States of the Pacific, internal distribution challenges further reduce access to drugs for those people who live on the outer islands. Two management processes to address these problems which have successfully been used in the past, are the establishment of an essential drug list to guarantee consistent appropriate treatment, and the introduction of pooled or bulk purchasing in order to achieve economies of scale. The major non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the South Pacific include diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. These diseases, in association with life-style factors of obesity and smoking result in significant morbidity and mortality. This paper demonstrates that collaboration in drug purchasing of a defined list of essential drugs for hypertension would be beneficial in the South Pacific, and that the process is a model for achievement of rational drug treatment for NCDs in isolated small economies.

  5. Correlation Between Geological Stuctures and Gas Hydrate amount Offshore the South Shetland Island — Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loreto, M. F.; Tinivella, U.; Accaino, F.; Giustiniani, M.

    2010-05-01

    Sediments of the accretionary prism, present along the continental margin of the Peninsula Antarctica SW of Elephant Island, are filled by gas hydrates as evidenced by a strong BSR. A multidisciplinary geophysical dataset, represented by seismic data, multibeam, chirp profiles, CTD and core samples, was acquired during three oceanographic cruises. The estimation of gas hydrate and free gas concentrations is based on the P-wave velocity analysis. In order to extract a detailed and reliable velocity field, we have developed and optimized a procedure that includes the pre-stack depth migration to determine, iteratively and with a layer stripping approach method, the velocity field and the depth-migrated seismic section. The final velocity field is then translated in terms of gas hydrate and free gas amounts by using theoretical approaches. Several seismic sections have been processed in the investigated area. The final 2D velocity sections have been translated in gas-phase concentration sections, considering the gas distribution within sediments both uniformly and patchly distributed. The free gas layer is locally present and, consequently, the base of the free gas reflector was identified only in some lines or part of them. The hydrate layer shows important lateral variations of hydrate concentration in correspondence of geological features, such as faults and folds. The intense fluid migration along faults and different fluid accumulation in correspondence of geological structures can control the gas hydrate concentration and modify the geothermal field in the surrounding area.

  6. Relationships among multiple trace elements in coastal Casuarina equisetifolia ecosystems on Hainan Island, South China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Bi, Hua; Hung, Lan; Peng, Shaolin; Sheng, Chengde

    2006-01-01

    Forty-six trace elements in coastal Casuarina equisetifolia plant-soil systems at nine sampling sites on Hainan Island were analyzed using ICP-MS. The relationships among the trace elements of the same group or the same periodicity of the Periodic Table in the plants and soils were complex and no consistent patterns were found. More combinations of elements occurred with high positive correlation coefficients within the same periodicity than within the same group of the Periodic Table, and there were more high positive correlations in soils than in plants. However, there were many element combinations in Block d (transition elements) with high positive correlation coefficients in plants. Markedly high positive correlation coefficients between individual rare earth elements and Y and among Zr, Nb, Cd existed in both plants and soils. The dendrograms obtained by cluster analysis show that rare earth elements had very similar occurrence and distribution in both soils and plants. Thus, they behaved as a coherent group of elements both geochemically and biogeochemically. The transition elements were more coherent in plants than in soils.

  7. New species of the giant deep-sea isopod genus Bathynomus (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cirolanidae) from Hainan Island, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Kou, Qi; Chen, Jun; Li, Xinzheng; He, Lisheng; Wang, Yong

    2017-07-01

    Several specimens of the giant deep-sea isopod genus Bathynomus were collected by a deep-sea lander at a depth of 898 m near Hainan Island in the northern South China Sea. After careful examination, this material and the specimens collected from the Gulf of Aden, north-western Indian Ocean, previously reported as Bathynomus sp., were identified to be the same as a new species to the genus. Bathynomus jamesi sp. nov. can be distinguished from the congeners by: the distal margin of pleotelson with 11 or 13 short straight spines and central spine not bifid; uropodal endopod and exopod with distolateral corner slightly pronounced; clypeus with lateral margins concave; and antennal flagellum extending when extended posteriorly reaches the pereonite 3. In addition, Bathynomus jamesi sp. nov. is also supported by molecular analyses based on mitochondrial COI and 16S rRNA gene sequences. The distribution range of the new species includes the western Pacific and north-western Indian Ocean. © 2017 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Deposits, flow characteristics, and landscape change resulting from the September 2009 South Pacific tsunami in the Samoan islands

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Bruce M.; Buckley, Mark; Etienne, Samuel; Chagué-Goff, Catherine; Clark, Kate; Goff, James; Dominey-Howes, Dale; Strotz, Luke

    2011-01-01

    The September 29th 2009 tsunami caused widespread coastal modification within the islands of Samoa and northern Tonga in the South Pacific. Preliminary measurements indicate maximum runup values of around 17 m (Okal et al., 2010) and shore-normal inundation distances of up to ~ 620 m (Jaffe et al., 2010). Geological field reconnaissance studies were conducted as part of an UNESCO-IOC International Tsunami Survey Team survey within three weeks of the event in order to document the erosion, transport, and deposition of sediment by the tsunami. Data collected included: a) general morphology and geological characteristics of the coast, b) evidence of tsunami flow (inundation, flow depth and direction, wave height and runup), c) surficial and subsurface sediment samples including deposit thickness and extent, d) topographic mapping, and e) boulder size and location measurements. Four main types of sedimentary deposits were identified: a) gravel fields consisting mostly of isolated cobbles and boulders, b) sand sheets from a few to ~ 25 cm thick, c) piles of organic (mostly vegetation) and man-made material forming debris ramparts, and d) surface mud deposits that settled from suspension from standing water in the tsunami aftermath. Tsunami deposits within the reef system were not widespread, however, surficial changes to the reefs were observed. PMID:27065478

  9. Deposits, flow characteristics, and landscape change resulting from the September 2009 South Pacific tsunami in the Samoan islands.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Bruce M; Buckley, Mark; Etienne, Samuel; Chagué-Goff, Catherine; Clark, Kate; Goff, James; Dominey-Howes, Dale; Strotz, Luke

    2011-07-01

    The September 29th 2009 tsunami caused widespread coastal modification within the islands of Samoa and northern Tonga in the South Pacific. Preliminary measurements indicate maximum runup values of around 17 m (Okal et al., 2010) and shore-normal inundation distances of up to ~ 620 m (Jaffe et al., 2010). Geological field reconnaissance studies were conducted as part of an UNESCO-IOC International Tsunami Survey Team survey within three weeks of the event in order to document the erosion, transport, and deposition of sediment by the tsunami. Data collected included: a) general morphology and geological characteristics of the coast, b) evidence of tsunami flow (inundation, flow depth and direction, wave height and runup), c) surficial and subsurface sediment samples including deposit thickness and extent, d) topographic mapping, and e) boulder size and location measurements. Four main types of sedimentary deposits were identified: a) gravel fields consisting mostly of isolated cobbles and boulders, b) sand sheets from a few to ~ 25 cm thick, c) piles of organic (mostly vegetation) and man-made material forming debris ramparts, and d) surface mud deposits that settled from suspension from standing water in the tsunami aftermath. Tsunami deposits within the reef system were not widespread, however, surficial changes to the reefs were observed.

  10. A micro-hydropower system model with PD load frequency controller for Resort Islands in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyasudin Basir Khan, M.; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh; Jidin, Razali

    2016-03-01

    A model of high-penetration micro-hydropower system with no storage is presented in this paper. This technology is designed in order to reduce the diesel fuel consumption and cost of electricity supply in a resort island located in the South China Sea. The optimal hydropower generation for this system depends on the available stream flow at the potential sites. At low stream flow, both the micro-hydropower system and the currently installed diesel generators are required to feed the load. However, when the hydropower generation exceeds the load demand, the diesel generator is shut down. Meanwhile, the system frequency is controlled by a secondary load bank that absorbs the hydropower which exceeds the consumer demand. This paper also presents a discrete frequency control system using proportional-derivative (PD) controller. The controller is employed in order to manipulate the system frequency by controlling the secondary load system. The simulation results indicate that a variety of load conditions can be satisfactorily controlled by the PD controller. Hence, this particular type of controller is suitable to be implemented in micro-grid systems for remote areas that require low cost and easy-to- maintain controllers.

  11. Evidence of Macroalgal Colonization on Newly Ice-Free Areas following Glacial Retreat in Potter Cove (South Shetland Islands), Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Quartino, María Liliana; Deregibus, Dolores; Campana, Gabriela Laura; Latorre, Gustavo Edgar Juan; Momo, Fernando Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Climate warming has been related to glacial retreat along the Western Antarctic Peninsula. Over the last years, a visible melting of Fourcade Glacier (Potter Cove, South Shetland Islands) has exposed newly ice-free hard bottom areas available for benthic colonization. However, ice melting produces a reduction of light penetration due to an increase of sediment input and higher ice impact. Seventeen years ago, the coastal sites close to the glacier cliffs were devoid of macroalgae. Are the newly ice-free areas suitable for macroalgal colonization? To tackle this question, underwater video transects were performed at six newly ice-free areas with different degree of glacial influence. Macroalgae were found in all sites, even in close proximity to the retreating glacier. We can show that: 1. The complexity of the macroalgal community is positively correlated to the elapsed time from the ice retreat, 2. Algae development depends on the optical conditions and the sediment input in the water column; some species are limited by light availability, 3. Macroalgal colonization is negatively affected by the ice disturbance, 4. The colonization is determined by the size and type of substrate and by the slope of the bottom. As macroalgae are probably one of the main energy sources for the benthos, an expansion of the macroalgal distribution can be expected to affect the matter and energy fluxes in Potter Cove ecosystem. PMID:23484000

  12. Evidence of macroalgal colonization on newly ice-free areas following glacial retreat in Potter Cove (South Shetland Islands), Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Quartino, María Liliana; Deregibus, Dolores; Campana, Gabriela Laura; Latorre, Gustavo Edgar Juan; Momo, Fernando Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Climate warming has been related to glacial retreat along the Western Antarctic Peninsula. Over the last years, a visible melting of Fourcade Glacier (Potter Cove, South Shetland Islands) has exposed newly ice-free hard bottom areas available for benthic colonization. However, ice melting produces a reduction of light penetration due to an increase of sediment input and higher ice impact. Seventeen years ago, the coastal sites close to the glacier cliffs were devoid of macroalgae. Are the newly ice-free areas suitable for macroalgal colonization? To tackle this question, underwater video transects were performed at six newly ice-free areas with different degree of glacial influence. Macroalgae were found in all sites, even in close proximity to the retreating glacier. We can show that: 1. The complexity of the macroalgal community is positively correlated to the elapsed time from the ice retreat, 2. Algae development depends on the optical conditions and the sediment input in the water column; some species are limited by light availability, 3. Macroalgal colonization is negatively affected by the ice disturbance, 4. The colonization is determined by the size and type of substrate and by the slope of the bottom. As macroalgae are probably one of the main energy sources for the benthos, an expansion of the macroalgal distribution can be expected to affect the matter and energy fluxes in Potter Cove ecosystem.

  13. Mercury contamination in fish and human hair from Hainan Island, South China Sea: Implication for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Ling; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Yu, Shen; Cheng, Hefa; Peng, Jia-Xi; Hong, Yi-Guo; Feng, Xin-Bin

    2014-11-01

    Hair has long been recognized as a good biomarker for human exposure to Hg. The mercury concentrations in 14 species of marine fish and hair samples from 177 coastal residents in Hainan, South China Sea were investigated to assess the status of mercury exposure associated with marine fish consumption. Concentrations of total Hg (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in the fish muscles were 0.094 ± 0.008 and 0.066 ± 0.006 μg/gww, respectively, which were far below the limit considered safe for consumption (0.5 μg/g). The average THg concentrations in hair of adults (1.02 ± 0.92 μg/g) were lower than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) level of 2.2 μg/g. However, 23.7% of children had a hair THg level exceeding the RfD level of 1μg/g, indicating a great risk of Hg exposure to children via fish consumption. The concentration of THg in hair was significantly correlated with fish consumption but not with gender-specific fish intake. With higher fish consumption frequency, the fishermen had significantly elevated hair Hg levels compared to the students and the other general public, who had similar hair THg levels but different fish consumption patterns, indicating the existence of other sources of Hg exposure to the residents of Hainan Island.

  14. Maturity and fecundity of Champsocephalus gunnari, Chaenocephalus aceratus and Pseudochaenichthys georgianus in South Georgia and Shag Rocks Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Militelli, M. I.; Macchi, G. J.; Rodrigues, K. A.

    2015-06-01

    The reproductive biology of three species of icefishes (family Channicthyidae), Champsocephalus gunnari, Pseudochaenichthys georgianus and Chaenocephalus aceratus in South Georgia and Shag Rocks Islands was studied by means of a histological analysis. Parental care, a widespread behaviour among icefishes such as C. aceratus, is not observed in C. gunnari, which has a broadcast spawning strategy. There were large differences in total fecundity mainly due to the different sizes reached by each species (total fecundity range was 2,500-21,300 hydrated oocytes). Nevertheless, when comparing relative fecundity values, the average results were, in general, similar for P. georgianus and C. aceratus (6-9 hydrated oocytes per female gram). However, relative fecundity estimated for C. gunnari was 10-37 hydrated oocytes per ovary-free female gram. The difference may be a consequence of the smaller oocyte size of the species as compared to other icefishes. The small diameter of hydrated oocytes was also associated with low values of dry weight. The high relative fecundity recorded for C. gunnnari may compensate, in part, for a broadcast spawning strategy.

