Roller, Cyndi Gale
To reveal mothers' experiences of providing kangaroo care for their preterm newborns while still in the hospital. Transcendental phenomenology was used to analyze the experiences of mothers providing kangaroo care for their preterm newborns. Tape recorded, semistructured interviews were conducted 1 to 4 weeks postpartum. Mothers were asked one grand tour question, "What was it like for you to provide kangaroo care for your preterm infant while in the hospital?" This study was the qualitative component of a randomized clinical trial. Ten women who provided kangaroo care for their preterm newborns, 32-36 completed weeks, weighing 1500-3000 grams, with APGAR scores 6 or greater at 1 minute, 7 or greater at 5 minutes. Four dominant themes emerged. The themes were reduced to one essential structure of knowing. The two essential elements of the structure of knowing were mothers kept from knowing their preterm newborn and mothers getting to know their preterm newborn. Kangaroo care facilitates bonding and enhances maternal-infant acquaintance, even in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) environment. Mothers found that kangaroo care calmed them and their newborns.
Chan, Grace J; Labar, Amy S; Wall, Stephen; Atun, Rifat
To investigate factors influencing the adoption of kangaroo mother care in different contexts. We searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science and the World Health Organization's regional databases, for studies on "kangaroo mother care" or "kangaroo care" or "skin-to-skin care" from 1 January 1960 to 19 August 2015, without language restrictions. We included programmatic reports and hand-searched references of published reviews and articles. Two independent reviewers screened articles and extracted data on carers, health system characteristics and contextual factors. We developed a conceptual model to analyse the integration of kangaroo mother care in health systems. We screened 2875 studies and included 112 studies that contained qualitative data on implementation. Kangaroo mother care was applied in different ways in different contexts. The studies show that there are several barriers to implementing kangaroo mother care, including the need for time, social support, medical care and family acceptance. Barriers within health systems included organization, financing and service delivery. In the broad context, cultural norms influenced perceptions and the success of adoption. Kangaroo mother care is a complex intervention that is behaviour driven and includes multiple elements. Success of implementation requires high user engagement and stakeholder involvement. Future research includes designing and testing models of specific interventions to improve uptake.
Shah, Rakesh Kumar; Sainju, Nayan Kamal; Joshi, Sunil Kumar
Kangaroo mother care is an effective and low cost technique which prevents neonate from hypothermia, a leading cause of preventable neonatal mortality. Knowledge and practice of Kangaroo mother care is of utmost importance in developing countries such as Nepal. Purpose of this study was to find out knowledge, attitude and practice of kangaroo mother care among health workers in tertiary health centres in Nepal. This cross sectional study was carried out in three teaching hospitals in Nepal during the period from January 2016 to April 2016. Doctors and nurses working in Paediatrics/Neonatal and Obstetrics/Gynaecology wards were surveyed using pretested questionnaire. Responses from the doctors and the nurses were compared. Response rate of the survey was 65%. All of the doctors and 95.3% of the nurses who participated in the survey had knowledge about kangaroo mother care.37.7%of the doctors and 48.8% of the nurses thought that this method is only used for neonates with low birth weight (<2500grams) (p= 0.013).Three fourth of the doctors and half of the nurses agreed that KMC is practiced regularly in their ward (p = 0.016). 22.2% participants informed that main reasons for not practicing kangaroo care regularly could be lack of skill and knowledge. We found that general knowledge and attitude of majority of doctors and nurses towards kangaroo mother care was good, however, its practise was not uniform.
Labar, Amy S; Wall, Stephen; Atun, Rifat
Abstract Objective To investigate factors influencing the adoption of kangaroo mother care in different contexts. Methods We searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science and the World Health Organization’s regional databases, for studies on “kangaroo mother care” or “kangaroo care” or “skin-to-skin care” from 1 January 1960 to 19 August 2015, without language restrictions. We included programmatic reports and hand-searched references of published reviews and articles. Two independent reviewers screened articles and extracted data on carers, health system characteristics and contextual factors. We developed a conceptual model to analyse the integration of kangaroo mother care in health systems. Findings We screened 2875 studies and included 112 studies that contained qualitative data on implementation. Kangaroo mother care was applied in different ways in different contexts. The studies show that there are several barriers to implementing kangaroo mother care, including the need for time, social support, medical care and family acceptance. Barriers within health systems included organization, financing and service delivery. In the broad context, cultural norms influenced perceptions and the success of adoption. Conclusion Kangaroo mother care is a complex intervention that is behaviour driven and includes multiple elements. Success of implementation requires high user engagement and stakeholder involvement. Future research includes designing and testing models of specific interventions to improve uptake. PMID:26908962
Nyqvist, K H; Anderson, G C; Bergman, N; Cattaneo, A; Charpak, N; Davanzo, R; Ewald, U; Ibe, O; Ludington-Hoe, S; Mendoza, S; Pallás-Allonso, C; Ruiz Peláez, J G; Sizun, J; Widström, A-M
The hallmark of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) is the kangaroo position: the infant is cared for skin-to-skin vertically between the mother's breasts and below her clothes, 24 h/day, with father/substitute(s) participating as KMC providers. Intermittent KMC (for short periods once or a few times per day, for a variable number of days) is commonly employed in high-tech neonatal intensive care units. These two modalities should be regarded as a progressive adaptation of the mother-infant dyad, ideally towards continuous KMC, starting gradually and progressively with intermittent KMC. The other components in KMC are exclusive breastfeeding (ideally) and early discharge in kangaroo position with strict follow-up. Current evidence allows the following general statements about KMC in affluent and low-income settings: KMC enhances bonding and attachment; reduces maternal postpartum depression symptoms; enhances infant physiologic stability and reduces pain, increases parental sensitivity to infant cues; contributes to the establishment and longer duration of breastfeeding and has positive effects on infant development and infant/parent interaction. Therefore, intrapartum and postnatal care in all types of settings should adhere to a paradigm of nonseparation of infants and their mothers/families. Preterm/low-birth-weight infants should be regarded as extero-gestational foetuses needing skin-to-skin contact to promote maturation. Kangaroo Mother Care should begin as soon as possible after birth, be applied as continuous skin-to-skin contact to the extent that this is possible and appropriate and continue for as long as appropriate.
Chisenga, Jayne Z; Chalanda, Marcia; Ngwale, Mathews
Kangaroo Mother Care is an intervention that can help reduce neonatal mortality rate in Malawi but it has not been rolled out to all health facilities. Understanding the mothers׳ experience would help strategise when scaling-up this intervention. to review experiences of mothers Kangaroo Mother Care at two hospitals of Bwaila and Zomba. quantitative, descriptive using open interviews. two central hospitals in Malawi. 113 mothers that were in the Kangaroo Mother Care unit and those that had come for follow-up two weeks after discharge before the study took place. mothers had high level of knowledge about the significant benefits of Kangaroo Mother Care but 84% were not aware of the services prior to their hospitalisation. 18.6% (n=19) were not counselled prior to KMC practice. Mothers preferred KMC to incubator care. There were factors affecting compliance and continuation of KMC, which were lack of support, culture, lack of assistance with skin-to-skin contact, multiple roles of the mother and stigma. mothers had a positive attitude towards KMC once fully aware of its benefits. there is need for awareness campaigns on KMC services, provision of counselling, support and assistance which can help motivate mothers and their families to comply with the guidelines of KMC services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Davanzo, Riccardo; Brovedani, Pierpaolo; Travan, Laura; Kennedy, Jacqueline; Crocetta, Anna; Sanesi, Cecilia; Strajn, Tamara; De Cunto, Angela
The practice of kangaroo mother care (KMC) is steadily increasing in high-tech settings due to its proven benefits for both infants and parents. In spite of that, clear guidelines about how to implement this method of care are lacking, and as a consequence, some restrictions are applied in many neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), preventing its practice. Based on recommendations from the Expert Group of the International Network on Kangaroo Mother Care, we developed a hospital protocol in the neonatal unit of the Institute for Maternal and Child Health in Trieste, Italy, a level 3 unit, aimed to facilitate and promote KMC implementation in high-tech settings. Our guideline is therefore proposed, based both on current scientific literature and on practical considerations and experience. Future adjustments and improvements would be considered based on increasing clinical KMC use and further knowledge.
Background Some countries have undertaken programs that included scaling up kangaroo mother care. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the implementation status of facility-based kangaroo mother care services in four African countries: Malawi, Mali, Rwanda and Uganda. Methods A cross-sectional, mixed-method research design was used. Stakeholders provided background information at national meetings and in individual interviews. Facilities were assessed by means of a standardized tool previously applied in other settings, employing semi-structured key-informant interviews and observations in 39 health care facilities in the four countries. Each facility received a score out of a total of 30 according to six stages of implementation progress. Results Across the four countries 95 per cent of health facilities assessed demonstrated some evidence of kangaroo mother care practice. Institutions that fared better had a longer history of kangaroo mother care implementation or had been developed as centres of excellence or had strong leaders championing the implementation process. Variation existed in the quality of implementation between facilities and across countries. Important factors identified in implementation are: training and orientation; supportive supervision; integrating kangaroo mother care into quality improvement; continuity of care; high-level buy in and support for kangaroo mother care implementation; and client-oriented care. Conclusion The integration of kangaroo mother care into routine newborn care services should be part of all maternal and newborn care initiatives and packages. Engaging ministries of health and other implementing partners from the outset may promote buy in and assist with the mobilization of resources for scaling up kangaroo mother care services. Mechanisms for monitoring these services should be integrated into existing health management information systems. PMID:25001366
de Alencar, Andréa Echeverria Martins Arraes; Arraes, Luis Cláudio; de Albuquerque, Emídio Cavalcanti; Alves, João Guilherme Bezerra
Postpartum depression (PPD) is a serious public health issue. Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is widely considered to be the most feasible, readily available and preferred intervention for decreasing neonatal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. We conducted a prospective study to assess the effect of KMC on PPD. The study population included 177 low-income mothers with their preterm infants. We used the validated Portuguese version of the Postpartum Depression Screening Scale for the assessment of maternal depression. The mothers were evaluated twice, at Neonatal Intensive Care Unit admission and at KMC discharge. We found 66 mothers (37.3%) with depression and it decreased to 30 (16.9%) after KMC intervention; p < 0.0001. None developed PPD during the Kangaroo stay. We concluded that KMC may lessen maternal depression. Further studies, may be required to clarify these preliminary findings.
Worku, Bogale; Kassie, Assaye
A randomized controlled trial was conducted over a 1-year period (November 2001-November 2002) in Addis Ababa to study the effectiveness of early Kangaroo mother care before stabilization of low birthweight infants as compared with the conventional method of care. There were 259 babies weighing less than 2000 g during the study period and a total of 123 (47.5 per cent) low birthweight infants were included in to the study. Sixty-two infants were enrolled as Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) and the remaining 61 were Conventional Method of Care (CMC) cases. The demographic and socioeconomic characteristics for both groups were comparable. The mean age at the time of enrollment was 10 and 9.8 h for KMC and CMC, respectively (p>0.05 with 95 per cent confidence interval). The mean birthweight was 1514.8 g (range 1000-1900 g) for KMC and 1471.8 g (range 930-1900 g) for CMC (p>0.05 with 95 per cent CI) and the mean gestational age was 32.42 and 31.59 weeks for KMC and CMC cases, respectively. Fifty-eight per cent of KMC and 52 per cent of CMC cases were on i.v. fluid. Twenty-one of 62 (34 per cent) of KMC and 23/61 (37 per cent) of CMC babies were on oxygen through nasopharyngeal catheter. The mean age at exit from the study was 4.6 days for KMC and 5.4 days for CMC. Ninety-one per cent and 88 per cent of babies in KMC and CMC were discharged from the study in the first 7 days of life, respectively. The study showed that 14/62 (22.5 per cent) of KMC vs. 24/63 (38 per cent) CMC babies died during the study (p<0.05 and CI of 95 per cent.) The majority of deaths occurred during the first 12 h of life. Survival for the preterm low birthweight infants was remarkably better for the early kangaroo mother care group than the babies in the conventional method of care in the first 12 h and there after. More than 95 per cent of mothers reported that they were happy to care for their low birthweight babies using the early Kangaroo mother method. It was recommended to study the feasibility
Kadam, Sandeep; Binoy, S; Kanbur, Wasundhara; Mondkar, J A; Fernandez, Armida
The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility and acceptability of kangaroo care in a tertiary care hospital in India. A randomized controlled trial was performed over one year period in which 89 neonates were randomized into two groups kangaroo mother care (KMC) and conventional method of care (CMC). Forty-four babies were randomized into KMC group and 45 to CMC. There was significant reduction in KMC vs CMC group of hypothermia (10/44 vs 21/45, p-value < 0.01), higher oxygen saturations (95.7 vs 94.8%, p-value < 0.01) and decrease in respiratory rates (36.2 vs 40.7, p-value < 0.01). There were no statistically significant differences in the incidence of hyperthermia, sepsis, apnea, onset of breastfeeding and hospital stay in two groups. 79% of mothers felt comfortable during the KMC and 73% felt they would be able to give KMC at home. KMC is feasible, as mothers are already admitted in hospitals and are involved in the care of newborn. KMC is a simple and feasible intervention; acceptable to most mothers admitted in hospitals. There may be benefits in terms of reducing the incidence of hypothermia with no adverse effects of KMC demonstrated in the study. The present study has important implications in the care of LBW infants in the developing countries, where expensive facilities for conventional care may not be available at all place.
Tessier, R; Charpak, N; Giron, M; Cristo, M; de Calume, Z F; Ruiz-Peláez, J G
This study tested the hypothesis that Kangaroo Mother Care creates a climate in the family, which enhances infants' performance on the developmental quotient scale. The largest social security hospital in Colombia with a neonatal intensive care unit. At 12 months of corrected age, 194 families in the Kangaroo Mother Care group and 144 families in the Traditional Care group were available for analysis. Infants were kept 24 h/day in an upright position, in skin-to-skin contact until it was no longer tolerated by the infants. Babies in the Traditional Care were kept in incubators on the Minimal Care Unit until they satisfied the usual discharge criteria. The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME), Father Involvement and Developmental Quotient (Griffiths) scores. 1) Kangaroo mothers created a more stimulating context and a better caregiving environment than mothers in the Traditional Care group; 2) this environment was positively correlated to father involvement and 3) the family environment of male infants was most improved by Kangaroo Mother Care. Kangaroo Mother Care has a positive impact on home environment. The results also suggest, first, that both parents should be involved as direct caregivers in the Kangaroo Mother Care procedure and secondly, that this intervention should be directed more specifically at infants who are more at risk at birth. The Kangaroo Mother Care intervention could be an excellent means to ensure parents' mature involvement in the future of their children.
Zhang, Feng; Liu, Shoutao
Premature infants have a shorter prenatal development period and are prone to many serious medical problems during neonatal period. This may impact the development of oral tissues, as manifested by enamel hypoplasia, palatal distortion, malocclusion, or delay in tooth eruption and maturation. Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is a standardized and protocol-based care system for premature infants, based on skin-to-skin contact between the infant and their mother. Kangaroo mother care has been demonstrated to greatly improve the nurturing of premature infants and comparatively reduce the risk factors of oral defects. We hypothesize that KMC also facilitates oral growth and development in premature infants.
Suman, Rao P N; Udani, Rekha; Nanavati, Ruchi
To compare the effect of Kangaroo mother care (KMC) and conventional methods of care (CMC) on growth in LBW babies (> 2000 g). Randomized controlled trial. Level III NICU of a teaching institution in western India. 206 neonates with birth weight < 2000 g. The subjects were randomized into two groups: the intervention group (KMC-103) received Kangaroo mother care. The control group (CMC: 103) received conventional care. Growth, as measured by average daily weight gain and by other anthropometrical parameters at 40 weeks postmenstrual age in preterm babies and at 2500 g in term SGA infants was assessed. The KMC babies had better average weight gain per day (KMC: 23.99 g vs CMC: 15.58 g, P< 0.0001). The weekly increments in head circumference (KMC: 0.75 cm vs CMC: 0.49 cm, P = 0.02) and length (KMC: 0.99 cm vs CMC: 0.7 cm, P = 0.008) were higher in the KMC group. A significantly higher number of babies in the CMC group suffered from hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and sepsis. There was no effect on time to discharge. More KMC babies were exclusively breastfed at the end of the study (98% vs 76%). KMC was acceptable to most mothers and families at home. Kangaroo mother care improves growth and reduces morbidities in low birth weight infants. It is simple, acceptable to mothers and can be continued at home.
Nyqvist, K H; Anderson, G C; Bergman, N; Cattaneo, A; Charpak, N; Davanzo, R; Ewald, U; Ludington-Hoe, S; Mendoza, S; Pallás-Allonso, C; Peláez, J G; Sizun, J; Wiström, A M
Since Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) was developed in Colombia in the 1970s, two trends in clinical application emerged. In low-income settings, the original KMC modelis implemented. This consists of continuous (24 h/day; 7 days/week) and prolonged mother/parent-infant skin-to-skin contact; early discharge with the infant in the kangaroo position; (ideally) exclusive breastfeeding and, adequate follow up. In affluent settings, intermittent KMC with sessions of one or a few hours skin-to-skin contact for a limited period is common. As a result of the increasing evidence of the benefits of KMC for both infants and families in all intensive care settings, KMC in a high-tech environment was chosen as the topic for the first European Conference on KMC, and the clinical implementation of the KMC modelin all types of settings was discussed at the 7th International Workshop on KMC Kangaroo Mother Care protocols in high-tech Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) should specify criteria for initiation, kangaroo position, transfer to/from KMC, transport in kangaroo position, kangaroo nutrition, parents'role, modification of the NICU environment, performance of care in KMC, and KMCin case of infant instability. Implementation of the original KMC method, with continuous skin-to-skin contact whenever possible, is recommended for application in high-tech environments, although scientific evaluation should continue.
Nyqvist, K H; Anderson, G C; Bergman, N; Cattaneo, A; Charpak, N; Davanzo, R; Ewald, U; Ludington-Hoe, S; Mendoza, S; Pallás-Allonso, C; Peláez, J G; Sizun, J; Widström, A-M
Since Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) was developed in Colombia in the 1970s, two trends in clinical application emerged. In low income settings, the original KMC model is implemented. This consists of continuous (24 h/day, 7 days/week) and prolonged mother/parent-infant skin-to-skin contact; early discharge with the infant in the kangaroo position; (ideally) exclusive breastfeeding; and, adequate follow-up. In affluent settings, intermittent KMC with sessions of one or a few hours skin-to-skin contact for a limited period is common. As a result of the increasing evidence of the benefits of KMC for both infants and families in all intensive care settings, KMC in a high-tech environment was chosen as the topic for the first European Conference on KMC, and the clinical implementation of the KMC model in all types of settings was discussed at the 7th International Workshop on KMC. Kangaroo Mother Care protocols in high-tech Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) should specify criteria for initiation, kangaroo position, transfer to/from KMC, transport in kangaroo position, kangaroo nutrition, parents' role, modification of the NICU environment, performance of care in KMC, and KMC in case of infant instability. Implementation of the original KMC method, with continuous skin-to-skin contact whenever possible, is recommended for application in high-tech environments, although scientific evaluation should continue.
Chan, Grace J; Valsangkar, Bina; Kajeepeta, Sandhya; Boundy, Ellen O; Wall, Stephen
Kangaroo mother care (KMC), often defined as skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn, frequent or exclusive breastfeeding, and early discharge from the hospital has been effective in reducing the risk of mortality among preterm and low birth weight infants. Research studies and program implementation of KMC have used various definitions. To describe the current definitions of KMC in various settings, analyze the presence or absence of KMC components in each definition, and present a core definition of KMC based on common components that are present in KMC literature. We conducted a systematic review and searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and the World Health Organization Regional Databases for studies with key words "kangaroo mother care", "kangaroo care" or "skin to skin care" from 1 January 1960 to 24 April 2014. Two independent reviewers screened articles and abstracted data. We screened 1035 articles and reports; 299 contained data on KMC and neonatal outcomes or qualitative information on KMC implementation. Eighty-eight of the studies (29%) did not define KMC. Two hundred and eleven studies (71%) included skin-to-skin contact (SSC) in their KMC definition, 49 (16%) included exclusive or nearly exclusive breastfeeding, 22 (7%) included early discharge criteria, and 36 (12%) included follow-up after discharge. One hundred and sixty-seven studies (56%) described the duration of SSC. There exists significant heterogeneity in the definition of KMC. A large number of studies did not report definitions of KMC. Skin-to-skin contact is the core component of KMC, whereas components such as breastfeeding, early discharge, and follow-up care are context specific. To implement KMC effectively development of a global standardized definition of KMC is needed.
Menezes, Maria Alexsandra da S.; Garcia, Daniela Cavalcante; de Melo, Enaldo Vieira; Cipolotti, Rosana
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical outcomes, growth and exclusive breastfeeding rates in premature infants assisted by Kangaroo Mother Care at birth, at discharge and at six months of life. METHODS: Prospective study of a premature infants cohort assisted by Kangaroo Mother Care in a tertiary public maternity in Northeast Brazil with birth weight ≤1750g and with clinical conditions for Kangaroo care. RESULTS: The sample was composed by 137 premature infants, being 62.8% female, with average birth weight of 1365±283g, average gestational age of 32±3 weeks and 26.2% were adequate for gestational age. They have been admitted in the Kangaroo Ward with a median of 13 days of life, weighing 1430±167g and, at this time, 57.7% were classified as small for corrected gestational age. They were discharged with 36.8±21.8 days of chronological age, weighing 1780±165g and 67.9% were small for corrected gestational age. At six months of life (n=76), they had an average weight of 5954±971g, and 68.4% presented corrected weight for gestational age between percentiles 15 and 85 of the World Health Organization (WHO) weight curve. Exclusive breastfeeding rate at discharge was 56.2% and, at six months of life, 14.4%. CONCLUSIONS: In the studied sample, almost two thirds of the children assisted by Kangaroo Mother Care were, at six months of life, between percentiles 15 and 85 of the WHO weight curves. The frequency of exclusive breastfeeding at six months was low. PMID:25119747
Amaliya, Sholihatul; Rustina, Yeni; Agustini, Nur
Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is an evidence-based approach that has been scientifically proven to have a positive effect on mothers and infants. One of the barriers to performing KMC at home is the absence of a special KMC carrier. The most widely used KMC carriers in Indonesia are kangaroo pouch, thari, wrap and traditional wraps in the form of a long strip of fabric. This study's aim was to compare the level of maternal comfort when performing KMC with three different KMC carriers. The study used crossover design involving 20 mothers with low birth weight (LBW) infants as responders, selected through a consecutive sampling method. Data were collected using a maternal comfort questionnaire, maternal anxiety questionnaire, and KMC observation sheet. The results of repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there was no significant difference in maternal comfort when performing KMC with any of three KMC carriers (maternal comfort p = .366, α = .05). Therefore, KMC can be implemented using any of the types of carriers including kangaroo pouch, thari wrap, and traditional wrap.
Charpak, Nathalie; Ruiz, Juan Gabriel
Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) is a human-based care intervention devised to complement neonatal care for low birth weight and premature infants. Kangaroo position (skin-to-skin contact on the mother's chest) offers thermal regulation, physiological stability, appropriate stimulation, and enhances bonding and breastfeeding. Kangaroo nutrition is based on breastfeeding, and kangaroo discharge policy relies on family empowerment and early discharge in kangaroo position with close ambulatory follow-up. We describe how the evidence has been developed and how it has been put into practice by means of direct preterm infants care and dissemination of the method, including training of KMC excellence centers in many countries not only in Latin America but worldwide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chan, Grace J; Valsangkar, Bina; Kajeepeta, Sandhya; Boundy, Ellen O; Wall, Stephen
Background Kangaroo mother care (KMC), often defined as skin–to–skin contact between a mother and her newborn, frequent or exclusive breastfeeding, and early discharge from the hospital has been effective in reducing the risk of mortality among preterm and low birth weight infants. Research studies and program implementation of KMC have used various definitions. Objectives To describe the current definitions of KMC in various settings, analyze the presence or absence of KMC components in each definition, and present a core definition of KMC based on common components that are present in KMC literature. Methods We conducted a systematic review and searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and the World Health Organization Regional Databases for studies with key words “kangaroo mother care”, “kangaroo care” or “skin to skin care” from 1 January 1960 to 24 April 2014. Two independent reviewers screened articles and abstracted data. Findings We screened 1035 articles and reports; 299 contained data on KMC and neonatal outcomes or qualitative information on KMC implementation. Eighty–eight of the studies (29%) did not define KMC. Two hundred and eleven studies (71%) included skin–to–skin contact (SSC) in their KMC definition, 49 (16%) included exclusive or nearly exclusive breastfeeding, 22 (7%) included early discharge criteria, and 36 (12%) included follow–up after discharge. One hundred and sixty–seven studies (56%) described the duration of SSC. Conclusions There exists significant heterogeneity in the definition of KMC. A large number of studies did not report definitions of KMC. Skin–to–skin contact is the core component of KMC, whereas components such as breastfeeding, early discharge, and follow–up care are context specific. To implement KMC effectively development of a global standardized definition of KMC is needed. PMID:27231546
Srinath, B K; Shah, J; Kumar, P; Shah, P S
To compare physiological and biochemical responses in stable preterm neonates and their parents following kangaroo mother care (KMC) and kangaroo father care (KFC). We conducted a prospective cross-over design study of stable preterm neonates of <35 weeks gestation in a tertiary Neonatal Unit in Toronto. All neonates received KMC and KFC for 1 h on consecutive days in a random order. Heart rate, temperature, blood pressure, oxygen saturation and salivary cortisol in infants before and after kangaroo care and heart rate, temperature and salivary cortisol in parents before and after kangaroo care were measured. Pairwise comparisons of changes in these measures were analyzed. Twenty-six sets of neonates and their parents were studied for physiological parameters, of which 19 had adequate samples for salivary cortisol assessment. The infants had a mean birth weight of 1096 g (s.d.=217) and a mean postmenstrual age at study of 32 weeks (s.d.=2). There were no significant differences in the changes in mean heart rate (P=0.51), temperature (P=0.37), oxygen saturation (P=0.50), systolic blood pressure (P=0.32), mean blood pressure (0.10) and salivary cortisol (P=0.50) before and after KMC or KFC in the neonates. The changes in mean heart rate (P=0.62), temperature (P=0.28) and salivary cortisol (P=0.59) before and after kangaroo care were similar between mothers and fathers. No significant differences in physiological and stress responses were identified following KMC or KFC in preterm neonates. KFC may be as safe and as effective as KMC.
de Macedo, Elizeu Coutinho; Cruvinel, Fernando; Lukasova, Katerina; D'Antino, Maria Eloisa Famá
Preterm babies are more prone to develop disorders and so require immediate intensive care. In the conventional neonatal intensive care, the baby is kept in the incubator, separated from the mother. Some actions have been taken in order to make this mother-child separation less traumatic. One of these actions is the Kangaroo mother care (KMC) characterized by skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn. The objective of this study was to compare the mood variation of mothers enrolled in the KMC program to those in the conventional incubator care. In one general hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 90 mothers were evaluated before and after contact with the baby in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The participants were divided into three groups: 30 mothers of term newborns (TG), 30 mothers of preterm infants included in KMC program (PGK) and 30 preterms with incubator placement (PGI). The Brazilian version of the Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) was used for the assessment before and after the infant's visit. Results showed that TG mothers reported fewer occurrences of depressive states than PGK and PGI mothers. A significant mood variation was observed for PGK and PGI after the infant's visit. PGK mothers reported feeling calmer, stronger, well-coordinated, energetic, contented, tranquil, quick-witted, relaxed, proficient, happy, friendly and clear-headed. The only variation showed by PGI mothers was an increase in feeling clumsy. This study shows a positive effect of the KMC on the mood variation of preterm mothers and points to the need of a more humane experience during the incubator care.
Chan, Grace; Bergelson, Ilana; Smith, Emily R; Skotnes, Tobi; Wall, Stephen
Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) is an evidence-based intervention that reduces neonatal morbidity and mortality. However, adoption among health systems has varied. Understanding the interaction between health system functions-leadership, financing, healthcare workers (HCWs), technologies, information and research, and service delivery-and KMC is essential to understanding KMC adoption. We present a systematic review of the barriers and enablers of KMC implementation from the perspective of health systems, with a focus on HCWs and health facilities. Using the search terms 'kangaroo mother care', 'skin to skin (STS) care' and 'kangaroo care', we searched Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, Pubmed, and World Health Organization Regional Databases. Reports and hand searched references from publications were also included. Screening and data abstraction were conducted by two independent reviewers using standardized forms. A conceptual model to assess KMC adoption themes was developed using NVivo software. Our search strategy yielded 2875 studies. We included 86 studies with qualitative data on KMC implementation from the perspective of HCWs and/or facilities. Six themes emerged on barriers and enablers to KMC adoption: buy-in and bonding; social support; time; medical concerns; training; and cultural norms. Analysis of interactions between HCWs and facilities yielded further barriers and enablers in the areas of training, communication, and support. HCWs and health facilities serve as two important adopters of Kangaroo Mother Care within a health system. The complex components of KMC lead to multifaceted barriers and enablers to integration, which inform facility, regional, and country-level recommendations for increasing adoption. Further research of methods to promote context-specific adoption of KMC at the health systems level is needed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Hosseini, Mohammad Bagher; Ershadmanesh, Mashallah; Gholamitabar Tabari, Maryam; Khazaee, Soheila
Exclusive breastfeeding is one of the most important essential components of Kangaroo Mother Care. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of KMC on exclusive breastfeeding just at the time of discharge. In this cross sectional study, 251 consecutive premature newborns admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) between May 2008 and May 2009 in Alzahra University Hospital in Tabriz were evaluated. All of candidate mothers were educated for KMC method by scheduled program. Standard questionnaire was prepared by focus group discussion, and mothers filled it prior to infant hospital discharge. In this study 157(62.5%) mothers performed kangaroo mother care (KMC group) versus 94 (37.5%) in conventional method care (CMC group). In KMC group exclusive breast feeding was 98 (62.5%) vs. 34 (37.5%), and P =.00 in CMC group, at the time of hospital discharge. Receiving KMC, and gestational age were the only effective factors predicting exclusive breastfeeding. Our result indicated that there was a 4.1 time increase in exclusive breastfeeding by KMC, and also weekly increase in gestational age increased it 1.2 times, but maternal age, birth weight, mode of delivery, and 5 minute Apgar score had no influence on it. KMC is more effective, and increases exclusive breast feeding successfully. It can be a good substitution for CMC (conventional methods of care). It is a safe, effective, and feasible method of care for LBWI even in the NICU settings.
Kenanga Purbasary, Eleni; Rustina, Yeni; Budiarti, Tri
Mothers giving birth to low birth weight babies (LBWBs) have low confidence in caring for their babies because they are often still young and may lack the knowledge, experience, and ability to care for the baby. This research aims to determine the effect of education about kangaroo mother care (KMC) on the confidence and ability of young mothers to implement KMC. The research methodology used was a controlled-random experimental approach with pre- and post-test equivalent groups of 13 mothers and their LBWBs in the intervention group and 13 mothers and their LBWBs in the control group. Data were collected via an instrument measuring young mothers' confidence, the validity and reliability of which have been tested with a resulting r value of .941, and an observation sheet on KMC implementation. After conducting the education, the confidence score of young mothers and their ability to perform KMC increased meaningfully. The score of confidence of young mothers before education was 37 (p = .1555: and the ability score for KMC Implementation before education was 9 (p = .1555). The median score of confidence of young mothers after education in the intervention group was 87 and in the control group was 50 (p = .001, 95% CI 60.36-75.56), and ability median score for KMC implementation after education in the intervention group was 16 and in the control group was 12 (p = .001, 95% CI 1.50-1.88). KMC education should be conducted gradually, and it is necessary to involve the family, in order for KMC implementation to continue at home. A family visit can be done for LBWBs to evaluate the ability of the young mothers to implement KMC.
Chan, Grace; Bergelson, Ilana; Smith, Emily R; Skotnes, Tobi; Wall, Stephen
Abstract Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) is an evidence-based intervention that reduces neonatal morbidity and mortality. However, adoption among health systems has varied. Understanding the interaction between health system functions—leadership, financing, healthcare workers (HCWs), technologies, information and research, and service delivery—and KMC is essential to understanding KMC adoption. We present a systematic review of the barriers and enablers of KMC implementation from the perspective of health systems, with a focus on HCWs and health facilities. Using the search terms ‘kangaroo mother care’, ‘skin to skin (STS) care’ and ‘kangaroo care’, we searched Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, Pubmed, and World Health Organization Regional Databases. Reports and hand searched references from publications were also included. Screening and data abstraction were conducted by two independent reviewers using standardized forms. A conceptual model to assess KMC adoption themes was developed using NVivo software. Our search strategy yielded 2875 studies. We included 86 studies with qualitative data on KMC implementation from the perspective of HCWs and/or facilities. Six themes emerged on barriers and enablers to KMC adoption: buy-in and bonding; social support; time; medical concerns; training; and cultural norms. Analysis of interactions between HCWs and facilities yielded further barriers and enablers in the areas of training, communication, and support. HCWs and health facilities serve as two important adopters of Kangaroo Mother Care within a health system. The complex components of KMC lead to multifaceted barriers and enablers to integration, which inform facility, regional, and country-level recommendations for increasing adoption. Further research of methods to promote context-specific adoption of KMC at the health systems level is needed. PMID:28973515
Tuoni, C; Scaramuzzo, R T; Ghirri, P; Boldrini, A; Bartalena, L
Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) is a method of providing care for preterm infants through skin-to-skin contact with the mother and, preferably, exclusive breastfeeding. The growing interest in KMC at the Neonatology Unit of Pisa has provided the occasion for a retrospective analysis of the last four years, comparing the clinical effects of the kangaroo method vs. those obtained with conventional care (CNC) with respect to indicators of the general health of the infants (indices of growth, and duration of breastfeeding and hospitalization). A total of 213 infants, aged <37 gestational weeks and weighing ≤1500 g were enrolled for the study; these were divided into two groups for the purpose of comparison (91 in KMC vs. 71 in CNC). The indices of growth and the duration of the infants in hospital were not significantly different in the two groups. Nevertheless, it is worth noting how KMC is more efficacious in the very tiny VLBW infants, and that the means of the growth parameters in the KMC infants are greater than those referring to the CNC subjects, body temperatures taken at the beginning and end of a KMC session are higher, and that the mother-child relationship facilitates better sucking-feeding. While KMC is equivalent to CNC in terms of safety, thermal protection, morbidity and auxologic development, it appears to promote humanisation of infant care and mother-child bond more quickly.
Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Hosseini, Mohammad Bagher; Ershadmanesh, Mashallah; Gholamitabar Tabari, Maryam; Khazaee, Soheila
Background Exclusive breastfeeding is one of the most important essential components of Kangaroo Mother Care. Objective This study was performed to evaluate the effects of KMC on exclusive breastfeeding just at the time of discharge. Patients and Methods In this cross sectional study, 251 consecutive premature newborns admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) between May 2008 and May 2009 in Alzahra University Hospital in Tabriz were evaluated. All of candidate mothers were educated for KMC method by scheduled program. Standard questionnaire was prepared by focus group discussion, and mothers filled it prior to infant hospital discharge. Results In this study 157(62.5%) mothers performed kangaroo mother care (KMC group) versus 94 (37.5%) in conventional method care (CMC group). In KMC group exclusive breast feeding was 98 (62.5%) vs. 34 (37.5%), and P =.00 in CMC group, at the time of hospital discharge. Receiving KMC, and gestational age were the only effective factors predicting exclusive breastfeeding. Our result indicated that there was a 4.1 time increase in exclusive breastfeeding by KMC, and also weekly increase in gestational age increased it 1.2 times, but maternal age, birth weight, mode of delivery, and 5 minute Apgar score had no influence on it. Conclusions KMC is more effective, and increases exclusive breast feeding successfully. It can be a good substitution for CMC (conventional methods of care). It is a safe, effective, and feasible method of care for LBWI even in the NICU settings. PMID:24083002
Badiee, Zohreh; Faramarzi, Salar; MiriZadeh, Tahereh
The mothers of premature infants are at risk of psychological stress because of separation from their infants. One of the methods influencing the maternal mental health in the postpartum period is kangaroo mother care (KMC). This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of KMC of low birth weight infants on their maternal mental health. The study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Premature infants were randomly allocated into two groups. The control group received standard caring in the incubator. In the experimental group, caring with three sessions of 60 min KMC daily for 1 week was practiced. Mental health scores of the mothers were evaluated by using the 28-item General Health Questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed by the analysis of covariance using SPSS. The scores of 50 infant-mother pairs were analyzed totally (25 in KMC group and 25 in standard care group). Results of covariance analysis showed the positive effects of KMC on the rate of maternal mental health scores. There were statistically significant differences between the mean scores of the experimental group and control subjects in the posttest period (P < 0.001). KMC for low birth weight infants is a safe way to improve maternal mental health. Therefore, it is suggested as a useful method that can be recommended for improving the mental health of mothers.
Muddu, Gopi Krishna; Boju, Sangeetha Lakshmi; Chodavarapu, Ravikumar
To determine mothers' prior knowledge of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) and awareness about benefits of KMC for preterm babies. Mothers of a consecutive sample of 46 preterm babies, eligible for KMC admitted to a teaching hospital, from June through August 2009, were studied to determine the attitude and knowledge about KMC. A structured questionnaire was prepared. Mothers were asked questions to determine their baseline knowledge about KMC. Then each mother was explained about KMC and instructed to do KMC. After one hour of KMC, mothers were asked questions again to know their feelings and difficulties regarding KMC and feasibility of breast feeding during KMC. Most of the mothers could understand what was explained to them (97.8 %; 95 % CI 88.5-99.9 %) in a single session. Positive feelings like closeness to baby (93.5 %) and sense of goodness (97.8 %) were noted amongst mothers. Though statistically not significant, the proportion of mothers who felt it impracticable to give breast feeding while doing KMC was considerable (39.1 %; 95 % CI 25.1-54.6 %) compared to those who felt no difficulty in breast feeding (60.9 %; 95 % CI 45.4-74.9 %). Practicable duration of KMC is 1, 2 and 12 h as felt by 52 %, 19.6 % and 6.5 % of mothers respectively. All the mothers expressed their willingness to continue KMC at home. Mothers can understand and implement KMC with simple and clear oral instructions in local language. Positive feelings arise in mothers even with 1 h of KMC. KMC of 24 h is not practicable to almost all of the mothers. There is a need for special emphasis on breast feeding the child while doing the KMC.
Badiee, Zohreh; Faramarzi, Salar; MiriZadeh, Tahereh
Background: The mothers of premature infants are at risk of psychological stress because of separation from their infants. One of the methods influencing the maternal mental health in the postpartum period is kangaroo mother care (KMC). This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of KMC of low birth weight infants on their maternal mental health. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Premature infants were randomly allocated into two groups. The control group received standard caring in the incubator. In the experimental group, caring with three sessions of 60 min KMC daily for 1 week was practiced. Mental health scores of the mothers were evaluated by using the 28-item General Health Questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed by the analysis of covariance using SPSS. Results: The scores of 50 infant-mother pairs were analyzed totally (25 in KMC group and 25 in standard care group). Results of covariance analysis showed the positive effects of KMC on the rate of maternal mental health scores. There were statistically significant differences between the mean scores of the experimental group and control subjects in the posttest period (P < 0.001). Conclusion: KMC for low birth weight infants is a safe way to improve maternal mental health. Therefore, it is suggested as a useful method that can be recommended for improving the mental health of mothers. PMID:25371871
Silva, Margareth Gurgel de Castro; Barros, Marina Carvalho de Moraes; Pessoa, Úrsula Maria Lima; Guinsburg, Ruth
To evaluate the effect of kangaroo-mother care (KMC) in preterm (PT) neurobehavior between 36 and 41 weeks post-conceptual age (PCA). A prospective cohort of 61 preterm infants with gestational age (GA) of 28-32 w evaluated by the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS), with 36-41 w PCA. Infants with clinical instability were excluded. They were analyzed in 2 groups: - Kangaroo (KAN): KMC for 7 or more days; Conventional (CON): did not receive KMC. Scores of the 13 NNNS variables were compared between groups and the effect of KMC in the scores of the variables of NNNS were evaluated by multiple linear regression, controlling for confounders. The KAN groups (n=24) and CON (n=37) were similar regarding main demographic and clinical maternal and neonatal characteristics. Mean GA was 30.3 w; and birth weight was 1170 g for both groups. PT of KAN group were admitted in KMC with PCA of 35.8 w (38.5 days of life) and remained with this care for 14.3 days. The NNNS was applied 13 days after the start of KMC. PT submitted to KMC showed higher quality of movements (KAN: 4.98 ± 0.53 vs CON: 4.53 ± 0.47; p=0.001) and lower scores on Signs of stress and abstinence (KAN: 0.03 ± 0.03 vs CON: 0.05 ± 0.03; p=0.001). Controlling for confounders, the KMC was associated with higher scores on the variables Attention, Quality of movements, and lower scores on Asymmetry and Signs of stress and abstinence. PT submitted to the KMC, compared to those non-submitted, have better neurobehavior performance between 36 and 41 weeks of post-conceptual age. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Park, Hyun-kyung; Choi, Byeong Seon; Lee, Seung Jin; Son, In-A; Seol, In-Joon; Lee, Hyun Ju
To determine the clinical characteristics and safety of kangaroo mother care (KMC) according to the gestational age (GA) or postmenstrual age (PMA). We conducted a prospective clinical study in 31 infants between 25 and 32 weeks' GA. The subjects were categorized into two groups (25-28 weeks' and 29-32 weeks' GA groups) to compare the clinical characteristics associated with KMC. Heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, blood pressure and body temperature (BT) were longitudinally assessed for 60 min with respect to the PMA group (29-32 weeks' and 33-36 weeks' PMA groups). The authors analyzed 70 sessions with 31 infants (25-32 weeks' GA, birth weight 760-1740 g, 29-36 weeks' PMA). All infants had statistically significant higher temperatures during KMC than before KMC within clinically acceptable limits (P<0.001). We found a significantly lower variation of BT in the 25-28 weeks' GA group compared with the 29-32 weeks' GA group at 33-36 weeks' PMA, suggesting accelerated skin maturation in more premature infants (P<0.001). Our intermittent KMC was a safe and feasible method for preterm infants. Notably, at the same PMA, preterm infants in the lower at-birth GA group showed an advanced maturation of thermoregulation compared with those in the higher GA group.
Raajashri, R; Adhisivam, B; Vishnu Bhat, B; Palanivel, C
To estimate the proportion of mothers who continued to practice Kangaroo mother care (KMC) at home and evaluate potential factors influencing this practice. This descriptive study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital in south India. Mothers of preterm and low birth weight infants were trained in KMC during hospital stay. During follow up after 45 days, data regarding their perceptions and the practice of KMC at home and the factors influencing them were collected using questionnaires. Among 200 mothers interviewed, 82.5% continued to practice KMC at home after discharge. The mean total duration of KMC was 30.2 days and average duration per day was 1.3 h. Support of family members was facilitatory in 70% and lack of privacy at home was hindering in 25%. After KMC training in hospital, majority of the post natal mothers were able to continue the practice satisfactorily at home despite hindering factors including lack of privacy. KMC training modules should emphasize continuing the practice at home after discharge and address the potential barriers for KMC continuum in the community.
... Size Email Print Share About Skin-to-Skin Care Page Content Article Body You may be able ... care, also called kangaroo care. What is Kangaroo Care? Kangaroo care was developed in South America as ...
Stikes, Reetta; Barbier, Denise
To increase the rate of participation in kangaroo care within a level III neonatal intensive care unit. Preterm birth typically results in initial separation of mother and infant which may disrupt the bonding process. Nurses within the neonatal intensive care unit can introduce strategies that will assist parents in overcoming fears and developing relationships with their infants. Kangaroo care is a method of skin-to-skin holding that has been shown to enhance the mother-infant relationship while also improving infant outcomes. However, kangaroo care has been used inconsistently within neonatal intensive care unit settings. The Plan-Do-Study-Act Model was used as a framework for this project. Plan-Do-Study-Act Model uses four cyclical steps for continuous quality improvement. Based upon Plan-Do-Study-Act Model, education was planned, surveys were developed and strategies implemented to overcome barriers. Four months post-implementation, the use of kangaroo care increased by 31%. Staff surveys demonstrated a decrease in the perceived barriers to kangaroo care as well as an increase in kangaroo care. Application of Plan-Do-Study-Act Model was successful in meeting the goal of increasing the use of kangaroo care. The use of the Plan-Do-Study-Act Model framework encourages learning, reflection and validation throughout implementation. Plan-Do-Study-Act Model is a strategy that can promote the effective use of innovative practices in nursing. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Aliganyira, Patrick; Kerber, Kate; Davy, Karen; Gamache, Nathalie; Sengendo, Namaala Hanifah; Bergh, Anne-Marie
Introduction Prematurity is the leading cause of newborn death in Uganda, accounting for 38% of the nation's 39,000 annual newborn deaths. Kangaroo mother care is a high-impact; cost-effective intervention that has been prioritized in policy in Uganda but implementation has been limited. Methods A standardised, cross-sectional, mixed-method evaluation design was used, employing semi-structured key-informant interviews and observations in 11 health care facilities implementing kangaroo mother care in Uganda. Results The facilities visited scored between 8.28 and 21.72 out of the possible 30 points with a median score of 14.71. Two of the 3 highest scoring hospitals were private, not-for-profit hospitals whereas the second highest scoring hospital was a central teaching hospital. Facilities with KMC services are not equally distributed throughout the country. Only 4 regions (Central 1, Central 2, East-Central and Southwest) plus the City of Kampala were identified as having facilities providing KMC services. Conclusion KMC services are not instituted with consistent levels of quality and are often dependent on private partner support. With increasing attention globally and in country, Uganda is in a unique position to accelerate access to and quality of health services for small babies across the country. PMID:25667699
Aliganyira, Patrick; Kerber, Kate; Davy, Karen; Gamache, Nathalie; Sengendo, Namaala Hanifah; Bergh, Anne-Marie
Prematurity is the leading cause of newborn death in Uganda, accounting for 38% of the nation's 39,000 annual newborn deaths. Kangaroo mother care is a high-impact; cost-effective intervention that has been prioritized in policy in Uganda but implementation has been limited. A standardised, cross-sectional, mixed-method evaluation design was used, employing semi-structured key-informant interviews and observations in 11 health care facilities implementing kangaroo mother care in Uganda. The facilities visited scored between 8.28 and 21.72 out of the possible 30 points with a median score of 14.71. Two of the 3 highest scoring hospitals were private, not-for-profit hospitals whereas the second highest scoring hospital was a central teaching hospital. Facilities with KMC services are not equally distributed throughout the country. Only 4 regions (Central 1, Central 2, East-Central and Southwest) plus the City of Kampala were identified as having facilities providing KMC services. KMC services are not instituted with consistent levels of quality and are often dependent on private partner support. With increasing attention globally and in country, Uganda is in a unique position to accelerate access to and quality of health services for small babies across the country.
Namnabati, Mahboobeh; Talakoub, Sedigheh; Mohammadizadeh, Majid; Mousaviasl, Fatemesadat
Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is the most implementation intervention in caring of the infants, as in this method, both the mothers and infants are cared. The World Health Organization recommends implementation of KMC for all infants. However, there are some barriers in the way of its application. The purpose of this study was evaluation of the practical application of KMC and nurses' perspective about its implantation barriers in the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in Iran. The descriptive study was conducted on 96 infants and 80 nurses working in the NICUs of two university hospitals in Isfahan, Iran. Data were collected by a two-section questionnaire and analyzed by t-test through SPSS 14. Study findings indicated that mean weight and age of the infants with KMC were 1510 g and 32 weeks, respectively. KMC was implantation for 32 min in a day. From nurses' perspective, mother-related barriers were the main barriers in the implantation of KMC as mothers were not present by their infants. Another barrier was the mothers' fear of touching their infants. In the domain of organizational barriers, physician's order was found to be the most important barrier in application of KMC. Identifying barriers in implantation of KMC is essential to support the mothers. Regarding mother-related barriers, organizational barriers, and the need for a physician's order for implementation of KMC, policy makers must provide facilities and equipment for applying KMC practice for mothers and improve the protocol of KMC in the NICU.
Hendricks-Muñoz, Karen D; Li, Yihong; Kim, Yang S; Prendergast, Carol C; Mayers, Roslyn; Louie, Moi
Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) enhances infant and maternal well-being and requires maternal-care partnerships (MCP) for implementation. To examine maternal and neonatal nurse provider perspectives on the value of KMC and MCP. Prospective cohort design of neonatal nurses and mothers of preterm infants self-report anonymous questionnaire. Analyses of categorical independent variables and continuous variables were calculated. In all, 82.3% of nurses (42) and 100% (143) of mothers participated in the survey. compared with 18% of nurses, 63% of mothers believed "KMC should be provided daily" and 90% of mothers compared with 40% of nurses strongly believed "mothers should be partners in care." In addition, 61% of nonwhite mothers identified that "KMC was not something they were told they could do for their infant" compared with 39% of white mothers. Nonwhite and foreign-born nurses were 2.8 and 3.1 times more likely to encourage MCP and KMC. Mothers held strong positive perceptions of KMC and MCP value compared with nurses. Nonwhite mothers perceived they received less education and access to KMC. Barriers to KMC and MCP exist among nurses, though less in nonwhite, foreign-born, and/or nurses with their own children, identifying important provider educational opportunities to improve maternal KMC access in the NICU. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Hendricks-Muñoz, Karen D.; Li, Yihong; Kim, Yang S.; Prendergast, Carol C.; Mayers, Roslyn; Louie, Moi
Background Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) enhances infant and maternal well-being and requires maternal-care partnerships (MCP) for implementation. Objective To examine maternal and neonatal nurse provider perspectives on the value of KMC and MCP. Study Design Prospective cohort design of neonatal nurses and mothers of preterm infants self-report anonymous questionnaire. Analyses of categorical independent variables and continuous variables were calculated. Results In all, 82.3% of nurses (42) and 100% (143) of mothers participated in the survey. compared with 18% of nurses, 63% of mothers believed “KMC should be provided daily” and 90% of mothers compared with 40% of nurses strongly believed “mothers should be partners in care.” In addition, 61% of nonwhite mothers identified that “KMC was not something they were told they could do for their infant” compared with 39% of white mothers. Nonwhite and foreign-born nurses were 2.8 and 3.1 times more likely to encourage MCP and KMC. Conclusion Mothers held strong positive perceptions of KMC and MCP value compared with nurses. Nonwhite mothers perceived they received less education and access to KMC. Barriers to KMC and MCP exist among nurses, though less in nonwhite, foreign-born, and/or nurses with their own children, identifying important provider educational opportunities to improve maternal KMC access in the NICU. PMID:23359231
Parmar, Veena Rani; Kumar, Ajay; Kaur, Rupinder; Parmar, Siddharth; Kaur, D; Basu, Srikant; Jain, Suksham; Narula, Sunny
To study the feasibility and acceptability of Kangaroo mother care (KMC) on the low birth weight infants (LBWI) in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) by the mothers, family members and health care workers (HCW) and to observe its effect on the vital parameters of the babies. A observation in the NICU. A total of 135 babies (74 boys and 61 girls) who completed minimum of 4 hrs of KMC/day, were included. The mean birth weight and gestation were 1460 gm and 30 week respectively. 47% babies started KMC within first week of age. Mean duration of KMC was 7 days (3-48) days. The O(2) saturation improved by 2-3%, temperature ( degrees C) rose from 36.75 +/- 0.19 to 37.23 +/- 0.25, respiration stabilized (p<0.05 for all) and heart rate dropped by 3-5 beats. No episodes of hypothermia or apnea were observed during KMC. KMC was accepted by 96 % mothers, 82% fathers and 84% other family members. 94% HCW considered it to be safe and conservative method of care of LBWI. Benefits of KMC on the babies' behavior and on maternal confidence and lactation were reported by 57%, 94% and 80% respectively. A decline in use of heating devices in the NICU was reported by 85% and 79% said it did not increase their work load. KMC was found to be safe, effective and feasible method of care of LBWI even in the NICU settings. Positive attitudes were observed in mothers, families and HCW.
Smith, Emily R; Bergelson, Ilana; Constantian, Stacie; Valsangkar, Bina; Chan, Grace J
Despite improvements in child survival in the past four decades, an estimated 6.3 million children under the age of five die each year, and more than 40% of these deaths occur in the neonatal period. Interventions to reduce neonatal mortality are needed. Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is one such life-saving intervention; however it has not yet been fully integrated into health systems around the world. Utilizing a conceptual framework for integration of targeted health interventions into health systems, we hypothesize that caregivers play a critical role in the adoption, diffusion, and assimilation of KMC. The objective of this research was to identify barriers and enablers of implementation and scale up of KMC from caregivers' perspective. We searched Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, and WHO regional databases using search terms 'kangaroo mother care' or 'kangaroo care' or 'skin to skin care'. Studies published between January 1, 1960 and August 19, 2015 were included. To be eligible, published work had to be based on primary data collection regarding barriers or enablers of KMC implementation from the family perspective. Abstracted data were linked to the conceptual framework using a deductive approach, and themes were identified within each of the five framework areas using Nvivo software. We identified a total of 2875 abstracts. After removing duplicates and ineligible studies, 98 were included in the analysis. The majority of publications were published within the past 5 years, had a sample size less than 50, and recruited participants from health facilities. Approximately one-third of the studies were conducted in the Americas, and 26.5% were conducted in Africa. We identified four themes surrounding the interaction between families and the KMC intervention: buy in and bonding (i.e. benefits of KMC to mothers and infants and perceptions of bonding between mother and infant), social support (i.e. assistance from other people to perform KMC), sufficient
Kluthe, Christof; Wauer, Roland R; Rüdiger, Mario
To present an unpublished reason for an arrhythmic electrocardiogram (ECG) recording during kangaroo care in a preterm infant. Case report. Preterm infant. A preterm infant exhibited cardiac arrhythmia on the ECG monitor during kangaroo care, leading to interruption of kangarooing. Arrhythmia disappeared after placing the baby back into the incubator. The most likely reasons for arrhythmia were excluded. However, arrhythmia reappeared upon continuation of kangaroo care. ECG monitoring revealed the reason for the monitoring error. ECG monitoring during kangaroo care should cause error because of superimposed electric activity from the parent. Oxygen saturation represents a more reliable method of monitoring during kangaroo care.
Namnabati, Mahboobeh; Talakoub, Sedigheh; Mohammadizadeh, Majid; Mousaviasl, Fatemesadat
Background: Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is the most implementation intervention in caring of the infants, as in this method, both the mothers and infants are cared. The World Health Organization recommends implementation of KMC for all infants. However, there are some barriers in the way of its application. The purpose of this study was evaluation of the practical application of KMC and nurses’ perspective about its implantation barriers in the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in Iran. Materials and Methods: The descriptive study was conducted on 96 infants and 80 nurses working in the NICUs of two university hospitals in Isfahan, Iran. Data were collected by a two-section questionnaire and analyzed by t-test through SPSS 14. Results: Study findings indicated that mean weight and age of the infants with KMC were 1510 g and 32 weeks, respectively. KMC was implantation for 32 min in a day. From nurses’ perspective, mother-related barriers were the main barriers in the implantation of KMC as mothers were not present by their infants. Another barrier was the mothers’ fear of touching their infants. In the domain of organizational barriers, physician's order was found to be the most important barrier in application of KMC. Conclusions: Identifying barriers in implantation of KMC is essential to support the mothers. Regarding mother-related barriers, organizational barriers, and the need for a physician's order for implementation of KMC, policy makers must provide facilities and equipment for applying KMC practice for mothers and improve the protocol of KMC in the NICU. PMID:26985227
Kritzinger, Alta; van Rooyen, Elise
Due to low-birth-weight, preterm birth, HIV and/or AIDS and poverty-related factors, South Africa presents with an increased prevalence of infants at risk of language delay. A Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) unit offers unique opportunities for training. The aim of the present study was to determine if formal, neonatal communication-intervention training had an effect on mothers' knowledge and communication interaction with their high-risk infants. Three groups of mothers participated: Group 1 was trained whilst practicing KMC; Group 2 was not trained but practiced KMC; and Group 3 was also not trained but practiced sporadic KMC. Ten mothers per group were matched for age, education level and birth order of their infants. The individual training was based on graded sensory stimulation and responsive mother-infant communication interaction, which emphasised talking and singing by the mother. Significant differences were found in mother-infant communication interaction between all three groups, which indicated a positive effect on Group 1 with training. Group 2, KMC without training, also had a positive effect on interaction. However, Group 1 mothers with training demonstrated better knowledge of their infants and were more responsive during interaction than the other two groups. The present study suggests that neonatal communication-intervention training adds value to a KMC programme.