  15. [West and South West Pacific Ocean Islands: General Information and a Bibliography of English-Language Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperry, Robert

    This collection of 10 bibliographies covers islands located in the west and southwest region of the Pacific Ocean. The islands include American Samoa, Fiji, Guam, Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, Pohnpei, Tonga, Truk, Nauru and the New Hebrides (Vanuatu). All the bibliographies focus on education, and all except two (American Samoa and Fiji)…

  16. [West and South West Pacific Ocean Islands: General Information and a Bibliography of English-Language Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperry, Robert

    This collection of 10 bibliographies covers islands located in the west and southwest region of the Pacific Ocean. The islands include American Samoa, Fiji, Guam, Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, Pohnpei, Tonga, Truk, Nauru and the New Hebrides (Vanuatu). All the bibliographies focus on education, and all except two (American Samoa and Fiji)…

  17. Identifying Centres of Plant Biodiversity in South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Guerin, Greg R.; Biffin, Ed; Baruch, Zdravko; Lowe, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to identify regional centres of plant biodiversity in South Australia, a sub-continental land area of 983,482 km2, by mapping a suite of metrics. Broad-brush conservation issues associated with the centres were mapped, specifically climate sensitivity, exposure to habitat fragmentation, introduced species and altered fire regimes. We compiled 727,417 plant species records from plot-based field surveys and herbarium records and mapped the following: species richness (all species; South Australian endemics; conservation-dependent species; introduced species); georeferenced weighted endemism, phylogenetic diversity, georeferenced phylogenetic endemism; and measures of beta diversity at local and state-wide scales. Associated conservation issues mapped were: climate sensitivity measured via ordination and non-linear modelling; habitat fragmentation represented by the proportion of remnant vegetation within a moving window; fire prone landscapes assessed using fire history records; invasive species assessed through diversity metrics, species distribution and literature. Compared to plots, herbarium data had higher spatial and taxonomic coverage but records were more biased towards major transport corridors. Beta diversity was influenced by sampling intensity and scale of comparison. We identified six centres of high plant biodiversity for South Australia: Western Kangaroo Island; Southern Mount Lofty Ranges; Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara lands; Southern Flinders Ranges; Southern Eyre Peninsula; Lower South East. Species composition in the arid-mediterranean ecotone was the most climate sensitive. Fragmentation mapping highlighted the dichotomy between extensive land-use and high remnancy in the north and intensive land-use and low remnancy in the south. Invasive species were most species rich in agricultural areas close to population centres. Fire mapping revealed large variation in frequency across the state. Biodiversity scores were not always

  18. Variation in the biomass density and demography of Antarctic krill in the vicinity of the South Shetland Islands during the 1999/2000 austral summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, R. P.; Kim, S.; Naganobu, M.; Gutierrez, M.; Kang, D.; Takao, Y.; Quinones, J.; Lee, Y.-H.; Shin, H.-C.; Kawaguchi, S.; Emery, J. H.; Demer, D. A.; Loeb, V. J.

    2004-06-01

    Vessels from Japan, Peru, and the USA conducted four sequential surveys designed to estimate the biomass density and demography of Antarctic krill in the vicinity of the South Shetland Islands between late December 1999 and early March 2000. The surveys were conducted during the same austral summer as the CCAMLR 2000 Survey in the Scotia Sea (Watkins et al., Deep-Sea Research, II, this issue [doi: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2004.06.010]), and the data were analyzed in a similar manner. Biomass densities were not significantly different between the surveys and averaged 49 g m -2. Maps of krill biomass indicate three areas of consistently high density: one near the eastern end of Elephant Island, one mid-way between Elephant Island and King George Island, and one near Cape Shirreff on the north side of Livingston Island. The areas of highest krill density appeared to move closer to the shelf break as the season progressed. This apparent movement was accompanied by a change in the demographic structure of the population, with smaller krill absent and a larger proportion of sexually mature animals present in late summer.

  19. Kangaroo rats revisited: re-evaluating a classic case of desert survival.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Randall L; Walsberg, Glenn E

    2002-12-01

    Kangaroo rats are the archetypical organisms for mammalian survival in North American deserts, yet there are contradictions in the data surrounding their physiology and ecology. The traditional view has been that these nocturnal rodents have little tolerance to high temperatures (e.g., >30°C), reside in cool, humid burrows to escape the heat of the day, and nearly exclusively rely on a dry, carbohydrate-rich diet from which they metabolically derive most of their water supply. To test this view, we measured the microclimates, activity, and diet of Merriam's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys merriami) from a xeric location within the center of the Sonoran Desert. We arrive at the following conclusions: 1. Burrows are much hotter during the summer than previously appreciated. For over 100 days of the year, soil temperatures exceed 30°C at depths to 2 m. For over 50 days, temperatures exceed 35°C at depths to 1.5 m. These high temperatures at such depths preclude kangaroo rats from locating to cool temperatures (e.g., <30°C) by burrowing. 2. Kangaroo rats remain in shallow burrows (<1 m) at relatively high ambient temperatures (>35°C) throughout the daytime during the summer instead of residing deep within the soil. This finding supports recent laboratory experiments that show kangaroo rats have much higher thermal tolerances than previously realized. 3. Kangaroo rats do not restrict their activity to the coolest periods of the night, but are active immediately following sundown, during the hottest time of the night. 4. Burrows are not persistently humid, but can be quite dry. 5. Insects and succulent vegetation constitute a significant portion of a kangaroo rat's diet and may be key to their survival in the hot desert environment.

  20. Positive interactions between desert granivores: localized facilitation of harvester ants by kangaroo rats.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Facilitation, when one species enhances the environment or performance of another species, can be highly localized in space. While facilitation in plant communities has been intensely studied, the role of facilitation in shaping animal communities is less well understood. In the Chihuahuan Desert, both kangaroo rats and harvester ants depend on the abundant seeds of annual plants. Kangaroo rats, however, are hypothesized to facilitate harvester ants through soil disturbance and selective seed predation rather than competing with them. I used a spatially explicit approach to examine whether a positive or negative interaction exists between banner-tailed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis) mounds and rough harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex rugosus) colonies. The presence of a scale-dependent interaction between mounds and colonies was tested by comparing fitted spatial point process models with and without interspecific effects. Also, the effect of proximity to a mound on colony mortality and spatial patterns of surviving colonies was examined. The spatial pattern of kangaroo rat mounds and harvester ant colonies was consistent with a positive interspecific interaction at small scales (<10 m). Mortality risk of vulnerable, recently founded harvester ant colonies was lower when located close to a kangaroo rat mound and proximity to a mound partly predicted the spatial pattern of surviving colonies. My findings support localized facilitation of harvester ants by kangaroo rats, likely mediated through ecosystem engineering and foraging effects on plant cover and composition. The scale-dependent effect of kangaroo rats on abiotic and biotic factors appears to result in greater founding and survivorship of young colonies near mounds. These results suggest that soil disturbance and foraging by rodents can have subtle impacts on the distribution and demography of other species.

  1. Isotopic composition and distribution of plutonium in northern South China Sea sediments revealed continuous release and transport of Pu from the Marshall Islands.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junwen; Zheng, Jian; Dai, Minhan; Huh, Chih-An; Chen, Weifang; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2014-03-18

    The (239+240)Pu activities and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in sediments of the northern South China Sea and its adjacent Pearl River Estuary were determined to examine the spatial and temporal variations of Pu inputs. We clarified that Pu in the study area is sourced from a combination of global fallout and close-in fallout from the Pacific Proving Grounds in the Marshall Islands where above-ground nuclear weapons testing was carried out during the period of 1952-1958. The latter source dominated the Pu input in the 1950s, as evidenced by elevated (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios (>0.30) in a dated sediment core. Even after the 1950s, the Pacific Proving Grounds was still a dominant Pu source due to continuous transport of remobilized Pu from the Marshall Islands, about 4500 km away, along the North Equatorial Current followed by the transport of the Kuroshio current and its extension into the South China Sea through the Luzon Strait. Using a simple two end-member mixing model, we have quantified the contributions of Pu from the Pacific Proving Grounds to the northern South China Sea shelf and the Pearl River Estuary are 68% ± 1% and 30% ± 5%, respectively. This study also confirmed that there were no clear signals of Pu from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident impacting the South China Sea.

  2. Areas contributing ground water to the Peconic Estuary, and ground-water budgets for the north and south forks and Shelter Island, eastern Suffolk County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schubert, C.E.

    1998-01-01

    The Peconic Estuary, at the eastern end of Long Island, has been plagued by a recurrent algal bloom, locally referred to as ?Brown Tide,? that has caused the severe decline of local marine resources. Although the factors that trigger Brown Tide blooms remain uncertain, groundwater discharge has previously been shown to affect surface-water quality in the western part of the estuary. A U.S. Geological Survey groundwater- flow model of the main body of Long Island indicates that a total of about 7.5 x 106 ft3/d (cubic feet per day) of freshwater discharges to the western part of the estuary, but the model does not include the ground-water flow systems on the North and South Forks and Shelter Island, which contribute significant amounts of freshwater to the central and eastern parts of the estuary. The need for information on freshwater discharge to the entire estuary prompted the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate ground-water discharge from the North and South Forks and Shelter Island. Source areas that contribute ground water to the Peconic Estuary were delineated, and groundwater budgets for these areas were developed, to evaluate the distribution and magnitude of ground-water discharge to the central and eastern parts of the estuary. Contributing-area boundaries that were delineated coincide with the hydraulic boundaries of the fresh ground-water-flow systems of the North and South Forks and Shelter Island; these boundaries are of two types? external (saltwater bodies) and internal (groundwater divides). Hydrologic components that were evaluated include recharge from precipitation, public-supply withdrawal and return flow, and agricultural withdrawal. Values for each of these components were calculated or estimated for the individual freshwater flow subsystems that form each ground-water-budget area, then summed to obtain the total discharge of fresh ground water to tidewater. Ground-water discharge to the Peconic Estuary is about 3.8 x 106 ft3/d from the North

  3. Assessing a 1500-year record of Atlantic hurricane activity from South Andros Island, the Bahamas, using modeled hurricane climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, E. J.; Donnelly, J. P.; Emanuel, K.; Wiman, C.; van Hengstum, P. J.; Sullivan, R.; Winkler, T. S.

    2016-12-01

    Tropical cyclones can cause substantial loss of life and economic resources in coastal areas. In the current changing climate, it is of critical importance for society to understand any links between hurricane activity and climactic conditions. Unfortunately, historical tropical cyclone records are too short and incomplete to constrain how climate controls cyclone activity or to accurately quantify the risk of such storms to local human populations. Hurricane-induced deposits preserved in sediment cores can offer records of past hurricane activity stretching over thousands of years. Here we present a 1500 year annually resolved record of the frequency of intense hurricane events in a blue hole (AM4) on South Andros Island on the Great Bahama Bank. This carbonate island in the western North Atlantic Ocean is positioned along the trackway of many storms originating in the Caribbean and Atlantic basins. The record is corroborated by cores collected from three other blue holes near AM4. Over the past 1500 years, there have been periods of elevated hurricane activity from 750 to 950 CE, 1150 to 1300 CE and 1550 to 1850 CE. The statistical significance of this sedimentary record is assessed utilizing a set of synthetic storms generated from a previously published statistical deterministic hurricane model. The model simulates climatological conditions from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis dataset, and the CMIP5 MPI model for the 20th century calibration (1850-2005 CE), and the millennial simulation (850-1849 CE). The average reoccurrence rates of hurricanes passing within 100 km of AM4 under each simulation are 1.06, 0.62, and 0.61 storms per year respectively. Using each climatology, thousands of hurricane induced deposits for the site are generated based on a random draw of these storms, a wind speed threshold for deposit, and a temporal resolution given the sedimentation rate of approximately 1 cm/yr at the site. Overall, the results of this study offer information on changes

  4. Description and application of capture zone delineation for a wellfield at Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Ground-water capture zone boundaries for individual pumped wells in a confined aquffer were delineated by using groundwater models. Both analytical and numerical (semi-analytical) models that more accurately represent the $round-water-flow system were used. All models delineated 2-dimensional boundaries (capture zones) that represent the areal extent of groundwater contribution to a pumped well. The resultant capture zones were evaluated on the basis of the ability of each model to realistically rapresent the part of the ground-water-flow system that contributed water to the pumped wells. Analytical models used were based on a fixed radius approach, and induded; an arbitrary radius model, a calculated fixed radius model based on the volumetric-flow equation with a time-of-travel criterion, and a calculated fixed radius model derived from modification of the Theis model with a drawdown criterion. Numerical models used induded the 2-dimensional, finite-difference models RESSQC and MWCAP. The arbitrary radius and Theis analytical models delineated capture zone boundaries that compared least favorably with capture zones delineated using the volumetric-flow analytical model and both numerical models. The numerical models produced more hydrologically reasonable capture zones (that were oriented parallel to the regional flow direction) than the volumetric-flow equation. The RESSQC numerical model computed more hydrologically realistic capture zones than the MWCAP numerical model by accounting for changes in the shape of capture zones caused by multiple-well interference. The capture zone boundaries generated by using both analytical and numerical models indicated that the curnmtly used 100-foot radius of protection around a wellhead in South Carolina is an underestimate of the extent of ground-water capture for pumped wetis in this particular wellfield in the Upper Floridan aquifer. The arbitrary fixed radius of 100 feet was shown to underestimate the upgradient

  5. Process evaluation of a walking programme delivered through the workplace in the South Pacific island Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Siefken, Katja; Schofield, Grant; Schulenkorf, Nico

    2015-06-01

    The South Pacific region is experiencing significant rates of chronic diseases. Well-evaluated health promotion programmes are needed as a central piece of a strategic solution. Just as important as the evaluation itself is how that evaluation outcome can be communicated for future programme use by local programme planners. The objective of this study is to evaluate a physical activity (PA) programme that was designed for Pacific women in urban Vanuatu, and subsequently to develop new techniques to display data that support the understanding and communication of programme success and challenges. Data collection methods included quantitative Likert scale questions and qualitative open-ended questions. A new analysis technique visualises open-ended process evaluation data. We present themes using word sizes proportional to the frequency of the themes identified through thematic analysis. The Likert scale technique revealed little meaningful information; almost all participants rated most elements of the programme highly. This may be related to Pacific people being frequently inclined to assent with external ideas. Open-ended questions provided more significant insights. For example, we found a stronger change in eating habits (68.9%) than in exercise behaviour (28.2%). We present an evaluation of the first pedometer-based PA intervention in the Pacific and respond to the paucity of process evaluations that have been carried out in the context of low- and middle-income countries. Moreover, the new thematic data visualisation (TDV) approach may aid in understanding complex and cluttered data in a constructive and coordinated way; we present a new approach in health promotion research. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Abundance, species composition of microzooplankton from the coastal waters of Port Blair, South Andaman Island

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Microzooplankton consisting of protists and metazoa <200 μm. It displays unique feeding mechanisms and behaviours that allow them to graze cells up to five times their own volume. They can grow at rates which equal or exceed prey growth and can serve as a viable food source for metazoans. Moreover, they are individually inconspicuous, their recognition as significant consumers of oceanic primary production. The microzooplankton can be the dominant consumers of phytoplankton production in both oligo- and eutrophic regions of the ocean and are capable of consuming >100% of primary production. Results The microzooplankton of the South Andaman Sea were investigated during September 2011 to January 2012. A total of 44 species belong to 19 genera were recorded in this study. Tintinnids made larger contribution to the total abundance (34%) followed in order by dinoflagellates (24%), ciliates (20%) and copepod nauplii (18%). Foraminifera were numerically less (4%). Tintinnids were represented by 20 species belong to 13 genera, Heterotrophic dinoflagellates were represented by 17 species belong to 3 genera and Ciliates comprised 5 species belong to 3 genera. Eutintinus tineus, Tintinnopsis cylindrical, T. incertum, Protoperidinium divergens, Lomaniella oviformes, Strombidium minimum were the most prevalent microzooplankton. Standing stock of tintinnids ranged from 30–80 cells.L-1 and showed a reverse distribution with the distribution of chlorophyll a relatively higher species diversity and equitability was found in polluted harbour areas. Conclusions The change of environmental variability affects the species composition and abundance of microzooplankton varied spatially and temporarily. The observations clearly demonstrated that the harbor area differed considerably from other area in terms of species present and phytoplankton biomass. Further, the phytoplankton abundance is showed to be strongly influenced by tintinnid with respect to the relationship of

  7. Electromyographic activity of preterm newborns in the kangaroo position: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Rafael Moura; Cabral Filho, José Eulálio; Diniz, Kaísa Trovão; Souza Lima, Geisy Maria; Vasconcelos, Danilo de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the electromyographic activity of preterm newborns placed in the kangaroo position with the activity of newborns not placed in this position. Design A cohort study. Setting A Kangaroo Unit sector and a Nursery sector in a secondary and tertiary care at a mother-child hospital in Recife, Brazil. Participants Preterm infants of gestational age 27–34 weeks (n=38) and term infants (n=39). Primary and secondary outcome measures Surface electromyography was used to investigate muscle activity in the brachial biceps at rest. 3 groups were designed: (1) preterm newborns in the kangaroo position (PT-KAN), where the newborn remains in a vertical position, lying face down, with limbs flexed, dressed in light clothes, maintaining skin-to-skin contact with the adult's thorax. Her electromyographic activity was recorded at 0 h (immediately before starting this position), and then at 48 h after the beginning of the position (but newborns were kept in the kangaroo position for 8–12 h per day) and at term equivalent age (40±1 weeks); (2) preterm newborns not in the kangaroo position (PT-NKAN), in which measurements were made at 0 h and 48 h; and (3) term newborns (T), in which measurements were made at 24 h of chronological age. Results The Root Mean Square (RMS) values showed significant differences among groups (F(5,108)=56.69; p<0.001). The multiple comparisons showed that RMS was greater at 48 h compared to 0 h in the preterm group in the kangaroo position, but not in the group not submitted in the kangaroo position. The RMS in the term equivalent aged group in the kangaroo position was also greater when compared with those in the term group. Conclusions The kangaroo position increases electromyographic activity in the brachial biceps of preterm newborns and those who have reached the age equivalent to term. PMID:25351598

  8. Electromyographic activity of preterm newborns in the kangaroo position: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Rafael Moura; Cabral Filho, José Eulálio; Diniz, Kaísa Trovão; Souza Lima, Geisy Maria; Vasconcelos, Danilo de Almeida

    2014-10-28

    To compare the electromyographic activity of preterm newborns placed in the kangaroo position with the activity of newborns not placed in this position. A cohort study. A Kangaroo Unit sector and a Nursery sector in a secondary and tertiary care at a mother-child hospital in Recife, Brazil. Preterm infants of gestational age 27-34 weeks (n=38) and term infants (n=39). Surface electromyography was used to investigate muscle activity in the brachial biceps at rest. 3 groups were designed: (1) preterm newborns in the kangaroo position (PT-KAN), where the newborn remains in a vertical position, lying face down, with limbs flexed, dressed in light clothes, maintaining skin-to-skin contact with the adult's thorax. Her electromyographic activity was recorded at 0 h (immediately before starting this position), and then at 48 h after the beginning of the position (but newborns were kept in the kangaroo position for 8-12 h per day) and at term equivalent age (40±1 weeks); (2) preterm newborns not in the kangaroo position (PT-NKAN), in which measurements were made at 0 h and 48 h; and (3) term newborns (T), in which measurements were made at 24 h of chronological age. The Root Mean Square (RMS) values showed significant differences among groups (F(5,108)=56.69; p<0.001). The multiple comparisons showed that RMS was greater at 48 h compared to 0 h in the preterm group in the kangaroo position, but not in the group not submitted in the kangaroo position. The RMS in the term equivalent aged group in the kangaroo position was also greater when compared with those in the term group. The kangaroo position increases electromyographic activity in the brachial biceps of preterm newborns and those who have reached the age equivalent to term. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Botfly (Diptera:Oestridae) parasitism of Ord's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) at Suffield National Wildlife Area, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gummer, D L; Forbes, M R; Bender, D J; Barclay, R M

    1997-08-01

    During field study of Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) at Suffield National Wildlife Area, Alberta, Canada, a high prevalence of parasitism by botfly (Diptera: Oestridae) larvae was observed. Botflies have not previously been documented as parasites of kangaroo rats. Botfly parasitism could have a significant impact on the growth, survival, and reproduction of Ord's kangaroo rat, which is considered a vulnerable species in Canada. Therefore, it is important to investigate how botfly parasitism varies with season and with gender or age of host. In 1995, 525 individual kangaroo rats were caught by nightlighting and live trapping for a total of 952 capture records. Upon capture, each kangaroo rat was ear-tagged and thoroughly examined for parasites and wounds. Third-instar botfly (Cuterebra polita) larvae were observed in kangaroo rats between 16 June and 23 August. Prevalence was 34% based on 454 kangaroo rats sampled during that time, whereas the mean intensity was 2.3 larvae per infested host (n = 156, range = 1-11). In contrast to some other studies of botfly parasitism of rodents, there were no gender or age biases in either prevalence or intensity of infestation. The index of dispersion was 2.8, indicating that the parasites were aggregated in hosts. Botfly parasitism could be an important factor affecting northern populations of kangaroo rats; future investigations into the potential effects of botfly larvae on host fitness are warranted.

  10. Food caching and differential cache pilferage: a field study of coexistence of sympatric kangaroo rats and pocket mice.

    PubMed

    Leaver, Lisa A; Daly, Martin

    2001-08-01

    Ecologists studying sympatric heteromyid rodents have sought evidence for species differences in primary foraging abilities and preferences and/or behavioural responses to predation risk in order to explain coexistence. The present field study was conducted to test the hypothesis that another factor may be involved, namely differences in caching patterns, which may result in differences in vulnerability to pilferage. We examined differences between kangaroo rats (Dipodomys merriami) and pocket mice (Chaetodipus spp.) in foraging, caching and pilferage behaviour. Specifically, we examined interactions at food patches, differential food caching patterns, and differential vulnerability to cache pilferage. Observations conducted at artificial seed patches showed that kangaroo rats dominated access to the patches by arriving and foraging first and by chasing pocket mice away. Individually provisioned pocket mice stored most seeds in underground burrows (larder hoarding), whereas kangaroo rats predominantly cached seeds in small, spatially dispersed caches in shallow pits in the surface of the sand (scatter hoarding). Pocket mice pilfered from each other as well as from the kangaroo rats, but the kangaroo rats rarely pilfered, and the only instance was from another kangaroo rat. Kangaroo rats and pocket mice were both vulnerable to cache pilferage. The results suggest that coexistence of kangaroo rats and pocket mice may be facilitated by a trade-off between primary harvest ability and the ability to exploit a resource that has been processed by another species, namely pilferage ability.

  11. Decreasing methane yield with increasing food intake keeps daily methane emissions constant in two foregut fermenting marsupials, the western grey kangaroo and red kangaroo.

    PubMed

    Vendl, Catharina; Clauss, Marcus; Stewart, Mathew; Leggett, Keith; Hummel, Jürgen; Kreuzer, Michael; Munn, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Fundamental differences in methane (CH4) production between macropods (kangaroos) and ruminants have been suggested and linked to differences in the composition of the forestomach microbiome. Using six western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) and four red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), we measured daily absolute CH4 production in vivo as well as CH4 yield (CH4 per unit of intake of dry matter, gross energy or digestible fibre) by open-circuit respirometry. Two food intake levels were tested using a chopped lucerne hay (alfalfa) diet. Body mass-specific absolute CH4 production resembled values previously reported in wallabies and non-ruminant herbivores such as horses, and did not differ with food intake level, although there was no concomitant proportionate decrease in fibre digestibility with higher food intake. In contrast, CH4 yield decreased with increasing intake, and was intermediate between values reported for ruminants and non-ruminant herbivores. These results correspond to those in ruminants and other non-ruminant species where increased intake (and hence a shorter digesta retention in the gut) leads to a lower CH4 yield. We hypothesize that rather than harbouring a fundamentally different microbiome in their foregut, the microbiome of macropods is in a particular metabolic state more tuned towards growth (i.e. biomass production) rather than CH4 production. This is due to the short digesta retention time in macropods and the known distinct 'digesta washing' in the gut of macropods, where fluids move faster than particles and hence most likely wash out microbes from the forestomach. Although our data suggest that kangaroos only produce about 27% of the body mass-specific volume of CH4 of ruminants, it remains to be modelled with species-specific growth rates and production conditions whether or not significantly lower CH4 amounts are emitted per kg of meat in kangaroo than in beef or mutton production. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Bird remains from an archaeological site on Henderson Island, South Pacific: Man-caused extinctions on an “uninhabited” island

    PubMed Central

    Steadman, David W.; Olson, Storrs L.

    1985-01-01

    Long thought never to have been inhabited and to be in a pristine ecological state, Henderson Island (southeast Pacific) is now known to have been colonized and then abandoned by Polynesians. Bones from an archaeological site on the island associated with 14C dates of ≈800 and ≈500 years B.P. include specimens of 12 species of birds, of which 3, a storm-petrel and two pigeons (Nesofregetta fuliginosa, Ducula cf. aurorae or D. pacifica, and Ducula cf. galeata), no longer occur on Henderson, and two others (Puffinus nativitatis and Sula sula) still visit but are not known to breed. The vanished species were presumably exterminated by Polynesians and the biota of Henderson Island can thus no longer be regarded as being in an unaltered state. The prehistoric abandonment of various small, unarable islands by Polynesians may have been due to the depletion of seabirds and pigeons, the only readily available food source. The species of pigeons identified from Henderson are known historically only from distant archipelagos and have never before been found sympatrically. Distributional patterns resulting from man-caused extinctions may give rise to erroneous interpretations of the relationships and evolutionary history of insular organisms. Certain endangered species, such as Ducula galeata, might effectively be preserved by reintroduction to abandoned islands that they occupied before human intervention. Images PMID:16593606

  13. Draft De Novo Transcriptome of the Rat Kangaroo Potorous tridactylus as a Tool for Cell Biology

    PubMed Central

    Udy, Dylan B.; Voorhies, Mark; Chan, Patricia P.; Lowe, Todd M.; Dumont, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The rat kangaroo (long-nosed potoroo, Potorous tridactylus) is a marsupial native to Australia. Cultured rat kangaroo kidney epithelial cells (PtK) are commonly used to study cell biological processes. These mammalian cells are large, adherent, and flat, and contain large and few chromosomes—and are thus ideal for imaging intra-cellular dynamics such as those of mitosis. Despite this, neither the rat kangaroo genome nor transcriptome have been sequenced, creating a challenge for probing the molecular basis of these cellular dynamics. Here, we present the sequencing, assembly and annotation of the draft rat kangaroo de novo transcriptome. We sequenced 679 million reads that mapped to 347,323 Trinity transcripts and 20,079 Unigenes. We present statistics emerging from transcriptome-wide analyses, and analyses suggesting that the transcriptome covers full-length sequences of most genes, many with multiple isoforms. We also validate our findings with a proof-of-concept gene knockdown experiment. We expect that this high quality transcriptome will make rat kangaroo cells a more tractable system for linking molecular-scale function and cellular-scale dynamics. PMID:26252667

  14. Kangaroo versus porcine aortic valve tissue--valve geometry morphology, tensile strength and calcification potential.

    PubMed

    Neethling, W M; Papadimitriou, J M; Swarts, E; Hodge, A J

    2000-06-01

    Valve related factors and patient related factors are responsible for calcification of valvular bioprostheses. Recent studies showed different donor and recipient species have different influences on the total calcification rate of bioprostheses. This study was performed to evaluate and compare Kangaroo aortic valve leaflets with porcine aortic valve leaflets. Experimental design. Prospective study. Setting. Cardio-thoracic experimental research of a university department. Glutaraldehyde-fixed Kangaroo and porcine valve leaflets were evaluated in vitro according to valve geometry (internal diameter and leaflet thickness), morphology (light and electron microscopy) and tensile strength. In vivo evaluation consisted of implantation in a rat model for 8 weeks, Von Kossa stain for calcium and atomic absorption spectrophotometry for total extractable calcium content. Kangaroo valves indicated a smaller internal valve diameter as well as a thinner valve leaflet (p<0.01, ANOVA) at corresponding body weight, less proteoglycan spicules in the fibrosa, increased elasticity (p<0.05) and low calcification potential (p<0.01, confidence interval 95%). Kangaroo aortic valve leaflets have different valvular qualities compared to porcine valve tissue. Kangaroo valve leaflets are significantly superior to porcine valve leaflets as far as calcification is concerned. These results are encouraging and suggest further in vivo evaluation in a larger animal model before clinical application can be considered.

  15. Draft De Novo Transcriptome of the Rat Kangaroo Potorous tridactylus as a Tool for Cell Biology.

    PubMed

    Udy, Dylan B; Voorhies, Mark; Chan, Patricia P; Lowe, Todd M; Dumont, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The rat kangaroo (long-nosed potoroo, Potorous tridactylus) is a marsupial native to Australia. Cultured rat kangaroo kidney epithelial cells (PtK) are commonly used to study cell biological processes. These mammalian cells are large, adherent, and flat, and contain large and few chromosomes-and are thus ideal for imaging intra-cellular dynamics such as those of mitosis. Despite this, neither the rat kangaroo genome nor transcriptome have been sequenced, creating a challenge for probing the molecular basis of these cellular dynamics. Here, we present the sequencing, assembly and annotation of the draft rat kangaroo de novo transcriptome. We sequenced 679 million reads that mapped to 347,323 Trinity transcripts and 20,079 Unigenes. We present statistics emerging from transcriptome-wide analyses, and analyses suggesting that the transcriptome covers full-length sequences of most genes, many with multiple isoforms. We also validate our findings with a proof-of-concept gene knockdown experiment. We expect that this high quality transcriptome will make rat kangaroo cells a more tractable system for linking molecular-scale function and cellular-scale dynamics.

  16. Effects of kangaroo rat exclusion on vegetation structure and plant species diversity in the Chihuahuan Desert.

    PubMed

    Heske, Edward J; Brown, James H; Guo, Qinfeng

    1993-10-01

    Long-term (1977-90) experimental exclusion of three species of kangaroo rats from study plots in the Chihuahuan Desert resulted in significant increases in abundance of a tall annual grass (Aristida adscensionis) and a perennial bunch grass (Eragrostis lehmanniana). This change in the vegetative cover affected use of these plots by several other rodent species and by foraging birds. The mechanism producing this change probably involves a combination of decreased soil disturbance and reduced predation on large-sized seeds when kangaroo rats are absent. Species diversity of summer annual dicots was greater on plots where kangaroo rats were present, as predicted by keystone predator models. However, it is not clear whether this was caused directly by activities of the kangaroo rats or indirectly as a consequence of the increase in grass cover. No experimental effect on species diversity of winter annual dicots was detected. Our study site was located in a natural transition between desert scrub and grassland, where abiotic conditions and the effects of organisms may be particularly influential in determining the structure and composition of vegetation. Under these conditions kangaroo rats have a dramatic effect on plant cover and species composition.