Conde-Agudelo, Agustin; Belizán, José M; Diaz-Rossello, Jose
Kangaroo mother care (KMC), originally defined as skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn, frequent and exclusive or nearly exclusive breastfeeding, and early discharge from hospital, has been proposed as an alternative to conventional neonatal care for low birthweight (LBW) infants. To determine whether there is evidence to support the use of KMC in LBW infants as an alternative to conventional neonatal care. The standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Group was used. This included searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, POPLINE, CINAHL databases (from inception to January 31, 2011), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2011). In addition, we searched the web page of the Kangaroo Foundation, conference and symposia proceedings on KMC, and Google scholar. Randomized controlled trials comparing KMC versus conventional neonatal care, or early onset KMC (starting within 24 hours after birth) versus late onset KMC (starting after 24 hours after birth) in LBW infants. Data collection and analysis were performed according to the methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. Sixteen studies, including 2518 infants, fulfilled inclusion criteria. Fourteen studies evaluated KMC in LBW infants after stabilization, one evaluated KMC in LBW infants before stabilization, and one compared early onset KMC with late onset KMC in relatively stable LBW infants. Eleven studies evaluated intermittent KMC and five evaluated continuous KMC. At discharge or 40 - 41 weeks' postmenstrual age, KMC was associated with a reduction in the risk of mortality (typical risk ratio (RR) 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39 to 0.93; seven trials, 1614 infants), nosocomial infection/sepsis (typical RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.73), hypothermia (typical RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.55), and length of hospital stay (typical mean difference 2.4 days, 95% CI 0.7 to 4.1). At latest follow up, KMC was associated with a decreased risk of
Charpak, Nathalie; Tessier, Rejean; Ruiz, Juan G; Hernandez, Jose Tiberio; Uriza, Felipe; Villegas, Julieta; Nadeau, Line; Mercier, Catherine; Maheu, Francoise; Marin, Jorge; Cortes, Darwin; Gallego, Juan Miguel; Maldonado, Dario
Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is a multifaceted intervention for preterm and low birth weight infants and their parents. Short- and mid-term benefits of KMC on survival, neurodevelopment, breastfeeding, and the quality of mother-infant bonding were documented in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted in Colombia from 1993 to 1996. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the persistence of these results in young adulthood. From 2012 to 2014, a total of 494 (69%) of the 716 participants of the original RCT known to be alive were identified; 441 (62% of the participants in the original RCT) were re-enrolled, and results for the 264 participants weighing ≤1800 g at birth were analyzed. The KMC and control groups were compared for health status and neurologic, cognitive, and social functioning with the use of neuroimaging, neurophysiological, and behavioral tests. The effects of KMC at 1 year on IQ and home environment were still present 20 years later in the most fragile individuals, and KMC parents were more protective and nurturing, reflected by reduced school absenteeism and reduced hyperactivity, aggressiveness, externalization, and socio-deviant conduct of young adults. Neuroimaging showed larger volume of the left caudate nucleus in the KMC group. This study indicates that KMC had significant, long-lasting social and behavioral protective effects 20 years after the intervention. Coverage with this efficient and scientifically based health care intervention should be extended to the 18 million infants born each year who are candidates for the method. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Blomqvist, Ylva Thernström; Frölund, Lovisa; Rubertsson, Christine; Nyqvist, Kerstin Hedberg
Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) supports parents' role at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). To enhance parents' provision of KMC, it is essential to obtain knowledge of what parents perceive as supportive factors and barriers regarding their opportunities to perform KMC. To identify factors that parents of preterm infants perceived as supportive factors or barriers for their performance of KMC and to explore the timing of and reasons for parents' discontinuation of KMC. A descriptive study performed at two NICUs in Sweden with 76 mothers and 74 fathers of preterm infants born at gestational ages ranging from 28 to 33 weeks. Data on infant characteristics were obtained from the infants' medical records. A questionnaire, based on scientific literature and the researchers' clinical experience, was completed by the mothers and the fathers separately, shortly after the infant's discharge from the hospital. The data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis and descriptive statistic. Four categories were identified in parents' responses regarding support and barriers for their performance of KMC: Parent related factors, Time, Infants related factors and The NICU and home environment. The hospital staff and environment were described by the parents as both supportive and barriers for their application of KMC. Some mothers described the infants' feeding process as an obstacle to KMC. Sleeping with the infant skin-to-skin in the same position throughout the night could be difficult, as an uncomfortable sleeping position caused insufficient sleep. A majority of both mothers and fathers continued providing their infant with KMC to some extent after discharge. Interventions for enhancing parents' opportunities for performing KMC should address both hospital staff attitudes and practices and the NICU environment. © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Korraa, Afaf A; El Nagger, Alyaa A I; Mohamed, Ragaa Abd El-Salam; Helmy, Noha M
Kangaroo mother care (KMC) has been widely used to improve the care of preterms and low birth weight infants. However, very little is known about cerebral hemodynamics responses in preterm infants during KMC intervention. The aim of this study is to evaluate the changes of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in middle cerebral artery, before and after a 30 minute application of KMC in stable preterm infants. It is a prospective, pre-post test without a control group study. CBF flow paremeters were measured with Doppler ultrasonography in one middle cerebral artery. Sixty preterm stable infants were assessed before and after 30 min KMC. CBF indices were assessed in different positions before KMC, forty neonates in supine position and 20 in vertical suspension (baby is held vertically away from the skin of his mother). Other dependent variables heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure and Spo2 were also studied before and after KMC. The mean gestational age of the infants was (32 ± 2 weeks), and mean birth weight was (2080 ± 270 gm). Comparing CBF indices (Pulsatility index and Resistive index) before and after KMC has shown a significant decrease in both Pulsatility index (PI) and Resistive index (RI) after 30 min. KMC, the mean values were (2.0 ± 0.43 vs 1.68 ± 0.33 & 0.81 ± 0.05 vs 0.76 ± 0.06 respectively P < 0.05*) with mean difference (0.32 & 95% CI 0.042-0.41 & 0.05 & 95% CI 0.04 to 0.06 respectively P < 0.05*) and increase in end diastolic velocity & mean velocity 30 min of KMC (10.97 ± 4.63 vs. 15.39 ± 5.66 P < 0.05*& 25.66 ± 10.74 vs. 32.86 ± 11.47 P < 0.05* ) with mean difference (- 4.42 & 95% CI -5.67 to -3.18 and -7.21 & 95% CI - 9.41 to 5.00 respectively). These changes indicate improvement in CBF. No correlation has been found between CBF parameters and studied vital signs or SpO2. Kangaroo mother care improves cerebral blood flow, thus it might influence the structure and promote
Seidman, Gabriel; Unnikrishnan, Shalini; Kenny, Emma; Myslinski, Scott; Cairns-Smith, Sarah; Mulligan, Brian; Engmann, Cyril
Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is an evidence-based approach to reducing mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. Although KMC is a key intervention package in newborn health initiatives, there is limited systematic information available on the barriers to KMC practice that mothers and other stakeholders face while practicing KMC. This systematic review sought to identify the most frequently reported barriers to KMC practice for mothers, fathers, and health practitioners, as well as the most frequently reported enablers to practice for mothers. We searched nine electronic databases and relevant reference lists for publications reporting barriers or enablers to KMC practice. We identified 1,264 unique publications, of which 103 were included based on pre-specified criteria. Publications were scanned for all barriers / enablers. Each publication was also categorized based on its approach to identification of barriers / enablers, and more weight was assigned to publications which had systematically sought to understand factors influencing KMC practice. Four of the top five ranked barriers to KMC practice for mothers were resource-related: "Issues with the facility environment / resources," "negative impressions of staff attitudes or interactions with staff," "lack of help with KMC practice or other obligations," and "low awareness of KMC / infant health." Considering only publications from low- and middle-income countries, "pain / fatigue" was ranked higher than when considering all publications. Top enablers to practice were included "mother-infant attachment" and "support from family, friends, and other mentors." Our findings suggest that mother can understand and enjoy KMC, and it has benefits for mothers, infants, and families. However, continuous KMC may be physically and emotionally difficult, and often requires support from family members, health practitioners, or other mothers. These findings can serve as a starting point for researchers and program
Seidman, Gabriel; Unnikrishnan, Shalini; Kenny, Emma; Myslinski, Scott; Cairns-Smith, Sarah; Mulligan, Brian; Engmann, Cyril
Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is an evidence-based approach to reducing mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. Although KMC is a key intervention package in newborn health initiatives, there is limited systematic information available on the barriers to KMC practice that mothers and other stakeholders face while practicing KMC. This systematic review sought to identify the most frequently reported barriers to KMC practice for mothers, fathers, and health practitioners, as well as the most frequently reported enablers to practice for mothers. We searched nine electronic databases and relevant reference lists for publications reporting barriers or enablers to KMC practice. We identified 1,264 unique publications, of which 103 were included based on pre-specified criteria. Publications were scanned for all barriers / enablers. Each publication was also categorized based on its approach to identification of barriers / enablers, and more weight was assigned to publications which had systematically sought to understand factors influencing KMC practice. Four of the top five ranked barriers to KMC practice for mothers were resource-related: “Issues with the facility environment / resources,” “negative impressions of staff attitudes or interactions with staff,” “lack of help with KMC practice or other obligations,” and “low awareness of KMC / infant health.” Considering only publications from low- and middle-income countries, “pain / fatigue” was ranked higher than when considering all publications. Top enablers to practice were included “mother-infant attachment” and “support from family, friends, and other mentors.” Our findings suggest that mother can understand and enjoy KMC, and it has benefits for mothers, infants, and families. However, continuous KMC may be physically and emotionally difficult, and often requires support from family members, health practitioners, or other mothers. These findings can serve as a starting point for
van Rooyen, Elise
Abstract Background Due to low-birth-weight, preterm birth, HIV and/or AIDS and poverty-related factors, South Africa presents with an increased prevalence of infants at risk of language delay. A Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) unit offers unique opportunities for training. Aim The aim of the present study was to determine if formal, neonatal communication-intervention training had an effect on mothers’ knowledge and communication interaction with their high-risk infants. Methods Three groups of mothers participated: Group 1 was trained whilst practicing KMC; Group 2 was not trained but practiced KMC; and Group 3 was also not trained but practiced sporadic KMC. Ten mothers per group were matched for age, education level and birth order of their infants. The individual training was based on graded sensory stimulation and responsive mother-infant communication interaction, which emphasised talking and singing by the mother. Results Significant differences were found in mother-infant communication interaction between all three groups, which indicated a positive effect on Group 1 with training. Group 2, KMC without training, also had a positive effect on interaction. However, Group 1 mothers with training demonstrated better knowledge of their infants and were more responsive during interaction than the other two groups. Conclusion The present study suggests that neonatal communication-intervention training adds value to a KMC programme. PMID:26245414
Mukasa, G K
The author's visit to "kangaroo care" programs in Guatemala and Colombia has led Uganda's University of Kampala to consider the introduction of this innovation in its neonatal special care unit. Such programs, which place premature infants in direct contact with their mother's skin during breastfeeding, represents a simple, inexpensive strategy for infant survival in developing countries and eliminates the need for mechanical incubators. Research conducted at the Hospital Universitario de Valle in Cali, Colombia, found that falls in the infant's body temperature. In the Latin American programs, premature infants are entered into the breastfeeding program immediately after delivery.
Rasaily, Reeta; Ganguly, K. K.; Roy, M.; Vani, S. N.; Kharood, N.; Kulkarni, R.; Chauhan, S.; Swain, S.; Kanugo, L.
Background & objectives: Kangaroo mother care (KMC - early continuous skin-to-skin contact between mother and infants) has been recommended as an alternative care for low birth weight infants. There is limited evidence in our country on KMC initiated at home. The present study was undertaken to study acceptability of KMC in different community settings. Methods: A community-based pilot study was carried out at three sites in the States of Odisha, Gujarat and Maharashtra covering rural, urban and rural tribal population, respectively. Trained health workers provided IEC (information, education and communication) on KMC during antenatal period along with essential newborn care messages. These messages were reinforced during the postnatal period. Outcome measures were the proportion of women accepting KMC, duration of KMC/day and total number of days continuing KMC. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were also carried out. Results: KMC was provided to 101 infants weighing 1500-2000 g; 57.4 per cent were preterm. Overall, 80.2 per cent mothers received health education on KMC during antenatal period, family members (68.3%) also attended KMC sessions along with pregnant women and 55.4 per cent of the women initiated KMC within 72 h of birth. KMC was provided on an average for five hours per day. Qualitative survey data indicated that the method was acceptable to mothers and family members; living in nuclear family, household work, twin pregnancy, hot weather, etc., were cited as reasons for not being able to practice KMC for a longer duration. Interpretation & conclusions: It was feasible to provide KMC using existing infrastructure, and the method was acceptable to most mothers of low birth infants. PMID:28574014
Rasaily, Reeta; Ganguly, K K; Roy, M; Vani, S N; Kharood, N; Kulkarni, R; Chauhan, S; Swain, S; Kanugo, L
Kangaroo mother care (KMC - early continuous skin-to-skin contact between mother and infants) has been recommended as an alternative care for low birth weight infants. There is limited evidence in our country on KMC initiated at home. The present study was undertaken to study acceptability of KMC in different community settings. A community-based pilot study was carried out at three sites in the States of Odisha, Gujarat and Maharashtra covering rural, urban and rural tribal population, respectively. Trained health workers provided IEC (information, education and communication) on KMC during antenatal period along with essential newborn care messages. These messages were reinforced during the postnatal period. Outcome measures were the proportion of women accepting KMC, duration of KMC/day and total number of days continuing KMC. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were also carried out. KMC was provided to 101 infants weighing 1500-2000 g; 57.4 per cent were preterm. Overall, 80.2 per cent mothers received health education on KMC during antenatal period, family members (68.3%) also attended KMC sessions along with pregnant women and 55.4 per cent of the women initiated KMC within 72 h of birth. KMC was provided on an average for five hours per day. Qualitative survey data indicated that the method was acceptable to mothers and family members; living in nuclear family, household work, twin pregnancy, hot weather, etc., were cited as reasons for not being able to practice KMC for a longer duration. It was feasible to provide KMC using existing infrastructure, and the method was acceptable to most mothers of low birth infants.
Ludington-Hoe, S M; Thompson, C; Swinth, J; Hadeed, A J; Anderson, G C
Results of two studies of the effects of 2 to 3 hours of kangaroo care (KC), one a randomized trial of 25 premature infants in open-air cribs and the other a pilot of 6 premature infants who were at least 24 hours postextubation, who were cared for in incubators are reviewed. Both studies incorporated a pretest/posttest control group design. Heart rate and abdominal skin temperature rose for KC infants during KC. Heat loss did not occur during KC, and infants slept more during KC. Kangaroo care had a comforting effect on infants and their mothers. Apnea and periodic breathing episodes dropped during KC for incubator infants. Suggestions and guidelines for selection of infants and practice based on these studies are presented.
Mazumder, Sarmila; Upadhyay, Ravi Prakash; Hill, Zelee; Taneja, Sunita; Dube, Brinda; Kaur, Jasmine; Shekhar, Medha; Ghosh, Runa; Bisht, Shruti; Martines, Jose Carlos; Bahl, Rajiv; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Bhandari, Nita
Low and middle income countries (LMICs), including India, contribute to a major proportion of low birth weight (LBW) infants globally. These infants require special care. Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) in hospitals is a cost effective and efficacious intervention. In institutional deliveries, the duration of facility stay is often short. In LMICs, a substantial proportion of deliveries still occur at home and access to health care services is limited. In these circumstances, a pragmatic choice may be to initiate KMC at home for LBW babies. However, evidence is lacking on benefits of community-initiated KMC (cKMC). Promoting KMC at home without an understanding of its acceptability may lead to limited success. We conducted formative research to assess the feasibility, acceptability and adoption of cKMC with the aim of designing an intervention package for a randomised controlled trial in LBW infants in Haryana, India. Qualitative methods included 40 in-depth interviews with recently delivered women and 6 focus group discussions, two each with fathers and grandfathers, grandmothers, and community health workers. A prototype intervention package to promote cKMC was developed and tested in 28 mother-infant pairs (of them, one mother had twins), using Household (HH) trials. We found that most mothers in the community recognized that babies born small required special care. In spite of not being aware of the practice of KMC, respondents felt that creating awareness of KMC benefits will promote practice. They expressed concerns about doing KMC for long periods because mothers needed rest after delivery. However, the cultural practice of recently delivered women not expected to be doing household chores and availability of other family members were identified as enablers. HH trials provided an opportunity to test the intervention package and showed high acceptability for KMC. Most mothers perceived benefits such as weight gain and increased activity in the infant. Community
Schneider, Cyril; Charpak, Nathalie; Ruiz-Peláez, Juan G; Tessier, Réjean
Given that prematurity has deleterious effects on brain networking development beyond childhood, the study explored whether an early intervention such as Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) in very preterm preemies could have influenced brain motor function up to adolescence. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied over the primary motor cortex (M1) of 39 adolescents born very prematurely (<33 weeks' gestational age, 21 having received KMC after birth, 18 Controls with no KMC) and nine adolescents born at term (>37 weeks' gestational age, >2500 g) to assess the functional integrity of motor circuits in each hemisphere (motor planning) and between hemispheres (callosal function). All TMS outcomes were similar between KMC and term adolescents, with typical values as in healthy adults, and better than in Controls. KMC adolescents presented faster conduction times revealing more efficient M1 cell synchronization (p < 0.05) and interhemispheric transfer time (p < 0.0001), more frequent inhibitory processes with a better control between hemispheres (p < 0.0001). The enhanced synchronization, conduction times and connectivity of cerebral motor pathways in the KMC group suggests that the Kangaroo Mother Care positively influenced the premature brain networks and synaptic efficacy up to adolescence. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.
Pattinson, R C; Bergh, A-M; Malan, A F; Prinsloo, R
To assess the impact of the introduction of kangaroo mother care (KMC) in hospitals using the Perinatal Problem Identification Programme (PPIP) in South Africa, a survey was conducted of the PPIP sentinel sites in South Africa requesting information on the practice of KMC in the hospital and if practised, when it had been initiated. Data on live births and the neonatal deaths of infants weighing between 1000 and 1999 g for each institution were obtained from the national PPIP database and, where applicable, divided into two periods, before and after the introduction of KMC. The practice of KMC and PPIP data could be combined for 40 of the hospitals that had responded to the survey. Of these, eight hospitals had not initiated KMC by January 2005, 21 had PPIP data for a period after KMC had commenced and 11 had PPIP data for periods before and after the introduction of KMC. The neonatal death rate (NNDR) for all hospitals with no KMC or before the introduction of KMC was 88.14/1000 live births, whereas the NNDR for hospitals with KMC or after the introduction of KMC was 71.43/1000 live births [relative risk (RR) 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72-0.91]. For the 11 hospitals that had reliable PPIP data for periods before and after the initiation of KMC, the NNDR was 87.72/1000 live births before KMC and 60.76/1000 live births after KMC had been introduced (RR 0.62; 95% CI 0.53-0.73). The large and significant reduction in the NNDR of neonates weighing between 1000 and 1999 g was associated with the introduction of KMC.
Abadía-Barrero, César Ernesto
This ethnographic study presents the origins, growth, and collapse of the first Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) program, a well-established practice for neonatal care created in 1978 in Colombia. The WHO and UNICEF praised this zero-cost revolutionary technique for its promotion of skin-to-skin contact between premature and low-birth-weight newborns and family members. KMC facilitates early hospital discharge, brings many clinical and psychological benefits, and constitutes an excellent alternative to placing babies in incubators. However, these benefits and political potential against biomedical interventions were undermined after being relabeled as a "reverse innovation," a business concept that encourages corporate investments in low-income countries to develop technologies that can both solve global health problems and boost multinational corporations profits. In response, I propose "subaltern health innovations" as a label for KMC that accounts for the power dynamics in global health between health care initiatives that originate in the Global South and neoliberal configurations of for-profit biomedicine. © 2018 by the American Anthropological Association.
Ropars, Stéphanie; Tessier, Réjean; Charpak, Nathalie; Uriza, Luis Felipe
This study aimed to evaluate the long-term effects of the Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) intervention on the intellectual and attentional functioning of young adults born with low birth weight. Three hundred infants were randomly assigned at birth in one of two interventions, KMC or traditional care (TC), and completed cognitive tests at adulthood (19-21 years after recruitment). The main results show that participants with a neurological vulnerability at 6 months had higher IQ and sustained attention scores at adulthood if they had received KMC than if they had received TC.
Murmu, Jitendranath; Venkatnarayan, Kannan; Thapar, Rajeev Kumar; Shaw, Subhash Chandra; Dalal, Shamsher Singh
Research on alternative female Kangaroo care (KC) has been hampered by high maternal refusal rates. We assessed the efficacy of Kangaroo mother care (KMC), alternative KC provided by other postpartum mothers and swaddling for postprocedural pain relief in preterm babies. The study was carried out in a tertiary armed forces hospital, where mothers did not have support from other female relatives and other postpartum mothers agreed to act as alternative female KC providers. We exposed 51 stable preterm neonates, with a gestational age of 30-36 weeks, to KMC, alternative female KC and swaddling for 30 minutes before heel lancing. The outcome measures included the Preterm Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) scores at 30 seconds and the time taken for the heart rate to return to baseline. The mean PIPP scores were lower with KMC (10.59) and alternative female KC (11.24) than swaddling (12.96) and heart rate normalisation took 111, 117 and 149 seconds respectively. The p values were <0.001 for individual groups and outcomes. KMC fared better than alternative female KC for both pain (p = 0.045) and heart rate (p = 0.013). Providing KMC and alternative female KC before heel lancing resulted in better pain relief than swaddling. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bergh, Anne-Marie; Rogers-Bloch, Quail; Pratomo, Hadi; Uhudiyah, Uut; Sidi, Ieda Poernomo Sigit; Rustina, Yeni; Suradi, Rulina; Gipson, Reginald
Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is an effective and safe method of caring for low-birthweight infants. This article describes the results of a health systems strengthening intervention in KMC involving 10 hospitals in Java, Indonesia. Implementation progress was measured with an instrument scoring hospitals out of 100. Hospital scores ranged from 28 to 85, with a mean score of 62.1. One hospital had not reached the level of 'evidence of practice'; five hospitals had reached the expected level of 'evidence of practice' and two hospitals already scored on the level of 'evidence of routine and integration'. The two training hospitals were on the border of 'evidence of sustainable practice'. The implementation of KMC is a long-term process that requires dedication and support for a number of years. Some items in the progress-monitoring tool could be used to set standards for KMC that hospitals must meet for accreditation purposes.
Flacking, Renée; Ewald, Uwe; Wallin, Lars
To investigate the use of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) and its association with breastfeeding at 1 to 6 months of corrected age in mothers of very preterm (VPT) and preterm (PT) infants. Prospective longitudinal study. Neonatal Intensive Care Units in four counties in Sweden. The study included 103 VPT (< 32 gestational weeks) and 197 PT (32-36 gestational weeks) singleton infants and their mothers. Data on KMC, measured in duration of skin-to-skin contact/day during all days admitted to a neonatal unit, were collected using self-reports from the parents. Data on breastfeeding were obtained by telephone interviews. VPT dyads that breastfed at 1, 2, 5, and 6 months had spent more time in KMC per day than those not breastfeeding at these times. A trend toward significance was noted at 3 and 4 months. In the PT dyads no statistically significant differences were found in the amount of KMC per day between those dyads that breastfed and those that did not. This study shows the importance of KMC during hospital stay for breastfeeding duration in VPT dyads. Hence, KMC has empowering effects on the process of breastfeeding, especially in those dyads with the smallest and most vulnerable infants. © 2011 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Bergh, Anne-Marie; van Rooyen, Elise; Pattinson, Robert C
Background Scaling up the implementation of new health care interventions can be challenging and demand intensive training or retraining of health workers. This paper reports on the results of testing the effectiveness of two different kinds of face-to-face facilitation used in conjunction with a well-designed educational package in the scaling up of kangaroo mother care. Methods Thirty-six hospitals in the Provinces of Gauteng and Mpumalanga in South Africa were targeted to implement kangaroo mother care and participated in the trial. The hospitals were paired with respect to their geographical location and annual number of births. One hospital in each pair was randomly allocated to receive either 'on-site' facilitation (Group A) or 'off-site' facilitation (Group B). Hospitals in Group A received two on-site visits, whereas delegates from hospitals in Group B attended one off-site, 'hands-on' workshop at a training hospital. All hospitals were evaluated during a site visit six to eight months after attending an introductory workshop and were scored by means of an existing progress-monitoring tool with a scoring scale of 0–30. Successful implementation was regarded as demonstrating evidence of practice (score >10) during the site visit. Results There was no significant difference between the scores of Groups A and B (p = 0.633). Fifteen hospitals in Group A and 16 in Group B demonstrated evidence of practice. The median score for Group A was 16.52 (range 00.00–23.79) and that for Group B 14.76 (range 07.50–23.29). Conclusion A previous trial illustrated that the implementation of a new health care intervention could be scaled up by using a carefully designed educational package, combined with face-to-face facilitation by respected resource persons. This study demonstrated that the site of facilitation, either on site or at a centre of excellence, did not influence the ability of a hospital to implement KMC. The choice of outreach strategy should be guided by
Conde-Agudelo, Agustin; Díaz-Rossello, José L
Kangaroo mother care (KMC), originally defined as skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn, frequent and exclusive or nearly exclusive breastfeeding, and early discharge from hospital, has been proposed as an alternative to conventional neonatal care for low birthweight (LBW) infants. To determine whether there is evidence to support the use of KMC in LBW infants as an alternative to conventional neonatal care. The standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Group was used. This included searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, POPLINE, CINAHL databases (all from inception to March 31, 2014) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2014) In addition, we searched the web page of the Kangaroo Foundation, conference and symposia proceedings on KMC, and Google scholar. Randomized controlled trials comparing KMC versus conventional neonatal care, or early onset KMC (starting within 24 hours after birth) versus late onset KMC (starting after 24 hours after birth) in LBW infants. Data collection and analysis were performed according to the methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. Eighteen studies, including 2751 infants, fulfilled inclusion criteria. Sixteen studies evaluated KMC in LBW infants after stabilization, one evaluated KMC in LBW infants before stabilization, and one compared early onset KMC with late onset KMC in relatively stable LBW infants. Thirteen studies evaluated intermittent KMC and five evaluated continuous KMC. At discharge or 40-41 weeks' postmenstrual age, KMC was associated with a reduction in the risk of mortality (typical risk ratio (RR) 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39 to 0.92; eight trials, 1736 infants), nosocomial infection/sepsis (typical RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.76), hypothermia (typical RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.67), and length of hospital stay (typical mean difference 2.2 days, 95% CI 0.6 to 3.7). At latest follow up, KMC was associated with a decreased risk of
Lumbanraja, S N
Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is associated with positive neonatal outcomes. Studies demonstrated significant influence of maternal factors on the success of applying KMC. To determine maternal factors that influence on anthropometric parameters in low birth weight babies that received kangaroo mother care. This is a randomized controlled study that involved low birth weight newborns. We randomly assigned newborns into two groups; a group who received KMC and a group who received conventional care. Maternal factors were recorded. We followed weight, length, and head circumferences of newborns for thirty days. A total of 40 newborns were included. Weight parameters were significantly higher in the KMC group than the conventional group. From maternal characteristics, only gestational age was found to influence increased head circumference in KMC group (p = 0.035); however, it did not affect the increase in weight or length. Maternal age, parity, education, mode of delivery, fetal sex, and initial Apgar score did not influence growth parameters in either groups. KMC was associated with increased weight gain in LBW infants. Gestational age influences head growth in infants who received KMC.
Schets, M W M; Chen, W; Bambang Oetomo, S
Kangaroo mother care (KMC) benefits the development of neonates. This paper focuses on the design and implementing the extension of KMC for infants at Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU). A breathing mattress is proposed to comfort infants and stimulate them to breathe regularly by mimicking the movement of the parent's chest during KMC. The incubator mattress simulates the breathing of the parent's chest with embedded electronics and pneumatic technology for mattress motion actuating systems. The stakeholders, including the child, parents and NICU staff, were directly involved during the concept development, prototyping and evaluation.
Bera, Alpanamayi; Ghosh, Jagabandhu; Singh, Arun Kumarendu; Hazra, Avijit; Som, Tapas; Munian, Dinesh
Low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g), which is often associated with preterm birth, is a common problem in India. Both are recognized risk factors for neonatal mortality. Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is a non-conventional, low-cost method for newborn care based upon intimate skin-to-skin contact between mother and baby. Our objective was to assess physiological state of LBW babies before and after KMC in a teaching hospital setting. Study cohort comprised in-born LBW babies and their mothers - 300 mother-baby pairs were selected through purposive sampling. Initially, KMC was started for 1 hour duration (at a stretch) on first day and then increased by 1 hour each day for next 2 days. Axillary temperature, respiration rate (RR/ min), heart rate (HR/ min), and oxygen saturation (SpO2) were assessed for 3 consecutive days, immediately before and after KMC. Data from 265 mother-baby pairs were analyzed. Improvements occurred in all 4 recorded physiological parameters during the KMC sessions. Mean temperature rose by about 0.4°C, RR by 3 per minute, HR by 5 bpm, and SpO2 by 5% following KMC sessions. Although modest, these changes were statistically significant on all 3 days. Individual abnormalities (e.g. hypothermia, bradycardia, tachycardia, low SpO2) were often corrected during the KMC sessions. Babies receiving KMC showed modest but statistically significant improvement in vital physiological parameters on all 3 days. Thus, without using special equipment, the KMC strategy can offer improved care to LBW babies. These findings support wider implementation of this strategy.
Soni, Apurv; Amin, Amee; Patel, Dipen V; Fahey, Nisha; Shah, Nikhil; Phatak, Ajay G; Allison, Jeroan; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar M
Aim This study determined the effect of physician champions on the two main components of Kangaroo mother care (KMC): skin-to-skin care and breastfeeding. Methods KMC practices among a retrospective cohort of 648 infants admitted to a rural Indian neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) between 5 January 2011 and 7 October 2014 were studied. KMC champions were identified based on their performance evaluation. We examined the effect of withdrawing physician champions on overall use, time to initiation and intensity of skin-to-skin care and breastfeeding, using separate models. Results In comparison to when KMC champions were present, their absence was associated with a 45% decrease in the odds of receiving skin-to-skin care, with a 95% Confidence Interval (CI) of 64% to 17%, a 38% decrease in the rate of initiation skin-to-skin care (95% CI 53% to 82%) and an average of 1.47 less hours of skin-to-skin care (95% CI −2.07 to −0.86). Breastfeeding practices were similar across the different champion environments. Conclusion Withdrawing physician champions from the NICU setting was associated with a decline in skin-to-skin care, but not breastfeeding. Training healthcare workers and community stakeholders to become champions could help to scale up and maintain KMC practices. PMID:27111097
Cho, Eun-Sook; Kim, Shin-Jeong; Kwon, Myung Soon; Cho, Haeryun; Kim, Eun Hye; Jun, Eun Mi; Lee, Sunhee
This study was conducted to identify the effects of kangaroo care on the physiological functions of preterm infants, maternal-infant attachment, and maternal stress. For this study, a quasi-experiment design was used with a nonequivalent control group, and a pre- and post-test. Data were collected from preterm infants with corrected gestational ages of ≥33weeks who were hospitalized between May and October 2011. Twenty infants were assigned to the experimental group and 20 to the control group. As an intervention, kangaroo care was provided in 30-min sessions conducted thrice a week for a total of 10 times. The collected data were analyzed by using the t test, repeated-measures ANOVA, and the ANCOVA test. After kangaroo care, the respiration rate significantly differed between the two groups (F=5.701, p=.020). The experimental group had higher maternal-infant attachment scores (F=25.881, p<.001) and lower maternal stress scores (F=47.320, p<.001) than the control group after the test. In other words, kangaroo care showed significantly positive effects on stabilizing infant physiological functions such as respiration rate, increasing maternal-infant attachment, and reducing maternal stress. This study suggests that kangaroo care can be used to promote emotional bonding and support between mothers and their babies, and to stabilize the physiological functions of premature babies. Kangaroo care may be one of the most effective nursing interventions in the neonatal intensive care unit for the care of preterm infants and their mothers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Feucht, Ute Dagmar; van Rooyen, Elise; Skhosana, Rinah; Bergh, Anne-Marie
The global agenda for improved neonatal care includes the scale-up of kangaroo mother care (KMC) services. The establishment of district clinical specialist teams (DCSTs) in South Africa (SA) provides an excellent opportunity to enhance neonatal care at district level and ensure translation of policies, including the requirement for KMC implementation, into everyday clinical practice. Tshwane District in Gauteng Province, SA, has been experiencing an increasing strain on obstetric and neonatal services at central, tertiary and regional hospitals in recent years as a result of growing population numbers and rapid up-referral of patients, with limited down-referral of low-risk patients to district-level services. We describe a successful multidisciplinary quality improvement initiative under the leadership of the Tshwane DCST, in conjunction with experienced local KMC implementers, aimed at expanding the district's KMC services. The project subsequently served as a platform for improvement of other areas of neonatal care by means of a systematic approach.
Bera, Alpanamayi; Ghosh, Jagabandhu; Singh, Arun Kumarendu; Hazra, Avijit; Som, Tapas; Munian, Dinesh
Objectives: Low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g), which is often associated with preterm birth, is a common problem in India. Both are recognized risk factors for neonatal mortality. Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is a non-conventional, low-cost method for newborn care based upon intimate skin-to-skin contact between mother and baby. Our objective was to assess physiological state of LBW babies before and after KMC in a teaching hospital setting. Materials and Methods: Study cohort comprised in-born LBW babies and their mothers - 300 mother-baby pairs were selected through purposive sampling. Initially, KMC was started for 1 hour duration (at a stretch) on first day and then increased by 1 hour each day for next 2 days. Axillary temperature, respiration rate (RR/ min), heart rate (HR/ min), and oxygen saturation (SpO2) were assessed for 3 consecutive days, immediately before and after KMC. Results: Data from 265 mother-baby pairs were analyzed. Improvements occurred in all 4 recorded physiological parameters during the KMC sessions. Mean temperature rose by about 0.4°C, RR by 3 per minute, HR by 5 bpm, and SpO2 by 5% following KMC sessions. Although modest, these changes were statistically significant on all 3 days. Individual abnormalities (e.g. hypothermia, bradycardia, tachycardia, low SpO2) were often corrected during the KMC sessions. Conclusions: Babies receiving KMC showed modest but statistically significant improvement in vital physiological parameters on all 3 days. Thus, without using special equipment, the KMC strategy can offer improved care to LBW babies. These findings support wider implementation of this strategy. PMID:25364150
Soni, Apurv; Amin, Amee; Patel, Dipen V; Fahey, Nisha; Shah, Nikhil; Phatak, Ajay G; Allison, Jeroan; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar M
This study determined the effect of physician champions on the two main components of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC): skin-to-skin care and breastfeeding. KMC practices among a retrospective cohort of 648 infants admitted to a rural Indian neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) between January 5, 2011 and October 7, 2014 were studied. KMC champions were identified based on their performance evaluation. We examined the effect of withdrawing physician champions on overall use, time to initiation and intensity of skin-to-skin care and breastfeeding, using separate models. In comparison with when KMC champions were present, their absence was associated with a 45% decrease in the odds of receiving skin-to-skin care, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 64% to 17%, a 38% decrease in the rate of initiation skin-to-skin care (95% CI 53-82%) and an average of 1.47 less hours of skin-to-skin care (95% CI -2.07 to -0.86). Breastfeeding practices were similar across the different champion environments. Withdrawing physician champions from the NICU setting was associated with a decline in skin-to-skin care, but not breastfeeding. Training health care workers and community stakeholders to become champions could help to scale up and maintain KMC practices. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Conde-Agudelo, Agustin; Díaz-Rossello, José L
Kangaroo mother care (KMC), originally defined as skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn, frequent and exclusive or nearly exclusive breastfeeding, and early discharge from hospital, has been proposed as an alternative to conventional neonatal care for low birthweight (LBW) infants. To determine whether evidence is available to support the use of KMC in LBW infants as an alternative to conventional neonatal care before or after the initial period of stabilization with conventional care, and to assess beneficial and adverse effects. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. This included searches in CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; 2016, Issue 6), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information database), and POPLINE (Population Information Online) databases (all from inception to June 30, 2016), as well as the WHO (World Health Organization) Trial Registration Data Set (up to June 30, 2016). In addition, we searched the web page of the Kangaroo Foundation, conference and symposia proceedings on KMC, and Google Scholar. Randomized controlled trials comparing KMC versus conventional neonatal care, or early-onset KMC versus late-onset KMC, in LBW infants. Data collection and analysis were performed according to the methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. Twenty-one studies, including 3042 infants, fulfilled inclusion criteria. Nineteen studies evaluated KMC in LBW infants after stabilization, one evaluated KMC in LBW infants before stabilization, and one compared early-onset KMC with late-onset KMC in relatively stable LBW infants. Sixteen studies evaluated intermittent KMC, and five evaluated continuous KMC. KMC versus conventional neonatal care: At discharge or 40 to 41 weeks' postmenstrual age, KMC was associated with a statistically significant reduction in the risk of mortality (risk
Bergh, A-M; Manu, R; Davy, K; Van Rooyen, E; Quansah Asare, G; Awoonor-Williams, Jk; Dedzo, M; Twumasi, A; Nang-Beifubah, A
To measure progress with the implementation of kangaroo mother care (KMC) for low birth-weight (LBW) infants at a health systems level. Action research design, with district and regional hospitals as the unit of analysis. Four regions in Ghana, identified by the Ghana Health Service and UNICEF. Health workers and officials, health care facilities and districts in the four regions. A one-year implementation programme with three phases: (1) introduction to KMC, skills development in KMC practice and the management of implementation; (2) advanced skills development for regional steering committee members; and (3) an assessment of progress at the end of the intervention. Description of practices, services and facilities for KMC and the identification of strengths and challenges. Twenty-six of 38 hospitals (68%) demonstrated sufficient progress with KMC implementation. Half of the hospitals had designated a special ward for KMC. 66% of hospitals used a special record for infants receiving KMC. Two of the main challenges were lack of support for mothers who had to remain with their LBW infants in hospital and no follow-up review services for LBW infants in 39% of hospitals. It was possible to roll out KMC in Ghana, but further support for the regions is needed to maintain the momentum. Lessons learned from this project could inform further scale-up of KMC and other projects in Ghana.
Lee, Sang Bok; Shin, Hye Sook
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Kangaroo Care(KC) on anxiety, maternal role confidence, and maternal infant attachment of mothers who delivered preterm infants. The research design was a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest. Data was collected from September 1. 2006 to June 20. 2007. The participants were 22 mothers in the experimental group and 21 in the control group. KC was applied three times per day, for a total of ten times in 4 days to the experimental group. The degree of anxiety was statistically significantly different between the two groups but maternal role confidence and maternal infant attachment was statistically insignificant. This data suggests that KC was effective for mothers anxiety relief but it was not effective for maternal role confidence and maternal infant attachment of mothers. The implications for nursing practice and directions for future research need to be discussed.
Pallás-Alonso, Carmen R; Losacco, Valentina; Maraschini, Alice; Greisen, Gorm; Pierrat, Veronique; Warren, Inga; Haumont, Dominique; Westrup, Björn; Smit, Bert J; Sizun, Jacques; Cuttini, Marina
To compare, in a large representative sample of European neonatal intensive care units, the policies and practices regarding parental involvement and holding babies in the kangaroo care position as well as differences in the tasks mothers and fathers are allowed to carry out. Prospective multicenter survey. Neonatal intensive care units in eight European countries (Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom). Patients were not involved in this study. None. A structured questionnaire was mailed to 362 units (response rate 78%); only units with ≥50 very-low-birth-weight annual admissions were considered for this study. Facilities for parents such as reclining chairs near the babies' cots, beds, and a dedicated room were common, but less so in Italy and Spain. All units in Sweden, Denmark, the United Kingdom, and Belgium reported encouraging parental participation in the care of the babies, whereas policies were more restrictive in Italy (80% of units), France (73%), and Spain (41%). Holding babies in the kangaroo care position was widespread. However, in the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Spain, many units applied restrictions regarding its frequency (sometimes or on parents request only, rather than routinely), method (conventional rather than skin-to-skin), and clinical conditions (especially mechanical ventilation and presence of umbilical lines) that would prevent its practice. In these countries, fathers were routinely offered kangaroo care less frequently than mothers (p < .001) and less often it was skin-to-skin (p < .0001). This study showed that, although the majority of units in all countries reported a policy of encouraging both parents to take part in the care of their babies, the intensity and ways of involvement as well as the role played by mothers and fathers varied within and between countries.
Campbell-Yeo, Marsha; Johnston, Celeste; Benoit, Britney; Latimer, Margot; Vincer, Michael; Walker, Claire-Dominique; Streiner, David; Inglis, Darlene; Caddell, Kim
Skin-to-skin contact (SSC) between mother and infant, commonly referred to as Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC), is recommended as an intervention for procedural pain. Evidence demonstrates its consistent efficacy in reducing pain for a single painful procedure. The purpose of this study is to examine the sustained efficacy of KMC, provided during all routine painful procedures for the duration of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) hospitalization, in diminishing behavioral pain response in preterm neonates. The efficacy of KMC alone will be compared to standard care of 24% oral sucrose, as well as the combination of KMC and 24% oral sucrose. Infants admitted to the NICU who are less than 36 6/7 weeks gestational age (according to early ultrasound), that are stable enough to be held in KMC, will be considered eligible (N = 258). Using a single-blinded randomized parallel group design, participants will be assigned to one of three possible interventions: 1) KMC, 2) combined KMC and sucrose, and 3) sucrose alone, when they undergo any routine painful procedure (heel lance, venipuncture, intravenous, oro/nasogastric insertion). The primary outcome is infant's pain intensity, which will be assessed using the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP). The secondary outcome will be maturity of neurobehavioral functioning, as measured by the Neurobehavioral Assessment of the Preterm Infant (NAPI). Gestational age, cumulative exposure to KMC provided during non-pain contexts, and maternal cortisol levels will be considered in the analysis. Clinical feasibility will be accounted for from nurse and maternal questionnaires. This will be the first study to examine the repeated use of KMC for managing procedural pain in preterm neonates. It is also the first to compare KMC to sucrose, or the interventions in combination, across time. Based on the theoretical framework of the brain opioid theory of attachment, it is expected that KMC will be a preferred standard of care. However
Background Skin-to-skin contact (SSC) between mother and infant, commonly referred to as Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC), is recommended as an intervention for procedural pain. Evidence demonstrates its consistent efficacy in reducing pain for a single painful procedure. The purpose of this study is to examine the sustained efficacy of KMC, provided during all routine painful procedures for the duration of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) hospitalization, in diminishing behavioral pain response in preterm neonates. The efficacy of KMC alone will be compared to standard care of 24% oral sucrose, as well as the combination of KMC and 24% oral sucrose. Methods/design Infants admitted to the NICU who are less than 36 6/7 weeks gestational age (according to early ultrasound), that are stable enough to be held in KMC, will be considered eligible (N = 258). Using a single-blinded randomized parallel group design, participants will be assigned to one of three possible interventions: 1) KMC, 2) combined KMC and sucrose, and 3) sucrose alone, when they undergo any routine painful procedure (heel lance, venipuncture, intravenous, oro/nasogastric insertion). The primary outcome is infant’s pain intensity, which will be assessed using the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP). The secondary outcome will be maturity of neurobehavioral functioning, as measured by the Neurobehavioral Assessment of the Preterm Infant (NAPI). Gestational age, cumulative exposure to KMC provided during non-pain contexts, and maternal cortisol levels will be considered in the analysis. Clinical feasibility will be accounted for from nurse and maternal questionnaires. Discussion This will be the first study to examine the repeated use of KMC for managing procedural pain in preterm neonates. It is also the first to compare KMC to sucrose, or the interventions in combination, across time. Based on the theoretical framework of the brain opioid theory of attachment, it is expected that KMC will be a
Als, Heidelise; McAnulty, Gloria B
State-of-the-art Newborn Intensive Care Units (NICUs), instrumental in the survival of high-risk and ever-earlier-born preterm infants, often have costly human repercussions. The developmental sequelae of newborn intensive care are largely misunderstood. Developed countries eager to export their technologies must also transfer the knowledge-base that encompasses all high-risk and preterm infants' personhood as well as the neuro-essential importance of their parents. Without such understanding, the best medical care, while assuring survival jeopardizes infants' long-term potential and deprives parents of their critical role. Exchanging the womb for the NICU environment at a time of rapid brain growth compromises preterm infants' early development, which results in long-term physical and mental health problems and developmental disabilities. The Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) aims to prevent the iatrogenic sequelae of intensive care and to maintain the intimate connection between parent and infant, one expression of which is Kangaroo Mother Care. NIDCAP embeds the infant in the natural parent niche, avoids over-stimulation, stress, pain, and isolation while it supports self-regulation, competence, and goal orientation. Research demonstrates that NIDCAP improves brain development, functional competence, health, and life quality. It is cost effective, humane, and ethical, and promises to become the standard for all NICU care.
Gathwala, Geeta; Singh, Bir; Singh, Jagjit
The aim of this study was to determine whether the implementation of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) to low birth weight infants would improve physical growth, breastfeeding and its acceptability. A randomized controlled trial was performed over 16 months in which 110 neonates were randomized into a KMC group and a control group using a random number table. The KMC group was subjected to KMC for at least 6 h per day. The babies also received KMC after moving from the neonatal intensive care unit and at home. The control group received standard care (incubator or open care system). Weight, length and occipitofrontal circumference (OFC) were measured weekly for three months. The acceptability of KMC by mothers and nursing staff was assessed on day 7 after the start of KMC using a questionnaire incorporating the Likert scale. Breastfeeding rates were calculated based on history at end of three months. The mean gestational age was 35.48 ± 1.20 weeks in the KMC group and 35.04 ± 1.09 weeks in the control group (P > 0.05). KMC was initiated at a mean age of 1.72 ± 0.45 days and the duration of KMC was 9.74 ± 1.48 h/day. The mean birth weight was 1.69 ± 0.11 kg in the KMC group compared to 1.69 ± 0.12 kg in the control group (P > 0.05). The mean weight gain in gm/day in the KMC group was 21.92 ± 1.44 compared to 18.61 ± 1.28 in the control group (P < 0.05). The mean length gain in cm/week was 1.03 ± 0.5 in the KMC group compared to 0.74 ± 0.05 in the control group (P < 0.05). The mean OFC gain in cm/week was 0.59 ± 0.04 in the KMC group compared to 0.47 ± 0.03 in the control group (P < 0.05). The exclusive breast-feeding rate at end of three months was 88% in the KMC group compared to 72% in the control group (P < 0.05). KMC improved physical growth, breastfeeding rates and was well accepted by both mothers and nursing staff.
Ibe, O E; Austin, T; Sullivan, K; Fabanwo, O; Disu, E; Costello, A M de L
Although skin-to-skin contact (or kangaroo mother care, KMC) for preterm infants is a practical alternative to incubator care, no studies have compared these methods using continuous ambulatory temperature monitoring. To compare thermal regulation in low birthweight infants (< 2000 g) managed by KMC alternating with conventional care (CC) and to determine the acceptability to mothers of KMC, an experimental study with a crossover design with observational and qualitative data collected on temperature patterns and mothers attitudes to skin-to-skin care was conducted in the neonatal wards of three hospitals in Lagos, Nigeria. Thirteen eligible infants were nursed by their mothers or surrogates in 38 4-hour sessions of KMC and the results compared with 38 sessions of incubator care. The risk of hypothermia was reduced by > 90% when nursed by KMC rather than conventional care, relative risk (RR) 0.09 (0.03-0.25). More cases of hyperthermia (> 37.5 degrees C) occurred with KMC, and coreperiphery temperature differences were widened, but the risk of hyperthermia > 37.9 degrees C (RR 1.3, 0.9-1.7) was not significant. Micro-ambient temperatures were higher during KMC, although the average room temperatures during both procedures did not differ significantly. Mothers felt that KMC was safe, and preferred the method to CC because it did not separate them from their infants, although some had problems adjusting to this method of care. Where equipment for thermal regulation is lacking or unreliable, KMC is a preferable method for managing stable low birthweight infants. Copyright 2004 Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine
Dastjerdi, Roya; Spiegelman, Donna; Fawzi, Wafaie W.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Lieberman, Ellice; Kajeepeta, Sandhya; Wall, Stephen; Chan, Grace J.
CONTEXT: Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is an intervention aimed at improving outcomes among preterm and low birth weight newborns. OBJECTIVE: Conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis estimating the association between KMC and neonatal outcomes. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, African Index Medicus (AIM), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Information System (LILACS), Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (IMEMR), Index Medicus for the South-East Asian Region (IMSEAR), and Western Pacific Region Index Medicus (WPRIM). STUDY SELECTION: We included randomized trials and observational studies through April 2014 examining the relationship between KMC and neonatal outcomes among infants of any birth weight or gestational age. Studies with <10 participants, lack of a comparison group without KMC, and those not reporting a quantitative association were excluded. DATA EXTRACTION: Two reviewers extracted data on study design, risk of bias, KMC intervention, neonatal outcomes, relative risk (RR) or mean difference measures. RESULTS: 1035 studies were screened; 124 met inclusion criteria. Among LBW newborns, KMC compared to conventional care was associated with 36% lower mortality(RR 0.64; 95% [CI] 0.46, 0.89). KMC decreased risk of neonatal sepsis (RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.34, 0.83), hypothermia (RR 0.22; 95% CI 0.12, 0.41), hypoglycemia (RR 0.12; 95% CI 0.05, 0.32), and hospital readmission (RR 0.42; 95% CI 0.23, 0.76) and increased exclusive breastfeeding (RR 1.50; 95% CI 1.26, 1.78). Newborns receiving KMC had lower mean respiratory rate and pain measures, and higher oxygen saturation, temperature, and head circumference growth. LIMITATIONS: Lack of data on KMC limited the ability to assess dose-response. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions to scale up KMC implementation are warranted. PMID:26702029
Boundy, Ellen O; Dastjerdi, Roya; Spiegelman, Donna; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Missmer, Stacey A; Lieberman, Ellice; Kajeepeta, Sandhya; Wall, Stephen; Chan, Grace J
Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is an intervention aimed at improving outcomes among preterm and low birth weight newborns. Conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis estimating the association between KMC and neonatal outcomes. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, African Index Medicus (AIM), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Information System (LILACS), Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (IMEMR), Index Medicus for the South-East Asian Region (IMSEAR), and Western Pacific Region Index Medicus (WPRIM). We included randomized trials and observational studies through April 2014 examining the relationship between KMC and neonatal outcomes among infants of any birth weight or gestational age. Studies with <10 participants, lack of a comparison group without KMC, and those not reporting a quantitative association were excluded. Two reviewers extracted data on study design, risk of bias, KMC intervention, neonatal outcomes, relative risk (RR) or mean difference measures. 1035 studies were screened; 124 met inclusion criteria. Among LBW newborns, KMC compared to conventional care was associated with 36% lower mortality(RR 0.64; 95% [CI] 0.46, 0.89). KMC decreased risk of neonatal sepsis (RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.34, 0.83), hypothermia (RR 0.22; 95% CI 0.12, 0.41), hypoglycemia (RR 0.12; 95% CI 0.05, 0.32), and hospital readmission (RR 0.42; 95% CI 0.23, 0.76) and increased exclusive breastfeeding (RR 1.50; 95% CI 1.26, 1.78). Newborns receiving KMC had lower mean respiratory rate and pain measures, and higher oxygen saturation, temperature, and head circumference growth. Lack of data on KMC limited the ability to assess dose-response. Interventions to scale up KMC implementation are warranted. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Als, Heidelise; McAnulty, Gloria B.
State-of-the-art Newborn Intensive Care Units (NICUs), instrumental in the survival of high-risk and ever-earlier-born preterm infants, often have costly human repercussions. The developmental sequelae of newborn intensive care are largely misunderstood. Developed countries eager to export their technologies must also transfer the knowledge-base that encompasses all high-risk and preterm infants’ personhood as well as the neuro-essential importance of their parents. Without such understanding, the best medical care, while assuring survival jeopardizes infants’ long-term potential and deprives parents of their critical role. Exchanging the womb for the NICU environment at a time of rapid brain growth compromises preterm infants’ early development, which results in long-term physical and mental health problems and developmental disabilities. The Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) aims to prevent the iatrogenic sequelae of intensive care and to maintain the intimate connection between parent and infant, one expression of which is Kangaroo Mother Care. NIDCAP embeds the infant in the natural parent niche, avoids over-stimulation, stress, pain, and isolation while it supports self-regulation, competence, and goal orientation. Research demonstrates that NIDCAP improves brain development, functional competence, health, and life quality. It is cost effective, humane, and ethical, and promises to become the standard for all NICU care. PMID:25473384
Samra, Nashwa M; Taweel, Amal El; Cadwell, Karin
To evaluate intermittent Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) with additional opportunities to breastfeed on weight gain of low birth weight (LBW) neonates with delayed weight gain. 40 LBW neonates were followed to see whether KMC with additional opportunities to breastfeed improved weight gain. In the KMC group, the mean age of regaining birth weight was significantly less (15.68 vs. 24.56 days) and the average daily weight gain was significantly higher (22.09 vs. 10.39 g, p < .001) than controls. KMC with additional opportunities to breastfeed was found to be an effective intervention for LBWs with delayed weight gain and should be considered to be an effective strategy.
Buil, A; Carchon, I; Apter, G; Laborne, F X; Granier, M; Devouche, E
Skin-to-skin contact shows benefits in the relationship developed between a mother and her premature infant. In the skin-to-skin session, face-to-face exchanges are impossible in vertical infant positioning. We therefore undertook an observational, prospective, single-center study using kangaroo "supported diagonal flexion" (SDF) positioning. The first aim was to evaluate the safety of kangaroo SDF positioning compared to the usual vertical positioning. The second aim was to evaluate SDF positioning on early communication between the mother and her infant and to improve their well-being. Fifteen mothers and their very premature infants (birth 26<32 weeks' gestation) were assigned to one of the two kangaroo positioning modes, either the current vertical positioning (n=7) or SDF positioning (n=8). Physiological variables and critical events were recorded before, during, and after ten successive skin-to-skin contact sessions. The first and last sessions were videotaped to allow later behavioral measurements. Mothers' risk for depression and feelings about the way they experienced communication with their infant were assessed through questionnaires. In terms of the infant's physiology, no negative effects were associated with SDF positioning in comparison with the usual vertical positioning. SDF positioning led to fewer disorganized gestures, negative vocalizations, and drowsiness, in favor of more deep sleep. SDF led to more mother-infant eye-to-eye contact as well as maternal vocalizations, smiles, and caressing, although these differences did not reach significance. The score for the risk of postnatal depression decreased significantly between the first and the last session in the SDF group, whereas it did not change in the vertical positioning group. These results support the idea that the kangaroo SDF positioning technique is physiologically safe, has obvious immediate benefits on mothers' infant-directed communicative behaviors, and respects the baby's naturally
Parker, Leslie; Anderson, Gene Cranston
In this case study kangaroo care (KC) was facilitated for an adoptive mother and father who were planning to attend the birth of the infant they had arranged to adopt. Unexpectedly, the birth mother delivered at 27 weeks gestation. The infant was critically ill and required mechanical ventilation. However, in this neonatal intensive care unit where all adoptive parents and parents of mechanically ventilated infants are offered KC, these adoptive parents began KC on Day 3 while their infant daughter was still mechanically ventilated. She thrived thereafter and the entire experience was profoundly beneficial for this beginning family both at the hospital and after discharge home.
Padhi, T R; Sareen, D; Pradhan, L; Jalali, S; Sutar, S; Das, T; Modi, R R; Behera, U C
To evaluate retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening practice in reverse Kangaroo Mother Care (R-KMC) with respect to stress and pain to the infant. In a pilot study we evaluated ROP screening practice in R-KMC in 20 babies at risk of ROP. The R-KMC differed from the conventional KMC with respect to the baby position where the baby lay supine on mother's chest. With the mother lying supine and the baby in R-KMC position, screening examinations were done with indirect ophthalmoscope. The outcome measures included stress (quantified by pulse, respiration, and oxygen saturation) and pain to the baby by observing facial expression (eye squeezing, crying, and brow bulge). The heart rate, respiratory rate, and SpO2 (%) were compared before and immediately after the procedure using paired t-test. Mean (±SD) gestational age and birth weight were 30.8±2.3 weeks and 1362.5±253.9 g, respectively. During examination in R- KMC position 8 babies (40%) were completely relaxed (no eye squeezing and crying), 10 (50%) were partially relaxed (no brow bulge) and 2 babies (10%) were not relaxed. A change in heart and respiration rate both by 10 per minute was recorded in 12 (60%) and 10 (50%) babies, respectively. Five babies (25%) had reduction in blood oxygen concentration below 92%. The majority of the mothers (19 of 20) were relaxed. ROP screening in R-KMC can be a baby friendly screening practice with respect to stress and pain to the infant and needs further evaluation in a larger cohort.
Cattaneo, A; Davanzo, R; Worku, B; Surjono, A; Echeverria, M; Bedri, A; Haksari, E; Osorno, L; Gudetta, B; Setyowireni, D; Quintero, S; Tamburlini, G
A randomized controlled trial was carried out for 1 y in three tertiary and teaching hospitals, in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), Yogyakarta (Indonesia) and Merida (Mexico), to study the effectiveness, feasibility, acceptability and cost of kangaroo mother care (KMC) when compared to conventional methods of care (CMC). About 29% of 649 low birthweight infants (LBWI; 1000-1999 g) died before eligibility. Of the survivors, 38% were excluded for various reasons, 149 were randomly assigned to KMC (almost exclusive skin-to-skin care after stabilization), and 136 to CMC (warm room or incubator care). There were three deaths in each group and no difference in the incidence of severe disease. Hypothermia was significantly less common in KMC infants in Merida (13.5 vs 31.5 episodes/100 infants/d) and overall (10.8 vs 14.6). Exclusive breastfeeding at discharge was more common in KMC infants in Merida (80% vs 16%) and overall (88% vs 70%). KMC infants had a higher mean daily weight gain (21.3 g vs 17.7 g) and were discharged earlier (13.4 vs 16.3 d after enrolment). KMC was considered feasible and presented advantages over CMC in terms of maintenance of equipment. Mothers expressed a clear preference for KMC and health workers found it safe and convenient. KMC was cheaper than CMC in terms of salaries (US$ 11,788 vs US$ 29,888) and other running costs (US$ 7501 vs US$ 9876). This study confirms that hospital KMC for stabilized LBWI 1000-1999 g is at least as effective and safe as CMC, and shows that it is feasible in different settings, acceptable to mothers of different cultures, and less expensive. Where exclusive breastfeeding is uncommon among LBWI, KMC may bring about an increase in its prevalence and duration, with consequent benefits for health and growth. For hospitals in low-income countries KMC may represent an appropriate use of scarce resources.
Boju, Sangeetha Lakshmi; Gopi Krishna, Muddu; Uppala, Rajani; Chodavarapu, Praneeta; Chodavarapu, Ravikumar
In routine practice, 4-6 h of kangaroo mother care (KMC) is adopted. Many mothers feel the duration impracticable. In 86 preterm babies, pre and post 1 h KMC changes in heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), axillary temperature and SpO(2) are measured, in each baby. Postnatal age at the time of the study is 7.7 ± 5.2 days. Significant changes observed are decrease in mean HR by 3 bpm, RR by 3 min(-1) and increase in mean axillary temperature by 0.4 F and SpO(2) by 1.1%. In SGA babies, post KMC decrease in mean HR by 5 bpm, increase in mean axillary temperature by 0.6 F and SpO(2) by 2.1% are significant. In female babies, post KMC decrease in mean RR by 6 min(-1) and increase mean axillary temperature by 0.3 F and SpO(2) by 1.5% are significant. We conclude that preterm babies are benefited by 1 h KMC. SGA and female preterm babies showed different and greater response.
Strand, H; Blomqvist, Y T; Gradin, M; Nyqvist, K H
To compare attitudes towards Kangaroo mother care (KMC) among staff in two high-tech neonatal intensive care units, which provided parents with different opportunities to get involved in their infants' care. Questionnaires were completed by healthcare staff in Unit A, which provided parents with unrestricted access so that they could provide continuous KMC, and Unit B, where parents could only practice KMC intermittently. Unit A staff were more positive about the benefits and use of KMC, including its use in unstable infants, and rated their knowledge and practical skills more highly than staff in the other unit. Unit B staff also appreciated the method, but expressed more hesitation in using it with unstable infants. In particular, they stressed the need to adapt the physical environment of the NICU to enable parents to stay with their infants and practice the method. Staff working in the NICU that gave parents unrestricted access were more positive about KMC than staff in the NICU that offered limited opportunities for parents to stay with their children. This finding suggests that it is important to eliminate unjustifiable obstacles to the presence of parents in the NICU, so that they can provide KMC. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Dodd, Virginia L
To review research on kangaroo care with implications for growth and development in preterm infants. Nursing, medical, and child development research literature was searched through PubMed through 2003 using the search terms kangaroo Care, skin-to-skin, growth/development, and premature infants. Randomized controlled trials, pretest-posttest designs, and other comparative studies of kangaroo care were reviewed. Reports exploring parent perspectives were examined for attachment and parent-infant interaction findings. Theory and research regarding growth in preterm infants were explored. Research on topics of kangaroo care, skin-to-skin contact, preterm infant growth, preterm infant weight gain, and failure to thrive was evaluated. Research on kangaroo care reports physiologic safety for preterm infants and increased attachment for parents. Attachment promotes nurturing behaviors that support growth and development. Weight gain as a benefit of kangaroo care remains in question. Kangaroo care is safe for preterm infants and may have important benefits for growth and development. Suggestions are made for future research on effects of KC on preterm infants.
Samra, Nashwa M.; Taweel, Amal El; Cadwell, Karin
Objective: To evaluate intermittent Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) with additional opportunities to breastfeed on weight gain of low birth weight (LBW) neonates with delayed weight gain. Methods: 40 LBW neonates were followed to see whether KMC with additional opportunities to breastfeed improved weight gain. Results: In the KMC group, the mean age of regaining birth weight was significantly less (15.68 vs. 24.56 days) and the average daily weight gain was significantly higher (22.09 vs. 10.39 g, p < .001) than controls. Conclusion: KMC with additional opportunities to breastfeed was found to be an effective intervention for LBWs with delayed weight gain and should be considered to be an effective strategy. PMID:24868132
da Silva, Laura Johanson; Leite, Josete Luzia; Scochi, Carmen Gracinda Silvan; da Silva, Leila Rangel; da Silva, Thiago Privado
OBJECTIVE: construct an explanatory theoretical model about nurses' adherence to the Kangaroo Care Method at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, based on the meanings and interactions for care management. METHOD: qualitative research, based on the reference framework of the Grounded Theory. Eight nurses were interviewed at a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The comparative analysis of the data comprised the phases of open, axial and selective coding. A theoretical conditional-causal model was constructed. RESULTS: four main categories emerged that composed the analytic paradigm: Giving one's best to the Kangaroo Method; Working with the complexity of the Kangaroo Method; Finding (de)motivation to apply the Kangaroo Method; and Facing the challenges for the adherence to and application of the Kangaroo Method. CONCLUSIONS: the central phenomenon revealed that each nurse and team professional has a role of multiplying values and practices that may or may not be constructive, potentially influencing the (dis)continuity of the Kangaroo Method at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The findings can be used to outline management strategies that go beyond the courses and training and guarantee the strengthening of the care model. PMID:26155013
Hunter, Erin C; Callaghan-Koru, Jennifer A; Al Mahmud, Abdullah; Shah, Rashed; Farzin, Azadeh; Cristofalo, Elizabeth A; Akhter, Sadika; Baqui, Abdullah H
Bangladesh has one of the world's highest rates of low birth weight along with prevalent traditional care practices that leave newborns highly vulnerable to hypothermia, infection, and early death. We conducted formative research to explore existing newborn care practices in rural Bangladesh with an emphasis on thermal protection, and to identify potential facilitators, barriers, and recommendations for the community level delivery of kangaroo mother care (CKMC). Forty in-depth interviews and 14 focus group discussions were conducted between September and December 2012. Participants included pregnant women and mothers, husbands, maternal and paternal grandmothers, traditional birth attendants, village doctors, traditional healers, pharmacy men, religious leaders, community leaders, and formal healthcare providers. Audio recordings were transcribed and translated into English, and the textual data were analyzed using the Framework Approach. We find that harmful newborn care practices, such as delayed wrapping and early initiation of bathing, are changing as more biomedical advice from formal healthcare providers is reaching the community through word-of-mouth and television campaigns. While the goal of CKMC was relatively easily understood and accepted by many of the participants, logistical and to a lesser extent ideological barriers exist that may keep the practice from being adopted easily. Women feel a sense of inevitable responsibility for household duties despite the desire to provide the best care for their new babies. Our findings showed that participants appreciated CKMC as an appropriate treatment method for ill babies, but were less accepting of it as a protective method of caring for seemingly healthy newborns during the first few days of life. Participants highlighted the necessity of receiving help from family members and witnessing other women performing CKMC with positive outcomes if they are to adopt the behavior themselves. Focusing intervention
Chidambaram, Ambika Gnanam; Manjula, S; Adhisivam, B; Bhat, B Vishnu
Preterm neonates undergo several painful procedures in NICU including heel prick for blood sugar monitoring. Nonpharmacological interventions have been tried to decrease this procedural pain. There are only few studies on Kangaroo mother care (KMC) in reducing pain among preterm neonates. This crossover trial was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital in south India. Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) related to heel prick was assessed in 50 preterm neonates undergoing KMC and compared with 50 preterm babies without KMC. PIPP scores at 15 minutes and 30 minutes after heel prick were significantly less in KMC group compared to control group. Mean PIPP difference between baseline and 30 minutes after heel prick was also significantly low in KMC group compared to control group. KMC is effective in reducing pain due to heel prick among preterm babies.