  17. Natural space-use patterns and hippocampal size in kangaroo rats.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, L F; Spencer, W D

    1994-01-01

    The size of the hippocampus, a forebrain structure that processes spatial information, correlates with the need to relocate food caches by passerine birds and with sex-specific patterns of space use in microtine rodents. The influences on hippocampal anatomy of sexual selection within species, and natural selection between species, have not yet been studied in concert, however. Here we report that natural space-use patterns predict hippocampal size within and between two species of kangaroo rats (Dipodomys). Differences in foraging behavior suggest that Merriam's kangaroo rats (D. merriami) require better spatial abilities than bannertail kangaroo rats (D. spectabilis). Sex-specific differences in mating strategy suggest that males of both species require more spatial ability than females. As predicted, hippocampal size (relative to brain size) is larger in Merriam's than in bannertail kangaroo rats, and males have larger hippocampi than females in both species. Males of a third species (D. ordii) also have smaller hippocampi than Merriam's kangaroo rat males, despite being similar to Merriam's in brain and body size. These results suggest that both natural and sexual selection affect the relative size and perhaps function of mammalian hippocampi. They also reassert that measures of functional subunits of the brain reveal more about brain evolution than measures of total brain size.

  18. Diagnosis and treatment of mesenteric volvulus in a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus).

    PubMed

    Knafo, S Emmanuelle; Rosenblatt, Alana J; Morrisey, James K; Flanders, James A; Thompson, Margret S; Knapp-Hoch, Heather M

    2014-04-01

    An 8-year-old male red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) was evaluated with a 2-week history of vomiting and anorexia. Four days prior, the patient became refractory to medical management. The kangaroo was admitted for diagnostic testing and treatment including whole body CT, blood work, and emergency laparotomy. CT findings of a severely enlarged stomach, splenic displacement, and a whirl sign were indicative of mesenteric volvulus with gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV). Contrast enhancement of abdominal viscera suggested intact arterial blood supply; however, compression of the caudal vena cava and portal vein indicated venous obstruction. Results of preoperative blood work suggested biliary stasis without evidence of inflammation. Additionally, a tooth root abscess was diagnosed on the basis of results of CT. Exploratory laparotomy confirmed the diagnosis of mesenteric volvulus and GDV. The volvuli were corrected by clockwise derotation, and a gastropexy was performed. Tissue samples were obtained from the spleen and liver for evaluation. The kangaroo recovered from surgery, and the abscessed tooth was extracted 6 days later. Eight days after initial evaluation, the kangaroo was discharged. In the present report, the CT whirl sign was used to diagnose volvulus of the abdominal viscera, which suggests that this diagnostic indicator has utility in veterinary patients. Mesenteric volvulus with GDV was successfully treated in a nondomestic species. The tooth root abscess, a common condition in macropods, may explain the historic episodes of anorexia reported by the owner and may have contributed to the development of mesenteric volvulus and GDV in this kangaroo.

  19. Observation of a novel Babesia spp. in Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Dawood, Kaiser E.; Morgan, Jess A.T.; Busfield, Frances; Srivastava, Mukesh; Fletcher, Taryn I.; Sambono, Jacqueline; Jackson, Louise A.; Venus, Bronwyn; Philbey, Adrian W.; Lew-Tabor, Ala E.

    2012-01-01

    The roles and epidemiological features of tick-borne protozoans are not well elicited in wildlife. Babesia spp. are documented in many domestic animals, including cattle, horses, pigs, dogs and cats. Three cases affecting eastern grey kangaroos are described. The kangaroos exhibited neurological signs, depression and marked anaemia, and microscopic examination of blood smears revealed intraerythrocytic piroplasms. One to seven intraerythrocytic spherical, oval, pyriform and irregularly-shaped parasites consistent with Babesia spp. were seen in the blood smears and the percentage of infected erythrocytes was estimated to be approximately 7% in each case. Data suggest that the tick vector for this kangaroo Babesia sp. is a Haemaphysalis species. For Case 2, ultrastructural examination of the erythrocytes of the renal capillaries showed parasites resembling Babesia spp. and 18 of 33 erythrocytes were infected. DNA sequencing of the amplified 18S rDNA confirmed that the observed intraerythrocytic piroplasms belong to the genus Babesia. The phylogenetic position of this new kangaroo Babesia sp. (de novo Babesia macropus), as a sister species to the new Australian woylie Babesia sp., suggests a close affinity to the described Afro–Eurasian species Babesia orientalis and Babesia occultans suggesting perhaps a common ancestor for the Babesia in kangaroos. PMID:24533316

  20. Estimated water use and availability in the South Coastal Drainage Basin, southern Rhode Island, 1995-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Emily C.; Nimiroski, Mark T.

    2005-01-01

    The South Coastal Drainage Basin includes approximately 59.14 square miles in southern Rhode Island. The basin was divided into three subbasins to assess the water use and availability: the Saugatucket, Point Judith Pond, and the Southwestern Coastal Drainage subbasins. Because there is limited information on the ground-water system in this basin, the water use and availability evaluations for these subbasins were derived from delineated surface-water drainage areas. An assessment was completed to estimate water withdrawals, use, and return flow over a 5-year study period from 1995 through 1999 in the basin. During the study period, one major water supplier in the basin withdrew an average of 0.389 million gallons per day from the sand and gravel deposits. Most of the potable water is imported (about 2.152 million gallons per day) from the adjacent Pawcatuck Basin to the northwest. The estimated water withdrawals from the minor water suppliers, which are all in Charlestown, during the study period were 0.064 million gallons per day. The self-supplied domestic, industrial, commercial, and agricultural withdrawals from the basin were 0.574 million gallons per day. Water use in the basin was 2.874 million gallons per day. The average return flow in the basin was 1.190 million gallons per day, which was entirely from self-disposed water users. In this basin, wastewater from service collection areas was exported (about 1.139 million gallons per day) to the Narragansett Bay Drainage Basin for treatment and discharge. During times of little to no recharge, in the form of precipitation, the surface- and ground-water system flows are from storage primarily in the stratified sand and gravel deposits, although there is flow moving through the till deposits at a slower rate. The ground water discharging to the streams, during times of little to no precipitation, is referred to as base flow. The PART program, a computerized hydrograph-separation application, was used at the

  1. Ober's Island: The Mallard Ober's Island, One of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island: The Mallard - Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  2. Chikungunya Fever: A Clinical and Virological Investigation of Outpatients on Reunion Island, South-West Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Thiberville, Simon-Djamel; Boisson, Veronique; Gaudart, Jean; Simon, Fabrice; Flahault, Antoine; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is responsible for acute febrile polyarthralgia and, in a proportion of cases, severe complications including chronic arthritis. CHIKV has spread recently in East Africa, South-West Indian Ocean, South-Asia and autochthonous cases have been reported in Europe. Although almost all patients are outpatients, medical investigations mainly focused on hospitalised patients. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we detail clinico-biological characteristics of Chikungunya (CHIK) outpatients in Reunion Island (2006). 76 outpatients with febrile arthralgia diagnosed within less than 48 hours were included by general practitioners during the CuraChik clinical trial. CHIK was confirmed in 54 patients and excluded in 22. A detailed clinical and biological follow-up was organised, that included analysis of viral intrahost diversity and telephone survey until day 300. The evolution of acute CHIK included 2 stages: the ‘viral stage’ (day 1–day 4) was associated with rapid decrease of viraemia and improvement of clinical presentation; the ‘convalescent stage’ (day 5–day 14) was associated with no detectable viraemia but a slower clinical improvement. Women and elderly had a significantly higher number of arthralgia at inclusion and at day 300. Based on the study clinico-biological dataset, scores for CHIK diagnosis in patients with recent febrile acute polyarthralgia were elaborated using arthralgia on hands and wrists, a minor or absent myalgia and the presence of lymphopenia (<1G/L) as major orientation criteria. Finally, we observed that CHIKV intra-host genetic diversity increased over time and that a higher viral amino-acid complexity at the acute stage was associated with increased number of arthralgia and intensity of sequelae at day 300. Conclusions/Significance This study provided a detailed picture of clinico-biological CHIK evolution at the acute phase of the disease, allowed the elaboration of scores to assist CHIK

  3. Altered environment and risk of malaria outbreak in South Andaman, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, India affected by tsunami disaster

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, Kaliannagoun; Jambulingam, Purushothaman; Natarajan, R; Shriram, AN; Das, Pradeep K; Sehgal, SC

    2005-01-01

    Background Pools of salt water and puddles created by giant waves from the sea due to the tsunami that occurred on 26th December 2004 would facilitate increased breeding of brackish water malaria vector, Anopheles sundaicus. Land uplifts in North Andaman and subsidence in South Andaman have been reported and subsidence may lead to environmental disturbances and vector proliferation. This warrants a situation analysis and vector surveillance in the tsunami hit areas endemic for malaria transmitted by brackish water mosquito, An. sundaicus to predict the risk of outbreak. Methods An extensive survey was carried out in the tsunami-affected areas in Andaman district of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India to assess the extent of breeding of malaria vectors in the habitats created by seawater flooding. Types of habitats in relation to source of seawater inundation and frequency were identified. The salinity of the water samples and the mosquito species present in the larval samples collected from these habitats were recorded. The malaria situation in the area was also analysed. Results South Andaman, covering Port Blair and Ferrargunj sub districts, is still under the recurring phenomenon of seawater intrusion either directly from the sea or through a network of creeks. Both daily cycles of high tides and periodical spring tides continue to cause flooding. Low-lying paddy fields and fallow land, with a salinity ranging from 3,000 to 42,505 ppm, were found to support profuse breeding of An. sundaicus, the local malaria vector, and Anopheles subpictus, a vector implicated elsewhere. This area is endemic for both vivax and falciparum malaria. Malaria slide positivity rate has started increasing during post-tsunami period, which can be considered as an indication of risk of malaria outbreak. Conclusion Paddy fields and fallow land with freshwater, hitherto not considered as potential sites for An. sundaicus, are now major breeding sites due to saline water. Consequently

  4. Occurrence of Diverse AbGRI1-Type Genomic Islands in Acinetobacter baumannii Global Clone 2 Isolates from South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Hun; Jung, Sook-In; Kwon, Ki Tae; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we analyzed the frequency of the AbGRI1-type genomic island (GI) and its association with genotypes. We obtained 130 Acinetobacter baumannii isolates causing bloodstream infections from patients in South Korea. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and multilocus sequence typing were performed. The presence of AbGRI1-type GIs and their structures were determined by sequential PCR and sequencing. Ninety-eight isolates (75.3%) representing 14 sequence types (STs) belonged to clonal complex 208 (CC208), corresponding to global clone 2 (GC2). AbGRI1-type GIs interrupted the comM gene in 107 isolates (82.4%). Four types of GIs were identified: Tn6022 (50 isolates; 46.7%), AbaR4 (23 isolates; 21.5%), Tn6166 (10 isolates; 9.3%), and Tn6166/Tn2006 (24 isolates; 22.4%). In the 50 isolates with Tn6022, Tn2006 or Tn2008B, both containing ISAba1-blaOXA-23, was present in sites other than GIs in 3 or 28 isolates, respectively. In the 10 isolates with Tn6166, Tn2008B was identified in one isolate. AbGRI1-type GIs were identified nearly exclusively in CC208 isolates, with the exception of nine non-CC208 isolates (AbaR4 in eight ST229 isolates and Tn6022 in one ST1244 isolate). Within CC208 isolates, there was evidence of frequent recombination events, in both housekeeping genes and AbGRI1-type GIs, contributing to genotype diversification and the emergence of carbapenem resistance.

  5. Stratigraphic evidence for earthquakes and tsunamis on the west coast of South Andaman Island, India during the past 1000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Javed N.; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Khan, Afzal; Johnson, Frango C.; Shishikura, Masanobu.; Satake, Kenji.; Singhvi, Ashok K.

    2015-10-01

    Stratigraphic records from west coast of South Andaman Island revealed evidence of three historical earthquakes and associated transoceanic tsunamis during past 1000 yrs, in addition to the Mw 9.3 tsunamigenic earthquake of 26 December, 2004. Our finding suggests that along with Sumatran arc segment the Andaman-Arakan segment is also capable of generating mega-subduction zone earthquakes and transoceanic tsunamis. To study the near sub-surface stratigraphic succession we excavated shallow trenches and obtained geoslices from two sites around Collinpur (sites 1 and 2). The exposed succession comprised 11 lithounits (Unit a - youngest and k - oldest) of alternating sequence of coarser units overlain by peaty soils and some of these are indicative of deposition during paleo-tsunami events. Event I that predated AD 800, and is marked by a 35-40 cm thick deposit of fine gravel to coarse sands along with broken shell fragments (Unit k). Event II dated around AD 660-800, is represented by 20-25 cm thick coarse sand and broken shell fragments (Unit i). Based on stratigraphic evidences of land-level changes, this event is attributed to a near source rupture along Andaman-Arakan segment, accompanied by a transoceanic tsunami. Event III, occurred around AD 1120-1300, is marked by a 50 cm thick sand deposit (Unit g). The 2004 tsunami resulted in deposition of 15 cm thick medium to coarse sand at the same location. We infer that the 2004 tsunami and Event III resulted in different styles of sedimentation at the same site. Four events at Collinpur along with the record of a subsidence event of AD 1679 from the east coast of Andaman, close-to, Port Blair (Malik et al., 2011), suggest that mega-subduction zone earthquakes and associated tsunamis recur at an interval of 300-500 years at variable locations along the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone.

  6. Three dimensional P- and S-wave velocity structure along the central Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, B.; Thurber, C. H.; Roecker, S. W.; Townend, J.; Rawles, C.; Chamberlain, C. J.; Boese, C. M.; Bannister, S.; Feenstra, J.; Eccles, J. D.

    2017-02-01

    The Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP) on the central Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand, has motivated a broad range of geophysical and geological studies intended to characterize the fault system in the locality of the drill site at various scales. In order to better understand the structural features of the central Alpine Fault, we have developed three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity (VP and VS) models of the region by double-difference tomography using datasets from multiple seismic networks. In previous work, the quality of the S-wave model has been poor due to the small number of available S-wave picks. We have utilized a new high-accuracy automatic S-wave picker to increase the number of usable S-wave arrivals by more than a factor of two, thereby substantially improving the VS model. Compared to previous studies, our new higher-resolution VP model based on more observations shows a clear VP contrast (higher VP on the southeast hanging wall side) at depths of 5 - 10 km near the DFDP drill sites. With our better resolved VS model, in the same region, we detect a sharply defined high VS body (VS > 3.7 km/s) within the hanging wall. Our earthquake relocations reveal the presence of clusters within and around low-velocity zones in the hanging wall southeast of the Alpine Fault. Together with the improved earthquake locations, the P- and S-wave tomography results reveal the Alpine Fault to be marked by a velocity contrast throughout most of the study region. The fault dips southeastward at about 50^circ from 5 to 15 km depth, as inferred from the velocity structure, seismicity, and observations of fault zone guided waves.

  7. Mafic dike swarms in the South Shetland Islands volcanic arc: Unravelling multiepisodic magmatism related to subduction and continental rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willan, Robert C. R.; Kelley, Simon P.

    1999-10-01

    Eight groups of mafic dikes and related high-level stocks cut Triassic accretionary complex and Mesozoic magmatic arc formations on Livingston Island. Some are affected by silicic/sericitic alteration, related to Cretaceous hydrothermal activity, and propylitic/epidosite alteration, analogous to that in ocean floor sheeted dikes. Alteration was accompanied by major and trace element metasomatism. Ar-Ar analysis of the freshest rocks indicates five intrusive events, some of which are unexpectedly young. Groups 1-3 were intruded in the mid to late Cretaceous (˜108-74 Ma) and were coeval with the calc-alkaline arc. Between 70 and 50 Ma, relatively rapid and oblique plate convergence led to strike-slip tectonism and a pause in magmatism. At ˜52 Ma, orthogonal, slow convergence resulted in extensional faulting and emplacement of calc-alkaline (group 2) and primitive tholeiitic dikes (groups 4-6) between 51 and 45 Ma. Extension of Antarctic Peninsula-southern South American crust culminated in emplacement of mafic to intermediate, medium-grained plutons and group C porphyries between 44 and 36 Ma. Localized hydrothermal flow along fault zones resulted in partial to complete argon loss from nearby Cretaceous lavas and Ar-Ar reset ages of ˜40 Ma in mid-Cretaceous hydrothermal K-feldspar. Primitive olivine basalts (group D) and epithermal carbonate veins (31-29 Ma) were emplaced during along-arc extension accompanying the opening of Drake Passage and Powell Basin. Excess argon occurs in two forms: strongly held in melt? inclusions in the primitive tholeiites and weakly held in some secondary alteration. There is no radiometric evidence, in the area studied, for magmatism related to late Cenozoic subduction, nor to the Pleistocene-Recent opening of the back arc Bransfield rift.

  8. Simulation of Climate Change Effects on Hydropower Lake Inflows in a Mountain Basin, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, B. S.; Newton, S.; King, R.; Zammit, C.

    2015-12-01

    Hydroelectric power is a valuable renewable energy resource and the primary source of electricity in New Zealand, but climate change is predicted to have varying effects on mountain rivers and hydropower in the future due to strong topographic, precipitation, and temperature gradients over space. This study models climate change impacts on river inflows to three headwaters hydropower lakes (Pukaki, Tekapo, and Ohau) in the Upper Waitaki Basin of the central South Island using the TopNet hydrological model based on the 1990s (baseline), 2040s, and 2090s periods. The IPCC 4th assessment report A1B emissions scenario and average temperature and precipitation results of 12 Global Circulation Models with statistical downscaling were used as input to TopNet. Indicators of hydrologic alteration were used to estimate and compare 63 flow metrics across the full flow regime based on TopNet output. Kruskall-Wallis tests were used to evaluate significant differences between metrics among the three periods. Implications for hydropower operations, other water resources management needs, and braided river flows and ecology were also evaluated. Results show that annual and cumulative inflows increase for future climate periods for all three lakes. However, seasonal effects cause flows to generally increase in winter and early spring and decrease slightly in summer due to warmer temperatures with more winter rain and less snow. The number of inflow metrics with statistically significant changes is greatest for Lake Pukaki, with the most glacierized catchment, and least for Lake Ohau. High flows and floods generally increase, and low flows/extreme low flows decrease. Overall these changes may be beneficial for hydropower and some braided river floodplain ecological features, but the seasonal shifts will result in greater flood risk in winter and spring, more drought risk in summer and autumn, and additional challenges managing water volumes in these mountain hydropower lakes.

  9. Miocene south directed low-angle normal fault evolution on Kea Island (West Cycladic Detachment System, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglseder, Christoph; Grasemann, Bernhard; Rice, A. Hugh N.; Petrakakis, Konstantin; Schneider, David A.

    2011-08-01

    New structural, petrologic, and thermochronologic data from Kea, West Cyclades, define a crustal-scale ductile shear zone and ductile/brittle low-angle normal fault (LANF) system. Both the greenschist-facies shear zone forming the footwall and the overlying LANF zone formed during constrictional strains, with a consistent top-to-SW-S shear sense, with increasing finite strains toward higher structural levels but decreasing temperatures from footwall to hanging wall. The tectonostratigraphy comprises a ˜450 m thick footwall of shallowly dipping schists and calcite marbles representing the Intermediate Unit of the Attic-Cycladic Crystalline (ACC). Above the footwall is a ˜60 m thick highly strained LANF zone, consisting of phyllonites, cataclastic schists, ultramylonitic calcite marbles, (proto) mylonitic calcite marbles, and cohesive cataclasites that arch over the whole island. These fault rocks exhibit multistage LANFs, evolving from ductile to brittle conditions. An up to ˜50 m thick brecciated limestone and dolostone sequence forms the unmetamorphosed hanging wall which is most probably part of the Upper Unit of the ACC. Multiequilibrium P-T estimates on chlorite-white mica pairs in the footwall yield 7-5.5 kbar/360°C-450°C for inclusions in albite and epidote, 5.5-3 kbar/400°C-350°C for the main foliation, and 3-2 kbar/350°C-280°C in localized shear bands (C and C' foliations). The 40Ar/39Ar white mica footwall cooling ages demonstrate that greenschist-facies retrogression occurred between ˜21 and 17 Ma. Localized, late decimeter thick shear zones were active and dynamically recrystallized before ˜15 to 13 Ma. The LANF on Kea, together with similar structures in South Attica and the West Cyclades define the West Cycladic Detachment System, characterized by ductile to brittle top-SW-S shear sense.

  10. Volume 3: Characterization of representative reservoirs -- South Marsh Island 73, B35K and B65G Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Young, M.A.; Salamy, S.P.; Reeves, T.K.; Kimbrell, W.C.; Sawyer, W.K.

    1998-07-01

    This report documents the results of a detailed study of two Gulf of Mexico salt dome related reservoirs and the application of a publicly available PC-based black oil simulator to model the performances of gas injection processes to recover attic oil. The overall objective of the research project is to assess the oil reserve potential that could result from the application of proven technologies to recover bypassed oil from reservoirs surrounding piercement salt domes in the Gulf of Mexico. The specific study objective was to simulate the primary recovery and attic gas injection performance of the two subject reservoirs to: (1) validate the BOAST model; (2) quantify the attic volume; and (3) predict the attic oil recovery potential that could result from additional updip gas injection. The simulation studies were performed on the B-35K Reservoir and the B-65G Reservoir in the South Marsh Island Block 73 Field using data provided by one of the field operators. A modified PC-version of the BOAST II model was used to match the production and injection performances of these reservoirs in which numerous gas injection cycles had been conducted to recover attic oil. The historical performances of the gas injection cycles performed on both the B-35K Reservoir and B-65G Reservoir were accurately matched, and numerous predictive runs were made to define additional potential for attic oil recovery using gas injection. Predictive sensitivities were conducted to examine the impact of gas injection rate, injection volume, post-injection shut-in time, and the staging of gas injection cycles on oil recovery.

  11. Analysis of a New Marlborough Fault System Lidar Dataset: The Wairau and Hope faults, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenader, J.; Dolan, J. F.; Rhodes, E. J.; Van Dissen, R. J.; Langridge, R.; Zinke, R. W.; McGuire, C. P.; Nicol, A.

    2014-12-01

    Newly acquired lidar digital topographic data acquired early 2014 from the four major faults of the Marlborough Fault System in northern South Island New Zealand allow measurement of fault offsets ~1 m to 100s of meters in unprecedented detail. The lidar dataset, acquired for us by the US National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM) and New Zealand Aerial Mapping (NZAM), comprises 254 km of fault-parallel imagery in 1.2-to-1.5-km-wide swaths. These high-resolution data have an average shot density of ≥12 shots/m2, and encompass the central Wairau, central and eastern Awatere, western and eastern Clarence, and eastern Hope fault segments. In this study, we focus on detailed measurements of small (3-25 m) and large (10s-100s of meters) geomorphic offsets at multiple sites along the central Wairau and eastern Hope faults. In addition to showing compilations of these offset observations, we present examples of the lidar data at several key study sites where offsets at multiple scales are discernable. The precise fault offsets we measure at these sites, combined with post-IR IRSL (225°C) single-grain K-feldspar dating of fluvial terrace sediments, will provide the basis for determining incremental slip rates on these faults at a range of latest Pleistocene to late Holocene timescales. This project is part of a broader effort to generate incremental slip rates and paleoearthquake ages from all four of the main faults that comprise the Marlborough Fault System with the goal of further understanding how mechanically complementary faults work together to accommodate relative plate motions.

  12. 3-D P- and S-wave velocity structure along the central Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, B.; Thurber, C. H.; Roecker, S. W.; Townend, J.; Rawles, C.; Chamberlain, C. J.; Boese, C. M.; Bannister, S.; Feenstra, J.; Eccles, J. D.

    2017-05-01

    The Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP) on the central Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand, has motivated a broad range of geophysical and geological studies intended to characterize the fault system in the locality of the drill site at various scales. In order to better understand the structural features of the central Alpine Fault, we have developed 3-D P- and S-wave velocity (VP and VS) models of the region by double-difference tomography using data sets from multiple seismic networks. In previous work, the quality of the S-wave model has been poor due to the small number of available S-wave picks. We have utilized a new high-accuracy automatic S-wave picker to increase the number of usable S-wave arrivals by more than a factor of two, thereby substantially improving the VS model. Compared to previous studies, our new higher-resolution VP model based on more observations shows a clear VP contrast (higher VP on the southeast hanging wall side) at depths of 5-10 km near the DFDP drill sites. With our better resolved VS model, in the same region, we detect a sharply defined high VS body (VS > 3.7 km s-1) within the hanging wall. Our earthquake relocations reveal the presence of clusters within and around low-velocity zones in the hanging wall southeast of the Alpine Fault. Together with the improved earthquake locations, the P- and S-wave tomography results reveal the Alpine Fault to be marked by a velocity contrast throughout most of the study region. The fault dips southeastwards at about 50° from 5 to 15 km depth, as inferred from the velocity structure, seismicity and observations of fault zone guided waves.

  13. Where does the South Anju suture go to in the New Siberian Islands and Laptev Sea?: implication to the rotational hypothesis of the Amerasian Basin opening.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmichev, A.; Bogdanov, N.

    2003-04-01

    The South-Anuj suture is a trace of Late Palaeozoic-Jurassic ocean. The suture is believed to trend from the upper Big Anuj river (Chukotka) to Bigger Lyakhov Isl. (New Siberian Islands). It is commonly acknowledged that closing of the South Anuj Ocean at the end of Jurassic - beginning of Neocomian was synchronous with opening of the Amerasian oceanic basin. Most popular is the hypothesis of rotational opening of this basin. In accord with this hypothesis, the South Anuj suture must at some point meet the strike-slip global-scale transform trending along the eastern foot of the Lomonosov Ridge. The geometric contradictions arising from rotational hypothesis have been discussed by [Rowley and Lottes, 1988; Lane, 1997]. To avoid them, [Rowley and Lottes, 1988] suggest that the South Anuj suture does not reach Bigger Lykhov Is. but ends up in the vicinity of the Kolyma river mouth and meets the transform there. In fact, the suture's westward tracing is based only on geophysical data. The earlier published data on the rocks exposed on the Bigger Lyakhov island have permitted to assume that these rocks had nothing in comman with those in the South Anuj region. Our 2000 fieldwork on the Bigger Lyakhov Isl. was aimed to verify this assumption. The results have shown that all rock complexes exposed on the island are analogous to those in the South Anuj area - tectonotype of the suture. This confirmed the first assumption of the suture's trend. However, the question was still unsettled where the suture further goes to from the island and were it joins the transform. It is generally accepted that the suture turns northwards from the B.Lyakhov Is. to Zemlya Bunge or Kotel'ny Ils [Spector et al., 1981; Parfenov et al., 1999; Fujita et al., 1997]. We can not agree with this idea since the Jurassic rocks on these islands are undeformed and even unlithified. So, if the suture has a NW continuation, it must lie W-SW of Belkovsky Island and meet the transform nearby. This was the

  14. Low-Frequency Earthquakes of the Southern Alps, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, C. J.; Shelly, D. R.; Townend, J.; Stern, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    additional stations installed south of the tremor in early 2013. We conclude that tremor on the Alpine Fault is composed, as elsewhere, of sequences of LFEs and suggest that these events relate to along-strike variations in shallow (<15 km) and deep seismicity (>45 km) on the Alpine Fault (Boese et al., 2013). We hypothesize that along-strike variations in LFE abundance may be controlled by variations in lithospheric structure inherited from prior rifting. Shelly, D. R., W. L. Ellsworth, T. Ryberg, C. Haberland, G. S. Fuis, J. Murphy, R. M. Nadeau, and R. Bürgmann (2009), Precise location of San Andreas Fault tremors near Cholame, California using seismometer clusters: Slip on the deep extension of the fault?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L01303, doi:10.1029/2008GL036367. Wech, A. G., C. M. Boese, T. A. Stern, and J. Townend (2012), Tectonic tremor and deep slow slip on the Alpine Fault, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L10303, doi:10.1029/2012GL051751. C.M. Boese, T.A. Stern, J. Townend, S. Bourguignon, A. Sheehan, E.G.C. Smith, Sub-crustal earthquakes within the Australia-Pacific plate boundary zone beneath the Southern Alps, New Zealand, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2013.06.030.

  15. Prevalence of cutaneous evaporation in Merriam's kangaroo rat and its adaptive variation at the subspecific level.

    PubMed

    Tracy, R L; Walsberg, G E

    2000-02-01

    Previous estimates suggested that ventilatory evaporation constitutes the major source of water loss in kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.). We quantified rates of water loss in Merriam's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys merriami) and demonstrate the degree to which acclimation to a particular thermal and hydric environment plays a role in the intraspecific variation in water loss evident in this species. We draw the following conclusions: (1) that water loss varies intraspecifically in Merriam's kangaroo rat, in association with habitats of contrasting aridity and temperature; (2) that animals from more xeric locations have lower water loss rates than those from more mesic sites; (3) that most water loss is cutaneous, with ventilatory evaporative water loss contributing, at most, only 44% to total evaporative water loss; and (4) that intraspecific differences in rates of water loss are not acclimatory, but fixed. After acclimating under the same conditions, xeric-site animals still show a 33% lower rate of evaporative water loss than mesic-site animals.