Kommers, Deedee R; Joshi, Rohan; van Pul, Carola; Atallah, Louis; Feijs, Loe; Oei, Guid; Bambang Oetomo, Sidarto; Andriessen, Peter
To determine whether heart rate variability (HRV) can serve as a surrogate measure to track regulatory changes during kangaroo care, a period of parental coregulation distinct from regulation within the incubator. Nurses annotated the starting and ending times of kangaroo care for 3 months. The pre-kangaroo care, during-kangaroo care, and post-kangaroo care data were retrieved in infants with at least 10 accurately annotated kangaroo care sessions. Eight HRV features (5 in the time domain and 3 in the frequency domain) were used to visually and statistically compare the pre-kangaroo care and during-kangaroo care periods. Two of these features, capturing the percentage of heart rate decelerations and the extent of heart rate decelerations, were newly developed for preterm infants. A total of 191 kangaroo care sessions were investigated in 11 preterm infants. Despite clinically irrelevant changes in vital signs, 6 of the 8 HRV features (SD of normal-to-normal intervals, root mean square of the SD, percentage of consecutive normal-to-normal intervals that differ by >50 ms, SD of heart rate decelerations, high-frequency power, and low-frequency/high-frequency ratio) showed a visible and statistically significant difference (P <.01) between stable periods of kangaroo care and pre-kangaroo care. HRV was reduced during kangaroo care owing to a decrease in the extent of transient heart rate decelerations. HRV-based features may be clinically useful for capturing the dynamic changes in autonomic regulation in response to kangaroo care and other changes in environment and state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mwendwa, A C; Musoke, R N; Wamalwa, D C
To determine the effect of partial Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) on growth rates and duration of hospital stay of Low Birth Weight (LBW) infants. Unblinded, randomised clinical controlled trial. Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Over a nine month period, consecutive recruitment of eligible LBW infants weighing 1000 g to 1750 g was done until a sample of 166 infants was reached. Kangaroo mother care was practised over an eight hour period per day for the intervention group while the controls remained in incubators or cots. Weight, head circumference, and mid upper arm circumference were monitored for all infants till discharge at 1800 g. Of the 166 infants recruited 157 were followed up to discharge. Baseline characteristics were similar for the two groups except for mother's age, with the KMC group mothers having a mean age of 26.5 years while the control group mothers had a mean age of 24 years, (p = 0.04). The KMC group had significantly higher growth rates as shown by the higher mean weight gain of 22.5 g/kg/day compared with 16.7g/kg/day for the control group, (p < 0.001); higher mean head circumference gain of 0.91 cm/week compared with 0.54 cm/week for the control group, (p < 0.001) and higher mean mid upper arm circumference gain of 0.76 cm/week compared with 0.48 cm/week for the control group, (p = 0.002). Although overall duration of stay was similar between study arms, when infants were stratified into those above or below 1500 g KMC infants' duration of stay was significantly shorter than those in regular care. Using logistic regression, KMCwas the strongest predictor formeanweight, meanhead circumference and mean MUAC gain while mother's age (older) was the strongest predictor for mean duration of stay with KMC being an independent predictor of duration of stay. Low birth weight infants in this cohort achieved rates of growth within the recommended intrauterine growth but babies managed using partial KMC grew faster and were thus discharged
Almutairi, Wedad Matar; Ludington-Hoe, Susan M
Less than 20% of the 996 NICUs in the United States routinely practice kangaroo care, due in part to the inadequate knowledge and skills confidence of nurses. Continuing education improves knowledge and skills acquisition, but the effects of a kangaroo care certification course on nurses' knowledge and skills confidence are unknown. A pretest-posttest quasi-experiment was conducted. The Kangaroo Care Knowledge and Skills Confidence Tool was administered to 68 RNs at a 2.5-day course about kangaroo care evidence and skills. Measures of central tendency, dispersion, and paired t tests were conducted on 57 questionnaires. The nurses' characteristics were varied. The mean posttest Knowledge score (M = 88.54, SD = 6.13) was significantly higher than the pretest score (M = 78.7, SD = 8.30), t  = -9.1, p = .000), as was the posttest Skills Confidence score (pretest M = 32.06, SD = 3.49; posttest M = 26.80, SD = 5.22), t  = -8.459, p = .000). The nurses' knowledge and skills confidence of kangaroo care improved following continuing education, suggesting a need for continuing education in this area. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2016;47(11):518-524. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
McCain, Gail C.; Ludington-Hoe, Susan M.; Swinth, Joan Y.; Hadeed, Anthony J.
A 35-week old preterm infant's behavior was fussy and restless in the open crib, but he calmed and fell asleep immediately on being placed skin-to-skin on his mother's chest. Heart rate variability (HRV), a noninvasive method to assess the autonomic nervous system's influence on heart rate, was increased with fussy behavior in the open crib and decreased with sleep during kangaroo care (KC). KC produced changes in behavior and HRV that are illustrative of decreasing stress. PMID:16282226
Pervin, Jesmin; Gustafsson, Frida E; Moran, Allisyn C; Roy, Suchismita; Persson, Lars Åke; Rahman, Anisur
This study evaluated stable and unstable low birthweight infants admitted to a Kangaroo mother care (KMC) unit at a resource-limited rural hospital in Bangladesh. This was a descriptive consecutive patient series study of 423 low birthweight neonates <2500 g enrolled from July 2007 to December 2010. KMC was initiated as soon as possible after birth, regardless of health, and we monitored skin-to-skin contact, weight gain, exclusive breastfeeding, length of hospital stay and death rates. Mean birthweight was 1796 g, and mean gestational age was 34.9 weeks. Mean (median, 90th percentile) time of skin-to-skin initiation for stable and unstable neonates was 1.1 h (0.3-2.5) and 1.7 h (0.3-3.0), respectively. Adjusted mean daily skin-to-skin contact duration was significantly higher for unstable infants. About 99% of neonates were exclusively breastfed. The death rate was 8.3% (stable 1.9%, unstable 19%) at discharge. Neonatal mortality rate was 90 per 1000 live births (stable: 23 per 1000; unstable: 203 per 1000). Skin-to-skin duration was higher for unstable than stable low birthweight infants, and exclusive breastfeeding was almost universal at discharge. KMC was suitable for unstable infants and may be successfully implemented in resource-limited hospitals. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Broughton, Edward I; Gomez, Ivonne; Sanchez, Nieves; Vindell, Concepción
To examine the costs of implementing kangaroo mother care (KMC) in a referral hospital in Nicaragua, including training, implementation, and ongoing operating costs, and to estimate the economic impact on the Nicaraguan health system if KMC were implemented in other maternity hospitals in the country. After receiving clinical training in KMC, the implementation team trained their colleagues, wrote guidelines for clinicians and education material for parents, and ensured adherence to the new guidelines. The intervention began September 2010 The study compared data on infant weight, medication use, formula consumption, incubator use, and hospitalization for six months before and after implementation. Cost data were collected from accounting records of the implementers and health ministry formularies. A total of 46 randomly selected infants before implementation were compared to 52 after implementation. Controlling for confounders, neonates after implementation had lower lengths of hospitalization by 4.64 days (P = 0.017) and 71% were exclusively breastfed (P < 0.001). The intervention cost US$ 23 113 but the money saved with shorter hospitalization, elimination of incubator use, and lower antibiotic and infant formula costs made up for this expense in 1 - 2 months. Extending KMC to 12 other facilities in Nicaragua is projected to save approximately US$ 166 000 (based on the referral hospital incubator use estimate) or US$ 233 000 after one year (based on the more conservative incubator use estimate). Treating premature and low-birth-weight infants in Nicaragua with KMC implemented as a quality improvement program saves money within a short period even without considering the beneficial health effects of KMC. Implementation in more facilities is strongly recommended.
Athanasopoulou, Eirini; Fox, John R E
The birth of a premature infant can have adverse effects on the mood of mothers and on the interaction patterns between parents and their preterm babies. The aim of the present systematic review was to examine whether the Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) intervention can attenuate these adverse psychological effects of a premature birth by ameliorating negative maternal mood and/or promoting more positive interactions between preterm infants and their parents. The results showed that although findings of studies were inconclusive, there is some evidence to suggest that KMC can make a positive difference on these areas. Specifically, it was found that KMC can improve negative maternal mood (e.g., anxiety or depression) and promote more positive parent-child interactions. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Feldman, Ruth; Weller, Aron; Sirota, Lea; Eidelman, Arthur I
The provision of maternal-infant body contact during a period of maternal separation was examined for its effects on parent-infant and triadic interactions. Participants were 146 three-month-old preterm infants and their parents, half of whom received skin-to-skin contact, or kangaroo care (KC), in the neonatal nursery. Global relational style and micro-patterns of proximity and touch were coded. Following KC, mothers and fathers were more sensitive and less intrusive, infants showed less negative affect, and family style was more cohesive. Among KC families, maternal and paternal affectionate touch of infant and spouse was more frequent, spouses remained in closer proximity, and infant proximity position was conducive to mutual gaze and touch during triadic play. The role of touch as a constituent of the co-regulatory parent-infant and triadic systems and the effects of maternal contact on mothering, co-parenting, and family processes are discussed.
Sontheimer, Dieter; Fischer, Christine B; Buch, Kerstin E
Compared with in utero transport, incubator transport for preterm infants has several disadvantages including instability during transport with increased mortality and morbidity, lack of adequate systems for securing the infant in the event of an accident, and separation of mother and infant. As a new kind of postnatal transportation that bears some analogy to in utero transport and may be safer than incubator transport, we investigated kangaroo transport, transporting the infant on the mother's or other caregiver's chest. This article presents a description and preliminary data for kangaroo transport. We conducted kangaroo transports of 31 stable preterm and term infants in different settings and recorded data regarding transport conditions and cardiorespiratory stability. Eighteen transports were back transfers, and 13 were transfers in. Twenty-seven transports were conducted by the mother, 1 by the father, 2 by nurses, and 1 by a doctor. Transport distance was 2 to 400 km. Heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, and rectal temperature remained stable during all kangaroo transports lasting 10 to 300 minutes. Weight at transport was 1220 to 3720 g. Parents felt very comfortable and safe and appreciated this method of transport. Kangaroo transport promotes mother-infant closeness and might ameliorate several of the risks associated with incubator transport.
Lydon, Megan; Longwe, Monica; Likomwa, Dyson; Lwesha, Victoria; Chimtembo, Lydia; Donohue, Pamela; Guenther, Tanya; Valsangar, Bina
Despite introduction of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) in Malawi over a decade ago, preterm birth remains the leading cause of neonatal mortality. Although KMC is initiated in the health care facility, robust community follow-up is critical for survival and optimal development of preterm and low birth weight infants post-discharge. The objective of this qualitative study was to gain insight into community and health worker understanding, attitudes, beliefs and practices around preterm and low birth weight babies and KMC in Malawi. A total of 152 participants were interviewed in two districts in southern Malawi, Machinga and Thyolo, in April 2015. Focus group discussions (groups = 11, n = 132) were conducted with pregnant women, community members and women who have practiced KMC. In-depth interviews (n = 20) were conducted with fathers who have practiced KMC, community and religious leaders, and health workers. Purposive and snowball sampling were employed to identify participants. Thematic content analysis was conducted. KMC mothers and fathers only learned about KMC and care for preterm newborns after delivery of a child in need of this care. Men typically were not included in KMC counseling due to societal gender roles. Health facilities were the main source of information on KMC, however informal networks among women provided some degree of knowledge exchange. Community leaders were regarded as major facilitators of health information, conveners, key influencers, and policy-makers. Religious leaders were regarded as advocates and emotional support for families with preterm infants. Finally, while many participants initially had negative feelings towards preterm births and KMC, the large majority saw a shift in their perceptions through health counseling, peer modeling, and personal success with KMC. The findings offer several opportunities to improve KMC implementation including 1) earlier introduction of KMC to pregnant women and their families that are
Pike, Melissa; Kritzinger, Alta; Krüger, Esedra
To describe the breastfeeding characteristics of late-preterm infants (LPIs) in a kangaroo mother care (KMC) unit. In a 20-bed KMC unit, the breastfeeding of 73 purposively-selected LPIs' (mean gestational age: 34.8 weeks) was observed once-off, using the Preterm Infant Breastfeeding Behavior Scale. Participants' mean age was 9.5 days, mean number of days in the unit was 3.1 days, and mean number of days breastfeeding was 7.5 on observation. Only 13.7% of participants were directly breastfeeding without supplementary naso- or orogastric feeding/cup-feeding and 86.3% received supplementary cup-feeding of expressed breast milk. Most participants did not exhibit obvious rooting (83.5%) and although most latched-on (97.3%), those who did, latched shallowly (93%). The mean longest sucking burst was 18.8 (standard deviation: 10.5) and approximately half the participants swallowed repeatedly (53.4%). The mean breastfeeding session duration was 17.8 minutes, but most participants breastfed for less than 10 minutes (76.7%). No statistically significant differences in breastfeeding characteristics were detected between participants of different chronological ages. A general trend toward more mature behaviors in participants' breastfeeding for more days was present for many breastfeeding characteristics. More infants exhibited the most mature behavior for each breastfeeding characteristic when the environment was quiet, rather than noisy and disturbing, except for depth of latching (quiet: 0%, disturbance: 15.2%). LPIs in this sample presented with subtle breastfeeding difficulties, highlighting their need for breastfeeding support. Further research is required to examine the effect of KMC on breastfeeding in LPIs.
Bergh, Anne-Marie; Manu, Rhoda; Davy, Karen; van Rooyen, Elise; Asare, Gloria Quansah; Williams, J Koku Awoonor; Dedzo, McDamien; Twumasi, Akwasi; Nang-Beifubah, Alexis
Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is a safe and effective method of caring for low birth weight infants and is promoted for its potential to improve newborn survival. Many countries find it difficult to take KMC to scale in healthcare facilities providing newborn care. KMC Ghana was an initiative to scale up KMC in four regions in Ghana. Research findings from two outreach trials in South Africa informed the design of the initiative. Two key points of departure were to equip healthcare facilities that conduct deliveries with the necessary skills for KMC practice and to single out KMC for special attention instead of embedding it in other newborn care initiatives. This paper describes the contextualisation and practical application of previous research findings and the results of monitoring the progress of the implementation of KMC in Ghana. A three-phase outreach intervention was adapted from previous research findings to suit the local setting. A more structured system of KMC regional steering committees was introduced to drive the process and take the initiative forward. During Phase I, health workers in regions and districts were oriented in KMC and received basic support for the management of the outreach. Phase II entailed the strengthening of the regional steering committees. Phase III comprised a more formal assessment, utilising a previously validated KMC progress-monitoring instrument. Twenty-six out of 38 hospitals (68 %) scored over 10 out of 30 and had reached the level of 'evidence of practice' by the end of Phase III. Seven hospitals exceeded expected performance by scoring at the level of 'evidence of routine and institutionalised practice.' The collective mean score for all participating hospitals was 12.07. Hospitals that had attained baby-friendly status or had been re-accredited in the five years before the intervention scored significantly better than the rest, with a mean score of 14.64. The KMC Ghana initiative demonstrated how research findings
Sloan, N L; Camacho, L W; Rojas, E P; Stern, C
Because resources for care of low-birthweight (LBW) infants in developing countries are scarce, the Kangaroo mother method (KMM) was developed. The infant is kept upright in skin-to-skin contact with the mother's breast. Previous studies reported several benefits with the KMM but interpretation of their findings is limited by small size and design weaknesses. We have done a longitudinal, randomised, controlled trial at the Isidro Ayora Maternity Hospital in Quito, Ecuador. Infants with LBW (< 2000 g) who satisfied out-of-risk criteria of tolerance of food and weight stabilisation were randomly assigned to KMM and control (standard incubator care) groups (n = 128 and 147, respectively). During 6 months of follow-up the KMM group had a significantly lower rate than the control group of serious illness (lower-respiratory-tract disorders, apnoea, aspiration, pneumonia, septicaemia, general infections; 7 [5%] vs 27 [18%], p < 0.002), although differences between the groups in less severe morbidity were not significant. There was no significant difference in growth or in the proportion of women breastfeeding, perhaps because the proportion breastfeeding was high in both groups owing to strong promotion. Mortality was the same in both groups; most deaths occurred during the stabilisation period before randomisation. KMM mothers made more unscheduled clinic visits than control mothers but their infants had fewer re-admissions and so the cost of care was lower with the KMM. Since the eligibility criteria excluded nearly 50% of LBW infants from the study, the KMM is not universally applicable to these infants. The benefits might be greater in populations where breastfeeding is not so common.
Nguah, Samuel B; Wobil, Priscilla N L; Obeng, Regina; Yakubu, Ayi; Kerber, Kate J; Lawn, Joy E; Plange-Rhule, Gyikua
The practice of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) is life saving in babies weighing less than 2000 g. Little is known about mothers' continued unsupervised practice after discharge from hospitals. This study aimed to evaluate its in-hospital and continued practice in the community among mothers of low birth weight (LBW) infants discharged from two hospitals in Kumasi, Ghana. A longitudinal study of 202 mothers and their inpatient LBW neonates was conducted from November 2009 to May 2010. Mothers were interviewed at recruitment to ascertain their knowledge of KMC, and then oriented on its practice. After discharge, the mothers reported at weekly intervals for four follow up visits where data about their perceptions, attitudes and practices of KMC were recorded. A repeated measure logistic regression analysis was done to assess variability in the binary responses at the various reviews visits. At recruitment 23 (11.4%, 95%CI: 7.4 to 16.6%) mothers knew about KMC. At discharge 95.5% were willing to continue KMC at home with 93.1% willing to practice at night. 95.5% thought KMC was beneficial to them and 96.0% beneficial to their babies. 98.0% would recommend KMC to other mothers with 71.8% willing to practice KMC outdoors.At first follow up visit 99.5% (181) were still practicing either intermittent or continuous KMC. This proportion did not change significantly over the four weeks (OR: 1.4, 95%CI: 0.6 to 3.3, p-value: 0.333). Over the four weeks, increasingly more mothers practiced KMC at night (OR: 1.7, 95%CI: 1.2 to 2.6, p = 0.005), outside their homes (OR: 2.4, 95%CI: 1.7 to 3.3, p < 0.001) and received spousal help (OR: 1.6, 95%CI: 1.1 to 2.4, p = 0.007). Household chores and potentially negative community perceptions of KMC did not affect its practice with odds of 0.8 (95%CI: 0.5 to 1.2, p = 0.282) and 1.0 (95%CI: 0.6 to 1.7, p = 0.934) respectively. During the follow-up period the neonates gained 23.7 sg (95%CI: 22.6 g to 24.7 g) per day. Maternal knowledge of KMC was
Lydon, Megan; Longwe, Monica; Likomwa, Dyson; Lwesha, Victoria; Chimtembo, Lydia; Donohue, Pamela; Guenther, Tanya; Valsangar, Bina
Background Despite introduction of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) in Malawi over a decade ago, preterm birth remains the leading cause of neonatal mortality. Although KMC is initiated in the health care facility, robust community follow-up is critical for survival and optimal development of preterm and low birth weight infants post-discharge. The objective of this qualitative study was to gain insight into community and health worker understanding, attitudes, beliefs and practices around preterm and low birth weight babies and KMC in Malawi. Methods A total of 152 participants were interviewed in two districts in southern Malawi, Machinga and Thyolo, in April 2015. Focus group discussions (groups = 11, n = 132) were conducted with pregnant women, community members and women who have practiced KMC. In-depth interviews (n = 20) were conducted with fathers who have practiced KMC, community and religious leaders, and health workers. Purposive and snowball sampling were employed to identify participants. Thematic content analysis was conducted. Findings KMC mothers and fathers only learned about KMC and care for preterm newborns after delivery of a child in need of this care. Men typically were not included in KMC counseling due to societal gender roles. Health facilities were the main source of information on KMC, however informal networks among women provided some degree of knowledge exchange. Community leaders were regarded as major facilitators of health information, conveners, key influencers, and policy-makers. Religious leaders were regarded as advocates and emotional support for families with preterm infants. Finally, while many participants initially had negative feelings towards preterm births and KMC, the large majority saw a shift in their perceptions through health counseling, peer modeling, and personal success with KMC. Conclusions The findings offer several opportunities to improve KMC implementation including 1) earlier introduction of KMC to
Ramani, Manimaran; Choe, Eunjoo A; Major, Meggin; Newton, Rebecca; Mwenechanya, Musaku; Travers, Colm P; Chomba, Elwyn; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Carlo, Waldemar A
To test the hypothesis that kangaroo mother care (KMC) initiated either at birth or at 1 hour after birth reduces moderate or severe hypothermia in term neonates at (A) 1 hour after birth and (B) at discharge when compared with standard thermoregulation care. Term neonates born at a tertiary delivery centre in Zambia were randomised in two phases (phase 1: birth to 1 hour, phase 2: 1 hour to discharge) to either as much KMC as possible in combination with standard thermoregulation care (KMC group) or to standard thermoregulation care (control group). The primary outcomes were moderate or severe hypothermia (axillary temperature <36.0°C) at (A) 1 hour after birth and (B) at discharge. The proportion of neonates with moderate or severe hypothermia did not differ between the KMC and control groups at 1 hour after birth (25% vs 27%, relative risk (RR)=0.93, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.4, P=0.78) or at discharge (7% vs 2%, RR=2.8, 95% CI 0.6 to 13.9, P=0.16). Hypothermia was not found among the infants who had KMC for at least 9 hours or 80% of the hospital stay. KMC practised as much as possible in combination with standard thermoregulation care initiated either at birth or at 1 hour after birth did not reduce moderate or severe hypothermia in term infants compared with standard thermoregulation care. The current study also shows that duration of KMC either for at least 80% of the time or at least 9 hours during the day of birth was effective in preventing hypothermia in term infants. NCT02189759. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Neogi, Sutapa B; Chauhan, Monika; Sharma, Jyoti; Negandhi, Preeti; Sethy, Ghanshyam
Preterm birth is one of the leading causes of under-five child deaths worldwide and in India. Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is a powerful and easy-to-use method to promote health and well-being and reduce morbidity and mortality in preterm/low birth weight (LBW) babies. As the part of the roll-out of India Newborn Action Plan interventions, we implemented KMC in select facilities with an objective to assess the responsiveness of public health system to roll out KMC. KMC intervention was implemented in two select high priority districts, Gaya and Purnea in Bihar over the duration of 8 months from August 2015 to March 2016. The implementation of intervention was phased out into; situation analysis, implementation of intervention, and interim assessment. KMC model, as envisaged keeping in mind the building blocks of health system, was established in 6 identified health-care facilities. A pretested simple checklist was used to assess the awareness, knowledge, skills, and practice of KMC during baseline situational analysis and interim assessment phases for comparison. The intervention clearly seemed to improve the awareness among auxiliary nurse midwives/nurses about KMC. Improvements were also observed in the availability of infrastructure required for KMC and support logistics like facility for manual expression of breast milk, cups/suitable devices such as paladi cups for feeding small babies and digital weighing scale. Although the recording of information regarding LBW babies and KMC practice improved, still there is scope for much improvement. There is a commitment at the national level to promote KMC in every facility. The present experience shows the possibility of rolling out KMC in secondary level facilities with support from government functionaries.
Gathwala, Geeta; Singh, Bir; Balhara, Bharti
To determine whether Kangaroo mother care (KMC) facilitates mother baby attachment in low birth weight infants. Over 16 month period 110 neonates were randomized into kangaroo mother care group and control group using a random number table. The kangaroo group was subjected to Kangaroo mother care for at least 6 hours per day. The babies also received kangaroo care after shifting out from NICU and at home. The control group received standard care (incubator or open care system). After 3 months followup, structured maternal interview was conducted to assess attachment between mothers and their babies. Mean birth weight was 1.69 +/- 0.11 Kg in KMC group compared to 1.690 +/- 0.12 Kg in control group (p>0.05). Mean gestational age was 35.48 +/- 1.20 week in KMC group and 35.04+/-1.09 week in the control group (p>0.05). KMC was initiated at a mean age of 1.72+/-0.45 days. The duration of KMC in first month was 10.21+/-1.50 hour, in the 2nd month was 10.03+/-1.57 hour and in the 3rd month was 8.97+/-1.37 hours. The duration of hospital stay was significantly shorter in the KMC group (3.56+/-0.57 days) compared to control group (6.80+/-1.30 days). The total attachment score (24.46+/-1.64) in the KMC group was significantly higher than that obtained in control group (18.22+/-1.79, p< 0.001). In KMC group, mother was more often the main caretaker of the baby. Mothers were significantly more involved in care taking activities like bathing, diapering, sleeping with their babies and spent more time beyond usual care taking. They went out without their babies less often and only for unavoidable reasons. They derived greater pleasure from their babies. KMC facilitates mother baby attachment in low birth weight infants.
Tully, Kristin P; Holditch-Davis, Diane; White-Traut, Rosemary C; David, Richard; O'Shea, T Michael; Geraldo, Victoria
To test the effects of kangaroo care (KC) on breastfeeding outcomes in preterm infants compared with two control groups and to explore whether maternal-infant characteristics and the mother's choice to use KC were related to breastfeeding measures. Secondary analysis of a multisite, stratified, randomized three-arm trial. The treatment groups used KC, auditory-tactile-visual-vestibular (ATVV) intervention, or received preterm infant care information. Neonatal intensive care units from 4 hospitals in the United States from 2006 to 2011. Racially diverse mothers (N = 231) and their preterm infants born weighing less than 1,750 g. Mothers and their infants were enrolled once the infants were no longer critically ill, weighed at least 1,000 g, and could be safely held outside the incubator by parents. Participants were instructed by study nurses; those allocated to the KC or ATVV groups were asked to engage in these interactions with their infants for a minimum of 3 times a week in the hospital and at home until their infants reached age 2 months adjusted for prematurity. Feeding at the breast during hospitalization, the duration of postdischarge breastfeeding, and breastfeeding exclusivity after hospital discharge did not differ statistically among the treatment groups. Regardless of group assignment, married, older, and more educated women were more likely to feed at the breast during hospitalization. Mothers who practiced KC, regardless of randomly allocated group, were more likely to provide their milk than those who did not practice KC. Breastfeeding duration was greatest among more educated women. As implemented in this study, assignment to the KC group did not appear to influence the measured breastfeeding outcomes. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Background The practice of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) is life saving in babies weighing less than 2000 g. Little is known about mothers' continued unsupervised practice after discharge from hospitals. This study aimed to evaluate its in-hospital and continued practice in the community among mothers of low birth weight (LBW) infants discharged from two hospitals in Kumasi, Ghana. Methods A longitudinal study of 202 mothers and their inpatient LBW neonates was conducted from November 2009 to May 2010. Mothers were interviewed at recruitment to ascertain their knowledge of KMC, and then oriented on its practice. After discharge, the mothers reported at weekly intervals for four follow up visits where data about their perceptions, attitudes and practices of KMC were recorded. A repeated measure logistic regression analysis was done to assess variability in the binary responses at the various reviews visits. Results At recruitment 23 (11.4%, 95%CI: 7.4 to 16.6%) mothers knew about KMC. At discharge 95.5% were willing to continue KMC at home with 93.1% willing to practice at night. 95.5% thought KMC was beneficial to them and 96.0% beneficial to their babies. 98.0% would recommend KMC to other mothers with 71.8% willing to practice KMC outdoors. At first follow up visit 99.5% (181) were still practicing either intermittent or continuous KMC. This proportion did not change significantly over the four weeks (OR: 1.4, 95%CI: 0.6 to 3.3, p-value: 0.333). Over the four weeks, increasingly more mothers practiced KMC at night (OR: 1.7, 95%CI: 1.2 to 2.6, p = 0.005), outside their homes (OR: 2.4, 95%CI: 1.7 to 3.3, p < 0.001) and received spousal help (OR: 1.6, 95%CI: 1.1 to 2.4, p = 0.007). Household chores and potentially negative community perceptions of KMC did not affect its practice with odds of 0.8 (95%CI: 0.5 to 1.2, p = 0.282) and 1.0 (95%CI: 0.6 to 1.7, p = 0.934) respectively. During the follow-up period the neonates gained 23.7 sg (95%CI: 22.6 g to 24.7 g) per day
Tully, Kristin P.; Holditch-Davis, Diane; White-Traut, Rosemary C.; David, Richard; O’Shea, T. Michael; Geraldo, Victoria
Objective To test the effects of kangaroo care (KC) on breastfeeding outcomes in preterm infants compared to two control groups and to explore whether maternal-infant characteristics and the mother’s choice to use KC were related to breastfeeding measures. Design Secondary analysis of a multisite, stratified, and randomized 3-arm trial. The treatment groups used KC, auditory-tactile-visual-vestibular (ATVV) intervention, or preterm infant care information. Setting Neonatal intensive care units from 4 hospitals in the United States from 2006–2011. Participants Racially diverse mothers (N=231) and their preterm infants born weighing < 1750 grams. Methods Mothers and their infants were enrolled once the infants were no longer critically ill, weighed at least 1000 grams, and could be safely held outside of the incubator by parents. Participants were instructed by study nurses; those allocated to either KC or ATVV were asked to engage in these interactions for a minimum of 3 times a week in the hospital and at home until 2 months adjusted age. Results Feeding at the breast during hospitalization, the duration of post-discharge breastfeeding, and breastfeeding exclusivity after hospital discharge did not differ statistically among the treatment groups. Regardless of group assignment, married, older, and more educated women were more likely to feed at the breast during hospitalization. Mothers who practiced KC, regardless of randomly allocated group, were more likely to provide their milk than those who did not practice KC. Breastfeeding duration was greatest among more educated women. Conclusion As implemented in this study, assignment to KC did not appear to influence the measured breastfeeding outcomes. PMID:26815798
Morgan, Melissa C; Nambuya, Harriet; Waiswa, Peter; Tann, Cally; Elbourne, Diana; Seeley, Janet; Allen, Elizabeth; Lawn, Joy E
Kangaroo mother care (KMC) for stable neonates ≤2000 g (g) is associated with decreased mortality, sepsis, hypothermia, and length of stay compared to conventional care. The World Health Organization states that KMC "should be initiated… as soon as newborns are clinically stable " . However, the majority of deaths occur in unstable neonates. We aimed to determine the proportion of admitted neonates meeting proposed instability criteria, assess the feasibility of providing KMC to unstable neonates, and evaluate the acceptability of this intervention to parents and providers at Jinja Regional Referral Hospital in Uganda. This was a mixed-methods study. We recorded data including birthweight, chronological age, and treatments administered from medical charts, and calculated the percentage of clinically unstable neonates, defined as the need for ≥2 medical therapies in the first 48 hours of admission. We enrolled a sample of neonates meeting pre-defined instability criteria. Mothers were counselled to provide KMC as close to continuously as possible. We calculated the median duration of KMC per episode and per day. To explore acceptability, we conducted semi-structured interviews with parents and newborn unit care providers, and analysed data using the thematic content approach. We included 254 neonates in the audit, 10 neonates in the feasibility sub-study, and 20 participants in the acceptability sub-study. Instability criteria were easily implementable, identifying 89% of neonates as unstable in the audit. The median duration of individual KMC episodes ranged from 115 to 134 minutes. The median daily duration ranged from 4.5 to 9.7 hours. Seventy-five percent of interviewees felt KMC could be used in neonates concurrently receiving other medical therapies. Barriers included lack of resources (beds/space, monitoring devices), privacy issues, inadequate education, and difficulties motivating mothers to devote time to KMC. Recommendations included staff
Morgan, Melissa C; Nambuya, Harriet; Waiswa, Peter; Tann, Cally; Elbourne, Diana; Seeley, Janet; Allen, Elizabeth; Lawn, Joy E
Background Kangaroo mother care (KMC) for stable neonates ≤2000 g (g) is associated with decreased mortality, sepsis, hypothermia, and length of stay compared to conventional care. The World Health Organization states that KMC “should be initiated… as soon as newborns are clinically stable” . However, the majority of deaths occur in unstable neonates. We aimed to determine the proportion of admitted neonates meeting proposed instability criteria, assess the feasibility of providing KMC to unstable neonates, and evaluate the acceptability of this intervention to parents and providers at Jinja Regional Referral Hospital in Uganda. Methods This was a mixed-methods study. We recorded data including birthweight, chronological age, and treatments administered from medical charts, and calculated the percentage of clinically unstable neonates, defined as the need for ≥2 medical therapies in the first 48 hours of admission. We enrolled a sample of neonates meeting pre-defined instability criteria. Mothers were counselled to provide KMC as close to continuously as possible. We calculated the median duration of KMC per episode and per day. To explore acceptability, we conducted semi-structured interviews with parents and newborn unit care providers, and analysed data using the thematic content approach. Findings We included 254 neonates in the audit, 10 neonates in the feasibility sub-study, and 20 participants in the acceptability sub-study. Instability criteria were easily implementable, identifying 89% of neonates as unstable in the audit. The median duration of individual KMC episodes ranged from 115 to 134 minutes. The median daily duration ranged from 4.5 to 9.7 hours. Seventy-five percent of interviewees felt KMC could be used in neonates concurrently receiving other medical therapies. Barriers included lack of resources (beds/space, monitoring devices), privacy issues, inadequate education, and difficulties motivating mothers to devote time to KMC
Gavhane, Sunil; Eklare, Deepak; Mohammad, Haseeb
Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) has been gaining acceptance as an effective alternative to incubator based Conventional Medical Care (CMC) in preterm or Low Birth Weight (LBW) infants especially in resource scarce developing countries. To report and analyse the long-term effects of KMC for relatively stable Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants on nutritional indicators and feeding conditions at 6-12 months of corrected age. This randomized controlled trial was done at a Level III Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of a teaching institution in southern India. One hundred and forty neonates with birth weight <1500gm were enrolled. Inborn singleton, VLBW (birth weight <1500gm) infants, tolerating spoon feeds of 150mL/kg/day and haemodynamically stable (not on oxygen or respiratory support, no apnea for 72 hours, not on any intravenous fluids) were eligible. Infants with major malformation were excluded. Babies were randomized to KMC group or CMC group. At 6 to 12 months corrected age, the assessment included the measurement of growth parameters in terms of malnutrition, wasting, stunting and having small head. Feeding information was collected in relation to duration of exclusive or partial breastfeeding (months of chronological age and of corrected age), the age (chronological age and corrected age) at which weaning diet was started and the type of weaning diet. Comparisons between study groups for primary outcomes and secondary outcomes were performed with Odds Ratio (OR) calculator using Medcalc online statistical software. A total of 91 infants were followed at 6-12 months of corrected age. There was no difference between two groups in the incidence of malnutrition, wasting, stunting and having small head (47.7% vs 31.9%, p-0.13), (34.1% vs. 31.9%, p-0.83), (22.7% vs 12.8%, p-0.22) and (18.2% vs.31.9%, p-0.14). Although KMC group babies had better head growth and lesser weight and length compared to the CMC group, it was not statistically significant. The breast
Nagai, S; Andrianarimanana, D; Rabesandratana, N; Yonemoto, N; Nakayama, T; Mori, R
The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of earlier continuous Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) for relatively stable low-birth-weight (LBW) infants in a resource-limited country. A randomized controlled trial was performed in LBW infants at a referral hospital in Madagascar. Earlier continuous KMC (intervention) was begun as soon as possible, within 24 h postbirth, and later continuous KMC (control: conventional care) was begun after complete stabilization (generally after 24 h postbirth). Main outcome measure was mortality during the first 28 days postbirth. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00531492. A total of 73 infants (intervention 37, control 36) were included. Earlier continuous KMC had higher but no statistically different mortality in the first 28 days postbirth (1 vs. 2; risk ratio, 1.95; 95% CIs, 0.18-20.53; p = 1.00). There were no differences in incidence of morbidities. Body weight loss from birth to 24 h postbirth was significantly less in earlier KMC infants compared with later KMC infants. (-34.81 g vs. -73.97 g; mean difference, 39.16 g; 95% CIs, 10.30-68.03; p = 0.01; adjusted p = 0.02). Adverse events and duration of hospitalization were not different between the two groups. Further evaluations of earlier continuous KMC including measurement of KMC dose, are needed in resource-limited countries.
Bera, Alpanamayi; Ghosh, Jagabandhu; Singh, Arun K; Hazra, Avijit; Mukherjee, Suchandra; Mukherjee, Ranajit
Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is a nonconventional low-cost method of newborn care. Our aim was to assess the effect of sustained KMC on the growth and development of low birthweight Indian babies up to the age of 12 months. We enrolled 500 mother and baby pairs, in groups of five, in a parallel group controlled clinical trial. The three infants with the lowest birthweight in each group received KMC, while the other two received conventional care. All babies were exclusively breastfed for 6 months. Babies in the intervention group were provided KMC until the infant was 40 weeks of corrected gestation or weighed 2500 g. Weight, length and head, chest and arm circumferences were evaluated at birth and at the corrected ages of 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Development was assessed using the Developmental Assessment Scales for Indian Infants (DASII) at 12 months. The KMC babies rapidly achieved physical growth parameters similar to the control babies at 40 weeks of corrected age. But after that, they surpassed them, despite being smaller at birth. DASII motor and mental development quotients were also significantly better for KMC babies. The infants in the KMC group showed better physical growth and development than the conventional control group. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Goudarzvand, Laleh; Dabirian, Akram; Nourian, Manijeh; Jafarimanesh, Hadi; Ranjbaran, Mehdi
One of the adjuvant and desirable therapies is skin contact between mother and baby or Kangaroo mother care (KMC) that is a cheap, accessible, relaxing, noninvasive and easy method. This study aimed to compare the effect of conventional phototherapy method and phototherapy along with KMC on cutaneous bilirubin in neonates with physiological jaundice. In this randomized clinical trial, all infants with physiological jaundice who referred for phototherapy to Mofid Hospital of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran were selected by convenience sampling based on inclusion criteria and were randomly assigned into two groups of conventional phototherapy (n = 35) and phototherapy along with KMC (n = 35). The results showed that there was a significant difference in the average volume of skin bilirubin before treatment with cutaneous bilirubin every 24 h after treatment (p < .001). This significant difference was present in both intervention and control groups. Although the average volume of skin bilirubin every 24 h after treatment was lower in the intervention group than the control group, this difference was not statistically significant (p = .236). Mean duration of hospitalization of infants in the intervention group was significantly lower than the control group (2.09 versus 3.03 d, p < .001). Although KMC along with phototherapy has a favorable effect on the reduction of cutaneous bilirubin in neonates with physiological jaundice, there are not significant differences in routine care. This may need to do KMC for a longer time (more than 1 h) which must be surveyed in the future studies. KMC was effective in reduction of the duration of hospitalization in jaundiced infants.
Background Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is a safe and effective method of caring for low birth weight infants and is promoted for its potential to improve newborn survival. Many countries find it difficult to take KMC to scale in healthcare facilities providing newborn care. KMC Ghana was an initiative to scale up KMC in four regions in Ghana. Research findings from two outreach trials in South Africa informed the design of the initiative. Two key points of departure were to equip healthcare facilities that conduct deliveries with the necessary skills for KMC practice and to single out KMC for special attention instead of embedding it in other newborn care initiatives. This paper describes the contextualisation and practical application of previous research findings and the results of monitoring the progress of the implementation of KMC in Ghana. Methods A three-phase outreach intervention was adapted from previous research findings to suit the local setting. A more structured system of KMC regional steering committees was introduced to drive the process and take the initiative forward. During Phase I, health workers in regions and districts were oriented in KMC and received basic support for the management of the outreach. Phase II entailed the strengthening of the regional steering committees. Phase III comprised a more formal assessment, utilising a previously validated KMC progress-monitoring instrument. Results Twenty-six out of 38 hospitals (68 %) scored over 10 out of 30 and had reached the level of ‘evidence of practice’ by the end of Phase III. Seven hospitals exceeded expected performance by scoring at the level of ‘evidence of routine and institutionalised practice.’ The collective mean score for all participating hospitals was 12.07. Hospitals that had attained baby-friendly status or had been re-accredited in the five years before the intervention scored significantly better than the rest, with a mean score of 14.64. Conclusion The KMC Ghana
Hendricks-Munoz, Karen D; Mayers, Roslyn M
This study assessed the impact of a nurse simulation training program on perception of kangaroo mother care (KMC) value and transfer skill competency. An 8-item Likert scale skill survey tool and a 24-item Likert developmental care survey tool were used in a prospective cohort study to analyze perceptions of 30 neonatal nurses who underwent a comprehensive KMC simulation-based training program. Competency skills were evaluated pretraining and tracked by direct observation for 6 months posttraining. Pre- and postsurvey data were analyzed and KMC utilization for preterm infants born at ≤ 34 weeks' gestation was determined. Nurses' competency in infant transfer improved, especially in infants receiving nasal continuous positive airway pressure or ventilator support, from 30 to 93% or 10 to 50%, respectively, p < 0.0001. Neonatal nurses' perceived KMC value increased from 50 to 100%, p < 0.001, and parent KMC utilization increased from 26.5 to 85.9%, p < 0.0001. Nurses' support for parental visitation improved from 38 to 73%, p < 0.001; discussion of KMC with parents on the 1st day increased from 5 to 45%, p < 0.001; and initial day of KMC provision improved from 18.0 ± 2.7 to 5.6 ± 1.2 days, p < 0.001. A comprehensive simulation-based KMC education program improved nurses' perception of KMC value, their competency and comfort in infant transfer for KMC care, and successfully promoted KMC parent utilization for the preterm infant in the neonatal intensive care unit. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Vesel, Linda; Bergh, Anne-Marie; Kerber, Kate J; Valsangkar, Bina; Mazia, Goldy; Moxon, Sarah G; Blencowe, Hannah; Darmstadt, Gary L; de Graft Johnson, Joseph; Dickson, Kim E; Ruiz Peláez, Juan; von Xylander, Severin; Lawn, Joy E
Preterm birth is now the leading cause of under-five child deaths worldwide with one million direct deaths plus approximately another million where preterm is a risk factor for neonatal deaths due to other causes. There is strong evidence that kangaroo mother care (KMC) reduces mortality among babies with birth weight <2000 g (mostly preterm). KMC involves continuous skin-to-skin contact, breastfeeding support, and promotion of early hospital discharge with follow-up. The World Health Organization has endorsed KMC for stabilised newborns in health facilities in both high-income and low-resource settings. The objectives of this paper are to: (1) use a 12-country analysis to explore health system bottlenecks affecting the scale-up of KMC; (2) propose solutions to the most significant bottlenecks; and (3) outline priority actions for scale-up. The bottleneck analysis tool was applied in 12 countries in Africa and Asia as part of the Every Newborn Action Plan process. Country workshops involved technical experts to complete the survey tool, which is designed to synthesise and grade health system "bottlenecks", factors that hinder the scale-up, of maternal-newborn intervention packages. We used quantitative and qualitative methods to analyse the bottleneck data, combined with literature review, to present priority bottlenecks and actions relevant to different health system building blocks for KMC. Marked differences were found in the perceived severity of health system bottlenecks between Asian and African countries, with the former reporting more significant or very major bottlenecks for KMC with respect to all the health system building blocks. Community ownership and health financing bottlenecks were significant or very major bottlenecks for KMC in both low and high mortality contexts, particularly in South Asia. Significant bottlenecks were also reported for leadership and governance and health workforce building blocks. There are at least a dozen countries
Background Preterm birth is now the leading cause of under-five child deaths worldwide with one million direct deaths plus approximately another million where preterm is a risk factor for neonatal deaths due to other causes. There is strong evidence that kangaroo mother care (KMC) reduces mortality among babies with birth weight <2000 g (mostly preterm). KMC involves continuous skin-to-skin contact, breastfeeding support, and promotion of early hospital discharge with follow-up. The World Health Organization has endorsed KMC for stabilised newborns in health facilities in both high-income and low-resource settings. The objectives of this paper are to: (1) use a 12-country analysis to explore health system bottlenecks affecting the scale-up of KMC; (2) propose solutions to the most significant bottlenecks; and (3) outline priority actions for scale-up. Methods The bottleneck analysis tool was applied in 12 countries in Africa and Asia as part of the Every Newborn Action Plan process. Country workshops involved technical experts to complete the survey tool, which is designed to synthesise and grade health system "bottlenecks", factors that hinder the scale-up, of maternal-newborn intervention packages. We used quantitative and qualitative methods to analyse the bottleneck data, combined with literature review, to present priority bottlenecks and actions relevant to different health system building blocks for KMC. Results Marked differences were found in the perceived severity of health system bottlenecks between Asian and African countries, with the former reporting more significant or very major bottlenecks for KMC with respect to all the health system building blocks. Community ownership and health financing bottlenecks were significant or very major bottlenecks for KMC in both low and high mortality contexts, particularly in South Asia. Significant bottlenecks were also reported for leadership and governance and health workforce building blocks. Conclusions There
Sharma, Deepak; Farahbakhsh, Nazanin; Sharma, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep; Sharma, Akash
To evaluate the role of kangaroo mother care (KMC) on growth and breast feeding rates in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. A literature search was done to identify eligible studies using various electronic database searches including PubMed and EMBASE, various Web of Science including Scopus, Index Copernicus, African Index Medicus (AIM), Thomson Reuters (ESCI), Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS), SCIWIN (Scientific World Index), Google Scholar, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Information System (LILACS), Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (IMEMR), Index Medicus for the South-East Asian Region (IMSEAR), and Western Pacific Region Index Medicus (WPRIM) and various clinical trial registries. Thirteen studies that evaluated the role of KMC in VLBW infants in improvement of growth outcome (weight/length/head circumference) or breast feeding rates as their primary or secondary outcome, were included in this systematic review. Seven studies evaluated both growth and breast feeding rates, four studies evaluated breast feeding rates and two studies evaluated growth outcome. All included studies except one either showed positive effect or no effect on growth and breast feeding rates. KMC has a positive effect on growth of the VLBW infants and also leads to increase in the breast-feeding rates. KMC should be an integral part of neonatal care and should be promoted as an essential newborn care component.
Nagai, Shuko; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Rabesandratana, Norotiana; Andrianarimanana, Diavolana; Nakayama, Takeo; Mori, Rintaro
To examine the long-term effects of earlier initiated continuous Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) for relatively stable low-birth-weight (LBW) infants in a resource-limited country. A randomized controlled trial with long-term follow-up was performed in LBW infants in Madagascar. Earlier continuous KMC (intervention group) was initiated as soon as possible within 24 h postbirth, and later continuous KMC (control group: conventional care) was initiated after complete stabilization. Outcome measures were mortality or readmission, nutritional indicators at 6-12 months postbirth and feeding condition at 6 months postbirth (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00531492). A total of 72 infants were followed for mortality or readmission at 6-12 months postbirth. There was no difference between the two groups (7/36 vs. 7/36, Risk ratio (RR), 1.00; 95% CIs, 0.39-2.56; p = 1.00). The proportion of exclusive breast feeding (EBF) at 6 months postbirth was significantly higher with earlier KMC than later KMC (12/29 vs. 4/26; RR 2.69; 95% CIs, 1.00-7.31; p = 0.04). There were no differences in nutritional indicators between the two groups at 6-12 months postbirth. Earlier initiated continuous KMC results in a significantly higher proportion of EBF at 6 months postbirth. Further larger-scale long-term evaluations of earlier initiated continuous KMC for LBW infants are needed. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.
Dezhdar, Shahin; Jahanpour, Faezeh; Firouz Bakht, Saeedeh; Ostovar, Afshin
Hospitalized premature babies often undergo various painful procedures. Kangaroo mother care (KMC) and swaddling are two pain reduction methods. This study was undertaken to compare the effects of swaddling and KMC on pain during venous sampling in premature neonates. This study was performed as a randomized clinical trial on 90 premature neonates. The neonates were divided into three groups using a random allocation block. The three groups were group A (swaddling), group B (KMC), and group C (control). In all three groups, the heart rate and arterial oxygen saturation were measured and recorded in time intervals of 30 seconds before, during, and 30, 60, 90, and 120 seconds after blood sampling. The neonate's face was video recorded and assessed using the premature infant pain profile (PIPP) at time intervals of 30 seconds. The data was analyzed using the t-test, chi-square test, Repeated Measure analysis of variance (ANOVA), Kruskal-Wallis, Post-hoc, and Bonferroni test. The findings revealed that pain was reduced to a great extent in the swaddling and KMC methods compared to the control group. However, there was no significant difference between KMC and swaddling (P ≥ 0.05). The results of this study indicate that there is no meaningful difference between swaddling and KMC on physiological indexes and pain in neonates. Therefore, the swaddling method may be a good substitute for KMC.
Bergh, Anne-Marie; de Graft-Johnson, Joseph; Khadka, Neena; Om'Iniabohs, Alyssa; Udani, Rekha; Pratomo, Hadi; De Leon-Mendoza, Socorro
Kangaroo mother care has been highlighted as an effective intervention package to address high neonatal mortality pertaining to preterm births and low birth weight. However, KMC uptake and service coverage have not progressed well in many countries. The aim of this case study was to understand the institutionalisation processes of facility-based KMC services in three Asian countries (India, Indonesia and the Philippines) and the reasons for the slow uptake of KMC in these countries. Three main data sources were available: background documents providing insight in the state of implementation of KMC in the three countries; visits to a selection of health facilities to gauge their progress with KMC implementation; and data from interviews and meetings with key stakeholders. The establishment of KMC services at individual facilities began many years before official prioritisation for scale-up. Three major themes were identified: pioneers of facility-based KMC; patterns of KMC knowledge and skills dissemination; and uptake and expansion of KMC services in relation to global trends and national policies. Pioneers of facility-based KMC were introduced to the concept in the 1990s and established the practice in a few individual tertiary or teaching hospitals, without further spread. A training method beneficial to the initial establishment of KMC services in a country was to send institutional health-professional teams to learn abroad, notably in Colombia. Further in-country cascading took place afterwards and still later on KMC was integrated into newborn and obstetric care programs. The patchy uptake and expansion of KMC services took place in three phases aligned with global trends of the time: the pioneer phase with individual champions while the global focus was on child survival (1998-2006); the newborn-care phase (2007-2012); and lastly the current phase where small babies are also included in action plans. This paper illustrates the complexities of implementing a
Rangey, Priya Singh; Sheth, Megha
Background. Massage therapy (MT) and kangaroo mother care (KMC) are both effective in increasing the weight and reducing length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm infants but they have not been compared. Aim. Comparison of effectiveness of MT and KMC on body weight and length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm (LBWPT) infants. Method. 30 LBWPT infants using convenience sampling from Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, V.S. hospital, were randomly divided into 2 equal groups. Group 1 received MT and Group 2 received KMC for 15 minutes, thrice daily for 5 days. Medically stable babies with gestational age < 37 weeks and birth weight < 2500 g were included. Those on ventilators and with congenital, orthopedic, or genetic abnormality were excluded. Outcome measures, body weight and length of hospital stay, were taken before intervention day 1 and after intervention day 5. Level of significance was 5%. Result. Data was analyzed using SPSS16. Both MT and KMC were found to be effective in improving body weight (P = 0.001, P = 0.001). Both were found to be equally effective for improving body weight (P = 0.328) and reducing length of hospital stay (P = 0.868). Conclusion. MT and KMC were found to be equally effective in improving body weight and reducing length of hospital stay. Limitation. Long term follow-up was not taken.
Castral, T C; Warnock, F; Dos Santos, C B; Daré, M F; Moreira, A C; Antonini, S R R; Scochi, C G S
Maternal kangaroo care (MKC) is a naturalistic intervention that alleviates neonatal pain, and mothers are assumed to play a stress regulatory role in MKC. Yet, no MKC infant pain study has examined relationship between maternal and infant stress reactivity concurrently, or whether post-partum depression and/or anxiety (PPDA) alters maternal and neonatal stress response and the regulatory effects of MKC. To examine the concordance of salivary cortisol reactivity between 42 mothers and their stable preterm infants during routine infant heel lance (HL) while in MKC and to compare salivary cortisol between groups of mothers with and without PPDA and their infants. Maternal and infant salivary cortisol samples were collected pre-HL and 20 min post-HL with two additional maternal samples at night and in the morning. Mothers and infants were allocated to with PPDA versus without PPDA study groups on the basis of maternal post-natal mental health assessment scores. Higher mothers' cortisol pre-HL was weakly associated with higher infants' salivary cortisol in response to the HL procedure. Maternal depression and/or anxiety were not associated with infants' cortisol. During HL, both groups of mothers and infants showed no change in salivary cortisol. Concordance between mother and infant salivary cortisol supports the maternal stress regulatory role in MKC. MKC may have stress regulatory benefits for mothers and their preterm infants during HL independent of PPDA. Future MKC studies that target mothers with altered mood will help to build on these findings. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®
Ludington-Hoe, Susan M.; Lewis, Tina; Cong, Xiaomei; Anderson, Laurie; Morgan, Kathy; Reese, Stacey
In a case study, two sets of premature twins were held in Shared Kangaroo Care (KC) while maternal breast and infant body temperatures were recorded. Infant temperatures remained warm and increased during KC and each breast appeared to respond to the thermal needs of the infant on that breast. Physiologic explanations for thermal synchrony exist. The data suggests that twins can be simultaneously held in KC without physiologic compromise. PMID:16620248
Nanavati, Ruchi N; Balan, Rajiv; Kabra, Nandkishor S
To compare the pain relief effect of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) and Expressed Breast Milk (EBM) on the pain associated with adhesive tape removal in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. Randomized Controlled Trial. Neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital. 15 VLBW neonates who needed adhesive tape removal for the first part and 50 VLBW neonates needing adhesive tape removal for the second part. In first stage of the study, we studied whether adhesive tape removal in VLBW neonates was painful. In the second stage, eligible VLBW neonates were randomised to compare the efficacy of KMC and EBM in reducing the pain during the procedure of adhesive tape removal. Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) Score, heart rate, oxygen saturation. There was significant increase in pain associated with the removal of adhesive tape (Mean pre-procedure PIPP score 3.47 ± 0.74; post-procedure mean PIPP score 12.13 ± 2.59; P<0.0001). The post intervention mean PIPP pain score was not significantly different between the KMC and EBM groups (P= 0.62). Removal of adhesive tape is a painful procedure for VLBW neonates. There was no difference between KMC and EBM in relieving pain associated with adhesive tape removal.
Jayaraman, Dhaarani; Mukhopadhyay, Kanya; Bhalla, Anil Kumar; Dhaliwal, Lakhbir Kaur
Breastfeeding at discharge among sick low-birth-weight (LBW) infants is low despite counseling and intervention like kangaroo mother care (KMC). Research aim: The aim was to study the effects of early initiation of KMC on exclusive human milk feeding, growth, mortality, and morbidities in LBW neonates compared with late initiation of KMC during the hospital stay and postdischarge. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in level 2 and 3 areas of a tertiary care neonatal unit over 15 months. Inborn neonates weighing 1 to 1.8 kg and hemodynamically stable were randomized to receive either early KMC, initiated within the first 4 days of life, or late KMC (off respiratory support and intravenous fluids). Follow-up was until 1 month postdischarge. Outcomes were proportion of infants achieving exclusive human milk feeding and direct breastfeeding, growth, mortality and morbidities during hospital stay, and postdischarge feeding and KMC practices until 1 month. The early KMC group ( n = 80) achieved significantly higher exclusive human milk feeding (86% vs. 45%, p < .001) and direct breastfeeding (49% vs. 30%, p = .021) in hospital and almost exclusive human milk feeding (73% vs. 36%, p < .001) until 1 month postdischarge than the late KMC group ( n = 80). The incidence of apnea (11.9% vs. 20%, p = .027) and recurrent apnea requiring ventilation (8.8% vs. 15%, p = .02) were significantly reduced in the early KMC group. There was no significant difference in mortality, morbidities, and growth during the hospital stay and postdischarge. Early KMC significantly increased exclusive human milk feeding and direct breastfeeding in LBW infants.
Fallah, Razieh; Naserzadeh, Naeimah; Ferdosian, Farzad; Binesh, Fariba
The purpose of this research was to compare the analgesic effect of kangaroo mother care (KMC), breastfeeding and swaddling in Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination in term neonates. In a randomized 120 healthy term neonates who received routine BCG vaccination in the first day of their life are distributed into three groups. In group 1, neonates breastfed two minutes before, during and one minute after BCG vaccination. In group 2, neonates received KMC 10 minutes before, during and one minute after vaccination and in group 3, they were swaddled 10 minutes before, during and one minute after vaccination. Primary outcomes included pain score during, one minute and two minutes after BCG vaccination and obtaining pain score of less than three during vaccination . Pain scores during, one minute and two minutes after vaccination in group 1 were lower than in groups 2 and 3. Group 1 had higher success rate in painless vaccination and had lower crying duration in comparison to another groups (p < 0.05) Conclusion: Breastfeeding was more effective than KMC and swaddling in reduction of BCG vaccination pain in healthy term neonates.
Cattaneo, Adriano; Amani, Adidja; Charpak, Nathalie; De Leon-Mendoza, Socorro; Moxon, Sarah; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar; Tamburlini, Giorgio; Villegas, Julieta; Bergh, Anne-Marie
Globally, complications of prematurity are the leading cause of death in children under five. Preterm infants who survive their first month of life are at greater risk for various diseases and impairments in infancy, childhood and later life, representing a heavy social and economic burden for families, communities and health and social systems. Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is recommended as a beneficial and effective intervention for improving short- and long-term preterm birth outcomes in low- and high-income settings. Nevertheless, KMC is not as widely used as it should be. The International Network on KMC runs biennial workshops and congresses to help improve the coverage and quality of KMC worldwide. This paper reports the results of the two-day workshop held in November 2016, where 92 participants from 33 countries shared experiences in a series of round tables, group work sessions and plenaries. Barriers to and enablers of KMC are discussed with regard to parents, health workers and the health system. Key factors for effective implementation and uptake relate to appropriate training for health staff, adherence to protocols and the creation of a welcoming environment for families. Recommendations for planning for national programmes are made according to a six-stage change model. Resources and the cost of making progress are discussed in terms of investment, maintenance, and acceleration and scaling-up costs. KMC training requirements are presented according to three levels of care. To ensure quality KMC, key requisites are proposed for the different KMC components and for sensitive communication with caregivers. The group attending to the monitoring and evaluation of KMC at a national and subnational level highlight the lack of standard indicator definitions. Key priorities for investment include health services research, harmonisation of indicators, development of a costing tool, programming and scaling up, and the follow-up of preterm infants. It is hoped
Lizarazo-Medina, Jenny P; Ospina-Diaz, Juan M; Ariza-Riaño, Nelly E
Describing the efficacy and achievements of the kangaroo mothers' programme (KMP) regarding preterm or low-birth-weight babies' health and development in Hospital San Rafael in Tunja from November 2007 to December 2009. This was a retrospective observational cohort study; 374 infants born prematurely or having low-birth-weight were included to assess household socio-demographic factors, maternal and obstetric history, delivery characteristics and complications and follow-up until 40 weeks post-conception age. There was a high prevalence of teenage pregnancy (17.5 %) and in women older than 35 years (12.6 %), unwanted pregnancy (40.6 %), low quality and poor availability of food in families, complications such as preeclampsia, infection and premature rupture of membranes, 1,969 grams average birth weight, 2,742.9 grams average weight on discharge and 22 grams average weight gain per day. It was found that KMP methodology substantially improved the mothers' psychological aspects and health status and the newborns' prognosis and led to stabilising body temperature and weight gain rate while decreasing risks of complications and nosocomial infection. It also lowered health care costs and shortened hospital stay.
Johnston, C Celeste; Filion, Francoise; Campbell-Yeo, Marsha; Goulet, Celine; Bell, Linda; McNaughton, Kathryn; Byron, Jasmine; Aita, Marilyn; Finley, G Allen; Walker, Claire-Dominique
Skin-to-skin contact, or kangaroo mother care (KMC) has been shown to be efficacious in diminishing pain response to heel lance in full term and moderately preterm neonates. The purpose of this study was to determine if KMC would also be efficacious in very preterm neonates. Preterm neonates (n = 61) between 28 0/7 and 31 6/7 weeks gestational age in three Level III NICU's in Canada comprised the sample. A single-blind randomized crossover design was employed. In the experimental condition, the infant was held in KMC for 15 minutes prior to and throughout heel lance procedure. In the control condition, the infant was in prone position swaddled in a blanket in the incubator. The primary outcome was the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP), which is comprised of three facial actions, maximum heart rate, minimum oxygen saturation levels from baseline in 30-second blocks from heel lance. The secondary outcome was time to recover, defined as heart rate return to baseline. Continuous video, heart rate and oxygen saturation monitoring were recorded with event markers during the procedure and were subsequently analyzed. Repeated measures analysis-of-variance was employed to generate results. PIPP scores at 90 seconds post lance were significantly lower in the KMC condition (8.871 (95%CI 7.852-9.889) versus 10.677 (95%CI 9.563-11.792) p < .001) and non-significant mean differences ranging from 1.2 to1.8. favoring KMC condition at 30, 60 and 120 seconds. Time to recovery was significantly shorter, by a minute(123 seconds (95%CI 103-142) versus 193 seconds (95%CI 158-227). Facial actions were highly significantly lower across all points in time reaching a two-fold difference by 120 seconds post-lance and heart rate was significantly lower across the first 90 seconds in the KMC condition. Very preterm neonates appear to have endogenous mechanisms elicited through skin-to-skin maternal contact that decrease pain response, but not as powerfully as in older preterm neonates. The
Sharma, Deepak; Murki, Srinivas; Pratap, Oleti Tejo
To compare growth outcome and cost-effectiveness of "Kangaroo ward care" (KWC) with "Intermediate intensive care" (IIC) in stable extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. This is secondary analysis of the study and we analyzed 62 ELBW infants, 33 were randomized to KWC and 29 to IIC once the infant reached a weight of 1150 g. Infants in the KWC group were shifted to the Kangaroo ward immediately after randomization and in the IIC group received IIC care till they attain a weight of 1250 g before shifting to Kangaroo ward. The gain in weight (g/day), length (cm/week), and head circumference (cm/week) were comparable between the two groups. The mean weight, length, and head circumference were comparable at term gestational age. The infants in KWC group were shifted five days earlier to Kangaroo ward when compared to IIC group. The cost-effective analysis using "top-down" and "bottom-up" accounting method showed that there was significant reduction of hospital and parents expenditure in KWC group (p < 0.001) with approximate saving of 452 USD for each patient in the KWC group. Early shifting of ELBW infants for KWC is very efficacious and cost-effective intervention when compared to IIC. (CTRI/2014/05/004625).
Lawn, Joy E; Mwansa-Kambafwile, Judith; Horta, Bernardo L; Barros, Fernando C; Cousens, Simon
Background ‘Kangaroo mother care’ (KMC) includes thermal care through continuous skin-to-skin contact, support for exclusive breastfeeding or other appropriate feeding, and early recognition/response to illness. Whilst increasingly accepted in both high- and low-income countries, a Cochrane review (2003) did not find evidence of KMC’s mortality benefit, and did not report neonatal-specific data. Objectives The objectives of this study were to review the evidence, and estimate the effect of KMC on neonatal mortality due to complications of preterm birth. Methods We conducted systematic reviews. Standardized abstraction tables were used and study quality assessed by adapted GRADE methodology. Meta-analyses were undertaken. Results We identified 15 studies reporting mortality and/or morbidity outcomes including nine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and six observational studies all from low- or middle-income settings. Except one, all were hospital-based and included only babies of birth-weight <2000 g (assumed preterm). The one community-based trial had missing birthweight data, as well as other limitations and was excluded. Neonatal-specific data were supplied by two authors. Meta-analysis of three RCTs commencing KMC in the first week of life showed a significant reduction in neonatal mortality [relative risk (RR) 0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.29–0.82] compared with standard care. A meta-analysis of three observational studies also suggested significant mortality benefit (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.58–0.79). Five RCTs suggested significant reductions in serious morbidity for babies <2000 g (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.17–0.65). Conclusion This is the first published meta-analysis showing that KMC substantially reduces neonatal mortality amongst preterm babies (birth weight <2000 g) in hospital, and is highly effective in reducing severe morbidity, particularly from infection. However, KMC remains unavailable at-scale in most low-income countries. PMID:20348117
Mazumder, Sarmila; Taneja, Sunita; Dalpath, Suresh Kumar; Gupta, Rakesh; Dube, Brinda; Sinha, Bireshwar; Bhatia, Kiran; Yoshida, Sachiyo; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Bahl, Rajiv; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Bhandari, Nita; Martines, Jose
Around 70% neonatal deaths occur in low birth weight (LBW) babies. Globally, 15% of babies are born with LBW. Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) appears to be an effective way to reduce mortality and morbidity among LBW babies. KMC comprises of early and continuous skin-to-skin contact between mother and baby as well as exclusive breastfeeding. Evidence derived from hospital-based studies shows that KMC results in a 40% relative reduction in mortality, a 58% relative reduction in the risk of nosocomial infections or sepsis, shorter hospital stay, and a lower risk of lower respiratory tract infections in babies with birth weight <2000 g. There has been considerable interest in KMC initiated outside health facilities for LBW babies born at home or discharged early. Currently, there is insufficient evidence to support initiation of KMC in the community (cKMC). Formative research in our study setting, where 24% of babies are born with LBW, demonstrated that KMC is feasible and acceptable when initiated at home for LBW babies. The aim of this trial is to determine the impact of cKMC on the survival of these babies. This randomized controlled trial is being undertaken in the Palwal and Faridabad districts in the State of Haryana, India. Neonates weighing 1500-2250 g identified within 3 days of birth and their mothers are being enrolled. Other inclusion criteria are that the family is likely to be available in the study area over the next 6 months, that KMC was not initiated in the delivery facility, and that the infant does not have an illness requiring hospitalization. Eligible neonates are randomized into intervention and control groups. The intervention is delivered through home visits during the first month of life by study workers with a background and education similar to that of workers in the government health system. An independent study team collects mortality and morbidity data as well as anthropometric measurements during periodic home visits. The primary outcomes of
Pierrat, Veronique; Coquelin, Anaëlle; Cuttini, Marina; Khoshnood, Babak; Glorieux, Isabelle; Claris, Olivier; Durox, Mélanie; Kaminski, Monique; Ancel, Pierre-Yves; Arnaud, Catherine
To describe the implementation of neurodevelopmental care for newborn preterm infants in neonatal ICUs in France in 2011, analyze changes since 2004, and investigate factors associated with practice. Prospective national cohort study of all births before 32 weeks of gestation. Twenty-five French regions. All neonatal ICUs (n = 66); neonates surviving at discharge (n = 3,005). None. Neurodevelopmental care policies and practices were assessed by structured questionnaires. Proportions of neonates initiating kangaroo care during the first week of life and those whose mothers expressed breast milk were measured as neurodevelopmental care practices. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were used to investigate relationships between kangaroo care or breast-feeding practices and unit policies, taking into account potential confounders. Free visiting policies, bed availability for parents, and kangaroo care encouragement significantly improved between 2004 and 2011 but with large variabilities between units. Kangaroo care initiation varied from 39% for neonates in the most restrictive units to 68% in less restrictive ones (p < 0.001). Individual factors associated with kangaroo care initiation were gestational age (odds ratio, 5.79; 95% CI, 4.49-7.48 for babies born at 27-31 wk compared with babies born at 23-26 wk) and, to a lesser extent, single pregnancy, birthweight above the 10th centile, and mother's employment before pregnancy. At unit level, policies and training in neurodevelopmental care significantly influenced kangaroo care initiation (odds ratio, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.8-7.0 for Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program implementation compared with no training). Breast milk expression by mothers was greater in units with full-time availability professionals trained for breast-feeding support (60% vs 73%; p < 0.0001). Dissemination of neurodevelopmental practices occurred between 2004 and 2011, but large variabilities between units persist
Mitchell, A J; Yates, C C; Williams, D K; Chang, J Y; Hall, R Whit
1. Determine whether stress in preterm infants, measured with salivary cortisol, decreases after five days of Kangaroo Care (KC) compared to five days of Standard Care (SC). 2. To determine whether kangaroo care provides sustainable pain relief beyond the period of skin-to-skin holding. Preterm infants (n = 38) born at 27-30 weeks gestational age were randomized to either the KC or the SC group and received the allocated intervention starting on day of life (DOL) five and continuing for five days. Salivary cortisol was collected on DOL five and again on DOL ten. Differences were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and t tests. Pain during nasal suctioning over five days was assessed using the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP). 1. Adequate saliva samples for salivary cortisol were collected for 13 KC infants and 11 SC infants. There was no main effect of group (p = 0.49), but there was a significant main effect of age (DOL five versus DOL ten), with salivary cortisol levels decreasing in both groups (p = 0.02). 2. Pain scores for both groups (n = 38) indicted mild to moderate pain during suctioning, with no significant difference in pain scores between groups. 1. KC did not affect salivary cortisol levels in preterm neonates, but levels in both the KC and SC groups decreased over time from DOL five to ten. Salivary cortisol may vary with age of infant. 2. Infants experience pain during routine suctioning and may require pain management.
Coquelin, Anaëlle; Cuttini, Marina; Khoshnood, Babak; Glorieux, Isabelle; Claris, Olivier; Durox, Mélanie; Kaminski, Monique; Ancel, Pierre-Yves; Arnaud, Catherine
Objectives: To describe the implementation of neurodevelopmental care for newborn preterm infants in neonatal ICUs in France in 2011, analyze changes since 2004, and investigate factors associated with practice. Design: Prospective national cohort study of all births before 32 weeks of gestation. Setting: Twenty-five French regions. Participants: All neonatal ICUs (n = 66); neonates surviving at discharge (n = 3,005). Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: Neurodevelopmental care policies and practices were assessed by structured questionnaires. Proportions of neonates initiating kangaroo care during the first week of life and those whose mothers expressed breast milk were measured as neurodevelopmental care practices. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were used to investigate relationships between kangaroo care or breast-feeding practices and unit policies, taking into account potential confounders. Free visiting policies, bed availability for parents, and kangaroo care encouragement significantly improved between 2004 and 2011 but with large variabilities between units. Kangaroo care initiation varied from 39% for neonates in the most restrictive units to 68% in less restrictive ones (p < 0.001). Individual factors associated with kangaroo care initiation were gestational age (odds ratio, 5.79; 95% CI, 4.49–7.48 for babies born at 27–31 wk compared with babies born at 23–26 wk) and, to a lesser extent, single pregnancy, birthweight above the 10th centile, and mother’s employment before pregnancy. At unit level, policies and training in neurodevelopmental care significantly influenced kangaroo care initiation (odds ratio, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.8–7.0 for Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program implementation compared with no training). Breast milk expression by mothers was greater in units with full-time availability professionals trained for breast-feeding support (60% vs 73%; p < 0.0001). Conclusions
Chavula, Kondwani; Likomwa, Dyson; Valsangkar, Bina; Luhanga, Richard; Chimtembo, Lydia; Dube, Queen; Gobezie, Wasihun Andualem; Guenther, Tanya
Malawi introduced Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) in 1999 as part of its efforts to address newborn morbidity and mortality and has continued to expand KMC services across the country. Yet, data on availability of KMC services and routine service provision are limited. Data from the 2014 Emergency Obstetric Newborn Care (EmONC) survey, which was a census of all 87 hospitals in Malawi, were analyzed. The WHO service availability and readiness domains were used to generate indicators for KMC service readiness and an additional domain for documentation of KMC services was included. Levels of KMC service delivery were quantified using data extracted from a 12-month register review and a KMC initiation rate was calculated for each facility by dividing the reported number of babies initiated on KMC by the number of live births at facility. We defined three levels of KMC readiness and two levels of KMC operational status. 79% of hospitals (69/87) reported providing inpatient KMC services. More than half of the hospitals (62%; 54/87) met the most basic definition of readiness (staff, space for KMC and functional weighing scale) and 35% (30/87) met an expanded definition of readiness (guidelines, staff, space, scale and register in use). Only 15 % (13/87) of hospitals had all KMC tracer items. Less than half of the hospitals (43%; 37/87) met criteria for KMC operational status at minimum levels (≥1/100 live births), and just 16% (14/87) met criteria for KMC operational status at routine levels (≥5/100 live births). Our study found large differences between reported levels of KMC services and documented levels of KMC readiness and service provision among hospitals in Malawi. It is recommended that facility assessments of services such as KMC include record reviews to better estimate service availability and delivery. Further efforts to strengthen the capacity of Malawian hospitals to deliver KMC are needed.
Chavula, Kondwani; Likomwa, Dyson; Valsangkar, Bina; Luhanga, Richard; Chimtembo, Lydia; Dube, Queen; Gobezie, Wasihun Andualem; Guenther, Tanya
Background Malawi introduced Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) in 1999 as part of its efforts to address newborn morbidity and mortality and has continued to expand KMC services across the country. Yet, data on availability of KMC services and routine service provision are limited. Methods Data from the 2014 Emergency Obstetric Newborn Care (EmONC) survey, which was a census of all 87 hospitals in Malawi, were analyzed. The WHO service availability and readiness domains were used to generate indicators for KMC service readiness and an additional domain for documentation of KMC services was included. Levels of KMC service delivery were quantified using data extracted from a 12–month register review and a KMC initiation rate was calculated for each facility by dividing the reported number of babies initiated on KMC by the number of live births at facility. We defined three levels of KMC readiness and two levels of KMC operational status. Results 79% of hospitals (69/87) reported providing inpatient KMC services. More than half of the hospitals (62%; 54/87) met the most basic definition of readiness (staff, space for KMC and functional weighing scale) and 35% (30/87) met an expanded definition of readiness (guidelines, staff, space, scale and register in use). Only 15% (13/87) of hospitals had all KMC tracer items. Less than half of the hospitals (43%; 37/87) met criteria for KMC operational status at minimum levels (≥1/100 live births), and just 16% (14/87) met criteria for KMC operational status at routine levels (≥5/100 live births). Conclusions Our study found large differences between reported levels of KMC services and documented levels of KMC readiness and service provision among hospitals in Malawi. It is recommended that facility assessments of services such as KMC include record reviews to better estimate service availability and delivery. Further efforts to strengthen the capacity of Malawian hospitals to deliver KMC are needed. PMID:29085623
Campbell-Yeo, Marsha L; Disher, Timothy C; Benoit, Britney L; Johnston, C Celeste
The holding of an infant with ventral skin-to-skin contact typically in an upright position with the swaddled infant on the chest of the parent, is commonly referred to as kangaroo care (KC), due to its simulation of marsupial care. It is recommended that KC, as a feasible, natural, and cost-effective intervention, should be standard of care in the delivery of quality health care for all infants, regardless of geographic location or economic status. Numerous benefits of its use have been reported related to mortality, physiological (thermoregulation, cardiorespiratory stability), behavioral (sleep, breastfeeding duration, and degree of exclusivity) domains, as an effective therapy to relieve procedural pain, and improved neurodevelopment. Yet despite these recommendations and a lack of negative research findings, adoption of KC as a routine clinical practice remains variable and underutilized. Furthermore, uncertainty remains as to whether continuous KC should be recommended in all settings or if there is a critical period of initiation, dose, or duration that is optimal. This review synthesizes current knowledge about the benefits of KC for infants born preterm, highlighting differences and similarities across low and higher resource countries and in a non-pain and pain context. Additionally, implementation considerations and unanswered questions for future research are addressed. PMID:29388613
Ruiz, Juan Gabriel; Charpak, Nathalie; Castillo, Mario; Bernal, Astrid; Ríos, John; Trujillo, Tammy; Córdoba, María Adelaida
Although kangaroo mother care (KMC) has been shown to be safe and effective in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), there are no published complete economic evaluations including the three components of the full intervention. A cost utility analysis performed on the results of an RCT conducted in Bogotá, Colombia between 1993 and 1996. Hospital and ambulatory costs were estimated by microcosting in a sample of preterm infants from a University Hospital in Bogotá in 2011 and at a KMC clinic in the same period. Utility scores were assigned by experts by means of (1) direct ordering and scoring discrete health states and (2) constructing a multi-attribute utility function. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (CIs) for the incremental cost-utility ratios (ICURs) were computed by the Fiellers theorem method. One-way sensitivity analysis on price estimates for valuing costs was performed. ICUR at 1 year of corrected age was $ -1,546 per extra quality-adjusted life year gained using the KMC method (95% CI $ -7,963 to $ 4,910). In Bogotá, the use of KMC is dominant: more effective and cost-saving. Although results from an economic analysis should not be extrapolated to different systems and communities, this dominant result suggests that KMC could be cost-effective in similar low and middle income countries settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ventilatory accommodation of oxygen demand and respiratory water loss in kangaroos from mesic and arid environments, the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) and the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus).
Dawson, T J; Munn, A J; Blaney, C E; Krockenberger, A; Maloney, S K
We studied ventilation in kangaroos from mesic and arid environments, the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) and the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus), respectively, within the range of ambient temperatures (T(a)) from -5 degrees to 45 degrees C. At thermoneutral temperatures (Ta=25 degrees C), there were no differences between the species in respiratory frequency, tidal volume, total ventilation, or oxygen extraction. The ventilatory patterns of the kangaroos were markedly different from those predicted from the allometric equation derived for placentals. The kangaroos had low respiratory frequencies and higher tidal volumes, even when adjustment was made for their lower basal metabolism. At Ta>25 degrees C, ventilation was increased in the kangaroos to facilitate respiratory water loss, with percent oxygen extraction being markedly lowered. Ventilation was via the nares; the mouth was closed. Differences in ventilation between the two species occurred at higher temperatures, and at 45 degrees C were associated with differences in respiratory evaporative heat loss, with that of M. giganteus being higher. Panting in kangaroos occurred as a graded increase in respiratory frequency, during which tidal volume was lowered. When panting, the desert red kangaroo had larger tidal volumes and lower respiratory frequencies at equivalent T(a) than the eastern grey kangaroo, which generally inhabits mesic forests. The inference made from this pattern is that the red kangaroo has the potential to increase respiratory evaporative heat loss to a greater level.
Holditch-Davis, Diane; White-Traut, Rosemary C.; Levy, Janet A.; O’Shea, T. Michael; Geraldo, Victoria; David, Richard J.
Although studies have examined the effects of interventions focused on preterm infants, few studies have examined the effects on maternal distress (anxiety, depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress symptoms, parenting stress) or parenting. This study examined the effects of the auditory-tactile-visual-vestibular (ATVV) intervention and kangaroo care (KC) on maternal distress and the mother-infant relationship compared to an attention control group. 240 mothers from four hospitals were randomly assigned to the three groups. Maternal characteristics in the three groups were similar: 64.1% of ATVV mothers, 64.2% of KC mothers, and 76.5% of control mothers were African American; maternal age averaged 26.3 years for ATVV mothers, 28.1 for KC mothers, and 26.6 for control mothers; and years of education averaged 13.6 for ATVV and KC mothers, and 13.1 for control mothers. Mothers only differed on parity: 68.4% of ATVV and 54.7% of KC mothers were first-time mothers as compared to 43.6% of control mothers. Their infants had a similar mean gestational ages (27.0 weeks for ATVV, 27.2 for KC, and 27.4 for control) and mean birthweights (993 grams for ATVV, 1022 for KC, and 1023 for control). Mothers completed questionnaires during hospitalization, and at 2, 6 and 12 months corrected age on demographic characteristics, depressive symptoms, state anxiety, post-traumatic stress symptoms, parenting stress, worry about child health, and child vulnerability (only at 12 months). At 2 and 6 months, 45-minute videotapes of mother-infant interactions were made, and the HOME Inventory was scored. Behaviors coded from the videotapes and a HOME subscale were combined into five interactive dimensions: maternal positive involvement and developmental stimulation and child social behaviors, developmental maturity, and irritability. Intervention effects were examined using general linear mixed models controlling for parity and recruitment site. The groups did not differ on any maternal
Acuña-Muga, Juliana; Ureta-Velasco, Noelia; de la Cruz-Bértolo, Javier; Ballesteros-López, Rosa; Sánchez-Martínez, Rocío; Miranda-Casabona, Eugenia; Miguel-Trigoso, Almudena; García-San José, Lidia; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen
Given the importance of mother's milk for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, it would be helpful to know which circumstances are most favorable for milk expression. This study aimed to estimate the volume of milk obtained by mothers of VLBW infants as a function of proximity to the infant and use of the kangaroo position during the actual expression. In this prospective cohort study, when the infant was stable and the mother had established a breastfeeding routine, she was given a notebook in which to record the location of expression and the amount of milk expressed for 10 consecutive days. Breast milk expression volumes were recorded and analyzed. Data were collected on 26 mother-VLBW infant dyads and 1642 milk expressions. The first early morning expressions (n = 276, 17%) were conducted at home. Thereafter, 743 (45%) expressions were conducted far from the infant, either in a different room within the hospital or at home, and 623 (38%) were performed in proximity to the infant (beside the incubator, during kangaroo mother care [KMC], after KMC, or during kangaroo father care). The mean milk volume was significantly higher when expression was conducted in proximity to the infant. When only milk expressions conducted in proximity to the infant were considered, volumes obtained during KMC (107.7 mL, 91.8-123.5) and after KMC (117.7 mL, 99.0-136.5) were significantly higher than those obtained beside the incubator (96.9 mL, 79.9-113.9), respectively, P = .0030 and P = .0024. Milk expression conducted in proximity to the infant, particularly during and immediately after KMC, is associated with higher milk volume.
Mitchell, A J; Yates, C; Williams, K; Hall, R W
Kangaroo care (KC) has possible benefits for promoting physiological stability and positive developmental outcomes in preterm infants. The purpose of this study was to compare bradycardia and oxygen desaturation events in preterm infants in standard incubator care versus KC. Thirty-eight infants 27 to 30 weeks gestational age were randomly assigned to 2 hours of KC daily between days of life 5 to 10 or to standard incubator care. Infants were monitored for bradycardia (heart rate <80) or oxygen desaturation (<80%). Analysis of hourly events was based on three sets of data: standard care group 24 hours daily, KC group during incubator time 22 hours daily, and KC group during holding time 2 hours daily. The KC group had fewer bradycardia events per hour while being held compared to time spent in an incubator (p = 0.048). The KC group also had significantly fewer oxygen desaturation events while being held than while in the incubator (p = 0.017) and significantly fewer desaturation events than infants in standard care (p = 0.02). KC reduces bradycardia and oxygen desaturation events in preterm infants, providing physiological stability and possible benefits for neurodevelopmental outcomes.
Holditch-Davis, Diane; White-Traut, Rosemary C; Levy, Janet A; O'Shea, T Michael; Geraldo, Victoria; David, Richard J
Although studies have examined the effects of interventions focused on preterm infants, few studies have examined the effects on maternal distress (anxiety, depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress symptoms, parenting stress) or parenting. This study examined the effects of the auditory-tactile-visual-vestibular (ATVV) intervention and kangaroo care (KC) on maternal distress and the mother-infant relationship compared to an attention control group. 240 mothers from four hospitals were randomly assigned to the three groups. Maternal characteristics in the three groups were similar: 64.1% of ATVV mothers, 64.2% of KC mothers, and 76.5% of control mothers were African American; maternal age averaged 26.3 years for ATVV mothers, 28.1 for KC mothers, and 26.6 for control mothers; and years of education averaged 13.6 for ATVV and KC mothers, and 13.1 for control mothers. Mothers only differed on parity: 68.4% of ATVV and 54.7% of KC mothers were first-time mothers as compared to 43.6% of control mothers. Their infants had a similar mean gestational ages (27.0 weeks for ATVV, 27.2 for KC, and 27.4 for control) and mean birthweights (993 g for ATVV, 1022 for KC, and 1023 for control). Mothers completed questionnaires during hospitalization, and at 2, 6 and 12 months corrected age on demographic characteristics, depressive symptoms, state anxiety, post-traumatic stress symptoms, parenting stress, worry about child health, and child vulnerability (only at 12 months). At 2 and 6 months, 45-min videotapes of mother-infant interactions were made, and the HOME Inventory was scored. Behaviors coded from the videotapes and a HOME subscale were combined into five interactive dimensions: maternal positive involvement and developmental stimulation and child social behaviors, developmental maturity, and irritability. Intervention effects were examined using general linear mixed models controlling for parity and recruitment site. The groups did not differ on any maternal distress
Trevisanuto, Daniele; Putoto, Giovanni; Pizzol, Damiano; Serena, Tiziana; Manenti, Fabio; Varano, Silvia; Urso, Eleonora; Massavon, William; Tsegaye, Ademe; Wingi, Oliver; Onapa, Emanuel; Segafredo, Giulia; Cavallin, Francesco
Neonatal hypothermia is an important challenge associated with morbidity and mortality. Preventing neonatal hypothermia is important in high-resource countries, but is of fundamental importance in low-resource settings where supportive care is limited. Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is a low-cost intervention that, whenever possible, is strongly recommended for temperature maintenance. During KMC, the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend the use of a cap/hat, but its effect on temperature control during KMC remains to be established. In the hospitals participating in the projects of the non-governmental organization CUAMM, KMC represents a standard of care, but the heads of the babies often remain uncovered due to local habits or to the unavailability of a cap. The aim of the present study will be to assess the effectiveness and safety of using a woolen cap in maintaining normothermia in low-birth-weight infants (LBWI) during KMC. This is a multicenter (three hospitals), multicountry (three countries), prospective, unblinded, randomized controlled trial of KMC treatment with and without a woolen cap in LBWI. After obtaining parental consent, all infants with a birth weight below 2500 g and who are candidates for KMC, based on the clinical decision of the attending physician, will be assigned to the KMC with a woolen cap group or to the KMC without a woolen cap group in a 1:1 ratio according to a computer-generated, randomized sequence. The duration of the study will be until the patient's discharge, with a maximum treatment duration of 7 days. The primary outcome measure will be whether the infants' temperatures remain within the normal range (36.5-37.5 °C) in the course of KMC during the intervention. In all participants, axillary temperature will be measured with a digital thermometer four times per day. In addition, maternal and room temperature will be recorded. Secondary outcome measures will be: episodes of apnea; sepsis; mortality before
Kommers, D R; Broeren, Mac; Andriessen, P; Oei, S G; Feijs, L; Bambang Oetomo, S
This study assessed the feasibility and obtrusiveness of measuring salivary oxytocin in preterm infants receiving Kangaroo care, because this is a period of maximal bonding or co-regulation. We also analysed possible influential determinants, including maternal oxytocin. The saliva of preterm infants and their mothers was collected prior to, and during, Kangaroo care using cotton swabs and pooled into vials until sufficient volumes were obtained to measure oxytocin levels using a radioimmunoassay. The obtrusiveness of the infants' collections was measured with a Likert scale. Saliva was collected unobtrusively prior to, and during, 30 Kangaroo care sessions in 21 preterm infants. This resulted in three vials with sufficient volumes of before-Kangaroo care saliva and three with during-Kangaroo care saliva. Oxytocin was detectable in all six vials. The Kangaroo care duration and the intensity of the mother-infant interaction before and during Kangaroo care seemed to be the most important determinants, and these should preferably be standardised in any future trials. Oxytocin was measured unobtrusively in the pooled saliva of preterm infants both before and during Kangaroo care and could therefore be investigated as a biomarker in future studies. ©2016 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.
Arnon, Shmuel; Diamant, Chagit; Bauer, Sofia; Regev, Rivka; Sirota, Gisela; Litmanovitz, Ita
Kangaroo care (KC) and maternal singing benefit preterm infants, and we investigated whether combining these benefitted infants and mothers. A prospective randomised, within-subject, crossover, repeated-measures study design was used, with participants acting as their own controls. We evaluated the heart rate variability (HRV) of stable preterm infants receiving KC, with and without maternal singing. This included low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) and the LF/HF ratio during baseline (10 min), singing or quiet phases (20 min) and recovery (10 min). Physiological parameters, maternal anxiety and the infants' behavioural state were measured. We included 86 stable preterm infants, with a postmenstrual age of 32-36 weeks. A significant change in LF and HF, and lower LF/HF ratio, was observed during KC with maternal singing during the intervention and recovery phases, compared with just KC and baseline (all p-values <0.05). Maternal anxiety was lower during singing than just KC (p = 0.04). No differences in the infants' behavioural states or physiological parameters were found, with or without singing. Maternal singing during KC reduces maternal anxiety and leads to autonomic stability in stable preterm infants. This effect is not detected in behavioural state or physiological parameters commonly used to monitor preterm infants. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mooney-Leber, Sean M; Brummelte, Susanne
Advances in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) have drastically increased the survival chances of preterm infants. However, preterm infants are still exposed to a wide range of stressors during their stay in the NICU, which include painful procedures and reduced maternal contact. The activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, in response to these stressors during this critical period of brain development, has been associated with many acute and long-term adverse biobehavioral outcomes. Recent research has shown that Kangaroo care, a non-pharmacological analgesic based on increased skin-to-skin contact between the neonate and the mother, negates the adverse outcomes associated with neonatal pain and reduced maternal care, however the biological mechanism remains widely unknown. This review summarizes findings from both human and rodent literature investigating neonatal pain and reduced maternal care independently, primarily focusing on the role of the HPA axis and biobehavioral outcomes. The physiological and positive outcomes of Kangaroo care will also be discussed in terms of how dampening of the HPA axis response to neonatal pain and increased maternal care may account for positive outcomes associated with Kangaroo care. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Munn, A J; Dawson, T J
Generally, young growing mammals have resting metabolic rates (RMRs) that are proportionally greater than those of adult animals. This is seen in the red kangaroo ( Macropus rufus), a large (>20 kg) herbivorous marsupial common to arid and semi-arid inland Australia. Juvenile red kangaroos have RMRs 1.5-1.6 times those expected for adult marsupials of an equivalent body mass. When fed high-quality chopped lucerne hay, young-at-foot (YAF) kangaroos, which have permanently left the mother's pouch but are still sucking, and recently weaned red kangaroos had digestible energy intakes of 641+/-27 kJ kg(-0.75) day(-1) and 677+/-26 kJ kg(-0.75) day(-1), respectively, significantly higher than the 385+/-37 kJ kg(-0.75) day(-1) ingested by mature, non-lactating females. However, YAF and weaned red kangaroos had maintenance energy requirements (MERs) that were not significantly higher than those of mature, non-lactating females, the values ranging between 384 kJ kg(-0.75) day(-1) and 390 kJ kg(-0.75) day(-1) digestible energy. Importantly, the MER of mature female red kangaroos was 84% of that previously reported for similarly sized, but still growing, male red kangaroos. Growth was the main factor affecting the proportionally higher energy requirements of the juvenile red kangaroos relative to non-reproductive mature females. On a good quality diet, juvenile red kangaroos from permanent pouch exit until shortly after weaning (ca. 220-400 days) had average growth rates of 55 g body mass day(-1). At this level of growth, juveniles had total daily digestible energy requirements (i.e. MER plus growth energy requirements) that were 1.7-1.8 times the MER of mature, non-reproductive females. Our data suggest that the proportionally higher RMR of juvenile red kangaroos is largely explained by the additional energy needed for growth. Energy contents of the tissue gained by the YAF and weaned red kangaroos during growth were estimated to be 5.3 kJ g(-1), within the range found for
To study the effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on pain response in preterm neonates and to determine the behavioral and physiological responses to painful stimuli in preterm neonates: a study from western Rajasthan.
Choudhary, Mukesh; Dogiyal, Hemaram; Sharma, Deepak; Datt Gupta, Brahma; Madabhavi, Irappa; Choudhary, Jagveer Singh; Choudhary, Sushil Kumar
To study the effect of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) on pain response in preterm neonates and to determine the behavioral and physiological responses to painful stimuli in preterm neonates. This was a single-blind cross over study in which total 140 neonates were enrolled. Pain stimulus was given in the form of heel-lance before and after giving KMC and data were recorded. The effect of KMC on heart rate variability was statistically significant in preterm (30-34 wks) and very low birth weight (1.0-1.5 kg) neonates. The mean fall in SpO2 from base line was less in KMC group as compared to without KMC group at 60 s (1.63% versus 2.22%) and 120 s (0.45% versus 2.22%). The mean duration of cry was less in the KMC group (15.05 s) as compared to without KMC group (24.82 s) and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The mean duration of cry was reduced by 36% in KMC group as compared to the without KMC group. The effect of KMC on pain scores (premature infant pain profile (PIPP)) were significantly lower after heel-lance in KMC at 60 s (p < 0.01). KMC is a most physiological, non-pharmacological and easy intervention that involves parents: to manage procedural pain that can be implemented for physiological or behavioral stability in their premature infants.
Parameswaran, N.; O'Handley, RM.; Grigg, ME.; Fenwick, SG.; Thompson, RCA.
Infection with Toxoplasma gondii is a significant problem in Australian marsupials, and can lead to devastating disease and predispose animals to predation. T. gondii infection in kangaroos is also of public health significance due to the kangaroo meat trade. A moderate seroprevalence of T. gondii was observed in a study of western grey kangaroos located in the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. Of 219 kangaroos tested, 15.5% (95%CI: 10.7-20.3) were positive for T. gondii antibodies using an ELISA developed to detect T. gondii IgG in macropod marsupials. When compared with the commercially available MAT (modified agglutination test), the ELISA developed was in absolute agreement and yielded a κ coefficient of 1.00. Of 18 kangaroos tested for the presence of T. gondii DNA by PCR, the 9 ELISA positive kangaroos tested PCR positive and the 9 ELISA negative kangaroos tested PCR negative indicating the ELISA protocol was both highly specific and sensitive and correlated 100% with the more labour intensive PCR assay. PMID:19567231
Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E.
We developed a model to demonstrate how a hopping kangaroo breathes. Interestingly, a kangaroo uses less energy to breathe while hopping than while standing still. This occurs, in part, because rather than using muscle power to move air into and out of the lungs, air is pulled into (inspiration) and pushed out of (expiration) the lungs as the…
Webster, K N; Dawson, T J
The locomotory characteristics of kangaroos and wallabies are unusual, with both energetic costs and gait parameters differing from those of quadrupedal running mammals. The kangaroos and wallabies have an evolutionary history of only around 5 million years; their closest relatives, the rat-kangaroos, have a fossil record of more than 26 million years. We examined the locomotory characteristics of a rat-kangaroo, Bettongia penicillata. Locomotory energetics and gait parameters were obtained from animals exercising on a motorised treadmill at speeds from 0.6 m s(-1) to 6.2 m s(-1). Aerobic metabolic costs increased as hopping speed increased, but were significantly different from the costs for a running quadruped; at the fastest speed, the cost of hopping was 50% of the cost of running. Therefore B. penicillata can travel much faster than quadrupedal runners at similar levels of aerobic output. The maximum aerobic output of B. penicillata was 17 times its basal metabolism. Increases in speed during hopping were achieved through increases in stride length, with stride frequency remaining constant. We suggest that these unusual locomotory characteristics are a conservative feature among the hopping marsupials, with an evolutionary history of 20-30 million years.
Chan, Kim Geok; Lim, Khatijah Abdullah; Ling, How Kee
This paper examines the experiences of mothers caring for a child with Down syndrome in the Malaysian (Sarawak) context. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 26 biological mothers of children with Down syndrome aged 18 years and below. They were accessed through selected child health clinics, community-based rehabilitation centres and schools using purposive sampling within two regions in Sarawak, one of the two Borneo States of Malaysia. Major themes emerging within the context of care demands were children's health, developmental delays, daily needs and behaviour issues. The insights obtained into the care demands experienced by mothers of children with Down syndrome have several implications for practice by care professionals. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Jacob, Jean; Kirshbaum, Megan; Preston, Paul
Seventy-one U.S. mothers with a physical disability who had a child aged 0 to 3 years responded to a survey about the system of care used for their child. Results indicated that mothers participated in all different types of care (physical, comforting, playing, limit setting, and taking the child outside the home). Partners and participants' mothers provided the most assistance with care. Mothers were generally satisfied with assistance received from others. This article explores how mothers remain central to their children with others assisting with the child's care and the impact of such assistance on mothers' relationships with partners and children.
Belli, M A
The purpose of the study was to examine the experiences, feelings and expectation of mothers of high risk newborns. The population was a group of 20 mothers of high risk newborns of three hospitals in the City of São Paulo. Interview with the mothers was the method of data collection containing opened and structured questions. It was verified that most of the mothers had none or only a little interaction with the newborn after delivery; the eye contact was the most referred during the staying of the newborn in the Intensive Care Unity; all of them demonstrated interest in participating in the care of the newborn and expressed the need of information concerning to the health status of the newborn, the Intensive Care Unity environment and the hospital team. Several were the feelings expressed and the motives that indicated the needs of the mothers.
Sherwen, Sally L; Hemsworth, Paul H; Butler, Kym L; Fanson, Kerry V; Magrath, Michael J L
Free range exhibits are becoming increasingly popular in zoos as a means to enhance interaction between visitors and animals. However very little research exists on the impacts of visitors on animal behaviour and stress in free range exhibits. We investigated the effects of visitor number on the behaviour and stress physiology of Kangaroo Island (KI) Kangaroos, Macropus fuliginosus fuliginosus, and Red Kangaroos, Macropus rufus, housed in two free range exhibits in Australian zoos. Behavioural observations were conducted on individual kangaroos at each site using instantaneous scan sampling to record activity (e.g., vigilance, foraging, resting) and distance from the visitor pathway. Individually identifiable faecal samples were collected at the end of each study day and analysed for faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentration. When visitor number increased, both KI Kangaroos and Red Kangaroos increased the time spent engaged in visitor-directed vigilance and KI Kangaroos also increased the time spent engaged in locomotion and decreased the time spent resting. There was no effect of visitor number on the distance kangaroos positioned themselves from the visitor pathway or FGM concentration in either species. While there are limitations in interpreting these results in terms of fear of visitors, there was no evidence of adverse effects animal welfare in these study groups based on avoidance behaviour or stress physiology under the range of visitor numbers that we studied. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Wikberg, Anita; Eriksson, Katie; Bondas, Terese
To describe and interpret the perceptions and experiences of caring of immigrant new mothers from an intercultural perspective in maternity care in Finland. Descriptive interpretive ethnography using Eriksson's theory of caritative caring. A maternity ward in a medium-sized hospital in western Finland. Seventeen mothers from 12 countries took part in the study. Interviews, observations, and field notes were analyzed and interpreted. Most mothers were satisfied with the equal access to high-quality maternity care in Finland, although the stereotypes and the ethnocentric views of some nurses negatively influenced the experiences of maternity care for some mothers. The cultural background of the mother, as well as the Finnish maternity care culture, influenced the caring. Four patterns were found. There were differences between the expectations of the mothers and their Finnish maternity care experience of caring. Caring was related to the changing culture. Finnish maternity care traditions were sometimes imposed on the immigrant new mothers, which likewise influenced caring. However, the female nurse was seen as a professional friend, and the conflicts encountered were resolved, which in turn promoted caring. The influence of Finnish maternity care culture on caring is highlighted from the perspective of the mothers. Intercultural caring was described as universal, cultural, contextual, and unique. Women were not familiar with the Finnish health care system, and many immigrant mothers lacked support networks. The nurse/patient relationship could partly replace their support if the relationship was perceived as caring. The women had multiple vulnerabilities and were prone to isolation and discrimination if they experienced communication problems. © 2012 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Charpak, Nathalie; Ruiz-Pelaez, Juan G.; de Leon-Mendoza, Socorro
The following sections are included: * REMINDER: THE MOTHER AND CHILD PMP MANIFESTO (ERICE 2002) * SUMMARY OF THE WORK OF THE KANGAROO FOUNDATION FOR THE PAST 20 YEARS * WHAT ARE WE EXPECTING FROM 2014? * SOME NEWS FROM THE PHILIPPINES AND ASIA KMC NETWORK. * CONCLUSION
Yandell, C A; Francis, G L; Wheldrake, J F; Upton, Z
Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-II have been purified to homogeneity from kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus) serum, thus this represents the first report of the purification, sequencing and characterisation of marsupial IGFs. N-Terminal protein sequencing reveals that there are six amino acid differences between kangaroo and human IGF-I. Kangaroo IGF-II has been partially sequenced and no differences were found between human and kangaroo IGF-II in the 53 residues identified. Thus the IGFs appear to be remarkably structurally conserved during mammalian radiation. In addition, in vitro characterisation of kangaroo IGF-I demonstrated that the functional properties of human, kangaroo and chicken IGF-I are very similar. In an assay measuring the ability of the proteins to stimulate protein synthesis in rat L6 myoblasts, all IGF-I proteins were found to be equally potent. The ability of all three proteins to compete for binding with radiolabelled human IGF-I to type-1 IGF receptors in L6 myoblasts and in Sminthopsis crassicaudata transformed lung fibroblasts, a marsupial cell line, was comparable. Furthermore, kangaroo and human IGF-I react equally in a human IGF-I RIA using a human reference standard, radiolabelled human IGF-I and a polyclonal antibody raised against recombinant human IGF-I. This study indicates that not only is the primary structure of eutherian and metatherian IGF-I conserved, but also the proteins appear to be functionally similar.
Janis, Christine M.; Buttrill, Karalyn; Figueirido, Borja
Sthenurine kangaroos (Marsupialia, Diprotodontia, Macropodoidea) were an extinct subfamily within the family Macropodidae (kangaroos and rat-kangaroos). These “short-faced browsers” first appeared in the middle Miocene, and radiated in the Plio-Pleistocene into a diversity of mostly large-bodied forms, more robust than extant forms in their build. The largest (Procoptodon goliah) had an estimated body mass of 240 kg, almost three times the size of the largest living kangaroos, and there is speculation whether a kangaroo of this size would be biomechanically capable of hopping locomotion. Previously described aspects of sthenurine anatomy (specialized forelimbs, rigid lumbar spine) would limit their ability to perform the characteristic kangaroo pentapedal walking (using the tail as a fifth limb), an essential gait at slower speeds as slow hopping is energetically unfeasible. Analysis of limb bone measurements of sthenurines in comparison with extant macropodoids shows a number of anatomical differences, especially in the large species. The scaling of long bone robusticity indicates that sthenurines are following the “normal” allometric trend for macropodoids, while the large extant kangaroos are relatively gracile. Other morphological differences are indicative of adaptations for a novel type of locomotor behavior in sthenurines: they lacked many specialized features for rapid hopping, and they also had anatomy indicative of supporting their body with an upright trunk (e.g., dorsally tipped ischiae), and of supporting their weight on one leg at a time (e.g., larger hips and knees, stabilized ankle joint). We propose that sthenurines adopted a bipedal striding gait (a gait occasionally observed in extant tree-kangaroos): in the smaller and earlier forms, this gait may have been employed as an alternative to pentapedal locomotion at slower speeds, while in the larger Pleistocene forms this gait may have enabled them to evolve to body sizes where hopping was
Consensus–based approach to develop a measurement framework and identify a core set of indicators to track implementation and progress towards effective coverage of facility–based Kangaroo Mother Care
Guenther, Tanya; Moxon, Sarah; Valsangkar, Bina; Wetzel, Greta; Ruiz, Juan; Kerber, Kate; Blencowe, Hannah; Dube, Queen; Vani, Shashi N; Vivio, Donna; Magge, Hema; De Leon–Mendoza, Socorro; Patterson, Janna; Mazia, Goldy
Background As efforts to scale up the delivery of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) in facilities are increasing, a standardized approach to measure implementation and progress towards effective coverage is needed. Here, we describe a consensus–based approach to develop a measurement framework and identify a core set of indicators for monitoring facility–based KMC that would be feasible to measure within existing systems. Methods The KMC measurement framework and core list of indicators were developed through: 1) scoping exercise to identify potential indicators through literature review and requests from researchers and program implementers; and 2) face–to–face consultations with KMC and measurement experts working at country and global levels to review candidate indicators and finalize selection and definitions. Results The KMC measurement framework includes two main components: 1) service readiness, based on the WHO building blocks framework; and 2) service delivery action sequence covering identification, service initiation, continuation to discharge, and follow–up to graduation. Consensus was reached on 10 core indicators for KMC, which were organized according to the measurement framework. We identified 4 service readiness indicators, capturing national level policy for KMC, availability of KMC indicators in HMIS, costed operational plans for KMC and availability of KMC services at health facilities with inpatient maternity services. Six indicators were defined for service delivery, including weighing of babies at birth, identification of those ≤2000 g, initiation of facility–based KMC, monitoring the quality of KMC, status of babies at discharge from the facility and levels of follow–up (according to country–specific protocol). Conclusions These core KMC indicators, identified with input from a wide range of global and country–level KMC and measurement experts, can aid efforts to strengthen monitoring systems and facilitate global tracking of
Consensus-based approach to develop a measurement framework and identify a core set of indicators to track implementation and progress towards effective coverage of facility-based Kangaroo Mother Care.
Guenther, Tanya; Moxon, Sarah; Valsangkar, Bina; Wetzel, Greta; Ruiz, Juan; Kerber, Kate; Blencowe, Hannah; Dube, Queen; Vani, Shashi N; Vivio, Donna; Magge, Hema; De Leon-Mendoza, Socorro; Patterson, Janna; Mazia, Goldy
As efforts to scale up the delivery of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) in facilities are increasing, a standardized approach to measure implementation and progress towards effective coverage is needed. Here, we describe a consensus-based approach to develop a measurement framework and identify a core set of indicators for monitoring facility-based KMC that would be feasible to measure within existing systems. The KMC measurement framework and core list of indicators were developed through: 1) scoping exercise to identify potential indicators through literature review and requests from researchers and program implementers; and 2) face-to-face consultations with KMC and measurement experts working at country and global levels to review candidate indicators and finalize selection and definitions. The KMC measurement framework includes two main components: 1) service readiness, based on the WHO building blocks framework; and 2) service delivery action sequence covering identification, service initiation, continuation to discharge, and follow-up to graduation. Consensus was reached on 10 core indicators for KMC, which were organized according to the measurement framework. We identified 4 service readiness indicators, capturing national level policy for KMC, availability of KMC indicators in HMIS, costed operational plans for KMC and availability of KMC services at health facilities with inpatient maternity services. Six indicators were defined for service delivery, including weighing of babies at birth, identification of those ≤2000 g, initiation of facility-based KMC, monitoring the quality of KMC, status of babies at discharge from the facility and levels of follow-up (according to country-specific protocol). These core KMC indicators, identified with input from a wide range of global and country-level KMC and measurement experts, can aid efforts to strengthen monitoring systems and facilitate global tracking of KMC implementation. As data collection systems advance, we
Finlayson, Kenneth; Dixon, Annie; Smith, Chris; Dykes, Fiona; Flacking, Renee
To explore mothers' perceptions of family centred care (FCC) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in England. The qualitative experiences of 12 mothers from three NICUs in the UK were elicited using individual interviews. A thematic network analysis was conducted on the transcribed interviews A central global theme supported by a number of organizing themes were developed reflecting the views of the mothers and their experiences of FCC. A global theme of "Finding My Place" was identified, supported by six organizing themes: Mothering in Limbo; Deference to the Experts; Anxious Surveillance; Muted Relations, Power Struggles and Consistently Inconsistent. Mothers experienced a state of liminality and were acutely sensitive to power struggles, awkward relationships and inconsistencies in care. To try to maintain their equilibrium and protect their baby they formed deferential relationships with health professionals and remained in a state of anxious surveillance. This study illustrates that despite the rhetoric around the practice of FCC in NICUs, there was little in the mother's narratives to support this. It is of the utmost importance to minimize the consequences of the liminal experience, to improve staff-mother interactions and to facilitate mothers' opportunities to be primary caregivers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Thyen, U; Kuhlthau, K; Perrin, J M
This study examines 1) the way that children with chronic conditions are cared for at home and assisted by technology affects maternal employment and child care; 2) the social and clinical factors associated with the decision of a mother to quit employment to care for a child at home; and 3) the way in which care at home and the decision of a mother to quit a job affects maternal mental health. The 6-month postdischarge status of 70 mothers of children assisted by technology (study group) was compared with the 6-month postdischarge status of 58 mothers of children (matched for age and gender) hospitalized for acute illnesses (comparison group). Between January and December 1993, we gathered information on sociodemographic status, employment status and changes in employment, severity of the child's condition, child care and nursing services at home, family support, and maternal mental health. One third of mothers in the study group reported that they quit employment to take care of a child at home with only 37.1% remaining employed outside the home, compared with 69.0% of comparison group mothers. Single caretakers were 15 times more likely to quit employment compared with mothers in two-parent families. Availability of child care had an independent effect on a mother's decision to quit a job, whereas the severity of the child's condition did not. Child care hours were significantly lower in study group families and were provided mostly by relatives compared with day-care facilities and regular babysitters in comparison families. Family support was highest among employed mothers in both the study and the comparison groups and lowest in study group mothers who were neither employed currently nor before the child's illness or who had quit employment to care for the child. Family income was significantly lower in families with a child assisted by technology. Families in the study group had 20-fold higher uncompensated health care costs than did the comparison group
Loft, Lisbeth Trille G; Hogan, Dennis
The aim of this study is to introduce the concept of care capital and provide an example of its application in the context of childcare and maternal employment using the currently most suitable American data. We define care capital as the nexus of available, accessible, and experienced resources for care. The American setting is an ideal context to investigate the linkages between child care capital and maternal employment as the patterns of child care use tend to be more diverse compared to other national contexts. In the presented application of care capital, we examine mothers' entry to paid employment during the first 36 weeks following a birth, and its association with the experience of non-parental child care use before labour force entry. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Birth Cohort ( N = 10,400 mothers), results from discrete-time hazard models show that use of non-parental child care prior to employment is independently and positively associated with entry into maternal employment. This finding applies both to first-time mothers ( n = 3,800) and to mothers of multiple children ( n = 6,600). Although data currently available for investigating child care capital are limited with regard to care availability and access, our results suggests that childcare availability, access, and use, understood as a form of capital alongside economic and human capital, should be considered in future studies of maternal employment.
Landis, S E; Earp, J A
More than half of all mothers with children under age 6 are in the labor force. Working mothers must take off anywhere from 5.6 days to 28.8 days per employee per year to care for their sick children. In a survey of 134 working mothers with children in day care centers, 70% expressed an interest in sick child care options outside the home, especially a sick room at the child's regular day care center or an infirmary at the parent's workplace. Mothers who chose "out-of home care" were more likely to: be minority (p less than 0.01); be single parents (p = 0.06); earn less than $10,000 annually (p = 0.03); want their children with temperatures of 100-100.9 F to remain in school until the end of the day (p less than 0.01). Communities and day care centers serving especially lower income, minority or single-parent working mothers should consider investigating these out-of-home sick child care options; the savings to employers could be $2 to $12 billion per year, not to speak of the personal savings to the mothers themselves.
Mathias, Christina T; Mianda, Solange; Ginindza, Themba G
The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3 emphasises on reducing neonatal deaths caused by low birth weight (LBW) complications by the implementation and utilisation of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite the empirical evidence of KMC optimising low-birth-weight infants' (LBWIs') survival, its advantages and the LMICs implementing the service, studies have shown that LBW infant deaths occurring in LMICs are largely contributing to global child mortality. The aim of this scoping review is to map out the literature on barriers, challenges and facilitators of KMC utilisation by parents with LBWIs. This scoping review will use Endnote X7 reference management software to manage articles. The review search strategy will use SCIELO and LILACS databases. Other databases will be used via EBSCOHost search engine and these are Academic search complete, CINAHL with full text, Education source, Health source: Nursing/Academic Edition, Medline with full text and Medline. We will also use Google Scholar, JSTOR, Open grey search engines and reference lists. A two-phase search mapping out process will be done. In phase 1, one reviewer will perform the title screening and removal of duplicates. Two reviewers will do a parallel abstract screening according to eligibility criteria. Phase 2 will involve the reading of full articles and exclusion of articles, in accordance with the eligibility criteria. Data extraction from the articles will be done by two reviewers independently and parallel to the data extraction form. The data quality assessment of the eligible studies will be done using the Mixed Method Appraisal Tool (MMAT). The extraction of the synthesised results and thematic content analysis of the studies will be done by NVIVO version 10. We expect to find studies on barriers, challenges and facilitating factors of KMC utilisation by parents with LBWIs in LMICs. The review outcomes will guide future research and practice and inform
Muths, E.; Reichman, O. J.
Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) were used to study the effects of confinement on mechanical properties of bone with a long range objective of proposing an alternative to the white rat model for the study of disuse osteoporosis. Kangaroo rats exhibit bipedal locomotion, which subjects their limbs to substantial accelerative forces in addition to the normal stress of weight bearing. We subjected groups of kangaroo rats and white rats (Rattus norvegicus) to one of two confinement treatments or to an exercise regime; animals were exercised at a rate calculated to replicate their (respective) daily exercise patterns. White laboratory rats were used as the comparison because they are currently the accepted model used in the study of disuse osteoporosis. After 6 weeks of treatment, rats were killed and the long bones of their hind limbs were tested mechanically and examined for histomorphometric changes. We found that kangaroo rats held in confinement had less ash content in their hind limbs than exercised kangaroo rats. In general, treated kangaroo rats showed morphometric and mechanical bone deterioration compared to controls and exercised kangaroo rats appeared to have slightly “stronger” bones than confined animals. White rats exhibited no significant differences between treatments. These preliminary results suggest that kangaroo rats may be an effective model in the study of disuse osteoporosis.
Gupta, Mukesh; Jora, Rakesh; Bhatia, Ravi
This study was taken to study the various beneficial effects of KMC in LBW babies. 50 LBW babies (birth weight> 2 kg) two who delivered at Umaid Hospital, RIMCH Jodhpur included in this study and they have given KMC 4-6 hours/day in 3-4 settings. Maternal & Neonatal characteristics and complications prospectively recorded. Of 50 LBW babies enrolled, M:F ratio was 1.5:1 and mean birth weight was 1.487 +/- 0.175 kg. The mean age at which KMC started was 4+/-1.738 days. The mean weight gain was 29 +/- 3.52 g, mean age of discharge 23.6 +/- 3.52 days and mean duration of hospital stay was 15.5 +/- 11.3 days. KMC is effective and safe in stable preterm infants and as effective on traditional care with incubators. KMC because of its simplicity may have a place in home care of LBW babies.
The kangaroo rat is readily tamed and has certain characteristics that make it unique and of interest in highly specialized research programs. Studies were conducted on its ability to exist on a dried diet with only a bare minimum of water and that obtained from succulent plants. Hematological studies indicate that the kangaroo rat exhibits a different hematological distribution of cells than the mouse or rat. The lymphocyte constitutes 81.4% of the total leokocytes. The hematocrit has a value of 46 to 48 in spite of the high degree of water conservation practiced by the animal. The response to ionizingmore » radiation of this species does not differ from that reported for the mouse or rat. Behavior studies indicate that the digging characteristics of the kangaroo rat are similar to those of the gerbil. Furthermore, the animal shows definite psychotic tendencies under the influence of psychotomimetics like LSD-25 and psilocybin. An evaluation of the physiological responses of isolated tissues from this animal as well as its responses to anesthetics is being undertaken to evaluate its further usefulness in the laboratory. (auth)« less
Grembowski, David; Spiekerman, Charles; Milgrom, Peter
Objectives Among young children in low-income families covered by Medicaid, we estimate by racial/ethnic group whether children who have mothers with a regular source of dental care (RSDC) at baseline have greater dental utilization in the following year than children with mothers without a regular source. Patients and Methods From a population of 108,151 children enrolled in Medicaid aged 3 to 6 and their low-income mothers in Washington state, a disproportionate stratified random sample of 11,305 children aged 3 to 6 was selected from enrollment records in four racial/ethnic groups: 3,791 Black; 2,806 Hispanic 1,902 White; and 2,806 other racial/ethnic groups. In a prospective cohort design, we conducted a baseline survey of mothers and for respondents, collected their children’s Medicaid dental claims in the 1-year follow-up period. Mutivariable regression models estimated the associations between the mothers having a RSDC at baseline and their children’s prospective dental utilization. Results About 38% of mothers had a RSDC. Among children of Black and Hispanic mothers, having a mother with a RSDC at baseline was associated with greater odds of receiving any dental care in the following year (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.10-2.62 for children of Black mothers; OR 1.84, CI 1.23-2.73 for children of Hispanic mothers). For children with dental utilization, children of Black or Hispanic mothers with a RSDC received 1.22 (CI 1.08-1.38) and 1.10 (CI 1.01-1.19) more preventive services, respectively. For children of White mothers, associations were in the same direction but not significant. Conclusions For young children of Black and Hispanic mothers, dental care utilization is higher when their mothers have a RSDC. For low-income young children with Medicaid, increasing the mothers’ access to dental care may increase the children’s utilization of dental and preventive services, which, in turn, may reduce racial/ethnic inequalities in oral health. PMID:18829778
Portas, Timothy J; Taylor, David
Infection with the introduced trematode Fasciola hepatica was associated with anemia, mild to moderate azotemia, hypoalbuminemia, and elevated liver enzymes and creatine kinase values in two free-ranging eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus). Both kangaroos were euthanized because of the severity of clinical signs associated with infection. Histopathologic changes included severe cholangiohepatitis, biliary hyperplasia, and fibrosis. Hepatic, splenic, and intestinal amyloidosis was present in one kangaroo and hepatic abscessation in the other; neither histologic change has been reported in macropodids with fascioliasis previously.
Augusteyn, Robert C
Development in marsupials takes place predominantly ex utero while the young is attached to a nipple in the mother's pouch, very different from that in other species. This study was undertaken to examine whether this affects lens growth and the production of lens proteins in kangaroos. Fresh lenses were obtained at official culls from eastern gray kangaroos (Macropus giganteus). Wet weights were recorded for all and protein contents were determined for one lens from each animal. Dry weights, after fixation were obtained for 20 lenses. Ages were determined using both molar progression and total lens protein content. Lenses were divided into concentric layers by controlled dissolution using phosphate buffered saline. Samples were taken for determination of protein contents and dry weights, which were then used to determine the age of the layer removed. Soluble crystallin distributions were determined by fractionation of the centrifuged extracts using HPLC-GPC and the polypeptide contents of both soluble and insoluble proteins were assessed by SDS-PAGE. Lens growth is continuous from birth throughout adulthood and the increases in wet weight and fixed dry weight can be described with a single logistic growth functions for the whole life span. Three major crystallin classes, α-, β-, and γ-crystallins, were identified in the immature pouch-young animals aged around 60 days after birth. Adult lenses contain, in addition, the taxon-specific μ-crystallin. The proportions of these vary with the age of the lens tissue due to age related insolubilization as well as changes in the synthesis patterns. During early lactation (birth to 190 days), the α-, β-, and γ-crystallins represent 25, 53, and 20% of the total protein, respectively. After the pouch-young first releases the nipple (190 days), there is a rapid decrease in the production of γ-crystallins to around 5% of the total and a corresponding increase in μ-crystallin, from 0.5% to 15%. These changes were complete
Axelin, Anna; Lehtonen, Liisa; Pelander, Tiina; Salanterä, Sanna
To describe and understand how mothers utilize the opportunity to actively participate in their preterm infants' pain care using facilitated tucking by parents (FTP). Descriptive and exploratory study with postintervention interview. Finnish level III Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Twenty-three mothers who had preterm infants born at gestational ages of 32 to 34 weeks. The parents (N=45) of 29 preterm infants were taught to use FTP. In addition, all nurses in the NICU (N=76) received the same education to support the parents' use of FTP. After 2 to 4 weeks of FTP use, the mothers (n=23) were interviewed using the Clinical Interview for Parents of High-Risk Infants with additional questions related to the infants' pain care. The interviews were analyzed inductively with cross-case analysis and deductively with a previously developed coding scheme. Facilitated tucking by parents was perceived positively and was used by all participating mothers. Three different styles of involvement in preterm infants' pain care with FTP were identified. They formed a continuum from external to random and finally to internalized involvement. In external involvement, the pain care with FTP was triggered by outside factors such as nurses, whereas in random and internalized involvement the motivation emerged from a parent. Mothers with external involvement thought that any person could apply the FTP. In random involvement, mothers were mainly absent during painful procedures, although they saw themselves as the best caregivers. In internalized involvement, the responsibility for infant pain care was shared within the family. Mothers' NICU-related stress and maternal attachment were associated with this variation. This study showed that mothers' are willing to actively participate in their preterm infants' pain care. However, the participation is unique according to mother and her experiences before and during NICU admission. Nurses need to consider these differences in mothers
Zaylaa, Amira J; Rashid, Mohamad; Shaib, Mounir; El Majzoub, Imad
Preterm infants encounter an abrupt delivery before their complete maturity during the third trimester of pregnancy. Polls anticipate an increase in the rates of preterm infants for 2025, especially in middle- and low-income countries. Despite the abundance of intensive care methods for preterm infants, such as, but not limited to, commercial, transport, embrace warmer, radiant warmer, and Kangaroo Mother Care methods, they are either expensive, lack the most essential requirements or specifications, or lack the maternal-preterm bond. This drove us to carry this original research and innovative idea of developing a new 3D printed prototype of a Handy preterm infant incubator. We aim to provide the most indispensable intensive care with the lowest cost, to bestow low-income countries with the Handy incubator's care, preserve the maternal -preterm's bond, and diminish the rate of mortality. Biomedical features, electronics, and biocompatible materials were utilized. The design was simulated, the prototype was 3D printed, and the outcomes were tested and evaluated. Simulation results showed the best fit for the Handy incubator's components. Experimental results showed the 3D-printed prototype and the time elapsed to obtain it. Evaluation results revealed that the overall performance of Kangaroo Mother Care and the embrace warmer was 75 ± 1.4% and 66.7 ± 1.5%, respectively, while the overall performance of our Handy incubator was 91.7 ± 1.6%, thereby our cost-effective Handy incubator surpassed existing intensive care methods. The future step is associating the Handy incubator with more specifications and advancements.
Neethling, W M L; Cooper, S; Van Den Heever, J J; Hough, J; Hodge, A J
Bioprosthetic materials (human, bovine and porcine) are used in various cardio-thoracic repair and replacement procedures because of excellent performance and low thrombogenicity. These bioprosthetic substitutes fail due to degeneration and calcification. This study examines the morphology, tensile properties and calcification potential of kangaroo pericardium in vitro and in vivo. Bovine (control tissue) and kangaroo pericardium, fixed in 0.625% buffered glutaraldehyde, were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. A standard method was used for biaxial testing. Pericardial strips (10 x 5 mm) were implanted subcutaneously into male Wistar rats and retrieved after 4, 6 and 8 weeks and examined by Von Kossa's stain technique and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Histology revealed serosa and fibrosa cell layers in both tissues. Electron microscopy showed a densely arranged collagen matrix in kangaroo pericardium. Kangaroo pericardium calcified significantly less than bovine pericardium at 4 weeks (0.80+/-0.28 versus 21.60+/-4.80 microg/mg) at 6 weeks (0.48+/-0.08 versus 32.80+/-14.4 microg/mg) and at 8 weeks (2.40+/-1.20 versus 30.40+/-17.20 microg/mg), respectively. Kangaroo pericardium has a densely arranged collagen matrix with a higher extensibility and significantly lower calcification potential. Therefore, kangaroo pericardium could be used as an alternative substitute in cardiac surgery because of its low calcification potential.
Narine, K; Chéry, Cyrille C; Goetghebeur, Els; Forsyth, R; Claeys, E; Cornelissen, Maria; Moens, L; Van Nooten, G
The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the calcification potential of kangaroo and porcine aortic valves after glutaraldehyde fixation at both low (0.6%) and high (2.0%) concentrations of glutaraldehyde in the rat subcutaneous model. To our knowledge this is the first report comparing the time-related, progressive calcification of these two species in the rat subcutaneous model. Twenty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were each implanted with two aortic valve leaflets (porcine and kangaroo) after fixation in 0.6% glutaraldehyde and two aortic valve leaflets (porcine and kangaroo) after fixation in 2% glutaraldehyde respectively. Animals were sacrificed after 24 h and thereafter weekly for up to 10 weeks after implantation. Calcium content was determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and confirmed histologically. Mean calcium content per milligram of tissue (dry weight) treated with 0.6 and 2% glutaraldehyde was 116.2 and 110.4 microg/mg tissue for kangaroo and 95.0 and 106.8 microg/mg tissue for porcine valves. Calcium content increased significantly over time (8.8 microg/mg tissue per week) and was not significantly different between groups. Regression analysis of calcification over time showed no significant difference in calcification of valves treated with 0.6 or 2% glutaraldehyde within and between the two species. Using the subcutaneous model, we did not detect a difference in calcification potential between kangaroo and porcine aortic valves treated with either high or low concentrations of glutaraldehyde. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Vargas-Porras, Carolina; Villamizar-Carvajal, Beatriz; Ardila-Suárez, Edinson Fabian
To determine the factors associated with the risk of negligence in child care during the first year of rearing in adolescent and adult mothers. This was cross-sectional correlation study with a non-probabilistic sample composed of 250 mothers during their first year of child rearing. The information was collected through the Parenting Inventory for Teenagers and Adults. 88 teenager mothers and 162 adult mothers participated in this study. In general low scores were found in all dimensions in both adolescent mothers group and adult mother group, which indicate the existence of deficiencies in the adequate maternal behavior and risk of negligent care to their children. In the group of teenage mothers there was an evident and significant correlation between the factors: maternal age and occupation dimension belief in punishment and occupation with inappropriate expectations dimension. The group of adult mothers showed significant correlation between: educational level with the dimensions of role reversal, belief in punishment and lack of empathy; socioeconomic dimension with the belief in punishment and age of the child with the lack of empathy dimension. Child rearing expectations of mothers show a high risk of negligence in child care. Therefore, nurses should promote the strengthening of the maternal role. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.