  16. Cache decision making: the effects of competition on cache decisions in Merriam's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys merriami).

    PubMed

    Preston, Stephanie D; Jacobs, Lucia F

    2005-05-01

    Caching food is an economic, decision-making process that requires animals to take many factors into account, including the risk of pilferage. However, little is known about how food-storing animals determine the risk of pilferage. In this study, the authors examined the effect of a dominant competitor species on the caching and behavior of Merriam's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys merriami). The authors found that, as with conspecific competitors, kangaroo rats did not alter caching in response to the mere presence of a heterospecific competitor, but moved caches to an unpreferred area when the competitor's presence was paired with pilferage. These data suggest that Merriam's kangaroo rat assesses pilfer risk from actual pilferage by a competitor and adaptively alters cache strategy to minimize future risk. 2005 APA, all rights reserved

  17. Chihuahuan Desert kangaroo rats: nonlinear effects of population dynamics, competition, and rainfall.

    PubMed

    Lima, Mauricio; Ernest, S K Morgan; Brown, James H; Belgrano, Andrea; Stenseth, Nils C

    2008-09-01

    Using long-term data on two kangaroo rats in the Chihuahuan Desert of North America, we fitted logistic models including the exogenous effects of seasonal rainfall patterns. Our aim was to test the effects of intraspecific interactions and seasonal rainfall in explaining and predicting the numerical fluctuations of these two kangaroo rats. We found that logistic models fit both data sets quite well; Dipodomys merriami showed lower maximum per capita growth rates than Dipodomys ordii, and in both cases logistic models were nonlinear. Summer rainfall appears to be the most important exogenous effect for both rodent populations; models including this variable were able to predict independent data better than models including winter rainfall. D. merriami was also negatively affected by another kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis), consistent with previous experimental evidence. We hypothesized that summer rainfall influences the carrying capacity of the environment by affecting seed availability and the intensity of intraspecific competition.

  18. Physical mechanisms underlying the strain-rate-dependent mechanical behavior of kangaroo shoulder cartilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibbotuwawa, Namal; Oloyede, Adekunle; Li, Tong; Singh, Sanjleena; Senadeera, Wijitha; Gu, YuanTong

    2015-09-01

    Due to anatomical and biomechanical similarities to human shoulder, kangaroo was chosen as a model to study shoulder cartilage. Comprehensive enzymatic degradation and indentation tests were applied on kangaroo shoulder cartilage to study mechanisms underlying its strain-rate-dependent mechanical behavior. We report that superficial collagen plays a more significant role than proteoglycans in facilitating strain-rate-dependent behavior of the kangaroo shoulder cartilage. By comparing the mechanical properties of degraded and normal cartilages, it was noted that proteoglycan and collagen degradation significantly compromised strain-rate-dependent mechanical behavior of the cartilage. Superficial collagen contributed equally to the tissue behavior at all strain-rates. This is different to the studies reported on knee cartilage and confirms the importance of superficial collagen on shoulder cartilage mechanical behavior. A porohyperelastic numerical model also indicated that collagen disruption would lead to faster damage of the shoulder cartilage than when proteoglycans are depleted.

  19. Gammaherpesvirus infection in a free-ranging eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus).

    PubMed

    Wilcox, R S; Vaz, P; Ficorilli, N P; Whiteley, P L; Wilks, C R; Devlin, J M

    2011-01-01

    A gammaherpesvirus was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in ocular, nasal and oropharyngeal swab samples collected from an adult free-ranging male eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) with clinical signs of severe respiratory disease. This is the first time a gammaherpesvirus has been detected in a free-ranging macropod in Australia. The nucleotide sequence of a conserved region of the DNA polymerase gene of the detected virus showed a high degree of identity to a gammaherpesvirus recently detected in a zoological collection of eastern grey kangaroos in North America. The detection of this gammaherpesvirus in a free-ranging, native eastern grey kangaroo provides evidence that this species is a natural host. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2011 Australian Veterinary Association.

  20. Black disease (Terpios hoshinota): a probable cause for the rapid coral mortality at the northern reef of Yongxing Island in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qi; Liu, Guo Hui; Yan, Hong Qiang; Zhang, Hui Ling

    2012-07-01

    The northern reef of Yongxing Island, the largest reef island of the Xisha Islands in the South China Sea, was in good condition with significant cover of scleractinian corals until 2002. Surveys in 2008 and 2010, however, found that coral coverage had declined rapidly and severely, implying that catastrophic coral mortality occurred during the past 8 years. A blackish mat was observed covering live and dead corals in both 2008 and 2010 that was identified as an encrusting sponge, Terpios hoshinota, by special surface morphology and spicule structure. In addition, spicule residues were found on the surface of long-dead corals, indicating a previous invasion of T. hosinota. T. hoshinota is referred to as the "black disease" because it rapidly overgrows and kills corals. Our evidence indicates that outbreaks of black disease are at least partially responsible for the massive coral mortality at the northern reef of Yongxing Island over the past 8 years, although human activities and heat-related coral bleaching cannot be discounted as minor causes for this coral decline.

  1. Hydrographic control of the marine ecosystem in the South Shetland-Elephant Island and Bransfield Strait region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeb, Valerie; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Klinck, John M.; Holm-Hansen, Osmund

    2010-04-01

    The South Shetland-Elephant Island and Bransfield Strait region of the West Antarctic Peninsula is an important spawning and nursery ground of Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba) and is an important source of krill to the Southern Ocean. Krill reproductive and recruitment success, hence supply of krill to predator populations locally and in downstream areas, are extremely variable on interannual and longer time scales. Interannual ecosystem variability in this region has long been recognized and thought related to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, but understanding of how has been limited by the hydrographic complexity of the region and lack of appropriate ocean-atmosphere interaction models. This study utilizes multidisciplinary data sets collected in the region from 1990 to 2004 by the U.S. Antarctic Living Marine Resources (AMLR) Program. We focus on hydrographic conditions associated with changes in the distribution, abundance and composition of salp- and copepod-dominated zooplankton assemblages during 1998 and 1999, years characterized respectively by a strong El Niño event and La Niña conditions. We provide detailed analyses of hydrographic, biological and ecological conditions during these dichotomous years in order to identify previously elusive oceanographic processes underlying ecosystem variability. We found that fluctuations between salp-dominated coastal zooplankton assemblages and copepod-dominated oceanic zooplankton assemblages result from the relative influence of Weddell Sea and oceanic waters and that these fluctuations are associated with latitudinal movement of the Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front (sACCf). Latitudinal movements of the sACCf can be explained by meridional atmosphere teleconnections instigated in the western tropical Pacific Ocean by ENSO variability and are consistent with out-of-phase forcing in the South Pacific and South Atlantic Oceans by the Antarctic Dipole high-latitude climate mode. During El

  2. Genetic analysis of Black Tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) across its natural distribution range reveals more recent colonization of Fiji and other South Pacific islands

    PubMed Central

    Waqairatu, Salote S; Dierens, Leanne; Cowley, Jeff A; Dixon, Tom J; Johnson, Karyn N; Barnes, Andrew C; Li, Yutao

    2012-01-01

    The Black Tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) has a natural distribution range from East Africa to the South Pacific Islands. Although previous studies of Indo-Pacific P. monodon have found populations from the Indian Ocean and Australasia to differ genetically, their relatedness to South Pacific shrimp remains unknown. To address this, polymorphisms at eight shared microsatellite loci and haplotypes in a 418-bp mtDNA-CR (control region) sequence were examined across 682 P. monodon from locations spread widely across its natural range, including the South Pacific islands of Fiji, Palau, and Papua New Guinea (PNG). Observed microsatellite heterozygosities of 0.82–0.91, allele richness of 6.85–9.69, and significant mtDNA-CR haplotype variation indicated high levels of genetic diversity among the South Pacific shrimp. Analysis of microsatellite genotypes using a Bayesian STRUCTURE method segregated Indo-Pacific P. monodon into eight distinct clades, with Palau and PNG shrimp clustering among others from Southeast Asia and eastern Australia, respectively, and Fiji shrimp clustering as a distinct group. Phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA-CR haplotypes delineated shrimp into three groupings, with shrimp from Fiji again being distinct by sharing no haplotypes with other populations. Depending on regional location, the genetic structures and substructures identified from the genotyping and mtDNA-CR haplotype phylogeny could be explained by Metapopulation and/or Member–Vagrant type evolutionary processes. Neutrality tests of mutation-drift equilibrium and estimation of the time since population expansion supported a hypothesis that South Pacific P. monodon were colonized from Southeast Asia and eastern Australia during the Pleistocene period over 60,000 years ago when land bridges were more expansive and linked these regions more closely. PMID:22957205

  3. Winter 2016, Part A—Coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from the South Carolina/North Carolina border to Assateague Island, Virginia, February 18–19, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, Karen L. M.

    2017-02-28

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in the vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms. On February 18–19, 2016, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from the South Carolina/North Carolina border to Assateague Island, Virginia, aboard a Cessna 182 (aircraft) at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,200 ft offshore. This mission was flown to collect baseline data for assessing incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area and can be used to assess future coastal change.The photographs in this report document the state of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey.

  4. 10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. INTERIOR, LOOKING WEST. DATED OCTOBER 2, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 138, Second Avenue between South Avenue & Ramsey Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  5. 8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH ELEVATON IN UNALTERED CONDITION. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 68, Rodman Avenue between Fourth Street & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  6. 10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED APRIL 18, 1941. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 56, North Avenue & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  7. 3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED MARCH 19, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 61, Rodman Avenue & First Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  8. 7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS. DATED MARCH 19, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 62, Rodman Avenue between First & Second Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  9. South Fork Latrine, oblique view showing south and east sides; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South Fork Latrine, oblique view showing south and east sides; view northwest - Fort McKinley, South Fork Latrine, West side of East Side Drive, approximately 225 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  10. Phylogeography of the pallid kangaroo mouse, Microdipodops pallidus: a sand-obligate endemic of the Great Basin, western North America

    PubMed Central

    Hafner, John C; Upham, Nathan S; Reddington, Emily; Torres, Candice W

    2008-01-01

    Aim Kangaroo mice, genus Microdipodops Merriam, are endemic to the Great Basin and include two species: M. pallidus Merriam and M. megacephalus Merriam. The pallid kangaroo mouse, M. pallidus, is a sand-obligate desert rodent. Our principal intent is to identify its current geographical distribution and to formulate a phylogeographical hypothesis for this taxon. In addition, we test for orientation patterns in haplotype sharing for evidence of past episodes of movement and gene flow. Location The Great Basin Desert region of western North America, especially the sandy habitats of the Lahontan Trough and those in south-central Nevada. Methods Mitochondrial DNA sequence data from portions of three genes (16S ribosomal RNA, cytochrome b, and transfer RNA for glutamic acid) were obtained from 98 individuals of M. pallidus representing 27 general localities sampled throughout its geographical range. Molecular sequence data were analysed using neighbour-joining, maximum-parsimony, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods of phylogenetic inference. Directional analysis of phylogeographical patterns, a novel method, was used to examine angular measurements of haplotype sharing between pairs of localities to detect and quantify historical events pertaining to movement patterns and gene flow. Results Collecting activities showed that M. pallidus is a rather rare rodent (mean trapping success was 2.88%), and its distribution has changed little from that determined three-quarters of a century ago. Two principal phylogroups, distributed as eastern and western moieties, are evident from the phylogenetic analyses (mean sequence divergence for cytochrome b is c. 8%). The western clade shows little phylogenetic structure and seems to represent a large polytomy. In the eastern clade, however, three subgroups are recognized. Nine of the 42 unique composite haplotypes are present at two or more localities and are used for the orientation analyses. Axial data from haplotype sharing

  11. Cross-Mating Compatibility and Competitiveness among Aedes albopictus Strains from Distinct Geographic Origins - Implications for Future Application of SIT Programs in the South West Indian Ocean Islands.

    PubMed

    Damiens, David; Lebon, Cyrille; Wilkinson, David A; Dijoux-Millet, Damien; Le Goff, Gilbert; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Gouagna, Louis Clément

    2016-01-01

    The production of large numbers of males needed for a sustainable sterile insect technique (SIT) control program requires significant developmental and operational costs. This may constitute a significant economic barrier to the installation of large scale rearing facilities in countries that are undergoing a transition from being largely dependent on insecticide use to be in a position to integrate the SIT against Aedes albopictus. Alternative options available for those countries could be to rely on outsourcing of sterile males from a foreign supplier, or for one centralised facility to produce mosquitoes for several countries, thus increasing the efficiency of the mass-rearing effort. However, demonstration of strain compatibility is a prerequisite for the export of mosquitoes for transborder SIT applications. Here, we compared mating compatibility among Ae. albopictus populations originating from three islands of the South Western Indian Ocean, and assessed both insemination rates and egg fertility in all possible cross-mating combinations. Furthermore, competitiveness between irradiated and non-irradiated males from the three studied strains, and the subsequent effect on female fertility were also examined. Although morphometric analysis of wing shapes suggested phenoptypic differences between Ae. albopictus strains, perfect reproductive compatibility between them was observed. Furthermore, irradiated males from the different islands demonstrated similar levels of competitiveness and induced sterility when confronted with fertile males from any of the other island populations tested. In conclusion, despite the evidence of inter-strain differences based on male wing morphology, collectively, our results provide a new set of expectations for the use of a single candidate strain of mass-reared sterile males for area-wide scale application of SIT against Ae. albopictus populations in different islands across the South Western Indian Ocean. Cross