Yamamoto, Yukiyo; McKinley, Michael J; Nakazato, Masamitsu; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Shirahata, Akira; Ueta, Yoichi
The Eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) is a marsupial, which is born in an extremely undeveloped state and has a long suckling period in the mother's pouch. In the present study, we examined the immunoreactivities of orexin-A (OXA) and orexin-B (OXB) in the hypothalamus of the Eastern grey kangaroo during the preweaning period, postweaning period and adulthood. In the preweaning period, only a few OXA- and OXB-like immunoreactive (LI) neurons and fibers were present and the intensity of staining was very weak. In the postweaning period, there was a pronounced increase in the numbers of OXA- and OXB-LI neurons and fibers and the intensity of the immunoreactivity was considerably stronger in comparison to the preweaning period. In the adult, the numbers of OXA- and OXB-LI neurons and fibers appeared to be slightly increased and the intensity was slightly stronger in comparison to the postweaning period. At all time periods, the distributions of OXA- and OXB-LI neurons was similar. The postnatal development of hypothalamic orexin neurons may be associated with developmental changes, including feeding behavior.
Kram, R; Dawson, T J
As red kangaroos hop faster over level ground, their rate of oxygen consumption (indicating metabolic energy consumption) remains nearly the same. This phenomenon has been attributed to exceptional elastic energy storage and recovery via long compliant tendons in the legs. Alternatively, red kangaroos may have exceptionally efficient muscles. To estimate efficiency, we measured the metabolic cost of uphill hopping, where muscle fibers must perform mechanical work against gravity. We found that uphill hopping was much more expensive than level hopping. The maximal rate of oxygen consumption measured (3 ml O2 kg-1 s-1) exceeds all but a few vertebrate species. However, efficiency values were normal, approximately 30%. At faster level hopping speeds the effective mechanical advantage of the extensor muscles of the ankle joint remained the same. Thus, kangaroos generate the same muscular force at all speeds but do so more rapidly at faster hopping speeds. This contradicts a recent hypothesis for what sets the cost of locomotion. The cost of transport (J kg-1 m-1) decreases at faster hopping speeds, yet red kangaroos prefer to use relatively slow speeds that avoid high levels of tendon stress.
Kuster, Patricia A; Badr, Lina K
The complex management of ventilator-assisted children cared for in the home can place emotional and mental strain on parents, in particular, mothers. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among functional status of the child, impact of ventilator-assistance on the family, coping, social support, and depression in mothers caring for ventilator-assisted children at home. Thirty-eight mothers participated in the study. Almost half of the mothers experienced depressive mood symptoms. Impact on family was positively related to depression and social support was inversely related to depression. In addition, social support was a significant predictor of depression. The findings show that the high demands related to the care of ventilator-assisted children can be a significant risk factor for poor mental health outcomes of those mothers providing care at home. Interventions by mental health and pediatric nurses should focus on enhancing mothers' coping skills and assisting mothers in accessing a positive social network to help mediate the stress related to caring for their child.
Jarrell, Julia R; Ludington-Hoe, Susan M; Abouelfettoh, Amel
The purposes were to relate responses (including unacceptable ones) of twins to shared kangaroo care (KC), to provide explanations for the unexpected responses, and to offer suggestions for safe nursing practice. A descriptive, evaluative case study was conducted. Both twins received KC while their vital signs and maternal breast temperatures were manually recorded every 30 seconds. Descriptive statistics were computed. Identical twins, born to a 19-year-old African-American primigravada, were 34 3/7 weeks postconceptional age with weights of 1,760 and 1,480 g, respectively, when tested. Preterm labor resulted in spontaneous vaginal birth at 30 weeks gestation. Infant heart and respiratory rates, oxygen saturations, abdominal temperatures, and maternal breast temperatures. Infant A's vital signs exceeded acceptable clinical limits during shared KC; vital signs returned to normal range once Infant A was returned to the incubator. Infant B's vital signs approximated clinically acceptable ranges throughout the session. Breast temperatures did not differ. Individuality mandates vigilant assessment of infant responses to shared KC.
Kayom, Violet Okaba; Kakuru, Abel; Kiguli, Sarah
Background. Most information on newborn care practices in Uganda is from rural communities which may not be generalized to urban settings. Methods. A community based cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in the capital city of Uganda from February to May 2012. Quantitative and qualitative data on the newborn care practices of eligible mothers were collected. Results. Over 99% of the mothers attended antenatal care at least once and the majority delivered in a health facility. Over 50% of the mothers applied various substances to the cord of their babies to quicken the healing. Although most of the mothers did not bathe their babies within the first 24 hours of birth, the majority had no knowledge of skin to skin care as a thermoprotective method. The practice of bathing babies in herbal medicine was common (65%). Most of the mothers breastfed exclusively (93.2%) but only 60.7% initiated breastfeeding within the first hour of life, while a significant number (29%) used prelacteal feeds. Conclusion. The inadequate newborn care practices in this urban community point to the need to intensify the promotion of universal coverage of the newborn care practices irrespective of rural or urban communities and irrespective of health care seeking indicators. PMID:26713096
Cleveland, Lisa M; Horner, Sharon D
The admission of an infant to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) can produce significant stress for mothers and may contribute to a difficult transition following discharge. Past research has primarily focused on Caucasian women. Mexican-Americans are the fastest growing ethnic population in the U.S. with the highest fertility rate; therefore, the purpose of this grounded theory study was to gain a better understanding of the NICU experience for Mexican-American mothers. Fifteen women were recruited and data were collected through semi-structured interviews. A theoretical model, taking care of my baby, was developed. The mothers' experiences began with the unexpected event of having an infant admitted to the NICU and played out in a context that fluctuated between being supportive (making meaningful connections) or inhibitive (struggling to mother). The women developed strategies to help them take care of their babies during the NICU stay: balancing responsibilities, leaving part of me with my baby, and watching over. The process concluded in one of two ways: bringing my baby home or losing my baby. These findings offer insight for neonatal nurses who provide care for Mexican-American NICU mothers and may help inform their practice. Further research is needed with this growing population to ensure supportive nursing care and influence positive outcomes.
Shambley-Ebron, Donna Z; Boyle, Joyceen S
African American women are the most rapidly growing group of people in the United States diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. The purpose of this study was to explore experiences of self-care and mothering among African American women with HIV/AIDS. It is important to recognize how culture affects illness management, childrearing, and daily living to design culturally appropriate nursing interventions for African American women. Critical ethnography was used to study 10 African American mothers from the rural Southeast who were HIV positive and mothered children who were HIV positive. Domains derived from the research were disabling relationships, strong mothering, and redefining self-care. The cultural theme was creating a life of meaning. African American mothers with HIV/AIDS in the rural Southeast used culturally specific self-care and mothering strategies reflective of cultural traditions. This study acknowledges strengths of African American women and generates theory that will enhance nursing care to this population.
This paper seeks to build on feminist and egalitarian critiques of the traditional allocation of care work to mothers, particularly in relation to understandings of educational care work. It seeks to locate the emotional support work carried out by mothers in the educational field within their daily routines of care, and to make visible the…
Banta, Marilyn R
Desert endotherms such as Merriam's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys merriami) use both behavioral and physiological means to conserve energy and water. The energy and water needs of kangaroo rats are affected by their thermal environment. Animals that choose temperatures within their thermoneutral zone (TNZ) minimize energy expenditure but may impair water balance because the ratio of water loss to water gain is high. At temperatures below the TNZ, water balance may be improved because animals generate more oxidative water and reduce evaporative water loss; however, they must also increase energy expenditure to maintain a normal body temperature. Hence, it is not possible for kangaroo rats to choose thermal environments that simultaneously minimize energy expenditure and increase water conservation. I used a thermal gradient to test whether water stress, energy stress, simultaneous water and energy stress, or no water/energy stress affected the thermal environment selected by D. merriami. During the night (i.e., active phase), animals in all four treatments chose temperatures near the bottom of their TNZ. During the day (i.e., inactive phase), animals in all four treatments settled at temperatures near the top of their TNZ. Thus, kangaroo rats chose thermal environments that minimized energy requirements, not water requirements. Because kangaroo rats have evolved high water use efficiency, energy conservation may be more important than water conservation to the fitness of extant kangaroo rats.
Shpancer, Noam; Melick, Katherine M.; Sayre, Pamela S.; Spivey, Aria T.
The present study was designed to find whether evaluations of maternal competence are linked to mothers' employment status and the quality of maternal care. Participants rated videotaped vignettes, depicting either high-quality or low-quality mother-infant interactions, on various dimensions of care quality. The videotaped mothers were described…
Abhulimhen-Iyoha, B I; Ibadin, M O
Mothers care for their infants' umbilical cord stump in various ways. Different cord care practices have been documented; some are beneficial while others are harmful. Who and what influence the cord care practiced by mothers have, however, not been fully explored particularly in the study locale. The objective of this study was to determine the factors that influence cord care practices among mothers in Benin City. The study subjects included 497 mothers who brought their babies to Well Baby/Immunization Clinic at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), Benin City, Edo State, between July and August 2009. A structured questionnaire served as an instrument to extract information on their biodata and possible determinants of cord care practices. Significantly older women (P=0.023), educated mothers (P=0.029), and those who had male babies (P=0.013) practiced beneficial cord stump care practices. Beneficial cord care practice increased with increasing maternal educational status. The best predictors of beneficial cord care practices are maternal level of education (P=0.029) and infant's sex (P=0.013). The use of harmful cord care practices was more common among mothers who delivered outside the Teaching hospitals. Most (71.2%) of the mothers were aware of hygienic/beneficial cord care. The choices of cord care methods eventually practiced by mothers were influenced mainly by the disposition of nurses (51.3%), participants' mothers (32.0%), and their mothers-in-law (5.8%). There was no significant relationship between cord care practice on one hand and maternal parity, tribe, and socioeconomic classes on the other. The need for female education is again emphasized. The current findings strongly justify the need for public enlightenment programs, using the mass media and health talks in health facilities, targeting not only women of reproductive age but also secondary audience like their mothers, mothers-in-law, nurses, and attendants at health facilities
Carducci, Bianca; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
With the first 1,000 days of life proving to be a critical window of opportunity for physical and cognitive growth and development, an optimal intrauterine environment is vital. If fetus needs are compromised prenatally, there is an increased risk of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and infants being born premature, low birth weight (LBW), or small-for-gestational age (SGA). Specialized care of these high-risk infants is necessary in terms of preconception interventions, resuscitation, thermoregulation, nutritional support and kangaroo mother care. Significant evidence supports exclusive breastfeeding as the standard of care for feeding SGA, preterm, LBW and very low birth weight infants. Expressed milk or donor milk may also require fortification, to meet higher nutrient needs of these newborns. Future research should address the gap in the literature on specific care of term and preterm IUGR and or SGA infants, and strengthening evidence for human milk bank models and emollient care. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Harker, M.B.; Rathbun, G.B.; Langtimm, C.A.
To study burrow use by small mammals, we needed to develop a simple, non-invasive radiotag for the endangered giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens). We designed and tested a radiocollar made of beaded-chain on 4 captive Heermann's kangaroo rats (D. heermanii). Attachment of the collar required no anesthesia, the collar was easily fitted in 1-2 minutes, and it caused minimal stress to the animals. Once the collar design and attachment technique were perfected on the surrogate animals, we fitted radiocollars on 48 giant kangaroo rats for about 15 days. Upon recapture, 12 animals showed some minor fur or skin abrasion on the neck. Overall, the attachment performed as expected and proved to be a reliable method to radiotrack kangaroo rats during our short-term field study.
Hotelling, Barbara A
The purpose of the questionnaire, "Is Your Perinatal Practice Mother-Friendly?" is to provide health practitioners with an evidence-based tool that can be used to improve maternity care. The Mother-Friendly Childbirth Initiative is a consensus document promoting a wellness model of maternity care that was developed by the Coalition for Improving Maternity Services (CIMS) and ratified by major childbirth organizations and leading authorities in maternity care. By complying with the "Ten Steps of Mother-Friendly Care," a hospital or practice can be designated as "mother-friendly." The questionnaire enables health care providers to apply the Ten Steps to their maternity practice or services.
Abu-Mellal, Abdallah; Koolaji, Nooshin; Duke, Rujee K; Tran, Van H; Duke, Colin C
A prenylated cinnamic acid derivative as well as six prenylated tetrahydroxystilbenes were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of propolis that originated from Kangaroo Island, Australia. Furthermore, six known stilbenes and two known flavanones were also identified from the same sample. Stilbenes are not common in propolis; therefore, Kangaroo Island propolis is considered a unique type of propolis that is rich in prenylated stilbenes. Stilbene propolis from Kangaroo Island showed a stronger scavenging activity towards DPPH free radical than Brazilian green propolis. This strong activity can be explained by the presence of large number of stilbenes, most of them showed strong free radical scavenging activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Peterson, Wendy E; Davies, Barbara; Rashotte, Judy; Salvador, Anne; Trépanier, Marie-Josée
To determine whether hospital-based perinatal nurses with expertise in adolescent mother-friendly care identify a need to improve inpatient nursing care of adolescent mothers and how well perinatal units support nurses' capacity to provide adolescent mother-friendly care. A key informant survey of nurses from eight perinatal units at three hospitals (four separate sites) in a Canadian city. Perinatal nurses expert in the care of adolescent mothers were identified by their managers and colleagues. These nurses and all perinatal clinical educators were invited to participate. Twenty-seven of 34 potential key informants completed the survey. Key informants rated their own skill in caring for adolescent mothers higher (median 8.0) than they rated the skill of other nurses (median 6.0) on their units. They attributed their expertise working with adolescent mothers to their clinical and life experiences and their ability to develop rapport with adolescents. A common reason for the assigned lower peer-group ratings was the judgmental manner in which some nurses care for adolescent mothers. Key informants also identified that hospital-based perinatal nurses lack adequate knowledge of community-based resources for adolescent mothers, educational programs related to adolescent mother-friendly care were insufficient, and policies to inform the nursing care of adolescent mothers were not available or known to them. A minority of perinatal nurses have expertise in adolescent mother-friendly care. There is a need for perinatal unit-level interventions to support the development of nurses' skills in caring for adolescent mothers and their knowledge of community-based resources. Peer mentoring and self-reflective practice are promising strategies. © 2012 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Dodt, William G; Gallus, Susanne; Phillips, Matthew J; Nilsson, Maria A
Reconstructing phylogeny from retrotransposon insertions is often limited by access to only a single reference genome, whereby support for clades that do not include the reference taxon cannot be directly observed. Here we have developed a new statistical framework that accounts for this ascertainment bias, allowing us to employ phylogenetically powerful retrotransposon markers to explore the radiation of the largest living marsupials, the kangaroos and wallabies of the genera Macropus and Wallabia. An exhaustive in silico screening of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) reference genome followed by experimental screening revealed 29 phylogenetically informative retrotransposon markers belonging to a family of endogenous retroviruses. We identified robust support for the enigmatic swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor) falling within a paraphyletic genus, Macropus. Our statistical approach provides a means to test for incomplete lineage sorting and introgression/hybridization in the presence of the ascertainment bias. Using retrotransposons as "molecular fossils", we reveal one of the most complex patterns of hemiplasy yet identified, during the rapid diversification of kangaroos and wallabies. Ancestral state reconstruction incorporating the new retrotransposon phylogenetic information reveals multiple independent ecological shifts among kangaroos into more open habitats, coinciding with the Pliocene onset of increased aridification in Australia from ~3.6 million years ago.
Sotohira, Yukari; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Sano, Tadashi; Arai, Chigusa; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko; Hayashi, Hideaki
The aim of this study was to objectively assess stress of kangaroos affected by lumpy jaw disease (LJD) using plasma and hair cortisol concentrations. The plasma and hair samples were collected from kangaroos with LJD and healthy controls. Collected hair samples were extracted with methanol after washing with isopropanol, following which they were processed with the cortisol enzyme immunoassay kit. The plasma cortisol concentration of LJD animals tended to be higher than that of the control. Ventral hair cortisol, but not dorsal hair, of LJD animals was significantly higher than that of the control. In conclusion, stress in kangaroos infected with LJD could be assessed by measuring ventral hair cortisol.
Okeson, Danelle M; Coke, Rob L; Kochunov, Peter; Davis, M Duff
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on an adult, male Red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) with a history of nonspecific neurologic signs and acute discharge from the left ear. MRI revealed findings consistent with otitis and possible osteomyelitis of the temporal and mastoid bones. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of otitis and MRI findings in a kangaroo.
Vendl, Catharina; Clauss, Marcus; Stewart, Mathew; Leggett, Keith; Hummel, Jürgen; Kreuzer, Michael; Munn, Adam
Fundamental differences in methane (CH4) production between macropods (kangaroos) and ruminants have been suggested and linked to differences in the composition of the forestomach microbiome. Using six western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) and four red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), we measured daily absolute CH4 production in vivo as well as CH4 yield (CH4 per unit of intake of dry matter, gross energy or digestible fibre) by open-circuit respirometry. Two food intake levels were tested using a chopped lucerne hay (alfalfa) diet. Body mass-specific absolute CH4 production resembled values previously reported in wallabies and non-ruminant herbivores such as horses, and did not differ with food intake level, although there was no concomitant proportionate decrease in fibre digestibility with higher food intake. In contrast, CH4 yield decreased with increasing intake, and was intermediate between values reported for ruminants and non-ruminant herbivores. These results correspond to those in ruminants and other non-ruminant species where increased intake (and hence a shorter digesta retention in the gut) leads to a lower CH4 yield. We hypothesize that rather than harbouring a fundamentally different microbiome in their foregut, the microbiome of macropods is in a particular metabolic state more tuned towards growth (i.e. biomass production) rather than CH4 production. This is due to the short digesta retention time in macropods and the known distinct 'digesta washing' in the gut of macropods, where fluids move faster than particles and hence most likely wash out microbes from the forestomach. Although our data suggest that kangaroos only produce about 27% of the body mass-specific volume of CH4 of ruminants, it remains to be modelled with species-specific growth rates and production conditions whether or not significantly lower CH4 amounts are emitted per kg of meat in kangaroo than in beef or mutton production. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Crowe, T K; VanLeit, B; Berghmans, K K
This study examined and compared mothers' perceptions of child care assistance provided by fathers and other caregivers. Awareness of child care division of labor will assist occupational therapists in addressing the needs of children with disabilities within the family context. One hundred and thirty-five mothers living in two-parent households kept a time diary of their daily activities for 7 consecutive days using the Caregiver's Activity and Recording of Events Inventory and estimated the percentage of child care their partners performed, the amount of child care their partners performed, and their satisfaction with this division of labor. One third of the women had children with multiple disabilities, one third had children with Down syndrome, and one third had children who were typically developing. The majority of mothers in all three groups perceived that they were responsible for the majority of child care. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of mothers' perceptions of the amount of child care provided by fathers and other caregivers, including relatives, childsitters, nurses, school personnel, and neighbors. However, there were wide variations among families concerning child care arrangements and division of labor. Seventy-five percent of mothers indicated that they were satisfied with the division of child care labor between mothers and fathers, and no significant correlation was found between perceived percentage of child care performed and satisfaction with the division of labor. Mothers in this study were responsible for the majority of child care whether their child had a disability. The variation in number of hours that others spent performing child care activities within individual families suggests that there is no "best" or typical pattern. Occupational therapists need to collaborate with families to determine a system of accommodations to manage their daily routine that most effectively meets the family's needs.
Campbell-Yeo, Marsha; Fernandes, Ananda; Johnston, Celeste
This is the second of a 2-part series to provide an overview of our current level of knowledge related to nonpharmacological strategies to diminish the pain associated with commonly performed procedures in the NICU. In our first article we discussed the prevalence of repeated pain exposure in the NICU and the importance of nonpharmacological strategies specifically containment or facilitated tucking, swaddling, positioning, nonnutritive sucking, and sweet solutions. These strategies are generally nurse-driven and we believe their importance has been underutilized. In this article we will emphasize the importance of maternal presence as a mediator for pain relief. The efficacy of breastfeeding, maternal skin-to-skin care (often referred to as kangaroo care), and multisensorial stimulation such as auditory and olfactory recognition will be the primary focus of our discussion. In addition, although primarily mother-driven, these strategies are ultimately nurse-enabled, thus the importance of this connection cannot be under appreciated with respect to successful implementation in the NICU.
Knafo, S Emmanuelle; Rosenblatt, Alana J; Morrisey, James K; Flanders, James A; Thompson, Margret S; Knapp-Hoch, Heather M
An 8-year-old male red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) was evaluated with a 2-week history of vomiting and anorexia. Four days prior, the patient became refractory to medical management. The kangaroo was admitted for diagnostic testing and treatment including whole body CT, blood work, and emergency laparotomy. CT findings of a severely enlarged stomach, splenic displacement, and a whirl sign were indicative of mesenteric volvulus with gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV). Contrast enhancement of abdominal viscera suggested intact arterial blood supply; however, compression of the caudal vena cava and portal vein indicated venous obstruction. Results of preoperative blood work suggested biliary stasis without evidence of inflammation. Additionally, a tooth root abscess was diagnosed on the basis of results of CT. Exploratory laparotomy confirmed the diagnosis of mesenteric volvulus and GDV. The volvuli were corrected by clockwise derotation, and a gastropexy was performed. Tissue samples were obtained from the spleen and liver for evaluation. The kangaroo recovered from surgery, and the abscessed tooth was extracted 6 days later. Eight days after initial evaluation, the kangaroo was discharged. In the present report, the CT whirl sign was used to diagnose volvulus of the abdominal viscera, which suggests that this diagnostic indicator has utility in veterinary patients. Mesenteric volvulus with GDV was successfully treated in a nondomestic species. The tooth root abscess, a common condition in macropods, may explain the historic episodes of anorexia reported by the owner and may have contributed to the development of mesenteric volvulus and GDV in this kangaroo.
Saleh, Khaled; Hossny, Mohammed; Nahavandi, Saeid
Traffic collisions between kangaroos and motorists are on the rise on Australian roads. According to a recent report, it was estimated that there were more than 20,000 kangaroo vehicle collisions that occurred only during the year 2015 in Australia. In this work, we are proposing a vehicle-based framework for kangaroo detection in urban and highway traffic environment that could be used for collision warning systems. Our proposed framework is based on region-based convolutional neural networks (RCNN). Given the scarcity of labeled data of kangaroos in traffic environments, we utilized our state-of-the-art data generation pipeline to generate 17,000 synthetic depth images of traffic scenes with kangaroo instances annotated in them. We trained our proposed RCNN-based framework on a subset of the generated synthetic depth images dataset. The proposed framework achieved a higher average precision (AP) score of 92% over all the testing synthetic depth image datasets. We compared our proposed framework against other baseline approaches and we outperformed it with more than 37% in AP score over all the testing datasets. Additionally, we evaluated the generalization performance of the proposed framework on real live data and we achieved a resilient detection accuracy without any further fine-tuning of our proposed RCNN-based framework.
Neethling, W M; Papadimitriou, J M; Swarts, E; Hodge, A J
Valve related factors and patient related factors are responsible for calcification of valvular bioprostheses. Recent studies showed different donor and recipient species have different influences on the total calcification rate of bioprostheses. This study was performed to evaluate and compare Kangaroo aortic valve leaflets with porcine aortic valve leaflets. Experimental design. Prospective study. Setting. Cardio-thoracic experimental research of a university department. Glutaraldehyde-fixed Kangaroo and porcine valve leaflets were evaluated in vitro according to valve geometry (internal diameter and leaflet thickness), morphology (light and electron microscopy) and tensile strength. In vivo evaluation consisted of implantation in a rat model for 8 weeks, Von Kossa stain for calcium and atomic absorption spectrophotometry for total extractable calcium content. Kangaroo valves indicated a smaller internal valve diameter as well as a thinner valve leaflet (p<0.01, ANOVA) at corresponding body weight, less proteoglycan spicules in the fibrosa, increased elasticity (p<0.05) and low calcification potential (p<0.01, confidence interval 95%). Kangaroo aortic valve leaflets have different valvular qualities compared to porcine valve tissue. Kangaroo valve leaflets are significantly superior to porcine valve leaflets as far as calcification is concerned. These results are encouraging and suggest further in vivo evaluation in a larger animal model before clinical application can be considered.
Friedman, Susan Hatters; Heneghan, Amy; Rosenthal, Miriam
This study assessed infant disposition and health outcomes among offspring born to mothers without prenatal care, based on maternal characteristics and the reason for lack of prenatal care (i.e., denial of pregnancy, concealment of pregnancy, primary substance use, financial barriers and multiparity). A retrospective record review was completed at an urban academic medical center. Subjects were women who presented at delivery or immediately postpartum with no history of prenatal care (N=211), and their infants. Infants of mothers with substance use problems had the highest rates of referral to child protective services and out-of-home placement at discharge, though mothers with other reasons for no prenatal care also experienced both referral and placement. Infants born to mothers using substances experienced the highest rates of neonatal intensive care unit admission, and the lowest mean birth weight. Though those without prenatal care experienced a variety of adverse outcomes, substance use problems were most frequently correlated with adverse infant outcomes. Mothers who either had lost custody of other children or with substance use problems were at highest risk of losing custody of their infants. Those who denied or concealed their pregnancy still frequently retained custody. Among mothers without prenatal care, those with substance use problems were least likely to retain custody of their infant at hospital discharge. Custody status of the mother's other children was also independently associated with infant custody. Mothers who denied or concealed their pregnancy still often retained custody. Referrals of mothers with no prenatal care for psychiatric evaluation were rare, though referrals to social work were frequent. Child protective services occasionally did not investigate referrals in the denial and concealment groups. Healthcare providers should be aware of the medical and psychological needs of this vulnerable population of infants and mothers.
Potter, Abbey; Johansen, Cheryl A; Fenwick, Stan; Reid, Simon A; Lindsay, Michael D A
A serosurvey was undertaken in 15 locations in the midwest to southwest of Western Australia (WA) to investigate the seroprevalence of Ross River virus (RRV) neutralizing antibodies and factors associated with infection in western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus). The estimated seroprevalence in 2632 kangaroo samples, using a serum neutralization test, was 43.9% (95% CI 42.0, 45.8). Location was significantly associated with seroprevalence (p<0.001). There was a strong positive correlation between seroprevalence and the average log-transformed neutralizing antibody titer (r=0.98, p<0.001). The seroprevalence among adult kangaroos was significantly higher than in subadult kangaroos (p<0.05). No significant association was observed between seroprevalence and the sex of kangaroos (p>0.05). The results of this study indicate that kangaroos in WA are regularly infected with RRV and may be involved in the maintenance and transmission of RRV.
This paper is concerned with the inequalities experienced by mothers in the performance of educational care work for their children. It is argued that the caring work carried out by mothers at transfer to second-level schooling is shaped by their ability to activate the significant resource of emotional capital; a gendered resource involving…
Ross, Helen Warren
As more and more women return to the work force while their children are but infants, care other than by the mothers and outside the families' own homes has become an issue of major importance in the United States. In Europe, however, most governments subsidize infant care for mothers working outside the home. One country, Italy, has provided…
Santos, Jaqueline Silva; Andrade, Raquel Dully; Pina, Juliana Coelho; Veríssimo, Maria de La Ó Ramallo; Chiesa, Anna Maria; Mello, Débora Falleiros de
To analyze child health care and the defense of their rights from the perspective of adolescent mothers. An exploratory study with qualitative thematic analysis of data, based on conceptual aspects of care and the right to health, from semi-structured interviews with 20 adolescent mothers ascribed by Family Health teams. Maternal reports indicate that child health care requires responsibility and protection, with health practices that promote child advocacy. Gaps in assistance which preclude the full guarantee of the right to child health care were also highlighted. The right to health care assumed different meanings, and the forms to guarantee them were linked to individual behavior in detriment to broader actions that consider health as a social product, connected to the guarantee of other fundamental rights.
Udy, Dylan B.; Voorhies, Mark; Chan, Patricia P.; Lowe, Todd M.; Dumont, Sophie
The rat kangaroo (long-nosed potoroo, Potorous tridactylus) is a marsupial native to Australia. Cultured rat kangaroo kidney epithelial cells (PtK) are commonly used to study cell biological processes. These mammalian cells are large, adherent, and flat, and contain large and few chromosomes—and are thus ideal for imaging intra-cellular dynamics such as those of mitosis. Despite this, neither the rat kangaroo genome nor transcriptome have been sequenced, creating a challenge for probing the molecular basis of these cellular dynamics. Here, we present the sequencing, assembly and annotation of the draft rat kangaroo de novo transcriptome. We sequenced 679 million reads that mapped to 347,323 Trinity transcripts and 20,079 Unigenes. We present statistics emerging from transcriptome-wide analyses, and analyses suggesting that the transcriptome covers full-length sequences of most genes, many with multiple isoforms. We also validate our findings with a proof-of-concept gene knockdown experiment. We expect that this high quality transcriptome will make rat kangaroo cells a more tractable system for linking molecular-scale function and cellular-scale dynamics. PMID:26252667
Udy, Dylan B; Voorhies, Mark; Chan, Patricia P; Lowe, Todd M; Dumont, Sophie
The rat kangaroo (long-nosed potoroo, Potorous tridactylus) is a marsupial native to Australia. Cultured rat kangaroo kidney epithelial cells (PtK) are commonly used to study cell biological processes. These mammalian cells are large, adherent, and flat, and contain large and few chromosomes-and are thus ideal for imaging intra-cellular dynamics such as those of mitosis. Despite this, neither the rat kangaroo genome nor transcriptome have been sequenced, creating a challenge for probing the molecular basis of these cellular dynamics. Here, we present the sequencing, assembly and annotation of the draft rat kangaroo de novo transcriptome. We sequenced 679 million reads that mapped to 347,323 Trinity transcripts and 20,079 Unigenes. We present statistics emerging from transcriptome-wide analyses, and analyses suggesting that the transcriptome covers full-length sequences of most genes, many with multiple isoforms. We also validate our findings with a proof-of-concept gene knockdown experiment. We expect that this high quality transcriptome will make rat kangaroo cells a more tractable system for linking molecular-scale function and cellular-scale dynamics.
Chou, Yueh-Ching; Fu, Li-Yeh; Pu, Cheng-Yun; Chang, Heng-Hao
Whether employed and nonemployed mothers of children with intellectual disability (ID) have different experiences with reconciliation between care and work has rarely been explored. A survey was conducted in a county in Taiwan and 487 mothers aged younger than 65 and having a child with ID were interviewed face to face at their homes to explore whether there are different factors related to the reconciliation between care and work among employed and nonemployed mothers. Except for the common ground of mothers' health and care demands, logistic regression revealed work flexibility and care support were important for employed mothers. In contrast, the success of reconciliation for nonemployed mothers was determined by their individual characteristics (i.e., age, marital status, family income). Reconciliation policies for mothers with different employment statuses need to use different strategies.
Dougherty, Dorothy; Luther, Maureen
Breast milk has been shown to contribute significantly to positive neurodevelopmental and medical outcomes in the extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infant population. It is crucial that ELBW infants receive their mother's colostrum as a first feeding, followed by expressed breast milk for as long as possible. Evidence-based literature supports the difficult challenges both mothers and ELBW infants face if they are to succeed at breast pumping and breastfeeding. Influencing factors include the medical fragility of the infant, limited frequency and duration of kangaroo care between mother and infant, lack of an adequate volume of breast milk, as well as inconsistent or incorrect information surrounding the use of breast milk and breastfeeding. A feeding care map as described in this article can help the bedside nurse assist the mother-ELBW infant dyad in optimizing breast milk volumes, laying the groundwork for breastfeeding. Displaying supportive practices and preterm infant developmental milestones, the map categorizes infant, maternal, and dyad feeding issues along a progressive time line from admission to discharge.
Sabzevari, Sakinne; Nematollahi, Monirsadat; Mirzaei, Tayebeh; Ravari, Ali
Mothers play a key role in caring for their sick children. Their experiences of care were influenced by culture, rules, and the system of health and care services. There are few studies on maternal care of children with congenital heart disease. Also, each of them has studied a particular aspect of care. The present research aimed to understand care experiences of mothers of children with congenital heart disease. A conventional content analysis was used to obtain rich data. The goal of content analysis is "to provide knowledge and deeper understanding of the phenomenon under the study". The study was conducted in Kerman, Iran in 2014, on mothers of children with CHD. The purposive sampling technique was used to select the participants. Participants were 14 mothers of children with CHD and one father and one nurse of open heart surgery unit, from two hospitals affiliated with Kerman University of Medical Sciences. Eighteen semi-structured interviews were constructed. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis. MAXQDA 2007 software (VERBI GmbH, Berlin, Germany) was used to classify and manage the coding. Constant comparative method was done for data analysis. The reliability and validity of the findings, including the credibility, confirm ability, dependability, and transferability, were assessed. According to the content analysis, the main theme was the catastrophic burden of child care on mothers that included three categories: 1) the tension resulting from the disease, 2) involvement with internal thoughts, and 3) difficulties of care process. The results of this study may help health care professionals to provide supportive and educational packages to the patients, mothers and Family members until improving the management of patient's care.
Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra; Bertozzi, Stefano
To compare the cost of maternal and child health care (current model) to that of the WHO Mother-Baby Package if it were implemented. A pilot cross-sectional case study was conducted in September 2001 in Sanitary District No. III, Morelos State, Mexico. Two rural health centers, an urban health center, and a general hospital, all managed by the Ministry of Health, were selected for the study. The Mother-Baby Package Costing Spreadsheet was used to estimate the total cost and cost per intervention for the current model and for the Mother-Baby Package model. The total cost of the Mother-Baby Package was twice the cost of the current model. Of the 18 interventions evaluated, the highest proportion of total costs corresponded to antenatal care and normal delivery. Personnel costs represented more than half of the total costs. The Mother-Baby Package Costing Spreadsheet is a practical tool to estimate and compare costs and is useful to guide the distribution of financial resources allocated to maternal and child healthcare. However, this model has limited application unless it is adapted to the structure of each healthcare system. The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html.
Godwin, Scott; Kang, Alicia; Gulino, Lisa-Maree; Manefield, Mike; Gutierrez-Zamora, Maria-Luisa; Kienzle, Marco; Ouwerkerk, Diane; Dawson, Kerri; Klieve, Athol V
Kangaroos ferment forage material in an enlarged forestomach analogous to the rumen, but in contrast to ruminants, they produce little or no methane. The objective of this study was to identify the dominant organisms and pathways involved in hydrogenotrophy in the kangaroo forestomach, with the broader aim of understanding how these processes are able to predominate over methanogenesis. Stable isotope analysis of fermentation end products and RNA stable isotope probing (RNA-SIP) were used to investigate the organisms and biochemical pathways involved in the metabolism of hydrogen and carbon dioxide in the kangaroo forestomach. Our results clearly demonstrate that the activity of bacterial reductive acetogens is a key factor in the reduced methane output of kangaroos. In in vitro fermentations, the microbial community of the kangaroo foregut produced very little methane, but produced a significantly greater proportion of acetate derived from carbon dioxide than the microbial community of the bovine rumen. A bacterial operational taxonomic unit closely related to the known reductive acetogen Blautia coccoides was found to be associated with carbon dioxide and hydrogen metabolism in the kangaroo foregut. Other bacterial taxa including members of the genera Prevotella, Oscillibacter and Streptococcus that have not previously been reported as containing hydrogenotrophic organisms were also significantly associated with metabolism of hydrogen and carbon dioxide in the kangaroo forestomach. PMID:24621520
Godwin, Scott; Kang, Alicia; Gulino, Lisa-Maree; Manefield, Mike; Gutierrez-Zamora, Maria-Luisa; Kienzle, Marco; Ouwerkerk, Diane; Dawson, Kerri; Klieve, Athol V
Kangaroos ferment forage material in an enlarged forestomach analogous to the rumen, but in contrast to ruminants, they produce little or no methane. The objective of this study was to identify the dominant organisms and pathways involved in hydrogenotrophy in the kangaroo forestomach, with the broader aim of understanding how these processes are able to predominate over methanogenesis. Stable isotope analysis of fermentation end products and RNA stable isotope probing (RNA-SIP) were used to investigate the organisms and biochemical pathways involved in the metabolism of hydrogen and carbon dioxide in the kangaroo forestomach. Our results clearly demonstrate that the activity of bacterial reductive acetogens is a key factor in the reduced methane output of kangaroos. In in vitro fermentations, the microbial community of the kangaroo foregut produced very little methane, but produced a significantly greater proportion of acetate derived from carbon dioxide than the microbial community of the bovine rumen. A bacterial operational taxonomic unit closely related to the known reductive acetogen Blautia coccoides was found to be associated with carbon dioxide and hydrogen metabolism in the kangaroo foregut. Other bacterial taxa including members of the genera Prevotella, Oscillibacter and Streptococcus that have not previously been reported as containing hydrogenotrophic organisms were also significantly associated with metabolism of hydrogen and carbon dioxide in the kangaroo forestomach.
Yandell, C A; Francis, G L; Wheldrake, J F; Upton, Z
Kangaroo IGF-II has been purified from western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus) serum and characterised in a number of in vitro assays. In addition, the complete cDNA sequence of mature IGF-II has been obtained by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Comparison of the kangaroo IGF-II cDNA sequence with known IGF-II sequences from other species revealed that it is very similar to the human variant, [Ser29]-hIGF-II. Both the variant and kangaroo IGF-II contain an insert of nine nucleotides that encode the amino acids Leu-Pro-Gly at the junction of the B and C domains of the mature protein. The deduced kangaroo IGF-II protein sequence also contains three other amino acid changes that are not observed in human IGF-II. These amino acid differences share similarities with the changes described in many of the IGF-IIs reported for non-mammalian species. Characterisation of human IGF-II, kangaroo IGF-II, chicken IGF-II and [Ser29]-hIGF-II in a number of in vitro assays revealed that all four proteins are functionally very similar. No significant differences were observed in the ability of the IGF-IIs to bind to the bovine IGF-II/cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor or to stimulate protein synthesis in rat L6 myoblasts. However, differences were observed in their abilities to bind to IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) present in human serum. Kangaroo, chicken and [Ser29]-hIGF-II had lower apparent affinities for human IGFBPs than did human IGF-II. Thus, it appears that the major circulating form of IGF-II in the kangaroo and a minor form of IGF-II found in human serum are structurally and functionally very similar. This suggests that the splice site that generates both the variant and major form of human IGF-II must have evolved after the divergence of marsupials from placental mammals.
Zhang, Y. H.; Zheng, L.; Ge, W. J.; Zou, Z. H.
Hopping robots have broad application prospects in the fields of military reconnaissance, field search or life rescue. However, current hopping robots still face the problems of weak jumping ability and load bearing. Inspired by the jumping of kangaroo, we design a Kangaroo hopping robot “Zbot”, which has two degrees of freedom and three joints. The geared five-bar mechanism is used to decouple the knee and ankle joints of the robot. In order to get a bionic performance, the coupling mechanism parameters are optimized. The simulation and experiments show that the robot has an excellent jumping ability and load capacity.
Dickson, Kim E; Kinney, Mary V; Moxon, Sarah G; Ashton, Joanne; Zaka, Nabila; Simen-Kapeu, Aline; Sharma, Gaurav; Kerber, Kate J; Daelmans, Bernadette; Gülmezoglu, A; Mathai, Matthews; Nyange, Christabel; Baye, Martina; Lawn, Joy E
The Every Newborn Action Plan (ENAP) and Ending Preventable Maternal Mortality targets cannot be achieved without high quality, equitable coverage of interventions at and around the time of birth. This paper provides an overview of the methodology and findings of a nine paper series of in-depth analyses which focus on the specific challenges to scaling up high-impact interventions and improving quality of care for mothers and newborns around the time of birth, including babies born small and sick. The bottleneck analysis tool was applied in 12 countries in Africa and Asia as part of the ENAP process. Country workshops engaged technical experts to complete a tool designed to synthesise "bottlenecks" hindering the scale up of maternal-newborn intervention packages across seven health system building blocks. We used quantitative and qualitative methods and literature review to analyse the data and present priority actions relevant to different health system building blocks for skilled birth attendance, emergency obstetric care, antenatal corticosteroids (ACS), basic newborn care, kangaroo mother care (KMC), treatment of neonatal infections and inpatient care of small and sick newborns. The 12 countries included in our analysis account for the majority of global maternal (48%) and newborn (58%) deaths and stillbirths (57%). Our findings confirm previously published results that the interventions with the most perceived bottlenecks are facility-based where rapid emergency care is needed, notably inpatient care of small and sick newborns, ACS, treatment of neonatal infections and KMC. Health systems building blocks with the highest rated bottlenecks varied for different interventions. Attention needs to be paid to the context specific bottlenecks for each intervention to scale up quality care. Crosscutting findings on health information gaps inform two final papers on a roadmap for improvement of coverage data for newborns and indicate the need for leadership for
Background The Every Newborn Action Plan (ENAP) and Ending Preventable Maternal Mortality targets cannot be achieved without high quality, equitable coverage of interventions at and around the time of birth. This paper provides an overview of the methodology and findings of a nine paper series of in-depth analyses which focus on the specific challenges to scaling up high-impact interventions and improving quality of care for mothers and newborns around the time of birth, including babies born small and sick. Methods The bottleneck analysis tool was applied in 12 countries in Africa and Asia as part of the ENAP process. Country workshops engaged technical experts to complete a tool designed to synthesise "bottlenecks" hindering the scale up of maternal-newborn intervention packages across seven health system building blocks. We used quantitative and qualitative methods and literature review to analyse the data and present priority actions relevant to different health system building blocks for skilled birth attendance, emergency obstetric care, antenatal corticosteroids (ACS), basic newborn care, kangaroo mother care (KMC), treatment of neonatal infections and inpatient care of small and sick newborns. Results The 12 countries included in our analysis account for the majority of global maternal (48%) and newborn (58%) deaths and stillbirths (57%). Our findings confirm previously published results that the interventions with the most perceived bottlenecks are facility-based where rapid emergency care is needed, notably inpatient care of small and sick newborns, ACS, treatment of neonatal infections and KMC. Health systems building blocks with the highest rated bottlenecks varied for different interventions. Attention needs to be paid to the context specific bottlenecks for each intervention to scale up quality care. Crosscutting findings on health information gaps inform two final papers on a roadmap for improvement of coverage data for newborns and indicate the need
Stoll, Marcia; Alexander, David; Nicpon, Christine
Few issues confound child care policy more than the fact that very large numbers of mothers work evenings, overnight, or weekend hours when fewer child care programs operate. The authors interviewed 50 single Chicago mothers with nontraditional work hours about their experiences finding and using child care. Participants' responses addressed…
Cong, Xiaomei; Cusson, Regina M; Hussain, Naveed; Zhang, Di; Kelly, Sharon P
The purpose of this case study was to describe pain responses in three study conditions: longer (30 minutes) kangaroo care (KC) before and throughout heel stick (KC30), shorter (15 minutes) KC before and throughout heel stick (KC15), and incubator care throughout heel stick (IC) in 28-week gestational age twins. Pain responses were measured by crying time, Preterm Infant Pain Profile (PIPP), and heart rate variability indexes, including low-frequency power (LF, representing sympathetic activity), high-frequency power (HF, parasympathetic activity), and LF/HF ratio (sympathetic-parasympathetic balance). Both twins cried more and had higher PIPP pain scores and tachycardia during heel stick in the IC condition. Infant B had an incident of apnea and tachycardia by the end of the heel stick and a bradycardia episode during recovery in the IC condition. The twins had lower LF/HF ratios (better autonomic nervous system balance) during recovery in both longer and shorter KC conditions compared with the IC condition. Infant B had difficulty returning to LF/HF ratio baseline level after the painful procedure in the IC condition. These data suggest that both longer and shorter KC before and throughout painful procedures can be helpful in reducing behavioral and physiologic pain responses in preterm infants. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Erlandsson, Kerstin; Fagerberg, Ingegerd
To describe how mothers of premature or sick mature babies, experienced the care and their own state of health after birth in postnatal care in a neonatal co-care ward. A Husserlian phenomenology method inspired by Giorgi was used. Six mothers were interviewed using a semi-structured, open-ended interview guide. A neonatal ward using a concept of co-care for premature or sick mature babies and their mothers. In essence, mothers felt that, whatever the circumstances, they wanted to be close to their babies. It was the mother's experience that the organisation, staff or other circumstances prolonged the separation from her baby. The mother experienced the separation from the baby intensely during the first days after birth (even for a short period of time); after returning home, they had still not come to terms with it. The mothers regarded the entire stay in hospital as one event; they did not differentiate between wards or ward staff in the delivery, maternity or neonatal wards. All mothers in the study had, therefore, also experienced part-care for shorter or longer periods when separated from their baby, being then later reunited in co-care. This study can be used as a basis for discussion on more individualised care through co-operation and organisation between delivery, maternity and neonatal wards, in order to reduce the amount of time mother and baby are separated.
Smith, Erin N.; Grau, Josefina M.; Duran, Petra A.; Castellanos, Patricia
We examined the relations between maternal depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing problems in a sample of 125 adolescent Latina mothers (primarily Puerto Rican) and their toddlers. We also tested the influence of mother-reported partner child care involvement on child behavior problems and explored mother-reported partner characteristics that related to this involvement. Results suggested that maternal depressive symptoms related to child internalizing and externalizing problems when accounting for contextual risk factors. Importantly, these symptoms mediated the link between life stress and child behavior problems. Mother-reported partner child care interacted with maternal depressive symptoms for internalizing, not externalizing, problems. Specifically, depressive symptoms related less strongly to internalizing problems at higher levels of partner child care than at lower levels. Participants with younger partners, co-residing partners, and in longer romantic relationships reported higher partner child care involvement. Results are discussed considering implications for future research and interventions for mothers, their children, and their partners. PMID:24339474
Dyches, Tina Taylor; Christensen, Ruthann; Harper, James M.; Mandleco, Barbara; Roper, Susanne Olsen
Single mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders are rarely studied, yet they may experience unique stressors. Researchers asked 122 single mothers to complete questionnaires concerning respite care, daily hassles/uplifts, depression, and caregiver burden. More than half (59.8%) accessed respite care, which was provided for 1h per day,…
Miles, Margaret Shandor; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Eron, Joseph; Black, Beth Perry; Pedersen, Cort; Harris, Donna A
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has become a serious health problem for low-income African American women in their childbearing years. Interventions that help them cope with feelings about having HIV and increase their understanding of HIV as a chronic disease in which self-care practices, regular health visits, and medications can improve the quality of life can lead to better health outcomes. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of an HIV self-care symptom management intervention for emotional distress and perceptions of health among low-income African American mothers with HIV. Women caregivers of young children were randomly assigned to self-care symptom management intervention or usual care. The intervention, based on a conceptual model related to HIV in African American women, involved six home visits by registered nurses. A baseline pretest and two posttests were conducted with the mothers in both groups. Emotional distress was assessed as depressive symptoms, affective state, stigma, and worry about HIV. Health, self-reported by the mothers, included the number of infections and aspects of health-related quality of life (i.e., perception of health, physical function, energy, health distress, and role function). Regarding emotional distress, the mothers in the experimental group reported fewer feelings of stigma than the mothers in the control group. Outcome assessments of health indicated that the mothers in the experimental group reported higher physical function scores than the control mothers. Within group analysis over time showed a reduction in negative affective state (depression/dejection and tension/anxiety) and stigma as well as infections in the intervention group mothers, whereas a decline in physical and role function was found in the control group. The HIV symptom management intervention has potential as a case management or clinical intervention model for use by public health nurses visiting the home or by advanced practice
Press, Julie E.; Fagan, Jay; Laughlin, Lynda
We use the Philadelphia Survey of Child Care and Work to model the effect of child-care subsidies and other ecological demands and resources on the work hour, shift, and overtime problems of 191 low-income urban mothers. Comparing subsidy applicants who do and do not receive cash payments for child care, we find that mothers who receive subsidies…
Engström, Asa; Lindberg, Inger
Providing nursing care for a critically ill obstetric patient or a patient who has just become a mother after a complicated birth can be a challenging experience for critical care nurses (CCNs). These patients have special needs because of the significant alterations in their physiology and anatomy together with the need to consider such specifics as breastfeeding and mother-child bonding. The aim with this study was to describe CCNs' experience of nursing the new mother and her family after a complicated childbirth. The design of the study was qualitative. Data collection was carried out through focus group discussions with 13 CCNs in three focus groups during spring 2012. The data were subjected to qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in the formulation of four categories: the mother and her vital functions are prioritized; not being responsible for the child and the father; an environment unsuited to the new family and collaboration with staff in neonatal and maternity delivery wards. When nursing a mother after a complicated birth the CCNs give her and her vital signs high priority. The fathers of the children or partners of the mothers are expected to take on the responsibility of caring for the newborn child and of being the link with the neonatal ward. It is suggested that education about the needs of new families for nursing care would improve the situation and have clinical implications. Whether the intensive care unit is always the best place in which to provide care for mothers and new families is debatable. © 2013 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.
Yandell, C A; Dunbar, A J; Wheldrake, J F; Upton, Z
The mammalian cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR) binds mannose 6-phosphate-bearing glycoproteins and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II. However, the CI-MPR from the opossum has been reported to bind bovine IGF-II with low affinity (Dahms, N. M., Brzycki-Wessell, M. A., Ramanujam, K. S., and Seetharam, B. (1993) Endocrinology 133, 440-446). This may reflect the use of a heterologous ligand, or it may represent the intrinsic binding affinity of this receptor. To examine the binding of IGF-II to a marsupial CI-MPR in a homologous system, we have previously purified kangaroo IGF-II (Yandell, C. A., Francis, G. L., Wheldrake, J. F., and Upton, Z. (1998) J. Endocrinol. 156, 195-204), and we now report the purification and characterization of the CI-MPR from kangaroo liver. The interaction of the kangaroo CI-MPR with IGF-II has been examined by ligand blotting, radioreceptor assay, and real-time biomolecular interaction analysis. Using both a heterologous and homologous approach, we have demonstrated that the kangaroo CI-MPR has a lower binding affinity for IGF-II than its eutherian (placental mammal) counterparts. Furthermore, real-time biomolecular interaction analysis revealed that the kangaroo CI-MPR has a higher affinity for kangaroo IGF-II than for human IGF-II. The cDNA sequence of the kangaroo CI-MPR indicates that there is considerable divergence in the area corresponding to the IGF-II binding site of the eutherian receptor. Thus, the acquisition of a high-affinity binding site for regulating IGF-II appears to be a recent event specific to the eutherian lineage.
Cripps, Jemma; Beveridge, Ian; Ploeg, Richard; Coulson, Graeme
Large mammalian herbivores are commonly infected with gastrointestinal helminths. In many host species, these helminths cause clinical disease and may trigger conspicuous mortality events. However, they may also have subclinical impacts, reducing fitness as well as causing complex changes to host growth patterns and body condition. Theoretically, juveniles should experience significantly greater costs from parasites, being immunologically naive and undergoing a significant growth phase. The aims of our study were to quantify the subclinical effects of helminths in juvenile eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), which commonly harbour large burdens of gastrointestinal nematodes and are susceptible to associated mass mortality during cold, wet conditions. We conducted a field experiment on a population of free-ranging kangaroos, removing nematodes from one group of juveniles using an anthelmintic treatment. We then compared growth parameters (body condition and growth rates) and haematological parameters of this group with an age-matched, parasitised (untreated) control group. Treated juvenile kangaroos had significantly higher levels of plasma protein (albumin) but, contrary to our predictions, showed negligible changes in all the other parameters measured. Our results suggest that juvenile kangaroos are largely unaffected by their gastrointestinal helminth burdens, and may be able to compensate for the costs of parasites. PMID:25161906
Background Biologists are often interested in performing a simple database search to identify proteins or genes that contain a well-defined sequence pattern. Many databases do not provide straightforward or readily available query tools to perform simple searches, such as identifying transcription binding sites, protein motifs, or repetitive DNA sequences. However, in many cases simple pattern-matching searches can reveal a wealth of information. We present in this paper a regular expression pattern-matching tool that was used to identify short repetitive DNA sequences in human coding regions for the purpose of identifying potential mutation sites in mismatch repair deficient cells. Results Kangaroo is a web-based regular expression pattern-matching program that can search for patterns in DNA, protein, or coding region sequences in ten different organisms. The program is implemented to facilitate a wide range of queries with no restriction on the length or complexity of the query expression. The program is accessible on the web at http://bioinfo.mshri.on.ca/kangaroo/ and the source code is freely distributed at http://sourceforge.net/projects/slritools/. Conclusion A low-level simple pattern-matching application can prove to be a useful tool in many research settings. For example, Kangaroo was used to identify potential genetic targets in a human colorectal cancer variant that is characterized by a high frequency of mutations in coding regions containing mononucleotide repeats. PMID:12150718
Seattle Community Coll., Washington.
This checklist was developed to determine the skills of day care home mothers before and after training as observed by a day care home educator. Areas evaluated are: Professional Attitude; Parent Relationships; Nutrition; Health and Safety; Baby Care; Preparing the Teaching Environment; Guidance; Teaching Techniques, Language and Literature; Art;…
Home care has become a central component of the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, displacing caregiving work onto women. While increasing interest has been paid to HIV/AIDS care with a focus on ailing adults and orphan foster care, the issue of caring for children living with HIV has received little attention in the social sciences. Based on ethnographic material gathered in Burkina Faso between November 2005 and December 2006, the aim of this paper was to gain understanding of women who mother and care for children living with HIV in resource-limited countries. The study involved participant observation in community-based organizations in Burkina Faso and semi-structured interviews with 20 women mothering HIV-positive children as well as 15 children infected with HIV, aged between 8 and 18 years. In daily care mothers face many great challenges, ranging from the routine of pill-taking to disturbing discussions with children asking questions about their health or treatment. The results also show how HIV/AIDS-related stigma adds an additional layer to the burden of care, compelling mothers to deal with the tension between secrecy surrounding the disease and the openness required in providing care and receiving social support. As mothers live in fear of disclosure, they have to develop concealment strategies around children's treatment and the nature of the disease. Conversely, some mothers may share their secret with kin members, close relatives or their children to gain social support. As HIV/AIDS care is shaped by secrecy, these findings shed light on mothers' isolation in child care within a context of changing patterns of family bonds and lack of formal psychosocial support addressing child-related issues. Finally, women's engagement in child care invites us to look beyond the essentialist approach of women's vulnerability conveyed by international discourse to characterise the situation of women facing the HIV/AIDS impact.
Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.
DATA AND CHARTS DOCUMENT THE RISING NUMBER OF WORKING MOTHERS IN THE UNITED STATES TODAY AND THE INCREASING NEED FOR CHILD CARE SERVICES. DATA WERE OBTAINED FROM U.S. DEPARTMENTS OF LABOR, COMMERCE, AND HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE. NEARLY 10 MILLION MOTHERS WITH CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE WERE WORKERS IN MARCH 1966. MORE THAN ONE OF THREE…
Ferreri, Gianni C.; Brown, Judith D.; Obergfell, Craig; Jue, Nathaniel; Finn, Caitlin E.; O'Neill, Michael J.; O'Neill, Rachel J.
Mammalian retrotransposons, transposable elements that are processed through an RNA intermediate, are categorized as short interspersed elements (SINEs), long interspersed elements (LINEs), and long terminal repeat (LTR) retroelements, which include endogenous retroviruses. The ability of transposable elements to autonomously amplify led to their initial characterization as selfish or junk DNA; however, it is now known that they may acquire specific cellular functions in a genome and are implicated in host defense mechanisms as well as in genome evolution. Interactions between classes of transposable elements may exert a markedly different and potentially more significant effect on a genome than interactions between members of a single class of transposable elements. We examined the genomic structure and evolution of the kangaroo endogenous retrovirus (KERV) in the marsupial genus Macropus. The complete proviral structure of the kangaroo endogenous retrovirus, phylogenetic relationship among relative retroviruses, and expression of this virus in both Macropus rufogriseus and M. eugenii are presented for the first time. In addition, we show the relative copy number and distribution of the kangaroo endogenous retrovirus in the Macropus genus. Our data indicate that amplification of the kangaroo endogenous retrovirus occurred in a lineage-specific fashion, is restricted to the centromeres, and is not correlated with LINE depletion. Finally, analysis of KERV long terminal repeat sequences using massively parallel sequencing indicates that the recent amplification in M. rufogriseus is likely due to duplications and concerted evolution rather than a high number of independent insertion events. PMID:21389136
Snelling, Edward P; Taggart, David A; Maloney, Shane K; Farrell, Anthony P; Leigh, Christopher M; Waterhouse, Lyn; Williams, Ruth; Seymour, Roger S
The heart and left ventricle of the marsupial western grey kangaroo Macropus fuliginosus exhibit biphasic allometric growth, whereby a negative shift in the trajectory of cardiac growth occurs at pouch exit. In this study, we used transmission electron microscopy to examine the scaling of left ventricle cardiomyocyte ultrastructure across development in the western grey kangaroo over a 190-fold body mass range (0.355-67.5 kg). The volume-density (%) of myofibrils, mitochondria, sarcoplasmic reticuli and T-tubules increase significantly during in-pouch growth, such that the absolute volume (ml) of these organelles scales with body mass (Mb; kg) with steep hyperallometry: 1.41Mb (1.38), 0.64Mb (1.29), 0.066Mb (1.45) and 0.035Mb (1.87), respectively. Maturation of the left ventricle ultrastructure coincides with pouch vacation, as organelle volume-densities scale independent of body mass across post-pouch development, such that absolute organelle volumes scale in parallel and with relatively shallow hypoallometry: 4.65Mb (0.79), 1.75Mb (0.77), 0.21Mb (0.79) and 0.35Mb (0.79), respectively. The steep hyperallometry of organelle volumes and volume-densities across in-pouch growth is consistent with the improved contractile performance of isolated cardiac muscle during fetal development in placental mammals, and is probably critical in augmenting cardiac output to levels necessary for endothermy and independent locomotion in the young kangaroo as it prepares for pouch exit. The shallow hypoallometry of organelle volumes during post-pouch growth suggests a decrease in relative cardiac requirements as body mass increases in free-roaming kangaroos, which is possibly because the energy required for hopping is independent of speed, and the capacity for energy storage during hopping could increase as the kangaroo grows. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Banazis, Michael Janis; Bestall, Abbey Simone; Reid, Simon Andrew; Fenwick, Stan Gordon
The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in two domestic ruminant species (cattle and sheep) and the western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus) in Western Australia (WA). The IDEXX CHEKiT Q Fever ELISA and CFT were used to test sera from 50 sheep and 329 head of cattle for anti-C. burnetii antibodies and 343 kangaroo sera were tested using an indirect ELISA developed specifically for this study. Faecal or urine samples collected from the same animals were tested with two PCR assays to identify active shedding of C. burnetii in excreta. Only two of the 379 ruminant sera had detectable levels of anti-C. burnetii antibodies according to the ELISA while the CFT did not detect any positive samples. In contrast 115 of the 343 western grey kangaroo serum samples were positive when tested with the antibody-ELISA. The first qPCR assay, targeting the IS1111a element, identified 41 of 379 ruminant and 42 of 343 kangaroo DNA samples as positive for C. burnetii DNA. The second qPCR, targeting the JB153-3 gene, identified nine C. burnetii DNA-positive ruminant samples and six positive kangaroo samples. Sequence comparisons showed high degrees of identity with C. burnetii. Isolation of C. burnetii from faeces was also attempted but was not successful. From the results presented here it appears that domestic ruminants may not be the most significant reservoir of C. burnetii in WA and that kangaroos may pose a significant threat for zoonotic transfer of this pathogen. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Thac, Dinh; Pedersen, Freddy Karup; Thuong, Tang Chi; Lien, Le Bich; Ngoc Anh, Nguyen Thi; Phuc, Nguyen Ngoc
A study of 600 rural under-five mothers' knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) in child care was performed in 4 southern provinces of Vietnam. The mothers were randomly selected and interviewed about sociodemographic factors, health seeking behaviour, and practice of home care of children and neonates. 93.2% of the mothers were literate and well-educated, which has been shown to be important for child health care. 98.5% were married suggesting a stable family, which is also of importance for child health. Only 17.3% had more than 2 children in their family. The mother was the main caretaker in 77.7% of the families. Only 1% would use quacks as their first health contact, but 25.2% would use a private clinic, which therefore eases the burden on the government system. Nearly 69% had given birth in a hospital, 27% in a commune health station, and only 2.7% at home without qualified assistance. 89% were giving exclusive breast feeding at 6 months, much more frequent than in the cities. The majority of the mothers could follow IMCI guideline for home care, although 25.2% did not deal correctly with cough and 38.7% did not deal correctly with diarrhoea. Standard information about Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI) based home care is still needed. PMID:26881233
McClean, Rhett; Holt, William V; Zee, Yeng Peng; Lisle, Allan; Johnston, Stephen D
This study examined the effect of cryoprotectants (20% DMSO, a 10% DMSO/10% glycerol mixture, 20% glycerol and 1M sucrose solution) on kangaroo sperm structure and function, along with the effect of varying concentrations of glycerol on sperm mitochondrial function. Eastern grey kangaroo cauda epididymidal spermatozoa were incubated for 10 min at 35 degrees C in each cryoprotectant and the plasma membrane integrity (PMI) and motility assessed using light microscopy. The same samples were fixed for TEM and the ultrastructural integrity of the spermatozoa examined. To investigate the effect of glycerol on the kangaroo sperm mitochondrial function, epididymidal spermatozoa were incubated with JC-1 in Tris-citrate media at 35 degrees C for 20 min in a range of glycerol concentrations (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) and the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and plasma membrane integrity determined. As expected, incubation of spermatozoa in 20% glycerol for 10 min resulted in a significant reduction in motility, PMI and ultrastructural integrity. Interestingly, incubation in 20% DMSO resulted in no significant reduction in motility or PMI but a significant loss of structural integrity when compared to the control spermatozoa (0% cryoprotectant). However, 20% DMSO was overall less damaging to sperm ultrastructure than glycerol, a combination of 10% glycerol and 10% DMSO, and sucrose. While all glycerol concentrations had an adverse effect on mitochondrial function, the statistical models presented for the relationship between MMP and glycerol predicted that spermatozoa, when added to 20% glycerol, would lose half of their initial MMP immediately at 35 degrees C and MMP would halve after 19.4 min at 4 degrees C. Models for the relationship between PMI and glycerol predicted that spermatozoa would lose half of their initial PMI after 1.8 min at 35 degrees C and PMI would halve after 21.1 min at 4 degrees C. These results suggest that if glycerol is to be used as a
Lundqvist, Anita; Nilstun, Tore; Dykes, Anna-Karin
The death of a newborn is a complex and tragic situation, the uncertain and stressful nature of which places emotional burdens on the parents. The aim of this study was to examine and illuminate mothers' experiences and perceptions of the care given to them at neonatal clinics while facing the threat and the reality of losing their baby. Interviews were performed, in the form of conversations, with 16 mothers approximately 2 years after the death of their newborns. The interviews were analyzed using a hermeneutic phenomenological method. The primary themes identified were feeling empowered and feeling powerless. Three related themes to feeling empowered were a sense of nearness--supporting confidence; a sense of encouragement--supporting self-esteem; and a sense of empathy--supporting comfort. Three related themes to feeling powerless were a sense of distance--leading to strength or adjustment; a sense of violation--leading to helplessness and despondency; and a sense of disconnection--leading to insecurity and discouragement. All mothers felt both empowered and powerless. When experiencing empowering care, they had a feeling of encountering benevolence, with respect to their individual desires. Experiencing competent care without humane treatment madethemfeel powerless, and they were neither respected as a mother nor a person. Feelings of empowerment emerged when the health care professionals not only saw the mother as an individual but also "saw through the mothers' eyes" and "felt with the mother's feelings". Feelings of powerlessness emerged when the similarity in the lifeworld (i.e., the world of lived experiences) differed, and the perspectives of the mothers and the health care professionals did not correspond.
Weems, M F; Graetz, I; Lan, R; DeBaer, L R; Beeman, G
Mobile communication with the medical-care team has the potential to decrease stress among parents of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). We assessed mobile use and communication preferences in a population of urban minority NICU mothers. A 30-question English language survey was administered to mothers of NICU patients. The survey was completed by 217 mothers, 75% were Black, and 75% reported annual household income below $20 000. Only 56% had a computer with Internet access at home, but 79% used smartphones. Most (79%) have searched the Internet for health information in the past year. Receiving electronic messages about their babies was viewed favorably, and text messaging was the preferred platform. The majority of mothers felt electronic messaging would improve communication but should not replace verbal communication. Mobile communication is used widely in this population of NICU mothers and could potentially improve provider-parent communication and reduce parental stress.
Roberts, J. A.; Coulson, G.; Munn, A. J.; Kearney, M. R.
ABSTRACT Foraging time may be constrained by a suite of phenomena including weather, which can restrict a species' activity and energy intake. This is recognized as pivotal for many species whose distributions are known to correlate with climate, including kangaroos, although such impacts are rarely quantified. We explore how differences in shade seeking, a thermoregulatory behavior, of 2 closely-related kangaroo species, Macropus rufus (red kangaroos) and M. fuliginosus (western grey kangaroos), might reflect differences in their distributions across Australia. We observed foraging and shade-seeking behavior in the field and, together with local weather observations, calculated threshold radiant temperatures (based on solar and infrared radiant heat loads) over which the kangaroos retreated to shade. We apply these calculated tolerance thresholds to hourly microclimatic estimates derived from daily-gridded weather data to predict activity constraints across the Australian continent over a 10-year period. M. fuliginosus spent more time than M. rufus in the shade (7.6 ± 0.7 h versus 6.4 ± 0.9 h) and more time foraging (11.8 ± 0.5 h vs. 10.0 ± 0.6 h), although total time resting was equivalent (∼8.2 h). M. rufus tolerated 19°C higher radiant temperatures than M. fuliginosus (89°C versus 70°C radiant temperature). Across Australia, we predicted M. fuliginosus to be more restricted to shade than M. rufus, with higher absolute shade requirements farther north. These results corroborate previous findings that M. rufus is more adept at dealing with heat than M. fuliginosus and indicate that M. rufus is less dependent on shade on a continental scale. PMID:27857963
Machira, Kennedy; Palamuleni, Martin E
The study seeks to examine factors associated with teen mothers' use of modern contraceptives after giving birth. The 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey data was used to test the study objective. A sample of 12, 911 teen mothers aged between 10 and 18 years were extracted from 23, 020 women and were asked of contraceptive usage after first birth experiences, in which, a logistic regression model was employed to estimate correlates of contraceptive usage. The study found that 54.8% of the teen mothers are still at a risk of having a repeat teenage pregnancy due to their non-use of contraceptives. This implies that less than 50% of teen mothers use contraceptives after experiencing teen birth. It is noted that health care factors such as use of antenatal care, awareness of pregnancy complications, attainment of primary education and exposure to media predict teen mothers' use of modern contraceptives. Despite endeavours made by government to improve access to family planning, health care challenges still exist affecting women's use of contraceptives in Malawi. Ameliorating these health encounters call for wide-range approaches aimed at addressing teen birth comprehensively in order to prevent early motherhood and subsequently high fertility. None declared.
Hinck, Jo E.; Linder, Greg L.; Otton, James K.; Finger, Susan E.; Little, Edward E.; Tillitt, Donald E.
Chemical data from soil and weathered waste material samples collected from five uranium mines north of the Grand Canyon (three reclaimed, one mined but not reclaimed, and one never mined) were used in a screening-level risk analysis for the Arizona chisel-toothed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys microps leucotis); risks from radiation exposure were not evaluated. Dietary toxicity reference values were used to estimate soil-screening thresholds presenting risk to kangaroo rats. Sensitivity analyses indicated that body weight critically affected outcomes of exposed-dose calculations; juvenile kangaroo rats were more sensitive to the inorganic constituent toxicities than adult kangaroo rats. Species-specific soil-screening thresholds were derived for arsenic (137 mg/kg), cadmium (16 mg/kg), copper (1,461 mg/kg), lead (1,143 mg/kg), nickel (771 mg/kg), thallium (1.3 mg/kg), uranium (1,513 mg/kg), and zinc (731 mg/kg) using toxicity reference values that incorporate expected chronic field exposures. Inorganic contaminants in soils within and near the mine areas generally posed minimal risk to kangaroo rats. Most exceedances of soil thresholds were for arsenic and thallium and were associated with weathered mine wastes.
Askelsdottir, Björk; Lam-de Jonge, Willemien; Edman, Gunnar; Wiklund, Ingela
to compare early discharge with home care versus standard postpartum care in terms of mothers' sense of security; contact between mother, newborn and partner; emotions towards breast feeding; and breast-feeding duration at one and three months after birth. retrospective case-control study. a labour ward unit in Stockholm, Sweden handling both normal and complicated births. 96 women with single, uncomplicated pregnancies and births, and their healthy newborns. early discharge at 12-24 hours post partum with 2-3 home visits during the first week after birth. The intervention group consisted of women who had a normal vaginal birth (n=45). This group was compared with healthy controls who received standard postnatal care at the hospital (n=51). mothers' sense of security was measured using the Parents' Postnatal Sense of Security Scale. Contact between mother, child and father, and emotions towards breast feeding were measured using the Alliance Scale, and breast-feeding rates at one and three months post partum were recorded. women in the intervention group reported a greater sense of security in the first postnatal week but had more negative emotions towards breast feeding compared with the control group. At three months post partum, 74% of the newborns in the intervention group were fully breast fed versus 93% in the control group (p=0.021). Contact between the mother, newborn and partner did not differ between the groups. early discharge with home care is a feasible option for healthy women and newborns, but randomised controlled studies are needed to investigate the effects of home care on breast-feeding rates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dindar, Mitra; Rahnama, Mozhgan; Afshari, Mehdi; Moghadam, Mahdieh Poodineh
Care for a mentally retarded child induces a lot of problems for the mother and leads her to care giving strain and ignorning her self-care. Spiritual health will co-ordinate all aspects of human life and is necessary for coping with diseases in mother of mentally retarded children. To evaluate the effects of spiritual self-care training on care giving strain in mothers of mentally retarded children. The present study, is a before and after type quasi-experimental research based on which 60 mothers of mentally retarded children who were hospitalized in Elahi Rehabilitation Center in Quchan City, were selected using convenience sampling and were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. Data was collected by demographic characteristic questionnaire and care giving strain questionnaire that were filled by groups before, immediately and two weeks after spiritual self-care training. Data was analysed using SPSS version 20. According to the results, there was no significant difference between the mean score of care giving strain in intervention and control groups before and immediately after the intervention. However, among the members of the intervention group the score of mother care giving strain decreased an average of 87.21% within two weeks after the intervention, which was statistically significant over time (p=0.001). The score of mothers in the control group increased an average of 5% over time which was not statistically significant (p=0.4). The observed differences between these groups were also statistically significant even after controlling the effects of such intervening factors as marital status, children age and the years of caring for children (p=0.001). Spiritual self-care training can decrease care giving strain in mothers of mentally retarded children. Therefore, strengthening their spiritual beliefs and backgrounds, mothers can greatly reduce the strain caused by care giving problems of mentally retarded children.
Duchon, L M; Weitzman, B C; Shinn, M
This study examines the relationship between residential instability, including mobility and previous homelessness, and the use of medical care among previously sheltered and never-sheltered mothers in New York City. The study represents one of the first efforts to follow up on families after they are no longer homeless. Mothers from 543 welfare families in New York City were interviewed, once in 1988 (Time 1) and again beginning in 1992 (Time 2). The sample included 251 families who first entered shelters after their 1988 interview, and 292 families who spent no time in shelters before or after that point. Mothers were asked about the source and volume of medical care used in the year before follow-up. Bivariate and multivariate analyses showed that previously sheltered mothers had a greater reliance on emergency departments (EDs) and weaker ties to private physicians or health maintenance organizations (HMOs) than did mothers who never used shelters. Mobility before the Time 1 interview was associated with greater reliance on EDs and absence of a usual source of care. More recent mobility was not associated with a usual source of care. Current residential stability reduced the likelihood of using an emergency department or having no regular source of care. None of the measures of residential instability were related to the volume of outpatient care used by mothers. A history of residential instability, particularly previous shelter use, strongly predicts where poor mothers currently seek health care. Further research is needed to determine whether these patterns of health care use existed before mothers entered shelters. The study provides evidence that upon leaving shelters, mothers are not being well integrated into primary care services.
Borjalilu, Somaieh; Shahidi, Shahriar; Mazaheri, Mohammad Ali; Emami, Amir Hossein
The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a spiritual care training package in maternal caregivers of children with cancer. This study was a quasi-experimental study with pretest and posttest design consisting of a sample of 42 mothers of children diagnosed as having cancer. Participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental or a control group. The training package consisted of seven group training sessions offered in a children's hospital in Tehran. All mothers completed the Spirituality and Spiritual Care Rating Scale (SSCRS) and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) at pre and post test and after a three month follow up. There was significant difference between anxiety and spiritual, religious, Personalized care and total scores spiritual care between the intervention and control groups at follow-up (P<0.001).There was no statistically significant difference in stress and depression scores between the intervention and the control groups at follow-up. Findings show that spiritual care training program promotes spirituality, personalized care, religiosity and spiritual care as well as decreasing anxiety in mothers of children with cancer and decreases anxiety. It may be concluded that spiritual care training could be used effectively in reducing distressful spiritual challenges in mothers of children with cancer.
Nair, Manisha; Ariana, Proochista; Webster, Premila
To explore the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) using focus group discussions (FGDs) to understand the impact of mothers' employment on infant feeding and care. The effects of mothers' employment on nutritional status of children could be variable. It could lead to increased household income, but could also compromise child care and feeding. The study was undertaken in the Dungarpur district of Rajasthan, India. Mothers of infants <12 months of age. Ten FGDs, two in each of the five administrative blocks of the study district were conducted. The groups were composed of a minimum of 5 and maximum of 8 participants, giving a total of 62 mothers. Thematic analysis was conducted to assess patterns and generate emergent themes. Four major themes were identified-'mothers' employment compromises infant feeding and care', 'caregivers' inability to substitute mothers' care', 'compromises related to childcare and feeding outweigh benefits from MGNREGA' and 'employment as disempowering'. Mothers felt that the comprises to infant care and feeding due to long hours of work, lack of alternative adequate care arrangements, low wages and delayed payments outweighed the benefits from the scheme. This study provides an account of the trade-off between mothers' employment and child care. It provides an understanding of the household power relationships, societal and cultural factors that modulate the effects of mothers' employment. From the perspective of mothers, it helps to understand the benefits and problems related to providing employment to women with infants in the MGNREGA scheme and make a case to pursue policy changes to improve their working conditions.
Evans, Bronwynne C.; Belyea, Michael J.; Ume, Ebere
We know little about Mexican-American (MA) family adaptation to critical events in the informal caregiving experience but, in these days of economic and social turmoil, sons must sometimes step up to provide personal care for their aging mothers. This article compares two empirically real cases of MA males who provided such care, in lieu of a female relative. The cases are selected from a federally-funded, descriptive, longitudinal, mixed methods study of 110 MA caregivers and their care recipients. In case-oriented research, investigators can generate propositions (connected sets of statements) that reflect their findings and conclusions, and can be tested against subsequent cases: Caregiving strain and burden in MA males may have more to do with physical and emotional costs than financial ones; MA males providing personal care for their mothers adopt a matter-of-fact approach as they act “against taboo”; and this approach is a new way to fulfill family obligations. PMID:21643486
Logsdon, M. Cynthia; Pinto-Foltz, Melissa D.; Stein, Bradley; Usui, Wayne; Josephson, Allan
Purpose and Methods This Phase 1 clinical trial combined qualitative and quantitative methods to modify a collaborative care, telephone based, depression care management intervention for adolescent mothers, and to determine the acceptability, feasibility, and initial efficacy of the intervention in a sample of adolescent mothers (n=97) who were recruited from a Teen Parent Program. Outcomes included measures of depressive symptoms, functioning, and use of mental health services. Results Acceptability of the intervention was demonstrated, but feasibility issues related to the complex life challenges confronting the adolescent mother. Although only four adolescent mothers received mental health treatment, there was a trend for improved depressive symptoms over time. Conclusion Results of the study provide data for the need of further refinement of the intervention before a large clinical trial is conducted for adolescent mothers with symptoms of depression. PMID:20020164
Munn, A J; Dawson, T J; McLeod, S R; Dennis, T; Maloney, S K
We used doubly labelled water to measure field metabolic rates (FMR) and water turnover rates (WTR) in one of Australia's largest native herbivores, the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) and one of Australia's dominant livestock species, the wool-breed Merino sheep, under free-living conditions in a typical Australian rangeland. Also, we used GPS technology to examine animal space use, along with the comparisons of urine concentration, diet, diet digestibility, and subsequent grazing pressures. We found smaller space-use patterns than previously reported for kangaroos, which were between 14 and 25 % those of sheep. The FMR of a 25-kg kangaroo was 30 % that of a 45-kg sheep, while WTR was 15 % and both were associated with smaller travel distances, lower salt intakes, and higher urine concentration in kangaroos than sheep. After accounting for differences in dry matter digestibility of food eaten by kangaroos (51 %) and sheep (58 %), the relative grazing pressure of a standard (mature, non-reproductive) 25-kg kangaroo was 35 % that of a 45-kg sheep. Even for animals of the same body mass (35 kg), the relative grazing pressure of the kangaroo was estimated to be only 44 % that of the sheep. After accounting for the energetic costs of wool growth by sheep, the FMRs of our sheep and kangaroos were 2-3 times their expected BMRs, which is typical for mammalian FMR:BMRs generally. Notably, data collected from our free-living animals were practically identical to those from animals confined to a semi-natural enclosure (collected in an earlier study under comparable environmental conditions), supporting the idea that FMRs are relatively constrained within species.
The scientific reports published so far on the project "day care mothering" do not allow to draw scientific conclusions, whether this educational model can achieve nearly equal results as family education. The author critisises, that such a clame is made. It seems necessary, to pay more importance to the function of the mother for her children, to give the children a sound emotional basis for their future development.
Rowbotham, Michelle; Carroll, Annemaree; Cuskelly, Monica
To date, there have been few studies of mothers' and fathers' roles in caring for their adult children with intellectual disabilities. The present study investigated the care-giving roles of mother and father couples caring for their adult offspring with an intellectual disability, their psychological health, and the demands and satisfaction of…
Smith, Erin N.; Grau, Josefina M.; Duran, Petra A.; Castellanos, Patricia
We examined the relations between maternal depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing problems in a sample of 125 adolescent Latina mothers (primarily Puerto Rican) and their toddlers. We also tested the influence of mother-reported partner child care involvement on child behavior problems and explored mother-reported partner…
Barnes, Jacqueline; Leach, Penelope; Sylva, Kathy; Stein, Alan; Malmberg, Lars-Erik
This paper investigates non-maternal infant care in the first year of life, examining the relationships between child care ideals, attitudinal, sociodemographic and psychological characteristics of mothers at three months postpartum and their child care experiences at 10 months. Predictors of child care use, satisfaction with non-maternal care and…
Jones, James Holland; Bird, Rebecca Bliege; Bird, Douglas W
In this paper, we attempt to understand hunter-gatherer foraging decisions about prey that vary in both the mean and variance of energy return using an expected utility framework. We show that for skewed distributions of energetic returns, the standard linear variance discounting (LVD) model for risk-sensitive foraging can produce quite misleading results. In addition to creating difficulties for the LVD model, the skewed distributions characteristic of hunting returns create challenges for estimating probability distribution functions required for expected utility. We present a solution using a two-component finite mixture model for foraging returns. We then use detailed foraging returns data based on focal follows of individual hunters in Western Australia hunting for high-risk/high-gain (hill kangaroo) and relatively low-risk/low-gain (sand monitor) prey. Using probability densities for the two resources estimated from the mixture models, combined with theoretically sensible utility curves characterized by diminishing marginal utility for the highest returns, we find that the expected utility of the sand monitors greatly exceeds that of kangaroos despite the fact that the mean energy return for kangaroos is nearly twice as large as that for sand monitors. We conclude that the decision to hunt hill kangaroos does not arise simply as part of an energetic utility-maximization strategy and that additional social, political or symbolic benefits must accrue to hunters of this highly variable prey.
Shahjahan, Md; Chowdhury, Hasina Akhter; Al-Hadhrami, Ahmed Y; Harun, Golam Dostogir
appropriate utilization of antenatal and postnatal care can prevent complications and ensures better maternal and child health care. Although under-five mortality in South Asia, including Bangladesh, has reduced substantially, the rate of neonatal mortality is still high. The study aims to identify factors associated with the practice of antenatal and/or postnatal care amongst mothers of newborns from a healthcare facility in a selected area of rural Bangladesh. RESEARCH DESIGN/SETTING: a community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 360 postnatal mothers, who were within 42 days of delivery. The study was conducted at Madhupur Upazila (sub-district) in Tangail district of Bangladesh from January 2012 to June 2012. A structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant information from the study subjects. only one in seven (14.2%) of the mothers visited health care facility for 4 or more times to receive antenatal care. A higher proportion of mothers delivered at home, thirty-five percent of the respondents experienced post-delivery complications. About 18% of mothers received postnatal care from the health care facility. Several variables revealed significant associations in bivariate analyses; few variables remained significant for antenatal care and post-natal care categories in the multinomial logistic regression analysis. The likelihood of receiving either antenatal care or post-natal care (OR =0.30, 95% CI =0.10-0.96) was significantly lower among mothers who had either no education or less education (1-5 years of schooling); and was found significantly higher for women who watched TV (OR = 2.79; 95% CI = 1.45-5.37); family income showed significant association for receiving both antenatal care and postnatal care services as well. mother's education appears to have a strong and significant association with antenatal care and postnatal care practices in rural Bangladesh. Community based intervention and regular home visits by health care providers
Dindar, Mitra; Afshari, Mehdi; Moghadam, Mahdieh Poodineh
Introduction Care for a mentally retarded child induces a lot of problems for the mother and leads her to care giving strain and ignorning her self-care. Spiritual health will co-ordinate all aspects of human life and is necessary for coping with diseases in mother of mentally retarded children. Aim To evaluate the effects of spiritual self-care training on care giving strain in mothers of mentally retarded children. Materials and Methods The present study, is a before and after type quasi-experimental research based on which 60 mothers of mentally retarded children who were hospitalized in Elahi Rehabilitation Center in Quchan City, were selected using convenience sampling and were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. Data was collected by demographic characteristic questionnaire and care giving strain questionnaire that were filled by groups before, immediately and two weeks after spiritual self-care training. Data was analysed using SPSS version 20. Results According to the results, there was no significant difference between the mean score of care giving strain in intervention and control groups before and immediately after the intervention. However, among the members of the intervention group the score of mother care giving strain decreased an average of 87.21% within two weeks after the intervention, which was statistically significant over time (p=0.001). The score of mothers in the control group increased an average of 5% over time which was not statistically significant (p=0.4). The observed differences between these groups were also statistically significant even after controlling the effects of such intervening factors as marital status, children age and the years of caring for children (p=0.001). Conclusion Spiritual self-care training can decrease care giving strain in mothers of mentally retarded children. Therefore, strengthening their spiritual beliefs and backgrounds, mothers can greatly reduce the strain caused by care giving
DeMaris, Alfred; Mahoney, Annette
This study investigates a potential causal effect of mothers' perceptions of the fairness of infant care on their postpartum depression. Based on the tenets of equity theory, it is hypothesized that, net of controls, mothers who see infant care as fairly apportioned between themselves and their husbands will be less depressed than others. We utilize data from a longitudinal study of a nonrandom sample of 178 heterosexual couples experiencing the birth of their first child together. The primary focus variable is the mothers' perception in the first couple of months postpartum that infant care is fair to them. Statistical analysis involved the careful chronological sequencing of response variable and controls, along with regression modeling using propensity scores. We find that a perception of fairness is associated with about a quarter of a standard deviation lower depressive symptomatology, controlling for key covariates. Depressive symptomatology is additionally elevated for mothers experiencing more pre-partum depression, and for those who more generally felt, before the birth, that they were overbenefiting in the marriage. This paper contributes to both equity theory and research on postpartum depression. In a scenario in which it is not practical or ethical to randomly assign people to fairness-in-infant-care conditions, we are able to utilize longitudinal data and a natural "experiment," along with propensity-score modeling to attempt to assess the causal impact of fairness in infant care on postpartum depression. The finding that fairness in this arena appears to reduce postpartum depression emphasizes the importance of encouraging father participation in this critical stage of parenting. Limitations of the study with respect to causal inference are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
SOTOHIRA, Yukari; SUZUKI, Kazuyuki; OTSUKA, Marina; TSUCHIYA, Masakazu; SHIMAMORI, Toshio; NISHI, Yasunobu; TSUKANO, Kenji; ASAKAWA, Mitsuhiko
Progressive pyogranulomatous osteomyelitis involving the mandible or maxilla of captive macropods, referred to as “Lumpy jaw disease (LJD)”, is one of the most significant causes of illness and death in captive macropods. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the severity of LJD and plasma endotoxin activity in kangaroos. Plasma samples obtained from moderate (n=24) and severe LJD (n=12), and healthy kangaroos (n=46), were diluted 1:20 in endotoxin-free water and heated to 80°C for 10 min. Plasma endotoxin activity was measured using the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL)-kinetic turbidimetric (KT) assay. Plasma endotoxin activity was higher in kangaroos with severe LJD (0.199 ± 0.157 EU/ml) than in those with moderate LJD (0.051 ± 0.012 EU/ml, P<0.001) and healthy controls (0.057 ± 0.028 EU/ml, P<0.001). Our results suggest that the severity of LJD in captive macropods may be related to the plasma endotoxin activity. PMID:28484148
Sotohira, Yukari; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Otsuka, Marina; Tsuchiya, Masakazu; Shimamori, Toshio; Nishi, Yasunobu; Tsukano, Kenji; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko
Progressive pyogranulomatous osteomyelitis involving the mandible or maxilla of captive macropods, referred to as "Lumpy jaw disease (LJD)", is one of the most significant causes of illness and death in captive macropods. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the severity of LJD and plasma endotoxin activity in kangaroos. Plasma samples obtained from moderate (n=24) and severe LJD (n=12), and healthy kangaroos (n=46), were diluted 1:20 in endotoxin-free water and heated to 80°C for 10 min. Plasma endotoxin activity was measured using the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL)-kinetic turbidimetric (KT) assay. Plasma endotoxin activity was higher in kangaroos with severe LJD (0.199 ± 0.157 EU/ml) than in those with moderate LJD (0.051 ± 0.012 EU/ml, P<0.001) and healthy controls (0.057 ± 0.028 EU/ml, P<0.001). Our results suggest that the severity of LJD in captive macropods may be related to the plasma endotoxin activity.
Sagi, Abraham; Koren-Karie, Nina; Gini, Motti; Ziv, Yair; Joels, Tirtsa
The Haifa Study of Early Child Care examined the unique contribution of various child-care-related correlates to infant-mother attachment. Findings indicated that, after controlling for other potential contributing variables (including mother characteristics, mother-child interaction, and mother- father relationship), center care adversely…
Holditch-Davis, Diane; White-Traut, Rosemary; Levy, Janet; Williams, Kristi L.; Ryan, Donna; Vonderheid, Susan
Objective To examine mothers’ satisfaction with administering interventions for their preterm infants and with the helpfulness of the study nurse by comparing the ATVV intervention (massage with auditory, tactile, visual, and vestibular stimulation), kangaroo care, and education about equipment needed at home. Secondarily, to explore whether mother and infant characteristics affected maternal satisfaction ratings. Design Three-group experimental design. Setting Four NICUs (two in North Carolina, two in Illinois). Participants 208 preterm infants and their mothers. Methods When the infant was no longer critically ill, mother-infant dyads were randomly assigned to ATVV, kangaroo care, or the education group, all taught by study nurses. At discharge and 2 months corrected age, mothers completed questionnaires. Results All groups were satisfied with the intervention and with nurse helpfulness, and the degree of satisfaction did not differ among them. Intervention satisfaction, but not nurse helpfulness, was related to recruitment site. Older, married, and minority mothers were less satisfied with the intervention but only at 2 months. Higher anxiety was related to lower intervention satisfaction at discharge and lower ratings of nurse helpfulness at discharge and 2 months. More depressive symptoms were related to lower nurse helpfulness ratings at 2 months. Conclusions Mothers were satisfied with providing interventions for their infants regardless of the intervention performed. Maternal satisfaction with the intervention was related to recruitment site, maternal demographic characteristics, and maternal psychological distress, especially at 2 months. Thus, nursing interventions that provide mothers with a role to play in the infant’s care during hospitalization are particularly likely to be appreciated by mothers. PMID:25803213
Shrestha, Sharmila; Adachi, Kumiko; Petrini, Marcia A; Shrestha, Sarita; Rana Khagi, Bina
the health and survival of newborns depend on high levels of attention and care from caregivers. The growth and development of some infants are unhealthy because of their mother's or caregiver's lack of knowledge or the use of inappropriate or traditional child-rearing practices that may be harmful. to develop a newborn care educational programme and evaluate its impact on infant and maternal health in Nepal. a randomised controlled trial. one hundred and forty-three mothers were randomly assigned to the intervention (n=69) and control (n=74) groups. Eligible participants were primiparous mothers who had given birth to a single, full-term, healthy infant, and were without a history of obstetric, medical, or psychological problems. prior to being discharged from the postnatal unit, the intervention group received our structured newborn care education programme, which consisted of one-on-one educational sessions lasting 10-15minutes each and one postpartum follow-up telephone support within two weeks after discharge, in addition to the hospital's routine general newborn care education. The control group received only the regular general newborn care education. Outcomes were measured by using Newborn care Knowledge Questionnaires, Karitane Parenting Confidence Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adults and infant health and care status. the number of mothers attending the health centre due to the sickness of their babies was significantly decreased in the intervention group compared to the control group. Moreover, the intervention group had significant increases in newborn care knowledge and confidence, and decreases in anxiety, compared with the control group. the structured newborn care education programme enhanced the infant and mother health. Moreover, it increased maternal knowledge of newborn care and maternal confidence; and reduced anxiety in primiparous mothers. Thus, this educational programme could be integrated into routine educational programs to
Evans, Bronwynne C.; Belyea, Michael J.; Ume, Ebere
We know little about Mexican American (MA) family adaptation to critical events in the informal caregiving experience but, in these days of economic and social turmoil, sons must sometimes step up to provide personal care for their aging mothers. This article compares two empirically real cases of MA males who provided such care, in lieu of a…
Zelkowitz, Phyllis; Feeley, Nancy; Shrier, Ian; Stremler, Robyn; Westreich, Ruta; Dunkley, David; Steele, Russell; Rosberger, Zeev; Lefebvre, Francine; Papageorgiou, Apostolos
This study tested the efficacy of a brief intervention (Cues program) with mothers of very low birth weight (VLBW <1500 g) infants. The primary hypothesis was that mothers in the Cues program would report lower levels of anxiety compared with mothers in the control group. Secondary hypotheses examined whether Cues mothers would report less stress, depression, and role restriction, and exhibit more sensitive interactive behavior, than control group mothers. A total of 121 mothers of VLBW infants were randomly assigned to either the experimental (Cues) intervention or an attention control (Care) condition. The Cues program combined training to reduce anxiety and enhance sensitivity. The control group received general information about infant care. Both programs were initiated during the neonatal intensive care unit stay. Maternal anxiety, stress, depression, and demographic variables were evaluated at baseline, prior to randomization. Postintervention outcomes were assessed during a home visit when the infant was ∼6 to 8 weeks of corrected age. Although mothers in the Cues group demonstrated greater knowledge of the content of the experimental intervention than mothers in the Care group, the groups did not differ in levels of anxiety, depression, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress. They were similar in their reports of parental role restrictions and stress related to the infant's appearance and behavior. Cues and Care group mothers were equally sensitive in interaction with their infants. Nonspecific attention was as effective as an early skill-based intervention in reducing maternal anxiety and enhancing sensitive behavior in mothers of VLBW infants.
BRITTAIN, CLAY; LOW, SETH
THE BUREAU OF CENSUS, USING ITS NATIONAL SAMPLE OF HOUSEHOLDS, SURVEYED CHILD CARE ARRANGEMENTS OF MOTHERS WHO HAD WORKED 27 WEEKS OR MORE DURING 1964 AND HAD AT LEAST ONE CHILD UNDER 14 YEARS OLD LIVING AT HOME. ONE-EIGHTH OF THE NATIONAL WORK FORCE WAS COMPOSED OF WORKING MOTHERS WITH CHILDREN UNDER 18. ONE-THIRD OF THE MOTHERS WITH CHILDREN…
Coghlan, Brett A; Goldizen, Anne W; Thomson, Vicki A; Seddon, Jennifer M
Phylogeographic studies around the world have identified refugia where fauna were able to persist during unsuitable climatic periods, particularly during times of glaciation. In Australia the effects of Pleistocene climate oscillations on rainforest taxa have been well studied but less is known about the effects on mesic-habitat fauna, such as the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). The eastern grey kangaroo is a large mammal that is common and widespread throughout eastern Australia, preferring dry mesic habitat, rather than rainforest. As pollen evidence suggests that the central-eastern part of Australia (southeast Queensland and northern New South Wales) experienced cycles of expansion in mesic habitat with contraction in rainforests, and vice versa during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, we hypothesise that the distribution of the eastern grey kangaroo was affected by these climate oscillations and may have contracted to mesic habitat refugia. From 375 mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from across the distribution of eastern grey kangaroos we obtained 108 unique haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clades in Queensland, one of which is newly identified and restricted to a small coastal region in southern Queensland north of Brisbane, known as the Sunshine Coast. The relatively limited geographic range of this genetically isolated clade suggests the possibility of a mesic habitat refugium forming during rainforest expansion during wetter climate cycles. Other potential, although less likely, reasons for the genetic isolation of the highly distinct clade include geographic barriers, separate northward expansions, and strong local adaptation.
Damato, Elizabeth G; Haas, Madeline C; Czeck, Pamela; Dowling, Donna A; Barsman, Sarah Gutin
The high prevalence of prematurity and low birth-weight places twin infants at increased risk for sudden unexpected infant death (SUID) and/or sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Risk for these SUID and SIDS is affected by a combination of nonmodifiable intrinsic risk factors and modifiable extrinsic stressors including infant care practices related to sleep. Although adherence to the full scope of American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) 2011 recommendations is intended to decrease risk, these recommendations are aimed at singleton infants and may require tailoring for families with multiple infants. The study describes infant care practices reported by mothers of twins in the first 6 months postpartum. Mothers caring for twin infants (N = 35) were surveyed online both longitudinally (at 2, 8, 16, and 24 weeks after infant hospital discharge) and cross-sectionally. AAP recommendations (2011) guided survey content. The degree of adherence to AAP recommendations varied over time. For example, mothers of twins reported 100% adherence to placing twins supine for sleep initially, but many reported putting babies on their stomachs for naps as twins became older. Sharing a parent's bedroom decreased over time as did frequency of crib sharing. Fewer than half of mothers offered a pacifier most or all of the time for sleep. Opportunities exist for development of an educational program geared specifically for postpartum parents of twins. Barriers affecting adherence to AAP recommendations and effectiveness of educational programs addressing needs of this unique population need further exploration.
Gilson, K-M; Davis, E; Johnson, S; Gains, J; Reddihough, D; Williams, K
Mothers of children with a disability are at increased risk of poor mental health compared with mothers of typically developing children. The aim of the study was to describe the mental health care needs and preferences for support of mothers of children and young people aged 0-25 years with a disability. A cross-sectional study was used, using an online survey with 294 mothers of children with a disability. Questions were asked about mental health, perceived need for support, barriers to accessing mental health care, and preferences for support. Descriptive and chi-squared analyses were performed. High rates of mental ill health were self-identified in the previous 12 months, with reported clinically significant depression (44%), anxiety (42%), and suicidality (22%). Nearly half (48%) of the mothers reported high to very high psychological distress. Although 75% of mothers perceived a need for professional support, only 58% attempted to access this. Key barriers to accessing support were caregiving duties making it difficult to schedule appointments (45%) and not perceiving the mental health problem as serious enough to require help (36%). Individual counselling was the preferred type of support (66%) followed by professionally guided relaxation (49%) and education about mental health (47%). Support was considered most critical at the time of diagnosis and during medical intervention for their child. Although mental health problems were common and mothers perceived the need for professional help, several key barriers were preventing mothers from accessing help. Our study suggests that improving mothers' knowledge of when and where to seek help (mental health literacy) may encourage their access to support. There also needs to be more accessible treatment to mothers given the high care demands that are placed upon them. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Urity, Vinoo B; Issaian, Tadeh; Braun, Eldon J; Dantzler, William H; Pannabecker, Thomas L
We hypothesize that the inner medulla of the kangaroo rat Dipodomys merriami, a desert rodent that concentrates its urine to more than 6,000 mosmol/kgH(2)O water, provides unique examples of architectural features necessary for production of highly concentrated urine. To investigate this architecture, inner medullary nephron segments in the initial 3,000 μm below the outer medulla were assessed with digital reconstructions from physical tissue sections. Descending thin limbs of Henle (DTLs), ascending thin limbs of Henle (ATLs), and collecting ducts (CDs) were identified by immunofluorescence using antibodies that label segment-specific proteins associated with transepithelial water flux (aquaporin 1 and 2, AQP1 and AQP2) and chloride flux (the chloride channel ClC-K1); all tubules and vessels were labeled with wheat germ agglutinin. In the outer 3,000 μm of the inner medulla, AQP1-positive DTLs lie at the periphery of groups of CDs. ATLs lie inside and outside the groups of CDs. Immunohistochemistry and reconstructions of loops that form their bends in the outer 3,000 μm of the inner medulla show that, relative to loop length, the AQP1-positive segment of the kangaroo rat is significantly longer than that of the Munich-Wistar rat. The length of ClC-K1 expression in the prebend region at the terminal end of the descending side of the loop in kangaroo rat is about 50% shorter than that of the Munich-Wistar rat. Tubular fluid of the kangaroo rat DTL may approach osmotic equilibrium with interstitial fluid by water reabsorption along a relatively longer tubule length, compared with Munich-Wistar rat. A relatively shorter-length prebend segment may promote a steeper reabsorptive driving force at the loop bend. These structural features predict functionality that is potentially significant in the production of a high urine osmolality in the kangaroo rat.
Rolfe, Sharne A.; Lloyd-Smith, Janice I.
A study was made of how Australian mothers feel about having their children in day care, with particular emphasis on mothers' feelings about separation from their children. A total of 10 mothers and 1 father participated in the pilot study. All but 1 parent had a child in day care at least 3 days per week. The children, who were between 4 and 22…
Blegen, Nina Elisabeth; Eriksson, Katie; Bondas, Terese
This study attempts to contribute to the knowledge of caring science and mental health care by means of a profound understanding of the patients' existential world when being a mother in receipt of psychiatric care, with focus on inner processes such as health and suffering. Mothers struggle to cope with the demands of the illness and the responsibility for their children. They see themselves through their children and regard the child as an important part of themselves. Mothers experience guilt and shame related to motherhood, and when they have to relinquish their responsibility as a mother, they consider themselves a failure. Despite a range of practical and emotional difficulties, motherhood involved extremely positive experiences, which provide a purpose as well as fulfilment and meaning in life. This study is rooted in philosophical hermeneutics inspired by Gadamer with an inductive-deductive-abductive approach. Interpretation of the data was made on different levels of abstraction described as rational, contextual, existential and ontological. The point of departure was the caring science theory about health and suffering and the hermeneutic philosophy of understanding. The interpretation revealed the mothers' experiences of health and suffering as a struggle between the darkness of suffering and their inner source of strength. In the light of the theory of caring, the conscience became visible as the bearer of the human being's inner ethos of love and compassion. Experiences of health and suffering were interpreted as a struggle between guilt and responsibility, where conscience emerged as the road from ontological guilt to responsibility that leads the human being to what is true, beautiful and good in life. © 2014 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Hudson, Diane Brage; Campbell-Grossman, Christie; Hertzog, Melody
The purpose of this pilot study was to test the effects of an Internet-based intervention, the New Mothers Network, on single, low-income, adolescent, African American mothers' psychological, parenting, and health care utilization outcomes. The study was based on social support theory. For mothers in the Intervention Group, MSNTV™ was installed in subjects' homes and connected to the Internet. Data were collected at 1 week, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months following the infant's birth. For infant health services utilization, 70.6% of those in the Control Group took their infant to the emergency room at least once during the study compared to 35.7% of mothers in the Intervention Group. The New Mothers Network allowed mothers to share their experiences and acquire information from nurses about caring for themselves and their infants. The New Mothers Network Web site is well poised for nursing driven social support intervention via the Internet, even though access devices are evolving over time.
Muths, E.; Hinds, L. A.
Circulating progesterone and prolactin levels were measured in shot and live-caught wild red kangaroos using radioimmunoassays validated for the red kangaroo. The objective of the study was to correlate hormone profiles with reproductive status and determine if red kangaroos follow the general pattern elucidated for other macropodids. During Phase 2a lactation (<70 days) plasma progesterone concentrations were <189 pg/ml (n= 41). This value increased to >600 pg/ml (n= 32) during the transition to Phase 3 lactation (181 to 235 days) when the quiescent corpus luteum and embryo were reactivated. Progesterone concentrations then decreased to <300 pg/ml (n= 29) during dual lactation when females were suckling a neonate and a young at foot. Concentrations of prolactin during Phase 2a were <6 ng/ml (n= 17). Coincident with the period of reactivation of the diapausing blastocyst (181 to 235 days), plasma prolactin concentrations increased to 15 ng/ml (n= 32), then decreased and remained low through the subsequent stage of dual lactation. These results indicate that progesterone and prolactin profiles in wild red kangaroos follow patterns found previously in other macropodid species, the tammar and Bennett's wallabies.
Benoit, Cecilia; Stengel, Camille; Phillips, Rachel; Zadoroznyj, Maria; Berry, Sarah
Retrenchment of government services has occurred across a wide range of sectors and regions. Care services, in particular, have been clawed away in the wake of fiscal policies of cost containment and neoliberal policies centred on individual responsibility and market autonomy. Such policies have included the deinstitutionalisation of care from hospitals and clinics, and early discharge from hospital, both of which are predicated on the notion that care can be provided informally within families and communities. In this paper we examine the post-birth "care crisis" that new mothers face in one region of Canada. The data are drawn from a larger study of social determinants of pregnant and new mothers' health in Victoria, Canada. Mixed methods interviews were conducted among a purposive sample of women at three points in time. This paper reports data on sample characteristics, length of stay in hospital and health service gaps. This data is contextualised via a more in-depth analysis of qualitative responses from Wave 2 (4-6 weeks postpartum). Out results show a significant portion of participants desired services that were not publically available to them during the post-birth period. Among those who reported a gap in care, the two most common barriers were: cost and unavailability of home care supports. Participants' open-ended responses revealed many positive features of the public health care system but also gaps in services, and economic barriers to receiving the care they wanted. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to recent neoliberal reforms. DISCUSSION & CONCLUSIONS: While Canada may be praised for its public provision of maternity care, mothers' reports of gaps in care during the early postpartum period and increasing use of private doulas is a worrying trend. To the extent that individual mothers or families rely on the market for care provision, issues of equity and quality of care are pivotal. This paper concludes with suggestions
Retrenchment of government services has occurred across a wide range of sectors and regions. Care services, in particular, have been clawed away in the wake of fiscal policies of cost containment and neoliberal policies centred on individual responsibility and market autonomy. Such policies have included the deinstitutionalisation of care from hospitals and clinics, and early discharge from hospital, both of which are predicated on the notion that care can be provided informally within families and communities. In this paper we examine the post-birth "care crisis" that new mothers face in one region of Canada. Method The data are drawn from a larger study of social determinants of pregnant and new mothers' health in Victoria, Canada. Mixed methods interviews were conducted among a purposive sample of women at three points in time. This paper reports data on sample characteristics, length of stay in hospital and health service gaps. This data is contextualised via a more in-depth analysis of qualitative responses from Wave 2 (4-6 weeks postpartum). Results Out results show a significant portion of participants desired services that were not publically available to them during the post-birth period. Among those who reported a gap in care, the two most common barriers were: cost and unavailability of home care supports. Participants' open-ended responses revealed many positive features of the public health care system but also gaps in services, and economic barriers to receiving the care they wanted. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to recent neoliberal reforms. Discussion & conclusions While Canada may be praised for its public provision of maternity care, mothers' reports of gaps in care during the early postpartum period and increasing use of private doulas is a worrying trend. To the extent that individual mothers or families rely on the market for care provision, issues of equity and quality of care are pivotal. This paper concludes
Crosnoe, Robert; Augustine, Jennifer March; Huston, Aletha C
Theory and policy highlight the role of child care in preparing children for the transition into school. Approaching this issue in a different way, this study investigated whether children's care experiences before this transition promoted their mothers' school involvement after it, with the hypothesized mechanism for this link being the cultivation of children's social and academic skills. Analyses of 1,352 children (1 month-6 years) and parents in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that mothers were more involved at their children's schools when children had prior histories of high-quality nonparental care. This pattern, which was fairly stable across levels of maternal education and employment, was mediated by children's academic skills and home environments. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Press, Julie; Fagan, Jay; Bernd, Elisa
Focusing on social factors associated with increased depressive symptoms among working mothers living in poor urban neighborhoods, this study investigates the effects of welfare participation, employment conditions, and child care on women's emotional well-being. The authors use new data from the Philadelphia Survey of Child Care and Work.…
Skouteris, Helen; McCaught, Simone; Dissanayake, Cheryl
The overall aim in this study was twofold: to compare the use of work-based (WB) and non-work-based (NWB) child care on the transition back to the workplace for women after a period of maternity leave, and on the transition into child care for the infants of these women. Thirty-five mothers with infants in WB centres and 44 mothers with infants in…
Chou, Yueh-Ching; Fu, Li-yeh; Chang, Heng-Hao
This study explored the experiences of working mothers with an adult child with intellectual disabilities to understand how they reconcile paid work and care responsibilities. Fifteen working mothers in Taiwan with an adult child with intellectual disabilities were interviewed, and an interpretative phenomenological approach was adopted for data collection and analysis. All included mothers prioritized their caregiving role over paid work. The strategies used by these mothers to make paid work fit with caregiving included having strong social networks and informal support for their care work, use of formal services, personal religious beliefs and positive attitudes towards care, as well as having flexible working hours due to self-employment, good relations with employers, working positions and work locations. Formal systems, which include both welfare and labour policies, need to be responsive to and involved in supporting these working mothers, especially those who lack good personal networks. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Grembowski, David; Spiekerman, Charles; Milgrom, Peter
For mothers of Medicaid children aged 3 to 6 years, we examined whether mothers’ characteristics and local supply of dentists and public dental clinics are associated with having a regular source of dental care. Disproportionate stratified sampling by racial/ethnic group selected 11,305 children aged 3 to 6 in Medicaid in Washington state. Mothers (N=4,373) completed a mixed-mode survey that was combined with dental supply measures. Results reveal 38% of mothers had a regular dental place and 27% had a regular dentist. Dental insurance, greater education, income, and length of residence and better mental health were associated with having a regular place or dentist for Black, Hispanic and White mothers, along with increased supply of private dentists and safety net clinics for White and Hispanic mothers. Mothers lacking a regular source of dental care may increase oral health disparities in their children. PMID:17982208
Ntswane, A M; van Rhyn, L
This article reports on a research study done in Katutura Township, near Windhoek. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was followed to answer the research question investigating experiences of mothers caring for mentally retarded children at home. Phenomenological interviews were conducted with a purposefully selected sample of twelve mothers. The meaning of their experiences was analysed by using Teschxs method (1990 in Creswell, 1994:155) of analysing qualitative data. The results indicated various emotions and challenges experienced by these mothers during the care of their children. Feelings of shock, despondency and sadness dominated the early stages when the retarded children were still young. During later years, as the children were growing up, the mothers felt shame, fear, frustration, anger, disappointment and worry. However, acceptance followed, as the children grew older. Stigma seemed to affect all the respondents. Support in any form or lack thereof seemed to be the decisive factor-positioning mothers along a continuum of two extremes, namely despairing isolation and integrated happiness. Recommendations were made regarding the improvement of heath care services and education of the mothers and their families.
Wu, Min; Lagasse, Linda L; Wouldes, Trecia A; Arria, Amelia M; Wilcox, Tara; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Smith, Lynne M; Neal, Charles R; Huestis, Marilyn A; Dellagrotta, Sheri; Lester, Barry M
This study compared patterns of prenatal care among mothers who used methamphetamine (MA) during pregnancy and non-using mothers in the US and New Zealand (NZ), and evaluated associations among maternal drug use, child protective services (CPS) referral, and inadequate prenatal care in both countries. The sample consisted of 182 mothers in the MA-Exposed and 196 in the Comparison groups in the US, and 107 mothers in the MA-Exposed and 112 in the Comparison groups in NZ. Positive toxicology results and/or maternal report of MA use during pregnancy were used to identify MA use. Information about sociodemographics, prenatal care and prenatal substance use was collected by maternal interview. MA-use during pregnancy is associated with lower socioeconomic status, single marital status, and CPS referral in both NZ and the US. Compared to their non-using counterparts, MA-using mothers in the US had significantly higher rates of inadequate prenatal care. No association was found between inadequate care and MA-use in NZ. In the US, inadequate prenatal care was associated with CPS referral, but not in NZ. Referral to CPS for drug use only composed 40 % of all referrals in the US, but only 15 % of referrals in NZ. In our study population, prenatal MA-use and CPS referral eclipse maternal sociodemographics in explanatory power for inadequate prenatal care. The predominant effect of CPS referral in the US is especially interesting, and should encourage further research on whether the US policy of mandatory reporting discourages drug-using mothers from seeking antenatal care.
Nnebue, C C; Duru, C B; Uwakwe, K A; Ifeadike, C O; Anyanwu, B C; Adinnu, K M; Nwaneri, P O; Ufoh, I J
Nigeria ranks among developing countries with poor neonatal health indices. This underscores the need for households and healthcare providers to understand the concept of newborn care and react appropriately and timely too. To determine the knowledge and practices of mothers in the Elele community regarding neonatal care. This was a community-based descriptive cross sectional study of 380 mothers who had a neonate. Mothers were selected using a multistage sampling technique. Data were collected by interview using a semi-structured questionnaire (with closed and open ended questions) and analyzed using a statistical package for social sciences version 22.0. Chi-square test was used to identify statistically significant associations among antenatal care clinic (ANC) attendance cum place of delivery and neonatal care practices. Ninety one (23.9%) of respondents were aware of at least four out of nine danger signs, while all reported wrapping their babies within 10 minutes after birth. Duration less than six hours from birth to first bath, feeding with or discarding of colostrum and timing of first breastfeeding within the first hour of birth were significantly associated with ANC attendance (p = 0.000, p = 0.002 and p = 0.000 respectively). Duration less than six hours to first bath, umbilical cord care and feeding with or discarding of colostrum were significantly associated with health facility delivery (p = 0.043, p = 0.026 and p = 0.003 respectively). Inadequate knowledge of newborn care among mothers was found, while non-ANC attendance and non-health facility delivery were associated with inappropriate neonatal care practices. We recommend comprehensive behavior change interventions, to promote proper neonatal care practices.
Yantzi, Nicole M; Rosenberg, Mark W; McKeever, Patricia
In most industrialised countries, the care needs of those who are sick, disabled and frail are increasingly met in peoples' homes. One of the implications of this shift in the site of care is that individuals with long-term care needs and their family care providers experience social and spatial isolation. Many are housebound and most face considerable challenges in getting out of the house. This paper illuminates these challenges as they are experienced by mothers of children with long-term care needs, and the resulting isolation and disconnection that they experience. Eleven semistructured interviews were conducted in two regions of Ontario, Canada. Grounded theory informed the analysis of the mothers' accounts of their experiences of getting out of the house. The present findings are derived from a larger investigation of the meanings and experiences of the home as a place of caring for families with children who have long-term care needs. Secondary analysis of the data found that three main challenges restricted the mothers' abilities to leave their houses. Mothers experienced difficulties getting out of the house when they attempted to leave with the child, and when the child was left with an alternative care provider. Physical challenges were associated with the work and planning required in moving the child's equipment and supplies, meticulous planning of the outing within the daily schedule, and navigating barriers in the built and natural environments. Social challenges reflected the lack of people within the mothers' social network of family and friends who have the knowledge and expertise to care for the child. Service challenges resulted from the gaps between the policies and practices of paid respite, and the conditions that must be satisfied in order for mothers to be able and/or willing to leave the house. The authors also examined the reasons why some of the mothers worked from home, and the strategies that they used to get out of the house for
Newsome, A E
This paper discusses the interactions between the large and medium-sized marsupials, the introduced ruminant domestic stock, and the environment in the arid zone of Australia. The grazing of sheep and cattle has produced suitable subclimax pastures which today favor two sympatric kangaroos but not the smaller bandicoots and wallabies. Tall grass tussocks used as shelter by the latter have been grazed down by the ruminants, and replaced by "marsupial lawns" or xeric spinifex, depending on locality, thereby improving the food supplies for the plains kangaroo and the hill kangaroo, respectively. It is argued, however, that even these smaller marsupials benefited originally from the new grazing regime. Patchy grazing of the grasslands probably created edge effects and other early seral changes which improved the food supplies while leaving adequate shelter. Continued grazing by increasingly large numbers of sheep and cattle ultimately and critically removed the shelter and, therefore, eliminated the bandicoots and wallabies. There is evidence that the plains kangaroo, though generally abundant at the present time, is vulnerable to competitive displacement by sheep, cattle, rabbits, and, in one region, by the hill kangaroo when it invades the plains. The plains kangaroo with its diet of green herbage is most threatened during droughts because the other herbivores have finer-grained diets. Like the bandicoots and wallabies the plains kangaroo in at least two localities appears to have first increased in numbers and then decreased. Sheep and cattle numbers have generally done the same. It is postulated, therefore, that there may not be two opposing response curves for the large and medium-sized marsupials to the ruminant invasion of the inland plains, but, in the long run, only one: an initial numerical increase and then decline. Only the time-scale is different, taking 50 years or more for the plains kangaroo, but perhaps half that time or less for the bandicoots and
Low, Seth; Spindler, Pearl G.
This report presents basic data on the types of child care arrangements and their frequency of utilization by working mothers belonging to different segments of American Society. The survey was conducted with the help of the Burea u of Census, which included supplementary questions about child care in its February, 1965 survey, using a…
Budd, Karen S.; Holdsworth, Michelle J. A.; HoganBruen, Kathy D.
Objective: This study's aim was to examine variables associated with different short-term trajectories in multiply disadvantaged adolescent mothers by investigating antecedents and concomitants of parenting stress. Method: We followed 49 adolescent mothers (ages 14-18 at study outset) who were wards in Illinois foster care using a longitudinal…
Kitchener, Anne L; Harman, Amanda; Kay, David J; McCartney, Carmen A; Mate, Karen E; Rodger, John C
This study examined the potential of a recombinant marsupial zona pellucida 3 protein as a contraceptive vaccine for the Eastern Grey kangaroo, a marsupial that is locally overabundant in several regions of eastern Australia. First, a pilot study using porcine zona pellucidae (PZP) demonstrated that ZP proteins, primarily the ZP3 component of PZP, are highly immunogenic in the grey kangaroo and produce a long-lasting humoral response to a single immunisation, as found in other marsupials. Immunisation with 300 microg of a non-glycosylated recombinant brushtail possum ZP3 (recBP-ZP3) protein in complete Freund's adjuvant produced a similar, significant and sustained antibody response, and none of the immunised kangaroos (n=7) produced offspring during the following breeding season compared with four out of the six control animals. An epitope analysis of the B-cell response to recBP-ZP3 using a brushtail possum ZP3 identified numerous B-cell epitope regions clustered around the N- and C-terminal regions of the protein. Two regions of interest for further fertility vaccine development based on their immunogenicity and fertility trials and functional studies in other species were found to be immunogenic. These results suggest that immunocontraception based on targeting the ZP3 protein within the zona pellucida may be an effective strategy for fertility reduction in Eastern Grey kangaroos.
Kronborg, Hanne; Sievertsen, Hans Henrik; Wüst, Miriam
Care around birth may impact child and mother health and parental health investments. We exploit the 2008 national strike among Danish nurses to identify the effects of care around birth on infant and mother health (proxied by health care usage) and maternal investments in the health of their newborns. We use administrative data from the population register on 39,810 Danish births in the years 2007-2010 and complementary survey and municipal administrative data on 8288 births in the years 2007-2009 in a differences-in-differences framework. We show that the strike reduced the number of mothers' prenatal midwife consultations, their length of hospital stay at birth, and the number of home visits by trained nurses after hospital discharge. We find that this reduction in care around birth increased the number of child and mother general practitioner (GP) contacts in the first month. As we do not find strong effects of strike exposure on infant and mother GP contacts in the longer run, this result suggests that parents substitute one type of care for another. While we lack power to identify the effects of care around birth on hospital readmissions and diagnoses, our results for maternal health investments indicate that strike-exposed mothers-especially those who lacked postnatal early home visits-are less likely to exclusively breastfeed their child at four months. Thus reduced care around birth may have persistent effects on treated children through its impact on parental investments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sadler, Lois S; Swartz, Martha K; Ryan-Krause, Patricia; Seitz, Victoria; Meadows-Oliver, Mikki; Grey, Margaret; Clemmens, Donna A
This study described a cohort of teen mothers and their children attending an urban high school with a parent support program and school-based child care center. Specific aims of the study were to describe maternal characteristics and outcomes, and child developmental and health outcomes. A volunteer sample of 65 adolescent mothers enrolled in the parent support program and their children were interviewed, surveyed, and assessed. Fifty-three mothers had children enrolled in the school-based child care center and 12 mothers had their children cared for by family members. Maternal characteristics assessed included self-esteem and depressive symptoms, social stressors and support, self-perceived parental competence, parent-child teaching interactions, and subsequent childbearing and maternal educational outcomes. Child outcomes included child developmental assessments and health outcomes. About 33% of teen mothers were mildly to moderately depressed and 39% of the sample had experienced transitional homelessness. Social support networks were small; in the past 12 months, mothers experienced a mean number of 13.2 +/- 11.9 negative life events. Maternal self-report measures and mother-child observation measures indicated positive levels of parental competence. Maternal educational outcomes were positive, and only 6% of mothers had subsequent childbirths within 2 years. The mean scores on developmental assessments of children fell within the normal range, although there were 7 children identified with developmental delays. For at-risk teen mothers, this parent support program and school-based child care setting appears to offer promising opportunities to help young mothers with parenting, avoid rapid subsequent pregnancies, and stay engaged with school, while their children are cared for in a close and safe environment.
Cleveland, Lisa Marie
The admission of an infant to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) has the potential to cause significant stress for the mothers of these infants. Researchers have found that nurse-mother communication has the potential to either aid or hinder the mother's adaptation to the NICU environment. These communication patterns are relatively complex in nature and therefore warrant further investigation. Symbolic interactionism (SI) is a theoretical framework that offers the potential to direct such an investigation. The purpose of this article is to examine nurse-mother communication patterns in the NICU through the theoretical lens of SI.
Weinreb, Linda; Upshur, Carole C; Fletcher-Blake, Debbian; Reed, George; Frisard, Christine
Although depression is common among homeless mothers, little progress has been made in testing treatment strategies for this group. We describe pilot test results of an adapted collaborative care model for homeless mothers with depression. We conducted a pilot intervention study of mothers screening positive for depression in 2 randomly selected shelter-based primary care clinics in New York over 18 months in 2010-2012. Study participants completed a psychosocial, health, and mental health assessment at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. One-third of women screened positive for depression (123 of 328 women). Sixty-seven women (63.2% of the eligible sample) enrolled in the intervention. At 6 months, compared to usual-care women, intervention group women were more likely to be receiving depression treatment (40.0% vs 5.9%, P = .01) and antidepressant medication (73.3% vs 5.9%, P = .001, respectively) and had more primary care physician and care manager visits at both 3 months (74.3% vs 53.3%, P = .009 and 91.4% vs 26.7%, P < .001, respectively) and 6 months (46.7% vs 23.5%, P = .003 and 70% vs 17.7%, P = .001, respectively). More women in the intervention group compared to usual-care women reported ≥ 50% improvement in depression symptoms at 6 months (30% vs 5.9%, P = .07). This pilot study found that implementing an adapted collaborative care intervention was feasible in a shelter-based primary care clinic and had promising results that require further testing. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02723058.