  12. Cytoplasmic Incompatibility as a Means of Controlling Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Mosquito in the Islands of the South-Western Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Atyame, Célestine M.; Pasteur, Nicole; Dumas, Emilie; Tortosa, Pablo; Tantely, Michaël Luciano; Pocquet, Nicolas; Licciardi, Séverine; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Zumbo, Betty; Weill, Mylène; Duron, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    The use of the bacterium Wolbachia is an attractive alternative method to control vector populations. In mosquitoes, as in members of the Culex pipiens complex, Wolbachia induces a form of embryonic lethality called cytoplasmic incompatibility, a sperm-egg incompatibility occurring when infected males mate either with uninfected females or with females infected with incompatible Wolbachia strain(s). Here we explore the feasibility of the Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT), a species-specific control approach in which field females are sterilized by inundative releases of incompatible males. We show that the Wolbachia wPip(Is) strain, naturally infecting Cx. p. pipiens mosquitoes from Turkey, is a good candidate to control Cx. p. quinquefasciatus populations on four islands of the south-western Indian Ocean (La Réunion, Mauritius, Grande Glorieuse and Mayotte). The wPip(Is) strain was introduced into the nuclear background of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes from La Réunion, leading to the LR[wPip(Is)] line. Total embryonic lethality was observed in crosses between LR[wPip(Is)] males and all tested field females from the four islands. Interestingly, most crosses involving LR[wPip(Is)] females and field males were also incompatible, which is expected to reduce the impact of any accidental release of LR[wPip(Is)] females. Cage experiments demonstrate that LR[wPip(Is)] males are equally competitive with La Réunion males resulting in demographic crash when LR[wPip(Is)] males were introduced into La Réunion laboratory cages. These results, together with the geographic isolation of the four south-western Indian Ocean islands and their limited land area, support the feasibility of an IIT program using LR[wPip(Is)] males and stimulate the implementation of field tests for a Cx. p. quinquefasciatus control strategy on these islands. PMID:22206033

  13. Cross-Mating Compatibility and Competitiveness among Aedes albopictus Strains from Distinct Geographic Origins - Implications for Future Application of SIT Programs in the South West Indian Ocean Islands

    PubMed Central

    Damiens, David; Lebon, Cyrille; Wilkinson, David A.; Dijoux-Millet, Damien; Le Goff, Gilbert; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Gouagna, Louis Clément

    2016-01-01

    The production of large numbers of males needed for a sustainable sterile insect technique (SIT) control program requires significant developmental and operational costs. This may constitute a significant economic barrier to the installation of large scale rearing facilities in countries that are undergoing a transition from being largely dependent on insecticide use to be in a position to integrate the SIT against Aedes albopictus. Alternative options available for those countries could be to rely on outsourcing of sterile males from a foreign supplier, or for one centralised facility to produce mosquitoes for several countries, thus increasing the efficiency of the mass-rearing effort. However, demonstration of strain compatibility is a prerequisite for the export of mosquitoes for transborder SIT applications. Here, we compared mating compatibility among Ae. albopictus populations originating from three islands of the South Western Indian Ocean, and assessed both insemination rates and egg fertility in all possible cross-mating combinations. Furthermore, competitiveness between irradiated and non-irradiated males from the three studied strains, and the subsequent effect on female fertility were also examined. Although morphometric analysis of wing shapes suggested phenoptypic differences between Ae. albopictus strains, perfect reproductive compatibility between them was observed. Furthermore, irradiated males from the different islands demonstrated similar levels of competitiveness and induced sterility when confronted with fertile males from any of the other island populations tested. In conclusion, despite the evidence of inter-strain differences based on male wing morphology, collectively, our results provide a new set of expectations for the use of a single candidate strain of mass-reared sterile males for area-wide scale application of SIT against Ae. albopictus populations in different islands across the South Western Indian Ocean. Cross

  14. Kangaroo mother care may help oral growth and development in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Liu, Shoutao

    2012-08-01

    Premature infants have a shorter prenatal development period and are prone to many serious medical problems during neonatal period. This may impact the development of oral tissues, as manifested by enamel hypoplasia, palatal distortion, malocclusion, or delay in tooth eruption and maturation. Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is a standardized and protocol-based care system for premature infants, based on skin-to-skin contact between the infant and their mother. Kangaroo mother care has been demonstrated to greatly improve the nurturing of premature infants and comparatively reduce the risk factors of oral defects. We hypothesize that KMC also facilitates oral growth and development in premature infants.

  15. Bilateral lens luxation and intracapsular lens extractions in a Matshchie's tree kangaroo.

    PubMed

    McLean, Nancy Johnstone; Zimmerman, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    An adult, female, captive, Matshchie's tree kangaroo was diagnosed with an anterior lens luxation in the right eye and a lens subluxation in the left eye. Both eyes were treated surgically with intracapsular lens extractions. A 360° rhegmatogenous retinal detachment was diagnosed 6 months postoperatively in the left eye. Aphakic vision was maintained in the right eye 9 months postoperatively. Based on family history and the lack of antecedent ocular disease, the lens luxations were presumed to be inherited and veterinarians should be aware of this condition within the captive tree kangaroo population. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  16. EAST FRONT AND SOUTH SIDE OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST FRONT AND SOUTH SIDE OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rock Island National Cemetery, Rock Island Arsenal, 0.25 mile north of southern tip of Rock Island, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  17. Bahama Islands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1983-04-09

    STS006-45-097 (4-9 April 1983) --- This photograph was taken with a handheld 70mm camera aimed through the “ceiling” windows of the Earth-orbiting space shuttle Challenger during its five-day STS-6 mission. A beautiful photo shows the contrast between the islands, clouds, shallow water and deep water. Islands of the Bahamas seen are New Providence (upper left) and Eleuthera (right). Northeast Providence Channel is at the upper edge and Exuma Sound is at the lower left with the open Atlantic along the right edge. The wind, from the south, causes a long cloud to develop downwind from Eleuthera Point. Photo credit: NASA

  18. Spatial distributions of earthquake-induced landslides and hillslope preconditioning in the northwest South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, R. N.; Hancox, G. T.; Petley, D. N.; Massey, C. I.; Densmore, A. L.; Rosser, N. J.

    2015-10-01

    Current models to explain regional-scale landslide events are not able to account for the possible effects of the legacy of previous earthquakes, which have triggered landslides in the past and are known to drive damage accumulation in brittle hillslope materials. This paper tests the hypothesis that spatial distributions of earthquake-induced landslides are determined by both the conditions at the time of the triggering earthquake (time-independent factors) and the legacy of past events (time-dependent factors). To explore this, we undertake an analysis of failures triggered by the 1929 Buller and 1968 Inangahua earthquakes, in the northwest South Island of New Zealand. The spatial extents of landslides triggered by these events were in part coincident. Spatial distributions of earthquake-triggered landslides are determined by a combination of earthquake and local characteristics, which influence the dynamic response of hillslopes. To identify the influence of a legacy from past events, we first use logistic regression to control for the effects of time-independent variables. Through this analysis we find that seismic ground motion, hillslope gradient, lithology, and the effects of topographic amplification caused by ridge- and slope-scale topography exhibit a consistent influence on the spatial distribution of landslides in both earthquakes. We then assess whether variability unexplained by these variables may be attributed to the legacy of past events. Our results suggest that hillslopes in regions that experienced strong ground motions in 1929 were more likely to fail in 1968 than would be expected on the basis of time-independent factors alone. This effect is consistent with our hypothesis that unfailed hillslopes in the 1929 earthquake were weakened by damage accumulated during this earthquake and its associated aftershock sequence, which influenced the behaviour of the landscape in the 1968 earthquake. While our results are tentative, they suggest that the

  19. Depositional controls on coal distribution and quality in the Eocene Brunner Coal Measures, Buller Coalfield, South Island, New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flores, R.M.; Sykes, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Buller Coalfield on the West Coast of the South Island, New Zealand, contains the Eocene Brunner Coal Measures. The coal measures unconformably overlie Paleozoic-Cretaceous basement rocks and are conformably overlain by, and laterally interfinger with, the Eocene marine Kaiata Formation. This study examines the lithofacies frameworks of the coal measures in order to interpret their depositional environments. The lower part of the coal measures is dominated by conglomeratic lithofacies that rest on a basal erosional surface and thicken in paleovalleys incised into an undulating peneplain surface. These lithofacies are overlain by sandstone, mudstone and organic-rich lithofacies of the upper part of the coal measures. The main coal seam of the organic-rich lithofacies is thick (10-20 m), extensive, locally split, and locally absent. This seam and associated coal seams in the Buller Coalfield are of low- to high-volatile bituminous rank (vitrinite reflectance between 0.65% and 1.75%). The main seam contains a variable percentage of ash and sulphur. These values are related to the thickening and areal distribution of the seam, which in turn, were controlled by the nature of clastic deposition and peat-forming mire systems, marine transgression and local tidal incursion. The conglomeratic lithofacies represent deposits of trunk and tributary braided streams that rapidly aggraded incised paleovalleys during sea-level stillstands. The main seam represents a deposit of raised mires that initially developed as topogenous mires on abandoned margins of inactive braidbelts. Peat accumulated in mires as a response to a rise in the water table, probably initially due to gradual sea-level rise and climate, and the resulting raised topography served as protection from floods. The upper part of the coal measures consists of sandstone lithofacies of flu vial origin and bioturbated sandstone, mudstone and organic-rich lithofacies, which represent deposits of paralic (deltaic

  20. Crustal structure of the lesser Antilles Island arc south of Guadeloupe : new insights from the ANTITHESIS cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurencin, M.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Marcaillou, B.; Evain, M.; Graindorge, D.; Heuret, A.; Jean-Frederic, L.; Lucazeau, F.; Pichot, T.; Rolandone, F.; Bouquerel, H.

    2015-12-01

    One of the goals of the Antithesis cruise, conducted in 2013, was the study of the combined deep structure and thermal regime of the lesser Antilles subduction zone in order to quantify its seismic hazard. One combined reflection and wide-angle seismic profile has been acquired in the scope of the Antithesis cruise North of Barbuda at around 18°N using 26 ocean bottom seismometers, a 4.5 km digital streamer and a 7800 cu. inch seismic source. 13 measures of heat flow were taken in the vicinity of the profile. Forward modelling of the wide-angle seismic data reveals the deep structure of the subduction zone in the study area. - The subducting Atlantic oceanic plate is about 5-7 km thick, modelled by one single layer. - Sedimentary thickness on the oceanic plate is low with maximal some hundreds of meters of sediments at the trench. - The thickness of combined two sedimentary layers is ~5 km near the trench and decreases toward the arc, based on reflection seismic data. - The ~18-km-thick Caribbean crust at the arc is subdivided in 3 layers, overlain by a 2-to-4-km-thick layer with velocities ranging from 4.5 to 5.5 km/s that might correspond to volcanic products or high velocity sediments. - The velocities in the lower crustal layer reach 7.4 km/s probably corresponding to mafic rocks and plutons. - The velocities in the upper mantle were constrained to be 8.00-8.20 km/s underneath the arc as well as underneath the oceanic crust, thereby excluding the existence of extensive serpentinization of the mantle through water entering the subduction zone. The anomalously low heat flow indicates cold calculated temperatures along the interplate contact, suggesting a hydrothermal cooling that is possibly restricted to the shallow crustal aquifer. Alternatively, these low temperatures may be due to a depressed thermal structure of the oceanic crust related to the slow-spreading at the medio-Atlantic ridge.A wide-angle seismic profile about 150 km to the South in the vicinity

  1. Early-middle Eocene chronology of the Southern Ocean: magnetostratigraphic data from the South Island of New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallanave, E.; Bachtadse, V.; Agnini, C.; Muttoni, G.; Hollis, C. J.; Morgans, H. E.; Crampton, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    During the Paleogene the Earth experienced a pronounced warming trend culminating with the early Eocene climatic optimum (EECO, ~52-50 Ma), which was followed by a long-term cooling trend over the middle-late Eocene. This long-term climate evolution was punctuated by several transient (~10^3-5 yr) hyperthermal events (e.g. Paleocene Eocene thermal maximum). Even though great advances have been made in the last few years in understanding the paleoclimate history of the southwestern Pacific Ocean and the implications on the sedimentation patterns, a precise correlation between sites and global events is still missing. This is mainly because of the poor preservation of calcareous nannofossils, diachronous ranges of index species, and a lack of a good magnetic polarity reversals record. We present preliminary early-middle Eocene magnetostratigraphy from the Mid Waipara and the Mead Stream marine sections, cropping out in the South Island of New Zealand. These sections provide the best-known record of oceanic changes in the southern Pacific high-latitude (50-60°S) for this time period. Magnetostratigraphic data, integrated with new and published biostratigraphy, indicates that the sampled ~45 m of the Mid Waipara section straddles polarity Chrons from C23n to C21n (~51.5-47 Ma), with an average sediment accumulation rate of ~9 m/Myr, calculated by means of correlation with the GPTS2004 time scale. This robust chronological framework allow to constrain in time the paleotemperature dataset of Hollis et al. (EPSL 349-350, pp. 53-56, 2012), confirming that the Ashley Mudstone formation of Mid Waipara includes at least the upper part of the EECO and the early-middle Eocene transition. The sampled ~320 m of the Mead Stream section, which comprises the three upper member of the Amuri Limestone (Lower Marl, Upper Limestone and Upper Marl), encompass polarity Chrons from C24r to C18r (~55-40 Ma), with an average sedimentation rate of ~17 m/Myr. We confirm evidence from carbon

  2. Sedimentology of latero-frontal moraines and fans on the west coast of South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, David J. A.; Shulmeister, James; Hyatt, Olivia

    2010-12-01

    Exposures through the LGM latero-frontal moraine loops at sites along the west coast of South Island, New Zealand reveal a depositional environment that was dominated by the progradation of steep fronted, debris flow-fed fans, manifest in crudely stratified to massive diamictons, arranged in sub-horizontal to steeply dipping clinoforms and containing discontinuous bodies of variably sorted, stratified sediment (LFA 1). The fans were constructed by debris-covered glaciers advancing over outwash plains, as recorded by well stratified and horizontally bedded gravels, sands and diamicts (LFA 0). The ice-contact slopes of the fans are offlapped by retreat phase deposits in the form of glacilacustrine depo-centres (LFA 2), which record the existence of moraine-dammed lakes. Interdigitation of lake rhythmites and subaerial to subaqueous sediment gravity flow deposits documents intense debris-flow activity on unstable moraine/fan surfaces. Glacier readvances in all catchments are documented by glacitectonic disturbance and localized hydrofracturing of LFA 2, followed by the emplacement of schist-dominated debris flow-fed fans (LFA 3) inside and over the top of the earlier latero-frontal moraine/fan loops. Contorted and disturbed bedding in LFA 3 reflects its partial deposition in supraglacial positions. Clast lithologies in LFAs 1 and 3 reveal that two distinct transport pathways operated during moraine construction, with an early period of latero-frontal fan construction involving mixed lithologies and a later period of ice-contact/supraglacial fan construction dominated by schist lithologies from the mountains. These two periods of deposition were separated by a period of moraine abandonment and paraglacial reworking of ice-contact slopes to produce LFA 2. The occurrence of LFA 3 at all sites indicates that the glacier readvance phase responsible for its deposition was not localized or glacier-specific, and involved the transfer of large volumes of schist, possibly due

  3. Environmental magnetism and excursion record of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition in marine cores, West Coast South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, F. E.; Wilson, G. S.; Party, Shipboard

    2009-04-01

    Homologous ARM susceptibility (κARM) and magnetic susceptibility (κ) records from u-channel samples of five short cores (TAN0712 cores 14, 15, 17, 23, 27) record the Pleistocene - Holocene transition off the West Coast of the South Island, New Zealand. Cores were collected in water depths ranging from 880-2817 m. Cores 14, 15 and 17 are situated along the north levee of Moeraki Canyon. Cores 15 and 17 are kasten cores that record a relatively homogeneous concentration of single domain (SD) grains. Core 14 is a piston core slightly closer to the edge of Moeraki Canyon. From end of core (EOC) at 3.2 m to 0.75 m, the dominance of κ indicates coarse, multi-domain (MD) magnetic grains; however, low κ units (10-20 cms thick) occur at a mean interval of 0.71 m (n=3). Cores 23 and 27 are situated on the north-west margin of Milford Basin. Variations in magnetic mineral concentration in core 23 occur approximately every 26 cm. Fast Fourier Transform analysis confirms the 26 cm cycle, although it has relatively low spectral power. Core 27 also has a short interval of variable concentration. This variation in 'magnetisability' is inferred to result from fluctuating carbonate concentrations during the glacial period leading up to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). All three longer piston cores (27, 23, 14) contain a coarse MD interval ranging from 0.35-1 m in thickness, which we infer to represent influx of outwash at the termination of the LGM. Overlying this interval, all five cores display a consistent SD signal inferred to represent hemipelagic sedimentation during the Holocene. Possible geomagnetic excursions are recorded in four of the cores. An inclination transition to 34.2∘ combined with a 180∘ declination transition and NRM intensity low at 0.35-0.39 m in core 17 suggests a true geomagnetic excursion. Core 15 also has inclination shallowing and an intensity low at 0.45 m. An older excursion in core 27 at 2.54-2.69 m and in core 14 at ~2.8 m may correlate. The

  4. Fluid Chemistry and Associated Biological Potential in Diverse Serpentinizing Systems of New Zealand’s South Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardace, D.; Hoehler, T.; Foster, A. L.