Joung, Woo Joung; Yi, Myungsun
The purpose of this study was to develop a deeper understanding of the experience of mothers caring for children with epilepsy. Data were collected through individual in-depth interviews and observation from 12 mothers of children with epilepsy. Data were collected from December, 2014 to February, 2015 and analyzed using van Manen's hermeneutic phenomenological methodology to identify essential themes of their experience. The essential themes that fit into the context of the 4-existential grounds of time, body, other people, and space were: Lived time-ongoing influence of the past, living in insecure present, fearful future with no answer; Lived body-bonded body, burned out state; Lived other-burden but also support, shrunken down; Lived space-narrowed range of activity, widened horizon. The findings in this study show in-depth understanding of the hardships of mothers who are caring for children with epilepsy. The beauty and greatness of these mothers are revealed through the analysis of various phenomenological materials such as literary and artistic work reflecting socio-cultural context, as well as vivid care experiences of mothers of children with epilepsy. This will be helpful in increasing understanding of the nature of caregivers' experience for medical professionals dealing with patients and caregivers. Also it helps to improve the understanding of the disease among the general public, followed by a more warming and caring attitude towards patients and family members. Finally, it will enhance psychological well-being and overall quality of life of the epileptic children and their families. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science
Gul, Saadia; Khalil, Rehana; Yousafzai, M. Tahir; Shoukat, Faiza
Objectives To assess newborn care knowledge and practices among mothers. Methodology A cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 170 mothers accompanying their infants attending the Paediatric Out Patient Department were interviewed through a structured questionnaire. Areas of inquiry included Antenatal care seeking, delivery care, cord care, eye care, bathing and breastfeeding practices. Results Ninety-two percent mothers reported at least one antenatal care visit. Tetanus Toxoid coverage was 88%. Home deliveries were 18%. Seventy-four percent reported applying various substances like coconut oil, mustard oil, purified butter and turmeric to the cord stump. Kohl application to newborn’s eyes was 68%, while 86% reported first bath within 24 hrs of birth. 48% mothers initiated breastfeeding within 2 hours of delivery. Colostrum was discarded by 43% and prelacteal feeds given by 73%. Exclusive Breast Feeding rate was 26%. Family income of Rs. 10, 000 (USD120) or less/month and maternal education level of primary or less were significantly associated with home delivery, unhygienic cord care and kohl application to the newborn’s eyes. Home delivery was a risk factor for poor cord care (OR=4.07) and discarding colostrum (OR= 3.18). Conclusion Antenatal care coverage was good, but knowledge regarding newborn care was poor. Harmful practices regarding newborn care were prevalent among mothers. Institutional deliveries did not guarantee optimal practices. Tradition and culture played a significant role. Health education can improve the mothers’ knowledge regarding newborn care practices. PMID:25246884
Robinson, Penelope; Comino, Elizabeth; Forbes, Andrew; Webster, Vana; Knight, Jennifer
To compare the timing of first hospital antenatal care visit by mothers of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal infants, and to identify the risk and protective factors associated with timeliness of accessing care, mothers who delivered at Campbelltown hospital between October 2005 and November 2006 were surveyed on the maternity ward. This survey was linked to hospital administrative data. Gestational age at first visit to a hospital-based antenatal clinic was compared for mothers of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal infants. Risks and protective factors associated with timing of antenatal care were also examined using Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier survival curves. Data on 1520 deliveries were included in this study. Mothers of Aboriginal infants presented slightly later to hospital-based antenatal clinics than mothers of non-Aboriginal infants (median 15.6 weeks versus 14.0 weeks). This difference did not remain after adjustment for all risk and protective factors. The three significant factors remaining were: maternal smoking; not in paid employment; and residence in a disadvantaged suburb. The results may reflect the complex associations that exist between the clustering of disadvantage among families of Aboriginal infants. A multifaceted approach is required to improve the timeliness of hospital-based antenatal care for the mothers of Aboriginal infants.
Jikijela, Thobeka P; James, Sindiwe; Sonti, Balandeli S I
The rate of caesarean section deliveries has increased globally and mothers are faced with challenges of postoperative recovery and caring thereof. Midwives have a duty to assist these mothers to self-care. The objective was to explore and describe experiences of post-caesarean section delivered mothers of midwifery care at a public hospital in Nelson Mandela Bay. A qualitative, descriptive and explorative research design was used in the study. Data were collected from 11 purposively criterion-selected mothers who had a caesarean section delivery. One-on-one semi-structured interviews were conducted in the post-natal wards. Research ethics, namely autonomy, beneficence, justice and informed consent, were adopted in the study. All participants were informed of their right to withdraw from the study at any stage without penalties. Interviews were analysed using Tesch's method of data analysis. Three main themes were identified as experiences of: diverse pain, physical limitation and frustration and health care services as different. Experiences of mothers following a caesarean section delivery with midwifery services at a public hospital in Nelson Mandela Bay were explored and described as diverse. A need for adequate pain management as well as assistance and breastfeeding support to mothers following caesarean delivery was identified as crucial to promote a good mother-to-child relationship.
Dawson, Terence J; McTavish, Kirsten J; Munn, Adam J; Holloway, Joanne
The Eastern Grey Kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) occurs mostly in the wetter regions of eastern Australia. However, in the past 30-40 years it has moved into more arid regions (rainfall < 250 mm), thus increasing its overlap zone with the xeric adapted Red Kangaroo (Macropus rufus). An increased access to water (supplied for domestic stock) may explain this range extension, but changes in the availability of preferred feed could also be involved. The water use, drinking patterns and thermoregulatory behaviour of these two species of kangaroo have been examined in a semi-free range study, during summer at an arid rangeland site. Foraging was largely nocturnal in both species and during the day they behaved to reduce heat loads. This was especially so for M. giganteus, which showed greater shade seeking. However, it still used more water (72 +/- 2.6 mL kg(-1) day(-1), mean +/- SE) than M. rufus (56 +/- 7.6 mL kg(-1) day(-1)) and drank twice as frequently. Although M. giganteus produced a less concentrated urine (1422 +/- 36 mosmol kg(-1)) than M. rufus (1843 +/- 28 mosmol kg(-1)), kidney physiology did not explain all of the differences in water metabolism between the species. Water from the feed and faecal water retention also appear to be involved. Broadly, a better access to reliable water and the utilisation of mesic microhabitats has enabled M. giganteus to make inroads into the changing rangelands of eastern Australia. However, changes in the vegetation, due to stock grazing, have also favoured M. giganteus, which is a grass eating specialist.
Al-Sagarat, Ahmad Yahya; Al-Kharabsheh, Amani
Background: Traditional practices are commonly present within the Jordanian society, especailly those concerned with infant’s care. Some of these practices might be harmful and thus health professioanls are required to substitute these practices with safe and healthy ones. The goal of this study is to determine the traditional practices adopted by Jordanian mothers when caring for their infants in rural areas. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study design using qualitative method was utilized in this study. A Purposive sample of 30 mothers was recruited from four rural regions in outskirts of Amman the capital city of Jordan. Results: Mothers had traditional infant’s care practices pertinent to bathing of babies, including the salting, swaddling, care of the umbilical cord and jaundice. Conclusion: Traditional practices are still common in Jordan; some of these behaviors can cause health risks. While health consequences of some of the traditional practices are still not clear, health professianls, especially nurses, are required to intervene by changing policies and education. PMID:28331910
Cooper, Camille Wilson
This paper explores the relationship between notions of parent involvement and conceptions of care as they relate to educators' deficit perceptions of African American mothers. Black feminist and womanist interpretations of the ethic of care are used to reframe the biased discourse on parent involvement in schools. Specific consideration is given…
Crosnoe, Robert; Augustine, Jennifer March; Huston, Aletha C.
Theory and policy highlight the role of child care in preparing children for the transition into school. Approaching this issue in a different way, this study investigated whether children's care experiences before this transition promoted their mothers' school involvement after it, with the hypothesized mechanism for this link being the…
Keyserling, Mary Dublin
An overview of the present shortage of day care facilities in the United States is presented in this speech. Statistics cited on the number of working mothers with children under the age of 6 and the number of day care licensed homes and centers show that the shortage of licensed day care facilities is much more acute than it was five years ago.…
Mantha, Shannon; Davies, Barbara; Moyer, Alwyn; Crowe, Katherine
To describe new mothers' experiences with family-centered maternity care in relation to their confidence level and to determine how care could have been more responsive to their needs. Using data from a prospective Canadian survey of 596 postpartum women, a subsample of women with low and high confidence (N = 74) was selected. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and content analysis. Women with both high and low confidence expressed negative experiences with similar frequency (n = 47/74, 64%). Women wanted more nursing support for breastfeeding and postpartum teaching and education. Women who reported a language other than English or French as their first language were significantly less confident than English- and French-speaking women (p < .05). A multilevel framework about family-centered care is presented for healthcare providers in prenatal, labor and birth, and postpartum care. It is recommended that nurses ask new mothers about their confidence level and give special consideration to cultural background in order to provide supportive care in hospital and community settings.
Sood, Erica; Karpyn, Allison; Demianczyk, Abigail C; Ryan, Jennie; Delaplane, Emily A; Neely, Trent; Frazier, Aisha H; Kazak, Anne E
To inform pediatric critical care practice by examining how mothers and fathers experience the stress of caring for a young child with congenital heart disease and use hospital and community supports. Qualitative study of mothers and fathers of young children with congenital heart disease. Tertiary care pediatric hospital in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Thirty-four parents (20 mothers, 14 fathers) from diverse backgrounds whose child previously underwent cardiac surgery during infancy. Subjects participated in semi-structured, individual interviews about their experiences and psychosocial needs at the time of congenital heart disease diagnosis, surgical admission, and discharge to home after surgery. Qualitative interview data were coded, and consistent themes related to emotional states, stressors, and supports were identified. Fathers experience and respond to the stressors and demands of congenital heart disease in unique ways. Fathers often described stress from not being able to protect their child from congenital heart disease and the associated surgeries/pain and from difficulties balancing employment with support for their partner and care of their congenital heart disease child in the hospital. Fathers were more likely than mothers to discuss support from the work environment (coworkers/managers, flexible scheduling, helpful distraction) and were less likely to describe the use of hospital-based resources or congenital heart disease peer-to-peer supports. This study highlights the importance of understanding the paternal experience and tailoring interventions to the unique needs of both mothers and fathers. Opportunities for critical care practice change to promote the mental health of mothers and fathers following a diagnosis of congenital heart disease are discussed.
In most cases, admission of an infant to the intensive care unit is unexpected and is stressful for their mothers. The aim of this study is to examine factors affecting anxiety level of mothers whose infant is admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Anxiety disorders figure among the most frequent psychiatric disorders in the population, and anxiety symptoms are among the most common. A descriptive correlational design. Neonatal intensive care unit of Women's Health and Diseases, Education and Research Hospital in Turkey. A total of 151 women who had an infant in NICU. A questionnaire form was used and included two instruments. The first measured characteristics of mothers and infants, and the second was the 'State-Trait Anxiety Inventory'. Of the mothers, 33.8% were between the ages 25-29, 41.7% of the subjects had a primary education, 89.4% were housewives, 64.9% had social security and 58.9% of subjects had low family incomes. Of the 151 subjects, 75.5% had planned their pregnancy, and 41.7% were primiparas. It was determined that maternal age, education, income; planned pregnancy, having complications of pregnancy, receiving antenatal care, type of labour, gestational age of the infant at birth, reasons for hospitalisation of the infant and birth weight did not affect maternal anxiety levels. Maternal anxiety was significantly (p < 0.05) related to the infants' gender and duration of hospitalisation, with statistically significant differences. Anxiety in mothers was significantly higher if their infant was a boy. This finding can be a result of mother's cultural and religious values. A better understanding of the psychosocial aspects such as cultural values and norms affecting maternal and child health of the perinatal period will contribute to improved health care and better outcomes. Nurses will be better prepared to assist mothers of babies in the NICU to cope with the experience through exploration of these aspects of the mother, infant and experience.
Bennett, Mark; Tu, Shin-Lin; Upton, Chris; McArtor, Cassie; Gillett, Amber; Laird, Tanya; O'Dea, Mark
Poxviruses have previously been detected in macropods with cutaneous papillomatous lesions, however to date, no comprehensive analysis of a poxvirus from kangaroos has been performed. Here we report the genome sequences of a western grey kangaroo poxvirus (WKPV) and an eastern grey kangaroo poxvirus (EKPV), named for the host species from which they were isolated, western grey (Macropus fuliginosus) and eastern grey (Macropus giganteus) kangaroos. Poxvirus DNA from WKPV and EKPV was isolated and entire coding genome regions determined through Roche GS Junior and Illumina Miseq sequencing, respectively. Viral genomes were assembled using MIRA and SPAdes, and annotations performed using tools available from the Viral Bioinformatics Resource Centre. Histopathology and transmission electron microscopy analysis was also performed on WKPV and its associated lesions. The WKPV and EKPV genomes show 96% identity (nucleotide) to each other and phylogenetic analysis places them on a distinct branch between the established Molluscipoxvirus and Avipoxvirus genera. WKPV and EKPV are 170 kbp and 167 kbp long, containing 165 and 162 putative genes, respectively. Together, their genomes encode up to 47 novel unique hypothetical proteins, and possess virulence proteins including a major histocompatibility complex class II inhibitor, a semaphorin-like protein, a serpin, a 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/δ 5→4 isomerase, and a CD200-like protein. These viruses also encode a large putative protein (WKPV-WA-039 and EKPV-SC-038) with a C-terminal domain that is structurally similar to the C-terminal domain of a cullin, suggestive of a role in the control of host ubiquitination. The relationship of these viruses to members of the Molluscipoxvirus and Avipoxvirus genera is discussed in terms of sequence similarity, gene content and nucleotide composition. A novel genus within subfamily Chordopoxvirinae is proposed to accommodate these two poxvirus species from kangaroos; we suggest
North, Lindsay A; Harder, John D
The population of Matschie's tree kangaroos (Dendrolagus matschiei) held in North American zoos has declined to critically low numbers, and information on the reproductive biology of tree kangaroos is limited. The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize the temporal features of the estrous cycle through the measurement of fecal progesterone metabolite (i.e., progestin) concentrations and (2) determine the reproductive status of female tree kangaroos in the captive population of North America through the identification of estrous cyclicity. Fecal pellets and observations of estrous behaviors were collected from 16 captive female tree kangaroos. Fecal pellets were sampled and extracted with methanol, and progestin concentrations were quantified using a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for progesterone and its metabolites. A progestin profile was obtained for each female by plotting fecal progestin concentrations for every third day over a 120-day period. Profiles for 12 of 16 females showed evidence of estrous cyclicity (P<0.01). The mean length of the estrous cycle was estimated at 58.9+/-2.4 days (n=11). Progestin concentrations were low during the first 15-20 days of the luteal phase and remained elevated above baseline only during the last 30.2+/-3.2 days of the luteal phase, which averaged 46.6+/-2.5 days in duration. The progestin profile observed in the estrous cycle of Matschie's tree kangaroos in this study is very similar to that seen in the non-pregnant cycle of several other species in the family Macropodidae.
A systematic study of parasitic mites on kangaroo rats of two species at the Nevada Test Site was conducted from August 1959 to December 1961. The intent was to determine the kinds, numbers, seasonal occurrences, and ecological repations of mites in nuclear disturbed and contiguous undisturbed areas. A total of 1,256 rats from nine plant communities was examined. Data are summarized. (C.H.)
Sam-Agudu, Nadia A; Cornelius, Llewellyn J; Okundaye, Joshua N; Adeyemi, Olusegun A; Isah, Haroun O; Wiwa, Owens M; Adejuyigbe, Ebun; Galadanci, Hadiza; Afe, Abayomi J; Jolaoso, Ibidun; Bassey, Emem; Charurat, Manhattan E
Nigeria is a key target country in the global effort toward elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Low coverage of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions, adherence, and retention-in-care rates in HIV-positive pregnant women are contributing factors to high mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT) rates. In Nigeria, rural areas, served largely by primary health care facilities, have particularly poor indicators of PMTCT coverage. Mentor Mothers are HIV-positive women who serve as peer counselors for PMTCT clients, provide guidance, and support in keeping appointments and promoting antiretroviral adherence and retention-in-care. The Mother Mentor (MoMent) study aims to investigate the impact of structured Mentor Mother programs on PMTCT outcomes in rural Nigeria. A prospective cohort study will compare rates of retention-in-care among PMTCT clients who are supported by formally-trained supervised Mentor Mothers versus clients who receive standard-of-care, informal peer support. Study sites are 20 primary health care centers (10 intervention, 10 control) in rural North-Central Nigeria. The study population is HIV-positive mothers and exposed infant pairs (MIPs) (N = 480; 240 MIPs per study arm). Primary outcome measures are the proportion of exposed infants receiving early HIV testing by age 2 months, and the proportion of MIPs retained in care at 6 months postpartum. Secondary outcome measures examine antiretroviral adherence, 12-month postpartum MIP retention, and MTCT rates. This article presents details of the study design, the structured Mentor Mother programs, and how their impact on PMTCT outcomes will be assessed.
Hay, William W
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) from all causes of diabetes is the most common medical complication of pregnancy and is increasing in incidence, particularly as type 2 diabetes continues to increase worldwide. Despite advances in perinatal care, infants of diabetic mothers (IDMs) remain at risk for a multitude of physiologic, metabolic, and congenital complications such as preterm birth, macrosomia, asphyxia, respiratory distress, hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, hyperbilirubinemia, polycythemia and hyperviscosity, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and congenital anomalies, particularly of the central nervous system. Overt type 1 diabetes around conception produces marked risk of embryopathy (neural tube defects, cardiac defects, caudal regression syndrome), whereas later in gestation, severe and unstable type 1 maternal diabetes carries a higher risk of intrauterine growth restriction, asphyxia, and fetal death. IDMs born to mothers with type 2 diabetes are more commonly obese (macrosomic) with milder conditions of the common problems found in IDMs. IDMs from all causes of GDM also are predisposed to later-life risk of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Care of the IDM neonate needs to focus on ensuring adequate cardiorespiratory adaptation at birth, possible birth injuries, maintenance of normal glucose metabolism, and close observation for polycythemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and feeding intolerance.
Mammalian offspring require parental care, at least in the form of nursing during their early development. While mothers need to invest considerable time and energy in ensuring the survival of their current offspring, they also need to optimize their investment in one batch of offspring in order to ensure future reproduction and hence lifetime reproductive success. Free-ranging dogs live in small social groups, mate promiscuously and lack the cooperative breeding biology of other group-living canids. They face high early-life mortality, which in turn reduces fitness benefits of the mother from a batch of pups. We carried out a field-based study on free-ranging dogs in India to understand the nature of maternal care. Our analysis reveals that mothers reduce investment in energy-intensive active care and increase passive care as the pups grow older, thereby keeping overall levels of care more or less constant over pup age. Using the patterns of mother–pup interactions, we define the different phases of maternal care behaviour. PMID:28280555
Poms, Laura Wheeler; Botsford, Whitney E; Kaplan, Seth A; Buffardi, Louis C; O'Brien, Alison S
This article introduces the role of financial considerations into work-family research by considering the costs and benefits of employed mothers' child care satisfaction. Data from 2 samples offer empirical support for the addition of a fourth factor to a current measure of child care satisfaction so that the measure reflects mothers' satisfaction not only with caregiver attentiveness, communication, and dependability but also with child care-related financial considerations. This article also discusses relationships between child care satisfaction and work-family conflict and job satisfaction for this population. The results of this study provide both organizations and child care providers with a broader picture of the concerns that employed mothers face as they search for reliable, affordable child care. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Mwangi, Rose; Chandler, Clare; Nasuwa, Fortunata; Mbakilwa, Hilda; Poulsen, Anja; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Reyburn, Hugh
User and provider perceptions of quality of care are likely to affect both use and provision of services. However, little is known about how health workers and mothers perceive the delivery of care in hospital paediatric wards in Africa. Paediatric staff and mothers of paediatric inpatients were interviewed to explore their opinions and experience of the admission process and conditions on the ward. Overcrowding, unsanitary conditions and lack of food were major concerns for mothers on the ward, who were deterred from seeking treatment earlier due to fears that hospital admission posed a significant risk of exposure to infection. While most staff were seen as being sympathetic and supportive to mothers, a minority were reported to be judgemental and authoritarian. Health workers identified lack of trained staff, overwork and low pay as major concerns. Staff shortages, lack of effective training and equipment are established problems but our findings also highlight a need for wards to become more parent-friendly, particularly with regard to food, hygiene and space. Training programmes focused on professional conduct and awareness of the problems that mothers face in seeking and receiving care may result in a more supportive and cooperative attitude between staff and mothers.
Beraldi Salgado, Desirée; Abades Porcel, Mercedes
This bibliographic study describes the aspects of bonding that a pediatric nurse must know to foster the emotional attachment between a mother and her baby in the maternity hospital setting. It describes the theoretical models of bonding based on a review of the literature and research on this subject. It also discusses the origins of the bonding theory and the characteristics, types, benefits and consequences that this attachment has on the child's physical, emotional and social development. Finally, it summarizes the nurse's role in strengthening mother-child duality, assisting with baby care and supporting the family environment. The qualitative protocol of Kitchenham (2005) was used to extract the relevant information. The results of this review highlight the key role of nurses in promoting mother-child bonding despite political structures in maternity and pediatric centres.
Atout, Maha; Hemingway, Pippa; Seymour, Jane
The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of decision making in the care of children with palliative care needs in Jordan, from the perspective of their mothers. This study employed a collective qualitative case study approach. Data were collected in 3 pediatric wards in a Jordanian hospital. The study used 2 data collection methods: participant observation (197 observational hours) and 56 semi-structured interviews with 24 mothers, 12 physicians and 20 nurses. The findings show how Jordanian mothers seek to transfer the role of decision making to physicians, as they perceive themselves to be unable to make decisions about critical issues related to the treatment of their children. Mothers had a widespread apprehension of "future guilt," especially when they feared that any decisions they might make could have an adverse impact on their children. Contrary to the predominant pattern, some mothers took a proactive approach towards decision making about their children's treatment. These mothers requested detailed information from primary physicians and sought different sources of knowledge such as second opinions, reading online resources, or talking to other parents who had a child with similar circumstances. The study concludes that mothers prefer to involve physicians in decisions about their children's healthcare and treatment to eliminate their fear of probable future guilt; this modifies any tendency to autonomously decide for their children. These findings are underpinned by the Jordanian culture in which doctors' opinions are highly regarded.
Purpose Development in marsupials takes place predominantly ex utero while the young is attached to a nipple in the mother’s pouch, very different from that in other species. This study was undertaken to examine whether this affects lens growth and the production of lens proteins in kangaroos. Methods Fresh lenses were obtained at official culls from eastern gray kangaroos (Macropus giganteus). Wet weights were recorded for all and protein contents were determined for one lens from each animal. Dry weights, after fixation were obtained for 20 lenses. Ages were determined using both molar progression and total lens protein content. Lenses were divided into concentric layers by controlled dissolution using phosphate buffered saline. Samples were taken for determination of protein contents and dry weights, which were then used to determine the age of the layer removed. Soluble crystallin distributions were determined by fractionation of the centrifuged extracts using HPLC-GPC and the polypeptide contents of both soluble and insoluble proteins were assessed by SDS–PAGE. Results Lens growth is continuous from birth throughout adulthood and the increases in wet weight and fixed dry weight can be described with a single logistic growth functions for the whole life span. Three major crystallin classes, α-, β-, and γ-crystallins, were identified in the immature pouch-young animals aged around 60 days after birth. Adult lenses contain, in addition, the taxon-specific μ-crystallin. The proportions of these vary with the age of the lens tissue due to age related insolubilization as well as changes in the synthesis patterns. During early lactation (birth to 190 days), the α-, β-, and γ-crystallins represent 25, 53, and 20% of the total protein, respectively. After the pouch-young first releases the nipple (190 days), there is a rapid decrease in the production of γ-crystallins to around 5% of the total and a corresponding increase in μ-crystallin, from 0.5% to 15
SOTOHIRA, Yukari; SUZUKI, Kazuyuki; SASAKI, Haruka; SANO, Tadashi; TSUCHIYA, Masakazu; SUZUKI, Yohko; SHIMAMORI, Toshio; TSUKANO, Kenji; SATO, Ayano; YOKOTA, Hiroshi; ASAKAWA, Mitsuhiko
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reliability and effectiveness of directly determining endotoxin activity in plasma samples from kangaroos with lumpy jaw disease (LJD, n=15) and healthy controls (n=12). Prior to the present study, the ability of the commercially available automated handheld portable test system (PTSTM) to detect endotoxin activity in kangaroo plasma was compared with that of the traditional LAL-kinetic turbidimetric (KT) assay. Plasma samples, which were obtained from endotoxin-challenged cattle, were diluted 1:20 in endotoxin-free water and heated to 80°C for 10 min. The performance of the PTSTM was not significantly different from that of the traditional LAL-based assay. The data obtained using PTSTM correlated with those using KT (r2=0.963, P<0.001). These findings indicated that the PTSTM is applicable as a simplified system to assess endotoxin activity in macropods. In the present study, we demonstrated the diagnostic value of plasma endotoxin activity in kangaroos with systemic inflammation caused by oral necrobacillosis and identified plasma endotoxin activity as a sensitive marker of systemic inflammation in kangaroos with LJD. Based on ROC curves, we proposed a diagnostic cut-off point for endotoxin activity of >0.22 EU/ml for the identification of LJD. Our results indicate that the assessment of plasma endotoxin activity is a promising diagnostic tool for determining the outcome of LJD in captive macropods. PMID:26902804
Sotohira, Yukari; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Sasaki, Haruka; Sano, Tadashi; Tsuchiya, Masakazu; Suzuki, Yohko; Shimamori, Toshio; Tsukano, Kenji; Sato, Ayano; Yokota, Hiroshi; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reliability and effectiveness of directly determining endotoxin activity in plasma samples from kangaroos with lumpy jaw disease (LJD, n=15) and healthy controls (n=12). Prior to the present study, the ability of the commercially available automated handheld portable test system (PTS(TM)) to detect endotoxin activity in kangaroo plasma was compared with that of the traditional LAL-kinetic turbidimetric (KT) assay. Plasma samples, which were obtained from endotoxin-challenged cattle, were diluted 1:20 in endotoxin-free water and heated to 80°C for 10 min. The performance of the PTS(TM) was not significantly different from that of the traditional LAL-based assay. The data obtained using PTS(TM) correlated with those using KT (r(2)=0.963, P<0.001). These findings indicated that the PTS(TM) is applicable as a simplified system to assess endotoxin activity in macropods. In the present study, we demonstrated the diagnostic value of plasma endotoxin activity in kangaroos with systemic inflammation caused by oral necrobacillosis and identified plasma endotoxin activity as a sensitive marker of systemic inflammation in kangaroos with LJD. Based on ROC curves, we proposed a diagnostic cut-off point for endotoxin activity of >0.22 EU/ml for the identification of LJD. Our results indicate that the assessment of plasma endotoxin activity is a promising diagnostic tool for determining the outcome of LJD in captive macropods.
Rahman, Mosiur; Haque, Syed Emdadul; Zahan, Sarwar; Islam, Ohidul
To describe home-based newborn care practices among adolescent mothers in Bangladesh and to identify sociodemographic, antenatal care (ANC), and delivery care factors associated with these practices. The 2007 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey, conducted from March 24 to August 11, 2007. Selected urban and rural areas of Bangladesh. A total of 580 adolescent women (aged 15-19 years) who had ever been married with noninstitutional births and having at least one child younger than 3 years of age. Outcomes included complete cord care, complete thermal protection, initiation of early breastfeeding, and postnatal care within 24 hours of birth. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression methods were employed in analyzing the data. Only 42.8% and 5.1% newborns received complete cord care and complete thermal protection. Only 44.6% of newborns were breastfed within 1 hour of birth. The proportion of the newborns that received postnatal care within 24 hours of birth was 9%, and of them 11% received care from medically trained providers (MTP). Higher level of maternal education and richest bands of wealth were associated with complete thermal care and postnatal care within 24 hours of birth but not with complete cord care and early breastfeeding. Use of sufficient ANC and assisted births by MTP were significantly associated with several of the newborn care practices. The association between newborn care practices of the adolescent mothers and sufficient ANC and skilled birth attendance suggest that expanding skilled birth attendance and providing ANC may be an effective strategy to promote essential and preventive newborn care. © 2011 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Hossain, Ziarat; Anziano, Michael C
This exploratory study examined mothers' and fathers' reports of time involvement in their school-age children's care and academic activities. The study also explored the relationship between parents' socioeconomic status (SES) variables (age, education, income, work hours, and length of marriage) and their relative involvement with children. Mother and father dyads from 34 two-parent Navajo (Diné) Indian families with a second- or third-grade child participated in the study. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed that mothers invested significantly more time in children's care on demand and academic activities than fathers, but the differences in maternal and paternal perceptions of time involvement in routine care were not significant. The gender of the child did not influence the amount of time parents invested in children's care and academic activities. Mothers' involvement with children was not related to any of the SES variables. Fathers' involvement was significantly associated with work hours and length of marriage, and work hours produced significant interaction with fathers' involvement with children. Findings are discussed in light of gender role differences in parental involvement with children within Navajo families.
Dosani, Aliyah; Oliver, Lynnette May; Lodha, Abhay K; Young, Marilyn
Purpose In Alberta, the high occurrence of late preterm infants and early hospital discharge of mother-infant dyads has implications for postpartum care in the community. Shortened hospital stay and complexities surrounding the care of biologically and developmentally immature late preterm infants heighten anxiety and fears. Our descriptive phenomenological study explores mothers’ experience of caring for their late preterm infants in the community. Methods Eleven mothers were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Interview transcripts were analysed using an interpretive thematic approach. Findings The mothers’ hospital experience informed their perspective that being a late preterm infant was not a “big deal,” and they tended to treat their infant as normal. “Feeding was really problem,” especially the variability in feeding effectiveness, which was not anticipated. Failing to recognize late preterm infants’ feeding distress exemplified lack of knowledge of feeding cues and tendencies to either rationalize or minimize feeding concerns. Public health nurses represent a source of informational support for managing neonatal morbidities associated with being late preterm; however, maternal experiences with public health nurses varied. Some nurses used a directive style that overwhelmed certain mothers. Seeing multiple public health nurses and care providers was not always effective, given inconsistent and contradictory guidance to care. These new and changing situations increased maternal anxiety and stress and influenced maternal confidence in care. Fathers, family, and friends were important sources of emotional support. Conclusion After discharge, mothers report their lack of preparation to meet the special needs of their late preterm infants. Current approaches to community-based care can threaten maternal confidence in care. New models and pathways of care for late preterm infants and their families need to be responsive to the
Gelaw, Yalemzewod Assefa; Biks, Gashaw Andargie; Alene, Kefyalew Addis
Children are at higher risk of acquiring infections and developing severe disease. This study assessed the health care seeking behavior and associated factors of urban and rural mothers for common childhood illness in Northwest Ethiopia. A comparative community based cross-sectional study was conducted among urban and rural mothers living in the district. A multistage sampling technique was used to select the study participants. A pre-tested and structured questioner via interview was used to collect the data. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify associated factors. Odds ratio with 95% CI was computed to assess the strength of the associations. A total of 827 (274 urban and 553 rural) mothers were interviewed. Among these, 79.3% (95% CI: (76.5%, 82.06%)) of the mothers were sought health care in the district. Health care seeking behavior was higher among urban mothers (84.6%) than rural mothers (76.7%). Marital status, completion health extension package, and sex of child were significantly associated with health care seeking behavior of urban mothers. Whereas age of child, age and occupation of mothers, educational level of fathers, wealth quintile, and type of reported illness were significantly associated with rural mothers. Perceived severity of illness was significantly associated with both urban and rural mothers for health care seeking behavior. The overall health seeking behaviors of mothers for common childhood illness was high. However, urban mothers seek health care more than rural. Socio Economic position and types of reported illness has an effect for health seeking behavior of rural mothers. Whereas child sex preference and graduation status for health extension package has an effect for health care seeking behavior of urban mothers. Work on strengthen accessibility of health care services in the rural mothers and increase awareness of mothers about the disadvantage of sex preferences will improve the health care seek behavior of
Laurvick, Crystal L.; Msall, Michael E.; Silburn, Sven; Bower, Carol; de Klerk, Nicholas; Leonard, Helen
Objectives: Our goal was to investigate the physical and mental health of mothers who care for a child with Rett syndrome. Methods: We assessed maternal physical and mental health by using the SF-12 version 1 physical component summary and mental component summary scores as the outcome measures of interest. Mothers (n = 135) of children with Rett…
Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Williams, David R.; Harvey-Mendoza, Elizabeth; Jahromi, Laudan B.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.
Objectives. We examined the impact of Arizona’s “Supporting Our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act” (SB 1070, enacted July 29, 2010) on the utilization of preventive health care and public assistance among Mexican-origin families. Methods. Data came from 142 adolescent mothers and 137 mother figures who participated in a quasi-experimental, ongoing longitudinal study of the health and development of Mexican-origin adolescent mothers and their infants (4 waves; March 2007–December 2011). We used general estimating equations to determine whether utilization of preventive health care and public assistance differed before versus after SB 1070’s enactment. Results. Adolescents reported declines in use of public assistance and were less likely to take their baby to the doctor; compared with older adolescents, younger adolescents were less likely to use preventive health care after SB 1070. Mother figures were less likely to use public assistance after SB 1070 if they were born in the United States and if their post–SB 1070 interview was closer to the law’s enactment. Conclusions. Findings suggest that immigration policies such as SB 1070 may contribute to decreases in use of preventive health care and public assistance among high-risk populations. PMID:24354823
Chou, Yueh-Ching; Lu, Zxy-Yann Jane
The concerns of mothers and their experiences while providing help to their daughters with intellectual disability (ID) and considerable support needs during menstruation have rarely been addressed. This qualitative study explored mothers' experiences and perceptions of managing their daughters' menstruation. Twelve Taiwanese mothers of 13 daughters with ID (1 mother had twins) were interviewed to explore their experiences of providing help to their daughters with high support needs during menstruation. Support networks were limited and mothers developed their own strategies for managing their daughter's menstruation. Surgical hysterectomy or use of medication to cease or postpone menstrual bleeding was never considered by the mothers. The financial cost of menstrual pads and nappies was significant. Both an appropriate allowance for families involved in the menstrual care of women with ID and access to appropriate support are needed. More information and educational programs need to be provided to relevant professionals and carers.
Hazen, Nancy L; Allen, Sydnye D; Christopher, Caroline Heaton; Umemura, Tomotaka; Jacobvitz, Deborah B
We examined whether a maximum threshold of time spent in nonmaternal care exists, beyond which infants have an increased risk of forming a disorganized infant-mother attachment. The hours per week infants spent in nonmaternal care at 7-8 months were examined as a continuous measure and as a dichotomous threshold (over 40, 50 and 60 hr/week) to predict infant disorganization at 12-15 months. Two different samples (Austin and NICHD) were used to replicate findings and control for critical covariates: mothers' unresolved status and frightening behavior (assessed in the Austin sample, N = 125), quality of nonmaternal caregiving (assessed in the NICHD sample, N = 1,135), and family income and infant temperament (assessed in both samples). Only very extensive hours of nonmaternal care (over 60 hr/week) and mothers' frightening behavior independently predicted attachment disorganization. A polynomial logistic regression performed on the larger NICHD sample indicated that the risk of disorganized attachment exponentially increased after exceeding 60 hr/week. In addition, very extensive hours of nonmaternal care only predicted attachment disorganization after age 6 months (not prior). Findings suggest that during a sensitive period of attachment formation, infants who spend more than 60 hr/week in nonmaternal care may be at an increased risk of forming a disorganized attachment.
Alarcón-Muñoz, Ana Maria; Vidal-Herrera, Aldo Conrado
To explore the cultural dimensions of the childhood primary health care delivery process from the mothers' perceptions in the Araucania region of Chile. Qualitative study performed in the year 2003 within the zone with the highest ethnicity rate of the country. Ninety four Mapuche and non-Mapuche mothers agreed to be in depth interviewed. The analysis drew three cultural dimensions: a) Explanatory models of disease were associated with cultural, political-economy, and environmental factors; b) The therapeutic itinerary blends indigenous, popular, and biomedical resources and; c) Health care delivery process lacks of cultural competence. The mothers explain their children diseases articulating religious, magic, and natural (hot, cold, humidity) causes. The main challenge of the primary healthcare delivery process is to overcome the communicational barriers due to the social and linguistic differences between mothers and health care providers.
Ho, K W; Krebs, G L; McCafferty, P; van Wyngaarden, S P; Addison, J
Disagreement exists within the scientific community with regards to the level of competition for feed between sheep and kangaroos in the Australian rangelands. The greatest challenge to solving this debate is finding effective means of determining the composition of the diets of these potential grazing competitors. An option is to adopt a non-invasive approach that combines faecal collection and molecular techniques that focus on faecal DNA as the primary source of dietary information. As proof-of-concept, we show that a DNA reference data bank on plant species can be established. This DNA reference data bank was then used as a library to identify plant species in kangaroo faeces collected in the southern rangelands of Western Australia. To enhance the method development and to begin the investigation of competitive grazing between sheep and kangaroos, 16 plant species known to be palatable to sheep were initially targeted for collection. To ensure that only plant sequences were studied, PCR amplification was performed using a universal primer pair previously shown to be specific to the chloroplast transfer RNA leucine (trnL) UAA gene intron. Overall, genus-specific, single and differently sized amplicons were reliably and reproducibly generated; enabling the differentiation of reference plants by PCR product length heterogeneity. However, there were a few plants that could not be clearly differentiated on the basis of size alone. This prompted the adoption of a post-PCR step that enabled further differentiation according to base sequence variation. Restriction endonucleases make sequence-specific cleavages on DNA to produce discrete and reproducible fragments having unique sizes and base compositions. Their availability, affordability and simplicity-of-use put restriction enzyme sequence (RES) profiling as a logical post-PCR step for confirming plant species identity. We demonstrate that PCR-RES profiling of plant and faecal matter is useful for the identification
Chiao, Chi; Chyu, Laura; Ksobiech, Kate
Although a large body of literature exists on how different types of child care arrangements affect a child's subsequent health and sociocognitive development, little is known about the relationship between birth health and subsequent decisions regarding type of nonparental child care as well as how this relationship might be influenced by maternal employment. This study used data from the Los Angeles Families and Neighborhoods Survey (L.A.FANS). Mothers of 864 children (ages 0-5) provided information regarding birth weight, maternal evaluation of a child's birth health, child's current health, maternal employment, type of child care arrangement chosen, and a variety of socioeconomic variables. Child care options included parental care, relative care, nonrelative care, and daycare center. Multivariate analyses found that birth weight and subjective rating of birth health had similar effects on child care arrangement. After controlling for a child's age and current health condition, multinomial logit analyses found that mothers with children with poorer birth health are more likely to use nonrelative and daycare centers than parental care when compared to mothers with children with better birth health. The magnitude of these relationships diminished when adjusting for maternal employment. Working mothers were significantly more likely to use nonparental child care than nonemployed mothers. Results suggest that a child's health early in life is significantly but indirectly related to subsequent decisions regarding child care arrangements, and this association is influenced by maternal employment. Development of social policy aimed at improving child care service should take maternal and family backgrounds into consideration.
Wang, Hee Jung; Kim, Il Ok
This study was conducted to develop a mobile web-based pregnancy health care educational program for mothers who were at an advanced maternal age (AMA) and to verify the effects of the program on pregnancy health care. This program was developed using a web-based teaching-learning system design model and composed of 10 subject areas. This research was a quasi-experimental study using a non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest time serial design and data were collected from April 2 to May 3, 2014. To verify the effects of the program, it was used for 2 weeks with 30 AMA mothers (experimental group). For the control group, a classroom education booklet for pregnant women used with 31 AMA mothers. The experimental group having participated in program had statistically significantly higher scores for knowledge (t=3.76, p<.001), self-efficacy (t=8.54, p<.001), and practice behavior (t=4.88, p<.001) of pregnancy health care, compared to the control group. The results of the program indicate that a Mobile web-based pregnancy health care educational program is effective in meeting the needs of AMA mothers and can be used as the prenatal educational program for AMA mothers and is appropriate as an educational media for theses mothers.
R. L. Schooley; B. T. Bestelmeyer; J. F. Kelly
Banner-tailed kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spectabilis) are prominent ecosystem engineers that build large mounds that influence the spatial structuring of fungi, plants, and some ground-dwelling animals. Ants are diverse and functionally important components of arid ecosystems; some species are also ecosystem engineers. We investigated the effects of...
As family-centered care has become the expected standard, many facilities follow the mother-baby model, in which care is provided to both a woman and her newborn in the same room by the same nurse. My facility employed a traditional model of nursing care, which was not evidence-based or financially sustainable. After implementing the mother-baby model, we experienced an increase in exclusive breastfeeding rates at hospital discharge, increased patient satisfaction, improved staff productivity and decreased salary costs, all while the number of births increased. Our change was successful because it was guided by the use of quality improvement tools, change theory and evidence-based practice models. © 2015 AWHONN.
Paul, Manabi; Sen Majumder, Sreejani; Bhadra, Anindita
Parent-offspring conflict (POC) theory is an interesting conceptual framework for understanding the dynamics of parental care. However, this theory is not easy to test empirically, as exact measures of parental investment in an experimental set-up are difficult to obtain. We have used free-ranging dogs Canis familiaris in India, to study POC in the context of extended parental care. We observed females and their pups in their natural habitat for the mother's tendency to share food given by humans with her pups in the weaning and post-weaning stages. Since these dogs are scavengers, and depend largely on human provided food for their sustenance, voluntary sharing of food by the mother with her pups is a good surrogate for extended parental care. Our behavioural observations convincingly demonstrate an increase of conflict and decrease of cooperation by the mother with her offspring over given food within a span of 4-6 weeks. We also demonstrate that the competition among the pups in a litter scales with litter size, an indicator of sib-sib competition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jeet, Gursimer; Sharma, Atul; Mohanta, Tulika Goswami; Trakroo, Ajay
Establishment of special care new-born units (SCNU) in hospitals not only serves to provide the intensive care to sick neonates, but presents with opportunities to enhance knowledge and modify attitude and practices of their parents through behavior change communication (BCC). A cross-sectional study was conducted in Dibrugarh District, Assam from January to June, 2011 to assess differences in health-care seeking behavior of these mothers from mothers of newborns who were born at home and mothers who had normal uneventful institutional deliveries. Mothers of 29 SCNU discharged, 34 institutions delivered and 26 home delivered children were interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule and a knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) survey tool. Mothers of children admitted to SCNU scored better in questions related to vaccination, contraception, protection of child from infections and cold and perceptions about traditional healers, but overall KAP scores in the three groups were not found significantly different.
Wall-Wieler, Elizabeth; Roos, Leslie L; Brownell, Marni; Nickel, Nathan; Chateau, Dan; Singal, Deepa
The objective of this study is to examine suicide attempts and completions among mothers who had a child taken into care by child protection services (CPS). These mothers were compared with their biological sisters who did not have a child taken into care and with mothers who received services from CPS but did not have a child taken into care. A retrospective cohort of mothers whose first child was born in Manitoba, Canada, between April 1, 1992, and March 31, 2015, is used. Rates among discordant biological sisters (1872 families) were compared using fixed-effects Poisson regression models, and mothers involved with CPS (children in care [ n = 1872] and received services [ n = 9590]) were compared using a Poisson regression model. Compared with their biological sisters and mothers who received services, the adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) of death by suicide was greater among mothers whose child was taken into care by CPS (aIRR = 4.46 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.39-14.33] and ARR = 3.45 [95% CI, 1.61-7.40], respectively). Incidence rates of suicide attempts were higher among mothers with a child taken into care compared with their sisters (aIRR = 2.15; 95% CI, 1.40-3.30) and mothers receiving services (aIRR = 2.82; 95% CI, 2.03-3.92). Mothers who had a child taken into care had significantly higher rates of suicide attempts and completions. When children are taken into care, physician and social workers should inquire about maternal suicidal behaviour and provide appropriate mental health.
Patra, Shraboni; Perianayagam, Arokiasamy; Goli, Srinivas
Purpose: The level of mother's health knowledge influences not only her health, but also significantly predicts her children's health and medical care, and spending on medical care. This relationship has not yet been empirically assessed in India. The purpose of this paper is to measure the level of health knowledge of mothers in India and its…
Nomaguchi, Kei M.
This study examines the relationships between maternal employment, nonparental care, mother-child interactions, and preschoolers' outcomes. Data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (N = 1,248) show that maternal employment during the previous year, especially full-time employment, was related to care by…
Vaughn, B E; Gove, F L; Egeland, B
The effects of routine daily separations occasioned by out-of-home care on the formation and maintenance of infant-mother attachment relationships were examined in a population of economically disadvantaged mothers. 3 groups were constituted on the basis of the time in the infant's life when out-of-home care began: (1) before 12 months; (2) between 12 and 18 months; (3) home-care controls. The infant-mother pairs were observed in the Ainsworth strange situation at both 12 and 18 months, and were classified as secure, anxious-avoidant, or anxious-resistant. Because previous research has implicated the psychological accessibility of the mother to the infant in the development of anxious-avoidant attachments during the first year of life, the hypothesis that physical inaccessibility due to out-of-home care would also be associated with anxious-avoidant attachments was tested. The data support this hypothesis. At 12 months 47% of the infants whose mothers had returned to work/school were classified in the anxious-avoidant group, while the other 2 groups did not differ significantly in the proportions of infants assigned to the 3 attachment classifications. At 18 months, differences among the 3 work status groups also showed a large portion of anxious-avoidant infants (41%) in this early working group. However, infants whose out-of-home care began after 12 months did not show an increase in the proportion of anxious attachments. Additional analyses of variables related to mother's return to work indicated that single mothers were more likely to return to work/school, that mothers who worked reported higher levels of life stress than mothers who stayed home with the infants, and that, by 18 months, both anxious-avoidant and anxious-resistant attachments were also associated with non-intact families.
Chou, Yueh-Ching; Fu, Li-Yeh; Pu, Cheng-Yun; Chang, Heng-Hao
Background: Whether employed and nonemployed mothers of children with intellectual disability (ID) have different experiences with reconciliation between care and work has rarely been explored. Method: A survey was conducted in a county in Taiwan and 487 mothers aged younger than 65 and having a child with ID were interviewed face to face at their…
Dawson, Terence J; Mifsud, Brock; Raad, Matthew C; Webster, Koa N
Marsupials and placentals together comprise the Theria, the advanced mammals, but they have had long independent evolutionary histories, with the last common ancestor occurring more than 125 million years ago. Although in the past the marsupials were considered to be metabolically 'primitive', the red kangaroo Macropus rufus has been reported to have an aerobic capacity (VO2max) comparable to that of the most 'athletic' of placentals such as dogs. However, kangaroos travel at moderate speeds with lower relative cost than quadrupedal placentals. Given the long independent evolution of the two therian groups, and their unusual locomotor energetics, do kangaroos achieve their high aerobic capacity using the same structural and functional mechanisms used by (athletic) placentals? Red kangaroo skeletal muscle morphometry matched closely the general aerobic characteristics of placental mammals. The relationship between total mitochondrial volume in skeletal muscle and VO2max during exercise was identical to that in quadrupedal placentals, and differed from that in bipedal humans. As for placentals generally, red kangaroo mitochondrial oxygen consumption at VO2max was 4.7 ml O2 min(-1) ml(-1) of mitochondria. Also, the inner mitochondrial membrane densities were 35.8 +/- 0.7 m2 ml(-1) of mitochondria, which is the same as for placental mammals, and the same pattern of similarity was seen for capillary densities and volumes. The overall data for kangaroos was equivalent to that seen in athletic placentals such as dogs and pronghorns. Total skeletal muscle mass was high, being around 50% of body mass, and was concentrated around the pelvis and lower back. The majority of the muscles sampled had relatively high mitochondrial volume densities, in the range 8.8-10.6% in the major locomotor muscles. Again, capillary densities and capillary blood volumes followed the pattern seen for mitochondria. Our results indicate that the red kangaroo, despite its locomotion and extreme
Mendias, Elnora P; Clark, Michele C; Guevara, Edilma B; Svrcek, Claire Y
Health promotion activities may decrease preventable diseases and health system overuse. This study examined how low-income Euro-American mothers described their health/wellness, self-care practices (SCP), and SCP benefits, barriers, and interpersonal influences (norms, modeling, and social support) affecting their SCP. This descriptive qualitative study used a convenience sample of 10 low-income, English-speaking mothers, 25-43 years old, seeking women's/children's health services at a large urban Texas health clinic. Data were collected via face-to-face interviews, using a standardized semistructured interview guide; data were analyzed using Miles and Huberman's qualitative research methods. All participants primarily described themselves positively and as mothers and workers. Most viewed health and wellness as distinct but typically included physical and emotional well-being. Mothers valued health and SCP for personal and family reasons. All identified SCP benefits. Most identified SCP barriers. Women viewed themselves as vital to family function and well-being, learned SCP primarily from parents during childhood, and described limited support for SCP. The results provide a better understanding of participants' self-care decision making and are useful in designing appropriate clinical health promotions. Reducing health inequities in low-income women requires further study of the underlying causes and development of effective policies and measures to address them. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Danilack, Valery A; Muri, Janet H; Savitz, David A; Caldwell, Donna L; Wood, Carolyn L
Relatively healthy newborns of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) sometimes receive unwarranted surveillance. We studied the relationship between hospital characteristics and special care nursery use and total length of stay among GDM deliveries. We identified GDM deliveries at 44 USA member hospitals of the National Perinatal Information Center from 2007 to 2011. To study low risk, relatively healthy newborns with presumed discretion in special care nursery use, we analyzed 43 444 singleton newborns with only minor or moderate complications and WHO were not preterm or low birthweight. Among eligible newborns, 6% received special care, but this ranged from 1% to 16% across 44 hospitals studied. Unadjusted associations suggested special care nursery use was highest in academic teaching hospitals, the Midwest, hospitals with ≥40% Medicaid births, and hospitals with a high supply of special care nursery beds. However, after controlling for clustering within hospitals, there were no significant associations between hospital characteristics and special care nursery use or length of stay. Hospital-level variation in special care nursery use and length of stay of relatively healthy newborns of mothers with GDM is unexplained by hospital characteristics and suggests other operational or management factors impacting utilization of newborn care resources.
Friedman, Susan Hatters; Heneghan, Amy; Rosenthal, Miriam
Objective: This study assessed infant disposition and health outcomes among offspring born to mothers without prenatal care, based on maternal characteristics and the reason for lack of prenatal care (i.e., denial of pregnancy, concealment of pregnancy, primary substance use, financial barriers and multiparity). Methods: A retrospective record…
Chou, Yueh-Ching; Fu, Li-yeh; Chang, Heng-Hao
Background: This study explored the experiences of working mothers with an adult child with intellectual disabilities to understand how they reconcile paid work and care responsibilities. Methods: Fifteen working mothers in Taiwan with an adult child with intellectual disabilities were interviewed, and an interpretative phenomenological approach…
Dorwie, Florence M; Pacquiao, Dula F
Describe practices of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in assisting women in childbirth and the perceptions of TBAs by mothers and health professionals familiar with their work. Qualitative design using focus groups conducted in urban and rural settings in Sierra Leone. Separate audiotaped focus groups conducted for each group of participants lasting between 45 and 90 minutes. Purposive sample of 20 TBAs, 20 mothers, and 10 health professionals who met the following criteria: (a) at least 18 years of age, (b) TBAs currently practicing, (c) mothers who delivered at least one child assisted by a TBA, and (d) health professionals currently practicing in the hospital and familiar with TBA practices. TBAs are valued by mothers, health professionals, and the community because they provide accessible and affordable care to mothers who may otherwise have no access to health services. TBAs need training, supervision, and resources for effective referral of mothers. Systemic problems in the health care system create enormous barriers to effective care for mothers and children independent of TBA practices that contribute to high maternal and infant mortality rates. The study findings have implications on broad public policy in improving maternal and child health in the country.
Background Postnatal care is essential to save the life of the mother and newborn. Knowledge on the determinants of postnatal care assists the policy makers to design, justify and implement appropriate interventions. The current study aimed to analyse the factors associated with utilisation of postnatal care services by mothers in Nepal based on the data from Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) 2011. Methods This study utilised the data from NDHS 2011. The association between utilisation of at least one postnatal care visit (within 6 weeks of delivery) and immediate postnatal care (within 24 hours of delivery) with selected factors was examined by using Chi-square test (χ2), followed by multiple logistic regression. Result Of the 4079 mothers, 43.2% reported attending postnatal care within the first six weeks of birth, while 40.9% reported attending immediate postnatal care. Mothers who were from urban areas, from rich families, who were educated, whose partners were educated, who delivered in a health facility, who had attended a four or more antenatal visits, and whose delivery was attended by a skilled attendant were more likely to report attending at least one postnatal care visit. On the other hand, mothers who reported agricultural occupation, and whose partners performed agricultural occupation were less likely to have attended at least one postnatal care visit. Similarly, mothers who were from the urban areas, from rich families, who were educated, whose partners were educated, who had attended four or more antenatal visits, who delivered in a health facility and had delivered in the presence of a skilled birth attendant were more likely to report attending immediate postnatal care. Mothers who reported agricultural occupation, and whose partners performed agricultural occupation were less likely to attend immediate postnatal care. Conclusion The majority of postnatal mothers in Nepal did not seek postnatal care. Increasing utilisation of the
Huang, Shan; Li, Mu
Globally, the World Health Organization reports that the chances of a child dying is highest in the first month of life, the neonatal period. The neonatal mortality rate in Cambodia is 18 per 1000 live births. In the province of Kampong Chhnang, that rate is the fifth highest among the 24 provinces of Cambodia at 27 per 1000 live births. We piloted a project to determine the feasibility of using a mHealth intervention (the use of mobile devices to improve health outcomes) to increase mothers' awareness about neonatal care and promote the government policy 'Safe Motherhood Protocols for Health Centres' which are in line with WHO recommendations for neonatal care. Between September and December 2013, we piloted an Interactive Voice Response system that sent pre-recorded messages to mothers of newborns using the theme 'It takes a village to raise a baby'. Four hundred fifty-five mothers were registered onto this program and the intervention involved delivering seven periodic 60 to 90 s voice messages directly to the mobile phones of these mothers from day three of their neonate's life to day 28. An evaluation of the pilot was conducted in December 2013. One hundred twenty-nine mothers were randomly selected from the 455 registered mothers and interviewed using a quantitative questionnaire. We also held two focus group discussions with three mothers and seven health workers. Quantitative and qualitative results of 126 respondents were included for analysis. They indicate that the intervention was well accepted. Seventy-one percent of respondents reported that they would recommend the intervention to other mothers, and 83% reported that they would be willing to pay for the service. This type of mHealth intervention is an acceptable and feasible way of promoting the awareness of newborn care to rural Cambodian mothers.
In spring and summer of 1991, five focus groups gathered information on the child care choices of welfare mothers and helped organizations participating in the Expanded Child Care Options Demonstration program develop a child care supply that met parents' needs. Three of the focus groups were made up of African-American women, with one of the…
Banta, Marilyn R; Holcombe, Dale W
Desert-dwelling mammals such as Merriam's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys merriani) need to conserve both energy and water to survive desert conditions characterized by aridity and low productivity. The thyroid hormone thyroxine increases both basal metabolic rate and urinary water loss in mammals. Increases in basal metabolism and urinary water loss are likely to be detrimental to D. merriami, therefore the regulation of this hormone may be important. To examine the effects of thyroxine in this species, we implanted adult kangaroo rats with pellets designed to release specific doses of thyroxine at a constant rate for 90 days or a placebo pellet. We measured plasma thyroxine concentration, basal metabolic rate, food consumption, urine concentration and water loss in all implanted animals. Thyroxine implants significantly increased both plasma thyroxine and basal metabolic rate in a relatively dose-dependent manner. In response to thyroxine. kangaroo rats increased food consumption only slightly, but this small increase was sufficient to compensate for their elevated metabolic rates. Neither urine concentration nor water loss varied among treatment groups. Thyroxine increased energy expenditure but not water loss in this species.
Enskär, Karin; Hamrin, Elisabeth; Carlsson, Marianne; von Essen, Louise
The overall aim was to describe and compare well-being, social life, and quality care among parents of children with cancer with respect to mothers versus fathers and whether the children were on versus. off treatment. The Life Situation Scale for Parents (LSS-P) was answered by 320 parents, comprising 85 mothers and 71 fathers of children on treatment, and 93 mothers and 71 fathers of children off treatment. The results show that the well-being of parents of children with cancer is affected by their child's situation, and that they experience such things as economic strain and a sense of being dependent on the care provided, especially during the child's treatment phase. Mothers whose children are receiving treatment see their life situation as less satisfying, and report being sadder and having lower self-esteem.
Sato, Naho; Araki, Akiko; Ito, Ryuko; Ishigaki, Kazuko
The purpose of this study was to describe the beliefs of Japanese mothers caring for a child with disabilities to advance knowledge about beliefs of Japanese families experiencing illness. A semistructured interview was conducted with eight mothers who had a child with disabilities (physical, intellectual, and/or developmental). The interview invited their reflections about "mutual thoughts of family members" and family relationships in the context of daily life of caring for a child with disabilities. Data were qualitatively analyzed inductively and deductively and compared with the Common Tentative Framework of Japanese Family Beliefs developed from previous research. The analyses highlighted new understandings of the influence of Japanese cultural and societal beliefs on the family's experience of having a child with disabilities. Clinical implications are discussed and directions for future research suggested. © The Author(s) 2015.
Welsh, C; Ludwig-Beymer, P
Hospital discharge on the day after an uncomplicated vaginal delivery may be appropriate if clinical criteria are used for the selection of patients and post-discharge follow-up plans are in place. To ensure safety for these patients, Advocate Health Care developed a mother/baby philosophy statement, guidelines for maternal and infant discharge in less than 48 hours, and an algorithm to assure that appropriate follow-up care takes place after discharge. To evaluate the Mother/Baby Home Transition Program, home health follow up, readmission rates, and sentinel events were tracked. Most home health visits occurred within 48 hours. Infant readmission rates ranged from 1.1-2.6%, whereas maternal readmission rates ranged from 0-0.52%. Three sentinel events in 1996 and three in 1997 required readmissions to an ICU. Data continue to be monitored and shared monthly with clinical leaders.
Buehler, Cheryl; O'Brien, Marion
The associations between mothers' part-time employment and mother well-being, parenting, and family functioning were examined using seven waves of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development data (N = 1,364), infancy through middle childhood. Concurrent comparisons were made between families in which mothers were employed part time and both those in which mothers were not employed and those in which mothers were employed full time. Using multivariate analysis of covariance with extensive controls, results indicated that mothers employed part time had fewer depressive symptoms during the infancy and preschool years and better self-reported health at most time points than did nonemployed mothers. Across the time span studied, mothers working part time tended to report less conflict between work and family than those working full time. During their children's preschool years, mothers employed part time exhibited more sensitive parenting than did other mothers, and at school age were more involved in school and provided more learning opportunities than mothers employed full time. Mothers employed part time reported doing a higher proportion of child care and housework than mothers employed full time. Part-time employment appears to have some benefits for mothers and families throughout the child rearing years.
Pintanel, Aline Campelo; Gomes, Giovana Calcagno; Xavier, Daiani Modernel
This study aimed to identify the difficult and easy aspects faced by mothers of visually impaired (VI) children in their care. It is a descriptive qualitative study, developed in the second semester of 2011, with ten mothers of children with visual impairment from an Educational Center for the Visually Impaired located in southern Brazil. Data were collected by means of semistructured interviews and submitted to thematic content analysis. The identified difficulties were the lack of knowledge regarding the disease and how to take care of the child, the lack of access to health services, overload generated by the dependence of the child and lack of support and prejudice within their own family. The easy aspects involved the desire for the child's healthy development the chance of being in touch with qualified professionals for their education, and the contact with other VI children. Therefore, it is important to qualify the family for the care of VI children so as to ensure the development of skills and competencies enabling them to live with quality.
Zandi, Mitra; Vanaki, Zohreh; Shiva, Marziyeh; Mohammadi, Eesa; Bagheri-Lankarani, Narges
Despite the increasing use of surrogacy, there are no caring theories/models that serve as the basis for nursing care to surrogacy commissioning mothers. This study has designed a model for caring of surrogacy commissioning mothers in 2013. The theory synthesis of Walker and Avant's strategies of theory construction (2011) was used to design a caring model/theory. The theory synthesis includes three stages: (i) selection of focal concept (the concept of "security giving in motherhood" was selected); (ii) review of studies in order to identify factors related to focal concept relevant studies (42 articles and 13 books) were reviewed, statements and concepts related to focal concept were then extracted and classified, and their relations were specified; and (iii) organization of concepts and statements within a relevant general and effective manifestation of the phenomenon under study which led to developing of a model. In this caring model/theory, entitled "security giving in surrogacy motherhood", nurses roles were conceptualized within the conceptual framework that includes three main roles: (i) coordination; (ii) participation; and (iii) security giving (physical, emotional, and legal support; empowerment; presence; relationship management between both parties and advocacy). Training surrogacy specialist nurses and establishment of surrogacy care centers are important factors for implementation of the model. This model could help to provided better caring for surrogacy clients, especially for commissioning mothers. © 2016 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.
Li, S A; Jack, S M; Gonzalez, A; Duku, E; MacMillan, H L
Little is known about health care and social service professionals' perspective on the acceptability of long-term home-visit programs serving low-income, first-time mothers. This study describes the experiences and perspectives of these community care providers involved with program referrals or service delivery to mothers who participated in the Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP), a targeted nurse home-visit program. The study included two phases. Phase I was a secondary qualitative data analysis used to analyze a purposeful sample of 24 individual interviews of community care providers. This was part of a larger case study examining adaptations required to increase acceptability of the NFP in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. In Phase II (n = 4), themes identified from Phase I were further explored through individual, semi-structured interviews with community health care and social service providers, giving qualitative description. Overall, the NFP was viewed as addressing an important service gap for first-time mothers. Providers suggested that frequent communication between the NFP and community agencies serving these mothers could help improve the referral process, avoid service duplication, and streamline the flow of service access. The findings can help determine key components required to enhance the success of integrating a home-visit program into an existing network of community services. The function of home-visit programs should not be viewed in isolation. Rather, their potential can be maximized when they collaborate and share information with other agencies to provide better services for first-time mothers.
Peay, Holly L; Meiser, Bettina; Kinnett, Kathleen; Tibben, Aad
Care guidelines for Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (DBMD) include recommendations for assessment of caregivers of patients with DBMD followed by proactive psychosocial interventions. To inform clinical assessment, this study described appraisals of psychosocial needs and caregiving facilitators of mothers of individuals with DBMD. Two hundred and five mothers completed an online survey. More than 50% endorsed unmet needs for managing uncertainty about the future and managing DBMD fears. Higher levels of unmet need were associated with less disease progression/earlier stage of DBMD (rho = -0.166 p = 0.02). Twenty-one percent regularly used respite care and 57% worried about allowing others to care for their child. Highly-endorsed care facilitators included partner relationships (63%), child's approach to life (59%), and family relationships (49%). Our findings highlight the importance of psychological and social support for caregivers. Starting when children are young, clinicians should assess caregivers' unmet psychological needs, particularly uncertainty and fear. Exploring needs and facilitators may allow clinics to target and customize interventions that build upon existing strengths and supports. Our findings have implications for efforts to promote early diagnosis and newborn screening, in that increased needs in mothers of younger children should be anticipated and built into counseling. Further research can assess whether and how unmet needs change as new therapies become available.
Moore, Elizabeth R; Anderson, Gene C; Bergman, Nils; Dowswell, Therese
Mother-infant separation postbirth is common in Western culture. Early skin-to-skin contact (SSC) begins ideally at birth and involves placing the naked baby, head covered with a dry cap and a warm blanket across the back, prone on the mother's bare chest. According to mammalian neuroscience, the intimate contact inherent in this place (habitat) evokes neurobehaviors ensuring fulfillment of basic biological needs. This time may represent a psychophysiologically 'sensitive period' for programming future physiology and behavior. To assess the effects of early SSC on breastfeeding, physiological adaptation, and behavior in healthy mother-newborn dyads. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 November 2011), made personal contact with trialists, and consulted the bibliography on kangaroo mother care (KMC) maintained by Dr. Susan Ludington. Randomized controlled trials comparing early SSC with usual hospital care. We independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information. Thirty-four randomized controlled trials were included involving 2177 participants (mother-infant dyads). Data from more than two trials were available for only eight outcome measures. For primary outcomes, we found a statistically significant positive effect of early SSC on breastfeeding at one to four months postbirth (13 trials; 702 participants) (risk ratio (RR) 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06 to 1.53, and SSC increased breastfeeding duration (seven trials; 324 participants) (mean difference (MD) 42.55 days, 95% CI -1.69 to 86.79) but the results did not quite reach statistical significance (P = 0.06). Late preterm infants had better cardio-respiratory stability with early SSC (one trial; 31 participants) (MD 2.88, 95% CI 0.53 to 5.23). Blood glucose 75 to 90 minutes following the birth was significantly higher in SSC infants (two trials, 94 infants) (MD 10.56 mg/dL, 95% CI 8.40 to 12.72).The
Staehelin, Katharina; Kurth, Elisabeth; Schindler, Christian; Schmid, Monika; Zemp Stutz, Elisabeth
The prevalence of early postpartum mental health conditions is high. Midwives and other health professionals visiting women at home may identify mothers at risk. This seems crucial given decreasing trends of length of hospital stay after childbirth. This study aimed to identify predictors of maternal mental distress in a midwifery home care setting. Using the statistical database of independent midwives' services in Switzerland in 2007, we conducted a matched nested case-control study. Out of a source population of 34,295 mothers with midwifery home care in the first ten days after childbirth, 935 mothers with maternal distress and 3,645 controls, matched by midwife, were included. We analysed whether socio-demographic, maternal and neonatal factors predict maternal mental distress by multivariable conditional logistic regression analysis. Infant crying problems and not living with a partner were the strongest predictors for maternal distress, whereas higher parity was the most protective factor. Significantly elevated risks were also found for older age, lower educational levels, breast/breastfeeding problems, infant weight gain concerns, neonatal pathologies and use of midwifery care during pregnancy. A lower likelihood for maternal distress was seen for non-Swiss nationality, full-time employment before birth, intention to return to work after birth and midwife-led birth. The study informs on predictors of maternal mental distress identified in a home care setting in the early postpartum period. Midwives and other health care professionals should pay particular attention to mothers of excessively crying infants, single mothers and primipara, and assess the need for support of these mothers.
Lauder, Bonnie; Sinclair, Peter M; Maguire, Jane
This study aimed to identify and describe the experience of parents of children diagnosed with early onset scoliosis living in Australia. Chronic childhood disease has a major impact on health-related quality of life. Caring for a child with a chronic illness is well documented but the specific experiences of parents who care for children with early onset scoliosis, a rare but devastating illness, has not been explored. Numerous studies have described the interrelated psychological, financial, social, physical and logistical factors that impact the experience of the caregiver role with various diseases, but in the case of early onset scoliosis, limited studies have been conducted about the parental experience. A qualitative descriptive design was used. A snowball sampling technique assisted in the recruitment. Parents invited to the study included mothers, fathers and guardians. Data were collected through semistructured interviews and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed thematically. Data collection complied with the Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research guidelines. Twelve mothers of children with early onset scoliosis were interviewed, as only mothers consented to participate. Four major themes emerged: emotional rollercoaster ride, a lack of resources, money talks and pervasive burden. Factors that impacted on the participants' ability to confront, manage and endure caring for a child with early onset scoliosis emerged from the data. The findings suggest there are multiple factors that influence the experience of mothers' caring for a child with early onset scoliosis. The recognition and appropriate management of these factors by healthcare professionals have the potential to improve the quality of life of parents who care for a child with early onset scoliosis. Healthcare professionals have first-line contact with parents of children with early onset scoliosis and are well placed to provide parents with evidence-based education
Fairthorne, Jenny; de Klerk, Nick; Leonard, Helen
Compared to other mothers, mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or intellectual disability (ID) have higher rates of treatment episodes for psychiatric disorders. We aimed to estimate the maternal burden of care by comparing the length of hospitalisations for psychiatric disorders and the treatment rates for psychiatric…
Schiff, Davida M; Zuckerman, Barry; Wachman, Elisha M; Bair-Merritt, Megan
As rates of substance use disorder during pregnancy rise, pediatric trainees are increasingly caring for infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). This study evaluated the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of trainees caring for substance-exposed newborns and their families, comparing differences by level and type of training, and personal experience with addiction or trauma. A cross-sectional survey of medical students and pediatric, medicine/pediatric, and family medicine residents in 2015-2106. Measures included knowledge about NAS, attitudes towards mothers who use drugs, and practices around discussing addiction and trauma with families. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were conducted. The overall response rate was 70%, with 229 trainees included in the final sample (99 students, 130 residents). Fifty percent of trainees endorsed personal experience with addiction, 50% with trauma, and 35% with both addiction and trauma. Increasing years of pediatric training was associated with greater comfort in managing symptoms of NAS but decreased comfort discussing addiction and trauma. Family medicine and medicine/pediatric residents were more comfortable discussing addiction and trauma than categorical pediatric residents (P < .01). Twenty-two percent of trainees felt confident that mothers would disclose illicit drug use, 39% felt that they would actively care for their infants with NAS, and 43% felt that mothers would not make unreasonable demands. Personal experience with addiction or trauma did not significantly impact trainees' attitudes towards women with substance use disorder. Trainees may benefit from educational interventions focused on developing a 2-generational model of trauma-informed care to improve attitudes and ultimately the care of substance-exposed infants and their families.
Darmstadt, Gary L; Munar, Wolfgang; Henry, Sarah K
Despite advances in issue-attention and in evidence of what works to save newborn lives (e.g., kangaroo mother care, antenatal corticosteroids, immediate and exclusive breastfeeding), we are still falling short on impact. To advance the unfinished newborn survival agenda, newborns must become an integral priority in developing countries where the burden of neonatal mortality is highest. Interventions must be adapted to local contexts and cultures and integrated into packages along the continuum of care delivered through the primary health-care systems that countries have at their disposal.
Muzik, Maria; Ads, Menatalla; Bonham, Caroline; Lisa Rosenblum, Katherine; Broderick, Amanda; Kirk, Rosalind
Women who experienced abuse or neglect as children are more likely to have health problems during pregnancy and postpartum, but can be reluctant to seek help due to a lack of trauma-informed services. As part of a larger mixed method study, this component aimed to obtain qualitative data from trauma-exposed new mothers about their health care preferences during the perinatal period with the ultimate goal to design personalized, supportive interventions. Fifty-two trauma-exposed mothers completed a semi-structured interview at seven months postpartum about health care preferences including ideas for programs that promote wellness, thoughts about the influences of being a new mother and possible names for a program serving trauma-exposed mothers. Interviews were transcribed and coded using N-Vivo. Participants described ambivalence about seeking help but also a sincere desire for healing, coupled with hope for the future. This tension was apparent in the discussions highlighting the importance of access to experienced, nonjudgmental, and knowledgeable health and social care staff and volunteers, the wish for both formal, integrated physical and mental health services, and for informal opportunities to meet other trauma-exposed mothers in a non-stigmatizing, child-friendly setting. Finally, positive relationship-building, respect, and safety were identified as key elements of services critical to counteract trauma-related shame and mistrust in others. Services for trauma-exposed mothers should acknowledge the normal ambivalence surrounding seeking help, but promote hope-affirming practices in a family-centered, safe, non-clinical setting that involves children, builds social support, and provides peer interaction. Program names should reflect optimism and healing rather than trauma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Smith, Diane L.; Iezzoni, Lisa I.
OBJECTIVE. This study describes how women with physical disability experience caregiving for a new infant and how they adapt their home environment and care tasks. METHOD. In 2013, we conducted 2-hr telephone interviews with 22 women with significant physical disability who had delivered babies within the previous 10 yr. The semistructured, open-ended interview protocol addressed wide-ranging pregnancy-related topics. NVivo was used to sort the texts for content analysis. RESULTS. Night care, bathing, and carrying the baby were identified as the biggest challenges. Typical adaptations (with and without occupational therapy consultation) included use of a wrap for carrying the infant, furniture adaptations for mothers using wheelchairs, and assistance from caregivers. CONCLUSION. Women with physical disability can be fully capable of caring for an infant and can find ways to adapt their environment. Further research may determine the role of occupation therapy. PMID:27767945
Campbell-Grossman, Christie; Hudson, Diane Brage; Keating-Lefler, Rebecca; Yank, Jodell R; Obafunwa, Titilola
Hispanic, single, low-income mothers are a vulnerable population who are often identified as having difficult transitioning to motherhood and successfully using the U.S. health care system. The purpose of this study was to examine needs, concerns, and social support of Hispanic, single, low-income mothers during the transition to motherhood through the eyes of community leaders serving this population in the U.S. Two focus groups were conducted, and 16 Midwestern community leaders working or volunteering with the Hispanic population expressed their opinions. Two investigators and two graduate nursing students evaluated the data. The process of word and context interpretation was completed using a combination of Tesch (1990) and Creswell (2007) techniques. Data were compared to field notes and debriefing summaries were completed during focus group discussions. Four themes and 12 subthemes evolved from the group discussions. Themes were (a) mothers' social support, (b) interactions with health care providers, (c) barriers in trust, and (d) practical life issues. A conclusion was drawn from these data that these women have difficulty accessing social support and information regarding care of themselves and their newborn infants due to limited social networks and barriers to health care. Nurses are in key positions to offer culturally sensitive social support and identify health care barriers with Hispanic, single, low-income mothers during the transition to motherhood. Further research is needed on interventions that effectively deliver information, lower health care barriers, and meet social support needs of Hispanic, single, low-income mothers and their infants.
Sriyasak, Atcharawadee; Åkerlind, Ingemar; Akhavan, Sharareh
The aim of this study is to explore and describe the experiences of being a teenage mother and taking care of infants less than 6 months of age. Ten teenage mothers were interviewed. Latent content analysis was used to analyze interview transcripts with the teenage mothers. It was found that previous childrearing experiences and social support were important factors in determining how teenage mothers adapted to being a mother and how they practiced infant care. Becoming a mother created feelings of responsibility in the maternal role and led to affection toward their babies. Nevertheless, teenage mothers appreciated the help they received from their families and health-care providers. Instruction and assistance with infant care built self-confidence in the maternal role and in childrearing. PMID:24868133
Dehority, Burk A; Wright, André-Denis G
The methods used for culturing rumen protozoa were found to be unsatisfactory for growth of ciliate protozoa from the kangaroo forestomach. Based on published measurements of physical parameters in the marsupial forestomach, several modifications were incorporated into the procedure, i.e., an increase in % hydrogen in the gas phase, adjustment of initial pH of the medium to 6.9-7.0 range, feed only forage as a substrate and incubate at a lower temperature (33-36 °C). Only incubation at the lower temperature increased survival time of the kangaroo protozoa. Two species of Bitricha were still viable after 28 d in culture. Cultures had to be terminated at that time. One of the species differed considerably in size and shape from previously described species and based on 18S rRNA data, may represent a new species of Bitricha. The second species, present in low numbers was identified as Bitricha oblata. In a separate trial, Macropodinium yalanbense survived for 11 d, at which time these cultures also had to be terminated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
The purpose of this case study was to explore the synchronous behaviors enacted by mother and infant with blindness. In the study, a mother's less than optimal experience with the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) had a profound effect not only on her and her infant son, who was born 3 months prematurely and was visually impaired, but also on…
Çakmak, Emine; Karaçam, Zekiye
To examine the correlation between mothers' participation in infant care in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and their anxiety and problem-solving skill levels in caregiving. The cross-sectional study was conducted with 340 mothers whose babies were in the NICU. Data were collected with a questionnaire, a Participation in Caregiving Observation Form, the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Problem-solving Skills Evaluation Form. Descriptive statistics and correlation analysis were used in the evaluation of the data. The mothers were with their babies an average of 6.28 ± 2.43 (range: 1-20) times a day, participating in many basic procedures of care. A negative correlation was found between the mothers' scores on the Participation in Caregiving Observation Form and their State and Trait Anxiety Inventory scores (respectively, r = -0.48, p < 0.001 and r = -0.12, p < 0.05), but a positive correlation was observed between the Problem-solving Process (r = 0.41, p < 0.001) and the Baby Care Skills (r = 0.24, p < 0.001) Subscale scores. The study revealed that mothers participated in many basic caregiving procedures in the NICU and this participation resulted in reduced state and trait anxiety levels and an improvement in the mothers' problem-solving skills with respect to baby care and related problems.
Dagnew, Amare Belachew; Tewabe, Tilahun; Murugan, Rajalakshmi
Health seeking behavior is an action taken by an individual who perceive to have a health problem. In most developing countries including Ethiopia the health of the children is strongly dependant on maternal health care behavior. Most childhood morbidities and mortalities are associated with low level of mothers health care seeking behavior. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess level of modern health care seeking behavior among mothers having under five children in Dangila town, North West Ethiopia. Community based quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted from April 15 to May 15, 2016. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select study participants. A total of273 mothers with children less than five years were included in this study. The data was collected from all five Kebeles using interviewer administered questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to present the data. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with level of modern health care seeking behavior. Prevalence of modern health care seeking behavior was 82.1%. Age of mothers (AOR = 2.4(1.1, 5.3), age of the child (AOR = 6.7(2.8, 22.2), severity of illness (AOR = 5.2(1.2, 22.6) and family number (AOR = 6.4(2.1, 20.2) were predictors of modern health care seeking behavior among mothers. Majority of the mothers preferred to take their children to modern health care when they got illness. Age of children, age of mother, number of family and severity of illness were the determinant factors for modern health care seeking behavior. Therefore, health care services should be strengthened at community level through community integrated management of childhood illness, information, education communication / behavioral change communication strategies to improve mothers health care seeking behaviors.
Mollborn, Stefanie; Blalock, Casey
Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001 - 2006; N ≈ 7900), we examined child care arrangements among teen parents from birth through prekindergarten. Four latent classes of child care arrangements at 9, 24, and 52 months emerged: “parental care,” “center care,” “paid home-based care,” and “free kin-based care.” Disadvantaged teen-parent families were overrepresented in the “parental care” class, which was negatively associated with children’s preschool reading, math, and behavior scores and mothers’ socioeconomic and fertility outcomes compared to some nonparental care classes. Nonparental care did not predict any negative maternal or child outcomes, and different care arrangements had different benefits for mothers and children. Time spent in nonparental care and improved maternal outcomes contributed to children’s increased scores across domains. Child care classes predicted maternal outcomes similarly in teen-parent and nonteen-parent families, but the “parental care” class predicted some disproportionately negative child outcomes for teen-parent families. PMID:23729861
Mukhopadhyay, Sankar; Wendel, Jeanne
The Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement recommends reducing the number of prenatal care visits recommended for low-risk women, citing evidence from a randomized clinical trial indicating that the reduction would not adversely impact infant health. We investigate the implicit hypothesis that prenatal care resources are not distributed efficiently across high-risk and low-risk women. Using clinic-reported prenatal care and an inclusive measure of infant health, we report evidence indicating inefficient resource utilization: prenatal care only boosts infant health when mothers have specific pre-existing diagnoses, but women with high potential to benefit from care do not obtain more care than other women.
Leavitt, L A
Of all of the infant's signals, the cry is particularly influential in the developing pattern of mother-infant interaction. If a mother terminates crying successfully, she may gain confidence; if unsuccessful, she may begin to focus on her perceived ineffectiveness. Pediatricians and nurses who work with mothers of young infants need to carefully evaluate what mothers "think" about their successes and failures in managing daily child care. Helping mothers "reframe" perceptions of their infant may be a simple but powerful intervention to optimize their interactions.
In many countries, women are poorly nourished and have a high rate of reproductive morbidity. However, during war and other disaster situations, women and children become even more vulnerable. Most of the world's refugees and internally displaced people are women and children. Many women refugees are malnourished and during the emergency and exodus phases, many are starving. Severe malnutrition in a pregnant woman causes fetal malnutrition. Infants born to a malnourished mother are of low birth weight and will grow up malnourished if they stay in the same deprived environment as their mothers. Households headed by women tend to obtain the least food and the children of such households tend to be poorly nourished. Many of the problems and obstacles women face during peacetime and non-emergency situations are simply exacerbated during disasters and war. It may not be possible to head off disasters which result in massive social upheaval, but preparations can nonetheless be made to mollify conditions once disaster hits. Responsible organizations and agencies should research the situation and plan for the worst. This paper discusses how women lose social and economic power during periods of armed conflict, the often lack of even basic reproductive health care during armed conflict and emergencies, coping in an emergency, and living in a refugee camp.
Jaafar, Sharifah Halimah; Ho, Jacqueline J; Lee, Kim Seng
Mother-infant proximity and interactions after birth and during the early postpartum period are important for breast-milk production and breastfeeding success. Rooming-in and separate care are both traditional practices. Rooming-in involves keeping the mother and the baby together in the same room after birth for the duration of hospitalisation, whereas separate care is keeping the baby in the hospital nursery and the baby is either brought to the mother for breastfeeding or she walks to the nursery. To assess the effect of mother-infant rooming-in versus separation on the duration of breastfeeding (exclusive and total duration of breastfeeding). We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 May 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effect of mother-infant rooming-in versus separate care after hospital birth or at home on the duration of breastfeeding, proportion of breastfeeding at six months and adverse neonatal and maternal outcomes. Two review authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion and assessed trial quality. Two review authors extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We included one trial (involving 176 women) in this review. This trial included four groups with a factorial design. The factorial design took into account two factors, i.e. infant location in relation to the mother and the type of infant apparel. We combined three of the groups as the intervention (rooming-in) group and the fourth group acted as the control (separate care) and we analysed the results as a single pair-wise comparison. Primary outcomesThe primary outcome, duration of any breastfeeding, was reported by authors as median values because the distribution was found to be skewed. They reported the overall median duration of any breastfeeding to be four months, with no difference found
Simkhada, Bibha; Porter, Maureen A; van Teijlingen, Edwin R
Antenatal care (ANC) has been recognised as a way to improve health outcomes for pregnant women and their babies. However, only 29% of pregnant women receive the recommended four antenatal visits in Nepal but reasons for such low utilisation are poorly understood. As in many countries of South Asia, mothers-in-law play a crucial role in the decisions around accessing health care facilities and providers. This paper aims to explore the mother-in-law's role in (a) her daughter-in-law's ANC uptake; and (b) the decision-making process about using ANC services in Nepal. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 purposively selected antenatal or postnatal mothers (half users, half non-users of ANC), 10 husbands and 10 mothers-in-law in two different (urban and rural) communities. Our findings suggest that mothers-in-law sometime have a positive influence, for example when encouraging women to seek ANC, but more often it is negative. Like many rural women of their generation, all mothers-in-law in this study were illiterate and most had not used ANC themselves. The main factors leading mothers-in-law not to support/encourage ANC check ups were expectations regarding pregnant women fulfilling their household duties, perceptions that ANC was not beneficial based largely on their own past experiences, the scarcity of resources under their control and power relations between mothers-in-law and daughters-in-law. Individual knowledge and social class of the mothers-in-law of users and non-users differed significantly, which is likely to have had an effect on their perceptions of the benefits of ANC. Mothers-in-law have a strong influence on the uptake of ANC in Nepal. Understanding their role is important if we are to design and target effective community-based health promotion interventions. Health promotion and educational interventions to improve the use of ANC should target women, husbands and family members, particularly mothers-in-law where they control access to family
Angrist, Shirley S.; Lave, Judith R.
To determine what child care arrangements are made by employed mothers, how much they spend for child care, and their potential use of other arrangements including day care, a study was conducted in the Pittsburgh area early in 1973. Included were four work settings which employ women in a variety of occupations. A structured questionnaire was…
Gilbert, R O; Shinn, J H; Essington, E H; Tamura, T; Romney, E M; Moor, K S; O'Farrell, T P
Between 1970 and 1986 the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG), U.S. Department of Energy, conducted environmental radionuclide studies at weapons-testing sites on or adjacent to the Nevada Test Site. In this paper, NAEG studies conducted at two nuclear (fission) sites (NS201, NS219) and two nonnuclear (nonfission) sites (Area 13 [Project 57] and Clean Slate 2) are reviewed, synthesized and compared regarding (1) soil particle-size distribution and physical-chemical characteristics of 239 + 240Pu-bearing radioactive particles, (2) 239 + 240Pu resuspension rates and (3) transuranic and fission-product radionuclide transfers from soil to native vegetation, kangaroo rats and grazing cattle. The data indicate that transuranic radionuclides were transferred more readily on the average from soil to air, the external surfaces of native vegetation and to tissues of kangaroo rats at Area 13 than at NS201 or NS219. The 239 + 240Pu resuspension factor for undisturbed soil at Area 13 was three to four orders-of-magnitude larger than at NS201 and NS219, the geometric mean (GM) vegetation-over-soil 239 + 240Pu concentration ratio was from ten to 100 times larger than at NS201, and the GM GI-over-soil, carcass-over-soil and pelt-over-soil 239 + 240Pu ratios for kangaroo rats were about ten times larger than at NS201. These results are consistent with the finding that Area 13, compared with NS201 or NS219, has a higher percentage of radioactivity associated with smaller soil particles and a larger percentage of resuspendable and respirable soil. However, the resuspension factor increased by a factor of 27 at NS201 when the surface soil was disturbed, and by a factor of 12 at NS219 following a wildfire. The average (GM) concentration of 239 + 240Pu for the GI (and contents) of Area 13 kangaroo rats and for the rumen contents of beef cattle that grazed Area 13 were very similar (400 vs. 440 Bq kg-1 dry wt, respectively) although the variability between individuals was very large. The
Chou, Yueh-Ching; Pu, Cheng-Yun; Kröger, Teppo; Fu, Li-yeh
The effects of caregiving on mothers of adults with intellectual disability was examined by determining whether there are differences in quality of life and related factors between mothers with different employment status. Study participants were 302 working-age mothers who had adult children with intellectual disability based on the 2008 census survey on intellectual disability carried out in Hsinchu, City, Taiwan. Results revealed that nonemployed mothers are more likely to have a lower level of health status, including the WHOQOL Physical Health domain, than are mothers employed fulltime. Multiple regression analysis showed that mothers' quality of life was significantly determined by the availability of a person with whom they could share care work, family income, social support, and employment status.
Practice of skin-to-skin contact, exclusive breastfeeding and other newborn care interventions in Ethiopia following promotion by facility and community health workers: results from a prospective outcome evaluation.
Callaghan-Koru, Jennifer A; Estifanos, Abiy Seifu; Sheferaw, Ephrem Daniel; de Graft-Johnson, Joseph; Rosado, Carina; Patton-Molitors, Rachel; Worku, Bogale; Rawlins, Barbara; Baqui, Abdullah
To assess the effects of a facility and community newborn intervention package on coverage of early skin-to-skin contact (SSC) and exclusive breastfeeding - the therapeutic components of kangaroo mother care. A multilevel community and facility intervention in Ethiopia trained health workers in 10 health centres and the surrounding communities to promote early SSC and exclusive breastfeeding for all babies born at home or in the facility. Changes in SSC and exclusive breastfeeding were assessed by comparing baseline and endline household surveys. Overall practice of SSC at any time following delivery increased significantly from 13.1 to 44.1% of mothers. Coverage of immediate SSC also increased significantly from 8.4 to 24.1%. Breastfeeding within the first hour increased from 51.4 to 67.9% and exclusive breastfeeding within the first three days increased from 86 to 95.8%. At endline, SSC was significantly higher among facility births than home births and community health workers had limited contact with mothers. While targeted behaviours improved overall, the programme did not achieve adequate increases in SSC and exclusive breastfeeding among home deliveries to expect a reduction in mortality for low birthweight babies. Newborn care programs in Ethiopia should continue to encourage facility delivery while strengthening coverage of community programmes. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This paper aims to highlight some working class women's childcare practices in northern industrial areas of Britain during the latter half of the 19th century. It aims to challenge the commonly held belief that 19th century northern working-class factory mothers were irresponsive and neglectful toward their infants, thereby fuelling the high northern infant mortality rate. It will do this by showing that factory mothers were responsible and responsive toward their infants despite being thwarted by the working patterns of industrialisation. It begins by outlining the arguments made by historians that northern working class women were neglectful toward their children. Then key areas such as the working patterns of waged factory mothers will be illustrated to show the agency and determination of 19th century working class women to provide their infants with good care. Reassessment of these historical childcare practices can provide a springboard by which today's health professionals can endeavour to maintain accurate and fair perspectives about the childcare practices of today's women of low socio-economic status.
Matsui, Rie; Sato, Yumi
This study was designed to describe grandmothers' intentions regarding providing satisfactory infant care support for new mothers. Qualitative inductive analysis was performed using semistructured interviews conducted with 19 pairs of grandmothers and new mothers with one child aged 3-4 months old. Support that satisfied the new mothers was categorized into five concepts, which included support activities such as "minding the grandchild" and "supporting family life". Six reasons were attributed by the new mothers for their satisfaction such as "reduced anxiety toward infant care" and "lifestyle stability including infant care". The grandmothers' intentions in providing satisfactory infant care support for new mothers were categorized into seven concepts that included "sympathizing with the hardships of motherhood upon seeing the mother's situation" and "balancing the desire to provide support and maintain their own lifestyle". Grandmothers wanted to help new mothers by supporting and empowering them. Data also showed that grandmothers could potentially benefit from research-based information on modern infant care practices as well as reliable and up-to-date infant care information obtained from within the community. Supporting grandmothers in their role will ultimately benefit infants and new mothers and contribute to grandmothers' personal fulfillment. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Tribe, Andrew; Hanger, Jon; McDonald, Ian J; Loader, Jo; Nottidge, Ben J; McKee, Jeff J; Phillips, Clive J C
Traditionally, culling has been the expedient, most common, and in many cases, the only tool used to control free-ranging kangaroo populations. We applied a reproductive control program to a population of eastern grey kangaroos confined to a golf course in South East Queensland. The program aimed to reduce fecundity sufficiently for the population to decrease over time so that overgrazing of the fairways and the frequency of human-animal conflict situations were minimised. In 2003, 92% of the female kangaroos above 5 kg bodyweight were implanted with the GnRH agonist deslorelin after darting with a dissociative anaesthetic. In 2007, 86% of the females above 5 kg were implanted with deslorelin and also 87% of the males above 5 kg were sterilised by either orchidectomy or vasectomy. In 2005, 2008 and 2009, the population was censused to assess the effect of each treatment. The 2003 deslorelin program resulted in effective zero population growth for approximately 2.5 years. The combined deslorelin-surgery program in 2007 reduced the birth rate from 0.3 to 0.06%/year for 16 months, resulting in a 27% population reduction by November 2009. The results were consistent with implants conferring contraception to 100% of implanted females for at least 12 months. The iatrogenic mortality rates for each program were 10.5% and 4.9%, respectively, with 50% of all mortalities due to darting-related injuries, exertional myopathy/hyperthermia or recovery misadventure. The short term sexual and agonistic behaviour of the males was assessed for the 2007 program: no significant changes were seen in adult males given the vasectomy procedure, while sexual behaviours' were decreased in adult males given the orchidectomy procedure. It is concluded that female reproduction was effectively controlled by implantation with deslorrelin and male reproductive behaviour was reduced by orchidectomy, which together achieved population control.
Villamizar-Carvajal, B; Vargas-Porras, C; García-Corzo, J R
To determine the effectiveness of the 'Creating Opportunities for Parent Empowerment' (COPE) programme in reducing stress levels in mothers of preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Clinical trial performed in Colombia, including mothers of infants younger than 34 weeks of gestation, hospitalized, without a history of premature delivery. The mothers with psychiatric illnesses, language disorders, history of use of psychoactive substances and whose newborns had a congenital malformation were excluded. A group intervened with the COPE programme and a control group with the usual institutional management were formed. Block randomization and masking was used for mothers and evaluators. The Parental Stress Scale was applied: NICU; Shapiro Wilk normality test, Wilcoxon test and covariance analysis (ANCOVA) with a significance level of p<.05, 95% CI. 66 mothers were enrolled. The two groups were similar in their demographic characteristics and in the initial stress level score. The control group increased the final stress score in two categories and the intervention group decreased final values in all categories. The initial and final scores of the overall general stress level showed a significant decrease (p<.01), but when comparing with the ANCOVA analysis there was no significant difference (p=.4). The COPE programme reduces the level of maternal stress, strengthening aspects during hospitalization, such as: emotional support, strengthening their role as caregivers and interaction with their babies and the development of a friendly environment in the NICU. Copyright © 2018. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.
Clark, Lauren; Redman, Richard W
Women of Mexican descent living in the United States raise children who use health care services. What do immigrant Mexican mothers expect from children's health care services? And how do their expectations for children's health services compare to acculturated Mexican American mothers' expectations? This focused ethnographic study, based on repeated interviews with 28 mothers of varying acculturation levels, describes their expectations and experiences with children's health care services in the United States. Findings support a shared core of expectations for both Mexican immigrant and Mexican American mothers, and differences in health care access and financing, time spent in health care encounters, and cultural and linguistic expectations for care. Health care providers can use this information to approach Mexican-descent mothers and children with their expectations in mind, and craft a negotiated plan of care congruent with their expectations.
Mayes, Rachel; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth
Despite the frequency with which mothers with intellectual disability have their children removed, little theoretical or empirical work has understood the mothers' perspectives on this. A few studies have reported mothers' feelings of grief and loss and their sense of powerlessness in the child protection system. This qualitative study explores the daily life narratives of 7 mothers with intellectual disability following the involuntarily removal of their children. For most mothers, having a child removed was not a one-off experience. The serial nature of the experience yielded 3 different narratives, lived out in different ways. In some cases, women told a different narrative for each of their removed children. All women remained focused on their children in care. The multiple and varied narratives of mothers with intellectual disability who have children in care suggest that their support needs may differ from each other and over time. How their support needs might best be met remains an unanswered question. Further research is also needed to identify any adverse health and social consequences for mothers with children in care as well as the effects on their children.
Gunn, Jennie; Huebner, Carroll Gunn; McCoy, Kristen
To explore the lived experience of women over the age of 21 who lost their mothers before the age of 18. Using qualitative methodology, motherless child-adult women were gathered through emails, word of mouth, and snowballing techniques. Interviews were conducted at the convenience of the women. The women coparticipated with identification of emerging themes using thematic analysis. Eight women who lost their mothers before the age of 18 participated. Eight themes emerged: (1) Understanding: For wounded hearts only; (2) Coming apart: Finding my mother's daughter and self-worth; (3) Unconditional love: Grieving for and identifying with my champion; (4) Finding help: Filling the empty place with God; (5) Pitying the motherless child: Making it worse; (6) Filling in: Others as mother; (7) The ebb and flow: Grieving; and (8) Becoming mother: Taking on the Role. The nurse has the opportunity to improve care for women who lost their mothers before the age of 18 years. During pregnancy, childbirth, and childrearing, the woman may feel sad and anxious without the guidance of her mother. Special ways of caring may be instituted to provide her comfort such as allowing and encouraging her to bring a special item of her mother's to procedures and events so that she may feel connected with her, allowing someone to stand in for her mother, perhaps assisting in finding of another motherless child adult to be with her as needed, and the voicing of understanding of her loss while remaining nonjudgmental about her emotions during these times.
Jordan, Wolfgang; Bielau, Hendrik; Cohrs, Stefan; Hauth, Iris; Hornstein, Christiane; Marx, Alexandra; Reck, Corinna; von Einsiedel, Regina
CONCERN: The current care and financial situation of mother-child units for psychic disorders associated with pregnancies in Germany should be documented in preparation for the development of the new reimbursement system for psychiatry and psychosomatics. In accordance with the last survey of 2005, a brief questionnaire was developed and a nationwide poll was conducted. The survey revealed severe (10 fold) service deficits for severely and gravely mentally ill mothers, who require an inpatient treatment with specific professional competence. Compared with the last poll, these service deficits have increased. This is due to continued insufficient funding and unresolved financing in the new reimbursement system. With the establishment of an additional code for mother-child treatment the precondition for ensuring the funding of this important care form in the new reimbursement system was created. It is to be hoped that the decision-makers of health policy will finally face up to their social responsibility and ensure adequate funding of the additional diagnostic and therapeutic expenditure of mother-child treatment. The health care providers have an obligation to implement a transparent record of services of the additional expenditure and to augment the national evaluation approaches to inpatient mother-child treatments. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Sawyer, Alexandra; Ayers, Susan; Bertullies, Sophia; Thomas, Margaret; Weeks, Andrew D; Yoxall, Charles W; Duley, Lelia
Objectives The aims of this study were to assess parents’ views of immediate neonatal care and resuscitation at birth being provided beside the mother, and their experiences of a mobile trolley designed to facilitate this bedside care. Design Qualitative study with semistructured interviews. Results were analysed using thematic analysis. Setting Large UK maternity hospital. Participants Mothers whose baby received initial neonatal care in the first few minutes of life at the bedside, and their birth partners, were eligible. 30 participants were interviewed (19 mothers, 10 partners and 1 grandmother). 5 babies required advanced neonatal resuscitation. Results 5 themes were identified: (1) Reassurance, which included ‘Baby is OK’, ‘Having baby close’, ‘Confidence in care’, ‘Knowing what's going on’ and ‘Dad as informant’; (2) Involvement of the family, which included ‘Opportunity for contact’, ‘Family involvement’ and ‘Normality’; (3) Staff communication, which included ‘Communication’ and ‘Experience’; (4) Reservations, which included ‘Reservations about witnessing resuscitation’, ‘Negative emotions’ and ‘Worries about the impact on staff’ and (5) Experiences of the trolley, which included ‘Practical issues’ and ‘Comparisons with standard resuscitation equipment’. Conclusions Families were positive about neonatal care being provided at the bedside, and felt it gave reassurance about their baby's health and care. They also reported feeling involved as a family. Some parents reported experiencing negative emotions as a result of witnessing resuscitation of their baby. Parents were positive about the trolley. PMID:26384723
Mugasha, Christine; Kigozi, Joanita; Kiragga, Agnes; Muganzi, Alex; Sewankambo, Nelson; Coutinho, Alex; Nakanjako, Damalie
Linkage of HIV-infected pregnant women to HIV care remains critical for improvement of maternal and child outcomes through prevention of maternal-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) and subsequent chronic HIV care. This study determined proportions and factors associated with intra-facility linkage to HIV care and Early Infant Diagnosis care (EID) to inform strategic scale up of PMTCT programs. A cross-sectional review of records was done at 2 urban and 3 rural public health care facilities supported by the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI). HIV-infected pregnant mothers, identified through routine antenatal care (ANC) and HIV-exposed babies were evaluated for enrollment in HIV clinics by 6 weeks post-delivery. Overall, 1,025 HIV-infected pregnant mothers were identified during ANC between January and June, 2012; 267/1,025 (26%) in rural and 743/1,025 (74%) in urban facilities. Of these 375/1,025 (37%) were linked to HIV clinics [67/267(25%) rural and 308/758(41%) urban]. Of 636 HIV-exposed babies, 193 (30%) were linked to EID. Linkage of mother-baby pairs to HIV chronic care and EID was 16% (101/636); 8/179 (4.5%)] in rural and 93/457(20.3%) in urban health facilities. Within rural facilities, ANC registration <28 weeks-of-gestation was associated with mothers' linkage to HIV chronic care [AoR, 2.0 95% CI, 1.1-3.7, p = 0.019] and mothers' multi-parity was associated with baby's linkage to EID; AoR 4.4 (1.3-15.1), p = 0.023. Stigma, long distance to health facilities and vertical PMTCT services affected linkage in rural facilities, while peer mothers, infant feeding services, long patient queues and limited privacy hindered linkage to HIV care in urban settings. Post-natal linkage of HIV-infected mothers to chronic HIV care and HIV-exposed babies to EID programs was low. Barriers to linkage to HIV care vary in urban and rural settings. We recommend targeted interventions to rapidly improve linkage to antiretroviral therapy for elimination of MTCT.
Moore, Elizabeth R; Anderson, Gene C; Bergman, Nils; Dowswell, Therese
Background Mother-infant separation postbirth is common in Western culture. Early skin-to-skin contact (SSC) begins ideally at birth and involves placing the naked baby, head covered with a dry cap and a warm blanket across the back, prone on the mother’s bare chest. According to mammalian neuroscience, the intimate contact inherent in this place (habitat) evokes neurobehaviors ensuring fulfillment of basic biological needs. This time may represent a psychophysiologically ‘sensitive period’ for programming future physiology and behavior. Objectives To assess the effects of early SSC on breastfeeding, physiological adaptation, and behavior in healthy mother-newborn dyads. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (30 November 2011), made personal contact with trialists, and consulted the bibliography on kangaroo mother care (KMC) maintained by Dr. Susan Ludington. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials comparing early SSC with usual hospital care. Data collection and analysis We independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information. Main results Thirty-four randomized controlled trials were included involving 2177 participants (mother-infant dyads). Data from more than two trials were available for only eight outcome measures. For primary outcomes, we found a statistically significant positive effect of early SSC on breastfeeding at one to four months postbirth (13 trials; 702 participants) (risk ratio (RR) 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06 to 1.53, and SSC increased breastfeeding duration (seven trials; 324 participants) (mean difference (MD) 42.55 days, 95% CI −1.69 to 86.79) but the results did not quite reach statistical significance (P = 0.06). Late preterm infants had better cardio-respiratory stability with early SSC (one trial; 31 participants) (MD 2.88, 95% CI 0.53 to 5.23). Blood glucose 75 to 90 minutes following the birth was
Hickson, G B; Altemeier, W A; O'Connor, S
A surplus of general pediatricians has been predicted for 1990. This surplus could provide both opportunity and need for practitioners to identify areas of maternal concern that might guide expansion of marketable physician services. For this purpose, maternal concerns were assessed by interviewing 207 mothers seeking care in private pediatric offices. Only 30% of mothers were most worried about their child's physical health. The remaining 70% were most concerned about problems falling into six categories of parenting, behavior, and development (psychosocial concerns): personality/social development, discipline, mental development, mother-child interaction time, adjustment to divorce and other life changes, and adolescent transition. Although the majority of these concerns conceivably could be handled in private offices, only 28% of these mothers had discussed their greater psychosocial concern with their pediatrician. A search for explanations of this failure to communicate indicated mothers often were not aware that their pediatrician could help, or they questioned his ability or interest in assisting them. Characteristics that correlated significantly with communication were higher family socioeconomic levels, and greater physician self-perceived ability and interest in these psychosocial problems. Parenting, behavior, and development concerns represent an opportunity for expanding services if some of these obstacles can be overcome.
Laditka, Sarah B.; Laditka, James N.; Bennett, Kevin J.; Probst, Janice C.
Pregnancy complications affect many women. It is likely that some complications can be avoided through routine primary and prenatal care of reasonable quality. The authors examined access to health care during pregnancy for mothers insured by Medicaid. The access indicator is potentially avoidable maternity complications (PAMCs). Potentially…
Rastegaeva, I N
The article presents the analysis of legal foundations of mother and child health care in the Federal Law No 323-FZ November 21 2011 "On the fundamentals of health care of citizen in the Russian Federation". The regulation applied in the Law concerning the public relations in the area of maternity and children care is supported by the public protection of mother and child interests and enhancement of their individual rights. This measure is provided by the development and implementation of programs targeted to prevention early detection and treatment of diseases, decrease of maternity and infant mortality, and development in children and their parents the motivation to healthy life-style and applying mechanisms of prevention and dispensarization.
Misgna, Haftom Gebrehiwot; Gebru, Haftu Berhe; Birhanu, Mulugeta Molla
Around the world, more than three million newborns die in their first months of life every year. In Ethiopia during the last five years period; neonatal mortality is 37 deaths per 1000 live births. Even though there is an improvement compared to the past five years, there is still high home delivery 90 %, and high neonatal mortality about the Millennium Development Goal, which aims to be less than 32/1000 live births in Ethiopia. The purpose of this study is to assess maternal knowledge, practice and associated factors of essential newborn care at home in Gulomekada District Eastern Tigray, Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study is conducted in 296 mothers from Gulomekada District by using simple random sampling technique. Data entry and analysis is carried out by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences-20. The magnitude of the association between different variables about the outcome variable is measured by odds ratio with 95 % confidence interval. A binary logistic regression analysis is made to obtain odds ratio and the confidence interval of statistical associations. The goodness of fit had tested by Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic and all variables with P-value greater than 0.05 are fitted to the multivariate model. Variables with P < 0.2 in the bivariate analysis are included in the final model, and statistical significance is declared at P < 0.05. Eighty percent (80.4 %) study participants had good knowledge on essential new born care and 92.9 % had the good practice of essential new born care. About 60 % of mothers applied butter or oil on the cord stump for their last baby. Marital status and education are significantly associated with knowledge, whereas urban residence mothers with good knowledge on essential newborn care and employed mothers are significantly associated with mothers' practice of essential newborn care. Almost all mothers know and practice essential newborn care correctly except oil or butter application to the
Vaz, Paola Karinna; Motha, Julian; McCowan, Christina; Ficorilli, Nino; Whiteley, Pam Lizette; Wilks, Colin Reginald; Hartley, Carol Anne; Gilkerson, James Rudkin; Browning, Glenn Francis; Devlin, Joanne Maree
We isolated a macropodid herpesvirus from a free-ranging eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteous) displaying clinical signs of respiratory disease and possibly neurologic disease. Sequence analysis of the herpesvirus glycoprotein G (gG) and glycoprotein B (gB) genes revealed that the virus was an alphaherpesvirus most closely related to macropodid herpesvirus 2 (MaHV-2) with 82.7% gG and 94.6% gB amino acid sequence identity. Serologic analyses showed similar cross-neutralization patterns to those of MaHV-2. The two viruses had different growth characteristics in cell culture. Most notably, this virus formed significantly larger plaques and extensive syncytia when compared with MaHV-2. No syncytia were observed for MaHV-2. Restriction endonuclease analysis of whole viral genomes demonstrated distinct restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns for all three macropodid herpesviruses. These studies suggest that a distinct macropodid alphaherpesvirus may be capable of infecting and causing disease in eastern grey kangaroos.
Prosman, Gert-Jan; Lo Fo Wong, Sylvie H; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L M
Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a major health problem and negatively affects the victim's mental and physical health. Evidence-based interventions in family practice are scarce. We aimed to evaluate a low threshold home-visiting intervention for abused women provided by trained mentor mothers in family practice. The aim was to reduce exposure to IPV, symptoms of depression as well as to improve social support, participation in society and acceptance of mental health care. A pre-post study of a 16-week mentoring intervention with identified abused women with children was conducted. After referral by a family doctor, a mentor mother visited the abused woman weekly. Primary outcomes are IPV assessed with the Composite Abuse Scale (CAS), depressive symptoms using the Symptom Checklist (SCL 90) and social support by the Utrecht Coping List. Secondary outcomes are analysed qualitatively: participation in society defined as employment and education and the acceptance of mental health care. At baseline, 63 out of 66 abused women were referred to mentor support. Forty-three participants completed the intervention programme. IPV decreased from CASt otal 46.7 (SD 24.7) to 9.0 (SD 9.1) (P ≤ 0.001) after the mentor mother support programme. Symptoms of depression decreased from 53.3 (SD 13.7) to 34.8 (SD 11.5) (P ≤ 0.001) and social support increased from 13.2 (SD 4.0) to 15.2 (SD 3.5) (P ≤ 0.001). Participation in society and the acceptance of mental health for mother and child improved. Sixteen weekly visits by trained mentor mothers are a promising intervention to decrease exposure to IPV and symptoms of depression, as well as to improve social support, participation in society and the acceptance of professional help for abused women and their children.
Ncube, Rosinah K; Barlow, Hilary; Mayers, Pat M
Preterm and low-birth weight infants are often separated from their mothers when admitted to neonatal units for stabilisation of body temperature and technological support. The aim of the study was to explore and describe the lived experiences of mothers regarding care of their hospitalised preterm infants in a neonatal unit in a public hospital in Gaborone, Botswana. This study utilised a qualitative exploratory and descriptive phenomenological study design. Mothers of hospitalised preterm infants were purposefully selected, with whom there was extensive engagement. Two in-depth interviews were conducted with each participant (P). Mothers were shocked by the sudden birth of a preterm infant and found the neonatal environment intimidating. This increased their fear and anxiety and delayed development of a relationship with their infants. Support from staff, other mothers in the neonatal unit and family members enabled the mothers to overcome their fear and to develop an emotional connection with their infants. On-going supportive communication with the mothers by healthcare professionals promotes their confidence and competence in caring for their preterm infants, which in turn promotes mother-infant attachment.
Child Care: Child Care Subsidies Increase Likelihood That Low-Income Mothers Will Work. United States General Accounting Office Report to the Congressional Caucus for Women's Issues, House of Representatives.
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.
Noting Congressional interest in encouraging low-income mothers to seek employment as an alternative to receiving welfare, this report describes a study of the impact of child care expenditures on mothers' decision to work and compares the differences in costs for poor, near-poor, and non-poor mothers. The study developed measures for predicted…
Scott, Callie A.; Iyer, Hari S.; Lembela Bwalya, Deophine; Bweupe, Maximillian; Rosen, Sydney B.; Scott, Nancy; Larson, Bruce A.
Background Zambia adopted Option A for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) in 2010 and announced a move to Option B+ in 2013. We evaluated the uptake, outcomes, and costs of antenatal, well-baby, and PMTCT services under routine care conditions in Zambia after the adoption of Option A. Methods We enrolled 99 HIV-infected/HIV-exposed (index) mother/baby pairs with a first antenatal visit in April-September 2011 at four study sites and 99 HIV-uninfected/HIV-unexposed (comparison) mother/baby pairs matched on site, gestational age, and calendar month at first visit. Data on patient outcomes and resources utilized from the first antenatal visit through six months postpartum were extracted from site registers. Costs in 2011 USD were estimated from the provider’s perspective. Results Index mothers presented for antenatal care at a mean 23.6 weeks gestation; 55% were considered to have initiated triple-drug antiretroviral therapy (ART) based on information recorded in site registers. Six months postpartum, 62% of index and 30% of comparison mother/baby pairs were retained in care; 67% of index babies retained had an unknown HIV status. Comparison and index mother/baby pairs utilized fewer resources than under fully guideline-concordant care; index babies utilized more well-baby resources than comparison babies. The average cost per comparison pair retained in care six months postpartum was $52 for antenatal and well-baby services. The average cost per index pair retained was $88 for antenatal, well-baby, and PMTCT services and increased to $185 when costs of triple-drug ART services were included. Conclusions HIV-infected mothers present to care late in pregnancy and many are lost to follow up by six months postpartum. HIV-exposed babies are more likely to remain in care and receive non-HIV, well-baby care than HIV-unexposed babies. Improving retention in care, guideline concordance, and moving to Option B+ will result in increased service delivery
Ouwerkerk, D; Klieve, A V; Forster, R J; Templeton, J M; Maguire, A J
To determine the culturable biodiversity of anaerobic bacteria isolated from the forestomach contents of an eastern grey kangaroo, Macropus giganteus, using phenotypic characterization and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Bacteria from forestomach contents of an eastern grey kangaroo were isolated using anaerobic media containing milled curly Mitchell grass (Astrebla lappacea). DNA was extracted and the 16S rDNA sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. Forty bacterial isolates were obtained and placed in 17 groups based on phenotypic characteristics and restriction enzyme digestion of 16S rDNA PCR products. DNA sequencing revealed that the 17 groups comprised five known species (Clostridium butyricum, Streptococcus bovis, Clostridium sporogenes, Clostridium paraputrificum and Enterococcus avium) and 12 groups apparently representing new species, all within the phylum Firmicutes. Foregut contents from Australian macropod marsupials contain a microbial ecosystem with a novel bacterial biodiversity comprising a high percentage of previously unrecognized species. This study adds to knowledge of Australia's unique biodiversity, which may provide a future bioresource of genetic information and bacterial species of benefit to agriculture.
Mayberry, Chris; Maloney, Shane K; Mitchell, Jeff; Mawson, Peter R; Bencini, Roberta
Australian marsupials are thought to be particularly vulnerable to pathologic impacts of Toxoplasma gondii, and they may be similarly affected by Neospora caninum. Pathology due to either organism could be expressed as reduced female reproductive performance. We studied adult female western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus ocydromus) from suburban Perth, Western Australia, between May 2006 and October 2008. We used indirect fluorescent antibody tests to look for evidence of exposure to T. gondii and N. caninum in M. fuliginosus ocydromus and tested the association between their reproductive performance and a positive test result. Although 20% of plasma samples collected from 102 female kangaroos were positive for T. gondii and 18% were positive for N. caninum, we found no association between positive results and reproductive performance. Further study will be required to clarify if, and under what circumstances, T. gondii and N. caninum are pathogenic to macropod marsupials.
Kardaşözdemir, Funda; AKGüN Şahin, Zümrüt
The aim of this study was to examine anger and depression levels of mothers who had a premature infant in the NICU, and all factors affecting the situation. This descriptive study was performed in the level I and II units of NICU at three state hospitals in Turkey. The data was collected with a demographic questionnaire, "Beck Depression Inventory" and "Anger Expression Scale". Descriptive statistics, parametric and nonparametric statistical tests and Pearson correlation were used in the data analysis. Mothers whose infants are under care in NICU have moderate depression. It has also been determined that mothers' educational level, income level and gender of infants were statistically significant (p <0.05). A positive relationship between depression and trait anger scores was found to be statistically significant. A negative relationship existed between depression and anger-control scores for the mothers, which was statistically significant (p <0.05). Due to the results of research, recommended that mothers who are at risk of depression and anger in the NICU evaluated by nurses and these nurses to develop their consulting roles.
Mugasha, Christine; Kigozi, Joanita; Kiragga, Agnes; Muganzi, Alex; Sewankambo, Nelson; Coutinho, Alex; Nakanjako, Damalie
Introduction Linkage of HIV-infected pregnant women to HIV care remains critical for improvement of maternal and child outcomes through prevention of maternal-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) and subsequent chronic HIV care. This study determined proportions and factors associated with intra-facility linkage to HIV care and Early Infant Diagnosis care (EID) to inform strategic scale up of PMTCT programs. Methods A cross-sectional review of records was done at 2 urban and 3 rural public health care facilities supported by the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI). HIV-infected pregnant mothers, identified through routine antenatal care (ANC) and HIV-exposed babies were evaluated for enrollment in HIV clinics by 6 weeks post-delivery. Results Overall, 1,025 HIV-infected pregnant mothers were identified during ANC between January and June, 2012; 267/1,025 (26%) in rural and 743/1,025 (74%) in urban facilities. Of these 375/1,025 (37%) were linked to HIV clinics [67/267(25%) rural and 308/758(41%) urban]. Of 636 HIV-exposed babies, 193 (30%) were linked to EID. Linkage of mother-baby pairs to HIV chronic care and EID was 16% (101/636); 8/179 (4.5%)] in rural and 93/457(20.3%) in urban health facilities. Within rural facilities, ANC registration <28 weeks-of-gestation was associated with mothers' linkage to HIV chronic care [AoR, 2.0 95% CI, 1.1–3.7, p = 0.019] and mothers' multi-parity was associated with baby's linkage to EID; AoR 4.4 (1.3–15.1), p = 0.023. Stigma, long distance to health facilities and vertical PMTCT services affected linkage in rural facilities, while peer mothers, infant feeding services, long patient queues and limited privacy hindered linkage to HIV care in urban settings. Conclusion Post-natal linkage of HIV-infected mothers to chronic HIV care and HIV-exposed babies to EID programs was low. Barriers to linkage to HIV care vary in urban and rural settings. We recommend targeted interventions to rapidly improve linkage to
Brookman, Tom H.; Ambrose, Stanley H.
Serial sampling of tooth enamel growth increments for carbon and oxygen isotopic analyses of Macropus (kangaroo) teeth was performed to assess the potential for reconstructing paleoseasonality. The carbon isotope composition of tooth enamel apatite carbonate reflects the proportional intake of C3 and C4 vegetation. The oxygen isotopic composition of enamel reflects that of ingested and metabolic water. Tooth enamel forms sequentially from the tip of the crown to the base, so dietary and environmental changes during the tooth's formation can be detected. δ13C and δ18O values were determined for a series of enamel samples drilled from the 3rd and 4th molars of kangaroos that were collected along a 900 km north-south transect in southern Australia. The serial sampling method did not yield pronounced seasonal isotopic variation patterns in Macropus enamel. The full extent of dietary isotopic variation may be obscured by attenuation of the isotopic signal during enamel mineralisation. Brachydont (low-crowned) Macropus teeth may be less sensitive to seasonal variation in isotopic composition due to time-averaging during mineralisation. However, geographic variations observed suggest that there may be potential for tracking latitudinal shifts in vegetation zones and seasonal environmental patterns in response to climate change.
Freed, Patricia; SmithBattle, Lee
In this second article in a two-part series, we call for the integration of strengths-based and trauma-informed care into services for teen mothers. Nurses working with teen mothers in health clinics, schools and home visiting programs can play a pivotal role in promoting their mental health. Many teen mothers have high levels of psychological distress and histories of adverse experiences that cannot be ignored, and cannot solely be addressed by referral to mental health services. Nurses must be prepared to assess for trauma and be open to listening to teen mothers' experiences. Principles of strengths-based and trauma-informed care are complementary and can be integrated in clinical services so that teen mothers' distress is addressed and their strengths and aspirations are supported. Potential screening tools, interviewing skills and basic strategies to alleviate teen mothers' distress are discussed.
Wichaidit, Wit; Alam, Mahbub-Ul; Halder, Amal K.; Unicomb, Leanne; Hamer, Davidson H.; Ram, Pavani K.
Bangladesh's maternal mortality and neonatal mortality remain unacceptably high. We assessed the availability and quality of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) and emergency newborn care (EmNC) services at health facilities in Bangladesh. We randomly sampled 50 rural villages and 50 urban neighborhoods throughout Bangladesh and interviewed the director of eight and nine health facilities nearest to each sampled area. We categorized health facilities into different quality levels (high, moderate, low, and substandard) based on staffing, availability of a phone or ambulance, and signal functions (six categories for EmOC and four categories for EmNC). We interviewed the directors of 875 health facilities. Approximately 28% of health facilities did not have a skilled birth attendant on call 24 hours per day. The least commonly performed EmOC signal function was administration of anticonvulsants (67%). The quality of EmOC services was high in 33% and moderate in 52% of the health facilities. The least common EmNC signal function was kangaroo mother care (7%). The quality of EmNC was high in 2% and moderate in 33% of the health facilities. Approximately one-third of health facilities lack 24-hour availability of skilled birth attendants, increasing the risk of peripartum complications. Most health facilities offered moderate to high quality services for EmOC and low to substandard quality for EmNC. PMID:27273640
Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal
A child care subsidy is one of the most effective policy instruments to facilitate low-income individuals' transition from welfare to work. Although previous studies consistently find that subsidy receipt is associated with increased employment among single mothers, there is currently no evidence on the influence of these benefits on the decision…
Tabor, S P; Williams, D F; Germano, D J; Thomas, R E
The giant kangaroo rat, Dipodomys ingens (Merriam), has a limited distribution in the San Joaquin Valley, CA. Because of reductions in its geographic range, largely resulting from humans, the species was listed as an endangered species in 1980 by the California Fish and Game Commission. As part of a study of the community ecology of southern California endangered species, including D. ingens, we were able to make flea collections from the rats when they were trapped and marked for population studies. All but one of the fleas collected from the D. ingens in this study were Hoplopsyllus anomalus, a flea normally associated with ground squirrels (Sciuridae). It has been suggested that giant kangaroo rats fill the ground squirrel niche within their range. Our data indicate that this role includes a normal association with Hoplopsyllus anomalus.
Nguyen, Thu Anh; Oosterhoff, Pauline; Pham, Yen Ngoc; Hardon, Anita; Wright, Pamela
Background Prevention of mother-to-child transmission has been considered as not a simple intervention but a comprehensive set of interventions requiring capable health workers. Viet Nam's extensive health care system reaches the village level, but still HIV-infected mothers and children have received inadequate health care services for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. We report here the health workers' perceptions on factors that lead to their failure to give good quality prevention of mother-to-child transmission services. Methods Semistructured interviews with 53 health workers and unstructured observations in nine health facilities in Hanoi were conducted. Selection of respondents was based on their function, position and experience in the development or implementation of prevention of mother-to-child transmission policies/programmes. Results Factors that lead to health workers' failure to give good quality services for prevention of mother-to-child transmission include their own fear of HIV infection; lack of knowledge on HIV and counselling skills; or high workloads and lack of staff; unavailability of HIV testing at commune level; shortage of antiretroviral drugs; and lack of operational guidelines. A negative attitude during counselling and provision of care, treating in a separate area and avoidance of providing service at all were seen by health workers as the result of fear of being infected, as well as distrust towards almost all HIV-infected patients because of the prevailing association with antisocial behaviours. Additionally, the fragmentation of the health care system into specialized vertical pillars, including a vertical programme for HIV/AIDS, is a major obstacle to providing a continuum of care. Conclusion Many hospital staff were not being able to provide good care or were even unwilling to provide appropriate care for HIV-positive pregnant women The study suggests that the quality of prevention of mother-to-child transmission
Hatfield, Linda; Schwoebel, Ann; Lynyak, Corinne
In the United States, approximately 100,000 infants are born to diabetic mothers each year. If diabetes in pregnancy is uncontrolled, the diversity of resulting health problems can have a profound effect on the embryo, the fetus, and the neonate. These infants are at risk for a multitude of physiologic, metabolic, and congenital complications such as macrosomia, asphyxia, respiratory distress, hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, hyperbilirubinemia, polycythemia and hyperviscosity, cardiomegaly, and central nervous system disruption. Preconception control of glucose metabolism throughout the trajectory of a woman's pregnancy is a significant factor in decreasing the adverse impact of diabetes on the fetus and newborn. Meticulous attention to neonatal glucose levels, thorough physical examination, and precise diagnosis are prerequisites to appropriate care for the neonate.
Cacciatore, Joanne; Bushfield, Suzanne
More children die as a result of stillbirth than all other causes of infant deaths combined (Ananth, Shiliang, Kinzler, and Kramer, 2005; Goldenberg, Kirby, and Culhane, 2004; Froen, 2005; National Institute of Health, 2004); yet, mothers experiencing stillbirth are often left without support afterwards (Kubler-Ross, 2004; Fahey-McCarthy, 2003; Fletcher 2002; Saddler, 1987; DeFrain, 1986; Kirkley-Best & Kellner, 1982). Despite social work's growing involvement in care at the end of life, parents of stillborn children have not experienced consistent, relevant, and competent professional care in coping with the tragedy of death. Forty-seven women between the ages of 19 and 51 were recruited through nonprofit agencies that provide bereavement care to grieving families. Results of this qualitative study suggest that stillbirth is emotionally complex with long-lasting symptoms of grief and significant struggles to find meaning. The findings also support the need for perceived psychosocial and spiritual support from professional caregivers, family, and friends. The women's own experiences argue for comprehensive approaches to support the grief and loss of stillbirth, and for the importance of social work involvement in both immediate and longer term interventions.
El-Merhibi, Adaweyah; Ngo, Suong N T; Marchant, Ceilidh L; Height, Tamara A; Stupans, Ieva; McKinnon, Ross A
Australian marsupials are unique fauna that have evolved and adapted to unique environments and thus it is likely that their detoxification systems differ considerably from those of well-studied eutherian mammals. Knowledge of these processes in marsupials is therefore vital to understanding the consequences of exposure to xenobiotics. Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are critically important in the oxidative metabolism of a diverse array of both xenobiotics and endogenous substrates. In this study we have cloned and characterized CYP3A70, the first identified member of the CYP3A gene subfamily from Eastern gray kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). A 1665 base pair kangaroo hepatic CYP3A complete cDNA, designated CYP3A70, was cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction approaches, which encodes a protein of 506 amino acids. The CYP3A70 cDNA shares approximately 71% nucleotide and 65% amino acid sequence homology to human CYP3A4 and displays high sequence similarity to other published mammalian CYP3As from human, monkey, cow, pig, dog, rat, rabbit, mouse, hamster, and guinea pig. Transfection of the CYP3A70 cDNAs into 293T cells resulted in stable cell lines expressing a CYP3A immuno-reactive protein that was recognized by a goat anti-human CYP3A4 polyclonal antibody. The anti-human CYP3A4 antibody also detected immunoreactive proteins in liver microsomes from all test marsupials, including the kangaroo, koala, wallaby, and wombat, with multiple CYP3A immunoreactive bands observed in kangaroo and wallaby tissues. Relatively, very low CYP catalytic activity was detected for the kangaroo CYP3A70 cDNA-expressed proteins (19.6 relative luminescent units/μg protein), which may be due to low protein expression levels. Collectively, this study provides primary molecular data regarding the Eastern kangaroo hepatic CYP3A70 gene and enables further functional analyses of CYP3A enzymes in marsupials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Thurber, Mary Irene; Gjeltema, Jenessa; Sheley, Matthew; Wack, Ray F
A 10-year-old male castrate