    2009-12-01

    Serpentinization - the aqueous alteration of ultramafic rocks - generates H2 and other reduced compounds capable of fueling microbial metabolism, and is therefore considered a potential mechanism for the long-term support of subsurface life. This potential may be constrained, however, by rates of serpentinization (corresponding to magnitude of energy flux) and by potentially detrimental co-evolving fluid chemistry - particularly elevated pH. We conducted an initial characterization of the chemistry and associated biological potential of springs and gas seeps associated with two distinct serpentinizing systems in the northwestern Fiordland of New Zealand’s south island. Fluid or gas chemistry, including H2 concentrations, was characterized and used to model energy availability associated with several potential microbial metabolisms; the presence of organisms having targeted metabolisms (methanogenesis, sulfate reduction, iron reduction) was assayed in parallel using quantitative PCR. Serpentinization in Fiordland was tracked in two specific locations. First, the Anita Ultramafites (AU) exposed at Poison Bay are likely ultramafic intrusive rocks within a 3-4 km wide shear zone of deformed gneisses and dunite mylonites (Hill, 1995), which have undergone amphibolite facies metamorphism during continental extension (Gibson, 1990) and now generate gas that escapes from depth along fault networks. Second, along the western edge of the Dun Mountain Ophiolite Belt in the Cascade River Valley, located NW of Milford Sound, deep fluids interact structurally with the Alpine Fault in the ultramafic subsurface; where those fluids escape to the surface, travertine-depositing subaerial springs cover an area of ~100 m2 on a serpentinized talus slope (Aitchison, 1985). Seep fluids from both sites have high pH due to hydroxide solution related to serpentinization, and CaCO3 terraces at the latter site testify to elevated Ca in fluids that reacts with atmospheric CO2 at Earth

  5. Source, Transport, and Fate of Groundwater Contamination at Site 45, Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; Landmeyer, James E.; Lowery, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater contamination by tetrachloroethene and its dechlorination products is present in two partially intermingled plumes in the surficial aquifer near a former dry-cleaning facility at Site 45, Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, South Carolina. The northern plume originates from the vicinity of former above-ground storage tanks. Free-phase tetrachloroethene from activities in this area entered the groundwater and the storm sewer. The southern plume originates at a nearby new dry-cleaning facility, but probably was the result of contamination released to the aquifer from a leaking sanitary sewer line from the former dry-cleaning facility. Discharge of dissolved groundwater contamination is primarily to leaking storm sewers below the water table. Extensive biodegradation of the contamination takes place in the surficial aquifer; however, the biodegradation is insufficient to reduce trichloroethene to less than milligram-per-liter concentrations prior to discharging into the storm sewers. The groundwater volatile organic compounds entering the storm sewers are substantially diluted by tidal flushing upon entry and are subject to volatilization as they are transported through the storm sewer to a discharge point in a tributary to Ballast Creek. TCE concentrations of about 2-6 micrograms per liter were present in storm-sewer water near the discharge point (sampled at manhole STS26). On three out of four sampling events at manhole STS14, the storm-sewer water contained no vinyl chloride. During a time of relatively high groundwater levels, however, 20 micrograms per liter of vinyl chloride was present in STS14 storm-sewer water. Because groundwater leaks into that storm sewer and because the storm sewer upgradient from manhole STS14 is adjacent to part of the aquifer where 2,290 micrograms per liter of vinyl chloride have been detected, there is a potential for substantially increased concentrations of vinyl chloride to discharge at the storm-sewer outfall

  6. Kangaroo Mother Care, home environment and father involvement in the first year of life: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Tessier, R; Charpak, N; Giron, M; Cristo, M; de Calume, Z F; Ruiz-Peláez, J G

    2009-09-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that Kangaroo Mother Care creates a climate in the family, which enhances infants' performance on the developmental quotient scale. The largest social security hospital in Colombia with a neonatal intensive care unit. At 12 months of corrected age, 194 families in the Kangaroo Mother Care group and 144 families in the Traditional Care group were available for analysis. Infants were kept 24 h/day in an upright position, in skin-to-skin contact until it was no longer tolerated by the infants. Babies in the Traditional Care were kept in incubators on the Minimal Care Unit until they satisfied the usual discharge criteria. The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME), Father Involvement and Developmental Quotient (Griffiths) scores. 1) Kangaroo mothers created a more stimulating context and a better caregiving environment than mothers in the Traditional Care group; 2) this environment was positively correlated to father involvement and 3) the family environment of male infants was most improved by Kangaroo Mother Care. Kangaroo Mother Care has a positive impact on home environment. The results also suggest, first, that both parents should be involved as direct caregivers in the Kangaroo Mother Care procedure and secondly, that this intervention should be directed more specifically at infants who are more at risk at birth. The Kangaroo Mother Care intervention could be an excellent means to ensure parents' mature involvement in the future of their children.

  7. An investigation of the topography of the lymphatic system of the grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). 1. The superficial lymphatic system.

    PubMed Central

    Hopwood, P R

    1988-01-01

    The superficial lymphatic system of the grey kangaroo, Macropus giganteus is described. The description is based on dissections of 130 eastern grey kangaroos. The most significant difference found between the superficial lymphatic drainage pattern of kangaroos and that of the domestic species was the existence of large inguino-axillary lymphatic trunks in the kangaroo. Thus in the kangaroo, instead of lymph passing from the inguinal lymphocentre to the lumbar lymphatic trunks as is the situation in the domestic animals, lymph passes from the inguinal lymphocentre to the axillary lymphocentre. Apart from the lymph draining from the head and ventral neck (which passes to the superficial cervical lymphocentre) and lymph which may pass from the superficial lymphatic vessels to deeper lymphatic vessels, all the superficial lymphatic drainage of the kangaroo passes through the axillary lymphocentre. From the viewpoint of the meat inspection of the carcasses of kangaroos taken as game meat animals, pathology of the axillary lymphocentre may reflect disease in a much wider range of body regions than it would in a domestic animal. PMID:3198478

  8. Investigation of the microbial metabolism of carbon dioxide and hydrogen in the kangaroo foregut by stable isotope probing

    PubMed Central

    Godwin, Scott; Kang, Alicia; Gulino, Lisa-Maree; Manefield, Mike; Gutierrez-Zamora, Maria-Luisa; Kienzle, Marco; Ouwerkerk, Diane; Dawson, Kerri; Klieve, Athol V

    2014-01-01

    Kangaroos ferment forage material in an enlarged forestomach analogous to the rumen, but in contrast to ruminants, they produce little or no methane. The objective of this study was to identify the dominant organisms and pathways involved in hydrogenotrophy in the kangaroo forestomach, with the broader aim of understanding how these processes are able to predominate over methanogenesis. Stable isotope analysis of fermentation end products and RNA stable isotope probing (RNA-SIP) were used to investigate the organisms and biochemical pathways involved in the metabolism of hydrogen and carbon dioxide in the kangaroo forestomach. Our results clearly demonstrate that the activity of bacterial reductive acetogens is a key factor in the reduced methane output of kangaroos. In in vitro fermentations, the microbial community of the kangaroo foregut produced very little methane, but produced a significantly greater proportion of acetate derived from carbon dioxide than the microbial community of the bovine rumen. A bacterial operational taxonomic unit closely related to the known reductive acetogen Blautia coccoides was found to be associated with carbon dioxide and hydrogen metabolism in the kangaroo foregut. Other bacterial taxa including members of the genera Prevotella, Oscillibacter and Streptococcus that have not previously been reported as containing hydrogenotrophic organisms were also significantly associated with metabolism of hydrogen and carbon dioxide in the kangaroo forestomach. PMID:24621520

  9. Investigation of the microbial metabolism of carbon dioxide and hydrogen in the kangaroo foregut by stable isotope probing.

    PubMed

    Godwin, Scott; Kang, Alicia; Gulino, Lisa-Maree; Manefield, Mike; Gutierrez-Zamora, Maria-Luisa; Kienzle, Marco; Ouwerkerk, Diane; Dawson, Kerri; Klieve, Athol V

    2014-09-01

    Kangaroos ferment forage material in an enlarged forestomach analogous to the rumen, but in contrast to ruminants, they produce little or no methane. The objective of this study was to identify the dominant organisms and pathways involved in hydrogenotrophy in the kangaroo forestomach, with the broader aim of understanding how these processes are able to predominate over methanogenesis. Stable isotope analysis of fermentation end products and RNA stable isotope probing (RNA-SIP) were used to investigate the organisms and biochemical pathways involved in the metabolism of hydrogen and carbon dioxide in the kangaroo forestomach. Our results clearly demonstrate that the activity of bacterial reductive acetogens is a key factor in the reduced methane output of kangaroos. In in vitro fermentations, the microbial community of the kangaroo foregut produced very little methane, but produced a significantly greater proportion of acetate derived from carbon dioxide than the microbial community of the bovine rumen. A bacterial operational taxonomic unit closely related to the known reductive acetogen Blautia coccoides was found to be associated with carbon dioxide and hydrogen metabolism in the kangaroo foregut. Other bacterial taxa including members of the genera Prevotella, Oscillibacter and Streptococcus that have not previously been reported as containing hydrogenotrophic organisms were also significantly associated with metabolism of hydrogen and carbon dioxide in the kangaroo forestomach.

  10. Impact of the earthquake and tsunami of December 26, 2004, on the groundwater regime at Neill Island (south Andaman).

    PubMed

    Singh, V S

    2008-10-01

    The aquifer and groundwater regime has been affected by the earthquake and tsunami of December 26, 2004, particularly on the islands and coastal regions of India. The groundwater regime on many islands of Andaman and Nicobar islands, which is the only source of fresh water on the islands, has been found to be deteriorated. Detailed hydrogeological studies have been carried out at one of the tiny islands of Andaman, namely Neill Island, and results have been compared with prior observations. It has been found that the shell limestone aquifer at a few places has developed cracks due to the earthquake and these openings have allowed quick movement of seawater into the aquifer resulting into deterioration of groundwater quality. In the places where the aquifer is at sea level, the tsunami waves have caused seawater ingress. Most parts of the island which have hard mudstone as a base and where the aquifer lies much above sea level, did not show any change in groundwater regime.

  11. Sediment sequences and palynology of outer South Bay, Manitoulin Island, Ontario: Connections to Lake Huron paleohydrologic phases and upstream Lake Agassiz events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, C. F. M.; Anderson, T. W.

    2017-10-01

    South Bay on the southern coast of Manitoulin Island is a fjord-like embayment connected to Lake Huron by a natural narrow gap in the bay's outer sill 6.5-14 m above the lake. A seismic profile, pollen, plant macrofossil, grain size analyses, and other sediment properties of two piston cores from a shallow outer basin of the bay document a 9 m-thick sediment section comprising rhythmically laminated clay under silty clay containing zones with small molluscan shells and marsh detritus. A sandy pebbly layer under soft silty clay mud overlies these sediments. This stratigraphy represents inundation by deep glacial Lake Algonquin followed by the shallowing Post Algonquin series of lakes, and exposure in the early Holocene by 5 Lake Stanley lowstands in the Lake Huron basin separated by 4 Lake Mattawa highstands. Overflow from South Bay in the first lowstand is thought to have eroded the outer sill gap. Marsh environments are inferred to have formed in the bay during subsequent lowstands. The Lake Mattawa highstands are attributed to outburst floods mainly from glacial Lake Agassiz. Palynological evidence of increased spruce occurrence, an apparent regional climate reversal, during the dry pine period is attributed to cold northwest winds from the Lake Superior basin and a lake effect from the Mattawa highstands in the Lake Huron basin. Lake waters transgressed South Bay following the pine period to form the Nipissing shore on Manitoulin Island. Transfer of Lake Huron basin drainage to southern outlets and continued glacioisostatic uplift of the region led to the present configuration of South Bay and Lake Huron.

  12. Zircon ages and geochemical compositions of the Manlay ophiolite and coeval island arc: Implications for the tectonic evolution of South Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Mingshuai; Baatar, Munkhtsengel; Miao, Laicheng; Anaad, Chimedtseren; Zhang, Fochin; Yang, Shunhu; Li, Yueming

    2014-12-01

    Numerous small dismembered ophiolite fragments occur in South Mongolia, but they are very poorly studied. The lack of age data and geochemical analysis hampers our understanding of the Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the region. We conducted detailed studies on the Manlay ophiolitic complex and Huree volcanic rocks south of the Main Mongolian Lineament (MML) to provide some constraints on these rocks. The Manlay ophiolite consists of dunite, harzburgite, pyroxenite, gabbro, plagiogranite, basalt and chert, locally with chromite mineralization in dunite. The gabbro and plagiogranite yielded SHRIMP zircon weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 509 ± 5 Ma and 482 ± 4 Ma, respectively. The basalt and dolerite samples of this complex show enrichment in LREE and LILE and negative Nb, Ta and Ti anomalies, and the chrome spinel fro